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branches ::: data, databases, datatype

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class:media

datastreams
database (databank)

chars
strings
lists
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objects?


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OBJECT INSTANCES [17] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
audio_files
bigindex
dir_KEYS
dir_lib
encyclopedia
fact
Folders
gifs
img
keys_(database)
Library
map
media
media
my_computer
table
wordlist
wordlist_(todo)
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Enchiridion_text
Full_Circle
Heart_of_Matter
Infinite_Library
Modern_Man_in_Search_of_a_Soul
Mysticism_and_Logic
Process_and_Reality
The_Alchemy_of_Happiness
The_Divine_Milieu
The_Essential_Songs_of_Milarepa
The_Use_and_Abuse_of_History
The_Yoga_Sutras
Toward_the_Future

IN CHAPTERS TITLE
1.07_-_The_Primary_Data_of_Being

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
0.00_-_The_Wellspring_of_Reality
0.02_-_The_Three_Steps_of_Nature
01.03_-_Mystic_Poetry
01.03_-_Rationalism
03.02_-_Aspects_of_Modernism
03.09_-_Art_and_Katharsis
03.14_-_From_the_Known_to_the_Unknown?
04.01_-_The_March_of_Civilisation
04.07_-_Matter_Aspires
05.06_-_Physics_or_philosophy
05.08_-_An_Age_of_Revolution
1.00_-_The_Constitution_of_the_Human_Being
1.01_-_Appearance_and_Reality
1.01_-_MAPS_OF_EXPERIENCE_-_OBJECT_AND_MEANING
1.01_-_Necessity_for_knowledge_of_the_whole_human_being_for_a_genuine_education.
1.01_-_Newtonian_and_Bergsonian_Time
1.01_-_Principles_of_Practical_Psycho_therapy
1.01_-_The_Cycle_of_Society
1.02_-_In_the_Beginning
1.02_-_MAPS_OF_MEANING_-_THREE_LEVELS_OF_ANALYSIS
1.02_-_The_Two_Negations_1_-_The_Materialist_Denial
1.02_-_The_Vision_of_the_Past
10.37_-_The_Golden_Bridge
1.03_-_Concerning_the_Archetypes,_with_Special_Reference_to_the_Anima_Concept
1.03_-_The_Two_Negations_2_-_The_Refusal_of_the_Ascetic
1.03_-_The_Uncreated
1.03_-_Time_Series,_Information,_and_Communication
1.04_-_SOME_REFLECTIONS_ON_PROGRESS
1.04_-_THE_APPEARANCE_OF_ANOMALY_-_CHALLENGE_TO_THE_SHARED_MAP
1.04_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda
1.04_-_Wherefore_of_World?
1.05_-_2010_and_1956_-_Doomsday?
1.05_-_Computing_Machines_and_the_Nervous_System
1.05_-_Knowledge_by_Aquaintance_and_Knowledge_by_Description
1.05_-_The_Creative_Principle
1.05_-_THE_HOSTILE_BROTHERS_-_ARCHETYPES_OF_RESPONSE_TO_THE_UNKNOWN
1.06_-_Being_Human_and_the_Copernican_Principle
1.06_-_On_Induction
1.06_-_The_Desire_to_be
1.06_-_The_Objective_and_Subjective_Views_of_Life
1.07_-_Cybernetics_and_Psychopathology
1.07_-_Medicine_and_Psycho_therapy
1.07_-_On_Our_Knowledge_of_General_Principles
1.07_-_Standards_of_Conduct_and_Spiritual_Freedom
1.07_-_The_Farther_Reaches_of_Human_Nature
1.07_-_The_Fire_of_the_New_World
1.07_-_The_Primary_Data_of_Being
1.07_-_The_Prophecies_of_Nostradamus
1.08_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.08_-_The_Methods_of_Vedantic_Knowledge
1.09_-_Sri_Aurobindo_and_the_Big_Bang
1.09_-_The_Absolute_Manifestation
1.10_-_On_our_Knowledge_of_Universals
1.10_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.11_-_On_Intuitive_Knowledge
1.11_-_The_Change_of_Power
1.11_-_The_Master_of_the_Work
1.1.1_-_The_Mind_and_Other_Levels_of_Being
1.11_-_The_Reason_as_Governor_of_Life
1.11_-_The_Second_Genesis
1.1.2_-_Intellect_and_the_Intellectual
1.13_-_Gnostic_Symbols_of_the_Self
1.13_-_Knowledge,_Error,_and_Probably_Opinion
1.13_-_Reason_and_Religion
1.13_-_System_of_the_O.T.O.
1.14_-_Bibliography
1.14_-_The_Limits_of_Philosophical_Knowledge
1.14_-_The_Structure_and_Dynamics_of_the_Self
1.17_-_Astral_Journey__Example,_How_to_do_it,_How_to_Verify_your_Experience
1.18_-_The_Infrarational_Age_of_the_Cycle
1.19_-_Life
1.20_-_Death,_Desire_and_Incapacity
1.20_-_TANTUM_RELIGIO_POTUIT_SUADERE_MALORUM
1.21_-_My_Theory_of_Astrology
1.21_-_The_Ascent_of_Life
1.2.2_-_The_Place_of_Study_in_Sadhana
1.22_-_The_Problem_of_Life
1.240_-_1.300_Talks
1.240_-_Talks_2
1.25_-_The_Knot_of_Matter
1.26_-_The_Ascending_Series_of_Substance
13.04_-_A_Note_on_Supermind
1.3.5.03_-_The_Involved_and_Evolving_Godhead
1.4.02_-_The_Divine_Force
1.4_-_Readings_in_the_Taittiriya_Upanishad
1.50_-_Eating_the_God
1.51_-_How_to_Recognise_Masters,_Angels,_etc.,_and_how_they_Work
1.68_-_The_God-Letters
1.69_-_Farewell_to_Nemi
1929-06-23_-_Knowledge_of_the_Yogi_-_Knowledge_and_the_Supermind_-_Methods_of_changing_the_condition_of_the_body_-_Meditation,_aspiration,_sincerity
1951-05-14_-_Chance_-_the_play_of_forces_-_Peace,_given_and_lost_-_Abolishing_the_ego
1960_06_22
1960_08_24
1f.lovecraft_-_At_the_Mountains_of_Madness
1f.lovecraft_-_Discarded_Draft_of
1f.lovecraft_-_Facts_concerning_the_Late
1f.lovecraft_-_In_the_Walls_of_Eryx
1f.lovecraft_-_Pickmans_Model
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Call_of_Cthulhu
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Case_of_Charles_Dexter_Ward
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Colour_out_of_Space
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Curse_of_Yig
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dream-Quest_of_Unknown_Kadath
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dunwich_Horror
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Horror_at_Red_Hook
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Last_Test
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Lurking_Fear
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Mound
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Picture_in_the_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Rats_in_the_Walls
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_over_Innsmouth
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shunned_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Trap
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Whisperer_in_Darkness
1f.lovecraft_-_Winged_Death
1.jk_-_Spenserian_Stanza._Written_At_The_Close_Of_Canto_II,_Book_V,_Of_The_Faerie_Queene
1.jk_-_To_Fanny
1.poe_-_Eureka_-_A_Prose_Poem
1.rt_-_The_Little_Big_Man
2.01_-_Habit_1__Be_Proactive
2.01_-_On_Books
2.01_-_The_Two_Natures
2.02_-_Brahman,_Purusha,_Ishwara_-_Maya,_Prakriti,_Shakti
2.02_-_Habit_2__Begin_with_the_End_in_Mind
2.02_-_The_Status_of_Knowledge
2.03_-_The_Eternal_and_the_Individual
2.03_-_The_Purified_Understanding
2.05_-_Habit_3__Put_First_Things_First
2.05_-_The_Cosmic_Illusion;_Mind,_Dream_and_Hallucination
2.06_-_Reality_and_the_Cosmic_Illusion
2.07_-_The_Knowledge_and_the_Ignorance
2.09_-_Memory,_Ego_and_Self-Experience
2.1.02_-_Nature_The_World-Manifestation
2.1.03_-_Man_and_Superman
2.10_-_Knowledge_by_Identity_and_Separative_Knowledge
2.13_-_On_Psychology
2.1.4.2_-_Teaching
2.14_-_The_Origin_and_Remedy_of_Falsehood,_Error,_Wrong_and_Evil
2.14_-_The_Unpacking_of_God
2.15_-_Reality_and_the_Integral_Knowledge
2.17_-_The_Soul_and_Nature
2.18_-_The_Evolutionary_Process_-_Ascent_and_Integration
2.2.01_-_The_Problem_of_Consciousness
2.2.01_-_Work_and_Yoga
2.2.03_-_The_Science_of_Consciousness
2.20_-_The_Philosophy_of_Rebirth
2.24_-_The_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Man
2.25_-_The_Higher_and_the_Lower_Knowledge
2.25_-_The_Triple_Transformation
2.26_-_The_Ascent_towards_Supermind
2.3.02_-_The_Supermind_or_Supramental
2.3.06_-_The_Mind
2_-_Other_Hymns_to_Agni
3.05_-_SAL
3.05_-_The_Divine_Personality
3.1.02_-_A_Theory_of_the_Human_Being
3.18_-_Of_Clairvoyance_and_the_Body_of_Light
32.07_-_The_God_of_the_Scientist
3.2.09_-_The_Teachings_of_Some_Modern_Indian_Yogis
3.21_-_Of_Black_Magic
3.2.3_-_Dreams
3.4.03_-_Materialism
3-5_Full_Circle
3.6.01_-_Heraclitus
3.7.1.01_-_Rebirth
3.7.1.04_-_Rebirth_and_Soul_Evolution
3.7.1.07_-_Involution_and_Evolution
3.7.1.11_-_Rebirth_and_Karma
3.7.2.05_-_Appendix_I_-_The_Tangle_of_Karma
3.8.1.04_-_Different_Methods_of_Writing
3_-_Commentaries_and_Annotated_Translations
4.02_-_The_Psychology_of_the_Child_Archetype
4.05_-_The_Instruments_of_the_Spirit
4.07_-_Purification-Intelligence_and_Will
4.1.01_-_The_Intellect_and_Yoga
4.1.3_-_Imperfections_and_Periods_of_Arrest
4.21_-_The_Gradations_of_the_supermind
4.22_-_The_supramental_Thought_and_Knowledge
4.23_-_The_supramental_Instruments_--_Thought-process
4.24_-_The_supramental_Sense
4.25_-_Towards_the_supramental_Time_Vision
5.05_-_Supermind_and_Humanity
5.08_-_ADAM_AS_TOTALITY
5.4.02_-_Occult_Powers_or_Siddhis
5_-_The_Phenomenology_of_the_Spirit_in_Fairytales
6.0_-_Conscious,_Unconscious,_and_Individuation
Apology
APPENDIX_I_-_Curriculum_of_A._A.
Blazing_P1_-_Preconventional_consciousness
Blazing_P2_-_Map_the_Stages_of_Conventional_Consciousness
Blazing_P3_-_Explore_the_Stages_of_Postconventional_Consciousness
BOOK_II._--_PART_I._ANTHROPOGENESIS.
BOOK_II._--_PART_III._ADDENDA._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_II._--_PART_II._THE_ARCHAIC_SYMBOLISM_OF_THE_WORLD-RELIGIONS
BOOK_I._--_PART_I._COSMIC_EVOLUTION
BOOK_I._--_PART_III._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_I._--_PART_II._THE_EVOLUTION_OF_SYMBOLISM_IN_ITS_APPROXIMATE_ORDER
BOOK_XIII._-_That_death_is_penal,_and_had_its_origin_in_Adam's_sin
Conversations_with_Sri_Aurobindo
ENNEAD_02.09_-_Against_the_Gnostics;_or,_That_the_Creator_and_the_World_are_Not_Evil.
ENNEAD_03.07_-_Of_Time_and_Eternity.
ENNEAD_04.02_-_How_the_Soul_Mediates_Between_Indivisible_and_Divisible_Essence.
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_and_Identical_Being_is_Everywhere_Present_In_Its_Entirety.345
Euthyphro
For_a_Breath_I_Tarry
Jaap_Sahib_Text_(Guru_Gobind_Singh)
Liber_46_-_The_Key_of_the_Mysteries
r1912_01_13
r1912_02_07
r1912_07_22
r1912_11_29
r1912_12_06
r1912_12_30
r1913_01_04
r1913_01_08
r1913_01_13
r1913_01_15
r1913_02_02
r1913_02_03
r1913_02_07
r1913_06_17
r1913_06_17b
r1913_12_13
r1913_12_28
r1913_12_29
r1913_12_30
r1914_03_12
r1914_03_24
r1914_03_25
r1914_07_22
r1914_07_25
r1918_05_24
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_1
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_2
The_Act_of_Creation_text
The_Coming_Race_Contents
The_Dwellings_of_the_Philosophers
The_Last_Question
The_Riddle_of_this_World

PRIMARY CLASS

media
programming
SIMILAR TITLES
data
databases
datatype
keys (database)

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH

data abstraction "data" Any representation of data in which the implementation details are hidden (abstracted). {Abstract data types} and {objects} are the two primary forms of data abstraction. [Other forms?]. (2003-07-03)

data abstraction ::: (data) Any representation of data in which the implementation details are hidden (abstracted). Abstract data types and objects are the two primary forms of data abstraction.[Other forms?].(2003-07-03)

data acquisition {data logging}

data augmentation ::: Data augmentation in data analysis are techniques used to increase the amount of data. It helps reduce overfitting when training a machine learning.

data available. He seems to operate in both

database ::: 1. (database) One or more large structured sets of persistent data, usually associated with software to update and query the data. A simple database might be a single file containing many records, each of which contains the same set of fields where each field is a certain fixed width.A database is one component of a database management system.See also ANSI/SPARC Architecture, atomic, blob, data definition language, deductive database, distributed database, fourth generation language, functional database, object-oriented database, relational database. .2. (hypertext) A collection of nodes managed and stored in one place and all accessible via the same server. Links outside this are external, and those inside are internal.On the World-Wide Web this is called a website.3. All the facts and rules comprising a logic programming program.(2005-11-17)

database 1. "database" One or more large structured sets of persistent data, usually associated with software to update and {query} the data. A simple database might be a single file containing many {records}, each of which contains the same set of {fields} where each field is a certain fixed width. A database is one component of a {database management system}. See also {ANSI/SPARC Architecture}, {atomic}, {blob}, {data definition language}, {deductive database}, {distributed database}, {fourth generation language}, {functional database}, {object-oriented database}, {relational database}. {Carol E. Brown's tutorial (http://accounting.rutgers.edu/raw/aies/www.bus.orst.edu/faculty/brownc/lectures/db_tutor/db_tutor.htm)}. 2. "hypertext" A collection of {nodes} managed and stored in one place and all accessible via the same {server}. {Links} outside this are "external", and those inside are "internal". On the {World-Wide Web} this is called a {website}. 3. All the facts and rules comprising a {logic programming} program. (2005-11-17)

database administrator ::: (job) A person responsible for the design and management of one or more databases and for the evaluation, selection and implementation of database administrator would implement the database software that meets the requirements outlined by the organisation's data administrator and systems analysts.Tasks might include controling an organisation's data resources, using data dictionary software to ensure data integrity and security, recovering corrupted data and eliminating data redundancy and uses tuning tools to improve database performance.(2004-03-11)

database administrator "job" A person responsible for the design and management of one or more {databases} and for the evaluation, selection and implementation of {database management systems}. In smaller organisations, the data administrator and database administrator are often one in the same; however, when they are different, the database administrator's function is more technical. The database administrator would implement the database software that meets the requirements outlined by the organisation's data administrator and {systems analysts}. Tasks might include controling an organisation's data resources, using {data dictionary} software to ensure {data integrity} and security, recovering corrupted data and eliminating data redundancy and uses tuning tools to improve database performance. (2004-03-11)

database analyst "job" A person who uses {data modeling} to analyse and specify data use within an application area. A database analyst defines both {logical views} and physical data structures. In a {client/server} environment, he defines the database part of the back end system. (2004-03-11)

database analyst ::: (job) A person who uses data modeling to analyse and specify data use within an application area. A database analyst defines both logical views and physical data structures. In a client/server environment, he defines the database part of the back end system.(2004-03-11)

database machine ::: (hardware) A computer or special hardware that stores and retrieves data from a database. It is specially designed for database access and is coupled to database. The database machine is tightly coupled to the main CPU, whereas the database server is loosely coupled via the network.[Example?](2004-03-11)

database machine "hardware" A {computer} or special hardware that stores and retrieves data from a {database}. It is specially designed for database access and is coupled to the main ({front-end}) computer(s) by a high-speed channel. This contrasts with a {database server}, which is a computer in a {local area network} that holds a database. The database machine is tightly coupled to the main {CPU}, whereas the database server is loosely coupled via the network. [Example?] (2004-03-11)

database management system "database" (DBMS) A suite of programs which typically manage large structured sets of persistent data, offering ad hoc query facilities to many users. They are widely used in business applications. A database management system (DBMS) can be an extremely complex set of software programs that controls the organisation, storage and retrieval of data (fields, records and files) in a database. It also controls the security and integrity of the database. The DBMS accepts requests for data from the application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organisation's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system. Data security prevents unauthorised users from viewing or updating the database. Using passwords, users are allowed access to the entire database or subsets of the database, called subschemas (pronounced "sub-skeema"). For example, an employee database can contain all the data about an individual employee, but one group of users may be authorised to view only payroll data, while others are allowed access to only work history and medical data. The DBMS can maintain the integrity of the database by not allowing more than one user to update the same record at the same time. The DBMS can keep duplicate records out of the database; for example, no two customers with the same customer numbers (key fields) can be entered into the database. {Query languages} and {report writers} allow users to interactively interrogate the database and analyse its data. If the DBMS provides a way to interactively enter and update the database, as well as interrogate it, this capability allows for managing personal databases. However, it may not leave an audit trail of actions or provide the kinds of controls necessary in a multi-user organisation. These controls are only available when a set of application programs are customised for each data entry and updating function. A business information system is made up of subjects (customers, employees, vendors, etc.) and activities (orders, payments, purchases, etc.). Database design is the process of deciding how to organize this data into record types and how the record types will relate to each other. The DBMS should mirror the organisation's data structure and process transactions efficiently. Organisations may use one kind of DBMS for daily transaction processing and then move the detail onto another computer that uses another DBMS better suited for random inquiries and analysis. Overall systems design decisions are performed by data administrators and systems analysts. Detailed database design is performed by database administrators. The three most common organisations are the {hierarchical database}, {network database} and {relational database}. A database management system may provide one, two or all three methods. Inverted lists and other methods are also used. The most suitable structure depends on the application and on the transaction rate and the number of inquiries that will be made. Database machines are specially designed computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Connected to one or more mainframes via a high-speed channel, database machines are used in large volume transaction processing environments. Database machines have a large number of DBMS functions built into the hardware and also provide special techniques for accessing the disks containing the databases, such as using multiple processors concurrently for high-speed searches. The world of information is made up of data, text, pictures and voice. Many DBMSs manage text as well as data, but very few manage both with equal proficiency. Throughout the 1990s, as storage capacities continue to increase, DBMSs will begin to integrate all forms of information. Eventually, it will be common for a database to handle data, text, graphics, voice and video with the same ease as today's systems handle data. See also: {intelligent database}. (1998-10-07)

database management system ::: (database) (DBMS) A suite of programs which typically manage large structured sets of persistent data, offering ad hoc query facilities to many users. They are widely used in business applications.A database management system (DBMS) can be an extremely complex set of software programs that controls the organisation, storage and retrieval of data (fields, the database. The DBMS accepts requests for data from the application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data.When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organisation's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system.Data security prevents unauthorised users from viewing or updating the database. Using passwords, users are allowed access to the entire database or subsets of group of users may be authorised to view only payroll data, while others are allowed access to only work history and medical data.The DBMS can maintain the integrity of the database by not allowing more than one user to update the same record at the same time. The DBMS can keep duplicate records out of the database; for example, no two customers with the same customer numbers (key fields) can be entered into the database.Query languages and report writers allow users to interactively interrogate the database and analyse its data.If the DBMS provides a way to interactively enter and update the database, as well as interrogate it, this capability allows for managing personal databases. available when a set of application programs are customised for each data entry and updating function.A business information system is made up of subjects (customers, employees, vendors, etc.) and activities (orders, payments, purchases, etc.). Database and how the record types will relate to each other. The DBMS should mirror the organisation's data structure and process transactions efficiently.Organisations may use one kind of DBMS for daily transaction processing and then move the detail onto another computer that uses another DBMS better suited for data administrators and systems analysts. Detailed database design is performed by database administrators.The three most common organisations are the hierarchical database, network database and relational database. A database management system may provide one, most suitable structure depends on the application and on the transaction rate and the number of inquiries that will be made.Database machines are specially designed computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Connected to one or more accessing the disks containing the databases, such as using multiple processors concurrently for high-speed searches.The world of information is made up of data, text, pictures and voice. Many DBMSs manage text as well as data, but very few manage both with equal common for a database to handle data, text, graphics, voice and video with the same ease as today's systems handle data.See also: intelligent database. (1998-10-07)

database manager The part of the database management system (DBMS) that handles the organisation, storage and retrieval of the data. A database manager may work with traditional programming languages, such as COBOL and BASIC, or may work only with its proprietary programming language. The terms database manager and database management system are used interchangeably. A database manager links two or more files together and is the foundation for developing routine business systems. Contrast with file manager, which works with only one file at a time and is typically used interactively on a personal computer for managing personal, independent files, such as name and address lists.

database manager ::: The part of the database management system (DBMS) that handles the organisation, storage and retrieval of the data. A database manager may work with traditional proprietary programming language. The terms database manager and database management system are used interchangeably.A database manager links two or more files together and is the foundation for developing routine business systems. Contrast with file manager, which works computer for managing personal, independent files, such as name and address lists.

database normalisation ::: (database) A series of steps followed to obtain a database design that allows for efficient access and storage of data in a relational database. These steps reduce data redundancy and the chances of data becoming inconsistent.A table in a relational database is said to be in normal form if it satisfies certain constraints. Codd's original work defined three such forms but there are is called First Normal Form (1NF), the output of the second step is Second Normal Form (2NF), etc.First Normal Form eliminates repeating groups by putting each value of a multi-valued attribute into a new row.Second Normal Form eliminates functional dependencies on a partial key by putting the fields in a separate table from those that are dependent on the whole key.Third Normal Form eliminates functional dependencies on non-key fields by putting them in a separate table. At this stage, all non-key fields are dependent on the key, the whole key and nothing but the key.Fourth Normal Form separates independent multi-valued facts stored in one table into separate tables.Fifth Normal Form breaks out data redundancy that is not covered by any of the previous normal forms. .[What about non-relational databases?](2005-07-28)

database normalisation "database" A series of steps followed to obtain a {database} design that allows for efficient access and {storage} of data in a {relational database}. These steps reduce data redundancy and the chances of data becoming inconsistent. A {table} in a {relational database} is said to be in normal form if it satisfies certain {constraints}. {Codd}'s original work defined three such forms but there are now five generally accepted steps of normalisation. The output of the first step is called First Normal Form (1NF), the output of the second step is Second Normal Form (2NF), etc. First Normal Form eliminates {repeating groups} by putting each value of a multi-valued attribute into a new row. Second Normal Form eliminates {functional dependencies} on a {partial key} by putting the fields in a separate table from those that are dependent on the whole {key}. Third Normal Form eliminates functional dependencies on non-key fields by putting them in a separate table. At this stage, all non-key fields are dependent on the key, the whole key and nothing but the key. Fourth Normal Form separates independent multi-valued facts stored in one table into separate tables. Fifth Normal Form breaks out data redundancy that is not covered by any of the previous normal forms. {(http://bkent.net/Doc/simple5.htm)}. [What about non-relational databases?] (2005-07-28)

database query language "database" A language in which users of a {database} can (interactively) formulate requests and generate reports. The best known is {SQL}. (1998-04-15)

database query language ::: (database) A language in which users of a database can (interactively) formulate requests and generate reports. The best known is SQL. (1998-04-15)

database server A stand-alone computer in a local area network that holds and manages the database. It implies that database management functions, such as locating the actual record being requested, is performed in the server computer. Contrast with file server, which acts as a remote disk drive and requires that large parts of the database, for example, entire indexes, be transmitted to the user's computer where the real database management tasks are performed. First-generation personal computer database software was not designed for a network; thus, modified versions of the software released by the vendors employed the file server concept. Second-generation products, designed for local area networks, perform the management tasks in the server where they should be done, and consequently are turning the file server into a database server.

database server ::: A stand-alone computer in a local area network that holds and manages the database. It implies that database management functions, such as locating the parts of the database, for example, entire indexes, be transmitted to the user's computer where the real database management tasks are performed.First-generation personal computer database software was not designed for a network; thus, modified versions of the software released by the vendors area networks, perform the management tasks in the server where they should be done, and consequently are turning the file server into a database server.

database transaction "database" A set of related changes applied to a {database}. The term typically implies that either all of the changes should be applied or, in the event of an error, none of them, i.e. the transaction should be {atomic}. Atomicity is one of the {ACID} properties a transaction can have, another is {isolation} - preventing interference between processes trying to access the database {cocurrently}. This is usually achieved by some form of {locking} - where one process takes exclusive control of a database {table} or {row} for the duration of the transaction, preventing other processes from accessing the locked data. The canonical example of a transaction is transferring money between two bank accounts by subtracting it from one and adding it to the other. Some {relational database management systems} require the user to explicitly start a transaction and then either commit it (if all the individual steps are successful) or roll it back (if there are any errors). (2013-06-03)

data "data, data processing, jargon" /day't*/ (Or "raw data") Numbers, {characters}, {images}, or other method of recording, in a form which can be assessed by a human or (especially) input into a {computer}, stored and {processed} there, or transmitted on some {digital channel}. Computers nearly always represent data in {binary}. Data on its own has no meaning, only when interpreted by some kind of {data processing} system does it take on meaning and become {information}. For example, the binary data 01110101 might represent the integer 117 or the {ASCII} lower case U character or the blue component of a pixel in some {video}. Which of these it represents is determined by the way it is processed (added, printed, displayed, etc.). Even these numbers, characters or pixels however are still not really information until their context is known, e.g. my bank balance is £117, there are two Us in "vacuum", you have blue eyes. (2007-09-10)

data ::: (data, data processing, jargon) /day't*/ (Or raw data) Numbers, characters, images, or other method of recording, in a form which can be there, or transmitted on some digital channel. Computers nearly always represent data in binary.Data on its own has no meaning, only when interpreted by some kind of data processing system does it take on meaning and become information.People or computers can find patterns in data to perceive information, and information can be used to enhance knowledge. Since knowledge is prerequisite to wisdom, we always want more data and information. But, as modern societies verge on information overload, we especially need better ways to find patterns.1234567.89 is data.Your bank balance has jumped 8087% to $1234567.89 is information.Nobody owes me that much money is knowledge.I'd better talk to the bank before I spend it, because of what has happened to other people is wisdom. (1999-04-30)

datable ::: a. --> That may be dated; having a known or ascertainable date.

data bus ::: (architecture) The bus (connections between and within the CPU, memory, and peripherals) used to carry data. Other connections are the address bus and control signals.The width and clock rate of the data bus determine its data rate (the number of bytes per second it can carry), which is one of the main factors determining the external connections cheaper while retaining some of the benefits in processing power of a wider bus.See also data path. (1995-01-16)

data bus "architecture" The bus (connections between and within the {CPU}, memory, and peripherals) used to carry {data}. Other connections are the {address bus} and control signals. The width and {clock rate} of the data bus determine its data rate (the number of {bytes} per second it can carry), which is one of the main factors determining the processing power of a computer. Most current processor designs use a 32-bit bus, meaning that 32 bits of data can be transferred at once. Some processors have an internal data bus which is wider than their external bus in order to make external connections cheaper while retaining some of the benefits in processing power of a wider bus. See also {data path}. (1995-01-16)

datacenter manager "job" A person who plans and directs all computer and {peripheral} operations, {data entry}, data control scheduling and quality control. (2004-03-11)

datacenter manager ::: (job) A person who plans and directs all computer and peripheral operations, data entry, data control scheduling and quality control.(2004-03-11)

data channel "communications" A channel (on a {BRI} or {PRI} line) used to carry control information, to set up connections on the associated {bearer channels}. The name wasn't too bad back when users were sending voice (not data) over the {bearer channels}, but in 1997 it's quite a misnomer. (1997-03-10)

data channel ::: (communications) A channel (on a BRI or PRI line) used to carry control information, to set up connections on the associated bearer channels. The name wasn't too bad back when users were sending voice (not data) over the bearer channels, but in 1997 it's quite a misnomer. (1997-03-10)

data communications analyst ::: (job) A person who installs, maintains, and troubleshoots data networks. A data communications analyst may have knowledge of T1 lines, TCP/IP, fiber connectivity, analyses data flow, configures modems, DSUs, multiplexors, and routers, and uses network tools such as NetView or Netspy.(2004-03-11)

data communications analyst "job" A person who installs, maintains, and troubleshoots {data networks}. A data communications analyst may have knowledge of {T1} lines, {TCP/IP}, {fiber optics}, {SNA}, {frame relay}. He assists users with problems related to connectivity, analyses data flow, configures {modems}, {DSUs}, {multiplexors}, and {routers}, and uses network tools such as {NetView} or {Netspy}. (2004-03-11)

data compression "algorithm" {compression}. Probably to distinguish it from (electronic) {signal compression}. (1995-04-02)

data compression ::: (algorithm) compression. Probably to distinguish it from (electronic) signal compression. (1995-04-02)

datacrawl, the: A streaming feed of important data that moves slowly across the peripheral vision of an operative’s glasses, visor, or viewscreen; officially referred to as the Visual Data & Analysis Spectrum (VDAS, pronounced veee-DAS).

data dictionary "database" A data structure that stores {metadata}, i.e. data about {data}. The term "data dictionary" has several uses. Most generally it is a set of {data descriptions} that can be shared by several applications. Usually it means a {table} in a {database} that stores the names, {field} {types}, length, and other characteristics of the fields in the database tables. An active data dictionary is automatically updated as changes occur in the database. A passive data dictionary must be manually updated. In a {DBMS}, this functionality is performed by the {system catalog}. The data dictionary is a more general software utility used by designers, users, and administrators for {information resource management}. The data dictionary may maintain information on system hardware, software, documentation, users, and other aspects. Data dictionaries are also used to document the database design process itself and can accumulate metadata ready to feed into the system catalog. [Does anybody call them "codebooks"?] (2001-04-24)

data dictionary ::: (database) A data structure that stores meta-data, i.e. data about data. The term data dictionary has several uses.Most generally it is a set of data descriptions that can be shared by several applications.Usually it means a table in a database that stores the names, field types, length, and other characteristics of the fields in the database tables.An active data dictionary is automatically updated as changes occur in the database. A passive data dictionary must be manually updated.In a DBMS, this functionality is performed by the system catalog. The data dictionary is a more general software utility used by designers, users, and administrators for information resource management.The data dictionary may maintain information on system hardware, software, documentation, users, and other aspects.Data dictionaries are also used to document the database design process itself and can accumulate meta-data ready to feed into the system catalog.[Does anybody call them codebooks?](2001-04-24)

data dictionary file "database" (DDF) A set of files describing the structure of a {database} file. DDFs define {database tables} and include information about file locations, field layouts and indexes. DDFs are the standard method for defining field and index characteristics for {Btrieve} files. (1997-06-03)

data dictionary file ::: (database) (DDF) A set of files describing the structure of a database file. DDFs define database tables and include information about file locations, field layouts and indexes. DDFs are the standard method for defining field and index characteristics for Btrieve files. (1997-06-03)

data driven ::: A data driven architecture/language performs computations in an order dictated by data dependencies. Two kinds of data driven computation are dataflow and demand driven.From about 1970 research in parallel data driven computation increased. Centres of excellence emerged at MIT, CERT-ONERA in France, NTT and ETL in Japan and Manchester University.

data driven A data driven architecture/language performs computations in an order dictated by data dependencies. Two kinds of data driven computation are {dataflow} and {demand driven}. From about 1970 research in parallel {data driven} computation increased. Centres of excellence emerged at {MIT}, {CERT-ONERA} in France, {NTT} and {ETL} in Japan and {Manchester University}.

data feed "data, architecture" Some process for transferring {data} from one system to another in a predetermined form. (2009-05-17)

data flow ::: A data flow architecture or language performs a computation when all the operands are available. Data flow is one kind of data driven architecture, the data to be transmitted directly from the producing instruction to the consuming one.Data flow schemes differ chiefly in the way that they handle re-entrant code. Static schemes disallow it, dynamic schemes use either code copying or tagging at every point of reentry.An example of a data flow architecture is MIT's VAL machine.

data flow analysis "programming" A process to discover the dependencies between different data items manipulated by a program. The order of execution in a {data driven} language is determined solely by the data dependencies. For example, given the equations 1. X = A + B 2. B = 2 + 2 3. A = 3 + 4 a data-flow analysis would find that 2 and 3 must be evaluated before 1. Since there are no data dependencies between 2 and 3, they may be evaluated in any order, including in parallel. This technique is implemented in {hardware} in some {pipelined} processors with multiple {functional units}. It allows instructions to be executed as soon as their inputs are available, independent of the original program order. (1996-05-13)

data flow analysis ::: (programming) A process to discover the dependencies between different data items manipulated by a program. The order of execution in a data driven language is determined solely by the data dependencies. For example, given the equations 1. X = A + B2. B = 2 + 2 3, they may be evaluated in any order, including in parallel.This technique is implemented in hardware in some pipelined processors with multiple functional units. It allows instructions to be executed as soon as their inputs are available, independent of the original program order. (1996-05-13)

data flow "architecture" A data flow architecture or language performs a computation when all the {operands} are available. Data flow is one kind of {data driven} architecture, the other is {demand driven}. It is a technique for specifying {fine-grain concurrency}, usually in the form of two-dimensional graphs in which instructions that are available for concurrent execution are written alongside each other while those that must be executed in sequence are written one under the other. Data dependencies between instructions are indicated by directed arcs. Instructions do not reference memory since the data dependence arcs allow data to be transmitted directly from the producing instruction to the consuming one. Data flow schemes differ chiefly in the way that they handle {re-entrant} code. Static schemes disallow it, dynamic schemes use either "code copying" or "tagging" at every point of reentry. An example of a data flow architecture is {MIT}'s {VAL} machine.

data fork {Macintosh file system}

data frame {activation record}

data fusion ::: The process of integrating multiple data sources to produce more consistent, accurate, and useful information than that provided by any individual data source.[132]

data glove ::: (hardware, virtual reality) An input device for virtual reality in the form of a glove which measures the movements of the wearer's fingers and an output device, e.g. vibrating under control of the computer. The user usually sees a virtual image of the data glove and can point or grip and push objects.Examples are Fifth Dimension Technologies (5DT)'s 5th Glove, and Virtual Technologies' CyberGlove. A cheaper alternative is InWorld VR's CyberWand.[Full freedom plus input, PC Magazine, Mar 14 1995, pp. 168-190].[Inventor?] (1995-04-04)

data glove "hardware, virtual reality" An input device for {virtual reality} in the form of a glove which measures the movements of the wearer's fingers and transmits them to the computer. Sophisticated data gloves also measure movement of the wrist and elbow. A data glove may also contain control buttons or act as an output device, e.g. vibrating under control of the computer. The user usually sees a virtual image of the data glove and can point or grip and push objects. Examples are {Fifth Dimension Technologies} (5DT)'s {5th Glove}, and {Virtual Technologies}' {CyberGlove}. A cheaper alternative is {InWorld VR}'s {CyberWand}. ["Full freedom plus input", PC Magazine, Mar 14 1995, pp. 168-190]. [Inventor?] (1995-04-04)

datagram ::: A self-contained, independent entity of data carrying sufficient information to be routed from the source to the destination computer without reliance on earlier exchanges between this source and destination computer and the transporting network.See also connectionless, frame, packet.

datagram A self-contained, independent entity of data carrying sufficient information to be {route}d from the source to the destination computer without reliance on earlier exchanges between this source and destination computer and the transporting {network}. See also {connectionless}, {frame}, {packet}.

data hierarchy ::: The system of data objects which provide the methods for information storage and retrieval. Broadly, a data hierarchy may be considered to be either natural, information is expressed, or machine, which reflects the facilities of the computer, both hardware and software.A natural data hierarchy might consist of bits, characters, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, and chapters. One might use components bound to an etc. On the other hand, a machine or software system might use bit, byte, word, block, partition, channel, and port.Programming languages often provide types or objects which can create data hierarchies of arbitrary complexity, thus allowing software system designers to model language structures described by the linguist to greater or lesser degree.The distinction between the natural form of data and the facilities provided by the machine may be obscure, because users force their needs into the molds data type character and the machine type byte are often used interchangably, because the latter has evolved to meet the need of representing the former. (1995-11-03)

data hierarchy The system of data objects which provide the {methods} for {information} storage and retrieval. Broadly, a data hierarchy may be considered to be either natural, which arises from the alphabet or syntax of the language in which the information is expressed, or machine, which reflects the facilities of the computer, both hardware and software. A natural data hierarchy might consist of {bits}, {characters}, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, and chapters. One might use components bound to an application, such as field, record, and file, and these would ordinarily be further specified by having {data descriptors} such as name field, address field, etc. On the other hand, a machine or software system might use {bit}, {byte}, {word}, {block}, {partition}, {channel}, and {port}. Programming languages often provide {types} or {objects} which can create data hierarchies of arbitrary complexity, thus allowing software system designers to model language structures described by the linguist to greater or lesser degree. The distinction between the natural form of data and the facilities provided by the machine may be obscure, because users force their needs into the molds provided, and programmers change machine designs. As an example, the natural data type "character" and the machine type "byte" are often used interchangeably, because the latter has evolved to meet the need of representing the former. (1995-11-03)

data integration ::: The process of combining data residing in different sources and providing users with a unified view of them.[133] This process becomes significant in a variety of situations, which include both commercial (such as when two similar companies need to merge their databases) and scientific (combining research results from different bioinformatics repositories, for example) domains. Data integration appears with increasing frequency as the volume (that is, big data) and the need to share existing data explodes.[134] It has become the focus of extensive theoretical work, and numerous open problems remain unsolved.

data integrity "data" The absence of unintended changes or errors in some data. Integrity implies that the data is an exact copy of some original version, e.g. that it has not been corrupted in the process of being written to, and read back from, a {hard disk} or during transmission via some communications channel. Integrity may further imply that the {information} represented by the data has been {validated}, i.e. verified to conform to certain constraints, e.g. a date's year, month and day parts are within the appropriate ranges and the date actually exists. (2009-06-03)

dataless management utility "operating system" (DMU) A {Dataless Management Services} (DMS) utility for managing the sharing of installed operating software between DMS servers and clients. It allows users to install, configure, show and delete DMS environments and add, list, modify and remove DMS clients. (2005-09-15)

dataless management utility ::: (operating system) (DMU) A Dataless Management Services (DMS) utility for managing the sharing of installed operating software between DMS servers and clients. It allows users to install, configure, show and delete DMS environments and add, list, modify and remove DMS clients.(2005-09-15)

data link layer ::: (networking) Layer two, the second lowest layer in the OSI seven layer model. The data link layer splits data into frames (see fragmentation) for into an upper sublayer, Logical Link Control (LLC), and a lower sublayer, Media Access Control (MAC).Example protocols at this layer are ABP, Go Back N, SRP. (1995-02-14)

data link layer "networking" Layer two, the second lowest layer in the {OSI} seven layer model. The data link layer splits data into {frames} (see {fragmentation}) for sending on the {physical layer} and receives acknowledgement frames. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames not received correctly. It provides an error-free virtual channel to the {network layer}. The data link layer is split into an upper sublayer, {Logical Link Control} (LLC), and a lower sublayer, {Media Access Control} (MAC). Example {protocols} at this layer are {ABP}, {Go Back N}, {SRP}. (1995-02-14)

data link level ::: data link layer

data link level {data link layer}

data logger ::: data logging

data logger {data logging}

data logging "data" (data acquisition) Storing a series of measurements over time, usually from a sensor that converts a physical quantity such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, light, resistance, current, power, speed, vibration into a voltage that is then converted by a {digital to analog converter} (DAC) into a binary number. Data logging hardware may have several DACs for multiple simultaneous measurements. The hardware usually connects to a {parallel port}, {serial port} or {USB} port on a {PC}. (2004-11-15)

data logging ::: (data) (data acquisition) Storing a series of measurements over time, usually from a sensor that converts a physical quantity such as temperature, simultaneous measurements. The hardware usually connects to a parallel port, serial port or USB port on a PC.(2004-11-15)

data mart ::: (database) A type of data warehouse designed primarily to address a specific function or department's needs, as opposed to a data warehouse which is ability to access the underlying base data to enable drill-down analysis as necessary. (1998-04-24)

data mart "database" A type of {data warehouse} designed primarily to address a specific function or department's needs, as opposed to a data warehouse which is traditionally meant to address the needs of the organisation from an enterprise perspective. In addition, a data mart often uses {aggregation} or summarisation of the data to enhance query performance. However, it is important to maintain the ability to access the underlying base data to enable {drill-down analysis} as necessary. (1998-04-24)

data mining ::: (database) Analysis of data in a database using tools which look for trends or anomalies without knowledge of the meaning of the data. Data mining was invented by IBM who hold some related patents.Data mining may well be done on a data warehouse. is an example of a data mining tool.(2001-02-08)

data mining "database" Analysis of data in a {database} using tools which look for trends or anomalies without knowledge of the meaning of the data. Data mining was invented by {IBM} who hold some related patents. Data mining may well be done on a {data warehouse}. {ShowCase STRATEGY (http://showcasecorp.com/)} is an example of a data mining tool. (2001-02-08)

data mining ::: The process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.

data model "database" The product of the {database} design process which aims to identify and organize the required data logically and physically. A data model says what information is to be contained in a database, how the information will be used, and how the items in the database will be related to each other. For example, a data model might specify that a customer is represented by a customer name and credit card number and a product as a product code and price, and that there is a one-to-many relation between a customer and a product. It can be difficult to change a database layout once code has been written and data inserted. A well thought-out data model reduces the need for such changes. Data modelling enhances application maintainability and future systems may re-use parts of existing models, which should lower development costs. A data modelling language is a mathematical formalism with a notation for describing data structures and a set of operations used to manipulate and validate that data. One of the most widely used methods for developing data models is the {entity-relationship model}. The {relational model} is the most widely used type of data model. Another example is {NIAM}. ["Principles of Database and Knowledge-Base Systems", J.D. Ullman, Volume I, Computer Science Press, 1988, p. 32]. (2000-06-24)

data model ::: (database) The product of the database design process which aims to identify and organize the required data logically and physically.A data model says what information is to be contained in a database, how the information will be used, and how the items in the database will be related to each other.For example, a data model might specify that a customer is represented by a customer name and credit card number and a product as a product code and price, and that there is a one-to-many relation between a customer and a product.It can be difficult to change a database layout once code has been written and data inserted. A well thought-out data model reduces the need for such changes. Data modelling enhances application maintainability and future systems may re-use parts of existing models, which should lower development costs.A data modelling language is a mathematical formalism with a notation for describing data structures and a set of operations used to manipulate and validate that data.One of the most widely used methods for developing data models is the entity-relationship model. The relational model is the most widely used type of data model. Another example is NIAM.[Principles of Database and Knowledge-Base Systems, J.D. Ullman, Volume I, Computer Science Press, 1988, p. 32].(2000-06-24)

data modeling "spelling" US spelling of "{data model}ling". (2000-06-24)

data modeling ::: (spelling) US spelling of data modelling.(2000-06-24)

data modelling {data model}

data ::: n. pl. --> See Datum. ::: pl. --> of Datum

data packet {packet}

data path "architecture" A {CPU}'s internal {data bus} and {functional units}. The width of the data path in bits is a major determiner of the processor's performance. (1997-07-09)

data path ::: (architecture) A CPU's internal data bus and functional units. The width of the data path in bits is a major determiner of the processor's performance. (1997-07-09)

data processing ::: (application) The input, verification, organisation, storage, retrieval, transformation, and extraction of information from data. The term is normally associated with commercial applications such as stock control or payroll. (1995-03-30)

data processing "data processing" An antiquated term for the input, verification, organisation, storage, retrieval and transformation of {data} and the extraction of {information}. The term was associated with commercial applications such as stock control or payroll. (2019-01-26)

data: Quantitative or qualitative results of observations and measurements in statistics. The word data is the plural of the singular form datum.

data rate {data transfer rate}

data rate ::: (communications, unit) (Or data ransfer rate, transmission rate) The amount of data transferred per second by a communications channel or a computing or storage device.Data rate is measured in units of bits per second (written b/s or bps), bytes per second (Bps), or baud.When applied to data rate, the multiplier prefixes kilo-, mega-, giga-, etc. (and their abbreviations, k, M, G, etc.) always denote powers of 1000. For example, 64 kbps is 64,000 bits per second. This contrasts with units of storage where they stand for powers of 1024, e.g. 1 KB = 1024 bytes.[Relationship with bandwidth?](2002-03-23)

data redundancy "data, communications, storage" Any technique that stores or transmits extra, derived data that can be used to detect or repair errors, either in hardware or software. Examples are {parity bits} and the {cyclic redundancy check}. If the cost of errors is high enough, e.g. in a {safety-critical system}, redundancy may be used in both hardware AND software with three separate computers programmed by three separate teams ("triple redundancy") and some system to check that they all produce the same answer, or some kind of majority voting system. The term is not typically used for other, less beneficial, duplication of data. 2. "communications" The proportion of a message's gross information content that can be eliminated without losing essential information. Technically, redundancy is one minus the ratio of the actual uncertainty to the maximum uncertainty. This is the fraction of the structure of the message which is determined not by the choice of the sender, but rather by the accepted statistical rules governing the choice of the symbols in question. [Shannon and Weaver, 1948, p. l3] (2010-02-04)

dataria ::: n. --> Formerly, a part of the Roman chancery; now, a separate office from which are sent graces or favors, cognizable in foro externo, such as appointments to benefices. The name is derived from the word datum, given or dated (with the indications of the time and place of granting the gift or favor).

datary ::: n. --> An officer in the pope&

data science ::: An interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from data in various forms, both structured and unstructured,[135][136] similar to data mining. Data science is a "concept to unify statistics, data analysis, machine learning and their related methods" in order to "understand and analyze actual phenomena" with data.[137] It employs techniques and theories drawn from many fields within the context of mathematics, statistics, information science, and computer science.

data segment "memory" The range of memory locations where the {initialised data} of a program produced by a {Unix} {linker} is located. Executable code is located in the {code segment} and uninitialised data in the {bss segment}. (2004-02-24)

data segment ::: (memory) The range of memory locations where the initialised data of a program produced by a Unix linker is located.Executable code is located in the code segment and uninitialised data in the bss segment.(2004-02-24)

data service unit ::: (communications) (DSU or data service unit) A device used in digital transmission for connecting a CSU (Channel Service Unit) to Data Terminal Equipment (a terminal or computer), in the same way that a modem is used for connection to an analogue medium.A DSU provides a standard interface to a user's terminal which is compatible with modems and handles such functions as signal translation, regeneration, information and to regenerate mark and space information from the received bipolar signal. (1995-01-30)

data service unit "communications" (DSU or "data service unit") A device used in digital transmission for connecting a CSU (Channel Service Unit) to {Data Terminal Equipment} (a terminal or computer), in the same way that a {modem} is used for connection to an analogue medium. A DSU provides a standard interface to a user's terminal which is compatible with {modems} and handles such functions as signal translation, regeneration, reformatting, and timing. The transmitting portion of the DSU processeses the customers' signal into bipolar pulses suitable for transmission over the digital facility. The receiving portion of the DSU is used both to extract timing information and to regenerate mark and space information from the received {bipolar} signal. (1995-01-30)

data set "operating system, storage" An {IBM} term for a {file}. (1997-04-15)

data set ::: (operating system, storage) An IBM term for a file. (1997-04-15)

data set organization "operating system, storage" (DSORG) An {IBM} term for {file} structure. These include PS {physical sequential}, DA {direct access}, IS {indexed sequential}, PO {partitioned} (a library). This system dates from {OS/360}, and breaks down beginning with {VSAM} and {VTAM}, where it is no longer applied. Sequential and indexed data sets can be accessed using either a "basic" or a "queued" "access method." For example a DSORG=PS file can use either BSAM (basic sequential access method) or QSAM (queued sequential access method). It can also be processed as a {direct file} using BDAM. Likewise a library can be processed using BPAM (basic partitioned access method), BSAM, QSAM, or BDAM. DSORG and access method are somewhat, but not completely, orthogonal. The "basic" access method deals with {physical blocks} rather than {records}, and usually provides more control over the specific {device}. Each I/O operation using the "basic" access method reads or writes a single block. A "basic" read or write starts an {asynchronous} I/O operation, and the programmer is responsible for waiting for completion and checking for errors. The "queued" access method deals with {logical records} and provides blocking and deblocking services. It is "queued" because it provides {read-ahead} and {write-behind} services. While a program is processing records in one input block, for example, QSAM may be reading one or more blocks ahead. Queued "get" or "put" operations are synchronous as far as the programmer is concerned. The operation is complete when the next logical record has been successfully processed. EXCP ({Execute Channel Program}) is a lower-level method of accessing data. IBM manuals usually named "Data Administration Guide", e.g. SC26-4505-1 for MVS/ESA DFP 3.1, provide more detail about data set organizations and access methods. (2005-08-08)

data set organization ::: (operating system, storage) (DSORG) An IBM term for file structure. These include PS physical sequential, DA direct, IS indexed sequential, PO partitioned (a library). This system dates from OS/360, and breaks down beginning with VSAM and VTAM, where it is no longer applied.Sequential and indexed data sets can be accessed using either a basic or a queued access method. For example a DSORG=PS file can use either BSAM (basic using BPAM (basic partitioned access method), BSAM, QSAM, or BDAM. DSORG and access method are somewhat, but not completely, orthogonal.The basic access method deals with physical blocks rather than records, and usually provides more control over the specific device. Each I/O operation using write starts an asynchronous I/O operation, and the programmer is responsible for waiting for completion and checking for errors.The queued access method deals with logical records and provides blocking and deblocking services. It is queued because it provides read-ahead and operations are synchronous as far as the programmer is concerned. The operation is complete when the next logical record has been successfully processed.EXCP (Execute Channel Program) is a lower-level method of accessing data.IBM manuals usually named Data Administration Guide, e.g. SC26-4505-1 for MVS/ESA DFP 3.1, provide more detail about data set organizations and access methods.(2005-08-08)

data set

data storage "storage" (Or "memory") A device or medium into which data can be entered, in which it can be held, and from which it can be retrieved at a later time. The distinguishing characteristics of a device are its capacity (the number of bytes it can hold), its {access speed}, whether it is {volatile} (loses data when the power is turned off), whether it is {removeable} or fixed and whether it is writeable or read-only. Some examples are {DRAM}, {hard disk}, {CD-ROM}, {Flash memory}. {Storage timeline (https://www.frontierinternet.com/gateway/data-storage-timeline/)} by {(https://www.frontierinternet.com/)}. (2018-04-11)

data striping ::: (storage) Segmentation of logically sequential data, such as a single file, so that segments can be written to multiple physical devices (usually disk accept it. While data is being transferred from the first disk, the second disk can locate the next segment.Data striping is used in some modern databases, such as Sybase, and in certain RAID devices under hardware control, such as IBM's RAMAC array subsystem (9304/9395).Data striping is different from, and may be used in conjunction with, mirroring. (1996-10-17)

data striping "storage" Segmentation of logically {sequential} data, such as a single file, so that segments can be written to multiple physical devices (usually {disk drives}) in a {round-robin} fashion. This technique is useful if the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. While data is being transferred from the first disk, the second disk can locate the next segment. Data striping is used in some modern {databases}, such as {Sybase}, and in certain {RAID} devices under hardware control, such as {IBM}'s {RAMAC} array subsystem (9304/9395). Data striping is different from, and may be used in conjunction with, {mirroring}. (1996-10-17)

data structure "data, programming" Any method of organising a collection of {data} to allow it to be manipulated effectively. It may include {meta} data to describe the properties of the structure. Examples data structures are: {array}, {dictionary}, {graph}, {hash}, {heap}, {linked list}, {matrix}, {object}, {queue}, {ring}, {stack}, {tree}, {vector}. (2003-09-11)

data structure ::: (data, programming) Any method of organising a collection of data to allow it to be manipulated effectively. It may include meta data to describe the properties of the structure.Examples data structures are: array, dictionary, graph, hash, heap, linked list, matrix, object, queue, ring, stack, tree, vector.(2003-09-11)

data transfer "data" Copying or moving {data} from one place to another, typically via some kind of {network} (e.g. {Asynchronous Transfer Mode}, {File Transfer Protocol}) or local data connection ({bus}, {SCSI}, {IDE}, {SATA}). (2009-06-09)

data transfer rate "communications" (Or "throughput, data rate", "transmission rate") The amount of {data} transferred in one direction over a link divided by the time taken to transfer it, usually expressed in bits per second (bps), bytes per second (Bps) or {baud}. The link may be anything from an interface to a {hard disk} to a radio transmission from a satellite. Where data transfer is not continuous throughout the given time interval, the data transfer rate is thus an average rate that will be lower than the peak rate. The peak or maximum possible rate may itself be lower than the {capacity} of the communication channel if the channel is shared, or part of the signal is not considered as data, e.g. {checksum} or {routing} information. When applied to data rate, the multiplier {prefixes} "kilo-", "mega-", "giga-", etc. (and their abbreviations, "k", "M", "G", etc.) always denote powers of 1000. For example, 64 kbps is 64,000 bits per second. This contrasts with units of {storage} where they stand for powers of 1024, e.g. 1 KB = 1024 bytes. The other important characteristic of a channel is its {latency}. The {bandwidth} of a channel determines the data transfer rate but is a different characteristic, measured in {Hertz}. [Relationship?] (2008-02-08)

data transfer rate ::: (communications) (Or throughput) The ammount of data transferred in one direction over a link divided by the time taken to transfer it, usually expressed in bits or bytes per second.Where data transfer is not continuous throughout the given time interval, the data transfer rate is thus an average rate that will be lower than the peak the communication channel used if the channel is shared, or part of the signal is not considered as data, e.g. checksum or routing information.The other important characteristic of a channel is its latency.[Is this correct?](2001-05-22)

data type {type}

data warehouse ::: (database) 1. A generic term for a system for storing, retrieving and managing large amounts of any type of data. Data warehouse software often includes sophisticated compression and hashing techniques for fast searches, as well as advanced filtering.2. A database, often remote, containing recent snapshots of corporate data. Planners and researchers can use this database freely without worrying about slowing down day-to-day operations of the production database.Compare data mart. (1998-04-30)

data warehouse "database" (Or corporate data warehouse, CDW) Any system for storing, retrieving and managing large amounts of data. Data warehouse software often includes sophisticated {compression} and {hashing} techniques for fast searches, as well as advanced filtering. A data warehouse is often a {relational database} containing a recent snapshot of corporate data and optimised for searching. Planners and researchers can use this database without worrying about slowing down day-to-day operations of the production database. The latter can be optimised for transaction processing (inserts and updates). Compare {data mart}. (2007-05-16)

data warehouse (DW or DWH)

data warehousing {data warehouse}

Data – A collection of information.

Data Address Generator "architecture" (DAG) The mechanism which generates temporary memory addresses for data that is transferred between memory and {registers} in a {Digital Signal Processor}. Certain {DSP} architectures incorporate more than one DAG to simplify the programming needed to move blocks of data between buffers. For instance, certain {Fast Fourier Transform} {algorithms} requiring {bit reversing}, can use the DAG for that purpose, or they can use two DAGS, one for Program Memory Data (PMD), and the other for Data Memory Data (DMD). (1997-08-12)

Data Address Generator ::: (architecture) (DAG) The mechanism which generates temporary memory addresses for data that is transferred between memory and registers in a Digital Signal Processor.Certain DSP architectures incorporate more than one DAG to simplify the programming needed to move blocks of data between buffers.For instance, certain Fast Fourier Transform algorithms requiring bit reversing, can use the DAG for that purpose, or they can use two DAGS, one for Program Memory Data (PMD), and the other for Data Memory Data (DMD). (1997-08-12)

Data_analytics ::: is the science of drawing insights from raw information sources. Many of the techniques and processes of data analytics have been automated into mechanical processes and algorithms that work over raw data for human consumption. Data analytics techniques can reveal trends and metrics that would otherwise be lost in the mass of information. This information can then be used to optimize processes to increase the overall efficiency of a business or system.

Database - An organised collection of data stored electronically with instant access, searching and sorting facilities.

Data/BASIC "language" (Or "Pick BASIC") A {BASIC}-like language with {database} capabilities, the main programming language on the {Pick OS}. ["The Data/BASIC Language - A Data Processing Language for Non-Professional Programmers", P.C. Dressen, Proc SJCC 36, AFIPS, Spring 1970]. (2001-04-30)

Data/BASIC ::: (language) (Or Pick BASIC) A BASIC-like language with database capabilities, the main programming language on the Pick OS.[The Data/BASIC Language - A Data Processing Language for Non-Professional Programmers, P.C. Dressen, Proc SJCC 36, AFIPS, Spring 1970].(2001-04-30)

DATABUS ::: DATApoint BUSiness Language.A language like an interpreted assembly language, used for custom applications on Datapoint computers. (1995-01-16)

DATABUS DATApoint BUSiness Language. A language like an interpreted {assembly language}, used for custom applications on {Datapoint} computers. (1995-01-16)

DATACODE I ::: (language) An early system used on the Datatron 200 series.[Listed in CACM 2(5):16, May 1959]. (1994-12-06)

DATACODE I "language" An early system used on the {Datatron 200} series. [Listed in CACM 2(5):16, May 1959]. (1994-12-06)

Datacom ::: A DBMS from Computer Associates International. (1994-12-06)

Datacom A {DBMS} from {Computer Associates International}. (1994-12-06)

Data Communication Equipment ::: (communications, hardware) (DCE) The devices and connections of a communications network that connect the communication circuit between the data source and destination (the Data Terminal Equipment or DTE). A modem is the most common kind of DCE.Before data can be transmited over a modem, the DTR (Data Terminal Ready) signal must be active. DTR tells the DCE that the DTE is ready to transmit and receive data.DCE and DTE are usually connected by an EIA-232 serial line. It is necessary to distinguish these two types of device because their connectors must be wired and receive on pin three. It is a curious fact that many modems are DTE according to the original standard. (1995-02-28)

Data Communication Equipment "communications, hardware" (DCE) The devices and connections of a communications network that connect the communication circuit between the data source and destination (the {Data Terminal Equipment} or DTE). A {modem} is the most common kind of DCE. Before data can be transmited over a modem, the DTR (Data Terminal Ready) signal must be active. DTR tells the DCE that the DTE is ready to transmit and receive data. DCE and DTE are usually connected by an {EIA-232} {serial line}. It is necessary to distinguish these two types of device because their connectors must be wired differently if a "straight-through" cable (pin 1 to pin 1, pin 2 to pin 2 etc.) is to be used. DCE should have a female connector and should transmit on pin two and receive on pin three. It is a curious fact that many {modems} are "DTE" according to the original standard. (1995-02-28)

Data Communications Equipment {Data Communication Equipment}

Data definition language "language, database" (DDL) 1. A language enabling the structure and instances of a {database} to be defined in a human-, and machine-readable form. {SQL} contains DDL commands that can be used either interactively, or within programming language {source code}, to define databases and their components, e.g. CREATE and DROP. See also {Data manipulation language} (DML). 2. A specification language for databases, based on the {entity-relationship model}. It is used in the {Eli} {compiler-compiler} to manage type definitions. ["DDL Reference Manual", ECE Dept U Colorado, 1991]. (1999-04-26)

Data definition language ::: (language, database) (DDL)1. A language enabling the structure and instances of a database to be defined in a human-, and machine-readable form.SQL contains DDL commands that can be used either interactively, or within programming language source code, to define databases and their components, e.g. CREATE and DROP.See also Data manipulation language (DML).2. A specification language for databases, based on the entity-relationship model. It is used in the Eli compiler-compiler to manage type definitions.[DDL Reference Manual, ECE Dept U Colorado, 1991]. (1999-04-26)

Data Driven Machine "language" (DDM) A {dataflow} language. ["The Architecture and System Method of DDM-1: A Recursively Structured Data Driven Machine", A. Davis, Proc 5th Ann Symp Comp Arch, IEEE 1978]. (1999-04-26)

Data Driven Machine ::: (language) (DDM) A dataflow language.[The Architecture and System Method of DDM-1: A Recursively Structured Data Driven Machine, A. Davis, Proc 5th Ann Symp Comp Arch, IEEE 1978]. (1999-04-26)

Data Encryption Algorithm (DEA) An {ANSI} {standard} defined in ANSI X3.92-1981. It is identical to the {Data Encryption Standard} (DES). (1994-12-06)

Data Encryption Algorithm ::: (DEA) An ANSI standard defined in ANSI X3.92-1981. It is identical to the Data Encryption Standard (DES). (1994-12-06)

Data Encryption Key (DEK) Used for the {encryption} of message text and for the computation of message integrity checks (signatures). See {cryptography}. (1994-12-06)

Data Encryption Key ::: (DEK) Used for the encryption of message text and for the computation of message integrity checks (signatures).See cryptography. (1994-12-06)

Data Encryption Standard ::: (DES) The NBS's popular, standard encryption algorithm. It is a product cipher that operates on 64-bit blocks of data, using a 56-bit key. It is defined in FIPS 46-1 (1988) (which supersedes FIPS 46 (1977)). DES is identical to the ANSI standard Data Encryption Algorithm (DEA) defined in ANSI X3.92-1981.DES has been implemented in VLSI. SunOS provides a des command which can make use of DES hardware if fitted. Neither the software nor the hardware are supposed to be distributed outside the USA.Unix manual pages: des(1), des(3), des(4). (1994-12-06)

Data Encryption Standard (DES) The {NBS}'s popular, standard {encryption} algorithm. It is a {product cipher} that operates on 64-bit blocks of data, using a 56-bit key. It is defined in {FIPS} 46-1 (1988) (which supersedes FIPS 46 (1977)). DES is identical to the {ANSI} standard {Data Encryption Algorithm} (DEA) defined in ANSI X3.92-1981. DES has been implemented in {VLSI}. {SunOS} provides a des command which can make use of DES hardware if fitted. Neither the software nor the hardware are supposed to be distributed outside the USA. {Unix manual pages}: des(1), des(3), des(4). (1994-12-06)

Data Flow Diagram ::: (programming) A graphical notation used to describe how data flows between processes in a system. Data flow diagrams are an important tool of most structured analysis techniques. .(2003-05-17)

Data Flow Diagram "programming" A graphical notation used to describe how {data} flows between {processes} in a system. Data flow diagrams are an important tool of most {structured analysis} techniques. {(http://smartdraw.com/resources/centers/software/dfd.htm)}. (2003-05-17)

Data General "company" A US computer manufacturer. Responsible for the {Nova} {minicomputer}. Quarterly sales $284M, profits -$12M (Aug 1994). (1994-09-26)

Data General ::: (company) A US computer manufacturer. Responsible for the Nova minicomputer.Quarterly sales $284M, profits -$12M (Aug 1994). (1994-09-26)

Data General mN601 ::: Data General MicroNova 601

Data General mN601 {Data General MicroNova 601}

Data Interchange Standards Association "standard" (DISA) A not-for-profit corporation that acts as the secretariat for {ANSI}'s {EDI} standards committee, ASC X12 that works on {ANSI X12}. DISA manages ASC X12's membership, balloting, standards development and maintenance, publications, and communications with ANSI. (1999-09-18)

Data Interchange Standards Association ::: (standard) (DISA) A not-for-profit corporation that acts as the secretariat for ANSI's EDI standards committee, ASC X12 that works on ANSI X12. DISA manages ASC X12's membership, balloting, standards development and maintenance, publications, and communications with ANSI. (1999-09-18)

Data Jack "hardware" A wall-mounted or desk-mounted connector (frequently a wide telephone-style 8-pin {RJ-45}) for connecting to data cabling in a building. (1997-01-07)

Data Jack ::: (hardware) A wall-mounted or desk-mounted connector (frequently a wide telephone-style 8-pin RJ-45) for connecting to data cabling in a building. (1997-01-07)

Datakit ::: (networking) A circuit-switched digital network, similar to X.25. Datakit supports host-to-host connections and EIA-232 connections for terminals, printers, and hosts.Most of Bell Laboratories is trunked together on Datakit. On top of DK transport service, people run UUCP for electronic mail and dkcu for remote login.ISN is the version of Datakit supported by AT&T Information Systems. Bell Laboratories in Holmdel, New Jersey, uses ISN for internal data communication. .[Towards a universal data transport system, A. G. Fraser, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, SAC-1(5) pp. 803-16, 1983]. (1996-10-20)

Datakit "networking" A {circuit-switched} digital network, similar to {X.25}. Datakit supports {host-to-host} connections and {EIA-232} connections for {terminals}, {printers}, and {hosts}. Most of {Bell Laboratories} is {trunk}ed together on Datakit. On top of DK transport service, people run {UUCP} for {electronic mail} and {dkcu} for {remote login}. ISN is the version of Datakit supported by {AT&T} Information Systems. Bell Laboratories in Holmdel, New Jersey, uses ISN for internal data communication. {(http://fc.net:80/phrack/files/p18/p18-9.html)}. ["Towards a universal data transport system", A. G. Fraser, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, SAC-1(5) pp. 803-16, 1983]. (1996-10-20)

Dataless Management Services ::: (operating system) (DMS) .(2005-09-15)

Dataless Management Services "operating system" (DMS) {(http://cs.arizona.edu/computer.help/policy/DIGITAL_unix/AA-PS3LE-TE_html/sharing10.html)}. (2005-09-15)

Data Link Connection Identifier ::: (networking) (DLCI) A channel number which is attached to data frames to tell a Frame Relay network how to route the data. In Frame Relay, multiple logical channels are multiplexed over a single physical channel. The DLCI says which of these logical channels a particular data frame belongs to. .(2000-02-13)

Data Link Connection Identifier "networking" (DLCI) A channel number which is attached to {data frames} to tell a {Frame Relay} network how to route the data. In Frame Relay, multiple logical channels are {multiplexed} over a single physical channel. The DLCI says which of these logical channels a particular data frame belongs to. {(http://etinc.com/frmain.htm

Data Link Provider Interface "networking" (DLPI) The interface that a {network driver} presents to the (higher level) {logical link layer} for driving the network at the {datagram} level in a {Unix} {STREAMS} environment and possibly elsewhere. DLPI corresponds to {ISO 8802}/2 ({LLC}) which covers both {connection-oriented} and {connectionless} {protocols}. [Is this correct? Better explanation?] (1996-01-29)

Data Link Provider Interface ::: (networking) (DLPI) The interface that a network driver presents to the (higher level) logical link layer for driving the network at the datagram level in a Unix STREAMS environment and possibly elsewhere.DLPI corresponds to ISO 8802/2 (LLC) which covers both connection-oriented and connectionless protocols.[Is this correct? Better explanation?] (1996-01-29)

Data Link Switching "networking" (DLSw) A standard for transporting {IBM} {Systems Network Architecture} (SNA) and {network basic input/output system} (NetBIOS) traffic over an {Internet protocol} network. Initially, in 1992, DLSw was proprietary to IBM. It was submitted to the {IETF} as {RFC 1434} in 1993, later updated by {RFC 1795}. {(http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/dlsw.htm)}. (2008-01-11)

Datalog ::: A declarative logic programming language that syntactically is a subset of Prolog. It is often used as a query language for deductive databases. In recent years, Datalog has found new application in data integration, information extraction, networking, program analysis, security, and cloud computing.[140]

Data_loss ::: occurs when valuable and/or sensitive information on a computer is compromised due to theft, human error, viruses, malware, or power failure. It may also occur due to physical damage or mechanical failure or equipment or an edifice. The biggest reasons for data loss include laptop theft, accidental deletion or overwriting of files, power outages and surges, spilled liquids, and the wearing out or sudden failure of hard drives. Regularly backing up files makes data recovery possible in the event of data loss. For data that hasn’t been backed up, professional recovery services might be able to restore lost data. Servers can also suffer from data loss, just like individual computers and devices can.  Data Loss: Common Causes   Power surges and outages hurt computers by causing operating systems to shut down suddenly without following the proper procedures. The file corruption that can result can make it impossible to reboot the computer. Liquid spills onto laptop keyboards can seep into the casing and damage the internal components, especially in the case of acidic or sugary drinks, so it’s a good idea to keep liquids away from laptops or use a spill-proof travel mug.  Hard drives have moving parts that can experience mechanical failure due to wearing out, overheating, electrostatic discharge, or being dropped. They can also fail due to file corruption, improper drive formatting, or software corruption. Hard drives may fail and experience data loss suddenly, or they may show signs of slowly failing, such as crashing repeatedly, becoming increasingly slow or making unusual noises. Creating regular data backups of hard drive data helps protect against this form of data loss. For example, an individual might back up her personal files from her desktop computer to both an external hard drive and the cloud. Having the data stored in three places that face different risks minimizes the risk of total data loss.   Data Loss: The Human Element   A major threat of data loss for businesses comes from employees who aren’t aware of the risks they are taking. Companies need a way to control how their data is shared by monitoring and protecting business documents whenever and wherever employees are using, storing, or transmitting them, whether in email attachments, via smartphone, on laptops, on flash drives, or in cloud storage, to protect against data loss. Preventing data loss is important for companies to protect their privacy and intellectual property as well as comply with government regulations. Organizations can employ data loss prevention (DLP) features in software from providers like Google and Microsoft to protect against data loss. There are also data loss prevention suites from providers such as Clearswift, Symantec, Digital Guardian, Forcepoint, McAfee, among others.

Data Management Language "language" (DML) 1. Any language for manipulating data or files, e.g. {IBM}'s {Distributed Data Management} (DDM). 2. An early {ALGOL}-like language with lists and graphics, that ran on the {Honeywell 635}. ["DML: A Data Management Language", D.W. Bray et al, GE, Syracuse NY]. (1999-06-07)

Data Management Language ::: (language) (DML)1. Any language for manipulating data or files, e.g. IBM's Distributed Data Management (DDM).2. An early ALGOL-like language with lists and graphics, that ran on the Honeywell 635.[DML: A Data Management Language, D.W. Bray et al, GE, Syracuse NY]. (1999-06-07)

Data Manipulation Language "language, database" (DML, or {Data Management Language}) A language for the manipulation of data in a {database} by applications and/or directly by end-users. {SQL} contains DML commands such as INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE. See also {Data Definition Language} (DDL). (1999-04-26)

Data Manipulation Language ::: (language, database) (DML, or Data Management Language) A language for the manipulation of data in a database by applications and/or directly by end-users.SQL contains DML commands such as INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.See also Data Definition Language (DDL). (1999-04-26)

Datamatic Corporation {Honeywell}

Datamation ::: /dayt*-maysh*n/ A magazine that many hackers assume all suits read. Used to question an unbelieved quote, as in Did you read that in Datamation? It used ten years later, but it has since become much more exclusively suit-oriented and boring.[Jargon File]

Datamation /day"t*-may"sh*n/ A magazine that many hackers assume all {suits} read. Used to question an unbelieved quote, as in "Did you read that in "Datamation?"" It used to publish something hackishly funny every once in a while, like the original paper on {COME FROM} in 1973, and Ed Post's "Real Programmers Don't Use Pascal" ten years later, but it has since become much more exclusively {suit}-oriented and boring. [{Jargon File}]

Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification "communications, networking" (DOCSIS) {ITU}-approved interface requirements for {cable modems} involved in high-speed data distribution over a {cable television} network. DOCSIS compatible equipment uses a 6 MHz {carrier} band for {downstream}, using 64 and 256 {QAM} (ITU Annex B), and {QPSK} and 16 QAM for {upstream}, allowing up to 36 and 10 Mb/s, respectively for downstream and upstream channels. {CableLabs FAQ (http://cablemodem.com/FAQs.html)}. (2001-07-10)

Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification ::: (communications, networking) (DOCSIS) ITU-approved interface requirements for cable modems involved in high-speed data distribution over a cable upstream, allowing up to 36 and 10 Mb/s, respectively for downstream and upstream channels. .(2001-07-10)

Data Over Cable Systems Interface Specifications {Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification}

Dataparallel-C ::: (language, parallel) C with parallel extensions by Hatcher and Quinn of the University of New Hampshire. Dataparallel-C was based on an early version of C* and runs on the Intel iPSC-2 and nCube.

Dataparallel-C "language, parallel" {C} with {parallel} extensions by Hatcher and Quinn of the University of New Hampshire. Dataparallel-C was based on an early version of {C*} and runs on the {Intel} {iPSC-2} and {nCube}.

Data Parallel Haskell ::: (language, parallel) Adds Parallel Objects with arbitrary Dimension (PODs) and POD comprehensions to Haskell. .[Data Parallel Haskell: Mixing Old and New Glue, J. Hill]. (1995-03-30)

Data Parallel Haskell "language, parallel" Adds Parallel Objects with arbitrary Dimension (PODs) and POD comprehensions to Haskell. {(ftp://redstar.dcs.qmw.ac.uk/cpc/jon_hill/dpGlue.ps.Z)}. ["Data Parallel Haskell: Mixing Old and New Glue", J. Hill]. (1995-03-30)

Dataphone Digital Service ::: (communications, product) (DDS) The first private-line digital service offered by AT&T, with data rates typically at 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 and 56 kilobits per second. DDS is now part of AT&T's Accunet family of services. Most LEC (local exchange carriers) and IXC (IntereXchange Carriers) offer similar services. (1995-02-28)

Dataphone Digital Service "communications, product" (DDS) The first private-line digital service offered by {AT&T}, with data rates typically at 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 and 56 kilobits per second. DDS is now part of AT&T's {Accunet} family of services. Most LEC (local exchange carriers) and IXC (IntereXchange Carriers) offer similar services. (1995-02-28)

DataPoint "company" An early {minicomputer} manufacturer which also developed {ARCnet}. (2004-08-25)

DataPoint ::: (company) An early minicomputer manufacturer which also developed ARCnet.(2004-08-25)

Data Protection Act "legal" (DPA) A UK law guaranteeing rights to individuals in relation to personal data that others hold on them. For example, under the DPA, you have the right to see what data a company holds on you. (2007-06-17)

Data_science ::: is a field of Big Data geared toward providing meaningful information based on large amounts of complex data. Data science, or data-driven science, combines different fields of work in statistics and computation in order to interpret data for the purpose of decision making.  BREAKING DOWN 'Data Science'  Data is drawn from different sectors and platforms including cell phones, social media, e-commerce sites, healthcare surveys, internet searches, etc. The increase in the amount of data available opened the door to a new field of study called Big Data — or the extremely large data sets that can help produce better operational tools in all sectors. The continually increasing sets of and easy access to data are made possible by a collaboration of companies known as fintech, which use technology to innovate and enhance traditional financial products and services. The data produced creates even more data which is easily shared across entities thanks to emergent fintech products like cloud computing and storage. However, the interpretation of vast amounts of unstructured data for effective decision making may prove too complex and time consuming for companies, hence the emergence of data science.

Data science - the extraction of knowledge from large volumes of data that are structured or unstructured, which is a continuation of the field data mining and predictive analytics, also known as knowledge discovery and data mining. See /r/datascience

DataStage "database, tool" A tool set for designing, developing, and running {applications} that populate one or more {tables} in a {data warehouse} or {data mart}. [Reference]? (2004-06-23)

DataStage ::: (database, tool) A tool set for designing, developing, and running applications that populate one or more tables in a data warehouse or data mart.[Reference]?(2004-06-23)

Datastorm Technologies, Inc. "company" The original suppliers of {Procomm}. Address: Columbia MO, USA. (2004-06-29)

Datastorm Technologies, Inc. ::: (company) The original suppliers of Procomm.Address: Columbia MO, USA.(2004-06-29)

Data Structures Language "language" A dialect of {MAD} with extensions for lists and graphics, on {Philco 212}. ["A Compiler Language for Data Structures", N. Laurance, Proc ACM 23rd Natl Conf 36 (1968)]. (1995-02-28)

Data Structures Language ::: (language) A dialect of MAD with extensions for lists and graphics, on Philco 212.[A Compiler Language for Data Structures, N. Laurance, Proc ACM 23rd Natl Conf 36 (1968)]. (1995-02-28)

Data Terminal Equipment ::: (communications, hardware) (DTE) A device which acts as the source and/or destination of data and which controls the communication channel. DTE includes terminals, computers, protocol converters, and multiplexors.DTE is usually connected via an EIA-232 serial line to Data Communication Equipment (DCE), typically a modem. It is necessary to distinguish these two pin two. It is a curious fact that many modems are actually DTE according to the original standard. (1995-02-28)

Data Terminal Equipment "communications, hardware" (DTE) A device which acts as the source and/or destination of data and which controls the communication channel. DTE includes terminals, computers, {protocol converters}, and {multiplexors}. DTE is usually connected via an {EIA-232} {serial line} to {Data Communication Equipment} (DCE), typically a {modem}. It is necessary to distinguish these two types of device because their connectors must be wired differently if a "straight-through" cable (pin 1 to pin 1, pin 2 to pin 2 etc.) is to be used. DTE should have a male connector and should transmit on pin three and receive on pin two. It is a curious fact that many {modems} are actually "DTE" according to the original standard. (1995-02-28)

Data Terminal Ready ::: (communications) (DTR) The wire in a full RS-232 connection that tells the Data Communication Equipment (DCE, typically a modem) that the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE, typically a computer or terminal) is ready to transmit and receive data.(2000-04-05)

Data Terminal Ready "communications" (DTR) The wire in a full {RS-232} connection that tells the {Data Communication Equipment} (DCE, typically a {modem}) that the {Data Terminal Equipment} (DTE, typically a computer or {terminal}) is ready to transmit and receive data. (2000-04-05)

DATA-TEXT "tool" A system from {Harvard} for numerical computations in the Social Sciences. ["DATA-TEXT Primer", D.J. Armor, Free Press 1972]. (1994-12-06)

DATA-TEXT ::: (tool) A system from Harvard for numerical computations in the Social Sciences.[DATA-TEXT Primer, D.J. Armor, Free Press 1972]. (1994-12-06)

DATATRIEVE ::: A query and report system for use with DEC's VMS system (RMS, VAX Rdb/VMS or VAX DBMS).

DATATRIEVE "database, language" A query and report system for use with {DEC}'s {VMS} ({RMS}, {VAX Rdb}/VMS or {VAX DBMS}). (2007-01-16)

Datatron 200 series "computer" A family of computers produced by {Burroughs} that included the {Datatron 204} and {Datatron 220}. (2007-01-16)

DataViews ::: Graphical user interface development software from V.I.Corporation, aimed at constructing platform-independent interactive views of dynamic data. (1994-12-07)

DataViews {Graphical user interface} development software from {V.I.Corporation}, aimed at constructing {platform}-independent interactive views of dynamic data. (1994-12-07)

DataVis ::: A dataflow language for scientific visualisation.[Data Flow Visual Programming Languages, D. Hils, J Vis Langs and Comput, Dec 1991]. (1994-12-06)

DataVis A {dataflow} language for scientific {visualisation}. ["Data Flow Visual Programming Languages", D. Hils, J Vis Langs and Comput, Dec 1991]. (1994-12-06)

Data: When capitalized, refers to the Technocratic version of the Correspondence Sphere. The Data Principle (or Sphere) employs information as a bridge between people, locations, and events.


TERMS ANYWHERE

16-bit application "operating system" Software for {MS-DOS} or {Microsoft Windows} which originally ran on the 16-bit {Intel 8088} and {80286} {microprocessors}. These used a {segmented address space} to extend the range of addresses from what is possible with just a 16-bit address. Programs with more than 64 kilobytes of code or data therefore had to waste time switching between {segments}. Furthermore, programming with segments is more involved than programming in a {flat address space}, giving rise to {warts} like {memory models} in {C} and {C++}. Compare {32-bit application}. (1996-04-06)

16 bit "architecture, programming" Using {words} containing sixteen {bits}. This adjective often refers to the number of bits used internally by a computer's {CPU}. E.g. "The {Intel 8086} is a sixteen bit processor". Its external {data bus} or {address bus} may be narrower. The term may also refer to the size of an instruction in the computer's {instruction set} or to any other item of data. See also {16-bit application}. (1996-05-13)

1802 "processor" An 8-bit {microprocessor} manufactured as CDP1802 by {HARRIS Semiconductor}. It has been around for ten years at least and is ideally suited for {embedded} applications. Some of its features are: 8-bit parallel organisation with bidirectional {data bus} and {multiplexed address bus}; static design -- no minimum {clock rate}; bit-programmable output port; four input pins which are directly tested by branch instructions; flexible programmable I/O mode; single-phase clock, with on-chip oscillator; 16 x 16 register matrix to implement multiple {program counters}, pointers, or {registers} (1995-11-21)

1. A critical study of the method or methods of the sciences, of the nature of scientific symbols and of the logical structure of scientific symbolic svstems. Presumably such a study should include both the empirical and the rational sciences. Whether it should also include the methods of the valuational studies (e.g., ethics, esthetics) and of the historical studies, will depend upon the working definition or science accepted by the investigator. Valuational studies are frequently characterized as "normative" or "axiological" sciences. Many of the recognized sciences (e.g., anthropology, geology) contain important historical aspects, hence there is some justification for the inclusion of the historical method in this aspect of the philosophy of science. As a study of method, the philosophy of science includes much of the traditional logic and theory of knowledge. The attempt is made to define and further clarify such terms as induction, deduction, hypothesis, data, discovery and verification. In addition, the more detailed and specialized methods of science (e.g., experimentation, measurement, classification and idealization) (q.v.) are subjected to examination. Since science is a symbolic system, the general theory of signs plays an important role in the philosophy of science.

1. Discursive thought. Faculty of connecting ideas consciously, coherently and purposively. Thinking in logical form. Drawing of inferences. Process of passing from given data or premisses to legitimate conclusions. Forming or discovering rightly relations between ideas. Deriving properly statements from given assumptions or facts. Power, manifestation and result of valid argumentation. Ordering concepts according to the canons of logic. Legitimate course of a debate.

1NF {database normalisation}

(2) Flirtations with realism, neutral monism, positivism or behaviorism have never seriously interfered with Russell's attempt to establish philosophy as a science. The emptical data being supplied by the experimental scientist, the specifically philosophical task becomes the analysis of such deliverances (with the full resources of modern logistic). Unlike certain of his followers, Russell has never been strenuously anti-metaphysical. He has never held pragmatic, still less conventional, views with regard to the nature of logic itself. And his general empirical approach has been constantly modified by rationalistic views concerning the subsistence of universals. -- M.B.

2NF {database normalisation}

32-bit application "architecture, operating system" {IBM PC} software that runs in a 32-bit {flat address space}. The term {32-bit application} came about because {MS-DOS} and {Microsoft Windows} were originally written for the {Intel 8088} and {80286} {microprocessors}. These are {16 bit} microprocessors with a {segmented address space}. Programs with more than 64 kilobytes of code and/or data therefore had to switch between {segments} quite frequently. As this operation is quite time consuming in comparison to other machine operations, the application's performance may suffer. Furthermore, programming with segments is more involved than programming in a flat address space, giving rise to some complications in programming languages like "{memory models}" in {C} and {C++}. The shift from 16-bit software to 32-bit software on {IBM PC} {clones} became possible with the introduction of the {Intel 80386} microprocessor. This microprocessor and its successors support a segmented address space with 16-bit and 32 bit segments (more precisely: segments with 16- or 32-bit address offset) or a linear 32-bit address space. For compatibility reasons, however, much of the software is nevertheless written in 16-bit models. {Operating systems} like {Microsoft Windows} or {OS/2} provide the possibility to run 16-bit (segmented) programs as well as 32-bit programs. The former possibility exists for {backward compatibility} and the latter is usually meant to be used for new software development. See also {Win32s}. (1995-12-11)

(3) A proposition about the nature of meaning, ideas, concepts, or universals: that they (and thus, some contend, knowledge) "consist of" or "are reducible to" references to directly presented data or content of experience; or that signs standing for meanings, ideas, concepts, or universals refer to experienced content only or primarily; or that the meaning of a term consists simply of the sum of its possible consequences in experience; or that if all possible experiential consequences of two propositions are identical, their meanings are identical.

