classes ::: subject,
children :::
branches ::: the Subject

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object:the Subject
class:subject

--- CONCEPTION
2020-09-14 - this one can be upsetting. There is obviously the potential to talk about the Subject of subjectivity but my first weird conern is with the Subject of Disciplines. The Subject of "Fields of activity". Is this not Yoga?

All subjects confer some knowledge and or power about certain aspects of reality. Different paths or methods or ways of relating to or interacting with God by various means. So far I have 80 or so of them but likely each object could potentially be a subject though yes all objects likely have a subjectivity. But for something to be a subject as I am speaking it is a body of knowledge about the thing, the thing in itself in some mental formulation?a

To arrive at some formulation of a potential Subject, it could help to do a quick synthesis of two extremes under that category. It will likely be easier if I know them so I will take Integral Yoga and well any integral subject seems unfair to take for its bias in integrality. So lets take Video Games and RPGs and ... I am trying to pick something with no overlap. I guess everything seems one or two degrees away from each other so.. ill take Yoga anyways. what do they have in common? one is a process of creating worlds which is very God-like, just miraculous. Also a the whole process of ascenion which is the whole point of Yoga is outlined in games. You become God-like and then do Good with those God powers ideally. Its a model of that journey ideally imo. And in Yoga you try to do it in reality. So the ideal synergy would be a Game that is Yoga and a Yoga that is a Game such that to play it would be to practice Yoga. Because all subjects can be a Yoga at their highest id imagine. Science too would be branch of the tree of Knowledge. Yoga is either the tree, the essence or the fruit. But if Yoga is defined as the process of God manifesting itself ever more consciously, more divinely, then all subjects have their divine formations or Yogic levels potentially. Science is the knowledge of various laws and principles of various powers and forces and formations. But from a Religious perspective Laws, Powers, Formations, Aspects, Principles are still only portions of God. It is the absolute object. The Object of which all other objects are partial elements.

So the Subject is the subject of which all subjects are branches. It is the tree of Knowledge. Or the mind of God.

see also ::: the Object


see also ::: the_Object

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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
subjects
subjects
SEE ALSO

the_Object

AUTH

BOOKS
A_Treatise_on_Cosmic_Fire
Enchiridion_text
Full_Circle
General_Principles_of_Kabbalah
Heart_of_Matter
Kena_and_Other_Upanishads
Modern_Man_in_Search_of_a_Soul
My_Burning_Heart
On_Interpretation
Plotinus_-_Complete_Works_Vol_01
Process_and_Reality
the_Book
The_Book_of_Lies
The_Categories
The_Divine_Companion
The_Divine_Milieu
The_Divinization_of_Matter__Lurianic_Kabbalah,_Physics,_and_the_Supramental_Transformation
The_Externalization_of_the_Hierarchy
The_Golden_Bough
The_Heros_Journey
The_Human_Cycle
The_Odyssey
The_Republic
The_Seals_of_Wisdom
The_Use_and_Abuse_of_History
The_Way_of_Perfection
The_Yoga_Sutras
Toward_the_Future
Words_Of_The_Mother_II

IN CHAPTERS TITLE
1.03_-_The_Coming_of_the_Subjective_Age

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
0.00a_-_Introduction
0.00_-_INTRODUCTION
0.00_-_The_Book_of_Lies_Text
0.00_-_THE_GOSPEL_PREFACE
0.01f_-_FOREWARD
0.03_-_III_-_The_Evening_Sittings
0.04_-_Letters_to_a_Sadhak
0.04_-_The_Systems_of_Yoga
0.06_-_INTRODUCTION
0.07_-_Letters_to_a_Sadhak
01.03_-_Rationalism
01.04_-_The_Poetry_in_the_Making
01.05_-_The_Nietzschean_Antichrist
01.06_-_Vivekananda
01.07_-_Blaise_Pascal_(1623-1662)
0.10_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Captain
01.13_-_T._S._Eliot:_Four_Quartets
01.14_-_Nicholas_Roerich
0_1958-07-06
0_1958-11-04_-_Myths_are_True_and_Gods_exist_-_mental_formation_and_occult_faculties_-_exteriorization_-_work_in_dreams
0_1960-11-12
0_1961-03-11
0_1961-03-17
0_1961-11-05
0_1961-12-16
0_1962-01-12_-_supramental_ship
0_1962-05-22
0_1962-05-27
0_1962-06-09
0_1962-06-12
0_1962-07-07
0_1962-07-18
0_1962-08-28
0_1963-03-06
0_1963-03-09
0_1963-03-16
0_1963-07-03
0_1963-08-13a
0_1963-08-24
0_1963-09-07
0_1964-02-05
0_1964-09-18
0_1964-11-28
0_1965-06-05
0_1965-09-08
0_1966-09-30
0_1966-11-03
0_1967-02-15
0_1967-03-04
0_1967-04-05
0_1967-06-07
0_1967-07-22
0_1967-07-26
0_1967-08-02
0_1967-10-11
0_1967-10-21
0_1967-11-25
0_1967-12-16
0_1968-01-12
0_1968-09-07
0_1968-09-25
0_1968-10-11
0_1969-12-31
0_1971-11-27
0_1972-05-13
0_1972-07-19
0_1973-03-14
02.01_-_The_World_War
02.02_-_Rishi_Dirghatama
02.11_-_New_World-Conditions
02.14_-_Panacea_of_Isms
03.02_-_The_Gradations_of_Consciousness__The_Gradation_of_Planes
03.14_-_Mater_Dolorosa
04.02_-_Human_Progress
05.05_-_In_Quest_of_Reality
05.06_-_Physics_or_philosophy
05.07_-_The_Observer_and_the_Observed
05.10_-_Knowledge_by_Identity
05.24_-_Process_of_Purification
07.22_-_Mysticism_and_Occultism
08.07_-_Sleep_and_Pain
09.02_-_The_Journey_in_Eternal_Night_and_the_Voice_of_the_Darkness
09.12_-_The_True_Teaching
100.00_-_Synergy
1.001_-_The_Aim_of_Yoga
1.008_-_The_Principle_of_Self-Affirmation
1.009_-_Perception_and_Reality
1.00a_-_DIVISION_A_-_THE_INTERNAL_FIRES_OF_THE_SHEATHS.
1.00a_-_Introduction
1.00b_-_DIVISION_B_-_THE_PERSONALITY_RAY_AND_FIRE_BY_FRICTION
1.00b_-_INTRODUCTION
1.00c_-_DIVISION_C_-_THE_ETHERIC_BODY_AND_PRANA
1.00c_-_INTRODUCTION
1.00d_-_DIVISION_D_-_KUNDALINI_AND_THE_SPINE
1.00e_-_DIVISION_E_-_MOTION_ON_THE_PHYSICAL_AND_ASTRAL_PLANES
1.00g_-_Foreword
1.00_-_INTRODUCTORY_REMARKS
1.00_-_Main
1.00_-_Preliminary_Remarks
1.00_-_The_way_of_what_is_to_come
1.01_-_About_the_Elements
1.01_-_Archetypes_of_the_Collective_Unconscious
1.01_-_Asana
1.01_-_Description_of_the_Castle
1.01_-_Economy
1.01_-_Foreward
1.01_-_MAPS_OF_EXPERIENCE_-_OBJECT_AND_MEANING
1.01_-_On_knowledge_of_the_soul,_and_how_knowledge_of_the_soul_is_the_key_to_the_knowledge_of_God.
1.01_-_Prayer
1.01_-_SAMADHI_PADA
1.01_-_THAT_ARE_THOU
1.01_-_The_Cycle_of_Society
1.01_-_The_Ego
1.01_-_The_King_of_the_Wood
1.01_-_The_Rape_of_the_Lock
1.01_-_To_Watanabe_Sukefusa
1.01_-_What_is_Magick?
1.020_-_The_World_and_Our_World
10.23_-_Prayers_and_Meditations_of_the_Mother
1.02.4.2_-_Action_and_the_Divine_Will
1.025_-_Sadhana_-_Intensifying_a_Lighted_Flame
1.02.9_-_Conclusion_and_Summary
1.02_-_Education
1.02_-_Isha_Analysis
1.02_-_MAPS_OF_MEANING_-_THREE_LEVELS_OF_ANALYSIS
1.02_-_Pranayama,_Mantrayoga
1.02_-_Prayer_of_Parashara_to_Vishnu
1.02_-_Priestly_Kings
1.02_-_SOCIAL_HEREDITY_AND_PROGRESS
1.02_-_The_Human_Soul
1.02_-_THE_NATURE_OF_THE_GROUND
1.02_-_The_Philosophy_of_Ishvara
1.02_-_THE_POOL_OF_TEARS
1.02_-_The_Refusal_of_the_Call
1.02_-_The_Shadow
1.02_-_The_Stages_of_Initiation
1.02_-_The_Three_European_Worlds
1.03_-_Concerning_the_Archetypes,_with_Special_Reference_to_the_Anima_Concept
1.03_-_Hieroglypics__Life_and_Language_Necessarily_Symbolic
1.03_-_PERSONALITY,_SANCTITY,_DIVINE_INCARNATION
1.03_-_Physical_Education
1.03_-_.REASON._IN_PHILOSOPHY
1.03_-_Some_Practical_Aspects
1.03_-_The_Coming_of_the_Subjective_Age
1.03_-_THE_GRAND_OPTION
1.03_-_The_Sephiros
1.03_-_The_Syzygy_-_Anima_and_Animus
1.03_-_The_Two_Negations_2_-_The_Refusal_of_the_Ascetic
1.03_-_The_Uncreated
1.040_-_Re-Educating_the_Mind
1.045_-_Piercing_the_Structure_of_the_Object
1.04_-_Descent_into_Future_Hell
1.04_-_On_Knowledge_of_the_Future_World.
1.04_-_Religion_and_Occultism
1.04_-_THE_APPEARANCE_OF_ANOMALY_-_CHALLENGE_TO_THE_SHARED_MAP
1.04_-_The_Core_of_the_Teaching
1.04_-_The_Crossing_of_the_First_Threshold
1.04_-_The_Discovery_of_the_Nation-Soul
1.04_-_The_Divine_Mother_-_This_Is_She
1.04_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda
1.04_-_The_Sacrifice_the_Triune_Path_and_the_Lord_of_the_Sacrifice
1.04_-_The_Self
1.04_-_Wherefore_of_World?
1.05_-_2010_and_1956_-_Doomsday?
1.052_-_Yoga_Practice_-_A_Series_of_Positive_Steps
1.057_-_The_Four_Manifestations_of_Ignorance
1.05_-_CHARITY
1.05_-_Christ,_A_Symbol_of_the_Self
1.05_-_Dharana
1.05_-_Knowledge_by_Aquaintance_and_Knowledge_by_Description
1.05_-_Mental_Education
1.05_-_On_the_Love_of_God.
1.05_-_Pratyahara_and_Dharana
1.05_-_Problems_of_Modern_Psycho_therapy
1.05_-_Solitude
1.05_-_THE_HOSTILE_BROTHERS_-_ARCHETYPES_OF_RESPONSE_TO_THE_UNKNOWN
1.05_-_The_Universe__The_0_=_2_Equation
1.05_-_True_and_False_Subjectivism
1.05_-_Yoga_and_Hypnotism
1.06_-_BOOK_THE_SIXTH
1.06_-_Dhyana
1.06_-_Magicians_as_Kings
1.06_-_MORTIFICATION,_NON-ATTACHMENT,_RIGHT_LIVELIHOOD
1.06_-_The_Objective_and_Subjective_Views_of_Life
1.06_-_The_Three_Schools_of_Magick_1
1.070_-_The_Seven_Stages_of_Perfection
1.075_-_Self-Control,_Study_and_Devotion_to_God
1.078_-_Kumbhaka_and_Concentration_of_Mind
1.07_-_Medicine_and_Psycho_therapy
1.07_-_Note_on_the_word_Go
1.07_-_On_Dreams
1.07_-_On_mourning_which_causes_joy.
1.07_-_Production_of_the_mind-born_sons_of_Brahma
1.07_-_The_Continuity_of_Consciousness
1.07_-_THE_GREAT_EVENT_FORESHADOWED_-_THE_PLANETIZATION_OF_MANKIND
1.07_-_The_Ideal_Law_of_Social_Development
1.07_-_The_Literal_Qabalah_(continued)
1.07_-_The_Primary_Data_of_Being
1.07_-_TRUTH
1.080_-_Pratyahara_-_The_Return_of_Energy
1.081_-_The_Application_of_Pratyahara
1.08a_-_The_Ladder
1.08_-_Introduction_to_Patanjalis_Yoga_Aphorisms
1.08_-_Origin_of_Rudra:_his_becoming_eight_Rudras
1.08_-_Sri_Aurobindos_Descent_into_Death
1.08_-_Stead_and_the_Spirits
1.08_-_The_Depths_of_the_Divine
1.08_-_The_Four_Austerities_and_the_Four_Liberations
1.08_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.08_-_The_Methods_of_Vedantic_Knowledge
1.08_-_The_Three_Schools_of_Magick_3
1.094_-_Understanding_the_Structure_of_Things
1.096_-_Powers_that_Accrue_in_the_Practice
1.097_-_Sublimation_of_Object-Consciousness
1.099_-_The_Entry_of_the_Eternal_into_the_Individual
1.09_-_Civilisation_and_Culture
1.09_-_Concentration_-_Its_Spiritual_Uses
1.09_-_Fundamental_Questions_of_Psycho_therapy
1.09_-_Talks
1.09_-_To_the_Students,_Young_and_Old
1.1.02_-_Sachchidananda
1.10_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.10_-_The_Yoga_of_the_Intelligent_Will
1.11_-_Correspondence_and_Interviews
1.11_-_Higher_Laws
1.11_-_Legend_of_Dhruva,_the_son_of_Uttanapada
1.11_-_On_Intuitive_Knowledge
1.11_-_Works_and_Sacrifice
1.12_-_BOOK_THE_TWELFTH
1.1.2_-_Commentary
1.12_-_The_Sacred_Marriage
1.12_-_The_Superconscient
1.12_-_Truth_and_Knowledge
1.13_-_Gnostic_Symbols_of_the_Self
1.13_-_SALVATION,_DELIVERANCE,_ENLIGHTENMENT
1.14_-_IMMORTALITY_AND_SURVIVAL
1.14_-_(Plot_continued.)_The_tragic_emotions_of_pity_and_fear_should_spring_out_of_the_Plot_itself.
1.15_-_Conclusion
1.15_-_The_element_of_Character_in_Tragedy.
1.15_-_The_Value_of_Philosophy
1.15_-_The_world_overrun_with_trees;_they_are_destroyed_by_the_Pracetasas
1.1.5_-_Thought_and_Knowledge
1.16_-_On_Concentration
1.17_-_DOES_MANKIND_MOVE_BIOLOGICALLY_UPON_ITSELF?
1.18_-_Further_rules_for_the_Tragic_Poet.
1.19_-_GOD_IS_NOT_MOCKED
1.19_-_The_Curve_of_the_Rational_Age
1.19_-_Thought,_or_the_Intellectual_element,_and_Diction_in_Tragedy.
1.200-1.224_Talks
1.201_-_Socrates
12.02_-_The_Stress_of_the_Spirit
1.20_-_Death,_Desire_and_Incapacity
1.20_-_The_Hound_of_Heaven
1.20_-_Visnu_appears_to_Prahlada
1.21_-_Tabooed_Things
1.21_-_The_Ascent_of_Life
1.22_-_EMOTIONALISM
1.23_-_Conditions_for_the_Coming_of_a_Spiritual_Age
1.23_-_Epic_Poetry.
1.23_-_The_Double_Soul_in_Man
1.2.3_-_The_Power_of_Expression_and_Yoga
1.240_-_1.300_Talks
1.240_-_Talks_2
1.24_-_(Epic_Poetry_continued.)_Further_points_of_agreement_with_Tragedy.
1.24_-_Matter
1.24_-_RITUAL,_SYMBOL,_SACRAMENT
1.24_-_The_Advent_and_Progress_of_the_Spiritual_Age
1.24_-_The_Killing_of_the_Divine_King
1.25_-_The_Knot_of_Matter
1.26_-_Mental_Processes_-_Two_Only_are_Possible
1.26_-_On_discernment_of_thoughts,_passions_and_virtues
1.28_-_The_Killing_of_the_Tree-Spirit
1.300_-_1.400_Talks
1.30_-_Describes_the_importance_of_understanding_what_we_ask_for_in_prayer._Treats_of_these_words_in_the_Paternoster:_Sanctificetur_nomen_tuum,_adveniat_regnum_tuum._Applies_them_to_the_Prayer_of_Quiet,_and_begins_the_explanation_of_them.
1.3.2.01_-_I._The_Entire_Purpose_of_Yoga
1.34_-_Continues_the_same_subject._This_is_very_suitable_for_reading_after_the_reception_of_the_Most_Holy_Sacrament.
1.35_-_The_Tao_2
1.36_-_Quo_Stet_Olympus_-_Where_the_Gods,_Angels,_etc._Live
1.400_-_1.450_Talks
1.4.03_-_The_Guru
14.05_-_The_Golden_Rule
14.06_-_Liberty,_Self-Control_and_Friendship
1.40_-_Coincidence
1.41_-_Are_we_Reincarnations_of_the_Ancient_Egyptians?
1.439
1.44_-_Demeter_and_Persephone
1.44_-_Serious_Style_of_A.C.,_or_the_Apparent_Frivolity_of_Some_of_my_Remarks
1.450_-_1.500_Talks
1.45_-_The_Corn-Mother_and_the_Corn-Maiden_in_Northern_Europe
1.46_-_Selfishness
1.47_-_Lityerses
1.49_-_Thelemic_Morality
1.50_-_A.C._and_the_Masters;_Why_they_Chose_him,_etc.
1.51_-_How_to_Recognise_Masters,_Angels,_etc.,_and_how_they_Work
1.52_-_Killing_the_Divine_Animal
1.53_-_Mother-Love
1.550_-_1.600_Talks
1.57_-_Beings_I_have_Seen_with_my_Physical_Eye
1.59_-_Geomancy
1.60_-_Between_Heaven_and_Earth
1.65_-_Man
1.66_-_Vampires
1.67_-_Faith
1.68_-_The_God-Letters
1.69_-_Original_Sin
1.71_-_Morality_2
1.72_-_Education
1.76_-_The_Gods_-_How_and_Why_they_Overlap
1.77_-_Work_Worthwhile_-_Why?
1.78_-_Sore_Spots
1.81_-_Method_of_Training
1.83_-_Epistola_Ultima
1951-03-14_-_Plasticity_-_Conditions_for_knowing_the_Divine_Will_-_Illness_-_microbes_-_Fear_-_body-reflexes_-_The_best_possible_happens_-_Theories_of_Creation_-_True_knowledge_-_a_work_to_do_-_the_Ashram
1951-04-26_-_Irrevocable_transformation_-_The_divine_Shakti_-_glad_submission_-_Rejection,_integral_-_Consecration_-_total_self-forgetfulness_-_work
1951-05-05_-_Needs_and_desires_-_Discernment_-_sincerity_and_true_perception_-_Mantra_and_its_effects_-_Object_in_action-_to_serve_-_relying_only_on_the_Divine
1953-05-13
1953-07-01
1953-07-08
1953-09-16
1953-09-23
1953-09-30
1953-11-11
1953-12-30
1954-02-10_-_Study_a_variety_of_subjects_-_Memory_-Memory_of_past_lives_-_Getting_rid_of_unpleasant_thoughts
1954-02-17_-_Experience_expressed_in_different_ways_-_Origin_of_the_psychic_being_-_Progress_in_sports_-Everything_is_not_for_the_best
1954-04-14_-_Love_-_Can_a_person_love_another_truly?_-_Parental_love
1954-04-28_-_Aspiration_and_receptivity_-_Resistance_-_Purusha_and_Prakriti,_not_masculine_and_feminine
1954-06-23_-_Meat-eating_-_Story_of_Mothers_vegetable_garden_-_Faithfulness_-_Conscious_sleep
1954-08-11_-_Division_and_creation_-_The_gods_and_human_formations_-_People_carry_their_desires_around_them
1954-09-08_-_Hostile_forces_-_Substance_-_Concentration_-_Changing_the_centre_of_thought_-_Peace
1954-10-06_-_What_happens_is_for_the_best_-_Blaming_oneself_-Experiences_-_The_vital_desire-soul_-Creating_a_spiritual_atmosphere_-Thought_and_Truth
1954-11-10_-_Inner_experience,_the_basis_of_action_-_Keeping_open_to_the_Force_-_Faith_through_aspiration_-_The_Mothers_symbol_-_The_mind_and_vital_seize_experience_-_Degrees_of_sincerity_-Becoming_conscious_of_the_Divine_Force
1955-02-09_-_Desire_is_contagious_-_Primitive_form_of_love_-_the_artists_delight_-_Psychic_need,_mind_as_an_instrument_-_How_the_psychic_being_expresses_itself_-_Distinguishing_the_parts_of_ones_being_-_The_psychic_guides_-_Illness_-_Mothers_vision
1955-06-01_-_The_aesthetic_conscience_-_Beauty_and_form_-_The_roots_of_our_life_-_The_sense_of_beauty_-_Educating_the_aesthetic_sense,_taste_-_Mental_constructions_based_on_a_revelation_-_Changing_the_world_and_humanity
1955-06-22_-_Awakening_the_Yoga-shakti_-_The_thousand-petalled_lotus-_Reading,_how_far_a_help_for_yoga_-_Simple_and_complicated_combinations_in_men
1956-05-30_-_Forms_as_symbols_of_the_Force_behind_-_Art_as_expression_of_contact_with_the_Divine_-_Supramental_psychological_perfection_-_Division_of_works_-_The_Ashram,_idle_stupidities
1956-06-27_-_Birth,_entry_of_soul_into_body_-_Formation_of_the_supramental_world_-_Aspiration_for_progress_-_Bad_thoughts_-_Cerebral_filter_-_Progress_and_resistance
1956-08-01_-_Value_of_worship_-_Spiritual_realisation_and_the_integral_yoga_-_Symbols,_translation_of_experience_into_form_-_Sincerity,_fundamental_virtue_-_Intensity_of_aspiration,_with_anguish_or_joy_-_The_divine_Grace
1956-10-03_-_The_Mothers_different_ways_of_speaking_-_new_manifestation_-_new_element,_possibilities_-_child_prodigies_-_Laws_of_Nature,_supramental_-_Logic_of_the_unforeseen_-_Creative_writers,_hands_of_musicians_-_Prodigious_children,_men
1956-10-10_-_The_supramental_race__in_a_few_centuries_-_Condition_for_new_realisation_-_Everyone_must_follow_his_own_path_-_Progress,_no_two_paths_alike
1956-10-24_-_Taking_a_new_body_-_Different_cases_of_incarnation_-_Departure_of_soul_from_body
1956-11-14_-_Conquering_the_desire_to_appear_good_-_Self-control_and_control_of_the_life_around_-_Power_of_mastery_-_Be_a_great_yogi_to_be_a_good_teacher_-_Organisation_of_the_Ashram_school_-_Elementary_discipline_of_regularity
1956-11-28_-_Desire,_ego,_animal_nature_-_Consciousness,_a_progressive_state_-_Ananda,_desireless_state_beyond_enjoyings_-_Personal_effort_that_is_mental_-_Reason,_when_to_disregard_it_-_Reason_and_reasons
1957-01-02_-_Can_one_go_out_of_time_and_space?_-_Not_a_crucified_but_a_glorified_body_-_Individual_effort_and_the_new_force
1957-04-03_-_Different_religions_and_spirituality
1957-05-01_-_Sports_competitions,_their_value
1957-07-09_-_Incontinence_of_speech
1957-07-31_-_Awakening_aspiration_in_the_body
1957-09-18_-_Occultism_and_supramental_life
1957-11-13_-_Superiority_of_man_over_animal_-_Consciousness_precedes_form
1957-12-18_-_Modern_science_and_illusion_-_Value_of_experience,_its_transforming_power_-_Supramental_power,_first_aspect_to_manifest
1958-08-27_-_Meditation_and_imagination_-_From_thought_to_idea,_from_idea_to_principle
1961_05_20
1964_09_16
1969_09_30
1.A_-_ANTHROPOLOGY,_THE_SOUL
1f.lovecraft_-_Ashes
1f.lovecraft_-_At_the_Mountains_of_Madness
1f.lovecraft_-_Medusas_Coil
1f.lovecraft_-_Old_Bugs
1f.lovecraft_-_Out_of_the_Aeons
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Call_of_Cthulhu
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Case_of_Charles_Dexter_Ward
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Colour_out_of_Space
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Descendant
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Disinterment
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dream-Quest_of_Unknown_Kadath
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Electric_Executioner
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Last_Test
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Lurking_Fear
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Moon-Bog
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Mound
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_out_of_Time
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shunned_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Temple
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Thing_on_the_Doorstep
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Very_Old_Folk
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Whisperer_in_Darkness
1f.lovecraft_-_Two_Black_Bottles
1f.lovecraft_-_Winged_Death
1.fs_-_The_Ideal_And_The_Actual_Life
1.jk_-_Hyperion._Book_I
1.jk_-_Sonnet_III._Written_On_The_Day_That_Mr._Leigh_Hunt_Left_Prison
1.jk_-_Sonnet_VI._To_G._A._W.
1.jk_-_Sonnet._Why_Did_I_Laugh_Tonight?
1.jr_-_Description_Of_Love
1.kbr_-_Tentacles_of_Time
1.pbs_-_Charles_The_First
1.pbs_-_HERE_I_sit_with_my_paper
1.pbs_-_Prometheus_Unbound
1.pbs_-_Queen_Mab_-_Part_III.
1.pbs_-_The_Revolt_Of_Islam_-_Canto_I-XII
1.pbs_-_The_Two_Spirits_-_An_Allegory
1.poe_-_Eureka_-_A_Prose_Poem
1.poe_-_The_Power_Of_Words_Oinos.
1.rb_-_Andrea_del_Sarto
1.rb_-_An_Epistle_Containing_the_Strange_Medical_Experience_of_Kar
1.rb_-_Paracelsus_-_Part_III_-_Paracelsus
1.rb_-_Sordello_-_Book_the_Fourth
1.rb_-_Sordello_-_Book_the_Second
1.srm_-_The_Marital_Garland_of_Letters
1.ww_-_7-_The_White_Doe_Of_Rylstone,_Or,_The_Fate_Of_The_Nortons
1.ww_-_Inside_of_King's_College_Chapel,_Cambridge
1.ww_-_I_Travelled_among_Unknown_Men
1.ww_-_Laodamia
1.ww_-_Mutability
1.ww_-_Song_at_the_Feast_of_Brougham_Castle
1.ww_-_The_Virgin
2.01_-_Habit_1__Be_Proactive
2.01_-_On_Books
2.02_-_On_Letters
2.02_-_THE_EXPANSION_OF_LIFE
2.02_-_The_Ishavasyopanishad_with_a_commentary_in_English
2.03_-_Karmayogin__A_Commentary_on_the_Isha_Upanishad
2.03_-_On_Medicine
2.03_-_The_Christian_Phenomenon_and_Faith_in_the_Incarnation
2.03_-_THE_ENIGMA_OF_BOLOGNA
2.03_-_The_Supreme_Divine
2.04_-_ADVICE_TO_ISHAN
2.04_-_Concentration
2.04_-_On_Art
2.04_-_The_Divine_and_the_Undivine
2.05_-_On_Poetry
2.05_-_The_Cosmic_Illusion;_Mind,_Dream_and_Hallucination
2.05_-_VISIT_TO_THE_SINTHI_BRAMO_SAMAJ
2.06_-_Reality_and_the_Cosmic_Illusion
2.06_-_The_Wand
2.07_-_On_Congress_and_Politics
2.07_-_The_Knowledge_and_the_Ignorance
2.07_-_The_Supreme_Word_of_the_Gita
2.07_-_The_Upanishad_in_Aphorism
2.08_-_On_Non-Violence
2.09_-_Memory,_Ego_and_Self-Experience
2.09_-_On_Sadhana
2.09_-_THE_MASTERS_BIRTHDAY
2.0_-_THE_ANTICHRIST
2.1.02_-_Combining_Work,_Meditation_and_Bhakti
2.1.02_-_Nature_The_World-Manifestation
2.10_-_Knowledge_by_Identity_and_Separative_Knowledge
2.10_-_The_Lamp
2.11_-_On_Education
2.12_-_On_Miracles
2.12_-_The_Origin_of_the_Ignorance
2.13_-_On_Psychology
2.13_-_The_Difficulties_of_the_Mental_Being
2.1.4.1_-_Teachers
2.1.4.2_-_Teaching
2.1.4.4_-_Homework
2.14_-_The_Origin_and_Remedy_of_Falsehood,_Error,_Wrong_and_Evil
2.14_-_The_Unpacking_of_God
2.1.5.1_-_Study_of_Works_of_Sri_Aurobindo_and_the_Mother
2.1.5.4_-_Arts
2.15_-_Reality_and_the_Integral_Knowledge
2.15_-_The_Cosmic_Consciousness
2.15_-_The_Lamen
2.16_-_The_15th_of_August
2.1.7.08_-_Comments_on_Specific_Lines_and_Passages_of_the_Poem
2.17_-_December_1938
2.17_-_The_Soul_and_Nature
2.18_-_January_1939
2.18_-_The_Evolutionary_Process_-_Ascent_and_Integration
2.18_-_The_Soul_and_Its_Liberation
2.19_-_Feb-May_1939
2.19_-_Union,_Gestation,_Birth
2.2.05_-_Creative_Activity
2.20_-_The_Lower_Triple_Purusha
2.21_-_1940
2.21_-_IN_THE_COMPANY_OF_DEVOTEES_AT_SYAMPUKUR
2.21_-_The_Order_of_the_Worlds
2.21_-_Towards_the_Supreme_Secret
2.22_-_Rebirth_and_Other_Worlds;_Karma,_the_Soul_and_Immortality
2.22_-_Vijnana_or_Gnosis
2.23_-_The_Core_of_the_Gita.s_Meaning
2.24_-_Gnosis_and_Ananda
2.26_-_The_Ascent_towards_Supermind
2.3.1.52_-_The_Ode
2.4.3_-_Problems_in_Human_Relations
30.02_-_Greek_Drama
30.03_-_Spirituality_in_Art
3.00_-_Hymn_To_Pan
3.00_-_Introduction
3.00_-_The_Magical_Theory_of_the_Universe
30.10_-_The_Greatness_of_Poetry
30.11_-_Modern_Poetry
30.14_-_Rabindranath_and_Modernism
3.01_-_THE_BIRTH_OF_THOUGHT
3.01_-_The_Principles_of_Ritual
3.02_-_Aridity_in_Prayer
3.02_-_SOL
3.02_-_The_Great_Secret
3.02_-_The_Practice_Use_of_Dream-Analysis
3.04_-_LUNA
3.05_-_SAL
3.06_-_Death
3.09_-_Of_Silence_and_Secrecy
3.0_-_THE_ETERNAL_RECURRENCE
31.06_-_Jagadish_Chandra_Bose
3.11_-_Epilogue
3.11_-_Of_Our_Lady_Babalon
3.11_-_Spells
3.12_-_Of_the_Bloody_Sacrifice
3.14_-_Of_the_Consecrations
3.18_-_Of_Clairvoyance_and_the_Body_of_Light
3.2.01_-_On_Ideals
32.06_-_The_Novel_Alchemy
3.20_-_Of_the_Eucharist
3.21_-_Of_Black_Magic
33.03_-_Muraripukur_-_I
33.06_-_Alipore_Court
33.11_-_Pondicherry_II
33.13_-_My_Professors
3.4.1.05_-_Fiction-Writing_and_Sadhana
3-5_Full_Circle
3.6.01_-_Heraclitus
36.07_-_An_Introduction_To_The_Vedas
36.08_-_A_Commentary_on_the_First_Six_Suktas_of_Rigveda
37.01_-_Yama_-_Nachiketa_(Katha_Upanishad)
3.7.1.02_-_The_Reincarnating_Soul
3.8.1.06_-_The_Universal_Consciousness
3_-_Commentaries_and_Annotated_Translations
4.01_-_Circumstances
4.01_-_Introduction
4.01_-_Sweetness_in_Prayer
4.02_-_Divine_Consolations.
4.03_-_Prayer_of_Quiet
4.03_-_The_Special_Phenomenology_of_the_Child_Archetype
4.03_-_THE_ULTIMATE_EARTH
4.04_-_Conclusion
4.05_-_The_Instruments_of_the_Spirit
4.07_-_Purification-Intelligence_and_Will
4.07_-_THE_RELATION_OF_THE_KING-SYMBOL_TO_CONSCIOUSNESS
4.09_-_REGINA
4.0_-_The_Path_of_Knowledge
4.1.01_-_The_Intellect_and_Yoga
4.1.4_-_Resistances,_Sufferings_and_Falls
4.1_-_Jnana
4.3.4_-_Accidents,_Possession,_Madness
5.01_-_Message
5.08_-_ADAM_AS_TOTALITY
5_-_The_Phenomenology_of_the_Spirit_in_Fairytales
6.07_-_THE_MONOCOLUS
6.08_-_Intellectual_Visions
6.08_-_THE_CONTENT_AND_MEANING_OF_THE_FIRST_TWO_STAGES
6.09_-_Imaginary_Visions
6.0_-_Conscious,_Unconscious,_and_Individuation
6.10_-_THE_SELF_AND_THE_BOUNDS_OF_KNOWLEDGE
7_-_Yoga_of_Sri_Aurobindo
Appendix_4_-_Priest_Spells
APPENDIX_I_-_Curriculum_of_A._A.
Avatars_of_the_Tortoise
Big_Mind_(ten_perfections)
Blazing_P1_-_Preconventional_consciousness
Blazing_P2_-_Map_the_Stages_of_Conventional_Consciousness
Blazing_P3_-_Explore_the_Stages_of_Postconventional_Consciousness
BOOK_I._-_Augustine_censures_the_pagans,_who_attributed_the_calamities_of_the_world,_and_especially_the_sack_of_Rome_by_the_Goths,_to_the_Christian_religion_and_its_prohibition_of_the_worship_of_the_gods
BOOK_II._-_A_review_of_the_calamities_suffered_by_the_Romans_before_the_time_of_Christ,_showing_that_their_gods_had_plunged_them_into_corruption_and_vice
BOOK_III._-_The_external_calamities_of_Rome
BOOK_II._--_PART_I._ANTHROPOGENESIS.
BOOK_II._--_PART_III._ADDENDA._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_II._--_PART_II._THE_ARCHAIC_SYMBOLISM_OF_THE_WORLD-RELIGIONS
BOOK_I._--_PART_I._COSMIC_EVOLUTION
BOOK_I._--_PART_III._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_I._--_PART_II._THE_EVOLUTION_OF_SYMBOLISM_IN_ITS_APPROXIMATE_ORDER
Book_of_Genesis
Book_of_Imaginary_Beings_(text)
BOOK_VIII._-_Some_account_of_the_Socratic_and_Platonic_philosophy,_and_a_refutation_of_the_doctrine_of_Apuleius_that_the_demons_should_be_worshipped_as_mediators_between_gods_and_men
BOOK_VII._-_Of_the_select_gods_of_the_civil_theology,_and_that_eternal_life_is_not_obtained_by_worshipping_them
BOOK_VI._-_Of_Varros_threefold_division_of_theology,_and_of_the_inability_of_the_gods_to_contri_bute_anything_to_the_happiness_of_the_future_life
BOOK_XI._-_Augustine_passes_to_the_second_part_of_the_work,_in_which_the_origin,_progress,_and_destinies_of_the_earthly_and_heavenly_cities_are_discussed.Speculations_regarding_the_creation_of_the_world
BOOK_XII._-_Of_the_creation_of_angels_and_men,_and_of_the_origin_of_evil
BOOK_XIV._-_Of_the_punishment_and_results_of_mans_first_sin,_and_of_the_propagation_of_man_without_lust
BOOK_XIX._-_A_review_of_the_philosophical_opinions_regarding_the_Supreme_Good,_and_a_comparison_of_these_opinions_with_the_Christian_belief_regarding_happiness
BOOK_XVI._-_The_history_of_the_city_of_God_from_Noah_to_the_time_of_the_kings_of_Israel
BOOK_XXII._-_Of_the_eternal_happiness_of_the_saints,_the_resurrection_of_the_body,_and_the_miracles_of_the_early_Church
BOOK_XX._-_Of_the_last_judgment,_and_the_declarations_regarding_it_in_the_Old_and_New_Testaments
BS_1_-_Introduction_to_the_Idea_of_God
Chapter_I_-_WHICH_TREATS_OF_THE_CHARACTER_AND_PURSUITS_OF_THE_FAMOUS_GENTLEMAN_DON_QUIXOTE_OF_LA_MANCHA
Diamond_Sutra_1
DS3
ENNEAD_01.04_-_Whether_Animals_May_Be_Termed_Happy.
ENNEAD_01.06_-_Of_Beauty.
ENNEAD_01.08_-_Of_the_Nature_and_Origin_of_Evils.
ENNEAD_02.03_-_Whether_Astrology_is_of_any_Value.
ENNEAD_02.04a_-_Of_Matter.
ENNEAD_02.06_-_Of_Essence_and_Being.
ENNEAD_02.07_-_About_Mixture_to_the_Point_of_Total_Penetration.
ENNEAD_02.09_-_Against_the_Gnostics;_or,_That_the_Creator_and_the_World_are_Not_Evil.
ENNEAD_03.02_-_Of_Providence.
ENNEAD_03.05_-_Of_Love,_or_Eros.
ENNEAD_03.06_-_Of_the_Impassibility_of_Incorporeal_Entities_(Soul_and_and_Matter).
ENNEAD_03.06_-_Of_the_Impassibility_of_Incorporeal_Things.
ENNEAD_03.07_-_Of_Time_and_Eternity.
ENNEAD_03.08a_-_Of_Nature,_Contemplation,_and_of_the_One.
ENNEAD_03.08b_-_Of_Nature,_Contemplation_and_Unity.
ENNEAD_04.02_-_How_the_Soul_Mediates_Between_Indivisible_and_Divisible_Essence.
ENNEAD_04.04_-_Questions_About_the_Soul.
ENNEAD_04.05_-_Psychological_Questions_III._-_About_the_Process_of_Vision_and_Hearing.
ENNEAD_04.06a_-_Of_Sensation_and_Memory.
ENNEAD_04.07_-_Of_the_Immortality_of_the_Soul:_Polemic_Against_Materialism.
ENNEAD_05.01_-_The_Three_Principal_Hypostases,_or_Forms_of_Existence.
ENNEAD_05.03_-_The_Self-Consciousnesses,_and_What_is_Above_Them.
ENNEAD_05.05_-_That_Intelligible_Entities_Are_Not_External_to_the_Intelligence_of_the_Good.
ENNEAD_05.06_-_The_Superessential_Principle_Does_Not_Think_-_Which_is_the_First_Thinking_Principle,_and_Which_is_the_Second?
ENNEAD_05.08_-_Concerning_Intelligible_Beauty.
ENNEAD_06.01_-_Of_the_Ten_Aristotelian_and_Four_Stoic_Categories.
ENNEAD_06.02_-_The_Categories_of_Plotinos.
ENNEAD_06.03_-_Plotinos_Own_Sense-Categories.
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_and_Identical_Being_is_Everywhere_Present_In_Its_Entirety.345
ENNEAD_06.06_-_Of_Numbers.
ENNEAD_06.07_-_How_Ideas_Multiplied,_and_the_Good.
ENNEAD_06.08_-_Of_the_Will_of_the_One.
Gorgias
Ion
Kafka_and_His_Precursors
Liber_46_-_The_Key_of_the_Mysteries
Liber_71_-_The_Voice_of_the_Silence_-_The_Two_Paths_-_The_Seven_Portals
Meno
MMM.02_-_MAGIC
Partial_Magic_in_the_Quixote
Phaedo
r1912_11_10
r1912_11_26b
r1912_12_03b
r1912_12_05
r1912_12_07
r1912_12_10
r1912_12_12
r1912_12_15
r1912_12_30
r1912_12_31
r1913_01_01
r1913_01_05
r1913_01_08
r1913_01_11
r1913_01_14
r1913_01_16
r1913_01_17
r1913_01_28
r1913_01_31
r1913_05_19
r1913_06_16
r1913_06_16a
r1913_06_16b
r1913_06_17
r1913_06_17b
r1913_09_16
r1913_09_30
r1913_11_12
r1913_11_14
r1913_11_21
r1913_11_24
r1913_11_27
r1913_11_29
r1913_12_02a
r1913_12_07
r1913_12_09
r1913_12_14
r1913_12_29
r1914_03_28
r1914_04_20
r1914_05_01
r1914_05_08
r1914_05_12
r1914_05_26
r1914_06_10
r1914_06_15
r1914_06_24
r1914_06_26
r1914_06_29
r1914_07_11
r1914_07_12
r1914_07_15
r1914_07_16
r1914_07_17
r1914_07_21
r1914_07_27
r1914_07_31
r1914_08_01
r1914_08_08
r1914_08_13
r1914_08_17
r1914_08_18
r1914_10_09
r1914_10_12
r1914_10_25
r1914_10_31
r1914_11_17
r1914_11_18
r1914_11_29
r1914_12_11
r1914_12_16
r1914_12_19
r1914_12_22
r1915_01_28
r1915_01_29
r1915_05_01
r1915_05_15
r1915_05_19
r1915_05_21
r1915_06_25
r1915_07_03
r1915_07_04
r1915_07_11
r1917_02_04
r1917_08_24
r1917_08_30
r1917_09_22
r1919_06_24
r1919_08_14
r1919_08_26
r1920_02_04
r1920_06_07
Sayings_of_Sri_Ramakrishna_(text)
Sophist
Symposium_translated_by_B_Jowett
Tablets_of_Baha_u_llah_text
Talks_001-025
Talks_026-050
Talks_051-075
Talks_076-099
Talks_100-125
Talks_125-150
Talks_176-200
Talks_500-550
Talks_600-652
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_1
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_2
The_Act_of_Creation_text
Theaetetus
The_Book_of_Certitude_-_P2
The_Coming_Race_Contents
The_Divine_Names_Text_(Dionysis)
The_Dwellings_of_the_Philosophers
the_Eternal_Wisdom
The_Garden_of_Forking_Paths_1
The_Gold_Bug
The_Logomachy_of_Zos
The_Shadow_Out_Of_Time
Timaeus

PRIMARY CLASS

subject
SIMILAR TITLES
the Subject

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH

the subject of a woodcut reproduced in Paul

The subject of the philosophy of religion is regarded in conservative circles not as a discipline given to free philosophical inquiry but as a particular religion's philosophy. In this form it is a more or less disguised apologetics or defense of an already accepted religious faith. While the data for this subject include the so-called classical religions, philosophy of religion, in the genuinely philosophical sense, takes for its material religious expressions of all types, whether classical or not, together with all the psychological material available on the nature of the human spirit and man's whole cultural development. -- V.F.


TERMS ANYWHERE

2. In psychology, the act or process of exercising the mind, the faculty of connecting judgments; the power and fact of using reason; the thought-processes of discussion, debate, argumentation or inference; the manifestation of the discursive property of the mind; the actual use of arguments with a view to convince or persuade; the art and method or proving or demonstrating; the orderly development of thought with a view to, or the attainment of a conclusion believed to be valid. -- The origin, nature and value of reasoning are debated questions, with their answers ranging from spiritualism (reasoning as the exercise of a faculty of the soul) to materialism (reasoning as an epiphenomenon depending on the brain), with all the modern schools of psychology ordering themselves between them. A few points of agreement might be mentioned here: reasoning follows judgment and apprehension, whichever of the last two thought-processes comes first in our psychological development; reasoning proceeds according to four main types, namely deductive, inductive, presumptive and deceptive; reasoning assumes a belief in its own validity undisturbed by doubt, and implies various logical habits and methods which may be organized into a logical doctrine; reasoning requires a reference to some ultimate principles to justify its progress 3. In logic, Reasoning is the process of inference, it is the process of passing from certain propositions already known or assumed to be true, to another truth distinct from them but following from them; it is a discourse or argument which infers one proposition from another, or from a group of others having some common elements between them. The inference is necessary in the case of deductive reasoning; and contingent, probable or wrong, in the case of inductive, presumptive or deceptive reasoning respectively. -- There are various types of reasoning, and proper methods for each type. The definition, discussion, development and evaluation of these types and methods form an important branch of logic and its subdivisions. The details of the application of reasoning to the various sciences, form the subject of methodology. All these types are reducible to one or the other of the two fundamental processes or reasoning, namely deduction and induction. It must be added that the logical study of reasoning is normative logic does not analyze it simply in its natural development, but with a view to guide it towards coherence, validity or truth. -- T.G.

3. A highly composite and diverse study which attempts to ascertain the limits of the special sciences, to disclose their interrelations one with another, and to examine their implications so fir as these contribute to a theory either of the universe as a whole or of some pervasive aspect of it. This aspect of the philosophy of science is the least precise and definite of the three, and employs the more speculative methods. One of the most characteristic of its problems is that of the classification of the sciences. This involves the attempt to construct a general table, or diagram, or map of the sciences which will properly integrate the sciences according to method, subject-matter, or some other principle of organization. Another characteristic problem is that of the implications of science for some general theory of the universe, e.g., idealism, materialism, positivism, mechanism, teleology, monism, or pluralism. In recent years a new type of problem has appeared which, if it is properly part of the philosophy of science at all, belongs to this aspect of the subject. This is the problem of the social relations of science. It examines such problems as the place of science in a given cultural scheme, e.g., its relations to government, business, art, religion and morality.

Abacus - 1. instrument of ancient origin used to perform arithmetic calculations by sliding counters along rods or in grooves. Or) 2. semi-annual accounting research journal (founded in 1965) published by the Sydney University Press, edited by the University of Sydney, Department of Accounting. The subject matter covers all areas of accounting including international accounting.

According to theosophic teachings physical matter is a condensation of light, as is being experimentally verified. It is evident that the subject of the emanation of innumerable forms of life energy on all the planes of the cosmos is a very wide one, and the words fohat, light, life, electricity, etc., are used in this connection. These radiations may be classified on a septenary, denary, or duodenary system, as when we speak of the seven, ten, or twelve rays of the solar logos. See also RAY

actionable ::: a. --> That may be the subject of an action or suit at law; as, to call a man a thief is actionable.

ACTIVATION AND OBJECTIVATION, METHODS OF Methods to activate higher, as yet inactive consciousness, and to make subjective (emotional and mental) consciousness objective. Those esoteric methods, which lead rapidly and without risks to causal objective consciousness, remain the property of the planetary hierarchy. K 6.8.6

Unlike the yogis&


adhidaiva ::: that which pertains to the Gods (non-material powers) ; the subjective phenomenon of being.

advayajNAna. (T. gnyis su med pa'i ye shes; C. bu'erzhi; J. funichi; K. puriji 不二智). In Sanskrit, "nondual knowledge"; referring to knowledge that has transcended the subject-object bifurcation that governs all conventional states of sensory consciousness, engendering a distinctive type of awareness that is able to remain conscious without any longer requiring an object of consciousness. See also WU'AIXING.

advaya. (T. gnyis su med pa; C. bu'er; J. funi; K. puri 不二). In Sanskrit, "nonduality"; one of the common synonyms for the highest teachings of Buddhism and one of the foundational principles of the MAHAYANA presentation of doctrine. Nonduality refers to the definitive awareness achieved through enlightenment, which transcends all of the conventional dichotomies into which compounded existence is divided (right and wrong, good and evil, etc.). Most specifically, nondual knowledge (ADVAYAJNANA) transcends the subject-object bifurcation that governs all conventional states of consciousness and engenders a distinctive type of awareness that no longer requires an object of consciousness. See also WU'AIXING.

advertise ::: v. t. --> To give notice to; to inform or apprise; to notify; to make known; hence, to warn; -- often followed by of before the subject of information; as, to advertise a man of his loss.
To give public notice of; to announce publicly, esp. by a printed notice; as, to advertise goods for sale, a lost article, the sailing day of a vessel, a political meeting.


Aesthetics is now achieving a more independent status as the subject (whether it is or can be a "science" is a disputed issue) which studies (a) works of art, (b) the processes of producing and experiencing art, and (c) certain aspects of nature and human production outside the field of art -- especially those which can be considered as beautiful or ugly in regard to form and sensory qualities. (E.g., sunsets, flowers, human beings, machines.)

ahaṅkara ::: the ego; the subjective principle by which the purus.a is induced to identify himself with prakr.ti and her activities; "the limited ‘I" in us", freedom from which is part of the mukti or liberation of the nature: the egoistic consciousness, including the "ego-sense in the life stuff" and the "ego-idea in the mind" which "maintain a constructed symbol of self, the separative ego, which does duty for the hidden real self, the spirit or true being" and whose nature "is a self-limitation of consciousness by a willed ignorance of the rest of its play and its exclusive absorption in one form, one combination of tendencies, one field of the movement of energies". aha ahankara-mukti-siddhi

Ahanta: (Skr. "I-ness") Selfhood, state of being an ego; the subject in knowledge. -- K.F.L.

a) In Epistemology: The subject of knowledge is the individual knower considered either as a pure ego (see Ego, Pure), a transcendental ego (see Ego, Transcendental) or an act of awareness. (See Awareness).

Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta. (1870-1949). Thai monk who revitalized the Thai forest-monk tradition (Thai PHRA PA), and the subject of a celebrated Thai hagiography by Ajahn MahA Boowa NAnasampanno (b. 1913). Born in 1870, in Ban Khambong village in the province of Ubon Ratchathani, Mun was ordained in 1893 at Wat Liab and began studying insight practice (VIPAsYANA) under the guidance of Ajahn Sao Kantasīla (1861-1941). Through developing the meditation on foulness (AsUBHABHAVANA), he eventually had an experience of calmness (sAMATHA), and in order to enhance his practice, he embarked on the life of asceticism (P. DHUTAnGA) as a forest dweller (P. ARANNAVASI) in northeast Thailand and southern Laos. After every rains' retreat (VARsA) was over, he would travel into the forests, staying just close enough to a few small villages in order to perform his alms round (PIndAPATA) each morning. According to the hagiography, after first experiencing the fruition of the state of the nonreturner (ANAGAMIN), he eventually achieved the stage of a worthy one (ARHAT) in Chiang Mai, an experience that he said shook the entire universe and brought a roar of accolades from the heavenly hosts. Ajahn Mun became a widely known and respected meditator and teacher, who was invited to dwell in monasteries throughout much of Thailand. The hagiography compiled by Ajahn MahA Boowa is filled with exuberantly told tales of his meditative visions, prophetic dreams, lectures and instructions, and encounters with other eminent monks, laypeople, and even with deceased arhats and divinities (DEVA) such as sAKRA with his 100,000 strong retinue. Ajahn Mun's many prominent disciples helped revive the Thai forest-monk tradition, especially in the northeast, and defined its austere practices (Thai, THUDONG; P. DHUTAnGA) in their contemporary context.

AkAsAnantyAyatana. (P. AkAsAnaNcAyatana; T. nam mkha' mtha' yas skye mched; C. kong wubian chu; J. kumuhenjo; K. kong mubyon ch'o 空無邊處). In Sanskrit, "sphere of infinite space"; the first and lowest (in ascending order) of the four levels of the immaterial realm (ARuPYADHATU) and the first of the four immaterial absorptions (DHYANA). It is a realm of rebirth as well as a meditative state that is entirely immaterial (viz., there is no physical [RuPA] component to existence) in which the mind comes to an awareness of unlimited pervasive space (AKAsA) without the existence of material objects. Beings reborn in this realm are thought to live as long as forty thousand eons (KALPAS). However, as a state of being that is still subject to rebirth, even the realm of infinite space remains part of SAMSARA. Like the other levels of the realm of subtle materiality (RuPADHATU) and the immaterial realm, one is reborn in this state by achieving the specific level of meditative absorption of that state in the previous lifetime. One of the most famous and influential expositions on the subject of these immaterial states comes from the VISUDDHIMAGGA of BUDDHAGHOSA, written in the fifth century. Although there are numerous accounts of Buddhist meditators achieving immaterial states of SAMADHI, they are also used polemically in Buddhist literature to describe the attainments of non-Buddhist yogins, who mistakenly identify these exalted states within saMsAra as states of permanent liberation from rebirth. See also DHYANASAMAPATTI; DHYANOPAPATTI.

Alagaddupamasutta. (C. Alizha jing; J. Aritakyo; K. Arit'a kyong 阿梨經). In PAli, "Discourse on the Simile of the Snake," the twenty-second sutta of the MAJJHIMANIKAYA (a separate SarvAstivAda recension appears as the 200th sutra in the Chinese translation of the MADHYAMAGAMA, and the similes of the snake and of the raft are the subjects of independent sutras in an unidentified recension in the EKOTTARAGAMA). The discourse was preached by the Buddha at SAvatthi (sRAVASTĪ), in response to the wrong view (MITHYADṚstI) of the monk Arittha. Arittha maintained that the Buddha taught that one could enjoy sensual pleasures without obstructing one's progress along the path to liberation, and remained recalcitrant even after the Buddha admonished him. The Buddha then spoke to the assembly of monks on the wrong way and the right way of learning the dharma. In his discourse, he uses several similes to enhance his audience's understanding, including the eponymous "simile of the snake": just as one could be bitten and die by grasping a poisonous snake by the tail instead of the head, so too will using the dharma merely for disputation or polemics lead to one's peril because of one's wrong grasp of the dharma. This sutta also contains the famous "simile of the raft," where the Buddha compares his dispensation or teaching (sASANA) to a makeshift raft that will help one get across a raging river to the opposite shore: after one has successfully crossed that river by paddling furiously and reached solid ground, it would be inappropriate to put the raft on one's head and carry it; similarly, once one has used the dharma to get across the "raging river" of birth and death (SAMSARA) to the "other shore" of NIRVAnA, the teachings have served their purpose and should not be clung to.

AlayavijNAna. (T. kun gzhi rnam par shes pa; C. alaiyeshi/zangshi; J. arayashiki/zoshiki; K. aroeyasik/changsik 阿賴耶識/藏識). In Sanskrit, "storehouse consciousness" or "foundational consciousness"; the eighth of the eight types of consciousness (VIJNANA) posited in the YOGACARA school. All forms of Buddhist thought must be able to uphold (1) the principle of the cause and effect of actions (KARMAN), the structure of SAMSARA, and the process of liberation (VIMOKsA) from it, while also upholding (2) the fundamental doctrines of impermanence (ANITYA) and the lack of a perduring self (ANATMAN). The most famous and comprehensive solution to the range of problems created by these apparently contradictory elements is the AlayavijNAna, often translated as the "storehouse consciousness." This doctrinal concept derives in India from the YOGACARA school, especially from ASAnGA and VASUBANDHU and their commentators. Whereas other schools of Buddhist thought posit six consciousnesses (vijNAna), in the YogAcAra system there are eight, adding the afflicted mind (KLIstAMANAS) and the AlayavijNAna. It appears that once the SarvAstivAda's school's eponymous doctrine of the existence of dharmas in the past, present, and future was rejected by most other schools of Buddhism, some doctrinal solution was required to provide continuity between past and future, including past and future lifetimes. The alAyavijNAna provides that solution as a foundational form of consciousness, itself ethically neutral, where all the seeds (BIJA) of all deeds done in the past reside, and from which they fructify in the form of experience. Thus, the AlayavijNAna is said to pervade the entire body during life, to withdraw from the body at the time of death (with the extremities becoming cold as it slowly exits), and to carry the complete karmic record to the next rebirth destiny. Among the many doctrinal problems that the presence of the AlayavijNAna is meant to solve, it appears that one of its earliest references is in the context not of rebirth but in that of the NIRODHASAMAPATTI, or "trance of cessation," where all conscious activity, that is, all CITTA and CAITTA, cease. Although the meditator may appear as if dead during that trance, consciousness is able to be reactivated because the AlayavijNAna remains present throughout, with the seeds of future experience lying dormant in it, available to bear fruit when the person arises from meditation. The AlayavijNAna thus provides continuity from moment to moment within a given lifetime and from lifetime to lifetime, all providing the link between an action performed in the past and its effect experienced in the present, despite protracted periods of latency between seed and fruition. In YogAcAra, where the existence of an external world is denied, when a seed bears fruit, it bifurcates into an observing subject and an observed object, with that object falsely imagined to exist separately from the consciousness that perceives it. The response by the subject to that object produces more seeds, either positive, negative, or neutral, which are deposited in the AlayavijNAna, remaining there until they in turn bear their fruit. Although said to be neutral and a kind of silent observer of experience, the AlayavijNAna is thus also the recipient of karmic seeds as they are produced, receiving impressions (VASANA) from them. In the context of Buddhist soteriological discussions, the AlayavijNAna explains why contaminants (ASRAVA) remain even when unwholesome states of mind are not actively present, and it provides the basis for the mistaken belief in self (Atman). Indeed, it is said that the klistamanas perceives the AlayavijNAna as a perduring self. The AlayavijNAna also explains how progress on the path can continue over several lifetimes and why some follow the path of the sRAVAKA and others the path of the BODHISATTVA; it is said that one's lineage (GOTRA) is in fact a seed that resides permanently in the AlayavijNAna. In India, the doctrine of the AlayavijNAna was controversial, with some members of the YogAcAra school rejecting its existence, arguing that the functions it is meant to serve can be accommodated within the standard six-consciousness system. The MADHYAMAKA, notably figures such as BHAVAVIVEKA and CANDRAKĪRTI, attacked the YogAcAra proponents of the AlayavijNAna, describing it as a form of self, which all Buddhists must reject. ¶ In East Asia, the AlayavijNAna was conceived as one possible solution to persistent questions in Buddhism about karmic continuity and about the origin of ignorance (MOHA). For the latter, some explanation was required as to how sentient beings, whom many strands of MAHAYANA claimed were inherently enlightened, began to presume themselves to be ignorant. Debates raged within different strands of the Chinese YogAcAra traditions as to whether the AlayavijNAna is intrinsically impure because of the presence of these seeds of past experience (the position of the Northern branch of the Chinese DI LUN ZONG and the Chinese FAXIANG tradition of XUANZANG and KUIJI), or whether the AlayavijNAna included both pure and impure elements because it involved also the functioning of thusness, or TATHATA (the Southern Di lun school's position). Since the sentient being has had a veritable interminable period of time in which to collect an infinity of seeds-which would essentially make it impossible to hope to counteract them one by one-the mainstream strands of YogAcAra viewed the mind as nevertheless tending inveterately toward impurity (dausthulya). This impurity could only be overcome through a "transformation of the basis" (AsRAYAPARAVṚTTI), which would completely eradicate the karmic seeds stored in the storehouse consciousness, liberating the bodhisattva from the effects of all past actions and freeing him to project compassion liberally throughout the world. In some later interpretations, this transformation would then convert the AlayavijNAna into a ninth "immaculate consciousness" (AMALAVIJNANA). See also DASHENG QIXIN LUN.

alternative hypothesis: The model considered to be the case if the null hypothesis in considered to be rejected (not hold). There is some debate as to whether an alternative hypothesis increases the subjectiveness of hypothesis testing, since the alternative hypothesis does not necessarily have to be the negation of the null hypothesis. The issue is whether it is appropriate to make presumptions of what the model in consideration cannot be (models not covered by the null or alternative hypothesis but not considered) in hypothesis testing. Setting the alternative hypothesis to be the negation of the null hypothesis amounts to not using alternative hypothesis as some statistician would advocate.

Ambhamsi (Sanskrit) Ambhāṃsi [from ambhas water, from the verbal root bhā to shine] Water; in the Vedas the celestial waters and also a synonym for gods, but in the Brahmanas and Puranas the four orders of beings that variously “shine” or flourish: deva-manushyah (gods and men), pitris (fathers or manes), and asuras (demons, not-gods). This is “because they are all the product of waters (mystically), of the Akasic Ocean . . . If the student of Esoteric philosophy thinks deeply over the subject he is sure to find out all the suggestiveness of the term Ambhamsi, in its manifold relations to the Virgin in Heaven, to the Celestial Virgin of the Alchemists, and even to the ‘Waters of Grace’ of the modern Baptist” (SD 1:458n).

Ampliative: (Lat. ampliare, to make wider; Ger. Erweiterungsurteil) Synthetic; serving to expand. In an ampliative judgment the predicate adds something not already contained in the meaning of the subject-term. Contrasted with analytic or explicative. -- O.F.K.

amplification ::: n. --> The act of amplifying or enlarging in dimensions; enlargement; extension.
The enlarging of a simple statement by particularity of description, the use of epithets, etc., for rhetorical effect; diffuse narrative or description, or a dilating upon all the particulars of a subject.
The matter by which a statement is amplified; as, the subject was presented without amplifications.


anaglyptography ::: n. --> The art of copying works in relief, or of engraving as to give the subject an embossed or raised appearance; -- used in representing coins, bas-reliefs, etc.

Analyticity: See Meaning, Kinds of; Truth, semantical; Valid. Analytic Judgment: (Ger. analytisches Urteil) In Kant: A judgment in which the predicate concept is included within the subject concept, as analysis should or does disclose. Such a judgment does not require verification by experience; its sole criterion is the law of contradiction. (See Kantianism.) -- O.F.K.

IDEAS OF THE CAUSAL WORLD
The ideas of the world of ideas are objective forms as well as being subjective, and thus the ideas are faithful representations of enduring objective and subjective realities. Every intuition corresponds to a mental system of reality ideas. Lower worlds exist in the ideas of the world of ideas and thus the knowledge of these lower worlds is contained in the idea systems of the intuitions. &


MONAD, THE; THE SAME AS PRIMORDIAL ATOM is the smallest possible part of primordial matter and the smallest firm point for individual consciousness. K 1.4.5, 1.12.1

The monads are the sole content of the cosmos.

All forms of matter existing in the cosmos consist of monads at different stages of development. All these compositions of monads are being formed, changed, dissolved, and re-formed in innumerable variations, but the monads&


Anesthesia [from Greek anaisthesia no feeling] Want of feeling; a condition of total or partial insensibility, particularly to touch. The many classical references to anesthetics indicate that the ancients knew much about the subject that has not been rediscovered. Blavatsky refers to the sacred beverage used by the hierophants in ceremonies to free the astral soul from the bonds of matter, so that the inner man might rise to the level of spirit (IU 2:117, 1:540).

apperception ::: n. --> The mind&

argument ::: n. --> Proof; evidence.
A reason or reasons offered in proof, to induce belief, or convince the mind; reasoning expressed in words; as, an argument about, concerning, or regarding a proposition, for or in favor of it, or against it.
A process of reasoning, or a controversy made up of rational proofs; argumentation; discussion; disputation.
The subject matter of a discourse, writing, or artistic


Aristotle divides the sciences into the theoretical, the practical and the productive, the aim of the first being disinterested knowledge, of the second the guidance of conduct, and of the third the guidance of the arts. The science now called logic, by him known as "analytic", is a discipline preliminary to all the others, since its purpose is to set forth the conditions that must be observed by all thinking which has truth as its aim. Science, in the strict sense of the word, is demonstrated knowledge of the causes of things. Such demonstrated knowledge is obtained by syllogistic deduction from premises in themselves certain. Thus the procedure of science differs from dialectic, which employs probable premises, and from eristic, which aims not at truth but at victory in disputation. The center, therefore, of Aristotle's logic is the syllogism, or that form of reasoning whereby, given two propositions, a third follows necessarily from them. The basis of syllogistic inference is the presence of a term common to both premises (the middle term) so related as subj ect or predicate to each of the other two terms that a conclusion may be drawn regarding the relation of these two terms to one another. Aristotle was the first to formulate the theory of the syllogism, and his minute analysis of its various forms was definitive, so far as the subject-predicate relation is concerned; so that to this part of deductive logic but little has been added since his day. Alongside of deductive reasoning Aristotle recognizes the necessity of induction, or the process whereby premises, particularly first premises, are established. This involves passing from the particulars of sense experience (the things more knowable to us) to the universal and necessary principles involved in sense experience (the things more knowable in themselves). Aristotle attaches most importance, in this search for premises, to the consideration of prevailing beliefs (endoxa) and the examination of the difficulties (aporiai) that have been encountered in the solution of the problem in hand. At some stage in the survey of the field and the theories previously advanced the universal connection sought for is apprehended; and apprehended, Aristotle eventually says, by the intuitive reason, or nous. Thus knowledge ultimately rests upon an indubitable intellectual apprehension; yet for the proper employment of the intuitive reason a wide empirical acquaintance with the subject-matter is indispensable.

Asana(Sanskrit) ::: A word derived from the verbal root as, signifying "to sit quietly." Asana, therefore,technically signifies one of the peculiar postures adopted by Hindu ascetics, mostly of the hatha yogaschool. Five of these postures are usually enumerated, but nearly ninety have been noted by students ofthe subject. A great deal of quasi-magical and mystical literature may be found devoted to these variouspostures and collateral topics, and their supposed or actual psychological value when assumed bydevotees; but, as a matter of fact, a great deal of this writing is superficial and has very little indeed to dowith the actual occult and esoteric training of genuine occultists. One is instinctively reminded of otherquasi-mystical practices, as, for instance, certain genuflections or postures followed in the worship of theChristian Church, to which particular values are sometimes ascribed by fanatic devotees.Providing that the position of the body be comfortable so that the mind is least distracted, genuinemeditation and spiritual and actual introspection can be readily and successfully attained by any earneststudent without the slightest attention being paid to these various postures. A man sitting quietly in hisarmchair, or lying in his bed at night, or sitting or lying on the grass in a forest, can more readily enterthe inner worlds than by adopting and following any one or more of these various asanas, which at thebest are physiological aids of relatively small value. (See also Samadhi)

Asoka. (P. Asoka; T. Mya ngan med; C. Ayu wang; J. Aiku o; K. Ayuk wang 阿育王) (c. 300-232 BCE; r. c. 268-232 BCE). Indian Mauryan emperor and celebrated patron of Buddhism; also known as DharmAsoka. Son of BindusAra and grandson of Candragupta, Asoka was the third king of the Mauryan dynasty. Asoka left numerous inscriptions recording his edicts and proclamations to the subjects of his realm. In these inscriptions, Asoka is referred to as DEVANAM PRIYAḤ, "beloved of the gods." These inscriptions comprise one of the earliest bodies of writing as yet deciphered from the Indian subcontinent. His edicts have been found inscribed on boulders, on stone pillars, and in caves and are widely distributed from northern Pakistan in the west, across the Gangetic plain to Bengal in the east, to near Chennai in South India. The inscriptions are ethical and religious in content, with some describing how Asoka turned to the DHARMA after subjugating the territory of Kalinga (in the coastal region of modern Andhra Pradesh) in a bloody war. In his own words, Asoka states that the bloodshed of that campaign caused him remorse and taught him that rule by dharma, or righteousness, is superior to rule by mere force of arms. While the Buddha, dharma, and SAMGHA are extolled and Buddhist texts are mentioned in the edicts, the dharma that Asoka promulgated was neither sectarian nor even specifically Buddhist, but a general code of administrative, public, and private ethics suitable for a multireligious and multiethnic polity. It is clear that Asoka saw this code of ethics as a diplomatic tool as well, in that he dispatched embassies to neighboring states in an effort to establish dharma as the basis for international relations. The edicts were not translated until the nineteenth century, however, and therefore played little role in the Buddhist view of Asoka, which derives instead from a variety of legends told about the emperor. The legend of Asoka is recounted in the Sanskrit DIVYAVADANA, in the PAli chronicles of Sri Lanka, DĪPAVAMSA and MAHAVAMSA, and in the PAli commentaries, particularly the SAMANTAPASADIKA. Particularly in PAli materials, Asoka is portrayed as a staunch sectarian and exclusive patron of the PAli tradition. The inscriptional evidence, as noted above, does not support that claim. In the MahAvaMsa, for example, Asoka is said to have been converted to THERAVADA Buddhism by the novice NIGRODHA, after which he purifies the Buddhist SAMGHA by purging it of non-TheravAda heretics. He then sponsors the convention of the third Buddhist council (SAMGĪTĪ; see COUNCIL, THIRD) under the presidency of MOGGALIPUTTATISSA, an entirely TheravAda affair. Recalling perhaps the historical Asoka's diplomatic missions, the legend recounts how, after the council, Moggaliputtatissa dispatched TheravAda missions, comprised of monks, to nine adjacent lands for the purpose of propagating the religion, including Asoka's son (MAHINDA) and daughter (SAnGHAMITTA) to Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, where the legend appears to have originated, and in the TheravAda countries of Southeast Asia, the PAli account of King Asoka was adopted as one of the main paradigms of Buddhist kingship and models of ideal governance and proper saMgha-state relations. A different set of legends, which do not recount the conversion of Sri Lanka, appears in Sanskrit sources, most notably, the AsOKAVADANA.

assessor ::: v. --> One appointed or elected to assist a judge or magistrate with his special knowledge of the subject to be decided; as legal assessors, nautical assessors.
One who sits by another, as next in dignity, or as an assistant and adviser; an associate in office.
One appointed to assess persons or property for the purpose of taxation.


ASTROLOGY. ::: Many astrological predictions come true, quite a mass of them, if one takes all together. But it does not follow that the stars rule our destiny; the stars merely record a destiny that has been already formed, they are a hieroglyph, not a Force, - or if their action constitutes a force, it is a transmitting energy, not an originating Power. Someone is there who has determined or something is there which is Fate, let us say; the stars are only indications. The astrologers themselves say that there are two forces, daiva and puruṣakāra, fate and individual energy, and the individual energy can modify and even frustrate fate. Moreover, the stars often indicate several fatepossibilities; for example, that one may die in mid-age, but that if that determination can be overcome, one can live to a predictable old age. Finally, cases are seen in which the predictions of the horoscope fulfil themselves with great accuracy up to a certain age, then apply no more. This often happens when the subject turns away from the ordinary to the spiritual life. If the turn is very radical, the cessation of predictability may be immediate; otherwise certain results may still last on for a time ; but there is no longer the sure inevitability.

at Swarajya, self-rule or sul>jcctive empire, the entire control by the subjective consciousness of all the states and activities proper to its own domain, but included Samrajya as well, outward empire, the control by the subjective consciousness of its outer activities and environment.

Attention: (Lat. ad + tendere, to stretch) The concentration of the mind upon selected portions of the field of consciousness thereby conferring upon the selected items, a peculiar vividness and clarity. The field of attention may be divided into two parts: the focus of attention, where the degree of concentration of attention is maximal and the fringe of attention, where the degree of attention gradually diminishes to zero at the periphery. Attention considered with respect to its genesis, is of two types: involuntary, passive or spontaneous attention, which is governed by external stimulus or internal association of ideas and voluntary, controlled or directed attention which is guided by the subject's purpose or intention.

Attribute: Commonly, what is proper to a thing (Latm, ad-tribuere, to assign, to ascribe, to bestow). Loosely assimilated to a quality, a property, a characteristic, a peculiarity, a circumstance, a state, a category, a mode or an accident, though there are differences among all these terms. For example, a quality is an inherent property (the qualities of matter), while an attribute refers to the actual properties of a thing only indirectly known (the attributes of God). Another difference between attribute and quality is that the former refers to the characteristics of an infinite being, while the latter is used for the characteristics of a finite being. In metaphysics, an attribute is what is indispensable to a spiritual or material substance; or that which expresses the nature of a thing; or that without which a thing is unthinkable. As such, it implies necessarily a relation to some substance of which it is an aspect or conception. But it cannot be a substance, as it does not exist by itself. The transcendental attributes are those which belong to a being because it is a being: there are three of them, the one, the true and the good, each adding something positive to the idea of being. The word attribute has been and still is used more readily, with various implications, by substantialist systems. In the 17th century, for example, it denoted the actual manifestations of substance. [Thus, Descartes regarded extension and thought as the two ultimate, simple and original attributes of reality, all else being modifications of them. With Spinoza, extension and thought became the only known attributes of Deity, each expressing in a definite manner, though not exclusively, the infinite essence of God as the only substance. The change in the meaning of substance after Hume and Kant is best illustrated by this quotation from Whitehead: "We diverge from Descartes by holding that what he has described as primary attributes of physical bodies, are really the forms of internal relationships between actual occasions and within actual occasions" (Process and Reality, p. 471).] The use of the notion of attribute, however, is still favoured by contemporary thinkers. Thus, John Boodin speaks of the five attributes of reality, namely: Energy (source of activity), Space (extension), Time (change), Consciousness (active awareness), and Form (organization, structure). In theodicy, the term attribute is used for the essential characteristics of God. The divine attributes are the various aspects under which God is viewed, each being treated as a separate perfection. As God is free from composition, we know him only in a mediate and synthetic way thrgugh his attributes. In logic, an attribute is that which is predicated or anything, that which Is affirmed or denied of the subject of a proposition. More specifically, an attribute may be either a category or a predicable; but it cannot be an individual materially. Attributes may be essential or accidental, necessary or contingent. In grammar, an attribute is an adjective, or an adjectival clause, or an equivalent adjunct expressing a characteristic referred to a subject through a verb. Because of this reference, an attribute may also be a substantive, as a class-name, but not a proper name as a rule. An attribute is never a verb, thus differing from a predicate which may consist of a verb often having some object or qualifying words. In natural history, what is permanent and essential in a species, an individual or in its parts. In psychology, it denotes the way (such as intensity, duration or quality) in which sensations, feelings or images can differ from one another. In art, an attribute is a material or a conventional symbol, distinction or decoration.

autobiography ::: n. --> A biography written by the subject of it; memoirs of one&

avadAna. (P. apadAna; T. rtogs par brjod pa; C. apotuona/piyu; J. ahadana or apadana/hiyu; K. ap'adana/piyu 阿波陀那/譬喩). In Sanskrit, "tales" or "narrative"; a term used to denote a type of story found in both Buddhist and non-Buddhist literature. The precise meaning of the word has been the subject of much discussion. In the Indian BrAhmanas and srauta literature, the term denotes either something that is sacrificed or a portion of a sacrifice. The term avadAna was originally thought to mean "something cut off; something selected" and was presumed to derive from the prefix ava- + the Sanskrit root √dA. Feer, who published a French translation of the AVADANAsATAKA in 1891, tentatively translated it as "légende, action héroïque," while noting that the Tibetans, the Chinese, and the Mongols all employed differing translations of the word as well. (The Chinese use a transcription, apotuona, as well as a translation, piyu, meaning "simile." The Tibetan rtogs brjod has been rendered as "judgment" or "moral legend"; literally, it means the presentation or expression of the realizations [of an adept]. The Mongolian equivalent is domok.) Feer's rendering of avadAna is closer to its meaning of "heroic action" in classical Indian works such as the RaghuvaMsa and the KumArasambhava. AvadAnas are listed as the tenth of the twelvefold (DVADAsAnGA) division of the traditional genres of Buddhist literature, as classified by compositional style and content. The total corpus of the genre is quite extensive, ranging from individual avadAnas embedded in VINAYA texts, or separate sutras in the SuTRAPItAKA, to avadAnas that circulated either individually or in avadAna collections. These stories typically illustrate the results of both good and bad KARMAN, i.e., past events that led to present circumstances; in certain cases, however, they also depict present events that lead to a prediction (VYAKARAnA) of high spiritual attainment in the future. AvadAnas are closely related to JATAKAs, or birth stories of the Buddha; indeed, some scholars have considered jAtakas to be a subset of the avadAna genre, and some jAtaka tales are also included in the AVADANAsATAKA, an early avadAna collection. AvadAnas typically exhibit a three-part narrative structure, with a story of the present, followed by a story of past action (karman), which is then connected by identifying the past actor as a prior incarnation of the main character in the narrative present. In contrast to the jAtakas, however, the main character in an avadAna is generally not the Buddha (an exception is Ksemendra's eleventh-century BodhisattvAvadAnakalpalatA) but rather someone who is or becomes his follower. Moreover, some avadAnas are related by narrators other than the Buddha, such as those of the AsOKAVADANA, which are narrated by UPAGUPTA. Although the avadAna genre was once dismissed as "edifying stories" for the masses, the frequent references to monks as listeners and the directives to monks on how to practice that are embedded in these tales make it clear that the primary audience was monastics. Some of the notations appended to the stories in sura's [alt. Aryasura; c. second century CE] JATAKAMALA suggest that such stories were also used secondarily for lay audiences. On the Indian mainland, both mainstream and MAHAYANA monks compiled avadAna collections. Some of the avadAnas from northwestern India have been traced from kernel stories in the MuLASARVASTIVADA VINAYA via other mainstream Buddhist versions. In his French translation of the AvadAnasataka, Feer documented a number of tales from earlier mainstream collections, such as the AvadAnasataka, which were reworked and expanded in later MahAyAna collections, such as the RatnAvadAnamAlA and the KalpadrumAvadAnamAlA, which attests to the durability and popularity of the genre. Generally speaking, the earlier mainstream avadAnas were prose works, while the later MahAyAna collections were composed largely in verse.

Avanti. (T. Srung byed; C. Abanti [guo]; J. Ahandai[koku]; K. Abanje [kuk] 阿般提[國]). In Sanskrit and PAli, an Indian kingdom in the southwest subcontinent, north of present-day Mumbai; its capital was Ujjayinī (P. Ujjenī); the dialect spoken there was related to, and perhaps the ancestor of, the language used in the PAli canon. Avanti was located along the major southern Indian trade route (the DaksinApatha) that passed through sRAVASTĪ in central India, one of the main centers of early Buddhism. Buddhist missionaries following this trade route began to proselytize in the southwest even during the Buddha's lifetime. KAtyAyana, also known as "KAtyAyana the Great" (MAHAKATYAYANA; P. MahAkaccAna), one of the Buddha's ten major disciples, hailed from the Avanti region and later returned to his native land to disseminate Buddhism. He is said to have requested that the Buddha allow for special dispensation to ordain new monks in outlying regions without the requisite number of ten monastic witnesses. PuRnA (P. Punna) was another important disciple from the coastal area of this region (SurpAraka), who returned there to proselytize as well. He is the subject of the PunnovAdasutta (no. 145 in the PAli MAJJHIMANIKAYA) and the PurnAvadAna, which describe his resolve to spread the teachings of Buddhism. Buddhism became firmly established in the Avanti region at least by the time of King AsOKA; Asoka's son, MAHINDA, who later transmitted Buddhism to the island kingdom of Sri Lanka (Ceylon), is said to have been a native of its capital, Ujjayinī. Avanti was a stronghold of the STHAVIRANIKAYA, and its monks led the opposition to ten disputed items in the monastic discipline that resulted in the schism with the MAHASAMGHIKA order.

Bad Thing ::: (jargon) (From the 1930 Sellar & Yeatman parody 1066 And All That) Something that can't possibly result in improvement of the subject. This term is always capitalised, as in Replacing all of the 9600-baud modems with bicycle couriers would be a Bad Thing.Opposite: Good Thing.British correspondents confirm that Bad Thing and Good Thing (and probably therefore Right Thing and Wrong Thing) come from the book referenced in the etymology, which discusses rulers who were Good Kings but Bad Things. This has apparently created a mainstream idiom on the British side of the pond.[Jargon File]

Bad Thing "jargon" (From the 1930 Sellar & Yeatman parody "1066 And All That") Something that can't possibly result in improvement of the subject. This term is always capitalised, as in "Replacing all of the 9600-baud modems with bicycle couriers would be a Bad Thing". Opposite: {Good Thing}. British correspondents confirm that {Bad Thing} and {Good Thing} (and probably therefore {Right Thing} and {Wrong Thing}) come from the book referenced in the etymology, which discusses rulers who were Good Kings but Bad Things. This has apparently created a mainstream idiom on the British side of the pond. [{Jargon File}]

balladry ::: n. --> Ballad poems; the subject or style of ballads.

banter ::: v. t. --> To address playful good-natured ridicule to, -- the person addressed, or something pertaining to him, being the subject of the jesting; to rally; as, he bantered me about my credulity.
To jest about; to ridicule in speaking of, as some trait, habit, characteristic, and the like.
To delude or trick, -- esp. by way of jest.
To challenge or defy to a match.


Because the difference between phenomenological pure psychology and transcendental phenomenology depends on a difference in attitude towards "the same" subject matter, their contents are widely analogous. Husserl maintained, however, that genuine philosophy is possible only as transcendental phenomenology, because it alone is knowledge of that non-worldly nucleus of subjectivity in which everything intendable as immanent or as transcendent is constituted (produced, generated) as an essentially intentional object. As envisaged in the Ideen and later works, phenomenological analysis is chiefly "transcendental-constitutional" analysis of the subjective structures in which the concrete individual world is built up as an intersubjectively valid transcendent sense for transcendental subjectivity. In the course of such analysis, every legitimate philosophical problem must find its definitive solution. From the transcendental-phenomenological standpoint, however, one traditional problem, namely the relation between what are essentially objects of consciousness and "things-in-themselves" that are not essentially objects of consciousness, is seen to be spurious. On the one hand, it is evidently false that all directly presented objects of consciousness are immanent in the mind, on the other hand, the concept of an entity that is not an intentionally constituted object of transcendental consciousness is evidently self-contradictory. This is the central thesis of what Husserl called his "transcendental-phenomenological idealism."

Bentham, Jeremy: (1748-1832) Founder of the English Utilitarian School of Philosophy. In law, he is remembered for his criticism of Blackstone's views of the English constitution, for his examination of the legal fiction and for his treatment of the subject of evidence. In politics, he is most famous for his analysis of the principles of legislation and, in ethics, for his greatest happiness principle. See Hedonic Calculus; Utilitarianism. J. Bentham, Principles of Morals and Legislation, 1789; Outline of a New System of Logic, 1827; Deontology. -- L.E.D.

Besides the universal intelligible being of things, Aristotle was also primarily concerned with an investigation of the being of things from the standpoint of their generation and existence. But only individual things are generated and exist. Hence, for him, substance was primarily the individual: a "this" which, in contrast with the universal or secondary substance, is not communicable to many. The Aristotelian meaning of substance may be developed from four points of view: Grammar: The nature of substance as the ultimate subject of predication is expressed by common usage in its employment of the noun (or substantive) as the subject of a sentence to signify an individual thing which "is neither present in nor predicable of a subject." Thus substance is grammatically distinguished from its (adjectival) properties and modifications which "are present in and predicable of a subject."   Secondary substance is expressed by the universal term, and by its definition which are "not present in a subject but predicable of it." See Categoriae,) ch. 5. Physics: Independence of being emerges as a fundamental characteristic of substance in the analysis of change. Thus we have:   Substantial change: Socrates comes to be. (Change simply).   Accidental change; in a certain respect only: Socrates comes to be 6 feet tall. (Quantitative). Socrates comes to be musical (Qualitative). Socrates comes to be in Corinth (Local).     As substantial change is prior to the others and may occur independently of them, so the individual substance is prior in being to the accidents; i.e., the accidents cannot exist independently of their subject (Socrates), but can be only in him or in another primary substance, while the reverse is not necessarily the case. Logic: Out of this analysis of change there also emerges a division of being into the schema of categories, with the distinction between the category of substance and the several accidental categories, such as quantity, quality, place, relation, etc. In a corresponding manner, the category of substance is first; i.e., prior to the others in being, and independent of them. Metaphysics: The character of substance as that which is present in an individual as the cause of its being and unity is developed in Aristotle's metaphysical writings, see especiallv Bk. Z, ch. 17, 1041b. Primary substnnce is not the matter alone, nor the universal form common to many, but the individual unity of matter and form. For example, each thing is composed of parts or elements, as an organism is composed of cells, yet it is not merely its elements, but has a being and unity over and above the sum of its parts. This something more which causes the cells to be this organism rather than a malignant growth, is an example of what is meant by substance in its proper sense of first substance (substantia prima). Substance in its secondary sense (substantia secunda) is the universal form (idea or species) which is individuated in each thing.

bethink ::: v. t. --> To call to mind; to recall or bring to recollection, reflection, or consideration; to think; to consider; -- generally followed by a reflexive pronoun, often with of or that before the subject of thought. ::: v. i. --> To think; to recollect; to consider.

be ::: v. i. --> To exist actually, or in the world of fact; to have ex/stence.
To exist in a certain manner or relation, -- whether as a reality or as a product of thought; to exist as the subject of a certain predicate, that is, as having a certain attribute, or as belonging to a certain sort, or as identical with what is specified, -- a word or words for the predicate being annexed; as, to be happy; to be here; to be large, or strong; to be an animal; to be a hero; to be a


Bhallika. (T. Bzang pa; C. Boli; J. Hari; K. P'ari 波利). In Sanskrit and PAli, one of the two merchants (together with his brother TRAPUsA, P. Tapussa) who became the first lay Buddhists (UPASAKA). Following his enlightenment, the Buddha remained in the vicinity of the BODHI TREE. In the seventh week, he went to the RAjAyatana tree to continue his meditation. Two merchants, Bhallika and his older brother Trapusa, who were leading a large trading caravan with five hundred carts, saw him there and, realizing that he had not eaten for weeks (as many as eight weeks, in some accounts), offered the Buddha sweet rice cakes with butter and honey. In response to their act of charity (DANA), the Buddha spoke with them informally and gave them the Buddha and dharma refuges (sARAnA) (the SAMGHA had not yet been created), making them the first lay Buddhists. The Buddha is said to have given the two brothers eight strands of hair from his head, which they took back to their homeland and interred for worship as relics (sARĪRA) in a STuPA. According to Mon-Burmese legend, Tapussa and Bhallika were Mon natives, and their homeland of Ukkala was a place also called Dagon in the Mon homeland of RAmaNNa in lower Burma. The stupa they constructed at Ukkala/Dagon, which was the first shrine in the world to be erected over relics of the present buddha, was to be enlarged and embellished over the centuries to become, eventually, the golden SHWEDAGON PAGODA of Rangoon. Because of the preeminence of this shrine, some Burmese chroniclers date the first introduction of Buddhism among the Mon in RAmaNNa to Tapussa and Bhallika's time. Bhallika eventually ordained and became an ARHAT; Trapusa achieved the stage of stream-enterer (SROTAAPANNA). The merchants were also the subject of a Chinese apocryphal text, the TIWEI [BOLI] JING, written c. 460-464, which praises the value of the lay practices of giving and of keeping the five precepts (PANCAsĪLA).