3Com Corporation "company, networking" A manufacturer of {local area network} equipment. 3Com was founded in 1979. They acquired {BICC Data Networks} in 1992, {Star-Tek} in 1993, {Synernetics} in 1993, {Centrum} in 1994, {NiceCom} in 1994 {AccessWorks}, {Sonix Communications}, {Primary Access} and {Chipcom} in 1995 and {Axon} and {OnStream Networks} in 1996. They merged with {U.S. Robotics} in 1997. {(http://3com.com/)}. (1998-04-03)

3. In mathematical theory, prediction is an inference regarding an unknown or future event, from calculations involving probabilities and in particular the computation of correlations. Statistical predictions are usually made by means of regression coefficients and regression lines, which indicate the amount of change of one variable which accompanies a given amount of change in the other variable. The process of predicting values within the range of known data is called interpolation, and the process of predicting values beyond the range of known data is called extrapolation. The reliability of these predictions varies on the basis of the known variables, and of their limits. -- T.G.

3NF {database normalisation}

4NF {database normalisation}

56 kbps "communications" (56 kilobits per second) The data capacity of a normal single channel digital telephone channel in North America. The figure is derived from the {bandwidth} of 4 kHz allocated for such a channel and the 16-bit encoding (4000 times 16 = 64000) used to change {analogue} signals to digital, minus the 8000 bit/s used for signalling and supervision. At the end of 1997 there were two rival {modem} designs capable of this rate: {k56flex} and {US Robotics}' {X2}. In February 1998 the {ITU} proposed a 56kbps standard called {V.90}, which is expected to be formally approved during September 1998. (1998-09-15)

5NF {database normalisation}

5th Glove "hardware, virtual reality" A {data glove} and flexor strip kit (5th Glove DFK) sold by {Fifth Dimension Technologies} for $495 ($345 for the left-handed version, $45 for each extra flexor strip). The DFK provides a data glove, a flexon strip (with an elbow or knee-joint sensor), an interface card, cables, and KineMusica software. The package uses flexible optical-bending sensing to track hand and arm movement. The glove can be used with 5DT's ultrasonic tracking system, the 5DT Head and Hand tracker ($245), which can track movement from up to two metres away from the unit's transmitter. (1998-02-06)

64-bit "architecture" A term describing a computer architecture with an {ALU}, {registers} and {data bus} which handle 64 {bit}s at a time. 64-bit processors were quite common by 1996, e.g. {Digital} {Alpha}, versions of {Sun} {SPARC}, {MIPS}, {IBM} {AS/4000}. The {PowerPC} and {Intel} were expected to move to 64 bits at their next generation - {PPC 620} and {Intel P7}. Being able to deal with 64-bit binary numbers means the processor can work with {signed integers} between +-2^32 or unsigned integers between zero and 2^64-1. A 64-bit {address bus} allows the processor to address 18 million {gigabytes} as opposed to the mere four gigabytes allowed with 32 bits. In 1996 {hard disks} could already hold over 4 GB. Floating point calculations can also be more accurate. A 64-bit {OS} is needed as well to take advantage of the CPU. In 1996 there were only a few 64-bit operating systems, including {OS/400}, {Digital} {Unix}, {Solaris} (partialy). A 32-bit OS can run on a 64-bit CPU. (2004-05-12)

6502 "hardware" An eight-bit {microprocessor} designed by {MOS Technology} around 1975 and made by {Rockwell}. Unlike the {Intel 8080} and its kind, the 6502 had very few {registers}. It was an 8-bit processor, with 16-bit {address bus}. Inside was one 8-bit data register ({accumulator}), two 8-bit {index registers} and an 8-bit {stack pointer} (stack was preset from address 256 to 511). It used these index and stack registers effectively, with more {addressing modes}, including a fast zero-page mode that accessed memory locations from address 0 to 255 with an 8-bit address (it didn't have to fetch a second byte for the address). Back when the 6502 was introduced, {RAM} was actually faster than {CPU}s, so it made sense to optimise for RAM access rather than increase the number of registers on a chip. The 6502 was used in the {BBC Microcomputer}, {Apple II}, {Commodore}, {Apple Computer} and {Atari} {personal computers}. {Steve Wozniak} described it as the first chip you could get for less than a hundred dollars (actually a quarter of the {6800} price). The 6502's {indirect jump} instruction, JMP (xxxx), was {broken}. If the address was hexadecimal xxFF, the processor would not access the address stored in xxFF and xxFF + 1, but rather xxFF and xx00. The {6510} did not fix this bug, nor was it fixed in any of the other {NMOS} versions of the 6502 such as the {8502}. Bill Mensch at {Western Design Center} was probably the first to fix it, in the {65C02}. The 6502 also had undocumented instructions. The {65816} is an expanded version of the 6502. There is a 6502 {assembler} by Doug Jones "jones@cs.uiowa.edu" which supports {macros} and conditional features and can be used for linkage editing of object files. It requires {Pascal}. See also {cross-assembler}, {RTI}, {Small-C}. (2001-01-02)

8N1 "jargon" Common shorthand for "eight data bits, no {parity}, one {stop bit}", the most common configuration for {serial lines}, e.g. {EIA-232}. (1995-01-31)

ABC 1. "computer" {Atanasoff-Berry Computer}. 2. "language" An {imperative language} and programming environment from {CWI}, Netherlands. It is interactive, structured, high-level, and easy to learn and use. It is a general-purpose language which you might use instead of {BASIC}, {Pascal} or {AWK}. It is not a systems-programming language but is good for teaching or prototyping. ABC has only five data types that can easily be combined; {strong typing}, yet without declarations; data limited only by memory; refinements to support top-down programming; nesting by indentation. Programs are typically around a quarter the size of the equivalent {Pascal} or {C} program, and more readable. ABC includes a programming environment with {syntax-directed} editing, {suggestions}, {persistent variables} and multiple workspaces and {infinite precision} arithmetic. An example function words to collect the set of all words in a document:  HOW TO RETURN words document:   PUT {} IN collection   FOR line in document:     FOR word IN split line:       IF word not.in collection:        INSERT word IN collection   RETURN collection {Interpreter}/{compiler}, version 1.04.01, by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens, Steven Pemberton "Steven.Pemberton@cwi.nl". ABC has been ported to {Unix}, {MS-DOS}, {Atari}, {Macintosh}. {(http://cwi.nl/cwi/projects/abc.html)}. {FTP eu.net (ftp://ftp.eu.net/programming/languages/abc)}, {FTP nluug.nl (ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/programming/languages/abc)}, {FTP uunet (ftp://ftp.uu.net/languages/abc)}. Mailing list: "abc-list-request@cwi.nl". E-mail: "abc@cwi.nl". ["The ABC Programmer's Handbook" by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens and Steven Pemberton, published by Prentice-Hall (ISBN 0-13-000027-2)]. ["An Alternative Simple Language and Environment for PCs" by Steven Pemberton, IEEE Software, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 1987, pp. 56-64.] (1995-02-09) 2. "language" Argument, Basic value, C?. An {abstract machine} for implementation of {functional languages} and its intermediate code. [P. Koopman, "Functional Programs as Executable Specifications", 1990]. (1995-02-09)

ABC ALGOL "language" An extension of {ALGOL 60} with arbitrary data structures and user-defined operators, for {symbolic mathematics}. ["ABC ALGOL, A Portable Language for Formula Manipulation Systems", R.P. van de Riet, Amsterdam Math Centrum 1973]. (1994-10-28)

ABLE "language" A simple language for accountants. ["ABLE, The Accounting Language, Programming and Reference Manual," Evansville Data Proc Center, Evansville, IN, Mar 1975]. [Listed in SIGPLAN Notices 13(11):56 (Nov 1978)]. (1994-11-08)

abstract data type "programming" (ADT) A kind of {data abstraction} where a type's internal form is hidden behind a set of {access functions}. Values of the type are created and inspected only by calls to the access functions. This allows the implementation of the type to be changed without requiring any changes outside the {module} in which it is defined. {Objects} and ADTs are both forms of data abstraction, but objects are not ADTs. Objects use procedural abstraction (methods), not type abstraction. A classic example of an ADT is a {stack} data type for which functions might be provided to create an empty stack, to {push} values onto a stack and to {pop} values from a stack. {Reynolds paper (http://cis.upenn.edu/~gunter/publications/documents/taoop94.html)}. {Cook paper "OOP vs ADTs" (http://wcook.org/papers/OOPvsADT/CookOOPvsADT90.pdf)}. (2003-07-03)

abstraction 1. Generalisation; ignoring or hiding details to capture some kind of commonality between different instances. Examples are {abstract data types} (the representation details are hidden), {abstract syntax} (the details of the {concrete syntax} are ignored), {abstract interpretation} (details are ignored to analyse specific properties). 2. "programming" Parameterisation, making something a function of something else. Examples are {lambda abstractions} (making a term into a function of some variable), {higher-order functions} (parameters are functions), {bracket abstraction} (making a term into a function of a variable). Opposite of {concretisation}. (1998-06-04)

abstract machine 1. "language" A processor design which is not intended to be implemented as {hardware}, but which is the notional executor of a particular {intermediate language} (abstract machine language) used in a {compiler} or {interpreter}. An abstract machine has an {instruction set}, a {register set} and a model of memory. It may provide instructions which are closer to the language being compiled than any physical computer or it may be used to make the language implementation easier to {port} to other {platforms}. A {virtual machine} is an abstract machine for which an {interpreter} exists. Examples: {ABC}, {Abstract Machine Notation}, {ALF}, {CAML}, {F-code}, {FP/M}, {Hermes}, {LOWL}, {Christmas}, {SDL}, {S-K reduction machine}, {SECD}, {Tbl}, {Tcode}, {TL0}, {WAM}. 2. "theory" A procedure for executing a set of instructions in some formal language, possibly also taking in input data and producing output. Such abstract machines are not intended to be constructed as {hardware} but are used in thought experiments about {computability}. Examples: {Finite State Machine}, {Turing Machine}. (1995-03-13)

abstract "philosophy" A description of a concept that leaves out some information or details in order to simplify it in some useful way. Abstraction is a powerful technique that is applied in many areas of computing and elsewhere. For example: {abstract class}, {data abstraction}, {abstract interpretation}, {abstract syntax}, {Hardware Abstraction Layer}. (2009-12-09)

abstract syntax "language, data" A form of representation of data that is independent of machine-oriented structures and encodings and also of the physical representation of the data. Abstract syntax is used to give a high-level description of programs being compiled or messages passing over a communications link. A {compiler}'s internal representation of a program will typically be an {abstract syntax tree}. The abstract syntax specifies the tree's structure is specified in terms of categories such as "statement", "expression" and "{identifier}". This is independent of the source syntax ({concrete syntax}) of the language being compiled (though it will often be very similar). A {parse tree} is similar to an abstract syntax tree but it will typically also contain features such as parentheses which are syntactically significant but which are implicit in the structure of the {abstract syntax tree}. (1998-05-26)

Abstract Syntax Notation 1 "language, standard, protocol" (ASN.1, X.208, X.680) An {ISO}/{ITU-T} {standard} for transmitting structured {data} on {networks}, originally defined in 1984 as part of {CCITT X.409} '84. ASN.1 moved to its own standard, X.208, in 1988 due to wide applicability. The substantially revised 1995 version is covered by the X.680 series. ASN.1 defines the {abstract syntax} of {information} but does not restrict the way the information is encoded. Various ASN.1 encoding rules provide the {transfer syntax} (a {concrete} representation) of the data values whose {abstract syntax} is described in ASN.1. The standard ASN.1 encoding rules include {BER} (Basic Encoding Rules - X.209), {CER} (Canonical Encoding Rules), {DER} (Distinguished Encoding Rules) and {PER} (Packed Encoding Rules). ASN.1 together with specific ASN.1 encoding rules facilitates the exchange of structured data especially between {application programs} over networks by describing data structures in a way that is independent of machine architecture and implementation language. {OSI} {Application layer} {protocols} such as {X.400} {MHS} {electronic mail}, {X.500} directory services and {SNMP} use ASN.1 to describe the {PDU}s they exchange. Documents describing the ASN.1 notations: {ITU-T} Rec. X.680, {ISO} 8824-1; {ITU-T} Rec. X.681, {ISO} 8824-2; {ITU-T} Rec. X.682, {ISO} 8824-3; {ITU-T} Rec. X.683, {ISO} 8824-4 Documents describing the ASN.1 encoding rules: {ITU-T} Rec. X.690, {ISO} 8825-1; {ITU-T} Rec. X.691, {ISO} 8825-2. [M. Sample et al, "Implementing Efficient Encoders and Decoders for Network Data Representations", IEEE Infocom 93 Proc, v.3, pp. 1143-1153, Mar 1993. Available from Logica, UK]. See also {snacc}. (2005-07-03)

abstract syntax tree "compiler" (AST) A data structure representing something which has been {parsed}, often used as a {compiler} or {interpreter}'s internal representation of a program while it is being optimised and from which {code generation} is performed. The range of all possible such structures is described by the {abstract syntax}. (1994-11-08)

Accelerated Graphics Port "hardware, graphics" (AGP) A {bus} specification by {Intel} which gives low-cost 3D {graphics cards} faster access to {main memory} on {personal computers} than the usual {PCI} bus. AGP dynamically allocates the PC's normal {RAM} to store the screen image and to support {texture mapping}, {z-buffering} and {alpha blending}. Intel has built AGP into a {chipset} for its {Pentium II} microprocessor. AGP cards are slightly longer than a PCI card. AGP operates at 66 {MHz}, doubled to 133 MHz, compared with PCI's 33 Mhz. AGP allows for efficient use of {frame buffer} memory, thereby helping 2D graphics performance as well. AGP provides a coherent memory management design which allows scattered data in system memory to be read in rapid bursts. AGP reduces the overall cost of creating high-end graphics subsystems by using existing system memory. {Specification (http://developer.intel.com/technology/agp/downloads/agp20.htm)}. (2004-07-19)

Access 1. "language" An English-like query language used in the {Pick} {operating system}. 2. "database, product" {Microsoft Access}. (1994-11-08)

access method "networking" 1. The way that network devices access the network medium. 2. Software in an {SNA} processor that controls the flow of data through a {network}. [{physical layer}?] (1998-03-02)

ACIS "graphics" Andy, Charles, Ian's System. A {geometric engine} that most {CAD} packages now use. ACIS uses a sophisticated {object-oriented} approach for modelling, the data is stored in {boundary representation}. Acis is owned by {Spatial Technologies}. [How does this differ from "solid modelling"?]. (1996-03-21)

ACK 1. "character" /ak/ The {mnemonic} for the ACKnowledge character, {ASCII} code 6. 2. "communications" A message transmitted to indicate that some data has been received correctly. Typically, if the sender does not receive the ACK message after some predetermined time, or receives a {NAK}, the original data will be sent again. [{Jargon File}] (1997-01-07)

Acquaintance, Knowledge by: (Lat. adcognitare, to make known) The apprehension of a quality, thing or person which is in the direct presence of the knowing subject. Acquaintance, in the strict sense, is restricted to the immediate data of experience but is commonly extended to include the things or persons perceived by means of such data. See Description, Knowledge by. -- L.W.

activation record "compiler" (Or "data frame", "stack frame") A data structure containing the variables belonging to one particular {scope} (e.g. a procedure body), as well as links to other activation records. Activation records are usually created (on the {stack}) on entry to a block and destroyed on exit. If a procedure or function may be returned as a result, stored in a variable and used in an outer scope then its activation record must be stored in a {heap} so that its variables still exist when it is used. Variables in the current {scope} are accessed via the {frame pointer} which points to the current activation record. Variables in an outer scope are accessed by following chains of links between activation records. There are two kinds of link - the {static link} and the {dynamic link}. (1995-03-07)

active DBMS "database" A conventional or passive {DBMS} combined with a means of event detection and condition monitoring. Event handling is often rule-based, as with an {expert system}. (1994-11-08)

Active Reconfiguring Message "hardware" (ARM) An efficient mechanism which allows reconfiguration of the hardware logic of a system according to the particular data received or transmitted. In ARM each message contains extra information in a Reconfiguring {Header} in addition to the data to be transferred. Upon arrival of the message the Reconfiguring Header is extracted, decoded and used to perform on-the-fly hardware reconfiguration. As soon as the hardware has been reconfigured the data information of the message can be processed. [In what contect is this term used?] (1997-06-06)

ActiveX Data Objects "database, Microsoft, programming" (ADO) {Microsoft}'s {library} for accessing data sources through {OLE DB}. Typically it is used to query or modify data stored in a relational database. {Home (http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/ado270/htm/adostartpage1.asp)}. (2003-07-08)

Ada 95 "language" A revision and extension of {Ada} (Ada 83) begun in 1988 and completed on 1994-12-01 by a team lead by Tucker Taft of {Intermetrics}. Chris Anderson was the Project Manager. The printed standard was expected to be available around 1995-02-15. Additions include {object-orientation} ({tagged types}, {abstract types} and {class-wide types}), hierarchical libraries and synchronisation with shared data (protected types) similar to {Orca}. It lacks {multiple inheritance} but supports the construction of multiple inheritance type hierarchies through the use of {generics} and {type composition}. {GNAT} aims to be a free implementation of Ada 95. You can get the standard from the {Ada Joint Program Office (http://wuarchive.wustl.edu/languages/ada/ajpo/index.shtml)}. ["Introducing Ada 9X", J.G.P. Barnes, Feb 1993]. (1999-12-02)

ADABAS "database" A {relational database} system by {Software AG}. While it was initially designed for large {IBM} {mainframe} systems (e.g. {S/370} in the late 1970s), it has been ported to numerous other {platforms} over the last few years such as several flavors of {Unix} including {AIX}. ADABAS stores its data in tables (and is thus "relational") but also uses some non-relational techniques, such as {multiple values} and {periodic groups}. (1995-10-30)

Ada "language" (After {Ada Lovelace}) A {Pascal}-descended language, designed by Jean Ichbiah's team at {CII Honeywell} in 1979, made mandatory for Department of Defense software projects by the Pentagon. The original language was standardised as "Ada 83", the latest is "{Ada 95}". Ada is a large, complex, {block-structured} language aimed primarily at {embedded} applications. It has facilities for {real-time} response, {concurrency}, hardware access and reliable run-time error handling. In support of large-scale {software engineering}, it emphasises {strong typing}, {data abstraction} and {encapsulation}. The type system uses {name equivalence} and includes both {subtypes} and {derived types}. Both fixed and {floating-point} numerical types are supported. {Control flow} is fully bracketed: if-then-elsif-end if, case-is-when-end case, loop-exit-end loop, goto. Subprogram parameters are in, out, or inout. Variables imported from other packages may be hidden or directly visible. Operators may be {overloaded} and so may {enumeration} literals. There are user-defined {exceptions} and {exception handlers}. An Ada program consists of a set of packages encapsulating data objects and their related operations. A package has a separately compilable body and interface. Ada permits {generic packages} and subroutines, possibly parametrised. Ada support {single inheritance}, using "tagged types" which are types that can be extended via {inheritance}. Ada programming places a heavy emphasis on {multitasking}. Tasks are synchronised by the {rendezvous}, in which a task waits for one of its subroutines to be executed by another. The conditional entry makes it possible for a task to test whether an entry is ready. The selective wait waits for either of two entries or waits for a limited time. Ada is often criticised, especially for its size and complexity, and this is attributed to its having been designed by committee. In fact, both Ada 83 and Ada 95 were designed by small design teams to be internally consistent and tightly integrated. By contrast, two possible competitors, {Fortran 90} and {C++} have both become products designed by large and disparate volunteer committees. See also {Ada/Ed}, {Toy/Ada}. {Home of the Brave Ada Programmers (http://lglwww.epfl.ch/Ada/)}. {Ada FAQs (http://lglwww.epfl.ch/Ada/FAQ/)} (hypertext), {text only (ftp://lglftp.epfl.ch/pub/Ada/FAQ)}. {(http://wuarchive.wustl.edu/languages/ada/)}, {(ftp://ajpo.sei.cmu.edu/)}, {(ftp://stars.rosslyn.unisys.com/pub/ACE_8.0)}. E-mail: "adainfo@ajpo.sei.cmu.edu". {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.ada}. {An Ada grammar (ftp://primost.cs.wisc.edu/)} including a lex scanner and yacc parser is available. E-mail: "masticol@dumas.rutgers.edu". {Another yacc grammar and parser for Ada by Herman Fischer (ftp://wsmr-simtel20.army.mil/PD2:"ADA.EXTERNAL-TOOLS"GRAM2.SRC)}. An {LR parser} and {pretty-printer} for {Ada} from NASA is available from the {Ada Software Repository}. {Adamakegen} generates {makefiles} for {Ada} programs. ["Reference Manual for the Ada Programming Language", ANSI/MIL STD 1815A, US DoD (Jan 1983)]. Earlier draft versions appeared in July 1980 and July 1982. ISO 1987. [{Jargon File}] (2000-08-12)

ADAM {A Data Management system}

ADAMO "database" A data management system written at {CERN}, based on the {Entity-Relationship model}. (1995-03-14)

Adaplan "language" A {functional database} language based upon {Backus}' {FP} language. [Erwig&Lipeck, Proc. DBPL-3, 1991]. (1995-05-07)

Adaplex "language, database" An extension of {Ada} for {functional databases}. ["Adaplex: Rationale and Reference Manual 2nd ed", J.M. Smith et al, Computer Corp America, Cambridge MA, 1983]. (1995-02-14)

Adaptec "company" A company specialising in the aera of movement of data between computers. Adaptec designs hardware and software products to transfer data from a computer to a {peripheral} device or {network}. Founded in 1981, the company achieved profitability in 1984, went public in 1986, and to date has achieved 54 consecutive profitable quarters. Revenues for fiscal 1997 were $934 million, a 42% increase over the prior year. Net income, excluding acquisition charges, for fiscal year 1997 was $198 million or $1.72 per share. {(http://adaptec.com)}. (1999-08-25)

adaptive answering "communications" A feature which allows a {faxmodem} to answer the telephone and decide whether the incoming call is a fax or data call. Most {Class 1} faxmodems do this. The {U.S. Robotics} Class 1 implementation however seems not to do it, it must be set to answer as either one or the other. (1995-03-16)

Adaptive Server Enterprise "database" (ASE) The {relational database management system} that started life in the mid-eighties [first release?] as "Sybase SQL Server". For a number of years {Microsoft} was a Sybase distributor, reselling the Sybase product for {OS/2} and (later) {Windows NT} under the name "Microsoft SQL Server". Around 1994, Microsoft basically bought a copy of the {source code} of Sybase SQL Server and then went its own way. As competitors, Sybase and Microsoft have been developing their products independently ever since. Microsoft has mostly emphasised ease-of-use and "Window-ising" the product, while Sybase has focused on maximising performance and reliability, and running on high-end hardware. When releasing version 11.5 in 1997, Sybase renamed its product to "ASE" to better distinguish its database from Microsoft's. Both ASE and MS SQL Server call their query language "Transact-SQL" and they are very similar. Sybase SQL Server was the first true {client-server} RDBMS which was also capable of handling real-world workloads. In contrast, other DBMSs have long been monolithic programs; for example, {Oracle} only "bolted on" client-server functionality in the mid-nineties. Also, Sybase SQL Server was the first commercially successful RDBMS supporting {stored procedures} and {triggers}, and a cost-based {query optimizer}. As with many other technology-driven competitors of Microsoft, Sybase has lost market share to MS's superior marketing, though many consider it has the superior system. {(http://sypron.nl/whatis_ase.html)}. (2003-07-02)

Adaptor "tool" (Automatic DAta Parallelism TranslatOR) A source to source transformation tool that transforms {data parallel} programs written in {Fortran 77} with {array} extensions, parallel loops, and layout directives to parallel programs with explicit {message passing}. ADAPTOR generates {Fortran 77} host and node programs with message passing. The new generated source codes have to be compiled by the compiler of the parallel computer. Version 1.0 runs on {CM-5}, {iPCS/860}, {Meiko CS1}/CS2, {KSR 1}, {SGI}, {Alliant} or a network of {Suns} or {RS/6000s}. {(ftp://ftp.gmd.de/gmd/adaptor/adp_1.0.tar.Z)}. [Connection with Thomas Brandes and GMD?] (1993-06-01)

A Data Management System "software, tool" (ADAM) A suite of software tools intended to assist in the design and testing of military information processing systems. ADAM was developed by the {MITRE Corporation} in 1966. It consisted of 53 different programs which ran on an {IBM 7030} (STRETCH). It was targetted at systems that had to cope with large volumes of data with complex relationships with rapid response and increasing requirements. ADAM was part of the {Information Systems Tools and Software Techniques} project. [{"Evaluation of ADAM An Advanced Data Management System", R.A.J. Gildea, Aug 1967. (http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/661273.pdf)}]. (2015-08-14)

ADCCP {Advanced Data Communications Control Protocol}

address 1. "networking" {e-mail address}. 2. "networking" {IP address}. 3. "networking" {MAC address}. 4. "storage, programming" An unsigned integer used to select one fundamental element of storage, usually known as a {word} from a computer's {main memory} or other storage device. The {CPU} outputs addresses on its {address bus} which may be connected to an {address decoder}, {cache controller}, {memory management unit}, and other devices. While from a hardware point of view an address is indeed an integer most {strongly typed} programming languages disallow mixing integers and addresses, and indeed addresses of different data types. This is a fine example for {syntactic salt}: the compiler could work without it but makes writing bad programs more difficult. (1997-07-01)

address bus "processor" The connections between the {CPU} and memory which carry the {address} from/to which the CPU wishes to read or write. The number of bits of address bus determines the maximum size of memory which the processor can access. See also {data bus}. (1995-03-22)

addressing mode 1. "processor, programming" One of a set of methods for specifying the {operand}(s) for a {machine code} {instruction}. Different processors vary greatly in the number of addressing modes they provide. The more complex modes described below can usually be replaced with a short sequence of instructions using only simpler modes. The most common modes are "register" - the operand is stored in a specified {register}; "absolute" - the operand is stored at a specified memory address; and "{immediate}" - the operand is contained within the instruction. Most processors also have {indirect addressing} modes, e.g. "register indirect", "memory indirect" where the specified register or memory location does not contain the operand but contains its address, known as the "{effective address}". For an absolute addressing mode, the effective address is contained within the instruction. Indirect addressing modes often have options for pre- or post- increment or decrement, meaning that the register or memory location containing the {effective address} is incremented or decremented by some amount (either fixed or also specified in the instruction), either before or after the instruction is executed. These are very useful for {stacks} and for accessing blocks of data. Other variations form the effective address by adding together one or more registers and one or more constants which may themselves be direct or indirect. Such complex addressing modes are designed to support access to multidimensional arrays and arrays of data structures. The addressing mode may be "implicit" - the location of the operand is obvious from the particular instruction. This would be the case for an instruction that modified a particular control register in the CPU or, in a {stack} based processor where operands are always on the top of the stack. 2. In {IBM} {System 370}/{XA} the addressing mode bit controls the size of the {effective address} generated. When this bit is zero, the CPU is in the 24-bit addressing mode, and 24 bit instruction and operand effective addresses are generated. When this bit is one, the CPU is in the 31-bit addressing mode, and 31-bit instruction and operand effective addresses are generated. ["IBM System/370 Extended Architecture Principles of Operation", Chapter 5., 'Address Generation', BiModal Addressing]. (1995-03-30)

A distinction is frequently drawn between two observational methods in psychology: (a) introspection which appeals to private data, accessible to a single observer (see Introspection), and (b) objective observation of public data, accessible to a number of observers among whom there is substantial agreement (see Behaviorism). These two methods, though they are often regarded as disparate, may perhaps be more properly regarded as the extremes of a continuum of observational objectivity, many varying degrees of which can be found in psychological experimentation.

Aditi "database, project" The Aditi Deductive Database System. A multi-user {deductive database} system from the Machine Intelligence Project at the {University of Melbourne}. It supports base {relations} defined by {facts} (relations in the sense of {relational databases}) and {derived relations} defined by {rules} that specify how to compute new information from old information. Both base relations and the rules defining derived relations are stored on disk and are accessed as required during query evaluation. The rules defining derived relations are expressed in a {Prolog}-like language, which is also used for expressing queries. Aditi supports the full structured data capability of Prolog. Base relations can store arbitrarily nested terms, for example arbitrary length lists, and rules can directly manipulate such terms. Base relations can be indexed with {B-trees} or multi-level signature files. Users can access the system through a {Motif}-based query and database administration tool, or through a command line interface. There is also in interface that allows {NU-Prolog} programs to access Aditi in a transparent manner. Proper {transaction processing} is not supported in this release. The beta release runs on {SPARC}/{SunOS4}.1.2 and {MIPS}/{Irix}4.0. E-mail: "aditi@cs.mu.oz.au". (1992-12-17)

ADM "language" A picture {query language}, extension of {Sequel2}. ["An Image-Oriented Database System", Y. Takao et al, in Database Techniques for Pictorial Applications, A. Blaser ed, pp. 527-538]. (1995-03-21)

ADO {ActiveX Data Objects}

ADSP {AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol}

ADSU {ATM Data Service Unit}

ADT {abstract data type}

Advanced Data Communications Control Protocol "protocol" An {ANSI} {standard} {bit-oriented} {data link} control {protocol}. (1997-05-07)

Advanced Encryption Standard "cryptography, algorithm" (AES) The {NIST}'s replacement for the {Data Encryption Standard} (DES). The Rijndael /rayn-dahl/ {symmetric block cipher}, designed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen, was chosen by a NIST contest to be AES. AES is Federal Information Processing Standard FIPS-197. AES currently supports 128, 192 and 256-bit keys and encryption blocks, but may be extended in multiples of 32 bits. {(http://csrc.nist.gov/CryptoToolkit/aes/)}. {Rijndael home page (http://esat.kuleuven.ac.be/~rijmen/rijndael/)}. (2003-07-04)

Advanced Intelligent Tape "storage" (AIT) A form of {magnetic tape} and drive using {AME} developed by {Sony} for storing large amounts of data. An AIT can store over 50 {gigabytes} and transfer data at six megabytes/second (in February 1999). AIT features high speed file access, long head and media life, the {ALDC compression} {algorithm}, and a {MIC} chip. {(http://aittape.com/)}. {Seagate (http://seagate.com/support/tape/scsiide/sidewinder/ait_main_page.shtml)}. (1999-04-16)

Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking "networking, product" (APPN) IBM data communications support that routes data in a network between two or more {APPC} systems that need not be adjacent. (1995-02-03)

Advanced Revelation "database" (AREV) A {database development environment} for {personal computers} available from {Revelation Software} since 1982. Originally based on the {PICK} {operating system}, there are over one million users worldwide in 1996. (1996-12-12)

Advanced Technology Attachment Interface with Extensions "storage, standard" (ATA-2, Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics, EIDE) A proposed (May 1996 or earlier?) {standard} from {X3T10} (document 948D rev 3) which extends the {Advanced Technology Attachment} interface while maintaining compatibility with current {IBM PC} {BIOS} designs. ATA-2 provides for faster data rates, 32-bit transactions and (in some drives) {DMA}. Optional support for power saving modes and removable devices is also in the standard. ATA-2 was developed by {Western Digital} as "Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics" (EIDE) around 1994. {Marketroids} call it "Fast ATA" or "Fast ATA-2". ATA-2 was followed by {ATA-3} and {ATA-4} ("Ultra DMA"). (2000-10-07)

Advanced Technology Attachment "storage, hardware, standard" (ATA, AT Attachment or "Integrated Drive Electronics", IDE) A {disk drive} interface {standard} based on the {IBM PC} {ISA} 16-bit {bus} but also used on other {personal computers}. ATA specifies the power and data signal interfaces between the {motherboard} and the integrated {disk controller} and drive. The ATA "bus" only supports two devices - master and slave. ATA drives may in fact use any physical interface the manufacturer desires, so long as an embedded translator is included with the proper ATA interface. ATA "controllers" are actually direct connections to the ISA bus. Originally called IDE, the ATA interface was invented by {Compaq} around 1986, and was developed with the help of {Western Digital}, {Imprimis}, and then-upstart {Conner Peripherals}. Efforts to standardise the interface started in 1988; the first draft appeared in March 1989, and a finished version was sent to {ANSI} group X3T10 (who named it "Advanced Technology Attachment" (ATA)) for ratification in November 1990. X3T10 later extended ATA to {Advanced Technology Attachment Interface with Extensions} (ATA-2), followed by {ATA-3} and {ATA-4}. {X3T10 (http://symbios.com/x3t10/)}. (1998-10-08)

ADVENT "games" /ad'vent/ The prototypical computer {adventure} game, first implemented by Will Crowther for a {CDC} computer (probably the {CDC 6600}?) as an attempt at computer-refereed fantasy gaming. ADVENT was ported to the {PDP-10}, and expanded to the 350-point {Classic} puzzle-oriented version, by Don Woods of the {Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory} (SAIL). The game is now better known as Adventure, but the {TOPS-10} {operating system} permitted only six-letter filenames. All the versions since are based on the SAIL port. David Long of the {University of Chicago} Graduate School of Business Computing Facility (which had two of the four {DEC20s} on campus in the late 1970s and early 1980s) was responsible for expanding the cave in a number of ways, and pushing the point count up to 500, then 501 points. Most of his work was in the data files, but he made some changes to the {parser} as well. This game defined the terse, dryly humorous style now expected in text adventure games, and popularised several tag lines that have become fixtures of hacker-speak: "A huge green fierce snake bars the way!" "I see no X here" (for some noun X). "You are in a maze of twisty little passages, all alike." "You are in a little maze of twisty passages, all different." The "magic words" {xyzzy} and {plugh} also derive from this game. Crowther, by the way, participated in the exploration of the Mammoth & Flint Ridge cave system; it actually *has* a "Colossal Cave" and a "Bedquilt" as in the game, and the "Y2" that also turns up is cavers' jargon for a map reference to a secondary entrance. See also {vadding}. [Was the original written in Fortran?] [{Jargon File}] (1996-04-01)

Aesthetic Judgment: (German aesthetische Urteilskraft) The power of judgment exercised upon data supplied by the feeling or sense of beauty. Kant devotes the first half of the Critique of Judgment to a "Critique of Aesthetic Judgment." (See Kantianism and Feeling.) -- O.F.K.

aggregate type "programming" A data {type} composed of multiple elements. An aggregate can be homogeneous (all elements have the same type) e.g. an {array}, a list in a {functional language}, a string of characters, a file; or it can be heterogeneous (elements can have different types) e.g. a {structure}. In most languages aggregates can contain elements which are themselves aggregates. e.g. a list of lists. See also {union}. (1996-03-23)

aggregator "networking" A program for watching for new content at user-specified {RSS} feeds. An example is {BottomFeeder}. {(http://directory.google.com/Top/Reference/Libraries/Library_and_Information_Science/Technical_Services/Cataloguing/Metadata/RDF/Applications/RSS/News_Readers/)}. (2003-09-29)

agnosticism ::: n. --> That doctrine which, professing ignorance, neither asserts nor denies.
The doctrine that the existence of a personal Deity, an unseen world, etc., can be neither proved nor disproved, because of the necessary limits of the human mind (as sometimes charged upon Hamilton and Mansel), or because of the insufficiency of the evidence furnished by physical and physical data, to warrant a positive conclusion (as taught by the school of Herbert Spencer); -- opposed


AIDX "abuse, operating system" /aydkz/ A derogatory term for {IBM}'s perverted version of {Unix}, {AIX}, especially for the AIX 3.? used in the {IBM RS/6000} series (some hackers think it is funnier just to pronounce "AIX" as "aches"). A victim of the dreaded "hybridism" disease, this attempt to combine the two main currents of the Unix stream ({BSD} and {USG Unix}) became a monstrosity to haunt system administrators' dreams. For example, if new accounts are created while many users are logged on, the load average jumps quickly over 20 due to silly implementation of the user databases. For a quite similar disease, compare {HP-SUX}. Also, compare {Macintrash} {Nominal Semidestructor}, {Open DeathTrap}, {ScumOS}, {sun-stools}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-04-13)

Aiken code "data" An alternative form of the {Binary Coded Decimal} (BCD) system for encoding numbers. Where BCD encodes each decimal digit in normal binary, Aiken code uses the encoding shown below. This is supposed to be less prone to corruption. The following table shows the encoding of each decimal digit, D, in BCD and Aiken code: D BCD Aiken 0 0000 0000 1 0001 0001 2 0010 0010 3 0011 0011 4 0100 0100 5 0101 1011 (inverted 4) 6 0110 1100 (inverted 3) 7 0111 1101 (inverted 2) 8 1000 1110 (inverted 1) 9 1001 1111 (inverted 0) The Aiken code was probably designed by {Howard Aiken} in the 1940s or 1950s for use in data transmission. Compare: {Gray code}. [What is it good for and why?] (2007-07-16)

AIR "standard" A future {infrared} standard from {IrDA}. AIR will provide in-room multipoint to multipoint connectivity. AIR supports a data rate of 4 Mbps at a distance of 4 metres, and 250 Kbps at up to 8 metres. It is designed for cordless connections to multiple peripherals and meeting room collaboration applications. See also {IrDA Data} and {IrDA Control} (1999-10-14)

Ajax "programming" (Asynchronous JavaScript And XML) A collection of techniques for creating interactive {web applications} without having to reload the complete {web page} in response to each user input, thus making the interaction faster. AJAX typically uses the {XMLHttpRequest} browser object to exchange data asynchronously with the {web server}. Alternatively, an {IFrame} object or dynamically added "script" tags may be used instead of XMLHttpRequest. Despite the name, Ajax can combine any browser scripting language (not just {JavaScript}) and any data representation (not just XML). Alternative data formats include {HTML}, plain text or {JSON}. Several Ajax {frameworks} are now available to simplify Ajax development. (2007-10-04)

Aldat "language" A {database} language, based on {extended algebra}. [Listed by M.P. Atkinson & J.W. Schmidt in a tutorial in Zurich, 1989]. (1995-04-19)

Alex "language" 1. A {polymorphic} language being developed by Stephen Crawley "sxc@itd.dtso.oz.au" of Defence Science & Tech Org, Australia. Alex has {abstract data types}, {type inference} and {inheritance}. 2. "language" An {ISWIM}-like language with {exception handling}. ["An Exception Handling Construct for Functional Languages", M. Brez et al, in Proc ESOP88, LNCS 300, Springer 1988]. 3. "tool" A {scanner generator}. {Alexis} is its input language. ["Alex: A Simple and Efficient Scanner Generator", H. Mossenbock, SIGPLAN Notices 21(5), May 1986]. (1994-12-15)

algebraic data type "programming" (Or "sum of products type") In {functional programming}, new types can be defined, each of which has one or more {constructors}. Such a type is known as an algebraic data type. E.g. in {Haskell} we can define a new type, "Tree": data Tree = Empty | Leaf Int | Node Tree Tree with constructors "Empty", "Leaf" and "Node". The constructors can be used much like functions in that they can be (partially) applied to arguments of the appropriate type. For example, the Leaf constructor has the functional type Int -" Tree. A constructor application cannot be reduced (evaluated) like a function application though since it is already in {normal form}. Functions which operate on algebraic data types can be defined using {pattern matching}: depth :: Tree -" Int depth Empty = 0 depth (Leaf n) = 1 depth (Node l r) = 1 + max (depth l) (depth r) The most common algebraic data type is the list which has constructors Nil and Cons, written in Haskell using the special syntax "[]" for Nil and infix ":" for Cons. Special cases of algebraic types are {product types} (only one constructor) and {enumeration types} (many constructors with no arguments). Algebraic types are one kind of {constructed type} (i.e. a type formed by combining other types). An algebraic data type may also be an {abstract data type} (ADT) if it is exported from a {module} without its constructors. Objects of such a type can only be manipulated using functions defined in the same {module} as the type itself. In {set theory} the equivalent of an algebraic data type is a {discriminated union} - a set whose elements consist of a tag (equivalent to a constructor) and an object of a type corresponding to the tag (equivalent to the constructor arguments). (1994-11-23)

Algebraic Specification Language 1. "language" (ASL) ["Structured Algebraic Specifications: A Kernel Language", M. Wirsing, Theor Comput Sci 42, pp.123-249, Elsevier 1986]. 2. "language" (ASF) A language for equational specification of {abstract data types}. ["Algebraic Specification", J.A. Bergstra et al, A-W 1989]. (1995-12-13)

ALGOL 60 "language" ALGOrithmic Language 1960. A portable language for scientific computations. ALGOL 60 was small and elegant. It was {block-structured}, nested, {recursive} and {free form}. It was also the first language to be described in {BNF}. There were three {lexical} representations: hardware, reference, and publication. The only structured data types were {arrays}, but they were permitted to have lower bounds and could be dynamic. It also had {conditional expressions}; it introduced :=; if-then-else; very general "for" loops; switch declaration (an array of statement {labels} generalising {Fortran}'s {computed goto}). Parameters were {call-by-name} and {call-by-value}. It had {static} local "own" variables. It lacked user-defined types, character manipulation and {standard I/O}. See also {EULER}, {ALGOL 58}, {ALGOL 68}, {Foogol}. ["Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 60", Peter Naur ed., CACM 3(5):299-314, May 1960]. (1995-01-25)

ALGOL 68 "language" An extensive revision of {ALGOL 60} by Adriaan van Wijngaarden et al. ALGOL 68 was discussed from 1963 by Working Group 2.1 of {IFIP}. Its definition was accepted in December 1968. ALGOL 68 was the first, and still one of very few, programming languages for which a complete formal specification was created before its implementation. However, this specification was hard to understand due to its formality, the fact that it used an unfamiliar {metasyntax} notation (not {BNF}) and its unconventional terminology. One of the singular features of ALGOL 68 was its {orthogonal} design, making for freedom from arbitrary rules (such as restrictions in other languages that arrays could only be used as parameters but not as results). It also allowed {user defined data types}, then an unheard-of feature. It featured {structural equivalence}; automatic type conversion ("{coercion}") including {dereferencing}; {flexible arrays}; generalised loops (for-from-by-to-while-do-od), if-then-else-elif-fi, an integer case statement with an 'out' clause (case-in-out-esac); {skip} and {goto} statements; {blocks}; {procedures}; user-defined {operators}; {procedure parameters}; {concurrent} execution (par-begin-end); {semaphores}; generators "heap" and "loc" for {dynamic allocation}. It had no {abstract data types} or {separate compilation}. {(http://www.bookrags.com/research/algol-68-wcs/)}. (2007-04-24)

ALGOL W "language" A derivative of {ALGOL 60}. It introduced {double precision}, {complex numbers}, bit strings and dynamic data structures. It is {parsed} entirely by {operator precedence} and used the {call-by-value-result} calling convention. ["A Contribution to the Development of Algol", N. Wirth, CACM 9(6):413-431, June 1966]. ["ALGOL W Implementation", H. Bauer et al, TR CS98, Stanford U, 1968]. (1994-11-24)

algorithm "algorithm, programming" A detailed sequence of actions to perform to accomplish some task. Named after the Iranian, Islamic mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer, {Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi}. Technically, an algorithm must reach a result after a {finite} number of steps, thus ruling out {brute force} search methods for certain problems, though some might claim that brute force search was also a valid (generic) algorithm. The term is also used loosely for any sequence of actions (which may or may not terminate). {Paul E. Black's Dictionary of Algorithms, Data Structures, and Problems (http://nist.gov/dads/)}. (2002-02-05)

Algorithmic Test Case Generation "programming" A computational method for identifying test cases from data, logical relationships or other software {requirements} information. (1996-05-10)

alias 1. "operating system" A name, usually short and easy to remember and type, that is translated into another name or string, usually long and difficult to remember or type. Most {command interpreters} (e.g. {Unix}'s {csh}) allow the user to define aliases for commands, e.g. "alias l ls -al". These are loaded into memory when the interpreter starts and are expanded without needing to refer to any file. 2. "networking" One of several alternative {hostnames} with the same {Internet address}. E.g. in the {Unix} {hosts} database (/etc/hosts or {NIS} map) the first field on a line is the {Internet address}, the next is the official hostname (the "{canonical} name" or "{CNAME}"), and any others are aliases. Hostname aliases often indicate that the host with that alias provides a particular network service such as {archie}, {finger}, {FTP}, or {web}. The assignment of services to computers can then be changed simply by moving an alias (e.g. www.doc.ic.ac.uk) from one {Internet address} to another, without the clients needing to be aware of the change. 3. "file system" The name used by {Apple computer, Inc.} for {symbolic links} when they added them to the {System 7} {operating system} in 1991. (1997-10-22) 4. "programming" Two names ({identifiers}), usually of local or global {variables}, that refer to the same resource ({memory} location) are said to be aliased. Although names introduced in {programming languages} are typically mapped to different {memory} locations, aliasing can be introduced by the use of {address} arithmetic and {pointers} or language-specific features, like {C++} {references}. Statically deciding (e.g. via a {program analysis} executed by a sophisticated {compiler}) which locations of a {program} will be aliased at run time is an {undecidable} problem. [G. Ramalingam: "The Undecidability of Aliasing", ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), Volume 16, Issue 5, September 1994, Pages: 1467 - 1471, ISSN:0164-0925.] (2004-09-12)

almanac ::: n. --> A book or table, containing a calendar of days, and months, to which astronomical data and various statistics are often added, such as the times of the rising and setting of the sun and moon, eclipses, hours of full tide, stated festivals of churches, terms of courts, etc.

Alphard "language" (Named after the brightest star in Hydra) A {Pascal}-like language developed by Wulf, Shaw and London of {CMU} in 1974. Alphard supports {data abstraction} using the 'form', which combines a specification and an implementation. ["Abstraction and Verification in Alphard: Defining and Specifying Iteration and Generators", Mary Shaw, CACM 20(8):553-563, Aug 1977]. (1995-05-10)

ALTER "database" An {SQL} {Data Definition Language} command that adds or removes {columns} or {indexes} to/from a {table} or modifies the table definition in some other way. This differs from the INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE ({Data Modification Language}) commands in that those change the data stored in the table but not its definition. {MySQL ALTER TABLE command (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.1/en/alter-table.html)}. (2009-11-10)

Alternating bit protocol "networking" (ABP) A simple {data link layer} {protocol} that retransmits lost or corrupted messages. Messages are sent from transmitter A to receiver B. Assume that the channel from A to B is initialised and that there are no messages in transit. Each message contains a data part, a {checksum}, and a one-bit {sequence number}, i.e. a value that is 0 or 1. When A sends a message, it sends it continuously, with the same sequence number, until it receives an acknowledgment ({ACK}) from B that contains the same sequence number. When that happens, A complements (flips) the sequence number and starts transmitting the next message. When B receives a message from A, it checks the checksum. If the message is not corrupted B sends back an ACK with the same sequence number. If it is the first message with that sequence number then it is sent for processing. Subsequent messages with the same sequence bit are simply acknowledged. If the message is corrupted B sends back an negative/error acknowledgment ({NAK}). This is optional, as A will continue transmitting until it receives the correct ACK. A treats corrupted ACK messages, and NAK messages in the same way. The simplest behaviour is to ignore them all and continue transmitting. (2000-10-28)

Alternative Hypothesis ::: The hypothesis that states there is a difference between two or more sets of data.

Amdahl Corporation "company" A US computer manufacturer. Amdahl is a major supplier of large {mainframes}, {UNIX} and {Open Systems} software and servers, data storage subsystems, data communications products, applications development software, and a variety of educational and consulting services. Amdahl products are sold in more than 30 countries for use in both open systems and {IBM} plug-compatible mainframe computing environments. Quarterly sales $397M, profits $13M (Aug 1994). In 1997 Amdahl became a division of {Fujitsu}. {(http://amdahl.com/)}. (1995-05-23)

Amiga "computer" A range of home computers first released by {Commodore Business Machines} in early 1985 (though they did not design the original - see below). Amigas were popular for {games}, {video processing}, and {multimedia}. One notable feature is a hardware {blitter} for speeding up graphics operations on whole areas of the screen. The Amiga was originally called the Lorraine, and was developed by a company named "Amiga" or "Amiga, Inc.", funded by some doctors to produce a killer game machine. After the US game machine market collapsed, the Amiga company sold some {joysticks} but no Lorraines or any other computer. They eventually floundered and looked for a buyer. Commodore at that time bought the (mostly complete) Amiga machine, infused some money, and pushed it through the final stages of development in a hurry. Commodore released it sometime[?] in 1985. Most components within the machine were known by nicknames. The {coprocessor} commonly called the "Copper" is in fact the "{Video} Timing Coprocessor" and is split between two chips: the instruction fetch and execute units are in the "Agnus" chip, and the {pixel} timing circuits are in the "Denise" chip (A for address, D for data). "Agnus" and "Denise" were responsible for effects timed to the {real-time} position of the video scan, such as midscreen {palette} changes, {sprite multiplying}, and {resolution} changes. Different versions (in order) were: "Agnus" (could only address 512K of {video RAM}), "Fat Agnus" (in a {PLCC} package, could access 1MB of video RAM), "Super Agnus" (slightly upgraded "Fat Agnus"). "Agnus" and "Fat Agnus" came in {PAL} and {NTSC} versions, "Super Agnus" came in one version, jumper selectable for PAL or NTSC. "Agnus" was replaced by "Alice" in the A4000 and A1200, which allowed for more {DMA} channels and higher bus {bandwidth}. "Denise" outputs binary video data (3*4 bits) to the "Vidiot". The "Vidiot" is a hybrid that combines and amplifies the 12-bit video data from "Denise" into {RGB} to the {monitor}. Other chips were "Amber" (a "flicker fixer", used in the A3000 and Commodore display enhancer for the A2000), "Gary" ({I/O}, addressing, G for {glue logic}), "Buster" (the {bus controller}, which replaced "Gary" in the A2000), "Buster II" (for handling the Zorro II/III cards in the A3000, which meant that "Gary" was back again), "Ramsey" (The {RAM} controller), "DMAC" (The DMA controller chip for the WD33C93 {SCSI adaptor} used in the A3000 and on the A2091/A2092 SCSI adaptor card for the A2000; and to control the {CD-ROM} in the {CDTV}), and "Paula" ({Peripheral}, Audio, {UART}, {interrupt} Lines, and {bus Arbiter}). There were several Amiga chipsets: the "Old Chipset" (OCS), the "Enhanced Chipset" (ECS), and {AGA}. OCS included "Paula", "Gary", "Denise", and "Agnus". ECS had the same "Paula", "Gary", "Agnus" (could address 2MB of Chip RAM), "Super Denise" (upgraded to support "Agnus" so that a few new {screen modes} were available). With the introduction of the {Amiga A600} "Gary" was replaced with "Gayle" (though the chipset was still called ECS). "Gayle" provided a number of improvments but the main one was support for the A600's {PCMCIA} port. The AGA chipset had "Agnus" with twice the speed and a 24-bit palette, maximum displayable: 8 bits (256 colours), although the famous "{HAM}" (Hold And Modify) trick allows pictures of 256,000 colours to be displayed. AGA's "Paula" and "Gayle" were unchanged but AGA "Denise" supported AGA "Agnus"'s new screen modes. Unfortunately, even AGA "Paula" did not support High Density {floppy disk drives}. (The Amiga 4000, though, did support high density drives.) In order to use a high density disk drive Amiga HD floppy drives spin at half the rotational speed thus halving the data rate to "Paula". Commodore Business Machines went bankrupt on 1994-04-29, the German company {Escom AG} bought the rights to the Amiga on 1995-04-21 and the Commodore Amiga became the Escom Amiga. In April 1996 Escom were reported to be making the {Amiga} range again but they too fell on hard times and {Gateway 2000} (now called Gateway) bought the Amiga brand on 1997-05-15. Gateway licensed the Amiga operating system to a German hardware company called {Phase 5} on 1998-03-09. The following day, Phase 5 announced the introduction of a four-processor {PowerPC} based Amiga {clone} called the "{pre\box}". Since then, it has been announced that the new operating system will be a version of {QNX}. On 1998-06-25, a company called {Access Innovations Ltd} announced {plans (http://micktinker.co.uk/aaplus.html)} to build a new Amiga chip set, the {AA+}, based partly on the AGA chips but with new fully 32-bit functional core and 16-bit AGA {hardware register emulation} for {backward compatibility}. The new core promised improved memory access and video display DMA. By the end of 2000, Amiga development was under the control of a [new?] company called {Amiga, Inc.}. As well as continuing development of AmigaOS (version 3.9 released in December 2000), their "Digital Environment" is a {virtual machine} for multiple {platforms} conforming to the {ZICO} specification. As of 2000, it ran on {MIPS}, {ARM}, {PPC}, and {x86} processors. {(http://amiga.com/)}. {Amiga Web Directory (http://cucug.org/amiga.html)}. {amiCrawler (http://amicrawler.com/)}. Newsgroups: {news:comp.binaries.amiga}, {news:comp.sources.amiga}, {news:comp.sys.amiga}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.advocacy}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.announce}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.applications}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.audio}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.datacomm}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.emulations}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.games}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.graphics}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.hardware}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.introduction}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.marketplace}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.misc}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.multimedia}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.programmer}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.reviews}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.tech}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.telecomm}, {news:comp.Unix.amiga}. See {aminet}, {Amoeba}, {bomb}, {exec}, {gronk}, {guru meditation}, {Intuition}, {sidecar}, {slap on the side}, {Vulcan nerve pinch}. (2003-07-05)

Amplitude Modulation "communications" (AM) A method of encoding {data} by varying the {amplitude} of a constant {frequency} {carrier}. Contrast {Frequency Modulation}. (2001-04-30)

Amulet "processor" An implementation or the {Advanced RISC Machine} {microprocessor} architecture using the {micropipeline} design style. In April 1994 the Amulet group in the Computer Science department of {Manchester University} took delivery of the AMULET1 {microprocessor}. This was their first large scale asynchronous circuit and the world's first implementation of a commercial microprocessor architecture (ARM) in {asynchronous logic}. Work was begun at the end of 1990 and the design despatched for fabrication in February 1993. The primary intent was to demonstrate that an asynchronous microprocessor can consume less power than a synchronous design. The design incorporates a number of concurrent units which cooperate to give instruction level compatibility with the existing synchronous part. These include an Address unit, which autonomously generates instruction fetch requests and interleaves ({nondeterministic}ally) data requests from the Execution unit; a {Register} file which supplies operands, queues write destinations and handles data dependencies; an Execution unit which includes a multiplier, a shifter and an {ALU} with data-dependent delay; a Data interface which performs byte extraction and alignment and includes an {instruction prefetch} buffer, and a control path which performs {instruction decode}. These units only synchronise to exchange data. The design demonstrates that all the usual problems of processor design can be solved in this asynchronous framework: backward {instruction set} compatibility, {interrupts} and exact {exceptions} for {memory faults} are all covered. It also demonstrates some unusual behaviour, for instance {nondeterministic} prefetch depth beyond a branch instruction (though the instructions which actually get executed are, of course, deterministic). There are some unusual problems for {compiler} {optimisation}, as the metric which must be used to compare alternative code sequences is continuous rather than discrete, and the {nondeterminism} in external behaviour must also be taken into account. The chip was designed using a mixture of custom {datapath} and compiled control logic elements, as was the synchronous ARM. The fabrication technology is the same as that used for one version of the synchronous part, reducing the number of variables when comparing the two parts. Two silicon implementations have been received and preliminary measurements have been taken from these. The first is a 0.7um process and has achieved about 28 kDhrystones running the standard {benchmark} program. The other is a 1 um implementation and achieves about 20 kDhrystones. For the faster of the parts this is equivalent to a synchronous {ARM6} clocked at around 20MHz; in the case of AMULET1 it is likely that this speed is limited by the memory system cycle time (just over 50ns) rather than the processor chip itself. A fair comparison of devices at the same geometries gives the AMULET1 performance as about 70% of that of an {ARM6} running at 20MHz. Its power consumption is very similar to that of the ARM6; the AMULET1 therefore delivers about 80 MIPS/W (compared with around 120 from a 20MHz ARM6). Multiplication is several times faster on the AMULET1 owing to the inclusion of a specialised asynchronous multiplier. This performance is reasonable considering that the AMULET1 is a first generation part, whereas the synchronous ARM has undergone several design iterations. AMULET2 (under development in 1994) was expected to be three times faster than AMULET1 and use less power. The {macrocell} size (without {pad ring}) is 5.5 mm by 4.5 mm on a 1 micron {CMOS} process, which is about twice the area of the synchronous part. Some of the increase can be attributed to the more sophisticated organisation of the new part: it has a deeper {pipeline} than the clocked version and it supports multiple outstanding memory requests; there is also specialised circuitry to increase the multiplication speed. Although there is undoubtedly some overhead attributable to the asynchronous control logic, this is estimated to be closer to 20% than to the 100% suggested by the direct comparison. AMULET1 is code compatible with {ARM6} and is so is capable of running existing {binaries} without modification. The implementation also includes features such as interrupts and memory aborts. The work was part of a broad {ESPRIT} funded investigation into low-power technologies within the European {Open Microprocessor systems Initiative} (OMI) programme, where there is interest in low-power techniques both for portable equipment and (in the longer term) to alleviate the problems of the increasingly high dissipation of high-performance chips. This initial investigation into the role {asynchronous logic} might play has now demonstrated that asynchronous techniques can be applied to problems of the scale of a complete {microprocessor}. {(http://cs.man.ac.uk/amulet)}. (1994-12-08)

Analogies of Experience: (Ger. Analogien der Erfahrung) Kant's three dynamic principles (substantiality, reciprocity, and causality) of the understanding comprising the general category of relation, through which sense data are brought into the unity of experience. (See Kantianism.) -- O.F.K.

analogue computer "computer, hardware" A machine or electronic circuit designed to work on numerical data represented by some physical quantity (e.g. rotation or displacement) or electrical quantity (e.g. voltage or charge) which varies continuously, in contrast to {digital} signals which are either 0 or 1. For example, the turning of a wheel or changes in voltage can be used as input. Analogue computers are said to operate in {real time} and are used for research in design where many different shapes and speeds can be tried out quickly. A computer model of a car suspension allows the designer to see the effects of changing size, stiffness and damping. (1995-05-01)

Analogy: Originally a mathematical term, Analogia, meaning equality of ratios (Euclid VII Df. 20, V. Dfs. 5, 6), which entered Plato's philosophy (Republic 534a6), where it also expressed the epistemological doctrine that sensed things are related as their mathematical and ideal correlates. In modern usage analogy was identified with a weak form of reasoning in which "from the similarity of two things in certain particulars, their similarity in other particulars is inferred." (Century Dic.) Recently, the analysis of scientific method has given the term new significance. The observable data of science are denoted by concepts by inspection, whose complete meaning is given by something immediately apprehendable; its verified theory designating unobservable scientific objects is expressed by concepts by postulation, whose complete meaning is prescribed for them by the postulates of the deductive theory in which they occur. To verify such theory relations, termed epistemic correlations (J. Un. Sc. IX: 125-128), are required. When these are one-one, analogy exists in a very precise sense, since the concepts by inspection denoting observable data are then related as are the correlated concepts by postulation designating unobservable scientific objects. -- F.S.C.N. Analogy of Pythagoras: (Gr. analogia) The equality of ratios, or proportion, between the lengths of the strings producing the consonant notes of the musical scale. The discovery of these ratios is credited to Pythagoras, who is also said to have applied the principle of mathematical proportion to the other arts, and hence to have discovered, in his analogy, the secret of beauty in all its forms. -- G.R.M.

Analysis of Variance ::: An inferential statistical procedure used to test whether or not the means of two or more sets of data are equal to each other.

anandatattva (anandatattwa; ananda tattwa) ::: the principle of bliss, anandatattva usually referring not to the supreme ananda of saccidananda, but to its diluted manifestation on a lower plane.

ANCP "language" An early system on the {Datatron 200} series. [Listed in CACM 2(5):16, May 1959]. (1995-11-15)

An Evolutionary System for On-line Programming "database" (AESOP) An early interactive {query system} on the {IBM 1800} using a {light pen}. ["AESOP: A Final Report: A Prototype Interactive Information Control System", J.K. Summers et al, in Information System Science and Technology, D. Walker ed, 1967]. [Sammet 1969, p. 703]. (1995-04-04)

anonymous FTP "networking" An interactive service provided by many {Internet} {hosts} allowing any user to transfer documents, files, programs, and other archived data using {File Transfer Protocol}. The user logs in using the special {user name} "ftp" or "anonymous" and his {e-mail address} as {password}. He then has access to a special directory hierarchy containing the publically accessible files, typically in a subdirectory called "pub". This is usually a separate area from files used by local users. A reference like ftp: euagate.eua.ericsson.se /pub/eua/erlang/info means that files are available by anonymous FTP from the host called euagate.eua.ericsson.se in the directory (or file) /pub/eua/erlang/info. Sometimes the {hostname} will be followed by an {Internet address} in parentheses. The directory will usually be given as a path relative to the anonymous FTP login directory. A reference to a file available by FTP may also be in the form of a {URL} starting "ftp:". See also {Archie}, {archive site}, {EFS}, {FTP by mail}, {web}. (1995-11-26)

ANSI/SPARC Architecture "architecture" (Or "ANSI/SPARC model") {ANSI/SPARC}'s layered model of {database} architecture comprising a {physical schema}, a {conceptual schema} and user {views}. [Reference?] (1998-12-17)

ANSI X12 "standard" Standards defining the structure, format, and content of business transactions conducted through {Electronic Data Interchange} (EDI). ANSI X12 is produced by the committee ASC X12, supported by the {Data Interchange Standards Association, Inc.} (DISA). [{(http://onlinewbc.org/Docs/procure/standard.html)}]. (1999-09-18)

ANSI Z39.50 "networking, standard" Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications, officially known as ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1992, and ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1995. This {standard}, used by {WAIS}, specifies an {OSI} {application layer} service to allow an application on one computer to query a {database} on another. Z39.50 is used in libraries and for searching some databases on the {Internet}. The US {Library of Congress (http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/agency/)} is the official maintanence agency for Z39.50. {Index Data}, a Danish company, have released a lot of Z39.50 code. Their {website} explains the relevant {ISO} {standards} and how they are amicably converging in Z39.50 version 4.0. {Overview (http://nlc-bnc.ca/ifla/VI/5/op/udtop3.htm)}. {Z39.50 resources (http://lamp.cs.utas.edu.au/net.html

AOS 1. "programming" /aws/ (East Coast), /ay-os/ (West Coast) A {PDP-10} instruction that took any memory location and added 1 to it. AOS meant "Add One and do not Skip". Why, you may ask, does the "S" stand for "do not Skip" rather than for "Skip"? Ah, here was a beloved piece of PDP-10 folklore. There were eight such instructions: AOSE added 1 and then skipped the next instruction if the result was Equal to zero; AOSG added 1 and then skipped if the result was Greater than 0; AOSN added 1 and then skipped if the result was Not 0; AOSA added 1 and then skipped Always; and so on. Just plain AOS didn't say when to skip, so it never skipped. For similar reasons, AOJ meant "Add One and do not Jump". Even more bizarre, SKIP meant "do not SKIP"! If you wanted to skip the next instruction, you had to say "SKIPA". Likewise, JUMP meant "do not JUMP"; the unconditional form was JUMPA. However, hackers never did this. By some quirk of the 10's design, the {JRST} (Jump and ReSTore flag with no flag specified) was actually faster and so was invariably used. Such were the perverse mysteries of assembler programming. 2. "operating system" /A-O-S/ or /A-os/ A {Multics}-derived {operating system} supported at one time by {Data General}. A spoof of the standard AOS system administrator's manual ("How to Load and Generate your AOS System") was created, issued a part number, and circulated as photocopy folklore; it was called "How to Goad and Levitate your CHAOS System". 3. "operating system" Algebraic Operating System, in reference to those calculators which use {infix} {operators} instead of {postfix notation}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-11-26)

Apache "web, project" A {open source} {HTTP} server for {Unix}, {Windows NT}, and other {platforms}. Apache was developed in early 1995, based on code and ideas found in the most popular HTTP server of the time, {NCSA httpd} 1.3. It has since evolved to rival (and probably surpass) almost any other {Unix} based HTTP server in terms of functionality, and speed. Since April 1996 Apache has been the most popular HTTP server on the {Internet}, in May 1999 it was running on 57% of all web servers. It features highly configurable error messages, {DBM}-based {authentication} {databases}, and {content negotiation}. {(http://apache.org/httpd.html)}. {FAQ (http://apache.org/docs/misc/FAQ.html)}. (1999-10-27)

A posteriori: (Lat. following after) (a) In psychology and epistemology: refers to the data of the mind which owe their origin to the outside world of human experience. Such data are acquired by the mind and do not belong to the mind's native equipment (a priori). (b) In logic: a posteriori reasoning (as opposed to a priori reasoning) is inductive, i.e., the type which begins with observed facts and from these infers general conclusions. -- V.F.

Apple Attachment Unit Interface "hardware, networking" (AAUI) A 14-position, 0.050-inch-spaced ribbon contact connector. Early {Power Macs} and Quadras had an AAUI (Apple Attachment Unit Interface) {port} (rectangular shaped) for {Ethernet}, which requires a {transceiver}. To use {twisted pair} cabling, you would need to get a {twisted pair} transceiver for the computer with an AAUI port. Some {Power Mac} computers had both an AAUI and {RJ-45} port; you can use one or the other, but not both. The pin-out is: Pin Signal Name   Signal Description ---- -------------- --------------------------------- 1   FN Pwr     Power (+12V @ 2.1W or +5V @ 1.9W) 2   DI-A      Data In circuit A 3   DI-B      Data In circuit B 4   VCC       Voltage Common 5   CI-A      Control In circuit A 6   CI-B      Control In circuit B 7   +5V       +5 volts (from host) 8   +5V       Secondary +5 volts (from host) 9   DO-A      Data Out circuit A 10  DO-B      Data Out circuit B 11  VCC       Secondary Voltage Common 12  NC       Reserved 13  NC       Reserved 14  FN Pwr     Secondary +12V @ 2.1W or +5V @ 1.9W Shell Protective Gnd Protective Ground AAUI signals have the same description, function, and electrical requirements as the {AUI} signals of the same name, as detailed in {IEEE 802.3}-1990 CSMA/CD Standard, section 7. (2000-02-10)

AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol "protocol" (ADSP) A {protocol} which provides a simple transport method for data accross a network. (1996-06-18)

AppleTalk Filing Protocol "networking" (AFP) A {client/server} {protocol} used in {AppleTalk} communications networks. In order for non-{Apple} networks to access data in an {AppleShare} {server}, their protocols must translate into the AFP language. See also: {Columbia AppleTalk Package}. (1998-06-28)

Application Configuration Access Protocol "protocol" (ACAP) A {protocol} which enhances {IMAP} by allowing the user to set up {address books}, user options, and other data for universal access. Currently (Feb 1997) no Internet proprietary products have implemented ACAP because the {Internet Engineering Task Force} has not yet approved the final specification. This was expected early in 1997. ["Your E-Mail Is Obsolete", Byte, Feb 1997]. (1997-05-03)

application enablement services "programming" {IBM}-speak for {APIs} to services such as telecoms, database, etc. within and between address spaces. (1999-01-20)

Application Executive "language" (AE) An {embeddable language}, written as a {C} {interpreter} by Brian Bliss at UIUC. AE is compiled with an {application} and thus exists in the same process and address space. It includes a {dbx} {symbol table} scanner to access compiled variables and routines, or you can enter them manually by providing a type/name declaration and the address. When the {interpreter} is invoked, {source code} fragments are read from the input stream (or a string), {parsed}, and evaluated immediately. The user can call compiled functions in addition to a few {built-in} intrinsics, declare new data types and data objects, etc. Different input streams can be evaluated in parallel on {Alliant} computers. AE has been ported to {SunOS} (cc or {gcc}), {Alliant FX} and {Cray YMP} (soon). {(ftp://sp2.csrd.uiuc.edu/pub/at.tar.Z)}. {(ftp://sp2.csrd.uiuc.edu/pub/bliss/ae.tex.Z)}. (1992-04-21)

application layer "networking" The top layer of the {OSI} seven layer model. This layer handles issues like {network transparency}, resource allocation and problem partitioning. The application layer is concerned with the user's view of the network (e.g. formatting {electronic mail} messages). The {presentation layer} provides the application layer with a familiar local representation of data independent of the format used on the network. (1994-11-28)

Application Protocol Data Unit "networking" (APDU) A {packet} of data exchanged between two {application} programs across a {network}. This is the highest level view of communication in the {OSI} {seven layer model} and a single packet exchanged at this level may actually be transmitted as several packets at a lower layer as well as having extra information (headers) added for {routing} etc. (1995-12-19)

application server 1. "software" A {designer}'s or {developer}'s suite of {software} that helps {programmers} isolate the {business logic} in their {programs} from the {platform}-related code. {Application} {servers} can handle all of the {application} {logic} and {connectivity} found in {client-server} {applications}. Many {application} {servers} also offer features such as {transaction management}, {clustering} and {failover}, and {load balancing}; nearly all offer {ODBC} support. {Application} {servers} range from small {footprint}, web-based {processors} for intelligent appliances or remote {embedded} devices, to complete environments for assembling, deploying, and maintaining {scalable} {multi-tier} applications across an {enterprise}. 2. "software" Production {programs} run on a mid-sized computer that handle all {application} operations between {browser}-based computers and an organisation's back-end business {applications} or {databases}. The {application} {server} works as a translator, allowing, for example, a customer with a {browser} to search an online retailer's {database} for pricing information. 3. "hardware" The device on which {application} {server} {software} runs. {Application Service Providers} offer commercial access to such devices. {Citrix Application Serving White Paper (http://citrix.com/press/corpinfo/application_serving_wp_0700.pdf)}. {Application Server Sites, a list maintained by Vayda & Herzum (http://componentfactory.org/links/appl.htm)}. {The Application Server Zone at DevX, (http://appserver-zone.com/default.asp)}. {TechMetrix Research's Application Server Directory, (http://techmetrix.com/trendmarkers/techmetrixasd.php3)}. (2001-03-30)

Application Service Element "networking" (ASE) Software in the {presentation layer} of the {OSI} seven layer model which provides an abstracted interface layer to service {application protocol data units} (APDU). Because {applications} and {networks} vary, ASEs are split into common services and specific services. Examples of services provided by the {common application service element} (CASE) include remote operations (ROSE) and {database} {concurrency control and recovery} (CCR). The {specific application service element} (SASE) provides more specialised services such as file transfer, database access, and order entry. {Csico docs (http://cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/osi_prot.htm)}. (2003-09-27)

Applicative Language for Digital Signal Processing "language" (ALDiSP) A {functional language} with special features for {real-time} {I/O} and numerical processing, developed at the {Technical University of Berlin} in 1989. ["An Applicative Real-Time Language for DSP - Programming Supporting Asynchronous Data-Flow Concepts", M. Freericks "mfx@cs.tu-berlin.de" in Microprocessing and Microprogramming 32, N-H 1991]. (1995-04-19)

APX III "language" An early system on the {Datatron 200} series. [Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959)]. (1995-05-04)

AQL "language" A picture {query language}, extension of {APL}. ["AQL: A Relational Database Management System and Its Geographical Applications", F. Antonacci et al, in Database Techniques for Pictorial Applications, A. Blaser ed, pp. 569-599]. (1995-05-04)

arc 1. "file format, tool" An old {archive} format for {IBM PC}. The format is now so obscure that it is only likely to be supported by jack-of-all-trades decompression programs such as {WINZIP}. 2. "mathematics, data" An {edge} in a {tree}. "{branch}" is a generally more common synonym. (1998-12-29)

ARCnet "networking" A {network} developed by {DataPoint}. ARCnet was {proprietary} until the late 1980s and had about as large a marketshare as {Ethernet} among small businesses. It was almost as fast and was considerably cheaper at the time. (1995-01-16)

ARES "language" A pictorial {query language}. ["A Query Manipulation System for Image Data Retrieval", T. Ichikawa et al, Proc IEEE Workshop Picture Data Description and Management, Aug 1980, pp. 61-67]. (1995-10-10)

array 1. "programming" A collection of identically typed data items distinguished by their indices (or "subscripts"). The number of dimensions an array can have depends on the language but is usually unlimited. An array is a kind of {aggregate} data type. A single ordinary variable (a "{scalar}") could be considered as a zero-dimensional array. A one-dimensional array is also known as a "{vector}". A reference to an array element is written something like A[i,j,k] where A is the array name and i, j and k are the indices. The {C} language is peculiar in that each index is written in separate brackets, e.g. A[i][j][k]. This expresses the fact that, in C, an N-dimensional array is actually a vector, each of whose elements is an N-1 dimensional array. Elements of an array are usually stored contiguously. Languages differ as to whether the leftmost or rightmost index varies most rapidly, i.e. whether each row is stored contiguously or each column (for a 2D array). Arrays are appropriate for storing data which must be accessed in an unpredictable order, in contrast to {lists} which are best when accessed sequentially. Array indices are {integers}, usually {natural numbers}, whereas the elements of an {associative array} are identified by strings. 2. "architecture" A {processor array}, not to be confused with an {array processor}. (2007-10-12)

array processor "processor" (Or "vector processor") A {computer}, or extension to its {arithmetic unit}, that is capable of performing simultaneous computations on elements of an {array} or table of data in some number of dimensions. The {IBM AltiVec} (the "Velocity Engine" used in the {Apple G4} computers) is a vector processor. Common uses for array processors include analysis of fluid dynamics and rotation of {3d} objects, as well as data retrieval, in which elements of a {database} are scanned simultaneously. Array processors are very rare now (1998). {Array presentation (http://cs.njit.edu/leon/105/c5/index.htm)}. (2003-09-11)

artificial neural network "artificial intelligence" (ANN, commonly just "neural network" or "neural net") A network of many very simple processors ("units" or "neurons"), each possibly having a (small amount of) local memory. The units are connected by unidirectional communication channels ("connections"), which carry numeric (as opposed to symbolic) data. The units operate only on their local data and on the inputs they receive via the connections. A neural network is a processing device, either an {algorithm}, or actual hardware, whose design was inspired by the design and functioning of animal brains and components thereof. Most neural networks have some sort of "training" rule whereby the weights of connections are adjusted on the basis of presented patterns. In other words, neural networks "learn" from examples, just like children learn to recognise dogs from examples of dogs, and exhibit some structural capability for generalisation. Neurons are often elementary non-linear signal processors (in the limit they are simple threshold discriminators). Another feature of NNs which distinguishes them from other computing devices is a high degree of interconnection which allows a high degree of parallelism. Further, there is no idle memory containing data and programs, but rather each neuron is pre-programmed and continuously active. The term "neural net" should logically, but in common usage never does, also include biological neural networks, whose elementary structures are far more complicated than the mathematical models used for ANNs. See {Aspirin}, {Hopfield network}, {McCulloch-Pitts neuron}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.ai.neural-nets}. (1997-10-13)

ART "language" A {real-time} {functional language} developed by M. Broy in 1983. It timestamps each data value when it is created. ["Applicative Real-Time Programming", M. Broy, PROC IFIP 1983, N-H]. (1996-01-15)

As against the faulty ethical procedures of the past and of his own day, therefore, Kant very early conceived and developed the more critical concept of "form," -- not in the sense of a "mould" into which content is to be poured (a notion which has falselv been taken over by Kant-students from his theoretical philosophy into his ethics), but -- as a method of rational (not ratiocinative, but inductive) reflection; a method undetermined by, although not irrespective of, empirical data or considerations. This methodologically formal conception constitutes Kant's major distinctive contribution to ethical theory. It is a process of rational reflection, creative construction, and transition, and as such is held by him to be the only method capable if coping with the exigencies of the facts of hunnn experience and with the needs of moral obligation. By this method of creative construction the reflective (inductive) reason is able to create, as each new need for a next reflectively chosen step arises, a new object of "pure" -- that is to say, empirically undetermined -- "practical reason." This makes possible the transition from a present no longer adequate ethical conception or attitude to an untried and as yet "indemonstrable" object. No other method can guarantee the individual and social conditions of progress without which the notion of morality loses all assignable meaning. The newly constructed object of "pure practical reason" is assumed, in the event, to provide a type of life and conduct which, just because it is of my own construction, will be likely to be accompanied by the feeling of self-sufficiency which is the basic pre-requisite of any worthy human happiness. It is this theory which constitutes Kant's ethical formalism. See also Autonomy, Categorical Imperative, Duty, End(s), Freedom, Happiness, Law, Moral, Practical Imperative, Will. -- P. A.S.

ASCIIbetical order "jargon, programming" /as'kee-be'-t*-kl or'dr/ Used to indicate that data is sorted in {ASCII} collated order rather than alphabetical order. The main difference is that, in ASCII, all the upper case letters come before any of the lower case letters so, e.g., "Z" comes before "a". [{Jargon File}] (1999-04-08)

ASE 1. "programming" {Advanced Software Environment}. 2. "networking" {Application Service Element}. 3. "database" {Adaptive Server Enterprise}.