Bibliography. The various theories outlined in this article do not exhaust the possible definitions and problems concerning probability, but they give an idea of the trend of the discussions. The following works are selected from a considerable literature of the subject. Laplace, Essai sur les Probabilites. Keynes, A Treatise on Probability. Jeffreys, Theory of Probability. Uspensky, Introduction to Mathematical Probability. Borel, Traite de Calcul des Probabilites (especially the last volume dealing with its philosophical aspects). Mises, Probability, Statistics and Truth. Reichenbach, Les Fondements Logiques du Calcul dcs Probabilites. Frechet, Recherches sur le Calcul des Probabilites. Ville, Essai sur la Theorie des Collectifs. Kolmogoroff, Grundbegriffe der Wahrscheinhchkeitsrechnung. Wald, Die Widerspruchsfreiheit des Kollektivbegriffes. Nagel, The Theory of Probability.

b) In Axiology: The doctrine that moral and aesthetic values represent the subjective feelings and reactions of individual minds and have no status independent of such reactions. Ethical subjectivism finds typical expression in Westermarck's doctrine that moral judgments have reference to our emotions of approval and disapproval. See The Origin and Development of Moral Ideas. Vol. 1, Ch. l. -- L.W.

(b) In epistemology: A variety of ''critical realism." The view which holds that in the knowledge-relation the subject or percipient is at one (monism) with the object or the thing objectively existent and perceived, and that the subject contributes qualities not inherent in the object (hence, critical) and the object contains qualities not perceived. -- V.F.

Biqiuni zhuan. (J. Bikuniden; K. Piguni chon 比丘尼傳). In Chinese, "Lives of the Nuns," the major Chinese collection of biographies of eminent BHIKsUnĪ, compiled c. 516 CE by Shi Baochang, a Buddhist monk whose own biography can be found in the XU GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Continued Lives of Eminent Monks"). The anthology consists of sixty-five nuns' biographies, arranged chronologically beginning in the Eastern Jin (317-420 CE) and continuing through the period of the Northern and Southern dynasties (420-588 CE). The introduction lists several characteristics that Shi Baochang deems worthy of emulation and special mention. These include steadfast asceticism, skill in meditation and study, chastity, and teaching abilities. The hagiographies themselves emphasize the following activities: over half of the nuns included in the anthology excelled in either scriptural study or meditation and religious practice. Almost half taught scripture and established convents. One-third of the nuns are said to have practiced strict vegetarianism. The same number is also said to have excelled in chanting scriptures: the most frequently named scriptures as the object of this devotion include the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA, the MAHAPARINIRVAnASuTRA, and the MAHAPRAJNAPARAMITASuTRA. The majority of nuns are also said to have inspired numerous monastic and secular followers. Many of the lay followers came from the highest reaches of society: governors and lords are regularly mentioned as patrons who often were instrumental in the founding of a new convent by donating land, funding construction, or both. In addition, almost half of the nuns were praised for their pure faith in the Buddha. In the instances where age was mentioned, almost half of the nuns were said to have adopted their vocation when they were still quite young (preadolescent); in contrast, only one-third were said to have left secular life once they were adults. The legitimacy of the Chinese nuns' order was specifically addressed in at least three hagiographies, where it is asserted that the subjects' ordinations were performed by foreign monks and nuns and was therefore valid.

Bla ma Zhang. [full name, Zhang tshal pa Brtson 'grus grags pa] (Shangtsalpa Tsondrü Drakpa) (1123-1193). The founder of the TSHAL PA BKA' BRGYUD, one of the four major and eight minor subsects of the BKA' BRGYUD sect of Tibetan Buddhism (BKA' BRGYUD CHE BZHI CHUNG BRGYAD). He was an important figure in twelfth-century Tibet in both the religious and political realms. Born into an aristocratic family near LHA SA, he is said to have studied black magic in his youth. When both of his parents soon died, he attributed their deaths to his negative deeds and decided to become a Buddhist monk, receiving BHIKsU ordination in 1148. In 1152, he met the nephew of SGAM PO PA, from whom he received instructions in MAHAMUDRA, the subject of his best known work, Phyag chen lam mchog mthar thug ("Supreme Path of MahAmudrA"). In 1175 he established his own community, Tshal gung thang, north of Lha sa, controlling the region with a law code of his own composition and his own militia, dismissing criticisms of his use of force with the claim that such acts were the skillful methods of the tantric master. However, he eventually agreed to renounce violence when he was requested to do so by the first KARMA PA, DUS GSUM MKHYEN PA.

Blind Study ::: As a way to avoid the placebo effect in research, this type of study is designed without the subject&

bodhicittotpAda. (T. byang chub kyi sems bskyed pa; C. fa puti xin; J. hotsubodaishin; K. pal pori sim 發菩提心). In Sanskrit, "generating the aspiration for enlightenment," "creating (utpAda) the thought (CITTA) of enlightenment (BODHI)"; a term used to describe both the process of developing BODHICITTA, the aspiration to achieve buddhahood, as well as the state achieved through such development. The MAHAYANA tradition treats this aspiration as having great significance in one's spiritual career, since it marks the entry into the MahAyAna and the beginning of the BODHISATTVA path. The process by which this "thought of enlightenment" (bodhicitta) is developed and sustained is bodhicittotpAda. Various types of techniques or conditional environments conducive to bodhicittotpAda are described in numerous MahAyAna texts and treatises. The BODHISATTVABHuMI says that there are four predominant conditions (ADHIPATIPRATYAYA) for generating bodhicitta: (1) witnessing an inconceivable miracle (ṛddhiprAtihArya) performed by a buddha or a bodhisattva, (2) listening to a teaching regarding enlightenment (BODHI) or to the doctrine directed at bodhisattvas (BODHISATTVAPItAKA), (3) recognizing the dharma's potential to be extinguished and seeking therefore to protect the true dharma (SADDHARMA), (4) seeing that sentient beings are troubled by afflictions (KLEsA) and empathizing with them. The Fa putixinjing lun introduces another set of four conditions for generating bodhicitta: (1) reflecting on the buddhas; (2) contemplating the dangers (ADĪNAVA) inherent in the body; (3) developing compassion (KARUnA) toward sentient beings; (4) seeking the supreme result (PHALA). The Chinese apocryphal treatise DASHENG QIXIN LUN ("Awakening of Faith According to the MahAyAna") refers to three types of bodhicittotpAda: that which derives from the accomplishment of faith, from understanding and practice, and from realization. JINGYING HUIYUAN (523-592) in his DASHENG YIZHANG ("Compendium on the Purport of MahAyAna") classifies bodhicittotpAda into three groups: (1) the generation of the mind based on characteristics, in which the bodhisattva, perceiving the characteristics of SAMSARA and NIRVAnA, abhors saMsAra and aspires to seek nirvAna; (2) the generation of the mind separate from characteristics, in which the bodhisattva, recognizing that the nature of saMsAra is not different from nirvAna, leaves behind any perception of their distinctive characteristics and generates an awareness of their equivalency; (3) the generation of the mind based on truth, in which the bodhisattva, recognizing that the original nature of bodhi is identical to his own mind, returns to his own original state of mind. The Korean scholiast WoNHYO (617-686), in his Muryangsugyong chongyo ("Doctrinal Essentials of the 'Sutra of Immeasurable Life'"), considers the four great vows of the bodhisattva (see C. SI HONGSHIYUAN) to be bodhicitta and divides its generation into two categories: viz., the aspiration that accords with phenomena (susa palsim) and the aspiration that conforms with principle (suri palsim). The topic of bodhicittotpAda is the subject of extensive discussion and exegesis in Tibetan Buddhism. For example, in his LAM RIM CHEN MO, TSONG KHA PA sets forth two techniques for developing this aspiration. The first, called the "seven cause and effect precepts" (rgyu 'bras man ngag bdun) is said to derive from ATIsA DIPAMKARAsRĪJNANA. The seven are (1) recognition of all sentient beings as having been one's mother in a past life, (2) recognition of their kindness, (3) the wish to repay their kindness, (4) love, (5) compassion, (6) the wish to liberate them from suffering, and (7) bodhicitta. The second, called the equalizing and exchange of self and other (bdag gzhan mnyam brje) is derived from the eighth chapter of sANTIDEVA's BODHICARYAVATARA. It begins with the recognition that oneself and others equally want happiness and do not want suffering. It goes on to recognize that by cherishing others more than oneself, one ensures the welfare of both oneself (by becoming a buddha) and others (by teaching them the dharma). MahAyAna sutra literature typically assumes that, after generating the bodhicitta, the bodhisattva will require not one, but three "incalculable eons" (ASAMKHYEYAKALPA) of time in order to complete all the stages (BHuMI) of the bodhisattva path (MARGA) and achieve buddhahood. The Chinese HUAYAN ZONG noted, however, that the bodhisattva had no compunction about practicing for such an infinity of time, because he realized at the very inception of the path that he was already a fully enlightened buddha. They cite in support of this claim the statement in the "BrahmacaryA" chapter of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA that "at the time of the initial generation of the aspiration for enlightenment (bodhicittotpAda), complete, perfect enlightenment (ANUTTARASAMYAKSAMBODHI) is already achieved."

Bodhidharma. (C. Putidamo; J. Bodaidaruma; K. Poridalma 菩提達磨) (c. late-fourth to early-fifth centuries). Indian monk who is the putative "founder" of the school of CHAN (K. SoN, J. ZEN, V. THIỀN). The story of a little-known Indian (or perhaps Central Asian) emigré monk grew over the centuries into an elaborate legend of Bodhidharma, the first patriarch of the Chan school. The earliest accounts of a person known as Bodhidharma appear in the Luoyang qielan ji and XU GAOSENG ZHUAN, but the more familiar and developed image of this figure can be found in such later sources as the BAOLIN ZHUAN, LENGQIE SHIZI JI, LIDAI FABAO JI, ZUTANG JI, JINGDE CHUANDENG LU, and other "transmission of the lamplight" (CHUANDENG LU) histories. According to these sources, Bodhidharma was born as the third prince of a South Indian kingdom. Little is known about his youth, but he is believed to have arrived in China sometime during the late fourth or early fifth century, taking the southern maritime route according to some sources, the northern overland route according to others. In an episode appearing in the Lidai fabao ji and BIYAN LU, after arriving in southern China, Bodhidharma is said to have engaged in an enigmatic exchange with the devout Buddhist emperor Wu (464-549, r. 502-549) of the Liang dynasty (502-557) on the subject of the Buddha's teachings and merit-making. To the emperor's questions about what dharma Bodhidharma was transmitting and how much merit (PUnYA) he, Wudi, had made by his munificent donations to construct monasteries and ordain monks, Bodhidharma replied that the Buddha's teachings were empty (hence there was nothing to transmit) and that the emperor's generous donations had brought him no merit at all. The emperor seems not to have been impressed with these answers, and Bodhidharma, perhaps disgruntled by the emperor's failure to understand the profundity of his teachings, left for northern China, taking the Yangtze river crossing (riding a reed across the river, in a scene frequently depicted in East Asian painting). Bodhidharma's journey north eventually brought him to a cave at the monastery of SHAOLINSI on SONGSHAN, where he sat in meditation for nine years while facing a wall (MIANBI), in so-called "wall contemplation" (BIGUAN). During his stay on Songshan, the Chinese monk HUIKE is said to have become Bodhidharma's disciple, allegedly after cutting off his left arm to show his dedication. This legend of Bodhidharma's arrival in China is eventually condensed into the famous Chan case (GONG'AN), "Why did Bodhidharma come from the West?" (see XILAI YI). Bodhidharma's place within the lineage of Indian patriarchs vary according to text and tradition (some list him as the twenty-eighth patriarch), but he is considered the first patriarch of Chan in China. Bodhidharma's name therefore soon became synonymous with Chan and subsequently with Son, Zen, and Thièn. Bodhidharma, however, has often been confused with other figures such as BODHIRUCI, the translator of the LAnKAVATARASuTRA, and the Kashmiri monk DHARMATRATA, to whom the DHYANA manual DAMODUOLUO CHAN JING is attributed. The Lidai fabao ji, for instance, simply fused the names of Bodhidharma and DharmatrAta and spoke of a BodhidharmatrAta whose legend traveled with the Lidai fabao ji to Tibet. Bodhidharma was even identified as the apostle Saint Thomas by Jesuit missionaries to China, such as Matteo Ricci. Several texts, a number of which were uncovered in the DUNHUANG manuscript cache in Central Asia, have been attributed to Bodhidharma, but their authorship remains uncertain. The ERRU SIXING LUN seems to be the only of these texts that can be traced with some certainty back to Bodhidharma or his immediate disciples. The legend of Bodhidharma in the Lengqie shizi ji also associates him with the transmission of the LankAvatArasutra in China. In Japan, Bodhidharma is often depicted in the form of a round-shaped, slightly grotesque-looking doll, known as the "Daruma doll." Like much of the rest of the legends surrounding Bodhidharma, there is finally no credible evidence connecting Bodhidharma to the Chinese martial arts traditions (see SHAOLINSI).

Bodhi (enlightenment) is a particular state of samadhi, during which the subject reaches the culmination of spiritual knowledge. Samadhi is the highest state on earth that can be reached while in the body; its highest stage or degree is called turiya. To attain beyond this, the initiate must have become a nirmanakaya.

Bodhi (Sanskrit) Bodhi [from the verbal root budh to acquire understanding, awaken] Perfect wisdom or enlightenment; true divine wisdom. A state of consciousness in which one has so emptied the mind that it is filled only with the selfless selfhood of the eternal. In this state one realizes the ineffable visions of reality and of pure truth. Bodhi is a name for the enlightened intellect of buddha. “ ‘Bodhi’ is likewise the name of a particular state of trance condition, called Samadhi, during which the subject reaches the culmination of spiritual knowledge” (SD 1:xix). The bodhi state is called a buddha, and the organ in and by which it is manifested is termed buddhi.

Borderline state: With respect to human consciousness and perception, that mental and psychological state in which the objective consciousness blends into the subjective. This state can be self-induced or produced under hypnosis. Many occult authorities maintain that this state is the first stage of man’s transition from the material plane of existence to the next one when the physical body dies.

broker ::: v. t. --> One who transacts business for another; an agent.
An agent employed to effect bargains and contracts, as a middleman or negotiator, between other persons, for a compensation commonly called brokerage. He takes no possession, as broker, of the subject matter of the negotiation. He generally contracts in the names of those who employ him, and not in his own.
A dealer in money, notes, bills of exchange, etc.
A dealer in secondhand goods.


B. The Probability-Relation. Considering the general grounds of probability, it is pertinent to analyze the proper characteristics of this concept and the valid conditions of its use in inferential processes. Probability presents itself as a special relation between the premisses and the conclusion of an argument, namely when the premisses are true but not completely sufficient to condition the truth of the conclusion. A probable inference must however be logical, even though its result is not certain, for its premisses must be a true sign of its conclusion. The probability-relation may take three aspects: it is inductive, probable or presumptive. In strict induction, there is an essential connection between the facts expressed in the premisses and in the conclusion, which almost forces a factual result from the circumstances of the predication. This type of probability-relation is prominent in induction proper and in statistics. In strict probability, there is a logical connection between the premisses and the conclusion which does not entail a definite factual value for the latter. This type of probability-relation is prominent in mathematical probability and circumstantial evidence. In strict presumption, there is a similarity of characteristics between the fact expressed in the conclusion and the real event if it does or did exist. This type of probability-relation is prominent in analogy and testimony. A presumptive conclusion should be accepted provisionally, and it should have definite consequences capable of being tested. The results of an inductive inference and of a probable inference may often be brought closer together when covering the same field, as the relations involved are fundamental enough for the purpose. This may be done by a qualitative analysis of their implications, or by a quantitative comparison of their elements, as it is done for example in the methods of correlation. But a presumptive inference cannot be reduced to either of the other two forms without losing its identity, because the connection between its elements is of an indefinite character. It may be said that inductive and probable inferences have an intrinsic reasonableness, while presumptive inferences have an extrinsic reasonableness. The former involve determinism within certain limits, while the latter display indeterminacy more prominently. That is why very poor, misleading or wrong conclusions are obtained when mathematical methods are applied to moral acts, judiciary decisions or indirect testimony The activity of the human will has an intricate complexity and variability not easily subjected to calculation. Hence the degree of probability of a presumptive inference can be estimated only by the character and circumstances of its suggested explanation. In moral cases, the discussion and application of the probability-relation leads to the consideration of the doctrines of Probabilism and Probabiliorism which are qualitative. The probability-relation as such has the following general implications which are compatible with its three different aspects, and which may serve as general inferential principle: Any generalization must be probable upon propositions entailing its exemplification in particular cases; Any generalization or system of generalizations forming a theory, must be probable upon propositions following from it by implication; The probability of a given proposition on the basis of other propositions constituting its evidence, is the degree of logical conclusiveness of this evidence with respect to the given proposition; The empirical probability (p = S/E) of a statement S increases as verifications accrue to the evidence E, provided the evidence is taken as a whole; and Numerical probabilities may be assigned to facts or statements only when the evidence includes statistical data or other numerical information which can be treated by the methods of mathematical probability. C. Mathematical Probability. The mathematical theory of probability, which is also called the theory of chances or the theory of relative possibilities, is concerned with the application of mathematical methods to the determination of the likelihood of any event, when there are not sufficient data to determine with certainty its occurrence or failure. As Laplace remarked, it is nothing more than common sense reduced to calculation. But its range goes far beyond that of common sense for it has not only conditioned the growth of various branches of mathematics, such as the theory of errors, the calculus of variations and mathematical statistics, but it has also made possible the establishment of a number of theories in the natural and social sciences, by its actual applications to concrete problems. A distinction is usually made between direct and inverse probability. The determination of a direct or a priori probability involves an inference from given situations or sets of possibilities numerically characterized, to future events related with them. By definition, the direct probability of the occurrence of any particular form of an event, is the ratio of the number of ways in which that form might occur, to the whole number of ways in which the event may occur, all these forms being equiprobable or equally likely. The basic principles referring to a priori probabilities are derived from the analysis of the various logical alternatives involved in any hypothetical questions such as the following: (a) To determine whether a cause, whose exact nature is or is not known, will prove operative or not in certain circumstances; (b) To determine how often an event happens or fails. The comparison of the number of occurrences with that of the failures of an event, considered in simple or complex circumstances, affords a baisis for several cases of probable inference. Thus, theorems may be established to deal with the probability of success and the probability of failure of an event, with the probability of the joint occurrence of several events, with the probability of the alternative occurrence of several events, with the different conditions of frequency of occurrence of an event; with mathematical expectation, and with similar questions. The determination of an a posteriori or inverse probability involves an inference from given situations or events, to past conditions or causes which rnay have contributed to their occurrence. By definition, an inverse probability is the numerical value assigned to each one of a number of possible causes of an actual event that has already occurred; or more generally, it is the numerical value assigned to hypotheses which attempt to explain actual events or circumstances. If an event has occurred as a result of any one of n several causes, the probability that C was the actual cause is Pp/E (Pnpn), when P is the probability that the event could be produced by C if present, and p the probability that C was present before the occurrence of that event. Inverse probability is based on general and special assumptions which cannot always be properly stated, and as there are many different sets of such assumptions, there cannot be a coercive reason for making a definite choice. In particular, the condition of the equiprobability of causes is seldom if ever fulfilled. The distinction between the two kinds of probability, which has led to some confusion in interpreting their grounds and their relations, can be technically ignored now as a result of the adoption of a statistical basis for measuring probabilities. In particular, it is the statistical treatment of correlation which led to the study of probabilities of concurrent phenomena irrespective of their direction in time. This distinction may be retained, howe\er, for the purpose of a general exposition of the subject. Thus, a number of probability theorems are obtained by using various cases of direct and inverse probability involving permutations and combinations, the binomial theorem, the theory of series, and the methods of integration. In turn, these theurems can be applied to concrete cases of the various sciences.

burlesque ::: a. --> Tending to excite laughter or contempt by extravagant images, or by a contrast between the subject and the manner of treating it, as when a trifling subject is treated with mock gravity; jocular; ironical. ::: n. --> Ludicrous representation; exaggerated parody; grotesque

(c) A special school called "Critical Realists" arose as a reactionary movement against the alleged extravagant views of another school of realists called the "New Realists" (q.v.). According to the "Critical Realists" the objective world, existing independently of the subject, is separated in the knowledge-relation by media or vehicles or essences. These intermediaries are not objects but conveyances of knowledge. The mind knows the objective world not directly (epistemological monism) but by means of a vehicle through which we perceive and think (epistemological dualism). For some, this vehicle is an immediate mental essence referring to existences, for some a datum, for some a subsistent realm mediating knowledge, and for one there is not so much a vehicle as there is a peculiar transcendental giasping of objects in cognition. In 1920 Essays in Critical Realism was published as the manifesto, the platform of this school. Its collaborators were D. Drake, A. O. Lovejoy, J. B. Pratt, A. K. Rogers, G. Santayana, R. W. Sellars, and C A. Strong. -- V.F.

catastasis ::: n. --> That part of a speech, usually the exordium, in which the orator sets forth the subject matter to be discussed.
The state, or condition of anything; constitution; habit of body.


Change, Philosophy of: (a) Any philosophical doctrine dealing with the subject of change, e.g., Aristotle's philosophy of change, (b) any philosophy which makes change an essential or pervasive character of reality, e.g., the philosophies of Heraclitus and Bergson. -- W.K.F.

Charles Babbage "person" The British inventor known to some as the "Father of Computing" for his contributions to the basic design of the computer through his {Analytical Engine}. His previous {Difference Engine} was a special purpose device intended for the production of mathematical tables. Babbage was born on December 26, 1791 in Teignmouth, Devonshire UK. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge in 1814 and graduated from Peterhouse. In 1817 he received an MA from Cambridge and in 1823 started work on the Difference Engine through funding from the British Government. In 1827 he published a table of {logarithms} from 1 to 108000. In 1828 he was appointed to the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge (though he never presented a lecture). In 1831 he founded the British Association for the Advancement of Science and in 1832 he published "Economy of Manufactures and Machinery". In 1833 he began work on the Analytical Engine. In 1834 he founded the Statistical Society of London. He died in 1871 in London. Babbage also invented the cowcatcher, the dynamometer, standard railroad gauge, uniform postal rates, occulting lights for lighthouses, Greenwich time signals, and the heliograph opthalmoscope. He also had an interest in cyphers and lock-picking. [Adapted from the text by J. A. N. Lee, Copyright September 1994]. Babbage, as (necessarily) the first person to work with machines that can attack problems at arbitrary levels of {abstraction}, fell into a trap familiar to {toolsmiths} since, as described here by the English ethicist, Lord Moulton: "One of the sad memories of my life is a visit to the celebrated mathematician and inventor, Mr Babbage. He was far advanced in age, but his mind was still as vigorous as ever. He took me through his work-rooms. In the first room I saw parts of the original Calculating Machine, which had been shown in an incomplete state many years before and had even been put to some use. I asked him about its present form. 'I have not finished it because in working at it I came on the idea of my {Analytical Machine}, which would do all that it was capable of doing and much more. Indeed, the idea was so much simpler that it would have taken more work to complete the Calculating Machine than to design and construct the other in its entirety, so I turned my attention to the Analytical Machine.'" "After a few minutes' talk, we went into the next work-room, where he showed and explained to me the working of the elements of the Analytical Machine. I asked if I could see it. 'I have never completed it,' he said, 'because I hit upon an idea of doing the same thing by a different and far more effective method, and this rendered it useless to proceed on the old lines.' Then we went into the third room. There lay scattered bits of mechanism, but I saw no trace of any working machine. Very cautiously I approached the subject, and received the dreaded answer, 'It is not constructed yet, but I am working on it, and it will take less time to construct it altogether than it would have token to complete the Analytical Machine from the stage in which I left it.' I took leave of the old man with a heavy heart." "When he died a few years later, not only had he constructed no machine, but the verdict of a jury of kind and sympathetic scientific men who were deputed to pronounce upon what he had left behind him, either in papers or in mechanism, was that everything was too incomplete of be capable of being put to any useful purpose." [Lord Moulton, "The invention of algorithms, its genesis, and growth", in G. C. Knott, ed., "Napier tercentenary memorial volume" (London, 1915), p. 1-24; quoted in Charles Babbage "Passage from the Life of a Philosopher", Martin Campbell-Kelly, ed. (Rutgers U. Press and IEEE Press, 1994), p. 34]. Compare: {uninteresting}, {Ninety-Ninety Rule}. (1996-02-22)

Cheng weishi lun. (S. *VijNaptimAtratAsiddhi; J. Joyui-shikiron; K. Song yusik non 成唯識論). In Chinese, "Demonstration of Consciousness-Only"; a magnum opus of Sino-Indian YOGACARA Buddhism and the foundational text of the Chinese WEISHI, or FAXIANG, school. The text is often cited by its reconstructed Sanskrit title *VIJNAPTIMATRATASIDDHI, and its authorship attributed to DHARMAPALA (530-561), but the text as we have it in Chinese translation has no precise analogue in Sanskrit and was never used within the Indian or Tibetan traditions. Its Chinese translator XUANZANG (600/602-664), one of the most important figures in the history of Chinese Buddhist scholasticism, traveled to India in the seventh century, where he specialized in YogAcAra doctrine at NALANDA monastic university under one of DharmapAla's disciples, sĪLABHADRA (529-645). At NAlandA, Xuanzang studied VASUBANDHU's TRIMsIKA (TriMsikAvijNaptimAtratA[siddhi]kArikA), the famous "Thirty Verses on Consciousness-Only," along with ten prose commentaries on the verses by the prominent YogAcAra scholiasts DharmapAla, STHIRAMATI, Nanda, CitrabhAnu, Gunamati, Jinamitra, JNAnamitra, JNAnacandra, Bandhusrī, suddhacandra, and Jinaputra. After his return to China in 645, Xuanzang set to work translating this massive amount of new material into Chinese. Rather than translate in their entirety all ten commentaries, however, on the advice of his translation team Xuanzang chose to focus on DharmapAla's exegesis, which he considered orthodox, rather than muddy the waters in China with the divergent interpretations of the other teachers. As a foil for DharmapAla's interpretation, Xuanzang uses the commentaries by Sthiramati, Nanda, and occasionally CitrabhAnu, but he typically concludes any discussion with DharmapAla's definitive view. This decision to rely heavily on DharmapAla's interpretation probably comes from the fact that Xuanzang's own Indian teacher, sīlabhadra, was himself a pupil of DharmapAla. ¶ The Cheng weishi lun is principally concerned with the origination and removal of ignorance (AVIDYA), by clarifying the processes by which erroneous perception arises and enlightened understanding is produced. Unlike the writings of STHIRAMATI, which understood the bifurcation of consciousness into subject and object to be wholly imaginary, the Cheng weishi lun proposed instead that consciousness in fact always appears in both subjective and objective aspects, viz., a "seeing part" (darsanabhAga) and a "seen part" (nimittabhAga). The apparent dichotomy between inner self and external images is a supposition of mentality (MANAS), which in turn leads to the various afflictions (KLEsA), as the mind clings to those images it likes and rejects those it dislikes; thus, suffering (DUḤKHA) is created and the cycle of rebirth (SAMSARA) sustained. Both the perceiving self and the perceived images are therefore both simply projections of the mind and thus mere-representation (VIJNAPTIMATRA) or, as Xuanzang translated the term, consciousness-only (WEISHI). This clarification of the perceptual process produces an enlightened understanding that catalyzes a transmutation of the basis (AsRAYAPARAVṚTTI), so that the root consciousness (MuLAVIJNANA), or ALAYAVIJNANA, no longer serves as the storehouse of either wholesome or unwholesome seeds (BĪJA), thus bringing an end to the subject-object bifurcation. In the course of its discussion, the Cheng weishi lun offers an extensive treatment of the YogAcAra theory of the eight consciousnesses (VIJNANA) and especially the storehouse consciousness (AlayavijNAna) that stores the seeds, or potentialities, of these representational images. The text also offers an overview of the three-nature (TRISVABHAVA) theory of vijNaptimAtra as imaginary (PARIKALPITA), dependent (PARATANTRA), and perfected (PARINIsPANNA). Finally, the Cheng weishi lun provides such exhaustive detail on the hundred dharmas (BAIFA) taxonomical system of the YogAcAra that it has been used within the tradition as a primer of YogAcAra dharma theory.

chinyong. (C. zhenying; J. shin'ei 眞影). In Korean, lit. "true image"; viz., a "monk's portrait." Although the term is known throughout the East Asian Buddhist traditions, it is especially associated with Korea; the related term DINGXIANG (J. chinzo, lit. "head's appearance") is more typically used within the Chinese and Japanese traditions. The employment of the term chinyong in Korea is a late Choson dynasty development; different terms were used in Korea before that era to refer to monk's portraits, including chinhyong ("true form"), sinyong ("divine image"), chinyong ("true appearance") and yongja ("small portrait image"). "Chin" ("true") in the compound refers to the inherent qualities of the subject, while "yong" ("image") alludes to his physical appearance; thus, a chinyong is a portrait that seeks to convey the true inner spirituality of the subject. Images of eminent masters who had been renowned patriarchs of schools, courageous monk soldiers, or successful fund-raisers were enshrined in a monastery's portrait hall. These portraits were painted posthumously-and, unlike Chinese dingxiang portraits, typically without the consent of the subjects-as one means of legitimizing the dharma-transmission lineage of their religious descendants; this usage of portraits is seen in both meditation (SoN) and doctrinal (KYO) monasteries. Korean monk portraits were not given out to individual disciples or lay adherents, as occurred in Chinese and Japanese Buddhism, where dozens and even hundreds of portraits were produced by and for a variety of persons. In the context of the Korean Son school, the pictures additionally enhanced the Son Buddhist emphasis on the direct spiritual transmission (see YINKE) between master and disciple. The development of monk portraiture was closely tied to annual commemorative practices in Buddhist monasteries, which sought to maintain the religious bonds between the dharma ancestors and their descendants.

Chung: Being true to the principle of the self; being true to the originally good nature of the self; being one's true self; the Confucian "central thread or principle" (i kuan) with respect to the self, as reciprocity (shu) is that principle with respect to others. See i kuan. Exerting one's pure heart to the utmost, to the extent of "not a single thought not having been exhausted", honesty, sincerity; devotion of soul, conscientiousness. (Confucianism.) "Honesty (chung) is complete realization of one's nature" whereas truthfulness (hsin) is "complete realization of the nature of things." "Honesty (chung) is the subjective side of truthfulness (hsin) whereas truthfulness is the objective side of honesty." (Ch'eng Ming-tao, 1032-1086.)   "Honesty is exerting one's heart to the utmost whereas truthfulness is the observance of the Reason of things." (Chu Hsi, 1230-1300.) Impartiality, especially in love and profit, Loyalty, especially to one's superiors, faithfulness.

Citta. A lay follower of the Buddha, mentioned in PAli sources as being foremost among laymen who preached the DHARMA; also known as Cittagahapati. Citta was treasurer for the township of MacchikAsanda in the kingdom of KAsī. When he was born, the sky rained flowers of many hues, hence his name which means variegated color. Citta was converted to Buddhism when he encountered the elder MahAnAma (S. MAHANAMAN) while the latter was sojourning in MacchikAsanda. Citta was greatly impressed by the monk's demeanor and built a monastery for him in his park named AmbAtakArAma. There, listening to MahAnAma preach on the subject of the six senses, he attained to state of a nonreturner (ANAGAMIN). On one occasion, Citta visited the Buddha in the company of two thousand laypeople, bringing with him five hundred cartloads of offerings. When he bowed at the Buddha's feet, flowers in a variety of colors rained down from the heavens. Like MahAnAma, the Buddha preached a sermon on the six senses to him. Citta distributed offerings for a fortnight, the gods continuously refilling the carts. Citta was endowed with a great intellect and was a gifted speaker. His conversations with members of the order are recorded in the "Citta SaMyutta" of the PAli SAMYUTTANIKAYA, and he is also described as having refuted the views of non-Buddhist teachers, such as Nigantha NAtaputta (S. NIRGRANTHA-JNATĪPUTRA, viz., MahAvīra), the eminent JAINA teacher, and Acela Kassapa. Although he was not an ARHAT, he possessed the analytical knowledge (P. patisambhidA; S. PRATISAMVID) of a learner (P. sekha). It was for these aptitudes that he earned preeminence. On his deathbed, divinities visited him and encouraged him to seek rebirth as a heavenly king, but he refused, stating that such an impermanent reward was not his goal. He then preached to them, and to all the kinfolk who had gathered around him, before passing away. Together with HATTHAKA AlAVAKA, Citta is upheld as an ideal layman worthy of emulation.

Cohen, Hermann: (1842-1918) and Paul Natorp (1854-1924) were the chief leaders of the "Marburg School" which formed a definite branch of the Neo-Kantian movement. Whereas the original founders of this movement, O. Liebmann and Fr. A. Lange, had reacted to scientific empiricism by again calling attention to the a priori elements of cognition, the Marburg school contended that all cognition was exclusively a priori. They definitely rejected not only the notion of "things-in-themselves" but even that of anything immediately "given" in experience. There is no other reality than one posited by thought and this holds good equally for the object, the subject and God. Nor is thought in its effort to "determine the object = x" limited by any empirical data but solely by the laws of thought. Since in Ethics Kant himself had already endeavored to eliminate all empirical elements, the Marburg school was perhaps closer to him in this field than in epistemology. The sole goal of conduct is fulfillment of duty, i.e., the achievement of a society organized according to moral principles and satisfying the postulates of personal dignity. The Marburg school was probably the most influential philosophic trend in Germany in the last 25 years before the First World War. The most outstanding present-day champion of their tradition is Ernst Cassirer (born 1874). Cohen and Natorp tried to re-interpret Plato as well as Kant. Following up a suggestion first made by Lotze they contended that the Ideas ought to be understood as laws or methods of thought and that the current view ascribing any kind of existence to them was based on a misunderstanding of Aristotle's. -- H.G.

coldreading ::: Cold Reading Cold reading is a technique used by interrogators, hypnotists, psychics, graphologists, palmists, astrologers etc., to convince another person that they know more about them than they actually do. The 'cold reader' will make several vague statements and observe the subject's reactions. He/she will then refine the original statements according to those reactions.

computability theory "mathematics" The area of theoretical computer science concerning what problems can be solved by any computer. A function is computable if an {algorithm} can be implemented which will give the correct output for any valid input. Since computer programs are {countable} but {real numbers} are not, it follows that there must exist real numbers that cannot be calculated by any program. Unfortunately, by definition, there isn't an easy way of describing any of them! In fact, there are many tasks (not just calculating real numbers) that computers cannot perform. The most well-known is the {halting problem}, the {busy beaver} problem is less famous but just as fascinating. ["Computability", N.J. Cutland. (A well written undergraduate-level introduction to the subject)]. ["The Turing Omnibus", A.K. Dewdeney]. (1995-01-13)

computability theory ::: (mathematics) The area of theoretical computer science concerning what problems can be solved by any computer.A function is computable if an algorithm can be implemented which will give the correct output for any valid input.Since computer programs are countable but real numbers are not, it follows that there must exist real numbers that cannot be calculated by any program. Unfortunately, by definition, there isn't an easy way of describing any of them!In fact, there are many tasks (not just calculating real numbers) that computers cannot perform. The most well-known is the halting problem, the busy beaver problem is less famous but just as fascinating.[Computability, N.J. Cutland. (A well written undergraduate-level introduction to the subject)].[The Turing Omnibus, A.K. Dewdeney]. (1995-01-13)

content-free "jargon" 1. (By analogy with "context-free") Used of a message that adds nothing to the recipient's knowledge. Though this adjective is sometimes applied to {flamage}, it more usually connotes derision for communication styles that exalt form over substance or are centred on concerns irrelevant to the subject ostensibly at hand. Perhaps most used with reference to speeches by company presidents and other professional manipulators. See also {four-colour glossies}. "education" 2. Within British schools the term refers to general-purpose {software} such as a {word processor}, a {spreadsheet} or a program that tests spelling of words supplied by the teacher. This is in contrast to software designed to teach a particular topic, e.g. a plant growth simulation, an interactive periodic table or a program that tests spelling of a predetermined list of words. Content-free software can be more cost-effective as it can be reused for many lessons throughout the syllabus. [{Jargon File}] (2014-10-30)

contention ::: n. --> A violent effort or struggle to obtain, or to resist, something; contest; strife.
Strife in words; controversy; altercation; quarrel; dispute; as, a bone of contention.
Vehemence of endeavor; eagerness; ardor; zeal.
A point maintained in an argument, or a line of argument taken in its support; the subject matter of discussion or strife; a position taken or contended for.


copula ::: n. --> The word which unites the subject and predicate.
The stop which connects the manuals, or the manuals with the pedals; -- called also coupler.


Copula: The traditional analysis of a proposition into subject and predicate involves a third part, the copula (is, are, is not, are not), binding the subject and predicate together into an assertion either of affirmation or of denial. It is now, however, commonly held that several wholly different meanings of the verb to be should be distinguished in this connection, including at least the following: predication of a monadic propositional function of its argument (the sun is hot, 7 is a prime number, mankind is numerous); formal implication (gold is heavy, a horse is a quadruped, mankind is sinful); identity (China is Cathay, that is the sun, I am the State); formal equivalence (lightning is an electric discharge between parts of a cloud and the earth). -- A.C.

Cosmogenesis [from Greek kosmos world + genesis birth] The genesis of worlds, as distinguished from anthropogensis or the genesis of mankind; as defined by Blavatsky: “At the commencement of a great Manvantara, Parabrahm manifests as Mulaprakriti and then as the Logos. This Logos is equivalent to the ‘Unconscious Universal Mind,’ etc., of Western Pantheists. It constitutes the Basis of the subject-side of manifested Being, and is the source of all manifestations of individual consciousness. Mulaprakriti or Primordial Cosmic Substance, is the foundation of the object-side of things — the basis of all objective evolution and Cosmogenesis” (SD 2:24). The word is not restricted to earth, but includes innumerable globes; nor is it confined to those worlds which happen to be visible to our eye, but includes worlds on all the various planes of manifested substance. It does not mean that the worlds were created ex nihilo by divine fiat, nor that they were merely the productions from dead, unconscious, albeit eternal and uncreate matter. Again, cosmogenesis is not a process which has occurred only once and for all, but a process which is repeated indefinitely during manvantaras and after great pralayas. Thus worlds are evolved from the state of latency or pralaya into which they passed at the close of the preceding manvantara, and both primordial matter and primordial spirit come from the same source — parabrahman — and are resolved again into it. The process is one of evolution or progressive manifestation on various planes of objectivity of the potentialities latent in the spiritual germ. World must be understood, not with regard to any standards of size, but as including a universe of stars on the one hand and an atomic speck on the other.

Cundī. (T. Skul byed ma; C. Zhunti; J. Juntei; K. Chunje 准提). In Sanskrit, the name Cundī (with many orthographic variations) probably connotes a prostitute or other woman of low caste but specifically denotes a prominent local ogress (YAKsInĪ), whose divinized form becomes the subject of an important Buddhist cult starting in the eighth century. Her worship began in the Bengal and Orissa regions of the Indian subcontinent, where she became the patron goddess of the PAla dynasty, and soon spread throughout India, and into Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, and Tibet, eventually making its way to East Asia. Cundī was originally an independent focus of cultic worship, who only later (as in the Japanese SHINGONSHu) was incorporated into such broader cultic practices as those focused on the "womb MAndALA" (see TAIZoKAI). Several scriptures related to her cult were translated into Chinese starting in the early eighth century, and she lends her name to both a MUDRA as well as an influential DHARAnĪ: namaḥ saptAnAM samyaksaMbuddhakotīnAM tadyathA: oM cale cule cunde svAhA. The dhAranī attributed to Cundī is said to convey infinite power because it is in continuous recitation by myriads of buddhas; hence, an adept who participates in this ongoing recitation will accrue manifold benefits and purify himself from unwholesome actions. The efficacy of the dhAranī is said to be particularly pronounced when it is recited before an image of Cundī while the accompanying Cundī mudrA is also being performed. This dhAranī also gives Cundī her common epithet of "Goddess of the Seventy Million [Buddhas]," which is sometimes mistakenly interpreted (based on a misreading of the Chinese) as the "Mother of the Seventy Million Buddhas." The texts also provide elaborate directions on how to portray her and paint her image. In Cundī's most common depiction, she has eighteen arms (each holding specific implements) and is sitting atop a lotus flower (PADMA) while being worshipped by two ophidian deities.

Cut off rate - The predetermined maximum rate and/or minimum rate at which the subject is still acceptable, but where a rate above the proscribed higher or below the proscribed lower rate is no longer acceptable.

Daena (Avestan) [from da, day to look, see, know] The personification of the Zoroastrian law or religion, presiding over the 24th day of the month, and giving to that day her name. Together with Khista (religious knowledge, the knowledge of what leads to bliss) she forms the subject of the 16th Yasht, Din Yasht, Din being Pahlavi for Daena. Christi (knowledge) was used in Mithraic circles in the same sense as Daena in Zoroastrianism.

darsanamArga. (T. mthong lam; C. jiandao; J. kendo; K. kyondo 見道). In Sanskrit, "path of vision"; the third of the five paths (PANCAMARGA) to liberation and enlightenment, whether as an ARHAT or as a buddha. It follows the second path, the path of preparation (PRAYOGAMARGA) and precedes the fourth path, the path of meditation or cultivation (BHAVANAMARGA). This path marks the adept's first direct perception of reality, without the intercession of concepts, and brings an end to the first three of the ten fetters (SAMYOJANA) that bind one to the cycle of rebirth: (1) belief in the existence of a self in relation to the body (SATKAYADṚstI), (2) belief in the efficacy of rites and rituals (sĪLAVRATAPARAMARsA) as a means of salvation, and (3) doubt about the efficacy of the path (VICIKITSA). Because this vision renders one a noble person (ARYA), the path of vision marks the inception of the "noble path" (AryamArga). According to the SarvAstivAda soteriological system, the darsanamArga occurs over the course of fifteen moments of realization of the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, with the sixteenth moment marking the beginning of the BHAVANAMARGA. There are four moments of realization for each of the four truths. The first moment is that of doctrinal acquiescence (DHARMAKsANTI) with regard to the sensuous realm (KAMADHATU). In that moment, the afflictions (KLEsA) of the sensuous realm associated with the truth of suffering are abandoned. This is followed by a moment of doctrinal knowledge (DHARMAJNANA) of the truth of suffering with regard to the sensuous realm, which is the state of understanding that the afflictions of that level have been abandoned. Next comes a moment of realization called subsequent acquiescence (anvayaksAnti), in which the afflictions associated with the truth of suffering in the two upper realms, the realm of subtle materiality (RuPADHATU) and the immaterial realm (ARuPYADHATU) are abandoned; there is finally a moment of subsequent knowledge (anvayajNAna) of the truth of suffering with regard to the two upper realms. This sequence of four moments-doctrinal acquiescence and doctrinal knowledge (which are concerned with the sensuous realm) and subsequent acquiescence and subsequent knowledge (which are concerned with the two upper realms)-is repeated for the remaining truths of origin, cessation, and path. In each case, the moments of realization called acquiescence are the time when the afflictions are actually abandoned; they are called uninterrupted paths (ANANTARYAMARGA) because they cannot be interrupted or impeded in severing the hold of the afflictions. The eight moments of knowledge are the state of having realized that the afflictions of the particular level have been abandoned. They are called paths of liberation (VIMUKTIMARGA). An uninterrupted path, followed by a path of liberation, are likened to throwing out a thief and locking the door behind him. The sixteenth moment in the sequence-the subsequent knowledge of the truth of the path with regard to the upper realms-constitutes the first moment of the next path, the bhAvanAmArga. For a BODHISATTVA, the attainment of the path of vision coincides with the inception of the first BODHISATTVABHuMI (see also DAsABHuMI). The ABHIDHARMASAMUCCAYA explains that the bodhisattva's path of vision is also a direct perception of reality and is focused on the four noble truths; unlike the mainstream account, however, all three realms are considered simultaneously, and the sixteenth moment is not the first instant of the path of cultivation (bhAvanAmArga). The YOGACARA system is based on their doctrine of the falsehood of the subject/object bifurcation. The first eight instants describe the elimination of fetters based on false conceptualization (VIKALPA) of objects, and the last eight the elimination of fetters based on the false conceptualization of a subject; thus the actual path of vision is a direct realization of the emptiness (suNYATA) of all dharmas (sarvadharmasunyatA). This view of the darsanamArga as the first direct perception (PRATYAKsA) of emptiness is also found in the MADHYAMAKA school, according to which the bodhisattva begins to abandon the afflictive obstructions (KLEsAVARAnA) upon attaining the darsanamArga. See also DHARMAKsANTI; JIEWU; DUNWU JIANXIU.

Denomination: (Lat. denominatio) Literally: a naming of something from some other thing. In Scholastic logic, it is the operation of applying a term to a subject, when the term is derived from something to which the subject is related. Thus a substance may be denominated by deriving a name from its accidents. Extrinsic denomination is dependent upon wholly external relationship. See Denotation. -- V.J.B.

Denotation: The subjects (i.e., those entities which possess attributes) of which a term may be predicated, e.g., the term "man" denotes Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, etc. (J. S. Mill) "Denotation" in this sense should be distinguished from "extension" in the sense in which that signifies the subclasses of the class determined by the term. The former indicates the various individual instances in which a common nature is manifested; the latter signifies the variety of kinds over which the predication of a term may extend. (H. W. B. Joseph.) -- C.A.B.

Depersonalization: A personality disorder in which the subject's own words and action assume for him a character of strangeness or unreality; in its extreme form, the subject is obsessed with the fear of complete dissolution of personality. The English term is an appropriation of the French depersonnalization. -- L.W.

dephlegmation ::: n. --> The operation of separating water from spirits and acids, by evaporation or repeated distillation; -- called also concentration, especially when acids are the subject of it.

design recovery "process" A subtask of {reverse engineering} in which domain knowledge, external information, and deduction of fuzzy reasoning are added to the observations of the subject system to identify meaningful higher level abstractions beyond those obtained directly by examining the system itself. In other words, design recovery aims to work out what a system or component was designed to do rather than just examining its subcomponents and their interrelationships. (1996-12-08)

design recovery ::: (process) A subtask of reverse engineering in which domain knowledge, external information, and deduction of fuzzy reasoning are added to the observations of the subject system to identify meaningful higher level abstractions beyond those obtained directly by examining the system itself.In other words, design recovery aims to work out what a system or component was designed to do rather than just examining its subcomponents and their interrelationships. (1996-12-08)

desultory ::: a. --> Leaping or skipping about.
Jumping, or passing, from one thing or subject to another, without order or rational connection; without logical sequence; disconnected; immethodical; aimless; as, desultory minds.
Out of course; by the way; as a digression; not connected with the subject; as, a desultory remark.


devāvatāra. (T. lha yul nas babs pa; C. tianxialai/Tianxiachu; J. tengerai/Tengesho; K. ch'onharae/Ch'onhach'o 天下來/天下處). In Sanskrit, "descent from the realm of the divinities (DEVA)"; a term that describes the Buddha's return to earth after he spent the rain's-retreat season (VARsĀ) teaching the ABHIDHARMA to his mother in the heaven of the thirty-three (TRĀYASTRIMsA). Because the Buddha's mother, MAHĀMĀYĀ, had died seven days after his birth, she was not able to benefit from her son's teaching; she was reborn in the TUsITA heaven. Therefore, in the seventh year after his enlightenment, the Buddha magically ascended to the trāyastriMsa, to which his mother descended, where he taught the abhidharma to his mother and the assembled divinities. He would descend briefly each day to collect alms and at that time would repeat to sĀRIPTURA what he had taught to the gods. Pining for the Buddha during his long absence from the world, King PRASENAJIT had a sandalwood statue of the Buddha carved; this statue was claimed to have been the first buddha image. The Buddha is said to have descended from the summit of Mount SUMERU to the continent of JAMBUDVĪPA on a stairway of gems that was flanked by stairways of gold and silver. Devāvatāra (Tianxiachu) is also the name of the city or country of SĀnKĀsYA (P. Sankassa), where this descent from the trayastriMsa heaven occurred. This scene is commonly depicted in Buddhist iconography and is the subject of an eponymous SuTRA.

Dhātukathā. In Pāli, "Discourse on Elements"; traditionally listed as the third of the seven canonical books of the THERAVĀDA abhidhammapitaka, and probably deriving from the middle stratum of Pāli abhidhamma literature, after the earlier VIBHAnGA and PUGGALAPANNATTI, but before the later KATHĀVATTHU; the proposed dating varies widely, but the first century BCE is its terminus ad quem. The Dhātukathā presents a psychological analysis of noble states of mind, supplementing the subject matter of the DHAMMASAnGAnI. Its fourteen chapters are presented in catechetic style, describing the relationship that pertains between specific factors (dhamma; S. DHARMA) and the three broader categories of the aggregates (khandha; S. SKANDHA), elements (DHĀTU), and sense-fields (ĀYATANA). In its analysis of the relationships that pertain between these various factors and categories, rigorous definitions of each factor are provided. The analytical approach taken in the text-e.g., whether a specific factor is both included and not included in a particular category, etc.-anticipates the sophisticated logical analysis found later in the four antinomies (CATUsKOtI). The Dhātukathā is reminiscent in style and exegetical approach to the SARVĀSTIVĀDA DHĀTUKĀYA, and may derive from a common urtext, although there are few similarities in their respective contents.

Ding an sich: (Ger. thing in itself) A Kantian term referring to what lies beyond human experience and observation. "Things in themselves" are transcendent, not transcendental or applicable to any human experience. The "thing in itself" exists independent and apart from all knowledge. It has an independent reality apart from the subjectivity of human knowledge. -- H.H.

D. Interpretations of Probability. The methods and results of mathematical probability (and of probability in general) are the subject of much controversy as regards their interpretation and value. Among the various theories proposed, we shall consider the following Probability as a measure of belief, probability as the relative frequency of events, probability as the truth-frequency of types of argument, probability as a primitive notion, probability as an operational concept, probability as a limit of frequencies, and probability as a physical magnitude determined by axioms. I. Probability as a Measure of Belief: According to this theory, probability is the measure or relative degree of rational credence to be attached to facts or statements on the strength of valid motives. This type of probability is sometimes difficult to estimate, as it may be qualitative as well as quantitative. When considered in its mathematical aspects, the measure of probable inference depends on the preponderance or failure of operative causes or observed occurrences of the case under investigation. This conception involves axioms leading to the classic rule of Laplace, namely: The measure of probability of any one of mutually exclusive and apriori equiprobable possibilities, is the ratio of the number of favorable possibilities to the total number of possibilities. In probability operations, this rule is taken as the definition of direct probability for those cases where it is applicable. The main objections against this interpretation are: that probability is largely subjective, or at least independent of direct experience; that equiprobability is taken as an apriori notion, although the ways of asserting it are empirical; that the conditions of valid equiprobability are not stated definitely; that equiprobability is difficult to determine actually in all cases; that it is difficult to attach an adequate probability to a complex event from the mere knowledge of the probabilities of its component parts, and that the notion of probability is not general, as it does not cover such cases as the inductive derivation of probabilities from statistical data. II. Probability as a Relative Frequency. This interpretation is based on the nature of events, and not on any subjective considerations. It deals with the rate with which an event will occur in a class of events. Hence, it considers probability as the ratio of frequency of true results to true conditions, and it gives as its measure the relative frequency leading from true conditions to true results. What is meant when a set of calculations predict that an experiment will yield a result A with probability P, is that the relative frequency of A is expected to approximate the number P in a long series of such experiments. This conception seems to be more concerned with empirical probabilities, because the calculations assumed are mostly based on statistical data or material assumptions suggested by past experiments. It is valuable in so far as it satisfies the practical necessity of considering probability aggregates in such problems. The main objections against this interpretation are: that it does not seem capable of expressing satisfactorily what is meant by the probability of an event being true; that its conclusions are more or less probable, owing to the difficulty of defining a proper standard for comparing ratios; that neither its rational nor its statistical evidence is made clear; that the degree of relevance of that evidence is not properly determined, on account of the theoretical indefinite ness of both the true numerical value of the probability and of the evidence assumed, and that it is operational in form only, but not in fact, because it involves the infinite without proper limitations. III. Probability as Truth-Frequency of Types of Arguments: In this interpretation, which is due mainly to Peirce and Venn, probability is shifted from the events to the propositions about them; instead of considering types and classes of events, it considers types and classes of propositions. Probability is thus the ability to give an objective reading to the relative tiuth of propositions dealing with singular events. This ability can be used successfully in interpreting definite and indefinite numerical probabilities, by taking statistical evaluations and making appropriate verbal changes in their formulation. Once assessed, the relative truth of the propositions considered can be communicated to facts expressed by these propositions. But neither the propositions nor the facts as such have a probability in themselves. With these assumptions, a proposition has a degree of probability, only if it is considered as a member of a class of propositions; and that degree is expressed by the proportion of true propositions to the total number of propositions in the class. Hence, probability is the ratio of true propositions to all the propositions of the class examined, if the class is finite, or to all the propositions of the same type in the long run, if the class is infinite. In the first case, fair sampling may cover the restrictions of a finite class; in the second case, the use of infinite series offers a practical limitation for the evidence considered. But in both cases, probability varies with the class or type chosen, and probability-inferences are limited by convention to those cases where numerical values can be assigned to the ratios considered. It will be observed that this interpretation of probability is similar to the relative frequency theory. The difference between these two theories is more formal than material in both cases the probability refers ultimately to kinds of evidence based on objective matter of fact. Hence the Truth-Frequency theory is open to the sime objections as the Relative-Frequency theory, with proper adjustments. An additional difficulty of this theory is that the pragmatic interpretation of truth it involves, has yet to be proved, and the situation is anything but improved by assimilating truth with probability.

distance: Sometimes referred to as 'aesthetic distance', distance is a phrase used to suggest the detachment from the subject-matter with which either the writer or the reader views a piece of literature. This effect is created through use of tone,diction, and presentation.

Distribution (of terms): In the four traditional Aristotelian propositional forms, the subjects of universal propositions and the predicates of negative propositions are distributed, the other terms are undistributed. -- C.A.B.

Divination [from Latin divination a soothsayer from divus spiritual being, god] The art of obtaining hidden knowledge by the aid of spiritual or ethereal beings. It is divisible into two main kinds: the inducing of seership or clairvoyance, and the interpretation of signs. Under the former come the oracular responses of the Pythian priestess, of the Cumaean Sibyl, and many similar instances, including all cases where the diviner induces trance or clairvoyance, whether in himself by natural power or by incantations, drugs, or other preparations; or in a subject, as when ink is poured into the palm of a child, who sees visions in it, or by some kind of hypnotism. Under the second head come geomancy, augury, the reading of the marks on the liver of a slaughtered animal, reading cards, Chinese throwing-sticks, predictive astrology, palmistry, numerology, and a great variety of other forms. Between the two classes are ranged such practices as gazing into crystal or water, where external means and interior vision both play a part in the result. Often it is a means of utilizing one’s own inner faculties, whether by natural or induced clairvoyance, or by employing the agencies which regulate events apparently casual such as the fall of the cards, the marks in the sand, the drawing of lots; and this last is related to the subject of omens.

Divine, the subjection ot the mind and the vital to the control of the inner being, the soul. Always, when the soul is in front, one gets the right guidance from within as to what is to be done, what avoided, what is the wrong thing or true thing in thought, feeling, action. But this inner intimation emerges in proportion as the cooseiousoess gro\vs more and more pure.

Divyāvadāna. In Sanskrit, "Divine Exploits"; a collection of thirty-eight "heroic tales" or "narratives" (AVADĀNA). Avadānas are the tenth of the twelvefold (DVĀDAsĀnGA[PRAVACANA]) categorization of the traditional genres of Buddhist literature and relate the past and present deeds of a person, either lay or ordained, who in some specific fashion exemplifies Buddhist ethics and practice. The present characters in the stories in the Divyāvadāna are often identified as persons whom the Buddha encountered in a former life. Thus, its tales have a narrative structure similar to JĀTAKA stories, in which an event in the present offers an opportunity to recount a story from the past, which in turn illuminates details regarding present circumstances. Themes that run throughout the Divyāvadāna include the realization of positive or negative consequences of action (KARMAN), the importance of moral discipline, and the great merit (PUnYA) that can be accrued through service or reverence offered to the buddhas or to sites related to the buddhas, such as a STuPA. The Divyāvadāna includes thirty-six avadānas and two SuTRAs. Famous stories found in the Divyāvadāna collection include the Purnāvadāna, the story of the monk PuRnA, and the AsOKĀVADĀNA, which recounts the birth, life, and reign of King AsOKA, the monarch whom the Buddhist tradition considers the great protector of the religion. Although the style and language of the works vary tremendously, more than half of the tales also appear in the MuLASARVĀSTIVĀDA VINAYA. Given their debt to vinaya literature, it is not surprising that many of the tales in the Divyāvadāna often make reference to points of monastic discipline (VINAYA). This association with the Mulasarvāstivāda vinaya suggests that these stories could date as far back as the beginning of the Common Era. However, the oldest extant manuscript of the Divyāvadāna dates only to the seventeenth century, and there is no reference to a text by that title in a Buddhist source prior to that date. There also is no Tibetan or Chinese translation of the text, although many of its stories are found in the Tibetan and Chinese canons. (For example, twenty-one of the thirty-eight stories of the collection are found in the vinaya section of the Tibetan canon.) This has led some scholars to conclude that, although the stories themselves are quite old, the particular compilation as the Divyāvadāna may be rather late. A number of stories from the Divyāvadāna were translated by EUGÈNE BURNOUF in his 1844 Introduction à l'histoire du Buddhisme indien. The first Sanskrit edition of the entire text was undertaken in 1866 by Edward B. Cowell and Robert A. Neil. The Divyāvadāna legends had a significant influence on Buddhist art and were often the subject of Buddhist sculptures and paintings. For instance, in the "Sahasodgata" chapter of this collection, the Buddha describes the "wheel of existence" (BHAVACAKRA), which became a popular subject of painting in many of the Buddhist traditions.

Dnine, refiises to admit them. This is the subjective form of the universal resistance, but it may also take an objective form,

domain ::: 1. (mathematics) In the theory of functions, the set of argument values for which a function is defined.See domain theory.2. (networking) A group of computers whose hostnames share a common suffix, the domain name. The last component of this is the top-level domain.See administrative domain, Domain Name System, fully qualified domain name.3. Distributed Operating Multi Access Interactive Network.4. (programming) A specific phase of the software life cycle in which a developer works. Domains define developers' and users' areas of responsibility and the scope of possible relationships between products.5. The subject or market in which a piece of software is designed to work. (1997-12-26)

domain 1. "networking" A group of computers whose {fully qualified domain names} (FQDN) share a common suffix, the "domain name". The {Domain Name System} maps {hostnames} to {Internet address} using a hierarchical {namespace} where each level in the hierarchy contributes one component to the FQDN. For example, the computer foldoc.doc.ic.ac.uk is in the doc.ic.ac.uk domain, which is in the ic.ac.uk domain, which is in the ac.uk domain, which is in the uk {top-level domain}. A domain name can contain up to 67 characters including the dots that separate components. These can be letters, numbers and hyphens. 2. An {administrative domain} is something to do with {routing}. 3. {Distributed Operating Multi Access Interactive Network}. 4. "mathematics" In the theory of functions, the set of argument values for which a {function} is defined. See {domain theory}. 5. "programming" A specific phase of the {software life cycle} in which a developer works. Domains define developers' and users' areas of responsibility and the scope of possible relationships between products. 6. The subject or market in which a piece of software is designed to work. (2007-10-01)

dombī Heruka. A tantric adept counted among the eighty-four MAHĀSIDDHAs, often depicted riding a tiger with his consort. As recorded in his hagiographies, he was originally king of the Indian region of MAGADHA and received teachings on the HEVAJRATANTRA from the SIDDHA VIRuPA. These he practiced for twelve years in secret while continuing to skillfully administer his kingdom. He then secretly took a low-caste musician, a dombī, as his consort and continued his practice of TANTRA with her. (The word heruka is rendered khrag thung, "blood drinker," in Tibetan.) When his subjects discovered their king's transgression of customary social and caste restrictions, dombī Heruka abdicated the throne and disappeared with his consort into the jungle, where they continued to practice tantric yoga for twelve years. Later, the kingdom was wrought with famine and the subjects searched for their former king to request his assistance. dombī Heruka then emerged from the jungle astride a tigress, brandishing a snake in one hand. Displaying miraculous signs of his mastery, he denied the subjects' request and departed for the celestial realms. dombī Heruka is an important member of the lineage of the Hevajratantra and, according to some accounts, was a disciple of NĀROPA as well as a teacher of ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNĀNA. Seventeen texts attributed to him are preserved in the BSTAN 'GYUR section of the Tibetan Buddhist canon. He is also known as dombīpa.

double-blind design: a form of experimental control, whereby both the subject and experimenter are kept uninformed about the purpose of the experiment, to reduce any forms of bias (in particular, experimenter bias).

Double Blind Study ::: Research method in which both the subjects and the experimenter are unaware or &

Duality ::: Conscious experiences that characterize the lower three planes of the Four Worlds model are considered dualistic. In these stages of awareness there is a distinction between the subject observing and the object of observation: a quality at the root of all experience outside of the Causal Plane. Contrasted with Non-Duality. See also Phenomenal Reality.

Eckhart, Meister: (1260-1327) Was born in Hochheim (Gotha), may have studied with St. Albert in Cologne, received his doctorate at Paris in 1302. He taught theology at various times, devoted much time to preaching in the vernacular, and filled various administrative posts in the Dominican Order. Mystical, difficult in terminology, his thought appears to contain elements of Aristotelianism, Augustinism, Neoplatonism and Avicennism. Accused of Pantheism and other theological errors, he was the subject of a famous trial in 1326; he abjured publicly any possible religious errors which he may have made. Chief works Opus Tripartitum, Quaestiones Parisienses, Deutsche Predigten. (Pfeiffer, F., Deutsche Mystiker des 14 Jahrh., Bd. II, Leipzig, 1857; tr. Evans, London, 1924.) B. J. Muller-Thym, University of Being in M. Eckhart (N. Y., 1939). -- V.J.B.

Edgerton, Franklin. (1885-1963). American scholar of Sanskrit; born in Le Mars, Iowa, he received his undergraduate education at Cornell. He then studied at Munich and Jena before returning to the United States, where he studied Sanskrit and comparative philology at Johns Hopkins. Edgerton taught at the University of Pennsylvania, before moving to Yale in 1926 as Salisbury Professor of Sanskrit. He remained there for the remainder of his academic career, retiring in 1953. Edgerton's great contribution to Buddhist studies was the 1953 publication of his Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary and his Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Reader, the result of some three decades of work. Edgerton coined the term BUDDHIST HYBRID SANSKRIT to describe the language of PRAKRIT, mixed Sanskrit, and Sanskrit that occurs in many Buddhist Sanskrit texts, especially the MAHĀYĀNA SuTRA literature. Prior to Edgerton, this language was sometimes called the Gāthā dialect because it occurred frequently in the verses, or GĀTHĀ, in the Mahāyāna sutras. Edgerton divided Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit into three classes based on the degree of hybridization within a given text. Since its publication, Edgerton's work, and the entire category of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit itself, has been the subject of much scholarly debate, but Edgerton's dictionary remains widely used.

Eidetic Imagery: Expression used by the German psychologist E. R. Jaensch, (Ueber den Aufbau der Wahrnehmungswelt und ihre Struktur im Jugendalter, 1923) to designate images usually visual which are almost photographic in their fidelity. Eidetic imagery differs from hallucination in that the former are usually recognized by the subject to be "subjective." -- L.W.

elucidate ::: v. t. --> To make clear or manifest; to render more intelligible; to illustrate; as, an example will elucidate the subject.

elucidation ::: n. --> A making clear; the act of elucidating or that which elucidates, as an explanation, an exposition, an illustration; as, one example may serve for further elucidation of the subject.

Embryo In general, the vitalized germ of an organism in its earlier stages, and sometimes applied to it until it leaves the egg or womb covering. The fertilization of the germ-cell in plant or animal is an everyday working of the universal law by which spirit incubates matter for the purpose of differentiating on the objective planes, in order to manifest the subjective monadic life. Thus the reincarnating ego, in beginning to make a new body for itself, with the division of the fertilized microscopic egg cell, is analogous to the world-germ awakening in a laya-center to begin another galactic, solar, or planetary existence. “This desire for a sentient life shows itself in everything, from an atom to a sun, and is a reflection of the Divine Thought propelled into objective existence” (SD 1:44).

Empathy: (Gr. en + pathein, to suffer) The projection by the mind into an object of the subjective feeling of bodily posture and attitude which result from the tendency of the body to conform to the spatial organization of the object (e.g. the tendency to imitate the outstretched hands of a statue). The phenomenon is of particular significance for aesthetics. See H. S. Langfeld, The Aesthetic Attitude. The term was introduced to translate the German Einfühlung. See Lipps, Raumaesthetik und geometrisch-optische Täuschungen. See Eject. -- L.W.

Empathy: The projection by the mind into an object of the subjective feeling of bodily posture and attitude which result from the tendency of the body to conform to the spatial organization of the object (e.g., the tendency to imitate the outstretched hands of a statue).

engross ::: v. t. --> To make gross, thick, or large; to thicken; to increase in bulk or quantity.
To amass.
To copy or write in a large hand (en gross, i. e., in large); to write a fair copy of in distinct and legible characters; as, to engross a deed or like instrument on parchment.
To seize in the gross; to take the whole of; to occupy wholly; to absorb; as, the subject engrossed all his thoughts.


Enlightenment: When Kant, carried by the cultural enthusiasm of his time, explained "enlightenment" as man's coming of age from the state of infancy which rendered him incapable of using his reason without the aid of others, he gave only the subjective meaning of the term. Objectively, enlightenment is a cultural period distinguished by the fervent efforts of leading personalities to make reason the absolute ruler of human life, and to shed the light of knowledge upon the mind and conscience of any individual. Such attempts are not confined to a particular time, or nation, as history teaches; but the term is generally applied to the European enlightenment stretching from the early 17th to the beginning of the 19th century, especially fostered by English, Dutch, French, and German philosophers. It took its start in England from the empiricism of F. Bacon, Th. Hobbes, J. Locke, it found a religious version in the naturalism of Edw. H. Cherbury, J. Toland, M. Tindal, H. Bolingbroke, and the host of "freethinkers", while the Earl of Shaftesbury imparted to it a moral on the "light of reason". Not so constructive but radical in their sarcastic criticism of the past were the French enlighteners, showing that their philosophy got its momentum from the moral corruption at the royal court and abuse of kinglv power in France. Descartes' doctrine of the "clear and perspicuous ideas," Spinoza's critical attitude towards religion, and Leibniz-Wolff's "reasonable thinking" prepared the philosophy of P. Bayle, Ch. Montesquieu, F. M. Voltaire, and J. J. Rousseau. The French positive contribution to the subject was the "Encyclopedie ou Dictionaire raisonne des sciences, arts et metiers", 1751-72, in 28 volumes, edited by Diderot, D'Alembert, Helvetius, Holbach, J. L. Lagrane, etc. What, in England and France, remained on the stage of mere ideas and utopic dreams became reality in the new commonwealth of the U.S.A. The "fathers of the constitution" were enlightened, outstanding among them B. Franklin, Th. Jefferson, J. Adams, A. Hamilton, and Th. Paine their foremost literary propagandist.

En no Ozunu. (役小角) (b. 634). Also known as En no Gyoja (lit. "En the Ascetic"), a semi-legendary figure associated with SHUGENDo (lit. the "Way of Cultivating Supernatural Power") who is known for his shamanic abilities and mountain austerities. Practitioners of Shugendo, Japan's tradition of mountain asceticism, regard him as their founder and view him as the archetypal ascetic. The earliest accounts of En no Ozunu appear in the Shoku Nihongi (797) and the Nihon Ryoiki (810-824). He subsequently became the subject of numerous medieval texts, although many of the details of his life are sketchy. Allegedly born in Chihara in present-day Nara prefecture, he spent three decades of practice in KATSURAGISAN, where legend holds that he worked to convert malicious spirits. In 699, he was exiled to Izu (in present-day Shizuoka prefecture) by Emperor Monmu because of accusations made by his disciple, Karakuni no Muraji Hirotari that he was practicing sorcery. Shugendo considers En no Ozunu to be a manifestation of Hoki Bosatsu (DHARMODGATA), whose sphere of practice in the Katsuragi mountains includes KONGoSAN (see also KŬMGANGSAN), the traditional residence of this BODHISATTVA. In 1799, in conjunction with the alleged eleven hundredth anniversary of En no Ozunu's death, Emperor Kokaku bestowed on him the title Jinben Daibosatsu (Great Bodhisattva Mysterious Change).

(e) The problem of the A PRIORI, though the especial concern of the rationalist, confronts the empiricist also since few epistemologists are prepared to exclude the a priori entirely from their accounts of knowledge. The problem is that of isolating the a priori or non-empirical elements in knowledge and accounting for them in terms of the human reason. Three principal theories of the a priori have been advanced: the theory of the intrinsic A PRIORI which asserts that the basic principles of logic, mathematics, natural sciences and philosophy are self-evident truths recognizable by such intrinsic traits as clarity and distinctness of ideas. The intrinsic theory received its definitive modern expression in the theory of "innate ideas" (q.v.) of Herbert of Cherbury, Descartes, and 17th century rationalism. The presuppositional theory of the a priori which validates a priori truths by demonstrating that they are presupposed either by their attempted denial (Leibniz) or by the very possibility of experience (Kant). The postulational theory of the A PRIORI elaborated under the influence of recent postulational techniques in mathematics, interprets a priori principles as rules or postulates arbitrarily posited in the construction of formal deductive systems. See Postulate; Posit. (f) The problem of differentiating the principal kinds of knowledge is an essential task especially for an empirical epistemology. Perhaps the most elementary epistemological distinction is between non-inferential apprehension of objects by perception, memory, etc. (see Knowledge by Acquaintance), and inferential knowledge of things with which the knowing subject has no direct apprehension. See Knowledge by Description. Acquaintance in turn assumes two principal forms: perception or acquaintance with external objects (see Perception), and introspection or the subject's acquaintance with the "self" and its cognitive, volitional and affective states. See Introspection; Reflection. Inferential knowledge includes knowledge of other selves (this is not to deny that knowledge of other minds may at times be immediate and non-inferential), historical knowledge, including not only history in the narrower sense but also astronomical, biological, anthropological and archaeological and even cosmological reconstructions of the past and finally scientific knowledge in so far as it involves inference and construction from observational data.

everything ::: n. --> Whatever pertains to the subject under consideration; all things.

examine ::: v. t. --> To test by any appropriate method; to inspect carefully with a view to discover the real character or state of; to subject to inquiry or inspection of particulars for the purpose of obtaining a fuller insight into the subject of examination, as a material substance, a fact, a reason, a cause, the truth of a statement; to inquire or search into; to explore; as, to examine a mineral; to examine a ship to know whether she is seaworthy; to examine a proposition, theory, or question.

Explicative judgment: (Lat. explicatio, unfolding) A mental action which explains a subject by mentally dissecting it, (Kant) a judgment in which the predicate is obtained by analysis of the subject. See Analytic judgment. -- V.J.B.

fable ::: n. --> A Feigned story or tale, intended to instruct or amuse; a fictitious narration intended to enforce some useful truth or precept; an apologue. See the Note under Apologue.
The plot, story, or connected series of events, forming the subject of an epic or dramatic poem.
Any story told to excite wonder; common talk; the theme of talk.
Fiction; untruth; falsehood.


FAULT-FINDING. ::: The lower vital takes a mean and petty pleasure in picking out the faults of others and thereby one hampers both one’s own progress and that of the subject of the criticism.

Feeling: (Kant. Ger. Gefühl) A conscious, subjective impression which does not involve cognition or representation of an object. Feelings are of two kinds: pleasures and pains. These represent nothing actual in objects, but reveal the state or condition of the subject. Kant saw in pleasure and pain, respectively, life-promoting and life-destroying forces; pleasure results from the harmony of an object with the subjective conditions of life and consciousness, while pain is the awareness of disharmony. See Kantianism. -- O.F.K.

Fetishism [from Latin facticius artificial] Applied by modern scholars to the practice of worshiping various objects, either natural, as a tooth or claw of some animal, or artificial, as a carved image (idolatry). It is a relic of ancient knowledge concerning the interrelationships of everything in the kosmos and the use of objects and symbols, corresponding to particular kosmic potencies, as a means of invoking those potencies. It is a relic of archaic magic, now in many cases become degraded to a superstition; though even among many so-called primitive peoples, sympathetic students have found that certain among them often still possess more knowledge than they are willing to disclose to the casual unsympathetic outsider. The subject verges upon that of ceremonial magic, talismans, and the like, where powers of nature many be influenced.

Figure (syllogistic): The moods of the categorical syllogism (see Logic, formal, § 5) are divided into four figures, according as the middle term is subject in the major premiss and predicate in the minor premiss (first figure), or predicate in both premisses (second figure), or subject in both premisses (third figure), or predicate in the major premiss and subject in the minor premiss (fourth figure). Aristotle recognized only three figures, including the moods of the fourth figure among those of the first. The separation of the fourth figure from the first (ascribed to Galen) is accompanied by a redefinition of "major" and "minor" -- so that the major premiss is that involving the predicate of the conclusion, and the minor premiss is that involving the subject of the conclusion. -- A.C.

four noble truths. (S. catvāry āryasatyāni; P. cattāri ariyasaccāni; T. 'phags pa'i bden pa bzhi; C. si shengdi; J. shishodai; K. sa songje 四聖諦). Although the term "four noble truths" is well established in English-language works on Buddhism, it is a misleading translation of the original Sanskrit and Pāli terms. The term translated as "noble" (ĀRYA) refers not to the truths themselves, but to those who understand them; thus, the compound may more accurately, if less euphoniously, be rendered as "four truths [known by the spiritually] noble"; they are four facts known to be true by those "noble ones" with insight into the nature of reality, but not known by ordinary beings (PṚTHAGJANA). The four truths are: suffering (DUḤKHA), origination (SAMUDAYA), cessation (NIRODHA), and path (MĀRGA). The four noble truths are the subject of extensive exegesis in the tradition, but the four terms and the relationships among them may be summarized as follows. Existence in the realms that are subject to rebirth, called SAMSĀRA, is qualified by suffering (duḥkha), the first truth (the Sanskrit term may also be rendered as "sorrow," "pain," or more generally "unsatisfactoriness"). The types of sufferings that beings undergo in the various destinations of rebirth are enumerated at great length in Buddhist texts. In his first sermon delivered after his enlightenment (see DHARMACAKRAPRAVARTANASuTRA), the Buddha identifies the following as forms of suffering: birth, aging, sickness, death, encountering what is unpleasant, separation from what is pleasant, not gaining what one desires, and the five SKANDHAs. The second truth is the origination (samudaya), or cause, of suffering. In his first sermon, the Buddha identifies the cause of suffering as craving (TṚsnĀ) or attachment; in his second sermon, the ANATTALAKKHAnASUTTA, said to have been delivered five days later, he suggests that the belief is self (ĀTMAN) is the cause of suffering. In other works, he lists two causes of suffering: unwholesome or unsalutary (AKUsALA) actions (KARMAN) such as killing, stealing, and lying, and the unwholesome mental states (see CAITTA) that motivate unwholesome actions. These unwholesome mental states include greed (LOBHA), hatred (DVEsA), and ignorance (MOHA), with ignorance referring here to an active misperception of the nature of the person and the world or, more technically, to an unsystematic attention (AYONIsOMANASKĀRA) to the true nature of things, leading to the following "inverted views" (VIPARYĀSA): seeing pleasure where there is actually pain, purity where there is impurity, permanence where there is impermanence, and self where there is no self. The third truth is the cessation (nirodha) of suffering, which refers to NIRLĀnA, the "deathless" (AMṚTA) state that transcends all suffering. The fourth and final truth is that of the path (mārga) to the cessation of suffering. The path is delineated in exhaustive detail in Buddhist texts; in his first sermon, the Buddha describes an eightfold path (ĀRLĀstĀnGAMĀRGA). The four truths therefore posit the unsatisfactory nature of existence, identify its causes, hold out the prospect of a state in which suffering and its causes are absent, and set forth a path to that state. Suffering is to be identified, its origin destroyed, its cessation realized, and the path to its cessation followed. The four truths demonstrate the importance of causality (see HETUPRATYAYA) in Buddhist thought and practice. Suffering is the effect of the cause, or origin, viz., "craving." Cessation is the absence of suffering, which results from the destruction of suffering's origin, craving. The path is the means by which one attains that cessation. The Buddha states in his first sermon that when he gained absolute and intuitive knowledge of the four truths, he achieved complete enlightenment and freedom from future rebirth. The four truths are also often described in terms of their sixteen aspects (sodasākāra), which counteract four inverted views (viparyāsa) for each truth. For the truth of suffering, the four aspects are knowledge that the aggregates (SKANDHA) are impermanent, suffering, empty, and selfless; these counteract seeing permanence, pleasure, mine (MAMAKĀRA), and I (AHAMKĀRA), respectively. For the truth of origination, the four aspects are knowledge that KLEsA(affliction) and action (karman) are cause (HETU), origination (samudaya), producer (saMbhava), and condition (PRATYAYA); they counteract the view that there is no cause, that there is a single cause, that the cause is transformation of a fundamental nature, and that the cause is a prior act of divine will, respectively. For the truth of cessation, the four aspects are knowledge that nirvāna is cessation (NIRODHA), peace (sānta), sublime (pranīta), and a definite escape (niryāna); these counteract the view that there is no liberation, that liberation is suffering, that the pleasure of meditative absorption (DHYĀNA) is unmitigated, and that NIRLĀnA is not firmly irreversible. And for the truth of the path, the four aspects are knowledge that the eightfold noble path is a path (mārga), correct method (UPĀYA), practice (PRATIPATTI), and brings a definite escape (nairyānika); these counteract the view that there is no path, that this eightfold noble path is vile, that something else is also a path, and that this path is reversible. Some Mahāyāna sutras say that those who are attached to (ABHINIVEsA) the four noble truths as being essentially true do not understand the purport of the Buddha's doctrine; only the teaching of the third noble truth, NIRLĀnA, is definitive (NĪTĀRTHA), the statements about the other truths require interpretation (NEYĀRTHA). See also DARsANAMĀRGA.

Freedom, Sense of: The subjective feeling of an agent either at the moment of decision or in retrospect that his decision is free and that he might, if he had chosen, have decided differently. This feeling is adduced by Free-Willists as empirical evidence for their position but is interpreted by their opponents as a subjective illusion. See Free-Will. -- L.W.

gate gate pāragate pārasaMgate bodhi svāhā. (T. ga te ga te pā ra ga te pā ra saM ga te bo dhi svā hā; C. jiedi jiedi boluojiedi boluosengjiedi puti sapohe; J. gyatei gyatei haragyatei harasogyatei boji sowaka; K. aje aje paraaje parasŭngaje moji sabaha 帝帝波羅帝波羅僧帝菩提薩婆訶). A Sanskrit MANTRA contained in the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀHṚDAYASuTRA ("Heart Sutra"). At the conclusion of the SuTRA, the BODHISATTVA AVALOKITEsVARA says to sĀRIPUTRA, "Therefore, the mantra of the perfection of wisdom is the mantra of great wisdom, the unsurpassed mantra, the unequalled mantra, the mantra that completely pacifies all suffering. Because it is not false, it should be known to be true. The mantra of the perfection of wisdom is stated thus: gate gate pāragate pārasaMgate bodhi svāhā." Although most mantras are not translatable, this one can be roughly rendered into English as "gone, gone, gone beyond, gone completely beyond, enlightenment, svāhā" (svāhā is an interjection, meaning "hail," commonly placed at the end of a mantra). "Gate" in the mantra is most probably a vocative of gatā addressed to the goddess PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ (the iconographic representation of perfect wisdom); hence, the mantra may be addressed to PrajNāpāramitā and mean, "You who have gone, gone, gone beyond," etc. Given the ubiquity of the PrajNāpāramitāhṛdayasutra in MAHĀYĀNA Buddhism and its frequent ritual chanting by monks in both East Asia and Tibet, the mantra has been the subject of extensive commentary. Thus, some commentators correlate the first five words with the five paths (PANCAMĀRGA) to buddhahood: the first "gate" indicates the path of accumulation (SAMBHĀRAMĀRGA); the second "gate," the path of preparation (PRAYOGAMĀRGA); "pāragate," the path of vision (DARsANAMĀRGA); "pārasaMgate," the path of cultivation (BHĀVANĀMĀRGA); and BODHI, the adept path (AsAIKsAMĀRGA). Such an interpretation is in keeping with the Indian scholastic view of the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ sutras, where it is said that the sutras have two teachings, one explicit and one implicit. The explicit teaching is emptiness (suNYATĀ) and the implicit teaching is the various realizations (ABHISAMAYA) of the bodhisattva along the path to buddhahood. From this perspective, everything in the sutra up to the mantra provides the explicit teaching and the mantra provides the implicit teaching. Other commentators state that the first part of the sutra (up to the mantra) is intended for bodhisattvas of dull faculties and that the mantra is intended for bodhisattvas of sharp faculties (TĪKsnENDRIYA). Some of the commentators include "it is thus" (tadyathā) in the mantra and add oM at the beginning. Although the presence of DHĀRAnĪ is relatively common in Mahāyāna sutras, something that is explicitly called a mantra is not, leading some commentators to consider whether the PrajNāpāramitāhṛdayasutra should be classified as a sutra or a TANTRA.

Geniture: An astrological term, approximately synonymous with Nativity, as referring to the subject whose birth horoscope is under consideration. (A reasonable discrimination would be to use the term Nativity in reference to the person, and the term Geniture in reference to the configurations which show in his birth map.)

Geometry: Originally abstracted from the measurement of, and the study of relations of position among, material objects, geometry received in Euclid's Elements (c. 300 B.C.) a treatment which (despite, of course, certain defects by modern standards) became the historical model for the abstract deductive development of a mathematical discipline. The general nature of the subject of geometry may be illustrated by reference to the synthetic geometry of Euclid, and the analytic geometry which resulted from the introduction of coordinates into Euclidean geometry by Descartes (1637) (q.v.). In the mathematical usage of today the name geometry is given to any abstract mathematical discipline of a certain general type, as thus illustrated, without any requirement of applicability to spatial relations among physical objects or the like.

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GOOD AND EVIL All good and evil that befalls the individual is his own work, the result of his own application of his limited conception of right and wrong. All reap what they have sown in previous lives and often in the same life. Nothing can happen to the individual which he has not deserved by defying the Law.
K 1.41.19f (K 4.11.3)

Good is all that promotes, evil all that counteracts, consciousness development, individually as well as collectively. To the greatest and the most fatal mistakes that can be made belongs spreading ignorance's emotional illusions and mental fictions, resulting in idiotization. K 3.4.20

For the individual, good is the steps above his level, and particularly the immediately higher step. Evil is the lower, that which is below his level and, usually, in particular degree just the one he has recently left. In this is the subjectivity of the conception of right but not any relativity, which nullifies the necessary opposition between good and evil. P 3.16.10


gouzi wu foxing. (J. kushi mubussho; K. kuja mu pulsong 狗子無佛性). In Chinese, "a dog has no buddha-nature"; a CHAN expression that becomes a famous meditative topic (HUATOU) and is used as the subject of a Chan "questioning meditation" (see KANHUA CHAN). This phrase refers to a GONG'AN exchange attributed to the Tang-dynasty monk ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN (778-897): Once when Zhaochou was asked, "Does a dog have buddha-nature (FOXING), or not?" Zhaochou answered, "No" (lit. "It does not have it."). This gong'an exchange is the famous "no" (WU) huatou, the first case of the WUMEN GUAN ("Gateless Checkpoint"), which is often the initial meditation topic given to neophyte Chan monks in the LINJI ZONG and Linji-oriented traditions in China, Korea, and Japan.

gsang ba'i rnam thar. (sang we nam tar). In Tibetan, "secret autobiography," one of the three types of RNAM THAR (sacred biography or autobiography), focusing on a subject's religious experiences, visions, and past-life experiences, with the author often writing from the perspective of an omniscient subject. They are called secret not because they are hidden away from general readership, but because of the esoteric tantric practices that form part of the subject matter. A well-known example of secret autobiography is 'JIGS MED GLING PA's Gsang ba chen po nyams snang gi rtogs brjod chu zla'i gar mkhan (translated as "Dancing Moon"), at least one purpose of which was demonstrating the authenticity of the KLONG CHEN SNYING THIG, a GTER MA (treasure text) that he revealed.

(g) The problem of the structure of the knowledge-situation is to determine with respect to each of the major kinds of knowledge just enumerated -- but particularly with respect to perception -- the constituents of the knowledge-situation in their relation to one another. The structural problem stated in general but rather vague terms is: What is the relation between the subjective and objective components of the knowledge-situation? In contemporary epistemology, the structural problem has assumed a position of such preeminence as frequently to eclipse other issues of epistemology. The problem has even been incorporated by some into the definition of philosophy. (See A. Lalande, Vocabulaire de la Philosophie, art. Theorie de la Connaissance. I. and G.D. Hicks, Encycl. Brit. 5th ed. art. Theory of Knowledge.) The principal cleavage in epistemology, according to this formulation of its problem, is between a subjectivism which telescopes the object of knowledge into the knowing subject (see Subjectivism; Idealism, Epistemological) and pan-objectivism which ascribes to the object all qualities perceived or otherwise cognized. See Pan-obiectivism. A compromise between the extrernes of subjectivism and objectivism is achieved by the theory of representative perception, which, distinguishing between primary and secondary qualities, considers the former objective, the latter subjective. See Representative Perception, Theory of; Primary Qualities; Secondary Qualities.