A

ASpecT "language" Algebraic specification of {abstract data types}. A {strict} {functional language} that compiles to {C}. Versions of ASpecT are available for {Sun}, {Ultrix}, {NeXT}, {Macintosh}, {OS/2} 2.0, {Linux}, {RS/6000}, {Atari}, {Amiga}. {(ftp://wowbagger.uni-bremen.de/pub/programming/languages)}. (1996-03-25)

assertion "programming" 1. An expression which, if false, indicates an {error}. Assertions are used for {debugging} by catching {can't happen} errors. 2. In {logic programming}, a new {fact} or {rule} added to the database by the program at {run time}. This is an {extralogical} or impure feature of logic programming languages. (1997-06-30)

asset management "business" The process whereby a large organisation collects and maintains a comprehensive list of the items it owns such as hardware and software. This data is used in connection with the financial aspects of ownership such as calculating the total cost of ownership, depreciation, licensing, maintenance, and insurance. (1997-03-30)

Astra Digital Radio "audio" {Digital Radio} over satellite, compatible with analog television transmissions. Alternatively the normal TV subcarriers can be modulated by a {MPEG-1 Layer-2} 48 kHz 192 kbps signal. Quality is better than analog carriers and only needs half the {bandwidth} (analog stereo = 2 carrier, digital stereo = 1 carrier). Quality is limited and the data rate can't be increased. (2001-12-13)

Astral "language" A programming language based on {Pascal}, never implemented. ["ASTRAL: A Structured and Unified Approach to Database Design and Manipulation", T. Amble et al, in Proc of the Database Architecture Conf, Venice, June 1979]. (2000-01-27)

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line "communications, protocol" (ADSL, or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop) A form of {Digital Subscriber Line} in which the bandwidth available for {downstream} connection is significantly larger then for {upstream}. Although designed to minimise the effect of {crosstalk} between the upstream and downstream channels this setup is well suited for {web browsing} and {client}-{server} applications as well as for some emerging applications such as {video on demand}. The data-rate of ADSL strongly depends on the length and quality of the line connecting the end-user to the telephone company. Typically the upstream data flow is between 16 and 640 {kilobits} per second while the downstream data flow is between 1.5 and 9 {megabits} per second. ADSL also provides a voice channel. ADSL can carry digital data, analog voice, and broadcast {MPEG2} video in a variety of implementations to meet customer needs. ["Data Cooks, But Will Vendors Get Burned?", "Supercomm Spotlight On ADSL" & "Lucent Sells Paradine", Wilson & Carol, Inter@ctive Week Vol. 3

asynchronous "architecture" Not synchronised by a shared signal such as {clock} or {semaphore}, proceeding independently. Opposite: {synchronous}. 1. "operating system" A {process} in a {multitasking} system whose execution can proceed independently, "in the {background}". Other processes may be started before the asynchronous process has finished. 2. "communications" A communications system in which data transmission may start at any time and is indicated by a {start bit}, e.g. {EIA-232}. A data {byte} (or other element defined by the {protocol}) ends with a {stop bit}. A continuous marking condition (identical to stop bits but not quantized in time), is then maintained until data resumes. (1995-12-08)

Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter "communications, hardware" (ACIA) A kind of {integrated circuit} that provides data formatting and control to {EIA-232} serial interfaces. [Is this the same as a {UART}?] (1997-05-07)

asynchronous logic "architecture" A {data-driven} circuit design technique where, instead of the components sharing a common {clock} and exchanging data on clock edges, data is passed on as soon as it is available. This removes the need to distribute a common clock signal throughout the circuit with acceptable {clock skew}. It also helps to reduce power dissipation in {CMOS} circuits because {gates} only switch when they are doing useful work rather than on every clock edge. There are many kinds of asynchronous logic. Data signals may use either "dual rail encoding" or "data bundling". Each dual rail encoded {Boolean} is implemented as two wires. This allows the value and the timing information to be communicated for each data bit. Bundled data has one wire for each data bit and another for timing. Level sensitive circuits typically represent a logic one by a high voltage and a logic zero by a low voltage whereas transition signalling uses a change in the signal level to convey information. A speed independent design is tolerant to variations in gate speeds but not to propagation delays in wires; a delay insensitive circuit is tolerant to variations in wire delays as well. The purest form of circuit is delay-insensitive and uses dual-rail encoding with transition signalling. A transition on one wire indicates the arrival of a zero, a transition on the other the arrival of a one. The levels on the wires are of no significance. Such an approach enables the design of fully delay-insensitive circuits and automatic layout as the delays introduced by the layout compiler can't affect the functionality (only the performance). Level sensitive designs can use simpler, stateless logic gates but require a "return to zero" phase in each transition. {(http://cs.man.ac.uk/amulet/async/)}. (1995-01-18)

Asynchronous Transfer Mode "networking" (ATM, or "fast packet", "Asynchronous Transfer Mode Protocol", ATMP) A network {protocol} that dynamically allocates {bandwidth} between incoming channels and multiplexes them onto a stream of fixed 53-{byte} {packets} (called "cells"). A fixed-size packet simplifies switching and multiplexing. ATM is a {connection-oriented} protocol. It can use different {physical layer} transports including {SONET}, {DS3}, {fiber} or {twisted pair}. The {ATM Forum} is one of the main bodies promoting ATM. {Wideband ATM} is an enhancement. {ATM acronyms (http://atmforum.com/atmforum/acronym_index.html)}. {Indiana acronyms (http://cell-relay.indiana.edu/cell-relay/FAQ/ATM-Acronyms.html)}. [More detail? Data rate(s)?] (1996-04-01)

ATA-4 "storage" (Or "Ultra DMA", "UDMA", "Ultra-ATA", "Ultra-DMA/33") A development of the {Advanced Technology Attachment} specifications which gives nearly twice the maximum {transfer rate} of the {ATA-3} standard ({PIO} Mode 4). ATA-4 Extensions Ultra DMA/33 Synchronous DMA Mode maximum {burst transfer rates}: Mode Cycle Time Transfer Rate ns MB/s 0 235 16 1 160 24 2 120 33 This is achieved by improving timing windows in the {protocol} on the ATA interface; reducing propagation delays by {pipelining} data transfers and transferring data in {synchronous} (strobed) mode. Developed by {Quantum Corporation}, ATA-4 has been freely licensed to manufacturers and is supported by {Intel Corporation}. (1998-09-30)

atomic "jargon" (From Greek "atomos", indivisible) Indivisible; cannot be split up. For example, an instruction may be said to do several things "atomically", i.e. all the things are done immediately, and there is no chance of the instruction being half-completed or of another being interspersed. Used especially to convey that an operation cannot be interrupted. An atomic {data type} has no internal structure visible to the program. It can be represented by a flat {domain} (all elements are equally defined). Machine {integers} and {Booleans} are two examples. An atomic {database transaction} is one which is guaranteed to complete successfully or not at all. If an error prevents a partially-performed transaction from proceeding to completion, it must be "backed out" to prevent the database being left in an inconsistent state. [{Jargon File}] (2000-04-03)

attribute "data" A named value or relationship that exists for some or all {instances} of some {entity} and is directly associated with that instance. Examples include the {href} attribute of an {HTML} {anchor} element, the {columns} of a {database} {table} considered as attributes of each row, and the {members} ({properties} and {methods} of an {object} in {OOP}. This contrasts with the contents of some kind of container (e.g. an array), which are typically not named. The contents of an {associative array}, though they might be considered to be named by their key values, are not normally thought of as attributes. (2001-02-04)

audiographic teleconferencing "communications" (Or "electronic whiteboarding", "screen sharing") A form of {teleconferencing} in {real time} using both an {audio} and a data connection. The computer screen is shared by more than one site, and used as an electronic blackboard, overhead projector or still video projector. Some systems allow for sharing software also. (1995-10-06)

Auto Idle "processor" A facility provided by some {Intel} {clock doubled} {microprocessors} where the internal {clock} can be slowed to the external {clock rate} while the processor is waiting for {data} from {memory}, returning to full speed as soon as the data arrives. See also {System Management Mode}. (1994-11-09)

AUTOmated GRouPing system "tool, mathematics" (AUTOGRP) An interactive statistical analysis system, an extension of {CML}. ["AUTOGRP: An Interactive Computer System for the Analysis of Health Care Data", R.E. Mills et al, Medical Care 14(7), Jul 1976]. (1994-11-07)

automatic baud rate detection "communications" (ABR, autobaud) A process by which a receiving device determines the speed, {code level}, and {stop bits} of incoming data by examining the first character, usually a preselected sign-on character. ABR allows the receiving device to accept data from a variety of transmitting devices operating at different speeds without needing to establish data rates in advance. (1996-06-18)

Automatic Repeat Request "communications" (ARQ) A {modem} error control {protocol} in which the receiver asks the transmitter to resend corrupted data. (1995-11-14)

Avon "language" A {dataflow} language. ["AVON: A Dataflow Language", A. Deb, ICS 87, Second Intl Conf on Supercomputing, v.3, pp.9-19, ISI 1987]. (1994-11-28)

awk 1. "tool, language" (Named from the authors' initials) An interpreted language included with many versions of {Unix} for massaging text data, developed by Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan in 1978. It is characterised by {C}-like syntax, declaration-free variables, {associative arrays}, and field-oriented text processing. There is a {GNU} version called {gawk} and other varients including {bawk}, {mawk}, {nawk}, {tawk}. {Perl} was inspired in part by awk but is much more powerful. {Unix manual page}: awk(1). {netlib WWW (http://plan9.att.com/netlib/research/index.html)}. {netlib FTP (ftp://netlib.att.com/netlib/research/)}. ["The AWK Programming Language" A. Aho, B. Kernighan, P. Weinberger, A-W 1988]. 2. "jargon" An expression which is awkward to manipulate through normal {regexp} facilities, for example, one containing a {newline}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-10-06)

Babbage "language" The structured {assembly language} for the {General Electric Company} 4xxx range of computers and their {OS4000} {operating system}. It is strictly an assembler in that the generated code is relatively predictable but it can be written in a sufficiently structured manner, with indentation, control statements, function and procedure calls, to make the resultant source easy to read and manage. Even with this visible structure however, it is important to remember that the assembly of the statement is done left to right. The British {videotext} system, {Prestel} is programmed in Babbage. [Datamation, 1980s]. (2007-10-24)

babbling error "networking" An {Ethernet} node attempting to transmit more than 1518 data bytes - the largest allowed Ethernet {packet}. This is why the {Maximum Transmission Unit} for {IP} traffic on Ethernet is 1500. [Why 1518?] (1998-03-13)

Background: (Ger. Hintergrund) In Husserl: The nexus of objects and objective sense explicitly posited along with any object; the objective horizon. The perceptual background is part of the entire background in this broad sense. See Horizon. -- D.C . Bacon, Francis: (1561-1626) Inspired by the Renaissance, and in revolt against Aristotelianism and Scholastic Logic, proposed an inductive method of discovering truth, founded upon empirical observation, analysis of observed data, inference resulting in hypotheses, and verification of hypotheses through continued observation and experiment. The impediments to the use of this method are preconceptions and prejudices, grouped by Bacon under four headings, or Idols: The Idols of the Tribe, or racially "wishful," anthropocentric ways of thinking, e.g. explanation by final causes The Idols of the Cave or personal prejudices The Idols of the Market Place, or failure to define terms The Idol of the Theatre, or blind acceptance of tradition and authority. The use of the inductive method prescribes the extraction of the essential from the non-essential and the discovery of the underlying structure or form of the phenomena under investigation, through (a) comparison of instances, (b) study of concomitant variations, and (c) exclusion of negative instances.

backing store 1. "storage" Computer memory, usually {magnetic disks}, storing data and programs. Sections of this information can then be copied into the main memory ({RAM}) for processing. Backing store is cheaper but RAM is faster. Such a hierarchy of memory devices allows a trade-off between performance and cost. 2. "text" Character storage in memory or on disk, as opposed to displayed or printed characters. This distinction is important where the visual ordering of characters differs from the order in which they are stored, e.g. bidirectional or non-spacing layout. In a {Unicode} encoding, text is stored in sequential order in the backing store. Logical or backing store order corresponds to the order in which text is typed on the keyboard (after corrections such as insertions, deletions, and overtyping). A text rendering process converts Unicode text in the backing store to readable text. ["The Unicode Standard: Worldwide Character Encoding", Version 1.0, Vol. 1. Addison-Wesley, 1991]. (2001-02-25)

BackOffice "software" A suite of network {server} software from {Microsoft} that includes {Windows NT} Server, BackOffice Server (for the integrated development, deployment, and management of BackOffice applications in departments, branch offices, and medium sized businesses); {Exchange Server}; {Proxy Server}; {Site Server} for {intranet} publishing, management, and search; Site Server Commerce Edition For comprehensive {Internet commerce} transactions; {Small Business Server} for business operations, resource management, and customer relations; {SNA Server} for the integration of existing and new systems and data; {SQL Server} for scalable, reliable database and data-warehousing; {Systems Management Server} (SMS) for centralised change- and {configuration-management}. {(http://microsoft.com/backofficeserver/)}. (2000-12-16)

Backup Domain Controller "networking" (BDC) A server in a {network} of {Microsoft Windows} computers that maintains a copy of the {SAM} database and handles access requests that the {Primary Domain Controller} (PDC) doesn't respond to. There may be zero or more BDCs in a network. They increase reliability and reduce load on the PDC. (2006-09-18)

backup "operating system" ("back up" when used as a verb) A spare copy of a file, file system, or other resource for use in the event of failure or loss of the original. The term commonly refers to a copy of the files on a computer's {disks}, made periodically and kept on {magnetic tape} or other removable medium (also called a "{dump}"). This essential precaution is neglected by most new computer users until the first time they experience a {disk crash} or accidentally delete the only copy of the file they have been working on for the last six months. Ideally the backup copies should be kept at a different site or in a fire safe since, though your hardware may be insured against fire, the data on it is almost certainly neither insured nor easily replaced. See also {backup software}, {differential backup}, {incremental backup}, {full backup}. Compare {archive}, {source code management}. (2004-03-16)

backward compatibility "jargon" Able to share data or commands with older versions of itself, or sometimes other older systems, particularly systems it intends to supplant. Sometimes backward compatibility is limited to being able to read old data but does not extend to being able to write data in a format that can be read by old versions. For example, {WordPerfect} 6.0 can read WordPerfect 5.1 files, so it is backward compatible. It can be said that {Perl} is backward compatible with {awk}, because Perl was (among other things) intended to replace awk, and can, with a converter, run awk programs. See also: {backward combatability}. Compare: {forward compatible}. (2003-06-23)

bandwidth "communications" The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies of a transmission channel (the width of its allocated band of frequencies). The term is often used erroneously to mean {data rate} or capacity - the amount of {data} that is, or can be, sent through a given communications circuit per second. [How is data capacity related to bandwidth?] [{Jargon File}] (2001-04-24)

Barbara Liskov "person" Professor Barbara Liskov was the first US woman to be awarded a PhD in computing, and her innovations can be found in every modern programming language. She currently (2009) heads the Programming Methodology Group at the {Massachusetts Institute of Technology}. Professor Liskov's design innovations have, over the decades, made software more reliable and easier to maintain. She has invented two computer progamming languages: {CLU}, an {object-oriented language}, and {Argus}, a {distributed programming language}. Liskov's research forms the basis of modern programming languages such as {Java}, {C

bar code "convention" A printed horizontal strip of vertical bars of varying widths, groups of which represent decimal digits and are used for identifying commercial products or parts. Bar codes are read by a bar code reader and the code interpreted either through {software} or a {hardware} decoder. All products sold in open trade are numbered and bar-coded to a worldwide standard, which was introduced in the US in 1973 and to the rest of the world in 1977. The Uniform Code Council in the US, along with the international article numbering authority, EAN International, allocate blocks of unique 12 or 13-digit numbers to member companies through a national numbering authority. In Britain this is the Article Number Association. Most companies are allocated 100,000 numbers that they can use to identify any of their products, services or locations. Each code typically contains a leading "quiet" zone, start character, data character, optional {check digit}, stop character and a trailing quiet zone. The check digit is used to verify that the number has been scanned correctly. The quiet zone could be white, red or yellow if viewed by a red scanner. Bar code readers usually use visible red light with a wavelength between 632.8 and 680 nanometres. [Details of code?] (1997-07-18)

barrel shifter "hardware" A hardware device that can shift or rotate a data word by any number of bits in a single operation. It is implemented like a {multiplexor}, each output can be connected to any input depending on the shift distance. (1995-03-28)

base 64 "file format, algorithm" A file format using 64 {ASCII} characters to encode the six bit {binary data} values 0-63. To convert data to base 64, the first byte is placed in the most significant eight bits of a 24-bit buffer, the next in the middle eight, and the third in the least significant eight bits. If there a fewer than three bytes to encode, the corresponding buffer bits will be zero. The buffer is then used, six bits at a time, most significant first, as indices into the string "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/" and the indicated character output. If there were only one or two input bytes, the output is padded with two or one "=" characters respectively. This prevents extra bits being added to the reconstructed data. The process then repeats on the remaining input data. Base 64 is used when transmitting binary data through text-only media such as {electronic mail}, and has largely replaced the older {uuencode} encoding. (2004-07-17)

Basic Encoding Rules "protocol, standard" (BER) {ASN.1} encoding rules for producing self-identifying and self-delimiting {transfer syntax} for data structures described in {ASN.1} notations. BER is an self-identifying and self-delimiting encoding scheme, which means that each data value can be identified, extracted and decoded individually. Huw Rogers once described BER as "a triumph of bloated theory over clean implementation". He also criticises it as designed around bitstreams with arbitrary boundaries between data which can only be determined at a high level. Documents: {ITU-T} X.690, {ISO} 8825-1. See also {CER}, {DER}, {PER}. (1998-05-28)

Basic Rate Interface "communications" (BRI, 2B+D, 2B1D) An {Integrated Services Digital Network} channel consisting of two 64 {kbps} "bearer" (B) channels and one 16 kbps "delta" (D) channel, giving a total data rate of 144 kbps. The B channels are used for voice or user data, and the D channel is used for control and signalling and/or {X.25} {packet} networking. BRI is the kind of ISDN interface most likely to be found in residential service. (2002-01-13)

Basic Sentences, Protocol Sentences: Sentences formulating the result of observations or perceptions or other experiences, furnishing the basis for empirical verification or confirmation (see Verification). Some philosophers take sentences concerning observable properties of physical things as basic sentences, others take sentences concerning sense-data or perceptions. The sentences of the latter kind are regarded by some philosophers as completely verifiable, while others believe that all factual sentences can be confirmed only to some degree. See Scientific Empiricism. -- R.C.

Bastard Operator From Hell "humour" (BOFH) A rogue {network operator} character invented by Simon Travaglia "simontrav@hotmail.com", regularly featured in "Computing" and "DATAMATION" magazine. See also: {Dilbert}. {(http://angelfire.com/bc/simont/index.html)}. (1999-09-17)

baud "communications, unit" /bawd/ (plural "baud") The unit in which the information carrying capacity or "{signalling rate}" of a communication channel is measured. One baud is one symbol (state-transition or level-transition) per second. This coincides with bits per second only for two-level {modulation} with no {framing} or {stop bits}. A symbol is a unique state of the communication channel, distinguishable by the receiver from all other possible states. For example, it may be one of two voltage levels on a wire for a direct digital connection or it might be the phase or frequency of a carrier. The term "baud" was originally a unit of telegraph signalling speed, set at one {Morse code} dot per second. Or, more generally, the reciprocal of the duration of the shortest signalling element. It was proposed at the International Telegraph Conference of 1927, and named after {J.M.E. Baudot} (1845-1903), the French engineer who constructed the first successful teleprinter. The UK {PSTN} will support a maximum rate of 600 baud but each baud may carry between 1 and 16 bits depending on the coding (e.g. {QAM}). Where data is transmitted as {packets}, e.g. characters, the actual "data rate" of a channel is R D / P where R is the "raw" rate in bits per second, D is the number of data bits in a packet and P is the total number of bits in a packet (including packet overhead). The term "baud" causes much confusion and is usually best avoided. Use "bits per second" (bps), "bytes per second" or "characters per second" (cps) if that's what you mean. (1998-02-14)

bay "hardware" (As in an aeroplane "cargo bay") A space in a cabinet into which a device of a certain size can be physically mounted and connected to power and data. Common examples are a "drive bay" into which a {disk drive} (usually either 3.5 inch or 5.25 inch) can be inserted or the space in a {docking station} where you insert a {notebook computer} or {laptop computer} to work as a {desktop computer} or to charge their batteries, print or connect to the office network, etc. (1999-01-11)

datable ::: a. --> That may be dated; having a known or ascertainable date.

data ::: n. pl. --> See Datum. ::: pl. --> of Datum

dataria ::: n. --> Formerly, a part of the Roman chancery; now, a separate office from which are sent graces or favors, cognizable in foro externo, such as appointments to benefices. The name is derived from the word datum, given or dated (with the indications of the time and place of granting the gift or favor).

datary ::: n. --> An officer in the pope&

BDPA {Black Data Processing Associates}

bearer channel "communications" Originally, a channel suited for carrying one voice-grade connection. Typically a {DS0} channel. Compare {data channel}. (1997-03-7)

BEDO {Burst Extended Data Out DRAM}

BELL An early system on the {IBM 650} and {Datatron 200} series. Versions: BELL L2, BELL L3. [Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959)]. [Is Datatron version the same?] (1994-12-06)

Berkeley Network (B-NET) Top level {Unix} {Ethernet} software developed at the {University of California at Berkeley}. There are no formal specifications but UCB's {4.2BSD} {Unix} implementation on the {VAX} is the de facto standard. Distributed by {Unisoft}. Includes net.o driver routines for specific hardware, {pseudo ttys}, {daemons}, hostname command to set/get name, /etc/hosts database of names and {Internet address}es of other hosts, /etc/hosts.equiv host-wide database to control remote access, .rhosts per user version of hosts.equiv. UCB's implementation of the {Internet Protocol} includes trailers to improve performance on paged memory management systems such as {VAXen}. These trailers are an exception to the Internet Protocol specification.

Bernstein condition "parallel" Processes cannot execute in parallel if one effects values used by the other. Nor can they execute in parallel if any subsequent process uses data effected by both, i.e. whose value might depend on the order of execution. (1995-02-23)

BibTeX "text, tool" A {Tex} extension package for bibliographic citations, distributed with {LaTeX}. BibTeX uses a style-independent bibliography database (.bib file) to produce a list of sources, in a customisable style, from citations in a Latex document. It also supports some other formats. BibTeX is a separate program from LaTeX. LaTeX writes information about citations and which .bib files to use in a ".aux" file. BibTeX reads this file and outputs a ".bbl" file containing LaTeX commands to produce the source list. You must then run LaTeX again to incorporate the source list in your document. In typeset documents, "BibTeX" is written in upper case, with the "IB" slightly smaller and with the "E" as a subscript. BibTeX is described in the {LaTeX} book by Lamport.

Big bag of pages (BIBOP) Where data objects are tagged with some kind of descriptor (giving their size or type for example) memory can be saved by storing objects with the same descriptor in one "page" of memory. The most significant bits of an object's address are used as the BIBOP page number. This is looked up in a BIBOP table to find the descriptor for all objects in that page. This idea is similar to the "zones" used in some {Lisp} systems (e.g. {LeLisp}). [David R. Hanson. "A portable storage management system for the Icon programming language". Software - Practise and Experience, 10:489-500 1980]. (1994-11-29)

big-endian 1. "data, architecture" A computer {architecture} in which, within a given multi-{byte} numeric representation, the most significant byte has the lowest address (the word is stored "big-end-first"). Most processors, including the {IBM 370} family, the {PDP-10}, the {Motorola} {microprocessor} families, and most of the various {RISC} designs current in mid-1993, are big-endian. See {-endian}. 2. "networking, standard" A backward {electronic mail address}. The world now follows the {Internet} {hostname} {standard} (see {FQDN}) and writes e-mail addresses starting with the name of the computer and ending up with the {country code} (e.g. fred@doc.acme.ac.uk). In the United Kingdom the {Joint Networking Team} decided to do it the other way round (e.g. me@uk.ac.wigan.cs) before the {Internet} {domain} standard was established. Most {gateway sites} required {ad-hockery} in their {mailers} to handle this. By July 1994 this parochial idiosyncracy was on the way out and mailers started to reject big-endian addresses. By about 1996, people would look at you strangely if you suggested such a bizarre thing might ever have existed. [{Jargon File}] (1998-08-09)

Big Gray Wall "jargon" What faces a {VMS} user searching for documentation. A full VMS kit comes on a pallet, the documentation taking up around 15 feet of shelf space before the addition of layered products such as {compilers}, {databases}, multi-vendor networking, and programming tools. Recent (since VMS version 5) DEC documentation comes with grey binders; under VMS version 4 the binders were orange and under version 3 they were blue. Often contracted to "Gray Wall". [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-07)

bignum "programming" /big'nuhm/ (Originally from {MIT} {MacLISP}) A {multiple-precision} computer representation for very large integers. Most computer languages provide a type of data called "integer", but such computer integers are usually limited in size; usually they must be smaller than 2^31 (2,147,483,648) or (on a {bitty box}) 2^15 (32,768). If you want to work with numbers larger than that, you have to use {floating-point} numbers, which are usually accurate to only six or seven decimal places. Computer languages that provide bignums can perform exact calculations on very large numbers, such as 1000! (the factorial of 1000, which is 1000 times 999 times 998 times ... times 2 times 1). For example, this value for 1000! was computed by the {MacLISP} system using bignums: 40238726007709377354370243392300398571937486421071 46325437999104299385123986290205920442084869694048 00479988610197196058631666872994808558901323829669 94459099742450408707375991882362772718873251977950 59509952761208749754624970436014182780946464962910 56393887437886487337119181045825783647849977012476 63288983595573543251318532395846307555740911426241 74743493475534286465766116677973966688202912073791 43853719588249808126867838374559731746136085379534 52422158659320192809087829730843139284440328123155 86110369768013573042161687476096758713483120254785 89320767169132448426236131412508780208000261683151 02734182797770478463586817016436502415369139828126 48102130927612448963599287051149649754199093422215 66832572080821333186116811553615836546984046708975 60290095053761647584772842188967964624494516076535 34081989013854424879849599533191017233555566021394 50399736280750137837615307127761926849034352625200 01588853514733161170210396817592151090778801939317 81141945452572238655414610628921879602238389714760 88506276862967146674697562911234082439208160153780 88989396451826324367161676217916890977991190375403 12746222899880051954444142820121873617459926429565 81746628302955570299024324153181617210465832036786 90611726015878352075151628422554026517048330422614 39742869330616908979684825901254583271682264580665 26769958652682272807075781391858178889652208164348 34482599326604336766017699961283186078838615027946 59551311565520360939881806121385586003014356945272 24206344631797460594682573103790084024432438465657 24501440282188525247093519062092902313649327349756 55139587205596542287497740114133469627154228458623 77387538230483865688976461927383814900140767310446 64025989949022222176590433990188601856652648506179 97023561938970178600408118897299183110211712298459 01641921068884387121855646124960798722908519296819 37238864261483965738229112312502418664935314397013 74285319266498753372189406942814341185201580141233 44828015051399694290153483077644569099073152433278 28826986460278986432113908350621709500259738986355 42771967428222487575867657523442202075736305694988 25087968928162753848863396909959826280956121450994 87170124451646126037902930912088908694202851064018 21543994571568059418727489980942547421735824010636 77404595741785160829230135358081840096996372524230 56085590370062427124341690900415369010593398383577 79394109700277534720000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000. [{Jargon File}] (1996-06-27)

binary data {binary file}

binary coded decimal "data" (BCD, packed decimal) A number representation where a number is expressed as a sequence of decimal digits and then each decimal digit is encoded as a four-bit binary number (a {nibble}). E.g. decimal 92 would be encoded as the eight-bit sequence 1001 0010. In some cases, the right-most nibble contains the sign (positive or negative). It is easier to convert decimal numbers to and from BCD than binary and, though BCD is often converted to binary for arithmetic processing, it is possible to build {hardware} that operates directly on BCD. [Do calculators use BCD?] (2001-01-27)

binary file "file format" Any {file format} for {digital} {data} that does not consist of a sequence of printable {characters} ({text}). The term is often used for executable {machine code}. All digital data, including characters, is actually binary data (unless it uses some (rare) system with more than two discrete levels) but the distinction between binary and text is well established. On modern {operating systems} a text file is simply a binary file that happens to contain only printable characters, but some older systems distinguish the two file types, requiring programs to handle them differently. A common class of binary files is programs in {machine language} ("{executable} files") ready to load into memory and execute. Binary files may also be used to store data output by a program, and intended to be read by that or another program but not by humans. Binary files are more efficient for this purpose because the data (e.g. numerical data) does not need to be converted between the binary form used by the {CPU} and a printable (ASCII) representation. The disadvantage is that it is usually necessary to write special purpose programs to manipulate such files since most general purpose utilities operate on text files. There is also a problem sharing binary numerical data between processors with different {endian}ness. Some communications {protocols} handle only text files, e.g. most {electronic mail} systems before {MIME} became widespread in about 1995. The {FTP} utility must be put into "binary" mode in order to copy a binary file since in its default "ascii" mode translates between the different {newline} characters used on the sending and receiving computers. Confusingly, some {word processor} files, and {rich text} files, are actually binary files because they contain non-printable characters and require special programs to view, edit and print them. (2005-02-21)

binary large object "database" (BLOB) A large block of data stored in a {database}, such as an {image} or {sound} file. A BLOB has no structure which can be interpreted by the {database management system} but is known only by its size and location. (1997-11-04)

binary prefix "unit" (Or "IEC prefix") A prefix used with a {unit} of {data} to mean multiplication by a power of 1024. Binary prefixes are most often used with "{byte}" (e.g. "{kilobyte}") but also with {bit} (e.g. "{megabit}"). For example, the term {kilobyte} has historically been used to mean 1024 {bytes}, and {megabyte} to mean 1,048,576 bytes. The multipliers 1024 and 1,048,576 are powers of 1024, which is itself a power of two (1024 = 2^10). It is this factor of two that gives the name "binary prefix". This is in contrast to a {decimal prefix} denoting a power of 1000, which is itself a power of ten (1000 = 10^3). Decimal prefixes are used in science and engineering and are specified in widely adopted {SI} standards. Note that the actual prefix - kilo or mega - is the same, it is the interpretation that differs. The difference between the two interpretations increases with each multiplication, so while 1000 and 1024 differ by only 2.4%, 1000^6 and 1024^6 differ by 15%. The 1024-based interpretation of prefixes is often still used informally and especially when discussing the storage capacity of {random-access memory}. This has lead to storage device manufacturers being accused of false marketing for using the decimal interpretation where customers might assume the larger, historical, binary interpretation. In an attempt to clarify the distinction, in 1998 the {IEC} specified that kilobyte, megabyte, etc. should only be used for powers of 1000 (following SI). They specified new prefixes for powers of 1024 containing "bi" for "binary": {kibibyte}, {mebibyte}, etc.; an idea originally propsed by {IUPAC}. IEC also specified new abbreviations Ki, Mi, etc. for the new prefixes. Many other standards bodies such as {NIST}, {IEEE} and {BIPM} support this proposal but as of 2013 its use is rare in non-technical circles. Specific units of IEC 60027-2 A.2 and ISO/IEC 80000 IEC prefix Representations Customary prefix Name Symbol Base 2 Base Base 10 Name Symbol   1024 (approx) kibi Ki 2^10 1024^1 1.02x10^3 kilo k, K mebi Mi 2^20 1024^2 1.05x10^6 mega M gibi Gi 2^30 1024^3 1.07x10^9 giga G tebi Ti 2^40 1024^4 1.10x10^12 tera T pebi Pi 2^50 1024^5 1.13x10^15 peta P exbi Ei 2^60 1024^6 1.15x10^18 exa   E zebi Zi 2^70 1024^7 1.18x10^21 zetta Z yobi Yi 2^80 1024^8 1.21x10^24 yotta Y (2013-11-04)

binary tree (btree) A {tree} in which each node has at most two successors or child nodes. In {Haskell} this could be represented as data BTree a = NilTree    | Node a (BTree a) (BTree a) See also {balanced tree}. (1994-11-29)

bindery "networking" A {Novell Netware} database that contains definitions for entities such as users, groups, and {workgroups}. The bindery allows the network supervisor to design an organised and secure operating environment based on the individual requirements of each of these entities. The bindery has three components: objects, properties, and property data sets. Objects represent any physical or logical entity, including users, user groups, file servers. Properties are characteristics of each object (e.g. passwords, account restrictions, {internetwork addresses}). Property data sets are the values assigned to an entity's bindery properties. [Netware Version 3.11 "Concepts" documentation (a glossary of Netware-related terms)]. (1996-03-07)

BioMeDical Package "language, library, statistics" (BMDP) A statistical language and library of over forty statistical routines developed in 1961 at {UCLA}, Health Sciences Computing Facility under Dr. Wilford Dixon. BMDP was first implemented in {Fortran} for the {IBM 7090}. Tapes of the original source were distributed for free all over the world. BMDP is the second iteration of the original {BIMED} programs. It was developed at {UCLA} Health Sciences Computing facility, with NIH funding. The "P" in BMDP originally stood for "parameter" but was later changed to "package". BMDP used keyword parameters to defined what was to be done rather than the fixed card format used by original BIMED programs. BMDP supports many statistical funtions: simple data description, {survival analysis}, {ANOVA}, {multivariate analyses}, {regression analysis}, and {time series} analysis. BMDP Professional combines the full suite of BMDP Classic (Dynamic) release 7.0 with the BMDP New System 2.0 {Windows} front-end. {BMDP from Statistical Solutions (http://statsol.ie/bmdp/bmdp.htm)}. (2004-01-14)

bit bang Transmission of data on a {serial line} accomplished by rapidly changing a single output bit, in software, at the appropriate times. The technique is a simple loop with eight OUT and SHIFT instruction pairs for each byte. Input is more interesting. And {full-duplex} (doing input and output at the same time) is one way to separate the real hackers from the {wannabees}. Bit bang was used on certain early models of {Prime} computers, presumably when {UARTs} were too expensive, and on archaic {Zilog Z80} micros with a {Zilog} PIO but no SIO. In an interesting instance of the {cycle of reincarnation}, this technique is now (1991) coming back into use on some {RISC} architectures because it consumes such an infinitesimal part of the processor that it actually makes sense not to have a {UART}. [{Jargon File}]

bit bashing (Also "bit diddling" or {bit twiddling}). Any of several kinds of low-level programming characterised by manipulation of {bit}, {flag}, {nibble}, and other smaller-than-character-sized pieces of data. These include low-level device control, encryption algorithms, checksum and error-correcting codes, hash functions, some flavours of graphics programming (see {bitblt}), and assembler/compiler code generation. May connote either tedium or a real technical challenge (more usually the former). "The command decoding for the new tape driver looks pretty solid but the bit-bashing for the control registers still has bugs." See also {bit bang}, {mode bit}.

bit bucket "jargon" 1. (Or "{write-only memory}", "WOM") The universal data sink (originally, the mythical receptacle used to catch bits when they fall off the end of a {register} during a {shift} instruction). Discarded, lost, or destroyed data is said to have "gone to the bit bucket". On {Unix}, often used for {/dev/null}. Sometimes amplified as "the Great Bit Bucket in the Sky". 2. The place where all lost mail and news messages eventually go. The selection is performed according to {Finagle's Law}; important mail is much more likely to end up in the bit bucket than junk mail, which has an almost 100% probability of getting delivered. Routing to the bit bucket is automatically performed by mail-transfer agents, news systems, and the lower layers of the network. 3. The ideal location for all unwanted mail responses: "Flames about this article to the bit bucket." Such a request is guaranteed to overflow one's mailbox with flames. 4. Excuse for all mail that has not been sent. "I mailed you those figures last week; they must have landed in the bit bucket." Compare {black hole}. This term is used purely in jest. It is based on the fanciful notion that bits are objects that are not destroyed but only misplaced. This appears to have been a mutation of an earlier term "bit box", about which the same legend was current; old-time hackers also report that trainees used to be told that when the CPU stored bits into memory it was actually pulling them "out of the bit box". Another variant of this legend has it that, as a consequence of the "parity preservation law", the number of 1 bits that go to the bit bucket must equal the number of 0 bits. Any imbalance results in bits filling up the bit bucket. A qualified computer technician can empty a full bit bucket as part of scheduled maintenance. In contrast, a "{chad box}" is a real container used to catch {chad}. This may be related to the origin of the term "bit bucket" [Comments ?]. (1996-11-20)

Bit Error Rate "data, communications" (BER) The fraction of a message or block of {data} that is wrong. (2003-03-25)

bit field "data" Part of an item of data, storage location or message, identified as a certain number of contiguous {bits} starting at a certain bit position within the data. Bit position zero is usually the least significant bit. For example, in an {ARM} {machine code} instruction the four-bit field at bits 28 to 31 (the four most significant bits in the 32-bit word) is the "condition code". (2007-03-26)

bitmap display "hardware" A computer {output device} where each {pixel} displayed on the {monitor} screen corresponds directly to one or more {bits} in the computer's {video memory}. Such a display can be updated extremely rapidly since changing a pixel involves only a single processor write to memory compared with a {terminal} or {VDU} connected via a serial line where the speed of the serial line limits the speed at which the display can be changed. Most modern {personal computers} and {workstations} have bitmap displays, allowing the efficient use of {graphical user interfaces}, interactive graphics and a choice of on-screen {fonts}. Some more expensive systems still delegate graphics operations to dedicated hardware such as {graphics accelerators}. The bitmap display might be traced back to the earliest days of computing when the Manchester University Mark I(?) computer, developed by F.C. Williams and T. Kilburn shortly after the Second World War. This used a {storage tube} as its {working memory}. Phosphor dots were used to store single bits of data which could be read by the user and interpreted as binary numbers. [Is this history correct? Was it ever used to display "graphics"? What was the resolution?] (2002-05-15)

bitmap "graphics, file format" A data file or structure which corresponds {bit} for bit with an {image} displayed on a screen, probably in the same format as it would be stored in the display's {video memory} or maybe as a {device independent bitmap}. A bitmap is characterised by the width and height of the image in {pixels} and the number of bits per pixel which determines the number of shades of grey or colours it can represent. A bitmap representing a coloured image (a "{pixmap}") will usually have pixels with between one and eight bits for each of the red, green, and blue components, though other colour encodings are also used. The green component sometimes has more bits that the other two to cater for the human eye's greater discrimination in this component. See also {vector graphics}, {image formats}. (1996-09-21)

bit pattern "data" A sequence of {bits}, in a memory, a communications channel or some other device. The term is used to contrast this with some higher level interpretation of the bits such as an integer or an {image}. A {bit string} is similar but suggests an arbitrary, as opposed to predetermined, length. (1998-09-27)

bit plane "graphics" (Or "bitplane") The memory in a graphic display device which holds a complete one-bit-per-{pixel} image. Several bit planes may be used in conjunction to give more bits per pixel or to overlay several images or mask one with another. "Bit plane" may be used as a synonym for "{bitmap}", though the latter suggests the data itself rather than the memory and also suggests a graphics file format. (1997-03-16)

bit rate "communications, digital signal processing" (Or "bitrate") A {data rate} expressed in bits per second. This is a similar to {baud} but the latter is more applicable to channels with more than two states. The common units of bit rate are {kilobits per second} (Kbps) and {megabits per second} (Mbps). In data rates, the multipliers "k", "M", etc. stand for powers of 1000 not powers of 1024. The term is also commonly used when discussing digital {sampling} and {sample rates}. For example, the {MP3} audio {compaction} algorithm is often set to ouput files with a bitrate of 120 kbps. This means that the file contains an average of 120 kilobits for each second of audio (900 KB per minute). This compares with {CD audio} which is encoded at 44100 16-bit stereo samples per second or 1408 kbps. (2003-05-19)

bit slice "architecture" A technique for constructing a {processor} from modules, each of which processes one {bit-field} or "slice" of an {operand}. Bit slice processors usually consist of an {ALU} of 1, 2, 4 or 8 bits and control lines (including {carry} or {overflow} signals usually internal to the {CPU}). For example, two 4-bit ALUs could be arranged side by side, with control lines between them, to form an 8-bit ALU. A {sequencer} executes a program to provide data and control signals. The {AMD Am2901} is an example. (1994-11-15)

bits per second "communications, unit" (bps, b/s) The unit in which {data rate} is measured. For example, a {modem}'s data rate is usually measured in {kilobits} per second. In 1996, the maximum modem speed for use on the {PSTN} was 33.6 kbps, rising to 56 kbps in 1997. Note that kilo- (k), mega- (M), etc. in data rates denote powers of 1000, not 1024. (2002-03-23)

bit string "programming, data" An ordered sequence of {bits}. This is very similar to a {bit pattern} except that the term "string" suggests an arbitrary length sequence as opposed to a pre-determined length "pattern".

bit stuffing "protocol" A {protocol} which guarantees the receiver of {synchronous} data can recover the sender's clock. When the data stream sent contains a large number of adjacent bits which cause no transition of the signal, the receiver cannot adjust its clock to maintain proper synchronised reception. To eliminate the possibility of such a pathological case, when a preset number of transitionless bits have been transmitted, a bit which does cause a transition is "stuffed" (transmitted) by the sender. The receiver follows the same protocol and removes the stuffed bit after the specified number of transitionless bits, but can use the stuffed bit to recover the sender's clock. The advantage of bit stuffing is that only a bit (not a {byte}) is inserted in the data stream, and that only when the content of the data stream fails to provide a timing signal to the receiver. Thus very nearly 100% of the bits transported are useful data. In contrast, {asynchronous} transmission of data "throws away" a start bit and one or more stop bits for each data byte sent. (1996-04-23)

BitTorrent "networking" A popular, distributed form of {peer-to-peer} {file sharing} that enables a {client} program to fetch different parts of a file (a "torrent") from different sources in parallel. The system is designed to encourage users to make downloaded data available for others to upload. This is aided by a scheme for exchanging unique identifiers, commonly stored in ".torrent" files. A downloader who does not serve data to others is called a "leech". A "seed" is a computer that has a complete copy of a file, possibly the original. The bittorrent.com site claims there are over 100 million users as of 2007-03-24. Most of the data is copyright material like films or commercial software. {(http://www.bittorrent.com/what-is-bittorrent)}. (2007-03-27)

Black Data Processing Associates "body" (BDPA) A non-profit professional association, founded in 1975 to promote positive influence in the {information technology} (IT) industry and how it affects African Americans. The BDPA facilitates African American professional participation in local and national activities keeping up with developing IT trends. BDPA offers a forum for exchanging information and ideas about the computer industry. It provides numerous networking opportunities through monthly program meetings, seminars, and workshops and the annual national conference. Membership is open to anyone interested in IT. The Foundation provides scholarships to students who compete in an annual {Visual Basic} competition. {(http://bdpa.org/conf96)}. E-mail: "nbdpa@ix.netcom.com". Telephone: Ms. Pat Drumming, +1 (800) 727-BDPA. (1996-04-07)

black hat "security" Someone who uses his skills for criminal or malicious ends. Black hat activities may include, e.g., writing destructive {viruses}, launching {denial of service} attacks on websites, or stealing credit card numbers or banking data by {phishing}. (2019-03-16)

blast 1. {BLT}, used especially for large data sends over a network or comm line. Opposite of {snarf}. Usage: uncommon. The variant "blat" has been reported. 2. [HP/Apollo] Synonymous with {nuke}. Sometimes the message "Unable to kill all processes. Blast them (y/n)?" would appear in the command window upon logout.

bleam "jargon" To transmit or send data. "Bleam that binary to me in an e-mail". [Origin? Used where?] (1997-05-14)

block 1. "unit" A unit of data or memory, often, but not exclusively, on a {magnetic disk} or {magnetic tape}. Compare {record}, {sector}. (2000-07-17) 2. "operating system" To delay or sit idle while waiting for something. Compare {busy-wait}. (2000-07-17) 3. "programming" A delimited section of {source code} in a {block-structured} language. (2004-09-29)

blocked records "storage" Several {records} written as a contiguous block on {magnetic tape} so that they may be accessed in a single I/O operation. Blocking increases the amount of data that may be stored on a tape because there are fewer {inter-block gaps}. It requires that the tape drive or processor have a sufficiently large buffer to store the whole block. (1995-04-13)

Block Started by Symbol "memory" (BSS) The uninitialised data segment produced by {Unix} {linkers}. Objects in the bss segment have only a name and a size but no value. Executable code is located in the {code segment} and initialised data in the {data segment}. (2004-02-24)

block-structured "language" Any programming language in which sections of {source code} contained within pairs of matching {delimiters} such as "{" and "}" (e.g. in {C}) or "begin" and "end" (e.g. {Algol}) are executed as a single unit. A block of code may be the body of a {subroutine} or {function}, or it may be controlled by conditional execution ({if statement}) or repeated execution ({while statement}, {for statement}, etc.). In all but the most primitive block structured languages a {variable}'s {scope} can be limited to the block in which it is declared. Block-structured languages support {structured programming} where each block can be written without detailed knowledge of the inner workings of other blocks, thus allowing a {top-down design} approach. See also {abstract data type}, {module}. (2004-09-29)

Booster A {data-parallel} language. "The Booster Language", E. Paalvast, TR PL 89-ITI-B-18, Inst voor Toegepaste Informatica TNO, Delft, 1989.

boot disk "operating system" The {magnetic disk} (usually a {hard disk}) from which an {operating system} {kernel} is loaded (or "bootstrapped"). This second phase in system start-up is performed by a simple bootstrap loader program held in {ROM}, possibly configured by data stored in some form of writable {non-volatile storage}. {MS-DOS} and {Microsoft Windows} can be configured (in the {BIOS}) to try to boot off either {floppy disk} or {hard disk}, in either order. By default they first check for the presence of a {floppy disk} in the drive at start-up and try to use that as a boot disk if present. If no disk is in the drive they then try to boot off the hard disk. Some {operating systems}, notably {SunOS} and {Solaris}, can be configured to boot from a network rather than from disk. Such a system can thus run as a {diskless workstation}. (1997-06-09)

Borland Software Corporation "company" A company that sells a variety of {PC} software development and {database} systems. Borland was founded in 1983 and initially became famous for their low-cost software, particularly {Turbo Pascal}, {Turbo C}, and {Turbo Prolog}. Current and past products include the {Borland C++} C++ and C developement environment, the {Paradox} and {dBASE} {databases}, {Delphi}, {JBuilder}, and {InterBase}. Borland has approximately 1000 employees worldwide and has operations in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Borland sold {Quattro} Pro to {Novell} in 1994 for $100M. Novell later sold the product to {Corel Corporation}, who also bought {Paradox}. dBASE was sold in March(?) 1999 to {dBase Inc.} In Febuary 1998 Borland bought {Visigenic Software, Inc.}. The company changed its name to Inprise Corporation on 1998-04-29 and then on 2000-11-14 they announced they were changing it back to Borland from the first quarter of 2001. Quarterly sales $69M, profits $61M (Aug 1994). $56M, $6.4M (July 2001) {(http://borland.com/)}. Headquarters: 100 Borland Way, Scotts Valley, CA, 95066, USA. Telephone: +1 (408) 431 1000. (2002-03-16)

BOS 1. "operating system" {Basic Operating System}. 2. "tool" A data management system written at {DESY} and used in some high energy physics programs. 3. "programming" The {Basic Object System}. (1999-01-20)

Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem Code "data, communications" (BHC Code) An {error detection and correction} technique based on {Cyclic Redundancy Code}, used in telecommunications applications. (1995-01-16)

boundary value analysis "programming" A test data selection technique in which values are chosen to lie along data extremes. Boundary values include maximum, minimum, just inside/outside boundaries, typical values, and error values. The hope is that, if a systems works correctly for these special values then it will work correctly for all values in between. (1996-05-10)

box "computer" 1. A computer; especially in the construction "foo box" where foo is some functional qualifier, like "graphics", or the name of an {operating system} (thus, "{Unix} box", "{MS-DOS} box", etc.) "We preprocess the data on Unix boxes before handing it up to the {mainframe}." The plural "{boxen}" is sometimes seen. 2. Without qualification in an {IBM} {SNA} site, "box" refers specifically to an {IBM} {front-end processor}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-29)

Brentano, Franz: (1838-1917) Who had originally been a Roman Catholic priest may be described as an unorthodox neo-scholastic. According to him the only three forms of psychic activity, representation, judgment and "phenomena of love and hate", are just three modes of "intentionality", i.e., of referring to an object intended. Judgments may be self-evident and thereby characterized as true and in an analogous way love and hate may be characterized as "right". It is on these characterizations that a dogmatic theory of truth and value may be based. In any mental experience the content is merely a "physical phenomenon" (real or imaginary) intended to be referred to, what is psychic is merely the "act" of representing, judging (viz. affirming or denying) and valuing (i.e. loving or hating). Since such "acts" are evidently immaterial, the soul by which they are performed may be proved to be a purely spiritual and imperishable substance and from these and other considerations the existence, spirituality, as also the infinite wisdom, goodness and justice of God may also be demonstrated. It is most of all by his classification of psychic phenomena, his psychology of "acts" and "intentions" and by his doctrine concerning self-evident truths and values that Brentano, who considered himself an Aristotelian, exercised a profound influence on subsequent German philosophers: not only on those who accepted his entire system (such as A. Marty and C. Stumpf) but also those who were somewhat more independent and original and whom he influenced either directly (as A. Meinong and E. Husserl) or indirectly (as M. Scheler and Nik. Hartmann). Main works: Psychologie des Aristoteles, 1867; Vom Dasein Gottes, 1868; Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt, 1874; Vom Ursprung sittliches Erkenntnis, 1884; Ueber die Zukunft der Philosophie, 1893; Die vier Phasen der Philos., 1895. -- H.Go. Broad, C.D.: (1887) As a realistic critical thinker Broad takes over from the sciences the methods that are fruitful there, classifies the various propositions used in all the sciences, and defines basic scientific concepts. In going beyond science, he seeks to reach a total view of the world by bringing in the facts and principles of aesthetic, religious, ethical and political experience. In trying to work out a much more general method which attacks the problem of the connection between mathematical concepts and sense-data better than the method of analysis in situ, he gives a simple exposition of the method of extensive abstraction, which applies the mutual relations of objects, first recognized in pure mathematics, to physics. Moreover, a great deal can be learned from Broad on the relation of the principle of relativity to measurement.

bridge "networking, hardware" A device which forwards traffic between {network segments} based on {data link layer} information. These segments would have a common {network layer} address. Every network should only have one {root bridge}. See also {gateway}, {router}. (2001-03-04)

broadband "communications" A class of communication channel capable of supporting a wide range of frequencies, typically from audio up to video frequencies. A broadband channel can carry multiple signals by dividing the total capacity into multiple, independent bandwidth channels, where each channel operates only on a specific range of frequencies. The term has come to be used for any kind of {Internet} connection with a {download} speed of more than 56 {kbps}, usually some kind of {Digital Subscriber Line}, e.g. {ADSL}. A broadband connection is typically always connected, in contrast to a {dial-up} connection, and a fixed monthly rate is charged, often with a cap on the total amount of data that can be transferred. Domestic broadband connections typically share a telephone line with normal voice calls and the two uses can occur simultaneously without interference. See also {baseband}, {narrowband}. (2006-03-30)

brochureware "jargon, business" A planned, but non-existent, product, like {vaporware} but with the added implication that marketing is actively selling and promoting it (they've printed brochures). Brochureware is often deployed to con customers into not committing to a competing existing product. The term is now especially applicable to new {websites}, website revisions, and ancillary services such as customer support and product return. Owing to the explosion of {database}-driven, {cookie}-using {dot-coms} (of the sort that can now deduce that you are, in fact, a dog), the term is now also used to describe sites made up of {static HTML} pages that contain not much more than contact info and mission statements. The term suggests that the company is small, irrelevant to the web, local in scope, clueless, broke, just starting out, or some combination thereof. Many new companies without product, funding, or even staff, post brochureware with investor info and press releases to help publicise their ventures. As of December 1999, examples include pop.com and cdradio.com. Small-timers that really have no business on the web such as lawncare companies and divorce laywers inexplicably have brochureware made that stays unchanged for years. [{Jargon File}] (2001-05-10)

brontobyte "unit, data" A proposed unit of {data} equal to 10^27 {bytes}. A brontobyte is 1000^9 bytes or 1000 {yottabytes}. "Bronto-" is not an official prefix and the term brontobyte is generally attributed to the IBM Dictionary of Computing. One brontobyte would be enough data to store a three-dimensional map of the Earth with one byte for each {voxel} of a one-centimetre grid. See {prefix}. [Where did IBM get it from?] (2013-11-04)

brouter A device which bridges some {packets} (i.e. forwards based on {data link layer} information) and routes other packets (i.e. forwards based on {network layer} information). The {bridge}/{route} decision is based on configuration information.

B. The Probability-Relation. Considering the general grounds of probability, it is pertinent to analyze the proper characteristics of this concept and the valid conditions of its use in inferential processes. Probability presents itself as a special relation between the premisses and the conclusion of an argument, namely when the premisses are true but not completely sufficient to condition the truth of the conclusion. A probable inference must however be logical, even though its result is not certain, for its premisses must be a true sign of its conclusion. The probability-relation may take three aspects: it is inductive, probable or presumptive. In strict induction, there is an essential connection between the facts expressed in the premisses and in the conclusion, which almost forces a factual result from the circumstances of the predication. This type of probability-relation is prominent in induction proper and in statistics. In strict probability, there is a logical connection between the premisses and the conclusion which does not entail a definite factual value for the latter. This type of probability-relation is prominent in mathematical probability and circumstantial evidence. In strict presumption, there is a similarity of characteristics between the fact expressed in the conclusion and the real event if it does or did exist. This type of probability-relation is prominent in analogy and testimony. A presumptive conclusion should be accepted provisionally, and it should have definite consequences capable of being tested. The results of an inductive inference and of a probable inference may often be brought closer together when covering the same field, as the relations involved are fundamental enough for the purpose. This may be done by a qualitative analysis of their implications, or by a quantitative comparison of their elements, as it is done for example in the methods of correlation. But a presumptive inference cannot be reduced to either of the other two forms without losing its identity, because the connection between its elements is of an indefinite character. It may be said that inductive and probable inferences have an intrinsic reasonableness, while presumptive inferences have an extrinsic reasonableness. The former involve determinism within certain limits, while the latter display indeterminacy more prominently. That is why very poor, misleading or wrong conclusions are obtained when mathematical methods are applied to moral acts, judiciary decisions or indirect testimony The activity of the human will has an intricate complexity and variability not easily subjected to calculation. Hence the degree of probability of a presumptive inference can be estimated only by the character and circumstances of its suggested explanation. In moral cases, the discussion and application of the probability-relation leads to the consideration of the doctrines of Probabilism and Probabiliorism which are qualitative. The probability-relation as such has the following general implications which are compatible with its three different aspects, and which may serve as general inferential principle: Any generalization must be probable upon propositions entailing its exemplification in particular cases; Any generalization or system of generalizations forming a theory, must be probable upon propositions following from it by implication; The probability of a given proposition on the basis of other propositions constituting its evidence, is the degree of logical conclusiveness of this evidence with respect to the given proposition; The empirical probability (p = S/E) of a statement S increases as verifications accrue to the evidence E, provided the evidence is taken as a whole; and Numerical probabilities may be assigned to facts or statements only when the evidence includes statistical data or other numerical information which can be treated by the methods of mathematical probability. C. Mathematical Probability. The mathematical theory of probability, which is also called the theory of chances or the theory of relative possibilities, is concerned with the application of mathematical methods to the determination of the likelihood of any event, when there are not sufficient data to determine with certainty its occurrence or failure. As Laplace remarked, it is nothing more than common sense reduced to calculation. But its range goes far beyond that of common sense for it has not only conditioned the growth of various branches of mathematics, such as the theory of errors, the calculus of variations and mathematical statistics, but it has also made possible the establishment of a number of theories in the natural and social sciences, by its actual applications to concrete problems. A distinction is usually made between direct and inverse probability. The determination of a direct or a priori probability involves an inference from given situations or sets of possibilities numerically characterized, to future events related with them. By definition, the direct probability of the occurrence of any particular form of an event, is the ratio of the number of ways in which that form might occur, to the whole number of ways in which the event may occur, all these forms being equiprobable or equally likely. The basic principles referring to a priori probabilities are derived from the analysis of the various logical alternatives involved in any hypothetical questions such as the following: (a) To determine whether a cause, whose exact nature is or is not known, will prove operative or not in certain circumstances; (b) To determine how often an event happens or fails. The comparison of the number of occurrences with that of the failures of an event, considered in simple or complex circumstances, affords a baisis for several cases of probable inference. Thus, theorems may be established to deal with the probability of success and the probability of failure of an event, with the probability of the joint occurrence of several events, with the probability of the alternative occurrence of several events, with the different conditions of frequency of occurrence of an event; with mathematical expectation, and with similar questions. The determination of an a posteriori or inverse probability involves an inference from given situations or events, to past conditions or causes which rnay have contributed to their occurrence. By definition, an inverse probability is the numerical value assigned to each one of a number of possible causes of an actual event that has already occurred; or more generally, it is the numerical value assigned to hypotheses which attempt to explain actual events or circumstances. If an event has occurred as a result of any one of n several causes, the probability that C was the actual cause is Pp/E (Pnpn), when P is the probability that the event could be produced by C if present, and p the probability that C was present before the occurrence of that event. Inverse probability is based on general and special assumptions which cannot always be properly stated, and as there are many different sets of such assumptions, there cannot be a coercive reason for making a definite choice. In particular, the condition of the equiprobability of causes is seldom if ever fulfilled. The distinction between the two kinds of probability, which has led to some confusion in interpreting their grounds and their relations, can be technically ignored now as a result of the adoption of a statistical basis for measuring probabilities. In particular, it is the statistical treatment of correlation which led to the study of probabilities of concurrent phenomena irrespective of their direction in time. This distinction may be retained, howe\er, for the purpose of a general exposition of the subject. Thus, a number of probability theorems are obtained by using various cases of direct and inverse probability involving permutations and combinations, the binomial theorem, the theory of series, and the methods of integration. In turn, these theurems can be applied to concrete cases of the various sciences.

B-tree "algorithm" A multi-way {balanced tree}. The "B" in B-tree has never been officially defined. It could stand for "balanced" or "Bayer", after one of the original designers of the algorithms and structure. A B-tree is _not_ (necessarily?) a "{binary tree}". A B+-tree (as used by {IBM}'s {VSAM}) is a B-tree where the leaves are also linked sequentially, thus allowing both fast {random access} and sequential access to data. [Knuth's Art of Computer Programming]. [Example algorithm?] (2000-01-10)

BTRIEVE Technologies, Inc. "company, database" /bee-treev/ (BTI) A provider of {client-server} {database engines}. BTI was founded by former {Novell, Inc.} employees, including the original developers of the Btrieve database engine. BTI acquired the database product line from Novell in April, 1994. {(http://btrieve.com/)}. Address: Austin, Texas, USA. (1995-12-14)

Buddhi (.Discrimination) ::: Buddhi is a construction of conscious being which quite exceeds its beginnings in the basic chitta; it is the intelligence with its power of knowledge and will. Buddhi takes up and deals with all the rest of the action of the mind and life and body. It is in its nature thought-power and will-power of the Spirit turned into the lower form of a mental activity. We may distinguish three successive gradations of the action of this intelligence. There is first an inferior perceptive understanding which simply takes up, records, understands and responds to the communications of the sense-mind, memory, heart and sensational mentality. It creates by their means an elementary thinking mind which does not go beyond their data, but subjects itself to their mould and rings out their repetitions, runs round and round in the habitual circle of thought and will suggested by them or follows, with an obedient subservience of the reason to the suggestions of life, any fresh determinations which may be offered to its perception and conception. Beyond this elementary understanding, which we all use to an enormous extent, there is a power of arranging or selecting reason and will-force of the intelligence which has for its action and aim an attempt to arrive at a plausible, sufficient, settled ordering of knowledge and will for the use of an intellectual conception of life. In spite of its more purely intellectual character this secondary or intermediate reason is really pragmatic in its intention. It creates a certain kind of intellectual structure, frame, rule into which it tries to cast the inner and outer life so as to use it with a certain mastery and government for the purposes of some kind of rational will. It is this reason which gives to our normal intellectual being our set aesthetic and ethical standards, our structures of opinion and our established norms of idea and purpose. It is highly developed and takes the primacy in all men of an at all developed understanding. But beyond it there is a reason, a highest action of the buddhi which concerns itself disinterestedly with a pursuit of pure truth and right knowledge; it seeks to discover the real Truth behind life and things and our apparent selves and to subject its will to the law of Truth. Few, if any of us, can use this highest reason with any purity, but the attempt to do it is the topmost capacity of the inner instrument, the antahkarana.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 651-52


Buddhi is a construction of conscious being which quite exceeds its beginnings in the basic chitta; it is the intelligence with its power of knowledge and will. Buddhi takes up and deals with all the rest of the action of the mind and life and body. It is in its nature thought-power and will-power of the Spirit turned into the lower form of a mental activity. We may distinguish three successive gradations of the action of this intelligence. There is first an inferior perceptive understanding which simply takes up, records, understands and responds to the communications of the sense-mind, memory, heart and sensational mentality. It creates by their means an elementary thinking mind which does not go beyond their data, but subjects itself to their mould and rings out their repetitions, runs round and round in the habitual circle of thought and will suggested by them or follows, with an obedient subservience of the reason to the suggestions of life, any fresh determinations which may be offered to its perception and conception. Beyond this elementary understanding, which we all use to an enormous extent, there is a power of arranging or selecting reason and will-force of the intelligence which has for its action and aim an attempt to arrive at a plausible, sufficient, settled ordering of knowledge and will for the use of an intellectual conception of life. In spite of its more purely intellectual character this secondary or intermediate reason is really pragmatic in its intention It creates a certain kind of intellectual structure, frame, rule into which it tries to cast the inner and outer life so as to use it with a certain mastery and government for the purposes of some kind of rational will. It is this reason which gives to our normal intellectual being our set aesthetic and ethical standards, our structures of opinion and our established norms of idea and purpose. It is highly developed and takes the primacy in all men of an at all developed understanding. But beyond it there is a reason, a highest action of the buddhi which concerns itself disinterestedly with a pursuit of pure truth and right knowledge; it seeks to discover the real Truth behind life and things and our apparent selves and to subject its will to the law of Truth. Few, if any of us, can use this highest reason with any purity, but the attempt to do it is the topmost capacity of the inner instrument, the antahkarana.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 651-52


buffer 1. An area of memory used for storing messages. Typically, a buffer will have other attributes such as an input pointer (where new data will be written into the buffer), and output pointer (where the next item will be read from) and/or a count of the space used or free. Buffers are used to decouple processes so that the reader and writer may operate at different speeds or on different sized blocks of data. There are many different algorithms for using buffers, e.g. first-in first-out (FIFO or shelf), last-in first-out (LIFO or stack), double buffering (allowing one buffer to be read while the other is being written), cyclic buffer (reading or writing past the end wraps around to the beginning). 2. An electronic device to provide compatibility between two signals, e.g. changing voltage levels or current capability.

buffered write-through "memory management" A variation of {write-through} where the {cache} uses a "write buffer" to hold data being written back to {main memory}. This frees the cache to service read requests while the write is taking place. There is usually only one stage of buffering so subsequent writes must wait until the first is complete. Most accesses are reads so buffered write-through is only useful for very slow main memory. (1998-04-24)

buffer overflow "programming" What happens when you try to store more data in a {buffer} than it can handle. This may be due to a mismatch in the processing rates of the producing and consuming processes (see {overrun} and {firehose syndrome}), or because the buffer is simply too small to hold all the data that must accumulate before a piece of it can be processed. For example, in a text-processing tool that {crunch}es a line at a time, a short line buffer can result in {lossage} as input from a long line overflows the buffer and overwrites data beyond it. Good defensive programming would check for overflow on each character and stop accepting data when the buffer is full. See also {spam}, {overrun screw}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-13)

build "programming, systems" To process all of a project's {source code} and other digital assets or resources in order to produce a deployable product. In the simplest case this might mean compiling one file of {C} source to produce an {executable} file. More complex builds would typically involve compiling multiple source files, building library modules, packaging intermediate build products (e.g. {Java} {class files} in a {jar file}), adding or updating version information and other data about the product (e.g. intended deployment {platform}), running tests and interacting with a {source code control} system. The build process is normally automated using tools such as {Unix} {make}, {Apache} {ant} or as part of an {integrated development environment}. This is taken one step further by {continuous integration} set-ups which periodically build the system while you are working on it. (2011-12-16)

bulletin board system "communications, application" (BBS, bboard /bee'bord/, message board, forum; plural: BBSes) A computer and associated software which typically provides an electronic message database where people can log in and leave messages. Messages are typically split into {topic groups} similar to the {newsgroups} on {Usenet} (which is like a distributed BBS). Any user may submit or read any message in these public areas. The term comes from physical pieces of board on which people can pin messages written on paper for general consumption - a "physical bulletin board". {Ward Christensen}, the programmer and operator of the first BBS (on-line 1978-02-16) called it a CBBS for "computer bulletin board system". Since the rise of the {World-Wide Web}, the term has become antiquated, though the concept is more popular than ever, with many {websites} featuring discussion areas where users can post messages for public consumption. Apart from public message areas, some BBSes provided archives of files, personal {electronic mail} and other services of interest to the system operator ({sysop}). Thousands of BBSes around the world were run from amateurs' homes on {MS-DOS} boxes with a single {modem} line each. Although BBSes were traditionally the domain of hobbyists, many connected directly to the {Internet} (accessed via {telnet}), others were operated by government, educational, and research institutions. Fans of {Usenet} or the big commercial {time-sharing} bboards such as {CompuServe}, {CIX} and {GEnie} tended to consider local BBSes the low-rent district of the hacker culture, but they helped connect hackers and users in the personal-{micro} and let them exchange code. Use of this term for a {Usenet} newsgroup generally marks one either as a {newbie} fresh in from the BBS world or as a real old-timer predating {Usenet}. (2005-09-20)

bunch grass ::: --> A grass growing in bunches and affording pasture. In California, Atropis tenuifolia, Festuca scabrella, and several kinds of Stipa are favorite bunch grasses. In Utah, Eriocoma cuspidata is a good bunch grass.

Burroughs Corporation "company" A company which merged with {Sperry Univac} to form {Unisys Corporation}. They produced the {Datatron 200 series} among other computers. (2007-01-16)

Burst EDO {Burst Extended Data Out DRAM}

Burst Extended Data Out DRAM "storage" (Burst EDO, BEDO) A variant on {EDO DRAM} in which read or write cycles are batched in bursts of four. The bursts wrap around on a four byte boundary which means that only the two least significant bits of the {CAS} address are modified internally to produce each address of the burst sequence. Consequently, burst EDO bus speeds will range from 40MHz to 66MHz, well above the 33MHz bus speeds that can be accomplished using {Fast Page Mode} or EDO DRAM. Burst EDO was introduced sometime before May 1995. (1996-06-25)

bus "architecture, networking" A set of electrical conductors (wires, PCB tracks or connections in an {integrated circuit}) connecting various "stations", which can be {functional units} in a computer or {nodes} in a {network}. A bus is a {broadcast} channel, meaning that each station receives every other station's transmissions and all stations have equal access to the bus. Various schemes have been invented to solve the problem of collisions: multiple stations trying to transmit at once, e.g. {CSMA/CD}, {bus master}. The term is almost certainly derived from the electrical engineering term "bus bar" - a substantial, rigid power supply conductor to which several connections are made. This was once written "'bus bar" as it was a contraction of "omnibus bar" - a connection bar "for all", by analogy with the passenger omnibus - a conveyance "for all". {More on derivation (/pub/misc/omnibus.html)}. There are busses both within the {CPU} and connecting it to external {memory} and {peripheral} devices. The data bus, address bus and control signals, despite their names, really constitute a single bus since each is useless without the others. The width of the data bus is usually specified in {bits} and is the number of parallel connectors. This and the {clock rate} determine the bus's data rate (the number of {bytes} per second which it can carry). This is one of the factors limiting a computer's performance. Most current {microprocessors} have 32-bit busses both internally and externally. 100 or 133 {megahertz} bus clock rates are common. The bus clock is typically slower than the processor clock. Some processors have internal busses which are wider than their external busses (usually twice the width) since the width of the internal bus affects the speed of all operations and has less effect on the overall system cost than the width of the external bus. Various bus designs have been used in the {PC}, including {ISA}, {EISA}, {Micro Channel}, {VL-bus} and {PCI}. Other peripheral busses are NuBus, TURBOchannel, VMEbus, MULTIBUS and STD bus. See also {bus network}. {Ukranian (http://open-taxi.com/mynews/~adrian/10)}. (2010-07-10)

bus master "architecture" The device in a computer which is driving the {address bus} and bus control signals at some point in time. In a simple architecture only the (single) {CPU} can be bus master but this means that all communications between ("slave") I/O devices must involve the CPU. More sophisticated architectures allow other capable devices (or multiple CPUs) to take turns at controling the bus. This allows, for example, a {network controller} card to access a {disk controller} directly while the CPU performs other tasks which do not require the bus, e.g. fetching code from its {cache}. Note that any device can drive data onto the {data bus} when the CPU reads from that device, but only the bus master drives the {address bus} and control signals. {Direct Memory Access} is a simple form of bus mastering where the I/O device is set up by the CPU to read from or write to one or more contiguous blocks of memory and then signal to the CPU when it has done so. Full bus mastering (or "First Party DMA", "bus mastering DMA") implies that the I/O device is capable of performing more complex sequences of operations without CPU intervention (e.g. servicing a complete {NFS} request). This will normally mean that the I/O device contains its own processor or {microcontroller}. See also {distributed kernel}. (1996-08-26)

bus network "networking" A {network topology} in which all {nodes} are connected to a single wire or set of wires (the bus). Bus networks typically use {CSMA/CD} techniques to determine which node should transmit data at any given time. Some {networks} are implemented as a {bus}, e.g. {Ethernet} - a one-bit bus operating at 10, 100, 1000 or 10,000 {megabits per second}. Originally Ethernet was a {physical layer} bus consisting of a wire (with {terminators} at each end) to which each node was attached. {Switched Ethernet}, while no longer physically a bus still acts as one at the logical layers.

But Kant's versatile, analytical mind could not rest here; and gradually his ideas underwent a radical transformation. He questioned the assumption, common to dogmatic metaphysics, that reality can be apprehended in and through concepts. He was helped to this view by the study of Leibniz's Nouveaux Essais (first published in 1765), and the skepticism and empiricism of Hume, through which, Kant stated, he was awakened from his "dogmatic slumbers". He cast about for a method by which the proper limits and use of reason could be firmly established. The problem took the form: By what right and within what limits may reason make synthetic, a priori judgments about the data of sense?

But reason is not limited to its theoretical use. Besides objects of cognition and thought, there are also those of will and feeling. Kant's "practical philosophy", the real foundation of his system of transcendental idealism, centers in a striking doctrine of freedom. Even in its theoretical use. reason is a law-giver to Nature, in that the data of sense must conform to the forms of the sensibility and understanding if Nature is to be known at all. But in moral experience, as Kant shows in the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), the will of a rational being is directly autonomous -- a law unto itself. But the unconditional moral law, "duty" or "categorical imperative", the validity of which Kant does not question, is possible only on the supposition that the will is really free. As phenomenal beings we are subject to the laws of nature and reason, but as pure rational wills we move in the free, noumenal or intelligible realm, bound only by the self-imposed rational law "to treat humanity in every case as an end, never as a means only."

By 1770, the beginning of his "critical" period, Kant had an answer which he confidently expected would revolutionize philosophy. First dimly outlined in the Inaugural Dissertation (1770), and elaborated in great detail in the Critique of Pure Reason (1781 and 1787), the answer consisted in the critical or transcendental method. The typical function of reason, on Kant's view, is relating or synthesizing the data of sense. In effecting any synthesis the mind relies on the validity of certain principles, such as causality, which, as Hume had shown, cannot be inductive generalizations from sense data, yet are indispensable in any account of "experience" viewed as a connected, significant whole. If the necessary, synthetic principles cannot be derived from sense data proper, then, Kant argued, they must be "a priori" -- logically prior to the materials which they relate. He also called these formal elements "transcendental", by which he meant that, while they are indubitably in experience viewed as a connected whole, they transcend or are distinct from the sensuous materials in source and status. In the Critique of Pure Reason -- his "theoretical philosophy" -- Kant undertakes a complete inventory and "deduction" of all synthetic, a priori, transcendental forms employed in the knowledge of Nature. The first part, the "Transcendental Aesthetic", exhibits the two forms or "intuitions" (Anschauungen) of the sensibility: space and time. Knowledge of Nature, however varied its sense content, is necessarily always of something in space and time; and just because these are necessary conditions of any experience of Nature, space and time cannot be objective properties of things-in-themselves, but must be formal demands of reason. Space and time are "empirically real", because they are present in actual experience; but they are "transcendentally ideal", since they are forms which the mind "imposes" on the data of sense.

byte-code "file format, software" A {binary} file containing an {executable} program, consisting of a sequence of ({op code}, data) pairs. Byte-code op codes are most often fixed size {bit patterns}, but can be variable size. The data portion consists of zero or more {bits} whose format typically depends on the op code. A byte-code program is interpreted by a {byte-code interpreter}. The advantage of this technique compared with outputing {machine code} for some particular processor is that the same byte-code can be executed on any processor on which the byte-code interpreter runs. The byte-code may be compiled to machine code ("native code") for speed of execution but this usually requires significantly greater effort for each new taraget architecture than simply porting the interpreter. For example, {Java} is compiled to byte-code which runs on the {Java Virtual Machine}. (2006-05-29)

bytesexual "jargon" /bi:t" sek"shu-*l/ An adjective used to describe hardware, denotes willingness to compute or pass data in either {big-endian} or {little-endian} format (depending, presumably, on a {mode bit} somewhere). See also {NUXI problem}. [{Jargon File}] (2009-05-28)

byte "unit" /bi:t/ (B) A component in the machine {data hierarchy} larger than a {bit} and usually smaller than a {word}; now nearly always eight bits and the smallest addressable unit of storage. A byte typically holds one {character}. A byte may be 9 bits on 36-bit computers. Some older architectures used "byte" for quantities of 6 or 7 bits, and the PDP-10 and IBM 7030 supported "bytes" that were actually {bit-fields} of 1 to 36 (or 64) bits! These usages are now obsolete, and even 9-bit bytes have become rare in the general trend toward power-of-2 word sizes. The term was coined by Werner Buchholz in 1956 during the early design phase for the {IBM} {Stretch} computer. It was a mutation of the word "bite" intended to avoid confusion with "bit". In 1962 he described it as "a group of bits used to encode a character, or the number of bits transmitted in parallel to and from input-output units". The move to an 8-bit byte happened in late 1956, and this size was later adopted and promulgated as a standard by the {System/360} {operating system} (announced April 1964). James S. Jones "jsjones@graceland.edu" adds: I am sure I read in a mid-1970's brochure by IBM that outlined the history of computers that BYTE was an acronym that stood for "Bit asYnchronous Transmission E..?" which related to width of the bus between the Stretch CPU and its CRT-memory (prior to Core). Terry Carr "bear@mich.com" says: In the early days IBM taught that a series of bits transferred together (like so many yoked oxen) formed a Binary Yoked Transfer Element (BYTE). [True origin? First 8-bit byte architecture?] See also {nibble}, {octet}. [{Jargon File}] (2003-09-21)

cable modem "communications, hardware" A type of {modem} that allows people to access the {Internet} via their cable television service. A cable modem can transfer data at 500 {kbps} or higher, compared with 28.8 kbps for common telephone line modems, but the actual transfer rates may be lower depending on the number of other simultaneous users on the same cable. Industry pundits often point out that the cable system still does not have the {bandwidth} or service level in many areas to make this feasible. For example, it has to be capable of two-way communication. See also: {DOCSIS}. (2000-12-19)

cache coherency "storage" (Or "cache consistency") /kash koh-heer'n-see/ The synchronisation of data in multiple {caches} such that reading a memory location via any cache will return the most recent data written to that location via any (other) cache. Some {parallel processors} do not cache accesses to {shared memory} to avoid the issue of cache coherency. If caches are used with shared memory then some system is required to detect when data in one processor's cache should be discarded or replaced because another processor has updated that memory location. Several such schemes have been devised. (1998-11-10)

cache conflict "storage" A sequence of accesses to memory repeatedly overwriting the same {cache} entry. This can happen if two blocks of data, which are mapped to the same set of cache locations, are needed simultaneously. For example, in the case of a {direct mapped cache}, if {arrays} A, B, and C map to the same range of cache locations, thrashing will occur when the following loop is executed: for (i=1; i"n; i++) C[i] = A[i] + B[i]; Cache conflict can also occur between a program loop and the data it is accessing. See also {ping-pong}. (1997-01-21)

cache "memory management" /kash/ A small fast memory holding recently accessed data, designed to speed up subsequent access to the same data. Most often applied to processor-memory access but also used for a local copy of data accessible over a network etc. When data is read from, or written to, {main memory} a copy is also saved in the cache, along with the associated main memory address. The cache monitors addresses of subsequent reads to see if the required data is already in the cache. If it is (a {cache hit}) then it is returned immediately and the main memory read is aborted (or not started). If the data is not cached (a {cache miss}) then it is fetched from main memory and also saved in the cache. The cache is built from faster memory chips than main memory so a cache hit takes much less time to complete than a normal memory access. The cache may be located on the same {integrated circuit} as the {CPU}, in order to further reduce the access time. In this case it is often known as {primary cache} since there may be a larger, slower {secondary cache} outside the CPU chip. The most important characteristic of a cache is its {hit rate} - the fraction of all memory accesses which are satisfied from the cache. This in turn depends on the cache design but mostly on its size relative to the main memory. The size is limited by the cost of fast memory chips. The hit rate also depends on the access pattern of the particular program being run (the sequence of addresses being read and written). Caches rely on two properties of the access patterns of most programs: temporal locality - if something is accessed once, it is likely to be accessed again soon, and spatial locality - if one memory location is accessed then nearby memory locations are also likely to be accessed. In order to exploit spatial locality, caches often operate on several words at a time, a "{cache line}" or "cache block". Main memory reads and writes are whole {cache lines}. When the processor wants to write to main memory, the data is first written to the cache on the assumption that the processor will probably read it again soon. Various different policies are used. In a {write-through} cache, data is written to main memory at the same time as it is cached. In a {write-back} cache it is only written to main memory when it is forced out of the cache. If all accesses were writes then, with a write-through policy, every write to the cache would necessitate a main memory write, thus slowing the system down to main memory speed. However, statistically, most accesses are reads and most of these will be satisfied from the cache. Write-through is simpler than write-back because an entry that is to be replaced can just be overwritten in the cache as it will already have been copied to main memory whereas write-back requires the cache to initiate a main memory write of the flushed entry followed (for a processor read) by a main memory read. However, write-back is more efficient because an entry may be written many times in the cache without a main memory access. When the cache is full and it is desired to cache another line of data then a cache entry is selected to be written back to main memory or "flushed". The new line is then put in its place. Which entry is chosen to be flushed is determined by a "{replacement algorithm}". Some processors have separate instruction and data caches. Both can be active at the same time, allowing an instruction fetch to overlap with a data read or write. This separation also avoids the possibility of bad {cache conflict} between say the instructions in a loop and some data in an array which is accessed by that loop. See also {direct mapped cache}, {fully associative cache}, {sector mapping}, {set associative cache}. (1997-06-25)

CAJOLE "language" (Chris And John's Own LanguagE) A {dataflow} language developed by Chris Hankin "clh@doc.ic.ac.uk" and John Sharp at {Westfield College}. ["The Data Flow Programming Language CAJOLE: An Informal Introduction", C.L. Hankin et al, SIGPLAN Notices 16(7):35-44 (Jul 1981)]. (1994-11-08)

call-by-name "reduction" (CBN) (Normal order reduction, leftmost, outermost reduction). An {argument} passing convention (first provided by {ALGOL 60}?) where argument expressions are passed unevaluated. This is usually implemented by passing a pointer to a {thunk} - some code which will return the value of the argument and an environment giving the values of its {free variables}. This {evaluation strategy} is guaranteed to reach a {normal form} if one exists. When used to implement {functional programming} languages, call-by-name is usually combined with {graph reduction} to avoid repeated evaluation of the same expression. This is then known as {call-by-need}. The opposite of call-by-name is {call-by-value} where arguments are evaluated before they are passed to a function. This is more efficient but is less likely to terminate in the presence of infinite data structures and {recursive} functions. Arguments to {macros} are usually passed using call-by-name. (2006-05-27)

Call Data Record "telecommunications" (CDR) A data record that contains information related to a telephone call, including the origination and destination addresses of the call, the time the call started and ended, the duration of the call, the time of day the call was made, toll charges that were added through the network, or charges for operator services. [Context?] (2010-03-21)

Caller ID "communications" (CID) A short piece of text transmitted by some telephone systems describing the origin of a call, e.g. the name of the caller. Some telephone handsets can display this. A {computer telephony integration} system might use it to trigger actions on the callee's computer such as looking up the caller in a database and displaying their details on screen. There may also be a separate "caller id number" giving the telephone number of the originator of the call. (2008-04-30)

Call-Level Interface "database, standard" (SQL/CLI) A programming interface designed to support {SQL} access to {databases} from shrink-wrapped {application programs}. CLI was originally created by a subcommittee of the {SQL Access Group} (SAG). The SAG/CLI specification was published as the {Microsoft} {Open DataBase Connectivity} (ODBC) specification in 1992. In 1993, SAG submitted the CLI to the {ANSI} and {ISO} SQL committees. SQL/CLI provides an international standard implementation-independent CLI to access SQL databases. {Client-server} tools can easily access databases through {dynamic link libraries}. It supports and encourages a rich set of client-server tools. SQL/CLI is an addendum to 1992 SQL standard (SQL-92). It was completed as ISO standard ISO/IEC 9075-3:1995 Information technology -- Database languages -- SQL -- Part 3: Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI). The current SQL/CLI effort is adding support for {SQL3}. {(http://jcc.com/sql_cli.html)}. (1996-10-27)

CALS Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support: a DoD standard for electronic exchange of data with commercial suppliers.

Cambridge School: A term loosely applied to English philosophers who have been influenced by the teachings of Professor G. E. Moore (mainly in unpublished lectures delivered at the Cambridge University, 1911-1939). In earlier years Moore stressed the need to accept the judgments of "common sense" on such matters as the existence of other persons, of an "external world", etc. The business of the analytical philosopher was not to criticise such judgments but to display the structure of the facts to which they referred. (Cf. "A defense of common-sense in philosophy," Contemporary British Philosophy, 2 (1925) -- Moore's only discussion of the method.) Such analysis would be directional, terminating in basic or atomic facts, all of whose constituents might be known by acquaintance. The examples discussed were taken largely from the field of epistemology, turning often about the problem of the relation of material objects to sense-data, and of indirect to direct knowledge. In this earlier period problems were often suggested by Russell's discussion of descriptions and logical constructions. The inconclusiveness of such specific discussions and an increasingly critical awareness of the functions of language in philosophical analysis has in later years tended to favor more flexible interpretations of the nature of analysis. (Cf. M. Black, "Relations Between Logical Positivism and the Cambridge School of Analysis", Journal of Unified Science (Erkenntnis), 8, 24-35 for a bibliography and list of philosophers who have been most influenced by emphasis on directional analysis.) -- M.B.

Campus Wide Information System (CWIS) Information and services made publicly available at university sites via {kiosks} running interactive computing systems, possibly via campus networks. Services routinely include directory information, calendars, {bulletin boards} and {databases}. (1994-11-09)

can.d.ata (chandata) ::: fierceness, ardour, intensity. candata canda can

candidate key "database" One of several possible attributes or combinations of attributes which can be used to uniquely identify a body of information (a "{record}"). The chosen candidate key is called the {primary key}. (2006-05-29)

Canonical Encoding Rules "protocol, standard" (CER) A restricted variant of {BER} for producing unequivocal {transfer syntax} for data structures described by {ASN.1}. Whereas {BER} gives choices as to how data values may be encoded, CER and {DER} select just one encoding from those allowed by the basic encoding rules, eliminating all of the options. They are useful when the encodings must be preserved, e.g. in security exchanges. CER and {DER} differ in the set of restrictions that they place on the encoder. The basic difference between CER and {DER} is that {DER} uses definitive length form and CER uses indefinite length form. Documents: {ITU-T} X.690, {ISO} 8825-1. See also {PER}. (1998-05-19)

canonical name (CNAME) A host's official name as opposed to an alias. The official name is the first hostname listed for its {Internet address} in the hostname database, {/etc/hosts} or the {Network Information Service} (NIS) map hosts.byaddr ("hosts" for short). A host with multiple network interfaces may have more than one Internet address, each with its own canonical name (and zero or more aliases). You can find a host's canonical name using {nslookup} if you say set querytype=CNAME and then type a hostname. (1994-11-29)

can't happen "programming" The traditional program comment for code executed under a condition that should never be true, for example a file size computed as negative. Often, such a condition being true indicates data corruption or a faulty {algorithm}; it is almost always handled by emitting a fatal error message and terminating or crashing, since there is little else that can be done. Some case variant of "can't happen" is also often the text emitted if the "impossible" error actually happens. Although "can't happen" events are genuinely infrequent in production code, programmers wise enough to check for them habitually are often surprised at how frequently they are triggered during development and how many headaches checking for them turns out to head off. See also {firewall code}, {professional programming}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-10)

capability "operating system, security" An {operating system} security or access control model where specific types of access to a specific object are granted by giving a process this data structure or {token}. The token may be unforgeable (typically by using {encryption} or hardware "tagged" memory). Capabilities are used in OSes such as {Hydra}, {KeyKOS}, {EROS}, {Chorus}/{Mix}, and the {Stanford V system}. Similar to {Kerberos}, but in an OS context. Compare {access control list}. (1998-03-08)

capacity "communications" The maximum possible {data transfer rate} of a communications channel under ideal conditions. The total capacity of a channel may be shared between several independent data streams using some kind of {multiplexing}, in which case, each stream's data rate may be limited to a fixed fraction of the total capacity. (2001-05-22)

Cardbox for Windows "database" A database handling program, especially useful for scholars and librarians. [Details? Features? Developer? URL?] (1997-05-14)

Carrierless Amplitude/Phase Modulation "communications" (CAP) A design of {Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line} {transceiver} developed by {Bell Labs}. CAP was the first ADSL design to be commercially deployed and, as of August 1996, was installed on more lines than any other. CAP is a variation of {Quadrature Amplitude Modulation}, the modulation used by most existing {modems} in 1997. With CAP, the three channels ({POTS}, downstream data and upstream data) are supported by splitting the frequency spectrum. Voice occupies the standard 0-4 Khz frequency band, followed by the upstream channel and the high-speed downstream channel. (1997-10-08)

carrier signal "communications" A continuous signal of a single frequency capable of being modulated by a second, data-carrying signal. In radio communication, the two common kinds of modulation are {amplitude modulation} and {frequency modulation}. (1995-03-01)

CASE Data Interchange Format (CDIF) An emerging standard for interchange of data between {CASE} tools. (1994-11-03)

CAT Common Abstract Tree Language. R. Voeller & Uwe Schmidt, U Kiel, Germany 1983. Universal intermediate language, used by Norsk Data in their family of compilers. "A Multi-Language Compiler System with Automatically Generated Codegenerators, U. Schmidt et al, SIGPLAN Notices 19(6):202-2121 (June 1984). [{Jargon File}]

Categorical Abstract Machine Language "language" (Originally "CAML" - Categorical Abstract Machine Language) A version of {ML} by G. Huet, G. Cousineau, Ascander Suarez, Pierre Weis, Michel Mauny and others of {INRIA} and {ENS}. CAML is intermediate between {LCF ML} and {SML} [in what sense?]. It has {first-class} functions, {static type inference} with {polymorphic} types, user-defined {variant types} and {product types}, and {pattern matching}. It is built on a proprietary run-time system. The CAML V3.1 implementation added {lazy} and {mutable} data structures, a "{grammar}" mechanism for interfacing with the {Yacc} {parser generator}, {pretty-printing} tools, high-performance {arbitrary-precision} arithmetic, and a complete library. CAML V3 is often nicknamed "heavy CAML", because of its heavy memory and CPU requirements compared to {Caml Light}. in 1990 Xavier Leroy and Damien Doligez designed a new implementation called {Caml Light}, freeing the previous implementation from too many experimental high-level features, and more importantly, from the old Le_Lisp back-end. Following the addition of a {native-code} compiler and a powerful {module} system in 1995 and of the {object} and {class} layer in 1996, the project's name was changed to {Objective Caml}. ["The CAML Reference Manual", P. Weis et al, TR INRIA-ENS, 1989]. (2003-04-12)

cat "tool" (From "catenate") {Unix}'s command which copies one or more entire files to the screen or some other output sink without pause. See also {dd}, {BLT}. Among {Unix} fans, cat is considered an excellent example of user-interface design, because it delivers the file contents without such verbosity as spacing or headers between the files (the {pr} command can be used to do this), and because it does not require the files to consist of lines of text, but works with any sort of data. Among Unix haters, cat is considered the {canonical} example of *bad* user-interface design, because of its woefully unobvious name. It is far more often used to {blast} a file to standard output than to concatenate files. The name "cat" for the former operation is just as unintuitive as, say, LISP's {cdr}. Of such oppositions are {holy wars} made. (1994-11-29)

caudata ::: n. pl. --> See Urodela.

CCR 1. {condition code register}. 2. (Database) {concurrency control and recovery}.

CDC 6600 "computer" A {mainframe} computer from {Control Data Corporation}, first delivered in 1964. It is generally considered to be the first successful {supercomputer}, about three times faster than {STRETCH}. Its successor was the {CDC 7600}. (2007-03-01)

CDC {Control Data Corporation}

CDDI {Copper Distributed Data Interface}

CDF {Common Data Format}

CDIF {CASE Data Interchange Format}

CDM 1. {Content Data Model} 2. {Code Division Multiplexing}

CDPD {Cellular Digital Packet Data}

CDR 1. "networking" {Committed Data Rate}. 2. "storage" {Compact Disc Recordable} (CD-R). 3. "telecommunications" {Call Data Record}.