Guhyagarbhatantra. (T. Gsang ba'i snying po'i rgyud). In Sanskrit, the "Secret Essence Tantra," a central text of the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism and the RDZOGS CHEN tradition. The tantra is regarded as an expression of the enlightened intention of the primordial DHARMAKĀYA, the buddha SAMANTABHADRA. It is a work of Indic origin, appearing around mid-eighth century, probably after the GUHYASAMĀJATANTRA. It is unclear whether the text was called Guhyagarbha at the time of its composition or whether that title was added later. In DUNHUANG documents, it is usually referred to as the Māyājālatantra. By the time of a late tenth-century manuscript, it is called the Guhyagarbhatantra. The later Tibetan tradition identifies the Guhyagarbha as the root tantra of the MAHĀYOGA class, as well as the main tantra of the MĀYĀJĀLA cycle of tantras, a group of eighteen mahāyoga tantras. The Guhyagarbha was particularly influential in late eighth- and early ninth-century Tibet, when it was a principal inspiration for the early rdzogs chen movement. Its Māyājāla MAndALA of one hundred deities (forty-two peaceful and fifty-eight wrathful) was widely employed. In the PHYI DAR period, the tantra was condemned by a number of GSAR MA figures (especially the eleventh-century translator 'Gos khug pa lhas btsas) as an apocryphal Tibetan creation, probably because of its importance in the Rnying ma sect and in the still-developing rdzogs chen tradition. However, a Sanskrit copy of the tantra was discovered at BSAM YAS and verified by sĀKYAsRĪBHADRA. In the thirteenth century, Lcom ldan rig ral ordered a new translation on the basis of the manuscript. Major commentators include Rong zom chos bzang (eleventh century) and KLONG CHEN RAB 'BYAMS, and eventually, two schools of interpretations formed, the Rong klong lugs and the Zur lugs. The tantra exists in three distinct versions: in twenty-two, forty-six, and eighty-two chapters. The shorter version is considered the root tantra and is the subject of most commentary.

hack on ::: To hack; implies that the subject is some pre-existing hunk of code that one is evolving, as opposed to something one might hack up.[Jargon File]

hack on To {hack}; implies that the subject is some pre-existing hunk of code that one is evolving, as opposed to something one might {hack up}. [{Jargon File}]

Hedonism [from Greek hedone, pleasure] In ethics, the doctrine that the gratification of natural inclinations is the chief good, and that the moral law is thereby fulfilled. The value of this doctrine depends entirely on what we are to understand by pleasure or inclination. In the best sense, which was that of Epicurus and his followers, these words may be considered as one way of trying to express the summum bonum, the goal of human endeavor; and this school pointedly taught that neither happiness nor peace are ever attainable by the subjection of human thought, mind, and conscience to the instincts or inclinations of the body. Some aspects of modern utilitarianism may be considered as a form of hedonism. But the doctrine as stated is easily degraded, and in its worst form becomes the pursuit of sensual gratification. In fact, hedonism as a word, and as understood now and by many even in ancient times, is the exact opposite of what these early philosophers believed and taught. See also EPICUREAN PHILOSOPHY

heroine ::: n. --> A woman of an heroic spirit.
The principal female person who figures in a remarkable action, or as the subject of a poem or story.


Hilbert and Ackermann, Grundzuge der theoretischen Logik, 2nd edn., Berlin, 1938. Logic, traditional: the name given to those parts and that method of treatment of formal logic which have come down substantially unchanged from classical and medieval times. Traditional logic emphasizes the analysis of propositions into subject and predicate and the associated classification into the four forms, A, E, I, O; and it is concerned chiefly with topics immediately related to these, including opposition, immediate inference, and the syllogism (see logic, formal). Associated with traditional logic are also the three so-called laws of thought -- the laws of identity (q. v.), contradiction (q. v.) -- and excluded middle (q. v.) -- and the doctrine that these laws are in a special sense fundamental presuppositions of reasoning, or even (by some) that all other principles of logic can be derived from them or are mere elaborations of them. Induction (q. v.) has been added in comparatively modern times (dating from Bacon's Novum Organum) to the subject matter of traditional logic. -- A. C.

Holy Grail: A vessel of utmost sacredness, the quest for which is the subject of many tales, legends and myths. The Holy Grail and the tales built around it indubitably have a mystic, symbolical significance.

Huyin Daoji. (J. Koin Dosai; K. Hoŭn Toje 湖隱道濟) (1150-1209). Chinese monk and thaumaturge who is associated with the YANGQI PAI of the LINJI ZONG of CHAN school; he is most commonly known in Chinese as JIGONG (Sire Ji) and sometimes as Jidian (Crazy Ji). A popular subject in vernacular Chinese fiction and plays, it has become difficult to separate the historical Jigong from the legend. Jigong is said to have been a native of Linhai in present-day Zhejiang province. He later visited the Chan master Xiatang Huiyuan (1103-1176), received the full monastic precepts at his monastery of Lingyinsi (present-day Jiangsu province), and became his disciple. After he left Xiatang's side, Jigong is said to have led the life of an itinerant holy man. During this period, Jigong's antinomian behavior, most notably his drinking and meat eating, along with his accomplishments as a trickster and wonderworker, became the subject of popular folklore. His unconventional behavior seems to have led to his ostracism from the SAMGHA. Jigong later moved to the monastery of Jingcisi, where he died in 1209. His teachings are recorded in the Jidian chanshi yulu (first printed in 1569).

hymnographer ::: n. --> One who writes on the subject of hymns.
A writer or composed of hymns.


Hypnotism: “A peculiar state of consciousness, artificially induced, which liberates subconscious powers in the subject, puts him en rapport with the hypnotizer, makes him accept and meticulously execute any of his [the hypnotizer’s] suggestions, whether hypnotic or post-hypnotic, which do not conflict with deeper instincts of self-preservation and morality, and produces strange psychological effects as anaesthesia and the remarkable control over organic processes of the body. In hypnotic sleep the waking stimuli are strongly resisted, the sleeper hears and answers.” (N. Fodor.) Occultists and believers in mysticism consider hypnotism a form of black magic (q.v.) unless it is used for expressly beneficial ends.

Hypnotism ::: Derived from a Greek word hypnos, which means "sleep," and strictly speaking the word hypnotismshould be used only for those psychological-physiological phenomena in which the subject manifestingthem is in a condition closely resembling sleep. The trouble is that in any attempt to study these variouspsychological powers of the human constitution it is found that they are many and of divers kinds; butthe public, and even the technical experimenters, usually group all these psychologicalphenomena under the one word hypnotism, and therefore it is a misnomer. One of such powers, forinstance, which is well known, is called fascination. Another shows a more or less complete suspensionof the individual will and of the individual activities of him who is the sufferer from such psychologicalpower, although in other respects he may show no signs of physical sleep. Another again -- and thisperhaps is the most important of all so far as actual dangers lie -- passes under the name of suggestion, anexceedingly good name, because it describes the field of action of perhaps the most subtle and dangerousside-branch of the exercise of the general power or force emanating from the mind of the operator.The whole foundation upon which this power rests lies in the human psychological constitution; and itcan be easily and neatly expressed in a few words. It is the power emanating from one mind, which canaffect another mind and direct or misdirect the latter's course of action. This is in nine hundred andninety-nine times out of a thousand a wrong thing to do; and this fact would readily be understood byeverybody did men know, as they should, the difference between the higher and the lower nature of man,the difference between his incorruptible, death-defying individuality, his spiritual nature, on the onehand; and, on the other hand, the brain-mind and all its train of weak and fugitive thoughts.Anyone who has seen men and women in the state of hypnosis must realize not only how dangerous,how baleful and wrong it is, but also that it exemplifies the trance state perfectly. The reason is that theintermediate nature, or the psychomental apparatus, of the human being in this state has been displacedfrom its seat, in other words, is disjoined or dislocated; and there remains but the vitalized human body,with its more or less imperfect functioning of the brain cells and nervous apparatus. H. P. Blavatsky inher Theosophical Glossary writes: "It is the most dangerous of practices, morally and physically, as itinterferes with the nerve-fluid and the nerves controlling the circulation in the capillary blood-vessels."(See also Mesmerism)

hypnotism ::: Hypnosis / Hypnotism Hypnotism is used to induce an altered state of consciousness in a person (the subject), during which suggestions can be made directly to that person's unconscious mind. It can involve a combination of relaxation, visualisation and repetition exercises, besides a number of other techniques. There is an increasing acceptance that the various magical states of consciousness (such as astral projection) can be achieved by self-hypnosis.

HYSTERIA. ::: It is due to a pressure from the vital world and there may be momentary possessions also.

In cases of hysteria usually nothing is gained by humouring or indulgence ; firmness generally pays better, because most often there is something there that wants ito be interesting and get sympathy and have a fuss made over the person. As for the cure, the subjective cause has to be got rid of.


"Ideals are truths that have not yet effected themselves for man, the realities of a higher plane of existence which have yet to fulfil themselves on this lower plane of life and matter, our present field of operation. To the pragmatical intellect which takes its stand upon the ever-changing present, ideals are not truths, not realities, they are at most potentialities of future truth and only become real when they are visible in the external fact as work of force accomplished. But to the mind which is able to draw back from the flux of force in the material universe, to the consciousness which is not imprisoned in its own workings or carried along in their flood but is able to envelop, hold and comprehend them, to the soul that is not merely the subject and instrument of the world-force but can reflect something of that Master-Consciousness which controls and uses it, the ideal present to its inner vision is a greater reality than the changing fact obvious to its outer senses. The Supramental Manifestation*

“Ideals are truths that have not yet effected themselves for man, the realities of a higher plane of existence which have yet to fulfil themselves on this lower plane of life and matter, our present field of operation. To the pragmatical intellect which takes its stand upon the ever-changing present, ideals are not truths, not realities, they are at most potentialities of future truth and only become real when they are visible in the external fact as work of force accomplished. But to the mind which is able to draw back from the flux of force in the material universe, to the consciousness which is not imprisoned in its own workings or carried along in their flood but is able to envelop, hold and comprehend them, to the soul that is not merely the subject and instrument of the world-force but can reflect something of that Master-Consciousness which controls and uses it, the ideal present to its inner vision is a greater reality than the changing fact obvious to its outer senses. The Supramental Manifestation

identical ::: a. --> The same; the selfsame; the very same; not different; as, the identical person or thing.
Uttering sameness or the same truth; expressing in the predicate what is given, or obviously implied, in the subject; tautological.


Identity-philosophy: In general the term has been applied to any theory which failed to distinguish between spirit and matter, subject and object, regarding them as an undifferentiated unity; hence such a philosophy is a species of monism. In the history of philosophy it usually signifies the system which has been called Identitätsphilosophie by Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling who held that spirit and nature are fundamentally the same, namely, the Absolute. Neither the ego nor the non-ego are the ultimate principles of being; they are both relative concepts which are contained in something absolute. This is the supreme principle of Absolute Identity of the ideal and the real. Reasoning does not lead us to the Absolute which can only be attained by immediate intellectual intuition. In it we find the eternal concepts of things and from it we can derive everything else. We are obliged to conceive the Absolute Identity as the indifference of the ideal and the real. Of course, this is God in Whom all opposites are united. He is the unity of thought and being, the subjective and the objective, form and essence, the general and infinite, and the particular and finite. This teaching is similar to that of Spinoza. -- J.J.R.

"If we take this fourfold status as a figure of the Self passing from its superconscient state, where there is no subject or object, into a luminous trance in which superconscience becomes a massed consciousness out of which the subjective status of being and the objective come into emergence, then we get according to our view of things either a possible process of illusionary creation or a process of creative Self-knowledge and All-knowledge.” The Life Divine

“If we take this fourfold status as a figure of the Self passing from its superconscient state, where there is no subject or object, into a luminous trance in which superconscience becomes a massed consciousness out of which the subjective status of being and the objective come into emergence, then we get according to our view of things either a possible process of illusionary creation or a process of creative Self-knowledge and All-knowledge.” The Life Divine

Iliados Used by Paracelsus as synonymous with Ideos, primordial matter in the subjective state.

Illicit process of the minor: In the categorical syllogism (logic, formal, § 5), the conclusion cannot be a proposition A or E unless the minor term appears in its premiss as distributed -- i.e., as the subject of a proposition A or E, or the predicate of a proposition E or O. Violation of this rule is the fallacy of illicit process of the minor. -- A.C.

immanent ::: a. --> Remaining within; inherent; indwelling; abiding; intrinsic; internal or subjective; hence, limited in activity, agency, or effect, to the subject or associated acts; -- opposed to emanant, transitory, transitive, or objective.

impertinent ::: a. --> Not pertinent; not pertaining to the matter in hand; having no bearing on the subject; not to the point; irrelevant; inapplicable.
Contrary to, or offending against, the rules of propriety or good breeding; guilty of, or prone to, rude, unbecoming, or uncivil words or actions; as, an impertient coxcomb; an impertient remark.
Trifing; inattentive; frivolous.


Important names in the history of the subject are those of Boole (q.v.), De Morgan (q.v.), W. S. Jevons, Peirce (q.v.), Robert Grassmann, John Venn, Hugh MacColl, Schröder (q.v.), P. S. Poretsky -- A.C.

In Aristotelian logic, whatever term can be predicated of, without being essential or peculiar to the subject (q.v.). Logical or predicable (q.v.) -- opposed to property (q.v.) -- is that quality which adheres to a subject in such a manner that it neither constitutes its essence nor necessarily flows from its essence; as, a man is white or learned.

indent style ::: (programming) The rules one uses to indent code in a readable fashion. There are four major C indent styles, described below; all have the aim of respect to the statement(s) they enclose and to the guard or controlling statement (if, else, for, while, or do) on the block, if any.K&R style - Named after Kernighan & Ritchie, because the examples in K&R are formatted this way. Also called kernel style because the Unix kernel is partisans. The basic indent shown here is eight spaces (or one tab) per level; four spaces are occasionally seen, but are much less common. if (cond) {body> here is eight spaces, but four spaces are just as common (especially in C++ code). if (cond){ indent per level shown here is eight spaces, but four spaces are occasionally seen. if (cond){ always four spaces per level, with { and } halfway between the outer and inner indent levels. if (cond){ screen at once. Doubtless these issues will continue to be the subject of holy wars.[Jargon File] (1995-07-24)

Information and Communication Technology "education" (ICT) The study of the technology used to handle information and aid communication. The phrase was coined by [?] Stevenson in his 1997 report to the UK government and promoted by the new National Curriculum documents for the UK in 2000. In addition to the subjects included in {Information Technology} (IT), ICT emcompasses areas such as {telephony}, {broadcast media} and all types of {audio} and {video} processing and transmission. {(http://rubble.ultralab.anglia.ac.uk/stevenson/ICTUKIndex.html)}. (2008-09-19)

in it. (The matter has been made the subject of an

In relation to men, the lotus is the symbol of the self-producing soul which, during manifestation immersed in material life as the lotus seed is embedded in the mud of lake or pond, is wakened by the warm rays of the spiritual sun, and grows upward through the world of illusion (symbolized by water) to blossom in the free air and sunlight of truth. Cosmically the lotus symbolizes the emanation of the objective from the subjective, the manifested effect or production of the eternal plan on which the invisible worlds are built by the formative logoi. This lies buried, until the time for its svabhava or production comes, in the bosom of eternal ideation — as the lotus plant of visible nature exists in miniature in the seed.

interest ::: n. --> To engage the attention of; to awaken interest in; to excite emotion or passion in, in behalf of a person or thing; as, the subject did not interest him; to interest one in charitable work.
To be concerned with or engaged in; to affect; to concern; to excite; -- often used impersonally.
To cause or permit to share.
Excitement of feeling, whether pleasant or painful, accompanying special attention to some object; concern.


Internal Validity ::: A measure of the trustworthiness of a sample of data. Internal validity looks at the subject, testing, and environment in which the data collection took place.

Internet Explorer "web" (IE, MSIE) {Microsoft}'s free {World-Wide Web} {browser} for {Microsoft Windows}, {Windows 95}, {Windows NT}, and {Macintosh}. Internet Explorer is the main rival to {Netscape Navigator} (which runs on many more {platforms}). Both support the same core features and offer incompatible extensions. Microsoft combined later versions of IE with their {file system} browser, "Explorer" and bundled it with {Windows 95} in an attempt to use their dominance of the {desktop} {operating system} market to force users to abandon Netscape's browser, which they perceived as a potential threat. This, and other dubious business moves, became the subject of a US Department of Justice antitrust trial in late 1998/early 1999. {(http://microsoft.com/ie/)}. (1999-01-31)

Internet Explorer ::: (World-Wide Web) (IE, MSIE) Microsoft's free World-Wide Web browser for Microsoft Windows, Windows 95, Windows NT, and Macintosh. Internet Explorer is the main rival to Netscape Navigator (which runs on many more platforms). Both support the same core features and offer incompatible extensions.Microsoft combined later versions of IE with their file system browser, Explorer and bundled it with Windows 95 in an attempt to use their dominance business moves, became the subject of a US Department of Justice antitrust trial in late 1998/early 1999. . (1999-01-31)

In the first edition of the Logische Untersuchungen phenomenology was defined (much as it had been by Hamilton and Lazarus) as descriptive analysis of subjective processes Erlebnisse. Thus its theme was unqualifiedly identified with what was commonly taken to be the central theme of psychology; the two disciplines were said to differ only in that psychology sets up causal or genetic laws to explain what phenomenology merely describes. Phenomenology was called "pure" so far as the phenomenologist distinguishes the subjective from the objective and refrains from looking into either the genesis of subjective phenomena or their relations to somatic and environmental circumstances. Husserl's "Prolegomena zur reinen Logik" published as the first part of the Logische Untersuchungen, had elaborated the concept of pure logic, a theoretical science independent of empirical knowledge and having a distinctive theme: the universal categorial forms exemplified in possible truths, possible facts, and their respective components. The fundamental concepts and laws of this science, Husserl maintained, are genuine only if they can be established by observing the matters to which they apply. Accordingly, to test the genuineness of logical theory, "wir wollen auf die 'Sachen selbst' zurückgehen": we will go, from our habitual empty understanding of this alleged science, back to a seeing of the logical forms themselves. But it is then the task of pure phenomenology to test the genuineness and range of this "seeing," to distinguish it from other ways of being conscious of the same or other matters. Thus, although pure phenomenology and pure logic are mutually independent disciplines with separate themes, phenomenological analysis is indispensible to the critical justification of logic. In like manner, Husserl maintained, it is necessary to the criticism of other alleged knowledge; while, in another way, its descriptions are prerequisite to explanatory psychology. However, when Husserl wrote the Logische Untersuchungen, he did not yet conceive phenomenological analysis as a method for dealing with metaphysical problems.

In theosophy, devachan is the interlude between earth-lives during which the strictly higher human part of the human composite constitution, the reincarnating ego or higher manas, rests in perfect bliss. Recurring time periods of manifestation and quiescence are fundamental in nature, and devachan is the subjective part of the cyclic rhythm of human evolution on this globe. It corresponds, post-mortem, to the sleeping state of the imbodied, but the devachanic “dreams” are far more vivid and real than ordinary dreams; as a matter of fact, earth life is more truly a dream — to many oftentimes a nightmare.

intuition ::: direct perception of truth, fact, etc., independent of any reasoning process. intuition"s, intuitions, half-intuition.

Sri Aurobindo: "Intuition is a power of consciousness nearer and more intimate to the original knowledge by identity; for it is always something that leaps out direct from a concealed identity. It is when the consciousness of the subject meets with the consciousness in the object, penetrates it and sees, feels or vibrates with the truth of what it contacts, that the intuition leaps out like a spark or lightning-flash from the shock of the meeting; or when the consciousness, even without any such meeting, looks into itself and feels directly and intimately the truth or the truths that are there or so contacts the hidden forces behind appearances, then also there is the outbreak of an intuitive light; or, again, when the consciousness meets the Supreme Reality or the spiritual reality of things and beings and has a contactual union with it, then the spark, the flash or the blaze of intimate truth-perception is lit in its depths. This close perception is more than sight, more than conception: it is the result of a penetrating and revealing touch which carries in it sight and conception as part of itself or as its natural consequence. A concealed or slumbering identity, not yet recovering itself, still remembers or conveys by the intuition its own contents and the intimacy of its self-feeling and self-vision of things, its light of truth, its overwhelming and automatic certitude.” *The Life Divine

   "Intuition is always an edge or ray or outleap of a superior light; it is in us a projecting blade, edge or point of a far-off supermind light entering into and modified by some intermediate truth-mind substance above us and, so modified, again entering into and very much blinded by our ordinary or ignorant mind-substance; but on that higher level to which it is native its light is unmixed and therefore entirely and purely veridical, and its rays are not separated but connected or massed together in a play of waves of what might almost be called in the Sanskrit poetic figure a sea or mass of ``stable lightnings"". When this original or native Intuition begins to descend into us in answer to an ascension of our consciousness to its level or as a result of our finding of a clear way of communication with it, it may continue to come as a play of lightning-flashes, isolated or in constant action; but at this stage the judgment of reason becomes quite inapplicable, it can only act as an observer or registrar understanding or recording the more luminous intimations, judgments and discriminations of the higher power. To complete or verify an isolated intuition or discriminate its nature, its application, its limitations, the receiving consciousness must rely on another completing intuition or be able to call down a massed intuition capable of putting all in place. For once the process of the change has begun, a complete transmutation of the stuff and activities of the mind into the substance, form and power of Intuition is imperative; until then, so long as the process of consciousness depends upon the lower intelligence serving or helping out or using the intuition, the result can only be a survival of the mixed Knowledge-Ignorance uplifted or relieved by a higher light and force acting in its parts of Knowledge.” *The Life Divine

  "I use the word ‘intuition" for want of a better. In truth, it is a makeshift and inadequate to the connotation demanded of it. The same has to be said of the word ‘consciousness" and many others which our poverty compels us to extend illegitimately in their significance.” *The Life Divine - Sri Aurobindo"s footnote.

"For intuition is an edge of light thrust out by the secret Supermind. . . .” The Life Divine

". . . intuition is born of a direct awareness while intellect is an indirect action of a knowledge which constructs itself with difficulty out of the unknown from signs and indications and gathered data.” The Life Divine

"Intuition is above illumined Mind which is simply higher Mind raised to a great luminosity and more open to modified forms of intuition and inspiration.” Letters on Yoga

"Intuition sees the truth of things by a direct inner contact, not like the ordinary mental intelligence by seeking and reaching out for indirect contacts through the senses etc. But the limitation of the Intuition as compared with the supermind is that it sees things by flashes, point by point, not as a whole. Also in coming into the mind it gets mixed with the mental movement and forms a kind of intuitive mind activity which is not the pure truth, but something in between the higher Truth and the mental seeking. It can lead the consciousness through a sort of transitional stage and that is practically its function.” Letters on Yoga


intuition ::: “Intuition is a power of consciousness nearer and more intimate to the original knowledge by identity; for it is always something that leaps out direct from a concealed identity. It is when the consciousness of the subject meets with the consciousness in the object, penetrates it and sees, feels or vibrates with the truth of what it contacts, that the intuition leaps out like a spark or lightning-flash from the shock of the meeting; or when the consciousness, even without any such meeting, looks into itself and feels directly and intimately the truth or the truths that are there or so contacts the hidden forces behind appearances, then also there is the outbreak of an intuitive light; or, again, when the consciousness meets the Supreme Reality or the spiritual reality of things and beings and has a contactual union with it, then the spark, the flash or the

Invisible fellowship: “The interconnections established among men through common motives and ultimate goals as in contrast with their ties through the structures of a surface society; the subjective side of occult functioning; shared immortality.” (Marc Edmund Jones.) See: Great White Brotherhood.

involution ::: n. --> The act of involving or infolding.
The state of being entangled or involved; complication; entanglement.
That in which anything is involved, folded, or wrapped; envelope.
The insertion of one or more clauses between the subject and the verb, in a way that involves or complicates the construction.


Jhumur: “The field of expression, of manifestation, is time and space, the forefront of our existence, and life moves through the field of time and space. Perhaps Circumstance is when we are unconscious and don’t know where we are moving. We call it circumstance, unconscious life. If we were conscious we wouldn’t call it Circumstance. Time, Place and Circumstance define the proper outline of the subject. We are surrounded by certain conditioning factors which dictate their will. We are slaves of Circumstance and have no freedom until we become masters.”

J. L. Coolidge, A History of Geometrical Methods, New York, 1940. Mathesis universalis: Universal mathematics. One major part of Leibniz's program for logic was the development of a universal mathematics or universal calculus for manipulating, i.e. performing deductions in, the universal language (characteristica universalis). This universal language, he thought, could be constructed on the basis of a relatively few simple terms and, when constructed, would be of immense value to scientists and philosophers in reasoning as well as in communication. Leibniz's studies on the subject of a universal mathematics are the starting point in modern philosophy of the development of symbolic, mathematical logic. -- F.L.W.

jnana&

Judgment of Taste: The assertion that an object is beautiful, or aesthetically pleasing. Such propositions are traditionally classified as judgments of value, as distinguished from judgments of fact, and are regarded as making assertions about the subjective reaction and interest that the object has aroused, and not about any intrinsic property of the object. Hence, generally interpreted as having no claim to universality. Kant, and others, have sought to establish their universality on the ground that they assert a necessary subjective reaction. -- I.J.

keyword 1. One of a fixed set of symbols built into the syntax of a language. Typical keywords would be if, then, else, print, goto, while, switch. There are usually restrictions about reusing keywords as names for user-defined objects such as variables or procedures. Languages vary as to what is provided as a keyword and what is a library routine, for example some languages provide keywords for input/output operations whereas in others these are library routines. 2. A small set of words designed to convey the subject of a technical article. Some publications specify a fixed set of keywords from which those for a particular article should be chosen.

keyword ::: 1. One of a fixed set of symbols built into the syntax of a language. Typical keywords would be if, then, else, print, goto, while, switch. There are usually what is a library routine, for example some languages provide keywords for input/output operations whereas in others these are library routines.2. A small set of words designed to convey the subject of a technical article. Some publications specify a fixed set of keywords from which those for a particular article should be chosen.

Knower, The: The subject of knowledge, conceived either as a mental act, an empirical self or a pure ego. See Subject. The knower in contrast to the object known. See Epistemological object. -- L.W.

Knowledge by Identity ::: When the subject draws a little back from itself as object, then certain tertiary powers of spiritual knowledge, of knowledge by identity, take their first origin, which are the sources of our own normal modes of knowledge. There is a spiritual intimate vision, a spiritual pervasive entry and penetration, a spiritual feeling in which one sees all as oneself, feels all as oneself, contacts all as oneself. There is a power of spiritual perception of the object and all that it contains or is, perceived in an enveloping and pervading identity, the identity itself constituting the perception.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 21-22, Page: 566


Korn's philosophy represents an attack against naive and dogmatic positivism, but admits and even assimilates an element of Positivism which Korn calls Native Argentinian Positivism. Alejandro Korn may be called The Philosopher of Freedom. In fact, freedom is the keynote of his thought. He speaks of Human liberty as the indissoluble union of economic and ethical liberties. The free soul's knowledge of the world of science operates mainly on the basis of intuition. In fact, intuition is the basis of all knowledge. "Necessity of the objective world order", "Freedom of the spirit in the subjective realm", "Identity", 'Purpose", "Unity of Consciousness", and other similar concepts, are "expressions of immediate evidence and not conclusions of logical dialectics". The experience of freedom, according to Korn, leads to the problem of evaluation, which he defines as "the human response to a fact", whether the fact be an object or an event. Valuation is an experience which grows out of the struggle for liberty. Values, therefore, are relative to the fields of experience in which valuation takes place. The denial of an absolute value or values, does not signify the exclusion of personal faith. On the contrary, personal, faith is the common ground and point of departure of knowledge and action. See Latin-American Philosophy. -- J.A.F.

Kyoto school. An influential school of modern and contemporary Japanese philosophy that is closely associated with philosophers from Kyoto University; it combines East Asian and especially MAHĀYĀNA Buddhist thought, such as ZEN and JoDO SHINSHu, with modern Western and especially German philosophy and Christian thought. NISHIDA KITARo (1870-1945), Tanabe Hajime (1885-1962), and NISHITANI KEIJI (1900-1991) are usually considered to be the school's three leading figures. The name "Kyoto school" was coined in 1932 by Tosaka Jun (1900-1945), a student of Nishida and Tanabe, who used it pejoratively to denounce Nishida and Tanabe's "Japanese bourgeois philosophy." Starting in the late 1970s, Western scholars began to research the philosophical insights of the Kyoto school, and especially the cross-cultural influences with Western philosophy. During the 1990s, the political dimensions of the school have also begun to receive scholarly attention. ¶ Although the school's philosophical perspectives have developed through mutual criticism between its leading figures, the foundational philosophical stance of the Kyoto school is considered to be based on a shared notion of "absolute nothingness." "Absolute nothingness" was coined by Nishida Kitaro and derives from a putatively Zen and PURE LAND emphasis on the doctrine of emptiness (suNYATĀ), which Kyoto school philosophers advocated was indicative of a distinctive Eastern approach to philosophical inquiry. This Eastern emphasis on nothingness stood in contrast to the fundamental focus in Western philosophy on the ontological notion of "being." Nishida Kitaro posits absolute nothingness topologically as the "site" or "locale" (basho) of nonduality, which overcomes the polarities of subject and object, or noetic and noematic. Another major concept in Nishida's philosophy is "self-awareness" (jikaku), a state of mind that transcends the subject-object bifurcation, which was initially adopted from William James' (1842-1910) notion of "pure experience" (J. junsui keiken); this intuition reveals a limitless, absolute reality that has been described in the West as God or in the East as emptiness. Tanabe Hajime subsequently criticized Nishida's "site of absolute nothingness" for two reasons: first, it was a suprarational religious intuition that transgresses against philosophical reasoning; and second, despite its claims to the contrary, it ultimately fell into a metaphysics of being. Despite his criticism of what he considered to be Nishida's pseudoreligious speculations, however, Tanabe's Shin Buddhist inclinations later led him to focus not on Nishida's Zen Buddhist-oriented "intuition," but instead on the religious aspect of "faith" as the operative force behind other-power (TARIKI). Inspired by both Nishida and such Western thinkers as Meister Eckhart (c. 1260-1327), Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), and Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) (with whom he studied), Nishitani Keiji developed the existential and phenomenological aspects of Nishida's philosophy of absolute nothingness. Concerned with how to reach the place of absolute nothingness, given the dilemma of, on the one hand, the incessant reification and objectification by a subjective ego and, on the other hand, the nullification of reality, he argued for the necessity of overcoming "nihilism." The Kyoto school thinkers also played a central role in the development of a Japanese political ideology around the time of the Pacific War, which elevated the Japanese race mentally and spiritually above other races and justified Japanese colonial expansion. Their writings helped lay the foundation for what came to be called Nihonjinron, a nationalist discourse that advocated the uniqueness and superiority of the Japanese race; at the same time, however, Nishida also resisted tendencies toward fascism and totalitarianism in Japanese politics. Since the 1990s, Kyoto school writings have come under critical scrutiny in light of their ties to Japanese exceptionalism and pre-war Japanese nationalism. These political dimensions of Kyoto school thought are now considered as important for scholarly examination as are its contributions to cross-cultural, comparative philosophy.

lampoon ::: n. --> A personal satire in writing; usually, malicious and abusive censure written only to reproach and distress. ::: v. t. --> To subject to abusive ridicule expressed in writing; to make the subject of a lampoon.

liar paradox "philosophy" A sentence which asserts its own falsity, e.g. "This sentence is false" or "I am lying". These paradoxical assertions are meaningless in the sense that there is nothing in the world which could serve to either support or refute them. Philosophers, of course, have a great deal more to say on the subject. ["The Liar: an Essay on Truth and Circularity", Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy, Oxford University Press (1987). ISBN 0-19-505944-1 (PBK), Library of Congress BC199.P2B37]. (1995-02-22)

liar paradox ::: (philosophy) A sentence which asserts its own falsity, e.g. This sentence is false or I am lying. These paradoxical assertions are meaningless support or refute them. Philosophers, of course, have a great deal more to say on the subject.[The Liar: an Essay on Truth and Circularity, Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy, Oxford University Press (1987). ISBN 0-19-505944-1 (PBK), Library of Congress BC199.P2B37]. (1995-02-22)

Listserv "messaging" An automatic {mailing list} server, initially written to run under {IBM}'s {VM} {operating system} by Eric Thomas. Listserv is a {user name} on some computers on {BITNET}/{EARN} which processes {electronic mail} requests for addition to or deletion from mailing lists. Examples are listserv@ucsd.edu, listserver@nysernet.org. Some listservs provide other facilities such as retrieving files from {archives} and {database} search. Full details of available services can usually be obtained by sending a message with the word HELP in the subject and body to the listserv address. Eric Thomas, has recently formed an international corporation, L-Soft, and has ported Listserv to a number of other {platforms} including {Unix}. Listserv has simultaneously been enhanced to use both the {Internet} and {BITNET}. Two other major {mailing list} processors, both of which run under {Unix}, are {Majordomo}, a {freeware} system, and {Listproc}, currently owned and developed by {BITNET}. (1995-02-22)

Listserv ::: (messaging) An automatic mailing list server, initially written to run under IBM's VM operating system by Eric Thomas.Listserv is a user name on some computers on BITNET/EARN which processes electronic mail requests for addition to or deletion from mailing lists. Examples are , Some listservs provide other facilities such as retrieving files from archives and database search. Full details of available services can usually be obtained by sending a message with the word HELP in the subject and body to the listserv address.Eric Thomas, has recently formed an international corporation, L-Soft, and has ported Listserv to a number of other platforms including Unix. Listserv has simultaneously been enhanced to use both the Internet and BITNET.Two other major mailing list processors, both of which run under Unix, are Majordomo, a freeware system, and Listproc, currently owned and developed by BITNET. (1995-02-22)

litigate ::: v. t. --> To make the subject of a lawsuit; to contest in law; to prosecute or defend by pleadings, exhibition of evidence, and judicial debate in a court; as, to litigate a cause. ::: v. i. --> To carry on a suit by judicial process.

lobha. (T. chags pa; C. tan; J. ton; K. t'am 貪). In Sanskrit and Pāli, "craving," or "greed," a synonym of RĀGA ("sensuality" or "desire") and the opposite of "absence of craving" or "absence of greed" (ALOBHA). Lobha is one of the most ubiquitous of the defilements (KLEsA) and is listed among six fundamental afflictions (KLEsAMAHĀBHuMIKA), ten fetters (SAMYOJANA), ten proclivities (ANUsAYA), five hindrances (ĀVARAnA), three poisons (TRIVIsA), and three unwholesome faculties (AKUsALAMuLA). Lobha is also one of the forty-six mental factors (see CAITTA) according to the VAIBHĀsIKA school of SARVĀSTIVĀDA abhidharma, one of the fifty-one according to the YOGACĀRA school, and one of the fifty-two in the Pāli abhidhamma. When sensory contact with objects is made "without proper comprehension" or "without introspection" (ASAMPRAJANYA), craving (lobha), aversion (DVEsA), and delusion (MOHA) arise. In the case of craving-which is a psychological reaction associated with the pursuing, possessing, or yearning for a pleasing stimulus and discontent with unpleasant stimuli-this greed could target a host of possible objects. Scriptural accounts list these objects of craving as sensual pleasures, material belongings, loved ones, fame, the five aggregates (SKANDHA), speculative views (DṚstI), the meditative absorptions (DHYĀNA) of the "subtle-materiality" and "immaterial" realms (see TRILOKADHĀTU), the future "becoming" (BHAVA) of the "self" (S. bhavarāga), and the future "annihilation" of the "self" (S. abhavarāga), among other things. According to the ĀGAMAs and the ABHIDHARMAKOsABHĀsYA, craving is the self-imposed "yoking together" of the subject and its object, whereby the mind is "mired," "bonded," and "burdened" by desire. As one of the three unwholesome faculties (AKUsALAMuLA), craving is said to be the common ground or source of a variety of unwholesome mental states, such as possessiveness (MĀTSARYA) and pride (MADA).

Lotus 1-2-3 ::: (tool, product) A spreadsheet for MS-DOS from Lotus Development Corporation. It can be programmed using macros and comes with a separate commands, making it fast to operate. Lotus 1-2-3 supported EGA and later VGA graphics. Early versions used the filename extension WK1.Version: 4.Lotus 1-2-3 has been the subject of several user interface copyright court cases in the US. .1-2-3's successor, Symphony, had simultaneous update of spreadsheet, graph and word processor windows. (1995-11-28)

Lotus 1-2-3 "tool, product" A {spreadsheet} for {MS-DOS} from {Lotus Development Corporation}. It can be programmed using "{macros}" and comes with a separate program to produce graphs and charts but this cannot be run at the same time as the spreadsheet. It has keyboard-driven {pop-up menus} as well as one-key commands, making it fast to operate. Lotus 1-2-3 supported {EGA} and later {VGA} graphics. Early versions used the {filename extension} "WK1". Version: 4. Lotus 1-2-3 has been the subject of several {user interface copyright} court cases in the US. {(http://nyweb.com/lotus/123.html)}. 1-2-3's successor, {Symphony}, had simultaneous update of spreadsheet, graph and {word processor} windows. (1995-11-28)

macdink /mak'dink/ To make many incremental and unnecessary cosmetic changes to a program or file. Often the subject of the macdinking would be better off without them. The {Macintosh} is said to encourage such behaviour. See also {fritterware}, {window shopping}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-22)

macdink ::: /mak'dink/ To make many incremental and unnecessary cosmetic changes to a program or file. Often the subject of the macdinking would be better off without them. The Macintosh is said to encourage such behaviour.See also fritterware, window shopping.[Jargon File] (1994-11-22)

Madhyamikas (Sanskrit) Mādhyamika-s Belonging to the middle way; a sect mentioned in the Vishnu-Purana, probably at first a sect of Hindu atheists. A school of the same name was founded later in Tibet and China, and as it adopted some of the esoteric principles taught by Nagarjuna, one of the great founders of the esoteric Mahayana system, it had certain elements of esoteric truth. But because of its tendency by means of thesis and antithesis to reduce everything into contrary categories, and then to deny both, it may be called a school of Nihilists for whom everything is an illusion and an error in the world of thought, in the subjective as well as in the objective universe. This school is a good example of the danger of wandering too far in mere intellectual disquisition from the fundamental bases of the esoteric philosophy, for such merely brain-mind activity will infallibly lead to a philosophy of barren negation.

Mahasi, Sayadaw. (1904-1982). In Burmese, "Senior Monk from Mahasi," also known as Sobhana Mahāthera; honorific title of U Thobana (P. Sobhana), a prominent Burmese (Myanmar) scholar-monk and influential promoter of insight meditation (VIPASSANĀ). He was born in Seikkhun village near Shwebo in Upper Burma to a prosperous peasant family. At the age of twelve, he was ordained as a novice (P. sāmanera; S. sRĀMAnERA) at Pyinmana monastery in Saikkhun and in 1923 he took higher ordination (UPASAMPADĀ) as a monk (P. BHIKKHU; S. BHIKsU). Trained in Pāli and Buddhist scriptures at both Saikkhun and a number of monastic colleges in Mandalay, U Thobana alternated his own studies with teaching duties in Moulmien, Lower Burma, where he also encountered and trained under the meditation master Mingun Jetavan Sayadaw in the neighboring town of Thaton. U Thobana received his Dhammācāriya degree in 1941, just prior to the outbreak of World War II and the Japanese occupation of Burma. During the war, he returned to his native village in Upper Burma and settled in a monastery named Mahasi, whence his toponym. There he devoted himself to the practice and teaching of vipassanā meditation and wrote the Manual of Vipassanā Meditation, the first of his many treatises on the subject. In 1949, the Prime Minister of Burma, U Nu, invited Mahasi Sayadaw to head the newly founded Thathana Yeiktha (meditation hermitage) in Rangoon (Yangon). Since that time, affiliate branches of the Thathana Yeiktha headed by teachers trained in the Mahasi method of vipassanā have been established throughout the country and internationally, particularly in Thailand and Sri Lanka. Mahasi Sayadaw was an erudite scholar and the author of sixty-seven works on Buddhism in Burmese and Pāli. The Burmese government awarded him the title Aggamahāpandita for his scholarship in 1952. In 1954, he was appointed to the dual position of pucchaka (questioner) and osana (editor) in the sixth Buddhist Council (See COUNCIL, SIXTH) convened in Rangoon in 1954-56. Among other duties during the council, he oversaw the preparation of a new Burmese edition of the Pāli tipitaka (S. TRIPItAKA), its commentaries, and sub-commentaries for publication. Mahasi Sayadaw headed numerous Buddhist missions to countries in Asia, Europe, and America, and included among his disciples are many contemporary meditation teachers in Myanmar and internationally.

Mahāvastu. In Sanskrit, the "Great Chapter." Also known as the Mahāvastu AVADĀNA, this lengthy work is regarded as the earliest Sanskrit biography of the Buddha. The work describes itself as a book "of the VINAYAPItAKA according to the LOKOTTARAVĀDA, which is affiliated with the MAHĀSĀMGHIKA." The work thus provides important insights into how the Buddha was understood by the Lokottaravāda, or "Proponents of the Supramundane," a branch of the MahāsaMghika, or "Great Community," which some scholars regard as a possible antecedent of the Mahāyāna. The placement of the work in the vinayapitaka suggests that the genre of biographies of the Buddha began as introductions to the monastic code, before becoming independent works. Indeed, it corresponds roughly to the MAHĀVAGGA portion of the KHANDHAKA in the Pāli vinayapitaka. The Mahāvastu is divided into three parts. The first part deals with the previous lives of the being who would become the buddha sĀKYAMUNI, recounting the virtuous deeds he performed and the BODHISATTVA vow he made to the buddha DĪPAMKARA and other buddhas of the past. The second part begins in TUsITA, when the bodhisattva decides where to take his final birth. It goes on to recount his birth, childhood and youth; departure from the palace; and search for enlightenment. It concludes with his defeat of MĀRA. The third section describes the first conversions and the foundation of the SAMGHA. Like other early "biographies" of the Buddha, the narrative ends long before the Buddha's passage into PARINIRVĀnA. Also like these other works, the Mahāvastu does not provide a simple chronology, but is interrupted with numerous teachings, avadānas, and JĀTAKAs, some of which do not have analogues in the Pāli. There are also interpolations: for example, there are two versions of the BODHISATTVA's departure, the first rather simple and the second more elaborate, containing the famous story of the chariot rides during which the prince encounters aging, sickness, and death for the first time (cf. CATURNIMITTA). The so-called proto-Mahāyāna elements of the Mahāvastu have been the subject of much debate. For example, the text includes a lengthy description of the ten bodhisattva BHuMIs, often regarded as a standard Mahāyāna tenet, but their description differs in significant ways from that found in the Mahāyāna sutras. Although clearly a work with many interpolations, linguistic elements suggest that portions of the text may date to as early as the second century BCE.

Mahāyāna. (T. theg pa chen po; C. dasheng; J. daijo; K. taesŭng 大乘). In Sanskrit, "great vehicle"; a term, originally of self-appellation, which is used historically to refer to a movement that began some four centuries after the Buddha's death, marked by the composition of texts that purported to be his words (BUDDHAVACANA). Although ranging widely in content, these texts generally set forth the bodhisattva path to buddhahood as the ideal to which all should aspire and described BODHISATTVAs and buddhas as objects of devotion. The key doctrines of the Mahāyāna include the perfection of wisdom (PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ), the skillful methods (UPĀYAKAUsALYA) of a buddha, the three bodies (TRIKĀYA) of a buddha, the inherency of buddha-nature (BUDDHADHĀTU; TATHĀGATAGARBHA), and PURE LANDs or buddha-fields (BUDDHAKsETRA). The term Mahāyāna is also appended to two of the leading schools of Indian Buddhism, the YOGĀCĀRA and the MADHYAMAKA, because they accepted the Mahāyāna sutras as the word of the Buddha. However, the tenets of these schools were not restricted to expositions of the philosophy and practice of the bodhisattva but sought to set forth the nature of wisdom and the constituents of the path for the ARHAT as well. The term Mahāyāna often appears in contrast to HĪNAYĀNA, the "lesser vehicle," a pejorative term used to refer to those who do not accept the Mahāyāna sutras as the word of the Buddha. Mahāyāna became the dominant form of Buddhism in China, Korea, Japan, Tibet, and Mongolia, and therefore is sometimes referred to as "Northern Buddhism," especially in nineteenth-century sources. Because of the predominance of the Mahāyāna in East Asia and Tibet, it is sometimes assumed that the Mahāyāna displaced earlier forms of Buddhism (sometimes referred to by scholars as "Nikāya Buddhism" or "MAINSTREAM BUDDHIST SCHOOLS") in India, but the testimony of Chinese pilgrims, such as XUANZANG and YIJING, suggests that the Mahāyāna remained a minority movement in India. These pilgrims report that Mahāyāna and "hīnayāna" monks lived together in the same monasteries and followed the same VINAYA. The supremacy of the Mahāyāna is also sometimes assumed because of the large corpus of Mahāyāna literature in India. However, scholars have begun to speculate that the size of this corpus may not be a sign of the Mahāyāna's dominance but rather of its secondary status, with more and more works composed but few gaining adherents. Scholars find it significant that the first mention of the term "Mahāyāna" in a stone inscription does not appear in India until some five centuries after the first Mahāyāna sutras were presumably composed, perhaps reflecting its minority, or even marginal, status on the Indian subcontinent. The origins of the Mahāyāna remain the subject of scholarly debate. Earlier theories that saw the Mahāyāna as largely a lay movement against entrenched conservative monastics have given way to views of the Mahāyāna as beginning as disconnected cults (of monastic and sometimes lay members) centered around an individual sutra, in some instances proclaimed by charismatic teachers called DHARMABHĀnAKA. The teachings contained in these sutras varied widely, with some extolling a particular buddha or bodhisattva above all others, some saying that the text itself functioned as a STuPA. Each of these sutras sought to represent itself as the authentic word of sĀKYAMUNI Buddha, which was more or less independent from other sutras; hence, the trope in so many Mahāyāna sutras in which the Buddha proclaims the supremacy of that particular text and describes the benefits that will accrue to those who recite, copy, and worship it. The late appearance of these texts had to be accounted for, and various arguments were set forth, most making some appeal to UPĀYA, the Buddha's skillful methods whereby he teaches what is most appropriate for a given person or audience. Thus, in the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), the Buddha famously proclaims that the three vehicles (TRIYĀNA) that he had previously set forth were in fact expedient stratagems to reach different audiences and that there is in fact only one vehicle (EKAYĀNA), revealed in the Saddharmapundarīkasutra, the BUDDHAYĀNA, which had been taught many times in the past by previous buddhas. These early Mahāyāna sutras seem to have been deemed complete unto themselves, each representing its own world. This relatively disconnected assemblage of various cults of the book would eventually become a self-conscious scholastic entity that thought of itself as the Mahāyāna; this exegetical endeavor devoted a good deal of energy to surveying what was by then a large corpus of such books and then attempting to craft the myriad doctrines contained therein into coherent philosophical and religious systems, such as Yogācāra and Madhyamaka. The authority of the Mahāyāna sutras as the word of the Buddha seems to have remained a sensitive issue throughout the history of the Mahāyāna in India, since many of the most important authors, from the second to the twelfth century, often offered a defense of these sutras' authenticity. Another influential strand of early Mahāyāna was that associated with the RĀstRAPĀLAPARIPṚCCHĀ, KĀsYAPAPARIVARTA, and UGRAPARIPṚCCHĀ, which viewed the large urban monasteries as being ill-suited to serious spiritual cultivation and instead advocated forest dwelling (see ARANNAVĀSI) away from the cities, following a rigorous asceticism (S. dhutaguna; P. DHUTAnGA) that was thought to characterize the early SAMGHA. This conscious estrangement from the monks of the city, where the great majority of monks would have resided, again suggests the Mahāyāna's minority status in India. Although one often reads in Western sources of the three vehicles of Buddhism-the hīnayāna, Mahāyāna, and VAJRAYĀNA-the distinction of the Mahāyāna from the vajrayāna is less clear, at least polemically speaking, than the distinction between the Mahāyāna and the hīnayāna, with followers of the vajrayāna considering themselves as following the path to buddhahood set forth in the Mahāyāna sutras, although via a shorter route. Thus, in some expositions, the Mahāyāna is said to subsume two vehicles, the PĀRAMITĀYĀNA, that is, the path to buddhahood by following the six perfections (PĀRAMITĀ) as set forth in the Mahāyāna sutras, and the MANTRAYĀNA or vajrayāna, that is, the path to buddhahood set forth in the tantras.

mala. (T. dri ma; C. gou; J. ku; K. ku 垢). In Sanskrit, "taint," "stain," "maculation"; often used as a synonym for afflictions (KLEsA). Much of the discourse on the Buddhist path (MĀRGA) is expressed in terms of purity and pollution, with the path to liberation sometimes described as the gradual purification of the mind, in which various stains or taints are removed. What remains at the end of the process of purification is the subject of considerable discussion among the various Buddhist schools. For example, DHARMAKĪRTI declared in his PRAMĀnAVĀRTTIKA, "The nature of the mind is clear light; its stains are adventitious." See also AMALAVIJNĀNA.

Mangalasutta. In Pāli, "Discourse on the Auspicious"; one of the best-loved and most frequently recited texts in the Southeast Asian Buddhist world. The Mangalasutta appears in an early scriptural anthology, the SUTTANIPĀTA; a later collection, the KHUDDAKAPĀtHA; and in a postcanonical anthology of "protection texts," the PARITTA. The text itself is a mere twelve verses in length and is accompanied by a brief preface inquiring about what is true auspiciousness. The Buddha's response provides a straightforward recital of auspicious things, beginning with various social virtues and ending with the achievement of nibbāna (S. NIRVĀnA). The Mangalasutta's great renown derives from its inclusion in the Paritta, a late anthology of texts that are chanted as part of the protective rituals performed by Buddhist monks to ward off misfortunes; indeed, it is this apotropaic quality of the scripture that accounts for its enduring popularity. Paritta suttas refer to specific discourses delivered by the Buddha that are believed to offer protection to those who either recite the sutta or listen to its recitation. Other such auspicious apotropaic suttas are the RATANASUTTA ("Discourse on the Precious") and the METTĀSUTTA ("Discourse on Loving-Kindness"). These paritta texts are commonly believed in Southeast Asia to bring happiness and good fortune when chanted by the SAMGHA. The Mangalasutta has been the subject of many Pāli commentaries, one of the largest of which, the Mangalatthadīpanī, composed in northern Thailand in the sixteenth century, is over five hundred pages in length and continues to serve as the core of the monastic curriculum in contemporary Thailand. The Mangalasutta's twelve verses are: "Many divinities and humans, desiring well-being, have thought about auspiciousness; tell us what is the highest auspiciousness./ Not to associate with fools, to associate with the wise, to worship those worthy of worship-that is the highest auspiciousness./ To live in a suitable place and to have done good deeds before, having a proper goal for oneself-that is the highest auspiciousness./ Learning, craftsmanship, and being well-trained in discipline, being well-spoken-that is the highest auspiciousness./ Care for mother and father, supporting wife and children, and types of work that bring no conflict-that is the highest auspiciousness./ Generosity, morality, helping relatives and performing actions that are blameless-that is the highest auspiciousness./ Ceasing and refraining from evil, abstaining from intoxicants, diligence in morality-that is the highest auspiciousness./ Respect, humility, contentment, gratitude, listening to the dhamma at the proper time-that is the highest auspiciousness./ Patience, obedience, seeing ascetics and timely discussions of the dhamma-that is the highest auspiciousness./ Ascetic practice, the religious life, seeing the four noble truths, and the realization of nibbāna-that is the highest auspiciousness./ If someone's mind is sorrowless, stainless, secure, and does not shake when touched by the things of the world-that is the highest auspiciousness./ Having acted in this wise, unconquered everywhere they go to well-being everywhere-for them, this is the highest auspiciousness."

MATERIALISM The view that matter is the fundamental reality. A more restricted variety of materialism is physicalism.

Materialism is the only one of the different metaphysical views that it has been possible to confirm scientifically. The atomic theory can no longer be included in
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Meaning the same as essentially, so that the predicate which is said to belong the subject formally, enters into the essence and definition of the subject. Thus man is formally animal. Formally, so understood has various correlatives, according to the various aspects under which the essence of a thing can be considered:

Media ::: Specific environments-air, water, soil-which are the subject of regulatory concern and activities.



Megalithic monuments, more or less similar to Stonehenge, are found widely scattered over the globe, even in the wild Triobrand Islands near New Guinea. To know why such buildings were erected we should need far more knowledge than we have of the actual builders, their ideas and aims, and innumerable other conditions. The subject is connected with what is said about a lost science which could avail itself of the normal latent magical properties of stones.

Mesmerism ::: An ill-understood branch of human knowledge, developed within fairly recent times, connected with theexistence of the psychomagnetic fluid in man which can be employed by the will for purposes eithergood or evil. It has been called animal magnetism, but more often in former times than at present. Thefirst European who rediscovered and openly proclaimed the existence of this subtle psychomagnetic fluidin man was Dr. Friedrich Anton Mesmer, born in Germany in 1733, who died in 1815. His honesty andhis theories have been more or less vindicated in modern times by later students of the subject.There are distinct differences as among mesmerism, hypnotism, psychologization, and suggestion, etc.(See also Hypnotism)

metallographist ::: n. --> One who writes on the subject of metals.

metrology ::: n. --> The science of, or a system of, weights and measures; also, a treatise on the subject.

Mi la ras pa. (Milarepa) (1028/40-1111/23). The most famous and beloved of Tibetan YOGINs. Although he is associated most closely with the BKA' BRGYUD sect of Tibetan Buddhism, he is revered throughout the Tibetan cultural domain for his perseverance through hardship, his ultimate attainment of buddhahood in one lifetime, and for his beautiful songs. The most famous account of his life (the MI LA RAS PA'I RNAM THAR, or "The Life of Milarepa") and collection of spiritual songs (MI LA'I MGUR 'BUM, or "The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa") are extremely popular throughout the Tibetan world. The themes associated with his life story-purification of past misdeeds, faith and devotion to the GURU, ardor in meditation and yogic practice, and the possibility of attaining buddhahood despite the sins of his youth-have inspired developments in Buddhist teaching and practice in Tibet. Mi la was his clan name; ras pa is derived from the single cotton robe (ras) worn by Tibetan anchorites, an attire Milarepa retained for most of his life. The name is therefore an appellation, "The Cotton-clad Mi la." Although his dates are the subject of debate, biographies agree that Mi la ras pa was born to a wealthy family in the Gung thang region of southwestern Tibet. He was given the name Thos pa dga', literally "Delightful to Hear." At an early age, after the death of his father, the family estate and inheritance were taken away by Mi la ras pa's paternal aunt and uncle, leaving Mi la ras pa, his mother, and his sister to suffer poverty and disgrace. At the urging of his mother, Mi las ras pa studied sorcery and black magic in order to seek revenge. He was successful in his studies, causing a roof to collapse during a wedding party hosted by his relatives, with many killed. Eventually feeling remorse and recognizing the karmic consequences of his deeds, he sought salvation through the practice of Buddhism. After brief studies with several masters, he met MAR PA CHOS KYI BLO GROS, who would become his root guru. Mar pa was esteemed for having traveled to India, where he received valuable tantric instructions. However, Mar pa initially refused to teach Mi la ras pa, subjecting him to all forms of verbal and physical abuse. He made him undergo various ordeals, including constructing single-handedly several immense stone towers (including the final tower built for Mar pa's son called SRAS MKHAR DGU THOG, or the "nine-storied son's tower"). When Mi la ras pa was at the point of despair and about to abandon all hope of receiving the teachings, Mar pa then revealed that the trials were a means of purifying the negative KARMAN of his black magic that would have prevented him from successfully practicing the instructions. Mar pa bestowed numerous tantric initiations and instructions, especially those of MAHĀMUDRĀ and the practice of GTUM MO, or "inner heat," together with the command to persevere against all hardship while meditating in solitary caves and mountain retreats. He was given the initiation name Bzhad pa rdo rje (Shepa Dorje). Mi la ras pa spent the rest of his life practicing meditation in seclusion and teaching small groups of yogin disciples through poetry and songs of realization. He had little interest in philosophical discourse and no tolerance for intellectual pretension; indeed, several of his songs are rather sarcastically directed against the conceits of monastic scholars and logicians. He was active across southern Tibet, and dozens of locations associated with the saint have become important pilgrimage sites and retreat centers; their number increased in the centuries following his death. Foremost among these are the hermitages at LA PHYI, BRAG DKAR RTA SO, CHU DBAR, BRIN, and KAILĀSA. Bhutanese tradition asserts that he traveled as far as the STAG TSHANG sanctuary in western Bhutan. Foremost among Milarepa's disciples were SGAM PO PA BSOD NAMS RIN CHEN and RAS CHUNG PA RDO RJE GRAGS. According to his biography, Mi la ras pa was poisoned by a jealous monk. Although he had already achieved buddhahood and was unharmed by the poison, he allowed himself to die. His life story ends with his final instructions to his disciples, the account of his miraculous cremation, and of how he left no relics despite the pleas of his followers.

minnesinger ::: n. --> A love-singer; specifically, one of a class of German poets and musicians who flourished from about the middle of the twelfth to the middle of the fourteenth century. They were chiefly of noble birth, and made love and beauty the subjects of their verses.

miracle play: Drama from medieval times the subject of which is religion, such as the lives and actions of saints.

monological ::: A descriptor of any approach where an individual conducts a “monologue” with an object and apprehends their immediate experience of that object, usually without acknowledging or recognizing cultural embeddedness and intersubjectivity. Monological approaches, in themselves, are sometimes referred to as subscribing to the “myth of the given,” “the philosophy of the subject,” “the philosophy of consciousness,” or what Integral Theory would describe as the belief that the contents of the Upper-Left quadrant are given without being intertwined in the remaining three quadrants. Monological approaches are typically associated with phenomenology, empiricism, meditation, all experiential exercises and therapies, etc.

MORALS The terms morals (from Latin) and ethics (from Greek) through ignorance&

Moreover, the hypnotizer endangers himself by such intimate linking with the lower mind and feeling of his subject — whose spiritual nature is always beyond another’s control. From the operator’s entrance into, and operation of, the subject’s physico-astral body, there results a mutual infection with each other’s faulty human nature. Whoever thus changes the forces and trend of another’s life, obligates himself to share karmically in those changes to the end.

Mudra(Sanskrit) ::: A general name for certain intertwinings or positions of the fingers of the two hands, usedalone or together, in devotional yoga or exoteric religious worship, and these mudras or digital positionsare held by many Oriental mystics to have particular esoteric significance. They are found both in theBuddhist statues of northern Asia, especially those belonging to the Yogachara school, and also in Indiawhere they are perhaps particularly affected by the Hindu tantrikas. There is doubtless a good deal of hidefficacy in holding the fingers in proper position during meditation, but to the genuine occult student thesymbolic meaning of such mudras or digital positions is by far more useful and interesting. The subject istoo intricate, and of importance too small, to call for much detail of explanation here, or even to attempt afull exposition of the subject.

Mulamadhyamakakārikā. (T. Dbu ma rtsa ba'i tshig le'u byas pa; C. Zhong lun; J. Churon; K. Chung non 中論). In Sanskrit, "Root Verses on the Middle Way"; the magnum opus of the second-century Indian master NĀGĀRJUNA; also known as the PrajNānāmamulamadhyamakakārikā and the Madhyamakasāstra. (The Chinese analogue of this text is the Zhong lun, which renders the title as MADHYAMAKAsĀSTRA. This Chinese version was edited and translated by KUMĀRAJĪVA. Kumārajīva's edition, however, includes not only Nāgārjuna's verses but also Pingala's commentary to the verses.) The most widely cited and commented upon of Nāgārjuna's works in India, the Mulamadhyamakakārikā, was the subject of detailed commentaries by such figures as BUDDHAPĀLITA, BHĀVAVIVEKA, and CANDRAKĪRTI (with Candrakīrti's critique of Bhāvaviveka's criticism of a passage in Buddhapālita's commentary providing the locus classicus for the later Tibetan division of MADHYAMAKA into *SVĀTANTRIKA and *PRĀSAnGIKA). In East Asia, it was one of the three basic texts of the "Three Treatises" school (C. SAN LUN ZONG), and was central to TIANTAI philosophy. Although lost in the original Sanskrit as an independent work, the entire work is preserved within the Sanskrit text of Candrakīrti's commentary, the PRASANNAPADĀ (serving as one reason for the influence of Candrakīrti's commentary in the European reception of the Mulamadhyamakakārikā). The work is composed of 448 verses in twenty-seven chapters. The topics of the chapters (as provided by Candrakīrti) are the analysis of: (1) conditions (PRATYAYA), (2) motion, (3) the eye and the other sense faculties (INDRIYA), (4) aggregates (SKANDHA), (5) elements (DHĀTU), (6) passion and the passionate, (7) the conditioned (in the sense of production, abiding, disintegration), (8) action and agent, (9) prior existence, (10) fire and fuel, (11) the past and future limits of SAMSĀRA, (12) suffering, (13) the conditioned (SAMSKĀRA), (14) contact (saMsarga), (15) intrinsic nature (SVABHĀVA), (16) bondage and liberation, (17) action and effect, (18) self, (19) time, (20) assemblage (sāmagrī), (21) arising and dissolving, (22) the TATHĀGATA, (23) error, (24) the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, (25) NIRVĀnA, (26), the twelve links of dependent origination (PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA), and (27) views. The tone of the work is set in its famous homage to the Buddha, which opens the work, "I bow down to the perfect Buddha, the best of teachers, who taught that what is dependently arisen is without cessation, without production, without annihilation, without permanence, without coming, without going, without difference, without sameness, pacified of elaboration, at peace." The Mulamadhyamakakārikā offers a relentless examination of many of the most important categories of Buddhist thought, subjecting them to an analysis that reveals the absurd consequences that follow from imagining any of them to be real in the sense of possessing an independent and intrinsic nature (SVABHĀVA). Nāgārjuna demonstrates repeatedly that these various categories only exist relationally and only function heuristically in a worldly and transactional sense; they do not exist ultimately. Thus, in the first chapter, Nāgārjuna examines production via causes and conditions, one of the hallmarks of Buddhist thought, and declares that a thing is not produced from itself, from something other than itself, from something that is both itself and other, or from something that is neither itself nor the other. He examines the four kinds of conditions, declaring each to lack an intrinsic nature, such that they do not exist because they do not produce anything. In the second chapter, Nāgārjuna examines motion, seeking to determine precisely where motion occurs: on the path already traversed, the path being traversed, or on the path not yet traversed. He concludes that motion is not to be found on any of these three. In the twenty-fifth chapter, he subjects nirvāna to a similar analysis, finding it to be neither existent, nonexistent, both existent and nonexistent, nor neither existent nor nonexistent. (These are the famous CATUsKOtI, the "four alternatives," or tetralemma.) Therefore, nirvāna, like saMsāra and all worldly phenomena, is empty of intrinsic nature, leading Nāgārjuna to declare (at XXV.19), in one of his most famous and widely misinterpreted statements, that there is not the slightest difference between saMsāra and nirvāna. The thoroughgoing negative critique or apophasis in which Nāgārjuna engages leads to charges of nihilism, charges that he faces directly in the text, especially in the twenty-fourth chapter on the four noble truths where he introduces the topic of the two truths (SATYADVAYA)-ultimate truth (PARAMĀRTHASATYA) and conventional truth (SAMVṚTISATYA)-declaring the importance of both in understanding correctly the doctrine of the Buddha. Also in this chapter, he discusses the danger of misunderstanding emptiness (suNYATĀ), and the relation between emptiness and dependent origination ("That which is dependent origination we explain as emptiness. This is a dependent designation; just this is the middle path"). To those who would object that emptiness renders causation and change impossible, he counters that if things existed independently and intrinsically, there could be no transformation; "for whom emptiness is possible, everything is possible." There has been considerable scholarly discussion of Nāgārjuna's target audience for this work, with the consensus being that it is intended for Buddhist monks well versed in ABHIDHARMA literature, especially that associated with the SARVĀSTIVĀDA school; many of the categories to which Nāgārjuna subjects his critique are derived from this school. In the Sarvāstivāda abhidharma, these categories and factors (DHARMA) are posited to be endowed with a certain reality, a reality that Nāgārjuna sees as implying permanence, independence, and autonomy. He seeks to reveal the absurd consequences and hence the impossibility of the substantial existence of these categories and factors. Through his critique, he seeks a new understanding of these fundamental tenets of Buddhist philosophy in light of the doctrine of emptiness as set forth in the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ SuTRAs. He does not cite these sutras directly, however, nor does he mention the MAHĀYĀNA, which he extols regularly in other of his works. Instead, he seeks to demonstrate how the central Buddhist doctrine of causation, expressed as dependent origination (pratītyasamutpāda), necessarily entails emptiness (sunyatā). The understanding of emptiness is essential in order to abandon false views (MITHYĀDṚstI). Nāgārjuna therefore sees his purpose not to reject the standard categories of Buddhist thought but to reinterpret them in such a way that they become conduits for, rather than impediments to, liberation from suffering, in keeping with the Buddha's intent.

mumblage /muhm'bl*j/ The topic of one's mumbling (see {mumble}). "All that mumblage" is used like "all that stuff" when it is not quite clear how the subject of discussion works, or like "all that crap" when "mumble" is being used as an implicit replacement for pejoratives. [{Jargon File}]

mumblage ::: /muhm'bl*j/ The topic of one's mumbling (see mumble). All that mumblage is used like all that stuff when it is not quite clear how the subject of discussion works, or like all that crap when mumble is being used as an implicit replacement for pejoratives.[Jargon File]

Murphy's Law "humour" (Or "Sod's Law") The correct, *original* Murphy's Law reads: "If there are two or more ways to do something, and one of those ways can result in a catastrophe, then someone will do it." This is a principle of defensive design, cited here because it is usually given in mutant forms less descriptive of the challenges of design for {lusers}. For example, you don't make a two-pin plug symmetrical and then label it "THIS WAY UP"; if it matters which way it is plugged in, then you make the design asymmetrical (see also the anecdote under {magic smoke}). Edward A. Murphy, Jr. was one of the engineers on the rocket-sled experiments that were done by the US Air Force in 1949 to test human acceleration tolerances (USAF project MX981). One experiment involved a set of 16 accelerometers mounted to different parts of the subject's body. There were two ways each sensor could be glued to its mount, and somebody methodically installed all 16 the wrong way around. Murphy then made the original form of his pronouncement, which the test subject (Major John Paul Stapp) quoted at a news conference a few days later. Within months "Murphy's Law' had spread to various technical cultures connected to aerospace engineering. Before too many years had gone by variants had passed into the popular imagination, changing as they went. Most of these are variants on "Anything that can go wrong, will"; this is sometimes referred to as {Finagle's Law}. The memetic drift apparent in these mutants clearly demonstrates Murphy's Law acting on itself! [{Jargon File}] (1998-02-14)

My Favourite Toy Language "jargon, language" (MFTL) Describes a talk on a {programming language} design that is heavy on {syntax} (with lots of {BNF}), sometimes even talks about {semantics} (e.g. {type systems}), but rarely, if ever, has any content (see {content-free}). More broadly applied to talks - even when the topic is not a programming language --- in which the subject matter is gone into in unnecessary and meticulous detail at the sacrifice of any conceptual content. "Well, it was a typical MFTL talk". 2. A language about which the developers are passionate (often to the point of prosyletic zeal) but no one else cares about. Applied to the language by those outside the originating group. "He cornered me about type resolution in his MFTL." The first great goal in the mind of the designer of an MFTL is usually to write a compiler for it, then bootstrap the design away from contamination by lesser languages by writing a compiler for it in itself. Thus, the standard put-down question at an MFTL talk is "Has it been used for anything besides its own compiler?". On the other hand, a language that *cannot* be used to write its own compiler is beneath contempt. {Doug McIlroy} once proposed a test of the generality and utility of a language and the {operating system} under which it is compiled: "Is the output of a {Fortran} program acceptable as input to the Fortran compiler?" In other words, can you write programs that write programs? Alarming numbers of (language, OS) pairs fail this test, particularly when the language is Fortran. Aficionados are quick to point out that {Unix} (even using Fortran) passes it handily. That the test could ever be failed is only surprising to those who have had the good fortune to have worked only under modern systems which lack OS-supported and -imposed "file types". See {break-even point}, {toolsmith}. (1995-03-07)

Myoshinji. (妙心寺). In Japanese, "Sublime Mind Monastery"; an influential ZEN monastery in Kyoto that is currently the headquarters (HONZAN) of the Myoshinji branch of the RINZAISHu. After the eminent Zen master Daito's (see SoHo MYoCHo) death in 1337, Emperor Hanazono (r. 1308-1318) converted his country villa into a monastery, which he named Myoshinji, and installed Daito's disciple KANZAN EGEN as its founding abbot (J. kaisan; C. KAISHAN). During the Muromachi period, Myoshinji was excluded from the powerful GOZAN ranking system and became the subject of harsh persecution during Ashikaga's rule. In the early half of the fifteenth century, the monk Nippo Soshun (1358-1448) oversaw the restoration of Myoshinji, but the monastery was consumed in a conflagration during the onin war (1467-1469). In 1477, with the support of Emperor Gotsuchimikado (r. 1464-1500) the monastery was restored once more under the supervision of its abbot Sekko Soshin (1408-1486). At the decree of Emperor Gokashiwabara (r. 1500-1526), Myoshinji was included in the gozan system and enjoyed the financial support of a high-ranking official monastery. Largely through its tight fiscal management and active proselytizing efforts, Myoshinji expanded quickly to control over fifty branch temples and became one of the most influential monasteries of the Rinzai Zen tradition. During the Edo period, a renowned Zen master of the Myoshinji lineage named HAKUIN EKAKU played an important role in the revitalization of the koan (C. GONG'AN) training system.

Mystes (Greek) [from muo to close the mouth] Plural mystai. An initiate to the first degrees of the Mysteries; the next higher rank being that of the epoptes (seer); and the highest function being that of the hierophantes (teacher or communicator). With the Pythagoreans the neophyte or mystes guarded silence as to what he had learned, and was authorized and empowered to speak or teach only when his mouth had been opened because of attaining the rank of epoptes. This custom has been borrowed by Roman Catholic Cardinals along with the term Mystes: “A word or two may be said of the singular practice of closing and subsequently opening the mouth of a newly created cardinal. Like almost everything else connected with the subject, this form had once a real significance, but has become a mere meaningless formality. Some reasonable time was originally allowed to elapse before the pontiff in one consistory formally pronounced the mouth to be opened which he had declared to be closed in a previous consistory. Now the form of opening is pronounced within a few minutes of the form of closing” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th ed., “Cardinal”).

Mysticism The doctrine that the nature of reality can be known by direct apprehension, by faculties above the senses, by intuition. “Mysticism demands a faculty above reason, by which the subject shall be placed in immediate and complete union with the object of his desire — a union in which the consciousness of self has disappeared, and in which therefore subject and object are one” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th ed. “Mysticism”). It overlaps in meaning such terms as the Neoplatonic ecstasis, and the theosophy of Iamblichus.

Nāgārjuna. (T. Klu sgrub; C. Longshu; J. Ryuju; K. Yongsu 龍樹). Indian Buddhist philosopher traditionally regarded as the founder of the MADHYAMAKA [alt. Mādhyamika] school of MAHĀYĀNA Buddhist philosophy. Very little can be said concerning his life; scholars generally place him in South India during the second century CE. Traditional accounts state that he lived four hundred years after the Buddha's PARINIRVĀnA. Some traditional biographies also state that he lived for six hundred years, apparently attempting to identify him with a later Nāgārjuna known for his tantric writings. Two of the works attributed to Nāgārjuna, the RATNĀVALĪ and the SUHṚLLEKHA, are verses of advice to a king, suggesting that he may have achieved some fame during his lifetime. His birth is "prophesied" in a number of works, including the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA. Other sources indicate that he also served as abbot of a monastery. He appears to have been the teacher of ĀRYADEVA, and his works served as the subject of numerous commentaries in India, East Asia, and Tibet. Although Nāgārjuna is best known in the West for his writings on emptiness (suNYATĀ), especially as set forth in his most famous work, the "Verses on the Middle Way" (MuLAMADHYAMAKAKĀRIKĀ, also known as the MADHYAMAKAsĀSTRA), Nāgārjuna was the author of a number of works (even when questions of attribution are taken into account) on a range of topics, and it is through a broad assessment of these works that an understanding of his thought is best gained. He wrote as a Buddhist monk and as a proponent of the Mahāyāna; in several of his works he defends the Mahāyāna sutras as being BUDDHAVACANA. He compiled an anthology of passages from sixty-eight sutras entitled the "Compendium of Sutras" (SuTRASAMUCCAYA), the majority of which are Mahāyāna sutras; this work provides a useful index for scholars in determining which sutras were extant during his lifetime. Among the Mahāyāna sutras, Nāgārjuna is particularly associated with the "perfection of wisdom" (PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ) corpus. According to legend, Nāgārjuna retrieved from the Dragon King's palace at the bottom of the sea the "Perfection of Wisdom in One Hundred Thousand Lines" (sATASĀHASRIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA), which the Buddha had entrusted to the undersea king of the NĀGAs for safekeeping. He also composed hymns of praise to the Buddha, such as the CATUḤSTAVA, and expositions of Buddhist ethical practice, such as the Ratnāvalī. (Later exegetes classify his works into a YUKTIKĀYA, or "logical corpus," and a STAVAKĀYA, or "devotional corpus.") Nāgārjuna's works are addressed to a variety of audiences. His philosophical texts are sometimes directed against logicians of non-Buddhist schools, but most often offer a critique of the doctrines and assumptions of Buddhist ABHIDHARMA schools, especially the SARVĀSTIVĀDA. Other works are more general expositions of Buddhist practice, directed sometimes to monastic audiences, sometimes to lay audiences. An overriding theme in his works is the bodhisattva's path to buddhahood, and the merit (PUnYA) and wisdom (PRAJNĀ) that the bodhisattva must accumulate over the course of that path in order to achieve enlightenment. By wisdom here, he means the perfection of wisdom (prajNāpāramitā), declared in the sutras to be the knowledge of emptiness (suNYATĀ). Nāgārjuna is credited with rendering the poetic and sometimes paradoxical declarations concerning emptiness that appear in these and other Mahāyāna sutras into a coherent philosophical system. In his first sermon, the DHARMACAKRAPRAVARTANASuTRA, the Buddha had prescribed a "middle way" between the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. Nāgārjuna, citing an early sutra, spoke of a middle way between the extremes of existence and nonexistence, sometimes also referred to as the middle way between the extremes of permanence (sĀsVATĀNTA) and annihilation (UCCHEDĀNTA). For Nāgārjuna, the ignorance (AVIDYĀ) that is the source of all suffering is the belief in SVABHĀVA, a term that literally means "own being" and has been variously rendered as "intrinsic existence" and "self-nature." This belief is the mistaken view that things exist autonomously, independently, and permanently; to hold this belief is to fall into the extreme of permanence. It is equally mistaken, however, to hold that nothing exists; this is the extreme of annihilation. Emptiness, which for Nāgārjuna is the true nature of reality, is not the absence of existence, but the absence of self-existence, viz., the absence of svabhāva. Nāgārjuna devotes his Mulamadhyamakakārikā to a thoroughgoing analysis of a wide range of topics (in twenty-seven chapters and 448 verses), including the Buddha, the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, and NIRVĀnA, to demonstrate that each lacks the autonomy and independence that are mistakenly ascribed to it. His approach generally is to consider the various ways in which a given entity could exist, and then demonstrate that none of these is tenable because of the absurdities that would be entailed thereby, a form of reasoning often described in Western writings as reductio ad absurdum. In the case of something that is regarded to be the effect of a cause, he shows that the effect cannot be produced from itself (because an effect is the product of a cause), from something other than itself (because there must be a link between cause and effect), from something that is both the same as and different from itself (because the former two options are not possible), or from something that is neither the same as nor different from itself (because no such thing exists). This, in his view, is what is meant in the perfection of wisdom sutras when they state that all phenomena are "unproduced" (ANUTPĀDA). The purpose of such an analysis is to destroy misconceptions (VIKALPA) and encourage the abandonment of all views (DṚstI). Nāgārjuna defined emptiness in terms of the doctrine of PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA, or "dependent origination," understood in its more generic sense as the fact that things are not self-arisen, but are produced in dependence on causes and conditions. This definition allows Nāgārjuna to avoid the claim of nihilism, which he addresses directly in his writings and which his followers would confront over the centuries. Nāgārjuna employs the doctrine of the two truths (SATYADVAYA) of ultimate truth (PARAMĀRTHASATYA) and conventional truth (SAMVṚTISATYA), explaining that everything that exists is ultimately empty of any intrinsic nature but does exist conventionally. The conventional is the necessary means for understanding the ultimate, and the ultimate makes the conventional possible. As Nāgārjuna wrote, "For whom emptiness is possible, everything is possible."

naivasaMjNānāsaMjNāyatana. (P. nevasaNNānāsaNNāyatana; T. 'du shes med 'du shes med min skye mched; C. feixiang feifeixiang chu; J. hisohihisojo; K. pisang pibisang ch'o 非想非非想處). In Sanskrit, "sphere of neither perception nor nonperception," the fourth and highest of the four levels of the immaterial realm (ĀRuPYADHĀTU) and the fourth of the four immaterial absorptions (ĀRuPYĀVACARADHYĀNA). It surpasses the first three levels of the immaterial realm, viz., infinite space (AKĀsĀNANTYĀYATANA), infinite consciousness (VIJNĀNĀNANTYĀYATANA), and nothingness (ĀKINCANYĀYATANA), respectively. It is a realm of rebirth and a meditative state that is entirely immaterial (viz., there is no physical or material [RuPA] component to existence) in which perception of all mundane things vanishes entirely, but perception itself does not. Beings reborn in this realm are thought to live as long as eighty thousand eons (KALPA). However, as a state of being that is still subject to rebirth, even the sphere of neither perception nor nonperception remains part of SAMSĀRA. Like the other levels of both the subtle-materiality realm (RuPADHĀTU) and the immaterial realm, one is reborn in this state by achieving the specific level of meditative absorption associated with that state in the previous lifetime. One of the most famous and influential expositions on the subject of these immaterial states comes from the VISUDDHIMAGGA of BUDDHAGHOSA, written in the fifth century. Although there are numerous accounts of Buddhist meditators achieving immaterial states of SAMĀDHI, they are also used polemically in Buddhist literature to describe the attainments of non-Buddhist YOGINs, who mistakenly identify these exalted, but still impermanent, states of existence as the permanent liberation from rebirth. See also DHYĀNASAMĀPATTI; DHYĀNOPAPATTI.

narration ::: n. --> The act of telling or relating the particulars of an event; rehearsal; recital.

That which is related; the relation in words or writing of the particulars of any transaction or event, or of any series of transactions or events; story; history.
That part of a discourse which recites the time, manner, or consequences of an action, or simply states the facts connected with the subject.


Native: In astrological terminology, the subject of a celestial figure. (Cf. Figure.)

Naturalistic Observation ::: A research method where the subject(s) is(are) observed without interruption under normal or natural circumstances.

Nature: A highly ambiguous term, of which the following meanings are distinguished by A. O. Lovejoy: The objective as opposed to the subjective. An objective standard for values as opposed to custom, law, convention. The general cosmic order, usually conceived as divinely ordained, in contrast to human deviations from this. That which exists apart from and uninfluenced by man, in contrast with art. The instinctive or spontaneous behavior of man as opposed to the intellective. Various normative meanings are read into these, with the result that the "natural" is held to be better than the "artificial", the "unnatural", the "conventional" or customary, the intellectual or deliberate, the subjective. -- G.B.

New Realism: A school of thought which dates from the beginning of the twentieth century. It began as a movement of reaction against the wide influence of idealistic metaphysics. Whereas the idealists reduce everything to mind, this school reduced mind to everything. For the New Realists Nature is basic and mind is part and parcel of it. How nature was conceived (whether materialistic, neutralistic, etc.) was not the important factor. New Realists differed here among themselves. Their theory of knowledge was strictly monistic, the subject and object are one since there is no fundamental dualism. Two schools of New Realists are recognized:

Nicht-Ich: (Ger. non-ego) Anything which is not the subjective self. Fichte accounted for the not-self in terms of the ontologically posited subjective self. The not-self is the external, outer world opposed to the ego. -- H.H.

nirvāna. (P. nibbāna; T. mya ngan las 'das pa; C. niepan; J. nehan; K. yolban 涅槃). In Sanskrit, "extinction"; the earliest and most common term describing the soteriological goal of the Buddhist path (MĀRGA). Its etymology and meaning have been widely discussed by both traditional exegetes and modern scholars. Nirvāna is commonly interpreted as meaning "blowing out" (from the Sanskrit root √vā, "to blow," plus the prefix nir-, "out"), as "when a flame is blown out by the wind," to use the famous metaphor from the AttHAKAVAGGA, and is thus sometimes glossed as the extinction of the flame of desire (RĀGA) or, more broadly, to the extinction of the "three poisons" (TRIVIsA) or primary afflictions (KLEsA) of greed/sensuality (RĀGA or LOBHA), hatred/aversion (DVEsA), and delusion/ignorance (MOHA). In a more technical sense, nirvāna is interpreted as the cessation of the afflictions (klesa), of the actions (KARMAN) produced by these afflictions, and eventually of the mind and body (NĀMARuPA; SKANDHA) produced by karman, such that rebirth (SAMSĀRA) ceases for the person who has completed the path. In the first sermon after his enlightenment, "Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dharma" (P. DHAMMACAKKAPPAVATTANASUTTA; S. DHARMACAKRAPRAVARTANASuTRA), the Buddha outlines the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS (catvāry āryasatyāni), the third of which was the "truth of cessation" (NIRODHASATYA). This state of the cessation of suffering (DUḤKHA) and its causes (SAMUDAYA) is glossed as nirvāna. In one famous description of nirvāna, the Buddha explained, "There is that plane (ĀYATANA) where there is neither earth, water, fire, nor air [viz., the four MAHĀBHuTA], neither the sphere of infinite space [ĀKĀsĀNANTYĀYATANA] ... nor the sphere of neither perception nor nonperception [NAIVASAMJNĀNĀSAMJNĀYATANA], neither this world nor another nor both together, neither the sun nor the moon. Here, O monks, I say that there is no coming or going, no staying, no passing away or arising. It is not something fixed, it moves not on, it is not based on anything. This is indeed the end of suffering." Even though this is a thoroughly negative description of nirvāna, it is important to note that the passage opens with the certitude that "there is that plane...." Whether this state of cessation represents a form of "annihilation" is a question that preoccupied early scholarship on Buddhism. The Buddha described human existence as qualified by various forms of suffering, sought a state that would transcend such suffering, and determined that, in order to put an end to suffering, one must destroy its causes: unwholesome (AKUsALA) actions (karman) and the negative afflictions (klesa) that motivate them. If these causes could be destroyed, they would no longer have any effect, resulting in the cessation of suffering and thus nirvāna. Nirvāna, therefore, was not regarded as a place or state of existence, since by definition that would mean it was part of saMsāra and thus subject to impermanence and suffering. Nirvāna is instead an absence, and it is often described in rigidly apophatic terms, as in the passage above, as if by describing what nirvāna was not, at least some sense of what it is could be conveyed. When the tradition attempts more positive descriptions, nirvāna is sometimes described as deathless (AMṚTA), imperishable (acyuta), uncreated (abhuta), peace (upasama), bliss (SUKHA), etc. The concept of nirvāna may be somewhat more accessible if it is approached soteriologically, as the culmination of the Buddhist path of practice (mārga). At the upper reaches of the path, the adept must pass through three "gates to liberation" (VIMOKsAMUKHA), which mark the transition from the compounded (SAMSKṚTA) realm of saMsāra to the uncompounded (ASAMSKṚTA) realm of nirvāna. In approaching nirvāna, the adept first passes through the gate of emptiness (suNYATĀ), which reveals that nirvāna is empty of anything associated with a sense of self. Next comes the gate of signlessness (ĀNIMITTA), which reveals that nirvāna has nothing by which it may be perceived. Finally comes the gate of wishlessness (APRAnIHITA), meaning that nirvāna can be achieved only when one no longer has any desire for, or attachment to, nirvāna. Exactly what persisted in the state of nirvāna was the subject of considerable discussion over the history of the tradition. The Buddha is said to have realized nirvāna when he achieved enlightenment at the age of thirty-five, thus eradicating the causes of future rebirth. After this experience, however, he continued to live for another forty-five years, and, upon his death, he entered nirvāna, never to be reborn again. Because of this gap between his initial experience of nirvāna and his final PARINIRVĀnA, the scholastic tradition therefore distinguished between two types of nirvāna. The first type is the "nirvāna with remainder" (SOPADHIsEsANIRVĀnA), sometimes interpreted as the "nirvāna associated with the klesas." This is the state of nirvāna achieved prior to death, where the "remainder" refers to the mind and body of this final existence. This is the nirvāna achieved by the Buddha under the BODHI TREE. However, the inertia of the karman that had led to this present life was still operating and would continue to do so until his death. Thus, his mind and body during the remainder of his final lifetime were what was left over after he realized nirvāna. The second type is referred to as the "nirvāna without remainder" (ANUPADHIsEsANIRVĀnA or NIRUPADHIsEsANIRVĀnA), sometimes interpreted as the "nirvāna of the skandhas." This is the nirvāna achieved at death, in which the causes of all future existence have been extinguished, bringing the chain of causation of both the physical form and consciousness to an end and leaving nothing remaining to be reborn. This is also called "final nirvāna" (parinirvāna), and it is what the Buddha achieved at the time of his demise at KUsINAGARĪ. These states were accessible to all adepts who followed the Buddhist path to its conclusion. In the case of the Buddha, some traditions also refer to the third type of nirvāna, the "final nirvāna of the relics" (sarīraparinirvāna), viz., the dissolution of the relics (sARĪRA) of the Buddha at a point in the distant future. According to Buddhist eschatology, there will come a time in the far distant future when the teachings of sĀKYAMUNI Buddha will disappear from the world, and his relics will no longer be honored. At that point, the relics that have been enshrined in reliquaries (STuPA) around the world will be released from their shrines and be magically transported to BODHGAYĀ, where they will reassemble into the resplendent body of the Buddha, who will be seated in the lotus posture under the Bodhi tree, emitting rays of light that illuminate ten thousand world systems. The relics will be worshipped by the divinities (DEVA) one last time and then will burst into flames and disappear into the sky. Until that time, the relics of the Buddha are to be regarded as his living presence, infused with all of his marvelous qualities. With the rise of MAHĀYĀNA, the "nirvāna without remainder" came to be disparaged in some texts as excessively quietistic, and the Buddha's passage into parinirvāna was described as simply a display; the Buddha is instead said to be eternal, inhabiting a place that is neither in saMsāra nor nirvāna and that is referred to as the "unlocated nirvāna" (APRATIstHITANIRVĀnA). The MADHYAMAKA philosopher NĀGĀRJUNA declared that there was not the slightest difference between saMsāra and nirvāna, a statement taken to mean that both are equally empty of any intrinsic nature (NIḤSVABHĀVA). Madhyamaka texts also refer to a nirvāna that is "intrinsically extinguished" (PRAKṚTIPARINIRVṚTA); this quiescence that is inherent in all phenomena is a synonym of emptiness (suNYATĀ).

nominative ::: a. --> Giving a name; naming; designating; -- said of that case or form of a noun which stands as the subject of a finite verb. ::: n. --> The nominative case.

Non-ego In European metaphysics, that which is external to or other than the ego; the object as opposed to the subject. Non-ego means both that which has risen above all lower egoities and become universal in its consciousness — in other words a jivanmukta, a monad which has attained mukti or moksha; and that which is beneath the state of egoity in its evolutionary development, in which this egoity has not yet been emanated or brought forth, such as the minerals, plants, and nearly all of the animal. Non-ego, therefore, in another sense corresponds to the term Absolute, that which is freed or above the circumscribing limitations of even egoity, which nevertheless is the abstract self or individual; or paradoxically enough the monad or ego in its jivanmukta form, where the ego becomes one with the surrounding cosmic spirit, while retaining its own individuality.

Objective idealism: A name for that philosophy which is based on the theory that both the subject and the object of knowledge are equally real and equally manifestations of the absolute or ideal. Earlier employed to describe Schelling's philosophy. Used independently by Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) and A. N. Whitehead (1861-) to describe their varieties of realism. Subjective idealism supposes the world to consist of exemplifications of universals which have their being in the mind. Objective idealism supposes the world to consist of exemplifications of universals which have their being independent of the mind. -- J.K.F.

OBJECTIVIZATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS &

of Annunciation is the subject of innumerable

Of the archaic history of medicine — as of the race — little is to be found. However, echoes of the primitive wisdom have survived, and every country having a literature of its ancient periods has some account of the healing art. The Hindu sacred scriptures — the oldest literature extant — have treatises upon medicine and surgery, showing a profound and intimate knowledge of the subject. This high standard was not maintained when the Vedic writings became misunderstood and mutilated by later commentators. The exclusive Brahmins’ assumption of the right to all knowledge also prevented original thought and research. What writings are available today are of little practical value without the lost key. Even our typically matter-of-fact interpretation of legendary and classical beliefs and customs, and of archaeological findings, overlooks that what is known of ancient medical practice is largely exoteric, symbolic of a deeper teaching than we possess.

of the Jews V, 305.] The subject is illustrated by

Omen [from Latin os mouth, as the voice of a god] As in augury and divination, the laws of correspondences and of the interrelation of all parts of the cosmos imply that it is possible to interpret the invisible and to forecast the future by observing visible signs. The right interpretation of omens demands knowledge and skill, and the subject affords a fertile field for self-deception and quackery. As with astrology, an undue concern with influences tends to subject a person to them; it is advisable to discriminate between what might happen and what must happen.

On the ambiguities of the term, as well as an analysis of one of its meanings as the characteristics of thought shared by some German thinkers from about 1790 to 1830, cf. A. O. Lovejoy, "Meaning of Romanticism for the Historian of Ideas," Jour. Hist. Ideas (Jan. 1941), which refers also to Lovejoy's now famous articles on the subject. -- I.J.

or three angels. That there may well be seven named angels in Scripture is the subject of a paper

owe ::: v. --> To possess; to have, as the rightful owner; to own.
To have or possess, as something derived or bestowed; to be obliged to ascribe (something to some source); to be indebted or obliged for; as, he owed his wealth to his father; he owed his victory to his lieutenants.
Hence: To have or be under an obigation to restore, pay, or render (something) in return or compensation for something received; to be indebted in the sum of; as, the subject owes allegiance; the


Padma gling pa. (Pema Lingpa) (1450-1521). An esteemed Bhutanese treasure revealer (GTER STON), famous for unearthing treasure in public and responsible for promulgating numerous important religious traditions, including forms of ritual monastic dance ('CHAM). He is counted as the fourth of the so-called five kingly treasure revealers (GTER STON RGYAL PO LNGA) and the last of the five pure incarnations of the royal princess PADMA GSAL. He is also regarded as the mind incarnation of the translator VAIROCANA and an incarnation of KLONG CHEN RAB 'BYAMS. Padma gling pa was born into a humble family of blacksmiths in the Bum thang region of Bhutan and studied the craft from the age of nine. Many examples of Padma gling pa's craftsmanship, in the form of swords and chain mail, still exist. Padma gling pa's life is somewhat unusual in that he did not undertake a traditional course of study with a spiritual master; it is recorded that he once declared, "I have no master and I am not a disciple." Rather, his religious training was achieved almost entirely through visionary revelation. At the age of twenty-six, he had a vision of PADMASAMBHAVA, who bestowed on him a roster of 108 treasure texts that he would unearth in the future. The next year, amid a large public gathering, he made his first treasure discovery at ME 'BAR MTSHO, a wide pool of water in a nearby river. Surrounded by a multitude of people gathered along the riverside, Padma gling pa dove in the waters holding a burning butter lamp in his hand. When he reemerged, he held a great treasure chest under his arm, and, to the crowd's amazement, the lamp in his hand was unextinguished; from that point on the pool was called "Burning Flame Lake." This feat marked the beginning of Padma gling pa's prolific career as treasure revealer and teacher. Between the years 1501 and 1505, he founded his seat at GTAM ZHING monastery in Bum thang. Padma gling pa composed a lengthy autobiography recording many of his activities in great detail. He was a controversial figure in his time (some of the treasure texts he discovered contain condemnations of those who doubted their authenticity), and the historicity of his deeds has been the subject of scholarly critique. However, Padma gling pa remains an important figure in the religious and cultural life of Bhutan, where he is considered both a saint and a national hero. He never received monastic ordination and fathered several sons who continued to transmit Padma gling pa's spiritual lineage, especially at SGANG STENG monastery in central Bhutan. Several incarnation lineages of Padma gling pa were also recognized, such as the gsung sprul ("speech incarnation") based at LHA LUNG Monastery in southern Tibet. Both the sixth DALAI LAMA TSHANGS DBYANGS RGYA MTSHO and the Bhutanese royal family are said to be descendants of Padma gling pa's familial lineage.

Paekp'a Kŭngson. (白坡亘璇) (1767-1852). Korean SoN master of the Choson dynasty, also known as Kusan. Paekp'a was a native of Mujang in present-day North Cholla province. In 1778, he was ordained by a certain Sihon (d.u.) at the nearby monastery of Sonŭnsa. In 1790, he moved from his original residence at the hermitage of Yongmunam on Mt. Ch'o to the Yongwonam on Mt. Pangchang, where he studied under the renowned Hwaom chong (C. HUAYAN ZONG) master, Solp'a Sangon (1707-1791). A year before Sangon passed away, Kŭngson received the full monastic precepts from him. Paekp'a established himself at the famous hermitage of Unmunam and attracted many students. He studied the teachings of the renowned CHAN master XUEFENG YICUN at Mt. Yonggu and acquired the name Paekp'a. In order to practice Son meditation, he returned to Yongmunam and revived POJO CHINUL's Samādhi and PrajNā Society (CHoNGHYE KYoLSA). He subsequently returned to Unmunam to compile his influential treatise Sonmun sugyong ("Hand Mirror of the Son School"), which was later the subject of a famous critique by the Son master CH'OŬI ŬISUN (1786-1866) in his Sonmun sabyon mano ("Prolix Words on Four Distinctive Types in the Son School"). Paekp'a was a staunch promoter of Son, who sought to resolve what he perceived to be a fundamental internal tension within the Son tradition: the radical subitism of the Imje chong (LINJI ZONG), which advocated the simultaneity of sudden awakening (DUNWU) and cultivation (K. tono tonsu; C. dunwu dunxiu), and the more moderate subitism of the Heze zong and POJO CHINUL (1158-1210), which advocated sudden awakening followed by gradual cultivation (K. tono chomsu; C. DUNWU JIANXIU). Paekp'a's goal was to demonstrate how the subitist "questioning meditation" (K. kanhwa Son; C. KANHUA CHAN) that became emblematic of both the Linji zong and the Korean Son tradition after Chinul could be reconciled with Korean Buddhism's preferred soteriological schema of moderate subitism. By contrast, Ch'oŭi was more concerned with exploring deeper levels of accommodation between Son practice and Buddhist doctrinal teachings (KYO), by demonstrating the fundamental unity of these two major strands of the religion. Their respective positions set the stage for subsequent debates during the late Choson dynasty over whether Korean Buddhism was an exclusively Son, or a broader ecumenical, tradition, an identity debate that continues into the present day. Kŭngson's many writings also include the Suson kyolsamun, T'aegoamga kwasok, Sikchisol, Ojong kangyo sagi, Sonyo ki, and Chakpop kwigam.

paksadharma. (T. phyogs chos; C. zongfa; J. shuho/shubo; K. chongpop 宗法). In Sanskrit, lit. "property of the position," a term in Buddhist logic that designates one of the qualities of a correct syllogism (PRAYOGA). A syllogism is composed of three parts, the subject (dharmin), the property being proved (SĀDHYADHARMA), and the reason (HETU or LInGA). In the syllogism "Sound is impermanent because of being produced," the subject is sound, the property being proved is impermanence, and the reason is "being produced." In order for the syllogism to be correct, three relations must exist among the three components of the syllogism: (1) the reason must be a property (DHARMA) of the subject, also called the "position" (PAKsA); (2) there must be a relationship of pervasion (VYĀPTI) between the reason and the property being proved, such that whatever is the reason is necessarily the property being proved; and (3) there must be a relationship of reverse pervasion between the property and the reason such that whatever is not the property is necessarily not the reason. In the example, the syllogism "Sound is impermanent because of being produced" is correct because the reason (being produced) is a quality of the subject (sound), there is pervasion in the sense that whatever is produced is necessarily impermanent, and there is reverse pervasion because whatever is permanent is necessarily not produced. In Tibetan oral debate, the defender of a position is traditionally allowed only three answers to a position stated by the opponent; the position is typically stated in the form of a consequence (PRASAnGA) rather than a syllogism (prayoga), but the mechanics of the statement are the same. The defender may say, "I accept" ('dod), meaning that he agrees that the property being proved is a property of the subject. The defender may say, "There is no pervasion" (ma khyab), meaning that whatever is the reason is not necessarily the property being proved. Or he may say, "The reason is not established" (rtags ma sgrub), meaning that the reason is not in fact a property of the position.

pentacrostic ::: n. --> A set of verses so disposed that the name forming the subject of the acrostic occurs five times -- the whole set of verses being divided into five different parts from top to bottom.

pertinency ::: n. --> The quality or state of being pertinent; justness of relation to the subject or matter in hand; fitness; appositeness; relevancy; suitableness.

pertinent ::: a. --> Belonging or related to the subject or matter in hand; fit or appropriate in any way; adapted to the end proposed; apposite; material; relevant; as, pertinent illustrations or arguments; pertinent evidence.
Regarding; concerning; belonging; pertaining.


Philosophers have in the past been concerned with two questions covered by our definition, though attempts to organize the subject as an autonomous department of philosophy are of recent date. Enquiries into the origin of language (e.g. in Plato's Kratylos) once a favorite subject for speculation, are now out of fashion, both with philosophers and linguists. Enquiries as to the nature of language (as in Descartes, Leibniz, and many others) are, however, still central to all philosophical interest in language. Such questions as "What are the most general characters of symbolism?", "How is 'Language' to be defined?", "What is the essence of language?", "How is communication possible?", "What would be the nature of a perfect language?", are indicative of the varying modulations which this theme receives in the works of contemporaries.   Current studies in the philosophy of language can be classified under five hends:   Questions of method, relation to other disciplines, etc. Much discussion turns here upon the proposal to establish a science and art of symbolism, variously styled semiotic, semantics or logical syntax,   The analysis of meaning. Problems arising here involve attention to those under the next heading.   The formulation of general descriptive schemata. Topics of importance here include the identification and analysis of different ways in which language is used, and the definition of men crucial notions as "symbol'', "grammar", "form", "convention", "metaphor", etc.   The study of fully formalized language systems or "calculi". An increasingly important and highly technical division which seeks to extend and adapt to all languages the methods first developed in "metamathematics" for the study of mathematical symbolism.   Applications to problems in general philosophy. Notably the attempt made to show that necessary propositions are really verbal; or again, the study of the nature of the religious symbol. Advance here awaits more generally acceptable doctrine in the other divisions.   References:

PHILOSOPHY Philosophy is limited to physical reality and therefore, physically, all philosophy remains physicalism and, superphysically, subjectivism: speculations without reality content. In order to speak about the superphysical one must have factual knowledge of the superphysical worlds. K 5.38.2

The philosophers have not yet managed to solve the basic problem of existence: trinity; the three equal, inseparable aspects of existence. Ever since the Greek sophists, the whole history of philosophy has been dominated by the subjectivist way of looking at things. K 5.43.21


Placebo Effect ::: The phenomenon in research where the subject’s beliefs about the outcome can significantly effect the outcome without any other intervention.

polygraph ::: n. --> An instrument for multiplying copies of a writing; a manifold writer; a copying machine.
In bibliography, a collection of different works, either by one or several authors.
An instrument for detecting deceptive statements by a subject, by measuring several physiological states of the subject, such as pulse, heartbeat, and sweating. The instrument records these parameters on a strip of paper while the subject is asked questions


Potalaka. (T. Po ta la; C. Butuoluoshan; J. Fudarakusen; K. Pot'araksan 補陀落山). According to the GAndAVYuHASuTRA, a mountain that is the abode of the bodhisattva of compassion, AVALOKITEsVARA. The precise location of the mountain is the subject of considerable speculation. According to XUANZANG, it is located in southern India to the east of the Malaya Mountains. He describes it as a perilous mountain with a lake and a heavenly stone palace at the summit. A river flows from the summit, encircling the mountain twenty times before flowing into the South Sea. Those who seek to meet the bodhisattva scale the mountain, but few succeed. Xuanzang says that the bodhisattva appears to his devotees at the base the mountain in the form of Mahesvara (siva) or an ascetic sadhu covered in ashes. Modern scholarship has speculated that Xuanzang was describing the mountain called Potikai or Potiyil in Tamil Nadu. Other sources place the mountain on an island in the Indian Ocean. In East Asian Buddhism, it is called PUTUOSHAN and is identified as a mountainous island in the Zhoushan Archipelago, about sixty-two miles off the eastern coast of Zhejiang province. When the fifth DALAI LAMA constructed his palace in LHA SA, he named it PO TA LA, after this mountain identified with Avalokitesvara, of whom he is considered the human incarnation.

Practical Theology: A special department of conventional theological study, called "practical" to distinguish it from general theology, Biblical, historical and systematic studies. As the term denotes, subjects which deal with the application of the theoretical phases of the subject come under this division: church policy (ccclesiology), the work of the minister in worship (lituigics and hymnology), in preaching (homiletics), in teaching (catechetics), in pastoral service (poimenics), and in missionary effort (evangelistics). For further discussion see Theological Propaedeutic (9th ed., 1912), Philip Schaff. -- V.F.

praemnire ::: v. t. --> The subject to the penalties of praemunire.

Pramānavārttika. (T. Tshad ma rnam 'grel). In Sanskrit, "Commentary on Valid Knowledge," the most famous work of the great Buddhist logician DHARMAKĪRTI. The "Pramāna" in the title of text is a reference to DIGNĀGA's PRAMĀnASAMUCCAYA; Dharmakīrti's work is ostensibly a commentary on Dignāga's text, although in fact Dharmakīrti's work makes significant refinements in, and occasional departures from, Dignāga's views. The Pramānavārttika is written in verse, with a prose commentary by the author, in four chapters, dealing with inference for oneself (SVĀRTHĀNUMĀNA), the proof of valid knowledge (pramānasiddhi), direct perception (PRATYAKsA), and inference for others (PARĀRTHĀNUMĀNA). The work was the subject of numerous commentaries in India, and later in Tibet, where it was studied by all sects and became one of the "five books" (zhung lnga) that provided the foundation for the DGE LUGS monastic curriculum.

prapaNca. (P. papaNca; T. spros pa; C. xilun; J. keron; K. hŭiron 戲論). In Sanskrit, lit. "diffusion," "expansion"; viz. "conceptualization" or "conceptual proliferation"; the tendency of the process of cognition to proliferate the perspective of the self (ĀTMAN) throughout all of one's sensory experience via the medium of concepts. The locus classicus for describing how sensory perception culminates in conceptual proliferation appears in the Pāli MADHUPIndIKASUTTA. As that scripture explains, any living being will be subject to an impersonal causal process of perception in which consciousness (P. viNNāna; S. VIJNĀNA) occurs conditioned by an internal sense base (INDRIYA) and an external sense object (ĀYATANA); the contact among these three brings about sensory impingement or contact (P. phassa; S. SPARsA), which in turn leads to the sensation (VEDANĀ) of that contact as pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral. At that point, however, the sense of ego intrudes and this process then becomes an intentional one, whereby what one feels, one perceives (P. saNNā; S. SAMJNĀ); what one perceives, one thinks about (P. vitakka; S. VITARKA); and what one thinks about, one conceptualizes (P. papaNca; S. prapaNca). By allowing oneself to experience sensory objects not as things-in-themselves but as concepts invariably tied to one's own perspective, the perceiving subject then becomes the hapless object of an inexorable process of conceptual subjugation: viz., what one conceptualizes becomes proliferated conceptually (P. papaNcasaNNāsankhā; a term apparently unattested in Sanskrit) throughout all of one's sensory experience. Everything that can be experienced in this world in the past, present, and future is now bound together into a labyrinthine network of concepts, all tied to oneself and projected into the external world as craving (TṚsnĀ), conceit (MĀNA), and wrong views (DṚstI), thus creating bondage to SAMSĀRA. By systematic attention (YONIsOMANASKĀRA) to the impersonal character of sensory experience and through sensory restraint (INDRIYASAMVARA), this tendency to project ego throughout the entirety of the perceptual process is brought to an end. In this state of "conceptual nonproliferation" (P. nippapaNca; S. NIḤPRAPANCA), perception is freed from concepts tinged by this proliferating tendency, allowing one to see the things of this world as impersonal causal products that are inevitably impermanent (ANITYA), suffering (DUḤKHA), and nonself (ANĀTMAN). ¶ The preceding interpretation reflects the specific denotation of the term as explicated in Pāli scriptural materials. In a Mahāyāna context, prapaNca may also connote "elaboration" or "superimposition," especially in the sense of a fanciful, imagined, or superfluous quality that is mistakenly projected on to an object, resulting in its being misperceived. Such projections are described as manifestations of ignorance (AVIDYĀ); reality and the mind that perceives reality are described as being free from prapaNca (NIsPRAPANCA), and the purpose of Buddhist practice in one sense can be described as the recognition and elimination of prapaNca in order to see reality clearly and directly. In the MADHYAMAKA school, the most dangerous type of prapaNca is the presumption of intrinsic existence (SVABHĀVA). In YOGĀCĀRA, prapaNca is synonymous with the "seeds" (BĪJA) that provide the basis for perception and the potentiality for future action. In this school, prapaNca is closely associated with false discrimination (VIKALPA), specifically the bifurcation of perceiving subject and perceived object (GRĀHYAGRĀHAKAVIKALPA). The goal of practice is said to be a state of mind that is beyond all thought constructions and verbal elaboration. ¶ The precise denotation of prapaNca has been the subject of much perplexity and debate within the Buddhist tradition, which is reflected in the varying translations for the term in Buddhist canonical languages. The standard Chinese rendering xilun means "frivolous debate," which reflects the tendency of prapaNca to complicate meaningful discussion about the true character of sensory cognition. The Tibetan spros ba means something like "extension, elaboration" and reflects the tendency of prapaNca to proliferate a fanciful conception of reality onto the objects of perception.

prasanga. (T. thal 'gyur). In Sanskrit, "consequence"; in Buddhist logic, a statement made to an opponent that uses the opponent's assertions to demonstrate contradictions in the opponent's position. It is not necessary that the person who states the consequence accept the subject, predicate, and reason of the consequence. There is a difference of opinion as to whether the statement of the consequence is sufficient to bring about correct understanding in the opponent or whether an autonomous syllogism (SVATANTRAPRAYOGA) stating the correct position (that is, the position of the person who states the consequence) is also required. This was one of the points of disagreement that led to the designation of the *PRĀSAnGIKA and *SVĀTANTRIKA branches of the MADHYAMAKA school.

pratijNā. (T. dam bca'; C. lizong; J. risshu; K. ipchong 立宗). In Sanskrit, lit., "promise," but used in Buddhist logic (HETUVIDYĀ) to mean "thesis" or "proposition," that is, the position that one is seeking to prove to an opponent. In this sense, it used synonymously with PAKsA and SĀDHYA ("what is to be established"). A thesis is composed of a subject and a predicate; for example, "the mountain is on fire," or "sound is impermanent," with mountain and sound being the subject. There is considerable discussion in Buddhist logic on what constitutes a valid thesis. According to DIGNĀGA, a thesis is a proposition intended by its proponent as something to be stated alone (i.e., without reasons or examples) and whose subject is not contradicted by direct perception (PRATYAKsA), inference (ANUMĀNA), valid authorities (PRAMĀnA), or what is commonly accepted as true. In the works of Dignāga and DHARMAKĪRTI (and their commentators), there is also considerable discussion of whether, in debating with an opponent, one's own thesis needs to be explicitly stated, or whether it can be implied. The term pratijNā is also important in the MADHYAMAKA school, deriving from NĀGĀRJUNA's famous declaration in his VIGRAHAVYĀVARTANĪ that he has no thesis, which became in Tibet one of the most commented upon statements in Madhyamaka literature.

prayoga. (T. sbyor ba; C. jiaxing; J. kegyo; K. kahaeng 加行). In Sanskrit, "application," "preparation," "joining together," "exertion." The term is widely used in soteriological, tantric, and astrological literature. It also functions as a technical term in logic, where it is often translated as "syllogism" and refers to a statement that contains a subject, a predicate, and a reason. A correct syllogism is composed of three parts, the subject (dharmin), the property being proved (SĀDHYADHARMA), and the reason (HETU or LInGA). For example, in the syllogism "Sound is impermanent because of being produced," the subject is sound, the property being proved is impermanence, and the reason is being produced. In order for the syllogism to be correct, three relations must exist among the three components of the syllogism: (1) the reason must be a property (DHARMA) of the subject, also called the "position" (PAKsA), (2) there must be a relationship of pervasion (VYĀPTI) between the reason and the property being proved (SĀDHYADHARMA), such that whatever is the reason is necessarily the property being proved, and (3) there must be a relationship of "exclusion" or reverse pervasion (vyatirekavyāpti) between the property being proved and the reason, such that whatever is not the property being proved is necessarily not the reason. ¶ In the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ exegetical tradition based on the ABHISAMAYĀLAMKĀRA, prayoga is the word used for the fourth to seventh of the eight ABHISAMAYAs ("clear realizations"). According to Ārya VIMUKTISENA's commentary (Vṛtti), the first three chapters set forth the three knowledges (JNĀNA) as topics to be studied and reflected upon (see sRUTAMAYĪPRAJNĀ, CINTĀMAYĪPRAJNĀ); the next four chapters set forth the practice of those knowledges, viz. the practice of the knowledge of a buddha. This practice is called prayoga. It is primarily at the level of meditation (BHĀVANĀMAYĪPRAJNĀ), and it leads to the SARVĀKĀRAJNATĀ, a buddha's omniscient knowledge of all aspects. The first prayoga is habituation to the perfect realization of all aspects (sarvākārābhisambodha); the second is learning to remain at the summit of the realization (murdhābhisamaya; cf. MuRDHAN); the third is a further habituation to each aspect, one by one (anupurvābhisamaya); and the fourth is the realization of all aspects in one single instant (ekaksanābhisamaya). This is the moment prior to omniscience. This prayoga is first detailed in twenty subtopics beginning with the cryptic statement that the practice is no practice at all; the 173 aspects (ĀKĀRA) that together cover the entire range of a bodhisattva's practice are set forth at all the stages of development, through the paths of vision (DARsANAMĀRGA) and cultivation (BHĀVANĀMĀRGA) up through the bodhisattva stages (BHuMI) to the purification of the buddha-field (BUDDHAKsETRA) and final instants of the path. Through the first of the four prayogas, the bodhisattva gains mastery over all the aspects; through the second, he abides in the mastery of them; with the third, he goes through each and makes the practice special; and with the fourth, he enters into the state of a buddha. See also PRAYOGAMĀRGA.

Predestination The doctrine that God has foreordained everything; specifically, that God has foreordained what people shall be saved and what damned. Reprobation is used in reference to those foreordained to be damned, and election is used for those who are to be saved. Endless sectarian disputes have prevailed as to whether or not the salvation offered by Christ provides a way of escape from the doom of reprobation; and the eternal dilemma as to free will has never ceased to perplex the minds of theologians. How to permit free will to enter into the picture without derogating from the authority of God, how to attribute plenary power to God without destroying free will; how to find a modus vivendi or ingenious sophism by which the contraries may be reconciled — these matters may be found discussed in theological treatises on the subject.

predicate logic "logic" (Or "predicate calculus") An extension of {propositional logic} with separate symbols for {predicates}, {subjects}, and {quantifiers}. For example, where propositional logic might assign a single symbol P to the proposition "All men are mortal", predicate logic can define the predicate M(x) which asserts that the subject, x, is mortal and bind x with the {universal quantifier} ("For all"): All x . M(x) Higher-order predicate logic allows predicates to be the subjects of other predicates. (2002-05-21)

predicate logic ::: (logic) (Or predicate calculus) An extension of propositional logic with separate symbols for predicates, subjects, and quantifiers.For example, where propositional logic might assign a single symbol P to the proposition All men are mortal, predicate logic can define the predicate M(x) which asserts that the subject, x, is mortal and bind x with the universal quantifier (For all): All x . M(x) Higher-order predicate logic allows predicates to be the subjects of other predicates.(2002-05-21)

Predicate: The four traditional kinds of categorical propositions (see Logic, formal, § 4) are: all S is P, no S is P, some S is P, some S is not P. In each of these the concept denoted by S is the subject and that denoted by P is the predicate.

predicate ::: v. t. --> To assert to belong to something; to affirm (one thing of another); as, to predicate whiteness of snow.
To found; to base.
That which is affirmed or denied of the subject. In these propositions, "Paper is white," "Ink is not white," whiteness is the predicate affirmed of paper and denied of ink.
The word or words in a proposition which express what is affirmed of the subject.


preraphaelitism ::: n. --> The doctrine or practice of a school of modern painters who profess to be followers of the painters before Raphael. Its adherents advocate careful study from nature, delicacy and minuteness of workmanship, and an exalted and delicate conception of the subject.

Probability: In general Chance, possibility, contingency, likelihood, likehness, presumption. conjecture, prediction, forecast, credibility, relevance; the quality or state of being likely true or likely to happen; a fact or a statement which is likely true, real, operative or provable by future events; the conditioning of partial or approximate belief or assent; the motive of a presumption or prediction; the conjunction of reasonable grounds for presuming the truth of a statement or the occurrence of an event; the field of knowledge between complete ignorance and full certitude; an approximation to fact or truth; a qualitative or numerical value attached to a probable inference, and by extension, the systematic study of chances or relative possibilities as forming the subject of the theory of probability. A. The Foundation of Probability. We cannot know everything completely and with certainty. Yet we desire to think and to act as correctly as possible hence the necessity of considering methods leading to reasonable approximations, and of estimating their results in terms of the relative evidence available in each case. In D VI-VII (infra) only, is probability interpreted as a property of events or occurrences as such: whether necessary or contingent, facts are simply conditioned by other facts, and have neither an intelligence nor a will to realize their certainty or their probability. In other views, probability requires ultimately a mind to perceive it as such it arises from the combination of our partial ignorance of the extremely complex nature and conditions of the phenomena, with the inadequacy of our means of observation, experimentation and analysis, however searching and provisionally satisfactory. Thus it may be said that probability exists formally in the mind and materially in the phenomena as related between themselves. In stressing the one or the other of these two aspects, we obtain (1) subjectize probability, when the psychological conditions of the mind cause it to evaluate a fact or statement with fear of possible error; and (2) objective probability, when reference is made to that quality of facts and statements, which causes the mind to estimate them with a conscious possibility of error. Usually, methods can be devised to objectify technically the subjective aspect of probability, such as the rules for the elimination of the personal equation of the inquirer. Hence the methods established for the study and the interpretation of chances can be considered independently of the state of mind as such of the inquirer. These methods make use of rational or empirical elements. In the first case, we are dealing with a priori or theoretical probability, which considers the conditions or occurrences of an event hypothetically and independently of any direct experience. In the second case, we are dealing with inductive or empirical probability. And when these probabilities are represented with numerals or functions to denote measures of likelihood, we are concerned with quantitative or mathematical probability. Methods involving the former cannot be assimilated with methods involving the latter, but both can be logically correlated on the strength of the general principle of explanation, that similar conjunctions of moral or physical facts demand a general law governing and justifying them.

programme ::: n. --> That which is written or printed as a public notice or advertisement; a scheme; a prospectus; especially, a brief outline or explanation of the order to be pursued, or the subjects embraced, in any public exercise, performance, or entertainment; a preliminary sketch.

Psychic or psychical: (Gr. psychikos, from psyche, the soul) (a) In the general sense, psychic is applied to any mental phenomenon. See Psychosis, Mental, (b) In the special sense, psychic is restricted to unusual mental phenomena such as mediumship, telepathy, prescience, etc. which are the subjects of "Psychic Research." See Telepathy, Prescience, Parapsychology. -- L.W.

Psychologists' Fallacy: The confusion of the standpoint of the psychologist with that of the subject upon whose introspective report the psychologist relies. See Wm. James, The Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, p. 196. -- L.W.

Psychometry In its scientific sense, the measuring of the time taken by mental processes and sensations; borrowed by Prof. J. R. Buchanan to signify the occult power of receiving from various articles impressions as to their owners or as to events connected with them. It is the seeing or reading with the inner sight of incidents that have taken place in the neighborhood of physical articles. The art has been applied to such objects as fossils, fragments of ancient ruins, and old manuscripts, and the psychometers have been able by touching these articles, putting them to their forehead, etc., to describe ancient civilizations and bygone, forgotten, or unknown pages in human or world history. These phenomena show that material objects retain the impressions of events with which they have been associated, and presumably exert an influence even upon people who do not have psychometric power. This throws light on the subject of talismans, amulets, relics, etc.

Puji. (J. Fujaku; K. Pojok 普寂) (651-739). In Chinese, "Universal Quiescence"; CHAN monk and disciple of SHENXIU (606?-706) in the so-called "Northern School" (BEI ZONG) of the early Chan tradition. In his youth, Puji is said to have studied a wide range of Buddhist scriptures before ordaining at the age of thirty-eight. Soon afterwards, he left to study with Shenxiu at Yuquansi (Jade Spring Monastery) on Mt. Dangyang in Jingzhou. As the best-known disciple of Shenxiu, Puji was one of the subjects of a series of polemical attacks by the HEZE SHENHUI (684-758) beginning in 732. Shenhui denounced Puji and other disciples of Shenxiu as representing a mere collateral branch of BODHIDHARMA's lineage and for promoting what Shenhui called a "gradual" (jian) approach to enlightenment. Shenhui instead promoted a "sudden teaching" (DUNJIAO), which he claimed derived from a so-called "Southern school" (NAN ZONG) founded by HUINENG (638-713), whom Shenhui claimed was the true successor of the fifth patriarch HONGREN (601-74). Later Chan historians such as GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841) came to refer to a "Northern school" (Bei zong) of Chan to describe this lineage of Shenxiu's, to which Puji, Yifu (661-736), and XIANGMO ZANG (d.u.) were said to have belonged.

Quesited: A term applied in horary astrology to the person or thing that is the subject of an inquiry.

rage ::: n. --> Violent excitement; eager passion; extreme vehemence of desire, emotion, or suffering, mastering the will.
Especially, anger accompanied with raving; overmastering wrath; violent anger; fury.
A violent or raging wind.
The subject of eager desire; that which is sought after, or prosecuted, with unreasonable or excessive passion; as, to be all the rage.


Raja yoga ::: This is the first step only. Afterwards, the ordinary activities of the mind and sense must be entirely quieted in order that the soul may be free to ascend to higher states of consciousness and acquire the foundation for a perfect freedom and self-mastery. But Rajayoga does not forget that the disabilities of the ordinary mind proceed largely from its subjection to the reactions of the nervous system and the body. It adopts th
   refore from the Hathayogic system its devices of asana and pranayama, but reduces their multiple and elaborate forms in each case to one simplest and most directly effective process sufficient for its own immediate object. Thus it gets rid of the Hathayogic complexity and cumbrousness while it utilises the swift and powerful efficacy of its methods for the control of the body and the vital functions and for the awakening of that internal dynamism, full of a latent supernormal faculty, typified in Yogic terminology by the kundalinı, the coiled and sleeping serpent of Energy within. This done, the system proceeds to the perfect quieting of the restless mind and its elevation to a higher plane through concentration of mental force by the successive stages which lead to the utmost inner concentration or ingathered state of the consciousness which is called Samadhi. By Samadhi, in which the mind acquires the capacity of withdrawing from its limited waking activities into freer and higher states of consciousness, Rajayoga serves a double purpose. It compasses a pure mental action liberated from the confusions of the outer consciousness and passes thence to the higher supra-mental planes on which the individual soul enters into its true spiritual existence. But also it acquires the capacity of that free and concentrated energising of consciousness on its object which our philosophy asserts as the primary cosmic energy and the method of divine action upon the world. By this capacity the Yogin, already possessed of the highest supracosmic knowledge and experience in the state of trance, is able in the waking state to acquire directly whatever knowledge and exercise whatever mastery may be useful or necessary to his activities in the objective world. For the ancient system of Rajayoga aimed not only at Swarajya, self-rule or subjective empire, the entire control by the subjective consciousness of all the states and activities proper to its own domain, but included Samrajya as well, outward empire, the control by the subjective consciousness of its outer activities and environment.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 36-37


Rapport: A mystic connection between two individuals; although the rapport is usually sympathetic, it may be antipathic, too. In hypnosis, the relationship between the hypnotist and his subject, in which the subject hears the orders of the hypnotist only and is oblivious to all other events around him.

recall ::: n. 1. The act of remembering; recollecting. v. 2. To summon back to awareness of or concern with the subject or situation at hand. 3. To revoke or withdraw. recalled, recalling.

receiver ::: n. --> One who takes or receives in any manner.
A person appointed, ordinarily by a court, to receive, and hold in trust, money or other property which is the subject of litigation, pending the suit; a person appointed to take charge of the estate and effects of a corporation, and to do other acts necessary to winding up its affairs, in certain cases.
One who takes or buys stolen goods from a thief, knowing them to be stolen.


Reduplicatively: (in Schol.) a term is taken reduplicatively or there is reduplication when to a term there is added as, just as, as though, inasmuch as, or some similar expression, either in order to double the same term, or in ordei to add another so as to indicate the meaning in which the first term is to be taken, or so as to indicate a reason why the predicate belongs to the subject. E.g. animal as animal cannot reason; Christ as man has suffered; Paul as a priest is worthy of honor. -- H.G.

reigen. (驗). In Japanese, lit. "numinous verification," a term used to refer to the miraculous efficacy of a prayer, vow, or religious praxis. The benefits are often understood as the result of the "sympathetic resonance" (C. GANYING) between buddhas and/or deities who are the objects of the prayer and the subject who engages in prayer. The term can also refer to the miraculous power and virtue of the buddhas and deities to respond to the prayers of people.

relative ::: a. --> Having relation or reference; referring; respecting; standing in connection; pertaining; as, arguments not relative to the subject.
Arising from relation; resulting from connection with, or reference to, something else; not absolute.
Indicating or expressing relation; refering to an antecedent; as, a relative pronoun.
Characterizing or pertaining to chords and keys, which,


"Religion in fact is not knowledge, but a faith and aspiration; it is justified indeed both by an imprecise intuitive knowledge of large spiritual truths and by the subjective experience of souls that have risen beyond the ordinary life, but in itself it only gives us the hope and faith by which we may be induced to aspire to the intimate possession of the hidden tracts and larger realities of the Spirit. That we turn always the few distinct truths and the symbols or the particular discipline of a religion into hard and fast dogmas, is a sign that as yet we are only infants in the spiritual knowledge and are yet far from the science of the Infinite.” The Synthesis of Yoga*

“Religion in fact is not knowledge, but a faith and aspiration; it is justified indeed both by an imprecise intuitive knowledge of large spiritual truths and by the subjective experience of souls that have risen beyond the ordinary life, but in itself it only gives us the hope and faith by which we may be induced to aspire to the intimate possession of the hidden tracts and larger realities of the Spirit. That we turn always the few distinct truths and the symbols or the particular discipline of a religion into hard and fast dogmas, is a sign that as yet we are only infants in the spiritual knowledge and are yet far from the science of the Infinite.” The Synthesis of Yoga

Repentance ::: A term used especially in protestant Christianity to indicate the subjective state of sorrow and concern over sin, on the way to salvation.

restructuring ::: The transformation from one representation form to another at the same relative abstraction level, while preserving the subject system's external behaviour (functionality and semantics).

restructuring The transformation from one representation form to another at the same relative abstraction level, while preserving the subject system's external behaviour (functionality and semantics).

reticence ::: n. --> The quality or state of being reticent, or keeping silence; the state of holding one&

Reversal Design ::: Any single subject design that includes the removal of treatment to determine if the subject reverts to baseline (ex. ABA, ABAB)

rnam thar. (namtar). In Tibetan, "complete liberation," translating the Sanskrit VIMOKsA. In the Tibetan context, rnam thar refers to a widespread literary genre of sacred biography or autobiography. As its translation suggests, the term usually indicates an emphasis on the stereotypically Buddhist aspects of the subject's life, including his or her religious training, practice of meditation, and eventual liberation. Such works often incorporate elements of the fabulous and the fantastic and have parallels with the genre of hagiography. Three types of rnam thar are often enumerated: the "outer autobiography" (phyi'i rnam thar), which narrates the important events of daily life, including travels and meetings with prominent persons; the "inner autobiography" (nang gi rnam thar), which describes religious teachings received and relationships with teachers and disciples; and the "secret autobiography" (GSANG BA'I RNAM THAR), which describes religious experiences, with the author often writing from the perspective of a transcendental subject.

sādhyadharma. (T. sgrub bya'i chos; C. suoli/suochengli; J. shoryu/shojoryu; K. sorip/sosongnip 所立/所成立). In Sanskrit, the "property being proven," a term in Buddhist logic that designates one of the elements of a correct syllogism or proof (PRAYOGA) leading to inference (ANUMĀNA). A syllogism is composed of three parts, the subject (dharmin), the property being proved (sādhyadharma), and the reason (HETU or LInGA). It is called sādhyadharma because the sādhya ("what is being proved") must be a dharma ("property") of the logical subject. For example, in the syllogism, "Sound is impermanent because of being produced," the subject is sound, the property being proved is impermanence, and the reason is being produced. In order for the syllogism to be correct, three relations must exist among the three components of the syllogism: (1) the reason must be a property (DHARMA) of the subject, also called the "position" (PAKsA), (2) there must be a relationship of pervasion (VYĀPTI) between the reason and the property being proved, such that whatever is the reason is necessarily the property being proved, and (3) there must be a relationship of "exclusion" or reverse pervasion (vyatirekavyāpti) between the property being proved and the reason such that whatever is not the property being proved is necessarily not the reason. In the example, the syllogism "Sound is impermanent because of being produced," is correct because the reason (being produced) is a quality of the subject (sound), there is pervasion because whatever is produced is necessarily impermanent, and there is reverse pervasion because whatever is not impermanent is necessarily not produced. See ANUMĀNA; LInGA.

samānapratibhāsadharmin. (T. chos can mthun snang). In Sanskrit, lit. "subject that appears the same" or "commonly appearing subject," a term in Buddhist logic, particularly important in Tibetan Buddhism. This term refers to the common basis (T. gzhi mthun) that must be present in order for a reasonable and constructive debate to occur. In other words, if adherents of two different doctrinal systems try to debate, but employ only terms and ideas that are unique to their own systems, then no position can be effectively proven or refuted. Furthermore, the participants in a debate must have a common understanding of the subject that is being debated and a shared understanding of what constitutes a logical example. This term is also understood to mean that the participants in a debate must understand the scripture on which the debate is based. Some Buddhist philosophers, such as Jayānanda, refuted the notion that debate or inference (ANUMĀNA) was in any way constructive on the following general grounds: to the enlightened mind, all phenomena are devoid of substance or definition and therefore no phenomenon can serve as a samānapratibhāsadharmin. This is a central issue in MADHYAMAKA, where the proponent of emptiness (suNYATĀ) rejects the notion of anything that possesses its own nature (SVABHĀVA). This raises the question of whether there is a commonly appearing subject in a debate between a Madhyamaka and non-Madhyamaka; if there is, to what degree is the appearance "common"; and how does the Madhyamaka present his position under such circumstances.

samathavipasyanā. (P. samathavipassanā; T. zhi gnas lhag mthong; C. zhiguan; J. shikan; K. chigwan 止觀). In Sanskrit, "calmness and insight," a term used to describe a meditative state that combines the clarity and stability of sAMATHA with the understanding of the nature of reality associated with VIPAsYANĀ. In Indian sĀSTRA literature, vipasyanā is defined as insight into reality that is conjoined with samatha and induced by analytical meditation. Thus, true vipasyanā includes samatha. The combination of samatha and vipasyanā marks the attainment of the wisdom arisen from reflection (CINTĀMAYĪPRAJNĀ); and the combination of the two with emptiness (suNYATĀ) as their object marks the beginning of the path of preparation (PRAYOGAMĀRGA). In YOGĀCĀRA accounts, as in the YOGĀCĀRABHuMI and the ABHIDHARMASAMUCCAYA, the four concentrations (DHYĀNA) and attainments (SAMĀPATTI) are said to have two parts: a fundamental state (maula), which is samatha, and a neighboring part that is preparatory to that fundamental state (SĀMANTAKA), which is vipasyanā; this explanation suggests the vital interconnection between these two terms. Samatha and vipassanā are known in Pāli, but chiefly in a later stratum of the suttas and in commentarial literature. The terms are also important in Chinese Buddhism, serving for example as the subject of the magnum opus of TIANTAI ZHIYI, the MOHE ZHIGUAN, or the "Great Calmness and Insight."

Sammohavinodanī. In Pāli, "The Dispeller of Delusion," a commentary by the influential Pāli scholar BUDDHAGHOSA on the VIBHAnGA, the second book of the Pāli ABHIDHAMMAPItAKA. This work covers much of the same material found in Buddhaghosa's VISUDDHIMAGGA, which is thought to be the earlier of the two works. In his introduction to Sammohavinodanī, Buddhaghosa claims to have drawn his analysis from more ancient commentaries. The work is divided into eighteen sections, beginning with an exposition on the five aggregates (P. khandha, S. SKANDHA). Each subsequent section covers a different element of the Vibhanga's content, including analyses of the sense spheres (ĀYATANA), elements (DHĀTU), stages of meditative absorption (P. JHĀNA, S. DHYĀNA), the path (P. magga, S. MĀRGA), rules of training (P. sikkhāpada, S. sIKsĀPADA), and so on. This commentary is particularly well known for its analysis of conditioned origination (P. paticcasamuppāda, S. PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA), which offers perhaps the most detailed examination of this doctrine found in the Pāli abhidhamma; there, Buddhaghosa represents the entire chain of causes and effects as occurring in both an entire lifetime as well as in single moment of consciousness. The Sammohavinodanī itself became the subject of extensive exegesis in the Pāli tradition.

samrajya ::: outward empire, "the control by the subjective conscioussamrajya ness of its outer activities and environment".

sanfen kejing. (J. sanbunkakyo; K. sambun kwagyong 三分科經). In Chinese, "threefold division of a scripture," an exegetical technique developed by the pioneering scholiast and cataloguer DAO'AN (312-385) to analyze a specific SuTRA's narrative structure. Dao'an's scriptural commentaries posited the following three major sections that were common to all sutras: (1) the prefatory setting (C. xufen; S. nidāna), which specifies the time and place where the sutra was delivered; (2) the "text proper" (zhengzongfen), viz., the main body of the sutra, which relates the doctrines and practices that were the subject of the discourse; and (3) the "dissemination section" (liutongfen; S. parīndanā), which describes the confidence and insight the scripture inspired in its audience. This schema was frequently employed in subsequent scriptural exegesis of most of the major scholastic schools of East Asian Buddhism and is still widely used even today. See also NETTIPPAKARAnA; PEtAKOPADESA; VYĀKHYĀYUKTI; WUZHONG XUANYI.

sarvākārajNatā. (T. rnam pa thams cad mkhyen pa; C. yiqiezhong zhi; J. issaishuchi; K. ilch'ejong chi 一切種智). In Sanskrit, "knowledge of all aspects," the preferred term in the ABHISAMAYĀLAMKĀRA and its commentaries for the omniscience of a buddha, which simultaneously perceives all phenomena in the universe and their final nature. When explained from the perspective of the goal that bodhisattvas will reach, the knowledge of all aspects is indicated by ten dharmas, among which are cittotpāda (cf. BODHICITTOTPĀDA), defining all the stages of all the Buddhist paths; AVAVĀDA, defining all the instructions relevant to those stages, the stages leading to the elimination of the subject-object conceptualization (GRĀHYAGRĀHAKAVIKALPA) along the entire range of accomplishments up to and including the state of enlightenment itself (see also NIRVEDHABHĀGĪYA); the substratum (GOTRA), objective supports (ĀLAMBANA) and aims (uddesa) of the practice; and the practices (PRATIPATTI) incorporating the full range of skillful means (UPĀYAKAUsALYA) necessary to turn the wheel of the dharma (DHARMACAKRAPRAVARTANA) in all its variety. When described from the perspective of the bodhisattva's practice that leads to it, sarvākārajNatā has 173 aspects: twenty-seven aspects of a sRĀVAKA's knowledge of the four noble truths (SARVAJNATĀ), thirty-six aspects of a BODHISATTVA's knowledge of paths (MĀRGAJNATĀ) and one hundred ten aspects that are unique to a buddha. These are again set forth as the thirty-seven aspects of all-knowledge, thirty-four aspects of the knowledge of the paths, and the thirty-nine aspects of the knowledge of all aspects itself. See also ĀKĀRA.

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von (1775-1854) Founder of the philosophy of identity which holds that subject and object coincide in the Absolute, a state to be realized in intellectual intuition. Deeply involved in romanticism, Schelling's philosophy of nature culminates in a transcendental idealism where nature and spirit are linked in a series of developments by unfolding powers or potencies, together forming one great organism in which nature is dynamic visible spirit and spirit invisible nature. Freedom and necessity are different refractions of the same reality. Supplementing science -- which deals with matter as extinguished spirit and endeavors to rise from nature to intelligence -- philosophy investigates the development of spirit, theoretically practically, and artistically, converts the subjective into the objective, and shows how the world soul or living principle animates the whole. Schelling's monism recognizes nature and spirit as real and ideal poles respectively, the latter being the positive one. It is pantheistic and aesthetic in that it allows the world process to create with free necessity unconsciously at first in the manner of an artist. Art is perfect union of freedom and necessity, beauty reflects the infinite in the finite. History is the progressive revelation of the Absolute. The ultimate thinking of Schelling headed toward mysticism in which man, his personality expanded into the infinite, becomes absorbed into the absolute self, free from necessity, contingency, consciousness, and personality. Sämmtliche Werke, 14 vols. (1856, re-edited 1927). Cf. Kuno Fischer, Schellings Leben, Werke und Lehre; E. Brehier, Schelling, 1912; V. Jankelevitch, L'Odysee de la conscience dans la derniere philosophie de Schelling, 1933. -- K.F.L.

Schindler, Oskar ::: (1908-1974) Sudeten businessman and protector of Jews during the Holocaust. Oskar Shindler was the subject of an acclaimed film by Steven Spielberg and book by Thomas Kneally. In 1939, Oskar Schindler in the wake of the German invasion went to Poland looking for business opportunities. In Cracow he took over a Jewish firm which manufactured enamel kitchenware products. Schindler employed mainly Jewish workers at his factory protecting them from deportations.

Science ::: A process through which knowledge is acquired. The scientific method conventionally begins with an observation and proceeds to formulate a hypothesis. From there a sound experiment is designed with appropriate variables to study and controls set to try to narrow the focus to the variable of study (i.e. whether the independent variable is causing a change in the dependent variable). If the results of the experiment align with the hypothesis then further experiments are designed and peer-reviewed to ensure validity. If the results do not align then the hypothesis may need to be reworked. This is a simplification of the process but is the primary method of knowledge acquisition in society today. Unfortunately the mental state of the experimenters and the subjects cannot be controlled adequately and there needs to be a rethinking of this method to truly understand and decipher the mystery of consciousness. The process of meditation is used to decipher the factors that give rise to conscious experience.

self ::: a. --> Same; particular; very; identical. ::: n. --> The individual as the object of his own reflective consciousness; the man viewed by his own cognition as the subject of all his mental phenomena, the agent in his own activities, the subject of his own feelings, and the possessor of capacities and character; a

Self-Concept ::: The subjective perception of the self.

Self-consciousness Awareness of oneself as the experiencer, attribution of one’s experiences to an ego, consciousness of being a separate individual; whereas consciousness in the abstract is merely awareness of the experience. Animals and very young children are conscious, man is self-conscious; yet the adult, when engrossed in an experience, may lose his self-consciousness for a while. But even man is only partially self-conscious, because he can contemplate only part of his being; that in him which is now the contemplator may become part of what is contemplated. As the subject, the knower, shifts upwards and inwards, so to speak, more and more of the vestures pass into the category of objects or what is known. The Unknown manifests the universe in order to attain full self-consciousness; and in man, the microcosm, an unself-conscious spark of divinity passes through stages of evolution and experience in order to achieve relatively full self-consciousness. The potentiality of self-consciousness, however, is in every atom. In order to become self-conscious, spirit must pass through every cycle of cosmic being, until every ego has attained full self-consciousness as a human being or equivalent entity. Man’s self-consciousness depends on his triple nature; it is man who is the separator of the One into various contrasted aspects.

seljukian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Seljuk, a Tartar chief who embraced Mohammedanism, and began the subjection of Western Asia to that faith and rule; of or pertaining to the dynasty founded by him, or the empire maintained by his descendants from the 10th to the 13th century.

SENSE Objective consciousness, the apprehension by consciousness of objective material reality in all worlds. K 1.17.2

Sense is direct, immediate, unreflective experience of reality. The attempt of the subjectivists to explain this psychologically is illogical and misleading, a confusion of logical and psychological problems... After testing, sense is always proved right. Our mistakes begin with doubting the correctness of sense, with incorrect working up by reason, with hypotheses and other kinds of guesswork. K 5.25.10

Physical sense is the ability of apprehending objectively the objective material realities in the &


Seventy-seven poems attributed to Taliesin come down, supposedly from the 6th century, though critics maintain that they are forgeries of the 12th or 13th. But the poetry of the later centuries is exceedingly different from the poetry of the Cynfeirdd — Talesin, Myrddin Gwyllt, Llywarch Hen, and Aneurin — said to have lived in the 6th century. Of these four, the first two are mystical and Druidical. The verse forms are simple, the rhythm is lofty: the thought, when it is apparent — for the language is exceedingly archaic and difficult — is in the grand manner. Twelfth and 13th century poetry on the other hand is ultra-tortuous in form — the extreme old age of a literature, when thought and inspiration are gone, and only delight in curious form remains — while the subject matter is practically always the Bard’s praise of his chieftain. Purely literary criticism would most certainly place the Cynfeirdd many centuries earlier than the 12th century poets.

Shenxiu. (J. Jinshu; K. Sinsu 神秀) (606?-706). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty and putative founder of the "Northern school" (BEI ZONG) of early Chan Buddhism. Shenxiu was a native of Kaifeng in present-day Henan province. As an extraordinarily tall man with well-defined features, Shenxiu is said to have had a commanding presence. In 625, Shenxiu was ordained at the monastery of Tiangongsi in Luoyang, but little is known of his activities in the first two decades following his ordination. In 651, Shenxiu became a disciple of HONGREN (601-674), cofounder of the East Mountain Teachings (DONGSHAN FAMEN) and the monk later recognized as the fifth patriarch of the Chan school; indeed, by many early accounts, such as the CHUAN FABAO JI and LENGQIE SHIZI JI, Shenxiu became Hongren's legitimate successor. According to the famous story in the LIUZU TANJING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch"), however, Shenxiu lost a verse-writing contest to the unlettered HUINENG (638-713), whom Hongren then in secret sanctioned as the sixth patriarch. However, it is unclear how long Shenxiu studied with Hongren. One source states that it was for a period of six years, in which case he would have left Hongren's monastery long before Huineng's arrival, making the famous poetry contest impossible. Regardless of the date of his departure, Shenxiu eventually left Hongren's monastery for Mt. Dangyang in Jingzhou (present-day Hubei province), where he remained for over twenty years and attracted many disciples. Shenxiu and his disciples were the subjects of a polemical attack by HEZE SHENHUI (684-758), who disparaged Shenxiu as representing a mere collateral branch of BODHIDHARMA's lineage and for promoting what Shenhui called a "gradual" (jian) approach to enlightenment. Shenhui instead promoted a "sudden teaching" (DUNJIAO), which he claimed derived from a so-called "Southern school" (NAN ZONG) founded by Huineng, another (and relatively obscure) disciple of Hongren, whom Shenhui claimed was Hongren's authentic successor and the true sixth patriarch (LIUZU). Later Chan historians such as GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841) began to use the designation "Northern school" (Bei zong) to describe the lineage of Shenxiu and his disciples YIFU (661-736), PUJI (651-739), and XIANGMO ZANG (d.u.). While Shenhui's characterization of Shenxiu and his supposed "gradualism" is now known to be misleading, subsequent histories of the Chan tradition (see CHUANDENG LU) more or less adopted Shenhui's vision of early Chan; thus Huineng, rather than Shenxiu, comes to be considered the bearer of the orthodox Chan transmission. As one mark of Shenxiu's high standing within the Chan tradition of his time, in 700, Shenxiu was invited to the imperial palace by Empress WU ZETIAN, where the empress prostrated herself before the nonagenarian monk. She was so impressed with the aged Chan master that she decided to build him a new monastery on Mt. Dangyang named Dumensi. She also gave him the title of state preceptor (GUOSHI). Upon his death, he was given a state funeral. He is one of only three Buddhist monks whose biography is included in the Tang shi ("Tang Annals"). This is clearly not the profile of an imposter within the Chan lineage. Shenxiu's teachings are known to have focused on the transcendence of thoughts (linian) and the five expedient means (fangbian; S. UPĀYA); these teachings appear in "Northern school" treatises discovered at Dunhuang, such as the YUANMING LUN, Guanxin lun, and DASHENG WUSHENG FANGBIAN MEN. Shenxiu was an expert on the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA, a text favored by Hongren and the early Chan tradition, and is also thought to have written a substantial commentary on the AVATAMSAKASuTRA. Despite the uncomplimentary portrayal of the "Northern school" in mainstream Chan materials, it is now recognized that Shenxiu and his disciples actually played a much more important role in the early growth and development of the Chan school than the mature tradition acknowledged.

Siming shiyi shu. (J. Shimei jugisho; K. Samyong sibŭi so 四明十義書). In Chinese, "Siming's Letters on Ten Issues"; a collection of letters compiled by the TIANTAI monk SIMING ZHILI (960-1028) and edited together in 1006. The Siming shiyi shu is a valuable source of information on the SHANJIA SHANWAI, or "Home-Mountain/Off-Mountain," debate within the Song-dynasty Tiantai school. Two recensions of TIANTAI ZHIYI's commentary on the SUVARnAPRABHĀSOTTAMASuTRA, an expanded and an abridged version, were known to have circulated during the late Tang and early Five Dynasties period. Zhili and the Shanjia faction, which later came to define Tiantai orthodoxy, defended the expanded recension when the monk Ciguang Wu'en (912-986) and others of the so-called Shanwai faction began questioning the authenticity of certain of its passages, particularly the ten modes of contemplation found in the text. The Siming shiyi shu speaks of Zhiyi's teachings on contemplation in ten general points: (1) not discerning the subject of contemplation, (2) not discerning the object of contemplation, (3) not distinguishing between inside and outside, (4) not constructing the duality of principle and phenomena, (5) not elucidating the workings of contemplation, (6) not lingering on the difficulties of the mind, (7) not knowing the levels of contemplation, (8) not collecting the meanings of contemplation, (9) not being skilled at collecting passages, (10) not being skilled at studying principle.

Skandhas (Sanskrit) Skandha-s Bundles, groups of various attributes forming the compound constitution of the human being. They are the manifested qualities and attributes forming the human being on all six planes of Being, beneath the spiritual monad or atma-buddhi, making up the totality of the subjective and objective person. They have to do with everything that is finite in the human being, and are therefore inapplicable to the relatively eternal and absolute. Every vibration of whatever kind, mental, emotional, or physical, that an individual has undergone or made, is derivative of and from one of the skandhas composing his constitution. Skandhas are the elements of limited existence. The five skandhas of every human being are: rupa (form), the material properties or attributes; vedana (sensations, perceptions); sanjna (consciousness, abstract ideas); sanskara (action), tendencies both physical and mental; vijnana (knowledge), mental and moral predispositions. Two further, unnamed skandhas “are connected with, and productive of Sakkayaditthi, the ‘heresy or delusion of individuality’ and of Attavada ‘the doctrine of Self,’ both of which (in the case of the fifth principle the soul) lead to the maya of heresy and belief in the efficacy of vain rites and ceremonies; in prayers and intercession”; “The ‘old being’ is the sole parent — father and mother at once — of the ‘new being.’ It is the former who is the creator and fashioner, of the latter, in reality; and far more so in plain truth, than any father in flesh. And once that you have well mastered the meaning of Skandhas you will see what I mean” (ML 111). The human skandhas are the causal activities which by their action and interaction attract the reincarnating ego back to earth-life. The exoteric skandhas have to do with objective man; the esoteric with inner and subjective man.

Sketchpad ::: A program that allowed users to draw on a screen with a light pen. It supported constraints (e.g. drawing a constrained ellipse produced a circle). It also had some computer aided design features (e.g. computing loads on beams).Sketchpad was the subject of Ivan E. Sutherland's 1963 MIT PhD thesis, which opened the field of computer graphics. It was the progenitor of computer drawing packages like MacDraw or Adobe Illustrator. There is a film of Sketchpad in action.It solved constraints using value inference and introduced the ring list structure.[Sketchpad: A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System, I.e. Sutherland, MIT Lincoln Lab, TR 296 (Jan 1963)].[Sammet 1969, p. 678]. (1995-02-14)

Sketchpad A program that allowed users to draw on a screen with a {light pen}. It supported constraints (e.g. drawing a constrained ellipse produced a circle). It also had some {computer aided design} features (e.g. computing loads on beams). Sketchpad was the subject of {Ivan E. Sutherland}'s 1963 {MIT} PhD thesis, which opened the field of {computer graphics}. It was the progenitor of computer drawing packages like {MacDraw} or {Adobe Illustrator}. There is a film of Sketchpad in action. It solved {constraints} using {value inference} and introduced the "{ring}" list structure. ["Sketchpad: A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System", I.e. Sutherland, MIT Lincoln Lab, TR 296 (Jan 1963)]. [Sammet 1969, p. 678]. (1995-02-14)

slavery ::: the subjection of a person to another person, esp. in being forced into work; bondage.

sorites ::: n. --> An abridged form of stating of syllogisms in a series of propositions so arranged that the predicate of each one that precedes forms the subject of each one that follows, and the conclusion unites the subject of the first proposition with the predicate of the last proposition

sort 1. "application, algorithm" To arrange a collection of items in some specified order. The items - {records} in a file or data structures in memory - consist of one or more {fields} or members. One of these fields is designated as the "sort key" which means the records will be ordered according to the value of that field. Sometimes a sequence of key fields is specified such that if all earlier keys are equal then the later keys will be compared. Within each field some ordering is imposed, e.g. ascending or descending numerical, {lexical ordering}, or date. Sorting is the subject of a great deal of study since it is a common operation which can consume a lot of computer time. There are many well-known sorting {algorithms} with different time and space behaviour and programming {complexity}. Examples are {quicksort}, {insertion sort}, {bubble sort}, {heap sort}, and {tree sort}. These employ many different data structures to store sorted data, such as {arrays}, {linked lists}, and {binary trees}. 2. "tool" The {Unix} utility program for sorting lines of files. {Unix manual page}: sort(1). (1997-02-12)

sort ::: 1. (application, algorithm) To arrange a collection of items in some specified order. The items - records in a file or data structures in memory - some ordering is imposed, e.g. ascending or descending numerical, lexical ordering, or date.Sorting is the subject of a great deal of study since it is a common operation which can consume a lot of computer time. There are many well-known sorting algorithms with different time and space behaviour and programming complexity.Examples are quicksort, insertion sort, bubble sort, heap sort, and tree sort. These employ many different data structures to store sorted data, such as arrays, linked lists, and binary trees.2. (tool) The Unix utility program for sorting lines of files.Unix manual page: sort(1). (1997-02-12)

..[Spiritual planes above the normal range of Mind, the Higher Mind and the Illumined Mind] of the ascent enjoy their authority and can get their own united completeness only by a
   reference to a third level; for it is from the higher summits where dwells the intuitional being that they derive the knowledge which they turn into thought or sight and bring down to us for the mind’s transmutation. Intuition is a power of consciousness nearer and more intimate to the original knowledge by identity; for it is always something that leaps out direct from a concealed identity. It is when the consciousness of the subject meets with the consciousness in the object, penetrates it and sees, feels or vibrateswith the truth of what it contacts, that the intuition leaps out like a spark or lightning-flash from the shock of the meeting; or when the consciousness, even without any such meeting, looks into itself and feels directly and intimately the truth or the truths that are there or so contacts the hidden forces behind appearances, then also there is the outbreak of an intuitive light; or, again, when the consciousness meets the Supreme Reality or the spiritual reality of things and beings and has a contactual union with it, then the spark, the flash or the blaze of intimate truth-perception is lit in its depths. This close perception is more than sight, more than conception: it is the result of a penetrating and revealing touch which carries in it sight and conception as part of itself or as its natural consequence. A concealed or slumbering identity, not yet recovering itself, still remembers or conveys by the intuition its own contents and the intimacy of its self-feeling and self-vision of things, its light of truth, its overwhelming and automatic certitude.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 21-22, Page: 981-982


spoiler ::: 1. A remark which reveals important plot elements from books or movies, thus denying the reader (of the article) the proper suspense when reading the book or watching the movie.2. Any remark which telegraphs the solution of a problem or puzzle, thus denying the reader the pleasure of working out the correct answer (see also interesting). Either sense readily forms compounds like total spoiler, quasi-spoiler and even pseudo-spoiler.By convention, Usenet news articles which are spoilers in either sense should contain the word spoiler in the Subject: line, or guarantee via various tricks that the answer appears only after several screens-full of warning, or conceal the sensitive information via rot13, or some combination of these techniques.[Jargon File] (1995-01-18)

spoiler 1. A remark which reveals important plot elements from books or movies, thus denying the reader (of the article) the proper suspense when reading the book or watching the movie. 2. Any remark which telegraphs the solution of a problem or puzzle, thus denying the reader the pleasure of working out the correct answer (see also {interesting}). Either sense readily forms compounds like "total spoiler", "quasi-spoiler" and even "pseudo-spoiler". By convention, {Usenet} news articles which are spoilers in either sense should contain the word "spoiler" in the Subject: line, or guarantee via various tricks that the answer appears only after several screens-full of warning, or conceal the sensitive information via {rot13}, or some combination of these techniques. [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-18)

  Sri Aurobindo: ". . . thought in itself, in its origin on the higher levels of consciousness, is a perception, a cognitive seizing of the object or of some truth of things which is a powerful but still a minor and secondary result of spiritual vision, a comparatively external and superficial regard of the self upon the self, the subject upon itself or something of itself as object.” *The Life Divine

Statement: See Meaning, Kinds of, 1. Statistics: The systematic study of quantitative facts, numerical data, comparative materials, obtained through description and interpretation of group phenomena. The method of using and interpreting processes of classification, enumeration, measurement and evaluation of group phenomena. In a restricted sense, the materials, facts or data referring to group phenomena and forming the subject of systematic computation and interpretation. The Ground of Statistics. Statistics have developed from a specialized application of the inductive principle which concludes from the characteristics of a large number of parts to those of the whole. When we make generalizations from empirical data, we are never certain of having expressed adequately the laws connecting all the relevant and efficient factors in the case under investigation. Not only have we to take into account the personal equation involved and the imperfection of our instru ments of observation and measurement, but also the complex character of physical, biological, psychological and social phenomena which cannot be subjected to an exhaustive analysis. Statistics reveals precisely definite trends and frequencies subject to approximate laws, in these various fields in which phenomena result from many independently varying factors and involve a multitude of numerical units of variable character. Statistics differs fiom probability insofar as it makes a more consistent use of empirical data objectively considered, and of methods directly inspired by the treatment of these data.

statistics "statistics, mathematics" The practice, study or result of the application of mathematical {functions} to collections of {data} in order to summarise or {extrapolate} that data. The subject of statistics can be divided into descriptive statistics - describing data, and analytical statistics - drawing conclusions from data. (1997-07-16)

statistics ::: (statistics, mathematics) The practice, study or result of the application of mathematical functions to collections of data in order to summarise or extrapolate that data.The subject of statistics can be divided into descriptive statistics - describing data, and analytical statistics - drawing conclusions from data. (1997-07-16)

story ::: v. t. --> A set of rooms on the same floor or level; a floor, or the space between two floors. Also, a horizontal division of a building&

Strictly speaking, there are no contraries in the category of substance, since substances are the subject of contraries, nor in the category of quantity, since these are relative. Two contrary states cannot obtain in one and the same individual at the same time and in the same respect; cf. contradiction. Some contraries, e.g. good-bad, black-white, have intermediaries; while others do not, e.g. odd-even. (ii) Propositions: Two universal propositions, having opposite quality (i.e. one affirmative and one negative) are contrary; De Interpretattone, 17b-4, See Logic, formal § 4, 8.

studied ::: a. --> Closely examined; read with diligence and attention; made the subject of study; well considered; as, a studied lesson.
Well versed in any branch of learning; qualified by study; learned; as, a man well studied in geometry.
Premeditated; planned; designed; as, a studied insult.
Intent; inclined. ::: imp. & p. p.


SUB-CONSCIOUS—That which pertains to the real nature or essence of a person or thing; proceeding from or taking place within the subject, as opposed to the objective. Thus sensation is subconscious, while perception is an objective experience.

Subjective idealism denies the existence of objective reality altogether, except perhaps as illusory, as for instance in the views of Berkeley. Objective idealism, such as the system of Schelling, recognizes the existence of objective worlds while regarding the ideal world as the primary production and paramount: the external world has a relative and temporary or mayavi reality. This latter view is the only strictly logical one; for if we annihilate the object, we must thereby annihilate the subject also, these two terms having no meaning except relatively to each other. In any theory of knowledge, there must be knower and thing known; and the latter is objective to the former. Absolute idealism logically is as unthinkable as is absolute materialism. See also MAYA

Subjective_probability ::: is a type of probability derived from an individual's personal judgment about whether a specific outcome is likely to occur. It contains no formal calculations and only reflects the subject's opinions and past experience. Subjective probabilities differ from person to person, and contains a high degree of personal bias.  BREAKING DOWN 'Subjective Probability'  An example of subjective probability is asking New York Yankees fans, before the baseball season starts, about the chances of New York winning the World Series. While there is no absolute mathematical proof behind the answer to the example, fans might still reply in actual percentage terms, such as the Yankees having a 25% chance of winning the World Series.  Subjective probability is highly flexible, even in terms of one individual’s belief. While an individual may believe the chance of a specified event occurring is 25%, they could have a different belief when given a specific range from which to choose, such as 25% to 30%. This can occur even if no additional hard data is behind the change. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/subjective_probability.asp

Subject Matching ::: A method of reducing bias in a sample of subjects by matching specific criteria of the sample to the true characteristics of the population. (Example: If the population is 60% female then 60% of the subjects in the sample should also be female)

Subsumption: Noun signifying that the subject of a proposition is taken under the predicate. Also the inclusion of the species under the genus, and the individual under the species. The minor premiss which applies a general law stated by the major premiss of a syllogism is called a subsumption. -- J.J.R.

sŭngkwa. (C. sengke; J. soka 僧科). In Korean, "ecclesiastical examinations," a clerical examination system used in Korea from the early Koryo through early Choson dynasties to exert state control over the ecclesiastical institution, by selecting monks who would hold official monastic positions. The examination system was established in 958 during the reign of the Koryo king Kwangjong (r. 949-975) and the examinations were originally administered every three years. There is no direct Chinese analogue for this kind of selective examination system conducted at the state level and it seems to have been a distinctively Korean creation. There were two separate examinations to select official monks: the Doctrinal (KYO, C. Jiao) school selection (KYOJONG SoN) and the Meditation (SoN, C. CHAN) school selection (SoNJONG SoN). The selection examination for the Doctrinal (Kyo) school was held at WANGNYUNSA, one of the ten major monasteries built in the Koryo capital of Kaesong by Wang Kon (T'aejo, r. 918-943), the first king of the Koryo dynasty; the Meditation (Son) exams were held at KWANGMYoNGSA, also located in the capital. Monks who passed the examination were qualified to hold official ecclesiastical status. Monks in both the Kyo and Son schools who passed the examinations were appointed, in ascending order, to the positions of taedok (great virtue), taesa (great master), ijungdaesa (second-grade great master), and samjungdaesa (third-grade great master). Beyond these positions common to both schools, there were two supreme positions exclusive to each school: sujwa (head seat) and SŬNGT'ONG for Kyo monks; and sonsa (Son master) and taesonsa (great Son master) for Son monks. State preceptors (KUKSA) and royal preceptors (WANGSA), the highest ecclesiastical offices during the Koryo dynasty and the symbolic religious teachers to the state and the king, were appointed from monks who held the positions of sŭngt'ong or taesonsa. The subject matter for the Kyo examination was derived from the AVATAMSAKASuTRA (Huayan jing) and the DAsABHuMIVYĀKHYĀNA (SHIDIJING LUN); for the Son examination, materials were taken from the JINGDE CHUANDENG LU and the SoNMUN YoMSONG CHIP. The examination system continued during the Choson dynasty despite the state suppression of Buddhism, but was abolished during the reign of King Chungjong (r. 1506-1544). The monastic examinations were subsequently revived in 1550 during the reign of King Myongjong (r. 1545-1567), but again abolished in 1565.

Suppositio personalis confusa (opposed to the preceding as suppositio personalis determinata) was further ascribed to a common noun used for the subject or predicate of a universal affirmative proposition. The relation of this to suppositio naturalis and suppositio simplex is not clear, and not uniform among different writers. -- A.C.

Surgical patients suffering from fright and fear before or during the induction of an anesthetic take it with more difficulty, and feel more aftereffects, than those who meet it without anxiety. The first stage of general anesthesia, usually not unpleasant, ends with the loss of physical consciousness. Then begins the second, or stage of struggling more or less vigorously, evidently due to the automatic reaction of the physical body, from which its conscious astral soul is being dissociated. In the third stage, the muscles relax and the disturbed heart and lungs settle down to regular rhythm, controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, as in a deep, dreamless sleep. The self-conscious ego, thus withdrawing from its ordinary state of being, enters more or less deeply into the subjective realm of its inner life. It is in a state of what has been called, paradoxically, conscious unconsciousness. The danger here is that the soul may become so far separated from its body that it does not come back again, and then death results.

sutrapitaka. (P. suttapitaka; T. mdo sde'i sde snod; C. jingzang; J. kyozo; K. kyongjang 經藏). In Sanskrit, "basket of discourses," one of the three constituents of the TRIPItAKA (together with the VINAYAPItAKA and the ABHIDHARMAPItAKA). This basket is a disparate collection of thousands of texts attributed to the Buddha (or said to be spoken with his sanction), varying in length from extended narrative accounts to short epigrams. The Pāli suttapitaka is divided into five groups, or NIKĀYA. These are the DĪGHANIKĀYA, or "Long Group," comprising thirty-four lengthier sutras; the MAJJHIMANIKĀYA, or "Middle [Length] Group," comprising 152 sutras; the SAMYUTTANIKĀYA or "Related Group," comprising (by some counts) some seven thousand sutras, organized largely by subject matter in fifty-six categories; the AnGUTTARANIKĀYA, literally, the "Group Increasing by a Factor," or more generally, the "Numerical Group," an anthology of nearly ten thousand brief texts organized by the number of the subject, with the first group dealing with single things, the second dealing with pairs, the third dealing with things that occur in threes, up to things that occur in groups of eleven; and finally the KHUDDAKANIKĀYA, or "Small Group," a diverse collection of miscellaneous texts, including such famous works as the Pāli DHAMMAPADA. Although the Khuddakanikāya contains some early works, as an independent nikāya, it appears to have been the last to be added to the tipitaka and is not mentioned in early accounts. The suttapitaka seems to have been preserved orally for centuries, before being committed to writing in Sri Lanka at the end of the first century BCE. The sutrapitakas of other Indian NIKĀYAs (schools) translated from a number of Indian languages into Chinese and Tibetan use the word ĀGAMA (tradition) in place of nikāya (group) for the groupings of sutras in their respective canons. In their Chinese translations, the DĪRGHĀGAMA or "Long Discourses," belonging to the DHARMAGUPTAKA school, corresponds to the Pāli Dīghanikāya; the MADHYAMĀGAMA or "Middle-Length Discourses" of the SARVĀSTIVĀDA school corresponds to the Pāli Majjhimanikāya; the SAMYUKTĀGAMA or "Connected Discourses," belonging to the Sarvāstivāda school (with a partial translation perhaps belonging to the KĀsYAPĪYA school) corresponds to the Pāli SaMyuttanikāya; and the EKOTTARĀGAMA or "Numerically Arranged Discourses," variously ascribed to the DHARMAGUPTAKAs, or less plausibly the MAHĀSĀMGHIKA school or its PRAJNAPTIVĀDA offshoot, corresponds to the Pāli Anguttaranikāya. Despite the similarities in the titles of these collections, there are substantial differences between the contents of the Sanskrit āgamas and the Pāli nikāyas. The Khuddakanikāya ("Miscellaneous Collection"), the fifth nikāya in the Pāli canon, has no equivalent in the extant Chinese translations of the āgamas; such miscellanies, or "mixed baskets" (S. ksudrakapitaka), were however known to have existed in several of the mainstream Buddhist schools, including the Dharmaguptaka, MahāsāMghika, and MAHĪsĀSAKA.

svarajya (swarajya) ::: self-rule, subjective empire; "the entire control svarajya by the subjective consciousness of all the states and activities proper to its own domain".

svārthānumāna. (T. rang don rjes dpag; C. zibiliang; J. jihiryo; K. chabiryang 自比量). In Sanskrit, "inference for oneself," a term used in Buddhist logic to refer to what would generally be referred to as a correct inference, that is, a mental process of reasoning that results in a factual assumption about a particular state of affairs. Technically speaking, inference for oneself is a conceptual consciousness that discerns an object by means of a sign or reason (LInGA) that has the three qualities (trirupa) of legitimate evidence. This refers to three relations that must obtain between the three elements of a syllogism: the subject, the predicate, and the reason. The three qualities are (1) the PAKsADHARMA, that the reason is a quality of the subject; (2) the forward pervasion (anvayavyāpti), that whatever is the reason is necessarily the predicate; and (3) the "exclusion" or reverse pervasion (vyatirekavyāpti), that whatever is not the predicate is necessarily not the reason. DIGNĀGA contrasted the inference for oneself with the inference for others (PARĀRTHĀNUMĀNA), which is not an inference in a technical sense, but is used only metaphorically. Inference for others refers to a proof that would be stated to another person, such as an opponent in a debate, in order for that person to arrive at the correct conclusion that one oneself has understood. Because the proof serves as the cause of the other person's inference, it is called an inference for others.

svatantraprayoga. (T. rang rgyud kyi sbyor ba). In Sanskrit, "autonomous syllogism." Among the many meanings of the term PRAYOGA is its use as a technical term in logic, where it is often translated as "syllogism," and refers to a statement that contains a subject, a predicate, and a reason. A svatantraprayoga leads to a svatantrānumāna (T. rang rgyud rjes dpag), an "autonomous inference." The correct syllogism that gives rise to correct inference is composed of three parts, the subject (dharmin), the property being proved (SĀDHYADHARMA), and the reason (HETU or LInGA). For example, consider the syllogism "Sound is impermanent because of being produced." The subject is sound, the property being proved is impermanence, and the reason is being produced. For the syllogism to be correct, three relations must exist among its three components: (1) the reason must be a property (DHARMA) of the subject, also called the "position" (PAKsA); (2) there must be a relationship of forward pervasion (anvayavyāpti) between the reason and the property being proved (SĀDHYADHARMA), such that whatever is the reason is necessarily the property being proved, and (3) there must be a relationship of "exclusion" or reverse pervasion (vyatirekavyāpti) between the property being proved and the reason such that whatever is not the property being proved is necessarily not the reason. In the example ("Sound is impermanent because of being produced"), the syllogism is correct because the reason ("being produced") is a quality of the subject ("sound"), there is forward pervasion in the sense that whatever is produced is necessarily impermanent, and there is reverse pervasion because whatever is not impermanent is necessarily not produced. It is generally the case in Indian logic that all elements of the syllogism must be accepted by both parties in a debate (see SAMĀNAPRATIBHĀSADHARMIN); such a syllogism is referred to as an "autonomous syllogism" (svatantrānumāna or svatantraprayoga). In the Madhyamaka school of Indian Buddhist philosophy, there was a controversy over whether such syllogisms were acceptable when a Madhyamaka debated with a proponent of another school. The locus classicus of the controversy is the debate between BHĀVAVIVEKA and CANDRAKĪRTI concerning BUDDHAPĀLITA's commentary on the first chapter of NĀGĀRJUNA's MuLAMADHYAMAKAKĀRIKĀ. It was Candrakīrti's position that the Madhyamaka should only use consequences (PRASAnGA) or an inference familiar to others (PARAPRASIDDHĀNUMĀNA), i.e., that they should only draw out the unintended consequences in others' positions; to use an autonomous syllogism implied acceptance of intrinsically established relations among the elements of the syllogism. Bhāvaviveka had argued that it was necessary for the Madhyamaka to state an autonomous syllogism at the conclusion of a debate. Based on this controversy, the Tibetans coined the terms *SVĀTANTRIKA and *PRĀSAnGIKA to designate these two positions.

Synthesis: In logic, the general method of deduction or deductive reasoning, which proceeds from the simple to the complex, from the general to the particular, from the necessary to the contingent, from a principle to its application, from a general law to individual cases from cause to effect, from an antecedent to its consequent, from a condition to the conditioned, from the logical whole to the logical part. The logical composition or combination of separate elements of thought, and also the result of this process. A judgment is considered as a synthesis when its predicate is accidental or contingent with respect to the subject: as the ground of such a synthesis is experience, synthetic judgments are a posteriori. The Kantian doctrine of synthetic judgments a priori involves a synthesis between two terms, prior to experience and through the agency of the forms of our intuition or of our understanding. The logical process of adding some elements to the comprehension of a concept in oider to obtain its 'logical division' in contradistinction to the 'real division' which breaks up a composition by analysis. The third phase in the dialectical process, combining the thesis and the antithesis for the emergence of a new level of being. In natural philosophy, the process of combining various material elements into a new substance. The ait of making or building up a compound by simpler compounds or by its elements. Also, the complex substance so formed.

Synthetic Judgment: (Kant. Ger. synthetische Urteil) A judgment relating a subject concept with a predicate concept not included within the subject proper. The validity of such a judgment depends on its 'ground'. Kant's central question was: "Are synthetic a priori judgments possible?" See Kantianism, Scientific Empiricism. See also Meaning, kinds of, 2. -- O.F.K.

Tārā. (T. Sgrol ma; C. Duoluo; J. Tara; K. Tara 多羅). In Sanskrit, lit. "Savioress"; a female bodhisattva who has the miraculous power to be able to deliver her devotees from all forms of physical danger. Tārā is said to have arisen from either a ray of blue light from the eye of the buddha AMITĀBHA, or from a tear from the eye of the BODHISATTVA AVALOKITEsVARA as he surveyed the suffering universe. The tear fell into a valley and formed a lake, out of which grew the lotus from which Tārā appeared. She is thus said to be the physical manifestation of the compassion of Avalokitesvara, who is himself the quintessence of the compassion of the buddhas. Because buddhas are produced from wisdom and compassion, Tārā, like the goddess PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ ("Perfection of Wisdom"), is hailed as "the mother of all buddhas," despite the fact that she is most commonly represented as a beautiful sixteen-year-old maiden. She is often depicted together with BHṚKUTĪ (one of her forms) as one of two female bodhisattvas flanking Avalokitesvara. Tārā is the subject of much devotion in her own right, serving as the subject of many stories, prayers, and tantric SĀDHANAs. She can appear in peaceful or wrathful forms, depending on the circumstances, her powers extending beyond the subjugation of these worldly frights, into the heavens and into the hells. She has two major peaceful forms, however. The first is SITATĀRĀ, or White Tārā. Her right hand is in VARADAMUDRĀ, her left is at her chest in VITARKAMUDRĀ and holds a lotus and she sits in DHYĀNĀSANA. The other is sYĀMATĀRĀ, or Green Tārā. Her right hand is in varadamudrā, her left is at her chest in vitarkamudrā and holds an utpala, and she sits in LALITĀSANA. Her wrathful forms include KURUKULLĀ, a dancing naked YOGINĪ, red in color, who brandishes a bow and arrow in her four arms. In tantric MAndALAs, she appears as the consort of AMOGHASIDDHI, the buddha of the northern quarter; together they are lord and lady of the KARMAKULA. But she is herself also the sole deity in many tantric SĀDHANAs, in which the meditator, whether male or female, visualizes himself or herself in Tārā's feminine form. Tārā is best-known for her salvific powers, appearing the instant her devotee recites her MANTRA, oM tāre tuttāre ture svāhā. She is especially renowned as Astabhayatrānatārā, "Tārā Who Protects from the Eight Fears," because of her ability to deliver those who call upon her when facing the eight great fears (mahābhaya) of lions, elephants, fire, snakes, thieves, water, imprisonment, and demons. Many tales are told recounting her miraculous interventions. Apart from the recitation of her mantra, a particular prayer is the most common medium of invoking Tārā in Tibet. It is a prayer to twenty-one Tārās, derived from an Indian TANTRA devoted to Tārā, the Sarvatathāgatamātṛtārāvisvakarmabhavatantra ("Source of All Rites to Tārā, the Mother of All the Tathāgatas"). According to some commentarial traditions on the prayer, each of the verses refers to a different form of Tārā, totaling twenty-one. According to others, the forms of Tārā are iconographically almost indistinguishable. Tārā entered the Buddhist pantheon relatively late, around the sixth century, in northern India and Nepal, and her worship in Java is attested in inscriptions dating to the end of the eighth century. Like Avalokitesvara, she has played a crucial role in Tibet's history, in both divine and human forms. One version of the creation myth that has the Tibetan race originating from a dalliance between a monkey and an ogress says the monkey was a form of Avalokitesvara and the ogress a form of Tārā. Worship of Tārā in Tibet began in earnest with the second propagation and the arrival of ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNĀNA in the eleventh century; she appears repeatedly in accounts of his life and in his teachings. He had visions of the goddess at crucial points in his life, and she advised him to make his fateful journey to Tibet, despite the fact that his life span would be shortened as a result. His sādhanas for the propitiation of Sitatārā and syāmatārā played a key role in promoting the worship of Tārā in Tibet. He further was responsible for the translation of several important Indic texts relating to the goddess, including three by Vāgīsvarakīrti that make up the 'chi blu, or "cheating death" cycle, the foundation of all lineages of the worship of Sitatārā in Tibet. The famous Tārā chapel at Atisa's temple at SNYE THANG contains nearly identical statues of the twenty-one Tārās. The translator Darmadra brought to Tibet the important ANUYOGA tantra devoted to the worship of Tārā, entitled Bcom ldan 'das ma sgrol ma yang dag par rdzogs pa'i sangs rgyas bstod pa gsungs pa. Tārā is said to have taken human form earlier in Tibetan history as the Chinese princess WENCHENG and Nepalese princess Bhṛkutī, who married King SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO, bringing with them buddha images that would become the most revered in Tibet. Which Tārā they were remains unsettled; however, some sources identify Wencheng with syāmatārā and Bhṛkutī with the goddess of the same name, herself said to be a form of Tārā. Others argue that the Nepalese princess was Sitatārā, and Wencheng was syāmatārā. These identifications, however, like that of Srong btsan sgam po with Avalokitesvara, date only to the fourteenth century, when the cult of Tārā in Tibet was flourishing. In the next generation, Tārā appeared as the wife of King KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN and the consort of PADMASAMBHAVA, YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL, who in addition to becoming a great tantric master herself, served as scribe when Padmasambhava dictated the treasure texts (GTER MA). Later, Tārā is said to have appeared as the great practitioner of the GCOD tradition, MA GCIG LAP SGRON (1055-1149). Indeed, when Tārā first vowed eons ago to achieve buddhahood in order to free all beings from SAMSĀRA, she swore she would always appear in female form.

tathatā. (T. de bzhin nyid/de kho na nyid; C. zhenru; J. shinnyo; K. chinyo 眞如). In Sanskrit, "suchness" or "thusness"; a term for ultimate reality, especially in the MAHĀYĀNA schools. Along with terms such as DHARMATĀ, DHARMADHĀTU, and BHuTAKOtI, it has a more "positive" connotation than emptiness (suNYATĀ), referring to the eternal nature of reality that is "ever thus" or "just so" and free of all conceptual elaborations. In YOGĀCĀRA/VIJNĀNAVĀDA, the term refers to the ultimate wisdom that is free from the subject-object distinction (GRĀHYAGRĀHAKAVIKALPA). Buddhahood is sometimes described as tathatāvisuddhi, or "purity of suchness," that is, ultimate reality purified of all obstructions. In the MADHYAMAKA school, any attempt to substantiate the nature of reality is rejected, and tathatā is instead identified with emptiness and the cessation of all dichotomizing tendencies of thought. The Chinese equivalent, ZHENRU, is a seminal term in in East Asian Buddhist philosophy, figuring prominently, for example, in the DASHENG QIXIN LUN. See also TATTVA.

taxation ::: n. --> The act of laying a tax, or of imposing taxes, as on the subjects of a state, by government, or on the members of a corporation or company, by the proper authority; the raising of revenue; also, a system of raising revenue.
The act of taxing, or assessing a bill of cost.
Tax; sum imposed.
Charge; accusation.


Termmism: See Nominalism. Tertiary Qualities: Those qualities which are said to be imparted to objects by the mind. In contrast to primary and secondary qualities which are directed toward the objects (primary being thought of distinctly a part of objects) tertiary qualities are the subject's reactions to them. A thing, for example, is said to be good: The good points to the subject's reaction rather than to the object itself. -- V.F.

Tertii adjacentis: Latin expression employed to describe a proposition in which the subject, predicate, and copula are clearly distinguishable. -- J.J.R.

text ::: n. --> A discourse or composition on which a note or commentary is written; the original words of an author, in distinction from a paraphrase, annotation, or commentary.
The four Gospels, by way of distinction or eminence.
A verse or passage of Scripture, especially one chosen as the subject of a sermon, or in proof of a doctrine.
Hence, anything chosen as the subject of an argument, literary composition, or the like; topic; theme.


thanatopsis ::: n. --> A view of death; a meditation on the subject of death.