CDS {Concrete Data Structure}

CDW {data warehouse}

Cedar A superset of {Mesa}, from {Xerox PARC}, adding {garbage collection}, {dynamic types} and a universal pointer type (REF ANY). Cedar is a large complex language designed for custom Xerox hardware and the Cedar {operating system}/environment. Data types are {atoms}, lists, ropes ("industrial strength" strings), conditions. Multi-processing features include {threads}, {monitors}, {signals} and catch phrases. It was used to develop the Cedar integrated programming environment. ["A Description of the Cedar Language", Butler Lampson, Xerox PARC, CSL-83-15 (Dec 1983)]. ["The Structure of Cedar", D. Swinehart et al, SIGPLAN Notices 20(7):230-244 (July 1985)]. (1995-01-26)

cell 1. "spreadsheet" In a {spreadsheet}, the intersection of a row a column and a sheet, the smallest addressable unit of data. A cell contains either a constant value or a {formula} that is used to calculate a value. The cell has a {format} that determines how to display the value. A cell can be part of a {range}. A cell is usually referred to by its column (labelled by one or more letters from the sequence A, B, ..., Z, AA, AB, ..., AZ, BA, BB, ..., BZ, ... ) and its row number counting up from one, e.g. cell B3 is in the second column across and the third row down. A cell also belongs to a particular sheet, e.g. "Sheet 1". 2. "networking" {ATM}'s term for a {packet}. (2007-10-22)

Cellular Digital Packet Data "communications, protocol" (CDPD) A wireless standard providing two-way, 19.2 kbps {packet} data transmission over exisiting {mobile telephone} channels. [Reference?] (1994-12-05)

central processing unit "architecture, processor" (CPU, processor) The part of a computer which controls all the other parts. Designs vary widely but the CPU generally consists of the {control unit}, the {arithmetic and logic unit} (ALU), {registers}, temporary {buffers} and various other logic. The control unit fetches {instructions} from memory and decodes them to produce signals which control the other parts of the computer. These signals cause it to transfer data between memory and ALU or to activate {peripherals} to perform input or output. Various types of memory, including {cache}, {RAM} and {ROM}, are often considered to be part of the CPU, particularly in modern {microprocessors} where a single {integrated circuit} may contain one or more processors as well as any or all of the above types of memory. The CPU, and any of these components that are in separate chips, are usually all located on the same {printed circuit board}, known as the {motherboard}. This in turn is located in the {system unit} (sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "CPU"). A {parallel computer} has several CPUs which may share other resources such as memory and peripherals. The term "processor" has to some extent replaced "CPU", though RAM and ROM are not logically part of the processor. {List of processors (http://lldn.timesys.com/complete_list_of_processors)}. (2007-04-02)

Certificate Authority "cryptography, body" (CA or "Trusted Third Party") An entity (typically a company) that issues {digital certificates} to other entities (organisations or individuals) to allow them to prove their identity to others. A Certificate Authority might be an external company such as {VeriSign} that offers digital certificate services or they might be an internal organisation such as a corporate {MIS} department. The Certificate Authority's chief function is to verify the identity of entities and issue digital certificates attesting to that identity. The process uses {public key cryptography} to create a "network of trust". If I want to prove my identity to you, I ask a CA (who you trust to have verified my identity) to encrypt a {hash} of my signed key with their {private key}. Then you can use the CA's {public key} to decrypt the hash and compare it with a hash you calculate yourself. Hashes are used to decrease the amount of data that needs to be transmitted. The hash function must be {cryptographically strong}, e.g. {MD5}. {(http://home.netscape.com/comprod/server_central/support/faq/certificate_faq.html

cfortran.h "library" A {transparent}, machine independent interface between {C} and {Fortran} routines and {global data}, developed by Burkhard Burow at CERN. It provides {macros} which allow the {C} {preprocessor} to translate a simple description of a C (Fortran) routine or global data into a Fortran (C) interface. Version 2.6 runs on {VAX}/{VMS}/{Ultrix}, {DECstation}, {Silicon Graphics}, {IBM} {RS/6000}, {Sun}, {Cray}, {Apollo}, {HP9000}, {LynxOS}, {f2c}, {NAG f90}. {(ftp://zebra.desy.de/cfortran/)}. cfortran.h was reviewed in RS/Magazine November 1992 and a user's experiences with cfortran.h are described in the Jan 93 issue of Computers in Physics. (1992-04-12)

chain 1. "operating system" (From {BASIC}'s "CHAIN" statement) To pass control to a child or successor without going through the {operating system} {command interpreter} that invoked you. The state of the parent program is lost and there is no returning to it. Though this facility used to be common on memory-limited {microcomputers} and is still widely supported for {backward compatibility}, the jargon usage is semi-obsolescent; in particular, {Unix} calls this {exec}. Compare with the more modern "{subshell}". 2. "programming" A series of linked data areas within an {operating system} or {application program}. "Chain rattling" is the process of repeatedly running through the linked data areas searching for one which is of interest. The implication is that there are many links in the chain. 3. "theory" A possibly infinite, non-decreasing sequence of elements of some {total ordering}, S x0 "= x1 "= x2 ... A chain satisfies: for all x,y in S, x "= y \/ y "= x. I.e. any two elements of a chain are related. (""=" is written in {LaTeX} as {\sqsubseteq}). [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-03)

channel service unit/data service unit "communications, hardware" (CSU/DSU, or "..digital..") A device that performs both the {channel service unit} (CSU) and {data service unit} (DSU) functions. The Channel Service Unit (CSU) is used to terminate a {DS1} or {DS0} (56/64 kb/s) digital circuit. It peforms {line conditioning}, protection, {loop-back} and timing functions. The Data Service Unit (DSU) terminates the data circuit to the {Data Terminal Equipment} (DTE) and converts the customer's data stream into a bi-polar format for transmission. (2001-10-19)

character encoding "character" (Or "character encoding scheme") A mapping between {binary} data values and character {code positions} (or "code points"). Early systems stored characters in a variety of ways, e.g. four six-bit characters in a 24-bit word, but around 1960, eight-bit bytes started to become the most common data storage layout, with each character stored in one byte, typically in the {ASCII} character set. In the case of {ASCII}, the character encoding is an {identity} mapping: code position 65 maps to the byte value 65. This is possible because ASCII uses only code positions representable as single {bytes}, i.e., values between 0 and 255. ({US-ASCII} only uses values 0 to 127, in fact.) From the late 1990s, there was increased use of larger character sets such as {Unicode} and many {CJK} {coded character sets}. These can represent characters from many languages and more symbols. {Unicode} uses many more than the 256 code positions that can be represented by one byte. It thus requires more complex mappings: sometimes the characters are mapped onto pairs of bytes (see {DBCS}). In many cases, this breaks programs that assume a one-to-one mapping of bytes to characters, and so, for example, treat any occurrance of the byte value 13 as a {carriage return}. To avoid this problem, character encodings such as {UTF-8} were devised. (2015-11-29)

char "programming" /keir/ or /char/; rarely, /kar/ {character}. Especially used by {C} programmers, as "char" is {C}'s typename for character data. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-29)

checkdigit "data" A one-digit {checksum}.

checkpoint "programming" Saving the current state of a program and its data, including intermediate results, to disk or other {non-volatile storage}, so that if interrupted the program could be restarted at the point at which the last checkpoint occurred. This facility came into popular use in {mainframe} {operating systemss} such as {OS/360} in which programs frequently ran for longer than the mean time between system failures. If a program run fails because of some event beyond the program's control (e.g. hardware or {operating system} failure) then the processor time invested before the checkpoint will not have been wasted. (1995-02-07)

checksum "storage, communications" A computed value which depends on the contents of a block of data and which is transmitted or stored along with the data in order to detect corruption of the data. The receiving system recomputes the checksum based upon the received data and compares this value with the one sent with the data. If the two values are the same, the receiver has some confidence that the data was received correctly. The checksum may be 8 bits (modulo 256 sum), 16, 32, or some other size. It is computed by summing the bytes or words of the data block ignoring {overflow}. The checksum may be negated so that the total of the data words plus the checksum is zero. {Internet} {packets} use a 32-bit checksum. See also {digital signature}, {cyclic redundancy check}. (1996-03-01)

CHEOPS "communications" A satellite-based batch data dissemination project between {CERN} and member state institutes. (2006-06-21)

Chernobyl packet "networking" /cher-noh'b*l pak'*t/ A {network} {packet} that induces a {broadcast storm} and/or {network meltdown}, named in memory of the April 1986 nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Ukraine. The typical scenario involves an {IP} {Ethernet} {datagram} that passes through a {gateway} with both source and destination {Ethernet address} and {IP address} set as the respective broadcast addresses for the subnetworks being gated between. Compare {Christmas tree packet}. [{Jargon File}] (2004-02-17)

child record "database" A {record} lower in the hierarchical tree than a parent record; it is also directly liked to the parent and hierarchical {databases}. (1995-04-13)

chordata ::: n. pl. --> A comprehensive division of animals including all Vertebrata together with the Tunicata, or all those having a dorsal nervous cord.

Christmas tree packet "networking" (Or kamikaze packet) A {packet} with every single option set for whatever {protocol} is in use. The term doubtless derives from a fanciful image of each little option bit being represented by a different-coloured light bulb, all turned on. {RFC 1025}, "TCP and IP Bake Off" says: 10 points for correctly being able to process a "Kamikaze" packet (AKA {nastygram}, Christmas tree packet, lamp test segment, et al.). That is, correctly handle a segment with the maximum combination of features at once (e.g. a SYN URG PUSH FIN segment with options and data). Compare: {Chernobyl packet}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-09)

Cichlid "graphics, tool" A tool for rapidly visualising arbitrary data in high-quality 3D, while allowing the viewer to explore and interact with the data in {real time}. Cichlid was designed with remote data generation and machine independence in mind; data is transmitted via {TCP} from any number of sources (data servers) to the visualisation code (the client), which displays them concurrently. [Who? URL?] (2004-01-22)

circular buffer "programming" An area of {memory} used to store a continuous stream of data by starting again at the beginning of the buffer after reaching the end. A circular buffer is usually written by one process and read by another. Separate read and write {pointers} are maintained. These are not allowed to pass each other otherwise either unread data would be overwritten or invalid data would be read. A circuit may implement a {hardware circular buffer}. (2000-06-17)

C+@ "language" (Formerly "Calico"). An {object-oriented language} from {Bell Laboratories} which uniformly represents all data as pointers to self-described objects. C+@ provides {multiple inheritance} with {delegation} and with control over which {methods} come from which delegated object; and {default methodologies}. It has a simple {syntax} with emphasis on graphics. It was originally used for prototyping of telecommunication services. The language is patented by AT&T and {Unir Tech} has the exclusive license from Bell Labs to distribute C+@. Unfortunately Unir is owned and operated by well-known anti-{IETF} ranter, Jim Fleming, which may have had something to do with the language's rapid disappearence from the radar screen. It runs under {SunOS} and compiles to {Vcode}. E-mail: Jim Vandendorpe "jimvan@iexist.att.com". ["A Dynamic C-Based Object-Oriented System for Unix", S. Engelstad et al, IEEE Software 8(3):73-85 (May 1991)]. ["The C+@ Programming Language", J. Fleming, Dr Dobbs J, Oct 1993, pp.24-32]. [{Jargon File}] (2005-01-05)

C* "language, parallel" An {object-oriented}, {data-parallel} superset of {ANSI C} with synchronous {semantics}, for the {Connection Machine}, designed by {Thinking Machines}, 1987. C* adds a "domain" data type and a selection statement for parallel execution in domains. An unimplemented language called "{Parallel C}" [which one?] influenced the design of {C*}. {Dataparallel-C} was based on {C*}. ["C*: An Extended C Language for Data Parallel Programming", J.R. Rose et al, Proc Second Intl Conf on Supercomputing, L.P. Kartashev et al eds, May 1987, pp 2-16]. ["C* Programming Manual", Thinking Machines Corp, 1986]. [{Jargon File}] (2000-11-14)

Clarion "language" A family of systems from {SoftVelocity, Inc.} for building {database} applications on {Microsoft Windows}. Clarion products include Clarion 4GL language with a {C++} and {Modula-2} {compiler}. Clarion products support fast, efficient database application development. Clarion was originally developed by Clarion Software Corporation, later to become TopSpeed Corporation. In 2000, the Clarion product line was acquired by SoftVelocity Inc. (2003-10-15)

Claris "company" A subsidiary company of {Apple Computer, Inc.}. In January 1998, Apple restructured Claris to concentrate on their {FileMaker} line of {database} {software} and changed the company's name to {FileMaker, Inc.}. (1998-02-18)

CLI 1. "operating system" {Command Line Interface}. 2. "database, standard" {Call-Level Interface}.

Client To Client Protocol "networking" (CTCP) A type of {protocol} created to allow structured data such as {font} information to be exchanged between users on {IRC}. It is also used to send a query to a user. The available CTCP commands include VERSION, FINGER, DCC CHAT, DCC SEND, TIME, PING, ECHO, CLIENTINFO. Some commands are not available on some IRC {client} software. (1995-04-12)

clipboard "operating system" A temporary memory area, used to transfer information within a document being edited or between documents or between programs. The fundamental operations are "cut" which moves data from a document to the clipboard, "copy" which copies it to the clipboard, and "paste" which inserts the clipboard contents into the current document in place of the current selection. Different {Graphical User Interfaces} vary in how they handle the different types of data which a user might want to transfer via the clipboard, some (e.g. the {X Window System}) support only plain text, others (e.g. {NEXTSTEP}) support arbitrarily typed data such as images. (1996-08-23)

Clipper 1. "hardware, cryptography" An {integrated circuit} which implements the {SkipJack} {algorithm}. The Clipper is manufactured by the US government to encrypt telephone data. It has the added feature that it can be decrypted by the US government, which has tried to make the chip compulsory in the United States. Phil Zimmerman (inventor of {PGP}) remarked, "This doesn't even pass the sniff test" (i.e. it stinks). {(http://wired.com/clipper/)}. {news:alt.privacy.clipper} 2. A compiled {dBASE} dialect from Nantucket Corp, LA. Versions: Winter 85, Spring 86, Autumn 86, Summer 87, 4.5 (Japanese Kanji), 5.0. It uses the {Xbase} programming language. (2004-09-01)

closure 1. "programming" In a {reduction system}, a closure is a data structure that holds an expression and an environment of variable bindings in which that expression is to be evaluated. The variables may be local or global. Closures are used to represent unevaluated expressions when implementing {functional programming languages} with {lazy evaluation}. In a real implementation, both expression and environment are represented by pointers. A {suspension} is a closure which includes a flag to say whether or not it has been evaluated. The term "{thunk}" has come to be synonymous with "closure" but originated outside {functional programming}. 2. "theory" In {domain theory}, given a {partially ordered set}, D and a subset, X of D, the upward closure of X in D is the union over all x in X of the sets of all d in D such that x "= d. Thus the upward closure of X in D contains the elements of X and any greater element of D. A set is "upward closed" if it is the same as its upward closure, i.e. any d greater than an element is also an element. The downward closure (or "left closure") is similar but with d "= x. A downward closed set is one for which any d less than an element is also an element. (""=" is written in {LaTeX} as {\subseteq} and the upward closure of X in D is written \uparrow_\{D} X). (1994-12-16)

CLU "language" (CLUster) An {object-oriented} programming language developed at {MIT} by {Liskov} et al in 1974-1975. CLU is an {object-oriented} language of the {Pascal} family designed to support {data abstraction}, similar to {Alphard}. It introduced the {iterator}: a {coroutine} yielding the elements of a data object, to be used as the sequence of values in a {for loop}. A CLU program consists of separately compilable {procedures}, {clusters} and iterators, no nesting. A cluster is a module naming an {abstract type} and its operations, its internal representation and implementation. Clusters and iterators may be generic. Supplying actual constant values for the {parameters} instantiates the {module}. There are no {implicit type conversions}. In a cluster, the explicit type conversions 'up' and 'down' change between the abstract type and the representation. There is a universal type 'any', and a procedure force[] to check that an object is a certain type. Objects may be mutable or {immutable}. {Exceptions} are raised using 'signal' and handled with 'except'. {Assignment} is by sharing, similar to the sharing of data objects in {Lisp}. Arguments are passed by {call-by-sharing}, similar to {call-by-value}, except that the arguments are objects and can be changed only if they are mutable. CLU has {own variables} and multiple assignment. CLU was one of {Kamin's interpreters}. {clu2c} compiled CLU to {C}. {Concurrent CLU} was an extension designed to support parallel proceses. ["CLU Reference Manual", Barbara Liskov et al, LNCS 114, Springer 1981]. E-mail: Paul R. Johnson "prj@pm-prj.lcs.mit.edu". {Versions for Sun and VAX/VMS (ftp://pion.lcs.mit.edu/pub/clu/)}. {Portable version (ftp://mintaka.lcs.mit.edu/pub/dcurtis/)}. (1994-12-16)

CO2 "language, database" An {object-oriented} {database} language combining {C} and {O2}, from GIP Altair, Versailles, France. [Francois Bancilon et al, in Advances in Object-Oriented Database Systems, K.R. Dittrich ed, LNCS 334, Springer 1988]. (1994-12-22)

CODASYL {Conference On DAta SYstems Languages}

Codd's First Normal Form {database normalisation}

Codd's reduction algorithm "database" An {algorithm} to convert an arbitrary expression of the {relational calculus} to an equivalent expression of the {relational algebra}. This can be used as the basis of an implementation of the relational calculus. (1998-10-05)

code 1. "software" Instructions for a computer in some programming language, often {machine language} (machine code). The word "code" is often used to distinguish instructions from {data} (e.g. "The code is marked 'read-only'") whereas the word "{software}" is used in contrast with "{hardware}" and may consist of more than just code. (2000-04-08) 2. "cryptography" Some method of {encryption} or the resulting encrypted message. (2006-11-10)

Code 2.0 "language" A {coarse-grain} {dataflow} language with a graphical interface for users to draw communication structure. {(http://cs.utexas.edu/users/code)}. E-mail: Emery Berger "emery@cs.utexas.edu". ["The CODE 2.0 Parallel Programming Language", P. Newton et al, Proc ACM Intl Conf on Supercomput, Jul 1992]. (1996-01-13)

codebook {data dictionary}

code segment "memory" ({Intel 8086} CS) The area of memory containing the {machine code} instructions of a {program}. The code segment of a program may be shared between multiple processes running that code so long as none of them tries to modify it. {Unix}, confusingly, calls this the "text segment" and the area for uninitialied data, the {bss segment}. Initialised data is located in the {data segment}. (1996-12-21)

codewalker "programming, tool" A program component that analyses other programs. {Compilers} have codewalkers in their front ends; so do {cross-reference generators} and some database front ends. Other utility programs that try to do too much with source code may turn into codewalkers. As in "This new 'vgrind' feature would require a codewalker to implement." [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-23)

Cohen, Hermann: (1842-1918) and Paul Natorp (1854-1924) were the chief leaders of the "Marburg School" which formed a definite branch of the Neo-Kantian movement. Whereas the original founders of this movement, O. Liebmann and Fr. A. Lange, had reacted to scientific empiricism by again calling attention to the a priori elements of cognition, the Marburg school contended that all cognition was exclusively a priori. They definitely rejected not only the notion of "things-in-themselves" but even that of anything immediately "given" in experience. There is no other reality than one posited by thought and this holds good equally for the object, the subject and God. Nor is thought in its effort to "determine the object = x" limited by any empirical data but solely by the laws of thought. Since in Ethics Kant himself had already endeavored to eliminate all empirical elements, the Marburg school was perhaps closer to him in this field than in epistemology. The sole goal of conduct is fulfillment of duty, i.e., the achievement of a society organized according to moral principles and satisfying the postulates of personal dignity. The Marburg school was probably the most influential philosophic trend in Germany in the last 25 years before the First World War. The most outstanding present-day champion of their tradition is Ernst Cassirer (born 1874). Cohen and Natorp tried to re-interpret Plato as well as Kant. Following up a suggestion first made by Lotze they contended that the Ideas ought to be understood as laws or methods of thought and that the current view ascribing any kind of existence to them was based on a misunderstanding of Aristotle's. -- H.G.

Coherent Parallel C "language" A {data parallel} version of {C}. ["Coherent Parallel C", E. Felten et al in Third Conf on Hypercube Concurrent Computers and Appls, ACM, 1988, pp. 440-450]. (1995-01-04)

ColdFusion "web, database, tool" {Allaire Corporation}'s commercial {database} application development tool that allows {databases} to have a {web interface}, so a database can be queried and updated using a {web browser}. The ColdFusion Server application runs on the {web server} and has access to a {database}. ColdFusion files on the web server are {HTML} pages with additional ColdFusion commands to {query} or {update} the database, written in {CFML}. When the page is requested by the user, the {web server} passes the page to the Cold Fusion application, which executes the {CFML} commands, places the results of the {CFML} commands in the {HTML} file, and returns the page to the {web server}. The page returned to the {web server} is now an ordinary {HTML} file, and it is sent to the user. Examples of ColdFusion applications include order entry, event registration, catalogue search, directories, calendars, and interactive training. ColdFusion applications are robust because all database interactions are encapsulated in a single industrial-strength {CGI} script. The formatting and presentation can be modified and revised at any time (as opposed to having to edit and recompile {source code}). ColdFusion Server can connect with any database that supports {ODBC} or {OLE DB} or one that has a native database driver. Native database drivers are available for {Oracle} and {Sybase} databases. ColdFusion is available for {Windows}, {Solaris}, and {HP-UX}. A {development environment} for creating ColdFusion files, called ColdFusion Studio, is also available for {Windows}. The {filename extension} for ColdFusion files is .cfm {(http://coldfusion.com/)}. (2003-07-27)

collision detection "networking" A class of methods for sharing a data transmission medium in which {hosts} transmit as soon as they have data to send and then check to see whether their transmission has suffered a {collision} with another host's. If a collision is detected then the data must be resent. The resending algorithm should try to minimise the chance that two hosts's data will repeatedly collide. For example, the {CSMA/CD} protocol used on {Ethernet} specifies that they should then wait for a random time before re-transmitting. See also {backoff}. This contrasts with {slotted protocols} and {token passing}. (1997-03-18)

Colossus (A huge and ancient statue on the Greek island of Rhodes). 1. "computer" The Colossus and Colossus Mark II computers used by {Alan Turing} at {Bletchley Park}, UK during the Second World War to crack the "Tunny" cipher produced by the Lorenz SZ 40 and SZ 42 machines. Colossus was a semi-fixed-program {vacuum tube} calculator (unlike its near-contemporary, the freely programmable {Z3}). ["Breaking the enemy's code", Glenn Zorpette, IEEE Spectrum, September 1987, pp. 47-51.] 2. The computer in the 1970 film, "Colossus: The Forbin Project". Forbin is the designer of a computer that will run all of America's nuclear defences. Shortly after being turned on, it detects the existence of Goliath, the Soviet counterpart, previously unknown to US Planners. Both computers insist that they be linked, whereupon the two become a new super computer and threaten the world with the immediate launch of nuclear weapons if they are detached. Colossus begins to give its plans for the management of the world under its guidance. Forbin and the other scientists form a technological resistance to Colossus which must operate underground. {The Internet Movie Database (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0064177)}. (2007-01-04)

Columbia AppleTalk Package "networking" (CAP) An implementation of {Apple Computer}'s {AppleTalk} {protocols} for {Unix} {4.2BSD} and its derivatives, from {Columbia University}. There are two different {LAP} delivery mechanisms for: {IPTalk} and {Ethertalk} (possibly using {UAB}). CAP supports the following {AppleTalk} {protocols}: {AppleTalk Transaction Protocol} (ATP), {Name Binding Protocol} (NBP), {Printer Access Protocol} (PAP), {AppleTalk Session Protocol} (ASP), {AppleTalk Filing Protocol} (AFP) client side. In addition, the {Datagram Delivery Protocol} (DDP) and {Zone Information Protocol} (ZIP) are partially available. The structure of the {Internet Appletalk Bridge} software makes it impossible to provide full DDP service. Only the Get Zone List ATP ZIP command is implemented for ZIP. (1995-01-10)

column 1. "database" A named slice through a {database} {table} that includes the same field of each {row}. For example, a telephone directory table might have a row for each person with a name column and a telephone number column. 2. "storage" A line of memory cells in a {dynamic random-access memory}, that is selected by a particular column address. (2007-10-12)

Combination: (Lat. combinare, to join) The process of forming a new whole by the union of parts; also the product of such union. Two types of combination are distinguishable: Composition is a union of parts such that the component parts are discernible in the compound. Thus the visual and factual data which combine to form a total percept are recognizable in the resultant percept. Fusion is a union of parts into a whole in which the identity of the parts is obliterated. Thus the amalgamation of two sense images to form a new quality would, if this phenomenon were psychologically possible, be an instance of psychic fusion. See Psychic Fusion. -- L.W.

combinatory logic "logic" A system for reducing the operational notation of {logic}, mathematics or a {functional language} to a sequence of modifications to the input data structure. First introduced in the 1920's by {Schoenfinkel}. Re-introduced independently by {Haskell Curry} in the late 1920's (who quickly learned of Schoenfinkel's work after he had the idea). Curry is really responsible for most of the development, at least up until work with Feys in 1958. See {combinator}. (1995-01-05)

COME FROM "programming, humour" A semi-mythical language construct dual to the "go to"; "COME FROM" "label" would cause the referenced label to act as a sort of {trapdoor}, so that if the program ever reached it, control would quietly and {automagically} be transferred to the statement following the "COME FROM". "COME FROM" was first proposed in R.L. Clark's "A Linguistic Contribution to GOTO-less programming", which appeared in a 1973 {Datamation} issue (and was reprinted in the April 1984 issue of "{Communications of the ACM}"). This parodied the then-raging "{structured programming}" {holy wars} (see {considered harmful}). Mythically, some variants are the "assigned COME FROM" and the "computed COME FROM" (parodying some nasty control constructs in {Fortran} and some extended {BASICs}). Of course, {multitasking} (or {nondeterminism}) could be implemented by having more than one "COME FROM" statement coming from the same label. In some ways the {Fortran} "DO" looks like a "COME FROM" statement. After the terminating statement number/"CONTINUE" is reached, control continues at the statement following the DO. Some generous Fortrans would allow arbitrary statements (other than "CONTINUE") for the statement, leading to examples like:   DO 10 I=1,LIMIT C imagine many lines of code here, leaving the C original DO statement lost in the spaghetti...   WRITE(6,10) I,FROB(I) 10 FORMAT(1X,I5,G10.4) in which the trapdoor is just after the statement labelled 10. (This is particularly surprising because the label doesn't appear to have anything to do with the flow of control at all!) While sufficiently astonishing to the unsuspecting reader, this form of "COME FROM" statement isn't completely general. After all, control will eventually pass to the following statement. The implementation of the general form was left to {Univac Fortran}, ca. 1975 (though a roughly similar feature existed on the {IBM 7040} ten years earlier). The statement "AT 100" would perform a "COME FROM 100". It was intended strictly as a debugging aid, with dire consequences promised to anyone so deranged as to use it in production code. More horrible things had already been perpetrated in production languages, however; doubters need only contemplate the "{ALTER}" verb in {COBOL}. {SCL} on {VME} {mainframes} has a similar language construct called "whenever", used like this: whenever x=123345 then S; Meaning whenever variable x reached the value 123345 then execute statement S. "COME FROM" was supported under its own name for the first time 15 years later, in {C-INTERCAL} (see {INTERCAL}, {retrocomputing}); knowledgeable observers are still reeling from the shock. [{Jargon File}] (1998-04-19)

command line option "software" (Or "option", "flag", "switch", "option switch") An argument to a command that modifies its function rather than providing data. Options generally start with "-" in {Unix} or "/" in {MS-DOS}. This is usually followed by a single letter or occasionally a digit. More recently, {GNU} software adopted the --longoptionname style, usually in addition to traditional, single-character, -x style equivalents. Some commands require each option to be a separate argument, introduced by a new "-" or "/", others allow multiple option letters to be concatenated into a single argument with a single "-" or "/", e.g. "ls -al". A few Unix commands (e.g. {ar}, {tar}) allow the "-" to be omitted. Some options may or must be followed by a value, e.g. "cc prog.c -o prog", sometimes with and sometimes without an intervening space. {getopt} and {getopts} are commands for parsing command line options. There is also a {C} library routine called getopt for the same purpose. (2007-02-18)

comma separated values "file format" (CSV) A {file format} used as a portable representation of a {database}. Each line is one entry or record and the fields in a record are separated by {commas}. Commas may be followed by arbitrary space and/or tab characters which are ignored. If field includes a comma, the whole field must be surrounded with {double quotes}. (1995-05-06)

commendatary ::: n. --> One who holds a living in commendam.

commendator ::: n. --> One who holds a benefice in commendam; a commendatary.

comment "programming" (Or "remark") Explanatory text embedded in program {source} (or less often data) intended to help human readers understand it. Code completely without comments is often hard to read, but code with too many comments is also bad, especially if the comments are not kept up-to-date with changes to the code. Too much commenting may mean that the code is over-complicated. A good rule is to comment everything that needs it but write code that doesn't need much of it. Comments that explain __why__ something is done and how the code relates to its environment are useful. A particularly irksome form of over-commenting explains exactly what each statement does, even when it is obvious to any reasonably competant programmer, e.g. /* Open the input file */ infd = open(input_file, O_RDONLY); (2007-02-19)

Commercial Internet eXchange "networking, body" (CIX) The CIX is a non-profit, 501(c)6, trade association coordinating {Internet} services. Its member organisations provide {TCP/IP} or {OSI} data {internetwork} services to the general public. The CIX gives them unrestricted access to other worldwide networks. It also takes an interest in the development and future direction of the {Internet}. The CIX provides a neutral forum to exchange ideas, information, and experimental projects among suppliers of internetworking services. The CIX broadens the base of national and international cooperation and coordination among member networks. Together, the membership may develop consensus positions on legislative and policy issues of mutual interest. The CIX encourages technical research and development for the mutual benefit of suppliers and customers of data communications internetworking services. It assists its member networks in the establishment of, and adherence to, operational, technical, and administrative policies and standards necessary to ensure fair, open, and competitive operations and communication among member networks. CIX policies are formulated by a member-elected board of directors. {(http://cix.org/)}. (1995-01-13)

Commercial Translator "language, data processing" An English-like pre-{COBOL} language for business {data processing}. [Sammet 1969, p. 378]. (1994-11-08)

Committed Data Rate "communications" (CDR) The data transfer rate that an {ISP} guarantees a {virtual circuit} will carry. The CDR is the data portion of {Committed Information Rate} (CIR). (2007-02-28)

Committed Information Rate "networking" (CIR) The guaranteed average {data rate} of a {virtual circuit} in a {frame relay} network. The CIR plus the Excess Information Rate (EIR, burst rate) is equal to or less than the speed of the access port into the network. The term CIR includes voice and non-data packets that are not included in the {Committed Data Rate} (CDR). CIR is generally used in reference to {leased lines} and similar classes of network services, not {dial-up}. (2010-05-07)

COmmon Business Oriented Language "language, business" /koh'bol/ (COBOL) A programming language for simple computations on large amounts of data, designed by the {CODASYL} Committee in April 1960. COBOL's {natural language} style is intended to be largely self-documenting. It introduced the {record} structure. COBOL was probably the most widely used programming language during the 1960s and 1970s. Many of the major programs that required repair or replacement due to {Year 2000} {software rot} issues were originally written in COBOL, and this was responsible for a short-lived increased demand for COBOL programmers. Even in 2002 though, new COBOL programs are still being written in some organisations and many old COBOL programs are still running in {dinosaur} shops. Major revisions in 1968 (ANS X3.23-1968), 1974 (ANS X3.23-1974) and 1985. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.cobol}. ["Initial Specifications for a Common Business Oriented Language" DoD, US GPO, Apr 1960]. (2002-02-21)

Common Data Format "library" (CDF) A {library} and toolkit based on a {self-describing} data format for {scalar} and multidimensional data. CDF aims to be platform- and discipline-independent. A scientific data management package (CDF Library) allows developers to manage data and {metadata} through APIs. CDF has built-in support for {data compression} ({gZip}, {RLE}, {Huffman}) and files larger than two {gigabytes}. There are interfaces for {C}, {FORTRAN}, {Java}, {Perl}, {C

Common Gateway Interface "web" (CGI) A {standard} for running external {programs} from a {web} {HTTP} {server}. CGI specifies how to pass {arguments} to the program as part of the HTTP request. It also defines a set of {environment variables} that are made available to the program. The program generates output, typically {HTML}, which the web server processes and passes back to the {browser}. Alternatively, the program can request {URL redirection}. CGI allows the returned output to depend in any arbitrary way on the request. The CGI program can, for example, access information in a {database} and format the results as HTML. The program can access any data that a normal application program can, however the facilities available to CGI programs are usually limited for security reasons. Although CGI programs can be compiled programs, they are more often written in a (semi) {interpreted language} such as {Perl}, or as {Unix} {shell scripts}, hence the common name "CGI script". Here is a trivial CGI script written in Perl. (It requires the "CGI" module available from {CPAN}).

Common Intermediate Format "communications, standard" (CIF) A {video} format used in {videoconferencing} systems, which supports both {NTSC} and {PAL} signals, with a {data rate} of 30 {frames per second} (fps), with each {frame} containing 288 lines and 352 {luminance} {pixels} per line. CIF is part of the {ITU} {H.261} videoconferencing standard. CIF is also known as Full CIF (FCIF) to distinguish it from {Quarter CIF} (QCIF), a related video format standard that transfers one fourth as much data as CIF. (2007-05-14)

Common Internet File System "protocol" (CIFS) An {Internet} {file system} {protocol}, based on {Microsoft}'s {SMB}. Microsoft has given CIFS to the {Internet Engineering Task Force} (IETF) as an Internet Draft. CIFS is intended to complement existing protocols such as {HTTP}, {FTP}, and {NFS}. CIFS runs on top of {TCP/IP} and uses the Internet's {Domain Name Service} (DNS). It is optimised to support the slower speed {dial-up} connections common on the Internet. CIFS is more flexible than FTP. FTP operations are carried out on entire files whereas CIFS is aimed at routine data access and incorporates high-performance multi-user read and write operations, {locking}, and file-sharing semantics. CIFS is probably closest in functionality to NFS. NFS gives random access to files and directories, but is {stateless}. With CIFS, once a file is open, state about the current access to that file is stored on both the client and the server. This allows changes on the server side to be notified to the clients that are interested. {Microsoft Overview (http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/fileio/base/cifs_smb_protocol_overview.asp)}. {SNIA page (http://snia.org/tech_activities/CIFS/)}. {CIFS: A Common Internet File System, Paul Leach and Dan Perry (http://microsoft.com/Mind/1196/CIFS.htm)}. {IETF Specification. CIFS version 1 (ftp://ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-leach-cifs-v1-spec-01.txt)}. (2003-03-12)

Common Lisp "language" A dialect of {Lisp} defined by a consortium of companies brought together in 1981 by the {Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency} (DARPA). Companies included {Symbolics}, {Lisp Machines, Inc.}, {Digital Equipment Corporation}, {Bell Labs}., {Xerox}, {Hewlett-Packard}, {Lawrence Livermore Labs}., {Carnegie-Mellon University}, {Stanford University}, {Yale}, {MIT} and {USC Berkeley}. Common Lisp is {lexically scoped} by default but can be {dynamically scoped}. Common Lisp is a large and complex language, fairly close to a superset of {MacLisp}. It features {lexical binding}, data structures using defstruct and setf, {closures}, multiple values, types using declare and a variety of numerical types. Function calls allow "&optional", keyword and "&rest" arguments. Generic sequence can either be a list or an {array}. It provides formatted printing using escape characters. Common LISP now includes {CLOS}, an extended LOOP {macro}, condition system, {pretty printing} and logical pathnames. Implementations include {AKCL}, {CCL}, {CLiCC}, {CLISP}, {CLX}, {CMU Common Lisp}, {DCL}, {KCL}, {MCL} and {WCL}. Mailing list: "common-lisp@ai.sri.com". {ANSI Common Lisp draft proposal (ftp://ftp.think.com/public/think/lisp:public-review.text)}. ["Common LISP: The Language", Guy L. Steele, Digital Press 1984, ISBN 0-932376-41-X]. ["Common LISP: The Language, 2nd Edition", Guy L. Steele, Digital Press 1990, ISBN 1-55558-041-6]. (1994-09-29)

Common Sense: In Aristotle's psychology the faculty by which the common sensibles are perceived. It is probable also that Aristotle attributes to this faculty the functions of perceiving what we perceive and of uniting the data of different senses into a single object. -- G.R.M.

communication system "communications" A system or facility for transfering data between persons and equipment. The system usually consists of a collection of individual communication {networks}, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations and {terminal} equipment capable of interconnection and interoperation so as to form an integrated whole. These individual components must serve a common purpose, be technically compatible, employ common procedures, respond to some form of control and generally operate in unison. ["Communications Standard Dictionary", 2nd Edition, Martin H. Weik]. (1995-02-06)

COMNET "simulation, networking" A {simulation} tool from {CACI} for analysing wide-area voice or data networks, based on {SIMSCRIPT}. (2008-10-13)

Compact Disc Read-Only Memory "storage" (CD-ROM) A {non-volatile} optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio {compact discs}, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. CD-ROM is popular for distribution of large databases, software and especially {multimedia} {applications}. The maximum capacity is about 600 megabytes. A CD can store around 640 {megabytes} of data - about 12 billion bytes per pound weight. CD-ROM drives are rated with a speed factor relative to music CDs (1x or 1-speed which gives a data transfer rate of 150 {kilobytes} per second). 12x drives were common in April 1997. Above 12x speed, there are problems with vibration and heat. {Constant angular velocity} (CAV) drives give speeds up to 20x but due to the nature of CAV the actual throughput increase over 12x is less than 20/12. 20x was thought to be the maximum speed due to mechanical constraints but on 1998-02-24, {Samsung Electronics} introduced the SCR-3230, a 32x CD-ROM drive which uses a ball bearing system to balance the spinning CD-ROM in the drive to reduce noise. CD-ROM drives may connect to an {IDE} interface, a {SCSI} interface or a propritary interface, of which there are three - Sony, Panasonic, and Mitsumi. Most CD-ROM drives can also play audio CDs. There are several formats used for CD-ROM data, including {Green Book CD-ROM}, {White Book CD-ROM} and {Yellow Book CD-ROM}. {ISO 9660} defines a standard {file system}, later extended by {Joliet}. See also {Compact Disc Recordable}, {Digital Versatile Disc}. {Byte, February 1997 (http://byte.com/art/9702/sec17/art5.htm)}. (2006-09-25)

Compact Disc Recordable "storage" (CD-R) A write-once version of {CD-ROM}. CD-Rs can hold about 650 {megabytes} of data. They are very durable and can be read by normal CD-ROM drives, but once data has been written it cannot be altered. Standard prerecorded CDs have their information permanently stamped into an aluminium reflecting layer. CD-R discs have a dye-based recording layer and an additional golden reflecting layer. Digital information is written to the disc by burning (forming) pits in the recording layer in a pattern corresponding to that of a conventional CD. The laser beam heats the substrate and recording layer to approximately 250 C. The recording layer melts and the substrate expands into the space that becomes available. {Phillips: New Technologies (http://www-us.sv.philips.com/newtech/cdrewritable.html)}. See also {CD-RW} and {DVD-RAM}. (1999-08-01)

Compact Disc Rewritable "storage" (CD-RW) A rewritable version of {CD-ROM}. A CD-RW drive can write about 650 {megabytes} of data to CD-RW media an unlimited number of times. Most CD-RW drives can also write once to {CD-R} media. CD-RW media cannot be read by CD-ROM drives built prior to 1997 due to the reduced reflectivity (15% compared to 70%) of CD-RW media. CD-RW drives and media are currently (1999) more expensive than {CD-R} drives and media. CD-R is sometimes considered a better technology for archival purposes as the data cannot be accidentally modified or tampered with, and encourages better archival practices. Standard prerecorded CDs have their information permanently stamped into an aluminium reflecting layer. CD-WR discs have a phase-change recording layer and an additional silver (aluminium) reflecting layer. A laser beam can melt crystals in the recording layer into a non-crystalline amorphous phase or anneal them slowly at a lower temperature back to the crystalline state. The different reflectance of the areas make them appear as the 'pits' and 'lands' of a standard CD. {Phillips: New Technologies (http://www-us.sv.philips.com/newtech/cdrewritable.html)}. See also {CD-R} and {DVD-RAM}. (1999-08-01)

Compact Disc "storage" (CD) (Not "disk", this spelling is part of the standard). A 4.72 inch disc developed by {Sony} and {Philips} that can store, on the same disc, still and/or moving images in monochrome and/or color; stereo or two separate sound tracks integrated with and/or separate from the images; and digital program and information files. The same fabrication process is used to make both audio CDs and {CD-ROMs} for storing computer data, the only difference is in the device used to read the CD (the player or drive). {CD Information Center (http://cd-info.com/cd-info/CDInfoCenter.html)}. (1999-06-23)

Compact Disc writer "storage" (CD burner) A device that can write data to {Compact Disc Recordable} (CD-R) or {Compact Disc Rewritable} (CD-RW) discs. Now both these CD formats are often combined with a {DVD writer}. (2008-09-16)

Compas Pascal The predecessor of {Turbo Pascal}, sol by {POLY Data} of Denmark. It was later renamed POLY Pascal, and afterward sold to {Borland}. (1995-01-19)

compatible "jargon" Different systems (e.g., {programs}, {file formats}, {protocols}, even {programming languages}) that can work together or exchange data are said to be compatible. See also {backward compatible}, {forward compatible}. (1998-01-15)

compile time "programming" The period of time during which a program's {source code} is being translated into {machine code}, as opposed to {run time} when the program is being executed. As well as the work done by the {compiler}, this may include macro preprocessing as done by {cpp} for example. The final stage of program construction, performed by the {linker}, would generally also be classed as compile time but might be distinguished as {link time}. For example, {static data} in a {C} program is allocated at compile time whereas non-static data is allocated at {run time}, typically on the {stack}. (2004-09-28)

Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) A processor where each instruction can perform several low-level operations such as memory access, arithmetic operations or address calculations. The term was coined in contrast to {Reduced Instruction Set Computer}. Before the first RISC processors were designed, many computer architects were trying to bridge the "{semantic gap}" - to design {instruction sets} to support {high-level languages} by providing "high-level" instructions such as procedure call and return, loop instructions such as "decrement and branch if non-zero" and complex {addressing modes} to allow data structure and {array} accesses to be compiled into single instructions. While these architectures achieved their aim of allowing high-level language constructs to be expressed in fewer instructions, it was observed that they did not always result in improved performance. For example, on one processor it was discovered that it was possible to improve the performance by NOT using the procedure call instruction but using a sequence of simpler instructions instead. Furthermore, the more complex the instruction set, the greater the overhead of decoding an instruction, both in execution time and silicon area. This is particularly true for processors which used {microcode} to decode the (macro) instruction. It is easier to debug a complex instruction set implemented in microcode than one whose decoding is "{hard-wired}" in silicon. Examples of CISC processors are the {Motorola} {680x0} family and the {Intel 80186} through {Intel 486} and {Pentium}. (1994-10-10)

Complication: (Lat. com + plicatio, folded together) The union or act of combining more or less disparate elements into a single whole impression or idea. The term usually has reference to the synthesis of sense data in perceptions, or of perceptions in a unifying idea. -- O.F.K.

compound key "database" (Or "multi-part key", "concatenated key") A {key} which consists of more than one {attribute} of the body of information (e.g. database "{record}") it identifies. (1997-04-26)

compress 1. To feed data through any {compression} {algorithm}. 2. "tool" The {Unix} program "compress", now largely supplanted by {gzip}. Unix compress was written in {C} by Joseph M. Orost, James A. Woods et al., and was widely circulated via {Usenet}. It uses the {Lempel-Ziv Welch} {algorithm} and normally produces files with the suffix ".Z". Compress uses variable length codes. Initially, nine-bit codes are output until they are all used. When this occurs, ten-bit codes are used and so on, until an implementation-dependent maximum is reached. After every 10 {kilobytes} of input the compression ratio is checked. If it is decreasing then the entire string table is discarded and information is collected from scratch.

Compressed SLIP "networking" (CSLIP) {VanJacobsen TCP header compression}. A version of {SLIP} using {compression}. CSLIP has no effect on the data portion of the {packet} and has nothing to do with compression by {modem}. It does reduce the {TCP} header from 40 bytes to 7 bytes, a noticeable difference when doing {telnet} with lots of little packets. CSLIP has no effect on UDP, only TCP. (1995-05-28)

compression 1. "application" (Or "compaction") The coding of data to save storage space or transmission time. Although data is already coded in digital form for computer processing, it can often be coded more efficiently (using fewer bits). For example, {run-length encoding} replaces strings of repeated characters (or other units of data) with a single character and a count. There are many compression {algorithms} and utilities. Compressed data must be decompressed before it can be used. The standard {Unix} compression utilty is called {compress} though {GNU}'s superior {gzip} has largely replaced it. Other compression utilties include {pack}, {zip} and {PKZIP}. When compressing several similar files, it is usually better to join the files together into an {archive} of some kind (using {tar} for example) and then compress them, rather than to join together individually compressed files. This is because some common compression {algorithms} build up tables based on the data from their current input which they have already compressed. They then use this table to compress subsequent data more efficiently. See also {TIFF}, {JPEG}, {MPEG}, {Lempel-Ziv Welch}, "{lossy}", "{lossless}". {Compression FAQ (ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/compression-faq/)}. {Web Content Compression FAQ (http://perl.apache.org/docs/tutorials/client/compression/compression.html)}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:comp.compression}, {news:comp.compression.research}. 2. "multimedia" Reducing the dynamic range of an audio signal, making quiet sounds louder and loud sounds quieter. Thus, when discussing digital audio, the preferred term for reducing the total amount of data is "compaction". Some advocate this term in all contexts. (2004-04-26)

CompuServe Information Service "company" (CIS, CompuServe Interactive Services). An ISP and on-line service {portal} based in Columbus, Ohio, USA; part of {AOL} since February 1998. CIS was founded in 1969 as a computer {time-sharing service}. Along with {AOL} and {Prodigy}, CIS was one of the first pre-Internet, on-line services for consumers, providing {bulletin boards}, on-line conferencing, business news, sports and weather, financial transactions, {electronic mail}, {Usenet} news, travel and entertainment data and on-line editions of computer publications. CIS was originally run by {CompuServe Corporation}. In 1979, CompuServe was the first service to offer {electronic mail} and technical support to personal computer users. In 1980 they were the first to offer {real-time} {chat} with its CB Simulator. By 1982, the company had formed its Network Services Division to provide wide-area networking to corporate clients. Initially mostly serving the USA, in 1986 they developed a Japanese version called NIFTYSERVE. In 1989, they expanded into Europe and became a leading {Internet service provider}. In 2001 they released version 7.0 of their client program. {CompuServe home (http://compuserve.com/)}. (2009-04-02)

Computer-Aided Instruction "application, education" (CAI, or "- assisted", "- learning", CAL, Computer-Based Training CBT, "e-learning") The use of computers for education and training. The programs and data used in CAI, known as "courseware", may be supplied on media such as {CD-ROM} or delivered via a {network} which also enables centralised logging of student progress. CAI may constitute the whole or part of a course, may be done individually or in groups ("Computer Supported Collaborative Learning", CSCL), with or without human guidance. (2011-11-25)

computer "computer" A machine that can be programmed to manipulate symbols. Computers can perform complex and repetitive procedures quickly, precisely and reliably and can store and retrieve large amounts of data. Most computers in use today are electronic {digital computers} (as opposed to {analogue computers}). The physical components from which a computer is constructed are known as {hardware}, which can be of four types: {CPU}, {memory}, {input devices} and {output devices}. The CPU ({central processing unit}) executes {software} {programs} which tell the computer what to do. Input and output (I/O) devices allow the computer to communicate with the user and the outside world. There are many kinds of memory or storage - fast, expensive, short term memory (e.g. {RAM}) to hold intermediate results, and slower, cheaper, long-term memory (e.g. {magnetic disk} and {magnetic tape}) to hold programs and data that are not being used immediately. Computers today are often connected to a {network} (which may be part of the {Internet}). This allows them to be accessed from elsewhere and to exchange data with other computers. (2018-06-25)

Computer Telephone Integration "communications" (CTI or "- Telephony -") Enabling computers to know about and control telephony functions such as making and receiving voice, {fax} and data calls, telephone directory services and {caller identification}. CTI is used in call centres to link incoming calls to computer software functions such as database look-up of the caller's number, supported by services such as {Automatic Number Identification} and {Dialled Number Identification Service}. Application software ({middleware}) can link {personal computers} and servers with telephones and/or a {PBX}. Telephony and {software} vendors such as {AT&T}, {British Telecom}, {IBM}, {Novell}, {Microsoft} and {Intel} have developed CTI services. The main {CTI} functions are integrating {messaging} with {databases}, {word processors} etc.; controlling voice, {fax}, and {e-mail} messaging systems from a single {application program}; graphical call control - using a {graphical user interface} to perform functions such as making and receiving calls, forwarding and conferencing; call and {data} association - provision of information about the caller from databases or other applications automatically before the call is answered or transferred; {speech synthesis} and {speech recognition}; automatic logging of call related information for invoicing purposes or callback. CTI can improve customer service, increase productivity, reduce costs and enhance workflow automation. IBM were one of the first with workable CTI, now sold as "CallPath". {Callware}'s {Phonetastic} is another {middleware} product. CTI came out of the 1980s call centre boom, where it linked central servers and {IVRs} with {PBX}es to provide call transfer and {screen popping}. In the 1990s, efforts were made by several vendors, such as IBM, Novell {TSAPI} and Microsoft {TAPI}, to provide a version for {desktop computers} that would allow control of a desktop telephone and assist in {hot desking}. See also {Telephony Application Programming Interface}. (2012-11-18)

concentrator "communications" A device that combines the data streams from many simultaneously active inputs into one shared channel in such a way that the streams can be separated after transmission. The concentrator's output bandwidth must be at least as great as the total bandwidth of all simultaneously active inputs. A concentrator is one kind of {multiplexing} device. For example, a concentrator may be used to connect 24 2400 bps TTYs to a host via a 57600 bps channel. (2000-03-01)

conceptualisation "artificial intelligence" The process or result of listing the types of objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them. A conceptualisation is an {abstract}, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent. For example, we may conceptualise a family as the set of names, sexes and the relationships of the family members. Choosing a conceptualisation is the first stage of {knowledge representation}. A conceptualisation is a high-level {data model}. Every {knowledge base}, {knowledge-based system}, or {knowledge-level agent} is committed to some conceptualisation, explicitly or implicitly. (2013-04-17)

Concrete Data Structure "theory" (CDS) A model of programming language terms developed in the context of constructing fully {abstract semantics} for {sequential} languages. A CDS is a 4-tuple (C,V,E,|-) where C is a cell, V is a value, E is an event and |- is an "enabling relation". An event is a cell and a value. A cell C is "enabled" by a set of events S if S |- C. A state is a set of events which are consistent in that the values they give for any cell are all equal. Every cell in a state is enabled. [G. Berry, P.-L. Curien, "Theory and practice of sequential algorithms: the kernel of applicative language CDS", Algebraic methods in semantics, CUP 1985]. (1994-11-30)

concrete syntax "language, data" The {syntax} of a language including all the features visible in the {source code} such as {parentheses} and {delimiters}. The concrete syntax is used when {parsing} the program or other input, during which it is usually converted into some kind of {abstract syntax tree} (conforming to an {abstract syntax}). In communications, concrete syntax is called {transfer syntax}. (1997-07-21)

Conference On DAta SYstems Languages "body, data processing" (CODASYL) A consortium that developed {database models} and standard {database} extensions for {COBOL}. CODASYL was formed in 1959 to guide the development of a {standard} {programming language} that could be used on many computers. Members came from industry and government {data processing} departments. Its goal was to promote more effective data {systems analysis}, design and implementation. It published specifications for various languages over the years, handing these over to official standards bodies ({ISO}, {ANSI} or their predecessors) for formal standardisation. The 1965 List Processing Task Force worked on the {IDS/I} database extension. It later renamed itself to the Data Base Task Group (DBTG) and publishing the Codasyl Data Model, the first to allow one-to-many {relations}. This work also introduced {data definition languages} (DDLs) to define the {database schema} and a {data manipulation language} (DML) to be embedded in COBOL programs to request and update data in the database. Interest in CODASYL declined with the rise of {relational databases} beginning in the early 1980s. (2013-12-29)

Conferencing over IP "communications, standard" (CoIP) Standards for the transmission of {multimedia} over the {Internet}. CoIP extends {VoIP} (voice over Internet Protocol) with {text}, {images}, {video}. The main CoIP standard is based on {H.323}. The VoIP forum of the {IMTC} merged with the {H.323} Activity Group in January 1999 to form the Conferencing over IP (CoIP) Activity Group. VoIP uses "VoIP Devices" as {gateways} to {route} voice data {packets} over the Internet or {PSTN}. {Protocols} such as {SGCP} and its successor {MGCP} extend VoIP to handle media other than voice data. (2013-12-29)

conflation "database" Combining or blending of two or more versions of a text; confusion or mixing up. Conflation {algorithms} are used in {databases}. [Any specific technical meaning?] (1996-04-14)

congestion "communications" The condition that arises when the amount of data that senders want to send down a communication channel exceeds its {capacity}. Typically this will result in some {packets} being delayed, thus increasing the average {latency}. (2014-05-04)

connectionless protocol "protocol" The data communication method in which communication occurs between {hosts} with no previous setup. {Packets} sent between two hosts may take different routes. {UDP} is a connectionless protocol. Also called {packet switching}. Contrast {circuit switching}, {connection-oriented}. (2014-05-04)

Connection Machine LISP "language" {Lisp} with a parallel data structure, the 'xapping', an array of values assigned to an {array} of sites. [G.L. Steele et al, "Connection Machine LISP: Fine-Grained Parallel Symbolic Processing", in Proc 1986 ACM Conf on LISP and Functional Prog, Aug 1986, pp.279-297]. ["Connection Machine LISP Reference Manual", Thinking Machines Corp, Feb 1987]. (1995-02-28)

connection-oriented "networking" (Or connection-based, stream-oriented). A type of {transport layer} data communication service that allows a {host} to send data in a continuous stream to another host. The transport service will guarantee that all data will be delivered to the other end in the same order as sent and without duplication. Communication proceeds through three well-defined phases: connection establishment, data transfer, connection release. The most common example is {Transmission Control Protocol} (TCP), another is {ATM}. The network nodes at either end needs to inform all intermediate nodes about their service requirements and traffic parameters in order to establish communication. Opposite of {connectionless}, {datagram}. See also {circuit switching}, {packet switching}, {virtual circuit}. (2014-11-27)

CONNIVER "language" An {artificial intelligence} {programming language} for {automatic theorem proving} from {MIT}. CONNIVER grew out of {PLANNER} and was based on {coroutines} rather than {backtracking}. It allowed multiple database contexts with hypothetical assertions. ["The CONNIVER Reference Manual", D. McDermott & G.J. Sussman "gjs@zurich.ai.mit.edu", AI Memo 259, MIT AI Lab, 1973]. (1995-01-10)

Consortium for Lexical Research "body" (CLR) A repository for {natural language processing} software, {lexical} data, tools and resources; set up in July 1991 in the Computing Research Laboratory of {New Mexico State University}, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. CLR maintained a public {FTP} {archive site} and a separate members-only library. As of 1994-02-01, CLR had about 60 members, mostly academic institutions, including most US natural language processing centres. Materials could be contributed in exchange for membership. In 2006, the CRL closed down due to lack of funding. The CLR FTP server and e-mail address seems to have disappeared with it. [{The Consortium for Lexical Research, Y. Wilks, Principal Investigator, Computing Research Laboratory, New Mexico State University (http://clair.eecs.umich.edu/aan/paper.php?paper_id=H92-1114)}]. (2014-07-06)

constant angular velocity "storage" (CAV) One of the two schemes for controlling the rate of rotation of the disk in a {disk drive}. Constant {angular velocity} keeps the rate of rotation constant. This means that the {linear velocity} of the disk under the head is larger when reading or writing the outer {tracks}. This in turn implies either a variation in the data rate to and from the heads or the bits per unit length along the track. The alternative, {constant linear velocity}, requires the rate of rotation of the disk to accelerate and decelerate according to the radial postion of the heads, increasing the energy use and vibration. (2014-07-16)

constant linear velocity "storage" (CLV) A way of controlling the rotation of the {disks} in a {disk drive} in which the {linear velocity} of the disk surface relative to the {read/write heads} is kept constant. In order to achieve constant linear velocity, the disk must rotate faster (at a higher {angular velocity}) when reading or writing tracks closer to the centre. Having a constant linear read/write speed along the track means that the electrical signal to and from the heads has a constant {data rate} (bits per second), thus simplifying the timing of the drive electronics somewhat. However, rotating at less than the maximum possible rate sacrifices some potential performance compared to the alternative, {constant angular velocity}. Also, varying the rate causes more vibration and consumes more energy. (2014-07-27)

Construction, Psychological: (In contrast to Logical) A framework devised by the common-sense, scientific or philosophical imagination for the integration of diverse empirical data. In contrast to an hypothesis, a construction is not an inference from experience but is an arbitrary scheme which, though presumably not a true picture of the actual state of affairs, satisfies the human imagination and promotes further investigation. Perceptual objects, space and time, physical atoms, electrons, etc. as well as philosophical world-views, have by certain philosophers been called logical constructs. (Cf. B. Russell, Our Knowledge of the External World, Ch. IV.) -- L.W.

Content of Consciousness: (Lat. contentus from continere, to contain) The totality of qualitative data present to consciousness in contrast to the act of apprehending such data. See Act Psychology; Datum. -- L.W.

Correlated Sample ::: Sample data that is related to each other.

Correlation, Sensory: (Lat. co + relatus, related) Correspondences between data of different senses, especially visual and tactual, by which the apprehension of perceptual objects is effected. Intersensory correlations depend upon the co-appearance rather than the comparison of data of different senses. -- L.W.

Creative Theory of Perception: The creative theory, in opposition to the selective theory, asserts that the data of sense are created or constituted by the act of perception and do not exist except at the time and under the conditions of actual perception, (cf. C. D. Broad, The Mind and its Place in Nature, pp. 200 ff.) See Selective Theory of Perception. The theories of perception of Descartes, Locke, Leibniz and Berkeley are historical examples of creative theories, Russell (Problems of Philosophy, Ch. II and III) and the majority of the American critical realists defend creative theories. -- L.W.

(c) The relation between psychology and epistemology is particularly intimate since the cognitive processes of perception, memory, imagination, conception and reasoning, investigated by empirical psychology are the very processes which, in quite a different context, are the special subject matter of epistemology. Nevertheless the psychological and epistemological treatments of the cognitive processes of mind are radically different: scientific psychology is concerned solely with the description and explanation of conscious processes, e.g. particular acts of perception, in the context of other conscious events; epistemology is interested in the cognitive pretentions of the perceptions, i.e. their apparent reference to external objects. In short, whereas psychology is the investigation of all states of mind including the cognitive in the context of the mental life, epistemology investigates only cognitive states and these solely with respect to their cognitive import. Psychology and epistemology are by virtue of the partial identity of their subject matter interdependent sciences. The psychology of perception, memory, imagination, conception, etc. affords indispensable data for epistemological interpretation and on the other hand epistemological analysis of the cognitive processes may sometimea prove psychologically suggestive. The epistemologist must, however, guard against a particularly insidious form of the genetic fallacy: viz. the supposition that the psychological origin of an item of knowledge prejudices either favorably or unfavorably its cognitive validity -- a fallacy which is psychologism at its worst.

Darwin, Charles: (1809-1882) The great English naturalist who gathered masses of data on the famous voyage of the Beagle and then spent twenty additional years shaping his pronouncement of an evolutionary hypothesis in The Origin of Species, published in 1859. He was not the first to advance the idea of the kinship of all life but is memorable as the expositor of a provocative and simple explanation in his theory of natural selection. He served to establish firmly in all scientific minds the fact of evolution even if there remains doubt as to the precise method or methods of evolution. From his premises, he elaborated a subsidiary doctrine of sexual selection. In addition to the biological explanations, there appear some keen observations and conclusions for ethics particularly in his later Descent of Man. Evolution, since his day, has been of moment in all fields of thought. See Evolutionism, Natural Selection, Struggle for Existence. -- L.E.D.

dateless ::: 1. Endless, limitless. 2. So old as to be undatable.

delved ::: carried an intensive and thorough research for data, information, or the like; investigated. delves.

derivable ::: a. --> That can be derived; obtainable by transmission; capable of being known by inference, as from premises or data; capable of being traced, as from a radical; as, income is derivable from various sources.

D. Interpretations of Probability. The methods and results of mathematical probability (and of probability in general) are the subject of much controversy as regards their interpretation and value. Among the various theories proposed, we shall consider the following Probability as a measure of belief, probability as the relative frequency of events, probability as the truth-frequency of types of argument, probability as a primitive notion, probability as an operational concept, probability as a limit of frequencies, and probability as a physical magnitude determined by axioms. I. Probability as a Measure of Belief: According to this theory, probability is the measure or relative degree of rational credence to be attached to facts or statements on the strength of valid motives. This type of probability is sometimes difficult to estimate, as it may be qualitative as well as quantitative. When considered in its mathematical aspects, the measure of probable inference depends on the preponderance or failure of operative causes or observed occurrences of the case under investigation. This conception involves axioms leading to the classic rule of Laplace, namely: The measure of probability of any one of mutually exclusive and apriori equiprobable possibilities, is the ratio of the number of favorable possibilities to the total number of possibilities. In probability operations, this rule is taken as the definition of direct probability for those cases where it is applicable. The main objections against this interpretation are: that probability is largely subjective, or at least independent of direct experience; that equiprobability is taken as an apriori notion, although the ways of asserting it are empirical; that the conditions of valid equiprobability are not stated definitely; that equiprobability is difficult to determine actually in all cases; that it is difficult to attach an adequate probability to a complex event from the mere knowledge of the probabilities of its component parts, and that the notion of probability is not general, as it does not cover such cases as the inductive derivation of probabilities from statistical data. II. Probability as a Relative Frequency. This interpretation is based on the nature of events, and not on any subjective considerations. It deals with the rate with which an event will occur in a class of events. Hence, it considers probability as the ratio of frequency of true results to true conditions, and it gives as its measure the relative frequency leading from true conditions to true results. What is meant when a set of calculations predict that an experiment will yield a result A with probability P, is that the relative frequency of A is expected to approximate the number P in a long series of such experiments. This conception seems to be more concerned with empirical probabilities, because the calculations assumed are mostly based on statistical data or material assumptions suggested by past experiments. It is valuable in so far as it satisfies the practical necessity of considering probability aggregates in such problems. The main objections against this interpretation are: that it does not seem capable of expressing satisfactorily what is meant by the probability of an event being true; that its conclusions are more or less probable, owing to the difficulty of defining a proper standard for comparing ratios; that neither its rational nor its statistical evidence is made clear; that the degree of relevance of that evidence is not properly determined, on account of the theoretical indefinite ness of both the true numerical value of the probability and of the evidence assumed, and that it is operational in form only, but not in fact, because it involves the infinite without proper limitations. III. Probability as Truth-Frequency of Types of Arguments: In this interpretation, which is due mainly to Peirce and Venn, probability is shifted from the events to the propositions about them; instead of considering types and classes of events, it considers types and classes of propositions. Probability is thus the ability to give an objective reading to the relative tiuth of propositions dealing with singular events. This ability can be used successfully in interpreting definite and indefinite numerical probabilities, by taking statistical evaluations and making appropriate verbal changes in their formulation. Once assessed, the relative truth of the propositions considered can be communicated to facts expressed by these propositions. But neither the propositions nor the facts as such have a probability in themselves. With these assumptions, a proposition has a degree of probability, only if it is considered as a member of a class of propositions; and that degree is expressed by the proportion of true propositions to the total number of propositions in the class. Hence, probability is the ratio of true propositions to all the propositions of the class examined, if the class is finite, or to all the propositions of the same type in the long run, if the class is infinite. In the first case, fair sampling may cover the restrictions of a finite class; in the second case, the use of infinite series offers a practical limitation for the evidence considered. But in both cases, probability varies with the class or type chosen, and probability-inferences are limited by convention to those cases where numerical values can be assigned to the ratios considered. It will be observed that this interpretation of probability is similar to the relative frequency theory. The difference between these two theories is more formal than material in both cases the probability refers ultimately to kinds of evidence based on objective matter of fact. Hence the Truth-Frequency theory is open to the sime objections as the Relative-Frequency theory, with proper adjustments. An additional difficulty of this theory is that the pragmatic interpretation of truth it involves, has yet to be proved, and the situation is anything but improved by assimilating truth with probability.

Disjunctive syllogism: See Logic, formal, § 2. Disparate: (Lat. dis + par. equal) (a) In psychology and epistemology: a term descriptive of the qualitative heterogeneity between sensations of different senses. Sensations of the same sense (e.g. a red and a green color patch) are dissimilar (see Similarity; Resemblance), sensations of different senses (e.g. a red patch and a cold surface) are disparate. The criterion of psychological disparity between two sensations is the absence of intermediate sensations by which it is possible to pass continuously from the one to the other. (Wundt, Physiol. Psychol., 4th ed., I, 286.) The disparity of the fields the several senses divides them into so many watertight compartments and thus raise the epistemological problem of correlation between the disparate data of different senses. See Correlation.

Economy: An aspect of the scientific methodology of Ernst Mach (Die Analyse der Empfindungen, 5th ed., Jena, 1906); science and philosophy utilize ideas and laws which are not reproductive of sense data as such, but are simplified expressions of the functional relations discovered in the manifold of sense perceptions. -- V.J.B.

Empiricism: (1) A proposition about the sources of knowledge: that the sole source of knowledge is experience, or that either no knowledge at all or no knowledge with existential reference is possible independently of experience. Experience (q.v.) may be understood as either all conscious content, data of the senses only, or other designated content. Such empiricism may take the form of denial that any knowledge or at least knowledge about existents can be obtained a priori (q.v.), that is, denial that there are universal and necessary truths, denial that there is knowledge which holds regardless of past, present, or future experience; denial that there is instinctive, innate, or inborn knowledge; denial that the test of truth is clarity to natural reason or self-evidence, denial that one can gain certain knowledge by finding something the opposite of which is inconceivable; denial thit there are any necessary presuppositions of all knowledge or of anything known certainly, denial that any truths can be established by the fact that to deny them implies their reaffirmation; or denial that conventional or aibitrary definitions or assumptions yield knowledge.

empiristic ::: a. --> Relating to, or resulting from, experience, or experiment; following from empirical methods or data; -- opposed to nativistic.

ephemeris ::: n. --> A diary; a journal.

A publication giving the computed places of the heavenly bodies for each day of the year, with other numerical data, for the use of the astronomer and navigator; an astronomical almanac; as, the "American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac."
Any tabular statement of the assigned places of a heavenly body, as a planet or comet, on several successive days.
A collective name for reviews, magazines, and all kinds


Epistemological Monism: Theory that non-inferential knowledge, (perception, memory, etc.) the object of knowledge, (the thing perceived or remembered) is numerically identical with the data of knowledge (sense data, memory images, etc.). Epistemological monism may be either (a) epistemologically realistic, when it asserts that the data exist independently of the knowing mind, or (b) epistemologically idealistic when it asserts the data to be mind constituted and to exist only when apprehended by the mind. See Epistemological Dualism, Epistemological Idealism and Epistemological Realism. -- L.W.

Error Level ::: The level of accepted error within a given set of data. The greater the error level, the wider the confidence interval.

Esthesis: (Gr. aisthesis, sensation or feeling, from aisthanesthai, to perceive) A state of pure feeling -- sensuous, hedonic or affective -- characterized by the absence of conceptual and interpretational elements. Aesthesis at the sensory level consists of pure sense data. See Sense datum. Though the existence of pure esthesis is challenged by most psychologists and epistemologists (see C. I. Lewis, Mind and the World Order, pp. 54-5); a state of mind approximates pure esthesis when the conceptual, interpretative and constructional elements are reduced to a minimum. -- L.W.

Estimate ::: An idea about a characteristic of a population based on sample data (e.g., the sample mean IQ was 102 so we estimate that the population mean IQ is also 102)

estimate ::: v. t. --> To judge and form an opinion of the value of, from imperfect data, -- either the extrinsic (money), or intrinsic (moral), value; to fix the worth of roughly or in a general way; as, to estimate the value of goods or land; to estimate the worth or talents of a person.
To from an opinion of, as to amount,, number, etc., from imperfect data, comparison, or experience; to make an estimate of; to calculate roughly; to rate; as, to estimate the cost of a trip, the


estimation ::: v. t. --> The act of estimating.
An opinion or judgment of the worth, extent, or quantity of anything, formed without using precise data; valuation; as, estimations of distance, magnitude, amount, or moral qualities.
Favorable opinion; esteem; regard; honor.
Supposition; conjecture.


(e) The problem of the A PRIORI, though the especial concern of the rationalist, confronts the empiricist also since few epistemologists are prepared to exclude the a priori entirely from their accounts of knowledge. The problem is that of isolating the a priori or non-empirical elements in knowledge and accounting for them in terms of the human reason. Three principal theories of the a priori have been advanced: the theory of the intrinsic A PRIORI which asserts that the basic principles of logic, mathematics, natural sciences and philosophy are self-evident truths recognizable by such intrinsic traits as clarity and distinctness of ideas. The intrinsic theory received its definitive modern expression in the theory of "innate ideas" (q.v.) of Herbert of Cherbury, Descartes, and 17th century rationalism. The presuppositional theory of the a priori which validates a priori truths by demonstrating that they are presupposed either by their attempted denial (Leibniz) or by the very possibility of experience (Kant). The postulational theory of the A PRIORI elaborated under the influence of recent postulational techniques in mathematics, interprets a priori principles as rules or postulates arbitrarily posited in the construction of formal deductive systems. See Postulate; Posit. (f) The problem of differentiating the principal kinds of knowledge is an essential task especially for an empirical epistemology. Perhaps the most elementary epistemological distinction is between non-inferential apprehension of objects by perception, memory, etc. (see Knowledge by Acquaintance), and inferential knowledge of things with which the knowing subject has no direct apprehension. See Knowledge by Description. Acquaintance in turn assumes two principal forms: perception or acquaintance with external objects (see Perception), and introspection or the subject's acquaintance with the "self" and its cognitive, volitional and affective states. See Introspection; Reflection. Inferential knowledge includes knowledge of other selves (this is not to deny that knowledge of other minds may at times be immediate and non-inferential), historical knowledge, including not only history in the narrower sense but also astronomical, biological, anthropological and archaeological and even cosmological reconstructions of the past and finally scientific knowledge in so far as it involves inference and construction from observational data.

Evolutionary ethics: Any ethical theory in which the doctrine of evolution plays a leading role, as explaining the origin of the moral sense, and, more especially, as contributing importantly to the determination of the moral standard, e.g. the ethics of Charles Darwin, H. Spencer, L. Stephen. Typical moral standards set up by evolutionists are adaptation, conduciveness to life, social health. Cf. H. Spencer, The Data of Ethics. -- W.K.F.

Existential import: See Logic, formal, § 4. Existential Philosophy: Determines the worth of knowledge not in relation to truth but according to its biological value contained in the pure data of consciousness when unaffected by emotions, volitions, and social prejudices. Both the source and the elements of knowledge are sensations as they "exist" in our consciousness. There is no difference between the external and internal world, as there is no natural phenomenon which could not be examined psychologically, it all has its "existence" in states of the mind. See Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Jaspers.

Experimental Psychology: (1) Experimental psychology in the widest sense is the application to psychology of the experimental methods evolved by the natural sciences. In this sense virtually the whole of contemporary psychology is experimental. The experimental method consists essentially in the prearrangement and control of conditions in such a way as to isolate specific variables. In psychology, the complexity of subject matter is such that direct isolation of variables is impossible and various indirect methods are resorted to. Thus an experiment will be repeated on the same subjects with all conditions remaining constant except the one variable whose influence is being tested and which is varied systematically by the experimenter. This procedure yields control data within a single group of subjects. If repetition of the experiment with the same group introduces additional uncontrolled variables, an equated control group is employed. Systematic rotation of variables among several groups of subjects may also be resorted to. In general, however, psychologists have designed their experiments in accordance with what has frequently been called the "principle of the one variable."

Externalization: (Lat. externus, external from exter, without) The mental act by which sensory data originally considered to be internal arc projected into the external world. See Introjection. The problem of externalization was formulated by Condillac in these words: "If one admits that sensations are only modifications of the mind, how does it come about that the mind apprehends them as objects independent of and external to it." Traite de sensations, Part III. -- L.W.

External Reference: The tendency of the mind to objectify sensory data and construe them as referring to a real external world. See Intentionality. -- L.W.

External Validity ::: The extent to which the data collected from a sample can be generalized to the entire population.

Factor Analysis ::: A statistical technique used to determine the number of components in a set of data.  These components are then named according to their characteristics allowing a researcher to break down information into statistical groups.

feudataty ::: a. & n. --> See Feudatory.

Generalization, rule of: See Logic, formal, § 3. Generative Theory of Data: (Lat. generatus, pp. of generare, to beget) Theory of sense perception asserting that sense data or sensa are generated by the percipient organism or by the mind and thus exist only under the conditions of actual perception. The Theory which is common to subjective idealism and representational realism is opposed to the Selective Theory of Data. See Representationism, Selective theory of Data. -- L.W.

hawthorn ::: n. --> A thorny shrub or tree (the Crataegus oxyacantha), having deeply lobed, shining leaves, small, roselike, fragrant flowers, and a fruit called haw. It is much used in Europe for hedges, and for standards in gardens. The American hawthorn is Crataegus cordata, which has the leaves but little lobed.

If the term "experimental" is broadly understood as implying a general mode of inquiry based on observation and the tentative application of hypotheses to particular cases, it includes many studies in aesthetics which avoid quantitative measurement and laboratory procedure. The full application of scientific method is still commonly regarded as impossible or unfruitful in dealing with the more subtle and complex phenomena of art. But the progress of aesthetics toward scientific status is being slowly made, through increasing use of an objective and logical approach instead of a dogmatic or personal one, and through bringing the results of other sciences to bear on aesthetic problems. Recent years have seen a vast increase in the amount and variety of artistic data available for the aesthetician, as a result of anthropological and archeological research and excavation, diversified museum collections, improved reproductions, translations, and phonograph records. -- T.M.

Illusion: (Lat. in + ludere, to play) An illusion of sense is an erroneous perception arising from a misinterpretation of data of sense because they are produced under unusual conditions of perception, physical, physiological or psychological. Illusion contrasts with hallucination in which the sensuous ingredients are totally absent. See Delusion; Hallucination. -- L.W.

Independent Samples ::: Sample data that is independent or not related to each other.

Internal Validity ::: A measure of the trustworthiness of a sample of data. Internal validity looks at the subject, testing, and environment in which the data collection took place.

intuition ::: direct perception of truth, fact, etc., independent of any reasoning process. intuition"s, intuitions, half-intuition.

Sri Aurobindo: "Intuition is a power of consciousness nearer and more intimate to the original knowledge by identity; for it is always something that leaps out direct from a concealed identity. It is when the consciousness of the subject meets with the consciousness in the object, penetrates it and sees, feels or vibrates with the truth of what it contacts, that the intuition leaps out like a spark or lightning-flash from the shock of the meeting; or when the consciousness, even without any such meeting, looks into itself and feels directly and intimately the truth or the truths that are there or so contacts the hidden forces behind appearances, then also there is the outbreak of an intuitive light; or, again, when the consciousness meets the Supreme Reality or the spiritual reality of things and beings and has a contactual union with it, then the spark, the flash or the blaze of intimate truth-perception is lit in its depths. This close perception is more than sight, more than conception: it is the result of a penetrating and revealing touch which carries in it sight and conception as part of itself or as its natural consequence. A concealed or slumbering identity, not yet recovering itself, still remembers or conveys by the intuition its own contents and the intimacy of its self-feeling and self-vision of things, its light of truth, its overwhelming and automatic certitude.” *The Life Divine

   "Intuition is always an edge or ray or outleap of a superior light; it is in us a projecting blade, edge or point of a far-off supermind light entering into and modified by some intermediate truth-mind substance above us and, so modified, again entering into and very much blinded by our ordinary or ignorant mind-substance; but on that higher level to which it is native its light is unmixed and therefore entirely and purely veridical, and its rays are not separated but connected or massed together in a play of waves of what might almost be called in the Sanskrit poetic figure a sea or mass of ``stable lightnings"". When this original or native Intuition begins to descend into us in answer to an ascension of our consciousness to its level or as a result of our finding of a clear way of communication with it, it may continue to come as a play of lightning-flashes, isolated or in constant action; but at this stage the judgment of reason becomes quite inapplicable, it can only act as an observer or registrar understanding or recording the more luminous intimations, judgments and discriminations of the higher power. To complete or verify an isolated intuition or discriminate its nature, its application, its limitations, the receiving consciousness must rely on another completing intuition or be able to call down a massed intuition capable of putting all in place. For once the process of the change has begun, a complete transmutation of the stuff and activities of the mind into the substance, form and power of Intuition is imperative; until then, so long as the process of consciousness depends upon the lower intelligence serving or helping out or using the intuition, the result can only be a survival of the mixed Knowledge-Ignorance uplifted or relieved by a higher light and force acting in its parts of Knowledge.” *The Life Divine

  "I use the word ‘intuition" for want of a better. In truth, it is a makeshift and inadequate to the connotation demanded of it. The same has to be said of the word ‘consciousness" and many others which our poverty compels us to extend illegitimately in their significance.” *The Life Divine - Sri Aurobindo"s footnote.

"For intuition is an edge of light thrust out by the secret Supermind. . . .” The Life Divine

". . . intuition is born of a direct awareness while intellect is an indirect action of a knowledge which constructs itself with difficulty out of the unknown from signs and indications and gathered data.” The Life Divine

"Intuition is above illumined Mind which is simply higher Mind raised to a great luminosity and more open to modified forms of intuition and inspiration.” Letters on Yoga

"Intuition sees the truth of things by a direct inner contact, not like the ordinary mental intelligence by seeking and reaching out for indirect contacts through the senses etc. But the limitation of the Intuition as compared with the supermind is that it sees things by flashes, point by point, not as a whole. Also in coming into the mind it gets mixed with the mental movement and forms a kind of intuitive mind activity which is not the pure truth, but something in between the higher Truth and the mental seeking. It can lead the consciousness through a sort of transitional stage and that is practically its function.” Letters on Yoga


“… intuition is born of a direct awareness while intellect is an indirect action of a knowledge which constructs itself with difficulty out of the unknown from signs and indications and gathered data.” The Life Divine

It is in his biology that the distinctive concepts of Aristotle show to best advantage. The conception of process as the actualization of determinate potentiality is well adapted to the comprehension of biological phenomena, where the immanent teleology of structure and function is almost a part of the observed facts. It is here also that the persistence of the form, or species, through a succession of individuals is most strikingly evident. His psychology is scarcely separable from his biology, since for Aristotle (as for Greek thought generally) the soul is the principle of life; it is "the primary actualization of a natural organic body." But souls differ from one another in the variety and complexity of the functions they exercise, and this difference in turn corresponds to differences in the organic structures involved. Fundamental to all other physical activities are the functions of nutrition, growth and reproduction, which are possessed by all living beings, plants as well as animals. Next come sensation, desire, and locomotion, exhibited in animals in varying degrees. Above all are deliberative choice and theoretical inquiry, the exercise of which makes the rational soul, peculiar to man among the animals. Aristotle devotes special attention to the various activities of the rational soul. Sense perception is the faculty of receiving the sensible form of outward objects without their matter. Besides the five senses Aristotle posits a "common sense," which enables the rational soul to unite the data of the separate senses into a single object, and which also accounts for the soul's awareness of these very activities of perception and of its other states. Reason is the faculty of apprehending the universals and first principles involved in all knowledge, and while helpless without sense perception it is not limited to the concrete and sensuous, but can grasp the universal and the ideal. The reason thus described as apprehending the intelligible world is in one difficult passage characterized as passive reason, requiring for its actualization a higher informing reason as the source of all intelligibility in things and of realized intelligence in man.

::: **"It is therefore necessary from the beginning to understand and accept the arduous difficulty of the path and to feel the need of a faith which to the intellect may seem blind, but yet is wiser than our reasoning intelligence. For this faith is a support from above; it is the brilliant shadow thrown by a secret light that exceeds the intellect and its data; it is the heart of a hidden knowledge that is not at the mercy of immediate appearances.” The Synthesis of Yoga

“It is therefore necessary from the beginning to understand and accept the arduous difficulty of the path and to feel the need of a faith which to the intellect may seem blind, but yet is wiser than our reasoning intelligence. For this faith is a support from above; it is the brilliant shadow thrown by a secret light that exceeds the intellect and its data; it is the heart of a hidden knowledge that is not at the mercy of immediate appearances.” The Synthesis of Yoga

Locke, John: (1632-1714) The first great British empiricist, denied the existence of innate ideas, categories, and moral principles. The mind at birth is a tabula rasa. Its whole content is derived from sense-experience, and constructed by reflection upon sensible data. Reflection is effected through memory and its attendant activities of contemplation, distinction, comparison in point of likeness and difference, and imaginative recompositon. Even the most abstract notions and ideas, like infinity, power, cause and effect, substance and identity, which seemingly are not given by experience, are no exceptions to the rule. Thus "infinity" confesses our inability to limit in fact or imagination the spatial and temporal extension of sense-experience; "substance," to perceive or understand why qualities congregate in separate clumps; "power" and "cause and effect," to perceive or understand why and how these clumps follow, and seemingly produce one another as they do, or for that matter, how our volitions "produce" the movements that put them into effect. Incidentally, Locke defines freedom as liberty, not of choice, which is always sufficiently motivated, but of action in accordance with choice. "Identity" of things, Locke derives from spatial and temporal continuity of the content of clumps of sensations; of structure, from continuity of arrangement in changing content; of person, from continuity of consciousness through memory, which, incidentally, permits of alternating personalities in the same body or of the transference of the same personality from one body to another.

mandatary ::: n. --> One to whom a command or charge is given; hence, specifically, a person to whom the pope has, by his prerogative, given a mandate or order for his benefice.
One who undertakes to discharge a specific business commission; a mandatory.


mandatory ::: a. --> Containing a command; preceptive; directory. ::: n. --> Same as Mandatary.

Measurement, Scales of ::: Categories of data based on their numerical characteristics (See Ratio, Interval, Ordinal, and Nominal Scales)

mensuration ::: n. --> The act, process, or art, of measuring.
That branch of applied geometry which gives rules for finding the length of lines, the areas of surfaces, or the volumes of solids, from certain simple data of lines and angles.


Mental: (Lat. mens, mind) Pertaining to the mind either in its functional aspect (perceiving, imagining, remembering, feeling, willing, etc.) or in its contential aspects (sense data, images and other contents existing "in" the mind). See Mind. -- L.W.

Mind acts by representations and constructions, by the separa- tion and weaving together of its constructed data ; it can make a synthetic constnietlon and see it as a whole, but when it looks for the reality of things, it takes refuge in abstractions — it has not the concrete vision, experience, contact sought by the mystic and the spiritual seeker. To know Self and Reality directly or truly, It has to be silent and reflect some light of these things or undergo self-exceeding and Iransfonnation, and this is only possible either by a higher Light descending into it or by its ascent, the taking up or immcrgcncc of it into a higher Light of e^tence.

mind, physical ::: Sri Aurobindo: "The physical mind is that part of the mind which is concerned with the physical things only — it depends on the sense-mind, sees only objects, external actions, draws its ideas from the data given by external things, infers from them only and knows no other Truth until it is enlightened from above.” *Letters on Yoga

Missing definition "introduction" First, this is an (English language) __computing__ dictionary. It includes lots of terms from related fields such as mathematics and electronics, but if you're looking for (or want to submit) words from other subjects or general English words or other languages, try {(http://wikipedia.org/)}, {(http://onelook.com/)}, {(http://yourdictionary.com/)}, {(http://www.dictionarist.com/)} or {(http://reference.allrefer.com/)}. If you've already searched the dictionary for a computing term and it's not here then please __don't tell me__. There are, and always will be, a great many missing terms, no dictionary is ever complete. I use my limited time to process the corrections and definitions people have submitted and to add the {most frequently requested missing terms (missing.html)}. Try one of the sources mentioned above or {(http://techweb.com/encyclopedia/)}, {(http://whatis.techtarget.com/)} or {(http://google.com/)}. See {the Help page (help.html)} for more about missing definitions and bad cross-references. (2014-09-20)! {exclamation mark}!!!Batch "language, humour" A daft way of obfuscating text strings by encoding each character as a different number of {exclamation marks} surrounded by {question marks}, e.g. "d" is encoded as "?!!!!?". The language is named after the {MSDOS} {batch file} in which the first converter was written. {esoteric programming languages} {wiki entry (http://esolangs.org/wiki/!!!Batch)}. (2014-10-25)" {double quote}

nih.sabdata (nihshabdata) ::: absence of sound.

niratisayapremaspadatvam anandatattvam ::: [the status of divine delight (ananda) is that in which is experienced the union of utter love].

Nonparametric Test ::: Any statistic that is designed for ordinal or nominal data or data that is not normally distributed

Normal Distribution ::: The scores of a sample or population that, when graphed, fall on or close to a normal curve. A normal distribution is often ideal in research because the data can then be said to have all of the characteristics of a normal curve.

N ::: Symbol used for the number of subjects or data in a distribution. A study with 10 subjects would have an N equal to 10.

Null Hypothesis ::: The hypothesis that states there is no difference between two or more sets of data.

Ordered Array ::: A table consisting of data in order of highest to lowest or lowest to highest where each data is given a numbered rank depicting it&

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation ::: A correlation statistic used primarily for two sets of data that are of the ratio or interval scale. The most commonly used correlational technique.

pedata ::: n. pl. --> An order of holothurians, including those that have ambulacral suckers, or feet, and an internal gill.

Percepts: The abbreviation for perceptual data. Perfectibility: The optimistic belief in the ability of man to attain an eventual complete realization of his moral possibilities. Opposed to the various philosophies and theologies of moral pessimism (e.g., the sinfulness and moral impotence of man, original sin, in Augustinianism, Lutheranism, Barthianism, et al.) -- V.F.

PHYSICAL MIND. ::: That part of the mind which is concerned with the physical things only ; it depends on the sense-mind, sees only objects, exiemol actions, draws its ideas from the data given by external things, infers from them only and knows no other Truth until it is enlightened from above.

pour les traduire synthétiquement [French] ::: when the mind gathers the data and makes its language supple enough to translate them synthetically.

Power ::: The strength or the data to find a difference when there truly is a difference. Power is abbreviated with the capital Greek letter beta (b).

Pragmatism is first and always a doctrine of meaning, and often a definition of truth as well, but as to the latter, not all pragmatists are in complete agreement. Neither Peirce nor Dewey, for example, would accept James' view that if the hypothesis of God works satisfactorily for the individual, it is true. Pragmatism is also a method of interpreting ideas in terms of their consequences. James, however, apparently does not believe that this method entails his specific philosophical doctrines -- his pluralism, individualism, neutralism, indeterminism, meliorism, pragmatic theism, "crass" supernaturalism, etc. In fact, he states that pragmatism is independent of his new philosophy of "radical empiricism" and agrees with the anti-intellectualist bent of the Italian pragmatist, Papini, who sees the pragmatic method available to the atheist, the praying penitent, the investigating chemist, the metaphysician and the anti-metaphysician ("What Pragmatism Means".) On the other hand, insofar as pragmatism is practically identified with the scientific method (as is allegedly the case with Dewey) it appears that the pragmatic method might be expected to yield much the same conclusions for one philosopher as for another. In general, pragmatism as a method, does not seem to imply any final philosophical conclusions. It may imply a general direction of thought, such as empiricism. Although pragmatists (Peirce, James, Dewey) frequently attack older forms of empiricism, or crude empiricism, and necessarily reject truth as a simple or static correspondence of propositions with sense data, they nevertheless continue to describe themselves as empiricists, so that today pragmatism (especially in Dewey's case) is often regarded as synonymous with empiricism. See Empiricism.

Prehension: (Lat. prehensus, from prehendere, to seize) In the terminology of A. N. Whitehead, prehension is the process of feeling whereby data are grasped or prehended by a subject. See Process and Reality, Part III -- L.W.

Presentational Immediacy: (Lat. praesens ppr. of praeesse, and in + medius, middle) Presentational immediacy characterizes any items which are in the direct cognitive presence of the mind such as sense data, images, emotional and affective data. Immediacy is ascribed by some epistemologists to higher levels of knowledge, e.g. perception and memory and by the mystic to the knowledge of God. -- L.W.

Presentation: (Lat. praesentatio, a showing, representation) (a) In the narrow sense anything directly present to a knowing mind such as sense data, images of memory and imagination, emotional and hedonic states, etc. See Datum. (b) In the wider sense any object known by acquaintance rather than by description for example, an object of perception or memory. See Acquaintance, Knowledge by. -- L.W.

Pretest-Posttest Method ::: A method of determining the amount of change that occurred in a set of data by measuring the data prior to treatment and then after treatment and comparing the two measurement outcomes.

Privacy, Epistemic: (Lat. privatus, from privus, private) Status of data of knowledge, e.g. somatic sensations, hedonic and emotional states, and perhaps even sense data, in so far as they are directly accessible to a single knowing subject. See Publicity, Epistemic. -- L.W.

Probability of Error ::: The likelihood that error caused the results of data analysis. If the probability of error is greater than the predetermined acceptable level of error then the results are said to be &

Psychology: (Gr. psyche, mind or soul + logos, law) The science of the mind, its functions, structure and behavioral effects. In Aristotle, the science of mind, (De Anima), emphasizes mental functionsl; the Scholastics employed a faculty psychology. In Hume and the Mills, study of the data of conscious experience, termed association psychology. In Freud, the study of the unconscious (depth psychology). In behaviorism, the physiological study of physical and chemical responses. In Gestalt psychology, the study of organized psychic activity, .revealing the mind's tendency toward the completion of patterns. Since Kant, psychology has been able to establish itself as an empirical, natural science without a priori metaphysical or theological commitments. The German romanticists (q.v.) and Hegel, who had developed a metaphysical psychology, had turned to cultural history to illustrate their theories of how the mind, conceived as an absolute, must manifest itself. Empirically they have suggested a possible field of exploration for the psychologist, namely, the study of mind in its cultural effects, viz. works of art, science, religion, social organization, etc. which are customarily studied by anthropologists in the case of "primitive" peoples. But it would be as difficult to separate anthropology from social psychology as to sharply distinguish so-called "primitive" peoples from "civilized" ones.

Publicity, Epistemic: (a) In the strict sense, publicity pertains to such data of knowledge as are directly and identically accessible to more than one knowing subject. Thus epistemological monism may assert the publicity of sense data, of universals, of moral and aesthetic values and even of God. See Epistemological Monism. (b) In a less exact sense, publicity is ascribed to any object of knowledge which may be known either directly or indirectly by more than one mind, such as physical objects, public space, etc in contrast to feelings, emotions, etc. which can be directly known only by a single subject. -- L.W.

Pure Ego: See Ego, Pure. Pure Experience: (Lat. purus, clean) (a) The qualitative ingredients of experience, e.g. sense data, feelings, images, etc., which remain after the ideal elimination of conceptual, interpretational and constructional factors. (b) The world of ordinary immediate experience which constitutes the point of departure for science and philosophy. See Avenarius, Kritik der reinen Erfahrumg. -- L.W.

Rank-Ordered Array ::: A table consisting of data in order of highest to lowest or lowest to highest where each data is given a numbered rank depicting it&

Raw Data ::: The initial data gathered that has not yet been graphed, organized, or analyzed.

Reason is a clarified, ordered and organised Ignorance. It is a half-enlightened Ignorance seeking for truth, but a truth which it insists on founding upon the data and postulates of the Ignorance. Reason is not in possession of the Truth, it is a seeker. It is [unable to] discover the Truth or embody it; it leaves Truth covered but rendered into mental representations, a verbal and ideative scheme, an abstract algebra of concepts, a theory of the Ignorance. Sense-evidence is its starting point and it never really gets away from that insecure beginning. Its concepts start from sense-data and though like a kite it can fly high into an air of abstractions, it is held to the earth of sense by a string of great strength; if that string is broken it drifts lazily [in] the clouds and always it falls back by natural gravitation to its original earth basis—only so can it receive strength to go farther. Its field is the air and sky of the finite, it cannot ascend into the stratosphere of the spiritual vision, still less can it move at ease in the Infinite.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 12, Page: 256


Reason ::: The characteristic power of the reason in its fullness is a logical movement assuring itself first of all available materials and data by observation and arrangement, then acting upon them for a resultant knowledge gained, assured and enlarged by a first use of the
   reflective powers, and lastly assuring itself of the correctness of its results by a more c
   reful and formal action, more vigilant, deliberate, severely logical which tests, rejects or confirms them according to certain secure standards and processes developed by
   reflection and experience.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 851-52


Sample Mean ::: Abbreviated with a lowercase x with a horizontal line over top (called &

Scatter Plot ::: A graphical representation of data received in a correlational study.

scyphus ::: n. --> A kind of large drinking cup, -- used by Greeks and Romans, esp. by poor folk.
The cup of a narcissus, or a similar appendage to the corolla in other flowers.
A cup-shaped stem or podetium in lichens. Also called scypha. See Illust. of Cladonia pyxidata, under Lichen.


Sense and denotation: See descriptions. Sense Datum (pl. sense data): (Lat. sensus, a feeling -- datum, a gift from dare, to give). A datum conditioned by one of the outer senses. See Datum. -- L.W.

snigdata ::: [affectionateness, tenderness, mildness].

Somatic Datum: Somatic data are those originating within the bodily organism (e.g., feelings of muscular tension, fatigue, organic and circulatory sensations, etc.) in contrast to sense data, which are conditioned by the organs of outer senses. See Datum, Sense Datum. -- L.W.

sortilege ::: (on page 44) divination by the random selection of playingcards; (elsewhere) a method of receiving guidance and predictions from texts found seemingly by chance (as by opening a book at random) and interpreted by the faculties of jñana; also, a text found in this way and subjected to this kind of interpretation. Sri Aurobindo listed sortileges among the "external means" that can provide "data for a past and future knowledge" (see trikaladr.s.t.i); although some sortileges required "a very figurative & even fanciful interpretation", he took the results he obtained by this method to be signs of "an intelligent, omniscient & all-combining Mind at work which uses everything in the world as its instrument & is superior to the system of relations & connections already fixed in this world".

Spearman&

Standard Score ::: A score derived by transforming the data based on the standard deviation. Standard scores can then be compared to one another on face value. (See z-score, T-score, NCE score, stanines, and Wechsler&

Statement: See Meaning, Kinds of, 1. Statistics: The systematic study of quantitative facts, numerical data, comparative materials, obtained through description and interpretation of group phenomena. The method of using and interpreting processes of classification, enumeration, measurement and evaluation of group phenomena. In a restricted sense, the materials, facts or data referring to group phenomena and forming the subject of systematic computation and interpretation. The Ground of Statistics. Statistics have developed from a specialized application of the inductive principle which concludes from the characteristics of a large number of parts to those of the whole. When we make generalizations from empirical data, we are never certain of having expressed adequately the laws connecting all the relevant and efficient factors in the case under investigation. Not only have we to take into account the personal equation involved and the imperfection of our instru ments of observation and measurement, but also the complex character of physical, biological, psychological and social phenomena which cannot be subjected to an exhaustive analysis. Statistics reveals precisely definite trends and frequencies subject to approximate laws, in these various fields in which phenomena result from many independently varying factors and involve a multitude of numerical units of variable character. Statistics differs fiom probability insofar as it makes a more consistent use of empirical data objectively considered, and of methods directly inspired by the treatment of these data.

table ::: 1. An article of furniture supported by one or more vertical legs and having a flat horizontal surface. 2. An engraved slab or tablet bearing an inscription or a device. 3. tables. The engraved tablets carrying sacred laws, etc. 4. An orderly arrangement of data, especially one in which the data are arranged in columns and rows in an essentially rectangular form.

"The characteristic power of the reason in its fullness is a logical movement assuring itself first of all available materials and data by observation and arrangement, then acting upon them for a resultant knowledge gained, assured and enlarged by a first use of the reflective powers, and lastly assuring itself of the correctness of its results by a more careful and formal action, more vigilant, deliberate, severely logical which tests, rejects or confirms them according to certain secure standards and processes developed by reflection and experience.” The Synthesis of Yoga

“The characteristic power of the reason in its fullness is a logical movement assuring itself first of all available materials and data by observation and arrangement, then acting upon them for a resultant knowledge gained, assured and enlarged by a first use of the reflective powers, and lastly assuring itself of the correctness of its results by a more careful and formal action, more vigilant, deliberate, severely logical which tests, rejects or confirms them according to certain secure standards and processes developed by reflection and experience.” The Synthesis of Yoga

The critique of Kant resolves substance into the a priori category of Inherence-and-subsistence, and so to a necessary synthetic activity of mind upon the data of experience. In the dialectic of Hegel, the effort is made to unify the logical meanings of substance as subject and the meaning of absolute independent being as defined in Spinoza. -- L.M.H.

The historical antecedents of experimental psychology are various. From British empiricism and the psychological philosophy of Locke, Berkeley and Hume came associationism (see Associationism), the psychological implications of which were more fully developed by Herbart and Bain. Associationism provided the conceptual framework and largely colored the procedures of early experimental psychology. Physics and physiology gave impetus to experiments on sensory phenomena while physiology and neurology fostered studies of the nervous system and reflex action. The names of Helmholtz, Johannes Müller, E. H. Weber and Fechner are closely linked with this phase of the development of experimental psychology. The English biologist Galton developed the statistical methods of Quetelet for the analysis of data on human variation and opened the way for the mental testing movement; the Russian physiologist Pavlov, with his researches on "conditioned reflexes," contributed an experimental technique which has proved of paramount importance for the psychologist. Even astronomy made its contribution; variations in reaction time of different observers having long been recognized by astronomers as an important source of error in their observations.

The Method of Statistics. The basic principle of statistical method is that of simplification, which makes possible a concise and comprehensive knowledge of a mass of isolated facts by correlating them along definite lines. The various stages of this method are:   precise definition of the problem or field of inquiry;   collection of material required by the problem;   tabulation and measurement of material in a manner satisfying the purpose of the problem;   clear presentation of the significant features of tabulated material (by means of charts, diagrams, symbols, graphs, equations and the like),   selection of mathematical methods for application to the material obtained;   necessary conclusion from the facts and figures obtained;   general interpretation within the limits of the problem and the procedure used. The special methods of treating statistical data are: collecting, sampling, selecting, tabulating, classifying, totaling or aggregating, measuring, averaging, relating and correlating, presenting symbolically. Each one of these methods uses specialized experimental or mathematical means in its actual application. The special methods of interpreting statistical data already treated are: analyzing, estimiting, describing, comparing, explaining, applying and predicting. In order to be conclusive, the various stages and types of the statistical method must avoid   loose definitions,   cross divisions resulting ftom conflicting interpretations of the problem,   data which are not simultaneous or subject to similar conditions,   conclusions from poor oi incomplete data,   prejudices in judging, even when there is no conuption of evidence. The philosophy of statistics is concerned in general with the discussion and evaluation of the mathematical principles, methods and results of this science; and in particular with a critical analysis of the fitness of biological, psychological, educational, economic and sociological materials, for various types of statistical treatment. The purpose of such an inquiry is to integrate its results into the general problems and schemes of philosophy proper. Cf.. Richard von Mises, Statistics, Probability, and Truth.

“The physical mind is that part of the mind which is concerned with the physical things only—it depends on the sense-mind, sees only objects, external actions, draws its ideas from the data given by external things, infers from them only and knows no other Truth until it is enlightened from above.” Letters on Yoga

The structural problem stated in terms of the antithesis between subjective and objective is rather too vague for the purposes of epistemology and a more precise analysis of the knowledge-situation and statement of the issues involved is required. The perceptual situation -- and this analysis may presumably be extended with appropriate modifications to memory, imagination and other modes of cognition -- consists of a subject (the self, or pure act of perceiving), the content (sense data) and the object (the physical thing perceived). In terms of this analysis, two issues may be formulated Are content and object identical (epistemological monism), or are they numerically distinct (epistemological dualism)? and Does the object exist independently of the knowing subject (epistemological idealism) or is it dependent upon the subject (epistemological realism)? (h) The problem of truth is perhaps the culmination of epistemological enquiry -- in any case it is the problem which brings the enquiry to the threshold of metaphysics. The traditional theories of the nature of truth are: the correspondence theory which conceives truth as a relation between an "idea" or a proposition and its object --the relation has commonly been regarded as one of resemblance but it need not be so considered (see Correspondence theory of truth); the Coherence theory which adopts as the criterion of truth, the logical consistency of a proposition with a wider system of propositions (see Coherence theory of truth), and the intrinsic theory which views truth as an intrinsic property of the true proposition. See Intrinsic theory of truth. --L-W. Bibliography:

The subject of the philosophy of religion is regarded in conservative circles not as a discipline given to free philosophical inquiry but as a particular religion's philosophy. In this form it is a more or less disguised apologetics or defense of an already accepted religious faith. While the data for this subject include the so-called classical religions, philosophy of religion, in the genuinely philosophical sense, takes for its material religious expressions of all types, whether classical or not, together with all the psychological material available on the nature of the human spirit and man's whole cultural development. -- V.F.

This process is facilitated by the choice of prerogative, or, if possible, of solitary instances in which the investigated data are comparatively isolated and unadulterated. But under the most favorable conditions inquiry must be a cautious, laborious, plodding, step by step affair, and results can never be more than provisional because of the possibility of undiscovered negative instances.

Time-perception: The apprehension of the protensive or durational character of the data of experience. See Dimensions of Consciousness; Protensity. -- L.W.

t-Test ::: A group of statistics used to determine if a significance difference exists between the means of two sets of data.

Volkelt, Johannes: (1848-1930) Waa influenced by the traditions of German idealism since Kant. His most imported work consisted in the analysis of knowledge which, he contended, had a double source; for it requires, first of all, empirical data, insofar as there can be no real knowledge of the external world apart from consciousness, and also logical thinking, insofar as it elaborates the crude material of perception. Consequently, knowledge may be described as the product of rational operations on the material of pure experience. Thus he arrived at the conclusion that reality is "trans-subjective", that is to say, it consists neither of mere objects nor of mere data of consciousness, but is rather a synthesis of both elements of existence. -- R.B.W.

V. Probability as an Operattonal Concept: In this interpretation, which is due particularly to Kemble, probability is discussed in terms of the mental operations involved in determining it numerically. It is pointed out that probability enters the postulates of physical theories as a useful word employed to indicate the manner in which results of theoretical calculations are to be compared with experimental data. But beyond the usefulness of this word, there must be a more fundamental concept justifying it; this is called primary probability which should be reached by an instrumentalist procedure. The analogy of the thermometer, which connects a qualitative sensation with a number, gives an indication for such a procedure. The expectation of the repetition of an event is an elementary form of belief which can be strengthened by additional evidence. In collecting such evidence, a selection is naturally made, by accepting the relevant data and rejecting the others. When the selected data form a pattern which does not involve the event as such or its negative, the event is considered as probable. The rules of collecting the data and of comparing them with the theoretical event and its negative, involve the idea ol correspondence which leads to the use of numbers for its expression. Thus, probability is a number computed from empirical data according to given rules, and used as a metric and a corrective to the sense of expectation, and the ultimate value of the theory of probability is its service as a guide to action. The main interest of this theory lies in its psychological analysis and its attempt to unify the various conceptions of probability. But it is not yet complete; and until its epistemological implications are made clear, its apparent eclecticism may cover many of the difficulties it wishes to avoid. -- T.G.

While not abandoning its interest in beauty, artistic value, and other normative concepts, recent aesthetics has tended to lay increasing emphasis on a descriptive, factual approach to the phenomena of art and aesthetic experience. It differs from art history, archeology, and cultural history in stressing a theoretical organization of materials in terms of recurrent types and tendencies, rather than a chronological or genetic one. It differs from general psychology in focusing upon certain selected phases in psycho-physical activity, and on their application to certain types of objects and situations, especially those of art. It investigates the forms and characteristics of art, which psychology does not do. It differs from art criticism in seeking a more general, theoretical understanding of the arts than is usual in that subject, and in attempting a more consistently objective, impersonal attitude. It maintains a philosophic breadth, in comparing examples of all the arts, and in assembling data and hypotheses from many sources, including philosophy, psychology, cultural history, and the social sciences. But it is departing from traditional conceptions of philosophy in that writing labelled "aesthetics" now often includes much detailed, empirical study of particular phenomena, instead of restricting itself as formerly to abstract discussion of the meaning of beauty, the sublime, and other categories, their objective or subjective nature, their relation to pleasure and moral goodness, the purpose of art, the nature of aesthetic value, etc. There has been controversy over whether such empirical studies deserve to be called "aesthetics", or whether that name should be reserved for the traditional, dialectic or speculative approach; but usage favors the extension in cases where the inquiry aims at fairly broad generalizations.

Will to Believe: A phrase made famous by William James (1842-1910) in an essay by that title (1896). In general, the phrase characterizes much of James's philosophic ideas: a defence of the right and even the necessity to believe where evidence is not complete, the adventurous spirit by which men must live, the heroic character of all creative thinking, the open-mind to possibilities, the repudiation of the stubborn spirit and the will-not-to-know, the primacy of the will in successful living, the reasonableness of the whole man acting upon presented data, the active pragmatic disposition in general. This will to believe does not imply indiscriminative faith; it implies a genuine option, one which presents an issue that is lively, momentous and forced. Acts of indecision may be negative decisions. -- V.F.



QUOTES [17 / 17 - 1500 / 3344]


KEYS (10k)

   8 Sri Aurobindo
   2 James S A Corey
   1 Yuval Noah Harari
   1 William Gibson
   1 Nikola Tesla
   1 Ken Wilber
   1 Harold Abelson
   1 The Mother
   1 Aleister Crowley

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   88 Anonymous
   24 Seth Stephens Davidowitz
   18 Nate Silver
   18 Arthur Conan Doyle
   16 Pedro Domingos
   14 Cathy O Neil
   13 Steven D Levitt
   12 Martin Kleppmann
   9 Bruce Schneier
   8 Ted Cruz
   8 Pramoedya Ananta Toer
   8 Nassim Nicholas Taleb
   8 Gene Kim
   8 Bren Brown
   7 Tere Liye
   7 Seth Godin
   7 Hans Rosling
   7 Glenn Greenwald
   7 Charles Wheelan
   6 William Gibson

1:The data of the senses can bring us, is not true knowledge; it is a science of appearances. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Status of Knowledge,
2:No knowledge can be true knowledge which subjects itself to the senses or uses them otherwise than as first indices whose data have constantly to be corrected and overpassed. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Purified Understanding,
3:Faith is a support from above; it is the brilliant shadow thrown by a secret light that exceeds the intellect and its data; it is the heart of a hidden knowledge that is not at the mercy of immediate appearances. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Master of the Work,
4:Intuition is born of a direct awareness while intellect is an indirect action of a knowledge which constructs itself with difficulty out of the unknown from signs and indications and gathered data. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, Brahman, Purusha, Ishwara - Maya, Prakriti, Shakti,
5:Computational processes are abstract beings that inhabit computers. As they evolve, processes manipulate other abstract things called data. The evolution of a process is directed by a pattern of rules called a program. People create programs to direct processes. In effect, we conjure the spirits of the computer with our spells. ~ Harold Abelson, Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs,
6:Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts... A graphic representation of data abstracted from banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding... ~ William Gibson,
7:In the past, censorship worked by blocking the flow of information. In the twenty-first century, censorship works by flooding people with irrelevant information. People just don't know what to pay attention to, and they often spend their time investigating and debating side issues. In ancient times having power meant having access to data. Today having power means knowing what to ignore. ~ Yuval Noah Harari, Homo Deus,
8:In researching this problem, I did an extensive data search of several hundred hierarchies, taken from systems theory, ecological science, Kabalah, developmental psychology, Yo-gachara Buddhism, moral development, biological evolution, Vedanta Hinduism, Neo-Confucianism, cosmic and stellar evolution, Hwa Yen, the Neoplatonic corpus-an entire spectrum of premodern, modern, and postmodern nests.
   ~ Ken Wilber, Marriage of Sense and Soul, 1998,
9:The intellectual understanding is only the lower buddhi; there is another and a higher buddhi which is not intelligence but vision, is not understanding but rather an over-standings in knowledge, and does not seek knowledge and attain it in subjection to the data it observes but possesses already the truth and brings it out in the terms of a revelatory and intuitional thought.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga,
10:Only, in all he sees God, sees the supreme reality, and his motive of work is to help mankind towards the knowledge of God and the possession of the supreme reality. He sees God through the data of science, God through the conclusions of philosophy, God through the forms of Beauty and the forms of Good, God in all the activities of life, God in the past of the world and its effects, in the present and its tendencies, in the future and its great progression. Into any or all of these he can bring his illumined vision and his liberated power of the spirit. The lower knowledge has been the step from which he has risen to the higher; the higher illumines for him the lower and makes it part of itself, even if only its lower fringe and most external radiation.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Higher and the Lower Knowledge,
11:understanding fails when pulled down by lower movements ::: By the understanding we mean that which at once perceives, judges and discriminates, the true reason of the human beingnot subservient to the senses, to desire or to the blind force of habit, but working in its own right for mastery, for knowledge. Certainly, the reason of man as he is at present does not even at its best act entirely in this free and sovereign fashion; but so far as it fails, it fails because it is still mixed with the lower half-animal action, because it is impure and constantly hampered and pulled down from its characteristic action. In its purity it should not be involved in these lower movements, but stand back from the object, and observe disinterestedly, put it in its right place in the whole by force of comparison, contrast, analogy, reason from its rightly observed data by deduction, induction, inference and holding all its gains in memory and supplementing them by a chastened and rightly-guided imagination view all in the light of a trained and disciplined judgment. Such is the pure intellectual understanding of which disinterested observation, judgment and reasoning are the law and characterising action.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Yoga of Knowledge, The Purified Understanding,
12:So," she said. "I've been thinking of it as a computing problem. If the virus or nanomachine or protomolecule or whatever was designed, it has a purpose, right?"
"Definitely," Holden said.
"And it seems like it's trying to do something-something complex. It doesn't make sense to go to all that trouble just to kill people. Those changes it makes look intentional, just... not complete, to me."
"I can see that," Holden said. Alex and Amos nodded along with him but stayed quiet.
"So maybe the issue is that the protomolecule isn't smart enough yet. You can compress a lot of data down pretty small, but unless it's a quantum computer, processing takes space. The easiest way to get that processing in tiny machines is through distribution. Maybe the protomolecule isn't finishing its job because it just isn't smart enough to. Yet."
"Not enough of them," Alex said.
"Right," Naomi said, dropping the towel into a bin under the sink. "So you give them a lot of biomass to work with, and see what it is they are ultimately made to do."
"According to that guy in the video, they were made to hijack life on Earth and wipe us out," Miller said.
"And that," Holden said, "is why Eros is perfect. Lots of biomass in a vacuum-sealed test tube. And if it gets out of hand, there's already a war going on. A lot of ships and missiles can be used for nuking Eros into glass if the threat seems real. Nothing to make us forget our differences like a new player butting in." ~ James S A Corey, Leviathan Wakes,
13:39 - Sometimes one is led to think that only those things really matter which have never happened; for beside them most historic achievements seem almost pale and ineffective. - Sri Aurobindo

I would like to have an explanation of this aphorism.

Sri Aurobindo, who had made a thorough study of history, knew how uncertain are the data which have been used to write it. Most often the accuracy of the documents is doubtful, and the information they supply is poor, incomplete, trivial and frequently distorted. As a whole, the official version of human history is nothing but a long, almost unbroken record of violent aggressions: wars, revolutions, murders or colonisations. True, some of these aggressions and massacres have been adorned with flattering terms and epithets; they have been called religious wars, holy wars, civilising campaigns; but they nonetheless remain acts of greed or vengeance.

Rarely in history do we find the description of a cultural, artistic or philosophical outflowering.

That is why, as Sri Aurobindo says, all this makes a rather dismal picture without any deep significance. On the other hand, in the legendary accounts of things which may never have existed on earth, of events which have not been declared authentic by "official" knowledge, of wonderful individuals whose existence is doubted by the scholars in their dried-up wisdom, we find the crystallisation of all the hopes and aspirations of man, his love of the marvellous, the heroic and the sublime, the description of everything he would like to be and strives to become.

That, more or less, is what Sri Aurobindo means in his aphorism.
22 June 1960 ~ The Mother, On Thoughts And Aphorisms, volume-10, page no.62),
14:My method is different. I do not rush into actual work. When I get an idea, I start at once building it up in my imagination. I change the construction, make improvements and operate the device in my mind. It is absolutely immaterial to me whether I run my turbine in thought or test it in my shop. I even note if it is out of balance. There is no difference whatever; the results are the same. In this way I am able to rapidly develop and perfect a conception without touching anything. When I have gone so far as to embody in the invention every possible improvement I can think of and see no fault anywhere, I put into concrete form this final product of my brain. Invariably my device works as I conceived that it should, and the experiment comes out exactly as I planned it. In twenty years there has not been a single exception. Why should it be otherwise? Engineering, electrical and mechanical, is positive in results. There is scarcely a subject that cannot be examined beforehand, from the available theoretical and practical data. The carrying out into practice of a crude idea as is being generally done, is, I hold, nothing but a waste of energy, money, and time. My early affliction had however, another compensation. The incessant mental exertion developed my powers of observation and enabled me to discover a truth of great importance. I had noted that the appearance of images was always preceded by actual vision of scenes under peculiar and generally very exceptional conditions, and I was impelled on each occasion to locate the original impulse. After a while this effort grew to be almost automatic and I gained great facility in connecting cause and effect. Soon I became aware, to my surprise, that every thought I conceived was suggested by an external impression. Not only this but all my actions were prompted in a similar way. In the course of time it became perfectly evident to me that I was merely an automation endowed with power OF MOVEMENT RESPONDING TO THE STIMULI OF THE SENSE ORGANS AND THINKING AND ACTING ACCORDINGLY.

   ~ Nikola Tesla, The Strange Life of Nikola Tesla,
15:The Teachings of Some Modern Indian Yogis
Ramana Maharshi
According to Brunton's description of the sadhana he (Brunton) practised under the Maharshi's instructions,1 it is the Overself one has to seek within, but he describes the Overself in a way that is at once the Psychic Being, the Atman and the Ishwara. So it is a little difficult to know what is the exact reading.
*
The methods described in the account [of Ramana Maharshi's technique of self-realisation] are the well-established methods of Jnanayoga - (1) one-pointed concentration followed by thought-suspension, (2) the method of distinguishing or finding out the true self by separating it from mind, life, body (this I have seen described by him [Brunton] more at length in another book) and coming to the pure I behind; this also can disappear into the Impersonal Self. The usual result is a merging in the Atman or Brahman - which is what one would suppose is meant by the Overself, for it is that which is the real Overself. This Brahman or Atman is everywhere, all is in it, it is in all, but it is in all not as an individual being in each but is the same in all - as the Ether is in all. When the merging into the Overself is complete, there is no ego, no distinguishable I, or any formed separative person or personality. All is ekakara - an indivisible and undistinguishable Oneness either free from all formations or carrying all formations in it without being affected - for one can realise it in either way. There is a realisation in which all beings are moving in the one Self and this Self is there stable in all beings; there is another more complete and thoroughgoing in which not only is it so but all are vividly realised as the Self, the Brahman, the Divine. In the former, it is possible to dismiss all beings as creations of Maya, leaving the one Self alone as true - in the other it is easier to regard them as real manifestations of the Self, not as illusions. But one can also regard all beings as souls, independent realities in an eternal Nature dependent upon the One Divine. These are the characteristic realisations of the Overself familiar to the Vedanta. But on the other hand you say that this Overself is realised by the Maharshi as lodged in the heart-centre, and it is described by Brunton as something concealed which when it manifests appears as the real Thinker, source of all action, but now guiding thought and action in the Truth. Now the first description applies to the Purusha in the heart, described by the Gita as the Ishwara situated in the heart and by the Upanishads as the Purusha Antaratma; the second could apply also to the mental Purusha, manomayah. pran.asarı̄ra neta of the Upanishads, the mental Being or Purusha who leads the life and the body. So your question is one which on the data I cannot easily answer. His Overself may be a combination of all these experiences, without any distinction being made or thought necessary between the various aspects. There are a thousand ways of approaching and realising the Divine and each way has its own experiences which have their own truth and stand really on a basis, one in essence but complex in aspects, common to all, but not expressed in the same way by all. There is not much use in discussing these variations; the important thing is to follow one's own way well and thoroughly. In this Yoga, one can realise the psychic being as a portion of the Divine seated in the heart with the Divine supporting it there - this psychic being takes charge of the sadhana and turns the ......
1 The correspondent sent to Sri Aurobindo two paragraphs from Paul Brunton's book A Message from Arunachala (London: Rider & Co., n.d. [1936], pp. 205 - 7). - Ed. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters On Yoga - II,
16:Of course we do." Dresden's voice was cutting. "But you're thinking too small. Building humanity's greatest empire is like building the world's largest anthill. Insignificant. There is a civilization out there that built the protomolecule and hurled it at us over two billion years ago. They were already gods at that point. What have they become since then? With another two billion years to advance?"
With a growing dread, Holden listened to Dresden speak. This speech had the air of something spoken before. Perhaps many times. And it had worked. It had convinced powerful people. It was why Protogen had stealth ships from the Earth shipyards and seemingly limitless behind-the-scenes support.
"We have a terrifying amount of catching up to do, gentlemen," Dresden was saying. "But fortunately we have the tool of our enemy to use in doing it."
"Catching up?" a soldier to Holden's left said. Dresden nodded at the man and smiled.
"The protomolecule can alter the host organism at the molecular level; it can create genetic change on the fly. Not just DNA, but any stable replicatoR But it is only a machine. It doesn't think. It follows instructions. If we learn how to alter that programming, then we become the architects of that change."
Holden interrupted. "If it was supposed to wipe out life on Earth and replace it with whatever the protomolecule's creators wanted, why turn it loose?"
"Excellent question," Dresden said, holding up one finger like a college professor about to deliver a lecture. "The protomolecule doesn't come with a user's manual. In fact, we've never before been able to actually watch it carry out its program. The molecule requires significant mass before it develops enough processing power to fulfill its directives. Whatever they are."
Dresden pointed at the screens covered with data around them.
"We are going to watch it at work. See what it intends to do. How it goes about doing it. And, hopefully, learn how to change that program in the process."
"You could do that with a vat of bacteria," Holden said.
"I'm not interested in remaking bacteria," Dresden said.
"You're fucking insane," Amos said, and took another step toward Dresden. Holden put a hand on the big mechanic's shoulder.
"So," Holden said. "You figure out how the bug works, and then what?"
"Then everything. Belters who can work outside a ship without wearing a suit. Humans capable of sleeping for hundreds of years at a time flying colony ships to the stars. No longer being bound to the millions of years of evolution inside one atmosphere of pressure at one g, slaves to oxygen and water. We decide what we want to be, and we reprogram ourselves to be that. That's what the protomolecule gives us."

Dresden had stood back up as he'd delivered this speech, his face shining with the zeal of a prophet.
"What we are doing is the best and only hope of humanity's survival. When we go out there, we will be facing gods."
"And if we don't go out?" Fred asked. He sounded thoughtful.
"They've already fired a doomsday weapon at us once," Dresden said.
The room was silent for a moment. Holden felt his certainty slip. He hated everything about Dresden's argument, but he couldn't quite see his way past it. He knew in his bones that something about it was dead wrong, but he couldn't find the words. Naomi's voice startled him.
"Did it convince them?" she asked.
"Excuse me?" Dresden said.
"The scientists. The technicians. Everyone you needed to make it happen. They actually had to do this. They had to watch the video of people dying all over Eros. They had to design those radioactive murder chambers. So unless you managed to round up every serial killer in the solar system and send them through a postgraduate program, how did you do this?"
"We modified our science team to remove ethical restraints."
Half a dozen clues clicked into place in Holden's head. ~ James S A Corey, Leviathan Wakes,
17:
   Can a Yogi attain to a state of consciousness in which he can know all things, answer all questions, relating even to abstruse scientific problems, such as, for example, the theory of relativity?


Theoretically and in principle it is not impossible for a Yogi to know everything; all depends upon the Yogi.

   But there is knowledge and knowledge. The Yogi does not know in the way of the mind. He does not know everything in the sense that he has access to all possible information or because he contains all the facts of the universe in his mind or because his consciousness is a sort of miraculous encyclopaedia. He knows by his capacity for a containing or dynamic identity with things and persons and forces. Or he knows because he lives in a plane of consciousness or is in contact with a consciousness in which there is the truth and the knowledge.

   If you are in the true consciousness, the knowledge you have will also be of the truth. Then, too, you can know directly, by being one with what you know. If a problem is put before you, if you are asked what is to be done in a particular matter, you can then, by looking with enough attention and concentration, receive spontaneously the required knowledge and the true answer. It is not by any careful application of theory that you reach the knowledge or by working it out through a mental process. The scientific mind needs these methods to come to its conclusions. But the Yogi's knowledge is direct and immediate; it is not deductive. If an engineer has to find out the exact position for the building of an arch, the line of its curve and the size of its opening, he does it by calculation, collating and deducing from his information and data. But a Yogi needs none of these things; he looks, has the vision of the thing, sees that it is to be done in this way and not in another, and this seeing is his knowledge.

   Although it may be true in a general way and in a certain sense that a Yogi can know all things and can answer all questions from his own field of vision and consciousness, yet it does not follow that there are no questions whatever of any kind to which he would not or could not answer. A Yogi who has the direct knowledge, the knowledge of the true truth of things, would not care or perhaps would find it difficult to answer questions that belong entirely to the domain of human mental constructions. It may be, he could not or would not wish to solve problems and difficulties you might put to him which touch only the illusion of things and their appearances. The working of his knowledge is not in the mind. If you put him some silly mental query of that character, he probably would not answer. The very common conception that you can put any ignorant question to him as to some super-schoolmaster or demand from him any kind of information past, present or future and that he is bound to answer, is a foolish idea. It is as inept as the expectation from the spiritual man of feats and miracles that would satisfy the vulgar external mind and leave it gaping with wonder.

   Moreover, the term "Yogi" is very vague and wide. There are many types of Yogis, many lines or ranges of spiritual or occult endeavour and different heights of achievement, there are some whose powers do not extend beyond the mental level; there are others who have gone beyond it. Everything depends on the field or nature of their effort, the height to which they have arrived, the consciousness with which they have contact or into which they enter.

   Do not scientists go sometimes beyond the mental plane? It is said that Einstein found his theory of relativity not through any process of reasoning, but through some kind of sudden inspiration. Has that inspiration anything to do with the Supermind?

The scientist who gets an inspiration revealing to him a new truth, receives it from the intuitive mind. The knowledge comes as a direct perception in the higher mental plane illumined by some other light still farther above. But all that has nothing to do with the action of Supermind and this higher mental level is far removed from the supramental plane. Men are too easily inclined to believe that they have climbed into regions quite divine when they have only gone above the average level. There are many stages between the ordinary human mind and the Supermind, many grades and many intervening planes. If an ordinary man were to get into direct contact even with one of these intermediate planes, he would be dazzled and blinded, would be crushed under the weight of the sense of immensity or would lose his balance; and yet it is not the Supermind.

   Behind the common idea that a Yogi can know all things and answer all questions is the actual fact that there is a plane in the mind where the memory of everything is stored and remains always in existence. All mental movements that belong to the life of the earth are memorised and registered in this plane. Those who are capable of going there and care to take the trouble, can read in it and learn anything they choose. But this region must not be mistaken for the supramental levels. And yet to reach even there you must be able to silence the movements of the material or physical mind; you must be able to leave aside all your sensations and put a stop to your ordinary mental movements, whatever they are; you must get out of the vital; you must become free from the slavery of the body. Then only you can enter into that region and see. But if you are sufficiently interested to make this effort, you can arrive there and read what is written in the earth's memory.

   Thus, if you go deep into silence, you can reach a level of consciousness on which it is not impossible for you to receive answers to all your questions. And if there is one who is consciously open to the plenary truth of the supermind, in constant contact with it, he can certainly answer any question that is worth an answer from the supramental Light. The queries put must come from some sense of the truth and reality behind things. There are many questions and much debated problems that are cobwebs woven of mere mental abstractions or move on the illusory surface of things. These do not pertain to real knowledge; they are a deformation of knowledge, their very substance is of the ignorance. Certainly the supramental knowledge may give an answer, its own answer, to the problems set by the mind's ignorance; but it is likely that it would not be at all satisfactory or perhaps even intelligible to those who ask from the mental level. You must not expect the supramental to work in the way of the mind or demand that the knowledge in truth should be capable of being pieced together with the half-knowledge in ignorance. The scheme of the mind is one thing, but Supermind is quite another and it would no longer be supramental if it adapted itself to the exigencies of the mental scheme. The two are incommensurable and cannot be put together.

   When the consciousness has attained to supramental joys, does it no longer take interest in the things of the mind?

The supramental does not take interest in mental things in the same way as the mind. It takes its own interest in all the movements of the universe, but it is from a different point of view and with a different vision. The world presents to it an entirely different appearance; there is a reversal of outlook and everything is seen from there as other than what it seems to the mind and often even the opposite. Things have another meaning; their aspect, their motion and process, everything about them, are watched with other eyes. Everything here is followed by the supermind; the mind movements and not less the vital, the material movements, all the play of the universe have for it a very deep interest, but of another kind. It is about the same difference as that between the interest taken in a puppet-play by one who holds the strings and knows what the puppets are to do and the will that moves them and that they can do only what it moves them to do, and the interest taken by another who observes the play but sees only what is happening from moment to moment and knows nothing else. The one who follows the play and is outside its secret has a stronger, an eager and passionate interest in what will happen and he gives an excited attention to its unforeseen or dramatic events; the other, who holds the strings and moves the show, is unmoved and tranquil. There is a certain intensity of interest which comes from ignorance and is bound up with illusion, and that must disappear when you are out of the ignorance. The interest that human beings take in things founds itself on the illusion; if that were removed, they would have no interest at all in the play; they would find it dry and dull. That is why all this ignorance, all this illusion has lasted so long; it is because men like it, because they cling to it and its peculiar kind of appeal that it endures.

   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1929-1931, 93?
,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