The diversity of concepts that Husserl himself expressed by the word "phenomenology" has been a source of diverse usages among thinkeis who came under his influence and are often referred to as "the phenomenological school." Husserl himself always meant by "phenomenology" a science of the subjective and its intended objects qua intentional; this core of sense pervades the development of his own concept of phenomenology as eidetic, transcendental, constitutive. Some thinkers, appropriating only the psychological version of this central concept, have developed a descriptive intentional psychology -- sometimes empirical, sometimes eidetic -- under the title "phenomenology." On the other hand, Husserl's broader concept of eidetic science based on seeing essences and essentially necessary relations -- especially his concept of material ontology -- has been not only adopted but made central by others, who define phenomenology accordingly. Not uncommonly, these groups reject Husserl's method of transcendental-phenomenological reduction and profess a realistic metaphysics. Finally, there are those who, emphasizing Husserl's cardinal principle that evidence -- seeing something that is itself presented -- is the only ultimate source of knowledge, conceive their phenomenology more broadly and etymologically, as explication of that which shows itself, whatever may be the latter 's nature and ontologicil status. -- D.C.

“The Formless (‘Arupa’) Radiations, existing in the harmony of Universal Will, and being what we term the collective or the aggregate of Cosmic Will on the plane of the subjective Universe, unite together an infinitude of monads — each the mirror of its own Universe — and thus individualize for the time being an independent mind, omniscient and universal; and by the same process of magnetic aggregation they create for themselves objective, visible bodies, out of the interstellar atoms” (SD 1:632-3). See also DHATU; LOKA; RUPA

"The Gods are the great undying Powers and immortal Personalities who consciously inform, constitute, preside over the subjective and objective forces of the cosmos.” Essays on the Gita

“The Gods are the great undying Powers and immortal Personalities who consciously inform, constitute, preside over the subjective and objective forces of the cosmos.” Essays on the Gita

The gods are the great undying Powers and immortal Personalities who consciously inform, constitute, preside over the subjective and objective forces of the cosmos.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 19, Page: 346


The Greek Skeptics and Pyrrhonists demonstrate that rigid logic leads to contradictory conclusions (antinomies), a fact which led them to doubt the efficacy of the mentality as a means of ascertaining truth. A strictly logical system may be found in pure mathematics, where we lay down axioms and postulates, which are to be treated as not open to question; and then proceed by rigid rules to the inevitable conclusion. But what is possible in an ideal science is not possible in an actual world of infinite variety and fluidity. Theosophy places the subject in a different light, because it recognizes the existence in man of powers of direct cognition by the awakened faculties of buddhi. Thus man has the means of a true deductive system; but even so, deduction must be considered together with induction, analogy, and other methods, as merely one of the various means by which we arrive at a knowledge of truth.

The method is, of course, the dialectic. On its formal side, it is constituted by the triadic dialectic of thesis, antithesis and synthesis. In his logical writings Hegel is very fond of manipulating this formal apparatus, which he does in great detail. From his practice here one might be led to suppose that in his opinion the dialectic itself constitutes the essence of the method. In his other writings, however, little if any use is made of the schematism, except for the purpose of presenting the larger patterns of the subject-matter; and in his remarks on method its formal aspect is hardly referred to. In these remarks Hegel is concerned with emphasizing the logical structure underlying the machinery, namely, the relationship of contrariety and its resolution. Everywhere, the method is grounded in system, and the transition from thesis and antithesis to synthesis is held to be necessitated by the structure of the system within which it is grounded. Consequently the dialectical advance exhibits pari passu the structure of the system which is its matrix; the synthesis is positive throughout. This characteristic of the method, its "holding fast the positive in the negative," is what Hegel calls its negativity; and this characteristic is to him the essence of the dialectic.

The Norse tree of life is said to be rooted in the divine “ground” and to spread through the shelves of space, bearing living worlds upon its branches. Where the ash tree refers to humanity on earth it is the subject of the tale called “Askungen” (ash child or Cinderella), using an intricate play on words. See also YGGDRASIL

The origin, nature, and the continued existence or immortality of the soul is widely discussed in Jewish philosophy. As to origin, Saadia believes that each individual soul is created by God -- considering, of course, creation a continuous process -- and that it is of a fine spiritual substance. As to its faculties, he accepts the Aristotelian-Platonic division of the soul into three parts, namely, the appetitive, emotional, and cognitive. Ibn Daud thinks that the soul exists prior to the body potentially, i.e., that the angels endow the body with form; he further considers it a substance but says that it undergoes a process of development. The more it thinks the more perfect it becomes, and the thoughts are called acquired reason, it is this acquired reason, or being perfected which remains immortal. Maimonides does not discuss the origin of the soul, but deals more with its parts. To the three of Saadia he adds the imaginative and the conative. Gersonides' view resembles somewhat that of Ibn Daud, except that he does not speak of its origin and limits himself to the intellect. The intellect, says he, is only a capacity residing in the lower soul, and that capacity is gradually developed by the help of the Active Intellect into an acquired and ultimately into an active reason. All thinkers insist on immortality, but with Saadia and ha-Levi it seems that the entire soul survives, while the Aristotelians assert that only the intellect is immortal. Maimonides is not explicit on the subject, yet we may surmise that even the more liberal thinkers did not subscribe to Averroes' theory of unitas intellectus, and they believed that the immortal intellect is endowed with consciousness of personality. To this trend of connecting immortality with rational reflection Crescas took exception, and asserts that it is not pure thought which leads to survival, but that the soul is immortal because it is a spiritual being, and it is perfected by its love for God and the doing of good.

Theosophy holds that mesmerism is not hypnotism. In hypnotism the subject’s intermediate nature is disjoined from its natural relations with his physical and astral body and put out of the control of the person himself, becoming susceptible to other influences. This process is a reversal of all evolutionary currents which in every being unfold and manifest from conscious centers within. Such a reversal is dangerous and far-reaching in its results, spiritually, mentally, morally, psychically, and physically.

The phenomenon is a variety of black magic, involving both the practice of psychologization and in certain cases the subjection of the victim to astral obsession: either an involuntary astral seizure on the part of a mediumistic person, or a deliberate act of sorcery on the part of a degraded one. The lower realms of the astral light harbor baneful exuviae of various sorts, with which a pernicious commerce may be had through various forms of moral depravity and psychic weakness. It was an exaggerated and specialized form of obsessions which takes place in our day in people transported by passion or afflicted with violent insanity; hence it is often found convenient to describe it simply as a form of insanity, which however does not explain how the appearances of a wolf were caused. In extreme cases, however, the craving for physical life and the dread of personal extinction in a human kama-rupa may be so great that it may seize and enter the body of a living animal.

The philosophy of Aristotle was continued after his death by other members of the Peripatetic school, the most important of whom were Theophrastus, Eudemus of Rhodes, and Strato of Lampsacus. In the Alexandrian Age, particularly after the editing of Aristotle's works by Andronicus of Rhodes (about 50 B.C.), Aristotelianism was the subject of numerous expositions and commentaries, such as those of Alexander of Aphrodisias, Themistius, John Philoponus, and Simplicius. With the closing of the philosophical schools in the sixth century the knowledge of Aristotle, except for fragments of the logical doctrine, almost disappeared in the west. It was preserved, however, by Arabian and Syrian scholars; from whom, with the revival of learning in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, it passed again to western Europe and became in Thomas Aquinas the philosophical basis of Christian theology. For the next few centuries the prestige of Aristotle was immense; he was "the philosopher," "the master of those who know." With the rise of modern science his authority has greatly declined. Yet Aristotelianism is still a force in modern thought: in Neo-Scholasticism; in recent psychology, whose behavioristic tendencies are in part a revival of Aristotelian modes of thought; in the various forms of vitalism in contemporary biology; in the dynamism of such thinkers as Bergson; and in the more catholic naturalism which has succeeded the mechanistic materialism of the last century, and which, whether by appeal to a doctrine of levels or by emphasis on immanent teleology, seems to be striving along Aristotelian lines for a conception of nature broad enough to include the religious, moral and artistic consciousness. Finally, a very large part of our technical vocabulary, both in science and in philosophy, is but the translation into modern tongues of the terms used by Aristotle, and carries with it, for better or worse, the distinctions worked out in his subtle mind. -- G.R.M.

There is yet a third kind of epohe that allegedly enables one to discriminate subjectivity qua transcendental -- by effecting yet another kind of reduction, which Husserl eventually called "transcendental-phenomenological." (In his Ideen he called it simply "phenomenological.") By refraining from participition in one's inveterate (and justifiable) natural attitude of presupposing the world and the status of one's subjectivity in the world, one can see the world (and whatever else one may intend) as fundamentally a noematic-intentional object for transcendental subjectivity -- for one's individual self, the subject whose life is one's own transcendental stream of consciousness, and for other transcendental subjects. As one can describe one's actual psychic subjectivity, so one can describe one's actual transcendental subjectivity and thus produce an empirical transcendental phenomenology. Again, as in the case of the purely psychic, so in the case of the purely transcendental, an eidetic reduction enables one to produce a purely eidetic science -- here an eidetic transcendental phenomenology, the theme of which is the absolutely universal domain of transcendental subjectivity in general, including the latter's noematic-objective sense: the entire world and all its possible variants. This eidetic transcendental phenomenology is what Husserl ordinarily meant when, in the Ideen or subsequent works, he spoke simply of "phenomenology. "

:::   "The silent mind is a result of yoga; the ordinary mind is never silent. . . . The thinkers and philosophers do not have the silent mind. It is the active mind they have; only, of course, they concentrate, so the common incoherent mentalising stops and the thoughts that rise or enter and shape themselves are coherently restricted to the subject or activity in hand. But that is quite a different matter from the whole mind falling silent.” Letters on Yoga

“The silent mind is a result of yoga; the ordinary mind is never silent. . . . The thinkers and philosophers do not have the silent mind. It is the active mind they have; only, of course, they concentrate, so the common incoherent mentalising stops and the thoughts that rise or enter and shape themselves are coherently restricted to the subject or activity in hand. But that is quite a different matter from the whole mind falling silent.” Letters on Yoga

The structural problem stated in terms of the antithesis between subjective and objective is rather too vague for the purposes of epistemology and a more precise analysis of the knowledge-situation and statement of the issues involved is required. The perceptual situation -- and this analysis may presumably be extended with appropriate modifications to memory, imagination and other modes of cognition -- consists of a subject (the self, or pure act of perceiving), the content (sense data) and the object (the physical thing perceived). In terms of this analysis, two issues may be formulated Are content and object identical (epistemological monism), or are they numerically distinct (epistemological dualism)? and Does the object exist independently of the knowing subject (epistemological idealism) or is it dependent upon the subject (epistemological realism)? (h) The problem of truth is perhaps the culmination of epistemological enquiry -- in any case it is the problem which brings the enquiry to the threshold of metaphysics. The traditional theories of the nature of truth are: the correspondence theory which conceives truth as a relation between an "idea" or a proposition and its object --the relation has commonly been regarded as one of resemblance but it need not be so considered (see Correspondence theory of truth); the Coherence theory which adopts as the criterion of truth, the logical consistency of a proposition with a wider system of propositions (see Coherence theory of truth), and the intrinsic theory which views truth as an intrinsic property of the true proposition. See Intrinsic theory of truth. --L-W. Bibliography:

the subject of a woodcut reproduced in Paul

The subject of the philosophy of religion is regarded in conservative circles not as a discipline given to free philosophical inquiry but as a particular religion's philosophy. In this form it is a more or less disguised apologetics or defense of an already accepted religious faith. While the data for this subject include the so-called classical religions, philosophy of religion, in the genuinely philosophical sense, takes for its material religious expressions of all types, whether classical or not, together with all the psychological material available on the nature of the human spirit and man's whole cultural development. -- V.F.

The word may also mean a treatise on the subject, or a body of doctrine on it.

This seems to be another or new interpretation of Catholic doctrine on the subject.

Thoughts ::: Thought in itself, in its origin on the higher levels of consciousness, is a perception, a cognitive seizing of the object or of some truth of things which is a powerful but still a minor and secondary result of spiritual vision, a comparatively external and superficial regard of the self upon the self, the subject upon itself or something of itself as object.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 21-22, Page: 979-80


thought ::: “… thought in itself, in its origin on the higher levels of consciousness, is a perception, a cognitive seizing of the object or of some truth of things which is a powerful but still a minor and secondary result of spiritual vision, a comparatively external and superficial regard of the self upon the self, the subject upon itself or something of itself as object.” The Life Divine

tip of the ice-cube ::: [IBM] The visible part of something small and insignificant. Used as an ironic comment in situations where tip of the iceberg might be appropriate if the subject were at all important.[Jargon File]

tip of the ice-cube [IBM] The visible part of something small and insignificant. Used as an ironic comment in situations where "tip of the iceberg" might be appropriate if the subject were at all important. [{Jargon File}]

title ::: n. --> An inscription put over or upon anything as a name by which it is known.
The inscription in the beginning of a book, usually containing the subject of the work, the author&


topic drift "messaging" Term used on GEnie, {Usenet} and other electronic fora to describe the tendency of a {thread} to drift away from the original subject of discussion (and thus, from the Subject header of the originating message). Often used in gentle reminders that the discussion has strayed off any useful track. "I think we started with a question about Niven's last book, but we've ended up discussing the sexual habits of the common marmoset. Now *that's* topic drift!" [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-29)

topic drift ::: (messaging) Term used on GEnie, Usenet and other electronic fora to describe the tendency of a thread to drift away from the original subject of discussion (and thus, from the Subject header of the originating message), or the results of that tendency.Often used in gentle reminders that the discussion has strayed off any useful track. I think we started with a question about Niven's last book, but we've ended up discussing the sexual habits of the common marmoset. Now *that's* topic drift![Jargon File] (1996-05-29)

topic map "information science" A collection of "topics", their relationships, and information sources. A topic map captures the subjects of which information sources speak, and the relationships between them, in a way that is implementation independent. A topic is a symbol within the computer that represents something in the world such as the play Hamlet, the playwright William Shakespeare, or the "authorship" relationship. Topics can have names. They can also have occurrences, that is, information resources that are considered to be relevant in some way to their subject. Topics can play roles in relationships. Thus, topics have three kinds of characteristics: names, sources, and roles played in relationships. The assignment of such characteristics is considered to be valid within a certain scope, or context. Topic maps can be merged. Merging can take place at the discretion of the user or application (at runtime), or may be indicated by the topic map's author at the time of its creation. (2003-07-19)

topic map ::: (semantics) A collection of topics, their relationships, and information sources. A topic map captures the subjects of which information sources speak, and the relationships between them, in a way that is implementation independent.A topic is a symbol within the computer that represents something in the world such as the play Hamlet, the playwright William Shakespeare, or the authorship relationship.Topics can have names. They can also have occurrences, that is, information resources that are considered to be relevant in some way to their subject. Topics can play roles in relationships.Thus, topics have three kinds of characteristics: names, sources, and roles played in relationships. The assignment of such characteristics is considered to be valid within a certain scope, or context.Topic maps can be merged. Merging can take place at the discretion of the user or application (at runtime), or may be indicated by the topic map's author at the time of its creation.(2003-07-19)

traiguayavisaya vedah ::: the triple guna is the subject of the Vedas. [Gita 2.45]

Trapusa. (P. Tapussa/Tapussu; T. Ga gon; C. Tiwei; J. Daii; K. Chewi 提謂). Sanskrit proper name of one of the two merchants (together with his brother BHALLIKA) who became the first lay Buddhists (UPĀSAKA). Following his enlightenment under the BODHI TREE, the Buddha remained in the vicinity for seven weeks, each week spent at a different site (see BODHGAYĀ). At the end of the seventh week (or in some versions the sixth), he sat under a Rājāyatana tree, where he continued his meditation. Two merchants, Trapusa and his younger brother Bhallika, who were leading a large trading caravan with some five hundred carts, saw him there. Realizing that he had not eaten for weeks (as many as seven weeks), upon the encouragement of a deity, the brothers offered the Buddha sweet rice cakes with butter and honey. The Buddha, however, did not have a bowl in which to receive the food and said it was inappropriate for him to receive the food directly into his hands. The divine kings of the four directions (LOKAPĀLA) then offered him bowls. (According to one account, he received four bowls and collapsed them into one, which is the origin of the "four-bowl" meals served in some East Asian monastic refectories.) In response to their act of charity (DĀNA), the Buddha spoke with them informally and they took refuge (sARAnA) in the Buddha and the DHARMA (there being no third refuge, the SAMGHA, at this early point in the dispensation), thus making them the first lay Buddhists. The Buddha is said to have given the two brothers eight strands of hair from his head, which they took back to their homeland and interred for worship as relics (sARĪRA) in a STuPA. According to this account, it is interesting to note that the first thing the Buddha provided to another person after his enlightenment was not a teaching but a relic. In the account of the period of the Buddha's enlightenment in the NIDĀNAKATHĀ, this incident occurs immediately before the god BRAHMĀ descends from heaven and asks the Buddha to teach the dharma. According to Mon-Burmese legend, Trapusa and Bhallika were Mon natives, and their homeland of Ukkala was a place also called Dagon in the Mon homeland of RāmaNNa in lower Burma. The stupa they constructed at Ukkala/Dagon, which was the first shrine in the world to be erected over relics of the present Buddha, was to be enlarged and embellished over the centuries to become, eventually, the golden SHWEDAGON PAGODA of Rangoon. Because of the preeminence of this shrine, some Burmese chroniclers date the first introduction of Buddhism among the Mon in RāmaNNa to Tapussa and Bhallika. Trapusa achieved the stage of "stream-enterer" (SROTAĀPANNA); Bhallika eventually ordained and became an ARHAT. The merchants were also the subject of a prototypical Chinese apocryphal text, the TIWEI [BOLI] JING, written c. 460-464, which praises the value of the lay practices of giving (dāna) and keeping the five precepts (PANCAsĪLA).

trisaMvara. (T. sdom gsum). In Sanskrit, "three vows" or "three restraints"; a collective term for three different sets of precepts. The TrisaMvaranirdesaparivarta of the RATNAKutASuTRA collection sets forth the three types of vows as the three types of bodhisattva morality found in the sīlaparivarta ("morality chapter") of the BODHISATTVABHuMI. Usually, however, trisaMvara refers to the three sets of precepts a practitioner of the VAJRAYĀNA may take: the prātimoksasaMvara or monastic precepts (see PRĀTIMOKsA), the BODHISATTVASAMVARA or bodhisattva precepts, and the guhyamantrasaMvara ("secret mantra precepts") or tantric vows (SAMVARA) or pledges (SAMAYA). The relations between and among these three types of precepts are the subject of an extensive, and often polemical, literature in Tibet, the most famous treatment being the SDOM GSUM RAB DBYE, or "Differentiation of the Three Vows," by SA SKYA PAndITA. See also SAMVARA; SDOM GSUM; PUSA JIE.

T'ung: Mere identity, or sameness, especially in social institutions and standards, which is inferior to harmony (ho) in which social distinctions and differences are in complete concord. (Confucianism). Agreement, as in "agreement with the superiors" (shang t'ung). The method of agreement, which includes identity, generic relationship, co-existence, and partial resemblance. "Identity means two substances having one name. Generic relationship means inclusion in the same whole. Both being in the same room is a case of co-existence. Partial resemblance means having some points of resemblance." See Mo chi. (Neo-Mohism). --W.T.C. T'ung i: The joint method of similarities and differences, by which what is present and what is absent can be distinguished. See Mo chi. --W.T.C. Tung Chung-shu: (177-104 B.C.) was the leading Confucian of his time, premier to two feudal princes, and consultant to the Han emperor in framing national policies. Firmly believing in retribution, he strongly advocated the "science of catastrophic and anomalies," and became the founder and leader of medieval Confucianism which was extensively confused with the Yin Yang philosophy. Extremely antagonistic towards rival schools, he established Confucianism as basis of state religion and education. His best known work, Ch-un-ch'iu Fan-lu, awaits English translation. --W.T.C. Turro y Darder, Ramon: Spanish Biologist and Philosopher. Born in Malgrat, Dec. 8 1854. Died in Barcelona, June 5, 1926. As a Biologist, his conclusions about the circulation of the blood, more than half a century ago, were accepted and verified by later researchers and theorists. Among other things, he showed the insufficiency and unsatisfactoriness of the mechanistic and neomechanistic explanations of the circulatory process. He was also the first to busy himself with endocrinology and bacteriological immunity. As a philosopher Turro combated the subjectivistic and metaphysical type of psychology, and circumscribed scientific investigation to the determination of the conditions that precede the occurrence of phenomena, considering useless all attempt to reach final essences. Turro does not admit, however, that the psychical series or conscious states may be causally linked to the organic series. His formula was: Physiology and Consciousness are phenomena that occur, not in connection, but in conjunction. His most important work is Filosofia Critica, in which he has put side by side two antagonistic conceptions of the universe, the objective and the subjectne conceptions. In it he holds that, at the present crisis of science and philosophy, the business of intelligence is to realize that science works on philosophical presuppositions, but that philosophy is no better off with its chaos of endless contradictions and countless systems of thought. The task to be realized is one of coming together, to undo what has been done and get as far as the original primordial concepts with which philosophical inquiry began. --J.A.F. Tychism: A term derived from the Greek, tyche, fortune, chance, and employed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) to express any theory which regards chance as an objective reality, operative in the cosmos. Also the hypothesis that evolution occurs owing to fortuitous variations. --J.J.R. Types, theory of: See Logic, formal, § 6; Paradoxes, logical; Ramified theory of types. Type-token ambiguity: The words token and type are used to distinguish between two senses of the word word.   Individual marks, more or less resembling each other (as "cat" resembles "cat" and "CAT") may (1) be said to be "the same word" or (2) so many "different words". The apparent contradiction therby involved is removed by speaking of the individual marks as tokens, in contrast with the one type of which they are instances. And word may then be said to be subject to type-token ambiguity. The terminology can easily be extended to apply to any kind of symbol, e.g. as in speaking of token- and type-sentences.   Reference: C. S. Peirce, Collected Papers, 4.517. --M.B. Tz'u: (a) Parental love, kindness, or affection, the ideal Confucian virtue of parents.   (b) Love, kindness in general. --W.T.C. Tzu hua: Self-transformation or spontaneous transformation without depending on any divine guidance or eternal agency, but following the thing's own principle of being, which is Tao. (Taoism). --W.T.C. Tzu jan: The natural, the natural state, the state of Tao, spontaneity as against artificiality. (Lao Tzu; Huai-nan Tzu, d. 122 B.C.). --W.T.C. U

Turingol "language" A {high-level language} for programming {Turing Machines} by {Donald Knuth}. It was the subject of the first construction of a nontrivial {attribute grammar}. ["Semantics of Context-Free Languages", D. Knuth, Math Sys Thy 2:127-145 (1975)]. (1995-10-08)

Turingol ::: (language) A high-level language for programming Turing Machines by Donald Knuth. It was the subject of the first construction of a nontrivial attribute grammar.[Semantics of Context-Free Languages, D. Knuth, Math Sys Thy 2:127-145 (1995-10-08)

Undistributed middle: In the categorical syllogism (logic, formal, § 5), the middle term must appear in at least one of the two premisses (major and minor) is dtstributed -- i.e., as denoting the subject of a proposition A or E, or the predicate of a proposition E or O. Violation of this rule is the fallacy of undistributed middle. A.C. Uniformity of Nature: Principle that what happens once in nature will, under a sufficient degree of similarity of circumstances, happen again and as often as the same circumstances recur. -- A.C.B.

Unix "operating system" /yoo'niks/ (Or "UNIX", in the authors' words, "A weak pun on Multics") Plural "Unices". An interactive {time-sharing} {operating system} invented in 1969 by {Ken Thompson} after {Bell Labs} left the {Multics} project, originally so he could play games on his scavenged {PDP-7}. {Dennis Ritchie}, the inventor of {C}, is considered a co-author of the system. The turning point in Unix's history came when it was reimplemented almost entirely in C during 1972 - 1974, making it the first {source-portable} OS. Unix subsequently underwent mutations and expansions at the hands of many different people, resulting in a uniquely flexible and {developer}-friendly environment. By 1991, Unix had become the most widely used {multi-user} general-purpose operating system in the world. Many people consider this the most important victory yet of hackerdom over industry opposition (but see {Unix weenie} and {Unix conspiracy} for an opposing point of view). Unix is now offered by many manufacturers and is the subject of an international standardisation effort [called?]. Unix-like operating systems include {AIX}, {A/UX}, {BSD}, {Debian}, {FreeBSD}, {GNU}, {HP-UX}, {Linux}, {NetBSD}, {NEXTSTEP}, {OpenBSD}, {OPENSTEP}, {OSF}, {POSIX}, {RISCiX}, {Solaris}, {SunOS}, {System V}, {Ultrix}, {USG Unix}, {Version 7}, {Xenix}. "Unix" or "UNIX"? Both seem roughly equally popular, perhaps with a historical bias toward the latter. "UNIX" is a registered trademark of {The Open Group}, however, since it is a name and not an acronym, "Unix" has been adopted in this dictionary except where a larger name includes it in upper case. Since the OS is {case-sensitive} and exists in many different versions, it is fitting that its name should reflect this. {The UNIX Reference Desk (http://geek-girl.com/unix.html)}. {Spanish fire extinguisher (ftp://linux.mathematik.tu-darmstadt.de/pub/linux/people/okir/unix_flame.gif)}. [{Jargon File}] (2001-05-14)

Unix ::: (operating system) /yoo'niks/ (Or UNIX, in the authors' words, A weak pun on Multics) Plural Unices. An interactive time-sharing operating system originally so he could play games on his scavenged PDP-7. Dennis Ritchie, the inventor of C, is considered a co-author of the system.The turning point in Unix's history came when it was reimplemented almost entirely in C during 1972 - 1974, making it the first source-portable OS. Unix subsequently underwent mutations and expansions at the hands of many different people, resulting in a uniquely flexible and developer-friendly environment.By 1991, Unix had become the most widely used multi-user general-purpose operating system in the world. Many people consider this the most important victory yet of hackerdom over industry opposition (but see Unix weenie and Unix conspiracy for an opposing point of view).Unix is now offered by many manufacturers and is the subject of an international standardisation effort [called?]. Unix-like operating systems include AIX, A/UX, OSF, POSIX, RISCiX, Solaris, SunOS, System V, Ultrix, USG Unix, Version 7, Xenix.Unix or UNIX? Both seem roughly equally popular, perhaps with a historical bias toward the latter. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group, case-sensitive and exists in many different versions, it is fitting that its name should reflect this. . .[Jargon File](2001-05-14)

urim ::: n. --> A part or decoration of the breastplate of the high priest among the ancient Jews, by which Jehovah revealed his will on certain occasions. Its nature has been the subject of conflicting conjectures.

Urvasi (Sanskrit) Urvaśī [from uru wide, broad + the verbal root aś to pervade] Widely extending; in the Rig-Veda a beautiful divine nymph who, cursed by the gods, settled on earth and became the wife of Pururavas, the grandson of Soma (the moon) and son of Budha (esoteric wisdom, Mercury). Their love is the subject of Kalidasa’s drama, the Vikramorvasi. Urvasi originated in teachings connected with the human buddhi principle, the center and source or mother of all spiritual and intellectual beauty in the human constitution; cosmically therefore Urvasi is mahabuddhi (cosmic buddhi).

Vach(Sanskrit) ::: A term which means "speech" or "word"; and by the same procedure of mystical thoughtwhich is seen in ancient Greek mysticism, wherein the Logos is not merely the speech or word of theDivinity, but also the divine reason, so Vach has come to mean really more than merely word or speech.The esoteric Vach is the subjective creative intelligent force which, emanating from the subjectiveuniverse, becomes the manifested or concrete expression of ideation, hence Word or Logos. Mystically,therefore, Vach may be said to be the feminine or vehicular aspect of the Logos, or the power of theLogos when enshrined within its vehicle or sheath of action. Vach in India is often called Sata-rupa, "thehundred-formed." Cosmologically in one sense daiviprakriti may be said to be a manifestation or form ofVach.

various parts of Italy, finally depositing it in the village of Loretto. The miraculous haulage is the subject of a canvas

veeblefetzer "jargon" /vee'b*l-fetz'*/ (Or "veeblefeetzer"?) A purposely nonsensical sounding word applied to any sort of obscure or complicated object, e.g. a piece of computer code, model railroad equipment, auto parts, etc. The more immediate origin of the word is "Mad" Magazine. In the late 1950s and early 1960s it used the word along the same lines, especially in its send-ups of big business. "North American Veeblefetzer" was the subject of satires of an annual reports, an in-house newsletter, and more. A Veeblefetzer, in their case, was a robot-like device that did something or other. The more distant source was probably a 19th century yiddish word, possibly with limited usage. In German, "Fetzer" is any contraption, while "Veeble" is a likely corruption of "Webel" -- meaning weaving. Textile mills of this period were crammed with very complicated, wildly active and very loud pieces of machinery. See also {veeblefester}. [veeblefeetzer or veeblefetzer?] (1996-03-31)

verb: A verb "does" the subject's action in a sentence. For example, "She ate the apple" - ate is the verb. In English language verbs can take various tenses – for instance, past, present, or future.

Vessantara. (S. Visvantara/VisvaMtara; T. Thams cad sgrol; C. Xudana; J. Shudainu/Shudaina; K. Sudaena 須大拏). Pāli name of a prince who is the subject of the most famous of all JĀTAKA tales; he was the BODHISATTVA's final existence before he took rebirth in TUsITA heaven, where he awaited the moment when he would descend into Queen MĀYĀ's womb to be born as Prince SIDDHĀRTHA and eventually become GAUTAMA Buddha. During his lifetime as Prince Vessantara, the bodhisattva (P. bodhisatta) fulfilled the perfection (P. pāramī; S. PĀRAMITĀ) of generosity (DĀNA; see also DĀNAPĀRAMITĀ). The story is found in Sanskrit in Āryasura's JĀTAKAMĀLĀ and Ksemendra's Avadānakalpalatā, with the same main features as in the Pāli version. The story enjoys its greatest popularity in Southeast Asia, so the Pāli version is described here. ¶ The bodhisattva was born as the crown prince of Sivirattha, the son of King SaNjaya and Queen Phusatī of the kingdom of Jetuttara. On the day of his birth, a white elephant named Paccaya was also born, who had the power to make rain. When Vessantara was sixteen, he married a maiden named Maddī, with whom he had a son and a daughter, Jāli and Kanhajinā. Once, when Kalinga was suffering a severe drought, brāhmanas from that kingdom requested that Vessantara give them his white elephant to alleviate their plight. Vessantara complied, handing over to them his elephant along with its accessories. The citizens of Jetuttara were outraged that he should deprive his own kingdom of such a treasure and demanded his banishment to the distant mountain of Vankagiri. His father, King SaNjaya, consented and ordered Vessantara to leave via the road frequented by highwaymen. Before his departure, Vessantara held a great almsgiving, in which he distributed seven hundred of every type of thing. Maddī insisted that she and her children accompany the prince, and they were transported out of the city on a grand carriage pulled by four horses. Four brāhmanas begged for his horses, which he gave. Gods then pulled his carriage until a brāhmana begged for his carriage. Thereafter, they traveled on foot. Along the way crowds gathered, some even offering their kingdoms for him to rule, so famous was he for his generosity. At Vankagiri, they lived in two hermitages, one for Vessantara and the other for his wife and children. These had been constructed for them by Vissakamma, architect of the gods. There, they passed four months until one day an old brāhmana named Jujaka arrived and asked for Jāli and Kanhajinā as slaves. Vessantara expected this to occur, so he sent his wife on an errand so that she would not be distressed at the sight of him giving their children away. Jujaka was cruel, and the children ran away to their father, only to be returned so that Vessantara's generosity could be perfected. When Maddī returned, she fainted at the news. Then, Sakka (sAKRA), king of the gods, assumed the form of a brāhmana and asked for Maddī; Vessantara gave his wife to the brāhmana. The earth quaked at the gift. Sakka immediately revealed his identity and returned Maddī, granting Vessantara eight boons. In the meantime, Jujaka, the cruel brāhmana, traveled to Jetuttara, where King SaNjaya bought the children for a great amount of treasure, including a seven-storied palace. Jujaka, however, died of overeating and left no heirs, so the treasure was returned to the king. Meanwhile, the white elephant was returned because the kingdom of Kalinga could not maintain him. A grand entourage was sent to Vankagiri to fetch Vessantara and Maddī, and when they returned amid great celebration they were crowned king and queen of Sivirattha. In order that Vessantara would be able to satisfy all who came for gifts, Sakka rained down jewels waist deep on the palace. When Vessantara died, he was born as a god in tusita heaven, where he awaited his last rebirth as Siddhattha Gotama, when he would become a buddha. ¶ As a depiction of the virtue of dāna, the story of Vessantara is one of the most important Buddhist tales in Thailand and throughout Southeast Asia and is depicted on murals throughout the region. Thai retellings of the Vessantara-Jātaka, known also as the Mahāchat, or "Great Jātaka," are found in the many Thai dialects and consist of thirteen chapters. The story is popular in Thailand's north and especially in the northeast, where virtually every monastery (excluding forest monasteries) holds a festival known as the Bun Phra Wet, usually in February or March, at which the entire story is recited in one day and one night. Laypeople assist in decorating their local monastery with trunks and branches of banana trees to represent the forest to which Vessantara was banished after giving away his kingdom's auspicious elephant. They also present offerings of flowers, hanging decorations, balls of glutinous rice, and money. The festival includes, among other things, a procession to the monastery that includes local women carrying long horizontal cloth banners on which the Vessantara story is painted. The merit earned by participating in the festival is linked to two beliefs: (1) that the participant will be reborn at the time of the future buddha, MAITREYA, known in Thai as Phra Si Ariya Mettrai (P. Ariya Metteyya), and (2) that the community, which remains primarily agricultural, will be blessed with sufficient rainfall.

Vibhanga. [alt. Vibhangappakarana]. In Pāli, "Analysis"; the second of the seven books that together constitute the ABHIDHAMMAPItAKA of the Pāli canon. Since most of this book concerns subject matter introduced in the abhidhammapitaka's first book, the DHAMMASAnGAnĪ, the Vibhanga is often spoken of as a supplement to, or a commentary on, the Dhammasanganī. The Vibhanga, however, applies different methods of analysis and includes a number of additional definitions and terms. The text is comprised of eighteen chapters (vibhanga), each of which presents a self-contained discourse on the following topics, in this order: the aggregates (P. khandha; S. SKANDHA), sense bases (ĀYATANA), elements (DHĀTU), truths (P. sacca; S. SATYA), faculties (INDRIYA), conditioned origination (P. paticcasamuppāda; S. PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA), foundations of mindfulness (P. SATIPAttHĀNA; S. SMṚTYUPASTHĀNA), right effort (P. sammappadhāna; S. SAMYAKPRAHĀnA), bases of psychic or supernatural powers (P. iddhipāda; S. ṚDDHIPĀDA), factors of enlightenment (P. bojjhanga; S. BODHYAnGA), the eightfold path (P. magga; S. MĀRGA), mental absorption (P. JHĀNA; S. DHYĀNA), the boundless states (P. appammaNNā; S. APRAMĀnA), training rules (P. sikkhāpada; S. sIKsĀPADA), analytical knowledges (P. patisambhidā; S. PRATISAMVID), various types of knowledge (P. Nāna; JNĀNA), minor topics (P. khuddhakavatthu), including an inventory of afflictions, and "the heart of the teaching" (P. dhammahadaya). Most, but not all, of these chapters are divided into three parts. First, they analyze the subject using the same method as the SUTTAs, often by simply quoting material directly from the suttas. Next, they analyze the subject using a typical ABHIDHARMA methodology-offering synonyms and numerical lists of categories, classes, and types of the phenomena. Finally, most treatments culminate in a catechistic series of inquiries (paNhāpucchaka). In this series of questions, the subject is analyzed by way of a set of "matrices" or "categories" (P. mātikā; S. MĀTṚKĀ) established in the Dhammasanganī. Many commentaries have been written on the Pāli Vibhanga, the most popular of which is BUDDHAGHOSA's SAMMOHAVINODANĪ, which was written in the fifth century.

Voluntarism: (Lat. voluntas, will) In ontology, the theory that the will is the ultimate constituent of reality. Doctrine that the human will, or some force analogous to it, is the primary stuff of the universe; that blind, purposive impulse is the real in nature. (a) In psychology, theory that the will is the most elemental psychic factor, that striving, impulse, desire, and even action, with their concomitant emotions, are alone dependable. (b) In ethics, the doctrine that the human will is central to all moral questions, and superior to all other moral criteria, such as the conscience, or reasoning power. The subjective theory that the choice made by the will determines the good. Stands for indeterminism and freedom. (c) In theology, the will as the source of all religion, that blessedness is a state of activity. Augustine (353-430) held that God is absolute will, a will independent of the Logos, and that the good will of man is free. For Avicebron (1020-1070), will is indefinable and stands above mature and soul, matter and form, as the pnmary category. Despite the metaphysical opposition of Duns Scotus (1265-1308) the realist, and William of Occam (1280-1347) the nominalist, both considered the will superior to the intellect. Hume (1711-1776) maintained that the will is the determining factor in human conduct, and Kant (1724-1804) believed the will to be the source of all moral judgment, and the good to be based on the human will. Schopenhauer (1788-1860) posited the objectified will as the world-substance, force, or value. James (1842-1910) followed up Wundt's notion of the will as the purpose of the good with the notion that it is the essence of faith, also manifest in the will to believe. See Will, Conation. Opposed to Rationalism, Materialism, Intellectualism. -- J.K.F.

Vowels [from Latin vocabilis pronounceable cf Greek phone vowel, voice] Largely synonymous with voice. Vowels are the most easily pronounced of speech sounds; no mute consonant can be pronounced without a vowel, and a liquid consonant is a type of vowel. Hence the subject connects with that of the power of sound.

wager ::: v. t. --> Something deposited, laid, or hazarded on the event of a contest or an unsettled question; a bet; a stake; a pledge.
A contract by which two parties or more agree that a certain sum of money, or other thing, shall be paid or delivered to one of them, on the happening or not happening of an uncertain event.
That on which bets are laid; the subject of a bet.
To hazard on the issue of a contest, or on some question that is to be decided, or on some casualty; to lay; to stake; to bet.


wannabee /won'*-bee/ (Or, more plausibly, spelled "wannabe") [Madonna fans who dress, talk, and act like their idol; probably originally from biker slang] A would-be {hacker}. The connotations of this term differ sharply depending on the age and exposure of the subject. Used of a person who is in or might be entering {larval stage}, it is semi-approving; such wannabees can be annoying but most hackers remember that they, too, were once such creatures. When used of any professional programmer, CS academic, writer, or {suit}, it is derogatory, implying that said person is trying to cuddle up to the hacker mystique but doesn't, fundamentally, have a prayer of understanding what it is all about. Overuse of hacker terms is often an indication of the {wannabee} nature. Compare {newbie}. Historical note: The wannabee phenomenon has a slightly different flavour now (1993) than it did ten or fifteen years ago. When the people who are now hackerdom's tribal elders were in {larval stage}, the process of becoming a hacker was largely unconscious and unaffected by models known in popular culture - communities formed spontaneously around people who, *as individuals*, felt irresistibly drawn to do hackerly things, and what wannabees experienced was a fairly pure, skill-focussed desire to become similarly wizardly. Those days of innocence are gone forever; society's adaptation to the advent of the microcomputer after 1980 included the elevation of the hacker as a new kind of folk hero, and the result is that some people semi-consciously set out to *be hackers* and borrow hackish prestige by fitting the popular image of hackers. Fortunately, to do this really well, one has to actually become a wizard. Nevertheless, old-time hackers tend to share a poorly articulated disquiet about the change; among other things, it gives them mixed feelings about the effects of public compendia of lore like this one. [{Jargon File}]

well-known painting of the subject titled “Moses

we ::: pl. --> of I ::: obj. --> The plural nominative case of the pronoun of the first person; the word with which a person in speaking or writing denotes a number or company of which he is one, as the subject of an action expressed by a verb.

What are technically classified as obsessing ideas and feelings are evidence of the subjective reality of the astral plane and its disimbodied entities. Knowledge of man’s multifold nature, including the parts played by each of its principles both during life and after death, gives a key to many psychological problems in the postmortem survival of the kama-rupa. The differing aspects of obsession result from the varied types of the astral entities — ghosts or shades of the dead, elementaries of suicides and executed criminals, evil sorcerers, nature spirits, etc. The kama-rupic shells alone, being remnants of deceased personalities, differ as the latter had done in their imbodied desires and impulses. The variety of obsessing influences accounts for the medley of typical symptoms in conditions of inert melancholia, of sustained catalepsy, of violent mania and convulsions, of emotional egoism in hysteria, of childish grimaces and erratic muscular contractions in essential chorea, of subjective horrors in delirium tremens, and of the perverted brutality in purposeless, unhuman crimes. Though only a seer’s inner vision could reveal just what entity was active in each case, yet a student of human duality can recognize the unseemly and distorted play of the animal, lower nature, separated from the conscience and higher mind — the kama-rupic condition. Mild types of these disorders frequently are simply the uncontrolled play of the person’s own selfish nature; but these are in danger of drifting into the severer forms, because like attracts like. See also POSSESSION

Will: In the widest sense, will is synonymous with conation. See Conation. In the restricted sense, will designates the sequence of mental acts eventuating in decision or choice between conflicting conative tendencies. An act of will of the highest type is analyzable into:   The envisaging of alternative courses of action, each of which expresses conative tendencies of the subject.   Deliberation, consisting in the examination and comparison of the alternative courses of action with special reference to the dominant ideals of the self.   Decision or choice consisting in giving assent to one of the alternatives and the rejection of the rest.

Without any claims whatever to treat of the subject-matter in its entire depth or to describe exhaustively its terminology, the Institute in December 1986 published the first Swedish edition of the present work to the Scandinavian readers. After this first edition ran out of print 1991, the work at a new edition was begun, and in 1996 this second edition was published. The present English edition is a translation of the
1996 Swedish edition.


witting the angel of death is the subject of Long¬

yoga sutras. ::: the oldest known writing on the subject of yoga, written by the sage Patanjali, a yogi of ancient India, and considered to be the most authoritative text on yoga; also known as



QUOTES [28 / 28 - 1500 / 2947]


KEYS (10k)

   9 Sri Aurobindo
   2 Jean Piaget
   1 Voltaire
   1 Uttana Sutta
   1 Slavoj Žižek
   1 Shunryu Suzuki
   1 Nandita Chatterjee
   1 Longchenpa
   1 Krisna Prem
   1 Ken Wilber
   1 Joseph Campbell
   1 John Cleese
   1 Henri Ellenberger
   1 Hans Urs von Balthasar
   1 Carl Jung
   1 Alfred Korzybski
   1 Sri Ramana Maharshi
   1 Aleister Crowley
   1 Advanced Integral

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   26 Anonymous
   11 Carl Jung
   10 Jane Austen
   9 Leo Tolstoy
   9 C S Lewis
   8 Plato
   8 Bertrand Russell
   8 Arthur Schopenhauer
   8 Aristotle
   7 John Stuart Mill
   7 J K Rowling
   6 William Zinsser
   6 Swami Vivekananda
   6 Sri Aurobindo
   6 Roland Barthes
   6 Rick Riordan
   6 Ralph Waldo Emerson
   6 Douglas Adams
   5 Thomas Jefferson
   5 Ludwig Feuerbach

1:The subject of one stage becomes the object of the subject of the next stage.
   ~ Ken Wilber,
2:The Great Work will then form the subject of the design.
   ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA, Book 4, Magick, The Lamen,
3:Meditation requires an object to meditate on, whereas in Self-enquiry there is only the subject and no object. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi,
4:No one who hasn't experienced for himself at least something of the nature and joys of the spiritual life can have any valid opinion on the subject." ~ Krisna Prem, (Ronald Henry Nixon, 1898 - 1965),
5:The material world and the physical life exist for us only by virtue of our internal self and our internal life. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Kena and Other Upanishads, The Subject of the Upanishad,
6:This is the extraordinary thing about creativity: If just you keep your mind resting against the subject in a friendly but persistent way, sooner or later you will get a reward from your unconscious. ~ John Cleese,
7:The dissolution of the subject organisation into a disorganised crowd is the inevitable working of an alien despotism. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Bande Mataram - I, Shall India Be Free? - Unity and British Rule,
8:The space of being that is opened and illuminated in the subject makes available to the object an opportunity to be itself in a way that the inferior space of inanimate elements does not…. ~ Hans Urs von Balthasar, TheoLogic I,
9:The more the schemata are differentiated, the smaller the gap between the new and the familiar becomes, so that novelty, instead of constituting an annoyance avoided by the subject, becomes a problem and invites searching. ~ Jean Piaget,
10:We have in all functionings of the mentality four elements, the object of mental consciousness, the act of mental consciousness, the occasion and the subject.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, Memory, Ego and Self-Experience, 532,
11:The highest truth is daiji, translated as dai jiki in Chinese scriptures. This is the subject of the question the emperor asked Bodhidharma: "What is the First Principle?" Bodhidharma said, "I don't know." "I don't know" is the First Principle. ~ Shunryu Suzuki,
12:Little by little there has to be a constant equilibrium established between the parts of the subject's knowledge and the totality of his knowledge at any given moment. There is a constant differentiation of the totality of knowledge into the parts and an integration of the parts back into the whole.
   ~ Jean Piaget, 1977, p. 839,
13:enactment ::: no experience is innocent and pregiven, rather it is brought forth or enacted in part by the activity of the subject doing the experiencing thus one activity, paradigm or injunction will bring forth a particular set of experiences. experiences that are not themselves .... but rather are co-created and co-enacted by the paradigm or activity itself and accordingly one paradigm does not give the correct view of the world and therefore as if it did to negate, criticize, or exclude other experiences brought forth by other paradigms. ~ Advanced Integral, L1, slide30 enactment,
14:There is only one Ethics, as there is only one geometry. But the majority of men, it will be said, are ignorant of geometry. Yes, but as soon as they begin to apply themselves a little to that science, all are in agreement. Cultivators, workmen, artisans have not gone through courses in ethics; they have not read Cicero or Aristotle, but the moment they begin to think on the subject they become, without knowing it, the disciples of Cicero. The Indian dyer, the Tartar shepherd and the English sailor know what is just and what is injust. Confucius did not invent a system of ethics as one invents a system of physics. He had discovered it in the heart of all mankind. ~ Voltaire, the Eternal Wisdom
15:Systematic study of chemical and physical phenomena has been carried on for many generations and these two sciences now include: (1) knowledge of an enormous number of facts; (2) a large body of natural laws; (3) many fertile working hypotheses respecting the causes and regularities of natural phenomena; and finally (4) many helpful theories held subject to correction by further testing of the hypotheses giving rise to them. When a subject is spoken of as a science, it is understood to include all of the above mentioned parts. Facts alone do not constitute a science any more than a pile of stones constitutes a house, not even do facts and laws alone; there must be facts, hypotheses, theories and laws before the subject is entitled to the rank of a science. ~ Alfred Korzybski, Manhood of Humanity,
16:2. Refusal of the Call:Often in actual life, and not infrequently in the myths and popular tales, we encounter the dull case of the call unanswered; for it is always possible to turn the ear to other interests. Refusal of the summons converts the adventure into its negative. Walled in boredom, hard work, or 'culture,' the subject loses the power of significant affirmative action and becomes a victim to be saved. His flowering world becomes a wasteland of dry stones and his life feels meaningless-even though, like King Minos, he may through titanic effort succeed in building an empire or renown. Whatever house he builds, it will be a house of death: a labyrinth of cyclopean walls to hide from him his minotaur. All he can do is create new problems for himself and await the gradual approach of his disintegration. ~ Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces,
17:A major part of the book is devoted to poetry. It opens with Sri Aurobindo's Savitri. The author has a novel way of appreciating this most wonderful epic, which continually overwhelms and bewilders us. He has taken this bewilderment as the subject of the chapter "An Uninitiated Reader's Response to Savitri". This is a rarely explored area, namely the magical poetic beauty of Savitri that casts a spell on the reader even when he does not always understand its content. For the lover of poetry is attracted by its "beauty and strength", "he is overawed by the grandeur of the animated spirituality". Any time spent with Savitri thus becomes a special moment in his life. Later in the book we find another kind of appreciation of the epic in the chapter on K. D. Sethna as a "crusader of aesthetic yoga". There the author calls Savitri the "Odyssey of Integral Yoga" where yoga and poetry come together. He also appreciates the "sensitive analysis of stylistic effect" by Sethna, who uses wonderful quotations from Savitri as examples of adequate style, effective style, illumined style, etc. (From the Near to Far by Dr. Saurendranth Basu) ~ Nandita Chatterjee, review of the book,
18:The necessary and needful reaction from the collective unconscious expresses itself in archetypally formed ideas. The meeting with oneself is, at first, the meeting with one's own shadow. The shadow is a tight passage, a narrow door, whose painful constriction no one is spared who goes down to the deep well. But one must learn to know oneself in order to know who one is. For what comes after the door is, surprisingly enough, a boundless expanse full of unprecedented uncertainty, with apparently no one inside and no one outside, no above and no below, no here and no there, no mine and no thine, no good and no bad. It is a world of water, where all life floats in suspension; where the realm of the sympathetic system, the soul of everything living, begins; where I am indivisibly this and that; where I experience the other in myself and the other-than-myself experiences me.No, the collective unconscious is anything but an encapsulated personal system; it is sheer objectivity, as wide as the world and open to all the world. There I am the object of every subject, in complete reversal of my ordinary consciousness, where I am always the subject that has an object. There I am utterly one with the world, so much a part of it that I forget all too easily who I really am. ""Lost in oneself"" is a good way of describing this state. But this self is the world, if only a consciousness could see it. That is why we must know who we are. ~ Carl Jung, Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious,
19:A creative illness succeeds a period of intense preoccupation with an idea and search for a certain truth. It is a polymorphous condition that can take the shape of depression, neurosis, psychosomatic ailments, or even psychosis. Whatever the symptoms, they are felt as painful, if not agonizing, by the subject, with alternating periods of alleviation and worsening. Throughout the illness the subject never loses the thread of his dominating preoccupation. It is often compatible with normal, professional activity and family life. But even if he keeps to his social activities, he is almost entirely absorbed with himself. He suffers from feelings of utter isolation, even when he has a mentor who guides him through the ordeal (like the shaman apprentice with his master). The termination is often rapid and marked by a phase of exhilaration. The subject emerges from his ordeal with a permanent transformation in his personality and the conviction that he has discovered a great truth or a new spiritual world.
Many of the nineteenth and twentieth century figures recognized unquestionably as "great" - Nietzsche, Darwin, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Freud, Jung, Piaget - were all additionally characterized by lengthy periods of profound psychological unrest and uncertainty. Their "psychopathology" - a term ridiculous in this context - was generated as a consequence of the revolutionary nature of their personal experience (their action, fantasy and thought). It is no great leap of comparative psychology to see their role in our society as analogous to that of the archaic religious leader and healer. ~ Henri Ellenberger,
20:In a traditional German toilet, the hole into which shit disappears after we flush is right at the front, so that shit is first laid out for us to sniff and inspect for traces of illness. In the typical French toilet, on the contrary, the hole is at the back, i.e. shit is supposed to disappear as quickly as possible. Finally, the American (Anglo-Saxon) toilet presents a synthesis, a mediation between these opposites: the toilet basin is full of water, so that the shit floats in it, visible, but not to be inspected.

It is clear that none of these versions can be accounted for in purely utilitarian terms: each involves a certain ideological perception of how the subject should relate to excrement. Hegel was among the first to see in the geographical triad of Germany, France and England an expression of three different existential attitudes: reflective thoroughness (German), revolutionary hastiness (French), utilitarian pragmatism (English). In political terms, this triad can be read as German conservatism, French revolutionary radicalism and English liberalism.

The point about toilets is that they enable us not only to discern this triad in the most intimate domain, but also to identify its underlying mechanism in the three different attitudes towards excremental excess: an ambiguous contemplative fascination; a wish to get rid of it as fast as possible; a pragmatic decision to treat it as ordinary and dispose of it in an appropriate way. It is easy for an academic at a round table to claim that we live in a post-ideological universe, but the moment he visits the lavatory after the heated discussion, he is again knee-deep in ideology.
~ Slavoj Žižek,
21:DHARANA

NOW that we have learnt to observe the mind, so that we know how it works to some extent, and have begun to understand the elements of control, we may try the result of gathering together all the powers of the mind, and attempting to focus them on a single point.

   We know that it is fairly easy for the ordinary educated mind to think without much distraction on a subject in which it is much interested. We have the popular phrase, "revolving a thing in the mind"; and as long as the subject is sufficiently complex, as long as thoughts pass freely, there is no great difficulty. So long as a gyroscope is in motion, it remains motionless relatively to its support, and even resists attempts to distract it; when it stops it falls from that position. If the earth ceased to spin round the sun, it would at once fall into the sun. The moment then that the student takes a simple subject - or rather a simple object - and imagines it or visualizes it, he will find that it is not so much his creature as he supposed. Other thoughts will invade the mind, so that the object is altogether forgotten, perhaps for whole minutes at a time; and at other times the object itself will begin to play all sorts of tricks.

   Suppose you have chosen a white cross. It will move its bar up and down, elongate the bar, turn the bar oblique, get its arms unequal, turn upside down, grow branches, get a crack around it or a figure upon it, change its shape altogether like an Amoeba, change its size and distance as a whole, change the degree of its illumination, and at the same time change its colour. It will get splotchy and blotchy, grow patterns, rise, fall, twist and turn; clouds will pass over its face. There is no conceivable change of which it is incapable. Not to mention its total disappearance, and replacement by something altogether different!

   Any one to whom this experience does not occur need not imagine that he is meditating. It shows merely that he is incapable of concentrating his mind in the very smallest degree. Perhaps a student may go for several days before discovering that he is not meditating. When he does, the obstinacy of the object will infuriate him; and it is only now that his real troubles will begin, only now that Will comes really into play, only now that his manhood is tested. If it were not for the Will-development which he got in the conquest of Asana, he would probably give up. As it is, the mere physical agony which he underwent is the veriest trifle compared with the horrible tedium of Dharana.

   For the first week it may seem rather amusing, and you may even imagine you are progressing; but as the practice teaches you what you are doing, you will apparently get worse and worse. Please understand that in doing this practice you are supposed to be seated in Asana, and to have note-book and pencil by your side, and a watch in front of you. You are not to practise at first for more than ten minutes at a time, so as to avoid risk of overtiring the brain. In fact you will probably find that the whole of your willpower is not equal to keeping to a subject at all for so long as three minutes, or even apparently concentrating on it for so long as three seconds, or three-fifths of one second. By "keeping to it at all" is meant the mere attempt to keep to it. The mind becomes so fatigued, and the object so incredibly loathsome, that it is useless to continue for the time being. In Frater P.'s record we find that after daily practice for six months, meditations of four minutes and less are still being recorded.

   ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA,
22:This greater Force is that of the Illumined Mind, a Mind no longer of higher Thought, but of spiritual light. Here the clarity of the spiritual intelligence, its tranquil daylight, gives place or subordinates itself to an intense lustre, a splendour and illumination of the spirit: a play of lightnings of spiritual truth and power breaks from above into the consciousness and adds to the calm and wide enlightenment and the vast descent of peace which characterise or accompany the action of the larger conceptual-spiritual principle, a fiery ardour of realisation and a rapturous ecstasy of knowledge. A downpour of inwardly visible Light very usually envelops this action; for it must be noted that, contrary to our ordinary conceptions, light is not primarily a material creation and the sense or vision of light accompanying the inner illumination is not merely a subjective visual image or a symbolic phenomenon: light is primarily a spiritual manifestation of the Divine Reality illuminative and creative; material light is a subsequent representation or conversion of it into Matter for the purposes of the material Energy. There is also in this descent the arrival of a greater dynamic, a golden drive, a luminous enthousiasmos of inner force and power which replaces the comparatively slow and deliberate process of the Higher Mind by a swift, sometimes a vehement, almost a violent impetus of rapid transformation.
   But these two stages of the ascent enjoy their authority and can get their own united completeness only by a reference to a third level; for it is from the higher summits where dwells the intuitional being that they derive the knowledge which they turn into thought or sight and bring down to us for the mind's transmutation. Intuition is a power of consciousness nearer and more intimate to the original knowledge by identity; for it is always something that leaps out direct from a concealed identity. It is when the consciousness of the subject meets with the consciousness in the object, penetrates it and sees, feels or vibrates with the truth of what it contacts, that the intuition leaps out like a spark or lightning-flash from the shock of the meeting; or when the consciousness, even without any such meeting, looks into itself and feels directly and intimately the truth or the truths that are there or so contacts the hidden forces behind appearances, then also there is the outbreak of an intuitive light; or, again, when the consciousness meets the Supreme Reality or the spiritual reality of things and beings and has a contactual union with it, then the spark, the flash or the blaze of intimate truth-perception is lit in its depths. This close perception is more than sight, more than conception: it is the result of a penetrating and revealing touch which carries in it sight and conception as part of itself or as its natural consequence. A concealed or slumbering identity, not yet recovering itself, still remembers or conveys by the intuition its own contents and the intimacy of its self-feeling and self-vision of things, its light of truth, its overwhelming and automatic certitude. ... Intuition is always an edge or ray or outleap of a superior light; it is in us a projecting blade, edge or point of a far-off supermind light entering into and modified by some intermediate truth-mind substance above us and, so modified, again entering into and very much blinded by our ordinary or ignorant mind substance; but on that higher level to which it is native its light is unmixed and therefore entirely and purely veridical, and its rays are not separated but connected or massed together in a play of waves of what might almost be called in the Sanskrit poetic figure a sea or mass of stable lightnings.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine,
23:To arrive then at this settled divine status must be the object of our concentration. The first step in concentration must be always to accustom the discursive mind to a settled unwavering pursuit of a single course of connected thought on a single subject and this it must do undistracted by all lures and alien calls on its attention. Such concentration is common enough in our ordinary life, but it becomes more difficult when we have to do it inwardly without any outward object or action on which to keep the mind; yet this inward concentration is what the seeker of knowledge must effect. Nor must it be merely the consecutive thought of the intellectual thinker, whose only object is to conceive and intellectually link together his conceptions. It is not, except perhaps at first, a process of reasoning that is wanted so much as a dwelling so far as possible on the fruitful essence of the idea which by the insistence of the soul's will upon it must yield up all the facets of its truth. Thus if it be the divine Love that is the subject of concentration, it is on the essence of the idea of God as Love that the mind should concentrate in such a way that the various manifestation of the divine Love should arise luminously, not only to the thought, but in the heart and being and vision of the Sadhaka. The thought may come first and the experience afterwards, but equally the experience may come first and the knowledge arise out of the experience. Afterwards the thing attained has to be dwelt on and more and more held till it becomes a constant experience and finally the Dharma or law of the being.
   This is the process of concentrated meditation; but a more strenuous method is the fixing of the whole mind in concentration on the essence of the idea only, so as to reach not the thought-knowledge or the psychological experience of the subject, but the very essence of the thing behind the idea. In this process thought ceases and passes into the absorbed or ecstatic contemplation of the object or by a merging into it m an inner Samadhi. If this be the process followed, then subsequently the state into which we rise must still be called down to take possession of the lower being, to shed its light, power and bliss on our ordinary consciousness. For otherwise we may possess it, as many do, in the elevated condition or in the inward Samadhi, but we shall lose our hold of it when we awake or descend into the contacts of the world; and this truncated possession is not the aim of an integral Yoga.
   A third process is neither at first to concentrate in a strenuous meditation on the one subject nor in a strenuous contemplation of the one object of thought-vision, but first to still the mind altogether. This may be done by various ways; one is to stand back from the mental action altogether not participating in but simply watching it until, tired of its unsanctioned leaping and running, it falls into an increasing and finally an absolute quiet. Another is to reject the thought-suggestions, to cast them away from the mind whenever they come and firmly hold to the peace of the being which really and always exists behind the trouble and riot of the mind. When this secret peace is unveiled, a great calm settles on the being and there comes usually with it the perception and experience of the all-pervading silent Brahman, everything else at first seeming to be mere form and eidolon. On the basis of this calm everything else may be built up in the knowledge and experience no longer of the external phenomena of things but of the deeper truth of the divine manifestation.
   Ordinarily, once this state is obtained, strenuous concentration will be found no longer necessary. A free concentration of will using thought merely for suggestion and the giving of light to the lower members will take its place. This Will will then insist on the physical being, the vital existence, the heart and the mind remoulding themselves in the forms of the Divine which reveal themselves out of the silent Brahman. By swifter or slower degrees according to the previous preparation and purification of the members, they will be obliged with more or less struggle to obey the law of the will and its thought-suggestion, so that eventually the knowledge of the Divine takes possession of our consciousness on all its planes and the image of the Divine is formed in our human existence even as it was done by the old Vedic Sadhakas. For the integral Yoga this is the most direct and powerful discipline.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Yoga of Integral Knowledge, Concentration,
24:Education

THE EDUCATION of a human being should begin at birth and continue throughout his life.

   Indeed, if we want this education to have its maximum result, it should begin even before birth; in this case it is the mother herself who proceeds with this education by means of a twofold action: first, upon herself for her own improvement, and secondly, upon the child whom she is forming physically. For it is certain that the nature of the child to be born depends very much upon the mother who forms it, upon her aspiration and will as well as upon the material surroundings in which she lives. To see that her thoughts are always beautiful and pure, her feelings always noble and fine, her material surroundings as harmonious as possible and full of a great simplicity - this is the part of education which should apply to the mother herself. And if she has in addition a conscious and definite will to form the child according to the highest ideal she can conceive, then the very best conditions will be realised so that the child can come into the world with his utmost potentialities. How many difficult efforts and useless complications would be avoided in this way!

   Education to be complete must have five principal aspects corresponding to the five principal activities of the human being: the physical, the vital, the mental, the psychic and the spiritual. Usually, these phases of education follow chronologically the growth of the individual; this, however, does not mean that one of them should replace another, but that all must continue, completing one another until the end of his life.

   We propose to study these five aspects of education one by one and also their interrelationships. But before we enter into the details of the subject, I wish to make a recommendation to parents. Most parents, for various reasons, give very little thought to the true education which should be imparted to children. When they have brought a child into the world, provided him with food, satisfied his various material needs and looked after his health more or less carefully, they think they have fully discharged their duty. Later on, they will send him to school and hand over to the teachers the responsibility for his education.

   There are other parents who know that their children must be educated and who try to do what they can. But very few, even among those who are most serious and sincere, know that the first thing to do, in order to be able to educate a child, is to educate oneself, to become conscious and master of oneself so that one never sets a bad example to one's child. For it is above all through example that education becomes effective. To speak good words and to give wise advice to a child has very little effect if one does not oneself give him an example of what one teaches. Sincerity, honesty, straightforwardness, courage, disinterestedness, unselfishness, patience, endurance, perseverance, peace, calm, self-control are all things that are taught infinitely better by example than by beautiful speeches. Parents, have a high ideal and always act in accordance with it and you will see that little by little your child will reflect this ideal in himself and spontaneously manifest the qualities you would like to see expressed in his nature. Quite naturally a child has respect and admiration for his parents; unless they are quite unworthy, they will always appear to their child as demigods whom he will try to imitate as best he can.

   With very few exceptions, parents are not aware of the disastrous influence that their own defects, impulses, weaknesses and lack of self-control have on their children. If you wish to be respected by a child, have respect for yourself and be worthy of respect at every moment. Never be authoritarian, despotic, impatient or ill-tempered. When your child asks you a question, do not give him a stupid or silly answer under the pretext that he cannot understand you. You can always make yourself understood if you take enough trouble; and in spite of the popular saying that it is not always good to tell the truth, I affirm that it is always good to tell the truth, but that the art consists in telling it in such a way as to make it accessible to the mind of the hearer. In early life, until he is twelve or fourteen, the child's mind is hardly open to abstract notions and general ideas. And yet you can train it to understand these things by using concrete images, symbols or parables. Up to quite an advanced age and for some who mentally always remain children, a narrative, a story, a tale well told teach much more than any number of theoretical explanations.

   Another pitfall to avoid: do not scold your child without good reason and only when it is quite indispensable. A child who is too often scolded gets hardened to rebuke and no longer attaches much importance to words or severity of tone. And above all, take good care never to scold him for a fault which you yourself commit. Children are very keen and clear-sighted observers; they soon find out your weaknesses and note them without pity.

   When a child has done something wrong, see that he confesses it to you spontaneously and frankly; and when he has confessed, with kindness and affection make him understand what was wrong in his movement so that he will not repeat it, but never scold him; a fault confessed must always be forgiven. You should not allow any fear to come between you and your child; fear is a pernicious means of education: it invariably gives birth to deceit and lying. Only a discerning affection that is firm yet gentle and an adequate practical knowledge will create the bonds of trust that are indispensable for you to be able to educate your child effectively. And do not forget that you have to control yourself constantly in order to be equal to your task and truly fulfil the duty which you owe your child by the mere fact of having brought him into the world.

   Bulletin, February 1951

   ~ The Mother, On Education,
25:SECTION 1. Books for Serious Study
   Liber CCXX. (Liber AL vel Legis.) The Book of the Law. This book is the foundation of the New Æon, and thus of the whole of our work.
   The Equinox. The standard Work of Reference in all occult matters. The Encyclopaedia of Initiation.
   Liber ABA (Book 4). A general account in elementary terms of magical and mystical powers. In four parts: (1) Mysticism (2) Magical (Elementary Theory) (3) Magick in Theory and Practice (this book) (4) The Law.
   Liber II. The Message of the Master Therion. Explains the essence of the new Law in a very simple manner.
   Liber DCCCXXXVIII. The Law of Liberty. A further explanation of The Book of the Law in reference to certain ethical problems.
   Collected Works of A. Crowley. These works contain many mystical and magical secrets, both stated clearly in prose, and woven into the Robe of sublimest poesy.
   The Yi King. (S. B. E. Series [vol. XVI], Oxford University Press.) The "Classic of Changes"; give the initiated Chinese system of Magick.
   The Tao Teh King. (S. B. E. Series [vol. XXXIX].) Gives the initiated Chinese system of Mysticism.
   Tannhäuser, by A. Crowley. An allegorical drama concerning the Progress of the Soul; the Tannhäuser story slightly remodelled.
   The Upanishads. (S. B. E. Series [vols. I & XV.) The Classical Basis of Vedantism, the best-known form of Hindu Mysticism.
   The Bhagavad-gita. A dialogue in which Krishna, the Hindu "Christ", expounds a system of Attainment.
   The Voice of the Silence, by H.P. Blavatsky, with an elaborate commentary by Frater O.M. Frater O.M., 7°=48, is the most learned of all the Brethren of the Order; he has given eighteen years to the study of this masterpiece.
   Raja-Yoga, by Swami Vivekananda. An excellent elementary study of Hindu mysticism. His Bhakti-Yoga is also good.
   The Shiva Samhita. An account of various physical means of assisting the discipline of initiation. A famous Hindu treatise on certain physical practices.
   The Hathayoga Pradipika. Similar to the Shiva Samhita.
   The Aphorisms of Patanjali. A valuable collection of precepts pertaining to mystical attainment.
   The Sword of Song. A study of Christian theology and ethics, with a statement and solution of the deepest philosophical problems. Also contains the best account extant of Buddhism, compared with modern science.
   The Book of the Dead. A collection of Egyptian magical rituals.
   Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie, by Eliphas Levi. The best general textbook of magical theory and practice for beginners. Written in an easy popular style.
   The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage. The best exoteric account of the Great Work, with careful instructions in procedure. This Book influenced and helped the Master Therion more than any other.
   The Goetia. The most intelligible of all the mediæval rituals of Evocation. Contains also the favourite Invocation of the Master Therion.
   Erdmann's History of Philosophy. A compendious account of philosophy from the earliest times. Most valuable as a general education of the mind.
   The Spiritual Guide of [Miguel de] Molinos. A simple manual of Christian Mysticism.
   The Star in the West. (Captain Fuller). An introduction to the study of the Works of Aleister Crowley.
   The Dhammapada. (S. B. E. Series [vol. X], Oxford University Press). The best of the Buddhist classics.
   The Questions of King Milinda. (S. B. E. Series [vols. XXXV & XXXVI].) Technical points of Buddhist dogma, illustrated bydialogues.
   Liber 777 vel Prolegomena Symbolica Ad Systemam Sceptico-Mysticæ Viæ Explicandæ, Fundamentum Hieroglyphicam Sanctissimorum Scientiæ Summæ. A complete Dictionary of the Correspondences of all magical elements, reprinted with extensive additions, making it the only standard comprehensive book of reference ever published. It is to the language of Occultism what Webster or Murray is to the English language.
   Varieties of Religious Experience (William James). Valuable as showing the uniformity of mystical attainment.
   Kabbala Denudata, von Rosenroth: also The Kabbalah Unveiled, by S.L. Mathers. The text of the Qabalah, with commentary. A good elementary introduction to the subject.
   Konx Om Pax [by Aleister Crowley]. Four invaluable treatises and a preface on Mysticism and Magick.
   The Pistis Sophia [translated by G.R.S. Mead or Violet McDermot]. An admirable introduction to the study of Gnosticism.
   The Oracles of Zoroaster [Chaldæan Oracles]. An invaluable collection of precepts mystical and magical.
   The Dream of Scipio, by Cicero. Excellent for its Vision and its Philosophy.
   The Golden Verses of Pythagoras, by Fabre d'Olivet. An interesting study of the exoteric doctrines of this Master.
   The Divine Pymander, by Hermes Trismegistus. Invaluable as bearing on the Gnostic Philosophy.
   The Secret Symbols of the Rosicrucians, reprint of Franz Hartmann. An invaluable compendium.
   Scrutinium Chymicum [Atalanta Fugiens]¸ by Michael Maier. One of the best treatises on alchemy.
   Science and the Infinite, by Sidney Klein. One of the best essays written in recent years.
   Two Essays on the Worship of Priapus [A Discourse on the Worship of Priapus &c. &c. &c.], by Richard Payne Knight [and Thomas Wright]. Invaluable to all students.
   The Golden Bough, by J.G. Frazer. The textbook of Folk Lore. Invaluable to all students.
   The Age of Reason, by Thomas Paine. Excellent, though elementary, as a corrective to superstition.
   Rivers of Life, by General Forlong. An invaluable textbook of old systems of initiation.
   Three Dialogues, by Bishop Berkeley. The Classic of Subjective Idealism.
   Essays of David Hume. The Classic of Academic Scepticism.
   First Principles by Herbert Spencer. The Classic of Agnosticism.
   Prolegomena [to any future Metaphysics], by Immanuel Kant. The best introduction to Metaphysics.
   The Canon [by William Stirling]. The best textbook of Applied Qabalah.
   The Fourth Dimension, by [Charles] H. Hinton. The best essay on the subject.
   The Essays of Thomas Henry Huxley. Masterpieces of philosophy, as of prose.
   ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA, Appendix I: Literature Recommended to Aspirants
26:Attention on Hypnagogic Imagery The most common strategy for inducing WILDs is to fall asleep while focusing on the hypnagogic imagery that accompanies sleep onset. Initially, you are likely to see relatively simple images, flashes of light, geometric patterns, and the like.

Gradually more complicated forms appear: faces, people, and finally entire scenes. 6

The following account of what the Russian philosopher P. D. Ouspensky called "half-dream states" provides a vivid example of what hypnagogic imagery can be like:

I am falling asleep. Golden dots, sparks and tiny stars appear and disappear before my eyes. These sparks and stars gradually merge into a golden net with diagonal meshes which moves slowly and regularly in rhythm with the beating of my heart, which I feel quite distinctly. The next moment the golden net is transformed into rows of brass helmets belonging to Roman soldiers marching along the street below. I hear their measured tread and watch them from the window of a high house in Galata, in Constantinople, in a narrow lane, one end of which leads to the old wharf and the Golden Horn with its ships and steamers and the minarets of Stamboul behind them. I hear their heavy measured tread, and see the sun shining on their helmets. Then suddenly I detach myself from the window sill on which I am lying, and in the same reclining position fly slowly over the lane, over the houses, and then over the Golden Horn in the direction of Stamboul. I smell the sea, feel the wind, the warm sun. This flying gives me a wonderfully pleasant sensation, and I cannot help opening my eyes. 7

Ouspensky's half-dream states developed out of a habit of observing the contents of his mind while falling asleep or in half-sleep after awakening from a dream. He notes that they were much easier to observe in the morning after awakening than before sleep at the beginning of the night and did not occur at all "without definite efforts." 8

Dr. Nathan Rapport, an American psychiatrist, cultivated an approach to lucid dreaming very similar to Ouspensky's: "While in bed awaiting sleep, the experimenter interrupts his thoughts every few minutes with an effort to recall the mental item vanishing before each intrusion that inquisitive attention." 9 This habit is continued sleep itself, with results like the following:

Brilliant lights flashed, and a myriad of sparkles twinkled from a magnificent cut glass chandelier. Interesting as any stage extravaganza were the many quaintly detailed figurines upon a mantel against the distant, paneled wall adorned in rococo.

At the right a merry group of beauties and gallants in the most elegant attire of Victorian England idled away a pleasant occasion. This scene continued for [a] period of I was not aware, before I discovered that it was not reality, but a mental picture and that I was viewing it. Instantly it became an incommunicably beautiful vision. It was with the greatest stealth that my vaguely awakened mind began to peep: for I knew that these glorious shows end abruptly because of such intrusions.

I thought, "Have I here one of those mind pictures that are without motion?" As if in reply, one of the young ladies gracefully waltzed about the room. She returned to the group and immobility, with a smile lighting her pretty face, which was turned over her shoulder toward me. The entire color scheme was unobtrusive despite the kaleidoscopic sparkles of the chandelier, the exquisite blues and creamy pinks of the rich settings and costumes. I felt that only my interest in dreams brought my notice to the tints - delicate, yet all alive as if with inner illumination. 10

Hypnagogic Imagery Technique

1. Relax completely

While lying in bed, gently close your eyes and relax your head, neck, back, arms, and legs. Completely let go of all muscular and mental tension, and breathe slowly and restfully. Enjoy the feeling of relaxation and let go of your thoughts, worries, and concerns. If you have just awakened from sleep, you are probably sufficiently relaxed.

Otherwise, you may use either the progressive relaxation exercise (page 33) or the 61-point relaxation exercise (page 34) to relax more deeply. Let everything wind down,

slower and slower, more and more relaxed, until your mind becomes as serene as the calmest sea.

2. Observe the visual images

Gently focus your attention on the visual images that will gradually appear before your mind's eye. Watch how the images begin and end. Try to observe the images as delicately as possible, allowing them to be passively reflected in your mind as they unfold. Do not attempt to hold onto the images, but instead just watch without attachment or desire for action. While doing this, try to take the perspective of a detached observer as much as possible. At first you will see a sequence of disconnected, fleeting patterns and images. The images will gradually develop into scenes that become more and more complex, finally joining into extended sequences.

3. Enter the dream

When the imagery becomes a moving, vivid scenario, you should allow yourself to be passively drawn into the dream world. Do not try to actively enter the dream scene,

but instead continue to take a detached interest in the imagery. Let your involvement with what is happening draw you into the dream. But be careful of too much involvement and too little attention. Don't forget that you are dreaming now!

Commentary

Probably the most difficult part of this technique to master is entering the dream at Step 3. The challenge is to develop a delicate vigilance, an unobtrusive observer perspective, from which you let yourself be drawn into the dream. As Paul Tholey has emphasized, "It is not desirable to want actively to enter into the scenery,

since such an intention as a rule causes the scenery to disappear." 11 A passive volition similar to that described in the section on autosuggestion in the previous chapter is required: in Tholey's words, "Instead of actively wanting to enter into the scenery, the subject should attempt to let himself be carried into it passively." 12 A Tibetan teacher advises a similar frame of mind: "While delicately observing the mind, lead it gently into the dream state, as though you were leading a child by the hand." 13

Another risk is that, once you have entered into the dream, the world can seem so realistic that it is easy to lose lucidity, as happened in the beginning of Rapport's WILD described above. As insurance in case this happens, Tholey recommends that you resolve to carry out a particular action in the dream, so that if you momentarily lose lucidity, you may remember your intention to carry out the action and thereby regain lucidity.
~ Stephen LaBerge, Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming,
27:[The Gods and Their Worlds]

   [...] According to traditions and occult schools, all these zones of realities, these planes of realities have got different names; they have been classified in a different way, but there is an essential analogy, and if you go back far enough into the traditions, you see only the words changing according to the country and the language. Even now, the experiences of Western occultists and those of Eastern occultists offer great similarities. All who set out on the discovery of these invisible worlds and make a report of what they saw, give a very similar description, whether they be from here or there; they use different words, but the experience is very similar and the handling of forces is the same.

   This knowledge of the occult worlds is based on the existence of subtle bodies and of subtle worlds corresponding to those bodies. They are what the psychological method calls "states of consciousness", but these states of consciousness really correspond to worlds. The occult procedure consists then in being aware of these various inner states of being or subtle bodies and in becoming sufficiently a master of them so as to be able to go out of them successively, one after another. There is indeed a whole scale of subtleties, increasing or decreasing according to the direction in which you go, and the occult procedure consists in going out of a denser body into a subtler body and so on again, up to the most ethereal regions. You go, by successive exteriorisations, into bodies or worlds more and more subtle. It is somewhat as if every time you passed into another dimension. The fourth dimension of the physicists is nothing but the scientific transcription of an occult knowledge. To give another image, one can say that the physical body is at the centre - it is the most material, the densest and also the smallest - and the inner bodies, more subtle, overflow more and more the central physical body; they pass through it, extending themselves farther and farther, like water evaporating from a porous vase and forming a kind of steam all around. And the greater the subtlety, the more the extension tends to unite with that of the universe: one ends by universalising oneself. And it is altogether a concrete process which gives an objective experience of invisible worlds and even enables one to act in these worlds.

   There are, then, only a very small number of people in the West who know that these gods are not merely subjective and imaginary - more or less wildly imaginary - but that they correspond to a universal truth.

   All these regions, all these domains are filled with beings who exist, each in its own domain, and if you are awake and conscious on a particular plane - for instance, if on going out of a more material body you awake on some higher plane, you have the same relation with the things and people of that plane as you had with the things and people of the material world. That is to say, there exists an entirely objective relation that has nothing to do with the idea you may have of these things. Naturally, the resemblance is greater and greater as you approach the physical world, the material world, and there even comes a time when the one region has a direct action upon the other. In any case, in what Sri Aurobindo calls the overmental worlds, you will find a concrete reality absolutely independent of your personal experience; you go back there and again find the same things, with the differences that have occurred during your absence. And you have relations with those beings that are identical with the relations you have with physical beings, with this difference that the relation is more plastic, supple and direct - for example, there is the capacity to change the external form, the visible form, according to the inner state you are in. But you can make an appointment with someone and be at the appointed place and find the same being again, with certain differences that have come about during your absence; it is entirely concrete with results entirely concrete.

   One must have at least a little of this experience in order to understand these things. Otherwise, those who are convinced that all this is mere human imagination and mental formation, who believe that these gods have such and such a form because men have thought them to be like that, and that they have certain defects and certain qualities because men have thought them to be like that - all those who say that God is made in the image of man and that he exists only in human thought, all these will not understand; to them this will appear absolutely ridiculous, madness. One must have lived a little, touched the subject a little, to know how very concrete the thing is.

   Naturally, children know a good deal if they have not been spoilt. There are so many children who return every night to the same place and continue to live the life they have begun there. When these faculties are not spoilt with age, you can keep them with you. At a time when I was especially interested in dreams, I could return exactly to a place and continue a work that I had begun: supervise something, for example, set something in order, a work of organisation or of discovery, of exploration. You go until you reach a certain spot, as you would go in life, then you take a rest, then you return and begin again - you begin the work at the place where you left off and you continue it. And you perceive that there are things which are quite independent of you, in the sense that changes of which you are not at all the author, have taken place automatically during your absence.

   But for this, you must live these experiences yourself, you must see them yourself, live them with sufficient sincerity and spontaneity in order to see that they are independent of any mental formation. For you can do the opposite also, and deepen the study of the action of mental formation upon events. This is very interesting, but it is another domain. And this study makes you very careful, very prudent, because you become aware of how far you can delude yourself. So you must study both, the dream and the occult reality, in order to see what is the essential difference between the two. The one depends upon us; the other exists in itself; entirely independent of the thought that we have of it.

   When you have worked in that domain, you recognise in fact that once a subject has been studied and something has been learnt mentally, it gives a special colour to the experience; the experience may be quite spontaneous and sincere, but the simple fact that the subject was known and studied lends a particular quality. Whereas if you had learnt nothing about the question, if you knew nothing at all, the transcription would be completely spontaneous and sincere when the experience came; it would be more or less adequate, but it would not be the outcome of a previous mental formation.

   Naturally, this occult knowledge or this experience is not very frequent in the world, because in those who do not have a developed inner life, there are veritable gaps between the external consciousness and the inmost consciousness; the linking states of being are missing and they have to be constructed. So when people enter there for the first time, they are bewildered, they have the impression they have fallen into the night, into nothingness, into non-being!

   I had a Danish friend, a painter, who was like that. He wanted me to teach him how to go out of the body; he used to have interesting dreams and thought that it would be worth the trouble to go there consciously. So I made him "go out" - but it was a frightful thing! When he was dreaming, a part of his mind still remained conscious, active, and a kind of link existed between this active part and his external being; then he remembered some of his dreams, but it was a very partial phenomenon. And to go out of one's body means to pass gradually through all the states of being, if one does the thing systematically. Well, already in the subtle physical, one is almost de-individualised, and when one goes farther, there remains nothing, for nothing is formed or individualised.

   Thus, when people are asked to meditate or told to go within, to enter into themselves, they are in agony - naturally! They have the impression that they are vanishing. And with reason: there is nothing, no consciousness!

   These things that appear to us quite natural and evident, are, for people who know nothing, wild imagination. If, for example, you transplant these experiences or this knowledge to the West, well, unless you have been frequenting the circles of occultists, they stare at you with open eyes. And when you have turned your back, they hasten to say, "These people are cranks!" Now to come back to the gods and conclude. It must be said that all those beings who have never had an earthly existence - gods or demons, invisible beings and powers - do not possess what the Divine has put into man: the psychic being. And this psychic being gives to man true love, charity, compassion, a deep kindness, which compensate for all his external defects.

   In the gods there is no fault because they live according to their own nature, spontaneously and without constraint: as gods, it is their manner of being. But if you take a higher point of view, if you have a higher vision, a vision of the whole, you see that they lack certain qualities that are exclusively human. By his capacity of love and self-giving, man can have as much power as the gods and even more, when he is not egoistic, when he has surmounted his egoism.

   If he fulfils the required condition, man is nearer to the Supreme than the gods are. He can be nearer. He is not so automatically, but he has the power to be so, the potentiality.

   If human love manifested itself without mixture, it would be all-powerful. Unfortunately, in human love there is as much love of oneself as of the one loved; it is not a love that makes you forget yourself. - 4 November 1958

   ~ The Mother, Words Of The Mother III, 355
,
28:Mental Education

OF ALL lines of education, mental education is the most widely known and practised, yet except in a few rare cases there are gaps which make it something very incomplete and in the end quite insufficient.

   Generally speaking, schooling is considered to be all the mental education that is necessary. And when a child has been made to undergo, for a number of years, a methodical training which is more like cramming than true schooling, it is considered that whatever is necessary for his mental development has been done. Nothing of the kind. Even conceding that the training is given with due measure and discrimination and does not permanently damage the brain, it cannot impart to the human mind the faculties it needs to become a good and useful instrument. The schooling that is usually given can, at the most, serve as a system of gymnastics to increase the suppleness of the brain. From this standpoint, each branch of human learning represents a special kind of mental gymnastics, and the verbal formulations given to these various branches each constitute a special and well-defined language.

   A true mental education, which will prepare man for a higher life, has five principal phases. Normally these phases follow one after another, but in exceptional individuals they may alternate or even proceed simultaneously. These five phases, in brief, are:

   (1) Development of the power of concentration, the capacity of attention.
   (2) Development of the capacities of expansion, widening, complexity and richness.
   (3) Organisation of one's ideas around a central idea, a higher ideal or a supremely luminous idea that will serve as a guide in life.
   (4) Thought-control, rejection of undesirable thoughts, to become able to think only what one wants and when one wants.
   (5) Development of mental silence, perfect calm and a more and more total receptivity to inspirations coming from the higher regions of the being.

   It is not possible to give here all the details concerning the methods to be employed in the application of these five phases of education to different individuals. Still, a few explanations on points of detail can be given.

   Undeniably, what most impedes mental progress in children is the constant dispersion of their thoughts. Their thoughts flutter hither and thither like butterflies and they have to make a great effort to fix them. Yet this capacity is latent in them, for when you succeed in arousing their interest, they are capable of a good deal of attention. By his ingenuity, therefore, the educator will gradually help the child to become capable of a sustained effort of attention and a faculty of more and more complete absorption in the work in hand. All methods that can develop this faculty of attention from games to rewards are good and can all be utilised according to the need and the circumstances. But it is the psychological action that is most important and the sovereign method is to arouse in the child an interest in what you want to teach him, a liking for work, a will to progress. To love to learn is the most precious gift that one can give to a child: to love to learn always and everywhere, so that all circumstances, all happenings in life may be constantly renewed opportunities for learning more and always more.

   For that, to attention and concentration should be added observation, precise recording and faithfulness of memory. This faculty of observation can be developed by varied and spontaneous exercises, making use of every opportunity that presents itself to keep the child's thought wakeful, alert and prompt. The growth of the understanding should be stressed much more than that of memory. One knows well only what one has understood. Things learnt by heart, mechanically, fade away little by little and finally disappear; what is understood is never forgotten. Moreover, you must never refuse to explain to a child the how and the why of things. If you cannot do it yourself, you must direct the child to those who are qualified to answer or point out to him some books that deal with the question. In this way you will progressively awaken in the child the taste for true study and the habit of making a persistent effort to know.

   This will bring us quite naturally to the second phase of development in which the mind should be widened and enriched.

   You will gradually show the child that everything can become an interesting subject for study if it is approached in the right way. The life of every day, of every moment, is the best school of all, varied, complex, full of unexpected experiences, problems to be solved, clear and striking examples and obvious consequences. It is so easy to arouse healthy curiosity in children, if you answer with intelligence and clarity the numerous questions they ask. An interesting reply to one readily brings others in its train and so the attentive child learns without effort much more than he usually does in the classroom. By a choice made with care and insight, you should also teach him to enjoy good reading-matter which is both instructive and attractive. Do not be afraid of anything that awakens and pleases his imagination; imagination develops the creative mental faculty and through it study becomes living and the mind develops in joy.