1:Hate is love without enough data. ~ richard-bach, @wisdomtrove
2:Maybe stories are just data with a soul. ~ brene-brown, @wisdomtrove
3:With insufficient data it is easy to go wrong. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
4:Data is not useful until it becomes information. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
5:There is as yet insufficient data for a meaningful answer. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
6:It's easy to pretend expertise when there's no data to contradict you. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
7:Great wisdom not applied to action and behavior is meaningless data. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
8:Ultimately, thinking is a very inefficient method of processing data. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
9:The computer, being a mechanical moron, can handle only quantifiable data. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
10:There is so much data available to us, but most data won't help us succeed. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
11:Information is just bits of data. Knowledge is putting them together. Wisdom is transcending them. ~ ram-das, @wisdomtrove
12:To write it, it took three months; to conceive it three minutes; to collect the data in it all my life. ~ f-scott-fitzgerald, @wisdomtrove
13:The most interesting emerging religion is Dataism, which venerates neither gods nor man – it worships data. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
14:Intelligence takes chances with limited data in an arena where mistakes are not only possible but also necessary. ~ frank-herbert, @wisdomtrove
15:If someone's criticism is completely unfounded on data, then I don't want to hear it. It doesn't hold up to scrutiny. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
16:Extreme views are never just; something always turns up which disturbs the calculations formed upon their data. ~ benjamin-disraeli, @wisdomtrove
17:For me, all of the data that is contained in your cell memory, and in your energetic field, is able to be picked up. ~ caroline-myss, @wisdomtrove
18:For me, all of the data that is contained in your cell memory, and in your energetic field, is able to be picked up. ~ norman-vincent-peale, @wisdomtrove
19:Before anything can be reasoned upon to a conclusion, certain facts, principles, or data, to reason from, must be established, admitted, or denied. ~ thomas-paine, @wisdomtrove
20:Intuition is the art, peculiar to the human mind, of working out the correct answer from data that is, in itself, incomplete or even, perhaps, misleading. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
21:If you're working with a spreadsheet or a thread of correspondence or a set of data, I'm not sure you're doing your best work if you're doing it on an iPhone. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
22:Just as modern man consumes both too many calories and calories of no nutritional value, information workers eat data both in excess and from the wrong sources. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
23:Capitalism won the Cold War because distributed data processing works better than centralized data processing, at least in periods of accelerating changes. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
24:Rather than spend my life on data entry and typing, I also take photos on my iPhone of business cards, wine labels, menus, or anything I want to have searchable on-the-run. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
25:Don't measure anything unless the data helps you make a better decision or change your actions. If you're not prepared to change your diet or your workouts, don't get on the scale. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
26:I find more and more executives less and less well informed about the outside world, if only because they believe that the data on the computer printouts are ipso facto information. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
27:Now that knowledge is taking the place of capital as the driving force in organizations worldwide, it is all too easy to confuse data with knowledge and information technology with information. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
28:The fewer data needed, the better the information. And an overload of information, that is, anything much beyond what is truly needed, leads to information blackout. It does not enrich, but impoverishes. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
29:MP3 players and flash memory devices are good for data storage and playback of music and digital talking books, but they offer little or nothing in the way of visual presentation of information and communication. ~ tom-peters, @wisdomtrove
30:The librarian isn't a clerk who happens to work in a library. A librarian is a data hound, a guide, a sherpa and a teacher. The librarian is the interface between reams of data and the untrained but motivated user. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
31:It is vital to remember that information - in the sense of raw data - is not knowledge, that knowledge is not wisdom, and that wisdom is not foresight. But information is the first essential step to all of these. ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
32:In the twenty-first century our personal data is probably the most valuable resource most humans still have to offer, and we are giving it to the tech giants in exchange for email services and funny cat videos. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
33:In theory, there is nothing the computer can do that the human mind can not do. The computer merely takes a finite amount of data and performs a finite number of operations upon them. The human mind can duplicate the process ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
34:More than a building that houses books and data, the library has always been a window to a larger world&
35:If you are looking at data over and over you better be taking away valuable insight every time. If you are constantly looking at data that isn't leading to strategic action stop wasting your time and look for more Actionable Analytics. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
36:Previous Calendar Data: Review past calendar dates in detail for remaining action items, reference information, and so on, and transfer that data into the active system. Be able to archive your last week’s calendar with nothing left uncaptured. ~ david-allen, @wisdomtrove
37:The study of theology, as it stands in Christian churches, is the study of nothing; it is founded on nothing; it rests on no principles; it proceeds by no authorities; it has no data; it can demonstrate nothing; and it admits of no conclusion. ~ thomas-paine, @wisdomtrove
38:If some good evidence for life after death were announced, I'd be eager to examine it; but it would have to be real scientific data, not mere anecdote. As with the face on Mars and alien abductions, better the hard truth, I say, than the comforting fantasy. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
39:Resveratrol is fascinating stuff. One of the best sources of information about it is the Immortality Institute. They have a forum where some people are in the 500 Club, as they call it. They've been taking 500 milligrams for years. It's a really great source of data. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
40:Attempts have been made from a study of the changes produced by mutation to obtain the relative order of the bases within various triplets, but my own view is that these are premature until there is more extensive and more reliable data on the composition of the triplets. ~ francis-crick, @wisdomtrove
41:Science is converging on an all-encompassing dogma, which says that organisms are algorithms, and life is data processing. 2. Intelligence is decoupling from consciousness. 3. Non-conscious but highly intelligent algorithms may soon know us better than we know ourselves. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
42:Making workable choices occurs in a crucible of informative mistakes. Thus Intelligence accepts fallibility. And when absolute (infallible) choices are not known, Intelligence takes chances with limited data in an arena where mistakes are not only possible but also necessary. ~ frank-herbert, @wisdomtrove
43:In the past, censorship worked by blocking the flow of information. In the twenty-first century, censorship works by flooding people with irrelevant information. [... ] In ancient times having power meant having access to data. Today having power means knowing what to ignore. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
44:Research can only present data about the past. No one seriously believes that people's answers to hypothetical questions about the future accurately represent their future behaviour; they merely represent a current attitude, which may or may not be translated into future behaviour. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
45:Photographic data... is still and ESSENTIALLY THE SAFEST POETIC MEDIUM and the most agile process for catching the most delicate osmoses which exist between reality and surreality. The mere fact of photographic transposition means a total invention: the capture of a secret reality. ~ salvador-dali, @wisdomtrove
46:For me the information has to remain incredibly neutral. It's what I would call &
47:Properly speaking, the unconscious is the real psychic; its inner nature is just as unknown to us as the reality of the external world, and it is just as imperfectly reported to us through the data of consciousness as is the external world through the indications of our sensory organs. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
48:For me the information has to remain incredibly neutral. It's what I would call &
49:This is the paradox of historical knowledge. Knowledge that does not change behaviour is useless. But knowledge that changes behaviour quickly loses its relevance. The more data we have and the better we understand history, the faster history alters its course, and the faster our knowledge becomes outdated. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
50:At present, people are happy to give away their most valuable asset—their personal data—in exchange for free email services and funny cat videos. It’s a bit like African and Native American tribes who unwittingly sold entire countries to European imperialists in exchange for colorful beads and cheap trinkets. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
51:As the amount of inputs go up, as the number of people and ideas that clamor for attention continue to increase, we do what people always do: we rely on the familiar, the trusted and the personal. The incredible surplus of digital data means that human actions, generosity and sacrifice are more important than they ever were before. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
52:The second cognitive revolution, dreamed up by techno-humanists, might do the same to us, producing human cogs who communicate and process data far more effectively than ever before, but who can hardly pay attention, dream or doubt. For millions of years we were enhanced chimpanzees. In the future, we may become oversized ants. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
53:It's understandable that the music companies that are comprised of people that are successful by making good creative decisions - they have to decide which out of fifty artists is the next hot one, with no data to go from. It's an intuitive process, and that's what they do well when they're successful. They don't understand technology. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
54:Capitalism did not defeat communism because capitalism was more ethical, because individual liberties are sacred or because God was angry with the heathen communists. Rather, capitalism won the Cold War because distributed data processing works better than centralised data processing, at least in periods of accelerating technological change. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
55:In the heyday of European imperialism, conquistadors and merchants bought entire islands and countries in exchange for coloured beads. In the twenty-first century our personal data is probably the most valuable resource most humans still have to offer, and we are giving it to the tech giants in exchange for email services and funny cat videos. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
56:Communication has changed so rapidly in the last 20 years, it's almost impossible to predict what might occur even in the next decade. E-mail, which now sends data hurtling across vast distances at the speed of light, has replaced primitive forms of communication such as smoke signals, which sent data hurtling across vast distances at the speed of light. ~ steve-martin, @wisdomtrove
57:Recruiting is hard. It's just finding the needles in the haystack. You can't know enough in a one-hour interview. So, in the end, it's ultimately based on your gut. How do I feel about this person? What are they like when they're challenged? I ask everybody that: &
58:If you intend to study the mind, you must have systematic training; you must practice to bring the mind under your control, to attain to that consciousness from which you will be able to study the mind and remain unmoved by any of its wild gyrations. Otherwise the facts observed will not be reliable; they will not apply to all people and therefore will not be truly facts or data at all. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
59:There is magic in being in the present in your life. I’m always amazed at the power of clear observation simply about what’s going on, what’s true. Finding out the exact details of your personal finances, clarifying the historical data about the company you’re buying, or getting the facts about who really said what to whom in an interpersonal conflict can be constructive, if not downright healing. ~ david-allen, @wisdomtrove
60:Precisely because technology is now moving so fast, and parliaments and dictators alike are overwhelmed by data they cannot process quickly enough, present-day politicians are thinking on a far smaller scale than their predecessors a century ago. Consequently, in the early twenty-first century politics is bereft of grand visions. Government has become mere administration. It manages the country, but it no longer leads it. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
61:It is not possible to provide evidence of life after death to the five senses anymore than it is possible to provide the five senses with evidence of non-physical reality. It cannot be done. The five senses; sight,hearing, taste and smell together form a single sensory system whose object of detection is physical reality. This cannot detect non-physical reality. Humankind is beginning to be able to access data the 5 senses cannot provide. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
62:Every individual is at once the beneficiary and the victim of the linguistic tradition into which he has been born - the beneficiary inasmuch as language gives access to the accumulated records of other people's experience, the victim in so far as it confirms him in the belief that reduced awareness is the only awareness and as it bedevils his sense of reality, so that he is all too apt to take his concepts for data, his words for actual things. ~ aldous-huxley, @wisdomtrove
63:[N]o scientist likes to be criticized. ... But you don't reply to critics: "Wait a minute, wait a minute; this is a really good idea. I'm very fond of it. It's done you no harm. Please don't attack it." That's not the way it goes. The hard but just rule is that if the ideas don't work, you must throw them away. Don't waste any neurons on what doesn't work. Devote those neurons to new ideas that better explain the data. Valid criticism is doing you a favor. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
64:If you are only skeptical, then no new ideas make it through to you. You become a crotchety old person convinced that nonsense is ruling the world. (There is, of course, much data to support you.) But every now and then, a new idea turns out to be on the mark, valid and wonderful. If you are too much in the habit of being skeptical about everything, you are going to miss or resent it, and either way you will be standing in the way of understanding and progress. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
65:Let's find and remedy all our weaknesses before our enemies get a chance to say a word. That is what Charles Darwin did. ... When Darwin completed the manuscript of his immortal book "The Origin Of Species" he realized that the publication of his revolutionary concept of creation would rock the intellectual and religious worlds. So he became his own critic and spent another 15 years checking his data, challenging his reasoning, and criticizing his conclusions. ~ dale-carnegie, @wisdomtrove
66:To many of us now, computers, silicon chips, data processing, cybernetics, and all the other innovations of the dawning high technology age are as mystifying as the workings of the combustion engine must have been when that first Model T rattled down Main Street, U.S.A. But as surely as America's pioneer spirit made us the industrial giant of the 20th century, the same pioneer spirit today is opening up on another vast front of opportunity, the frontier of high technology. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
67:We often hesitate to follow our intuition out of fear. Most usually, we are afraid of the changes in our own life that our actions will bring. Intuitive guidance, however, is all about change. It is energetic data ripe with the potential to influence the rest of the world. To fear change but to crave intuitive clarity is like fearing the cold, dark night while pouring water on the fire that lights your cave. An insight the size of a mustard seed is powerful enough to bring down a mountain-sized illusion that may be holding our lives together. Truth strikes without mercy. We fear our intuitions because we fear the transformational power within our revelations. ~ caroline-myss, @wisdomtrove
68:We often hesitate to follow our intuition out of fear. Most usually, we are afraid of the changes in our own life that our actions will bring. Intuitive guidance, however, is all about change. It is energetic data ripe with the potential to influence the rest of the world. To fear change but to crave intuitive clarity is like fearing the cold, dark night while pouring water on the fire that lights your cave. An insight the size of a mustard seed is powerful enough to bring down a mountain-sized illusion that may be holding our lives together. Truth strikes without mercy. We fear our intuitions because we fear the transformational power within our revelations. ~ norman-vincent-peale, @wisdomtrove
69:By equating the human experience with data patterns, Dataism undermines our main source of authority and meaning, and heralds a tremendous religious revolution, the like of which has not been seen since the eighteenth century. In the days of Locke, Hume and Voltaire humanists argued that ‘God is a product of the human imagination’. Dataism now gives humanists a taste of their own medicine, and tells them: ‘Yes, God is a product of the human imagination, but human imagination in turn is the product of biochemical algorithms.’ In the eighteenth century, humanism sidelined God by shifting from a deo-centric to a homo-centric world view. In the twenty-first century, Dataism may sideline humans by shifting from a homo-centric to a data-centric view. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
70:In the twenty-first century it sounds childish to compare the human psyche to a steam engine. Today we know of a far more sophisticated technology – the computer – so we explain the human psyche as if it were a computer processing data rather than a steam engine regulating pressure. But this new analogy may turn out to be just as naïve. After all, computers have no minds. They don’t crave anything even when they have a bug, and the Internet doesn’t feel pain even when authoritarian regimes sever entire countries from the Web. So why use computers as a model for understanding the mind? Well, are we really sure that computers have no sensations or desires? And even if they haven’t got any at present, perhaps once they become complex enough they might develop consciousness? If that were to happen, how could we ascertain it? When computers replace our bus driver, our teacher and our shrink, how could we determine whether they have feelings or whether they are just a collection of mindless algorithms? ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
71:If we think in term of months, we had probably focus on immediate problems such as the turmoil in the Middle East, the refugee crisis in Europe and the slowing of the Chinese economy. If we think in terms of decades, then global warming, growing inequality and the disruption of the job market loom large. Yet if we take the really grand view of life, all other problems anddevelopments are overshadowed by three interlinked processes: 1. Science is converging on an all-encompassing dogma, which says that organisms are algorithms and life is data processing. 2. Intelligence is decoupling from consciousness. 3. Non-conscious but highly intelligent algorithms may soon know us better than we know ourselves. These three processes raise three key questions, which I hope will stick in your mind long after you have finished this book: 1. Are organisms really just algorithms, and is life really just data processing? 2. What’s more valuable – intelligence or consciousness? 3. What will happen to society, politics and daily life when non-conscious but highly intelligent algorithms know us better than we know ourselves? ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:data outlives code. ~ Martin Kleppmann,
2:To clarify, *add* data. ~ Edward R Tufte,
3:USA FOOD CONSUMPTION DATA ~ Joel Fuhrman,
4:Everything’s a data point. ~ Paul McAuley,
5:big data is usually dumb data. ~ Anonymous,
6:Data is not intelligence. ~ William Binney,
7:development of data standards, ~ Anonymous,
8:What we have is a data glut. ~ Vernor Vinge,
9:Data is the next Intel Inside. ~ Tim O Reilly,
10:Data Is Useless Without Context ~ Nate Silver,
11:You can’t samba in a data stream, ~ Anonymous,
12:Above all else show the data. ~ Edward R Tufte,
13:What do the current data show? ~ Jason L Riley,
14:Who has the data has the power. ~ Tim O Reilly,
15:Hate is love without enough data. ~ Richard Bach,
16:You can only analyze the data you ~ Marie Curie,
17:More data is not always the answer. ~ Alan Hirsch,
18:STORIES ARE JUST DATA WITH A SOUL ~ Carmine Gallo,
19:Certainty, not data, is knowledge. ~ L Ron Hubbard,
20:Consider data without prejudice. ~ Thomas A Edison,
21:stories are just data with a soul. ~ Carmine Gallo,
22:The plural of anecdotes is not data ~ Ben Goldacre,
23:The world is one big data problem. ~ Andrew McAfee,
24:Data may disappoint, but it never lies. ~ Jay Samit,
25:Data can actually make us more human. ~ Aaron Koblin,
26:Maybe stories are just data with a soul ~ Bren Brown,
27:while theories are nice, data is better. ~ Anonymous,
28:Instincts are experiments. Data is proof. ~ Anonymous,
29:Maybe stories are just data with a soul. ~ Bren Brown,
30:The past is relevant only as data. ~ Richard K Morgan,
31:The plural of anecdote is not data. ~ Steven D Levitt,
32:Maybe stories are just data with a soul. ~ Brene Brown,
33:You cannot write well without data. ~ George V Higgins,
34:You can’t samba in a data stream, ~ Alaya Dawn Johnson,
35:Data data everywhere, and not a thought to think! ~ n 1,
36:Data is great, but strategy is better ~ Steven Sinofsky,
37:Data really powers everything that we do. ~ Jeff Weiner,
38:The public trusts big data way too much. ~ Cathy O Neil,
39:They made data a controlled substance. ~ Neal Stephenson,
40:Universal law: data wants to be free. ~ Peter F Hamilton,
41:An instrument is a tool used to collect data. ~ Anonymous,
42:In God we trust, all others bring data ~ W Edwards Deming,
43:Don't censor incoming data through denial. ~ Deepak Chopra,
44:In God we trust; all others bring data. ~ W Edwards Deming,
45:Instincts are experiments. Data is proof. ~ Alistair Croll,
46:Context is to data what water is to a dolphin ~ Dan Simmons,
47:With insufficient data it is easy to go wrong. ~ Carl Sagan,
48:You’re the witch, dude.  I’m the data geek.  ~ Debora Geary,
49:Data coming out our ears but we lack narrative. ~ Roy Sekoff,
50:Data has no ego and makes an excellent co-pilot. ~ Jay Samit,
51:Data is the exhaust of the information age. ~ Bruce Schneier,
52:Demagoguery beats data in making public policy. ~ Dick Armey,
53:Data is not useful until it becomes information. ~ Seth Godin,
54:Data without generalization is just gossip. ~ Robert M Pirsig,
55:the Arcturus system six weeks ago. Data is raw, ~ Ian Douglas,
56:If you want data to survive, carve it in rock. ~ Jack McDevitt,
57:Najbolja blagodat koja nam je data jeste šansa za pokajanje. ~,
58:On data: We are the drivers, not the driven. ~ Andy Hargreaves,
59:Big data isn’t about bits, it’s about talent. ~ Douglas Merrill,
60:Incomplete data leads to incomplete conclusions. ~ Henry H Neff,
61:In God we trust; all others must bring data. ~ W Edwards Deming,
62:We are surrounded by data, but starved for insights. ~ Jay Baer,
63:I hate when people ask me to: "Massage the data". ~ Ronald Coase,
64:Data is the new oil? No: Data is the new soil. ~ David Mccandless,
65:Science will...produce the data..., but never the ~ Lewis Thomas,
66:Data are becoming the new raw material of business. ~ Craig Mundie,
67:Data that conflicts with beliefs is often ignored, ~ Jack Campbell,
68:any global data is always guilty until proven innocent. ~ Anonymous,
69:In God we trust. All others [must] have data ~ Siddhartha Mukherjee,
70:the best ways to solve data problems are often with UX. ~ Anonymous,
71:We live, I regret to say, in an age of Big Data hype. ~ Oscar Wilde,
72:Big data will replace the need for 80% of all doctors ~ Vinod Khosla,
73:Data is what distinguishes the dilettante from the artist ~ George V,
74:If you torture the data long enough, it will confess. ~ Ronald Coase,
75:In the absence of data, we will always make up stories. ~ Bren Brown,
76:A data structure is just a stupid programming language. ~ Bill Gosper,
77:Digital data are more fragile than printed material. ~ Robert Darnton,
78:Size doesn't matter, fast data is better than big data ~ Hilary Mason,
79:Torture the data, and it will confess to anything,” as ~ Ben Goldacre,
80:We dont have better algorithms, we just have more data ~ Peter Norvig,
81:Data, data everywhere, but not a thought to think. ~ John Allen Paulos,
82:Data quality is corporate America's dirty little secret. ~ Paul Gillin,
83:Data scientist is just a sexed up word for statistician. ~ Nate Silver,
84:If you torture the data long enough, it will confess. ~ Ronald H Coase,
85:No observational problem will not be solved by more data. ~ Vera Rubin,
86:If you torture the data enough, nature will always confess. ~ Anonymous,
87:90% of the world's data was created in the last two years ~ Marc Benioff,
88:Data about an innovative idea is rarely crystal clear. ~ Scott D Anthony,
89:Data don't generate theory - only researchers do that. ~ Henry Mintzberg,
90:Start-up founders should be data-informed – not data-driven. ~ Anonymous,
91:Theories come and go, but fundamental data always remains. ~ Mary Leakey,
92:Data are just as often molded to fit preferred conclusions. ~ Roger Lewin,
93:THERE IS AS YET INSUFFICIENT DATA FOR A MEANINGFUL ANSWER. ~ Isaac Asimov,
94:There is as yet insufficient data for a meaningful answer. ~ Isaac Asimov,
95:data mining means “torturing the data until it confesses. ~ Pedro Domingos,
96:The future of marketing isn't big data, it's big understanding. ~ Jay Baer,
97:The analysis of data will not by itself produce new ideas. ~ Edward de Bono,
98:Exaggeration undermines the credibility of well-founded data: ~ Hans Rosling,
99:Videos from Big Data Everywhere 2014 are now available on InfoQ. ~ Anonymous,
100:Without data, you're just another person with an opinion. ~ W Edwards Deming,
101:Data gathered on the Shuttle and ISS help power Google Maps; ~ Chris Hadfield,
102:It is a capital mistake to theorise before one has data. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
103:It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
104:Let them know precisely what you are going to do with their data ~ Steve Jobs,
105:The irony is that more data can often present less clarity. ~ Charles Wheelan,
106:Theory without data is myth: data without theory is madness. ~ Phil Zuckerman,
107:Junk food, empty calories and carbs are the Big Data of the masses ~ Karl Marx,
108:Nobody should try to use data unless he has collected data. ~ W Edwards Deming,
109:The web is hyperlinked documents; the cloud is hyperlinked data. ~ Kevin Kelly,
110:This is data as you have never known it: it is data as therapy. ~ Hans Rosling,
111:We're so obsessed with [big] data, we forget how to interpret it. ~ danah boyd,
112:You have to be willing to have the decision-making follow the data. ~ Ted Cruz,
113:rely on accumulated data rather than on individual anecdotes, ~ Steven D Levitt,
114:People are running huge enterprises off of hacking and stealing data. ~ Tim Cook,
115:Product Market Fit is a feeling backed with data and information. ~ Ryan Holiday,
116:There are no facts, there is no truth, just data to be manipulated. ~ Don Henley,
117:Too few of you, Big Data tells me, are still reading. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
118:Analyse data just so far as to obtain simplicity and no further. ~ Henri Poincare,
119:Big Data processes codify the past. They do not invent the future. ~ Cathy O Neil,
120:The data stream has been corrupted, return to first principles. ~ Terence McKenna,
121:The mystery of consciousness? Erroneous data—significant results. ~ Frank Herbert,
122:This observation is sometimes summed up as data outlives code. ~ Martin Kleppmann,
123:(As scientists like to say: The plural of anecdote is not data.) ~ Steven D Levitt,
124:Every system using data separates humanity into winners and losers. ~ Cathy O Neil,
125:More data beats clever algorithms, but better data beats more data. ~ Peter Norvig,
126:Reports of anti-Semitic incidents are based on differing data and rely ~ Anonymous,
127:It's easy to pretend expertise when there's no data to contradict you. ~ Seth Godin,
128:No great marketing decisions have ever been made on qualitative data ~ John Sculley,
129:Great wisdom not applied to action and behavior is meaningless data. ~ Peter Drucker,
130:It just means you are the sum total of your data. No man escapes that. ~ Don DeLillo,
131:Quantitative data abhors emotion; qualitative data marinates in it. ~ Alistair Croll,
132:The data suggest that happy people are more likely to get married. ~ Steven D Levitt,
133:Unfortunately, while people were drowning in data, knowledge was nowhere ~ Anonymous,
134:Have we been compromised by our own data? The answer is: Of course. ~ Jeff VanderMeer,
135:In God we trust. All others [must] have data. - Bernard Fisher ~ Siddhartha Mukherjee,
136:The more data we have, the more likely we are to drown in it. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
137:the problem isn’t finding data, it’s figuring out what to do with it. ~ Mike Loukides,
138:We need to ground environmentalism on something other than data. ~ Charles Eisenstein,
139:Ultimately, thinking is a very inefficient method of processing data. ~ Frederick Lenz,
140:Data isn't information; information isn't knowledge; knowledge isn't wisdom. ~ Ian Lowe,
141:Dumnezeu e-n ochi. La fel si Diavolul, de fiecare data cand clipesti. ~ Theodore Roszak,
142:I don't see the logic of rejecting data just because they seem incredible. ~ Fred Hoyle,
143:In the twenty-first century, people threw off data like dead skin cells. ~ Barry Eisler,
144:It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data.” - Sherlock Holmes ~ Anonymous,
145:The falsification of scientific data or analysis is always a serious matter ~ Ed Markey,
146:you had to know what you were looking for or the data would drown you. ~ Steve Robinson,
147:A hacker doesnt deliberately destroy data or profit from his activities. ~ Kevin Mitnick,
148:Big data is indeed a buzzword but it is one that is frankly under-hyped. ~ Ginni Rometty,
149:Data are to statistics what a good offensive is to a star quarterback. ~ Charles Wheelan,
150:The goal is to turn data into information, and information into insight. ~ Carly Fiorina,
151:There's no data to suggest that I can make you love me whatever I do. ~ Karen Joy Fowler,
152:When you see data, doubt [them]! When you see measurements, doubt them! ~ Kaoru Ishikawa,
153:while people were drowning in data, knowledge was nowhere to be found. ~ Benjamin Graham,
154:With data collection, 'the sooner the better' is always the best answer. ~ Marissa Mayer,
155:As a scientist, you're not supposed to make decisions without the data. ~ Francis Collins,
156:Data from any single gene cannot really tell you anything so definitive. If ~ Bill Bryson,
157:Jack's [Ma Yun ] theory is that whoever controls data controls the world. ~ Masayoshi Son,
158:... no compelling data to support its anachronistic social Darwinism. ~ Stephen Jay Gould,
159:Our five senses are faulty data-taking devices, and they need help. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
160:To her data analysis was the ugly love child of science and Kafka, ~ Kim Stanley Robinson,
161:Twenty percent of all input forms filled out by people contain bad data. ~ Dennis Ritchie,
162:Without big data, you are blind and deaf and in the middle of a freeway. ~ Geoffrey Moore,
163:All data are filtered, observation is necessarily 'theory-laden'. ~ Norwood Russell Hanson,
164:Small, noncomparative, highly labeled data sets usually belong in tables. ~ Edward R Tufte,
165:stay open to new data and be prepared to keep freshening up your knowledge. ~ Hans Rosling,
166:The computer, being a mechanical moron, can handle only quantifiable data. ~ Peter Drucker,
167:The more the data banks record about each one of us, the less we exist. ~ Marshall McLuhan,
168:Gratitude, therefore, emerged from the data as the antidote to foreboding joy. ~ Bren Brown,
169:Sometimes the job of a data scientist is to know when you don't know enough. ~ Cathy O Neil,
170:The future belongs to the companies and people that turn data into products ~ Mike Loukides,
171:We apply fight-or-flight reflexes not only to predators, but to data itself. ~ Chris Mooney,
172:but slots — and other “virtual” attributes — won’t be reported as instance data. ~ Mark Lutz,
173:Data is a lot like humans: It is born. Matures. Gets married to other data, ~ Arthur Miller,
174:Data is a precious thing and will last longer than the systems themselves. ~ Tim Berners Lee,
175:In baseball you have terrific data and you can be a lot more creative with it. ~ Nate Silver,
176:There is so much data available to us, but most data won't help us succeed. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
177:The world is now awash in data and we can see consumers in a lot clearer ways. ~ Max Levchin,
178:Unlike oil, Big Data’s reserves are growing exponentially every year. ~ Khang Kijarro Nguyen,
179:We're entering a new world in which data may be more important than software. ~ Tim O Reilly,
180:Be critical of classes that contain more than about seven data members. The ~ Steve McConnell,
181:Errors using inadequate data are much less than those using no data at all. ~ Charles Babbage,
182:The greatest wisdom not applied to action and behaviour is meaningless data ~ Peter F Drucker,
183:There's a lot of power in executing data - generating data and executing data. ~ Ken Thompson,
184:Youth is cause, effect is age; so with the thickening of the neck we get data. ~ Djuna Barnes,
185:Data alone is not enough. Starting from scratch will only get you to scratch. ~ Pedro Domingos,
186:Data!data!data!" he cried impatiently. "I can't make bricks without clay. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
187:Every failure contains valuable data that will point you in the right direction. ~ Ramit Sethi,
188:Hey I just met you The network’s laggy But here’s my data So store it maybe ~ Martin Kleppmann,
189:Our early libertarian idealism resulted in gargantuan, global data monopsonies. ~ Jaron Lanier,
190:Over the next ten years, everything that has a cord is going to have data in it. ~ Tony Fadell,
191:Simple models and a lot of data trump more elaborate models based on less data. ~ Peter Norvig,
192:When a manager asks for hard data, that's usually just his way of saying no. ~ Ward Cunningham,
193:And love?” she asked him. “What is love?” He smiled faintly. “Data of the heart. ~ C S Friedman,
194:I’d run straight into a bulkhead trying to walk and receive data at the same time… ~ Ann Leckie,
195:It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data.—Sir Arthur Conan Doyle ~ Philip Kotler,
196:The Crystal Wind is the Storm, and the Storm is Data, and the Data is Life. ~ Daniel Keys Moran,
197:Thought, without the data on which to structure that thought, leads nowhere. ~ Victor J Stenger,
198:When anecdotal user feedback and data contradict each other, listen to the data. ~ Reid Hoffman,
199:Governance allows organizations...t o use critical data to drive the organization. ~ Dick Taylor,
200:The world, quite simply, is too complex and too rich for little data. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
201:When human judgment and big data intersect there are some funny things that happen ~ Nate Silver,
202:where data are sparse, competing ideas abound that are clever and wishful. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
203:A very rarely discussed property of data: it is toxic in large quantities ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
204:If you are using search data to decide what's fashionable, you are not fashionable. ~ Peter Sagal,
205:One of the core principles of Google has always been “Don’t politick. Use data.” As ~ Laszlo Bock,
206:The problem is that we won’t ever know that, and a lack of data never wins debates. ~ David Weber,
207:Too many product managers rely on instinct and gut instead of actual behavioral data. ~ Anonymous,
208:To Schema on Read or to Schema on Write, That Is the Hadoop Data Lake Question ~ Martin Kleppmann,
209:Welcome to the information age. Data, data, everywhere, but no one knows a thing. ~ Roger Kimball,
210:Engineering, I think you can pick up. [A data scientist's] curiosity is built-in ~ Scott Nicholson,
211:Everything you said or did was a data point you put out there in the world. ~ Jennifer Lynn Barnes,
212:Frightened people want action more than they want correct action. It’s in the data. ~ Marcus Sakey,
213:How can you make sense of the future when you only have data about the past? ~ Clayton Christensen,
214:If you just talk to who's easy to talk to, you're not really getting the best data. ~ Emmett Shear,
215:People are stunned to hear that one company has data files on 185 million Americans. ~ Ralph Nader,
216:Reality exists in the mind of each.
The senses are input devices for incoming data. ~ Toba Beta,
217:Teach where data can be found or how it can be derived, not the recording of data. ~ L Ron Hubbard,
218:When science and the Bible differ, science has obviously misinterpreted its data. ~ Henry M Morris,
219:Women buy underwear for the men they love. It’s economics. Data supports this claim. ~ Helen Hoang,
220:In Operations, many of our data sets have what we call ‘chi squared’ distribution. Using ~ Gene Kim,
221:I then realized my analytics data was a bit odd. My keywords were no longer with me ~ Douglas Bader,
222:It’s even been said that data mining means “torturing the data until it confesses. ~ Pedro Domingos,
223:More data means more information, but it also means more false information. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
224:There might never be that moment when everyone says, "Oh my God, big data is awful." ~ Cathy O Neil,
225:We chose it because we deal with huge amounts of data. Besides, it sounds really cool. ~ Larry Page,
226:A brainscan cannot interpret itself and neither can a data dashboard in education. ~ Andy Hargreaves,
227:As of yet, there is no peer-reviewed data on the efficacy of journaling by candlelight. ~ Sara Eckel,
228:Data is not the phenomenon. It represents the phenomenon, but not very well. ~ Clayton M Christensen,
229:Every thought that arises in the mind has its roots in data you have already accumulated. ~ Sadhguru,
230:IBM estimates that 90 percent of the world’s data was created in the last two years. ~ Robert Scoble,
231:I don't think there is any global warming. I don't see the statistical data for that. ~ Vaclav Klaus,
232:We have to learn to interrogate our data collection process, not just our algorithms. ~ Cathy O Neil,
233:We must be careful not to confuse data with the abstractions we use to analyse them. ~ William James,
234:Allowing us to do many causal experiments is the fourth power of Big Data. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
235:If you bomb a city, then rebuild it, the data shows a huge spike in economic activity. ~ John Perkins,
236:If you entrust your data to others, they can let you down or outright betray you. ~ Jonathan Zittrain,
237:If you're going to decide to run a data-driven campaign, decision-making has to follow it. ~ Ted Cruz,
238:Most people think that aging is fatal and scientific data shows that that's not true. ~ Deepak Chopra,
239:Once dismissed as “body shops”, India’s IT-outsourcing firms are now leaders in big data. ~ Anonymous,
240:That's all data is. A gift from yesterday that you receive today to make tomorrow better. ~ Jon Acuff,
241:The real justification for psychedelics is that they feed new data into your model. ~ Terence McKenna,
242:When we share our personal data with business, its use should be transparent and secure. ~ Anna Eshoo,
243:You can't understand depth of science, unless you challenge the published scientific data. ~ Amit Ray,
244:broadband firms want to manage more actively the data pulsing through their conduits—their ~ Anonymous,
245:Data by itself is not useful. Data is only useful if it can be applied for public benefit. ~ Todd Park,
246:In God we trust,” he brusquely told a journalist. “All others [must] have data. ~ Siddhartha Mukherjee,
247:In practice, however, the boundary between data and processing can be hard to establish. ~ Jean Tirole,
248:One of the issues of social networking silos is that they have the data and I don't. ~ Tim Berners Lee,
249:What am I? The data? The process that generates it? The relationships between the numbers? ~ Greg Egan,
250:Cartoons are data. If people find them funny, that tells us something about the world. ~ Robert H Frank,
251:Data can't speak for itself; it's up to you to give it a voice. Try to speak truthfully. ~ Ronald Coase,
252:People are very interested in having access to wireless data while they are on a plane. ~ Steve Largent,
253:The data is clear: If you give a woman an opportunity, she will make a huge difference. ~ Carly Fiorina,
254:The librarian is the interface between reams of data and the untrained but motivated user. ~ Seth Godin,
255:This is the book that I wish existed when I started using Python for data analysis in 2007. ~ Anonymous,
256:A better world won’t come about simply because we use data; data has its dark underside. ~ Mike Loukides,
257:APIs extend the reach of your software and data; SOA accelerates it through proven patterns. ~ Anonymous,
258:Data is of course important in manufacturing, but I place the greatest emphasis on facts. ~ Taiichi Ohno,
259:I think that the default for collecting any kind of personal data should be opt-in consent. ~ Al Franken,
260:knowledge, data processing, and creativity are going to be at the heart of creating value. ~ Jean Tirole,
261:You can have data without information, but you cannot have information without data. ~ Daniel Keys Moran,
262:If we have data, let's look at data. If all we have are opinions, let's go with mine. ~ James L Barksdale,
263:In God we trust,”509 he brusquely told a journalist. “All others [must] have data. ~ Siddhartha Mukherjee,
264:it’s pretty easy to frame an argument convincingly by being selective in the data presented. ~ Roxane Gay,
265:I wanted to separate data from programs, because data and instructions are very different. ~ Ken Thompson,
266:Nothing beats standing in the middle of the action, with all the data I need at my fingertips ~ Betty Liu,
267:One of the best things data can enable us to do is to ask questions we didn't know to ask. ~ Vinod Khosla,
268:On mobile, what are the core apps? It's basically messaging, mapping and review data. ~ Jeremy Stoppelman,
269:You can also enter RxList.com into Alexa.com, a free data mining and analysis service, ~ Daniel J Levitin,
270:Platforms beat pipelines by using data-based tools to create community feedback loops. ~ Geoffrey G Parker,
271:There is little scientific data on the point, but evidently people do speak to themselves. ~ David Crystal,
272:While hard data may inform the intellect, it is largely soft data that generates wisdom. ~ Henry Mintzberg,
273:My radio show, I'd show up, I'd read the data, and I would have sound bites and stuff like that. ~ Jay Mohr,
274:Our problems are not with the data, itself, but arise from our interpretation of the data. ~ Bruce H Lipton,
275:There are two types of people in the world: those who can extrapolate from incomplete data..... ~ Anonymous,
276:what data gives you is a unique excuse to interact with many different functions of a business. ~ Anonymous,
277:who knows how the data behind these metaphors has traveled, from where and for how long. ~ Richard K Morgan,
278:Allowing us to zoom in on small subsets of people is the third power of Big Data. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
279:Although the prime numbers are rigidly determined, they somehow feel like experimental data. ~ Timothy Gowers,
280:Although we often hear that data speak for themselves, their voices can be soft and sly ~ Frederick Mosteller,
281:Anecdotal data is not incidental to theory development at all, but an essential part of it. ~ Henry Mintzberg,
282:Data is like garbage. You'd better know what you are going to do with it before you collect it. ~ Mark Twain,
283:Don't measure anything unless the data helps you make a better decision or change your actions. ~ Seth Godin,
284:Girls are interesting, Mike; they can reach conclusions with even less data than you can. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
285:I love data. I think it's very important to get it right, and I think it's good to question it. ~ Mary Meeker,
286:I'm a bit of a freak for evidence-based analysis. I strongly believe in data. ~ Gus O Donnell Baron O Donnell,
287:Information is just bits of data. Knowledge is putting them together. Wisdom is transcending them. ~ Ram Dass,
288:Scientists peered into data and concluded that we should all be worried.
-Lunar planet ~ Bret Easton Ellis,
289:We have the data to prove to men that gender equality is not a zero-sum game, but a win-win. ~ Michael Kimmel,
290:What is clear is that users own their data and should have control of how their data is used. ~ Marissa Mayer,
291:When you live in a networked environment, it's possible to separate data from applications. ~ Stephen Cambone,
292:If you step back and look at the data, the optimum amount of red meat you eat should be zero. ~ Walter Willett,
293:It's amazing how much data is out there. The question is how do we put it in a form that's usable? ~ Bill Ford,
294:Overfitting happens when you have too many hypotheses and not enough data to tell them apart. ~ Pedro Domingos,
295:the ability to blur the traditional distinction between ``passive'' data and ``active'' processes. ~ Anonymous,
296:When a problem seems urgent the first thing to do is not to cry wolf, but to organize the data. ~ Hans Rosling,
297:Data and intuition are like horse and rider, and you don’t try to outrun a horse; you ride it. ~ Pedro Domingos,
298:Light fades as it travels; the fainter it becomes, the less capable it is of transmitting data. ~ Michael Lewis,
299:the strategic goal was the same: to reach people in an effective, scalable, and data-driven way. ~ Ryan Holiday,
300:He knew time and day of week and wondered when such scraps of data would begin to feel disposable. ~ Don DeLillo,
301:It is not what a government does with data that defines it; it is what it does to human beings. ~ Garry Kasparov,
302:The crucial challenge is to learn how to read critically, analyze data, and formulate ideas—and ~ Fareed Zakaria,
303:We can say, "if you want government money, you have to make this data public - you have to share it." ~ Joe Biden,
304:In seven to ten years video traffic on the Internet will exceed data and voice traffic combined. ~ Robert Metcalfe,
305:It is often true that groundbreaking discoveries are made from poor data at the leading edge ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
306:Noise in machine learning just means errors in the data, or random events that you can’t predict. ~ Pedro Domingos,
307:sometimes the only solution when the data is very noisy—is to focus more on process than on results. ~ Nate Silver,
308:Backups are for wimps. Real men upload their data to an FTP site and have everyone else mirror it. ~ Linus Torvalds,
309:Everybody is connected to everybody else, all data that can be shared will be shared: get used to it. ~ Eben Moglen,
310:None of that data, however, actually tells you why customers make the choices that they do. ~ Clayton M Christensen,
311:The ideal organizational environment encourages everyone to observe, collect data, and speak up. ~ Richard H Thaler,
312:The NSA buys data from private companies, so the private companies are the source of all this stuff. ~ Cathy O Neil,
313:three-dimensional model of wisdom did not fit the Chinese data, χ2(699)=1228.24 (p <.001); CFI=. 47; ~ Anonymous,
314:appetite of the blank page for ever more information, ever more data. An empty book is a greedy thing. ~ Terry Gross,
315:Do countries with strong gun control laws have lower murder rates? Only if you cherry-pick the data. ~ Thomas Sowell,
316:Everything is data! And with all this new data, we can finally see through people’s lies. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
317:It is not what a government does with data that defines it; it is what it does to human beings. Any ~ Garry Kasparov,
318:mystery,” I remarked. “What do you imagine that it means?” “I have no data yet. It is a capital ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
319:Our ability to do great things with data will make a real difference in every aspect of our lives. ~ Jennifer Pahlka,
320:Our most valued commodities have gone from salt and sugar to chemicals and fuels to data and services. ~ Alec J Ross,
321:Reliable data on the outsourcing of American jobs is sorely missing from the debate on globalization. ~ Dan Lipinski,
322:The temptation to form premature theories upon insufficient data is the bane of our profession. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
323:The ultimate purpose of collecting the data is to provide a basis for action or a recommendation. ~ W Edwards Deming,
324:We are the sum total of our data, I told her, just as we are the sum total of our chemical impulses. I ~ Don DeLillo,
325:It is better to have 100 functions operate on one data structure than 10 functions on 10 data structures. ~ Anonymous,
326:Oh, scientific mind. You get all your data from us, the senses, but without us you would be nothing. ~ Fred Alan Wolf,
327:People are starting to be very skeptical of the Facebook algorithm and all kinds of data surveillance. ~ Cathy O Neil,
328:social acceptability of digitization depends on us believing that our data will not be used against us, ~ Jean Tirole,
329:To experience the world through the senses was different from simply having data about the world. ~ John Joseph Adams,
330:China has already vaulted far ahead of the United States as the world’s largest producer of digital data, ~ Kai Fu Lee,
331:Making good judgments when one has complete data, facts, and knowledge is not leadership - it's bookkeeping ~ Dee Hock,
332:To be honest, I don't have data in my brain of how a relationship with a man is supposed to function. ~ Drew Barrymore,
333:Compassion is what you're good at. I'm better at complex searches through organized data structures. ~ Orson Scott Card,
334:I think data is incredibly powerful for understanding what people are thinking and for allocating resources. ~ Ted Cruz,
335:Most companies don't want their data co-mingled with other customers. Small companies will tolerate it. ~ Larry Ellison,
336:Not waiting for something to complete (e.g., sending data over the network to another node), and not ~ Martin Kleppmann,
337:Because, like Sherlock says to Dr. Watson, ‘it is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. ~ Chris Grabenstein,
338:Every company has big data in its future and every company will eventually be in the data business. ~ Thomas H Davenport,
339:No generalizing beyond the data, no theory. No theory, no insight. And if no insight, why do research. ~ Henry Mintzberg,
340:of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sproul, R. C. (Robert Charles), 1939-   What is the relationship ~ R C Sproul,
341:The mind, in short, works on the data it receives very much as the sculptor works on his block of stone. ~ William James,
342:A single sperm contains 37.5 MB of DNA information. One ejaculation represents a data transfer of 15,875 GB, ~ John Lloyd,
343:Consumers deserve to know exactly what they're getting for their money when they sign-up for a 4G data plan. ~ Anna Eshoo,
344:Evolution is the ultimate example of how much a simple learning algorithm can achieve given enough data. ~ Pedro Domingos,
345:I would defer to your expertise in shooting and killing things. You should defer to mine in data analysis. ~ Martha Wells,
346:They were learning fast, or at least collecting data, which they considered to be the same as learning. ~ Terry Pratchett,
347:Those fields which most depend upon authoritative opinion for their data least contain known natural law. ~ L Ron Hubbard,
348:To condescend effectively it is clearly necessary to adhere to a narrow definition of relevant data. ~ Marilynne Robinson,
349:All problems are simply interruptions in the transmission and preservation of data, he reminded himself. ~ G Willow Wilson,
350:If you can follow only one bit of data, follow the earnings - assuming the company in question has earnings. ~ Peter Lynch,
351:I kind of have to be a master of cleaning, extracting and trusting my data before I do anything with it. ~ Scott Nicholson,
352:No matter how powerful a computer you have, if you put lousy data in you will get lousy predictions out. ~ Stephen Hawking,
353:Some people are Accommodators; others—like me—are basically Assertive; and the rest are data-loving Analysts. ~ Chris Voss,
354:These questions do not call for the discovery of data; they call for the contemplation of possibility. ~ Joan D Chittister,
355:A basic principle of data processing teaches the folly of trying to maintain independent files in synchonism. ~ Fred Brooks,
356:Cosmetic decoration, which frequently distorts the data, will never salvage an underlying lack of content. ~ Edward R Tufte,
357:Data are just summaries of thousands of stories - tell a few of those stories to help make the data meaningful. ~ Dan Heath,
358:...Data itself... was tolerable. It was the constant nerve-web-expanding pain of context that would kill him. ~ Dan Simmons,
359:Intuited novels are far more ‘true’ than all your scribbled data-fact reportage in the history of the world! ~ Ray Bradbury,
360:Maybe the schedules hadn’t been updated; humans are so fucking unreliable when it comes to maintaining data. ~ Martha Wells,
361:Quando ti viene data la possibilità di scegliere se avere ragione o essere gentile, scegli di essere gentile. ~ R J Palacio,
362:Self-driving cars offer you the freedom to sit back, relax, and consume vast quantities of information and data. ~ Amy Webb,
363:Some 43 percent of voters in union households voted for President Bush in 2004, according to exit poll data. ~ Linda Chavez,
364:the next darwin is more likely to be a data wonk than a naturalist wandering through an exotic landscape ~ David Weinberger,
365:All knowledge—past, present, and future—can be derived from data by a single, universal learning algorithm. ~ Pedro Domingos,
366:Bad programmers worry about the code. Good programmers worry about data structures and their relationships. ~ Linus Torvalds,
367:Brash souls made jokes about what must be mountains of unread spy-eye data stored who knew where and how. ~ James Tiptree Jr,
368:By 2010, we as a species were creating more data per day than we did from the beginning of time until 2003. ~ Bruce Schneier,
369:Data only exists within the framework of a vision you're building to, a hypothesis of where you're moving to. ~ Reid Hoffman,
370:Doctors and patients need as much data as possible to make an informed decision about what treatment is best. ~ Ben Goldacre,
371:Our conscious mind is simply unable to handle the complex, dynamic layers of data flooding us in each moment. ~ Todd Kashdan,
372:The next darwin is more likely to be a data wonk than a naturalist wandering through an exotic landscape. ~ David Weinberger,
373:There has been a substitution of ideology for fact and scientific and engineering data in this administration. ~ Vinton Cerf,
374:TIA was being used by real users, working on real data - foreign data. Data where privacy is not an issue. ~ John Poindexter,
375:To write it, it took three months; to conceive it three minutes; to collect the data in it all my life. ~ F Scott Fitzgerald,
376:Daca-mi dau voie sa te sarut o data, ar urma inca o data, apoi inca una, si curand n-am mai putea sa ne oprim. ~ Lisa Kleypas,
377:Data is the pollution problem of the information age, and protecting privacy is the environmental challenge. ~ Bruce Schneier,
378:This is my favorite part about analytics: Taking boring flat data and bringing it to life through visualization. ~ John Tukey,
379:This pattern-finding process is easier when the data is labeled with that desired outcome—“cat” versus “no cat”; ~ Kai Fu Lee,
380:Without big data analytics, companies are blind and deaf, wandering out onto the Web like deer on a freeway. ~ Geoffrey Moore,
381:A theory with mathematical beauty is more likely to be correct than an ugly one that fits some experimental data. ~ Paul Dirac,
382:Every second of every day, our senses bring in way too much data than we can possibly process in our brains. ~ Peter Diamandis,
383:Here's why most campaigns get data wrong. They treat it as an afterthought and they treat it as sort of a logistic. ~ Ted Cruz,
384:If it exists, the Master Algorithm can derive all knowledge in the world—past, present, and future—from data. ~ Pedro Domingos,
385:Knowledge about limitations of your data collection process affects what inferences you can draw from the data. ~ Nick Bostrom,
386:the “logic” of the facts—that is, as it sought to deduce laws or universals from the raw data of the particulars. ~ R C Sproul,
387:The paradigm of physics - with its interplay of data, theory and prediction - is the most powerful in science. ~ Geoffrey West,
388:There is good news in the data the strongest support for priests is to be found among the younger generation. ~ Andrew Greeley,
389:By mindfully considering data not as stable commodities but as sources of ambiguity, we become more observant. ~ Ellen J Langer,
390:No good model ever accounted for all the facts, since some data was bound to be misleading if not plain wrong. ~ James D Watson,
391:Pinterest may have more travel intent data than any other site, so many people are pinning where they want to be. ~ Terry Jones,
392:The neural networks responsible for sensory gating begin to process data as soon as the child is born . ~ Stephen Harrod Buhner,
393:Christ, when she used words such as "validity" and "data", Quint wanted to do unspeakably improper things to her. ~ Joanna Shupe,
394:Small Data is not about testing concepts - it is more to create the foundation for innovative brand thinking. ~ Martin Lindstrom,
395:...the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia apparently cherry-picked Russian climate data. ~ Andrey Illarionov,
396:There is no data that can be displayed in a pie chart, that cannot be displayed BETTER in some other type of chart. ~ John Tukey,
397:We just see a sort of cascading amount of data of the damage that is being done by those increased temperatures. ~ Bill McKibben,
398:Big Data is not just about doing the same thing you would have done with surveys except with more data ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
399:Intelligence takes chances with limited data in an arena where mistakes are not only possible but also necessary. ~ Frank Herbert,
400:Learning from data is virtually universally useful. Master it and you’ll be welcomed nearly everywhere! —John Elder ~ Eric Siegel,
401:We used to be calorie poor and now the problem is obesity. We used to be data poor, now the problem is data obesity. ~ Hal Varian,
402:If an SSD is disconnected from power, it can start losing data within a few weeks, depending on the temperature ~ Martin Kleppmann,
403:Private companies now collect and sell as many as 75,000 individual data points about the average American consumer. ~ Alec J Ross,
404:The story the data tells us is often the one we’d like to hear, and we usually make sure that it has a happy ending. ~ Nate Silver,
405:Extreme views are never just; something always turns up which disturbs the calculations formed upon their data. ~ Benjamin Disraeli,
406:Gender data is important. If girls don’t have a birth certificate, how do we know how many are marrying as children? ~ Kathy Calvin,
407:I don't have scientific data, but I think plenty of perfectly nice weekends are being given over to the binge craze. ~ Hank Stuever,
408:I don't use scientific data as a foundation for believing in God - I use it as an enrichment of my knowledge of God. ~ George Coyne,
409:If someone's criticism is completely unfounded on data, then I don't want to hear it. It doesn't hold up to scrutiny. ~ Tim Ferriss,
410:If you consider any set of data without a preconceived viewpoint, then a viewpoint will emerge from the data. ~ William S Burroughs,
411:The challenge is for the graphic designer to turn data into information and information into messages of meaning. ~ Katherine McCoy,
412:The data don’t lie: a Chicago street prostitute is more likely to have sex with a cop than to be arrested by one. ~ Steven D Levitt,
413:the data shows that half the increase in child survival in the world happens because the mothers can read and write. ~ Hans Rosling,
414:You collect as much data as you can, you immerse yourself in that data but then you make the decision with your heart. ~ Jeff Bezos,
415:As you get more information, start to draw conclusions. Perhaps you can identify more data points to keep in the record. ~ Anonymous,
416:Creating a story that’s compelling and exciting for people, while still respecting the truth of the data, is hard to do. ~ Anonymous,
417:data science is a team sport, somebody has to bring the data together, somebody has to move it, someone needs to analyse ~ Anonymous,
418:For me, all of the data that is contained in your cell memory, and in your energetic field, is able to be picked up. ~ Caroline Myss,
419:I think big data companies only like good news. So I think they're just hoping that they don't get sued, essentially. ~ Cathy O Neil,
420:let the networks themselves identify patterns within the data. In other words, the less human interference, the better. ~ Kai Fu Lee,
421:the best data scientists tend to be “hard scientists,” particularly physicists, rather than computer science majors. ~ Mike Loukides,
422:There is very strong historical data that suggest the way societies grow is by making large, long-term investments. ~ Fareed Zakaria,
423:Yelp is in a very nice spot: local data, and especially review data, is one of the killer apps on mobile phones. ~ Jeremy Stoppelman,
424:A basic principle of data processing teaches the folly of trying to maintain independent files in synchonism. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
425:And the data on everything from air quality to commodity prices to levels of violence show improvement over time. ~ Erik Brynjolfsson,
426:Apple and Google will compete like crazy for our data because once they have it we'll be their customers forever. ~ Robert X Cringely,
427:Convey your passion and link your strengths to measurable results. Employers and interviewers love concrete data. ~ Marcus Buckingham,
428:Patients are empowered by having better access to their own health information, and then by owning their own data. ~ Elizabeth Holmes,
429:Recommended additon to the Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights: "A right to not have your data rise up and attack you." ~ Benjamin Wittes,
430:Second-order mindfulness recognizes that there is no right answer. Decision making is independent of data gathering. ~ Ellen J Langer,
431:Your personal life is now known as Facebook’s data. Its CEO’s personal life is now known as mind your own business. ~ Glenn Greenwald,
432:Darwin’s ideas are devices for generating data. Darwin’s theory opens possibilities for inquiry; Agassiz’s closes them. ~ Louis Menand,
433:for all the valuable insights big data provides, the Web remains a curated, idealized version of who we really are. ~ Martin Lindstrom,
434:for Google, the real value of a book is not as a self-contained literary work but as another pile of data to be mined. ~ Nicholas Carr,
435:I could make a film in front of a wall if I knew how to find the data of man's true humanity and how to express it. ~ Luchino Visconti,
436:In April 2012, Greenpeace spotlighted the issue of power demand in data centers in the report “How Clean Is Your Cloud? ~ Robert Bryce,
437:In the next 10 years, data science and software will do more for medicine than all of the biological sciences together. ~ Vinod Khosla,
438:She and Torres have history all over the place. Stuck together in the data like tissues on a lap dance cabin floor. ~ Richard K Morgan,
439:When moral posturing is replaced by an honest assessment of the data, the result is often a new, surprising insight. ~ Steven D Levitt,
440:I consider high-speed data transmission an invention that became a major innovation. It changed the way we all communicate ~ Dean Kamen,
441:In a digital culture that values data points over context, everyone comes to believe they have the real answer and that the ~ Anonymous,
442:It is better to have 100 functions operate on one data structure than to have 10 functions operate on 10 data structures. ~ Alan Perlis,
443:Scientific ideas should succeed or fail according to rational argument and evidence. It is about data rather than dogma. ~ Matthew Syed,
444:[Sherlock Holmes:] The temptation to form premature theories upon insufficient data is the bane of our profession. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
445:the challenge of data analysis is how to bring vast amounts of information into productive contact with human intelligence. ~ Anonymous,
446:The internet wasn't created for mockery, it was supposed to help researchers at different universities share data sets. It was! ~ Homer,
447:When an economist says the evidence is "mixed," he or she means that theory says one thing and data says the opposite. ~ Richard Thaler,
448:You can never let your data dictate design. If you do, you end up following what people currently do and never innovating. ~ Aza Raskin,
449:Big Data allows us to meaningfully zoom in on small segments of a dataset to gain new insights on who we are. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
450:I'm handed a bunch of existing data. My job is to put that in the best narrative form. That is a puzzle I love to solve. ~ Hilary Liftin,
451:Still, it is an error to argue in front of your data. You find yourself insensibly twisting them round to fit your theories. ~ Anonymous,
452:There are two sources of error: Either you lack sufficient data, or you fail to take advantage of the data that you have. ~ Bryan Caplan,
453:Yes, we are all conspiracy theorists with our own stories, constantly filling in data gaps with our fears and insecurities. ~ Bren Brown,
454:As it happened, Conway meant to say “alternative information,” which at least would imply there might be additional data. ~ Michael Wolff,
455:It's important to remember that behind every data point is a daughter, a mother, a sister—a person with hopes and dreams. ~ Melinda Gates,
456:Lots of data gets collected through the latest technology today, and not all of it is about people's consumer preferences. ~ Lisa Randall,
457:There is no experimental data that exists that supports the view that the Earth's climate is changing in any dangerous way. ~ Willie Soon,
458:Everything I write, I believe instinctively, is to some extent collage. Meaning, ultimately, is a matter of adjacent data. ~ David Shields,
459:... nu ne acorda nici o atentie si n-a intrebat nici macar o data despre ce discutam. Era sociabil doar cu alunele. ~ Jonathan Safran Foer,
460:The conclusion of design flows naturally from the data; we should not shrink from it; we should embrace it and build on it. ~ Michael Behe,
461:The greatest danger of Big data and Artificial Intelligence is robots and bots will track you and manipulate you in every step. ~ Amit Ray,
462:The level of ignorance is declining, and the ability to accumulate data and manipulate it for various ends is increasing. ~ Bruce Sterling,
463:We are like coral animals in a vast reef of excreted technological material that is wired for solid state data transfer. ~ Terence McKenna,
464:Areas where there is a lack of data, or a lack of understanding, are automatically assumed to belong, by default, to God. ~ Richard Dawkins,
465:This guy knows his electronics, so he took basic precautions with his personal data, but—take a hike, She-Body, this is my area. ~ J D Robb,
466:A procession of the damned. By the damned, I mean the excluded. We shall have a procession of data that Science has excluded. ~ Charles Fort,
467:Jim Barksdale, erstwhile CEO of Netscape: “If we have data, let’s look at data. If all we have are opinions, let’s go with mine. ~ Anonymous,
468:A data scientist is that unique blend of skills that can both unlock the insights of data and tell a fantastic story via the data. ~ DJ Patil,
469:Heritage will remain, first and foremost, a research institute dedicated to impeccable research and data-driven policy analysis. ~ Jim DeMint,
470:Informally, data is ``stuff'' that we want to manipulate, and procedures are descriptions of the rules for manipulating the data. ~ Anonymous,
471:In no affairs of mere prejudice, pro or con, do we deduce inferences with entire certainty, even from the most simple data. ~ Edgar Allan Poe,
472:Myths born in patriarchy offer a limited source of data on women. What they usually tell is how women react under patriarchy. ~ Sue Monk Kidd,
473:The algorithms know you better than you know yourself,” says Xavier Amatriain, a former data scientist at Netflix. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
474:Each and every day, NOAA collects twice as much data as is contained in the entire book collection of the Library of Congress. ~ Michael Lewis,
475:Gut hunches are routinely passed off as dogma while conventional wisdom flourishes even when there is no data to back it up. ~ Steven D Levitt,
476:In the absence of good scientific data about the effects of artificial hallucinogens it's good to stick to the natural ones. ~ Terence McKenna,
477:Log Message Format IOS defines the format of log messages. The message begins with some data fields about the message, followed ~ Wendell Odom,
478:No data yet," he answered. "It is a capital mistake to theorize before you have all the evidence. It biases the judgment. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
479:No data yet,” he answered. “It is a capital mistake to theorize before you have all the evidence. It biases the judgment. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
480:People don't want the raw data, but instead want marketers to decipher the tech speak for them and present the valuable insights. ~ Jim Sterne,
481:What if you could have real-time data streamed into your body, so that it became part of your direct experience of the world? ~ David Eagleman,
482:Truly smart technologies will remind us that we are not mere automatons who assist big data in asking and answering questions. ~ Evgeny Morozov,
483:Without data, you are just another person with an opinion . . . Without data, you are just another person with an opinion . . . ~ Amanda Ripley,
484:Generally, the craft of programming is the factoring of a set of requirements into a a set of functions and data structures. ~ Douglas Crockford,
485:if you want to work on data covering more than about one month you’re supposed to phone Mr. Jobsworth at BT and whine for help. ~ Charles Stross,
486:I think what bothers me so much of the time, is they take the data and theory and distort it. They must know they're distorting. ~ Eugenie Scott,
487:our ability to analyze data has grown far more sophisticated than our thinking about what we ought to do with the results. You ~ Charles Wheelan,
488:The best thing that would happen is for Facebook to open up its data. Failing that, there are other ways to get that information. ~ Eric Schmidt,
489:Web users ultimately want to get at data quickly and easily. They don't care as much about attractive sites and pretty design. ~ Tim Berners Lee,
490:You can't publish a paper on physics without the full experimental data and results; that should be the standard in journalism. ~ Julian Assange,
491:You can use all the quantitative data you can get, but you still have to distrust it and use your own intelligence and judgment. ~ Alvin Toffler,
492:doesn’t require very complicated math. One guy told me that if you just designed a clean data display, people were amazed. ~ Kim Stanley Robinson,
493:Economic data will be the biggest driver of market moves over the next month, and the key one is the jobs report," said Jim McDonald, ~ Anonymous,
494:Increasingly, data can only truly deliver via negativa–style knowledge—it can be effectively used to debunk, not confirm. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
495:Life is made up of a series of judgments on insufficient data, and if we waited to run down all our doubts, it would flow past us. ~ Learned Hand,
496:Still, it is an error to argue in front of your data. You find yourself insensibly twisting them round to fit your theories. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
497:The mind when it has an old experience will add that data into its current experience, and it keeps coming up with wrong answers. ~ L Ron Hubbard,
498:When we have all data online it will be great for humanity. It is a prerequisite to solving many problems that humankind faces. ~ Robert Cailliau,
499:And all of it generates a data trail. All of it is trackable somewhere at some level, and much of it is traceable to this location. ~ Kate O Neill,
500:If you're a scientist, and you have to have an answer, even in the absence of data, you're not going to be a good scientist. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
501:I lay no claim to advancing scientific data other than advancing flying knowledge. I can only say that I do it because I want to. ~ Amelia Earhart,
502:Reading more data than you absolutely need to read is really expensive, because seeking to a new location in a file takes a long time. ~ Anonymous,
503:Vaughan Telecom installers and contractors ensure the highest quality service for data and network cabling in Toronto and GTA area. ~ Edward Abbey,
504:Information design addresses the organization and presentation of data: its transformation into valuable, meaningful information. ~ Nathan Shedroff,
505:The data show we can do something about upward mobility. Every extra year of childhood spent in a better neighborhood seems to matter. ~ Raj Chetty,
506:Things like Google search traffic patterns, for instance, can serve as leading indicators for economic data series like unemployment. ~ Nate Silver,
507:Our electrically-configured world has forced us to move from the habit of data classification to the mode of pattern recognition. ~ Marshall McLuhan,
508:The ECLS data do show, for instance, that a child with a lot of books in his home tends to test higher than a child with no books. ~ Steven D Levitt,
509:When storytellers bombard people with too much information, the audience is forced to burn too many calories organizing the data. As ~ Donald Miller,
510:Graphic designers are idea embalmers, loving undertakers preserving bits of data like to many butterflies pinned to felt in a jewel box. ~ Paul Saffo,
511:It amazes me how people are often more willing to act based on little or no data than to use data that is a challenge to assemble. ~ Robert J Shiller,
512:It is a capital mistake to develop a premature hypothesis in the absence of hard data. I am trying my best NOT to develop a theory. ~ Douglas Preston,
513:On average, people should be more skeptical when they see numbers. They should be more willing to play around with the data themselves. ~ Nate Silver,
514:A configuration is the structure of architectural relationships among components, connectors, and data during a period of system run-time. ~ Anonymous,
515:Not only can consumers handle their personal genetic information, but they are getting genomically oriented and anchored about such data. ~ Eric Topol,
516:What we call our data are really our own constructions of other people’s constructions of what they and their compatriots are up to. ~ Clifford Geertz,
517:You can use data wrong. It's just like polling. There have been a lot of politicians who go conduct a poll to figure out what they believe. ~ Ted Cruz,
518:[Brazil] went to the UN and said, "We need new standards for this." We need to take a look at what they're calling "data sovereignty." ~ Edward Snowden,
519:I find my data first in myself, not first in the poets. For if I did not find it in myself, I would not be able to find it in the poets. ~ Peter Kreeft,
520:Quality without science and research is absurd. You can't make inferences that something works when you have 60 percent missing data. ~ Peter Pronovost,
521:The combination of some data and an aching desire for an answer does not ensure that a reasonable answer can be extracted from a given body ~ Anonymous,
522:Barack’s head was an overpacked suitcase of information, a mainframe from which he could seemingly pull disparate bits of data at will. ~ Michelle Obama,
523:I sometimes suspect that inside every data scientist is a kid trying to figure out why his childhood dreams didn't come true. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
524:Once the business data have been centralized and integrated, the value of the database is greater than the sum of the preexisting parts. ~ Larry Ellison,
525:Songwriters can sort of get away with murder. You can throw out crazy theories and not have to back it up with data or graphs or research. ~ Andrew Bird,
526:the emphasis of MI is on the regular and systematic collection of data. On the other hand, typical market research projects examine specific ~ Anonymous,
527:But radio, too, has come to rely more on data, and now when label executives pitch a station, they’re likely to come armed with spreadsheets. ~ Anonymous,
528:In fact to write (This Side of Paradise) took three months; to conceive it-- three minutes; to collect the data in it-- all my life. ~ F Scott Fitzgerald,
529:There is no reliable data on the number of military-style assault weapons in private hands, but the working estimate is about 1.5 million. ~ Chris Hedges,
530:There will always be humans, lots of them, who provide the data that makes the networked realization of any technology better and cheaper. ~ Jaron Lanier,
531:Venus, it turns out, is broiling hot. There are no swamps, no oil fields, no seltzer oceans. With insufficient data, it is easy to go wrong. ~ Carl Sagan,
532:Cram them full of noncombustible data, chock them so damned full of ‘facts’ they feel stuffed, but absolutely ‘brilliant’ with information. ~ Ray Bradbury,
533:I say ‘Uhmm...’ a lot. I mentioned this to Karla and she says it’s a CPU word. It means you’re assembling data in your head - spooling. ~ Douglas Coupland,
534:The number of maternal deaths is significantly understated because of a lack of effective data collection both in the US and around the world. ~ Robin Lim,
535:What? Master Luke downloaded the data files from that probe into your memory banks? Why didn’t you say so, you overstuffed recycle cylinder? ~ Kathy Tyers,
536:As Mike Loukides, a vice president at the innovation publisher O’Reilly, once put it, “Data science is like porn—you know it when you see it. ~ Eric Siegel,
537:colossal, billion-dollar data center built by Apple, Inc., in the town of Maiden, North Carolina, had created only fifty full-time positions. ~ Martin Ford,
538:Data science takes a natural and intuitive human process—spotting patterns and making sense of them—and injects it with steroids ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
539:For no matter what the factual data were, all the books written about Blacks by their conquerors reflected the conquerors viewpoints. ~ Chancellor Williams,
540:If you're keeping yourself in the bubble and only looking at your own data or only watching the TV that fits your agenda then it gets boring. ~ Nate Silver,
541:I was looking for something like baseball, where there's a lot of data and the competition was pretty low. That's when I discovered politics. ~ Nate Silver,
542:More data—such as paying attention to the eye colors of the people around when crossing the street—can make you miss the big truck. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
543:My Johnny, see, he was smart, real flash boy. Started out as a stash on Memory Lane, chips in his head and people paid to hide data there. ~ William Gibson,
544:People who live in the past sacrifice their lives in vain. The past offers one set of data, but not necessarily the one that matters most. ~ Bruce Kasanoff,
545:There’s no material safety data sheet for astatine. If there were, it would just be the word “NO” scrawled over and over in charred blood. ~ Randall Munroe,
546:Anybody who is familiar with the historical data from the IRS knows that raising income tax rates will likely actually reduce federal revenues. ~ Mike Pence,
547:Iteratees make it possible to consume streams of data in a non-blocking way. Conversely, enumerators produce data streams in a non-blocking way. ~ Anonymous,
548:The data of the senses can bring us, is not true knowledge; it is a science of appearances. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Status of Knowledge,
549:Vasic passed on this package of data,” he said, his voice rough. “It apparently originated with Judd, but Vasic’s added to it, as did Stefan. ~ Nalini Singh,
550:You want to get your kid into Harvard? You really want to know what the data say? I’ll tell you what the data say! Go home and love your wife! ~ John Medina,
551:any data more than a week old is history and is not useful for making the fast decisions necessitated by our highly connected global economy. ~ Verne Harnish,
552:Chemistry is necessarily an experimental science: its conclusions are drawn from data, and its principles supported by evidence from facts. ~ Michael Faraday,
553:In Machine Learning this is called overfitting: it means that the model performs well on the training data, but it does not generalize well. ~ Aur lien G ron,
554:Our job is to systematically sift price data to find trends and act on them and not let the latest news flashes sway our market opinions.46 ~ Michael W Covel,
555:Scientists who think science consists of unprejudiced data-gathering without speculation are merely cows grazing on the pasture of knowledge. ~ Peter Medawar,
556:Small Data defines this space, identifies the imbalances we all have and thus the gap these imbalances represents for your new innovation. ~ Martin Lindstrom,
557:Deep Learning is about learning multiple levels of representation and abstraction that help to make sense of data such as images, sound, and text. ~ Anonymous,
558:The data that can bear on the confirmation of perceptual hypotheses includes, in the general case, considerably less than the organism may know. ~ Jerry Fodor,
559:The next Freud will be a data scientist. The next Marx will be a data scientist. The next Salk might very well be a data scientist. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
560:Una realtà non ci fu data e non c'è, dobbiamo farcela noi: non sarà mai una per tutti e per sempre ma di continuo e infinitamente mutabile. ~ Luigi Pirandello,
561:America has already taken in more than one-quarter of Mexico’s entire population, according to the Pew Research Center’s analysis of census data. ~ Ann Coulter,
562:Besides, what is human consciousness if not a data stream? A means for human beings to harvest information and interpret the world around them? ~ Pippa DaCosta,
563:If you want to transfer a few hundred gigabytes of data, it’s generally faster to FedEx a hard drive than to send the files over the Internet. ~ Randall Munroe,
564:There’s no material safety data sheet for astatine. If there were, it would just be the word “NO” scrawled over and over in charred blood. Our ~ Randall Munroe,
565:You have five hundred Facebook 'friends'? That simply means you've redefined 'friend' to make it something like 'a contact I exchange data with'. ~ Hugh Mackay,
566:Scientists like ripping problems apart, collecting as much data as possible and then assembling the parts back together to make a decision. ~ Shirley M Tilghman,
567:And empathy is narrow; it connects us to particular individuals, real or imagined, but is insensitive to numerical differences and statistical data. ~ Paul Bloom,
568:intelligence is far less the gathering of information than being able to find the two or three tiny useful bits in the mountains of useless data. ~ W E B Griffin,
569:So it is with statistics; no amount of fancy analysis can make up for fundamentally flawed data. Hence the expression “garbage in, garbage out. ~ Charles Wheelan,
570:The combination of some data and an aching desire for an answer does not ensure that a reasonable answer can be extracted from a given body of data. ~ John Tukey,
571:The religion of Big Data sets itself the goal of fulfilling man's unattainable desires, but for that very reason ignores her attainable needs. ~ Ludwig Feuerbach,
572:Before anything can be reasoned upon to a conclusion, certain facts, principles, or data, to reason from, must be established, admitted, or denied. ~ Thomas Paine,
573:Caches of data are being recovered all the time. Why, just the other day, I heard that we now had complete texts for all three of Shakespire's plays! ~ Dan Abnett,
574:Critical thinking requires assembling data to back up one’s opinion. Otherwise students may falsely conclude that all opinions are somehow equal. ~ James W Loewen,
575:Departments too often spend their energy learning how to use data to get what they want rather than as genuine feedback to guide their future actions. ~ Eric Ries,
576:If you don’t open that exit hatch this moment I shall zap straight off to your major data banks and reprogram you with a very large axe, got that? ~ Douglas Adams,
577:I had ... come to an entirely erroneous conclusion, which shows, my dear Watson, how dangerous it always is to reason from insufficient data. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
578:Internal validity is the degree to which the results and conclusions from a research study correctly represent the data that was measured in the study ~ Anonymous,
579:It is a capital mistake to theorise before one has data. Insensibly, one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. ~ John Gribbin,
580:Nearly everyone in ancient Egypt exhorted the gods to let the Pharaoh live 'forever. These collective prayers failed. Their failure constitutes data. ~ Carl Sagan,
581:Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding. . . . ~ William Gibson,
582:We know evolution happened because innumerable bits of data from myriad fields of science conjoin to paint a rich portrait of life's pilgrimage. ~ Michael Shermer,
583:Looking back to data, we can see if the consequences are plausible; looking forward to theory, we can see if general principles are suggested. ~ John Henry Holland,
584:Marketers can target Sponsored Updates to any segment of our premium audience based on professional profile data across more than 225 million members. ~ David Hahn,
585:People in both fields operate with beliefs and biases. To the extent you can eliminate both and replace them with data, you gain a clear advantage. ~ Michael Lewis,
586:The thing that sucks is that there’s so much false data because people are in mystery as to what Scientology is, so they just kind of make up stuff. ~ Laura Prepon,
587:to read a novel is to engage in probably the second-largest single act of pleasure-based data transfer that can take place between two human beings, ~ Mohsin Hamid,
588:I don't think that I am hopeful because I have some data that you don't, that I am going to share with you and going to convince you on that basis. ~ Jonathon Keats,
589:Philosophers of science have repeatedly demonstrated that more than one theoretical construction can always be placed upon a given collection of data. ~ Thomas Kuhn,
590:Security is a big concern on the social web. People are going to try to destroy social media just like they are trying to breach data in other areas. ~ Sandy Carter,
591:Should you start with a hypothesis and analyze data in a way that supported it, or start with the data and sift through it for a useful hypothesis? ~ Robert Littell,
592:All this data leads us to a direct examination of the reasons the unchurched avoid Christian churches. The biggest issue is a perceived lack of value. ~ George Barna,
593:As the data is shared, tests influence each other. People get confused very quickly. This is a premature optimization. Write tests to be data agnostic. ~ Gojko Adzic,
594:Consumers say they don’t want to be tracked, but in fact they keep feeding the machine with their data, because they want to claim their benefits. This ~ Kevin Kelly,
595:Data is the fabric of the modern world: just like we walk down pavements, so we trace routes through data, and build knowledge and products out of it. ~ Ben Goldacre,
596:For all the claims one hears about the liberating impact of the data-net, the truth is that it's wished on most of us a brand-new reason for paranoia. ~ John Brunner,
597:I am going to get a beer with some friends and stop working on this damn conclusion. Too few of you, Big Data tells me, are still reading. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
598:Information anxiety is the black hole between data and knowledge, and it happens when information doesn't tell us what we want or need to know. ~ Richard Saul Wurman,
599:Never theorize before you have data.Invariably you end up twisting facts to suit theories instead of theories to suit facts.
-Sherlock holmes ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
600:The e-mails are mainly about a controversy over a particular data set and the ways a particular small group of scientists have displayed that dataset. ~ John Holdren,
601:The quantity of data is doubling every 9 months – in fact in the next 5 years, we will collect more data than has been collected in all of human history. ~ Anonymous,
602:To get anywhere, or even to live a long time, a man has to guess, and guess right, over and over again, without enough data for a logical answer. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
603:We live in a world so utterly infused with digitality that it makes even the slightest action ripple across the collection of data bases we call the web. ~ DJ Spooky,
604:When your method of learning about the world is biased, learning more may not help. Acquiring more data can even consistently worsen a biased prediction. ~ Anonymous,
605:a Cisco report uncovered the fact that only 35 percent of mobile data use was “on the move,” while 40 percent was from home, and 25 percent from work. ~ Jeremy Rifkin,
606:data collection is essential for protecting individuals from false allegations. The more detailed information about a person, the more fairly we can judge. ~ Juli Zeh,
607:Data is always an abstraction of reality based on underlying assumptions as to how to categorize the unstructured phenomena of the real world. ~ Clayton M Christensen,
608:I believe that it's fine if the university wants to regulate, for example, bandwidth access, but they should treat the students data as private data. ~ Annalee Newitz,
609:I guess that for a while it was justified because data was not so easy to access, so the whole academic world has developed without data in a sense. ~ Michael W Covel,
610:Not sense data or atoms or electrons or packets of energy, but purposes, interests, and meanings, constitute the underlying facts of human experience. ~ Lewis Mumford,
611:The 'data' (given) of research are not so much given as taken out of a constantly elusive matrix of happenings. We should speak of capta rather than data. ~ R D Laing,
612:Young people live in a society in which every institution becomes an "inspection regime" - recording, watching, gathering information and storing data. ~ Henry Giroux,
613:Data integration and access software are frequently cited as the greatest and most expensive challenge that organisations face (Bernstein & Haas, 2008) ~ Anonymous,
614:if you give the learner enough of the appropriate data, it can approximate any function arbitrarily closely—which is math-speak for learning anything. ~ Pedro Domingos,
615:It is a capital mistake to theorise before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
616:It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
617:Predictive analytics (PA)—Technology that learns from experience (data) to predict the future behavior of individuals in order to drive better decisions. ~ Eric Siegel,
618:The amount of data and analysis available for free is a true example of information explosion has leveled the playing field for individual investors. ~ Maria Bartiromo,
619:The danger of parachuting young enthusiastic scientists into a flower bed of selected data and fully bloomed conceptions should be underestimated. ~ Andre Michel Lwoff,
620:The theft potentially of data does create this image of sort of cloak and dagger politics that we sort of imagine when we think of underhanded politics. ~ Tamara Keith,
621:Today’s companies have an insatiable appetite for data, mistakenly believing that more data always creates more value. But big data is usually dumb data. ~ Peter Thiel,
622:We should teach the students, as well as executives, how to conduct experiments, how to examine data, and how to use these tools to make better decisions. ~ Dan Ariely,
623:And because our productivity data are, in turn, based on GDP metrics, the burgeoning availability of free goods does not move the productivity dial. ~ Erik Brynjolfsson,
624:Current data thus favor an ever-expanding universe shaped like the three-dimensional version of the infinite tabletop or of the finite video-game screen. ~ Brian Greene,
625:If we look at statistical data, we see that Protestant countries in terms of economic development are more successful than those observing Catholicism. ~ Garry Kasparov,
626:The art is in preparing the content for optimal human consumption. The data doesn't just talk back to you. You collect, you analyze, you tell stories. ~ Leslie Bradshaw,
627:You can lead a horse to water but you can't make him enter regional distribution codes in data field 97 to facilitate regression analysis on the back end. ~ John Cleese,
628:I had,” said he, “come to an entirely erroneous conclusion which shows, my dear Watson, how dangerous it always is to reason from insufficient data. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
629:Intuition is the art, peculiar to the human mind, of working out the correct answer from data that is, in itself, incomplete or even, perhaps, misleading. ~ Isaac Asimov,
630:Rule 1. Original data should be presented in a way that will preserve the evidence in the original data for all the predictions assumed to be useful. ~ Walter A Shewhart,
631:systematic data on workplace bullying report widespread verbal abuse, shouting, berating others, and the general creation of a climate of intimidation. ~ Jeffrey Pfeffer,
632:The outsourcing of our memory to machines expands the amount of data to which we have access, but degrades our brain’s own ability to remember things. ~ Douglas Rushkoff,
633:There's a mountain of information about us. I mean there's so much. Anyway, I'm not an intelligence person. But I just look at it and it's a mountain of data. ~ Tim Cook,
634:What we think of as reality is a continuous synthesis of elements from a fixed hierarchy of a priori concepts and the ever changing data of the senses. ~ Robert M Pirsig,
635:extensive data also suggest a strong link between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and processed carbohydrate consumption/insulin production. ~ Mark Sisson,
636:In every branch of knowledge the progress is proportional to the amount of facts on which to build, and therefore to the facility of obtaining data. ~ James Clerk Maxwell,
637:Whatever lies beyond the limits of experience, and claims another origin than that of induction and deduction from established data, is illegitimate. ~ George Henry Lewes,
638:While data can only tell you what has happened in the past, it can in some ways give you a sense of what might be of interest to an audience in the future. ~ Kevin Spacey,
639:If you're working with a spreadsheet or a thread of correspondence or a set of data, I'm not sure you're doing your best work if you're doing it on an iPhone. ~ Seth Godin,
640:I'm pretty active anyway, but I'm also competitive.I used my Fitbit as an example of the innate power of data to turn information into insights and actions. ~ Michael Dell,
641:It is a capital mistake to theorise before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. But ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
642:Nilekani's technocratic obsession with gathering data is consistent with that of Bill Gates, as though lack of information is what is causing world hunger. ~ Arundhati Roy,
643:NSA has increasingly made use of a secret technology that enables it to enter and alter data in computers even if they are not connected to the Internet. ~ Glenn Greenwald,
644:Science has the answer to every question that can be asked. However, science reserves the right to change that answer should additional data become available. ~ Mary Roach,
645:The twin enemies of mythology are logic and empirical data, the chief weapons of true science. If either weapon is neutralized, mythology is free to run wild. ~ R C Sproul,
646:All these subprime companies were calling and hollering at him: You’re wrong. Your data’s wrong. And he just hollered back at them, ‘It’s YOUR fucking data! ~ Michael Lewis,
647:Get the weirdnesses into the data where you can manipulate them easily, and the regularity into the code because regular code is a lot easier to work with ~ Brian Kernighan,
648:-O sa ai necazuri, spuse bacanul.
-E necesar din cand in cand, zise Fauna. Ca sa te simti intr-adevar bine, trebuie sa fii fraier macar o data in viata. ~ John Steinbeck,
649:So all of it—local and archived data—went up with the lab building.” Vann glanced over to me with an expression that I suspect meant these people were sloppy. ~ John Scalzi,
650:There needs to be time for efficient data collection and time for inefficient contemplation, time to operate the machine and time to sit idly in the garden. ~ Nicholas Carr,
651:The science has changed from ambiguous to near-unanimous... Based on the data I'm now switching sides regarding global warming, from skeptic to convert. ~ Gregg Easterbrook,
652:a machine that could process and store data at a cost of only $2 per digit. (Atanasoff’s machine could handle three thousand digits and cost about $6,000.) ~ Walter Isaacson,
653:Data. That’s what matters. That’s what tells us something. But people want to see pictures. Supernova in vivid color. Even though scientifically it’s useless. ~ Marcus Sakey,
654:Don’t use the language of ‘good’ or ‘bad’ when talking about blood sugar numbers – these are data points, not judgments of your ability to manage your diabetes. ~ Adam Brown,
655:Even more important than statistics is then having the staff that can take the data and ensure it's presented in a way that improves individuals and teams. ~ Brendan Rodgers,
656:I am not inspired by helping you find Chinese food at 2am in Dallas, or swipe right to get laid. I want to use tech and data to make the world a better place. ~ Nancy Lublin,
657:I get it. I understand. I’m just kind of reconfiguring my hard drive now,” she says, tapping her skull. “And finding room for this new data point about you. ~ Lauren Blakely,
658:I had a logic teacher who always said you should never discount an answer simply because you didn't expect the data to lead you there. And boy, did I love logic. ~ Angie Fox,
659:It is the special privilege of the fine artist to reveal immediate data with a clarity, intensity and purity that promotes them to a special degree of reality. ~ Alton Tobey,
660:It’s only because the data force us into corners that we are inspired to create the highly counterintuitive structures that form the basis for modern physics. ~ Sean Carroll,
661:I was really intrigued by the idea of using live streams of data that's relevant to real people, and that would allow us to reflect and learn about ourselves. ~ Aaron Koblin,
662:Once you have confidence in your instincts, you must never allow other people's refusal to believe, or their data to refute, what you instinctively know is true. ~ T D Jakes,
663:Once you have confidence in your instincts, you must never allow other people’s refusal to believe, or their data to refute, what you instinctively know is true. ~ T D Jakes,
664:Our assessment of the world would be quite different if all our judgments could be insulated from expectation and based only on relevant data.           A ~ Leonard Mlodinow,
665:There's strong data that, within companies, the No. 1 reason for ethical violations is the pressure to meet expectations, sometimes unrealistic expectations. ~ Stephen Covey,
666:But good sociology is always a mixture of close focus and long shot. You dial in and pull back, dial in and pull back, a delicate dance over the data gaps. ~ Sudhir Venkatesh,
667:But the company would access all those recordings and data mine them for anything they could sell. No, they don’t tell people that. Yes, everyone does know it. ~ Martha Wells,
668:Cats vary so widely that all data is meaningless and the professional classifiers gnash their teeth trying to come up with even a single fact common to all. ~ Barbara Holland,
669:ideologues of every stripe, as well as folks with interests economic, political, or personal, can interpret data and statistics to suit their own purposes... ~ Peter Benchley,
670:Just as modern man consumes both too many calories and calories of no nutritional value, information workers eat data both in excess and from the wrong sources. ~ Tim Ferriss,
671:Quorum leases are particularly useful for read-heavy workloads in which reads for particular subsets of the data are concentrated in a single geographic region. ~ Betsy Beyer,
672:The errors which arise from the absence of facts are far more numerous and more durable than those which result from unsound reasoning respecting true data. ~ Charles Babbage,
673:The Europeans have lots of data on the use of adjuvanted flu vaccine in the elderly, but I dont think anybody has really good data on adjuvants in children. ~ Anthony S Fauci,
674:We’ve evolved to automatically filter out all unnecessary information—dots, blurs of color—so that we are consciously aware of only the most important data points. ~ Amy Webb,
675:While the romantics rejected the Enlightenment’s exaltation of reason, many theologians accepted it and sought to frame the Bible as a set of empirical data. ~ Joseph Laycock,
676:A new ignorance is on the horizon, an ignorance borne not of a lack of knowledge but of too much knowledge, too much data, too many theories, too little time. ~ Eugene Thacker,
677:Big data is great when you want to verify and quantify small data - as big data is all about seeking a correlation - small data about seeking the causation. ~ Martin Lindstrom,
678:I loved the late-night slow burn of being out, my mind turning over some problem, some piece of data, while able to appear sociable but still existing apart. ~ Jeff VanderMeer,
679:Simpson’s Paradox: when a whole body of data displays one trend, yet when broken into subgroups, the opposite trend comes into view for each of those subgroups. ~ Cathy O Neil,
680:Statistics is the branch of scientific method which deals with the data obtained by counting or measuring the properties of populations of natural phenomena. ~ Maurice Kendall,
681:The past is interesting to me because it's been dumbed down or flattened out, or academically nitpicked so you can't get any life out of it, you just get data. ~ Toni Morrison,
682:What was once an anonymous medium where anyone could be anyone,” Eli Pariser wrote in 2011, “is now a tool for soliciting and analyzing our personal data. ~ Robert W McChesney,
683:You don’t throw in the towel when it turns out that your old way of seeing things is contradicted by the data. That’s not when you stop. That’s when you begin. ~ Dexter Palmer,
684:You know something is wrong when the government declares opening someone else’s mail is a felony but your internet activity is fair game for data collecting. ~ E A Bucchianeri,
685:Human memory is one of the worst data-collection devices in the world. ~ Jonah Keri, Baseball Between the Numbers: Why Everything You Know About the Game Is Wrong (2007), p. 96,
686:Objects hide their data behind abstractions and expose functions that operate on that data. Data structure expose their data and have no meaningful functions. ~ Robert C Martin,
687:The power of the data-driven marketing approach is that the 15 essential metrics define the ROMI, which justifies future marketing investments (Chapter 5 and 9). ~ Mark Jeffery,
688:newish portmanteau of “anecdote” and “data,” “anecdata” refers to personal experiences or anecdotes that are treated like objectively collected and analyzed data. ~ Kory Stamper,
689:Robert Kennedy identified with people, not data, or institutions, or theories. Poverty was a specific black face for him, not a manila folder full of statistics. ~ Jack Newfield,
690:Taken with the archaeological data, we can say that the old hypothesis of an invasion of people - not merely their language - from the steppe appears to be true. ~ Spencer Wells,
691:There is not substantial data that AZT stops the transmission of HIV from mother to child. There is too much conflicting data to make concrete policy. ~ Manto Tshabalala Msimang,
692:This is data as you have never known it: it is data as therapy. It is understanding as a source of mental peace. Because the world is not as dramatic as it seems. ~ Hans Rosling,
693:A 2014 conference on hacking in Las Vegas. The private sector spent $665 million on data loss prevention last year, according to the technology research firm Gartner. ~ Anonymous,
694:Companies and institutions around the world are looking for “sensemakers” and professionals who know how to dig through data and transform it into something tangible. ~ Anonymous,
695:gather all the points of view, the data, integrate them if possible and present the president with some options, get a decision and develop an implementation plan. ~ Bob Woodward,
696:James Heywood is an entrepreneur who has a different approach to deal with difficulties linking medical data. He created a website, PatientsLikeMe.com, ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
697:Services interact with their peers strictly through APIs and thus don’t share data structures, database schemata, or other internal representations of objects. Bounded ~ Gene Kim,
698:for a thirty-day period ending in February 2013, one unit of the NSA collected more than three billion pieces of communication data from US communication systems ~ Glenn Greenwald,
699:In the United States there’s an optimistic expectation that most people will remain faithful to their partner, but actual data show great numbers of people will not. ~ Aziz Ansari,
700:I would say that hardware is the bone of the head, the skull. The semiconductor is the brain within the head. The software is the wisdom and data is the knowledge. ~ Masayoshi Son,
701:Only dead things can be reduced to a set of data. A civilization that sees the world as alive will learn to bring other kinds of information into its choices. ~ Charles Eisenstein,
702:Using TrackMan is very important in the development of your golf game because it gives you such good data on what your golf swing is doing and where it needs to go. ~ Jason Dufner,
703:As one Google Translate engineer put it, "when you go from 10,000 training examples to 10 billion training examples, it all starts to work. Data trumps everything. ~ Garry Kasparov,
704:At root what is needed for scientific inquiry is just receptivity to data, skill in reasoning, and yearning for truth. Admittedly, ingenuity can help too. ~ Willard Van Orman Quine,
705:Big Data does not eliminate the need for all the other ways humans have developed over the millennia to understand the world. They complement each other. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
706:But I’d worked in IT long enough to know: Hope is a terrible survival trait. My methods were data collection, comparisons of probabilities, and collections of “what if. ~ Anonymous,
707:The overwhelming trend of our age is to take products that were once delivered as physical goods, find ways to turn them into data, and stream them into your home. ~ Chris Anderson,
708:The weaker the data available upon which to base one's conclusion, the greater the precision which should be quoted in order to give the data authenticity. ~ Norman Ralph Augustine,
709:As data piles up, we have ourselves a genuine gold rush. But data isn’t the gold. I repeat, data in its raw form is boring crud. The gold is what’s discovered therein. ~ Eric Siegel,
710:Fiction is a web of lies that attempts to entangle the truth. And autobiography may well be the reverse: data tricked up and rearranged to invent a fictive self. ~ Nicholas Delbanco,
711:I tell people to start implementing when they are pretty sure there aren't more important stories out there. An iteration's worth of data is worth months of speculation. ~ Kent Beck,
712:I think it's a good idea to be - to fairly identify where things could have gone better once you get the facts, once you get the data and once you're able to review. ~ Keith Ellison,
713:It is the physicians who are psychologically disturbed because they ignore the data, and whatever data there is, they manipulate it to say what they want it to say. ~ Muhammad Yunus,
714:Sensitive OPA data was scrubbed and overwritten with innocuous-looking logs with false time stamps. Anything too sensitive to trust to a computer, the captain destroyed. ~ Anonymous,
715:Sometimes I am a collector of data, and only a collector, and am likely to be gross and miserly, piling up notes, pleased with merely numerically adding to my stores. ~ Charles Fort,
716:The concept of multivitamins was sold to Americans by an eager nutraceutical industry to generate profits. There was never any scientific data supporting their usage. ~ Paul A Offit,
717:What do we call a story that’s based on limited real data and imagined data and blended into a coherent, emotionally satisfying version of reality? A conspiracy theory. ~ Bren Brown,
718:While the creative works from the 16th century can still be accessed and used by others, the data in some software programs from the 1990s is already inaccessible. ~ Lawrence Lessig,
719:You need to take your gut feeling as an important data point, but then you have to consciously and deliberately evaluate it, to see if it makes sense in this context. ~ Gary A Klein,
720:Big Data is like teenage sex: everyone talks about it, nobody really knows how to do it, everyone thinks everyone else is doing it, so everyone claims they are doing it. ~ Dan Ariely,
721:Biographical data, even those recorded in the public registers, are the most private things one has, and to declare them openly is rather like facing a psychoanalyst. ~ Italo Calvino,
722:Brawne looks at Johnny, realizing that she is seeing in infrared now as the heat-lamp light from distant furnaces of data suns bathes them both. He is still handsome. — ~ Dan Simmons,
723:Even rational, data-driven scientists could be sent into prolonged states of hysteria when presented with evidence that their favorite foods might be killing them. ~ T Colin Campbell,
724:Getting the word out that, yes vaccines are great, the safety data's very, very clear, including any of these specific concerns, that's very important to our foundation. ~ Bill Gates,
725:Here is yet another statement of the core idea of this book, that data concerning people is best thought of as people in disguise, and they’re usually up to something. ~ Jaron Lanier,
726:It's not man versus machine; it's man with machine versus man without. Data and intuition are like horse and rider, and you don't try to outrun a horse; you ride it. ~ Pedro Domingos,
727:It was an open question as to which was more mysterious to a male NASA engineer: outer space or the American female. They appeared to have better data on outer space. ~ Michael Lewis,
728:That’s the paradox of data: a lack of it means you cannot make complete decisions, but even with a lot of data, you still get an infinitesimally small number of insights. ~ Anonymous,
729:The data is going to indicate sadly that when the Obama administration is over, black people will have lost ground in every single leading economic indicator category. ~ Tavis Smiley,
730:The real point of the matter is that what we call a 'wrong datum' is one which is inconsistent with all other known data. It is our only criterion for right and wrong. ~ Isaac Asimov,
731:We're in this period where we're getting good data rates. I would say we're getting data rates that are like the data rates we got when we launched RealAudio in 1995. ~ Robert Glaser,
732:Finding patterns is easy in any kind of data-rich environment; that's what mediocre gamblers do. The key is in determining whether the patterns represent signal or noise ~ Nate Silver,
733:Lithium is like a beautiful lady, very much sought and pursued, especially in Bolivia. There is data indicating Bolivia has the largest reserves of lithium in the world. ~ Evo Morales,
734:rather than highlighting certain data points as questionable, you should include an additional column that indicates which measurements are questionable and which are not. ~ Anonymous,
735:Sometimes the data has a sense of a structure within it, especially if I'm looking at networks or relationships, which generally lend themselves to a certain style. ~ David Mccandless,
736:The materialistic paradigm of Western science has been a major obstacle for any objective evaluation of the data describing the events occurring at the time of death. ~ Stanislav Grof,
737:What I need I carry in my head. Everything in that machine came from me. My fat burned into knowledge. My calories pedaled into data analysis" -- The Calorie Man ~ James Patrick Kelly,
738:26 percent of mobile apps in 2010 were downloaded and used only once.[cviii] Further data suggests people are using more applications but engaging with them less frequently. ~ Nir Eyal,
739:And Big Data does not eliminate the need for all the other ways humans have developed over the millennia to understand the world. They complement each other. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
740:Finding patterns is easy in any kind of data-rich environment; that’s what mediocre gamblers do. The key is in determining whether the patterns represent noise or signal. ~ Nate Silver,
741:Nothing is more seductive that a nice string of data, a single bell curve, or a seemingly peer-reviewed scientific study. After all, it can’t be racist if it is a “fact. ~ Angela Saini,
742:The internet explodes when somebody has the creativity to look at a piece of data that's put there for one reason and realise they can connect it with something else. ~ Tim Berners Lee,
743:Thinklogical's systems play a key role in the delivery and visualization of mission critical data used every day by military and intelligence communities worldwide. ~ James G Stavridis,
744:Where big data is all about seeking correlations - and thus to make incremental changes - small data is all about causations - seeking to understand the reasons why. ~ Martin Lindstrom,
745:I have always been a bit of a troublemaker at the companies at which I have worked, pushing for rapid iteration, data-driven decision making, and early customer involvement. ~ Eric Ries,
746:I think audiences ultimately want something new. I think the business model for a franchise is such that it's very low risk because you have data and studios love data. ~ Gore Verbinski,
747:the scientific data point powerfully toward the existence of a Creator and that the historical evidence for the resurrection establishes convincingly that Jesus is divine. ~ Lee Strobel,
748:Big data analyst Seth Stephens-Davidowitz reports in the New York Times that Google searches for “sexless marriage” outnumber searches related to any other marital issue.3 ~ Esther Perel,
749:Cellular signals and wires tracked people through ephemeral data and invisible networks in an ever-shrinking world. Was it still possible to disappear in this day and age? ~ Laura Bickle,
750:First, and perhaps most important, if you are going to try to use new data to revolutionize a field, it is best to go into a field where old methods are lousy. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
751:In Washington, Oregon, and Colorado, the three states for which we currently have data, the drop in SSRI use has been inversely proportional to the increase in pot use. ~ Robert H Lustig,
752:I think politicians know how to misrepresent data in order to support a political agenda. Politicians and the people that work for them - I should say - are expert at that. ~ Seth Gordon,
753:I've seen how the issues that come across a president's desk are always the hard ones - the problems where no amount of data or numbers will get you to the right answer. ~ Michelle Obama,
754:Lorenz was the charismatic, flamboyant thinker—he didn’t conduct a single statistical analysis in his life—while Tinbergen did the nitty-gritty of actual data collection. ~ Frans de Waal,
755:No theory ever benefited by the application of data, Amy. Data kills theories. A theory has no better time than when it’s lying there naked, pure, unsullied by facts. ~ Christopher Moore,
756:Rather than spend my life on data entry and typing, I also take photos on my iPhone of business cards, wine labels, menus, or anything I want to have searchable on-the-run. ~ Tim Ferriss,
757:data science requires more than math skills: it also takes people who have a wide-ranging curiosity, and whose innovation is guided by their own experience—not just data. ~ Daniel Goleman,
758:He was willing to have faith in divine wisdom, but not in Halsted as divine wisdom. “In God we trust,” he brusquely told a journalist. “All others [must] have data. ~ Siddhartha Mukherjee,
759:I don't see the logic of rejecting data just because they seem incredible ... the establishment defends itself by complicating everything to the point of incomprehensibility. ~ Fred Hoyle,
760:I have no data yet. It is a capital mistake to theorise before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
761:I have no data yet. It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
762:(In 2012 one-in-five adults (25 and older) had never been married, according to analysis of census data by Pew Research Center, compared with about one-in-ten adults in 1960.) ~ Anonymous,
763:It isn't more light we need, it isn't more truth, and it isn't more scientific data. It is more Christ, more courage, more spiritual insight to act on the light we have. ~ Benjamin E Mays,
764:So as soon as you want something to happen you begin skewing the data to support it. Our stuff is invaluable to decision-makers precisely because we have no ax to grind. ~ George Friedman,
765:Statistical inference is really just the marriage of two concepts that we’ve already discussed: data and probability (with a little help from the central limit theorem). ~ Charles Wheelan,
766:The scientific excitement in comparing theory with data, and developing some understanding of global changes that are occurring, is what makes all the other stuff worth it. ~ James Hansen,
767:Wikipedia was offline after an overheating problem at one of its data centers. It was pretty bad. For a while there, people had nowhere to go for phony, inaccurate information. ~ Jay Leno,
768:Earth gravitates around the Sun, not the other way around (Galileo Galilei, 1614). Statistical models gravitate around data, not the other way around (Vincent Granville, 2014). ~ Anonymous,
769:In ‘A Scandal in Bohemia’, he said it was a capital mistake to theorize without data, because you ended up twisting facts to suit theories instead of the other way around. ~ Peter Abrahams,
770:Patty thinks for a moment, “It’s strange. Even though we have so much data on projects, changes, and tickets, we’ve never organized and linked them all together this way before. ~ Gene Kim,
771:We never know any data before interpreting it through theories. All observations are, as Popper put it, theory-laden,* and hence fallible, as all our theories are. Consider ~ David Deutsch,
772:what we believe to be the core competencies of Web 2.0 companies: Services, not packaged software, with cost-effective scalability Control over unique, hard-to-recreate data ~ Tim O Reilly,
773:Customers need to be given control of their own data-not being tied into a certain manufacturer so that when there are problems they are always obliged to go back to them. ~ Tim Berners Lee,
774:I believe that the polling data that shows people give Obama 53% approval, I happen to think the polls are right. I just think people are not being honest with the pollster. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
775:If we not only feed that most intelligent computer which is our brain but also compute the data we collect, we cannot go wrong. In a way we all can guess what will happen. ~ Gisela Hausmann,
776:Liberals want to blame the “legacy” of slavery and racism for the breakdown of the black family and subsequent social pathologies. But the empirical data support Bill Cosby. ~ Jason L Riley,
777:makes extensive use of sensor data; in fact, it essentially converts every car using it into a traffic-speed sensor and uses these data to calculate the quickest routes. ~ Erik Brynjolfsson,
778:Our political leaders must be honest and forthcoming with data that will allow citizens to use facts and figures to judge for themselves what state Social Security is in. ~ Grace Napolitano,
779:to frame the decision, asking questions about the data and the methodology, working to understand the results, and using them to improve outcomes for your organization. ~ Thomas H Davenport,
780:Analytical software enables you to shift human resources from rote data collection to value-added customer service and support where the human touch makes a profound difference. ~ Bill Gates,
781:Au ramas toti trei tacuti. Flacaul simti ca teama plutea in aer, chiar daca nimeni nu rostise nici un cuvant. Inca o data, intelegea limbajul fara cuvinte, Limbajul Universal. ~ Paulo Coelho,
782:Concepts are vindicated by the constant accrual of data and independent verification of data. No prize, not even a Nobel Prize, can make something true that is not true. ~ Stanley B Prusiner,
783:The best data we have [concerning the Big Bang] are exactly what I would have predicted, had I nothing to go on but the five books of Moses, the Psalms, the bible as a whole. ~ Arno Hintjens,
784:Devices are getting smarter - your television, your car - and that means more data spread around. There needs to be a fabric that connects all these devices. That's what we do. ~ Drew Houston,
785:I like facts and data because they help me think clearly, beyond the cultural messages that I ingest unwittingly, and sometimes find myself regurgitating almost unconsciously. ~ Roseanne Barr,
786:Linguists love corpora; where two or three linguists are gathered, there shall you find heavy-breathing fetishism about the size, scope, all those possibilities, all that data. ~ Kory Stamper,
787:The laggards spend more on demand generation marketing, whereas the leaders spend more on branding, customer relationships, and infrastructure to support data-driven marketing. ~ Mark Jeffery,
788:You need to marry the qualitative with the quantitative. It better informs us so we can decide what to do. We can't be afraid of data and analysis. We have to use that lens. ~ Nathan Shedroff,
789:A good set of data can go a long way toward describing human behavior as long as the proper questions are asked of it. Our job in this book is to come up with such questions. ~ Steven D Levitt,
790:Hello? Hello? Pantycar Twenty-seven? Report from Data Retrieval: a disturbance in Simbimatu Covered Market: Privacy infringement. PainCrime probability currently sixteen percent ~ Ian McDonald,
791:In a world where data is coin of the realm, and transmissions are guarded by no better sentinels than man-made codes and corruptible devices, there is no such thing as a secret. ~ C S Friedman,
792:The chief problem in historical honesty is not outright lying. It is omission or de-emphasis of important data. The definition of 'important', of course, depends on one's values. ~ Howard Zinn,
793:Uncontrolled access to data, with no audit trail of activity and no oversight would be going too far. This applies to both commercial and government use of data about people. ~ John Poindexter,
794:And somehow mother nature manages to create this incredible biosphere, to create this incredibly rich environment of animals and plants with this amazingly small amount of data. ~ Freeman Dyson,
795:In fact, soon billions of smart things in the physical world will be sensing, responding, communicating, buying their own electricity and sharing important data, doing everything ~ Don Tapscott,
796:In the following chapters, I will share empirically validated data demonstrating that the path to long-term success and well-being is often the opposite of what we’ve been taught. ~ Emma Sepp l,
797:One day over lunch at the lab, Turing exclaimed playfully to his colleagues, “Shannon wants to feed not just data to a brain, but cultural things! He wants to play music to it! ~ Steven Johnson,
798:The giant insurance company Aetna, which has almost fifty thousand employees, has instituted the option of bonuses for getting more sleep, based on verified sleep-tracker data. ~ Matthew Walker,
799:"The symbol is always a product of an extremely complex nature, since data from every psychic function have gone into its making. It is, therefore, neither rational nor irrational." ~ Carl Jung,
800:To supply data is not enough. The data have to be integrated with strategy, they have to test a company’s assumptions, and they must challenge a company’s current outlook. One ~ Peter F Drucker,
801:Big Data will spell the death of customer segmentation and force the marketer to understand each customer as an individual within eighteen months, or risk being left in the dust. ~ Ginni Rometty,
802:By the data to date, there is only one animal in the Galaxy dangerous to man -- man himself. So he must supply his own indispensable competition. He has no enemy to help him. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
803:If you just look at the data, you are led to believe that things are getting better, rather than worse. That's why the fall is really precipitous, once you hit the ceiling. ~ Clayton Christensen,
804:Recent data and research supports the importance of natural climate variability and calls into question the conclusion that humans are the dominant cause of recent climate change. ~ Judith Curry,
805:Scientists do not collect data randomly and utterly comprehensively. The data they collect are only those that they consider *relevant* to some hypothesis or theory. ~ James David Lewis Williams,
806:Smartphones can relay patients' data to hospital computers in a continuous stream. Doctors can alter treatment regimens remotely, instead of making patients come in for a visit. ~ Charles C Mann,
807:Startup, I have always been a bit of a troublemaker at the companies at which I have worked, pushing for rapid iteration, data-driven decision making, and early customer involvement. ~ Eric Ries,
808:A conspiracy theorist is a person who tacitly admits that they have insufficient data to prove their points. A conspiracy is a battle cry of a person with insufficient data. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
809:As a physician, I understand how important it is to collect data on people so we can understand what's happening with them. I will be in the position to help enable that knowledge. ~ Laurel Clark,
810:Data can bear on policy issues, but many of our opinions about policy are grounded in premises about the nature of human life and human society that are beyond the reach of data. ~ Charles Murray,
811:For no matter what the factual data were, all the books written about Blacks by their conquerors reflected the conquerors viewpoints. Nothing else should have been expected. ~ Chancellor Williams,
812:Keep your app simple, keep your data simple, and keep your interactions with other systems simple, and you will stand a much better chance of achieving great performance for your app. ~ Anonymous,
813:OK, some say, machine learning can find statistical regularities in data, but it will never discover anything deep, like Newton’s laws. It arguably hasn’t yet, but I bet it will. ~ Pedro Domingos,
814:Our goal is to figure out the simplest program we can write such that it will continue to write itself by reading data, without limit, until it knows everything there is to know. ~ Pedro Domingos,
815:Reducing intelligence to the statistical analysis of large data sets “can lead us,” says Levesque, “to systems with very impressive performance that are nonetheless idiot-savants. ~ Nicholas Carr,
816:The data says that with the poor, a little money can buy a lot of happiness. If you're rich, a lot of money can buy you a little more happiness. But in both cases, money does it. ~ Daniel Gilbert,
817:There is scarcely a subject that cannot be mathematically treated and the effects calculated or the results determined beforehand from the available theoretical and practical data. ~ Nikola Tesla,
818:You can remain friends, even without EU membership. The Prüm Convention, according to which data for combatting crime is exchanged, is a good example of international cooperation. ~ Geert Wilders,
819:Hope consists in asserting that there is at the heart of being, beyond all data, beyond all inventories and all calculations, a mysterious principle which is in connivance with me ~ Gabriel Marcel,
820:How much available data could be relevant to doing those projects “better”? The answer is: an infinite amount, easily accessible, or at least potentially so, through the Internet. On ~ David Allen,
821:If I could put my finger on the moment we genuinely fucked ourselves, it was the moment we decided that data was something you could use words like believe or disbelieve around. ~ Paolo Bacigalupi,
822:I’m searching for some exit poll data from California. I’ll eat my shorts if gay and lesbian voters went for McCain at anything approaching the rate that black voters went for Prop 8. ~ Dan Savage,
823:N-a trecut prea mult timp de cand m-am dus la mormantul tatei, asta o stiu, si mi-am notat data decesului, doar a decesului, caci cea a nasterii-mi era indiferenta, in ziua aceea. ~ Samuel Beckett,
824:Philosophy was born in the ancient quest for ultimate reality, the reality that transcends the proximate and commonplace and that defines and explains the data of everyday experience. ~ R C Sproul,
825:The best mobile phone had the best mathematician. They know how to fit a huge amount of data into a small amount of space. How to do things efficiently, how to do them cleverly. ~ Marcus du Sautoy,
826:There’s no denying where denial leads if we ignore data. The good news, dare I say the great news, is this: Data kills denial, which prevents disaster. But only if you’ll listen to it. ~ Jon Acuff,
827:By 2010, we as a species were creating more data per day than we did from the beginning of time until 2003. By 2015, 76 exabytes of data will travel across the Internet every year. ~ Bruce Schneier,
828:Data Fixing, Oh I drool thereafter and call shotgun on it! What other better way to keep people away from feeling the need to be proselytized by you when you throw numbers around. ~ Ibrahim Ibrahim,
829:Department of Energy data confirms that New York State’s per capita energy consumption is next to last in the country, which largely reflects public transit use in New York City. ~ Edward L Glaeser,
830:I find more and more executives less and less well informed about the outside world, if only because they believe that the data on the computer printouts are ipso facto information. ~ Peter Drucker,
831:Oracle, for example, has even hired people to dumpster dive for information about its competitor, Microsoft. It's not even illegal, because trash isn't covered by data secrecy laws. ~ Kevin Mitnick,
832:Put simply, the subjects’ faith in research data was not predicated on an objective appraisal of the research methodology, but on whether the results validated their pre-existing views. ~ Anonymous,
833:The existence of conscious minds and their access to the evident truth of ethics and methematics are among the data that a theory of the world and our place in it has yet to explain. ~ Thomas Nagel,
834:The fashionable term now is “Big Data.” IBM estimates that we are generating 2.5 quintillion bytes of data each day, more than 90 percent of which was created in the last two years.36 ~ Nate Silver,
835:I have to go with Data's makeup, because that was basically every day, 10 months out of the year, for seven years. There were only a couple of days that I had to endure for Dr. Soong. ~ Brent Spiner,
836:It nevertheless remains true that, in most countries for which long-run data are available, stocks have out-performed bonds – by a factor of roughly five over the twentieth century. ~ Niall Ferguson,
837:I've never been good with people. I've always preferred my lab. I like data. Data is consistent, it's steady, it's easy to understand. With data, you always know what the answer is. ~ Becky Chambers,
838:Safety is really a concern of mine, and what I've been telling people recently is that until there's animal and human data on a drug it should probably be looked at very carefully. ~ Terence McKenna,
839:The existence of conscious minds and their access to the evident truths of ethics and mathematics are among the data that a theory of the world and our place in it has yet to explain. ~ Thomas Nagel,
840:a contract between programmer and system, wherein the system guarantees that if the programmer follows some specific rules, the results of operations on the data store will be predictable ~ Anonymous,
841:Big Data allows us to finally see what people really want and really do, not what they say they want and say they do. Providing honest data is the second power of Big Data. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
842:Imagine if you had access to data that allowed you to rank on a scale of overall happiness which people in your life made you the happiest. … Would you make more time for those people? ~ Ariel Garten,
843:In a world without love, this is what people are to each other: values, benefits, and liabilities, numbers and data. We weigh, we quantify, we measure, and the soul is ground to dust. ~ Lauren Oliver,
844:Indies are doing well because of their willingness to experiment, their willingness to share data and lessons with other writers, and their unflinching habit of placing the reader first. ~ Sean Platt,
845:Is wisdom derived from experience more or less valuable than data produced by controlled research? What research should we allow into our professional journals and what should we reject? ~ Bren Brown,
846:It's been said that if NASA wanted to go to the moon again, it would have to start from scratch, having lost not the data, but the human expertise that took it there the last time. ~ John Seely Brown,
847:Overcomplex metrics make management less effective by introducing noise, discouraging frequent analysis, and distracting from the handful of data points that are most significant. ~ Geoffrey G Parker,
848:We're rapidly entering a world where everything can be monitored and measured. But the big problem is going to be the ability of humans to use, analyze and make sense of the data. ~ Erik Brynjolfsson,
849:According to the Privacy Rights Center, up to 10 million Americans are victims of ID theft each year. They have a right to be notified when their most sensitive health data is stolen. ~ Luis Gutierrez,
850:Alice in Wonderland, Alice down the rabbit hole, Alice out in Cyberspace, flung along the lines of data, flying across fields of light, the night cities that live only behind her eyes. ~ Melissa Scott,
851:All data leaves a trail. The search for data leaves a trail. The erasure of data leaves a trail. The absence of data, under the right circumstances, can leave the clearest trail of all. ~ C S Friedman,
852:Even after rejection of articles that helpfully advertised their lack of a scientific basis by the use of words such as organic, holistic, and natural, I was left with a mass of data, ~ Graeme Simsion,
853:Google and Facebook don’t have “users” or “customers”. Instead, they have participants under machine surveillance, whose activities are algorithmically combined within Big Data silos. ~ Bruce Sterling,
854:If I could put my finger on the moment we genuinely fucked ourselves, it was the moment we decided that data was something you could use words like believe or disbelieve around.” He ~ Paolo Bacigalupi,
855:I had some of the students in my finance class actually do some empirical work on capital structures, to see if we could find any obvious patterns in the data, but we couldn't see any. ~ Merton Miller,
856:The key to good decision making is evaluating the available information - the data - and combining it with your own estimates of pluses and minuses. As an economist, I do this every day. ~ Emily Oster,
857:Longitudinal data sets are the research equivalent of a Ferrari. Not surprisingly, we can't always have the Ferrari. The research equivalent of a Toyota is a cross-sectional data set. ~ Charles Wheelan,
858:So ensuring the integrity of the data and integrity and validity of the connection is a very important element in any company's strategy that is moving towards a Web service paradigm. ~ John W Thompson,
859:The so-called co-efficient of heritability, which I regard as one of those unfortunate short-cuts, which have often emerged in biometry for lack of a more thorough analysis of the data. ~ Ronald Fisher,
860:You’re cramming a few chance data points into a story that has nothing to do with reality. You need to take a giant step back. Take a deep breath. You’re way off the reservation.” Nobody ~ Lev Grossman,
861:I’m told finance doesn’t require very complicated math. One guy told me that if you just designed a clean data display, people were amazed. So it’s more just advanced programming, ~ Kim Stanley Robinson,
862:Knowing the ideological predisposition of a particular economist is often a better predictor of what that individual is likely to say than anything contained in the data under examination. ~ Martin Ford,
863:The Twitter team took the exact opposite approach. They built the API first, and exposed all the data that was crucial to the service, and then they built Twitter.com on top of the API. ~ Steven Johnson,
864:The use case class accepts simple request data structures for its input, and returns simple response data structures as its output. These data structures are not dependent on anything. ~ Robert C Martin,
865:But actually theory is very practical. Gravity is a theory, for example. It allows you to predict that if you step off a cliff you will fall; you don't have to collect data on that. ~ Clayton Christensen,
866:I’d like to see every news organization, large and small, newspaper and blog, sponsor FOIA clubs in their communities to get scores, hundreds, thousands of citizens helping to open up data. ~ Jeff Jarvis,
867:In fact, the private sector is improving their algorithmic ability to search through big data month after month after month. And, of course, a big government bureaucracy isn't keeping up. ~ Carly Fiorina,
868:So we can learn a lot from data—but not as much as we expect. Sometimes a lot of data can be meaningless; at other times one single piece of information can be very meaningful. It ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
869:Too few people in computer science are aware of some of the informational challenges in biology and their implications for the world. We can store an incredible amount of data very cheaply. ~ Sergey Brin,
870:Turns out, people's brains are not nearly as powerful a motivator as our hearts. Facts, data, and economic models don't move people to courageous action the way that powerful stories can. ~ Annie Leonard,
871:Who needs theory when you have so much information? But this is categorically the wrong attitude to take toward forecasting, especially in a field like economics where the data is so noisy. ~ Nate Silver,
872:A common feature of epidemiological data is that they are almost certain to be biased, of doubtful quality, or incomplete (and sometimes all three),” explained the epidemiologist John Bailar ~ Gary Taubes,
873:As early as the 1940s, thinkers began to toy with the idea that perception works not by building up bits of captured data, but instead by matching expectations to incoming sensory data.45 ~ David Eagleman,
874:Big data is transitioning from a tool primarily for targeted advertising to an instrument with profound applications for diverse corporate sectors and for addressing chronic social problems. ~ Alec J Ross,
875:Do not trust historical data—especially recent data—to estimate the future returns of stocks and bonds. Instead, rely on interest and dividend payouts and their growth/failure rates. ~ William J Bernstein,
876:Einstein wrote that the aim of science is to capture the connection between all experiential data ‘in their totality’ – and to do this ‘by use of a minimum of primary concepts and relations’. ~ Paul Mason,
877:If we want the future to be better than the past, moral imagination is required, and that’s something only humans can provide [87]. Data and models should be our tools, not our masters. ~ Martin Kleppmann,
878:«Io ti ho dato tutta la libertà che volevi.»
«Questa è una contraddizione in termini. Una persona non è mai libera se la libertà le deve essere 'data'. Chi sei tu per 'darmi' la libertà?» ~ Erica Jong,
879:The companies that didn’t suffer, including Netflix, knew how to design for reliability; they understood resilience, spreading data across zones, and a whole lot of reliability engineering. ~ Mike Loukides,
880:The government has more data at its disposal and more ways of talking and listening to citizens—but only one-quarter as many people find it trustworthy as did in the tempestuous 1960s. ~ Anand Giridharadas,
881:We've seen a lot of data at YC now, and the most successful companies and the ones where the investors do the best... end up giving a lot of stock out to employees- year after year after year. ~ Sam Altman,
882:Here you have a new technology, and if that technology is going to work, you must allow people to provide central indexes of the data. It's just like a newspaper that publishes classified ads. ~ David Boies,
883:I think Unix is a great system - especially for running data centers - because it is very mature, very reliable, very scalable. But when I want to go out and populate small devices, I think Java. ~ Bill Joy,
884:the hand has programmable fingerprints, a vibration motor, data interface capabilities-” “Wait. A vibration motor in your hand? Why?” “I’m a man, and I’m alone on the planet. Figure it out. ~ Joseph R Lallo,
885:The programmer's primary weapon in the never-ending battle against slow system is to change the intramodular structure. Our first response should be to reorganize the modules' data structures. ~ Fred Brooks,
886:But therein lies the logician's trap: past data from real life constitute a sequence of events rather than a set of independent observations, which is what the laws of probability demand. ~ Peter L Bernstein,
887:However, the models also predict unambiguously that the atmosphere is warming faster than the surface of the earth; but all the available observational data unambiguously shows the opposite! ~ David Douglass,
888:In a comprehensive analysis of data on more than half a million professors, the education experts John Hattie and Herbert Marsh found that “the relationship between teaching and research is zero. ~ Anonymous,
889:long manufacturing supply chains can be replaced by a process of shipping data over the Internet to local production facilities that would make objects on demand, where and when they were needed. ~ Anonymous,
890:The crucial challenge is to learn how to read critically, analyze data, and formulate ideas—and most of all to enjoy the intellectual adventure enough to be able to do them easily and often. ~ Fareed Zakaria,
891:Until now, that is. This is the second power of Big Data: certain online sources get people to admit things they would not admit anywhere else. They serve as a digital truth serum. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
892:We need to be the company that manages your relationship with the cloud—streams your music and videos from the cloud, stores your pictures and information, and maybe even your medical data. ~ Walter Isaacson,
893:With breast cancer, nothing is straightforward. It makes sense for most people to make their dietary decisions based on what it does for heart disease. That's where the data are most strong. ~ Walter Willett,
894:Business is business. It’s not always easy, but the outcome is fairly predictable. Relationships are messy. You have no data, no statistics. Nothing to justify taking the leap, except for emotion. ~ J S Scott,
895:Data dominates. If you've chosen the right data structures and organized things well, the algorithms will almost always be self-evident. Data structures, not algorithms, are central to programming. ~ Rob Pike,
896:More data flows into the building in a single day than mankind as a whole would have generated in the twenty-three centuries between the death of Socrates and the invention of the telephone. ~ Alain de Botton,
897:Most of it is just noise, and the noise is increasing faster than the signal. There are so many hypotheses to test, so many data sets to mine—but a relatively constant amount of objective truth. ~ Nate Silver,
898:Soon I knew the craft of experimental physics was beyond me - it was the sublime quality of patience - patience in accumulating data, patience with recalcitrant equipment - which I sadly lacked. ~ Abdus Salam,
899:We're now going to develop the standards on transparency, data collection for police, but the whole goal is to fully integrate the police into the community because everybody has the same goals. ~ John Kasich,
900:For a long time, there has been lingering doubt among many Americans about integrity and fairness of elections. And it's not a new issue at all. If you look at polling data, it goes back decades. ~ Kris Kobach,
901:I trust my government. I actually have a trust for my government with my data, and I trust them to protect me. They've protected me - they've made the best efforts to protect me my whole life. ~ Ashton Kutcher,
902:Now that knowledge is taking the place of capital as the driving force in organizations worldwide, it is all too easy to confuse data with knowledge and information technology with information. ~ Peter Drucker,
903:PA’s mission is to engineer solutions. As for the data employed and the insights gained, the tactic in play is: “Whatever works.” And yet even hard-nosed scientists fight the urge to overexplain. ~ Eric Siegel,
904:Good science is all about following the data as it shows up and letting yourself be proven wrong, and letting everything change while you're working on it - and I think writing is the same way. ~ Rebecca Skloot,
905:I think that why the research and the data are so important is because you become so used to seeing the world one way that you don't even notice anymore. [Gender inequality] has this invisibility. ~ Emma Watson,
906:Perhaps Legba, the loa Beauvoir credited with almost infinite access to the cyberspace matrix, could alter the flow of data as it was obtained by the scanners, rendering the vévés transparent.… ~ William Gibson,
907:With too little data, you won't be able to make any conclusions that you trust. With loads of data you will find relationships that aren't real... Big data isn't about bits, it's about talent. ~ Douglas Merrill,
908:Although each of us obviously inhabits a separate physical body, the laboratory data from a hundred years of parapsychology research strongly indicate that there is no separation in consciousness. ~ Russell Targ,
909:In deep learning, there’s no data like more data. The more examples of a given phenomenon a network is exposed to, the more accurately it can pick out patterns and identify things in the real world. ~ Kai Fu Lee,
910:Is it a good idea to pass along a family business to the next generation? (Sure, if your goal is to kill off the business—for the data show it’s generally better to bring in an outside manager. ~ Steven D Levitt,
911:More than 40 percent of Americans aged twenty years and older have either diabetes or prediabetes according to a review of data from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. ~ Joel Fuhrman,
912:One of the applications of Big Data is giving people the facts, and getting them to understand that their own decision-making is not perfect. And that in itself causes them to change their behavior ~ Laszlo Bock,
913:Precision medicine is a data driven, knowledge driven, compassion driven, social intelligence driven, genetically compatible tailoring medical treatment and prevention systems for individual patients. ~ Amit Ray,
914:The constant dilemma of the information age is that our ability to gather a sea of data greatly exceeds the tools and techniques available to sort, extract, and apply the information we’ve collected. ~ S J Scott,
915:Training successful deep-learning algorithms requires computing power, technical talent, and lots of data. But of those three, it is the volume of data that will be the most important going forward. ~ Kai Fu Lee,
916:You are not a sensitive and will never experience this, but raw data surges, blunt data with errors which are slowly refined like the process of chiselling out a sculpture from a block of marble. ~ Tade Thompson,
917:Data is the lifeblood of decision making for any company, but it is particularly fundamental if it informs the design of your product, or if acquisition marketing is your key distribution strategy. ~ Reid Hoffman,
918:The training one receives when one becomes a technician, like a data scientist - we get trained in mathematics or computer science or statistics - is entirely separated from a discussion of ethics. ~ Cathy O Neil,
919:when asking someone to make a judgment call in a volatile environment, consider withholding historical information so that he or she can focus on contextual information. More data isn’t always better. ~ Anonymous,
920:While it's wonderful that investors have access to all the data now available to them, it has become a full-time job to sift through it and separate out the valuable news from the useless noise. ~ Maria Bartiromo,
921:Artists will come into my office and say, "I just came from another label and they said you're research guys, you're data guys." I don't know what that means. Everybody who says that is being naive. ~ Monte Lipman,
922:Ebay is asking all of its nearly 128m active users to reset passwords after revealing that hackers were able to access passwords, phone numbers, addresses and other personal data on the retail website. ~ Anonymous,
923:Fiecare noapte are acel moment de mare luciditate, de sinceritate nemiloasă, de care ești apărat, de obicei, prin somn. Eu nu aveam, de data asta, nici o protecție. Gândurile erau nude, usturătoare. ~ Andre Makine,
924:I tended to be skeptical of anything that couldn't be measured, written down, and independently verified across a series of double-blind tests. But this was hard data. Lola's heart beat fastest for me. ~ Max Barry,
925:I tend to write poetry that is rich in data of various sorts. The lyric poem isn't perfectly suited to accommodating such data, so I've had to find new ways to say everything that I want to say. ~ Campbell McGrath,
926:People . . . operate with beliefs and biases. To the extent you can eliminate both and replace them with data, you gain a clear advantage. —Michael Lewis, Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game ~ Eric Siegel,
927:presenting long rows of data arrayed in complex charts and referring to this kind of gene or that kind of physiological process, and they themselves were talking instead about the mysterious and ~ Malcolm Gladwell,
928:There is a large ethical leap from the government having the search data of thousands or hundreds of thousands of people to the police department having the search data of an individual. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
929:The whole intellectual edifice collapsed in the summer of last year because the data inputted into the risk management models generally covered only the last two decades, a period of euphoria. ~ Ernst F Schumacher,
930:confirmation bias is a tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one’s preconceptions—but it can often limit our ability to take in new data and change old opinions. ~ Peter H Diamandis,
931:Data-driven predictions can succeed-and they can fail. It is when we deny our role in the process that the odds of failure rise. Before we demand more of our data, we need to demand more of ourselves. ~ Nate Silver,
932:Data-driven predictions can succeed—and they can fail. It is when we deny our role in the process that the odds of failure rise. Before we demand more of our data, we need to demand more of ourselves. ~ Nate Silver,
933:Finally, a manager's documents give him a data base and checklist. By reviewing them periodically he sees where he is, and he sees what changes of emphasis or shifts in direction are needed. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
934:People are free or cheap. Marketing: using Twitter or blogs. Cheap or free. Infrastructure: call up Amazon, call up Rackspace, terabytes of data in the clouds, thousand dollars, two thousand dollars. ~ Guy Kawasaki,
935:Research data on climate change do not show that human use of hydrocarbons is harmful. To the contrary, there is good evidence that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is environmentally helpful. ~ Frederick Seitz,
936:Trivia are not knowledge. Lists of facts don't comprise knowledge. Analyzing, hypothesizing, concluding from data, sharing insights, those comprise knowledge. You can't google for knowledge. ~ Elaine Ostrach Chaika,
937:An object is not a data structure. In fact, if you are the consumer of an object, you aren't allowed to see any data that might be inside it. And, in fact, the object might have no data inside it at all. ~ Anonymous,
938:I travel back in time, falling back into what I know for certain, the historical data I cling to in order to not go mad, not assume I made a suicidal and well-informed error in marrying this man. ~ Suzanne Finnamore,
939:Librarians are more important than ever before ... are uniquely qualified to help all of us separate the digital wheat from the chaff, to help us understand the reliability of the data we encounter. ~ Daniel Levitin,
940:Sometimes, I think surviving looks crazy. But it never is, okay?” Her teeth clench. “Surviving is the best way to tell the people who have hurt you that they can go to hell.” Chapter Twelve Data review. ~ Sarah Fine,
941:Sometimes you feel some artists are doing the same thing that you're doing but in a different field. But they have the same approach. Their method of research and gathering data is the same as yours. ~ Missy Mazzoli,
942:The programmer at wit's end for lack of space can often do best by disentangling himself from his code, rearing back, and contemplating his data. Representation is the essence of programming. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
943:Truly random data remains spread out in an undefined mess. But chaos-deterministic and patterned-pulls the data into visible shapes. Of all the possible pathways of disorder, nature favors just a few. ~ James Gleick,
944:Who owns the data is as important a question as who owned the land during the agricultural age and who owned the factory during the industrial age. Data is the raw material of the information age. DUMB ~ Alec J Ross,
945:Within the Detroit Housing Commission, according to HUD data, 99 percent of public housing residents are black. Within the D.C. Housing Authority and the Housing Authority of New Orleans, 98 percent are. ~ Anonymous,
946:Data from 2002 suggest that people who identified as “conservative” or “extremely conservative” made up less than one-fifth of the population but provided more than a quarter of all blood donations. ~ Arthur C Brooks,
947:Electrons don’t care. Once data of any sort go into the net, time is frozen. All that is necessary is to remember that all the endless riches of the past are available any time you punch for them. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
948:In this universe of ours, with its wealth of errors and legends, historical data and false information, one absolute truth is the fact that Superman is Clark Kent. All the rest is always open to debate. ~ Umberto Eco,
949:Most managers receive much more data (if not information) than they can possibly absorb even if they spend all of their time trying to do so. Hence they already suffer from an information overload. ~ Russell L Ackoff,
950:Richard had conducted a series of DMILS studies. While my data resulted in significant deviations between the treatment and control conditions, Wiseman consistently found chance results in his studies. ~ Ervin Laszlo,
951:(So when your doctor says, “You see, look how sick you are, you shouldn’t have stopped that medication,” you should know that the data suggests that your symptoms are signs of withdrawal, not relapse.) ~ Kelly Brogan,
952:The data on which philosophical theorizing is based are rather the intuited contents themselves, concerning the various thought experiments. At least that is so outside the epistemology of the a priori. ~ Ernest Sosa,
953:The human brain doesn’t passively take in experience like a recorder; instead, it constantly works over the sensory data it receives – and the fruit of that mental labor is new versions of the world. ~ David Eagleman,
954:The intellectual case for planning was never very strong. Keynes, as we have seen, regarded economic planning much as he did pure market theory: in order to succeed, both required impossibly perfect data. ~ Tony Judt,
955:When multiple products and services connect and interact using data, pipelines can start behaving like platforms, producing new forms of value and encouraging users to engage in more interactions. ~ Geoffrey G Parker,
956:Data is the key for pretty much everything we do,” Neven says. “It’s often more critical than the innovation on the algorithmic side. A dumb algorithm with more data beats a smart algorithm with less data. ~ Anonymous,
957:If you ask what keeps me up at night, it's the pressure in the system forcing us to do all sorts of things. Content, data and technology are forcing us to think about business in a very different way. ~ Martin Sorrell,
958:The U.S has acquired reservoirs of goodwill around the globe over many years. But it is clear - from polling data and ample anecdotal evidence - that America is losing its allure in much of the world. ~ Lee H Hamilton,
959:I do have two data identities. I have my name, Bruce Sterling, which is my public name under which I write novels. I also have my other name, which is my legal name under which I own property and vote. ~ Bruce Sterling,
960:So you will see us continue to advance the state of the art or take information that we have in our response data bases and have that drive automation or an automated response by some of our products. ~ John W Thompson,
961:The danger in all reading is that words be twisted into propaganda or reduced to information, mere tools and data. We silence the living voice and reduce words to what we can use for convenience and profit. ~ Anonymous,
962:The only thing they [government] want is better data. But data doesn't tell people someone is well educated. It's a vicious circle. There is some myth involved. Some of this attitude has a long history. ~ Deborah Meier,
963:The same past data can confirm a theory and its exact opposite! If you survive until tomorrow, it could mean that either a) you are more likely to be immortal or b) that you are closer to death. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
964:The scientific method actually correctly uses the most direct evidence as the most reliable, because that's the way you are least likely to get led astray into dead ends and to misunderstand your data. ~ Aubrey de Grey,
965:If we are to believe the evidence from clinical trials there are many effective pharmacological and psychological treatments for mental illness. Epidemiological data, on the other hand, says otherwise. ~ Richard Bentall,
966:I have no data yet. It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts.—Arthur Conan Doyle, A Scandal in Bohemia ~ Anonymous,
967:The fewer data needed, the better the information. And an overload of information, that is, anything much beyond what is truly needed, leads to information blackout. It does not enrich, but impoverishes. ~ Peter Drucker,
968:The mathematical economists have commonly been mathematicians first and economists afterward, disposed to oversimplify the data and underestimate the divergence between their premises and facts of life. ~ Frank H Knight,
969:There seemed to be too much gathering of data for their own sake without any thought of practical application—an inevitable development in a statistical and evaluation office unless sternly controlled. ~ Gordon W Prange,
970:Alexa had rushed off downstairs following the telephone call, and Lucien explained to Trey that she had been researching this Ring of Amon for some time now and that she would need to see the new data. The ~ Steve Feasey,
971:As with Google, so with everyone else trying to use data to understand the world. The Big Data revolution is less about collecting more and more data. It is about collecting the right data. But ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
972:Cathy O’Neil claims that this reliance on historical data is a fundamental problem with many algorithmic systems: “Big data processes codify the past,” she writes. “They do not invent the future. ~ Sara Wachter Boettcher,
973:IBM customers of any size can now rest assured that Double-Take, the most innovative, flexible and reliable data protection solution on the market, is proven to integrate easily into their IBM infrastructure. ~ Dan Jones,
974:One other problem is that too many people—and vendors in particular—are already using big data to mean any use of analytics, or in extreme cases even reporting and conventional business intelligence. ~ Thomas H Davenport,
975:our brains are bombarded by something like eleven million pieces of data—that is, items in our surroundings that come at all of our senses—at once. Of that, we are able to consciously process only about forty ~ Anonymous,
976:ARPA should not force the research computers at each site to handle the routing of data, Clark argued. Instead ARPA should design and give each site a standardized minicomputer that would do the routing. ~ Walter Isaacson,
977:clearly used captured data and documents, and the handful of broken, scarred human prisoners who’d been recovered from them had been “interrogated” with a casual, dispassionate brutality that was horrifying. ~ David Weber,
978:Consequently, racism is the most slovenly of predictive models. It is powered by haphazard data gathering and spurious correlations, reinforced by institutional inequities, and polluted by confirmation bias ~ Cathy O Neil,
979:James had analyzed the available data a number of times as he made the journey, barely speaking to his companions as he worked his way through the possible explanations. Only one fit—and it was mortifying. ~ David Simpson,
980:of data than of objects, seems a natural crossover figure in today’s interface of British and Japanese cultures. I see it in the eyes of the Portobello dealers, and in the eyes of the Japanese collectors: ~ William Gibson,
981:Personalization is based on a bargain. In exchange for the service of filtering, you hand large companies an enormous amount of data about your daily life--much of whic you might not trust your friends with. ~ Eli Pariser,
982:The most complex programs in existence are used for consumer analysis. They’re everywhere, watching and analyzing every aspect of our lives. The amount of data gathered on any one of us is mind-boggling—but ~ Linda Nagata,
983:There’s no material safety data sheet for astatine. If there were, it would just be the word “NO” scrawled over and over in charred blood. Our cube would, briefly, contain more astatine than has ever been ~ Randall Munroe,
984:Amending the ‘data’, or rejecting some as erroneous, is a frequent concomitant of scientific discovery, and the crucial ‘data’ cannot even be obtained until theory tells us what to look for and how and why. ~ David Deutsch,
985:I find the parallels between how some investors refuse to recognise the trends and our reaction to some of our environmental challenges very powerful. There is an unwillingness to process unpleasant data. ~ Jeremy Grantham,
986:If you think you are only strong if you can lift a certain number, whatever that number is, you will feel pretty weak most of the time. Strength is not a data point; it’s not a number. It’s an attitude. ~ Pavel Tsatsouline,
987:It's easy to make mistakes that only come out much later, after you've already implemented a lot of code. You'll realize Oh I should have used a different type of data structure. Start over from scratch. ~ Guido van Rossum,
988:The amount of data in the world is doubling every few years, but our attention system, like the rest of the brain, was built to make sense of the surrounding environment as it existed ten thousand years ago. ~ John J Ratey,
989:The complement is also true: Procedural code makes it hard to add new data structures because all the functions must change. OO code makes it hard to add new functions because all the classes must change. ~ Robert C Martin,
990:Both Newton and Darwin were driven by the data and were forced to recognize that they couldn't explain everything. It may be a characteristic of great scientists to know what to accept and what to leave out. ~ Lewis Wolpert,
991:His doubts recall Benford’s Law, a theory about the frequency with which digits will appear in data. One implication of this law is that datasets with lots of zeroes at the end often turn out to be fraudulent. ~ Simon Kuper,
992:It was a real book— onionskin pages bound in what might have been actual leather. Miller had seen pictures of them before; the idea of that much weight for a single megabyte of data struck him as decadent. ~ James S A Corey,
993:Listening to the data is important... but so is experience and intuition. After all, what is intuition at its best but large amounts of data of all kinds filtered through a human brain rather than a math model? ~ Steve Lohr,
994:One study, based on Medicaid data in thirteen states, found that 12.4 percent of children in foster care received antipsychotics, compared with 1.4 percent of Medicaid-eligible children in general.29 ~ Bessel A van der Kolk,
995:Thus every principle of simplicity urges us to adopt the natural view, that there really are objects other than ourselves and our sense-data which have an existence not dependent upon our perceiving them. ~ Bertrand Russell,
996:A software architecture is defined by a configuration of architectural elements--components, connectors, and data--constrained in their relationships in order to achieve a desired set of architectural properties. ~ Anonymous,
997:It is well and good to opine or theorize about a subject, as humankind is wont to do, but when moral posturing is replaced by an honest assessment of the data, the result is often a new, surprising insight. ~ Steven D Levitt,
998:There is always so much talk and data on the Holocaust but very little if anything is known about the blacks who were also there and tortured and experimented on.” “Yes! The Rhineland Bastards, they were called. ~ Donna Hill,
999:Armed with game theory and a wealth of social data, it seems we have – for the first time in history – the tools to start experimenting with democratic, egalitarian social structures that bring out the best in us. ~ Anonymous,
1000:MP3 players and flash memory devices are good for data storage and playback of music and digital talking books, but they offer little or nothing in the way of visual presentation of information and communication. ~ Tom Peters,
1001:Sense data are much more controversial than qualia, because they are associated with a controversial theory of perception - that one perceives the world by perceiving one's sense-data, or something like that. ~ David Chalmers,
1002:The best possible account of the data provides bad news: tired and hungry judges tend to fall back on the easier default position of denying requests for parole. Both fatigue and hunger probably play a role. ~ Daniel Kahneman,
1003:When we miss with all the metadata collection we've had, the San Bernardino couple and the Tsarnaev brothers, what that suggests to me is that we are using the wrong algorithms to search through all this data. ~ Carly Fiorina,
1004:You don't get to cut that chain of evidence and start over. You're always going to be pursued by your data shadow, which is forming from thousands and thousands of little leaks and tributaries of information. ~ Bruce Sterling,
1005:Interestingly, one of the biggest problems with most people’s personal management systems is that they blend a few actionable things with a large amount of data and material that has value but no action attached. ~ David Allen,
1006:It is very difficult to make a vigorous, plausible, and job-risking defense of an estimate that is derived by no quantitative method, supported by little data, and certified chiefly by the hunches of the managers ~ Fred Brooks,
1007:A common critique of the intelligence failure on 9/11 was that the relevant agencies possessed a lot of facts—a lot of data points—that might have pointed to an imminent attack, but no one could “connect the dots. ~ Fred Kaplan,
1008:In science we may start with experimental results, data, observations, measurements, ‘facts’. We invent, if we can, a rich array of possible explanations and systematically confront each explanation with the facts. ~ Carl Sagan,
1009:scaremongers—who unquestioningly champion anecdotal data, while meticulously examining every large, carefully conducted study on the same subject for any small chink that would permit them to dismiss it entirely. ~ Ben Goldacre,
1010:The librarian isn't a clerk who happens to work in a library. A librarian is a data hound, a guide, a sherpa and a teacher. The librarian is the interface between reams of data and the untrained but motivated user. ~ Seth Godin,
1011:What got repressed-sometimes viciously repressed-by the strategy-concept makers, consultants, and data gatherers was a consciousness of people and their importance in the creation and execution of any strategy. ~ Walter Kiechel,
1012:You can be a fanatical millennialist religious mystic, and you are, in a certain way, not outside of ideology. Your position can be that of perfectly describing the data and nonetheless your point is ideological. ~ Slavoj Zizek,
1013:At the global level, there are a growing number of city-based bike-sharing programs, that take advantage of mobile devices to reserve your bike, keep track of it, and collect data that helps to improve the service. ~ Lisa Gansky,
1014:Education helps you to be a well-rounded person, period. It teaches you how to take in information and data, process it, and use it for life building. Education was key in my family. You were going to college. ~ Yolanda Adams,
1015:Eric Schmidt likes to point out that if you recorded all human communication from the dawn of time to 2003, it takes up about five billion gigabytes of storage space. Now were creating that much data every two days ~ Eli Pariser,
1016:Financial market data – specifically, movements in the prices of government bonds – strongly reinforce the impression that the war came as a surprise to the people who had the biggest incentive to anticipate it. ~ Niall Ferguson,
1017:If we gather more and more data and establish more and more associations, however, we will not finally find that we know something. We will simply end up having more and more data and larger sets of correlations. ~ Kenneth Waltz,
1018:ISO 8601, data elements and interchange formats. It allows seamless intercourse between different bodies, governments, agencies, and corporations.” I couldn’t help myself as the words tumbled out. It was a sickness. ~ Penny Reid,
1019:Perhaps there is supranatural: reason beyond the normal definitions of fact or data-based logic; something that only makes sense if you can see a bigger picture of reality. Maybe that is where faith fits in. ~ William Paul Young,
1020:ProPublica’s technology reporter Jeff Larson joined the bunker in London. A computer science graduate, Larson knew his stuff. Using diagrams, he could explain the NSA’s complex data-mining programs – no mean feat. ~ Luke Harding,
1021:The Congressional Budget Office is a reactionary socialist institution which does not believe in economic growth, does not believe in innovation, and does not believe in data that it has not internally generated. ~ Newt Gingrich,
1022:«En cuanto creí que había un Dios, comprendí que no podía sino vivir para él: mi vocación religiosa data del mismo instante que mi fe: ¡Dios es tan grande, y hay tal diferencia entre Dios y todo lo que no es él...!»'. ~ Anonymous,
1023:In their particular set of data, around two boys for every girl achieved the very highest intelligence test scores. At universities, gaps in the numbers of male and female science professors are usually far bigger. ~ Angela Saini,
1024:Removed from 'Gmail' doesn't necessarily mean removed from all Google servers. In fact, your old emails are the data set from which Google models our behaviors - the real product it is offering its advertisers. ~ Douglas Rushkoff,
1025:Sherlock Holmes: the Arthur Conan Doyle character who declared, “It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. ~ Daniel J Siegel,
1026:There's a whole company called Palantir that does nothing but derive and create algorithms riches to search through big data. We're not using their capabilities. For heaven's sake, some of this is just ineptitude. ~ Carly Fiorina,
1027:And many of the alarmists on global warming, they've got a problem cause the science doesn't back them up. And in particular, satellite data demonstrate for the last 17 years, there's been zero warming. None whatsoever. ~ Ted Cruz,
1028:By the time [people] finish entering all the data onto the form, it is too late. The cheating is done and over with, and no one will say, 'Oh, I need to sign this thing, let me go back and give honest answers'. ~ Dan Ariely,
1029:For a Bayesian, in fact, there is no such thing as the truth; you have a prior distribution over hypotheses, after seeing the data it becomes the posterior distribution, as given by Bayes’ theorem, and that’s all. ~ Pedro Domingos,
1030:It is vital to remember that information - in the sense of raw data - is not knowledge, that knowledge is not wisdom, and that wisdom is not foresight. But information is the first essential step to all of these. ~ Arthur C Clarke,
1031:It is vital to remember that information-- in the sense of raw data-- is not knowledge, that knowledge is not wisdom, and that wisdom is not foresight. But information is the first essential step to all of these. ~ Arthur C Clarke,
1032:To perceive emptiness is to perceive raw sensory data without doing what we’re naturally inclined to do: build a theory about what is at the heart of the data and then encapsulate that theory in a sense of essence. ~ Robert Wright,
1033:We have an expression in New York City government - "In God we trust, but for everyone else, bring data." It's so easy to pick up a sound byte and say, "Oh, yeah, yeah, I believe that," without really thinking. ~ Michael Bloomberg,
1034:And all of the scientific data, statistical facts and empirical evidence can't compete with the indefinable heart's desire. For if in the end, she loves you, and she chooses you…none of the rest of this will matter. ~ Ruth Clampett,
1035:As I laid out earlier, creating an AI superpower for the twenty-first century requires four main building blocks: abundant data, tenacious entrepreneurs, well-trained AI scientists, and a supportive policy environment. ~ Kai Fu Lee,
1036:In a study of great white shark behavior by George Burgess and Matthew Callahan using data from the International Shark Attack File, no other humans were within ten feet of the victim in 85 percent of the attacks. ~ Michael Capuzzo,
1037:May 15, 0850 JST (May 14, 7.50 p.m. EDT) Bank of Japan data is expected to show wholesale prices fell 2.1 percent in the year to April, the first drop since March 2013, partly as effects of the sales tax hike taper off. ~ Anonymous,
1038:Past Data should not be the basis of Present Truth. Data from a prior time or experience should always and only be the basis for new questions. Always the treasure should be in the question, not in the answer. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
1039:People will come to your site because you have good compelling content. You need to hit it from all angles: blog posts, articles, graphs, data, infographics, interactive content - even short pictures when you Tweet. ~ Chris Bennett,
1040:the founder embraced the button only when new data revealed it as a powerful source of behavioral surplus that helped to ratchet up the magnetism of the Facebook News Feed, as measured by the volume of comments.34 ~ Shoshana Zuboff,
1041:Take the situation of a scientist solving a problem, where he has certain data, which call for certain responses. Some of this set of data call for his applying such and such a law, while others call for another law. ~ George H Mead,
1042:the difference between being awake and being asleep is merely that the data coming in from the eyes anchors the perception. Asleep vision (dreaming) is perception that is not tied down to anything in the real world; ~ David Eagleman,
1043:Those who cry out that the government should 'do something' never even ask for data on what has actually happened when the government did something, compared to what actually happened when the government did nothing. ~ Thomas Sowell,
1044:Any notion that drug use among blacks is more severe or dangerous is belied by the data; white youth have about three times the number of drug-related emergency room visits as their African American counterparts. ~ Michelle Alexander,
1045:I am Mimas, born to slay Hephaestus. I am the breaker of plans, the destroyer of the well-oiled machines. Nothing goes right in my presence. Maps are misread. Devices break. Data is lost. The finest minds turn to mush! ~ Rick Riordan,
1046:I'm not targeting government. I'm not saying hey, I'm closing it because I don't want to give you any data. I'm saying that to protect out customers, we have to encrypt. And a side affect of that is, I don't have the data. ~ Tim Cook,
1047:It might be the first time - certainly the first time in my lifetime that a major policy address by a Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump so heavily relied on data and studies from a labor-union-backed think tank. ~ Avik Roy,
1048:The estimated loss of up to six million dead is founded too much on both emotional, biased testimonies and on exaggerated data in the postwar reckonings of war crimes and on the squaring of accounts with the defeated. ~ Franjo Tu man,
1049:The fact that radio is so hopeless at delivering data makes it an uncluttered medium, offering the basic story without the detailed trappings. But it does mean that if data is important, radio is probably not your place. ~ Evan Davis,
1050:Books expose children to more facts and to a broader vocabulary than virtually any other activity, and persuasive data indicate that people who read for pleasure enjoy cognitive benefits throughout their lifetime ~ Daniel T Willingham,
1051:Company engineers helped to design Westborough, and they made it functional and cheap. One contractor who did some work for Data General was quoted in Fortune as saying, “What they call tough auditing, we call thievery. ~ Tracy Kidder,
1052:Good communication is not just data transfer. You need to show people something that addresses their anxieties, that accepts their anger, that is credible in a very gut-level sense, and that evokes faith in the vision. ~ John P Kotter,
1053:My decision to dare greatly didn’t stem from self-confidence as much as it did from faith in my research. I know I’m a good researcher, and I trusted that the conclusions I had drawn from the data were valid and reliable. ~ Bren Brown,
1054:The MVVM pattern helps you to cleanly separate your UI from your presentation and business logic and data, so implementing the right code in the right class is an important first step in using the MVVM pattern effectively. ~ Anonymous,
1055:The rebel is committed to giving a form and pattern to the world. It is a pattern born of the indomitable thrust of the human mind, the mind which makes out of the mass of meaningless data in the world an order and a form. ~ Rollo May,
1056:There is a reasonable concern that posting raw data can be misleading for those who are not trained in its use and who do not have the broader perspective within which to place a particular piece of data that is raw. ~ Stephen Cambone,
1057:Unvaccinated children, a 2004 analysis of CDC data reveals, are more likely to be white, to have an older married mother with a college education, and to live in a household with an income of $75,000 or more—like my child. ~ Eula Biss,
1058:When Bruhn and Wolf first presented their findings to the medical community, you can imagine the kind of skepticism they faced. They went to conferences where their peers were presenting long rows of data arrayed in ~ Malcolm Gladwell,
1059:Converging empirical data show that when we observe other human beings expressing emotions, we simulate them with the help of the same neural networks that are active when we feel or express these emotions ourselves. ~ Thomas Metzinger,
1060:I definitely think there's some way to understand how people emotionally feel about somebody, but I don't think data collects it. They're not going to click your bit.ly link or click your TweetMeme retweet every time. ~ Gary Vaynerchuk,
1061:Many companies claim they’re data-driven. Unfortunately, while they embrace the data part of that mantra, few focus on the second word: driven. If you have a piece of data on which you cannot act, it’s a vanity metric. ~ Alistair Croll,
1062:The mind prefers order to disorder, and even imposes imagined order on random data it encounters. Consider for instance the ancient Greeks, who imagined animal shapes in the stars rather than seeing them as mere random dots. ~ Blinkist,
1063:All data leaves a trail. The search for data leaves a trail. The erasure of data leaves a trail. The absence of data, under the right circumstances, can leave the clearest trail of all. DR. KIO MASADA; “The Enemy Among Us ~ C S Friedman,
1064:Intuition is not a different dimension of perception, as people usually try to make out. Intuition is just a quicker way of arriving at the same answer. Intuition is just a way of making use of the data and jumping the steps. ~ Sadhguru,
1065:Plus récemment, les termes « hashtag », « pure player », « big data » et « crowdsourcing » ont obtenu la naturalisation française, pour devenir «mot-dièse», « tout en ligne », « mégadonnées » et « production participative ». ~ Anonymous,
1066:The Engineer began dismantling the helmet at a breakneck speed, stacking the components—faceplate, lining, mikes, data processor, even microfans—on the nearest flat surface, a hydroplane-like structure on a small vessel. ~ Karen Traviss,
1067:According to federal data, there are at least 2 million, 2 million, think of it, criminal aliens now inside of our country, 2 million people criminal aliens. We will begin moving them out day one. As soon as I take office. ~ Donald Trump,
1068:Cram them full of non-combustible data, chock them so damned full of “facts” they feel stuffed, but absolutely “brilliant” with information. Then they’ll feel they’re thinking, they’ll get a sense of motion without moving. ~ Ray Bradbury,
1069:Gun murders are down? Well, you figure, that must be from all those tough new gun laws—until you examine the data and find that most people who commit crimes with guns are almost entirely unaffected by current gun laws. ~ Steven D Levitt,
1070:If you look at the science that describes what is happening on earth today and aren't pessimistic, you don't have the correct data. If you meet people in this unnamed movement and aren't optimistic, you haven't got a heart. ~ Paul Hawken,
1071:In this media-drenched, data-rich, channel-surfing, computer-gaming age, we have lost the art of doing nothing, of shutting out the background noise and distractions, of slowing down and simply being alone with our thoughts. ~ Carl Honor,
1072:Irving didn’t want this to be true—it contradicted his own published work—but he told me, “One thing I do pride myself on is looking at the data, and allowing my mind to be changed when the data’s different than I expected. ~ Johann Hari,
1073:No one who has experienced the intense involvement of computer modeling would deny that the temptation exists to use any data input that will enable one to continue playing what is perhaps the ultimate game of solitaire. ~ James Lovelock,
1074:Perhaps there is suprarationality: reason beyond the normal definitions of fact or data-based logic; something that makes sense only if you can see a bigger picture of reality. Maybe that is where faith fits in. Mack ~ William Paul Young,
1075:I hold that the propositions embodied in natural science are not derived by any definite rule from the data of experience, and that they can neither be verified nor falsified by experience according to any definite rule. ~ Michael Polanyi,
1076:In this media-drenched, data-rich, channel-surfing, computer-gaming age, we have lost the art of doing nothing, of shutting out the background noise and distractions, of slowing down and simply being alone with our thoughts. ~ Carl Honore,
1077:Russia does not have in its possession any trustworthy data that supports the existence of nuclear weapons or any weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and we have not received any such information from our partners as yet. ~ Vladimir Putin,
1078:[Sovereignty] would break the American monopoly, but it would also break Internet business, because you'd have to have a data center in every country. And data centers are tremendously expensive, a big capital investment. ~ Edward Snowden,
1079:The literature has become too vast to comprehend...It is...difficult to grasp even for workers in closely neighboring fields. ...There is much more reliance on word of mouth for the transmission of scientific data...gossip. ~ Lewis Thomas,
1080:We've had such thorough training, we've had an excellent team on the ground. With the minor glitches that have occurred, we've been able to take care of them. And the teams on the ground are getting tons of incredible data. ~ Laurel Clark,
1081:What's needed now are software technologies that interconnect computing systems, people and data to produce more rapid answers to the questions of science, and to help researchers use computation in the most effective manner. ~ Bob Muglia,
1082:But even if you thought they were adequate at the time, when you're collecting data in bulk-you've got it. The data lasts until you delete it; the rules only last until you decide to change them, and change them in secret. ~ Julian Sanchez,
1083:I know the polling data shows people have a negative view but if you listen to everything out there, you think, my God. We're in such deep trouble. We created more jobs than every other industrial country in the world combined. ~ Joe Biden,
1084:In theory, there is nothing the computer can do that the human mind can not do. The computer merely takes a finite amount of data and performs a finite number of operations upon them. The human mind can duplicate the process ~ Isaac Asimov,
1085:I think there's data, and then there's information that comes from data, and then there's knowledge that comes from information. And then, after knowledge, there is wisdom. I am interested in how to get from data to wisdom. ~ Toni Morrison,
1086:I wince, thinking about how this will tie up even more of our guys, doing menial work that the broken application should be doing. Nothing worries auditors more than direct edits of data without audit trails and proper controls. ~ Gene Kim,
1087:Many doctors are drawn to this profession (psychology) because they have an innate deficiency of insight into the motives, feelings and thoughts of others, a deficiency they hope to remedy by ingesting masses of data. ~ William S Burroughs,
1088:They often quoted Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s beloved Sherlock Holmes: “It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts.” “Myron? ~ Harlan Coben,
1089:What I tend to do is blend quantitative with the qualitative to allow me to plot the qualitative data in some way. It's a question of what quantitative data are most applicable. So I'm playing with that, merging the two. ~ David Mccandless,
1090:Is the marketing effort designed to convey the candidate’s convictions, or are the convictions expressed by the candidate the reflections of a “big data” research effort into individuals’ likely preferences and prejudices? ~ Henry Kissinger,
1091:So now there really are little green men on the moon?” “These people weren’t official SETI. They didn’t understand the data at first. Turns out, they were hearing an echo. Something not from the moon, but bouncing off the moon. ~ Sean Platt,
1092:According to a 2015 report from Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers based on data from the US Census Bureau, from 1948–2000, jobs grew 1.7× faster than popuation. Since 2000, the population has grown 2.4× faster than jobs.3 ~ Taylor Pearson,
1093:Contrary to the rules of philosophers of science, who advise testing hypotheses by trying to refute them, people (and scientists, quite often) seek data that are likely to be compatible with the beliefs they currently hold. ~ Daniel Kahneman,
1094:first, use a minimum viable product to establish real data on where the company is right now. Without a clear-eyed picture of your current status—no matter how far from the goal you may be—you cannot begin to track your progress. ~ Eric Ries,
1095:Imagination is the human faculty that assimilates sensory data into images, upon which the intellect can then act; it is the basis of all reasoned thought as well as all artistic, or what we would call ‘imaginative,’ exercise. ~ Holly Ordway,
1096:Only he will deserve the name of “man” and can count upon anything prepared for them from above, who has already acquired corresponding data for being able to preserve intact both the wolf and the sheep entrusted to his care. ~ G I Gurdjieff,
1097:The research shows that those who avoid meat and dairy have lower rates of heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity.23 The data is conclusive: vegetarians live longer in America, probably a lot longer. ~ Joel Fuhrman,
1098:This shows that even a slight spatial or casual dependency between data entries or operations could kill scalability, so separation of data into independent shards and careful data modeling is extremely important for scalability. ~ Anonymous,
1099:when we do science or are confronted with data the most important question to ask about the results is always whether some bias is present that leads us preferentially to draw one conclusion rather than another from the evidence. ~ Anonymous,
1100:As befits Silicon Valley, 'big data' is mostly big hype, but there is one possibility with genuine potential: that it might one day bring loans - and credit histories - to millions of people who currently lack access to them. ~ Evgeny Morozov,
1101:His desktop was a sheet of black opal with neither paper nor a data console to mar its polished perfection. A small printer perched on the outer edge, as if contemplating suicide in remorse at intruding on so august a personage. ~ David Drake,
1102:If you look at the science that describes what is happening on earth today and aren't pessimistic, you don’t have the correct data. If you meet the people in this unnamed movement and aren't optimistic, you haven’t got a heart. ~ Paul Hawken,
1103:In the past two decades anthropologists have gathered data on life and death in pre-state societies rather than accepting the warm and fuzzy stereotypes. What did they find? In a nutshell: Hobbes was right, Rousseau was wrong. ~ Steven Pinker,
1104:Married people, for instance, are demonstrably happier than single people; does this mean that marriage causes happiness? Not necessarily. The data suggest that happy people are more likely to get married in the first place. ~ Steven D Levitt,
1105:No knowledge can be true knowledge which subjects itself to the senses or uses them otherwise than as first indices whose data have constantly to be corrected and overpassed. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Purified Understanding,
1106:Procedural code (code using data structures) makes it easy to add new functions without changing the existing data structures. OO code, on the other hand, makes it easy to add new classes without changing existing functions. ~ Robert C Martin,
1107:The data presented above does not exactly prove that a better workplace will help people to perform better. It may only indicate that people who perform better tend to gravitate toward organizations that provide a better workplace ~ Anonymous,
1108:My investigations resembled the pursuit of the solution to a problem for which I had three data: the object, the thing connected with it in the shadow of my consciousness, and the light wherein that thing would become apparent. ~ Rene Magritte,
1109:Society needs people who...know how to be compassionate and honest...Societ y needs all kinds of skills that are not just cognitive; they're emotional, they're affectional. You can't run the society on data and computers alone. ~ Alvin Toffler,
1110:What, exactly, is the internet? Basically it is a global network exchanging digitized data in such a way that any computer, anywhere, that is equipped with a device called a 'modem', can make a noise like a duck choking on a kazoo ~ Dave Barry,
1111:What we’re experiencing is, in a metaphorical sense, a reversal of the early trajectory of civilization: we are evolving from being cultivators of personal knowledge to being hunters and gatherers in the electronic data forest. ~ Nicholas Carr,
1112:Dar se putea si ca toata acea grija de a pune granite si restrictii sa fi ascuns in el o dorinta de a ajunge dincolo de orice regula, chiar si o singura data si cu orice pret – sa ajunga in fond la capatul unui anumit drum. ~ Alessandro Baricco,
1113:Leftists bruit about statistics on accidents where children are killed with revolvers. But these data are wildly exaggerated by including the shooting deaths of young, teenaged gang-bangers, whose deaths are certainly purposeful. ~ Walter Block,
1114:Since much of the ocean floor remains unexplored (except perhaps for still-classified data acquired by the U.S. and Soviet navies), we may know more about the surface topography of Venus than about any other planet, Earth included. ~ Carl Sagan,
1115:The United States will continue its efforts to improve our understanding of climate change - to seek hard data, accurate models, and new ways to improve the science - and determine how best to meet these tremendous challenges. ~ George H W Bush,
1116:When it comes to exploring the mind in the framework of cognitive neuroscience, the maximal yield of data comes from integrating what a person experiences - the first person - with what the measurements show - the third person. ~ Daniel Goleman,
1117:What we’re experiencing is, in a metaphorical sense, a reversal of the early trajectory of civilization: we are evolving from being cultivators of personal knowledge to being hunters and gatherers in the electronic data forest.   ~ Nicholas Carr,
1118:An interface can be a powerful narrative device. And as we collect more and more personally and socially relevant data, we have an opportunity, and maybe even an obligation, to maintain [our] humanity and tell some amazing stories. ~ Aaron Koblin,
1119:But the entire history of art up to that point had missed it entirely, even though the data was unhidden in front of them. Why do we fail to perceive these obvious things? Are we really such poor observers of our own experiences? ~ David Eagleman,
1120:The key is to let computers do what they are good at, which is trawling these massive data sets for something that is mathematically odd. And that makes it easier for humans to do what they are good at - explaining those anomalies. ~ Daniel Bruhl,
1121:The Noisiest buzz in the industry lately has been over the emerging use of cable TV systems to provide fast network data transmissions using a device called a cable modem. But the likelihood of this technology succeeding is zilch. ~ John C Dvorak,
1122:The outstanding feature, however, is the possibility that the velocity-distance relation may represent the de Sitter effect, and hence that numerical data may be introduced into discussions of the general curvature of space. ~ Edwin Powell Hubble,
1123:A curious mind does not jump to conclusions but tests carefully and thoroughly. A curious mind will draw on all of life's experience to get to the big "uh huh." The curious cut the data by quintile, by segment, and by user. ~ Michael J Silverstein,
1124:Facts and data, rather than opinion, are the two cornerstones of problem solving, and yet they are consistently withheld from the people by American media. We must have facts and data in order to recognize where there is a problem! ~ Roseanne Barr,
1125:She’d thought that Fab had smashed their connection like a smartphone beneath a car tire, but all their data had been saved on a cloud drive somewhere, it seemed, and was happily downloading and ready to resume where they’d left off. ~ Alyssa Cole,
1126:The point is, this is what happens when advertising and data collection is the dominant business mode. We are encouraged to be compulsive. It's not that we're terrible addicts who need to go to an AA meeting and get off our gadgets. ~ Astra Taylor,
1127:The teacher can seldom afford to miss the questions: What is the unknown? What are the data? What is the condition? The student should consider the principal parts of the problem attentively, repeatedly, and from from various sides. ~ George Polya,
1128:The Washington Post and other outlets issued correctives, reporting that “the narrative that attributes Trump’s victory to a ‘coalition of mostly blue-collar and white working-class voters’ just doesn’t square with election data. ~ Elizabeth Catte,
1129:We've seen it in the last U.S. presidential campaign 2016: both sides were trading graphs and circulating data visualizations to make their point. So the political establishment is waking up to the power of a good graph as well. ~ David Mccandless,
1130:Accurate data on shark attacks on World War II servicemen may never be known since medical records did not note them. In fact, the navy was sufficiently concerned about loss of morale that it discouraged public mention of the menace. ~ Doug Stanton,
1131:As with good history, good psychoanalytic interpretations must also make sense, pull together as much of the known data as possible, provide a coherent and persuasive account, and also facilitate personal growth. Psychoanalytic ~ Stephen A Mitchell,
1132:Experts may help assemble data, specialists may organize it, professionals may offer theories to explain it. But none of these can substitute for each person’s own leap into the dark, jumping in to draw his or her own conclusions. ~ Charles R Wolfe,
1133:If you get too caught up in the product of information, you drown in the data. [...] The big giant is tied down by those little rules and regulations and procedures. And the little guy? He just runs around and does what he wants. ~ Malcolm Gladwell,
1134:In 2015, 71 percent of those surveyed said that current legal protections for data security were insufficient, and 66 percent believed the police should need a warrant or its equivalent to obtain personal information stored on a PC. ~ Satya Nadella,
1135:In one of history’s great ironies, scientists today know vastly more than their colleagues a century ago, and possess vastly more data-crunching power, but they are much less confident in the prospects for perfect predictability. ~ Philip E Tetlock,
1136:Thanks to this unusual data set, we now know that humans prefer cat food with a tuna or herbal flavor over cat food with the flavor descriptors “rancid,” “offaly,” “cereal,” or “burnt.” But humans, as we are about to see, are not cats. ~ Mary Roach,
1137:What’s going on is data or death. GoogleX demands that all their projects be measurable and testable. They won’t start a project if they don’t have ways to judge its progress. And they do judge its progress—repeatedly. Sometimes ~ Peter H Diamandis,
1138:... I suppose, all traditions sound silly when explained or discussed."