   In order to increase the suppleness and comprehensiveness of his mind, one should see not only that he studies many varied topics, but above all that a single subject is approached in various ways, so that the child understands in a practical manner that there are many ways of facing the same intellectual problem, of considering it and solving it. This will remove all rigidity from his brain and at the same time it will make his thinking richer and more supple and prepare it for a more complex and comprehensive synthesis. In this way also the child will be imbued with the sense of the extreme relativity of mental learning and, little by little, an aspiration for a truer source of knowledge will awaken in him.

   Indeed, as the child grows older and progresses in his studies, his mind too ripens and becomes more and more capable of forming general ideas, and with them almost always comes a need for certitude, for a knowledge that is stable enough to form the basis of a mental construction which will permit all the diverse and scattered and often contradictory ideas accumulated in his brain to be organised and put in order. This ordering is indeed very necessary if one is to avoid chaos in one's thoughts. All contradictions can be transformed into complements, but for that one must discover the higher idea that will have the power to bring them harmoniously together. It is always good to consider every problem from all possible standpoints so as to avoid partiality and exclusiveness; but if the thought is to be active and creative, it must, in every case, be the natural and logical synthesis of all the points of view adopted. And if you want to make the totality of your thoughts into a dynamic and constructive force, you must also take great care as to the choice of the central idea of your mental synthesis; for upon that will depend the value of this synthesis. The higher and larger the central idea and the more universal it is, rising above time and space, the more numerous and the more complex will be the ideas, notions and thoughts which it will be able to organise and harmonise.

   It goes without saying that this work of organisation cannot be done once and for all. The mind, if it is to keep its vigour and youth, must progress constantly, revise its notions in the light of new knowledge, enlarge its frame-work to include fresh notions and constantly reclassify and reorganise its thoughts, so that each of them may find its true place in relation to the others and the whole remain harmonious and orderly.

   All that has just been said concerns the speculative mind, the mind that learns. But learning is only one aspect of mental activity; the other, which is at least equally important, is the constructive faculty, the capacity to form and thus prepare action. This very important part of mental activity has rarely been the subject of any special study or discipline. Only those who want, for some reason, to exercise a strict control over their mental activities think of observing and disciplining this faculty of formation; and as soon as they try it, they have to face difficulties so great that they appear almost insurmountable.

   And yet control over this formative activity of the mind is one of the most important aspects of self-education; one can say that without it no mental mastery is possible. As far as study is concerned, all ideas are acceptable and should be included in the synthesis, whose very function is to become more and more rich and complex; but where action is concerned, it is just the opposite. The ideas that are accepted for translation into action should be strictly controlled and only those that agree with the general trend of the central idea forming the basis of the mental synthesis should be permitted to express themselves in action. This means that every thought entering the mental consciousness should be set before the central idea; if it finds a logical place among the thoughts already grouped, it will be admitted into the synthesis; if not, it will be rejected so that it can have no influence on the action. This work of mental purification should be done very regularly in order to secure a complete control over one's actions.

   For this purpose, it is good to set apart some time every day when one can quietly go over one's thoughts and put one's synthesis in order. Once the habit is acquired, you can maintain control over your thoughts even during work and action, allowing only those which are useful for what you are doing to come to the surface. Particularly, if you have continued to cultivate the power of concentration and attention, only the thoughts that are needed will be allowed to enter the active external consciousness and they then become all the more dynamic and effective. And if, in the intensity of concentration, it becomes necessary not to think at all, all mental vibration can be stilled and an almost total silence secured. In this silence one can gradually open to the higher regions of the mind and learn to record the inspirations that come from there.

   But even before reaching this point, silence in itself is supremely useful, because in most people who have a somewhat developed and active mind, the mind is never at rest. During the day, its activity is kept under a certain control, but at night, during the sleep of the body, the control of the waking state is almost completely removed and the mind indulges in activities which are sometimes excessive and often incoherent. This creates a great stress which leads to fatigue and the diminution of the intellectual faculties.

   The fact is that like all the other parts of the human being, the mind too needs rest and it will not have this rest unless we know how to provide it. The art of resting one's mind is something to be acquired. Changing one's mental activity is certainly one way of resting; but the greatest possible rest is silence. And as far as the mental faculties are concerned a few minutes passed in the calm of silence are a more effective rest than hours of sleep.

   When one has learned to silence the mind at will and to concentrate it in receptive silence, then there will be no problem that cannot be solved, no mental difficulty whose solution cannot be found. When it is agitated, thought becomes confused and impotent; in an attentive tranquillity, the light can manifest itself and open up new horizons to man's capacity. Bulletin, November 1951

   ~ The Mother, On Education,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

1:The workmanship was better than the subject matter. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
2:Change but the name, and you are the subject of the story. ~ horace, @wisdomtrove
3:The subject of history is the life of peoples and mankind. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
4:What is the subject of our thought? Experience! Nothing else! ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
5:The poets have been mysteriously silent on the subject of cheese. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
6:Style is the substance of the subject called unceasingly to the surface. ~ victor-hugo, @wisdomtrove
7:That which knows all things and is known by none is the subject. ~ arthur-schopenhauer, @wisdomtrove
8:I am my own muse. I am the subject I know best. The subject I want to better. ~ frida-kahlo, @wisdomtrove
9:Meditation is the means of unification of the subject and object. Meditate. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
10:If the subject's easy we may all be wise; What stands unfirm, the smallest force overthrows. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
11:If a man is often the subject of conversation he soon becomes the subject of criticism. ~ immanuel-kant, @wisdomtrove
12:Materialism is the philosophy of the subject who forgets to take account of himself. ~ arthur-schopenhauer, @wisdomtrove
13:No good sensible working bee listens to the advice of a bedbug on the subject of business. ~ elbert-hubbard, @wisdomtrove
14:The opinion of 10,000 men is of no value if none of them know anything about the subject. ~ marcus-aurelius, @wisdomtrove
15:No &
16:The best advice I ever came across on the subject of concentration is: Wherever you are, be there. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
17:On the subject of love at first sight, I’m with the Beatles: I believe that it happens all the time. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
18:The obscurity is much oftener in the passions and prejudices of the reasoner than in the subject. ~ alexander-hamilton, @wisdomtrove
19:I do not paint a portrait to look like the subject, rather does the person grow to look like his portrait. ~ salvador-dali, @wisdomtrove
20:The subject matter of art is life, life as it actually is; but the function of art is to make life better. ~ gertrude-stein, @wisdomtrove
21:Silence is said to be golden, but the best fools the world has ever produced had nothing to say on the subject ~ josh-billings, @wisdomtrove
22:I have no consistency, except in politics; and that probably arises from my indifference to the subject altogether. ~ lord-byron, @wisdomtrove
23:It may be conceit, but I believe the subject will interest the public, and I am sure that the views are original. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
24:They are not rules prescribed by the sovereign to the subject, but agreements between sovereign and sovereign. ~ alexander-hamilton, @wisdomtrove
25:Talent is the capacity to direct concentrated attention upon the subject: "the gift of seeing what others have not seen. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
26:A good speech should be like a woman's skirt; long enough to cover the subject and short enough to create interest. ~ winston-churchill, @wisdomtrove
27:More business decisions occur over lunch and dinner than at any other time, yet no MBA courses are given on the subject. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
28:Having not said anything the first time, it was somehow even more difficult to broach the subject the second time around. ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
29:When the tongue or the pen is let loose in a frenzy of passion, it is the man, and not the subject, that becomes exhausted. ~ thomas-paine, @wisdomtrove
30:I knew a lot about what I did when I was 20. I had read a lot, and I aspired to learn everything I could about the subject. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
31:It is the mark of an educated man to look for precision in each class of things just so far as the nature of the subject admits. ~ aristotle, @wisdomtrove
32:A work should contain its total meaning within itself and should impress it on the spectator before he even knows the subject. ~ henri-matisse, @wisdomtrove
33:First, study the present construction. Second, ask for all past experiences ... study and read everything you can on the subject. ~ thomas-edison, @wisdomtrove
34:Mathematics may be defined as the subject in which we never know what we are talking about, nor whether what we are saying is true. ~ bertrand-russell, @wisdomtrove
35:I know of nothing which I would choose to have as the subject of my ambition for life than to be kept faithful to my God till death. ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
36:if anyone present wishes to make me the subject of his wit, I am very much at his service&
37:A work of art must carry in itself its complete significance and impose it upon the beholder even before he can identify the subject-matter. ~ henri-matisse, @wisdomtrove
38:It matters not the subject taught, nor all the books on all the shelves, What matters most, yes most of all, is what the teachers are themselves. ~ john-wooden, @wisdomtrove
39:He thought her beautiful, believed her impeccably wise; dreamed of her, wrote poems to her, which, ignoring the subject, she corrected in red ink. ~ virginia-woolf, @wisdomtrove
40:I write essays first because I have a passionate relationship to the subject and second because the subject is one that people are not talking about. ~ susan-sontag, @wisdomtrove
41:Certainly, my many years working in the comics industry, creating products that I do not own, has made me rather fierce on the subject of giving up rights. ~ alan-moore, @wisdomtrove
42:That 95 per cent. fail of those who start in business upon their own account seems incredible, and yet such are said to be the statistics upon the subject. ~ andrew-carnegie, @wisdomtrove
43:In every science certain things must be accepted as first principles if the subject matter is to be understood; and these first postulates rest upon faith. ~ nicholas-of-cusa, @wisdomtrove
44:Say, for example, you develop the ability to make parking meters disappear. It's probably easier to put a quarter in it. That would be the wisdom on the subject. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
45:There are a few dogmas and double standards and really regrettable exports from philosophy that have confounded the thinking of scientists on the subject of morality. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
46:It is the subjective world that rules the objective. Change the subject, and the object is bound to change; purify youreslf, and the world is bound to be purified. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
47:Since at any point of time and space I can be both the subject and the object of experience, I express it by saying that I am  both, and neither, and beyond. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
48:Everywhere there is apathy. Nobody cares whether that which is preached is true or false. A sermon is a sermon whatever the subject; only, the shorter it is, the better. ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
49:Let no one say that I have said nothing new... the arrangement of the subject is new. When we play tennis, we both play with the same ball, but one of us places it better. ~ blaise-pascal, @wisdomtrove
50:Since at any point of time and space I can be both the subject and the object of experience, I express it by saying that I am both, and neither, and beyond both. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
51:Speak seldom, but to important subjects, except such as particularly relate to your constituents, and, in the former case, make yourself perfectly master of the subject. ~ george-washington, @wisdomtrove
52:You know how it is when you go to be the subject of a psychology experiment and nobody else shows up and you think maybe that's part of the experiment? I'm like that all the time. ~ steven-wright, @wisdomtrove
53:The idea of the walls of monastery was to keep everybody else out because you wanted to develop a certain type of life. Most people in the world had different ideas on the subject. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
54:Don't use words too big for the subject. Don't say &
55:It's necessary to respect all other ways and other teachings on the subject because even though they may not make a lot of sense to us, they might to someone else. Who are we to say? ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
56:I know nothing that can so comfort the soul, so calm the swelling billows of grief and sorrow, so speak peace to the winds of trial, as a devout musing upon the subject of the Godhead. ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
57:Before God closed in on me, I was offered what now appears a moment of wholly free choice. But I feel my decision was not so important. I was the object rather than the subject in this affair. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
58:I pay very little regard... to what any young person says on the subject of marriage. If they profess a disinclination for it, I only set it down that they have not yet seen the right person. ~ jane-austen, @wisdomtrove
59:She didn't even finish her last sentence; it just trailed off. I think the subject had changed in her head while her mouth had continued on the old topic, not realizing it was out of supplies. ~ steve-martin, @wisdomtrove
60:You must forget all your theories, all your ideas before the subject. What part of these is really your own will be expressed in your expression of the emotion awakened in you by the subject. ~ henri-matisse, @wisdomtrove
61:Actually, I'm not all that interested in the subject of photography. Once the picture is in the box, I'm not all that interested in what happens next. Hunters, after all, aren't cooks. ~ henri-cartier-bresson, @wisdomtrove
62:The question of immortality is of its nature not a scholarly question. It is a question welling up from the interior which the subject must put to itself as it becomes conscious of itself. ~ soren-kierkegaard, @wisdomtrove
63:I am conscious of the fact that the subject of hell is not a very pleasant one. It is very unpopular, controversial and misunderstood... . As a minister, I must deal with it. I cannot ignore it. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
64:Most of us are not really approaching the subject in order to find out what Christianity says; we are approaching it in the hope of finding support from Christianity for the views of our own party. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
65:Think about the photo before and after, never during. The secret is to take your time. You mustn't go too fast. The subject must forget about you. Then, however, you must be very quick. ~ henri-cartier-bresson, @wisdomtrove
66:My mind is a chest of drawers. When I wish to deal with a subject, I shut all the drawers but the one in which the subject is to be found. When I am wearied, I shut all the drawers and go to sleep. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
67:To the audience, it's like I'm changing the subject every five seconds, but to me, my show's almost like a 90-minute song that I know exactly. I wrote every note, and I know exactly where everything is. ~ steven-wright, @wisdomtrove
68:No man should dogmatize except on the subject of theology. Here he can take his stand, and by throwing the burden of proof on the opposition, he is invincible. We have to die to find out whether he is right. ~ elbert-hubbard, @wisdomtrove
69:Political Economy as a branch of science is extremely modern; but the subject with which its enquiries are conversant has in all ages necessarily constituted one of the chief practical interests of mankind. ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
70:And ever, as the story drained The wells of fancy dry, And faintly strove that weary one To put the subject by, "The rest next time&
71:Lully's machine, Mill's fear and Lasswitz's chaotic library can be the subject of jokes, but they exaggerate a propensity which is common: making metaphysics and the arts into a kind of play with combinations. ~ jorge-luis-borges, @wisdomtrove
72:The subject of history is the life of peoples and of humanity. To catch and pin down in words&
73:Leave alone your desires and fears, give your entire attention to the subject, to him who is behind the experience of desire and fear. Ask: &
74:I have often discussed the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path in talks I have given about meditation. But, since I also teach Hindu, Buddhist, and Taoist mediation, I have a very eclectic approach to the subject. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
75:The constitution vests the power of declaring war in Congress; therefore no offensive expedition of importance can be undertaken until after they shall have deliberated upon the subject and authorized such a measure. ~ george-washington, @wisdomtrove
76:Until I became a published writer, I remained completely ignorant of books on how to write and courses on the subject ... they would have spoiled my natural style; made me observe caution; would have hedged me with rules. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
77:The subject of the lesson itself should not become more important that the underlying basis. Drawing thus provides first the written forms of letters and then their printed forms. Based on drawing, we build up to reading. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
78:[A] man and still more the woman, who can be accused either of doing "what nobody does," or of not doing "what everybody does," is the subject of as much depreciatory remark as if he or she had committed some grave moral delinquency. ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
79:When we hold to the core, the opposite sides are the same if they are seen from the center of the moving circle. I do not experience; I am experience. I am not the subject of experience; I am that experience. I am awareness. Nothing else can be I or can exist. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
80:On the subject of religious belief, we relax standards of reasonableness and evidence that we rely on in every other area of our lives. We relax so totally that people believe the most ludicrous propositions, and are willing to organize their lives around them. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
81:[It is] essentially wholesome and necessary, for a Christian to know, whether or not the will does any thing in those things which pertain unto Salvation. Nay, let me tell you, this is the very hinge upon which our discussion turns. It is the very heart of the subject ~ martin-luther, @wisdomtrove
82:There are many instances in science, where those closest to the intricacies of the subject have a more highly developed sense of its intractability than those at some remove. On the other hand, those at too great a distance may, I am well aware, mistake ignorance for perspective. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
83:The person is never the subject. You can see a person, but you are not the person. You are always the Supreme which appears at a given point of time and space as the witness, a bridge between the pure awareness of the Supreme and the manifold consciousness of the person. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
84:Simply look with perceptive eyes at the world about you, and trust to your own reactions and convictions. Ask yourself: Does this subject move me to feel, think and dream? Can I visualize a print - my own personal statement of what I feel and want to convey - from the subject before me? ~ amsel-adams, @wisdomtrove
85:Whenever Roosevelt (Theodore) expected a visitor, he sat up late the night before, reading up on the subject in which he knew his guest was particularly interested. For Roosevelt knew, all the leaders royal road to a person's heart is to talk about the things he or she treasures most. ~ dale-carnegie, @wisdomtrove
86:Before I started (college), that's the advice my dad gave me. He said to pick classes based on the teacher whenever you can, not the subject... his point was that good teachers are priceless. They inspire you, they entertain you, and you end up learning a ton even when you don't know it. ~ nicholas-sparks, @wisdomtrove
87:The minister today preached about death and judgment, and what would become of those who behaved improperly - and somehow it scared me. He preached such an awful sermon I didn't think I should ever see you again until the Judgment Day. The subject of perdition seemed to please him somehow. ~ emily-dickinson, @wisdomtrove
88:See your "career" as one of creating a joyful life experience. You are not a regurgitator of what someone else has created or a gatherer of stuff. You are a creator, and the subject of your creation is your joyful life experience. That is your mission. That is your quest. That is why you are here. ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
89:The impediment to scientific thinking is not, I think, the difficulty of the subject. Complex intellectual feats have been mainstays even of oppressed cultures. Shamans, magicians and theologians are highly skilled in their intricate and arcane arts. No, the impediment is political and hierarchical. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
90:The profession depends so much upon the relations the photographer establishes with the people he’s photographing, that is a false relationship, a wrong word or attitude, can ruin everything. When the subject is in any way uneasy, the personality goes away where the camera can’t reach it. ~ henri-cartier-bresson, @wisdomtrove
91:So, the two factors that your emotions are always letting you know are: how focused the Energy is by virtue of your desire, and how your normal thoughts around the subject resonate or don’t resonate with that desire. Easier way to say it is, “what’s my attitude or what’s my mood about such-and-such? ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
92:You may not instantly see why I bring the subject up, but that is because my mind works so phenomenally fast, and I am at a rough estimate thirty billion times more intelligent than you. Let me give you an example. Think of a number, any number. Er, five, said the mattress. Wrong, said Marvin. You see? ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
93:The hardest thing to do is to write straight honest prose on human beings. First you have to know the subject; then you have to know how to write. Both take a lifetime to learn, and anybody is cheating who takes politics as a way out. All the outs are too easy, and the thing itself is too hard to do. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
94:I remember when I was in high school I didn't have a new dress for each special occasion. The girls would bring the fact to my attention, not always too delicately. The boys, however, never bothered with the subject. They were my friends, not because of the size of my wardrobe but because they liked me. ~ marilyn-monroe, @wisdomtrove
95:My passion has never been for photography ”in itself,“ but for the possibility– through forgetting yourself– of recording in a fraction of a second the emotion of the subject, and the beauty of the form; that is, a geometry awakened by what’s offered. The photographic shot is one of my sketchpads. ~ henri-cartier-bresson, @wisdomtrove
96:I have never made it a consideration whether the subject was popular or unpopular, but whether it was right or wrong; for that which is right will become popular, and that which is wrong, though by mistake it may obtain the cry or fashion of the day, will soon lose the power of delusion, and sink into disesteem. ~ thomas-paine, @wisdomtrove
97:And how many hours a day did you do lessons?' said Alice, in a hurry to change the subject. Ten hours the first day,' said the Mock Turtle: &
98:The word "Verse" is used here as the term most convenient for expressing, and without pedantry, all that is involved in the consideration of rhythm, rhyme, meter, and versification... the subject is exceedingly simple; one tenth of it, possibly may be called ethical; nine tenths, however, appertains to the mathematics. ~ edgar-allan-poe, @wisdomtrove
99:You are right, there can be no experience beyond consciousness. Yet there is the experience of just being. There is a state beyond consciousness, which is not unconscious. Some call it super- consciousness, or pure consciousness, or supreme consciousness. It is pure awareness free from the subject object nexus. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
100:Truths are known to us in two ways: some are known directly, and of themselves; some through the medium of other truths. The former are the subject of Intuition, or Consciousness; the latter, of Inference; the latter of Inference. The truths known by Intuition are the original premisses, from which all others are inferred. ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
101:The power of meditation gets us everything. If you want to get power over nature, [you can have it through meditation]. It is through the power of meditation all scientific facts are discovered today. They study the subject and forget everything, their own identity and everything, and then the great fact comes like a flash. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
102:Change is always subjective. All through evolution you find that the conquest of nature comes by change in the subject. Apply this to religion and morality, and you will find that the conquest of evil comes by the change in the subjective alone. That is how the Advaitic system gets its whole force, on the subjective side of man. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
103:It has sometimes been said that the success of the Origin proved "that the subject was in the air," or "that men's minds were prepared for it." I do not think that this is strictly true, for I occasionally sounded not a few naturalists, and never happened to come across a single one who seemed to doubt about the permanence of species. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
104:The Witness is a huge step forward, and it is a necessary and important step in meditation, but it is not ultimate. When the Witness or the soul is finally undone, then the Witness dissolves into everything that is witnessed.  The subject/object duality collapses and there is only pure nondual awareness, which is very simple, very obvious. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
105:Creation is a sustained period of bliss, even though the subject can still be very sad. Because there's the triumph of coming through and understanding that you have, and that you did it the way only you could do it. You didn't do it the way somebody told you to do it. You did it just the way you had to do it, and that is what makes us us. ~ alice-walker, @wisdomtrove
106:When you think about dollars, do you feel joyful? Does the subject of dollars make you feel free? Do you feel eager and enthusiastic about dollars? Do you feel afraid when you think about dollars? Are you angry about dollars? Are you embarrassed about dollars? Are you fitful about them; worried about them; eager about them, happy about them? ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
107:He is the witness of the world, he is the witness of his feelings and of its thoughts. This understanding liberates him from his identification with the body-mind, and opens the possibility for consciousness to be universal rather than personal. But this distinction has to be eventually transcended: the subject and its object are one, there is no “gap”. ~ jean-klein, @wisdomtrove
108:It is not necessary for a preacher to express all his thoughts in one sermon. A preacher should have three principles: first, to make a good beginning, and not spend time with many words before coming to the point; secondly, to say that which belongs to the subject in chief, and avoid strange and foreign thoughts; thirdly, to stop at the proper time. ~ martin-luther, @wisdomtrove
109:If someone smells a flower and says he does not understand, the reply to him is: there is nothing to understand, it is only a scent. If he persists, saying: that I know, but what does it all mean? Then one has either to change the subject, or make it more abstruse by saying that the scent is the shape which the universal joy takes in the flower. ~ rabindranath-tagore, @wisdomtrove
110:The person is of little use. It is deeply involved in its own affairs and is completely ignorant of its true being. Unless the witnessing consciousness begins to play on the person and it becomes the object of observation rather than the subject, realisation is not feasible. It is the witness that makes realisation desirable and attainable. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
111:No doubt there are some who, when confronted with a line of mathematical symbols, however simply presented, can only see the face of a stern parent or teacher who tried to force into them a non-comprehending parrot-like apparent competence&
112:I guess the one-liner kind of comic sounds like a guy who can talk and talk and whatever the subject is, he can pull out a one-liner, but I couldn't do that. I didn't like the association. I mean, I love Steven Wright, but so many people started saying "Steven Wright" to me, and I would get mad, because I never wanted to be thought of as copying anybody. ~ mitch-hedberg, @wisdomtrove
113:When we would show any one that he is mistaken, our best course is to observe on what side he considers the subject,&
114:A photograph that is merely a superficial record of the subject fails as an aesthetic expression of that subject. The expression must be an emotional amplification, and this emotional amplification relates to point of view, organization, revelation of substance through textures, tonal relations, and the perfection of the technical expression of all these elements. ~ amsel-adams, @wisdomtrove
115:Under none of the accredited ghostly circumstances, and environed by none of the conventional ghostly surroundings, did I first make acquaintance with the house which is the subject of this Christmas piece. I saw it in the daylight, with the sun upon it. There was no wind, no rain, no lightning, no thunder, no awful or unwonted circumstance, of any kind, to heighten its effect. ~ charles-dickens, @wisdomtrove
116:As a first step towards an understanding of the true nature of our experience, the non-dual teaching points out that it is not ‘I’, the body/mind, that is aware of things, others and the world, but rather ‘I’, Awareness, that is aware of the body and mind, as well as things, others and the world. As such, the body and mind are understood to be objects of experience, not the subject. ~ rupert-spira, @wisdomtrove
117:I am the subject and I am looking at nothing. Because nothing is not an object, I then disappear. You can only have ‘I’ when there is an object. And you can only have an object when there is ‘I’ looking at it.  The truth is that here, inside me, in consciousness, there is no object. There is nothing … and so I disappear. That is an indescribable state called being. Don’t doubt it. Just be it. ~ barry-long, @wisdomtrove
118:In addition to deriving an identity from how we experience ourselves in the world, we also derive a sense of self from the very fact that we are experiencing. If there is experience, then there must, we assume, be an experiencer; there must be an "I" who is doing the experiencing. It certainly feels that way. Whatever is going on in my mind, there is this sense that I am the subject of it all. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
119:I suppose my interest in looking for life elsewhere in the universe really dates back to my teens. What teenager doesn't look up at the sky at night and think am I alone in the universe? Well most people get over it, but I never did and though I made a career more in physics and cosmology than astrobiology I've always had a soft spot for the subject of life because it does seem so mysterious. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
120:For men, as a rule, love is but an episode which takes place among the other affairs of the day, and the emphasis laid on it in novels gives it an importance which is untrue to life. There are few men to whom it is the most important thing in the world, and they are not the very interesting ones; even women, with whom the subject is of paramount interest, have a contempt for them. ~ william-somerset-maugham, @wisdomtrove
121:... Nothing resembles reality less than the photograph. Nothing resembles substance less than its shadow. To convey the meaning of something substantial you have to use not a shadow but a sign, not the limitation but the image. The image is a new and different reality, and of course it does not convey an impression of some object, but the mind of the subject; and that is something else again. ~ thomas-merton, @wisdomtrove
122:If the photographer is to have a chance of achieving a true reflection of a person’s world– which is as much outside him as inside him– it is necessary that the subject of the portrait should be in a situation normal to him. We must respect the atmosphere which surrounds the human being, and integrate into the portrait the individual’s habitat– for man, no less than animals, has his habitat. ~ henri-cartier-bresson, @wisdomtrove
123:When you find yourself critical of the way anyone has attracted or is using money, you are pushing money away from yourself. But when you realize that what others do with money has nothing to do with you, and that your primary work is to think and speak and do what feels good to you, then you will be in alignment not only about the subject of money, but about every important subject in your physical experience. ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
124:After five years' work I allowed myself to speculate on the subject, and drew up some short notes; these I enlarged in 1844 into a sketch of the conclusions, which then seemed to me probable: from that period to the present day I have steadily pursued the same object. I hope that I may be excused for entering on these personal details, as I give them to show that I have not been hasty in coming to a decision.‎ ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
125:For creation is not a change, but that dependence of the created existence on the principle from which it is instituted, and thus is of the genus of relation; whence nothing prohibits it being in the created as in the subject. Creation is thus said to be a kind of change, according to the way of understanding, insofar as our intellect accepts one and the same thing as not existing before and afterwards existing. ~ denis-diderot, @wisdomtrove
126:For creation is not a change, but that dependence of the created existence on the principle from which it is instituted, and thus is of the genus of relation; whence nothing prohibits it being in the created as in the subject. Creation is thus said to be a kind of change, according to the way of understanding, insofar as our intellect accepts one and the same thing as not existing before and afterwards existing. ~ thomas-aquinas, @wisdomtrove
127:If in the state of witnessing you ask yourself: &
128:One would suppose that the battle for religious liberty was won in the United States two hundred years ago. However, in the time since, and right now, powerful voices are always raised in favor of bigotry and thought control. It is useful, then, to have a compendium of the thoughts of great men and women of all faiths (and of none) on the subject, to convince us that we men and woman of freedom are not and never have been alone. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
129:Photography must seize upon this moment and hold immobile the equilibrium of it. The photographers eye is perpetually evaluating. A photographer can bring coincidence of line simply by moving his head a fraction of a millimeter. He can modify perspectives by a slight bending of the knees. By placing the camera closer to or farther from the subject, he draws a detail — and it can be subordinated, or he can be tyrannized by it. ~ henri-cartier-bresson, @wisdomtrove
130:He must be able to hear them [the counter arguments] from persons who actually believe them; who defend them in earnest, and do their very utmost for them. He must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form; he must feel the whole force of the difficulty which the true view of the subject has to encounter and dispose of; else he will never really possess himself of the portion of truth which meets and removes that difficulty. ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
131:The advantages of natural folly in a beautiful girl have been already set forth by the capital pen of a sister author; and to her treatment of the subject I will only add, in justice to men, that though to the larger and more trifling part of the sex, imbecility in females is a great enhancement of their personal charms, there is a portion of them too reasonable and too well informed themselves to desire anything more in woman than ignorance ~ jane-austen, @wisdomtrove
132:By an ambitious chieftain, aiming only to aggrandize himself and establish his power, the subject might have been regarded in a different light; but the designs and actions of Washington centred in nobler objects, the freedom, tranquillity, and happiness of his country, in which he was to participate equally with every other citizen, neither seeking nor expecting any other preeminence than that of having been an instrument in the hand of Providence. ~ george-washington, @wisdomtrove
133:He did not know that the new life would not be given him for nothing, that he would have to pay dearly for it, that it would cost him great striving, great suffering. But that is the beginning of a new story - the story of the gradual renewal of a man, the story of his gradual regeneration, of his passing from one world into another, of his initiation into a new unknown life. That might be the subject of a new story, but our present story is ended. ~ fyodor-dostoevsky, @wisdomtrove
134:Faith is a great thing, and really religious people would like us to believe that faith and knowing are the same thing, but I don't believe that myself. Because there are too many different ideas on the subject. What we know is this: When we die, one of two things happens. Either our souls and thoughts somehow survive the experience of dying or they don't. If they do, that opens up every possibility you could think of. If they don't, it's just blotto. The end. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
135:To see the butcher slap the steak before he laid it on the block, and give his knife a sharpening, was to forget breakfast instantly. It was agreeable too - it really was - to see him cut it off so smooth and juicy. There was nothing savage in the act, although the knife was large and keen; it was a piece of art, high art; there was delicacy of touch, clearness of tone, skilful handling of the subject, fine shading. It was the triumph of mind over matter; quite. ~ charles-dickens, @wisdomtrove
136:... But nature does not say that cats are more valuable than mice; nature makes no remark on the subject. She does not even say that the cat is enviable or the mouse pitiable. We think the cat superior because we have (or most of us have) a particular philosophy to the effect that life is better than death. But if the mouse were a German pessimist mouse, he might not think that the cat had beaten him at all. He might think he had beaten the cat by getting to the grave first. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
137:Her companion's discourse now sunk from its hitherto animated pitch, to nothing more than a short, decisive sentence of praise or condemnation on the face of every woman they met; and Catherine, after listening and agreeing as long as she could,with all the civility and deference of the youthful female mind, fearful of hazarding an opinion of its own in opposition to that of a self-assured man, especially where the beauty of her own sex is concerned, ventured at length to vary the subject... ~ jane-austen, @wisdomtrove
138:What is your view of the daily discipline of the Christian life - the need for taking time to be alone with God? Lewis: "We have our New Testament regimental orders upon the subject. I would take it for granted that everyone who becomes a Christian would undertake this practice. It is enjoined upon us by Our Lord; and since they are his commands, I believe in following them. It is always just possible that Jesus Christ meant what he said when He told us to seek the secret place and to close the door. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
139:How very seldom do you encounter in the world a man of great abilities, acquirements, experience, who will unmask his mind, unbutton his brains, and pour forth in careless and picturesque phrase all the results of his studies and observation; his knowledge of men, books, and nature. On the contrary, if a man has by any chance an original idea, he hoards it as if it were old gold; and rather avoids the subject with which he is most conversant, from fear that you may appropriate his best thoughts. ~ benjamin-disraeli, @wisdomtrove
140:I cannot stand forward, and give praise or blame to any thing which relates to human actions, and human concerns, on a simple view of the subject as it stands stripped of every relation, in all the nakedness and solitude of metaphysical abstraction. Circumstances (which with some gentlemen pass for nothing) give in reality to every political principle its distinguishing colour, and discriminating effect. The circumstances are what render every civil and political scheme beneficial or noxious to mankind. ~ edmund-burke, @wisdomtrove
141:As an adult I discovered that I was a pretty good autodidact, and can teach myself all kind of things. And developed a great interest in a number of different things from how to build a street hot rod from the ground up to quantum mechanics, and those two different kinds of mechanics, and it was really in the sciences, quantum mechanics, molecular biology, I would begin looking at these things looking for ideas, but in fact you don't read it for ideas you read it for curiosity and interest in the subject. ~ dean-koontz, @wisdomtrove
142:If an enthusiastic, ardent, and ambitious man marry a wife on whose name there is a stain, which, though it originate in no fault of hers, may be visited by cold and sordid people upon her, and upon his children also: and, in exact proportion to his success in the world, be cast in his teeth, and made the subject of sneers against him: he may, no matter how generous and good his nature, one day repent of the connection he formed in early life; and she may have the pain and torture of knowing that he does so. ~ charles-dickens, @wisdomtrove
143:I am the subject of depression so fearful that I hope none of you ever get to such extremes of wretchedness as I go to. But I always get back again by this-I know that I trust Christ.  I have no reliance but in Him, and if He falls, I shall fall with Him.  But if He does not, I shall not.  Because He lives, I shall live also, and I spring to my legs again and fight with my depressions of spirit and get the victory through it.  And so may you do, and so you must, for there is no other way of escaping from it. ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
144:My doctrine means that I must identify myself with life, with everything that lives, that I must share the majesty of life in the presence of God. The sum-total of this life is God. .. Man is not at peace with himself until he has become like unto God. The endeavor to reach this state is the supreme, the only ambition worth having. And this is self-realisation. This self-realisation is the subject of the Gita, as it is of all scriptures... to be a real devotee is to realise oneself. Self-realisation is not something apart. ~ mahatma-gandhi, @wisdomtrove
145:&
146:When no discriminating thoughts arise, the old mind ceases to exist. When thought objects vanish, the thinking-subject vanishes, as when the mind vanishes, objects vanish. Things are objects because of the subject; the mind is such because of things. Understand the relativity of these two and the basic reality: the unity of emptiness. In this Emptiness the two are indistinguishable and each contains in itself the whole world. If you do not discriminate between coarse and fine you will not be tempted to prejudice and opinion. ~ jianzhi-sengcan, @wisdomtrove
147:The Spirit of God bears no witness to Christless sermons. Leave Jesus out of your preaching, and the Holy Spirit will never come upon you. Why should he? Has he not come on purpose that he may testify of Christ? Did not Jesus say, ‘He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you'? Yes, the subject was Christ, and nothing but Christ, and such is the teaching which the Spirit of God will own. Be it ours never to wander from this central point: may we determine to know nothing among men but Christ and his cross. ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
148:The essence of love and compassion is understanding, the ability to recognize the physical, material, and psychological suffering of others, to put ourselves "inside the skin" of the other. We "go inside" their body, feelings, and mental formations, and witness for ourselves their suffering.  Shallow observation as an outsider is not enough to see their suffering.  We must become one with the subject of our observation.  When we are in contact with another's suffering, a feeling of compassion is born in us.  Compassion means, literally, "to suffer with." ~ thich-nhat-hanh, @wisdomtrove
149:For us, mind has nature for its premise, being nature's truth and for that reason its absolute prius. In this truth nature has vanished, and mind has resulted as the idea arrived at being-for-itself, the object of which, as well as the subject, is the concept. This identity is absolute negativity, for whereas in nature the concept has its perfect external objectivity, this its alienation has been superseded, and in this alienation the concept has become identical with itself. But it is this identity therefore, only in being a return out of nature. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
150:It has always seemed to me that the only painless death must be that which takes the intelligence by violent surprise and from the rear so to speak since if death be anything at all beyond a brief and peculiar emotional state of the bereaved it must be a brief and likewise peculiar state of the subject as well and if aught can be more painful to any intelligence above that of a child or an idiot than a slow and gradual confronting with that which over a long period of bewilderment and dread it has been taught to regard as an irrevocable and unplumbable finality, I do not know it. ~ william-faulkner, @wisdomtrove
151:Upon the subject of education, not presuming to dictate any plan or system respecting it, I can only say that I view it as the most important subject which we as a people can be engaged in. That every man may receive at least a moderate education, and thereby be enabled to read the histories of his own and other countries, by which he may duly appreciate the value of our free institutions, appears to be an object of vital importance, even on this account alone, to say nothing of the advantages and satisfaction to be derived from all being able to read the Scriptures, and other works both of a religious and moral nature, for themselves. ~ abraham-lincoln, @wisdomtrove
152:At some point in life, we all ask the same question: Who am I? And no one really knows the answer. The self is a slippery subject—especially when it’s the subject that is regarding itself as an object! So let’s begin by grounding this airy topic with an experiential activity—taking the body for a walk. Then we’ll investigate the nature of the self in your brain. Last, we’ll explore methods for relaxing and releasing self-ing in order to feel more confident, peaceful, and joined with all things. (For more on this profound matter, which reaches beyond the scope of a single chapter, see Living Dhamma by Ajahn Chah, The Book: On the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are by Alan Watts, I Am That: Talks with Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj, or The Spiritual Teaching of Ramana Maharshi.) ~ rick-hanson, @wisdomtrove
153:When it comes right down to it, the challenge of mindfulness is to realize that this is it Right now is my life. The question is, What is my relationship to it going to be? Does my life just automatically happen to me? Am I a total prisoner of my circumstances or my obligations, of my body or my illness, or of my history? Do I become hostile or defensive or depressed if certain buttons get pushed, happy if other buttons are pushed, and frightened if something else happens? What are my choices? Do I have any options? We will be looking into these questions more deeply when we take up the subject of our reactions to stress and how our emotions affect our health. For now the important point is to grasp the value of bringing the practice of mindfulness into the conduct of our daily lives. Is there any waking moment of your life that would not be richer and more alive for you if you were more fully awake while it was happening? ~ jon-kabat-zinn, @wisdomtrove
154:In one of his traditional sermons transmitted by his disciples, is the following apologue on the subject of charity : " When God created the earth it shook and trembled, until he put mountains upon it, to make it firm. Then the angels asked, &
155:It is by participation of species that we call every sensible object beautiful. Thus, since everything void of form is by nature fitted for its reception, as far as it is destitute of reason and form it is base and separate from the divine reason, the great fountain of forms; and whatever is entirely remote from this immortal source is perfectly base and deformed. And such is matter, which by its nature is ever averse from the supervening irradiations of form. Whenever, therefore, form accedes, it conciliates in amicable unity the parts which are about to compose a whole; for being itself one it is not wonderful that the subject of its power should tend to unity, as far as the nature of a compound will admit. Hence beauty is established in multitude when the many is reduced into one, and in this case it communicates itself both to the parts and to the whole. But when a particular one, composed from similar parts, is received it gives itself to the whole, without departing from the sameness and integrity of its nature. Thus at one and the same time it communicates itself to the whole building and its several parts; and at another time confines itself to a single stone, and then the first participation arises from the operations of art, but the second from the formation of nature. And hence body becomes beautiful through the communion supernally proceeding from divinity. ~ plotinus, @wisdomtrove

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1:If the subject's easy we may all be wise; ~ Ovid,
2:After that she changed the subject: Did ~ Gill Paul,
3:Despite the seriousness of the subject, ~ Anonymous,
4:The style depends on the subject. ~ Mohsen Makhmalbaf,
5:Buck next brought up the subject of the ~ Nelson DeMille,
6:Grasp the subject, the words will follow. ~ Cato the Elder,
7:The workmanship was better than the subject matter. ~ Ovid,
8:I hate being the subject of photographs. ~ Richard Griffiths,
9:The subject comes first, the medium second. ~ Richard Prince,
10:I seek truth in a book and not the subject. ~ Vaslav Nijinsky,
11:Well, honor is the subject of my story. ~ William Shakespeare,
12:I want women to be the subject, not the object. ~ Jill Soloway,
13:The subject of an outsider who becomes obsessed. ~ Wes Anderson,
14:Despite the Cooper/Hofstadter papers on the subject, ~ Jodi Taylor,
15:I am interested in the subject which is Russia. ~ Tatyana Tolstaya,
16:Change but the name, and you are the subject of the story. ~ Horace,
17:Between the subject and the object lies the value. ~ Robert M Pirsig,
18:The subject of a rumor is always the last to hear it. ~ Stefan Zweig,
19:Everything I paint is a portrait, whatever the subject. ~ Jamie Wyeth,
20:I'm supposed to have a Ph.D. on the subject of women. ~ Frank Sinatra,
21:We can't change the world, but we can change the subject ~ James Joyce,
22:Avoid making yourself the subject of conversation. ~ Jean de la Bruyere,
23:The subject of a good tragedy must not be realistic. ~ Pierre Corneille,
24:The subject of history is the life of peoples and mankind. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
25:You see I am an enthusiast on the subject of the arts. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
26:Dead is when the chemists take over the subject. ~ Arthur Leonard Schawlow,
27:So she did the English thing. She changed the subject. ~ Steve Hockensmith,
28:When a doctor makes a mistake, it's best to bury the subject. ~ Woody Allen,
29:Let the subject generate its own photographs. Become a camera. ~ Minor White,
30:What is the subject of our thought? Experience! Nothing else! ~ Hannah Arendt,
31:Poets have been mysteriously silent on the subject of cheese. ~ G K Chesterton,
32:The Democrats generally recoil from the subject of entitlements. ~ Bill Keller,
33:On the subject of Carrie White, we're all relatively uninformed. ~ Stephen King,
34:Don't shoot til the subject hits you in the pit of your stomach. ~ Lisette Model,
35:The student is infinitely more important than the subject matter. ~ Nel Noddings,
36:The first songs I wrote were catchy, but the subject matter was God. ~ Katy Perry,
37:The subject of this book is managing oneself for effectiveness. ~ Peter F Drucker,
38:around here.” She changed the subject and rose to her feet. “And ~ Debra Burroughs,
39:From now on the subject says: “Hullo object!” “I destroyed you. ~ Jessica Benjamin,
40:I like speed in thrillers. It's a rhythm adapted to the subject. ~ Philippe Claudel,
41:The subject was as easy to spot as a kangaroo in a dinner jacket ~ Raymond Chandler,
42:Usually, the subject matter of the image is not the subject of the work. ~ Roni Horn,
43:Color is the essence of painting, which the subject always killed. ~ Kazimir Malevich,
44:However fake the subject, once photographed, it's as good as real. ~ Hiroshi Sugimoto,
45:She was the subject creature, and versed in the arts of the enslaved. ~ Edith Wharton,
46:For love concentrates on the object, sex concentrates on the subject. ~ Fulton J Sheen,
47:It’s not that gray water’s boring, but the subject does have its limits. ~ Sue Grafton,
48:Style is the substance of the subject called unceasingly to the surface. ~ Victor Hugo,
49:Teachers need to teach the subject rather than to teach the textbook. ~ James W Loewen,
50:That's right, you get him, Mary. Don't let him change the subject! ~ Alexandra Bracken,
51:That which knows all things and is known by none is the subject. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
52:We need to have a talk on the subject of what's yours and what's mine. ~ Steig Larsson,
53:We need to have a talk on the subject of what's yours and what's mine. ~ Stieg Larsson,
54:When the subject is strong, simplicity is the only way to treat it. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
55:One wants to see the artifice of the thing as well as the subject. ~ Richard Diebenkorn,
56:The subject under discussion, economics, purports to be a science. It ~ John Lanchester,
57:A stubborn man can't change his mind and won't change the subject. ~ Winston S Churchill,
58:Daily life is both the subject and environment of the work I am making. ~ Camille Henrot,
59:If it's bad art, it's bad religion, no matter how pious the subject. ~ Madeleine L Engle,
60:The poets have been mysteriously silent on the subject of cheese. ~ Gilbert K Chesterton,
61:Other people’s tragedies should not be the subject of idle conversation. ~ Kate DiCamillo,
62:The subject of food is like Chopsticks: almost anyone can improvise on it. ~ Helen DeWitt,
63:The subject itself is of no account; what matters is the way it is presented. ~ Raoul Dufy,
64:The subject’s pulse increased on contact,” he said. “Don’t write that. ~ Becca Fitzpatrick,
65:For me, the subject of the picture is always more important than the picture. ~ Diane Arbus,
66:I am my own muse. I am the subject I know best. The subject I want to better. ~ Frida Kahlo,
67:The subject is said to have the property of making dull men eloquent. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
68:A fanatic is one who can't change his mind and won't change the subject. ~ Winston Churchill,
69:It is the best book ever written on the subject. There is nothing like it! ~ Thomas A Edison,
70:On the subject of emigration, it is not my intention to dwell at any length. ~ Charles Sturt,
71:The subject isn't always a help to the photographer, it's like handcuffs. ~ Raymond Depardon,
72:Books are useful only to such whose genius are suitable to the subject of them ~ Daniel Defoe,
73:I don't think the subject of a documentary film should be producers on it. ~ Michael Rapaport,
74:The subject of one stage becomes the object of the subject of the next stage.
   ~ Ken Wilber,
75:A fanatic is one who can't change his mind and won't change the subject. ~ Winston S Churchill,
76:Each of my book arrives at a form and a style that is appropriate to the subject. ~ Geoff Dyer,
77:She’s trying to change the subject, even though we weren’t speaking out loud. ~ Colleen Hoover,
78:Meditation is the means of unification of the subject and object. Meditate. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
79:Its a beautiful woman's fate to be the subject of conversation where ever she goes ~ Oscar Wilde,
80:what summits would I not reach if my own life made the subject of the melody. ~ Jean Paul Sartre,
81:Art is the writer not having control, but the subject having control of the writer. ~ Paula Vogel,
82:I had passed from the subject to the direct object of every sentence of my life. ~ Paul Kalanithi,
83:I think authors can get into trouble viewing the subject matter as their turf ~ Laura Hillenbrand,
84:It was impossible to instruct on the subject of beauty, of course. It simply was. ~ Kate Atkinson,
85:The artist has to transcend a subject, or he loses the battle. The subject wins. ~ Fritz Scholder,
86:The most tedious of all discourses are on the subject of the Supreme Being. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
87:The subject’s pulse increased on contact,” he said.

“Don’t write that. ~ Becca Fitzpatrick,
88:I paint myself because I am so often alone and because I am the subject I know best. ~ Frida Kahlo,
89:It's the not the subject that interests me as much as my perception of the subject. ~ Roy DeCarava,
90:Mine was not pop art. I maybe started with a subject, but I changed the subject. ~ Claes Oldenburg,
91:If thy predicates are anthropomorphisms, the subject is an anthropomorphism too. ~ Ludwig Feuerbach,
92:So many teen films are overproduced and people are going to burnout on the subject. ~ Kirsten Dunst,
93:The subject and the reality of having children came at the height of my career. ~ Melissa Etheridge,
94:The subject does not belong to the world; rather, it is a limit of the world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
95:Whatever is the object of a saint's hope is the subject of his prayer. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
96:Taxation is nothing but organized robbery, and there the subject should be dropped. ~ Frank Chodorov,
97:The irony is, going to work every day became the subject of probably my best poetry. ~ Philip Levine,
98:Cheerless poverty has no harder trial than this, that it makes men the subject of ridicule. ~ Juvenal,
99:I think we live in a time where people are just insane on the subject of how they look. ~ Ali MacGraw,
100:Poor people either mismanage their money or they avoid the subject of money altogether. ~ T Harv Eker,
101:The camera points both ways. In expressing the subject you also express yourself. ~ Freeman Patterson,
102:The subject of Citizenfour, Edward Snowden, could not be here for some treason. ~ Neil Patrick Harris,
103:No "we" should be taken for granted when the subject is looking at other people's pain. ~ Susan Sontag,
104:No 'we' should be taken for granted when the subject is looking at other people's pain. ~ Susan Sontag,
105:Often in close relationships, the subject being discussed is not the subject at all. ~ Sharon Salzberg,
106:If a man is often the subject of conversation he soon becomes the subject of criticism. ~ Immanuel Kant,
107:The inevitable effect of a biographer's hindsight is to belittle the subject's foresight. ~ Clive James,
108:We reproach people for talking about themselves but it is the subject they treat best. ~ Anatole France,
109:The possibilities in sci-fi are wonderful. The subject is bigger than everything we know. ~ Joel Gretsch,
110:Class is often invisible in America in the movies, and usually not the subject of the film. ~ Roger Ebert,
111:Only an elaborate treatise in ecology could do justice to the subject of what went wrong, ~ James C Scott,
112:The taboo against nakedness is an obstacle to a decent attitude on the subject of sex. ~ Bertrand Russell,
113:The way I write is generally about love. I have a great fascination about the subject. ~ Carly Rae Jepsen,
114:His girl? I was too freaked, and the subject was Jimmy Choos, so I didn’t ask about that. ~ Kristen Ashley,
115:Literature is the right use of language irrespective of the subject or reason of utterance. ~ Evelyn Waugh,
116:Materialism is the philosophy of the subject who forgets to take account of himself. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
117:That Tom should be very conscientious on the subject of truth could hardly be expected. ~ Horatio Alger Jr,
118:An expert knows the subject very well. A model teaches by showing instead of just telling. ~ Thomas Leonard,
119:Besides, back to the subject of you being nuts, all writers are nuts, didn’t you know that? ~ Douglas Clegg,
120:If you are ever at a loss to support a flagging conversation, introduce the subject of eating. ~ Leigh Hunt,
121:In order to master a field, you must love the subject and feel a profound connection to it. ~ Robert Greene,
122:No good sensible working bee listens to the advice of a bedbug on the subject of business. ~ Elbert Hubbard,
123:The opinion of 10,000 men is of no value if none of them know anything about the subject. ~ Marcus Aurelius,
124:Your tweet is as important as if you would have written a Ph.D. [dissertation] on the subject. ~ Raoul Peck,
125:Arbus would later insist, ‘the subject of the picture is always more important than the picture ~ Geoff Dyer,
126:As a writer reading, I came to realize the obvious: the subject of the dream is the dreamer. ~ Toni Morrison,
127:Frequently the more trifling the subject, the more animated and protracted the discussion. ~ Franklin Pierce,
128:If you were to create a piece of art, what would the subject be?
I haven't met her yet. :) ~ Amie Kaufman,
129:After a certain age, you finally become the indisputable authority on the subject of yourself. ~ Gina Barreca,
130:I do care about style. I do care, but I only care about style that serves the subject. ~ Richard Attenborough,
131:If I am a fool, I shall be a fool indeed, for I have thought on the subject more than most men. ~ Jane Austen,
132:The best advice I ever came across on the subject of concentration is: Wherever you are, be there. ~ Jim Rohn,
133:We in Congress stand by Israel. In Congress, we speak with one voice on the subject of Israel. ~ Nancy Pelosi,
134:Whoever our students may be, whatever the subject we teach, ultimately we teach who we are. ~ Parker J Palmer,
135:You are all at once the subject, object, predicate, preposition, and period of my thoughts. ~ Daria Snadowsky,
136:And while we are on the subject of medication you always need to look at risk versus benefit. ~ Temple Grandin,
137:Perhaps the least cheering statement ever made on the subject of art is that life imitates it. ~ Fran Lebowitz,
138:The subject was the meaning of life. It was taught from experience.

The teaching goes on. ~ Mitch Albom,
139:But I don't think we shall quarrel about a word - the subject of our inquiry is too important for that. ~ Plato,
140:On the subject of Egypt, Ellen Cherry was so vague she thought Ramses II was a jazz piano player. ~ Tom Robbins,
141:The character of the subject must influence the choice of the method of its representation. ~ Walter J Phillips,
142:The master class has always declared the wars; the subject class has always fought the battles. ~ Eugene V Debs,
143:[T]he object of any subject is nothing else than the subject's own nature taken objectively. ~ Ludwig Feuerbach,
144:the task is “to get the subject to shift from a psychic reality to a true reality” (1988b, ~ Stephen A Mitchell,
145:This fact may safely be made the subject of suspense since it is of no significance whatsoever. ~ Douglas Adams,
146:Changing the subject is one of the most difficult arts to master, the key to almost all the others. ~ Cesar Aira,
147:Changing the subject is one of the most difficult arts to master, the key to almost all the others. ~ C sar Aira,
148:For an Impressionist to paint from nature is not to paint the subject, but to realize sensations. ~ Paul Cezanne,
149:I fail to see how turning the subject over like compost can do anything except raise its stink. ~ Sonya Hartnett,
150:Many things prevent knowledge, including the obscurity of the subject and the brevity of human life ~ Protagoras,
151:The most important thing... is not clicking the shutter... it is clicking with the subject. ~ Alfred Eisenstaedt,
152:The subject [of Los Angeles] became a general metaphor for anxiety and the speed of modern life. ~ Edward Ruscha,
153:When you look at good governance, you also need to look at how you approach the subject. ~ Cyrus Pallonji Mistry,
154:I actually think the subject of young divorce is pretty funny; I'd like to write a movie about it. ~ Olivia Wilde,
155:Looking and seeing are two different things. What matters is the relationship with the subject. ~ Christophe Agou,
156:History is not reassuring on the subject of the longevity of seemingly lasting great nations, is it? ~ Dick Cavett,
157:I dig into my Cobb salad, waiting to jump knee deep into the subject I really want to talk about. ~ Alretha Thomas,
158:I know for me the subject of how to be in a relationship is precious and complicated and challenging. ~ Helen Hunt,
159:No error is more certain than the one proceeding from a hasty and superficial view of the subject. ~ James Madison,
160:Now that I'm in love, I haven't a clue. Now that I'm in love, I'm completely stupid on the subject. ~ Tom Robbins,
161:See who is the subject; and this inquiry leads you to pure Consciousness beyond the subject. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi,
162:And the truth of the matter is that death is a mystery to me. I have no opinion on the subject. ~ Oscar Zeta Acosta,
163:I think he will probably come round in time, I mean to renew the subject pretty often. ~ Elizabeth Garrett Anderson,
164:On the subject of love at first sight, I’m with the Beatles: I believe that it happens all the time. ~ Stephen King,
165:On the subject of motive, there are, generally speaking, six major motives for murder. Ready? They ~ Nelson DeMille,
166:There was never in my mind a desire to give in on the subject of freeing the political prisoners. ~ Robert Bourassa,
167:The useful type of successful teacher is one whose main interest is the children, not the subject. ~ Walter Raleigh,
168:Experience has shown that the more fascinating the subject, the less observant the photographer. ~ Andreas Feininger,
169:For me, photography is as much about the way I respond to the subject as it is about the subject itself. ~ Alec Soth,
170:I would go to sketch groups and draw. I really enjoyed the subject matter, but I wasn't good at it. ~ Jack Prelutsky,
171:Surrogate motherhood has been the subject of much philosophical and political dispute over the years. ~ Thomas Frank,
172:The Great Work will then form the subject of the design.
   ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA, Book 4, Magick, The Lamen,
173:The subject says: I see first many things which dance... then everything gradually becomes connected. ~ Jim Morrison,
174:The writer ultimately tires of the subject's self-serving story, and substitutes a story of his own. ~ Janet Malcolm,
175:Whatever I write, no matter how gray or dark the subject matter, it's still going to be a comic novel. ~ John Irving,
176:I think with art you have to do a bit of transforming of the subject to make the art worth having. ~ Matthew Collings,
177:It is seldom that a gentleman raises the subject of sewage so early in a conversation, I reflected. ~ Deanna Raybourn,
178:People confuse the subject of the joke with the target of the joke, and they're very rarely the same. ~ Ricky Gervais,
179:The subject matter of the stories on the surface... there seem to be a number of stories about travel. ~ Kenneth Koch,
180:The subject of a novel is not the plot. Who remembers what happened to Lucien de Rebempre in the end? ~ Graham Greene,
181:Every thing was safe enough and she smiled over the many anxious feelings she had wasted on the subject. ~ Jane Austen,
182:I know all the theory of everything but when I paint I don't think of anything except the subject and me. ~ Alice Neel,
183:No matter how righteous the subject, Caravaggio painted images that glowed with the vitality of evil. ~ Victor LaValle,
184:Pick a theme and work it to exhaustion... the subject must be something you truly love or truly hate. ~ Dorothea Lange,
185:The obscurity is much oftener in the passions and prejudices of the reasoner than in the subject. ~ Alexander Hamilton,
186:Every thing was safe enough, and she smiled over the many anxious feelings she had wasted on the subject. ~ Jane Austen,
187:It's not the subject that's cliché; it's cliché or not. But in fact, this is the way you're talking about it. ~ Stromae,
188:Let's face it, the subject of campaign finance is not always scintillating. But it's incredibly important. ~ Jane Mayer,
189:The portrait is the subject matter in photography where the problems of the media are the most visible. ~ Thomas Struth,
190:We assert that the subject is crucial and only that subject matter is valid which is tragic and timeless. ~ Mark Rothko,
191:Each painting has its own way of evolving. When the painting is finished, the subject reveals itself. ~ William Baziotes,
192:I have always attempted to create images that deliver the maximum amount of information about the subject. ~ Chuck Close,
193:It will not do to investigate the subject of religion too closely, as it is apt to lead to infidelity. ~ Abraham Lincoln,
194:For me, the subject is of secondary importance: I want to convey what is alive between me and the subject. ~ Claude Monet,
195:I think the best teachers had a real interest in the subject they were teaching and a love for children. ~ Beverly Cleary,
196:The subject of history is the gradual realization of all that is practically necessary. ~ Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel,
197:Well, the attractive thing about the subject of happiness is that it is notoriously difficult to write. ~ Edward St Aubyn,
198:while I hope the subject is fascinating and my treatment readable, such a book cannot be a page-turner. ~ Avinash K Dixit,
199:Idealism, emphasized the existential rather than the essential (rational) character of the subject in thought. ~ Anonymous,
200:I do not paint a portrait to look like the subject, rather does the person grow to look like his portrait. ~ Salvador Dali,
201:If art's a seismographic project, when that project meets with failure, failure must become the subject too. ~ Chris Kraus,
202:On the Subject of Non-American Blacks Suffering from Illnesses Whose Names They Refuse to Know. ~ Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie,
203:The subject gives you the best idea of how to make a photograph. So I just wait for something to happen. ~ Mary Ellen Mark,
204:The Subject has really blue eyes that twinkle when he looks at someone like she's maybe a little bit insane. ~ Ally Carter,
205:Faith is the subject of the head. Devotion is the subject of the heart and meditation connects both. ~ Sri Sri Ravi Shankar,
206:It is a subject on which nothing final can be known.” The subject Mill had in mind was the nature of women. ~ Tara Westover,
207:The doings of men, their prayers, fear, wrath, pleasure, delights, and recreations, are the subject of this book. ~ Juvenal,
208:The subject matter of art is life, life as it actually is; but the function of art is to make life better. ~ Gertrude Stein,
209:Vitellius would've given Percy an hour-long lecture on the subject, probably with a PowerPoint presentation. ~ Rick Riordan,
210:We are rarely in danger of examining to excess, especially when the subject is the shape of our own lives. ~ G K Chesterton,
211:It is the kind of learning you are practising that is important, not the subject-matter you are practising on. ~ Guy Claxton,
212:The subject matter is autobiographical, it's all to do with hope and memory and sensuality and involvement, really. ~ Lucian,
213:Fine writing is a distinct disadvantage. So is unique literary style. They take attention from the subject ~ Claude C Hopkins,
214:I returned rather feebly to the subject of her daughter. “I suppose she talks, and—eats, and everything. ~ F Scott Fitzgerald,
215:I returned rather feebly to the subject of her daughter. 'I suppose she talks, she eats, and everything. ~ F Scott Fitzgerald,
216:What we are is going to be visible in our art, no matter how secular (on the surface) the subject may be. ~ Madeleine L Engle,
217:A work can have in it a pent-up energy, an intense life of its own, independent of the subject it may represent. ~ Henry Moore,
218:Empirical description involves enslavement to the object by decreeing passivity on the part of the subject. ~ Gaston Bachelard,
219:I don't have children, but I imagine if parents are really pushed on the subject, they probably have favorite children. ~ Moby,
220:It's such a pain in the ass to write a book, I can't imagine writing one if I'm not interested in the subject. ~ Michael Lewis,
221:Property, said Proudhon, is theft. This is the only perfect truism that has been uttered on the subject. ~ George Bernard Shaw,
222:The best advice I ever came across on the subject of concentration is: Wherever you are, be there.” ~ Jim Rohn ~ Kevin Horsley,
223:The idea of space is given to the artist to change if he can. The subject matter in the abstract is space. ~ Willem de Kooning,
224:A good speech is like a woman's skirt: short enough to hold your attention, long enough to cover the subject ~ Jonathan Tropper,
225:I have no consistency, except in politics; and that probably arises from my indifference to the subject altogether. ~ Lord Byron,
226:I think the greatest thing about making a documentary is your ability to just follow the story and the subject. ~ Leslie Cockburn,
227:The subtlety of your visual attention. You could alert me or change the subject with a contraction of your iris. ~ Forrest Gander,
228:We have always wanted to find the 'it-ness' of anything we shoot. We want to get as deep into the subject as we can. ~ Jay Maisel,
229:while, there was a serious argument on the subject between Slytherin and Gryffindor, and Slytherin left the school. ~ J K Rowling,
230:You're not going to get any true confessions out of me," she said. "I'm a Leo, and our thing is changing the subject. ~ Ira Levin,
231:["2012"] it was really more about the subject matter, and to do a modern retelling of Noah's Ark, a flood story. ~ Roland Emmerich,
232:I don't really think about what the subject of my next album will be. I just know that I'm going to make another album. ~ Lou Reed,
233:"In so far as this comprises the empirical personality, the ego is the subject of all personal acts of consciousness." ~ Carl Jung,
234:It may be conceit, but I believe the subject will interest the public, and I am sure that the views are original. ~ Charles Darwin,
235:The past is not simply the past, but a prism through which the subject filters his own changing self-image. ~ Doris Kearns Goodwin,
236:Ultimately the product that any writer has to sell is not the subject being written about, but who he or she is. ~ William Zinsser,
237:One must constantly meditate upon the absurdities of chance, a subject even more edifying than the subject of death. ~ Iris Murdoch,
238:The best advice I ever came across on the subject of concentration is: Wherever you are, be there.” ~ Kevin Horsley ~ Kevin Horsley,
239:They are not rules prescribed by the sovereign to the subject, but agreements between sovereign and sovereign. ~ Alexander Hamilton,
240:Though fanaticism drinks at many founts, its predisposing cause is mostly the subject of an invisible futurity. ~ Francis Atterbury,
241:You always have to find something to say about the subject and in seven cases out of ten there is nothing to say. ~ Jonathan Meades,
242:As is natural for an academic, when I want to learn about something, I volunteer to teach a course on the subject. ~ Steven Weinberg,
243:Divination is turning out to be much more trouble than I could have foreseen, never having studied the subject myself. ~ J K Rowling,
244:I don't mean to change the subject or anything, but have you tried concealer on that zit?" Cynthia Lotte - Hot Six ~ Janet Evanovich,
245:Meditation requires an object to meditate on, whereas in Self-enquiry there is only the subject and no object. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi,
246:Modern philosophy from Descartes onward has asked itself the question: How can the subject really know the object? ~ William Barrett,
247:Most persons who indulge in second thought don't do much thinking when the subject is presented for first thought. ~ William Feather,
248:The expert is a midwife. The expert is not someone who has the authority to pronounce the last word on the subject. ~ Philip Kitcher,
249:This is one of the last industries where the subject is off limits. Nobody’s comfortable in engaging in a conversation. ~ Rick Welts,
250:A good speech should be like a woman’s skirt: long enough to cover the subject and short enough to create interest. ~ Richard Branson,
251:When it comes to dividing Americans on the basis of their gender, I know a little something about the subject. ~ Kay Bailey Hutchison,
252:A good speech should be like a woman's skirt: long enough to cover the subject and short enough to create interest ~ Winston Churchill,
253:Talent is the capacity to direct concentrated attention upon the subject: "the gift of seeing what others have not seen. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
254:That is what [Andy] Warhol portraits do: They elevate the subject into an icon of the pop culture he was documenting. ~ Giorgio Armani,
255:A good style must, first of all, be clear. It must not be mean or above the dignity of the subject. It must be appropriate. ~ Aristotle,
256:I don't mean to change the subject or anything, but have you tried concealer on that zit?"
Cynthia Lotte - Hot Six ~ Janet Evanovich,
257:Man and Superman: “the audience gets an exhausting idea of the inexhaustibility of the subject, and is bored brilliantly. ~ Clive James,
258:My decision (for Christ) was not so important. I was the object rather than the subject in this affair. I was decided upon. ~ C S Lewis,
259:Sometimes a song just has to cater to whatever's goin' on. A well-written song is a song that stays true to the subject. ~ Dolly Parton,
260:The need to let suffering speak is a condition of all truth. For suffering is objectivity that weighs upon the subject ~ Theodor Adorno,
261:To be perfectly frank, his ding-dong wouldn’t have been what you might call the subject of an exhaustive search. Albert ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
262:I was beginning to think that I was the subject of some existentialist experiment in permanently delayed gratification when ~ John Green,
263:More business decisions occur over lunch and dinner than at any other time, yet no MBA courses are given on the subject. ~ Peter Drucker,
264:Winston Churchill, who once defined a fanatic as someone who won’t change his mind and can’t change the subject. ~ Gregory David Roberts,
265:With these three qualities, it cannot be made the subject of description; and hence we blend them together and obtain The One. ~ Lao Tzu,
266:After a while, there was a serious argument on the subject between Slytherin and Gryffindor, and Slytherin left the school. ~ J K Rowling,
267:A good speech should be like a woman's skirt; long enough to cover the subject and short enough to create interest. ~ Winston S Churchill,
268:A work should convey its entire meaning by itself, imposing it on the spectator even before he knows what the subject is. ~ Marcel Proust,
269:classic Shamanism: Archaic techniques of ecstasy. To this day, it is the only attempt at a world synthesis on the subject. ~ Jeremy Narby,
270:Having not said anything the first time, it was somehow even more difficult to broach the subject the second time around. ~ Douglas Adams,
271:He’d shut the door on the subject of loss, thrown all the bolts, and shoved a heavy table up against it for good measure. ~ Cecilia Grant,
272:I take my job seriously, which means I'm going to need to get acquainted with the subject matter on a personal level. ~ Becca Fitzpatrick,
273:She was a sleuth and sleuths had to follow rules. ‘Get to the point; don’t allow the subject to digress’ was one of them ~ Renita D Silva,
274:A painting is finished when the subject comes back, when what has caused the painting to be made comes back as an object. ~ Howard Hodgkin,
275:Ten thousand difficulties do not make one doubt, as I understand the subject; difficulty and doubt are incommensurate. ~ John Henry Newman,
276:To me there is no such thing as creative writing. It's either good writing, whatever the subject, or it's not creative. ~ Erskine Caldwell,
277:When the tongue or the pen is let loose in a frenzy of passion, it is the man, and not the subject, that becomes exhausted. ~ Thomas Paine,
278:Change is always subjective. All through evolution you find that the conquest of nature comes by change in the subject. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
279:I think actually in any party it's a sign of general health to have different views, and especially on the subject of trade. ~ David Brooks,
280:It is the mark of an educated man to look for precision in each class of things just so far as the nature of the subject admits ~ Aristotle,
281:Julian Assange shouldn't be the subject of a grand jury hearing, he should be given a medal. He's contributing to democracy. ~ Noam Chomsky,
282:Oh, you're an expert in crazy people now?"
"A month with you and I feel I have a master's degree in the subject. ~ Jennifer L Armentrout,
283:Really, for all the poetry in the world on the subject, when you get right down to it, it's mostly just boom! penis vagina. ~ Martin Leicht,
284:the excellence of the mental entertainment consists less in the subject than in the author's skill in well dressing it up. ~ Henry Fielding,
285:When the subject has refused allegiance and the officer has resigned his office, then the revolution is accomplished. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
286:Young men are supposed to think themselves immortal, but the subject is not very often out of my mind for a long time together. ~ C S Lewis,
287:I knew a lot about what I did when I was 20. I had read a lot, and I aspired to learn everything I could about the subject. ~ Warren Buffett,
288:I remember, growing up, if something big - God forbid - happened, the first jokes you heard on the subject came out of Jersey. ~ Oscar Nunez,
289:I write scripts by myself. It's not for everybody. It's someone's personal work. I need to be in love with the subject. ~ Jean Pierre Jeunet,
290:The best advice I ever came across on the subject of concentration is: Wherever you are, be there.” ~ Kevin Horsley Jim Rohn ~ Kevin Horsley,
291:The Spirit, and your soul are not the same things. The Spirit is God - the source. Your soul is God's imagination - the subject. ~ T F Hodge,
292:a book has no unwanted calories and you don’t have to worry about sizes as long as the subject matter appeals to the recipient. ~ Sue Grafton,
293:I have a strong feeling that the subject of evolution is beautiful without the excuse of creationists needing to be bashed. ~ Richard Dawkins,
294:It was impossible to instruct on the subject of beauty, of course. It simply was. You were either moved by it or you weren’t. ~ Kate Atkinson,
295:My philosophy is that one shall not resort to violence unless one is resolved to become the subject of violence at any time. ~ Takeshi Kitano,
296:As a journalist, I'm not supposed to be the subject, but as an author, I'm fair game - another ingredient in the media soup. ~ Michael Azerrad,
297:A work should contain its total meaning within itself and should impress it on the spectator before he even knows the subject. ~ Henri Matisse,
298:Critic asks: 'And what, sir, is the subject matter of that painting?' - 'The subject matter, my dear good fellow, is the light. ~ Claude Monet,
299:if anyone present wishes to make me the subject of his wit, I am very much at his service--with my sword--whenever he has leisure. ~ C S Lewis,
300:The authors of book reviews would consider themselves dishonored were they to mention, as they should, the subject of the book. ~ Louis Aragon,
301:You keep on balancing and balancing and balancing until the picture wins, because then the subject's turned into the picture. ~ Howard Hodgkin,
302:Being a man of faith, what was so interesting to me was the subject, which started, by the way, with Anne Rice's wonderful books. ~ John Debney,
303:For somebody who has injured their brain, every single thing they say and think will be the subject of their own questioning. ~ Richard Hammond,
304:myself seemed actually to have become the subject of my book: a church, a quartet, the rivalry between François I and Charles V ~ Marcel Proust,
305:On the subject of wild mushrooms, it is easy to tell who is an expert and who is not: The expert is the one who is still alive. ~ Donal Henahan,
306:She also didn't listen to reason on the subject of the other two sentences. Go figure. Men had testicles and therefore were Wrong. ~ John Ringo,
307:We think too fast, even while walking or on the way, or while engaged in other things, no matter how serious the subject. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
308:Before you try to convince anyone else, be sure you are convinced, and if you cannot convince yourself, drop the subject. ~ John Henry Patterson,
309:Biologists have an adolescent fascination with sex. Like teenagers they are embarrassed by the subject because of their ignorance. ~ Steve Jones,
310:Descartes left as one of his main philosophical legacies a myth which continues to distort the continental geography of the subject. ~ Anonymous,
311:Ten thousand difficulties do not make one doubt, as I understand the subject; difficulty and doubt are incommensurate. ~ Saint John Henry Newman,
312:The best advice I ever came across on the subject of concentration is: Wherever you are, be there.”
~ Kevin Horsley Jim Rohn ~ Kevin Horsley,
313:There is no debate here, just scientists and non-scientists. And since the subject is science, the non-scientists don't get a vote. ~ Bill Maher,
314:two examiners, said simply that hardly anyone in Denmark was well enough informed on the subject to judge the candidate’s work. ~ Richard Rhodes,
315:Health is not a condition of matter, but of Mind; nor can the material senses bear reliable testimony on the subject of health. ~ Mary Baker Eddy,
316:His high school was named after a slave owner who was also one of the world’s greatest theoreticians on the subject of human liberty. ~ Anonymous,
317:I am working on a technical paper on compassion. So I am reading everything I can on the subject, including my own mind and heart. ~ Joan Halifax,
318:I have read all that has been written by the gravest authorities on political economy on the subject of rent, wages, taxes, tithes. ~ Robert Peel,
319:In the dream, sheltered from the noise, the subject expressed a judgment much more on the mark than that manifested in wakefulness. ~ Erich Fromm,
320:Nature rejects the monarch, not the man; the subject, not the citizen... The man of virtuous soul commands not, nor obeys. ~ Percy Bysshe Shelley,
321:People desperately resisted the idea of their own death by looking away for as long as they could and avoiding the subject. ~ Thomas Olde Heuvelt,
322:The questions of economics, and how they infect, or rather how they affect intimacy. And that's probably the subject of all my films. ~ Ira Sachs,
323:First, study the present construction. Second, ask for all past experiences ...study and read everything you can on the subject. ~ Thomas A Edison,
324:I liked quantum mechanics very much. The subject was hard to understand but easy to apply to a large number of interesting problems. ~ Willis Lamb,
325:I’m keeping an open mind on the subject,” Maddox said. “That allows me to see what is there instead of what I think I should see. ~ Vaughn Heppner,
326:"True understanding happens when we dismantle the barrier between the object of understanding and the subject of understanding." ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
327:As actors, we are so privileged to do what we do and to give to the world and to choose the subject we want to say to the world. ~ Juliette Binoche,
328:Excuse me? You're a lady?"
"I bought a title on the Internet. I own one square inch of Scotland. And you're changing the subject. ~ Rachel Caine,
329:I suppose you'd have to say that my interest in the subject fell somewhere between the Land of Hobbies and the Kingdom of Obsession. ~ Stephen King,
330:I think that former leaders are best seen occasionally and not too often heard - particularly on the subject of their successors! ~ Charles Kennedy,
331:not seek for exactness in all matters alike, but in each according to the subject-matter, and so far as properly belongs to the system. ~ Aristotle,
332:Reader, I am myself the subject of my book; you would be unreasonable to spend your leisure on so frivolous and so vain a matter. ~ Bernard Malamud,
333:The greatness of a writer has nothing to do with subject matter itself, only with how much the subject matter touches the author. ~ Boris Pasternak,
334:Fidelity to the subject's thought and to his characteristic way of expressing himself is the sine qua non of journalistic quotation. ~ Janet Malcolm,
335:I have long said that good teaching consists in loving the subject you are teaching in the presence of students whom you also love. ~ Douglas Wilson,
336:It seemed that digression was the true principle of the universe, that the only real subject was the way the subject kept changing. ~ Salman Rushdie,
337:I want to tell people that I had post-natal depression because there is so much stigma around the subject and there shouldn't be. ~ Jennifer Ellison,
338:Japanese women live in fear of making the least sound in a bathroom stall. Japanese men pay no attention to the subject whatsoever. ~ Amelie Nothomb,
339:The full beauty of the subject of generating functions emerges only from tuning in on both channels: the discrete and the continuous. ~ Herbert Wilf,
340:"The more projections are thrust in between the subject and the environment, the harder it is for the ego to see through its illusions." ~ Carl Jung,
341:There are, first of all, two kinds of authors: those who write for the subject's sake, and those who write for writing's sake. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
342:And the Vatican, whatever anyone else might have thought on the subject, answered, like Hebrew National hot dogs, to "a higher authority. ~ Anonymous,
343:Granted, there is still that picture of the Terminator jeering over practically every journalistic attempt to engage with the subject. ~ Nick Bostrom,
344:His high school was named after a slave owner who was also one of the world’s greatest theoreticians on the subject of human liberty. ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
345:No power of government ought to be employed in the endeavor to establish any system or article of belief on the subject of religion. ~ Jeremy Bentham,
346:Time, you may be sure, will make one or the other of us think differently; and, in the meanwhile, we need not talk much on the subject. ~ Jane Austen,
347:When you know you are ignorant in a subject, start educating yourself by finding an expert in the field or a book on the subject. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
348:A patient, long before he becomes the subject of medical scrutiny, is, at first, simply a storyteller, a narrator of suffering— ~ Siddhartha Mukherjee,
349:A portrait is like an ornamental headstone. It is not for the subject, but for those who look upon it. For those you want to remember. ~ Julie Klassen,
350:His contributions touched almost every corner of the subject and have had a deep and abiding influence over the way that physicists think. ~ Anonymous,
351:I don't mind a dirty girl. But what I find tragic is when we, as women, become not the subject of our own story but someone else's object. ~ Tori Amos,
352:Mathematics may be defined as the subject in which we never know what we are talking about, nor whether what we are saying is true. ~ Bertrand Russell,
353:Not that he was any expert on the subject, but Matt believed he could tell a lot about a woman by observing the way she watched a sunset. ~ Peggy Webb,
354:The best way to tell people about climate change is through non-fiction. There's a vast literature of outstanding writing on the subject. ~ Ian Mcewan,
355:Whenever you bring up women's internal workings, guys want to change the subject. Unless, of course, they're trying to change the laws. ~ Gail Collins,
356:For me, teaching is about weaving a web of connectedness between myself, my students, the subject I'm teaching, and the larger world. ~ Parker J Palmer,
357:I enjoyed the hands-on nature of this work, and the challenge of creating an environment from which the subject would spring to life. ~ Haruki Murakami,
358:I know of nothing which I would choose to have as the subject of my ambition for life than to be kept faithful to my God till death. ~ Charles Spurgeon,
359:The most frightening interview I've ever done was with Dr. Lonnie Thompson of The Ohio State University on the subject of global warming. ~ Bill Kurtis,
360:Upon the subject of education ... I can only say that I view it as the most important subject which we as a people may be engaged in. ~ Abraham Lincoln,
361:It's a choice - there are two different sorts of photographer: those obsessed with the technicalities and those obsessed by the subject. ~ Mario Testino,
362:Page 25 "But if we accept the legitimacy of the subject nevertheless, then a new and contentious series of questions at once opens up. ~ Alain de Botton,
363:He was the subject of a little respectful ribbing. But he was, of course, the captain, which meant he had to do lots of the ribbing himself. ~ Geoff Dyer,
364:The old expression goes, a good speech is like a woman’s skirt: short enough to hold your attention, long enough to cover the subject. ~ Jonathan Tropper,
365:The thing whose address I lost is not the End, it’s the Beginning. Not the object to be possessed but the subject that possesses me. Misery ~ Umberto Eco,
366:A garment that is double dyed, dipped again and again, will retain the color a great while; so a truth which is the subject of meditation. ~ Matthew Henry,
367:I also agree with Winston Churchill, who once defined a fanatic as someone who won’t change his mind and can’t change the subject. ~ Gregory David Roberts,
368:It would be wisest not to worry too much about the sterile periods. They ventilate the subject and instill into it the reality of daily life. ~ Andre Gide,
369:Then, I said, no science or art considers or enjoins the interest of the stronger or
superior, but only the interest of the subject and weaker? ~ Plato,
370:You can write about anything, and if you write well enough, even the reader with no intrinsic interest in the subject will become involved. ~ Tracy Kidder,
371:Thus mathematics may be defined as the subject in which we never know what we are talking about, nor whether what we are saying is true. ~ Bertrand Russell,
372:A work of art must carry in itself its complete significance and impose it upon the beholder even before he can identify the subject-matter. ~ Henri Matisse,
373:For as wood is the material of the carpenter, and marble that of the sculptor, so the subject matter of the art of life is the life of the self. ~ Epictetus,
374:I'd rather meander through a pit of vipers than love one more person, but since I'm on the subject of snakes, we all know one, or are one. ~ Donna Lynn Hope,
375:I scowled defensively. "My conversations don't usually include the subject of erections." "Too bad," he said. "All the best conversations do. ~ Lisa Kleypas,
376:The development of the meaning attaching to the personal self, the conscious being, is the subject matter of the history of psychology. ~ James Mark Baldwin,
377:When I photograph someone, I want to shoot the subject and get them out of my studio so I can play with the photos and do all the stuff I want. ~ Nikki Sixx,
378:I never think of him as a scholar assaulting me with how much he knows, but as a teacher eager to share a lifelong passion for the subject. ~ William Zinsser,
379:In the beginning we must simplify the subject, thus unavoidably falsifying it, and later we must sophisticate away the falsely simple beginning. ~ Maimonides,
380:Much has been written on the subject of bed-books. The general consensus of opinion is that a gentle, slow-moving story makes the best opiate ~ P G Wodehouse,
381:And so, at last, I come to the one firm conviction that I mentioned at the beginning: it is that the subject is too new for final judgments. ~ William Zinsser,
382:Unfortunately, there are very few facilities which offer courses in the arts. Not all the secondary schools offer the subject for CXC examinations. ~ St Lucia,
383:Whomever you're going to interview, you have to be interested in what it is you want to know from them. You have to be interested in the subject. ~ Kurt Loder,
384:I do the same with my books...Nothing like a good argument in the margins with someone who's already said all they have to say on the subject. ~ Betsy Cornwell,
385:I scowled defensively. "My conversations don't usually include the subject of erections."
"Too bad," he said. "All the best conversations do. ~ Lisa Kleypas,
386:On the subject of spinach: divide into little piles. Rearrange again into new piles. After five of six maneuvers, sit back and say you are full. ~ Delia Ephron,
387:As music is the poetry of sound, so is painting the poetry of sight and the subject-matter has nothing to do with harmony of sound or of color. ~ James Whistler,
388:Because that’s how snobs deal with uncomfortable subjects. We belittle their importance, laugh at them, and change the subject to weather or sport. ~ L H Cosway,
389:"The effect of projection is to isolate the subject from his environment, since instead of a real relation to it there is now only an illusory one." ~ Carl Jung,
390:Well, I think in my own work the subject matter usually deals with characters I know, aspects of myself, friends of mine - that sort of thing. ~ Martin Scorsese,
391:I take more to the subject than to my ideas about it. I am not interested in any idea I have had, the subject is so demanding and so important. ~ Lee Friedlander,
392:The mind is exercised by the variety and multiplicity of the subject matter, while the character is moulded by the contemplation of virtue and vice. ~ Quintilian,
393:You changed the subject." "From what?" "The empty-headed girls who think you're sexy." "You know." "Know what?" "That I only have eyes for you. ~ Khaled Hosseini,
394:4.23..If 'thought' means: instance of the subject in a truth-procedure, then there is no thought of this thought, because it contains no knowledge. ~ Alain Badiou,
395:Computer science is to biology what calculus is to physics. It's the natural mathematical technique that best maps the character of the subject. ~ Harold Morowitz,
396:Funnily enough, it is the subject one dreads talking about at length one ends up talking about at length, often without the slightest provocation. ~ Marisha Pessl,
397:He continued, “I just want to say that your paper was the best discussion I know of the subject, and I’m grateful that you volunteered to give it. ~ John Williams,
398:Lady Middleton resigned herself... Contenting herself with merely giving her husband a gentle reprimand on the subject, five or six times every day. ~ Jane Austen,
399:He thought her beautiful, believed her impeccably wise; dreamed of her, wrote poems to her, which, ignoring the subject, she corrected in red ink. ~ Virginia Woolf,
400:I just walk around, observing the subject from various angles until the picture elements arrange themselves into a composition that pleases my eye. ~ Andre Kertesz,
401:In cases in which the related previous personality had committed suicide, the subject has shown an inclination to contemplate and threaten suicide. ~ Ian Stevenson,
402:The subject matter... is not that collection of solid, static objects extended in space but the life that is lived in the scene that it composes. ~ Wallace Stevens,
403:As for the subject matter in my painting.. ..it is very often an incidental thing in the background, elusive and unclear, that really stirred me. ~ William Baziotes,
404:I write essays first because I have a passionate relationship to the subject and second because the subject is one that people are not talking about. ~ Susan Sontag,
405:Nothing is such an enemy to accuracy of judgment as a coarse discrimination; a want of such classification and distribution as the subject admits of. ~ Edmund Burke,
406:Putting her head back on the chair, she contemplated how she should revisit the subject without being disrespectful of his answer or lack thereof.   ~ Aleatha Romig,
407:The work now before the reader is the most extensive which our language contains on the subject. ~ Augustus De Morgan, The Differential and Integral Calculus (1836),
408:True learning only occurs when you love the subject you are studying and then the acquiring of knowledge is effortless because it is also a pleasure. ~ William Boyd,
409:When ordinary folk perceive phenomena, They look on them as real, and not illusory. This, then, is the subject of debate Where ordinary and yogis differ. ~ ntideva,
410:I am an agnostic on most matters of faith, but on the subject of maps I have always been a true believer. It is on the map, therefore it is, and I am. ~ Tony Horwitz,
411:I'm not at liberty to discuss the governments knowledge of extraterrestrial UFO's at this time. I am still personally being briefed on the subject! ~ Richard M Nixon,
412:In fact he was rather boring on the subject, but I kept quiet and took comfort in that old saying about fallen apples and their distance from trees. ~ David Nicholls,
413:I've never used my weight to get a laugh. That is, used my size as the subject for humor. You never saw me stuck in a door-way or stuck in a chair. ~ Roscoe Arbuckle,
414:Richard at once declared that we must be content with that and drop the subject. I agreed with Richard. All's well that ends well. What say you, O.G? ~ Gaston Leroux,
415:The big trick is to find the subject that relates to a human experience. Explain the rules, involve people, and they will do most of the work for you. ~ Billy Wilder,
416:The corset is?a mutilation, undergone for the purpose of lowering the subject's vitalityand rendering her permanentlyand obviously unfit for work. ~ Thorstein Veblen,
417:Yes, one day perhaps the leading intellects of Russia and of Europe will study the psychology of Russian crime, for the subject is worth it. But ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
418:Even if the painting is green, well then! The 'subject' is the green. There is always a subject; it's a joke to suppress the subject, it's impossible. ~ Pablo Picasso,
419:I did what any gentleman would do for a woman whose whole world, whose life, whose very existence was crumbling down around her. I changed the subject. ~ Tim Marquitz,
420:I like to do the pictures before people get too self-conscious. I like to be spontaneous and get a shot before the subject thinks too much about it. ~ Keira Knightley,
421:My pictures are not that interesting, nor the subject matter. They are simply a collection of facts; my book is more like a collection of Ready-mades. ~ Edward Ruscha,
422:Occasionally I’d tune in to a music station, but I always preferred the sound of people talking, even if the subject was something I didn’t care about ~ David Sedaris,
423:The organism cannot be regarded as simply the passive object of autonomous internal and external forces; it is also the subject of its own evolution. ~ Richard Levins,
424:There was nothing to it. The Super Chief was on time, as it almost always is, and the subject was as easy to spot as a kangaroo in a dinner jacket. ~ Raymond Chandler,
425:The subject of this essay is precisely this relationship between the absurd and suicide, the exact degree to which suicide is a solution to the absurd. ~ Albert Camus,
426:The author himself is the best judge of his own performance; none has so deeply meditated on the subject; none is so sincerely interested in the event. ~ Edward Gibbon,
427:After macrobiotics, Zen, and channeling, the "poor Vanishing Indian" is once more the subject of "deep and meaningful conversation" in the high rises. ~ Mary Brave Bird,
428:Certainly, my many years working in the comics industry, creating products that I do not own, has made me rather fierce on the subject of giving up rights. ~ Alan Moore,
429:I am interested not in individual readings, but in constructing networks of images and meanings capable of reflecting the complexity of the subject. ~ Wolfgang Tillmans,
430:The notion that we inherit and “relive” aspects of family trauma has been the subject of many books by the renowned German psychotherapist Bert Hellinger. ~ Mark Wolynn,
431:Who's the subject?"
"The psychiatrist - Dr. Hannibal Lecter," Crawford said.
A brief silence follows the name, always, in any civilized gathering. ~ Thomas Harris,
432:An egotist will always speak of himself, either in praise or in censure, but a modest man ever shuns making himself the subject of his conversation. ~ Jean de la Bruyere,
433:I keep the subject of my inquiry constantly before me, and wait till the first dawning opens gradually, by little and little, into a full and clear light. ~ Isaac Newton,
434:It’s nothing to be ashamed of—often the greatest difficulty faced by people suffering from mental illness is society’s inexcusable ignorance of the subject. ~ David Wong,
435:Knowledge is not predetermined by heredity; it is not predetermined in the things around us - in knowing things around him the subject always adds to them. ~ Jean Piaget,
436:the subject is a negative entity, a pure self-relating negativity-which is why, in order not to "implode into itself;' it needs a minimum of objectal support ~ Anonymous,
437:And although one broken heart doesn’t make me an expert in the subject, I believe you need both things—time and an emotional replacement—to fully mend one. ~ Emily Giffin,
438:On the subject of dress almost no one, for one or another reason, feels truly indifferent: if their own clothes do not concern them, somebody else's do. ~ Elizabeth Bowen,
439:No. When I want a broad-minded opinion for general enlightenment, distinct from special advice, I never go to a man who deals in the subject professionally. ~ Thomas Hardy,
440:The haiku reproduces the designating gesture of the child pointing at whatever it is (the haiku shows no partiality for the subject), merely saying: that! ~ Roland Barthes,
441:Do you know?” “Do I know what?” “If they need more water.” “No, I don’t. You might ask a farmer.” “Don’t be ridiculous. There must be a book on the subject. ~ Gail Carriger,
442:Katie cleared her throat again. Then she looked into the window at her gums. She said, "To change the subject, do you think I could tell if I had gingivitis? ~ M T Anderson,
443:Tech Jacket shares the same tone as Invincible, but the subject matter is very different. Where Invincible is about perfection, Tech Jacket is about flaws. ~ Robert Kirkman,
444:There's nobody between you and the print. Nobody. It's you and the subject and the final print. And if you get it published that way, you've said it. ~ David Douglas Duncan,
445:the subject is increased by the fact that while we have to deal with novel and strange facts, we have also to use old words in novel and inconsistent senses. ~ James Gleick,
446:I think I would be happy in that place I happen not to be, and this question of moving house is the subject of a perpetual dialogue I have with my soul. ~ Charles Baudelaire,
447:I was sort of lazy at school, but I realize I still have something to bring to the subject which is comforting. I feel I am not as stupid as I thought I was. ~ Michel Gondry,
448:Objectivity is the subject subjugating the object. That is how you assert yourself. You make yourself the active voice and the object is the passive no-voice. ~ Emily Levine,
449:That 95 per cent. fail of those who start in business upon their own account seems incredible, and yet such are said to be the statistics upon the subject. ~ Andrew Carnegie,
450:The Analytical Engine is an embodying of the science of operations, constructed with peculiar reference to abstract number as the subject of those operations. ~ Ada Lovelace,
451:The ongoing successful treatment of my depression is the single most important positive step I have taken in my life, hence my enthusiasm for the subject. ~ Peter McWilliams,
452:“The subject of transformation is not the empirical man, however much he may identify with the “old Adam,” but Adam the Primordial Man, the archetype within us.” ~ Carl Jung,
453:And although one broken heart doesn't make me an expert in the subject, I believe you need both things - time and an emotional replacement - to fully mend one. ~ Emily Giffin,
454:In every science certain things must be accepted as first principles if the subject matter is to be understood; and these first postulates rest upon faith. ~ Nicholas of Cusa,
455:It makes me happy that an arm of the US government has, in some official capacity, issued an opinion on the subject of firing nuclear missiles at hurricanes. ~ Randall Munroe,
456:Sky passed out on the road today," Karen says, changing the subject. "Some adorable man-boy carried her inside." I laugh.
"Guy, Mom. Please just say guy. ~ Colleen Hoover,
457:The reasons for doing so lie in changes that have taken place both in our society in the last thirty years and in the subject itself. Today many more of the young ~ Anonymous,
458:If women have failed to make “universal” art because we’re trapped within the “personal,” why not universalize the “personal” and make it the subject of our art? ~ Chris Kraus,
459:India knows that the subject of Land is not with the Central Government and the Centre does not require lands. All rights relating to land are with the states. ~ Narendra Modi,
460:My mother had said to me afterward, “Your father is a fool.” When I asked her why, she’d shrugged. “Men generally are,” she’d retorted, and changed the subject. ~ Charles Todd,
461:The French have launched their own version of Google, called Quaero. You just type in the subject you're interested in, and Quaero refuses to look it up for you. ~ Amy Poehler,
462:Every wanton and causeless restraint of the will of the subject, whether practiced by a monarch, a nobility, or a popular assembly, is a degree of tyranny. ~ William Blackstone,
463:Love could be such a squalid emotion: burning bright in the midst of pathos, the subject of pity and contempt, it blazed with brilliant stupidity all the same. ~ Steven Erikson,
464:She left them before Bagwy Llydiart, in midsentence. Geoffery and Sally got the subject and verb, and the girl who opened the farm door to her got the object. ~ Peter Dickinson,
465:the subject described himself as a pacifist who can’t tolerate conflict. He claims to be an outsider in the family, ignored unless he is the object of criticism. ~ Jere Krakoff,
466:What they were giving me seemed incredibly real to me, so I'd react to it in a very real way. That was frightening for me, especially because of the subject. ~ Mariel Hemingway,
467:You changed the subject."
"From what?"
"The empty-headed girls who think you're sexy."
"You know."
"Know what?"
"That I only have eyes for you. ~ Khaled Hosseini,
468:A single sentence will suffice for modern man. He fornicated and read the papers. After that vigorous definition, the subject will be, if I may say so, exhausted. ~ Albert Camus,
469:In a perfect world I would be taller, you would be alive, and chickens could cross the road without being the subject of a joke. Guess you’ll just have to deal. ~ Suzanne Wright,
470:So they left the subject and played croquet, which is a very good game for people who are annoyed with one another, giving many opportunities for venting rancor. ~ Rose Macaulay,
471:The morality of individual liberation (which is the subject of this chapter) is mainly practiced by refraining from physical and verbal actions that cause harm. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
472:Do you ask me how I explain the origin of this world and origin of man? Alright I tell you. Charles Darwin has tried to throw some light on the subject. Study him. ~ Bhagat Singh,
473:I punched to line. "Yes? What?"
"Norville. It's Cormac. If you don't change the subject right now, I'm going to have to go over there and have a word with you. ~ Carrie Vaughn,
474:On the subject of Egypt, Ellen Cherry was so vague she thought Ramses II was a jazz piano player. From that, we might conclude that she was equally dumb about jazz. ~ Tom Robbins,
475:Say, for example, you develop the ability to make parking meters disappear. It's probably easier to put a quarter in it. That would be the wisdom on the subject. ~ Frederick Lenz,
476:Stalin’s opinion on the subject boiled down to this: “Education is a dangerous weapon, whose effects depend on who holds it in his hands, and at whom it is aimed. ~ Winston Groom,
477:the fact that she and I are now incorporated into this unique subject, the subject of love that views the panorama of the world through the prism of our difference ~ Alain Badiou,
478:I first met the subject of X-ray diffraction of crystals in the pages of the book W. H. Bragg wrote for school children in 1925, Concerning the Nature of Things. ~ Dorothy Hodgkin,
479:It is a feature of government that the more important the problem, the further it tends to be removed from handling by anyone well acquainted with the subject. ~ Barbara W Tuchman,
480:People say don't stare. Through the photos, not only do I stare, but I allow viewers to stare at the subject, to see things that they cannot see with a casual glance. ~ Dawoud Bey,
481:In my view (animal) knowledge is apt belief, where not only the belief (its existence and content) but also its correctness is creditable to the subject's competence. ~ Ernest Sosa,
482:Unpleasant reading on the subject of anger tells us that there's not really anything wrong with it. In limited amounts. It can even be a good thing. A pressure valve. ~ Dick Cavett,
483:I feel very strongly about the subject matter in The Dallas Buyer's Club - about AIDS and people fighting illnesses, and fighting for survival against bad conditions. ~ Bradford Cox,
484:My interests were aroused, and my faith in the cliches of the subject destroyed, as so often with other subjects, by the discussions with my friend, Aaron Director. ~ George Stigler,
485:The more important the subject and the closer it cuts to the bone of our hopes and needs, the more we are likely to err in establishing a framework for analysis. ~ Stephen Jay Gould,
486:We may remain more or less open-minded on the subject of the death penalty, indisposed to commit ourselves, so long as we have not seen a guillotine with our own eyes. ~ Victor Hugo,
487:What appears in the pictures was the subject's decision, not mine. I took what they presented - delicate moments - unadorned and unglamorous, yet tender and exquisite. ~ Ray Metzker,
488:At its deepest level, I think teaching is about bringing people into communion with each other, with yourself as the teacher, and with the subject you are teaching. ~ Parker J Palmer,
489:Definitions, her grandmother once said, had to be like a fat man's belt - big enough to cover the subject but elastic enough to allow for change.

The Sunborn ~ Gregory Benford,
490:having a Ph.D. and working in a university is neither necessary nor certainly sufficient to provide one with unquestionable authority, no matter what the subject. ~ Massimo Pigliucci,
491:I don't know of any way to control the subject of one's dreams although I'm fairly certain there are more than a few types of psychoanalysis dedicated to the topic. ~ Mallory Ortberg,
492:If you go with the principle, you should go with the principle. If I really saw the subject very differently than ten years ago, I would have done a different movie. ~ Michael Haneke,
493:I’ve heard it said: ‘By his home you shall know him’; and we all know that we must pay attention to anyone who reverses the subject and auxiliary verb in his sentence. ~ Steven Brust,
494:One of the reasons the rich get richer, the poor get poorer and the middle class struggles in debt is because the subject of money is taught at home, not at school. ~ Robert Kiyosaki,
495:One of the reasons the rich get richer, the poor get poorer, and the middle class struggles in debt is that the subject of money is taught at home, not in school. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
496:Only the subject's individual consciousness can testify for the unwitnessed acts, and there is no act more deprived of external testimony than the act of knowing. ~ Olavo de Carvalho,
497:Brave New World founded my nascent moral philosophy and became the subject of my college admissions essay, in which I argued that happiness was not the point of life. ~ Paul Kalanithi,
498:Don't use words too big for the subject. Don't say infinitely when you mean very; otherwise you'll have no word left when you want to talk about something really infinite. ~ C S Lewis,
499:Dow to know – you might as well cut your own neck as make that evil bastard angry. ‘Any trouble while we was split up?’ he asked, looking to change the subject. Grim ~ Joe Abercrombie,
500:Given that religious faith is an intrinsic element of human experience, it is best to approach and engage the subject with a sense of history and a critical sensibility. ~ Jon Meacham,
501:I lose my respect for the man who can make the mystery of sex the subject of a coarse jest, yet when you speak earnestly and seriously on the subject, is silent. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
502:It is the subjective world that rules the objective. Change the subject, and the object is bound to change; purify yourself, and the world is bound to be purified. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
503:The gesture of the amorous embrace seems to fulfill, for a time, the subject's dream of total union with the loved being: The longing for consummation with the other. ~ Roland Barthes,
504:But what do you say if you're asked a direct question and you can't tell the truth and you can't tell a lie?'
'You say “how very interesting” and change the subject. ~ Dick Francis,
505:Even the most despotic government cannot stand except for the consent of the governed.... Immediately the subject ceases to fear the despotic force, his power is gone. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
506:However, it is not the same with the subject matter, but, generally speaking, that which is true and better is naturally always easier to prove and more likely to persuade. ~ Aristotle,
507:I always try to convince people that there has to be a lot of material about the subject matter, so they created a couple of pieces. One is about doomsday prophecies. ~ Roland Emmerich,
508:I am far from saying that this Treatise will be easy; the subject is a difficult one, as all know who have tried it. ~ Augustus De Morgan, The Differential and Integral Calculus (1836),
509:I pull out my phone to write a reporting note to myself, typing “Katy sucks” into the subject line. Then I accidentally send it to the entire NBC News political e-mail list. ~ Katy Tur,
510:It is strange, is it not, how the more strenuously we deny the importance of race in human affairs, the more obsessed with it and the touchier on the subject we grow. ~ Anthony Daniels,
511:It is the subjective world that rules the objective. Change the subject, and the object is bound to change; purify youreslf, and the world is bound to be purified. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
512:I dug out the pre-Reformation and Reformation classics written on the subject of Christian spirituality. Virtually every one of those books addressed one subject: prayer. ~ Gene Edwards,
513:In fact, the more each person can remove his or her ego from the discussion and focus on the subject matter, the more fruitful the conversation will be for all involved. ~ Matthew Kelly,
514:I think self-expression is present at all times, and whether or not you're talking about the outside world or your responses to it depends on the moment and the subject. ~ George Carlin,
515:No one can understand himself, for to do that he would have to get outside himself; the subject of the knowing and willing activity would have to become its own object. ~ Otto Weininger,
516:Positive doesn't mean unflawed: It means human and vulnerable. If you make a film and you're portraying the subject with respect, you're gonna do it in an honest way. ~ Michael Rapaport,
517:surrounded by students who were all folded easily on their seats, all flush with knowledge, not of the subject of the classes, but of how to be in the classes ~ Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie,
518:that operate in a wide variety of ways, and the exact details of how and when electrical activity in one neuron affects other neurons is still the subject of active study. ~ Max Tegmark,
519:Violence is the language of destruction, flesh so often the subject, fragile, easy to break beyond repair, precious; what else would we burn to make the world take note? ~ Mark Lawrence,
520:When I was a child of four I wasn't really drawing like a child, I wasn't sketching as a child. I would sketch and I was using perspective, the good relationship of the subject. ~ Arman,
521:I am a particle physicist, which is the nearest branch to nuclear physics. So in that sense I was the sort of right connection with the subject of nuclear energy and so on. ~ Abdus Salam,
522:I don't think the people of the slave states will ever consider the subject of slavery in its true light till some other argument is resorted to other than moral persuasion. ~ John Brown,
523:I like better for one to say some foolish thing upon important matters than to be silent. That becomes the subject of discussion and dispute, and the truth is discovered. ~ Denis Diderot,
524:I start with the subject matter I want to write about. Then I make a musical base for that and create an atmosphere with the music. Once I've done that, the lyrics come last. ~ Midge Ure,
525:"Since it is the point of reference for the field of consciousness, the ego is the subject of all successful attempts at adaptation so far as these are achieved by the will." ~ Carl Jung,
526:The material world and the physical life exist for us only by virtue of our internal self and our internal life. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Kena and Other Upanishads, The Subject of the Upanishad,
527:The [President's] Nomination, of Course, brings the Subject fully under the Consideration of the Senate; who have then a Right to decide upon its Propriety or Impropriety. ~ George Mason,
528:The subject should be observed more for shape and color than for drawing... precise drawing is dry and hampers the impression of the whole, it destroys all sensations. ~ Camille Pissarro,
529:When we recognize that the seemingly object nature of reality is nothing different than the subject nature of mind, which is rigpa, it is called enlightenment. ~ Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche,
530:Don't use words too big for the subject. Don't say 'infinitely' when you mean 'very'; otherwise you'll have no word left when you want to talk about something really infinite. ~ C S Lewis,
531:I guess the subject of race is so natural to me I never think of it as hefty. It's something I talk about and joke about and discuss with my loved ones every day of my life. ~ Danzy Senna,
532:Let no one say that I have said nothing new... the arrangement of the subject is new. When we play tennis, we both play with the same ball, but one of us places it better. ~ Blaise Pascal,
533:Envoy
Prince, show me the quickest way and best
To gain the subject of my moan;
We've neither spinsters nor relics out West-These do I love, and these alone.
~ Eugene Field,
534:Everywhere there is apathy. Nobody cares whether that which is preached is true or false. A sermon is a sermon whatever the subject; only, the shorter it is, the better. ~ Charles Spurgeon,
535:I do not know, sir, that the fellow is an infidel; but if he be an infidel, he is an infidel as a dog is an infidel; that is to say, he has never thought upon the subject. ~ Samuel Johnson,
536:It is a horrible wonderful thing to be in love with you. To get to hear you sing for hour after hour but never be the subject of the song. To listen and listen and listen. ~ David Levithan,
537:No man can be a competent legislator who does not add to an upright intention and a sound judgment a certain degree of knowledge of the subject on which he is to legislate. ~ James Madison,
538:One of the principal objects of theoretical research in my department of knowledge is to find the point of view from which the subject appears in its greatest simplicity. ~ J Willard Gibbs,
539:The most elementary of good manners . . . at a social gathering one does not bring up the subject of personalities, sad topics or unfortunate facts, religion, or politics. ~ Laura Esquivel,
540:If you're going to perform inception, you need imagination. You need the simplest version of the idea-the one that will grow naturally in the subject's mind. Subtle art. ~ Christopher Nolan,
541:In fact, now you mention the subject, I have been very bad in my own small way. I don't think you should be so proud of that, though I am sure it must have been very pleasant. ~ Oscar Wilde,
542:It's the subject matter that counts. I'm interested in revealing the subject in a new way to intensify it. A photo is able to capture a moment that people can't always see. ~ Harry Callahan,
543:I want to stay on the subject of marriage equality because this is the part of the show that everybody loves but you hate if you're the one who has to hear your own voice. ~ Dahlia Lithwick,
544:Speak seldom, but to important subjects, except such as particularly relate to your constituents, and, in the former case, make yourself perfectly master of the subject. ~ George Washington,
545:The subject for a lot of non-fiction is very emotional, but if you read it, it's the most boring, dry stuff. I wanted 'Torn Apart' to be extremely accessible and readable. ~ James Patterson,
546:Thomas Jefferson High
School [..] His high school was named after a slave owner who was also one of
the world’s greatest theoreticians on the subject of human liberty. ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
547:Not only did she [Marilyn Monroe] master her own image, create it and ultimately control it, she was the subject of many of the great masters of photography of the 20th century. ~ Gail Levin,
548:The “other world,” which is the object of this world’s disdain and the subject of the drunkard’s mocking song, is our carefully chosen goal and the object of our holiest longing. ~ A W Tozer,
549:An object of art creates a public capable of finding pleasure in its beauty. Production, therefore, not only produces an object for the subject, but also a subject for the object. ~ Karl Marx,
550:The trick,” she says, “is to find a new dream for the next part of your life. Then empty nest becomes a beginning, not an ending.” “I know.” I try to shift her off the subject. ~ Lisa Wingate,
551:Whenever the subject of household chores came up—had come up—I'd say, "You wash and clean, and I'll keep the windmill oiled and the hogs fed." A cushy deal I had. Had had. ~ Richard Stevenson,
552:Yukiko steered the subject away from sex as fast as she could. She was still occasionally woken by nightmares about the day her father had tried to sit her down for "the talk". ~ Jay Kristoff,
553:A camera alone does not make a picture. To make a picture you need a camera, a photographer and above all a subject. It is the subject that determines the interest of the photograph. ~ Man Ray,
554:A photographer looks at everything, which is why he must look from beginning to end. Face the subject head-on, stay fixed, turn the entire body into an eye and face the world. ~ Shomei Tomatsu,
555:I think one of the major things a director has to do is to know his subject matter, the subject matter of his script, know the truth and the reality of it. That's very important. ~ Robert Wise,
556:It was evident that such facts as these, as well as many others, could only be explained on the supposition that species gradually become modified; and the subject haunted me. ~ Charles Darwin,
557:(Politeness is) a tacit agreement that people's miserable defects, whether moral or intellectual, shall on either side be ignored and not be made the subject of reproach. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
558:This thing Allegiance, as I suppose,
Is a ring fitted in the subject's nose,
Whereby that organ is kept rightly pointed
To smell the sweetness of the Lord's anointed. ~ Ambrose Bierce,
559:Why should the composer be more guilty than the poet who warms to fantasy by a strange flame, making an idea that inspires him the subject of his own very different treatment? ~ Franz Schubert,
560:I find the subject of childhood fascinating. I explored this subject in Speak to me of love and I am curious about portraying the often painful transition into the adult world. ~ Sophie Marceau,
561:I need another drink!” I said as a second attempt to change the subject.
“Shots!” America yelled.
Shepley rolled his eyes. “Oh, yeah. That’s what you need, another shot. ~ Jamie McGuire,
562:I've never met a genius. A genius to me is someone who does well at something he hates. Anybody can do well at something he loves - it's just a question of finding the subject. ~ Clint Eastwood,
563:Reality is neither the subject nor the object of true art which creates its own special reality having nothing to do with the average "reality" perceived by the communal eye. ~ Vladimir Nabokov,
564:The subject of my work has a lot to do with general, artistic matters, questions like: What is creativity? Where do we come from? What are our motors? What is coincidence? What is logic? ~ Noto,
565:The subject then of these chapters may be stated thus, - man's only righteousness is through the mercy of God in Christ, which being offered by the Gospel is apprehended by faith. ~ John Calvin,
566:Every essay - the subject matter of every essay - is ultimately about the essayist; him or herself. That ultimately, every essayist is writing about his or her view of the world. ~ Alan Lightman,
567:Hamilton, [Melancton Smith] said, spoke ‘frequently, very long, and very vehemently,’ and ‘like publius,’ had ‘much to say’ that was ‘not very applicable to the subject’ at hand. ~ Pauline Maier,
568:How exactly was I supposed to bring the subject up? Oh, by the way, I’ve been having a little midnight fuck fest with your brother. Really didn’t think that would go over too well. ~ Helen Hardt,
569:I remember when I first got married, there was a certain amount of internet traffic on the subject of, "Who is this beard who is allegedly married to Ira Glass? Obviously, he's gay." ~ Ira Glass,
570:It should be the aim of every photographer to make a single exposure that shows everything about the subject. I have been told that my portrait of Churchill is an example of this. ~ Yousuf Karsh,
571:I was scared to do anything in the studio because it felt so claustrophobic. I wanted to be somewhere where things could happen and the subject wasn't just looking back at you. ~ Annie Leibovitz,
572:"Mansome" was one of those projects where it was a great change to do something fun and look at the subject in an engaging way. My next film is not going to be about pedicures. ~ Morgan Spurlock,
573:Since the object of our worship is the glorious and majestic God of heaven, when worship becomes empty, the problem lies somewhere with the subject (us), not the object (God). ~ Donald S Whitney,
574:The subject may be crude and repulsive. Its expression is artistically modulated and balanced. This is style. This is art. This is the only thing that really matters in books. ~ Vladimir Nabokov,
575:The subject of pain is the business I am in - to give meaning and shape to frustration and suffering. The existence of pain cannot be denied. I propose no remedies or excuses. ~ Louise Bourgeois,
576:And therefore, Reader, I myself am the subject of my book: it is not reasonable that you should employ your leisure on a topic so frivolous and so vain. Therefore, Farewell. ~ Michel de Montaigne,
577:Good critical writing is measured by the perception and evaluation of the subject; bad critical writing by the necessity of maintaining the professional standing of the critic. ~ Raymond Chandler,
578:The brain process that results in a joke materializing where no joke was before remains a mystery. I'm not aware of any scholarly, scientific or neurological studies on the subject. ~ Dick Cavett,
579:The people who do make big discoveries are the ones who somehow manage to free themselves from conventional ways of thinking and to see the subject from a new perspective. ~ Anthony James Leggett,
580:The precise instant of creation is when you choose the subject. (meaning that the essential thing occurs at the moment when he, the photographer, meets the reality he wishes to capture. ~ Brassai,
581:Winwood Reade is good upon the subject," said Holmes. "He remarks that, while the individual man is an insoluble puzzle, in the aggregate he becomes a mathematical certainty. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
582:You know how it is when you go to be the subject of a psychology experiment and nobody else shows up and you think maybe that's part of the experiment? I'm like that all the time. ~ Steven Wright,
583:Discussions without end have been devoted to the subject of peace, and the efforts to obtain a general and lasting peace have been frequent through many years of world history. ~ George C Marshall,
584:[I]f God as a subject is the determined, while the quality, the predicate, is determining, then in truth the rank of the godhead is due not to the subject, but to the predicate. ~ Ludwig Feuerbach,
585:it is the vibrational essence of the subject of your attention that is attracted. That which you really, really want, you get—and that which you really, really do not want, you get. ~ Esther Hicks,
586:Look at the subject as if you have never seen it before. Examine it from every side. Draw its outline with your eyes or in the air with your hands, and saturate yourself with it. ~ John Baldessari,
587:The idea that any photography can't be personal is madness! I see something; it goes through my eye, brain, heart, guts; I choose the subject. What could be more personal than that? ~ Cornell Capa,
588:…the subject is so important, and with such vast implications for society… The damage that psychopaths do to the global economy, and human civilization in general, is incalculable. ~ Robert D Hare,
589:I’m sorry to say that people have written fifty or sixty books about me. I haven’t read a single one of them, since I know too much of the subject, and I’m sick and tired of it. ~ Jorge Luis Borges,
590:I thought it was a huge conflict of interest to be the director and the subject - it's very sketchy territory to be in. I've seen what's happened to other directors who have done that. ~ Aaron Rose,
591:People who ponder too much about the subject of enlightenment don't progress very fast. It is interesting to know it's there, but you can't know what it's like until you get there. ~ Frederick Lenz,
592:The computer was, to the best of my feelings about the subject, not thinking like a mathematician, and it was much more successful, because it was thinking not like a mathematician. ~ Kenneth Appel,
593:…the subject is so important, and with 
such vast implications for society… The damage that psychopaths do to the global economy, and human civilization in general, is incalculable. ~ Robert D Hare,
594:What I hope I would do is something new, but I still love print. I love to touch paper. I'm not sure if I will ever do a magazine again, but I have plenty of ideas on the subject. ~ Carine Roitfeld,
595:Intellectual adherence is never owed to anything whatsoever, for it is never in any degree a voluntary thing. Attention alone is voluntary. It alone forms the subject of an obligation. ~ Simone Weil,
596:It's better to be talked about than to be forgotten. (In other words, if you are the subject of gossip or speculation, enjoy it! Don't let someone else's negative energy control you!). ~ Robin Meade,
597:It's much different today than it was during the Cold War. The CIA is not the subject of many books anymore. But that might change, because of international terrorism and Red China. ~ Nelson DeMille,
598:Let’s consider the subject exhausted except for choosing the wedding gift. Something tasteful with poison in it, perhaps. Although I can’t think which of them deserves it the more. ~ Dorothy Dunnett,
599:The British are absolutely hung up on class, and whenever they start to really - class for the English is like sex for Americans: They start to shake all over when the subject comes up. ~ Gore Vidal,
600:The idea of the walls of monastery was to keep everybody else out because you wanted to develop a certain type of life. Most people in the world had different ideas on the subject. ~ Frederick Lenz,
601:We would sift through every inch of what it was that worked, or if it didn't, and wonder what was effective in it, in terms of paint, the subject matter, the size, the drawing. ~ Helen Frankenthaler,
602:All suggested accounts of the origin of the solar system are subject to serious objections. The conclusion in the present state of the subject would be that the system cannot exist. ~ Harold Jeffreys,
603:"It forms, as it were, the centre of the field of consciousness; and, in so far as this comprises the empirical personality, the ego is the subject of all personal acts of consciousness." ~ Carl Jung,
604:It is the mark of an educated mind to rest satisfied with the degree of precision which the nature of the subject admits and not to seek exactness where only an approximation is possible. ~ Aristotle,
605:It is the mark of an educated mind to rest satisfied with the degree of precision which the nature of the subject admits, and not to seek exactness where only an approximation is possible. ~ Bob Burg,
606:It's necessary to respect all other ways and other teachings on the subject because even though they may not make a lot of sense to us, they might to someone else. Who are we to say? ~ Frederick Lenz,
607:The reason for this was not that the subject was simple enough to be explained without mathematics, but rather that it was much too involved to be fully accessible to mathematics. ~ Erwin Schr dinger,
608:The subject of drama is The Lie. At the end of the drama THE TRUTH -- which has been overlooked, disregarded, scorned, and denied -- prevails. And that is how we know the Drama is done. ~ David Mamet,
609:Whatever right the Second Amendment protects is not as important as it was 200 years ago... The government should deconstitutionalize the subject by repealing the embarrasing Amendment. ~ George Will,
610:While analyzing some already-existing opinions on the subject, he also expressed his own view. The main thing was the tone of the article and its remarkably unexpected conclusion. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
611:All I want to do, is write rock and roll that you could listen to as you got older, and it wouldn't lose anything; it would be timeless, in the subject matter and the literacy of the lyrics. ~ Lou Reed,
612:strict mathematical form, with propositions, proofs, corollaries, lemmas, scholiums, and the like. However, the subject matter of metaphysics and of morals is not very satisfactorily ~ Mortimer J Adler,
613:The dissolution of the subject organisation into a disorganised crowd is the inevitable working of an alien despotism. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Bande Mataram - I, Shall India Be Free? - Unity and British Rule,
614:Truth is the offspring of silence and meditation. I keep the subject constantly before me and wait 'til the first dawnings open slowly, by little and little, into a full and clear light. ~ Isaac Newton,
615:You both think I know not what,' said I. 'Have the goodness to make me as little the subject of your mutual talk and thoughts as possible. I have my own sort of life apart from yours. ~ Charlotte Bront,
616:And therefore, Reader, I myself am the subject of my book: it is not reasonable that you should employ your leisure on a topic so frivolous and so vain.

Therefore, Farewell: ~ Michel de Montaigne,
617:Forgiveness wasn’t ever easy, but a feat much more manageable when you weren’t the subject of its grace. Maybe I’d always be a broken recipient of grace. And in that musing, I found rest. ~ Rachael Wade,
618:He (The warden) was painfully afraid of a disagreement with any person in any subject....he felt horror at the thought of being made the subject of common gossip and public criticism. ~ Anthony Trollope,
619:I'm lucky that my real-life Mom has both a great sense of humor about herself and an amazing ability to slip into complete denial if the subject matter gets a little too close to home. ~ Cathy Guisewite,
620:What is especially irritating about the whole abortion debate is the way the subject has been used as a political football by those on both the right and the left of the political aisle. ~ Chuck Baldwin,
621:I know nothing that can so comfort the soul, so calm the swelling billows of grief and sorrow, so speak peace to the winds of trial, as a devout musing upon the subject of the Godhead. ~ Charles Spurgeon,
622:I'm supposed to have a Ph.D. on the subject of women. But the truth is I've flunked more often than not. I'm very fond of women; I admire them. But, like all men, I don't understand them. ~ Frank Sinatra,
623:In the presence of death I affirm and reaffirm the truth of all that I have said against the superstitions of the world. I would say that much on the subject with my last breath. ~ Robert Green Ingersoll,
624:I try to look at the whole thing and say 'yes' to the projects that I cannot stop thinking about. If I read a script and the subject stays with me - then that's when I want to go to work. ~ Penelope Cruz,
625:To extend the depth of what has been called 'art' into photography requires... making available to the spectator the amazing transformations the subject undergoes to become the photograph. ~ Michael Snow,
626:As touching the gods, I do not know whether they exist or not, nor how they are featured; for there is much to prevent our knowing: the obscurity of the subject and the brevity of human life. ~ Protagoras,
627:Before God closed in on me, I was offered what now appears a moment of wholly free choice. But I feel my decision was not so important. I was the object rather than the subject in this affair. ~ C S Lewis,
628:I pay very little regard...to what any young person says on the subject of marriage. If they profess a disinclination for it, I only set it down that they have not yet seen the right person. ~ Jane Austen,
629:Some of the most flowery praise you hear on the subject of teams is only hypocrisy. Managers learn to talk a good game about teams even when they're secretly threatened by the whole concept. ~ Tom DeMarco,
630:2. Forgetfulness may depend, not on the past state, but on the actual state of the subject at the moment when he tries to call up the remembrances and connect them with his present personality. ~ Anonymous,
631:Being a medium who can communicate with souls isn't the same as one who can interact with them. It's the difference between listening in on a conversation and changing the subject. ~ S Kelley Harrell M Div,
632:Economics seeks to be a science. Science is supposed to be objective and it is difficult to be scientific when the subject matter, the participant in the economic process, lacks objectivity. ~ George Soros,
633:Freely the subject makes himself what he is, never in this life is the making finished, always it is in process, always it is a precarious achievement that can slip and fall and shatter. ~ Bernard Lonergan,
634:it may well be that the subject-object dichotomy is false to begin with and that consciousness is primary in the cosmos, not just an epiphenomenon of physical processes in a nervous system. ~ Deepak Chopra,
635:The media is almost entirely about defining the subject, defining the citizen, as one of three things: a consumer, a threat in this new age of surveillance, or as utterly disposable. Excess. ~ Henry Giroux,
636:The subject, however various and important, has already been so frequently, so ably, and so successfully discussed, that it is now grown familiar to the reader, and difficult to the writer. ~ Edward Gibbon,
637:Verbs come in two types, active and passive. With an active verb, the subject of the sentence is doing something. With a passive verb, something is being done to the subject of the sentence. ~ Stephen King,
638:We tend to think of politicians as time-servers and slackers. But on those committees they usually have an interest in the subject. And they're quite clever. I've seen them pick people apart. ~ Mark Thomas,
639:All education is religious in nature and is never value free. If God is left out of the subject, it is by definition, humanism that governs the education since man alone is the measure of truth. ~ Anonymous,
640:Archaeology is the study of humanity itself, and unless that attitude towards the subject is kept in mind archaeology will be overwhelmed by impossible theories or a welter of flint chips. ~ Margaret Murray,
641:…as though, capable themselves of suffering, they granted no reality to the suffering of others. ‘The subject exhibited a pain response.’ But not, under any circumstances, we hurt her. ~ John Brunner,
642:Simply send an email to vharnish@gazelles.com and put “weekly insights” in the subject line. And please include a first and last name and your title, and tell us where your company is based. ~ Verne Harnish,
643:The arguments are the same whether the subject is climate disruption, evolution, vaccination, tobacco, or sex education. The first argument is: Lacking certainty, we should do nothing. ~ Shawn Lawrence Otto,
644:The hardest thing in the world to do is to write straight honest prose on human beings. First you to know the subject; then you have to know how to write. Both take a lifetime to learn... ~ Ernest Hemingway,
645:There are many cases of these algebras which may obviously be combined into natural classes, but the consideration of this portion of the subject will be reserved to subsequent researches. ~ Benjamin Peirce,
646:This is not a manifesto. Manifestos provide a glimpse of a world to come and also call into being the subject, who although now only a specter must materialize to become the agent of change. ~ Michael Hardt,
647:When the honest, sincere Christian is faced with the decision regarding whether a thing is right or wrong, he should ask, does it agree with all that the Scripture has to say on the subject? ~ Curtis Hutson,
648:Dragon intelligence was a mystery to men who made a study of the subject; he had no idea how much the dragon would hear or understand, but thought it better to avoid the risk of giving offense. ~ Naomi Novik,
649:If I want to stop a research program I can always do it by getting a few experts to sit in on the subject, because they know right away that it was a fool thing to try in the first place. ~ Charles Kettering,
650:In America, the government is accountable to the people, not the other way around,” says a constitutional law scholar sympathetic to the antiwar movement on the subject of the anonymous police. ~ Nathan Hill,
651:She didn't even finish her last sentence; it just trailed off. I think the subject had changed in her head while her mouth had continued on the old topic, not realizing it was out of supplies. ~ Steve Martin,
652:Upon the subject of education, not presuming to dictate any plan or system respecting it, I can only say that I view it as the most important subject which we as a people can be engaged in. ~ Abraham Lincoln,
653:You must forget all your theories, all your ideas before the subject. What part of these is really your own will be expressed in your expression of the emotion awakened in you by the subject. ~ Henri Matisse,
654:Actually, I'm not all that interested in the subject of photography. Once the picture is in the box, I'm not all that interested in what happens next. Hunters, after all, aren't cooks. ~ Henri Cartier Bresson,
655:A photographic close-up is perhaps the purest form of portraiture, creating a confrontation between the viewer and the subject that daily interaction makes impossible, or at least impolite. ~ Martin Schoeller,
656:But I know, at least, that you would keep a library on the subject, and I hoped that I might be allowed to read from it.” He regarded me with a bemused expression. “You want me for my library. ~ Marie Brennan,
657:I am conscious of the fact that the subject of hell is not a very pleasant one. It is very unpopular, controversial and misunderstood.... As a minister, I must deal with it. I cannot ignore it. ~ Billy Graham,
658:The question of immortality is of its nature not a scholarly question. It is a question welling up from the interior which the subject must put to itself as it becomes conscious of itself. ~ Soren Kierkegaard,
659:L’amour coûte cher aux vieillards—I think that was the title of one of Balzac’s most moving stories, and many could be written on the subject. But the old people who know most about it are happy ~ Stefan Zweig,
660:Most of us are not really approaching the subject in order to find out what Christianity says; we are approaching it in the hope of finding support from Christianity for the views of our own party. ~ C S Lewis,
661:Only in the present tense is the subject married to its verb. The action—all action, past and future—comes at the end. At the very end, when there is nothing left to do but act. ~ Jill Alexander Essbaum,
662:The prescription is that the subject must be made to show new aspects of itself; to prompt new questions; in a word, to change. From an unchanging subject the attention inevitably wanders away. ~ William James,
663:Think about the photo before and after, never during. The secret is to take your time. You mustn't go too fast. The subject must forget about you. Then, however, you must be very quick. ~ Henri Cartier Bresson,
664:Wars throughout history have been waged for conquest and plunder. … And that is war in a nutshell. The master class has always declared the wars; the subject class has always fought the battles. ~ Oliver Stone,
665:When I reviewed Hayek's book, The Pure Theory of Capital, it is my sincere conviction that this work contains some of the most penetrating thoughts on the subject that have ever been published. ~ Fritz Machlup,
666:While the subject matter is lynching, on a deeper level, this novel is about identity. Whom and what we identify ourselves with determines our characters, determines who we are, and what we do. ~ Julius Lester,
667:Imagine someone holding forth on biology whose only knowledge of the subject is 'The Book of British Birds,' and you have a rough idea of what it feels like to read Richard Dawkins on theology. ~ Terry Eagleton,
668:It is leashed. Now drop the subject or I’ll tell Sin you’ve seen me naked. (Kat) I will never bring this topic up again. Oh wait. What topic? I have Alzheimer’s. I know nothing at all. (Kish) ~ Sherrilyn Kenyon,
669:I took a book—some Arabian tales; I sat down and endeavoured to read. I could make no sense of the subject; my own thoughts swam always between me and the page I had usually found fascinating. ~ Charlotte Bront,
670:Odin keep us.’ Hakon’s wisdom on the subject. ‘He’s as likely to as the White Christ.’ I had no bone to pick with heathen bone-pickers. One god or many, none of them ever seemed to like us much. ~ Mark Lawrence,
671:Some movies I make for myself. I just sort of make them for myself. I do that sometimes when the subject matter is very sensitive and very personal and I really can't imagine I'm an audience. ~ Steven Spielberg,
672:There are, first of all, two kinds of authors: those who write for the subject's sake, and those who write for writing's sake. The first kind have had thoughts or experiences which seem to ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
673:In other words, our decision making in medicine has failed so spectacularly that we have reached the point of actively inflicting harm on patients rather than confronting the subject of mortality. ~ Atul Gawande,
674:Now, I’ve got the taste for steak,” she changed the subject. “What do you have the taste for?” Straight up, he had the taste for cute, klutzy, classy pussy, eating her and listening to her moan. ~ Kristen Ashley,
675:One always starts work with the subject, no matter how tenuous it is, and one constructs an artificial structure by which one can trap the reality of the subject-matter that one has started from. ~ Francis Bacon,
676:So many people seem to prefer my silver-screenings of movie stars to the rest of my work. It must be the subject matter that attracts them, because my death and violence paintings are just as good. ~ Andy Warhol,
677:The art of conversation, or the qualification for a good companion, is a certain self-control, which now holds the subject, now lets it go, with a respect for the emergencies of the moment. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
678:The slighted person may or may not get angry, but he is more likely to get angry if he is in distress – for example, in poverty or in love – or if he feels insecure about the subject of the slight. ~ Neel Burton,
679:Any authentically Christian system is going to have to keep off the kick of human merit and demerit and stick resolutely to a universalism of grace that overrides the subject of human works. ~ Robert Farrar Capon,
680:many words. "Sun Tzu's 13 Chapters and Wu Ch`i's Art of War are the two books that people commonly refer to on the subject of military matters. Both of them are widely distributed, so I will not discuss ~ Sun Tzu,
681:The admitted right of a government to prevent the influx of elements hostile to its internal peace and security may not be questioned, even where there is not treaty stipulation on the subject. ~ Grover Cleveland,
682:The modern school without systematic lectures turns out many graduates who lack retention. No sooner has the sound of the word left their teacher's lips, the subject has been forgotten. ~ Arturo Alfonso Schomburg,
683:The question, therefore, is not whether one should teach philosophy to Muslim students, but rather what kind or kinds of philosophy should be taught and how the subject should be approached. ~ Seyyed Hossein Nasr,
684:There is a myth that the portrait photographer is supposed to make the subject relax, and that's the real person. But I'm interested in whatever is going on. And I'm not that comfortable myself. ~ Annie Leibovitz,
685:Who are you going swimming with?” Kinsley asked again.

“You’re not supposed to end a sentence with a preposition,” I replied.

“Stop changing the subject! With whom do you plan to swim?! ~ R S Grey,
686:And the usual course of affairs is that, as soon as a powerful foreigner enters a country, all the subject states are drawn to him, moved by the hatred that they feel against the ruling power. ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
687:Aristotle maintains that the neck of the Lion is composed of a single bone. Aristotle knew nothing at all about Lions, a circumstance which did not prevent him from writing a good deal on the subject. ~ Will Cuppy,
688:For after the subject is removed or the eye shut, we still retain an image of the things seen, though more obscure than when we see it...Imagination, therefore, is nothing more than decaying sense. ~ Thomas Hobbes,
689:I no longer know what love is. A week ago I had a lot of ideas. What love is and how to make it stay. Now that I’m in love, I haven’t a clue. Now that I’m in love, I’m completely stupid on the subject. ~ Anonymous,
690:It is leashed. Now drop the subject or I’ll tell Sin you’ve seen me naked. (Kat)
I will never bring this topic up again. Oh wait. What topic? I have Alzheimer’s. I know nothing at all. (Kish) ~ Sherrilyn Kenyon,
691:There is no need to distract the attention of the community from the essence of the subject substituting it with secondary questions dealing with the search of those who did it [hacker's attacks]. ~ Vladimir Putin,
692:This is the extraordinary thing about creativity: If just you keep your mind resting against the subject in a friendly but persistent way, sooner or later you will get a reward from your unconscious. ~ John Cleese,
693:This is the extraordinary thing about creativity: If you just keep your mind resting against the subject in a friendly but persistent way, sooner or later you will get a reward from your unconscious. ~ John Cleese,
694:You never apologised to me for getting my legs broken either."
"I said sorry in my own way, Gary."
"By never referring to it again and dodging the subject whenever I brought it up."
"Exactly. ~ Mike Carey,
695:And the usual course of affairs is that, as soon as a powerful foreigner enters a country, all the subject states are drawn to him, moved by the hatred which they feel against the ruling power. ~ Niccol Machiavelli,
696:Maybe I fell in love with the idea of love, but I’m a teenage girl. This morning I fell in love with raspberry jam and a puppy in a tiny raincoat. I’m not exactly Earth’s top authority on the subject. ~ Leah Raeder,
697:On the subject of God. He is not dead; and he is not a fable.
He is not mocked nor forgotten —
Successfully. God is a lion that comes in the night. God is a hawk gliding among the stars — ~ Robinson Jeffers,
698:The complete disregard for the camera's presence indicates its complete saturation in their lives. The subject neither notices nor seems to care that someone has been invited into their private moment. ~ Nan Goldin,
699:Well, now that we're on the subject, it's somewhat unhygienic for you to drink out of the milk jug."
"Babe, I had my tongue in your mouth for ten minutes this morning. How's that any different ? ~ Kristen Ashley,
700:You can learn more in half an hour's direct contact with a source of knowledge (no matter the apparent reason for the contact or the subject of the transaction) than you can in years of formal effort. ~ Idries Shah,
701:You know, God bless him, bless his heart, president of the United States, a total failure, losing all credibility with the American people on the economy, on the war, on energy, you name the subject. ~ Nancy Pelosi,
702:You never apologised to me for getting my legs broken, either."
"I said sorry in my own way, Gary."
"By never referring to it again and dodging the subject whenever I brought it up."
"Exactly. ~ Mike Carey,
703:Genius now and then produces a lucky trifle. We still read the Dove of Anacreon, and Sparrow of Catullus; and a writer naturally pleases himself with a performance which owes nothing to the subject. ~ Samuel Johnson,
704:Stop changing the subject," Taylor snapped. "And think before you speak."
Roo pressed her lips together and then sighed. "How long do you want me to think?"
Niall let out a snort of laughter. ~ Barbara Elsborg,
705:The most important fact about the subject of education is that there is no such thing. Education is not a subject and it does not deal in subjects. It is instead the transfer of a way of life. ~ Gilbert K Chesterton,
706:The novel has been the subject of several scholarly essays and has become a staple of college classes in contemporary fiction (and even the occasional philosophy class).

Fifty-four rejections. ~ David Markson,
707:I just tend to think about everyday things for my onstage act. Actually you know what I like to talk about just the absolute most - the more mundane the subject matter, the more interesting it is to me. ~ Brian Regan,
708:The beautiful, which is perhaps inseparable from art, is not after all tied to the subject, but to the pictorial representation. In this way and in no other does art overcome the ugly without avoiding it. ~ Paul Klee,
709:The subject matter is very tricky. It's about the Munich massacre and what Mossad did afterwards with the assassination squads. I think it's a turning point in history, especially for the Palestinians. ~ Daniel Craig,
710:Africans… their tired. They’re tired of being the subject of everybody’s charity and care. We are grateful, but we know that we can take charge of our own destinies if we have the will to reform. ~ Ngozi Okonjo Iweala,
711:British writer G. K. Chesterton’s reply to an invitation by the Times to write an essay on the subject “What’s Wrong with the World?” Chesterton’s response: Dear Sirs, I am. Sincerely, G. K. Chesterton ~ Dale Carnegie,
712:I thought that I would like to be affiliated with some school or institution. As time went on, I also decided on the subject that I wanted to get involved with in addition to music: it was Black Studies. ~ Donald Byrd,
713:My writing is a combination of three elements. The first is travel: not travel like a tourist, but travel as exploration. The second is reading literature on the subject. The third is reflection. ~ Ryszard Kapuscinski,
714:You must understand the following: In order to master a field, you must love the subject and feel a profound connection to it. Your interest must transcend the field itself and border on the religious. ~ Robert Greene,
715:As a first approximation, I define belief not as the object of believing (a dogma, a program, etc.) but as the subject's investment in a proposition, the act of saying it and considering it as true. ~ Michel de Certeau,
716:Biology can be divided into the study of proximate causes, the study of the physiological sciences (broadly conceived), and into the study of ultimate (evolutionary) causes, the subject of natural history. ~ Ernst Mayr,
717:But be that as it may, I think it is more respectful to you that I should speak to you upon and do my best to interest you in the subject which has occupied me, and in which I am myself most interested. ~ Arthur Cayley,
718:For love concentrates on the object, sex concentrates on the subject. Love is directed to someone else for the sake of the other’s perfection; sex is directed to self for the sake of self-satisfaction. ~ Fulton J Sheen,
719:Hence it is a mistake to think, that the supreme or legislative power of any common-wealth, can do what it will, and dispose of the estates of the subject arbitrarily, or take any part of them at pleasure. ~ John Locke,
720:I am receiving what I suppose to be the usual number of threatening letters on the subject. Assassination can be no more guarded against than death by lightning; it is best not to worry about either. ~ James A Garfield,
721:I spent nearly two hours deciding on an outfit that would look as if the subject of clothing had never crossed my mind, but would in fact show off my best features and miraculously hide the extra pounds. ~ Rosanne Cash,
722:My mind is a chest of drawers. When I wish to deal with a subject, I shut all the drawers but the one in which the subject is to be found. When I am wearied, I shut all the drawers and go to sleep. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte,
723:People can get obsessed with romance, they can get obsessed with political paranoia, they can get obsessed with horror. It's isn't the fault of the subject matter that creates the obsession, I don't think. ~ Adam Arkin,
724:There are certain irregularities which are not the subject of criminal law. But when the criminal law happens to be auxiliary to the law of morality, I do not feel any inclination to explain it away. ~ Sherrilyn Kenyon,
725:Anyhow, he gives large parties,” said Jordan, changing the subject with an urbane distaste for the concrete. “And I like large parties. They’re so intimate. At small parties there isn’t any privacy. ~ F Scott Fitzgerald,
726:It's nice when people are passionate about something, and it's always better when they let the subject tell the story, more so then when you can tell people are trying to get their own philosophy into it. ~ Vince Vaughn,
727:Surrealism! What is Surrealism? In my opinion, it is above all a reawakening of the poetic idea in art, the reintroduction of the subject but in a very particular sense, that of the strange and illogical. ~ Paul Delvaux,
728:If in any divination the Tenth Card should be a Court Card, it shews that the subject of the divination falls ultimately into the hands of a person represented by that card, and its end depends mainly on him. ~ A E Waite,
729:What is of value is that a particular photographer sees the subject differently than I do. A good picture must be a completely individual expression which intrigues the viewer and forces him to think. ~ Alexey Brodovitch,
730:Yet when it happens to me that the music moves me more than the subject of the song, I confess myself to commit a sin deserving punishment, and then I would prefer not to have heard the singer. ~ Saint Augustine of Hippo,
731:Youth's lost companion may be the measured friend of old age, I hope", said Daniel. "I may write a poem on the subject."
"Dear God, it sounds more like a cross-stitched pillow than a poem," said Hugh. ~ Helen Simonson,
732:exposure treatment principles of behavioral therapy, in which a person’s phobic response gradually extinguishes itself when the subject learns the target stimulus does not produce the harm originally feared. ~ Steven Fies,
733:I am inclined to attach some importance to the new system of manufacturing; and venture to throw it out with the hope of its receiving a full discussion among those who are most interestedin the subject. ~ Charles Babbage,
734:I got a note from my father, who said that Success is wonderful, if you don't inhale. That was his own aphorism, and I think it's the very best thing he could have said to me or anyone else on the subject. ~ Sam Waterston,
735:I have thoroughly gone through the subject of the Incarnation; and if it served you, could at any time give you the history from the beginning of the controversies on this subject, and of its present form. ~ Edward Irving,
736:My father quoted everyone, from Shakespeare to Emerson, on the subject of destiny, and then he'd point out that except for the Greeks, everyone agreed: The stars do fuck-all for us; you must make your own way. ~ Amy Bloom,
737:The visual quality of the cameras now is such that you can shoot with available light, and if people are willing to mount a microphone on the camera and maybe even on the subject, then you're good to go. ~ Brian Lindstrom,
738:Abjection is above all ambiguity. Because, while releasing a hold, it does not radically cut off the subject from what threatens it --- on the contrary, abjection acknowledges it to be in perpetual danger. ~ Julia Kristeva,
739:A circus?’ I said, surprised at his enthusiasm. I had had a run-in with a circus five years before and to hear Hugh on the subject then, Caligula himself would have walked out and written to The Times. ~ Catriona McPherson,
740:Although I never publicly defended promiscuity, I never publicly attacked it. I attempted to avoid the subject, in part because I felt, and often still feel, unable to live up to the ideals I really hold. ~ Andrew Sullivan,
741:Getting it off the ground is one thing because it has to do with finding the proper people and the financing, but finding the subject is another thing and this is always for me the most difficult part. ~ Philippe Falardeau,
742:I pay very little regard," said Mrs. Grant, "to what any young person says on the subject of marriage. If they profess a disinclination for it, I only set it down that they have not yet seen the right person. ~ Jane Austen,
743:Lady Middleton resigned herself to the idea of it with all the philosophy of a well-bred woman, contenting herself with merely giving her husband a gentle reprimand on the subject five or six times every day. ~ Jane Austen,
744:Often I forget that design is really about removing things: optimizing the flow of information, the display, so there are the fewest elements possible, but still they preserve the essence of the subject. ~ David Mccandless,
745:There’s a way of doing it!” Hermione said crossly. “There just has to be!” She seemed to be taking the library’s lack of useful information on the subject as a personal insult; it had never failed her before. ~ J K Rowling,
746:A ghost who has only a lay knowledge of the subject will be able to keep asking the same questions as the lay reader, and will therefore open up the potential readership of the book to a much wider audience. ~ Robert Harris,
747:And ever, as the story drained The wells of fancy dry, And faintly strove that weary one To put the subject by, "The rest next time--" "It is next time!" The Happy voice cry. Thus grew the tale of Wonderland ~ Lewis Carroll,
748:As soon as the subject moves to TV shows and movies, I'm a total failure. And I'd been paying for all those premium channels for years, but recently cancelled them, since I never watched any of those networks. ~ Ann Coulter,
749:The Government and the Parliament, even the House of Lords, will consent to a large increase of electors; and men who have not considered the subject fully will imagine they have gained much by the concession. ~ John Bright,
750:Yossarian decided to change the subject. "Now you're changing the subject." he pointed out diplomatically. "I'll bet I can name two things to be miserable about for every one you can name to be thankful for. ~ Joseph Heller,
751:Craft is important, but cameras for their own sake are not. A sense of aesthetics, a connection with the subject matter, an enquiring and an inquisitive mind, these factors outweigh whatever equipment we use. ~ Michael Kenna,
752:Did he get his brain fever, and then write all those terrible things, or had he some cause for it all? I suppose I shall never know, for I dare not open the subject to him. And yet that man we saw yesterday! He ~ Bram Stoker,
753:I have not forgotten that she is what I am moving toward. If I seem to be caught in a slow circling of the subject, it is only appropriate, as she and I have always moved toward each other in slow circles. ~ Patrick Rothfuss,
754:No man should dogmatize except on the subject of theology. Here he can take his stand, and by throwing the burden of proof on the opposition, he is invincible. We have to die to find out whether he is right. ~ Elbert Hubbard,
755:That man is guilty of impertinence who considers not the circumstances of time, or engrosses the conversation, or makes himself the subject of his discourse, or pays no regard to the company he is in. ~ Marcus Tullius Cicero,
756:The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy has this to say on the subject of flying. There is an art, it says, or, rather, a knack to flying. The knack lies in learning how to throw yourself at the ground and miss. ~ Douglas Adams,
757:Twice I have testified in congress that unbiased funding on the subject of the causes of warming would be much closer to a reality if 50% of that money was devoted to finding natural reasons for climate change. ~ Roy Spencer,
758:Darling' there're things I haven't told you yet either, just didn't know how to broach the subject. We can't know everything about each other by writing a few letters and having dinner once." - Chance Holcomb ~ Caroline Fyffe,
759:I'm sorry to say that the subject I most disliked was mathematics. I have thought about it. I think the reason was that mathematics leaves no room for argument. If you made a mistake, that was all there was to it. ~ Malcolm X,
760:I reflected that the value of a work of art has no relation whatever to the pleasure it gives; indeed, the more I have dwelt upon the subject, the more I have come to prize austerity rather than luxuriance. ~ Bertrand Russell,
761:I think a lot of times, artists and albums can become formulaic. You're known for a certain thing, and you continue to do that. You just change the subject matter, but it's the same song. And that's what you do. ~ Eric Church,
762:Political Economy as a branch of science is extremely modern; but the subject with which its enquiries are conversant has in all ages necessarily constituted one of the chief practical interests of mankind. ~ John Stuart Mill,
763:There are neither good nor bad subjects. From the point of view of pure Art, you could almost establish it as an axiom that the subject is irrelevant, style itself being an absolute manner of seeing things. ~ Gustave Flaubert,
764:There are things that I teach, about building photographs, and that's why people come to my workshops. When people come to the workshops, they're consumed with seeking the subject, and I teach seeking the setting. ~ Sam Abell,
765:The subject of history is the life of peoples and of humanity. To catch and pin down in words--that is, to describe directly the life, not only of humanity, but even of a single people, appears to be impossible. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
766:To learn more about parasites, check out Parasite Rex, by Carl Zimmer. There are many, many books on the subject, but his is one of the most accessible jumping-on points you’re likely to find. Welcome to the war. ~ Mira Grant,
767:Whenever I met someone who seemed to know a lot about a subject, and who evinced, moreover, a certain happiness in his or her being, and if I were interested in the subject, I asked to be taught what they knew. ~ Alice Walker,
768:Don't be so damned patronizing. Your performance so far has been a little less than dazzling."
"I didn't mean no harm," I said and kissed her. "That a new dress?"
"Ah! Changing the subject, you coward. ~ Dashiell Hammett,
769:It always surprises me how much my followers appreciate how candid my photos are - they may not have a particularly unique subject, but it's more about the light you shed on the subject than the subject itself. ~ Connor Franta,
770:It's important to see things in perspective. Automobile traffic is responsible for only 12 percent of total CO2 emissions. One should be able to point this out without being accused of changing the subject. ~ Martin Winterkorn,
771:On the subject of money and politics and the rest, I have a DARE: Disclose who are these people; Amend the Constitution to overturn Citizens United; Reform: let's have public financing of campaigns; and Empower. ~ Nancy Pelosi,
772:Our teachers’ best qualities—their sense of humor, their love for the subject, their excitement, their interest in students as individuals—are not being honored or valued, because those qualities aren’t measurable. ~ Anonymous,
773:Truths are known to us in two ways: some are known directly, and of themselves; some through the medium of other truths. The former are the subject of Intuition, or Consciousness; 4 the latter, of Inference. ~ John Stuart Mill,
774:And while we're on the subject of ducks, which we plainly are, the story, 'The Ugly Duckling' ought be banned as the central character wasn't a duckling or he wouldn't have grown up into a swan. He was a cygnet. ~ Russell Brand,
775:Everyone stared at me now. I’d studied linguistics a long time ago. A little philology too, the study of languages from analyzing texts. Mostly for the fun of it, but the subject came in useful sometimes. Ellis ~ Jeffery Deaver,
776:Should have a Ph.d. on the subject of women. Anyhow the fact of the matter is I've failed usually. I'm exceptionally enamored with women; I respect them. Yet, in the same way as all men, I don't comprehend them. ~ Frank Sinatra,
777:The US remains an object of fascination for me, and the subject of much study, but while many of my friends etc. are American and I have no plans at present to move elsewhere, I consider myself a permanent outsider. ~ Luc Sante,
778:Trees have a curious relationship to the subject of the present moment. There are many created things in the universe that outlive us, that outlive the sun, even, but I can't think about them. I live with trees. ~ Annie Dillard,
779:I beg of you always to dwell upon the necessity of a thorough understanding of principles, in order to stop the vivacity of his mind, and please do not forget to meditate upon the subject of our discussion. ~ Nicolas Malebranche,
780:When that happens - when risk is taken and the filmmakers dive into the subject matter without a parachute - very often what you get it something with those qualities that make it age well with the public. ~ Francis Ford Coppola,
781:Again, you have a subject-object relationship with your thoughts. You are the subject, and thoughts are just another object you can be aware of. You are not your thoughts. You are simply aware of your thoughts. ~ Michael A Singer,
782:Crowride
When the crow
lands, the
tip of the sprung spruce
bough weighs
so low, the
system so friction-free,
the bobbing lasts
way past any
interest in the subject.
~ Archie Randolph Ammons,
783:I appeal to #Arnab @republic to stop inviting John Dayal & Suneet Chopra to 9 ~10 pm debates. Please join in with your Like & RTs? They are too irritating who discuss anything but the subject for the evening?@noconversion,
784:I can work with shyness, but for the most part I want people to feel comfortable with me. It's really more about the photographer feeing comfortable right when they walk in that makes the subject feel comfortable. ~ Ryan McGinley,
785:If the subject is in a suffering circumstance, it is all the more preferable to apply craft to the utmost. Call it art or not, we photographers should always try to pass on our observations with the utmost clarity. ~ Dennis Stock,
786:Lully's machine, Mill's fear and Lasswitz's chaotic library can be the subject of jokes, but they exaggerate a propensity which is common: making metaphysics and the arts into a kind of play with combinations. ~ Jorge Luis Borges,
787:Most of us are not really approaching the subject [scriptures] in order to find out what Christianity says: we are approaching it [them] in the hope of finding support from Christianity for the views of our own party. ~ C S Lewis,
788:The world is inseparable from the subject, but from a subject which is nothing but a project of the world, and the subject is inseparable from the world, but from a world which the subject itself projects. ~ Maurice Merleau Ponty,
789:When you start meditating on your ego, on your thoughts, on your mind, you are suddenly separate, because whatsoever you meditate on, you are separate from it. That has become the object and you have become the subject. ~ Rajneesh,
790:Dot wondered how she was to mention Phryne’s habit of strewing her boudoir with beautiful naked young men. She could not think of a method of introducing the subject and decided to leave it to Phryne to cope with. ~ Kerry Greenwood,
791:I have always felt that a woman has the right to treat the subject of her age with ambiguity until, perhaps, she passes into the realm of over ninety. Then it is better she be candid with herself and with the world. ~ Carl Sandburg,
792:I have sometimes thought that the mere hearing of those songs would do more to impress some minds with the horrible character of slavery, than the reading of whole volumes of philosophy on the subject could do. ~ Frederick Douglass,
793:Some of the subject matter is a little less weighty. When we were writing for Mr. Show, we were talking about how is this going to stand up to the test of time. Every little piece had to be this brilliant comedy jewel. ~ B J Porter,
794:The subject is salvation, one of the greatest themes that could ever challenge the mind of man. Confusion about salvation means disaster, for the message of the Gospel is a matter of eternal life or eternal death. ~ Charles C Ryrie,
795:And at that point, I think my experience in covering the subject helped me. I think editors felt comfortable with the idea of me telling this story because I had demonstrated that I know this business pretty well ~ Laura Hillenbrand,
796:Charlotte decided to change the subject. "You wouldn't believe what goes in these things." She offered her perfumed wrists. "Here, tell me which scent you prefer. Lilies and whale vomit, or lemon balm and beaver's arse. ~ Tessa Dare,
797:If the subject is no longer living, the immediate question is do you have enough first-person material to really get that story across. You'd like to avoid it just being other people's memories and interpretations. ~ Brian Lindstrom,
798:I think that a good portrait reveals a suggestion of the subject’s mind, and not just a representation of how they look. It’s by no means easy; to snatch the right moment can feel impossible, like capturing fairies. ~ Elizabeth Ross,
799:Once again, he backed off from a challenge by hiding behind a twisted sense of honor. “Let’s change the subject, shall we?”
“Sure. I got a Brazilian wax today.”
He choked on the piece of bread in his mouth. ~ Jennifer Probst,
800:The most important thing you learn as a sports photographer is anticipation - not where the action is taking place, but where it’s going to take place. Not where the subject is now, but where they’re going to be. ~ Lawrence Schiller,
801:We have in all functionings of the mentality four elements, the object of mental consciousness, the act of mental consciousness, the occasion and the subject.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, Memory, Ego and Self-Experience, 532,
802:But I owe it to the subject to say, that it has long afforded me what philosophy is so often thought, and made, barren of - the fun of discovery, the pleasures of co-operation, and the satisfaction of reaching agreement. ~ J L Austin,
803:Don’t change the subject,” Blaze snapped.  “You said dragons?  And untie me, damn it.  My wrists hurt.” He shrugged, completely ignoring her complaints.  “Of course there are dragons.  Where you think the myths come from? ~ Sara King,
804:Four years after my father's death, when the subject of parents came up in conversation i would relate the information in a flat, matter-of-fact tone eager to detect in my listener the flinch of grief that eluded me. ~ Alison Bechdel,
805:In breathing I am an object of the air, the air the subject; but when I make the air an object of thought, of investigation, when I analyse it, I reverse the relation - I make myself the subject, the air an object. ~ Ludwig Feuerbach,
806:I noted too that I had on many occasions spoken on the subject of the pollution of the spirit (or so I told them), and how the spirit should not be polluted, and how I personally looked askance at, for instance, a latte. ~ Rick Moody,
807:I see it all the time in politics. If a candidate gets caught in a lie, he quickly tries to change the subject by throwing more mud at his opponent. The mud keeps flying until some of the slanderous material sticks. ~ Joe Scarborough,
808:"The effect of projection is to isolate the subject from his environment, since instead of a real relation to it there is now only an illusory one. Projections change the world into the replica of one's own unknown face." ~ Carl Jung,
809:The subject had reference to secret sin and those sad mysteries which we hide from our nearest and dearest, and would fain conceal from our own consciousness, even forgetting that the Omniscient can detect them. ~ Nathaniel Hawthorne,
810:To study the laws of history we must completely change the subject of our observation, must leave aside kings, ministers, and generals, and study the common, infinitesimally small elements by which the masses are moved. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
811:You have to keep yourself busy, you have to like the subject matter. If you do it for other causes, other reasons, it doesn't hold you for a long time. There's no other way but struggling, forging ahead to do the film. ~ Haile Gerima,
812:'Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter' is without a doubt the best film we are ever likely to see on the subject - unless there is a sequel, which is unlikely, because at the end, the Lincolns are on their way to the theater. ~ Roger Ebert,
813:I didn't get into acting to be a public service announcer or an advocate and yet, by virtue of this show and how we handle the subject matter that we've been given, that's kind of how it's evolved in certain ways. ~ Christopher Meloni,
814:I havent watched Mad TV a lot, but I have seen some stuff on there that is truly funny. You have to have some sort of attitude toward the subject, and they seem to have it. It depends on how much blood you want to draw. ~ Joe Flaherty,
815:We rarely hear, it has been said, of the combinations of masters, though frequently of those of workmen. But whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters rarely combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. ~ Adam Smith,
816:What are your goals? Where are you going? Why are you here? What are you? Scientology has answers to these questions, good answers that are true, answers that work for you. For the subject matter of Scientology is you. ~ L Ron Hubbard,
817:Do you dream of your victims?” he asked.
“Yes,” the murderer told him. “But only when I’m awake.”
Anzola had never heard a more perfect definition of guilt, and didn’t ask him anything else on the subject. ~ Juan Gabriel V squez,
818:For her, choices were simple; either there was an action she could take to improve the situation, in which case she took it, or there was not, and everything else said on the subject was so much meaningless noise. ~ Christopher Paolini,
819:I have often discussed the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path in talks I have given about meditation. But, since I also teach Hindu, Buddhist, and Taoist mediation, I have a very eclectic approach to the subject. ~ Frederick Lenz,
820:Most illnesses do not, as is generally thought, come like a bolt out of the blue. The ground is prepared for years through faulty diet, intemperance, overwork, and moral conflicts, slowly eroding the subject's vitality. ~ Paul Tournier,
821:Food from the platter / Water from the rain / The subject and the matter / I'm going home again / Can't sell a leaf to a tree / Nor the wind to the atmosphere / I know where I am meant to be / And I can't be satisfied here ~ Lemn Sissay,
822:The constitution vests the power of declaring war in Congress; therefore no offensive expedition of importance can be undertaken until after they shall have deliberated upon the subject and authorized such a measure. ~ George Washington,
823:The more the schemata are differentiated, the smaller the gap between the new and the familiar becomes, so that novelty, instead of constituting an annoyance avoided by the subject, becomes a problem and invites searching. ~ Jean Piaget,
824:To study the laws of history we must completely change the subject of our observation, must leave aside kings, ministers, and generals, and study the common, infinitesimally small elements by which the masses are moved. No ~ Leo Tolstoy,
825:Unless a Western's made money - doesn't matter who made the money, doesn't matter what the subject is - if the last one didn't make any money, you can't make another one for a four-year period. Westerns more than any genre. ~ Val Kilmer,
826:Until I became a published writer, I remained completely ignorant of books on how to write and courses on the subject ... they would have spoiled my natural style; made me observe caution; would have hedged me with rules. ~ Isaac Asimov,
827:Im not really sure what social message my art carries, if any. And I dont really want it to carry one. Im not interested in the subject matter to try to teach society anything, or to try to better our world in any way. ~ Roy Lichtenstein,
828:Only enter quotes from notable people. Generally, a person is notable if they have been the subject of published secondary source material which is reliable, intellectually independent, and independent of the subject. ~ Testy McTesterson,
829:The more the schemata are differentiated, the smaller the gap between the new and the familiar becomes, so that novelty, instead of constituting an annoyance avoided by the subject, becomes a problem and invites searching. ~ Jean Piaget,
830:The Principle of Least Surprise is the concept that the idea or approach being taken would not surprise a reasonably knowledgeable person in the subject area being developed when first encountering this element of the system. ~ Anonymous,
831:Today, with the subject matter that's around politically, and internationally and everything, I think Carl Reiner would have a ball. I think the format should stay the same. I'd sure love to see him dealing with it today. ~ Dick Van Dyke,
832:What had she learned about verbs? In the past and future tenses, the verb came at the end. And in the present it followed the subject. Wherever she went it tailed her. She dragged it behind like a sack of stones. ~ Jill Alexander Essbaum,
833:Academic experts may not be good at doing what they are experts in themselves, but they are good at explaining the subject matter to others. They write books, teach courses and offer lessons and give steps others can follow. ~ Simon Sinek,
834:It is one thing to be well-read on a subject; it is quite another to be part of the subject itself. It is an unfortunate fact that there are many individuals who make magick there life without making their life magick. ~ Lon Milo DuQuette,
835:then the organ began to play the opening bars of the national anthem and they all sang, a choir of thousands of voices, and it sent shivers up her spine to know the subject of the anthem, the king himself, was listening. ~ Jennifer Robson,
836:There are all different kinds of smut,” Pandora said, warming to the subject. “Smut balls, loose smut, stinking smut—”
“Pandora,” West interrupted in an undertone, “for the love of mercy, stop saying that word in public. ~ Lisa Kleypas,
837:There are countless books written on self-defense. Not all are non- sensical, but many are. Nathaniel Cooke has clearly thought a great deal about the subject and distilled its essence in a way that is wholly admirable. ~ Robert Twigger,
838:The reason why research is like sculpting from memory is that in neither is there a concrete visible subject to copy directly. The subject - as sculptors themselves are fond of saying - is hidden in the block of material. ~ Jacques Barzun,
839:What seems most significant to me about our movement is that we have freed painting from the importance of the subject. I am at liberty to paint flowers and call them flowers, without their needing to tell a story. ~ Pierre Auguste Renoir,
840:You start slow. You find the subject’s limits and get him to spend some time there. He gets used to it. Before long, the limits have moved. You never take him more than a centimeter beyond. You make it feel it’s his choice. ~ Barry Eisler,
841:A portrait photographer depends upon another person to complete his picture. The subject imagined, which in a sense is me, must be discovered in someone else willing to take part in a fiction he cannot possibly know about. ~ Richard Avedon,
842:expressing unique perspectives on the subject matter. On the one hand, the choice of setting, character, and plot has to be somewhat familiar so that it is taken as “real” and can thereby move the beholder, reader, or audience. ~ Anonymous,
843:If the subject is a good one, we shall feel friendly towards it; if the subject of thought is one that is miserable, we must be merciful towards it. If it is good, we must be glad; if it is evil, we must be indifferent. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
844:Is that what love is?” “I no longer know what love is. A week ago I had a lot of ideas. What love is and how to make it stay. Now that I’m in love, I haven’t a clue. Now that I’m in love, I’m completely stupid on the subject. ~ Tom Robbins,
845:I try to find a compositional structure in the subject itself, in nature... I rely on the angle where the wall meets the floor as a constant reference point, and against that I oppose the movements of the model's limbs. ~ Philip Pearlstein,
846:I would never stop watching film. The reason why I say I like the old ones is I like the subject matter better. I thought they had more variety to them, they had more romantic comedies and things that appealed to me more. ~ Debbie Reynolds,
847:Physics does not change the nature of the world it studies, and no science of behavior can change the essential nature of man, even though both sciences yield technologies with a vast power to manipulate the subject matters. ~ Pope Paul VI,
848:During the sole argument we had when [Chelsea] was in high school, the subject of which I don't even remember, I looked at her and said, 'As long as you're in this house, being president is my second most important job'. ~ William J Clinton,
849:I am convinced that the devil has caused the subject of giving to stir up resistance and resentment among God's people because he knows there are few ways of spiritual enrichment like the exercise of faithful stewardship. ~ Stephen F Olford,
850:I knew that if the subject were to arise, I would once again speak words that would cut my friend, little ceremonial slashes to his soul, not to cause a mortal wound, just to draw blood and to relieve myself of a nameless burden. ~ Nomi Eve,
851:On several occasions, I discussed with Bill Clinton the subject of inquiries by the media about our relationship. He told me to continue to deny our relationship, that if we would stick together, everything would be okay. ~ Gennifer Flowers,
852:These symptoms may still more increase, suppress ' Stigmates inentaux, p. 205, above. *Sollier, "Anorexic," Revue de ined/cine, 1891, p. 627. well-nigh all mental synthesis, and throw the subject into a state of complete stupor. ~ Anonymous,
853:What I'm really interested in, as a reader and as a writer, is the idea of the nonfiction book that is not defined by its content, by its "about"-ness. Where you read it irrespective of whether you're interested in the subject. ~ Geoff Dyer,
854:You cannot think if you are not separate from the subject of thought. Descartes said, “I think; therefore I am.” The philosophic evolutionist reverses and negatives the epigram. He says, “I am not; therefore I cannot think. ~ G K Chesterton,
855:The harder the push, the greater the Rebel push-back. I laughed when a Rebel friend told me, 'No one can tell me to do anything. I recently got an email saying "Please read" in the subject line, and I immediately deleted it. ~ Gretchen Rubin,
856:Though he had spoken of the subject many times, in the silence of his room he added the powerful kind of phrasing that would not have occurred to him as he spoke, because it's origins were in the collaboration of hand and pen. ~ Mark Helprin,
857:Well, as we were saying when last we met—"

"I don't have to say dick to you without my lawyer."

"Did I ask you to say dick? Peabody, replay the record and verify that I at no time requested that the subject say dick. ~ J D Robb,
858:I have accordingly considered it, and now appear not only in obedience to your order, but likewise in behalf of the inhabitants of this town, who have presented another petition, and out of regard to the liberties of the subject. ~ James Otis,
859:I must be allowed to add some explanatory remarks to bring the subject home to reason-to that sluggish reason, which supinely takes opinions on trust, and obstinately supports them to spare itself the labour of thinking. ~ Mary Wollstonecraft,
860:The subject of Finnish poetry ought to have a special interest for the Japanese student, if only for the reason that Finnish poetry comes more closely in many respects to Japanese poetry than any other form of Western poetry. ~ Lafcadio Hearn,
861:I have a set of images that go around the world in an art gallery installation. Each of them have different audiences, and they kind of each elucidate the subject in a slightly different way, and they ping off of each other. ~ Tim Hetherington,
862:Most of my writing has been concerned with understanding between people. Whether of different races, or religions, or even in the same family I tried in my books...to deal with the subject of understanding the other fellow. ~ Phyllis A Whitney,
863:Since the background is as important as the subject, you mustn't let it default by chance. You must control not only vertical and horizontal, you must be aware of the depth of field (or lack of it) that you want in the background. ~ Jay Maisel,
864:Sometimes I observe with curiosity that uninterrupted activity which, independent of the subject of any conversation I may be carrying on, continues its course in that department of my brain that is devoted to music. ~ Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky,
865:In any case, I hadn’t gone into the subject of dorm living too deeply with him, not because I hesitated to probe his tender spots but because I would have been probing my own. This is called tact, and is reputed to be a virtue. ~ Alexei Panshin,
866:I think both of those: the subject matter, pop culture... the talent, I don't think... there's no Jim Belushi in Saturday Night Live, for me. And probably, you know, possibly the material. They've done everything over the years. ~ Dick Van Dyke,
867:And ever, as the story drained
The wells of fancy dry,
And faintly strove that weary one
To put the subject by,
"The rest next time--" "It is next time!"
The Happy voice cry.

Thus grew the tale of Wonderland ~ Lewis Carroll,
868:Everything is a subject; the subject is yourself. It is within yourself that you must look and not around you... The greatest happiness is to reveal it to others, to study oneself, to paint oneself continually in [one's] work. ~ Eugene Delacroix,
869:I think if you're writing from the heart, very often, the subject matter will adjust as you age... but you try to write the best song you can possibly write. For us, we have the same basic elements that make up the America sound. ~ Gerry Beckley,
870:It's really not possible for someone to imagine himself/herself as a subject in the process of becoming without having at the same time a disposition for change. And change of which she/he is not merely the victim but the subject. ~ Paulo Freire,
871:Rem tene, verba sequentur: grasp the subject, and the words will follow. This, I believe, is the opposite of what happens with poetry, which is more a case of verba tene, res sequenter: grasp the words, and the subject will follow. ~ Umberto Eco,
872:Rem tene, verba sequentur: grasp the subject, and the words will follow. This, I believe, is the opposite of what happens with poetry, which is more a case of verba tene, res sequentur. grasp the words, and the subject will follow. ~ Umberto Eco,
873:We emphasize the transcendent worth of the human person. We insist that the human person must never be treated as an object; he must always be considered the subject. That is the basis for our teaching, the absolute standard. ~ Pope John Paul II,
874:He picked one at random, a luridly violent far-future crime novel about a detective who could seemingly exchange bodies at will, but the subject matter was alien to him and his attention drifted. It all seemed very far-fetched. ~ Richard K Morgan,
875:In bringing the subject of religious oppression to a wider audience, I didn't just want to kick the Catholic Church but to poke a finger in the throat of theocracy and to let it be known that people shouldn't tolerate this anymore. ~ Peter Mullan,
876:[Sigmund ] Freud did not under-stand that the dream is a highly creative act, written in the universal language of symbolism, and only secondarily does censorship distort those parts that the subject refuses to accept even in sleep. ~ Erich Fromm,
877:Take two paintings by the same artist, one has a signature and the other doesn't. The signed picture is generally more valuable. The signature is almost graffiti or a tagging system, yet it can become more important than the subject. ~ Gavin Turk,
878:I devour nature ceaselessly. I exaggerate, sometimes I make changes in the subject; but still I don't invent the whole picture. On the contrary, I find it already there. It's a question of picking out what one wants from nature. ~ Vincent Van Gogh,
879:I like to think of photographing as a two-way act of respect. Respect for the medium, by letting it do what it does best, describe. And respect for the subject, by describing it as it is. A photograph must be responsible to both. ~ Garry Winogrand,
880:I'm not comfortable with walking the red carpet in a tuxedo and seeing all the women with their boobs pushed up and all the men dressed as penguins - particularly when the subject of your film is the nature of violence and humanity. ~ William Hurt,
881:In discussing the subject of free will, the question is not, whether external obstacles will permit a man to execute what he has internally resolved, but whether, in any matter whatever, he has a free power of judging and of willing. ~ John Calvin,
882:[I]nternalized experiences of selfhood are linked to autobiographical narratives, which are linked to biographies, legal testimonies, and medical case histories, which are linked to forms of therapy and theories of the subject. . . ~ Anthony Kenny,
883:Whatever helps you sleep is my opinion on the subject, and that's what I like about the western world's most popular religion, it has helped put so many people to sleep, although most of them permanently and without their approval. ~ Roseanne Barr,
884:When you get into statistical analysis, you don't really expect to achieve fame. Or to become an Internet meme. Or be parodied by 'The Onion' - or be the subject of a cartoon in 'The New Yorker.' I guess I'm kind of an outlier there. ~ Nate Silver,
885:Women? I'm still working on the subject. I haven't finished my studies. I would say I'm so happy that they're around. This is the salt and pepper of life. This is what makes me wake up in the morning - even more than work, really. ~ Vincent Cassel,
886:At one time I thought the Editor of the Lancet would kindly publish a letter from me on the subject, but further reflection led me to doubt whether so insignificant an individual would be noticed without some special introduction. ~ William Banting,
887:It is not, then, in the content or substance of folly that its difference from truth lies, but in where it comes from. It comes not from 'the wise man's mouth' but from the mouth of the subject assumed not to know and speak the truth. ~ J M Coetzee,
888:that the city be governed by a choice of respectable members of the community who would promise not to give themselves airs or betray the public trust at every turn, was instantly the subject of music-hall jokes all over the city. ~ Terry Pratchett,
889:Whenever an encounter between a writer of good will and a regular person of good will happens to touch on the subject of writing, each person discovers, dismayed, that good will is of no earthly use. The conversation cannot proceed. ~ Annie Dillard,
890:All the subject matter I talk about isn't new; all comics talk about the same things. But it's how you talk about them or present them or what you look like up there that makes the difference between an okay comic and a great one. ~ Andrew Dice Clay,
891:I began a poem in lines of one syllable. It's rather difficult, but the merit of all things lies in their difficulty. The subject matter is gallant. I'll read you the first canto; it's four hundred verses long and takes one minute. ~ Alexandre Dumas,
892:If we think back through our own lives, the subjects that you liked best in school almost certainly were taught by the teachers you liked best. And the teacher you liked best was the teacher who cared about the subject she taught. ~ David McCullough,
893:Is that what happened as a mother grew older? She saw her children as adults she could confide in, despite how painful or revealing the subject matter? It seemed, almost, that because I was an adult I’d suddenly ceased to be her child. ~ Karen White,
894:that window has enclosed everything we remember as history, and value as progress, and study as politics. What will it mean to live outside that window, probably quite far outside it? That reckoning is the subject of this book. ~ David Wallace Wells,
895:The logical connection was irrefutable. Her vision channels were being forced to encompass more than the narrow field of commerce, thereby becoming wider. The subject matter or palatability of the new visions was irrelevant. That they ~ Nalini Singh,
896:Again, when my mind is lifted up by the greatness of its thoughts, it becomes ambitious for words and longs to match its higher inspiration with its language, and so produces a style that conforms to the impressiveness of the subject matter. ~ Seneca,
897:But if the views of some migrant communities on homosexuality were only a couple of generations out of date, the views of portions of those communities on the subject of women were shown to be out of date by many centuries, at least. ~ Douglas Murray,
898:Last year I gave several lectures on "Intelligence and Musicality among Animals" ... Today I am going to speak to you about "Intelligence and Musicality among Critics" ... The subject is much the same, with some modifications, of course. ~ Erik Satie,
899:The European policy is invariably the maintenance of the status quo, and you will do nothing for the subject races unless we, by taking initiative, make you realize that helping us against the Turks is the lesser of the evils. ~ Eleftherios Venizelos,
900:[Vik] Okay, I’ll drop the subject. But if you ever do that to me again, I’ll stab you in the penis, which I’m sure will hurt.”

[Syn] “Yeah, it would.”