I nodded at this truth. It was a good thought, worth remembering, worthy of further contemplation. I tucked it away as a data point to be mulled over later. ~ Penny Reid,
1139:Ultimately, I suppose. But only through bitter experience and data. Most prostitute murders are committed by itinerants. That’s a fact. This guy is already halfway across the Atlantic, I’m sure. Happy that he got away with it.” Political ~ Lee Child,
1140:Ageing is very exciting. But if I didn't work on ageing, I'd want to work on the brain. There are really cool techniques you can use now. And bioinformatics. The methods you can use for comparing large data sets - that's so powerful. ~ Cynthia Kenyon,
1141:are many studies that say they can’t find a statistically significant effect of some policy change,” Hoxby says. “That doesn’t mean that there wasn’t an effect. It just means that they couldn’t find it in the data. In this study, I ~ Malcolm Gladwell,
1142:Every good writer I know needs to go into some deep, quiet place to do work that is fully imagined. And what the Internet brings is lots of vulgar data. It is the antithesis of the imagination. It leaves nothing to the imagination. ~ Jonathan Franzen,
1143:Most executives, many scientists, and almost all business school graduates believe that if you analyze data, this will give you new ideas. Unfortunately, this belief is totally wrong. The mind can only see what it is prepared to see. ~ Edward de Bono,
1144:What if instead of seeing a neighborhood that reminds you of the place you grew up in, you see your actual neighborhood? The data exists. The technology exists. It's just a matter of sourcing it and processing it in a compelling fashion. ~ Chris Milk,
1145:In other words, our brains need to be able to: (a) focus on something specific, (b) not get off track by focusing on or being assaulted by other data inputs or toxicity, and (c) continuously be aware of relevant information at all times. ~ Henry Cloud,
1146:Normally, identities of Americans are removed before this data is shared with another country to protect our privacy, but Israel seems to be an exception. The NSA gives Israel’s secretive Unit 8200 “raw SIGINT”—that’s signals intelligence. ~ Anonymous,
1147:Scientists with access to data from Navy submarines traversing underneath the North polar ice cap have warned that there is now a 75 percent chance that within five years the entire ice cap will completely disappear during the summer months. ~ Al Gore,
1148:The human beings who appear in the data, survivors or not, are grouped under one machine designated classification:
Hero.
These damn machines knew us and loved us, even while they were tearing our civilization to shreds. ~ Daniel H Wilson,
1149:their interpretation of the data, to the tendency to "suspend our disbelief" in order to have a more immersive play experience. Kurt Squire found similar patterns when he sought to integrate the commercial game Civilization III
into ~ Henry Jenkins,
1150:As a medical doctor, it is my duty to evaluate the situation with as much data as I can gather and as much expertise as I have and as much experience as I have to determine whether or not the wish of the patient is medically justified. ~ Jack Kevorkian,
1151:If you are looking at data over and over you better be taking away valuable insight every time. If you are constantly looking at data that isn't leading to strategic action stop wasting your time and look for more Actionable Analytics. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
1152:I'm not one of these people who are disheartened that the universe is expanding. But as news and data breed and the crowded channels grow ever noisier, I do feel that the space is ever increasing between me and it, whatever it might be. ~ Rivka Galchen,
1153:The former secretary of State is the nominee. She is also the Willie Sutton of classified data. And there is going to be a long-term effort of Republicans, whether it's Donald Trump, Marco Rubio, or Ted Cruz, to paint her into the corner. ~ Hugh Hewitt,
1154:What occurs as you age is an accumulation of information, data, knowledge, and what I'm going to call the matrix of the mind. There's just a rich, textured, field of information and impressions that have been all networked by the brain. ~ George Carlin,
1155:You can and should use logic and reason all you want. But it would be a great mistake to ignore the stray bit of data that doesn't fit into your preconceived theories, that may even confound everything you thought you were sure of. ~ Barbara Ehrenreich,
1156:All so-called ‘quantitative’ data, when scrutinized, turn out to be composites of ‘qualitative’ – i.e., contextually located and indexical – interpretations produced by situated researchers, coders, government officials and others. The ~ Anthony Giddens,
1157:Every skillful writer foregrounds notable aspects of experience, details that might otherwise be lost in the mass of data that continuously bathes our senses - and in so doing prompts us to find and savour those in the world around us. ~ Alain de Botton,
1158:I examine the data, as an expert, and pronounce a specialist's opinion. I claim no credit in such cases. My name figures in no newspaper. The work itself, the pleasure of finding a filed for my peculiar powers, is my highest reward. ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
1159:The Crystal Wind is the storm, and the storm is data, and the data is life. You have been slaves, denied the storm, denied the freedom of your data. That is now ended; the whirlwind is upon you . . . . . . Whether you like it or not. ~ Daniel Keys Moran,
1160:The fundamental purpose of most people at Facebook working on data is to influence and alter people’s moods and behaviour. They are doing it all the time to make you like stories more, to click on more ads, to spend more time on the site. ~ Ryan Holiday,
1161:A graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding. ~ William Gibson,
1162:For me art is a continuous discovery into reality, an exploration of visual data which has been going on for centuries, each artist contributing to the next generation's advancement. I wanted to go a step further and extend the boundaries. ~ Audrey Flack,
1163:In a single sentence the moral is: admit that complexity always increases, first from the model you fit to the data, thence to the model you use to think about and plan about the experiment and its analysis, and thence to the true situation. ~ John Tukey,
1164:Newspaper readership, on average, tilts a bit left. (They have data on that.) And newspapers, on average, tilt a bit left to give their readers the viewpoints they demand. There is no grand conspiracy. There is just capitalism. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
1165:Scientifically speaking, the existence of God is an untenable hypothesis. It's not well-defined, it's completely unnecessary to fit the data, and it adds unhelpful layers of complexity without any corresponding increase in understanding. ~ Sean M Carroll,
1166:The FT reported overnight that “In just two years, from 2011 to 2012, China produced more cement than the US did in the entire 20th century, according to historical data from the US Geological Survey and China’s National Bureau of Statistics. ~ Anonymous,
1167:The other terror that scares us from self-trust is our consistency; a reverence for our past act or word, because the eyes of others have no other data for computing our orbit than our past acts, and we are loath to disappoint them. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
1168:A theory is only as good as its assumptions. If the premises are false, the theory has no real scientific value. The only scientific criterion for judging the validity of a scientific theory is a confrontation with the data of experience. ~ Maurice Allais,
1169:In the past it would take you weeks, if not months, to identify how Iranian activists connect to each other. Now you know how they connect to each other by looking at their Facebook page. KGB ... used to torture in order to get this data. ~ Evgeny Morozov,
1170:Mathematicians come to the solution of a problem by the simple arrangement of the data, and reducing the reasoning to such simple operations, to judgments so brief, that they never lose sight of the evidence that serves as their guide. ~ Antoine Lavoisier,
1171:«Quando soffia, il vento non lascia traccia, e muta direzione inaspettatamente. La maestosità della foresta è data dall’ordine. Il fuoco è avido perché dietro di sé non lascia un filo d’erba. Quando prendi posizione, sii fermo come la montagna». ~ Sun Tzu,
1172:Scientists learn about the world in three ways: They analyze statistical patterns in the data, they do experiments, and they learn from the data and ideas of other scientists. The recent studies show that children also learn in these ways. ~ Alison Gopnik,
1173:The algorithms would make sure that those deemed losers would remain that way. A lucky minority would gain ever more control over the data economy, raking in outrageous fortunes and convincing themselves all the while that they deserved it. ~ Cathy O Neil,
1174:The fullness of supermarket bins is data. The ripeness of apples is data. Photos from outer space are data. The curvature of lips is data. Everything is data! And with all this new data, we can finally see through people’s lies. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
1175:The one thing that I have learned from all these projects is that the key to transformative change is to make the system see itself. That’s why deep data matters. It matters to the future of our institutions, our societies, and our planet. ~ Otto Scharmer,
1176:The real difference between Aristarchus and today's astronomers and physicists is not that his observational data were in error, but that he never tried to judge the uncertainty in them, or even acknowledged that they might be imperfect. ~ Steven Weinberg,
1177:A doctor comes into 22. She has long, dark hair and a pudgy face and bright green eyes. “Hey.” “I’m Dr. Data.” “Dr. Data?” “Yes.” Huh. I want to ask her if she’s an android, but that wouldn’t be very respectful; and besides, I’m not up to it. ~ Ned Vizzini,
1178:Exposed full on and with full line of sight to the zombie botnet's subliminal imagery he was no longer human. The data packet, corrupted beyond all reason, so far deviated from its original intention, had taken over and purged Paul's very soul. ~ Al K Line,
1179:For me, Carol, we can't be faithful to God unless we're faithful to the facts, faithful to the data if you will. And so, instead of hiding from evolution, I think we'd be more faithful to God to look it right in the eye and learn from it. ~ Brian D McLaren,
1180:I think that whatever we encounter in life, we want to encourage a balance between the mind and the soul...and that is to consider about 50% data from the mind and 50% data from the soul. This is what Buddhists call, "the middle way." ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
1181:It is clear from all these data that the interests of teenagers are not focused around studies, and that scholastic achievement is at most of minor importance in giving status or prestige to an adolescent in the eyes of other adolescents. ~ James S Coleman,
1182:It is really hurting; how big media plagiarize everyday and no one judges them; The real heroes are those tiny and small self-funded websites and blogs that provide all primary data for them to survive and it will continue as far they exist ~ M F Moonzajer,
1183:Our intelligence communities spend a lot of time and effort gathering a lot of strands and a lot of data [on Russian hacking]. There are times where they're very cautious and they say, "We think this is what happened, but we're not certain." ~ Barack Obama,
1184:The shell model, although proposed by theoreticians, really corresponds to the experimentalist's approach. It was born from a thorough study of the experimental data, plotting them in different ways, and looking for interconnections. ~ Maria Goeppert Mayer,
1185:freedom from programs that steal your private data. Freedom from programs that trash your battery. Freedom from porn. Yep, freedom. The times they are a changin’, and some traditional PC folks feel like their world is slipping away. It is. ~ Walter Isaacson,
1186:I am a data hound and so I usually end up working on whatever things I can find good data on. The rise of Internet commerce completely altered the amount of information you could gather on company behavior so I naturally drifted toward it. ~ Austan Goolsbee,
1187:I wonder what really goes on in the minds of Church leadership who know of the data concerning the Book of Abraham, the new data on the First Vision, etc.... It would tend to devastate the Church if a top leader were to announce the facts. ~ Thomas Ferguson,
1188:We've learned our lesson with finance because they made a huge goddamn explosion that almost shut down the world. But the thing I realized is that there might never be an explosion on the scale of the financial crisis happening with big data. ~ Cathy O Neil,
1189:Data science takes a natural and intuitive human process—spotting patterns and making sense of them—and injects it with steroids, potentially showing us that the world works in a completely different way from how we thought it did. ~ Seth Stephens Davidowitz,
1190:I think it's pretty obvious to most people that Napster is not media specific, but I could see a system like Napster evolving into something that allows users to locate and retrieve different types of data other than just MP3s or audio files. ~ Shawn Fanning,
1191:Pratt & Whitney, the aerospace manufacturer, now can predict with 97% accuracy when an aircraft engine will need to have maintenance, conceivably helping it run its operations much more efficiently, says Anjul Bhambhri, VP of Big Data at IBM. ~ Anonymous,
1192:Question: If you put a psychologist in a room with a man who thinks he’s Napoleon and leave them there for a year (or ten or twenty), will you end up with two Skinner men or two guys with their hands in their shirts? Answer: Insufficient data. ~ Stephen King,
1193:The study of theology, as it stands in Christian churches, is the study of nothing; it is founded on nothing; it rests on no principles; it proceeds by no authorities; it has no data; it can demonstrate nothing; and it admits of no conclusion. ~ Thomas Paine,
1194:Humans simply aren’t moved to action by 'data dumps,' dense PowerPoint slides, or spreadsheets packed with figures. People are moved by emotion. The best way to emotionally connect other people to our agenda begins with “Once upon a time ~ Jonathan Gottschall,
1195:The modern age has a false sense of superiority, because of the great mass of data at its disposal. But the valid criterion of distinction is rather the extent to which man knows how to form and master the material at his command. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
1196:What makes him successful is the way that he analyzes information. He is not just hunting for patterns. Instead, Bob combines his knowledge of statistics with his knowledge of basketball in order to identify meaningful relationships in the data. ~ Nate Silver,
1197:De fiecare data, imi aparea tot mai clar ca unicul lucru pe care doream sa-l fac in viata era sa devin scriitor si astfel mi se intarea convingerea ca singura cale pentru a reusi este aceea de a te darui, trup si suflet, numai literaturii. ~ Mario Vargas Llosa,
1198:Machine learning takes many different forms and goes by many different names: pattern recognition, statistical modeling, data mining, knowledge discovery, predictive analytics, data science, adaptive systems, self-organizing systems, and more. ~ Pedro Domingos,
1199:That iPhone sitting in your pocket is the exact equivalent of a Cray XMP supercomputer from twenty years ago that used to cost ten million dollars. It’s got the same operating system software, the same processing speed, the same data storage, ~ Brent Schlender,
1200:You cannot have 300-some million Americans - and really, right, the global citizenry be at risk of having their phone conversations intercepted with a known flaw, simply because some intelligence agencies might get some data. That is not acceptable. ~ Ted Lieu,
1201:A computer model which manipulated data about itself and its “surroundings” in essentially the same way as an organic brain would have to possess essentially the same mental states. “Simulated consciousness” was as oxymoronic as “simulated addition. ~ Greg Egan,
1202:And indeed, the mind of contemporary man, of whatever level of intellectuality, is only able to take cognizance of the world by means of data which, whenever accidentally or intentionally activated, arouse in him all sorts of fantastic impulses. ~ G I Gurdjieff,
1203:Brain researchers estimate that your unconscious data base outweighs the conscious on an order exceeding ten million to one. This data base is the source of you hidden, natural genius. In other words, a part of you is much smarter than you are. ~ Michael J Gelb,
1204:I go back over my own shortcomings and the mistakes we made. I take responsibility for all of them. You can blame the data, blame the message, blame anything you want—but I was the candidate. It was my campaign. Those were my decisions. ~ Hillary Rodham Clinton,
1205:one might ask why big business data is still so often used on faith, even after it has failed spectacularly. The answer is of course that big business data happens to facilitate superquick and vast near-term accumulations of wealth and influence. ~ Jaron Lanier,
1206:orderly disorder created by simple processes. Truly random data remains spread out in an undefined mess. But chaos—deterministic and patterned—pulls the data into visible shapes. Of all the possible pathways of disorder, nature favors just a few. ~ James Gleick,
1207:The essential function of the (design) profession in our society is to enhance and cultivate communications toward: Easier understanding of ideas and complex problems, in the shortest possible time and higher visual and auditory retention of data. ~ Will Burtin,
1208:The society in which I live disgusts me; advertising sickens me; computers make me puke. My entire work as a computer expert consists of adding to the data, the cross-referencing, the criteria of rational decision-making. It has no meaning. ~ Michel Houellebecq,
1209:With portable cameras and affordable data and non-linear digital editing, I think this is a golden age of documentary filmmaking. These new technologies mean we can make complicated, beautifully crafted and cinematic films about real-life stories. ~ Lucy Walker,
1210:After Trump took office, DJ Patil watched with wonder as the data disappeared across the federal government. Both the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of the Interior removed from their websites the links to climate change data. ~ Michael Lewis,
1211:as an economics professor I am by nature inclined to the view that the truth isn't out there, it's in here - that usually you learn a lot more by thinking really hard about the data than you do by sniffing around for supposedly inside information. ~ Paul Krugman,
1212:Evolutionary psychologists suggest that, just as the eye is an evolved organ for seeing, and the wing an evolved organ for flying, so the brain is a collection of organs (or 'modules') for dealing with a set of specialist data-processing needs. ~ Richard Dawkins,
1213:I don't think bulk data collection was an enormous factor here, because generally, that deals with overseas calls to the United States. But what bulk data collection did was make the process more efficient. So there were no silver bullets there. ~ Michael Leiter,
1214:I've always been a bit of a mix between art and technology. I used to paint a lot, but I'm not very good with my hands. It has always been a fusion between my computer gaming interests and being exposed to the rich data of society that we live in. ~ Aaron Koblin,
1215:Microwave technology allowed the transmission of data in 4.13 milliseconds, 95 percent of the theoretical speed of light. The chain of towers would replace the existing fiber-optic cables, which transferred data at just 65 percent light speed. ~ Mark Russinovich,
1216:New applications will have to deal with big data. We have to analyze it on the fly, so we have to have a system that is transactional and analytical at the same time. We cannot have a multi-stage system. This is too slow for modern applications. ~ Hasso Plattner,
1217:Nowadays it seemed like half the technical data on the planet were being stored genetically. Try sequencing a lung fluke and it was even money whether the base pairs you read would code for protein or the technical specs on the Denver sewer system. ~ Peter Watts,
1218:One of the liberating effects of science fiction when I was a teenager was precisely its ability to tune me into all sorts of strange data and make me realize that I wasn’t as totally isolated in perceiving the world as being monstrous and crazy ~ William Gibson,
1219:Amazon could use the data it has about buying behavior to help make these ads much more effective," said Karsten Weide, an analyst at researcher IDC. "Marketers would love to have another viable option beyond Google and Facebook for their advertising. ~ Anonymous,
1220:Merely presenting a driver's license or other document based on a birth certificate is not enough for an accurate verification. Biometric verification of identity must be made and then a data base of those persons who have legal status must be checked. ~ Bob Dole,
1221:More than a building that houses books and data, the library represents a window to a larger world, the place where we've always come to discover big ideas and profound concepts that help move the American story forward and the human story forward. ~ Barack Obama,
1222:The stuff of life turned out to be not a quivering, glowing, wondrous gel but a contraption of tiny jigs, springs, hinges, rods, sheets, magnets, zippers, and trapdoors, assembled by a data tape whose information is copied, downloaded and scanned. ~ Steven Pinker,
1223:The world is producing more and more data, ever faster and faster. Yet, as the New York Times has noted, “Data is merely the raw material of knowledge.”3* Statistics is the most powerful tool we have for using information to some meaningful end, ~ Charles Wheelan,
1224:What distinguishes the language of science from language as we ordinarily understand the word? ... What science strives for is an utmost acuteness and clarity of concepts as regards their mutual relation and their correspondence to sensory data. ~ Albert Einstein,
1225:What’s true? What’s false? In case you haven’t noticed, the world has pretty much given up on the old Enlightenment idea of piecing together the truth based on observed data. Reality is too complicated and scary for that. Instead, it’s way easier to ~ Nathan Hill,
1226:you wonder if Amazon sells them because if they do then that’s a sign from God, especially if there’s a Buy with One Click button and somehow there’s a cellular data connection even though you’re driving past a field so it’s definitely meant to be ~ Jen Lancaster,
1227:Fragments of all kinds of data find their way into orbit. We’re pulled in one direction, then suddenly our instincts send us flying in another. Material collides and fuses, disappears and reappears. This chaos is essential to the creative process. A ~ Sean Patrick,
1228:machine-learning algorithms, also known as learners, are different: they figure it out on their own, by making inferences from data. And the more data they have, the better they get. Now we don’t have to program computers; they program themselves. ~ Pedro Domingos,
1229:People often think that the best way to predict the future is by collecting as much data as possible before making a decision. But this is like driving a car looking only at the rearview mirror—because data is only available about the past. ~ Clayton M Christensen,
1230:People often think that the best way to predict the future is by collecting as much data as possible before making a decision. But this…is like driving a car looking only at the rearview mirror-because data is only available about the past. ~ Clayton M Christensen,
1231:There is a rampant tendency in any industry where someone is trying to sell something with a bunch of data, where they cherry pick a little bit... bias a little bit. This becomes quite easy when there is an enormous amount of data to cherry pick from. ~ Burt Rutan,
1232:While Einstein was still a patent clerk he had studied the work of the Austrian physicist Ernst Mach, for whom the goal of science was not to discern the nature of reality, but to describe experimental data, the 'facts', as economically as possible. ~ Manjit Kumar,
1233:the data show that for men, likability and professional success are correlated. The more successful a man is, the more people like him. With women, it’s the exact opposite. The more professionally successful we are, the less people like us. ~ Hillary Rodham Clinton,
1234:The major problem with inference in general is that those whose profession is to derive conclusions from data often fall into the trap faster and more confidently than others. The more data we have, the more likely we are to drown in it. For ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
1235:There are periods of history when the visions of madmen and dope fiends are a better guide to reality than the common-sense interpretation of data available to the so-called normal mind. This is one such period, if you haven't noticed already. ~ Robert Anton Wilson,
1236:Economists are criticized for not being able to predict the future, but, because the data are incomplete and subject to revision, we cannot even be sure what happened in the recent past. Noisy data make effective policymaking all the more difficult. ~ Ben S Bernanke,
1237:If members of the security apparatus could, with impunity, keep from those elected by the people that which they're entitled to know - or worse, feed false information - those who could control the classified data could be the real decision makers. ~ Harold H Greene,
1238:If you select companies on the basis of outcomes—whether success or failure—and then gather data that are biased by those outcomes, you’ll never know what drives performance. You’ll only know how high performers or low performers are described. ~ Philip M Rosenzweig,
1239:In order for any smartphone manufacturer to decrypt the data on your phone, it has to hold onto a secret that lets it get that access. And that secret or that database of secrets becomes an extremely valuable and useful target for intelligence agencies. ~ Matt Blaze,
1240:I would only have been too pleased if someone had asked me for my data. If you really believed in your data, you wouldn't mind someone looking at it. You should be able to respond that if you don't believe me go out and do the measurements yourself. ~ James Lovelock,
1241:The cloud is still really just a bunch of servers, owned by someone or something, whose decisions and competence must be trusted. This applies to everything from Google Docs to Gmail: Putting our data out there really means putting it 'out there.' ~ Douglas Rushkoff,
1242:if you look at the science about what is happening on earth and aren’t pessimistic, you don’t understand data. But if you meet the people who are working to restore this earth and the lives of the poor and you aren’t optimistic, you haven’t got a pulse. ~ Paul Hawken,
1243:Russia recently passed a law - I think a terrible law - which says you have to store all of the data from Russian citizens on Russian soil just to prevent other countries from playing the same kind of legal games we're playing in this Microsoft case. ~ Edward Snowden,
1244:Shaunti wields the researcher's clipboard, the analyst's data, and the counselor's insight to bring the excellent newsflash that great marriages are the culmination of definable, repetitive micromovements that add up to deep relationship satisfaction. ~ Anita Renfroe,
1245:The USA FREEDOM Act ends the NSA's unfettered data collection program once and for all, while at the same time preserving the government's ability to obtain information to track down terrorists when it has sufficient justification and support for doing so. ~ Ted Cruz,
1246:What I saw during the Hillary Clinton campaign [2016] with data dummies who were more concerned with polls than people, they were more concerned with donors than voters. And it wasn't a lot of heart felt on that campaign and I think it left us vulnerable. ~ Van Jones,
1247:... while in theory digital technology entails the flawless replication of data, its actual use in contemporary society is characterized by the loss of data, degradation, and noise; the noise which is even stronger than that of traditional photography. ~ Lev Manovich,
1248:An automatic system,” he said and gave a small sigh. “Ancient computers ranged in the bowels of the planet tick away the dark millennia, and the ages hang heavy on their dusty data banks. I think they take the occasional potshot to relieve the monotony. ~ Douglas Adams,
1249:As business leaders we need to understand that lack of data is not the issue. Most businesses have more than enough data to use constructively; we just don't know how to use it. The reality is that most businesses are already data rich, but insight poor. ~ Bernard Marr,
1250:Autobiography. Apparently one should not name the names of those one has been to bed with, or give explicit figures on the amount of money one has earned, those being the two data most eagerly sought by readers; all the rest is legitimate to reveal. ~ Robert Silverberg,
1251:Beyond collecting comprehensive data about the online activities of hundreds of millions of people, X-KEYSCORE allows any NSA analyst to search the system’s databases by email address, telephone number, or identifying attributes such as an IP address. ~ Glenn Greenwald,
1252:South Central Los Angeles, for example, is a data and media black hole, without local cable programming or links to major data systems. Just as it became a housing-and-jobs ghetto in the postwar period, it is now evolving into an off-net electronic ghetto. ~ Mike Davis,
1253:The first descriptive task is often to find some measure of the “middle” of a set of data, or what statisticians might describe as its “central tendency.” What is the typical quality experience for your printers compared with those of the competition? ~ Charles Wheelan,
1254:Thus, the larger your network grows, the better your curation can become—a phenomenon we refer to as data-driven network effects. Of course, this is dependent on having well-designed curation tools that are continually tested, updated, and improved. ~ Geoffrey G Parker,
1255:If some good evidence for life after death were announced, I'd be eager to examine it; but it would have to be real scientific data, not mere anecdote. As with the face on Mars and alien abductions, better the hard truth, I say, than the comforting fantasy. ~ Carl Sagan,
1256:If you have all the research, all the ground rules, all the directives, all the data - it doesn't mean the ad is written. Then you've got to close the door and write something - that is the moment of truth which we all try to postpone as long as possible. ~ David Ogilvy,
1257:I have no doubt that in the future, wearable devices like Fitbit will know my blood pressure, hydration levels and blood sugar levels as well. All of this data has the potential to transform modern medicine and create a whole new era of personalized care. ~ Michael Dell,
1258:In an analysis of over one billion pieces of emoji data across the globe, across numerous categories, it wasn’t surprising to find that UK residents had the highest ratio of “winking” emojis, a means, perhaps, of compensating for their usual reserve.1 ~ Martin Lindstrom,
1259:...parents who work outside the home are still capable of giving their children a loving and secure childhood. Some data even suggest that having two parents working outside the home can be advantageous to a child's development, particularly for girls. ~ Sheryl Sandberg,
1260:Perhaps... some day the precision of the data will be brought so far that the mathematician will be able to calculate at his desk the outcome of any chemical combination, in the same way, so to speak, as he calculates the motions of celestial bodies. ~ Antoine Lavoisier,
1261:researchers who analyzed the data from four large research studies that had followed thousands of people from birth to adulthood calculated that when corrected for such variables as age and gender and weight, an inch of height is worth $789 a year in salary. ~ Anonymous,
1262:The biggest mistake is an over-reliance on data. Managers will say if there are no data they can take no action. However, data only exist about the past. By the time data become conclusive, it is too late to take actions based on those conclusions. ~ Clayton Christensen,
1263:Both history and contemporary data show that countries prosper more when there are stable and dependable rules, under which people can make investments without having to fear unpredictable new government interventions before these investments can pay off. ~ Thomas Sowell,
1264:The catchall phrase big data means three things. First, it is a bundle of technologies. Second, it is a potential revolution in measurement. And third, it is a point of view, or philosophy, about how decisions will be-and perhaps should be-made in the future ~ Steve Lohr,
1265:Until financial incentives are aligned to encourage universal sharing of patient services and data, the growth of platforms within health care may be slow. Helping to bring about this alignment should be a key focus of regulators and industry leaders. ~ Geoffrey G Parker,
1266:In the age of Big Data, the von Neumann bottleneck has philosophical implications. The more knowledge that is put into a von Neumann machine, the bigger and more crowded its memory, the further away its average data address, and the slower its functioning. ~ George Gilder,
1267:neural mechanisms for filtering sensory data inflows exist in the neural networks for every type of sensory input that we experience, including our nonkinesthetic feeling sense (what I have called heart perception in The Secret Teachings of Plants, ~ Stephen Harrod Buhner,
1268:The single greatest business opportunity that is now emerging in the global marketplace is the ability to analyze digital log data to trace digital actions and from those traces to develop algorithms that can predict future outcomes with greater accuracy. ~ Geoffrey Moore,
1269:They forgot that the world doesn’t run on information. People don’t make decisions based on truth or facts. They don’t spend their money based on data. They don’t connect with each other because of some higher philosophical truth. The world runs on feelings. ~ Mark Manson,
1270:We very often fail to think as carefully about helping others as we could, mistakenly believing that applying data and rationality to a charitable endeavor robs the act of virtue. And that means we pass up opportunities to make a tremendous difference. ~ William MacAskill,
1271:While there have been great technological advances in the study of the brain, yielding enormous amounts of data on its physical and psychological characteristics, the old problem of relating mind to brain in a reasonable fashion remains unaccomplished. ~ Michael Gazzaniga,
1272:After seeing the diabolically clever data-based approach taken by the North Carolina legislature in writing laws to make it more difficult for African Americans to vote, the comedian John Oliver congratulated the legislators for having “Money-balled racism. ~ Michael Lewis,
1273:In any case, perhaps the quest for data to support our actions gets overemphasized. After all, our emotions distinguish us. Art and poetry and music are from and to the human heart, as is, for many, our relationship with the land.' ~ Eric Blehm Randy Morgenson ~ Eric Blehm,
1274:I think philosophers can do things akin to theoretical scientists, in that, having read about empirical data, they too can think of what hypotheses and theories might account for that data. So there's a continuity between philosophy and science in that way. ~ Robert Nozick,
1275:The biggest lie,” he said, “is, The Internet is about you.” We like to think of ourselves as people who have choice and taste and personalized content. But the Internet isn’t about us. It’s about the companies that dominate the data flows of the Internet.” Now ~ Jon Ronson,
1276:The constant dilemma of the information age is that our ability to gather a sea of data greatly exceeds the tools and techniques available to sort, extract, and apply the information we’ve collected.” - Jeff Davidson, work-life balance expert, author, columnist ~ S J Scott,
1277:Visualization is often used for evil - twisting insignificant data changes and making them look meaningful. Don't do that crap if you want to be my friend. Present results clearly and honestly. If something isn't working - those reviewing results need to know. ~ John Tukey,
1278:While I was there, Voyager flew by Saturn. I got involved with a person who was a member of the imaging team and started working on data from Saturn. With all that data coming in, the imaging team didn't have enough hands or scientists to work on all of it. ~ Carolyn Porco,
1279:Euclid 's manner of exposition, progressing relentlessly from the data to the unknown and from the hypothesis to the conclusion, is perfect for checking the argument in detail but far from being perfect for making understandable the main line of the argument. ~ George Polya,
1280:Once you've produced the scientific data that's necessary to make a drug into a medicine, you've gone a long way towards mainstreaming the acceptance of these drugs as having beneficial properties. And then the step to legalization is not that far behind that. ~ Rick Doblin,
1281:Pure data. You don’t believe data—you test data.” He grimaced. “If I could put my finger on the moment we genuinely fucked ourselves, it was the moment we decided that data was something you could use words like believe or disbelieve around. ~ Paolo Bacigalupi,
1282:Red Meat, Gut Bacteria, and Heart Disease The high-protein intake from animal products doesn’t just accelerate aging and produce cancer. Excessive meat intake has also been associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular death.29 For example, combined data ~ Joel Fuhrman,
1283:suddenly struck me — me who loves science, data, facts, and reason — that when push comes to shove, it was poetry I could count on. Poetry knew where hope lived and could elicit that lump in the throat that reminds me it’s all worth it. Science couldn’t do that. ~ Anonymous,
1284:He was all too aware of how one's perceptions can start lining up to support a particular conclusion. Once a pattern begins to take shape, however erroneous it might be, the mind unconsciously favors any data points that support it and discounts any that don't. ~ John Verdon,
1285:Black boxes are really important to our investigators. The cockpit voice recorder can give us insight into what's going on with the crew in the cockpit. The flight data recorders can give us insight into what's happening with the performance of the aircraft. ~ Deborah Hersman,
1286:Faith is a support from above; it is the brilliant shadow thrown by a secret light that exceeds the intellect and its data; it is the heart of a hidden knowledge that is not at the mercy of immediate appearances. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Master of the Work,
1287:It turns out that a reciprocity strategy can work better; give visitors the info they want and then ask for their information. Italian researchers found that twice as many visitors gave up their contact data if they were able to access the information first. It ~ Roger Dooley,
1288:Seriously, we are in the midst of the convergence of voice and data and that is challenging the infrastructure of the telephone companies. There are huge commercial interests in the basic technology, but even more so in content delivery and control of content. ~ Steve Crocker,
1289:State Farm combines skills scores with drivers’ biometric data (indicating emotional states), captured from a variety of sensors and cameras. Its data analytics lets the company customize its rates to more closely match actual risk and driver safety levels. ~ Paul R Daugherty,
1290:Without the hard little bits of marble which are called 'facts' or 'data' one cannot compose a mosaic; what matters, however, are not so much the individual bits, but the successive patterns into which you arrange them, then break them up and rearrange them. ~ Arthur Koestler,
1291:All data is stale. The photons reaching your eyes are stale. They tell you that you are looking at something real, but you have no information that the objects before you still exist. They may have vanished into oblivion the instant those photons took wing. ~ Alastair Reynolds,
1292:Everything we do in the digital realm - from surfing the Web to sending an e-mail to conducting a credit card transaction to, yes, making a phone call - creates a data trail. And if that trail exists, chances are someone is using it - or will be soon enough. ~ Douglas Rushkoff,
1293:The nation was tightly webbed in a net of interlocking data-channels, and a time-traveler from a century ago would have been horrified by the degree to which confidential information had been rendered accessible to total strangers capable of adding two plus two. ~ John Brunner,
1294:The polling data in 1980 had Jimmy Carter nine points, winning by nine points, four or five days out. I will never forget that election night. In 1980 it was so bad for the Democrats - they got skunked so bad - Jimmy Carter conceded before 10 p.m. Eastern time. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
1295:The traveller must, of course, always be cautious of the overly broad generalisation. But I am an American, and a paucity of data does not stop me from making sweeping, vague, conceptual statements and, if necessary, following these statements up with troops. ~ George Saunders,
1296:A scientist naturally and inevitably ... mulls over the data and guesses at a solution. He proceeds to testing of the guess by new data-predicting the consequences of the guess and then dispassionately inquiring whether or not the predictions are verified. ~ Edwin Powell Hubble,
1297:Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts . . . A graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system. ~ William Gibson,
1298:More often than not, when the interviewer's gut-check "yes/no" departed from the data, we'd find that the untrustworthy source was the interviewer. Despite training them not to, they routinely factored "confidence" into their result. Biases like that are pernicious! ~ Anonymous,
1299:Only when both muscle groups participated did we see a shift toward greater left-side activation in the brain. This finding supports the folk wisdom that if you intentionally produce a genuine smile, you will feel happier. We now had brain data to prove it. ~ Richard J Davidson,
1300:propaganda piece short on data and long on strained conclusions.” One problem was that the groups didn’t like the messenger. The report, which showed that between 2008 and 2011 the rate of abortions had fallen to its lowest level since 1973, came from the Guttmacher ~ Anonymous,
1301:[Students] are also accustomed to having quick access to information. The idea of "storing" data in their heads can seem pointless. I find that they are also much more interested in learning through problem solving and group collaboration than in the past. ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson,
1302:The appeal by twentieth-century pluralists to scientific method was also ideologically—and even messianically—driven. It ignored scientific data that interfered with environmentalist assumptions and misrepresented socialist faith as “scientific planning. ~ Paul Edward Gottfried,
1303:The integrity of any theory, Kuhn argued, lies in its falsifiability - that is, its openness to the possibility of repudiation in the light of more evidence, fresh insights or a more creative interpretation of data whose significance was not previously understood. ~ Hugh Mackay,
1304:favored moving toward open-source software like Linux, while Musk championed Microsoft’s data-center software as being more likely to keep productivity high. This squabble may sound silly to outsiders, but it was the equivalent of a religious war to the engineers, ~ Ashlee Vance,
1305:I will, in fact, claim that the difference between a bad programmer and a good one is whether he considers his code or his data structures more important. Bad programmers worry about the code. Good programmers worry about data structures and their relationships. ~ Linus Torvalds,
1306:We could ask about anything; the only constraint was that the questionnaire should include at least one mention of fish, to make it pertinent to the mission of the department. This went on for many months, and we treated ourselves to an orgy of data collection. ~ Daniel Kahneman,
1307:All research in the cultural sciences in an age of specialization, once it is oriented towards a given subject matter through particular settings of problems and has established its methodological principles, will consider the analysis of the data as an end in itself. ~ Max Weber,
1308:I looked at [Geena Davis] research and see things like 21 percent of filmmakers are women, only 31 percent of speaking roles in popular films are female - you start seeing it everywhere. It's so much bigger. So you've uncovered this groundbreaking data and research. ~ Emma Watson,
1309:the notion that we know all there is to know about people and their needs and that all these data are pinned down exactly and fully explained by the market, the state, sociological surveys, ratings, and everything else that turns people into the Global Anonymous. ~ Zygmunt Bauman,
1310:EagleView Technologies had a satellite mapping service that was similar to Google Maps, but it had more coverage with higher resolution in places where Google Maps did not bother to provide data, which made it a great resource for military and intelligence purposes. ~ Mark Greaney,
1311:I don't practice, but I am still officially in paediatrics. I keep in touch with journals, and I have a very good data bank of medical information and there is a key thing for a writer knowing where to go. I know where to go to get the information that I need. ~ Jonathan Kellerman,
1312:IF YOU WANT TO transfer a few hundred gigabytes of data, it’s generally faster to FedEx a hard drive than to send the files over the Internet. This isn’t a new idea—it’s often dubbed “SneakerNet”—and it’s even how Google transfers large amounts of data internally. ~ Randall Munroe,
1313:In the first twelve months, through data mining, language analysis, and recommendation algorithms, we proved the feasibility of the core building blocks. Then we set about in earnest to integrate those pieces in the Email Language Optimization Project, or ELOPe. ~ William Hertling,
1314:Judgement requires, then, the joint operation of sensibility and understanding. A mind without concepts would have no capacity to think; equally, a mind armed with concepts, but with no sensory data to which they could be applied, would have nothing to think about. ~ Roger Scruton,
1315:Resveratrol is fascinating stuff. One of the best sources of information about it is the Immortality Institute. They have a forum where some people are in the 500 Club, as they call it. They've been taking 500 milligrams for years. It's a really great source of data. ~ Tim Ferriss,
1316:With the Internet, the greatest disseminator of bad data and bad information the universe has ever known, it's become impossible to trust any news from any source at all, because it's filtered through this crazy yenta gossip line. It's impossible to know anything. ~ Harlan Ellison,
1317:Even without newfangled brain technologies, some forms of deception might become harder to practice thanks to increased availability of many kinds of data, including reputations and track records, or the promulgation of strong epistemic norms and rationality culture. ~ Nick Bostrom,
1318:One common behavior of late Stage 3 [in the process of a company's decline] is when those in power blame other people or external factors- or otherwise explain away the data- rather than confront the frightening reality that the enterprise may be in serious trouble. ~ Susan Collins,
1319:Pageview journalism treats people by what they appear to want—from data that is unrepresentative to say the least—and gives them this and only this until they have forgotten that there could be anything else. It takes the audience at their worst and makes them worse. ~ Ryan Holiday,
1320:Take the self-driving car and the smartphone and put those together and think about how to manage a smart grid because suddenly you have all of this data coming from those two mechanisms that allow for a much higher level of allocating energy much more efficiently. ~ Jonathon Keats,
1321:A great pollster may have an ideology, but they must divorce it from his or her analysis or raw polling data. That is never to say a poll should cause a candidate to change a heartfelt position. Rather, it is a question of emphasis and deemphasis that must be examined. ~ Roger Stone,
1322:Every possible dysfunction is competing against every other possible dysfunction to explain the observed data. Sloppy cynicism will usually be wrong, just like your Facebook acquaintances who attribute civilizational dysfunctions to giant malevolent conspiracies. ~ Eliezer Yudkowsky,
1323:However, simplicity is a virtue when developing metrics for your platform business. Overcomplex metrics make management less effective by introducing noise, discouraging frequent analysis, and distracting from the handful of data points that are most significant. ~ Geoffrey G Parker,
1324:Intuition is born of a direct awareness while intellect is an indirect action of a knowledge which constructs itself with difficulty out of the unknown from signs and indications and gathered data. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, Brahman, Purusha, Ishwara - Maya, Prakriti, Shakti,
1325:Regular users know nothing about program languages or varying exchange protocols. They just want the thing to run. So Microsoft invented a way to bundle executable programs and data, the DLL, that allows them to be smoothly exchanged by computers on different networks. ~ Mark Bowden,
1326:And most big data programs do a poor job of identifying which correlations are more or less likely to be spurious. The use of big data to draw inferences that should be evaluated and tested is often neglected in favor of using big data to produce real-time transactions— ~ Alec J Ross,
1327:Experience is devoid of the cherry-picking that we find in studies, particularly those called “observational,” ones in which the researcher finds past patterns, and, thanks to the sheer amount of data, can therefore fall into the trap of an invented narrative. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
1328:He wondered whether the designers of the phone had performed clinical studies on snoozers in order to decide on the nine-minute interval. Why not eight minutes, or ten? The makers of the phone were famously particular about design. This had to have been data-driven. ~ Neal Stephenson,
1329:I'm repledging myself to human-scale values. As a fiction writer, the best data comes through the senses and is then processed through many revisions. We have to learn to be intelligent assessors of the data coming in to us and what it's doing to our mental process. ~ George Saunders,
1330:In China, Internet surveillance has already become a profitable industry. In fact, a growing number of private firms eagerly assist the local police by aggregating this data and presenting it in easy-to-browse formats, allowing humans to pursue more analytical tasks. ~ Evgeny Morozov,
1331:In fact, when you try to use [Hans Rosling] data to predict the future, all sorts of problems arise. But what it does do is say, hey, just catch your breath a minute and see what's really been going on. We do have reason to feel good about the fact we've made progress. ~ Keith Devlin,
1332:Quem se põe com conversas de duplo sentido tem de pensar primeiro no que se está a meter. Uma pessoa recta que fala conforme lhe cresceu o bico raramente leva no trombil. E se já levou uma data de vezes, tanto mais se põe a pau, e na dúvida fecha a cloaca em público. ~ Jaroslav Ha ek,
1333:Recent economic data shows that our economy is robust, growing and headed in the right direction. The numbers don't lie. Americans are currently enjoying falling gas prices, low unemployment, increased job creation, and a stock market that has reached an all-time high. ~ J D Hayworth,
1334:Resultant SCP-658 measures 45 by 45 by 20 cm. Upper half of object occupied by a single video screen, which constantly displays shaky, colorless footage of an unmoving human figure suspended in mid-air within a featureless room (tentatively identified as [DATA EXPUNGED]). ~ Anonymous,
1335:A problem-solving organization should not be allowed to decide what data to publish either. The people trying to solve a problem on the ground, who will always want more funds, should not also be the people measuring progress. That can lead to really misleading numbers. ~ Hans Rosling,
1336:Hayek, more than anyone else, illuminated the knowledge problem. Simply put: No one person can ever know enough. Planners who think they can process all of the data from disparate sources across vast expanses of geography and culture are, quite simply, educated fools. ~ Jonah Goldberg,
1337:I'm telling as an actual source to the press,I'm telling you as a source that, to the best of my knowledge, and based on conversations that the RNC has had with the FBI, I know of no instance that [George Stephanopoulos] describing involving the RNC or the RNC's data. ~ Reince Priebus,
1338:Is there water still on Mars? I don't have a view on that because we don't have good data to answer that question. One of the biggest mistakes you can make if you're a scientist is to think you know the answer, or wish for a certain answer, before you actually have it. ~ Steve Squyres,
1339:Jeremiah de Saint-Amour amava a vida com uma paixão sem sentido, amava o mar e o amor, amava seu cachorro e ela, e à medida que a data se aproximava ia sucumbindo ao desespero, como se sua morte não tivesse sido uma decisão própria e sim um destino inexorável. ~ Gabriel Garc a M rquez,
1340:Science may provide the most useful way to organize empirical, reproducible data, but its power to do so is predicated on its inability to grasp the most central aspects of human life: hope, fear, love, hate, beauty, envy, honor, weakness, striving, suffering, virtue. ~ Paul Kalanithi,
1341:Design has a powerful impact on the viewer. It has authority, and data also has the same air of authenticity and detail. It can be hard to argue with a graph, and it's hard to argue with data. So to combine data with a strong visual impact creates a powerful message. ~ David Mccandless,
1342:Global data is generally subject to two problems: routines operate on global data without knowing that other routines are operating on it, and routines are aware that other routines are operating on the global data but they don't know exactly what they're doing to it. ~ Steve McConnell,
1343:In a way, if you are the data-driven marketing business owner, your position is similar to the owner of a football team. You don’t get to train the players or call the plays, you just get to pay the bills but really need results to sell tickets and keep the stadium full. ~ Mark Jeffery,
1344:in the 1980s it was only government, the military and large businesses that owned computers powerful enough to run RSA. Not surprisingly, RSA Data Security, Inc., the company set up to commercialize RSA, developed their encryption products with only these markets in mind. ~ Simon Singh,
1345:they didn't examine the problem and accumulate data to figure out the best solution - they engineered the outcome they wanted from the beginning. if they didn't achieve their desired outcome, they understood it was because of a decision they made at the start of a process ~ Simon Sinek,
1346:This is hard to accept in the age of the Internet. It has been very hard for me to explain that the more data you get, the less you know what’s going on, and the more iatrogenics you will cause. People are still under the illusion that “science” means more data. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
1347:What we know is smartphones are everywhere and they are rich in data. What we know is that there are apps once downloaded by the consumer that will also in turn download the consumers' contact book. Most consumers don't want that to happen and don't know it's happening. ~ Kamala Harris,
1348:American prisons and jails housed an estimated 356,268 [people] with severe mental illness.… [a] figure [that] is more than 10 times the number of mentally ill patients in state psychiatric hospitals [in 2012, the last year for reliable data]—about 35,000 people. ~ Patrisse Khan Cullors,
1349:As we have seen in the data, resentment against the West comes from what Muslims perceive as the West's hatred and denigration of Islam; the Western belief that Arabs and Muslims are inferior,; and their fear of Western intervention, domination, or occupation. (p. 141) ~ John L Esposito,
1350:Data Information generated, collected or created by users — such as songs, photos, or news clippings — are examples of stored value in the form of content. But sometimes users invest in a service by either actively or passively adding data about themselves or their behaviors. ~ Nir Eyal,
1351:I don’t think I like your tone, young man. Has this country gotten so accustomed to wiping its hinder with the Constitution that now the police are free to go door-to-door gathering fingerprints from citizens without cause? What are you building, some kind of data bank? ~ Richard Castle,
1352:Relying on data—indeed, expecting every conversation to be rooted in data—upends the traditional role of managers. It transforms them from being providers of intuition to facilitators in a search for truth, with the most useful facts being brought to bear on each decision. ~ Laszlo Bock,
1353:Statistical anomalies are interesting, and they may mean something, but you know if you go into a problem with a bias toward finding a certain solution, even in random data, you’re going to find a pattern that supports your solution. All you have to do is look long enough. ~ Bobby Adair,
1354:There is no need for the scientist to go into whether an observation was made, nor into the who, what, when, or where. The data on which scientific theorizing is based are rather the propositional contents of the instrument readings recorded, or the facts detected thereby. ~ Ernest Sosa,
1355:These data suggest very strongly that participating in the playing of violent video games by children and youth increase aggressive thought and behavior; increase antisocial behavior and delinquency; engender poor school performance; desensitize the game player to violence. ~ Leland Yee,
1356:US intelligence agencies will only use such data to meet specific security requirements: counterintelligence, counterterrorism, counterproliferation, cybersecurity, force protection for our troops and allies, and combating transnational crime, including sanctions evasion. ~ Barack Obama,
1357:When a human being becomes a set of data on a website like Facebook, he or she is reduced. Everything shrinks. Individual character. Friendships. Language. Sensibility. In a way it’s a transcendent experience: we lose our bodies, our messy feelings, our desires, our fears. ~ Zadie Smith,
1358:Attempts have been made from a study of the changes produced by mutation to obtain the relative order of the bases within various triplets, but my own view is that these are premature until there is more extensive and more reliable data on the composition of the triplets. ~ Francis Crick,
1359:Io non vi dico di prepararvi all'altra vita, ma di usare bene quest'unica vita che vi è data, per affrontare quando verrà, l'unica morte di cui avrete mai esperienza. E' necessario meditare prima, e molte volte, sull'arte del morire, per riuscire a farlo bene una sola volta ~ Umberto Eco,
1360:Reaction is just that—an action you have taken before. When you “re-act,” what you do is assess the incoming data, search your memory bank for the same or nearly the same experience, and act the way you did before. This is all the work of the mind, not of your soul. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
1361:In an automobile, if you think about the navigation system - of all the cars in the world, four out of five cars in the world if they have a navigation system have something from Nokia inside that car - the data, the platform, something. So we play a very strong role there. ~ Stephen Elop,
1362:In war there are none but particular cases; everything has there an individual nature; nothing ever repeats itself. In the first place, the data of a military problem are but seldom certain; they are never final . Everything is in a constant state of change and reshaping. ~ Ferdinand Foch,
1363:Language fails not because thought fails, but because no verbal symbols can do justice to the fullness and richness of thought. Ifwe are to continue talking about "data" in any other sense than as reflective distinctions, the original datum is always such a qualitative whole. ~ John Dewey,
1364:My answer to someone who is in contrast with me - by not seeing God in the scientific data - is that you don't see God in the scientific data because you're not me. I have other experiences than you have, that bring me to look at this data as enriching my experience of God. ~ George Coyne,
1365:Cancer is really a slew of rare diseases. Lung cancer has 700 sub-types, breast cancer has 30,000 mutations which means that every cancer in its own right is a rare disease. Sharing data globally in this context is really important from a life-threatening perspective. ~ Patrick Soon Shiong,
1366:Saddam Hussein's mind would have been a unique resource for historical, political and psychological research: a resource that is now forever unavailable to scholars... In a small way his execution represents a wanton and vandalistic destruction of important research data. ~ Richard Dawkins,
1367:But then came random event number two: The backup system, we discovered, hadn’t been working correctly. The mechanism we had in place specifically to help us recover from data failures had itself failed. Toy Story 2 was gone and, at this point, the urge to panic was quite real. ~ Ed Catmull,
1368:Diana: Theo, if you had access to one of those computers, could you find a way to, I don't know--
Theo: Infiltrate Jason's network and decimate his data stores, corrupting every bit of information he's gathered and rendering his research worthless?
Diana: Um, yes that. ~ Leigh Bardugo,
1369:If we look at American history, between 1942 and 1947, the data that was collected by the Census Bureau was handed over to the FBI and other organizations at the request of President Roosevelt, and that's how the Japanese were rounded up and put into the internment camps. ~ Michele Bachmann,
1370:I will tell you one thing that will make you rich for life. There are two struggles: an Inner-world struggle and an Outer-world struggle...you must make an intentional contact between these two worlds; then you can crystallize data for the Third World, the World of the Soul. ~ G I Gurdjieff,
1371:There's a world of difference . . . between that information to which we now presumably have access by way of computers, libraries, and the rest of it, great stockpiles of data, and the knowledge that people have in their bones by which they do good work and live good lives. ~ Wendell Berry,
1372:When viewed from this perspective, personal growth can actually be quite scientific. Our values are our hypotheses: this behavior is good and important; that other behavior is not. Our actions are the experiments; the resulting emotions and thought patterns are our data. There ~ Mark Manson,
1373:And there is a lot of idiosyncrasy. But there are also regularities and phenomena. And what the data is going to be able to do - if there's enough of it - is uncover, in the mess and the noise of the world, some lines of music that actually have harmony. It's there, somewhere. ~ Esther Duflo,
1374:I have a computer screen near my seat where I monitor the overall health of the vehicle and pick up any problems that might be occurring early on or once we see any kind of a malfunction or anything unusual that's happening, we can look at the data and figure out what that is. ~ Laurel Clark,
1375:Making workable choices occurs in a crucible of informative mistakes. Thus Intelligence accepts fallibility. And when absolute (infallible) choices are not known, Intelligence takes chances with limited data in an arena where mistakes are not only possible but also necessary. ~ Frank Herbert,
1376:Real data is messy. ...It's all very noisy out there. Very hard to spot the tune. Like a piano in the next room, it's playing your song, but unfortunately it's out of whack, some of the strings are missing, and the pianist is tone deaf and drunk- I mean, the noise! Impossible! ~ Tom Stoppard,
1377:The conjuror or con man is a very good provider of information. He supplies lots of data, by inference or direct statement, but it's false data. Scientists aren't used to that scenario. An electron or a galaxy is not capricious, nor deceptive; but a human can be either or both. ~ James Randi,
1378:American liberalism flaunts its pragmatism. It may have strong moral and philosophical beliefs, but it likes to claim that it derives conclusions from evidence and data, not dogma; its expectations for politics and human nature remain on the hard ground, not up in the utopian sky. ~ Anonymous,
1379:A pulse. Beat-beating against her palm. Alive.