[Vik] “Good. Now I’m powering down for a bit to conserve my power. ~ Sherrilyn Kenyon,
901:We're supposed to procreate and society, god knows, is ferocious on the subject. Heterosexuality is considered such a great and natural good that you have to execute people and put them in prison if they don't practice this glorious act. ~ Gore Vidal,
902:A good form strikes all eyes pleasantly, long before they have any science on the subject; and a beautiful face sets twenty hearts in palpitation, prior to all consideration of the mechanical proportions of the features and head. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
903:An artist must first of all respond to his subject, he must be filled with emotion toward that subject and then he must make his technique so sincere, so translucent that it may be forgotten, the value of the subject shining through it. ~ Robert Henri,
904:A share in the sovereignty of the state, which is exercised by the citizens at large, in voting at elections is one of the most important rights of the subject, and in a republic ought to stand foremost in the estimation of the law. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
905:I want my books to last, to stand the test of time, and to do that I focus on the forces that shape the subject - the cultural and sociological geography - to capture them in a way that will explain them no matter what they are doing. ~ David Maraniss,
906:Sensitive people faced with the prospect of a camera portrait put on a face they think is one they would like to show the world very often what lies behind the facade is rare and more wonderful than the subject knows or dares to believe. ~ Irving Penn,
907:[W] are belatedly realizing that the ill-treatment of the environment is damage to ourselves - for the simple reason that the subject and object cannot be separated, and that we and our surroundings are the process of a unified field[.] ~ Alan W Watts,
908:[A] man and still more the woman, who can be accused either of doing "what nobody does," or of not doing "what everybody does," is the subject of as much depreciatory remark as if he or she had committed some grave moral delinquency. ~ John Stuart Mill,
909:Geisha because when I was living in Japan, I met a fellow whose mother was a geisha, and I thought that was kind of fascinating and ended up reading about the subject just about the same time I was getting interested in writing fiction. ~ Arthur Golden,
910:I always feel myself being thrust back into loneliness when someone tells me it's cold on a hot day. It isn't good to talk so much about the weather — weather is a highly personal matter, and communication on the subject inevitably fails. ~ Y ko Tawada,
911:If schools celebrated student scientists the same way they celebrate student athletes, more students would be encouraged to pursue the subject. Instead, science is considered nerdy because schools help students to paint it that way. ~ Alexandra Robbins,
912:There are times when I think that the ideal library is composed solely of reference books. They are like understanding friends—always ready to meet your mood, always ready to change the subject when you have had enough of this or that. ~ J Donald Adams,
913:The saying "He who teaches others, teaches himself" is very true, not only because constant repetition impresses a fact indelibly on the mind, but because the process of teaching itself gives deeper insight into the subject taught. ~ John Amos Comenius,
914:This is the subject of books like Therapy Culture by Frank Furedi and One Nation Under Therapy by Christina Hoff Sommers, which charts the rising trend to treat feelings and emotions as things to be protected rather than challenged. ~ Milo Yiannopoulos,
915:Why do the President and Vice-President constantly change the subject when asked to explain why things are going so badly in Iraq? The answer is simple. They have been consistently wrong about Iraq, and the results speak for themselves. ~ Patrick Leahy,
916:Changing the subject, she turned to me and said: ‘I think poor Mr. Le Bas must be so glad that Charles has left at last. He used to write the most pathetic letters about him. Still, you weren’t expelled, darling. That was clever of you. ~ Anthony Powell,
917:If you truly love film, I think the healthiest thing to do is not read books on the subject. I prefer the glossy film magazines with their big color photos and gossip columns, or the National Enquirer. Such vulgarity is healthy and safe. ~ Werner Herzog,
918:I grew up in a family in which there was very little religion. My father wasn't religious at all. But he was really interested in the subject of, you know, the birth and growth of Islam. And he basically transmitted that interest to me. ~ Salman Rushdie,
919:In any type of activity or business divorced from the direct filter of skin in the game, the great majority of people know the jargon, play the part, and are intimate with the cosmetic details, but are clueless about the subject. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
920:All art constantly aspires to the condition of music....In its ideal, consummate moments, the end is not distinct from the means, the form from the matter, the subject from the expression; they inhere in and completely saturate each other. ~ Walter Pater,
921:Too rarely is the individual teacher so free from the dictation of authoritative supervisor, textbook on methods, prescribed course of study, etc., that he can let his mind come to close quarters with the pupil's mind and the subject matter. ~ John Dewey,
922:if the subject dedicates enough time to such endeavors to reach maximum cognitive intensity—the state in which real breakthroughs occur. This is why the minimum unit of time for deep work in this philosophy tends to be at least one full day. ~ Cal Newport,
923:I think every painting should be the same size and the same color so they're all interchangeable and nobody thinks they have a better painting or a worse painting.... Besides even when the subject is different, people want the same painting. ~ Andy Warhol,
924:The master class has always declared the wars; the subject class has always fought the battles. The master class had all to gain and nothing to lose, while the subject class has had nothing to gain and all to lose - especially their lives. ~ Eugene V Debs,
925:I talk as I sketch, too, in order to keep their minds off what I'm doing so I'll get the most natural expression I can from them. Also, the talking helps to size up the subject's personality, so I can figure out better how to portray him. ~ Norman Rockwell,
926:It’s not dissimilar to the reality-TV-show contestant’s ungrammatical attempt to appear grammatical, a quirk of using the subject pronoun after a preposition, instead of the correct object version. So: You have to choose between Brad or I. ~ Sloane Crosley,
927:He’s… There are no perfect words for what I feel. For what I see. It’s staring at a Michelangelo painting and being intimate with the subject beneath the brush strokes. It’s falling to your knees and looking up at a god, who belongs to you. ~ Krista Ritchie,
928:I received the proceedings of one of the meetings, in which it seemed that the shape of my head had been the subject of a public discussion, and one of the speakers declared that I had the bump of reverence developed enough for ten priests. ~ Charles Darwin,
929:It's hard to look at anything with an objective eye. I think people bring themselves into the equation when they watch a movie. They bring their own prejudices, their own biases, their own feelings toward the subject matter, the characters. ~ James Ponsoldt,
930:Psychologist Robert Kegan,8 chair of adult development at Harvard, has a term for unzipping those costumes. He calls it “the subject-object shift” and argues that it’s the single most important move we can make to accelerate personal growth. ~ Steven Kotler,
931:There is no other subject on which the average mind is so much confused as the subject of tolerance and intolerance... Tolerance applies only to persons, but never to principles. Intolerance applies only to principles, but never to persons. ~ Fulton J Sheen,
932:We must speak and yet we must maintain our silence, we must maintain distance amidst the proximity of God, and we must worship while being careful not to make God into the object of our worship: for God is the subject before whom we worship. ~ Peter Rollins,
933:I'd love to see more women working as directors and producers. Today it's almost impossible to do it unless you are an actress or writer with power. I wouldn't hesitate right this minute to hire a talented woman if the subject matter were right. ~ Ida Lupino,
934:I love when you get boner spam for boner pills and the subject is Be a better lover. Oh, the boner was the problem on that? That's why I'm a bad lover? Do you have a pill that's gonna make me care if she cums? That would be a medical miracle. ~ Doug Stanhope,
935:Patients are known only by their initials, their defining characteristics are lost, their lives go unmentioned. The subject of neurology—the owner of the brain in question—has largely become inconsequential to the science that surrounds them. ~ Helen Thomson,
936:As long as the same passions and interests subsist among mankind, the questions of war and peace, of justice and policy, which were debated in the councils of antiquity, will frequently present themselves as the subject of modern deliberation. ~ Edward Gibbon,
937:Edward was now expressing himself on the subject of the French King, drawing upon a vocabulary that a Southwark brothel-keeper might envy. Some of what he was saying was anatomically impossible, much of it was true and all of it envenomed. ~ Sharon Kay Penman,
938:Instead of giving it [war] a rest I continued pursuing more research, talking to more people on the subject as if I was to please this aftermath of the book by knowledge that was more historical and psychological than literary and aesthetical. ~ Sasa Stanisic,
939:Abby Von Normal - And I'm like, "Don't change the subject, Kung Pao, what I want to know is if you're ready to spend some up-close and personal time with ninety pounds of barbarian woman-flesh! Sorry, I don't know how much that is in kilos. ~ Christopher Moore,
940:After death the soul possesses self-consciousness, otherwise, it would be the subject of spiritual death, which has already been disproved. With this self-consciousness necessarily remains personality and the consciousness of personal identity. ~ Immanuel Kant,
941:EVERY PROFESSION HAS ITS PITFALLS. Doctors, for example, are always being asked for free medical advice, lawyers are asked for legal information, morticians are told how interesting a profession that must be and then people change the subject fast. ~ Anonymous,
942:I was concerned with something like the notion of 'language speaking the subject,' and with the transformation of the woman herself into a sign in a system of signs that represent a system of food production, a system of harnessed subjectivity. ~ Martha Rosler,
943:My first instinct was to make an excuse or to get bashful or to change the subject...but then I realized I was in good company. I could be honest, and this guy was the one who seemed to be holding back. "Actually, yeah, that was kind of amazing. ~ Tyler Oakley,
944:No-one who has a real understanding of the art of painting attaches any importance to what we call the subject of a picture - what is represented. To one who feels the language of pictorial form, all depends on how it is presented, nothing on what. ~ Roger Fry,
945:The income-tax law in toto has virtually no defenders, even though most fair-minded students of the subject agree that its effect over the half century that it has been in force has been to bring about a huge and healthy redistribution of wealth. ~ John Brooks,
946:. . . what a burning shame it is that many of the pieces on the subject of slavery and the slave trade, contained in different school books, have been lost sight of, or been subject to the pruning knife of the slaveholding expurgatorial system! ~ Robert Purvis,
947:Beauty and happiness and life are all the same and they are pervasive, unattached and abstract and they are our only concern. They are immeasurable, completely lacking in substance. They are perfect and sublime. This is the subject matter of art. ~ Agnes Martin,
948:In a jump, the subject, in a sudden burst of energy, overcomes gravity. He cannot simultaneously control his expressions, his facial and his limb muscles. The mask falls. The real self becomes visible. One only has to snap it with the camera. ~ Philippe Halsman,
949:The highest truth is daiji, translated as dai jiki in Chinese scriptures. This is the subject of the question the emperor asked Bodhidharma: "What is the First Principle?" Bodhidharma said, "I don't know." "I don't know" is the First Principle. ~ Shunryu Suzuki,
950:anyone who writes about "Darwin's theory of evolutionin the singular, without segregating the theories of gradual evolution, common descent, speciation, and the mechanism of natural selection, will be quite unable to discuss the subject competently. ~ Ernst Mayr,
951:A semi-starvation diet induces precisely that—semi-starvation—whether the subject is obese or lean. “Of all the damn unsuccessful treatments,” Hirsch later said, “the treatment of weight reduction by diet for obese people just doesn’t seem to work. ~ Gary Taubes,
952:Every profession has its pitfalls. Doctors, for example, are always being asked for free medical advice, lawyers are asked for legal information, morticians are told how interesting a profession that must be and then people change the subject fast. ~ Neil Gaiman,
953:I do not know whether to be delighted or outraged by the fact that Literary Theory: An Introduction was the subject of a study by a well known U.S. business school, which was intrigued to discover how an academic text could become a best-seller. ~ Terry Eagleton,
954:I have not had a moment's peace or happiness in respect to electromagnetic theory since November 28, 1846. All this time I have been liable to fits of ether dipsomania, kept away at intervals only by rigorous abstention from thought on the subject. ~ Lord Kelvin,
955:People are tempted to politicize the fact that I paint black figures, and the complexity of this is an essential part of the work. But my starting point is always the language of painting itself and how that relates to the subject matter. ~ Lynette Yiadom Boakye,
956:The highest truth is daiji, translated as dai jiki in Chinese scriptures. This is the subject of the question the emperor asked Bodhidharma: "What is the First Principle?" Bodhidharma said, "I don't know." "I don't know" is the First Principle. ~ Shunryu Suzuki,
957:What gives journalism its authenticity and vitality is the tension between the subject's blind self absorption and the journalist's skepticism. Journalists who swallow the subject's account whole and publish it are not journalists but publicists. ~ Janet Malcolm,
958:I may juggle the composition, as the strength of a picture is in the composition. Or I may play with the light. But I never interfere with the subject. The subject has to fall into place on its own and, if I don't like it, I don't have to print it ~ George Rodger,
959:I think, 'How could anybody mock a good pop song?' It is timeless; it transcends barriers; it breaks down every single type of social barrier that you can possibly have. It can deal with the most difficult subjects, even if it abstracts the subject matter. ~ Mika,
960:It was under a solemn consciousness of the dangers from ecclesiastical ambition, the bigotry of spiritual pride, and the intolerance of sects... that is was deemed advisable to exclude from the national government all power to act upon the subject. ~ Joseph Story,
961:There are roles I want that my agency might not want me to do because of the subject matter or whatever. Or there are roles that people won't bring to me because they don't think I'll do it. And that is a big strain because an actor wants to act ~ Cuba Gooding Jr,
962:It makes no difference whether you want the specifics of it or not; it is the vibrational essence of the subject of your attention that is attracted. That which you really, really want, you get—and that which you really, really do not want, you get. ~ Esther Hicks,
963:Nobody with an IQ higher than emergency-room temperature could ever believe that 'death panels' would be appointed to nudge the elderly toward euthanasia. Yet for idle entertainment, it's hard to beat Sarah Palin's ignorant nattering on the subject. ~ Carl Hiaasen,
964:The strange thing, though, is that most people who write novels these days seem to be aware of only a fraction of its possibilities. Kundera goes on and on about this, and I never tire of reading him on the subject, because I agree very deeply with it. ~ Teju Cole,
965:Adam Smith, and other able writers to whom I have alluded, not having viewed correctly the principles of rent, have, it appears to me, overlooked many important truths, which can only be discovered after the subject of rent is thoroughly understood. ~ David Ricardo,
966:"As a conscious factor the ego could, theoretically at least, be described completely. But this would never amount to more than a picture of the conscious personality; all those features which are unknown or unconscious to the subject would be missing." ~ Carl Jung,
967:Before this trip and all that she'd learned about the three of them, she would have gotten angry or changed the subject. Anything to obscure the pain she felt. Now she knew better. You carried your pain with you in life. There was no outrunning it. ~ Kristin Hannah,
968:Before this trip and all that she’d learned about the three of them, she would have gotten angry or changed the subject. Anything to obscure the pain she felt. Now she knew better. You carried your pain with you in life. There was no outrunning it. ~ Kristin Hannah,
969:But I wish to be enlightened.'

'Let me caution you against it.'

'Is enlightenment on the subject, then, so terrible?'

'Yes, indeed.'

She laughingly declared that nothing could have so piqued her curiosity as his statement. ~ Thomas Hardy,
970:For a border state, I would argue that Texas is less lunatic on the subject of immigration issues than other places around it, like Arizona. They're much more comfortable with their long-term identity as a place with a very large Hispanic population. ~ Gail Collins,
971:I don't think, Trotwood,' returned Agnes, raising her soft eyes to mine, 'I would consider that. Perhaps it would be better only to consider whether it is right to do this; and, if it is, to do it.' I had no longer any doubt on the subject. With a ~ Charles Dickens,
972:In every work of art the subject is primordial, whether the artist knows it or not. The measure of the formal qualities is only a sign of the measure of the artist's obsession with his subject; the form is always in proportion to the obsession. ~ Alberto Giacometti,
973:Most nonfiction writers have a definitiveness complex. They feel that they are under some obligation—to the subject, to their honor, to the gods of writing—to make their article the last word. It’s a commendable impulse, but there is no last word. ~ William Zinsser,
974:Oh, my god," Augustus said. "i can't believe i have a crush on a girl with such cliché wishes." "i was thirteen," i said again, although of course i was only thinking "crush crush crush crush crush". I was flattered but changed the subject immediately. ~ John Green,
975:Quicquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, gaudia, discursus, nostri est farrago libelli. - The doings of men, their prayers, fear, wrath, pleasure, delights, and recreations, are the subject of this book. ~ Juvenal, Satires (early 2nd century), I, I, 85.,
976:scientific thought does not mean thought about scientific subjects with long names. There are no scientific subjects. The subject of science is the human universe; that is to say, everything that is, or has been, or may be related to man. ~ William Kingdon Clifford,
977:I'm organizing documentary films, and whenever scriptwriting gets too tedious I go to my editing room and start to edit the documentary, even if I don't have the full funding yet. So you have to keep yourself busy, you have to like the subject matter. ~ Haile Gerima,
978:What is time? What is this entity consisting of mere movement without anything that moves? and, What is space, this omnipresent nothing out of which no thing can emerge without ceasing to be something? That time and space belong to the subject, ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
979:And how many hours a day did you do lessons?” said Alice, in a hurry to change the subject. “Ten hours the first day,” said the Mock Turtle: “nine the next, and so on.” “What a curious plan!” exclaimed Alice. “That’s the reason they’re called lessons, ~ Lewis Carroll,
980:I do tend to look at my books in many ways as conceptual fiction, even to the point where I think the author's photograph is part of the package. And I have gone out of my way to select the photograph to connect to the subject matter of each book. ~ Bret Easton Ellis,
981:The subject, a widely known architect with leanings toward theosophy and occultism, went violently insane on the date of young Wilcox’s seizure, and expired several months later after incessant screamings to be saved from some escaped denizen of hell. ~ H P Lovecraft,
982:when you don’t know what a man is getting at, let your counter-question shift the subject to something you do want to talk about. Then, no matter what he answers, make your point and call on someone else. Logic does not enter into it—just tactics. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
983:Are the hormones as bad as everyone says they are?" I asked him to change the subject.
He looked at up to me his brown eyes widened as he understood what I meant. Finally he grinned.
"That explains it."
"So, is that yes?
"That is... good luck. ~ J J McAvoy,
984:If our lives are truly "hid with Christ in God," the astounding thing is that this hiddenness is revealed in all that we do and say and write. What we are is going to be visible in our art, no matter how secular (on the surface) the subject may be. ~ Madeleine L Engle,
985:I sometimes try to imagine what future historians will say about us. They'll be able to sum up modern man in a single sentence: he fornicated and read the papers. After that robust description, I should guess there will be no more to say on the subject. ~ Albert Camus,
986:No man, however strong, can serve ten years as schoolmaster, priest, or Senator, and remain fit for anything else. All the dogmatic stations in life have the effect of fixing a certain stiffness of attitude forever, as though they mesmerised the subject. ~ Henry Adams,
987:Oh, my god," Augustus said. "I can't believe I have a crush on a girl with such cliche wishes."
"I was thirteen," I said again, although of course I was only thinking "crush crush crush crush crush". I was flattered but changed the subject immediately. ~ John Green,
988:Are you seeing anyone these days?” I asked, changing the subject. “You mean, like a woman?” “Yeah.” Masahiko gave a small shrug. “I can’t say it’s going all that well. As usual. And things have gotten even rockier since I made this weird breakthrough. ~ Haruki Murakami,
989:as I delved deeper into the subject, it was more than the eyes—it was what was behind the eyes, in the brain, wanting to please you, make you happy, give you joy, and take away the loneliness of never having anyone understand as you want to be understood. ~ V C Andrews,
990:At the height of the British Empire very few English novels were written that dealt with British power. It's extraordinary that at the moment in which England was the global superpower the subject of British power appeared not to interest most writers. ~ Salman Rushdie,
991:Bengali poem by Ram Mohun Roy which bears on the subject matter of this essay.* Roy explains what is really dreadful about death: Just consider how terrible the day of your death will be. Others will go on speaking, and you will not be able to argue back. ~ Amartya Sen,
992:In an article on Bunyan lately published in the "Contemporary Review" - the only article on the subject worth reading on the subject I ever saw (yes, thank you, I am familiar with Macaulay's patronizing prattle about "The Pilgrim's Progress") etc. ~ George Bernard Shaw,
993:The artist himself is actually the subject in everything after, say, 1900. Eventually, art becomes so removed from the community that you have to know about the artist before you can even look at the painting, because there is a conceptual idea going on. ~ Gus Van Sant,
994:The Handsome Prince Handbook is mute on the subject of chronic workaholism—Prince Charming, apparently, knew how to delegate—and I didn't know where else to turn for help. What do you do when life begins to go wrong and you've used up all three wishes? ~ Nancy Atherton,
995:The present is always unsettled, no one has had time to contemplate it in tranquillity . I was a painter before I was a writer and a painter never wants the subject right under his nose; he wants to stand back and study a landscape with half-closed eyes. ~ Isak Dinesen,
996:There's a snobbery at work in architecture. The subject is too often treated as a fine art, delicately wrapped in mumbo-jumbo. In reality, it's an all-embracing discipline taking in science, art, maths, engineering, climate, nature, politics, economics. ~ Norman Foster,
997:With slow care rather than stealth we must approach the subject of a certain woman. Her wildness is of such degree, I fear approaching her too quickly even in a story. Should I move recklessly, I might startle even the idea of her into sudden flight. ~ Patrick Rothfuss,
998:And on the subject of naming animals, can I just say how happy I was to discover that the word yeti, literally translated, apparently means "that thing over there."
("Quick, brave Himalayan Guide - what's that thing over there?"
"Yeti."
"I see.") ~ Neil Gaiman,
999:In 1938... the year's #1 newsmaker was not FDR, Hitler, or Mussolini. Nor was it Lou Gehrig or Clark Gable. The subject of the most newspaper column inches in 1938 wasn't even a person. It was an undersized, crooked-legged racehorse named Seabiscuit. ~ Laura Hillenbrand,
1000:My physics teacher, Thomas Miner was particularly gifted. To this day, I remember how he introduced the subject of physics. He told us we were going to learn how to deal with very simple questions such as how a body falls due to the acceleration of gravity. ~ Steven Chu,
1001:Once you have surrounded the entire place with the nets of your thought, at least if practical experience has sharpened your skill, nothing will escape you, and everything that is in the subject matter will run up to you and fall into your hands. ~ Marcus Tullius Cicero,
1002:Coming into your powers can be a very confusing time. Perhaps there is a book on the subject. If you like, we can go see Marian."

Yeah, right. Choices and Changes. A Modern Girl's Guide to Casting. My Mom Wants to Kill Me: A Self-Help Book For Teens. ~ Kami Garcia,
1003:For starters, let's dispense with the cheap jokes about cannibalism. That means cracks about giving an arm and a leg - sorry - for a good book on the subject, or similar tasteless - sorry, again - attempts to make the subject more palatable - last one. ~ Mitchell Zuckoff,
1004:It may well be that we talk about sex more than anything else; we set our minds to the task; we convince ourselves that were have never said enough on the subject...where sex is concerned the most long-winded, the most impatient of societies is our own. ~ Michel Foucault,
1005:One 'is' a genius only in the sense that one 'is' a syphilitic, in the sense that 'one' is violently problematized by a ferocious exteriority. One returns to the subject of which genius has been predicated to find it charred and devastated beyond recognition. ~ Nick Land,
1006:Two factors thus emerge as requisites of success in the field of creative photography. First, the subject must be photogenic. Second, its re-creation in a photograph must be based upon technical knowledge, guided and supported by artsitic inspiration. ~ Andreas Feininger,
1007:Besides, if she was able to get away, Dorothea would obtain the one thing that Avelina had dreamed of, written stories about, and imagined in many a long hour—true romantic love—about which the troubadours sang, the subject of epic poems and tales. No, ~ Melanie Dickerson,
1008:Eddie Murphy said once in an interview that nothing is offensive if it's funny. I sort of agree with that, but if something's funny and you're the subject of it, sometimes it's more offensive. If someone's insulting you, you want them to sound like an idiot. ~ Artie Lange,
1009:How can you make informed decisions ... ? The key seems to be to gather experts who are knowledgeable and passionate about the subject matter, and have them cooperatively discuss a series of questions designed to explore the limits of technical feasibility. ~ Peter Norvig,
1010:Memorizing multiplication tables may be a seminal school experience, among the few that kids today share with their grandparents. But a Stanford University professor says rapid-fire math drills are also the reason so many children fear and despise the subject. ~ Anonymous,
1011:There’s nothing funny about shame. Don’t lighten up the subject. Nietzsche said, ‘What do you consider the most humane? To spare someone shame. What is the seal of liberation? To no longer be ashamed in front of oneself.’ Be serious. You have the credentials. ~ Bren Brown,
1012:What those inheritances meant, and still mean, is the subject of this inquiry, especially the last of these: What does it mean to be white in a nation created for the benefit of people like you? We don’t often ask this question, mostly because we don’t have to. ~ Tim Wise,
1013:When we hold to the core, the opposite sides are the same if they are seen from the center of the moving circle. I do not experience; I am experience. I am not the subject of experience; I am that experience. I am awareness. Nothing else can be I or can exist. ~ Bruce Lee,
1014:Let there be but two occasions for speech - when the subject is one which you thoroughly know and when it is one on which you are compelled to speak. On these occasions alone is speech better than silence; on all others, it is better to be silent than to speak. ~ Isocrates,
1015:My cheeks flushed, and I felt a wave of warmth throughout my body, but not because of the subject matter. Because she had used the word us.
It was one of those times when you don’t realize how lonely you are until, suddenly, there’s someone by your side. ~ I W Gregorio,
1016:Myths are public dreams; dreams are private myths. By finding your own dream and following it through, it will lead you to the myth-world in which you live. But just as in dream, the subject and object, though they seem to be separate, are really the same. ~ Joseph Campbell,
1017:Self-deception actually determines one’s experience in every aspect of life. The extent to which it does that—and in particular the extent to which it determines the nature of one’s influence on, and experience of, others—is the subject of this book. ~ The Arbinger Institute,
1018:Spurious prudence, making the senses final, is the god of sots and cowards, and is the subject of all comedy. It is nature's joke, and therefore literature's. True prudence limits this sensualism by admitting the knowledge of an internal and real world. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
1019:Although there are some enormously gifted lecturers and preachers who do create community with oratory, I like to do anything I can to engage my students with each other, with me, and with the subject. And the subject, I think, always has to take prominence. ~ Parker J Palmer,
1020:Anne did think on the question with perfect decision, and said as much in replay as her own feelings could accomplish, or as his seemed able to bear, for he was too much affected to renew the subject - and when he spoke again, it was something totally different. ~ Jane Austen,
1021:If you want to win the war for attention, don’t try to say ‘no’ to the trivial distractions you find on the information smorgasbord; try to say ‘yes’ to the subject that arouses a terrifying longing, and let the terrifying longing crowd out everything else.” For ~ Cal Newport,
1022:I know there's always going to be feedback no matter what the subject. I am shocked by somebody commenting on my shoes or my clothes. Everyone has an opinion, everyone is logging about everything and has an opinion. So I can't possibly pay attention to that. ~ Ellen DeGeneres,
1023:I never claim my photographs reveal some definitive truth. I claim that this is what I saw and felt about the subject at the time the pictures were made. That's all that any photographer can claim. I do not know any great photographer who would presume otherwise. ~ David Hurn,
1024:Maybe you shouldn’t talk about anal sex behind our backs,” I retort, able to deduce the subject of their conversations.
“Fine, I’ll talk about it to your face,” Lo challenges. “I hear you like it in the ass.” He raises his can of Fizz Life to me. “Cheers. ~ Krista Ritchie,
1025:Never forget that the subject is as important as your feeling; the mud puddle itself is as important as your pleasure in looking at it or splashing through it. Never let the mud puddle get lost in the poetry-because, in many ways, the mud puddle is the poetry. ~ Valerie Worth,
1026:She started thinking about all the euphemisms for death, all the anxious taboos that had always fascinated her. It was too bad you could never have an intelligent discussion on the subject. People were either too young or too old, or else they didn't have time. ~ Tove Jansson,
1027:When the subject goes behind the curtain of appearance to search for the hidden essence, he thinks he will discover something that was always there; he does not realize that in passing behind the curtain, he is bringing with him the very thing that he will find. ~ Slavoj i ek,
1028:As it was impossible however now to prevent their coming, Lady Middleton resigned herself to the idea of it, with all the philosophy of a well bred woman, contenting herself with merely giving her husband a gentle reprimand on the subject five or six times a day. ~ Jane Austen,
1029:Epitaph On The Countess Of Pembroke
Underneath this sable hearse
Lies the subject of all verse,
Sidney's sister, Pembroke's mother:
Death! ere thou hast slain another,
Learned, and fair, and good as she,
Time shall throw a dart at thee.
~ Ben Jonson,
1030:It is the mark of an educated man to look for precision in each class of things just so far as the nature of the subject admits; it is evidently equally foolish to accept probable reasoning from a mathematician and to demand from a rhetorician demonstrative proofs. ~ Aristotle,
1031:Our [Western] science has cut itself off from an adequate understanding of the Subject of Cognizance, of the mind. This is precisely the point where our present way of thinking needs to be amended, perhaps by a bit of blood-transfusion from Eastern thought. ~ Erwin Schr dinger,
1032:Every one who understands the subject will agree that even the basis on which the scientific explanation of nature rests is intelligible only to those who have learned at least the elements of the differential and integral calculus, as well as analytical geometry. ~ Felix Klein,
1033:for it is the mark of an educated man to look for precision in each class of things just so far as the nature of the subject admits; it is evidently equally foolish to accept probable reasoning from a mathematician and to demand from a rhetorician scientific proofs. ~ Aristotle,
1034:In LA I was watching At the Movies with Ebert and Roper, it was, nice to see them differentiate between the subject matter and the art form of making the film, and they both gave it thumbs up, and I was kind of pleased at their honesty as far as reviewers go. ~ Michael Berryman,
1035:The prince exults whomever he selects as his consort, but the queen, rather than elevating the subject of her choice, humiliates him as a man. By all that is right, a man is not intended to be the husband of his wife, but a woman is to be her husband's wife. ~ Franz Grillparzer,
1036:Thus the activity of preservation should be distinguished from the nostalgia accompanying fantasies of a lost home from which the subject is separated and to which he seeks to return. Preservation entails remembrance, which is quite different from nostalgia. ~ Iris Marion Young,
1037:we must require an agreement to the principle that there are no sacred cows. Anything and everything must be the subject of free inquiry and skeptical investigation. To allow otherwise, for practical or any other kind of reasons, is an intellectual travesty. ~ Massimo Pigliucci,
1038:But I won't bore you any longer on the subject of old men. It won't make things any better and all my plans of revenge (such as disconnecting the lamp, shutting the door, hiding his clothes) must be abandoned in order to keep the peace. Oh, I'm becoming so sensible! ~ Anne Frank,
1039:I think what's happened in art criticism, or art thinking, in last 30 or 40 years is a confusion between the "what" - the subject - and the "how." Most attention goes to the "what," but it's the "how" that's the important part - how something is brought into being. ~ Joe Bradley,
1040:My early childhood equipped me really well for my portrait work: The quick encounter, where you are not going to know the subject for very long. These days I am much more comfortable with the fifteen minute relationship, than I am with a life long relationship. ~ Annie Leibovitz,
1041:A company should never outsource its eyes. There is simply no substitute for seeing for yourself. Great artists don’t paint from other people’s descriptions or even from photographs; they like to see the subject for themselves. The same is true for great strategists. ~ W Chan Kim,
1042:After my brush with the suicidal impulse, I listen with new ears to others when they speak on the subject. I think there are people who were born with that little door open, and they have to go through life knowing that they might jump through it at any moment. ~ Douglas Coupland,
1043:In front of the photograph of my mother as a child, I tell myself: she is going to die: I shudder, like winnicott's psychotic patient, over a catastrophe which has already occurred. Whether or not the subject is already dead, every photograph is this catastrophe. ~ Roland Barthes,
1044:She started thinking about all the euphemisms for death, all the anxious taboos that had always fascinated her. It was too bad you could never have an intelligent discussion on the subject. People were either too young or too old, or else they didn’t have time. Now ~ Tove Jansson,
1045:“The collective attitude hinders the recognition and evaluation of a psychology different from the subject's, because the mind that is collectively oriented is quite incapable of thinking and feeling in any other way than by projection." ~#CGJung, Psychological Types, CW6, par 12,
1046:The people make light of dying because of the greatness of their labours in seeking for the means of living. It is this which makes them think light of dying. Thus it is that to leave the subject of living altogether out of view is better than to set a high value on it. ~ Lao Tzu,
1047:The sun touches Maine first among every state in the US. But Maine likes to confuse people and generally feels conflicted on the subject of light and warmth, so its shattered coastline of necks and points and isles hides from the sun, facing any direction but east. ~ John Hodgman,
1048:A contemporary or near-future book is much harder because you can't fake the facts. There are people alive who know much more than you do about the subject. You have to really have your research together - and of course no one can know everything about a topic. ~ Steven Pressfield,
1049:If you don’t want to cry about the state of the economy, why not laugh instead? This book is an ideal introduction to the subject for anybody who thinks they ought to understand what’s happening around them but is put off by the usual dense text and economics jargon. ~ Diane Coyle,
1050:I never shot on sets, but if I was traveling somewhere or on location, I would always have my camera, and I'd always be - it's that kind of fly on the wall approach to photography, though. I don't engage the subject. I like to sneak around, skulk about in the dark. ~ Jessica Lange,
1051:MAGNETISM, n. Something acting upon a magnet. The two definitions immediately foregoing are condensed from the works of one thousand eminent scientists, who have illuminated the subject with a great white light, to the inexpressible advancement of human knowledge. ~ Ambrose Bierce,
1052:Professional opinion is skeptical about anything that doesn't fit in with the version of reality it has been programmed to believe in. The skepticism comes from a lack of understanding and the need to defend the status quo and not from actual knowledge of the subject. ~ David Icke,
1053:The boring thing with taking a walk with someone is that your thoughts are then dictated by the subject or subjects of your conversation; and that is made worse by the fact that most sane people are terrified of silence whenever they are with or near someone. ~ Mokokoma Mokhonoana,
1054:When I first started to take photographs in Czechoslovakia, I met this old gentleman, this old photographer, who told me a few practical things. One of the things he said was, "Josef, a photographer works on the subject, but the subject works on the photographer." ~ Josef Koudelka,
1055:Clinical trials are currently under way to test this mode of cell transfer, and a moving story from late 2015 hints at its amazing potential. In fact, the subject of this story, Layla Richards, is the first human whose life was saved by therapeutic gene editing. ~ Jennifer A Doudna,
1056:If anyone comes to the gates of poetry and expects to become an adequate poet by acquiring expert knowledge of the subject without the Muses' madness, he will fail, and his self-controlled verses will be eclipsed by the poetry of men who have been driven out of their minds. ~ Plato,
1057:It is however pretty evident, on general principles, that in devising for mathematical truths a new form in which to record and throw themselves out for actual use, views are likely to be induced, which should again react on the more theoretical phase of the subject. ~ Ada Lovelace,
1058:Religious feeling is thus an absolute addition to the subject's range of life. It gives him a new sphere of power. When the outward battle is lost, and the outward world disowns him, it redeems and vivifies an interiour world which otherwise would be an empty waste. ~ William James,
1059:...the subject of walking is, in some sense, about how we invest universal acts with particular meanings. Like eating or breathing, it can be invested with wildly different cultural meanings, from the erotic to the spiritual, from the revolutionary to the artistic. ~ Rebecca Solnit,
1060:The tradition of portrait painting, to embellish or idealize the subject, remains the aim of everyday and of commercial photography, but it has had a much more limited career in photography considered as art. Generally speaking, the honors have gone to the Cordelias. ~ Susan Sontag,
1061:This involves the principle discussed above. By placing oneself in harmony with the requirements of the subject in hand, the truth must become known, even as an instrument properly tuned must feel the influence of the ether waves with which it is in harmony. Again, ~ John A Widtsoe,
1062:Myth makes Echo the subject of longing and desire. Physics makes Echo the subject of distance and design. Where emotion and reason are concerned both claims are accurate. And where there is no Echo there is no description of space or love. There is only science. ~ Mark Z Danielewski,
1063:Our subject is, you see, impelled towards the good by, paradoxically, being impelled towards evil. The intention to act violently is accompanied by strong feelings of physical distress. To counter these the subject has to switch to a diametrically opposed attitude. ~ Anthony Burgess,
1064:Carve a cherry pit with the utmost skill, and at best it is still a cherry pit; but a diamond, even if cut poorly, is still a precious stone. Even if a speaker cannot deliver an eloquent speech, if the subject is important, attempting to speak isn’t useless. ~ Charles Haddon Spurgeon,
1065:[It is] essentially wholesome and necessary, for a Christian to know, whether or not the will does any thing in those things which pertain unto Salvation. Nay, let me tell you, this is the very hinge upon which our discussion turns. It is the very heart of the subject ~ Martin Luther,
1066:That´s all,' I said after several minutes of fumbling around the subject. 'Or at least that´s enough of my talking about it. She confuses me like no other thing in the world.' I picked at a splinter in the tabletop with my finger. 'I hate not understanding a thing. ~ Patrick Rothfuss,
1067:That was what he was like. He always changed the subject with flattery. He was usually more artful. It’s hard to describe how someone has manipulated you because you’re generally not aware of it when it’s happening. You don’t exactly take notes, is what I am saying. ~ Karin Slaughter,
1068:Poor teaching leads to the inevitable idea that the subject (mathematics) is only adapted to peculiar minds, when it is the one universal science and the one whose four ground-rules are taught us almost in infancy and reappear in the motions to the universe. ~ Henry John Stephen Smith,
1069:The subject of the novel is reality liberated from soul. The reader in complete independence presented with a structured process:let him evaluate it, not the author. The façade of the novel cannot be other than stone or steel, flashing electrically or dark, but silent. ~ Alfred Doblin,
1070:The tone of the repartee was familiar, as was the subject matter, a strangely comfortable background music to most of my waking hours over the last two decades or so - and I realised that, my God... I've been listening to the same conversation for twenty-five years! ~ Anthony Bourdain,
1071:After my brush with the suicidal impulse, I listen with new ears to others when they
speak on the subject. I think there are people who were born with that little door open, and they
have to go through life knowing that they might jump through it at any moment. ~ Douglas Coupland,
1072:Deborah just shook her head and muttered something I didn’t quite catch, although I heard several hard consonants in it. So because I always try to bring cheer wherever I go, I changed the subject. “Who is that supposed to be?” I said, nodding at the gigantic bloodstain. ~ Jeff Lindsay,
1073:I'd never painted anything before. I was quite content to take other people's work since I didn't care anyway about the subject matter. I approached subject matter as a scoundrel. I had nothing to say about it whatsoever. I only wanted to make these exciting paintings. ~ Tom Wesselmann,
1074:It is remarkable that there is little or nothing to be remembered written on the subject of getting a living: how to make getting a living not merely honest and honorable, but altogether inviting and glorious; for if getting a living is not so, then living is not. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
1075:Obama wanted to offer his support to birth control activist Sandra Fluke. He wanted to express his disappointment that she has been the subject of inappropriate personal attacks and thank her for exercising her rights as a citizen to speak out on an issue of public policy. ~ Jay Carney,
1076:Oh, I usually don't know a whole lot about a subject when I begin; the process itself teaches me a lot as I go along. Usually I know enough about one narrow area of the subject to start myself going, and then everything - including a lot more research - follows from that. ~ Jim Shepard,
1077:One cultivates one's life, one's friends, one's means, one's hopes. One goes from place to place, from triumph to triumph, in search of ambition and ambition's remedy as though in flight across some imagined map, the subject of a conversation in a comfortable English room. ~ Jesse Ball,
1078:The characteristics of race, people, nation and sex are the subject matter of special branches of study. Only people who wish to live as nothing more than examples of the genus could possibly conform to a general picture such as arises from academic study of this kind. ~ Rudolf Steiner,
1079:Where the subject lies so far beyond our reach, the difference between the highest and the lowest of human understandings may indeed be calculated as infinitely small; yet the degree of weakness may perhaps be measured by the degree of obstinacy and dogmatic confidence. ~ Edward Gibbon,
1080:You see I am an enthusiast on the subject of the arts. But it is an enthusiasm of which I am not ashamed, as its object is to improve the taste of my countrymen, to increase their reputation, to reconcile to them the respect of the world, and procure them its praise. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
1081:Criticism ultimately at some degree is about the writer and not the subject. It's very easy if everybody else says, "He's a genius," to echo that, but then you're not functioning as a critic or as a writer in any meaningful way. You've got to take the risk of being wrong. ~ Gary Giddins,
1082:—crowded out most other voices on the subject of whatever new crisis was engulfing the Trump administration. These quotes functioned as something like a stage whisper that Trump could pretend he didn’t hear. Trump, in fact, was always desperately seeking Bannon’s advice, ~ Michael Wolff,
1083:I think you can write about what you know for about an hour and a half. Then you have to start bullshitting. So I say, lie to me and lie to me well. The only way to write well is to write accurately. Accuracy is not about the reader, it’s about the subject and the character. ~ A M Homes,
1084:It was astonishing that for some considerable distance around the mould growth the staphococcal colonies were undergoing lysis. What had formerly been a well-grown colony was now a faint shadow of its former self...I was sufficiently interested to pursue the subject. ~ Alexander Fleming,
1085:I’m going to ask you a question, Izzy. I’ve never asked this of a woman before. And it’s taking me a great deal of courage to even broach the subject, so please—I beg you, consider your answer carefully.

Izzy, my heart . . . in the morning, will you make me a pancake? ~ Tessa Dare,
1086:other words, our decision making in medicine has failed so spectacularly that we have reached the point of actively inflicting harm on patients rather than confronting the subject of mortality. If end-of-life discussions were an experimental drug, the FDA would approve it. ~ Atul Gawande,
1087:Scan your subject for things that are clearly impossible. After all, paint isn't magic! If you see that certain elements in the subject are beyond the limits of your pigments, try to form an idea beforehand of how you are going to handle those areas when you get to them. ~ Richard Schmid,
1088:So, your kids must love the iPad?” I asked Mr. [Steve] Jobs, trying to change the subject. The company’s first tablet was just hitting the shelves. “They haven’t used it,” he told me. “We limit how much technology our kids use at home.”
(Nytimes article, Sept. 10, 2014) ~ Nick Bilton,
1089:Those who have heard or read anything from me on the subject, know that one of the principal points insisted on is, the forming of societies or any other artificial combinations IS the first, greatest, and most fatal mistake ever committed by legislators and by reformers. ~ Josiah Warren,
1090:you gave up any right to comment on the subject when you threw my ring back in my face, didn't you?"
She (Elly) stiffened."I didn't throw it back. I just sort of set in down on your desk."
He (Cooper)shrugged."We each have our own version of events, Want some fries? ~ Jayne Castle,
1091:I love science, and it pains me to think that so many are terrified of the subject or feel that choosing science means you cannot also choose compassion, or the arts, or be awed by nature. Science is not meant to cure us of mystery, but to reinvent and reinvigorate it. ~ Robert M Sapolsky,
1092:Interestingly, the iteration protocol is even more pervasive in Python today than the examples so far have demonstrated — essentially everything in Python’s built-in toolset that scans an object from left to right is defined to use the iteration protocol on the subject object. ~ Mark Lutz,
1093:I said it, just like that. No stupid jokes, no changing the subject. For once, I wasn't embarrassed, because it was the truth. I had fallen. I think I had always been falling. And she might as well know, if she didn't already, because there was no going back now. Not for me. ~ Kami Garcia,
1094:Maybe it was just Mr. Wilson's obvious love of the subject he taught. Maybe it was simply his cool accent and his youth. The entire student body tried to mimic him. Girls crowded around him, and the boys watched him, fascinated, as if a rockstar had descended into our midsts. ~ Amy Harmon,
1095:Although the way ahead [for immunology] is full of pitfalls and difficulties, this is indeed an exhilarating prospect. There is no danger of a shortage of forthcoming excitement in the subject. Yet, as always, the highlights of tomorrow are the unpredictabilities of today. ~ Cesar Milstein,
1096:not to find out new principles, or new arguments, never before thought of . . . but to place before mankind the common sense of the subject, in terms so plain and firm as to command their assent, and to justify ourselves in the independent stand we are compelled to take. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
1097:Since then he has said nothing and although from time to time I have thrown out what I hope were delicate hints and suggestions he has not seemed to notice them; and with a man Lucifer could not hold a book, bell or candle to for pride I cannot raise the subject directly. ~ Patrick O Brian,
1098:So," I said climbing to my feet and changing the subject ASAP, "I had a dream last night someone tried to burn me alive, and I'm not entirely sure it was a dream."
Devon stiffened. Chase's pupils pulsed.
Subject successfully changed.
"Now who's ready to eat? ~ Jennifer Lynn Barnes,
1099:I am not, personally, a believer or a religious man in any sense of institutional commitment or practice. But I have a great respect for religion, and the subject has always fascinated me, beyond almost all others (with a few exceptions, like evolution and paleontology). ~ Stephen Jay Gould,
1100:I do not believe that the present flowering of science is due in the least to a real appreciation of the beauty and intellectual discipline of the subject. It is due simply to the fact that power, wealth and prestige can only be obtained by the correct application of science. ~ Derek Barton,
1101:In other words, our decision making in medicine has failed so spectacularly that we have reached the point of actively inflicting harm on patients rather than confronting the subject of mortality. If end-of-life discussions were an experimental drug, the FDA would approve it. ~ Atul Gawande,
1102:I read numerous books - loads in fact - and, as I always do when recording a historical project, immersed myself into the subject matter. I spent many hours at Henrys old homes, such as Hampton Court, and visiting the Tower of London. I read no other books during that period. ~ Rick Wakeman,
1103:[O]ne of the greatest difficulties encountered in bringing about favorable change is this almost inescapable illusion that there is a perduring, unique, simple existent self, [which is] in some strange fashion, the patient's, or the subject person's, private property. ~ Harry Stack Sullivan,
1104:Politicians are really getting desperate. In fact, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid sent out a final fundraising email to Democrats with the subject line, 'I'm begging.' Because what better way to show you're a strong leader than acting like you're drunk and dialing your ex? ~ Jimmy Fallon,
1105:As for asking Tam Lin, Matt didn’t know how to bring up the subject. By the way, is anyone planning to cut me up into T-bone steaks? Even more terrifying was the bodyguard’s possible answer: You hit the nail on the head there, laddie. I always said you were bright as a button. ~ Nancy Farmer,
1106:I know that obviously, that if you want to get the story, if you want to get close to somebody, if you want to find out what is really the truth or what's really interesting, you have to create a trust between these two things, between the journalist and the subject. ~ Philip Seymour Hoffman,
1107:In space, great distances force us to spread out cognition over time, enabling us to see how autonomy maps across the solar system as distributed human presence. How we program our models of the world into autonomous systems here on earth is the subject of the next chapter. ~ David A Mindell,
1108:Instead of seeking fulfilment in an object, the subject must acknowledge that it can flourish only through another of its kind. It is when two free, equal individuals engage in an act of mutual recognition that desire can transcend itself into something rather more edifying. ~ Terry Eagleton,
1109:It is not the activity of the subject of knowledge that produces a corpus of knowledge, useful or resistant to power, but power-knowledge, the processes and struggles that transverse it and of which it is made up, that determines the forms and possible domains of knowledge. ~ Michel Foucault,
1110:This provided an excuse for sidelining questions of independence – until the subject people were ‘ready’. Hailey got the Americans to go along with this, by suggesting a similar line on Southern segregation. Economic betterment would come first; political liberation could wait. ~ Matt Ridley,
1111:[W]hen it is shown that what the subject is lies entirely in the attributes of the subject; … that the predicate is the true subject; it is also proved that if the divine predicates are attributes of the human nature, the subject of those predicates is also … human nature. ~ Ludwig Feuerbach,
1112:I look for two things when I am about to launch into a book. First, there has to be a dramatic arc to the story itself that will carry me, and the reader, from beginning to end. Second, the story has to weave through larger themes that can illuminate the world of the subject. ~ David Maraniss,
1113:I was pretty well through with the subject. At one time or another I had probably considered it from most of its various angles, including the one that certain injuries or imperfections are a subject of merriment while remaining quite serious for the person possessing them. ~ Ernest Hemingway,
1114:Philosophy does not claim to secure for us anything outside our control. Otherwise it would be taking on matters that do not concern it. For as wood is the material of the carpenter, and marble that of the sculptor, so the subject matter of the art of life is the life of the self. ~ Epictetus,
1115:There are many instances in science, where those closest to the intricacies of the subject have a more highly developed sense of its intractability than those at some remove. On the other hand, those at too great a distance may, I am well aware, mistake ignorance for perspective. ~ Carl Sagan,
1116:There’s no way to release yourself from a memory. It ends when it wants to end, whether it’s in a flash or long after you’ve begged it to stop. What
was the next line? What did I say to you then? I probably changed the subject, and the new subject wasn’t worth remembering. ~ David Levithan,
1117:When asked "What do we need to learn this for?" any high-school teacher can confidently answer that, regardless of the subject, the knowledge will come in handy once the student hits middle age and starts working crossword puzzles in order to stave off the terrible loneliness. ~ David Sedaris,
1118:And thus the community perpetually retains a supreme power of saving themselves from the attempts and designs of anybody, even of their legislators, whenever they shall be so foolish, or so wicked, as to lay and carry on designs against the liberties and properties of the subject. ~ John Locke,
1119:It's nothing but a matter of seeing, thinking, and interest. That's what makes a good photograph. And then rejecting anything that would be bad for the picture. The wrong light, the wrong background, time and so on. Just don't do it, not matter how beautiful the subject is. ~ Andreas Feininger,
1120:As always, the subject of Bianca lay between them like a loaded gun – deadly, easy to reach, impossible to ignore. ‘I mean your other sister, Hazel … she has discovered that one of the Seven will die. She may try to prevent this. In doing so, she may lose sight of her priorities. ~ Rick Riordan,
1121:But when I clicked over to my e-mail program, it was just another “great opportunity” spam, this time adding the words “don’t delete!” to the subject line. With a sense of perverse satisfaction, I deleted it. It was probably the only act of rebellion I’d get away with all day. ~ Shanna Swendson,
1122:In the face of scary things, knowledge was always a comfort to me. No matter what the subject was, if I could find a book or two about it, I could squash any anxiety that it might provoke. As my heroine Scully once said, “The answers are there, you just have to know where to look. ~ Abby Norman,
1123:I’ve worked all my life on the subject of awareness, whether it’s awareness of the body, awareness of the mind, awareness of your emotions, awareness of your relationships, or awareness of your environment. I think the key to transforming your life is to be aware of who you are. ~ Deepak Chopra,
1124:I was aware that you weren't supposed to write about suburbia, that it was undignified in some way, the subject matter not momentous enough. And so, for a long time, that kept me from writing about it. But once I began, I realized it was just as interesting as anywhere else. ~ Jeffrey Eugenides,
1125:Once you have linked yourself with love, a flood of inspiration is revealed to you, whatever the subject, whatever the problem in life may be. Whatever it be that your eye casts its glance upon, it will disclose itself. Then you are on the real road, and what a joy this is! ~ Hazrat Inayat Khan,
1126:The first picture of his I ever saw was during a lecture at the Rhyl camera club. I was 16 and the speaker was Emrys Jones. He projected the picture upside down. Deliberately, to disregard the subject matter to reveal the composition. It's a lesson I've never forgotten. ~ Philip Jones Griffiths,
1127:The subject matter of Entitlement remains relevant. Entitlement is an attitude: it is the assumption, I am owed what I get. It's a nasty attitude because people are not grateful for what they get. Instead, greed prevails and is expressed as, What have you done for me lately? ~ Judith M Bardwick,
1128:I suffered unbearable torture in silence, weeping internallyat the sad turn of events, blaming myself bitterly again and again for having delved into the supernatural without first acquiring a fuller knowledge of the subject and providing against the dangers and risks of the path. ~ Gopi Krishna,
1129:I've seen men like you in Doris Day films, but I never thought they existed in real life...The men who can't commit, who can't say 'I love you' even when they want to, who start to cough and sputter and change the subject. But here you are. A living, breathing specimen. Incredible. ~ Nick Hornby,
1130:One fourth of the books in the Bible are of prophetic nature; the subject and statement of the books are eschatological, that is, they deal with prophecy. One fifth of the content of Scripture was predictive at the time of its writing; a large segment of that has been fulfilled. ~ J Vernon McGee,
1131:I do not understand those who take little or no interest in the subject of religion. If religion embodies a truth, it is certainly the most important truth of human existence. If it is largely error, then it is one of monumentally tragic proportions—and should be vigorously opposed. ~ Steve Allen,
1132:If anything is evident about people who manage money, it is that the task attracts a very low level of talent, one that is protected in its highly imperfect profession by the mystery that is thought to enfold the subject of economics in general and of money in particular. ~ John Kenneth Galbraith,
1133:Through "deprogramming" or cult intervention the only issues that are addressed focus upon the specific group and group involvement. The subject of such an intervention subsequently may leave the group and go on with their life reassuming their own basic individual values and beliefs. ~ Rick Ross,
1134:What pricks me is the discovery of this equivalence. In front of the photograph of my mother as a child, I tell myself: She is going to die: I shudder… over a catastrophe which has already occurred. Whether or not the subject is already dead, every photograph is this catastrophe. ~ Roland Barthes,
1135:If the Holocaust that you talk about was real, why don't you allow the subject to be studied? One can freely research any issue, except for this issue, which is sealed. It is a black box, which they do not allow to be opened or reexamined. They do this in order to exploit it. ~ Mahmoud Ahmadinejad,
1136:I was 21 in 1968, so I'm as much a child of the '60s as is possible to be. In those years the subject of religion had really almost disappeared; the idea that religion was going to be a major force in the life of our societies, in the West anyway, would have seemed absurd in 1968. ~ Salman Rushdie,
1137:One of my Swiss ancestors was the first teacher of the deaf in Zurich and wrote a book on the subject of their education-rather a singular coincidence; though it is true that there is no king who has not had a slave among his ancestors, and no slave who has not had a king among his. ~ Helen Keller,
1138:On the subject of the feminist business, I just never think...of qualities which are specifically feminine or masculine. I suppose I divide people into two classes: the Irksome and the Non-Irksome without regard to sex. Yes and there are the Medium Irksome and the Rare Irksome. ~ Flannery O Connor,
1139:The best educators are the ones that inspire their students. That inspiration comes from a passion that teachers have for the subject they're teaching. Most commonly, that person spent their lives studying that subject, and they bring an infectious enthusiasm to the audience. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
1140:We have struggled with terrorism for a long time. In the Reagan administration, I was a hawk on the subject. I said terrorism is a big problem, a different problem, and we have to take forceful action against it. Fortunately, Ronald Reagan agreed with me, but not many others did. ~ George P Shultz,
1141:When I want a broad-minded opinion for general enlightenment, distinct from special advice, I never go to a man who deals in the subject professionally. So I like the parson's opinion on law, the lawyer's on doctoring, the doctor's on business, and my business-man's . . . on morals. ~ Thomas Hardy,
1142:I've spent a great deal of my life doing independent film, and that is partly because the subject matter interests me and partly because that is the basis of the film industry. That's where the film-makers come from, it's where they start and sometimes its where they should have stayed. ~ John Hurt,
1143:If I knew how to draw, I would apply myself only to studying the form of inanimate objects,” I said somewhat imperiously, because I wanted to change the subject and also because a natural inclination does truly lead me to recognize my moods in the motionless suffering of things. Miss ~ Italo Calvino,
1144:In other words, our decision making in medicine has failed so spectacularly that we have reached the point of actively inflicting harm on patients rather than confronting the subject of mortality. If end-of-life discussions were an experimental drug, the FDA would approve it. Patients ~ Atul Gawande,
1145:All religious systems enslave the mind. Certain things are demanded-certain things must be believed-certain things must be done-and the man who becomes the subject or servant of this superstition must give up all idea of indivuality or hope of intellectual growth or progress. ~ Robert Green Ingersoll,
1146:Franklin was perfectly philosophical on the subject: “For when you assemble a number of men to have the advantage of their joint wisdom, you inevitably assemble with those men all their prejudices, their passions, their errors of opinion, their local interests, and their selfish views. ~ Stacy Schiff,
1147:I have such amazing memories [about The Hotel New Hampshire movie], because Tony Richardson was such an amazing director, and the subject matter was so bizarre, and yet it was the most sought-after part at that moment. And then it had the good fortune to come out on the same day as Splash. ~ Rob Lowe,
1148:In all matters but particularly in architecture, that which is signified is the subject of which we may be speaking and that which gives significance is a demonstration on scientific principles. One who professes himself an architect should be well versed in both directions. ~ Marcus Vitruvius Pollio,
1149:NO error is infused into the young mind, to lie there dormant, or to be reproduced only when the subject of thought or action recurs to which the error belongs; but the error becomes a model or archetype, after whose likeness the active powers of the mind create a thousand other errors. ~ Horace Mann,
1150:Resistance disappears and the balancing process comes into full effect not by intention on the part of the subject, but only as it is seen that the feeling of being the subject, the ego, is itself part of the stream of experience and does not stand outside it in a controlling position. ~ Alan W Watts,
1151:Whenever Roosevelt (Theodore) expected a visitor, he sat up late the night before, reading up on the subject in which he knew his guest was particularly interested. For Roosevelt knew, all the leaders royal road to a person's heart is to talk about the things he or she treasures most. ~ Dale Carnegie,
1152:Kurt Godel's achievement in modern logic is singular and monumental - indeed it is more than a monument, it is a landmark which will remain visible far in space and time. ... The subject of logic has certainly completely changed its nature and possibilities with Godel's achievement. ~ John von Neumann,
1153:Many years ago, when I was once saying sadly to Max it was a pity I couldn't have taken up archaeology when I was a girl, so as to be more knowledgeable on the subject, he said, 'Don't you realize that at this moment you know more about prehistoric pottery than any woman in England?' ~ Agatha Christie,
1154:At the current rate of 28 miles of SBInet [Secure Border Initiative network] technology every 4.5 years, it would take 320 years - or until the year 2330 - to deploy SBInet technology across the Southwest border. That statistic would be comical if the subject matter were not so serious. ~ Henry Cuellar,
1155:You have to think for an email. What's the subject? What's it about? It takes two seconds to think about that. So you have to think, Is this a work thing or a social thing? Which? Then you get into a situation that you don't want to be in, because then people are thinking about it too much. ~ Biz Stone,
1156:He wrote as if he were the reader. It was also how he kept his writing from becoming too cute, which is to say, about him not the subject. Rook was a journalist but strove to be a storyteller, one who let his subjects speak for themselves and stayed out of their way as much as possible. ~ Richard Castle,
1157:What’ve we got this afternoon?” said Harry, hastily changing the subject. “Defense Against the Dark Arts,” said Hermione at once. “Why,” demanded Ron, seizing her schedule, “have you outlined all Lockhart’s lessons in little hearts?” Hermione snatched the schedule back, blushing furiously. ~ J K Rowling,
1158:With very little ado I stop the first sally of my emotions, and leave the subject that begins to be troublesome before it transports me. He who stops not the start will never be able to stop the course; he who cannot keep them out will never, get them out when they are once got in; ~ Michel de Montaigne,
1159:Annabeth frowned. "That doesn't make sense. But why were you visiting --" Her eyes widened. "Hermes said you bear the curse of Achilles. Hestia said the same thing. Did you . . . did you bathe in the River Styx?" "Don't change the subject." "Percy! Did you or not?" "Um . . .maybe a little. ~ Rick Riordan,
1160:As Microsoft cofounder Bill Gates pointed out in his recent talk on the subject: “The key thing you can do to reduce population growth is actually improve health. … [T]here is a perfect correlation, as you improve health, within half a generation, the population growth rate goes down. ~ Peter H Diamandis,
1161:Before I started (college), that's the advice my dad gave me. He said to pick classes based on the teacher whenever you can, not the subject...his point was that good teachers are priceless. They inspire you, they entertain you, and you end up learning a ton even when you don't know it. ~ Nicholas Sparks,
1162:Do you like vegetables?" Sophie asked, hoping to steer the conversation towards a slightly less dangerous kind of food. "You is trying to change the subject," the Giant said sternly. "We is having an interesting babblement about the taste of the human bean. The human bean is not a vegetable. ~ Roald Dahl,
1163:I need to conduct myself differently in different communities. In my experience, the journalistic conventions - you know, I'm the reporter, you're the subject, the interviewee - actually tend to hold steady much more consistently in rural Africa than they do in the American inner city. ~ William Finnegan,
1164:"Simply look with perceptive eyes at the world about you, and trust to your own reactions and convictions. Ask yourself: "Does this subject move me to feel, think and dream? Can I visualize a print - my own personal statement of what I feel and want to convey - from the subject before me?"" ~ Ansel Adams,
1165:The unary Photograph has every reason to be banal, 'unity'
of composition being the first rule of vulgar (and notably, of academic) rhetoric: 'The subject,' says one handbook for amateur photographers, 'must be simple, free of useless accessories; this is called the Search for Unity. ~ Roland Barthes,
1166:What is a portrait good for, unless it shows just how the subject was seen by the painter? In the old days before photography came in a sitter had a perfect right to say to the artist: "Paint me just as I am." Now if he wishes absolute fidelity he can go to the photographer and get it. ~ Aubrey Beardsley,
1167:Enjoying it? I don’t reckon he’d come home if Dad didn’t make him. He’s obsessed. Just don’t get him on the subject of his boss. According to Mr. Crouch…as I was saying to Mr. Crouch… Mr. Crouch is of the opinion… Mr. Crouch was telling me… They’ll be announcing their engagement any day now. ~ J K Rowling,
1168:I do not consider myself by any means an expert on the art of creative visualization. I am a student of the subject, and the more I study and use creative visualization myself, the more I discover how vast and deep its potential is…truly it is as infinite, creative as your own imagination. ~ Shakti Gawain,
1169:I see the bomber pictures as an anti-war statement... which they aren't - at all. Pictures like that don't do anything to combat war. They only show one tiny aspect of the subject of war - maybe only my own childish feelings of fear and fascination with war and with weapons of that kind. ~ Gerhard Richter,
1170:It gets super dark. I did a bunch of intense indie movies when I was starting out in my career and I was always in a bad mood because, when you're dealing with the subject matter of losing your baby, getting raped and all that stuff, it's not fun to go through. You really have to go there. ~ Busy Philipps,
1171:Never Mind Nirvana is the first novel I’ve read that makes music as important as food, clothing romance — a fresh twist millions will be able to identify with – and the music of Lindquist’s language is a perfect match for the subject. I think he’s the writer to watch in the new millennium. ~ Tama Janowitz,
1172:People start realising that I'm a responsible filmmaker and I'm not going to run away with the budget or do anything stupid. I think it probably depends on the subject matter and it depends on who's producing and all those things. My hope is that I'll be allowed to carry on making films. ~ David Mackenzie,
1173:The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy has this to say on the subject of flying. There is an art, it says, or, rather, a knack to flying. The knack lies in learning how to throw yourself at the ground and miss ... Clearly, it is this second part, the missing, which presents the difficulties. ~ Douglas Adams,
1174:The mourner is in fact ill, but because this state of mind is common and seems so natural to us, we do not call mourning an illness…. To put my conclusion more precisely: I should say that in mourning the subject goes through a modified and transitory manic-depressive state and overcomes it. ~ Joan Didion,
1175:Thus inevitably does the universe wear our color, and every object fall successively into the subject itself. The subject exists, the subject enlarges; all things sooner or later fall into place. As I am, so I see; use what language we will, we can never say anything but what we are. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
1176:Over the course of his sixteen years, Charles Cullen had been the subject of dozens of complaints and disciplinary citations, and had endured four police investigations, two lie detector tests, perhaps twenty suicide attempts, and a lock-up, but none had blemished his professional record. ~ Charles Graeber,
1177:Philosophy does not promise to secure anything external for man, otherwise it would be admitting something that lies beyond its proper subject-matter. For as the material of the carpenter is wood, and that of statuary bronze, so the subject-matter of the art of living is each person's own life. ~ Epictetus,
1178:Whilst on the subject of the spread of Buddhism in the West, I want to say that I have noticed some tendency towards sectarianism amongst new practitioners. This is absolutely wrong. Religion should never become a source of conflict, a further factor of division within the human community. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
1179:I think that one of the reasons that we chose the word love as the subject is because your human connection and how you affect everybody around you, you'll only understand the gravity of that as you pass later on in life. I think as artists it's our ability to communicate that in certain ways. ~ Tom DeLonge,
1180:NASA news releases and other information are available automatically by sending an e-mail message with the subject line subscribe to hqnews-request@newsletters.nasa.gov. To unsubscribe from the list, send an e-mail message with the subject line unsubscribe to hqnews-request@newsletters.nasa.gov. ~ Anonymous,
1181:The minister today preached about death and judgment, and what would become of those who behaved improperly - and somehow it scared me. He preached such an awful sermon I didn't think I should ever see you again until the Judgment Day. The subject of perdition seemed to please him somehow. ~ Emily Dickinson,
1182:We noticed recently that people didn't like it when Facebook "experimented" with their news feed. Even the FTC is getting involved. But guess what, everybody: if you use the Internet, you're the subject of hundreds of experiments at any given time, on every site. That's how websites work. ~ Christian Rudder,
1183:And yet the point of view from which his ideas on art had sprung was a simple one: for him, literary schools did not exist; the only thing that mattered was the temperament of the artist; the only thing of interest was the way his brain worked, regardless of the subject he was treating. ~ Joris Karl Huysmans,
1184:Every sky with its varied tints and every feather of each bird were coloured by hand; and when it is considered that nearly two hundred and eighty thousand illustrations in the present work have been so treated, it will most likely cause some astonishment to those who give the subject a thought. ~ John Gould,
1185:I am only a physicist with nothing material to show for my labours. I have never even seen the ionosphere, although I have worked on the subject for thirty years. That does show how lucky people can be. If there had been no ionosphere I would not have been standing here this morning. ~ Edward Victor Appleton,
1186:I and my husband have enough to do to keep this wine-shop open, without thinking. All we think, here, is how to live. That is the subject WE think of, and it gives us, from morning to night, enough to think about, without embarrassing our heads concerning others. I think for others? No, no. ~ Charles Dickens,
1187:I don't have any sympathy for the subject matter, [but] I have great respect for rap artists. In fact, not for the rap artists, but the people who make the music over which they rap. Rap music - the music itself is incredible - but [the people that make the music] are hardly ever credited. ~ Stewart Copeland,
1188:I had passed from the subject to the direct object of every sentence in my life. In fourteenth century philosophy, the word patient simply meant "the object of an action," and I felt like one. As a doctor, I was an agent, a cause; as a patient, I was merely something to which things happened ~ Paul Kalanithi,
1189:If the tax-gatherer, or any other public officer, asks me, as one has done, "But what shall I do?" my answer is, "If you really wish to do anything, resign your office." When the subject has refused allegiance, and the officer has resigned his office, then the revolution is accomplished. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
1190:John A. Templer of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, author of the definitive (and, it must be said, almost only) scholarly text on the subject, The Staircase: Studies of Hazards, Falls, and Safer Design, suggests that all fall-injury figures are probably severely underestimated anyway. ~ Bill Bryson,
1191:You can remember mountains of information when you are interested in the subject. It almost feels automatic and your concentration is at a peak. Your deficits of attention are mostly interest deficits. Your mind never wanders away; it only moves towards more interesting and outstanding things. ~ Kevin Horsley,
1192:Chief Justice Warren Burger—a well-known conservative, appointed by President Richard Nixon—said that the Second Amendment “has been the subject of one of the greatest pieces of fraud, I repeat the word ‘fraud,’ on the American public by special interest groups that I have ever seen in my lifetime. ~ Anonymous,
1193:O take heart, my brothers. Even now... with every leader & every resource & every strategy of every nation on Earth arrayed against Her - Even now, O even now, my brothers, Life is in no danger of losing the argument! - For after all .... (as will be shown) She has only to change the subject. ~ Kenneth Patchen,
1194:On the subject of the nature of the gods, the first question is Do the gods exist or do the not? It is difficult you may say to deny that they exist. I would agree if we were arguing the matter in a public assembly, but in a private discussion of this kind, it is perfectly easy to do so. ~ Marcus Tullius Cicero,
1195:The subject is also fascinating because of the nature of the revisionism—neuroplasticity radiates optimism. Books on the topic are entitled The Brain That Changes Itself, Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain, and Rewire Your Brain: Think Your Way to a Better Life, hinting at the “new neurology ~ Robert M Sapolsky,
1196:When the chronology of extinction is critically set against the chronology of human migrations,” Paul Martin of the University of Arizona wrote in “Prehistoric Overkill,” his seminal paper on the subject, “man’s arrival emerges as the only reasonable answer” to the megafauna’s disappearance. ~ Elizabeth Kolbert,
1197:In the infinite consciousness universes come and go like particles of dust in a beam of sunlight that shines through a hole in the roof. Death is ever keeping a watch over our life. All objects are experienced in the subject and nowhere else. Whole worlds arise and fall like ripples in the ocean. ~ Deepak Chopra,
1198:I would not spend one further moment on the subject of UFOs if I didnt seriously feel that the UFO phenomenon is real and that efforts to investigate and understand it, and eventually to solve it, could have a profound effect -- perhaps even be the springboard to mankinds outlook on the universe. ~ J Allen Hynek,
1199:Perceptions of black criminality aren’t likely to change until black behavior changes. Rather than address that challenge, however, too many liberal policy makers change the subject. Instead of talking about black behavior, they want to talk about racism or poverty or unemployment or gun control. ~ Jason L Riley,
1200:The impediment to scientific thinking is not, I think, the difficulty of the subject. Complex intellectual feats have been mainstays even of oppressed cultures. Shamans, magicians and theologians are highly skilled in their intricate and arcane arts. No, the impediment is political and hierarchical. ~ Carl Sagan,
1201:Upon the subject of education, not presuming to dictate any plan or system respecting it, I can only say that I view it as the most important subject which we as a people can be engaged in. That every man may receive at least a moderate education...appears to be an object of vital importance... ~ Abraham Lincoln,
1202:Annabeth frowned. "That doesn't make sense. But why were you visiting --" Her eyes widened. "Hermes said you bear the curse of Achilles. Hestia said the same thing. Did you . . . did you bathe in the River Styx?"
"Don't change the subject."
"Percy! Did you or not?"
"Um . . .maybe a little. ~ Rick Riordan,
1203:SHORTLY AFTER Louis Freeh was sworn in as the fifth director of the FBI on September 1, 1993, he turned in his White House pass. He refused to enter the Oval Office. His reasons were pure and simple. Freeh regarded President Clinton not as commander in chief but as the subject of a criminal case. The ~ Tim Weiner,
1204:The party to which he belonged had, as he knew, endeavoured to avoid the subject of the disendowment of the Church of England. It is the necessary nature of a political party in this country to avoid, as long as it can be avoided, the consideration of any question which involves a great change. ~ Anthony Trollope,
1205:The recollection of almost overpowered Miss Tox. The subject of it had a peculiar interest for her directly. She asked him to shake hands, and congratulated his mother on his frank, ingenuous face. Rob, overhearing her, called up a look, to justify the eulogium, but it was hardly the right look. ~ Charles Dickens,
1206:There’s something fishy about Google’s motto, “Don’t Be Evil.” I’m not saying it’s controversial but it makes you think, “Why bring that up? Why have you suddenly put the subject of being evil on the agenda?” It’s suspicious in the same way as Ukip constantly pointing out how racist they’re not – ~ David Mitchell,
1207:Although I am very interested in the subject of human misjudgment - and lord knows I've created a good bit of it - I don't think I've created my full statistical share, and I think that one of the reasons was I tried to do something about this terrible ignorance I left the Harvard Law School with. ~ Charlie Munger,
1208:little known and not fully understood; fundamentally questionable on the surface; controversial, unseemly or scary; deemed inappropriate for “respectable” portfolios; unappreciated, unpopular and unloved; trailing a record of poor returns; and recently the subject of disinvestment, not accumulation. ~ Howard Marks,
1209:While we cannot describe its appearance (the equivalent), we can define its function. When a photograph functions as an Equivalent we can say that at that moment, and for that person the photograph acts as a symbol or plays the role of a metaphor for something that is beyond the subject photographed. ~ Minor White,
1210:The training is a set of interpersonal interactions that lead to emotional and intellectual experiences that provide a circumstance and an intrument for self awareness, self observation and reflection on the circumstances of the subject trainee, both in his individual life and as a social being. ~ Humberto Maturana,
1211:A few were journalists and one a novelist, who wanted to get it right. (Rhyme welcomed his presence; he himself was the subject of a series of novels based on cases he’d run and had written the author on several occasions about misrepresentations of real crime scene work. “Must you sensationalize?”) ~ Jeffery Deaver,
1212:And while I’m on the subject, it’s inadvisable to wander the house at night in the home of a known rake. Your reputation could be compromised.” “I’m not worried. You said the thought of seducing me would never even cross your mind.” “Yes, but sometimes,” he murmured, “a man acts without thinking at all. ~ Tessa Dare,
1213:I could enlarge this catalogue with broken arms, and broken legs, and gashed flesh, and missing teeth, and lacerated backs, and bites of dogs, and brands of red-hot irons innumerable: but as my readers will be sufficiently sickened and repelled already, I will turn to another branch of the subject. ~ Charles Dickens,
1214:Is it possible that where the subject is socially approved (tah tah tah TAH tah, it's war) almost no one thinks we're "stuck," but when we think too much about what no one else wants to think about, as well as when we think without the thoughts evolving, then we're seen as trouble (and / or troubled)? ~ Laura Mullen,
1215:Many photographers feel their client is the subject. My client is a woman in Kansas who reads Vogue. I'm trying to intrigue, stimulate, feed her. My responsibility is to the reader. The severe portrait that is not the greatest joy in the world to the subject may be enormously interesting to the reader. ~ Irving Penn,
1216:Of his views on education, he says, ‘My natural aversion to academic education was further strengthened when I came across an essay by Rabindranath Tagore on education. It confirmed my own precocious conclusions on the subject. I liked to be free to read what I please and not be examined at all.’ After ~ R K Narayan,
1217:The only problem is that it’s difficult to imagine something entirely new. We use the words and definitions of the past to shape our ideas. Something that is genuinely the next evolutionary step is unlikely to resemble anything we can imagine. Even the best books on the subject are limited.” She’d ~ Genevieve Cogman,
1218:There's not gonna be any tuition cuts. There aren't gonna be any drastic reductions in salaries. And in fact when the subject of cuts comes up, the first thing that the opponents of cuts say, "You can't cut this faculty. You can't cut the salaries. You wouldn't save enough money, you can't go there." ~ Rush Limbaugh,
1219:What I would like to write is a book about nothing, a book without exterior attachments, which would be held together by the innerforce of its style, as the earth without support is held in the air--a book that would have almost no subject or at least in which the subject would be almost invisible. ~ Gustave Flaubert,
1220:The writing process, the way I go about it is I do whatever the beat feels like, whatever the beat is telling me to do. Usually when the beat comes on, I think of a hook or the subject I want to rap about almost instantly. Within four, eight bars of it playing I'm just like, 'Oh, OK. This is what I wanna do'. ~ Eminem,
1221:through hand gestures was no easy business. A single gesture could have many different significations. Even the mano infica turned out to have three different interpretations: it could mean the subject was warding off evil, or dishing out an insult, or making “a kind of offensive or impertinent invitation. ~ Ross King,
1222:Curiosity and listening [are the principles to an excellent interview]. I never go into an interview with a dedicated list of questions in which I will not deviate. You must be curious about the subject and listen to his answer and ask the next question off that rather than the next question on your list. ~ Michael Kay,
1223:The hardest thing to do is to write straight honest prose on human beings. First you have to know the subject; then you have to know how to write. Both take a lifetime to learn, and anybody is cheating who takes politics as a way out. All the outs are too easy, and the thing itself is too hard to do. ~ Ernest Hemingway,
1224:Deceiving world, that with alluring toysHast made my life the subject of thy scorn,And scornest now to lend thy fading joys,T'outlength my life, whom friends have left forlorn;How well are they that die ere they be born,And never see thy sleights, which few men shunTill unawares they helpless are undone! ~ Robert Greene,
1225:I remember when I was in high school I didn't have a new dress for each special occasion. The girls would bring the fact to my attention, not always too delicately. The boys, however, never bothered with the subject. They were my friends, not because of the size of my wardrobe but because they liked me. ~ Marilyn Monroe,
1226:It is called education because it is learned. You do not have to have had an experience in order to sympathize or empathize with the subject. That is why books are written: so that we do not have to do the same things. We learn from experience, true; but we also learn from empathy.” A Theory of Patience ~ Nikki Giovanni,
1227:Kurt Gödel's achievement in modern logic is singular and monumental – indeed it is more than a monument, it is a landmark which will remain visible far in space and time. ... The subject of logic has certainly completely changed its nature and possibilities with Gödel's achievement." —John von Neumann ~ John von Neumann,
1228:Your right. We do spend a lot of time worrying about our looks, instead of focusing on what's inside. - Raven
The artist has the power to capture that. To express what he thinks about the subject. I thought that was much more romantic then seeing myself in a cold, stark glass reflection. - Alexander ~ Ellen Schreiber,
1229:As I grew up I became increasingly interested in philosophy, or which [his family] profoundly disapproved. Everytime the subject came up they repeated with unfailing regularity, "What is mind? No matter. What is matter? Never mind." After some fifty or sixty repititions, this remark ceased to amuse me. ~ Bertrand Russell,
1230:I do not so much rejoice that God hath made me to be a Queen, as to be a Queen over so thankful a people. Therefore I have cause to wish nothing more than to content the subject and that is a duty which I owe. Neither do I desire to live longer days than I may see your prosperity and that is my only desire. ~ Elizabeth I,
1231:I find her [Frances Trollope] simply delightful, even in her prejudices and cantankerousness. It is a gift to an author to find a funny, wry, perceptive contemporary observer to whom the subject matter seems almost as different and alien, and requiring as much struggling to understand, as it did to me. ~ Charles R Morris,
1232:It is no longer taboo to say that President Roosevelt required Pearl Harbor to drag a war-weary American public into supporting another World War. Discussion of FDRʼs foreknowledge of the Japanese attack is not only the subject of books by respected historians, but of documentaries on cable television. ~ Smedley D Butler,
1233:Mao said he was prepared to have millions of Chinese people perish in a nuclear war as long as China survived... I'm beginning to find it more and more sick that only humans make it into our calculations... Annihilate life on earth, but save the nation... what's the subject heading? Stupidity or Insanity? ~ Arundhati Roy,
1234:One of the things that Teller and I are obsessed with, one of the reasons that we're in magic, is the difference between fantasy and reality. That is the subject that, if you have a brain in your head, is always dealt with in magic. The smarter the tricks you're doing, the more that' s an important thing. ~ Penn Jillette,
1235:The happy ending of the fairy tale, the myth, and the divine comedy of the soul is to be read, not as a contradiction, but as a transcendence of the universal tragedy of man. The objective world remains what it was, but, because of a shift of emphasis within the subject, is beheld as though transformed. ~ Joseph Campbell,
1236:The subject of the poem usually dictates the rhythm or the rhyme and its form. Sometimes, when you finish the poem and you think the poem is finished, the poem says, "You're not finished with me yet," and you have to go back and revise, and you may have another poem altogether. It has its own life to live. ~ Maya Angelou,
1237:But over and beyond all that can be written on the subject—inventiveness is a personal matter, beyond all formulas—the true general must be able to take in, deceive, decoy, delude his adversary at every turn, as the particular occasion demands. In fact, there is no instrument of war more cunning than chicanery; ~ Xenophon,
1238:For whatever reason, efforts to improve oneself, to become happier in life, can become the subject of attacks. It is sometimes necessary to handle such directly. But there is a long-range handling that seldom fails. What, exactly, are such people trying to do to one? They are trying to reduce one downward. ~ L Ron Hubbard,
1239:In the infinite consciousness universes come and go like particles of dust in a beam of sunlight that shines through a hole in the roof. Death is ever keeping a watch over our life. All objects are experienced in the subject and nowhere else. Whole worlds arise and fall like ripples in the ocean. Vashistha ~ Deepak Chopra,
1240:To want to give to prose the rhythm of verse (but keeping it very much prose), and to want to write about ordinary life as one writes history or the epic (without denaturing the subject) is perhaps an absurdity. That's what I wonder sometimes. But perhaps it's also a grand undertaking and very original! ~ Gustave Flaubert,
1241:I have never examined the subject of humor until now. I am surprised to find how much ground it covers. I have got its divisions and frontiers down on a piece of paper. I find it defined as a production of the brain, as the power of the brain to produce something humorous, and the capacity of percieving humor. ~ Mark Twain,
1242:I often think about how my sons will come to know about September 11th. Something overheard? A newspaper image? In school? I would prefer that they learn about it from my wife and me, in a deliberate and safe way. But it's hard to imagine ever feeling ready to broach the subject without some impetus. ~ Jonathan Safran Foer,
1243:It’s tempting to suggest that one reason why the obesity-research community has paid little attention to the logical and scientific deficiencies of the overeating/sedentary-behavior hypothesis is that it becomes difficult even to discuss the subject without constantly tripping over the solecisms it engenders. ~ Gary Taubes,
1244:Painting a conventional portrait for a pushy patron did not interest him. Nor did money motivate him. He painted portraits if the subject struck his fancy, such as the Musician, or if a powerful ruler demanded it, as in the case of Ludovico with his mistresses. But he didn’t dance to the music of patrons. ~ Walter Isaacson,
1245:The untimely death of John compelled him to accept an advantageous treaty; but he still continued, the subject and the soldier of Valentinian, to entertain a secret, perhaps a treasonable, correspondence with his Barbarian allies, whose retreat had been purchased by liberal gifts, and more liberal promises. ~ Edward Gibbon,
1246:Yes, seven years old she was, when she finally plucked up the courage to ask her mother what Christmas was all about, and Mrs Castaway replied (once only, after which the subject was forever forbidden): ‘It’s the day Jesus Christ died for our sins. Evidently unsuccessfully, since we’re still paying for them. ~ Michel Faber,
1247:And how many hours a day did you do lessons?' said Alice, in a hurry to change the subject. Ten hours the first day,' said the Mock Turtle: 'nine the next, and so on.' What a curious plan!' exclaimed Alice. That's the reason they're called lessons,' the Gryphon remarked: 'because they lessen from day to day. ~ Lewis Carroll,
1248:At the same time, there flourished around them an equally remarkable, and for us more interesting, defiance of the Calvinist spirit: the art and culture of the Netherlands, in which man’s relation to the world of objects, and to his own physical life, became the subject of a profound spiritual interrogation. ~ Roger Scruton,
1249:Certain characteristics of the subject are clear. To begin with, we do not in this subject deal with particular things or particular properties: we deal formally with what can be said about any thing or any property. We are prepared to say that one and one are two, but not that Socrates and Plato are two. ~ Bertrand Russell,
1250:Here’s a good rule of thumb: Your own rituals are okay as long as they don’t interfere with your responsibilities in daily life, or make you the subject of teasing or ridicule. Rituals become a problem whenever they prevent you from doing the stuff you’re supposed to do, or when they get you in trouble. ~ John Elder Robison,
1251:You may not instantly see why I bring the subject up, but that is because my mind works so phenomenally fast, and I am at a rough estimate thirty billion times more intelligent than you. Let me give you an example. Think of a number, any number.” “Er, five,” said the mattress. “Wrong,” said Marvin. “You see? ~ Douglas Adams,
1252:Chance the Rapper: if you listen to his narrative and the subject matter he covers in his music, you can see that he's strong, courageous and shows vulnerability. He asks some very poignant questions in his music and is still very melodic. The harmony and the melody of the music allows you to also come in closer. ~ MC Hammer,
1253:I had two passions when I was a child. First was to learn about Einstein's theory and help to complete his dream of a unified theory of everything. That's my day job. I work in something called string theory. I'm one of the founders of the subject. We hope to complete Einstein's dream of a theory of everything. ~ Michio Kaku,
1254:I have no idea why she quieted down on the subject. Maybe she was told to. I can imagine that it wasn't a very popular position in the Administration, with her own husband having ordered by executive order the internment. Maybe she was just told: "Look, we're in a war now. Turn off your social conscience." ~ William A Rusher,
1255:I sound like an idiot. But what else am I supposed to say? My parents are getting a divorce?
I'm practically flunking drawing and literature?
My best friend's barely speaking to me and changes the subject when I ask where she was on Saturday night?
I think about you all the time and I want your body? ~ E Lockhart,
1256:It is our Puritanism, insisting that discipline means repression or punishment, which confuses the subject. To discipline something, in the proper sense of the word, does not mean to repress it, but to train it - to encourage it to grow, and act, and be fruitful, whether it is a peach tree or a human mind. ~ Ursula K Le Guin,
1257:My paintings are loosely based on meta narratives. The pictures float in and out of pictorial genres. Still life's become personified, portraits become events, and landscapes become constructions. I embrace the area between which the subject is composed and decomposing, formed and formless, inanimate and alive. ~ Dana Schutz,
1258:Now if, as a rule, the Count generally avoided drinking after eleven, he absolutely never drank after midnight. In fact, he had even found himself quoting his father to Sofia on the subject, asserting that the only things that came from the practice were foolhardy acts, ill-advised liaisons, and gambling debts. ~ Amor Towles,
1259:One of the great things about our democracy is it expresses itself in all sorts of ways. And that includes people protesting. I've been the subject of protests during the course of my eight years and I suspect that there's not a president in our history that at some point hasn't been subject to these protests. ~ Barack Obama,
1260:There are, first of all, two kinds of authors: those who write for the subject's sake, and those who write for writing's sake. ... The truth is that when an author begins to write for the sake of covering paper, he is cheating the reader; because he writes under the pretext that he has something to say. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
1261:Unlike side issues like unemployment, unions, and minimum-wage laws, the subject of work itself is almost entirely absent from libertarian literature. Most of what little there is consists of Randite rantings against parasites, barely distinguishable from the invective inflicted on dissidents by the Soviet press. ~ Bob Black,
1262:Addressing Lee’s stance on slavery, she acknowledged, with other historians, that he harbored deep misgivings on the subject. However, Ms. Pryor wrote, those misgivings stemmed not from his opposition to the institution itself, but from his resentment of the managerial burdens it could place on white slave owners. ~ Anonymous,
1263:I tell aspiring writers that you have to find what you MUST write. When you find it, you will know, because the subject matter won’t let you go. It’s not enough to write simply because you think it would be neat to be published. You have to be compelled to write. If you’re not, nothing else that you do matters. ~ Rick Riordan,
1264:I tell aspiring writers that you have to find what you must write. When you find it, you will know, because the subject matter won’t let you go. It’s not enough to write simply because you think it would be neat to be published. You have to be compelled to write. If you’re not, nothing else that you do matters. ~ Rick Riordan,
1265:Only a very small number of the e-mails containing classified information bore markings indicating the presence of classified information. But even if information is not marked 'classified' in an e-mail, participants who know or should know that the subject matter is classified are still obligated to protect it. ~ James Comey,
1266:That's my goal, is to stay in a truthful place. And sometimes that means writing a silly song, or singing about sex or singing about environmental destruction or heartbreak, or my grandmother. The subject isn't what the core is about, it's about truthfulness and authenticity and that just comes from my heart and soul. ~ Mirah,
1267:The young man who's had the Guggenheim fortune behind him all his life - he can hire all the authorities on the subject to teach him how to do a monologue, but he's never going to have the right stuff to pull it off. If he doesn't walk out onstage needing to walk out there, he doesn't have a dream of doing well. ~ Jerry Lewis,
1268:To a mind like mine, restless, inquisitive, and observant of everything that was passing, it is easy to suppose that religion was the subject to which it would be directed; and, although this subject principally occupied my thoughts, there was nothing that I saw or heard of to which my attention was not directed. ~ Nat Turner,
1269:You’re a guardian angel now.”.... I’m your guardian angel,” he said. “I get my very own guardian angel? What, exactly, is your job description?” “Guard your body.” His smile tipped higher. “I take my job seriously, which means I’m going to need to get acquainted with the subject matter on a personal level. ~ Becca Fitzpatrick,
1270:And how many hours a day did you do lessons?" said Alice, in a hurry to change the subject. "Ten hours the first day," said the Mock Turtle: "nine the next, and so on." "What a curious plan!" exclaimed Alice. "That's the reason they're called lessons," the Gryphon remarked: "because they lessen from day to day. ~ Lewis Carroll,
1271:Eleanor felt, as she had the day before, that the conversation was being skillfully guided away from the thought of fear, so very present in her own mind. Perhaps she was to be allowed to speak occasionally for all of them so that, quieting her, they quieted themselves and could leave the subject behind them; ~ Shirley Jackson,
1272:I had just arrived at these conclusions when the delightful husky laugh from the stage was echoed from behind me. I turned my head sharply. In the seat immediately behind mine, leaning forward with her lips slightly parted, was the subject of the present imitation—Lady Edgware, better known as Jane Wilkinson. ~ Agatha Christie,
1273:I have never made it a consideration whether the subject was popular or unpopular, but whether it was right or wrong; for that which is right will become popular, and that which is wrong, though by mistake it may obtain the cry or fashion of the day, will soon lose the power of delusion, and sink into disesteem. ~ Thomas Paine,
1274:The modern writer (scriptor) is born simultaneously with his text; he is in no way supplied with a being which precedes or transcends his writing, he is in no way the subject of which his book is the predicate; there is no other time than that of the utterance, and every text is eternally written here and now. ~ Roland Barthes,
1275:There are, first of all, two kinds of authors: those who write for the subject's sake, and those who write for writing's sake. [...] The truth is that when an author begins to write for the sake of covering paper, he is cheating the reader; because he writes under the pretext that he has something to say. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
1276:The subject of autobiography is always self-definition, but it cannot be self-definition in a void. The memoirist, like the poet and the novelist, must engage with the world, because engagement makes experience, experience makes wisdom, and finally it's the wisdom—or rather the movement towards it—that counts. ~ Vivian Gornick,
1277:Your aunt is the dearest woman in the world, and nobody could be fonder of her than I am, but I sometimes find her presence … what is the word I want … restrictive. She holds