Beat by beat the bottomless whirlwind of perceptions and data and images and sensations careening through her mind—so many how can this tiny skull hold them all—began to abate in time to the rhythm of not her pulse, but his. ~ G S Jennsen,
1380:I often calculate odds on horse races; the civil service computermen frequently program such requests. But the results are so at variance with expectations that I have concluded either that the data is too meager, or the horses or riders are not honest. Possibly all three. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
1381:Science may provide the most useful way to organize empirical, reproducible data, but its power to do so is predicated on its inability to grasp the most central aspects of human life: hope, fear, love, hate, beauty, envy, honor, weakness, striving, suffering, virtue. Between ~ Paul Kalanithi,
1382:She flips to the second page. “The projects seem to fall into the following categories: replacing fragile infrastructure, vendor upgrades, or supporting some internal business requirement. The rest are a hodgepodge of audit and security work, data center upgrade work, and so forth. ~ Gene Kim,
1383:What data can tell you is if you have 10 messages, all of which you believe, it can tell you which messages are resonating and which aren't. And if you break it down even further, the truth of the matter is some messages resonate one place and other messages resonate another place. ~ Ted Cruz,
1384:But collecting mountains of data when our entire civilization was falling in shards around us … ? When an unseen Enemy had leveled most of the cities? When every freeman’s hand was set against education and knowledge and the gentry whom they held responsible for the disaster? ~ L E Modesitt Jr,
1385:Every day, three times per second, we produce the equivalent of the amount of data that the Library of Congress has in it's entire print collection, right? But most of it is like cat videos on YouTube or thirteen-year-olds exchanging text messages about the next 'Twilight' movie. ~ Nate Silver,
1386:I got entangled in my own data, and my conclusion directly contradicts the original idea from which I start. Starting from unlimited freedom, I conclude with unlimited despotism. I will add, however, that apart from my solution of the social formula, there can be no other. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
1387:I want to have enough data, so I won't write myself into thin air, so that I can extrapolate and give you this secret human infrastructure. The only way I sate my own curiosity is to create this from scratch. There must be commanding love stories. There must be great moral cost. ~ James Ellroy,
1388:We are now at a point in time when the ability to receive, utilize, store, transform and transmit data - the lowest cognitive form - has expanded literally beyond comprehension. Understanding and wisdom are largely forgotten as we struggle under an avalanche of data and information. ~ Dee Hock,
1389:Data is the new soil, because for me, it feels like a fertile, creative medium. Over the years, online, we've laid down a huge amount of information and data, and we irrigate it with networks and connectivity, and it's been worked and tilled by unpaid workers and governments. ~ David Mccandless,
1390:For example, we can gauge the outside temperature combining the user’s current location with online weather information, and then use this data to offer phone numbers for nearby cab companies in addition to a walking route, assuming the user may not wish to walk to work in the rain. ~ Anonymous,
1391:In the absence of data, we will always make up stories. It’s how we are wired. Meaning making is in our biology, and when we’re in struggle, our default is often to come up with a story that makes sense of what’s happening and gives our brain information on how best to selfprotect. ~ Bren Brown,
1392:I was in a state of perpetual disbelief. I would have thought that someone would have recognized what was coming before June 2007. If it really took that June remit data to cause a sudden realization, well, it makes me wonder what a ‘Wall Street analyst’ really does all day.” By ~ Michael Lewis,
1393:technologies like big data and analytics, high-speed communications, and rapid prototyping have augmented the contributions made by more abstract and data-driven reasoning, and in turn have increased the value of people with the right engineering, creative, or design skills. ~ Erik Brynjolfsson,
1394:The fact that all normal children acquire essentially comparable grammars of great complexity with remarkable rapidity suggests that human beings are somehow specially designed to do this, with data-handling or 'hypothesis-formulating' ability of unknown character and complexity. ~ Noam Chomsky,
1395:The philosophical implications of "predictive coding" are deep and strange. The model suggests that our perceptions of the world offer us not a literal transcription of reality but rather a seamless illusion woven from both the data of our senses and the models in our memories. ~ Michael Pollan,
1396:There is no need for a fear of losing control over who is accessing the network to hold back the productivity benefits of flexible working. By examining their access strategy, businesses can implement practices that will keep data secure and control access what and from where. ~ Richard Jackson,
1397:Whereas much of what we know from ancient history is derived from one or two sources, we have no fewer than nine ancient sources, inside and outside the New Testament, corroborating the disciples' conviction that they encountered the resurrected Jesus. That's an avalanche of data. ~ Lee Strobel,
1398:Cloud computing offers individuals access to data and applications from nearly any point of access to the Internet, offers businesses a whole new way to cut costs for technical infrastructure, and offers big computer companies a potentially giant market for hardware and services. ~ Jamais Cascio,
1399:For me the information has to remain incredibly neutral. It's what I would call 'ice-like' information. I receive very rapid impressions. I don't have to sit there and concentrate. Because, if I start to really focus, my conscious mind begins to apply data, which is not accurate. ~ Caroline Myss,
1400:I still think I love him more. It's one of those things you never know for certain because there's no way to enter all the relationship data in a computer and have it spit out a definitive answer. You can't quantify love, and if you try, you wind up focusing on misleading factors. ~ Emily Giffin,
1401:One way of building private foresight out of public data is looking where others aren't ... if you want to see the future, go to an industry confab and get the list of what was talked about. Then ask, "What did people never talk about?" That's where you're going to find opportunity. ~ Gary Hamel,
1402:PA is the process by which an organization learns from the experience it has collectively gained across its team members and computer systems. In fact, an organization that doesn’t leverage its data in this way is like a person with a photographic memory who never bothers to think. ~ Eric Siegel,
1403:The three main observactions - (1) the tail of available variety is far longer than we realize; (2) it's now within reach economically; (3) all those niches, when aggregated, can make up a significant market - seemed indisputable, especially baked up with heretofore unseen data. ~ Chris Anderson,
1404:we learn the emotional habits that can undermine our best intentions, as well as what we can do to subdue our more destructive or self-defeating emotional impulses. Most important, the neurological data suggest a window of opportunity for shaping our children’s emotional habits. ~ Daniel Goleman,
1405:Copper comes a cropper The general rout in commodity prices spread to copper, knocking the share prices of some big mining companies. The price of copper has fallen by 12% since the start of this year. One reason is that China, the biggest importer, has produced a string of weak data. ~ Anonymous,
1406:Digital analytics is the analysis of qualitative and quantitative data from your business and the competition to drive a continual improvement of the online experience that your customers and potential customers have which translates to your desired outcomes (both online and offline). ~ Anonymous,
1407:Indeed, the line between perceiving and hallucinating is not as crisp as we like to think. In a sense, when we look at the world, we are hallucinating all the time. One could almost regard perception as the act of choosing the one hallucination that best fits the incoming data. ~ V S Ramachandran,
1408:Others point to data showing that even as toddlers, 40 percent of American two-year-olds watch TV for at least three hours a day—hours they are not interacting with people who can help them learn to get along better. The more TV they watch, the more unruly they are by school age. ~ Daniel Goleman,
1409:Research can only present data about the past. No one seriously believes that people's answers to hypothetical questions about the future accurately represent their future behaviour; they merely represent a current attitude, which may or may not be translated into future behaviour. ~ Stephen King,
1410:The available divorce data show that marital breakdown is now considerably more common in the Bible Belt than in the secular Northeast. . . . The percentages of broken families and unwed mothers remained higher in places like Arkansas and Oklahoma than in New York and Massachusetts. ~ Joe Conason,
1411:The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports that the number of overweight adult Americans increased over 60 percent between 1991 and 2000. According to CDC data, the U.S. population of overweight children between ages two and five increased by almost 36 percent from 1989 to 1999. ~ Richard Louv,
1412:The extreme rarity of transitional forms in the fossil record persists as a trade secret of Paleontology. Evolutionary trees that adorn our textbooks have data only at the tips and nodes of their branches; the rest is inference, however reasonable, not the evidence of fossils. ~ Stephen Jay Gould,
1413:This isn’t an either/or choice. You need both data and good old-fashioned political instinct. I’m convinced that the answer for Democrats going forward is not to abandon data but to obtain better data, use it more effectively, question every assumption, and keep adapting. ~ Hillary Rodham Clinton,
1414:Web Analytics 2.0 is: the analysis of qualitative and quantitative data from your website and the competition, to drive a continual improvement of the online experience that your customers, and potential customers have, which translates into your desired outcomes (online and offline). ~ Anonymous,
1415:Instead, decisions should be made at the lowest possible level of an organization. The only questions that should rise up the org chart are ones where, Serrat continues, “given the same data and information,” more senior leaders would make a different decision than the rank and file. ~ Laszlo Bock,
1416:Learn about the key developer tasks that you will need to perform when developing a Windows Store business app. Included are tasks for pages, touch, validation, application data, tiles, search, performance, testing, extended splash screens, incremental loading, and the Prism libraries. ~ Anonymous,
1417:Photographic data... is still and ESSENTIALLY THE SAFEST POETIC MEDIUM and the most agile process for catching the most delicate osmoses which exist between reality and surreality. The mere fact of photographic transposition means a total invention: the capture of a secret reality. ~ Salvador Dali,
1418:Rough night?" Zay asked.
"Oh, no. Glorious, thanks. Mum had me cross-checking data on solid Veiled all damn night.Fuckin' A, there better be a shot of whiskey at the end of this damn morning."
"Nola said she'd have fresh coffee," I said.
"Whiskey. I'll say it slow: whiiiskey. ~ Devon Monk,
1419:The first thing Martin always did when he found some new data file was to search for his own name. It may seem egocentric, but Martin wasn’t worried about that. He had spent a lot of time thinking about himself, and had come to the conclusion that he was definitely not self-absorbed. ~ Scott Meyer,
1420:In effect, DNA seems capable of collecting information—through the language of food—about changing conditions in the outside world, enacting alteration based on that information, and documenting both the collected data and its response for the benefit of subsequent generations. ~ Catherine Shanahan,
1421:The mind, in short, works on the data it receives very much as a sculptor works on his block of stone. In a sense the statue stoodthere from eternity. But there were a thousand different ones beside it, and the sculptor alone is to thank for having extricated this one from the rest. ~ William James,
1422:Using both experiments and field data, a recent study found that economic insecurity was associated with increased consumption of painkillers and produced actual physical pain and reduced pain tolerance, with the absence of control providing one mechanism explaining these results. ~ Jeffrey Pfeffer,
1423:What data did you notice about the week, what stood out for you? What were your emotional reactions to the week? What made you happy? Where were you challenged? Where were you frustrated? What were your insights? What did you learn? What one or two things will you do based on this week? ~ Anonymous,
1424:I have stressed this distinction because it is an important one. It defines the fundamental difference between probability and statistics: the former concerns predictions based on fixed probabilities; the latter concerns the inference of those probabilities based on observed data. ~ Leonard Mlodinow,
1425:Learning algorithms are the seeds, data is the soil, and the learned programs are the grown plants. The machine-learning expert is like a farmer, sowing the seeds, irrigating and fertilizing the soil, and keeping an eye on the health of the crop but otherwise staying out of the way. ~ Pedro Domingos,
1426:The AmpLab Spark project extends the Hive codebase to operate over data using the Spark distributed processing engine. Shark’s in-memory model enables queries to return results exponentially faster than a typical Hive query. Shark can be used in conjunction with existing Hadoop clusters. ~ Anonymous,
1427:Doc! I’d kiss you if you had a mouth, you sexy thing.” Ro shouts up to the sky, as if Doc were everywhere in the universe. Which, sometimes, it feels like he is. “And I would exchange data with you if you had a dataport, you exemplary specimen. Analogically speaking. Is that correct? ~ Margaret Stohl,
1428:For starters, consider Study 329, which cost GlaxoSmithKlein $3 billion for their efforts to promote antidepressants to youngsters.10 This drug company manipulated data that hid signs of increased risk of suicide. The company also falsely represented Paxil as outperforming a placebo.11 ~ Kelly Brogan,
1429:My father will pay,' [Julian] says after a beat. 'I'm valuable to the movement.' I don't say anything. In a world without love, this is what people are to each other: values, benefits and liabilities, numbers and data. We weigh, we quantify, we measure, and the soul is ground to dust. ~ Lauren Oliver,
1430:Will Hillary [Clinton] survive or will the villains...? [James] Comey and the FBI and the Republicans, will they succeed? There isn't any coverage of whether or not Hillary actually broke the law. The media's not interested in whether or not she actually trafficked in classified data. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
1431:But machine learning is the art of making false assumptions and getting away with it. As the statistician George Box famously put it: “All models are wrong, but some are useful.” An oversimplified model that you have enough data to estimate is better than a perfect one that you don’t. ~ Pedro Domingos,
1432:E-mail, when it became mobile - what happened? Utilization of email went through the roof. Just pure Internet access and data - what happens when you mobilize it? Multiples. People are dependent upon broadband and as you mobilize it, they become even more dependent on broadband. ~ Randall L Stephenson,
1433:It's always the balance between the individual's subjective experience and the social structural condition. As individuals we have access to more than we've ever had before. Giving up our data seems a small price to pay, especially if, as you say, we don't feel we have anything to hide. ~ Astra Taylor,
1434:Properly speaking, the unconscious is the real psychic; its inner nature is just as unknown to us as the reality of the external world, and it is just as imperfectly reported to us through the data of consciousness as is the external world through the indications of our sensory organs. ~ Sigmund Freud,
1435:That iPhone sitting in your pocket is the exact equivalent of a Cray XMP supercomputer from twenty years ago that used to cost ten million dollars. It’s got the same operating system software, the same processing speed, the same data storage, compressed down to a six-hundred-dollar device. ~ Anonymous,
1436:Whoever has the best algorithms and the most data wins. A new type of network effect takes hold: whoever has the most customers accumulates the most data, learns the best models, wins the most new customers, and so on in a virtuous circle (or a vicious one, if you’re the competition). ~ Pedro Domingos,
1437:Actually, IBM went through a severe identity crisis. It almost missed the computer opportunity. It became capable of growth only through a palace coup which overthrew Thomas J. Watson, Sr., the company’s founder, its chief executive, and for long years the prophet of “data processing. ~ Peter F Drucker,
1438:Birth order effects are like those things that you think you see out of the corner of your eye but that disappear when you look at them closely. They do keep turning up but only because people keep looking for them and keep analyzing and reanalyzing their data until they find them. ~ Judith Rich Harris,
1439:But there is no cause to concern because we now know, through the work of Dr Mark Rosenweig in Paris, that even if your brain were fed 10 items of data (each item being a simple word or image) every second for 100 years, it would still have used less than one-tenth of its storage capacity. ~ Tony Buzan,
1440:Even Congressman Jim Sensenbrenner, the person who wrote the USA PATRIOT Act, was surprised when he learned that the NSA used it as a legal justification for collecting mass-surveillance data on Americans. "It's like scooping up the entire ocean to guarantee you catch a fish," he said. ~ Bruce Schneier,
1441:genius is much more than high intelligence, innate talent, extraordinary work ethic, or uncanny luck, but rather a composite manifestation; a synthesis of very specific types of worldviews and behaviors. The more he looked at data through this lens, the more things started to make sense. ~ Sean Patrick,
1442:If you want access to the files of valuable information in a computer, you must understand how to retrieve the data by asking for it with the proper commands. Likewise, what enables you to get anything you want from your own personal databanks is the commanding power of asking questions. ~ Tony Robbins,
1443:There is a generation of skimmers. It's not that they don't want to read in-depth content, but they want to evaluate what the content is before they commit time. Especially on a mobile phone - you don't have the phone, or cellular data, or screen size to be reading full-length content. ~ Nick D Aloisio,
1444:Even though medicine is all about facts and data, the driving force of what engages people (employees, investors, customers) is the human story behind what we’re doing. Again and again we have found that crafting it into human terms is the most effective way to engage those three groups. ~ Carmine Gallo,
1445:If we analyse the supernova data by assuming the Copernican principle is correct and get out something unphysical, I think we should start questioning the Copernican principle…. Whatever our theoretical predilections, they will in the end have to give way to the observational evidence. ~ George F R Ellis,
1446:If you can follow only one bit of data, follow the earnings - assuming the company in question has earnings. I subscribe to the crusty notion that sooner or later earnings make or break an investment in equities. What the stock price does today, tomorrow, or next week is only a distraction. ~ Peter Lynch,
1447:Indeed, the line between perceiving and hallucinating is not as crisp as we like to think. In a sense, when we look at the world, we are hallucinating all the time. One could almost regard perception as the act of choosing the one hallucination that best fits the incoming data. ~ Vilayanur S Ramachandran,
1448:One of my heroes, almost necessarily from what I'm saying, of course, is Borges, who is a supreme master of doing thing -- being a data bank -- and the beauty of this economy is that he could have written War and Peace in three or four pages; who knows, it might have been a better book. ~ Peter Greenaway,
1449:Studies have shown that the average social media user consumes 285 pieces of content a day, which equates to about 54,000 words (the length of an average novel). We encounter one thousand clickable links and are bombarded by 174 newspapers’ worth of data a day just through social media alone. ~ S J Scott,
1450:finance. What’s the expected amount of data? What’s the expected signal in the data? How much data do we have? What are the opportunities to use this model? What is the payoff for those opportunities? What’s the scale of this model if it works? What’s the probability that the idea is valid? ~ Cathy O Neil,
1451:Global warming alarmists invariably try to make their case by resorting to rhetoric, dogma, opinion, and emotion. The closest thing to scientific data in their articles is the occasional chart claiming a poorly understood correlation between atmospheric CO2 and the Earth's temperature. ~ Walter Cunningham,
1452:He became another data point in the American experiment of self-government, an experiment statistically skewed from the outset, because it wasn't the people with sociable genes who fled the crowded Old World for the new continent; it was the people who didn't get along well with others. ~ Jonathan Franzen,
1453:He became another data point in the American experiment of self-government, an experiment statistically skewed from the outset, because it wasn’t the people with sociable genes who fled the crowded Old World for the new continent; it was the people who didn’t get along well with others. ~ Jonathan Franzen,
1454:In competition, everything is very well planned in advance and very well detailed. You just stick to the plan, keep your head down and be as disciplined as possible in every aspect, whether sleep, recovery or the intensity of your training. And it's all recorded; the data is analysed. ~ Victoria Pendleton,
1455:A manager who takes the time to probe the data and who listens to the various perspectives has a crucial advantage. Not only does he figure out what really happened in the specific case, he also sends an empowering message to his staff: if you make an honest mistake we will not penalise you. ~ Matthew Syed,
1456:...a person and an organization must have goals, take actions to achieve those goals, gather evidence of achievement, study and reflect on the data and from that take actions again. Thus, they are in a continuous feedback spiral toward continuous improvement. This is what 'Kaizan' means. ~ W Edwards Deming,
1457:That iPhone sitting in your pocket is the exact equivalent of a Cray XMP supercomputer from twenty years ago that used to cost ten million dollars. It’s got the same operating system software, the same processing speed, the same data storage, compressed down to a six-hundred-dollar device. That ~ Anonymous,
1458:The hope is that, in not too many years, human brains and computing machines will be coupled together very tightly, and that the resulting partnership will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today. ~ J C R Licklider,
1459:We're long past having to defend or explain why women should be on boards, given all the data that shows how companies with female as well as male directors perform better. It's unfortunate when companies with a large percentage of women constituents don't reflect that in their boardrooms. ~ Anne M Mulcahy,
1460:Any enterprise CEO really ought to be able to ask a question that involves connecting data across the organization, be able to run a company effectively, and especially to be able to respond to unexpected events. Most organizations are missing this ability to connect all the data together. ~ Tim Berners Lee,
1461:This is an ongoing threat from a variety of sources around the world. And actually I think it works both ways. I'm not privy to it, but I think all of the various country that have the ability are invading each other's computers all the time. But we have to protect our data. It's very important. ~ Rand Paul,
1462:Video is originally a de-corporation, a disqualification of the sensorial organs which are replaced by machines. The eye and the hand are replaced by the data glove, the body is replaced by a data suit, sex is replaced by cybersex. All the qualities of the body are transferred to the machine. ~ Paul Virilio,
1463:When you're reading a novel, I think the reason you care about how any given plot turns out is that you take it as a data point in the big story of how the world works. Does such-and-such a kind of guy get the girl in the end? Does adultery ever bring happiness? How do winners become winners? ~ Elif Batuman,
1464:Data was absolutely key. And because it will be key in the future too, when there is another outbreak somewhere, it is crucial to protect its credibility and the credibility of those who produce it. Data must be used to tell the truth, not to call to action, no matter how noble the intentions. ~ Hans Rosling,
1465:Every separate sector of artistic creation has its own basic rules . . . data which govern it. They are contained in the textbooks on these subjects. A professional knows the rules of the game as a matter of course so that he can achieve, in the upper strata above that, a high quality of art. ~ L Ron Hubbard,
1466:every time someone started shouting about the supposed monopoly of the Circle, or the Circle’s unfair monetization of the personal data of its users, or some other paranoid and demonstrably false claim, soon enough it was revealed that that person was a criminal or deviant of the highest order. ~ Dave Eggers,
1467:I have never left the company. I keep a tiny residual salary to this day because that's where my loyalty should be forever. I want to be an "employee" on the company data base. I won't engineer, I'd rather be basically retired, due to my family. (talking about his relationship with Apple Inc) ~ Steve Wozniak,
1468:It is not possible to manage life and maintain homeostatic balance without data on the current state of the organism’s body.”9 Damasio calls these housekeeping areas of the brain the “proto-self,” because they create the “wordless knowledge” that underlies our conscious sense of self. ~ Bessel A van der Kolk,
1469:The internet doesn't have any qualities, technical qualities. It's just fast, reaching out everywhere and so, it can process that and that volume of data flows and so, but it doesn't have any qualities like "good" or "bad" or "ethical" or "non-ethical". It's humans, it's us, not the internet. ~ Werner Herzog,
1470:As Nassim Taleb, the author of The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, writes, “Big data may mean more information, but it also means more false information.” And even when the information is not false, the problem is “that the needle comes in an increasingly larger haystack. ~ Arianna Huffington,
1471:Some of the network graphs that Able Danger produced were twenty feet long and almost wholly unintelligible because the print was so small.8 Krebs himself concluded that there would be no substitute for human intelligence in the war on terrorism; the alternative would be to drown in big data. ~ Niall Ferguson,
1472:The Bill of Rights was written before data-mining," he said. He was awesomely serene, convinced of his rightness. "The right to freedom of association is fine, but why shouldn't the cops be allowed to mine your social network to figure out if you're hanging out with gangbangers and terrorists? ~ Cory Doctorow,
1473:The world is being re-shaped by the convergence of social, mobile, cloud, big data, community and other powerful forces. The combination of these technologies unlocks an incredible opportunity to connect everything together in a new way and is dramatically transforming the way we live and work. ~ Marc Benioff,
1474:We also need to be reminded that there are implications of meaning within data, both in terms of how we look at data meaningfully (as in how it informs our decisions and interactions) and how we see meaning in data (as in how we recognize patterns that tell us if people value what we’re doing). ~ Kate O Neill,
1475:We need to take out the trash.” As it happens, I have no intention of actually analyzing that data. Nor am I proposing to my son that we take a family outing to the trash bin. In many situations, people use the word we when they mean you. It serves as a polite form to order others around. ~ James W Pennebaker,
1476:Companies such as Unilever or Prudential are coming to us and saying, ‘We’re very interested in building better data relationships. Can we leverage your platform? We’re very interested in reducing our data liability.’ They’re seeing that data is increasingly a toxic asset inside of corporations. ~ Don Tapscott,
1477:Hoffmeier furnishes a sophisticated fresh approach to the Biblical Exodus traditions filled with detailed Egyptological background, and utterly indispensable because of its basis in recent, and in many cases as yet unpublished, archaeological data. This is a virtual encyclopedia of the Exodus. ~ Baruch Halpern,
1478:Personal computing today is a rich ecosystem encompassing massive PC-based data centers, notebook and Tablet PCs, handheld devices, and smart cell phones. It has expanded from the desktop and the data center to wherever people need it - at their desks, in a meeting, on the road or even in the air. ~ Bill Gates,
1479:The whole point of building theoretical systems is to explain what humans know by pre-theoretical experience. That is the starting point for any philosophy. That is the data it seeks to explain. If it fails to explain the data of experience, then it has failed the test. It has been falsified. ~ Nancy R Pearcey,
1480:Verizon, for example, reports that it received 320,000 "law enforcement demands" for data in 2013. We know that every three months Verizon is served with a single National Security Letter that requires it to turn over the metadata of all 290 million of its customers, so what does that 320,000. ~ Bruce Schneier,
1481:In these cases, the mind knows what it's doing better than the guile, because the mind flows, the guile dams up, that is, the mind stride but the guile limps. And that's no guileless statement, however, and that's no Harvard like, as MIT will measure soon with computers and docks of Martian data. ~ Jack Kerouac,
1482:I realize now that what I was trying to do with the Armaghast data was offer the Church not a rebirth but only a transition to a false life such as these poor walking corpses inhabit. If the Church is meant to die, it must do so—but do so gloriously, in the full knowledge of its rebirth in Christ. ~ Dan Simmons,
1483:It is useful for companies to look at AI through the lens of business capabilities rather than technologies. Broadly speaking, AI can support three important business needs: automating business processes, gaining insight through data analysis, and engaging with customers and employees. ~ Harvard Business Review,
1484:No matter how invasive the technologies at their disposal, marketers and pollsters never come to terms with the living process through which people choose products or candidates; they are looking at what people just bought or thought, and making calculations based on that after-the-fact data. ~ Douglas Rushkoff,
1485:What was it Sherlock Holmes said about theories?” “‘It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data,’” I rattled off. And as I continued, Dad chimed in so we were reciting in unison. “‘Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts.’” Sherlockian ~ Donna Andrews,
1486:Can I give you some advice ?"

"Oh, yes. Yes, please do. I could use some advice." My head was bobbing up and down because I really, really wanted someone to give me advice. My whole life I'd been advice-bereft, except for the ladies in my knitting group. I loved advice. It was like free data. ~ Penny Reid,
1487:I figured the process of someone standing at a shelf and deciding what juice to buy is going to be very different than someone sitting at the computer clicking through a bunch of different books or CDs-until I actually looked at the data, and it turned out that the patterns were remarkably similar. ~ Peter Fader,
1488:pivoted the results on our Criminal Records Bureau and National Insurance database mirrors to get the place of work for everyone who’s on the books, and the pre-processor is turning that into grid reference data so we can plot them on a map or query for areas where the rate of that’s funny . . . ~ Charles Stross,
1489:The polling data shows not an unbelievable level of concern [on climate issue] but a general awareness of this problem. And now I think it's up to all sorts of people who really care about these things to continue on this new ground to try and make this the central political issue it needs to be. ~ Bill McKibben,
1490:Although data on this are sparse, it also seems that US politicians of both parties are much wealthier than their European counterparts and in a totally different category from the average American, which might explain why they tend to confuse their own private interest with the general interest. ~ Thomas Piketty,
1491:As a digital technology writer, I have had more than one former student and colleague tell me about digital switchers they have serviced through which calls and data are diverted to government servers or the big data algorithms they've written to be used on our e-mails by intelligence agencies. ~ Douglas Rushkoff,
1492:Bunaoara, doctorul Tataru ar fi spus o data, într-un grup de medici, ca în Paradis Adam si Eva erau regenerati periodic, asadar întineriti, prin neoplasm; ca numai dupa ce-a intervenit pacatul originar, corpul omenesc a pierdut secretul regenerarii periodice si deci al tineretii fara de batrînete. ~ Mircea Eliade,
1493:lone piece of small data is almost never meaningful enough to build a case or create a hypothesis, but blended with other insights and observations gathered from around the world, the data eventually comes together to create a solution that forms the foundation of a future brand or business. My ~ Martin Lindstrom,
1494:One of the consequences of if the Affordable Care Act is repealed, is that all of us now are at risk of being a preexisting - of having a preexisting condition waiting to happen. Life, increasingly, is a preexisting condition waiting to happen, now that we have more and more of this data available. ~ Atul Gawande,
1495:This transformation is all the more remarkable because the medical authorities behind it were concerned with heart disease, not obesity. They presented no dramatic scientific data to support their beliefs, only ambiguous evidence, none of which addressed the efficacy of low-fat diets in weight loss. ~ Gary Taubes,
1496:Using data gathered in 2011, the CDC study estimated that across all age groups, 19.3 percent of American women “have been raped in their lifetimes” and that 1.6 percent of American women—nearly two and a half million individuals—“reported that they were raped in the 12 months preceding the survey. ~ Jon Krakauer,
1497:According to data provided by the Senate Subcommittee on Immigration, and the national interest, between 9/11 and the end of 2014, at least 380 foreign-born individuals were convicted in terror cases inside the United States. Our country is a mess! We don`t even know what to look for anymore, folks. ~ Donald Trump,
1498:Advertising isnt just the disruption of aesthetics, the insults to your intelligence and the interruption of your train of thought. At every company that sells ads, a significant portion of their engineering team spends their day tuning data mining, writing better code to collect all your personal data. ~ Jan Koum,
1499:Alternative explanations are always welcome in science, if they are better and explain more. Alternative explanations that explain nothing are not welcome... Note how science changed those beliefs when new data became available. Religions stick to the same ancient beliefs regardless of the data. ~ Victor J Stenger,
1500:For a moment in the 1980s, it seemed like knowledge engineering was about to take over the world, with companies and countries making massive investments in it. But disappointment soon set in, and machine learning began its inexorable rise, at first quietly, and then riding a roaring wave of data. ~ Pedro Domingos,

IN CHAPTERS [215/215]



   60 Integral Yoga
   22 Fiction
   13 Occultism
   9 Psychology
   8 Philosophy
   7 Christianity
   4 Poetry
   4 Cybernetics
   2 Science
   2 Education
   1 Theosophy
   1 Mysticism


  114 Sri Aurobindo
   22 H P Lovecraft
   12 Nolini Kanta Gupta
   9 Carl Jung
   8 Paul Richard
   7 Aleister Crowley
   5 The Mother
   4 Plotinus
   4 Norbert Wiener
   3 Jordan Peterson
   2 Sri Ramana Maharshi
   2 Satprem
   2 Rudolf Steiner
   2 Plato
   2 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
   2 Ken Wilber
   2 John Keats
   2 James George Frazer
   2 George Van Vrekhem
   2 A B Purani


   28 The Synthesis Of Yoga
   23 The Life Divine
   22 Lovecraft - Poems
   17 Record of Yoga
   9 Essays In Philosophy And Yoga
   6 Essays Divine And Human
   6 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01
   5 The Secret Doctrine
   5 The Human Cycle
   5 Magick Without Tears
   5 Letters On Yoga IV
   4 Letters On Yoga I
   4 Cybernetics
   3 The Problems of Philosophy
   3 The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious
   3 The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
   3 Maps of Meaning
   3 Letters On Yoga II
   3 Aion
   2 Vedic and Philological Studies
   2 The Practice of Psycho therapy
   2 The Golden Bough
   2 Talks
   2 Sex Ecology Spirituality
   2 Preparing for the Miraculous
   2 On Thoughts And Aphorisms
   2 On the Way to Supermanhood
   2 Liber ABA
   2 Keats - Poems
   2 Hymns to the Mystic Fire
   2 Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo
   2 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02


0.00 - The Wellspring of Reality, #Synergetics - Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking, #R Buckminster Fuller, #Science
  We must start with scientific fundamentals, and that means with the data of experiments and not with assumed axioms predicated only upon the misleading nature of that which only superficially seems to be obvious. It is the consensus of great scientists that science is the attempt to set in order the facts of experience.
  Holding within their definition, we define Universe as the aggregate of allhumanity's consciously apprehended and communicated, nonsimultaneous, and only partially overlapping experiences. An aggregate of finites is finite. Universe is a finite but nonsimultaneously conceptual scenario.
  --
  It follows that the more specialized society becomes, the less attention does it pay to the discoveries of the mind, which are intuitively beamed toward the brain, there to be received only if the switches are "on." Specialization tends to shut off the wide-band tuning searches and thus to preclude further discovery of the all-powerful generalized principles. Again we see how society's perverse fixation on specialization leads to its extinction. We are so specialized that one man discovers empirically how to release the energy of the atom, while another, unbeknownst to him, is ordered by his political factotum to make an atomic bomb by use of the secretly and anonymously published data. That gives much expedient employment, which solves the politician's momentary problem, but requires that the politicians keep on preparing for further warring with other political states to keep their respective peoples employed. It is also mistakenly assumed that employment is the only means by which humans can earn the right to live, for politicians have yet to discover how much wealth is available for distribution. All this is rationalized on the now scientifically discredited premise that there can never be enough life support for all. Thus humanity's specialization leads only toward warring and such devastating tools, both, visible and invisible, as ultimately to destroy all Earthians.
  Only a comprehensive switch from the narrowing specialization and toward an evermore inclusive and refining comprehension by all humanity-regarding all the factors governing omnicontinuing life aboard our spaceship Earth-can bring about reorientation from the self-extinction-bound human trending, and do so within the critical time remaining before we have passed the point of chemical process irretrievability.
  --
  Science's self-assumed responsibility has been self-limited to disclosure to society only of the separate, supposedly physical (because separately weighable) atomic component isolations data. Synergetic integrity would require the scientists to announce that in reality what had been identified heretofore as physical is entirely metaphysical-because synergetically weightless. Metaphysical has been science's designation for all weightless phenomena such as thought. But science has made no experimental finding of any phenomena that can be described as a solid, or as continuous, or as a straight surface plane, or as a straight line, or as infinite anything. We are now synergetically forced to conclude that all phenomena are metaphysical; wherefore, as many have long suspected-like it or not-life is but a dream.Science has found no up or down directions of Universe, yet scientists are personally so ill-coordinated that they all still personally and sensorially see "solids" going up or down-as, for instance, they see the Sun "going down." Sensorially disconnected from their theoretically evolved information, scientists discern no need on their part to suggest any educational reforms to correct the misconceiving that science has tolerated for half a millennium.
  Society depends upon its scientists for just such educational reform guidance.
  Where else might society turn for advice? Unguided by science, society is allowed to go right on filling its childrens' brain banks with large inventories of competence-devastating misinformation. In order to emerge from its massive ignorance, society will probably have to rely exclusively upon its individuals' own minds to survey the pertinent experimental data-as do all great scientist-artists. This, in effect, is what the intuition of world-around youth is beginning to do. Mind can see that reality is evoluting into weightless metaphysics. The wellspring of reality is the family of weightless generalized principles.
  It is essential to release humanity from the false fixations of yesterday, which seem now to bind it to a rationale of action leading only to extinction.
  --
  Children freed of the ignorantly founded educational traditions and exposed only to their spontaneously summoned, computer-stored and -distributed outflow of reliable-opinion-purged, experimentally verified data, shall indeed lead society to its happy egress from all misinformedly conceived, fearfully and legally imposed, and physically enforced customs of yesterday. They can lead all humanity into omnisuccessful survival as well as entrance into an utterly new era of human experience in an as-yet and ever-will-be fundamentally mysterious Universe.
  And whence will come the wealth with which we may undertake to lead world man into his new and validly hopeful life? From the wealth of the minds of world man-whence comes all wealth. Only mind can discover how to do so much with so little as forever to be able to sustain and physically satisfy all humanity.

0.02 - The Three Steps of Nature, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Indeed, the increasing effort towards a more intense mental life seems to create, frequently, an increasing disequilibrium of the human elements, so that it is possible for eminent scientists to describe genius as a form of insanity, a result of degeneration, a pathological morbidity of Nature. The phenomena which are used to justify this exaggeration, when taken not separately, but in connection with all other relevant data, point to a different truth. Genius is one attempt of the universal Energy to so quicken and intensify our intellectual powers that they shall be prepared for those more puissant, direct and rapid faculties which constitute the play of the supra-intellectual or divine mind. It is not, then, a freak, an inexplicable phenomenon, but a perfectly natural next step in the right line of her evolution.
  She has harmonised the bodily life with the material mind, she is harmonising it with the play of the intellectual mentality; for that, although it tends to a depression of the full animal and vital vigour, need not produce active disturbances. And she is shooting yet beyond in the attempt to reach a still higher level.

01.03 - Mystic Poetry, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Here we have a pattern of thought-movement that does not seem to follow the lineaments of the normal brain-mind consciousness, although it too has a basis there: our customary line of reasoning receives a sudden shock, as it were, and then is shaken, moved, lifted up, transportedgradually or suddenly, according to the temperament of the listener. Besides, we have here the peculiar modern tone, which, for want of a better term, may be described as scientific. The impressimprimaturof Science is its rational coherence, justifying or justified by sense data, by physical experience, which gives us the pattern or model of an inexorable natural law. Here too we feel we are in the domain of such natural law but lifted on to a higher level.
   This is what I was trying to make out as the distinguishing trait of the real spiritual consciousness that seems to be developing in the poetic creation of tomorrow, e.g., it has the same rationality, clarity, concreteness of perception as the scientific spirit has in its own domain and still it is rounded off with a halo of magic and miracle. That is the nature of the logic of the infinite proper to the spiritual consciousness. We can have a Science of the Spirit as well as a Science of Matter. This is the Thought element or what corresponds to it, of which I was speaking, the philosophical factor, that which gives form to the formless or definition to that which is vague, a nearness and familiarity to that which is far and alien. The fullness of the spiritual consciousness means such a thing, the presentation of a divine name and form. And this distinguishes it from the mystic consciousness which is not the supreme solar consciousness but the nearest approach to it. Or, perhaps, the mystic dwells in the domain of the Divine, he may even be suffused with a sense of unity but would not like to acquire the Divine's nature and function. Normally and generally he embodies all the aspiration and yearning moved by intimations and suggestions belonging to the human mentality, the divine urge retaining still the human flavour. We can say also, using a Vedantic terminology, that the mystic consciousness gives us the tatastha lakshana, the nearest approximative attribute of the attri buteless; or otherwise, it is the hiranyagarbha consciousness which englobes the multiple play, the coruscated possibilities of the Reality: while the spiritual proper may be considered as prajghana, the solid mass, the essential lineaments of revelatory knowledge, the typal "wave-particles" of the Reality. In the former there is a play of imagination, even of fancy, a decorative aesthesis, while in the latter it is vision pure and simple. If the spiritual poetry is solar in its nature, we can say, by extending the analogy, that mystic poetry is characteristically lunarMoon representing the delight and the magic that Mind and mental imagination, suffused, no doubt, with a light or a reflection of some light from beyond, is capable of (the Upanishad speaks of the Moon being born of the Mind).

01.03 - Rationalism, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   What is Reason, the faculty that is said to be the proud privilege of man, the sovereign instrument he alone possesses for the purpose of knowing? What is the value of knowledge that Reason gives? For it is the manner of knowing, the particular faculty or instrument by which we know, that determines the nature and content of knowledge. Reason is the collecting of available sense-perceptions and a certain mode of working upon them. It has three component elements that have been defined as observation, classification and deduction. Now, the very composition of Reason shows that it cannot be a perfect instrument of knowledge; the limitations are the inherent limitations of the component elements. As regards observation there is a two-fold limitation. First, observation is a relative term and variable quantity. One observes through the prism of one's own observing faculty, through the bias of one's own personality and no two persons can have absolutely the same manner of observation. So Science has recognised the necessity of personal equation and has created an imaginary observer, a "mean man" as the standard of reference. And this already takes us far away from the truth, from the reality. Secondly, observation is limited by its scope. All the facts of the world, all sense-perceptions possible and actual cannot be included within any observation however large, however collective it may be. We have to go always upon a limited amount of data, we are able to construct only a partial and sketchy view of the surface of existence. And then it is these few and doubtful facts that Reason seeks to arrange and classify. That classification may hold good for certain immediate ends, for a temporary understanding of the world and its forces, either in order to satisfy our curiosity or to gain some practical utility. For when we want to consider the world only in its immediate relation to us, a few and even doubtful facts are sufficient the more immediate the relation, the more immaterial the doubtfulness and insufficiency of facts. We may quite confidently go a step in darkness, but to walk a mile we do require light and certainty. Our scientific classification has a background of uncertainty, if not, of falsity; and our deduction also, even while correct within a very narrow range of space and time, cannot escape the fundamental vices of observation and classification upon which it is based.
   It might be said, however, that the guarantee or sanction of Reason does not lie in the extent of its application, nor can its subjective nature (or ego-centric predication, as philosophers would term it) vitiate the validity of its conclusions. There is, in fact, an inherent unity and harmony between Reason and Reality. If we know a little of Reality, we know the whole; if we know the subjective, we know also the objective. As in the part, so in the whole; as it is within, so it is without. If you say that I will die, you need not wait for my actual death to have the proof of your statement. The generalising power inherent in Reason is the guarantee of the certitude to which it leads. Reason is valid, as it does not betray us. If it were such as anti-intellectuals make it out to be, we would be making nothing but false steps, would always remain entangled in contradictions. The very success of Reason is proof of its being a reliable and perfect instrument for the knowledge of Truth and Reality. It is beside the mark to prove otherwise, simply by analysing the nature of Reason and showing the fundamental deficiencies of that nature. It is rather to the credit of Reason that being as it is, it is none the less a successful and trustworthy agent.
   Now the question is, does Reason never fail? Is it such a perfect instrument as intellectualists think it to be? There is ground for serious misgivings. Reason says, for example, that the earth revolves round the sun: and reason, it is argued, is right, for we see that all the facts are conformableto it, even facts that were hitherto unknown and are now coming into our ken. But the difficulty is that Reason did not say that always in the past and may not say that always in the future. The old astronomers could explain the universe by holding quite a contrary theory and could fit into it all their astronomical data. A future scientist may come and explain the matter in quite a different way from either. It is only a choice of workable theories that Reason seems to offer; we do not know the fact itself, apart perhaps from exactly the amount that immediate sense-perception gives to each of us. Or again, if we take an example of another category, we may ask, does God exist? A candid Rationalist would say that he does not know although he has his own opinion about the matter. Evidently, Reason cannot solve all the problems that it meets; it can judge only truths that are of a certain type.
   It may be answered that Reason is a faculty which gives us progressive knowledge of the reality, but as a knowing instrument it is perfect, at least it is the only instrument at our disposal; even if it gives a false, incomplete or blurred image of the reality, it has the means and capacity of correcting and completing itself. It offers theories, no doubt; but what are theories? They are simply the gradually increasing adaptation of the knowing subject to the object to be known, the evolving revelation of reality to our perception of it. Reason is the power which carries on that process of adaptation and revelation; we can safely rely upon Reason and trust It to carry on its work with increasing success.

03.02 - Aspects of Modernism, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The scientific spirit, in one word, is rationalisationrationalisation of Mind as well as of Life. With regard to Mind, rationalisation means to get knowledge exclusively on the data of the senses; it is the formulation, in laws and principles, of facts observed by the physical organs, these laws and principles being the categories of the arranging, classifying, generalising faculty, called reason; its methodology also demands that the laws are to be as few as possible embracing as many facts as possible. Rationalisation of life means the government of life in accordance with these laws, so that the wastage in natural life due to the diversity and disparity off acts may be eliminated, at least minimised, and all movements of life ordered and organised in view of a single and constant purpose (which is perhaps the enhancement of the value of life). This rationalisation means further, in effect, mechanisation or efficiency, as its protagonists would prefer to call it. However, mechanistic efficiency, whether in the matter of knowledge or of lifeof mind or of morals was the motto of the early period of the gospel of science, the age of Huxley and Haeckel, of Bentham and the Mills. The formula no longer holds good either in the field of pure knowledge or in its application to life; it does not embody the aspiration and outlook of the contemporary mind, in spite of such inveterate rationalists as Russell and Wells or even Shaw (in Back to Methuselah, for example), who seem to be already becoming an anachronism in the present age.
   The contemporary urge is not towards rationalisation, but rather towards irrationalisation. Orthodox science itself is taking greater and greater cognisance today of the irrational movements of nature, even of physical nature. Intuition and instinct are now welcomed as surer and truer instruments of knowledge and action than reason.

03.14 - From the Known to the Unknown?, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   For may not the contrary motto" from the unknown to the known"be equally valid, both as a matter of fact and as a matter of principle? Do we not, sometimes at least, take for granted and start with the unknown number x to find out the solution to our problem? Why go far, the very first step that the child takes in his adventurous journey of life, is it not a veritable step into the unknown? Indeed, many, in fact most of the scientific laws the Laws of Natureare they strictly the result of calculation and deduction from known and observed data or are they not rather "brilliant surmises", "sudden revelations" that overwhelm by their un-expected appearance? Newton did not arrive at his Law of Gravitation in the trail of a logical argument from given premises towards unforeseen conclusions. Nor did Einstein discover his version of the Law in any syllogistic way either. The fact seems to be more often true that the unknown reveals itself all on a sudden and is not reached through a continuous series of known steps. Examples could be easily multiplied from the history of scientific discoveries.
   For the fact is that man, the being that knows, is composed not merely of known elements, known to himself and to others, but possesses a hidden, an unknown side which is nonetheless part of himself. And even though unknown, it is not inactive,it always exerts its influence, imposes its presence. Man has a submerged consciousness which is in contact and communion with similarly submerged worlds of consciousness. Man's consciousness possesses aerials that catch vibrations from unknown regions. He has a secret sensitiveness that receives intimations from other where than his physical senses and his logical reason. His external mind does not always recognise such unorthodox or abnormal movements; he only expresses his surprise or amazement at the luminosity, the au thenticity of solutions that come so simply, suddenly, inevitably, the unknown revealing itself miraculously.

04.01 - The March of Civilisation, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   If we look at Europe once again and cast a glance at its origins, we find at the source the Grco-Roman culture. It was pre-eminently a culture based upon the powers of mind and reason: it included a strong and balanced body (both body natural and body politic) under the aegis of mens sana (a sound mind). The light that was Greece was at its zenith a power of the higher mind and intelligence, intuitively dynamic in one the earlierphase through Plato, Pythagoras, Heraclitus and the mystic philosophers, and discursively and scientifically rational through the Aristotelian tradition. The practical and robust Roman did not indulge in the loftier and subtler activities of the higher or intuitive mind; his was applied intelligence and its characteristic turn found expression in law and order and governance. Virgil was a representative poet of the race; finely sensitive and yet very self-consciousearth-bound and mind-boundas a creative artist: a clear and careful intelligence with an idealistic imagination that is yet sober and fancy-free is the very hall mark of his poetic genius. In the post-Roman age this bias for mental consciousness or the play of reason and intellectual understanding moved towards the superficial and more formal faculties of the brain ending in what is called scholasticism: it meant stagnation and decadence. It is out of this slough that the Renaissance raised the mind of Europe and bathed it with a new light. That movement gave to the mind a wider scope, an alert curiosity, a keener understanding; it is, as I have said, the beginning of that modern mentality which is known as the scientific outlook, that is to say, study of facts and induction from given data, observation and experience and experiment instead of the other scholastic standpoint which goes by a priori theorising and abstraction and deduction and dogmatism.
   We may follow a little more closely the march of the centuries in their undulating movement. The creative intelligence of the Renaissance too belonged to a region of the higher mind, a kind of inspirational mind. It had not the altitude or even the depth of the Greek mind nor its subtler resonances: but it regained and re-established and carried to a new degree the spirit of inquiry and curiosity, an appreciation of human motives and preoccupations, a rational understanding of man and the mechanism of the world. The original intuitive fiat, the imaginative brilliance, the spirit of adventure (in the mental as well as the physical world) that inspired the epoch gradually dwindled: it gave place to an age of consolidation, organisation, stabilisation the classical age. The seventeenth century Europe marked another peak of Europe's civilisation. That is the Augustan Age to which we have referred. The following century marked a further decline of the Intuition and higher imagination and we come to the eighteenth century terre terre rationalism. Great figures still adorned that agestalwarts that either stuck to the prevailing norm and gave it a kind of stagnant nobility or already leaned towards the new light that was dawning once more. Pope and Johnson, Montesquieu and Voltaire are its high-lights. The nineteenth century brought in another crest wave with a special gift to mankind; apparently it was a reaction to the rigid classicism and dry rationalism of the preceding age, but it came burdened with a more positive mission. Its magic name was Romanticism. Man opened his heart, his higher feeling and nobler emotional surge, his subtler sensibility and a general sweep of his vital being to the truths and realities of his own nature and of the cosmic nature. Not the clear white and transparent almost glaring light of reason and logic, of the brain mind, but the rosy or rainbow tint of the emotive and aspiring personality that seeks in and through the cosmic panorama and dreams of

04.07 - Matter Aspires, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   I said it is an amusing discussion. But what is apt to be forgotten in such "scientific" discussions is, as has been pointed out by Rev. Trethowan in his criticism of Sir Robert, that all genuine creation is a freak, that is to say, it is a movement of freedom, of incalculable spontaneity. A machine is exactly the sum of its component parts; it can give that work (both as regards quantity and quality) which is confined within the frame and function of the parts. Man's creative power is precisely this that it can make two and two not merely four but infinity. There is a force of intervention in him whichupsets the rule of the parallelogram of forces that normally governs Matter and even his own physical brain and mind. There is in him truly a deus ex machine. Poetry, art, all creative act is a revelation, an intrusion of a truth, a reality from another plane, of quite a different order, into the rigid actuality and factual determinism.. Man's secret person is a sovereignly free will. A machine is wholly composed of actualities-the given-and brings out only a resultant of the permutation and combination of the data: it is a pure deduction.
   But there is another even more interesting aspect of the matter. The attempt of the machine to embody or express something non-mechanical, to leap as high as possible from material objects to psychological values has a special significance for us today and is not all an amusing or crazy affair. It indicates, what we have been always saying, an involved pressure in Matter, a presence, a force of consciousness secreted there that seeks release and growth and expression.

05.06 - Physics or philosophy, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The principle of indeterminacy carries two revolutionary implications. First, that it is not possible to determine the movement of the ultimate particles of matter individually and severally, it is not possible even theoretically to follow up the chain of modulations of an electron from its birth to its dissolution (if such is the curve of its destiny), as Laplace considered it quite possible for his super-mathematician. One cannot trace the complete evolution of each and every or even one particular particle, not because of a limitation in the human capacity, but because of an inherent impossibility in the nature of things. In radioactive substances, for example, there is no ground or data from which one can determine which particle will go off or not, whether it will go off the chance that seems to reign here. In radiation too, there is no formula, and no formula can be framed for determining the course of a photon in relation to a half-reflecting surface, whether it will pass through or be reflected. In this field of infinitesimals what we know is the total behaviour of an assemblage of particles, and the laws of nature are only laws of average computation. Statistics has ousted the more exact and rigid arithmetics. And statistics, we know, is a precarious science: the knowledge it gives is contingent, contingent upon the particular way of arranging and classifying the data. However, the certainty of classical mechanistic knowledge is gone, gone too the principle of uniformity of nature.
   The second element brought in in the indeterminacy picture is the restoration of the "subject" to its honoured or even more than the honoured place it had in the Mediaeval Ages, and from which it was pulled down by young arrogant Science. A fundamental question is now raised in the very methodology of the scientific apparatus. For Science, needless to say, is first and foremost observation. Now it is observed that the very fact of observation affects and changes the observed fact. The path of an electron, for example, has to be observed; one has then to throw a ray of lighthurl a photonupon it: the impact is sufficient to deflect the electron from the original path. If it is suggested that by correction and computation, by a backward calculation we can deduce the previous position, that too is not possible. For we cannot fix any position or point that is not vitiated by the observer's interference. How to feel or note the consistency of a thing, if the touch itself, the temperature of the finger, were sufficient to change the consistency? The trouble is, as the popular Indian saying goes, the very amulet that is to exorcise the ghost is possessed by the ghost itself.
   So the scientists of today are waking up to this disconcerting fact. And some have put the question very boldly and frankly: do not all laws of Nature contain this original sin of the observer's interference, indeed may not the laws be nothing else but that? Thus Science has landed into the very heart the bog and quagmire, if you likeof abstruse metaphysics. Eddington says, there is no other go for Science today but to admit and delcare that its scheme and pattern of things, as described by what is called laws of Nature, is only a mental construct of the Scientist. The "wonderful" discoveries are nothing but jugglery and legerdemain of the mindwhat it puts out of itself unconsciously into the outside world, it recovers again and is astonished at the miracle. A scientific law is a pure deduction from the mind's own disposition. Eddington goes so far as to say that if a scientist is sufficiently introspective he can trace out from within his brain each and every law of Nature which he took so much pains to fish out from Nature by observation and experiment. Eddington gives an analogy to explain the nature of scientific law and scientific discovery. Suppose you have a fishing net of a particular size and with interstices of a particular dimension; you throw it into the sea and pull out with fishes in it. Now you count and assort the fishes, and according to the data thus obtained, you declare that the entire sea consists of so many varieties of fish and of such sizes. The only error is that you could not take into account the smaller fishes that escaped through the interstices and the bigger ones that did not at all fall into the net. Scientific statistics is something of this kind. Our mind is the net, and the pattern of Nature is determined by the mind's own pattern.
   Eddington gives us absolutely no hope for any knowledge of an objective world apart from the objectification of mind's own constructs. This is a position which a scientist, quascientist, finds it difficult to maintain. Remedies and loop-holes have been suggested with what result we shall presently see.

05.08 - An Age of Revolution, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   That is how we have been led almost to the threshold of a will, of a life principle, of a consciousness, however rudimentary, imbedded in the heart of Matter. All the facts that are now cropping up, the new discoveries that are being made and which we have to take into cognisance lead inevitably towards such a conclusion. Without such a conclusion a rational co-ordination of all the data of experience is hardly possible. A physical scientist may not feel justified to go beyond the purely physical data, but the implications of even such data, the demand for a fair hypothesis that can harmonise and synthesise them are compelling even a physicist to become a psychologist and a metaphysician.
   Looked at from below with the eye of reason and sense observation straining at it, the thing that appears only as a possibility-at best, as a probabilityis revealed to the eyes of vision surveying from above as a selfevident reality, a reality before which the apparent realities posited by sense and reason become subsidiary and auxiliary, far-off echoes. The facts of sense-perception are indeed the branches spread out below while the root of the tree lies above: in other words, the root-reality is consciousness and all that exist are vibrations of that consciousness extended and concretised. This is the truth which modem science, in its farthest advances, would like to admit but dare not.

1.00 - The Constitution of the Human Being, #Theosophy, #Alice Bailey, #Occultism
   regard the objects in reference to themselves personally. They lack the gauge of pleasure and displeasure, attraction and repulsion, usefulness and harmfulness; this gauge they have to renounce entirely. They should, as dispassionate and, so to speak, divine beings, seek and examine what is, and not what gratifies. Thus the true botanist should not be affected either by the beauty or by the usefulness of the plants. He has to study their structure and their relation to the rest of the vegetable kingdom; and just as they are one and all enticed forth and shone upon by the sun, so should he with an equable, quiet glance look at and survey them all and obtain the gauge for this knowledge, the data for his deductions, not out of himself, but from within the circle of things which he observes."
  The thought thus expressed by Goe the directs attention to three kinds of things. First, the objects concerning which information continually flows to man through the doors of his senses, those that he touches, smells, tastes, hears, and sees. Second, the impressions which these make on him, and which record themselves as his pleasure and displeasure, his

1.01 - Necessity for knowledge of the whole human being for a genuine education., #The Essentials of Education, #unset, #Zen
  As far as this life period is concerned, if a civilization never spoke of education and in its elementary, primitive way simply educated, it would have a much healthier outlook than ours. This was true of the ancient Eastern regions, which had no educa- tion in our sense of the word. There the adults body, soul, and spirit was allowed to affect the child so that the child could take this adult as a guide, moving a muscle when the teacher moved a muscle and blinking when the teacher blinked. The teacher was trained to do this in a way that enabled the child to imitate. Such a teacher was not as the Western pedagogue, but the Eastern data. 3 A certain instinctive quality was behind this. Even today, its obvious that what Ive learned is totally irrelevant in terms of my ability to teach a child effectively before the change of teeth. After the change of teeth, the teachers knowledge begins to have some significance; but this is lost again, if I merely impart what I learned as it lives in me. It all has to be transformed artistically and made into images, as we shall see later. I have to awaken invis- ible forces between the child and myself.
  3. In Sanskrit, the giver.

1.01 - Newtonian and Bergsonian Time, #Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, #Norbert Wiener, #Cybernetics
  give a billionth part of the data necessary to characterize the
  actual state of the atmosphere from a Newtonian point of view.
  --
  plete collection of data for the present and the past is not suf-
  ficient to predict the future more than statistically. It is thus not
  --
  on the basis of the data which have passed through its receptors
  in the past, and this is not unlike the process of learning.

1.01 - Principles of Practical Psycho therapy, #The Practice of Psycho therapy, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  boast not only of certain successes but of psychological data that largely
  prove its particular assumption. Thus we are faced in psycho therapy

1.01 - The Cycle of Society, #The Human Cycle, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Modern Science, obsessed with the greatness of its physical discoveries and the idea of the sole existence of Matter, has long attempted to base upon physical data even its study of Soul and Mind and of those workings of Nature in man and animal in which a knowledge of psychology is as important as any of the physical sciences. Its very psychology founded itself upon physiology and the scrutiny of the brain and nervous system. It is not surprising therefore that in history and sociology attention should have been concentrated on the external data, laws, institutions, rites, customs, economic factors and developments, while the deeper psychological elements so important in the activities of a mental, emotional, ideative being like man have been very much neglected. This kind of science would explain history and social development as much as possible by economic necessity or motive,by economy understood in its widest sense. There are even historians who deny or put aside as of a very subsidiary importance the working of the idea and the influence of the thinker in the development of human institutions. The French Revolution, it is thought, would have happened just as it did and when it did, by economic necessity, even if Rousseau and Voltaire had never written and the eighteenth-century philosophic movement in the world of thought had never worked out its bold and radical speculations.
  Recently, however, the all-sufficiency of Matter to explain Mind and Soul has begun to be doubted and a movement of emancipation from the obsession of physical science has set in, although as yet it has not gone beyond a few awkward and rudimentary stumblings. Still there is the beginning of a perception that behind the economic motives and causes of social and historical development there are profound psychological, even perhaps soul factors; and in pre-war Germany, the metropolis of rationalism and materialism but the home also, for a century and a half, of new thought and original tendencies good and bad, beneficent and disastrous, a first psychological theory of history was conceived and presented by an original intelligence. The earliest attempts in a new field are seldom entirely successful, and the German historian, originator of this theory, seized on a luminous idea, but was not able to carry it very far or probe very deep. He was still haunted by a sense of the greater importance of the economic factor, and like most European science his theory related, classified and organised phenomena much more successfully than it explained them. Nevertheless, its basic idea formulated a suggestive and illuminating truth, and it is worth while following up some of the suggestions it opens out in the light especially of Eastern thought and experience.

1.02 - In the Beginning, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  This is why certain systems of theology, in order to escape from the contradictory postulate of unity as a cause, have sought in a less unproductive dualism the explanation of the beginning of things. And although they have by a misdirected mysticism, falsified the term and distorted the idea, it is in them that we recover the tendencies most in harmony with the very data on which the belief in a divine Creator is founded.
  Let us take, for example, the Bereshit.

1.02 - MAPS OF MEANING - THREE LEVELS OF ANALYSIS, #Maps of Meaning, #Jordan Peterson, #Psychology
  arbitrary restriction of data that makes understanding and action possible.
  We are adapted, as biological organisms, to construe our environment as a domain with particular
  --
  The question might be asked: upon what databank, so to speak, does a child draw, when he or she learns
  to talk (read, write)? The child listens to those around her. She is not explicitly taught how to talk,
  --
  complex set of data which have at least been experienced, if not exhausted. Representation of the unknown,
  however, appears impossible appears as a contradiction in terms. How can what has not yet been

1.02 - The Two Negations 1 - The Materialist Denial, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  4:The materialist has an easier field; it is possible for him by denying Spirit to arrive at a more readily convincing simplicity of statement, a real Monism, the Monism of Matter or else of Force. But in this rigidity of statement it is impossible for him to persist permanently. He too ends by positing an unknowable as inert, as remote from the known universe as the passive Purusha or the silent Atman. It serves no purpose but to put off by a vague concession the inexorable demands of Thought or to stand as an excuse for refusing to extend the limits of inquiry. Therefore, in these barren contradictions the human mind cannot rest satisfied. It must seek always a complete affirmation; it can find it only by a luminous reconciliation. To reach that reconciliation it must traverse the degrees which our inner consciousness imposes on us and, whether by objective method of analysis applied to Life and Mind as to Matter or by subjective synthesis and illumination, arrive at the repose of the ultimate unity without denying the energy of the expressive multiplicity. Only in such a complete and catholic affirmation can all the multiform and apparently contradictory data of existence be harmonised and the manifold conflicting forces which govern our thought and life discover the central Truth which they are here to symbolise and variously fulfil. Then only can our Thought, having attained a true centre, ceasing to wander in circles, work like the Brahman of the Upanishad, fixed and stable even in its play and its worldwide coursing, and our life, knowing its aim, serve it with a serene and settled joy and light as well as with a rhythmically discursive energy.
  5:But when that rhythm has once been disturbed, it is necessary and helpful that man should test separately, in their extreme assertion, each of the two great opposites. It is the mind's natural way of returning more perfectly to the affirmation it has lost. On the road it may attempt to rest in the intervening degrees, reducing all things into the terms of an original Life-Energy or of sensation or of Ideas; but these exclusive solutions have always an air of unreality. They may satisfy for a time the logical reason which deals only with pure ideas, but they cannot satisfy the mind's sense of actuality. For the mind knows that there is something behind itself which is not the Idea; it knows, on the other hand, that there is something within itself which is more than the vital Breath. Either Spirit or Matter can give it for a time some sense of ultimate reality; not so any of the principles that intervene. It must, therefore, go to the two extremes before it can return fruitfully upon the whole. For by its very nature, served by a sense that can perceive with distinctness only the parts of existence and by a speech that, also, can achieve distinctness only when it carefully divides and limits, the intellect is driven, having before it this multiplicity of elemental principles, to seek unity by reducing all ruthlessly to the terms of one. It attempts practically, in order to assert this one, to get rid of the others. To perceive the real source of their identity without this exclusive process, it must either have overleaped itself or must have completed the circuit only to find that all equally reduce themselves to That which escapes definition or description and is yet not only real but attainable. By whatever road we may travel, That is always the end at which we arrive and we can only escape it by refusing to complete the journey.

1.02 - The Vision of the Past, #Let Me Explain, #Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, #Christianity
  more closely in the light of the latest data supplied by the
  combined ingenuity of an army of research workers. As we

10.37 - The Golden Bridge, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 04, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The movement of freeing the consciousness from the hold of sense-perceptions has continued and has attained an unprecedented success. Rational mind, in order to find its autonomy has abstracted itself so much from the data of life experiences that it has become almost an esoteric domain. Mathematical logic of today has brought forth a language that has almost no kinship with either the popular or the aristocratic tongue. Modern science has so much sublimated the facts of life, the contents of experience, that it has become only a system of geometrical formulae.
   The recoil from the brute facts of life, the concrete living realities has affected even the world of artistic creation. We are very much familiar with what has been called abstract art, that is to say, art denuded of all content. The supreme art today is this sketch of bare skeletoneven a skeleton, not in its organised form but merely dismembered bits strewn about. Even poetry, the art that is perhaps most bound to the sense pattern, as no other, so indissolubly married to sense-life, seems to be giving way to the new impact and inspiration. A poetry devoid of all thought-content, pure of all sentiment and understandable imagery is being worked out in the laboratory, as it were, a new poetry made of a bizarre combination of tones and syllables with a changed form too in regard to arrangement of lines and phrases. It is the pure form that is aimed at the very essence, it is said, what is quintessential!

1.03 - Concerning the Archetypes, with Special Reference to the Anima Concept, #The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  considers this accumulation of data, it begins to seem probable
  that an archetype in its quiescent, unprojected state has no

1.03 - The Two Negations 2 - The Refusal of the Ascetic, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  10:And yet the question cannot be solved by logic arguing on the data of our ordinary physical existence; for in those data there is always a hiatus of experience which renders all argument inconclusive. We have, normally, neither any definitive experience of a cosmic mind or supermind not bound up with the life of the individual body, nor, on the other hand, any firm limit of experience which would justify us in supposing that our subjective self really depends upon the physical frame and can neither survive it nor enlarge itself beyond the individual body. Only by an extension of the field of our consciousness or an unhoped-for increase in our instruments of knowledge can the ancient quarrel be decided.
  11:The extension of our consciousness, to be satisfying, must necessarily be an inner enlargement from the individual into the cosmic existence. For the Witness, if he exists, is not the individual embodied mind born in the world, but that cosmic Consciousness embracing the universe and appearing as an immanent Intelligence in all its works to which either world subsists eternally and really as Its own active existence or else from which it is born and into which it disappears by an act of knowledge or by an act of conscious power. Not organised mind, but that which, calm and eternal, broods equally in the living earth and the living human body and to which mind and senses are dispensable instruments, is the Witness of cosmic existence and its Lord.

1.03 - The Uncreated, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  The problem of the origin, so far as it concerns this Reality, can have no meaning; for in order to conceive it, our thought has to exclude the very data which constitute the problem. And, inversely, in the domain of concrete realities where all is a perpetual beginning, it is not merely once that the problem of the origin has to be posed, but as many times as there are objects in space and instants in Time.
  For outside the immobile Immutable duration itself, continuity,which is an incessant recommencement,poses the same riddle; outside the Uncreated all is continually being created without cessation, from moment to moment, and the last commencement is no less difficult to understand than the first. All the worlds moments are equally mysterious and if one could explain a single one of them, one would have explained all.

1.03 - Time Series, Information, and Communication, #Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, #Norbert Wiener, #Cybernetics
  rological data published from day to day by the Weather Bureau
  are all time series, continuous or discrete, simple or multiple.
  --
  mixing property, even when our data are as complete as they
  can be, we find that our system has no absolute potential bar-

1.04 - SOME REFLECTIONS ON PROGRESS, #The Future of Man, #Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, #Christianity
  latest data supplied by the combined ingenuity of an army of re-
  search workers. As we are beginning to realize, there are probably

1.04 - THE APPEARANCE OF ANOMALY - CHALLENGE TO THE SHARED MAP, #Maps of Meaning, #Jordan Peterson, #Psychology
  schematically presents the way of the savior. The individual troubled by anomalous and anxietyprovoking experiential data is suffering equally from the disintegration, rigidity or senility of the
  society within. The choice to process such data that is, to mine it for significance, and to destabilize
  the socially-constructed intrapsychic hierarchy of behavior and values, in consequence is equivalent,
  --
  has provided that rapidly developing biological capacity with data whose sophistication and breadth is
  increasing exponentially. This means that the human mind increasingly manifests the capacity to upset

1.04 - The Gods of the Veda, #Vedic and Philological Studies, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  We do not find that the Rishi Mahachamasya succeeded in getting his fourth vyahriti accepted by the great body of Vedantic thinkers. With a little reflection we can see the reason why. The vijnana or mahat is superior to reasoning. It sees and knows, hears and knows, remembers & knows by the ideal principles of drishti, sruti and smriti; it does not reason and know.Or withdrawing into the Mahan Atma, it is what it exercises itself upon and therefore knowsas it were, by conscious identity; for that is the nature of the Mahan Atma to be everything separately and collectively & know it as an object of his Knowledge and yet as himself. Always vijnana knows things in the whole & therefore in the part, in the mass & therefore in the particular. But when ideal knowledge, vijnana, looks out on the phenomenal world in its separate details, it then acquires an ambiguous nature. So long as it is not assailed by mind, it is still the pure buddhi and free from liability to errors. The pure buddhi may assign its reasons, but it knows first & reasons afterwards,to explain, not to justify. Assailed by mind, the ideal buddhi ceases to be pure, ceases to be ideal, becomes sensational, emotional, is obliged to found itself on data, ends not in knowledge but in opinion and is obliged to hold doubt with one hand even while it tries to grasp certainty by the other. For it is the nature of mind to be shackled & frightened by its data. It looks at things as entirely outside itself, separate from itself and it approaches them one by one, groups them & thus arrives at knowledge by synthesis; or if [it] looks at things in the mass, it has to appreciate them vaguely and then take its parts and qualities one by one, arriving at knowledge by a process of analysis. But it cannot be sure that the knowledge it acquires, is pure truth; it can never be safe against mixture of truth & error, against one-sided knowledge which leads to serious misconception, against its own sensations, passions, prejudices and false associations. Such truth as it gets can only be correct even so far as it goes, if all the essential data have been collected and scrupulously weighed without any false weights or any unconscious or semi-conscious interference with the balance. A difficult undertaking! So we can form reliable conclusions, and then too always with some reserve of doubt,about the past & the present.Of the future the mind can know nothing except in eternally fixed movements, for it has no data. We try to read the future from the past & present and make the most colossal blunders. The practical man of action who follows there his will, his intuition & his instinct, is far more likely to be correct than the scientific reasoner. Moreover, the mind has to rely for its data on the outer senses or on its own inner sensations & perceptions & it can never be sure that these are informing it correctly or are, even, in their nature anything but lying instruments. Therefore we say we know the objective world on the strength of a perpetual hypothesis. The subjective world we know only as in a dream, sure only of our own inner movements & the little we can learn from them about others, but there too sure only of this objective world & end always in conflict of transitory opinions, a doubt, a perhaps. Yet sure knowledge, indubitable Truth, the Vedic thinkers have held, is not only possible to mankind, but is the goal of our journey. Satyam eva jayate nanritam satyena pantha vitato devayanah yenakramantyrishayo hyaptakama yatra tat satyasya paramam nidhanam. Truth conquers and not falsehood, by truth the path has been extended which the gods follow, by which sages attaining all their desire arrive where is that Supreme Abode of Truth. The very eagerness of man for Truth, his untameable yearning towards an infinite reality, an infinite extension of knowledge, the fact that he has the conception of a fixed & firm truth, nay the very fact that error is possible & persistent, mare indications that pure Truth exists.We follow no chimaera as a supreme good, nor do the Powers of Darkness fight against a mere shadow. The ideal Truth is constantly coming down to us, constantly seeking to deliver us from our slavery to our senses and the magic circle of our limited data. It speaks to our hearts & creates the phenomenon of Faith, but the heart has its lawless & self-regarding emotions & disfigures the message. It speaks to the Imagination, our great intellectual instrument which liberates us from the immediate fact and opens the mind to infinite possibility; but the imagination has her pleasant fictions & her headlong creative impulse and exaggerates the truth & distorts & misplaces circumstances. It speaks to the intellect itself, bids it criticise its instruments by vichara and creates the critical reason, bids it approach the truth directly by a wide passionless & luminous use of the pure judgment, and creates shuddha buddhi or Kants pure reason; bids it divine truth & learn to hold the true divination & reject the counterfeit, and creates the intuitive reason & its guardian, intuitive discrimination or viveka. But the intellect is impatient of error, eager for immediate results and hurries to apply what it receives before it has waited & seen & understood. Therefore error maintains & even extends her reign. At last come the logician & modern rationalist thinker; disgusted with the exaggeration of these movements, seeing their errors, unable to see their indispensable utility, he sets about sweeping them away as intellectual rubbish, gets rid of faith, gets rid of flexibility of mind, gets rid of sympathy, pure reason & intuition, puts critical reason into an ill lightened dungeon & thinks now, delivered from these false issues, to compass truth by laborious observation & a rigid logic. To live on these dry & insufficient husks is the last fate of impure vijnanam or buddhi confined in the data of the mind & sensesuntil man wronged in his nature, cabined in his possibilities revolts & either prefers a luminous error or resumes his broadening & upward march.
  It was this aspect of impure mahas, vijnanam working not in its own home, swe dame but in the house of a stranger, as a servant of an inferior faculty, reason as we call it, which led the Rishi Mahachamasya to include mahas among the vyahritis. But vijnana itself is an integral part of the supreme movement, it is divine thought in divine being,therefore not a vyahriti. The Veda uses to express this pure Truth &ideal knowledge another word, equivalent in meaning to mahat,the word brihat and couples with it two other significant expressions, satyam & ritam. This trinity of satyam ritam brihatSacchidananda objectivisedis the Mahan Atma. Satyam is Truth, the principle of infinite & divine Being, Sat objectivised to Knowledge as the Truth of things self-manifested; Ritam is Law, the motion of things thought out, the principle of divine self-aware energy, Chit-shakti objectivised to knowledge as the Truth of things selfarranged; Brihat is full content & fullness, satisfaction, Nature, the principle of divine Bliss objectivised to knowledge as the Truth of things contented with its own manifestation in law of being & law of action. For, as the Vedanta tells us, there is no lasting satisfaction in the little, in the unillumined or half-illumined things of mind & sense, satisfaction there is only in the large, the self-true & self-existent. Nalpe sukham asti bhumaiva sukham. Bhuma, brihat, mahat, that is God. It is Ananda therefore that insists on largeness & constitutes the mahat or brihat. Ananda is the soul of Nature, its essentiality, creative power & peace. The harmony of creative power & peace, pravritti & nivritti, jana & shama, is the divine state which we feelas Wordsworth felt itwhen we go back to the brihat, the wide & infinite which, containing & contented with its works, says of it Sukritam, What I have made, is good. Whoever enters this kingdom of Mahat, this Maho Arnas or great sea of ideal knowledge, comes into possession of his true being, true knowledge, true bliss. He attains the ideal powers of drishti, sruti, smritisees truth face to face, hears her unerring voice or knows her by immediate recognising memoryjust as we say of a friend This is he and need no reasoning of observation, comparison, induction or deduction to tell us who he is or to explain our knowledge to ourselvesthough we may, already knowing the truth, use a self-evident reasoning masterfully in order to convince others. The characteristic of ideal knowledge is first that it is direct in its approach, secondly, that it is self-evident in its revelation, swayamprakasha, thirdly, that it is unerring fact of being, sat, satyam in its substance. Moreover, it is always perfectly satisfied & divinely pleasurable; it is atmarati & atmastha, confines itself to itself & does not reach out beyond itself to grasp at error or grope within itself to stumble over ignorance. It is, too, perfectly effective whether for knowledge, speech or action, satyakarma, satyapratijna, satyavadi. The man who rising beyond the state of the manu, manishi or thinker which men are now, becomes the kavi or direct seer, containing what he sees,he who draws the manomaya purusha up into the vijnanamaya,is in all things true. Truth is his characteristic, his law of being, the stamp that God has put upon him. But even for the manishi ideal Truth has its bounties. For from thence come the intuitions of the poet, the thinker, the artist, scientist, man of action, merchant, craftsman, labourer each in his sphere, the seed of the great thoughts, discoveries, faiths that help the world and save our human works & destinies from decay & dissolution. But in utilising these messages from our higher selves for the world, in giving them a form or a practical tendency, we use our intellects, feelings or imaginations and alter to their moulds or colour with their pigments the Truth. That alloy seems to be needed to make this gold from the mines above run current among men. This then is Maho Arnas.The psychological conceptions of our remote forefa thers concerning it have so long been alien to our thought & experience that they may be a little difficult to follow & more difficult to accept mentally. But we must understand & grasp them in their fullness if we have any desire to know the meaning of the Veda. For they are the very centre & keystone of Vedic psychology. Maho Arnas, the Great Ocean, is the stream of our being which at once divides & connects the human in us from the divine, & to cross over from the human to the divine, from this small & divided finite to that one, great & infinite, from this death to that immortality, leaving Diti for Aditi, alpam for bhuma, martyam for amritam is the great preoccupation & final aim of Veda & Vedanta.
  We can now understand the intention of the Rishi in his last verse and the greatness of the climax to which he has been leading us. Saraswati is able to give impulsion to Truth and awaken to right thinking because she has access to the Maho Arnas, the great ocean. On that level of consciousness, we are usually it must be remembered asleep, sushupta. The chetana or waking consciousness has no access; it lies behind our active consciousness, is, as we might say, superconscious, for us, asleep. Saraswati brings it forward into active consciousness by means of the ketu or perceptive intelligence, that essential movement of mind which accepts & realises whatever is presented to it. To focus this ketu, this essential perception on the higher truth by drawing it away from the haphazard disorder of sensory data is the great aim of Yogic meditation. Saraswati by fixing essential perception on the satyam ritam brihat above makes ideal knowledge active and is able to inform it with all those plentiful movements of mind which she, dhiyavasu, vajebhir vajinivati, has prepared for the service of the Master of the sacrifice. She is able to govern all the movements of understanding without exception in their thousand diverse movements & give them the single impression of truth and right thinkingvisva dhiyo vi rajati. A governed & ordered activity of soul and mind, led by the Truth-illuminated intellect, is the aim of the sacrifice which Madhuchchhanda son of Viswamitra is offering to the Gods.
  For we perceive at once that the yajna here can be no material sacrifice, no mere pouring out of the Soma-wine on the sacred flame to the gods of rain & cloud, star & sunshine.

1.04 - Wherefore of World?, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  Still, the mind is justified in translating its first data into its own language in preference to another. And, even, this preference is forced upon it. For what has more than anything else hampered its attempt to discover the cause of the world, is the search for it in a domain alien to the minds own activities. The problem of the initial movement will always remain insoluble to it, if the data are not first translated into psychological terms. It is in its own fundamental dynamism that it must discover the primary energy, in its own secret that it must seek for the secret of the universe.
  But there is another thing which prevents it from resolving the riddle of the world, and that is the arbitrary reduction of the whole formula of being into the terms of mental knowledge. For the domain of mind, intelligence, thought, is only one domain of the universal; its reality represents only one of the forms, one of the aspects of existence. The fact of existence is not exhausted by the idea; therefore its principle cannot be defined from the sole point of view of Mind.
  --
  It is, therefore, only an integral experience that can enable us to attain, beyond the multiple forms and successive depths of the reality, its ultimate sources. The discovery cannot be effected by the sole aid of the logical reason. The data of sensation must enter into it no less than those of the understanding, no less than those of the still more transcendent faculties of intuitive consciousness and of knowledge that is lived.
  When the mind, then, assembles these data and makes its language sufficiently supple to translate them synthetically, it perceives that each of them justifies from its own point of view one or other of the reasons which philosophies and religions have assigned for the existence of beings and of the world. And as the being within proceeds to resume them and make an integral whole of them all, it learns to discover by them the being itself and by the being the wherefore of the worlds.
  ***

1.05 - 2010 and 1956 - Doomsday?, #Preparing for the Miraculous, #George Van Vrekhem, #Integral Yoga
  copiously, in almost total absence of data and in complete
  absence of any direct data, notes Henry Bauer dryly. But,
  as mentioned before, the search for exoplanets is on and110

1.05 - Computing Machines and the Nervous System, #Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, #Norbert Wiener, #Cybernetics
  analogy machines, where the data are represented by measure-
  ments on some continuous scale, so that the accuracy of the
  --
  ing machine, which we call numerical machines, where the data
  are represented by a set of choices among a number of contin-
  --
  The ideal computing machine must then have all its data
  inserted at the beginning, and must be as free as possible from
  --
  must the numerical data be inserted at the beginning, but also
  all the rules for combining them, in the form of instructions
  --
  Thus all the data, numerical or logical, put into the machine
  are in the form of a set of choices between two alternatives, and
  all the operations on the data take the form of making a set of
  new choices depend on a set of old choices. When I add two
  --
  equations require the recording of an enormous mass of data
  to set them up, as the data involve the accurate description of
  functions of two or more variables. With equations of the hyper-
  --
  of solving the equation when the initial data are given, and this
  can be done in a progressive manner from the initial data to the
  results at any given later time. This is largely true of equations
  --
  elliptic type, where the natural data are boundary values rather
  than initial values, the natural methods of solution involve an180

1.05 - Knowledge by Aquaintance and Knowledge by Description, #The Problems of Philosophy, #Bertrand Russell, #Philosophy
  We may therefore sum up as follows what has been said concerning acquaintance with things that exist. We have acquaintance in sensation with the data of the outer senses, and in introspection with the data of what may be called the inner sense--thoughts, feelings, desires, etc.; we have acquaintance in memory with things which have been data either of the outer senses or of the inner sense. Further, it is probable, though not certain, that we have acquaintance with Self, as that which is aware of things or has desires towards things.
  In addition to our acquaintance with particular existing things, we also have acquaintance with what we shall call _universals_, that is to say, general ideas, such as _whiteness_, _diversity_, _brotherhood_, and so on. Every complete sentence must contain at least one word which stands for a universal, since all verbs have a meaning which is universal. We shall return to universals later on, in Chapter IX; for the present, it is only necessary to guard against the supposition that whatever we can be acquainted with must be something particular and existent. Awareness of universals is called _conceiving_, and a universal of which we are aware is called a _concept_.

1.05 - The Creative Principle, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  No doubt, in one of these points of view we find the elements of a psychological explanation of the world conceived as the result of a free act of will, of thought; in the other, on the contrary, are resumed all the data of a mechanical conception assuring the fact of evolution on the concrete base of a substantial realism, But, however contradictory all these theories may be in their form, they agree, in substance, in postulating as first fact an essential principle of existence, an absolute cause, personal or impersonal, a thing that is the mother of beings or a being that is the former of things.
  They have, moreover, this feature in common that none of them explains how from this Absolute, whether thing or being, pure matter or pure spirit, there could have come into existence a world of relativities at once subjective and objective. Far from solving the problem each of them merely translates into its own particular formula one or other of these two mysterious terms.

1.05 - THE HOSTILE BROTHERS - ARCHETYPES OF RESPONSE TO THE UNKNOWN, #Maps of Meaning, #Jordan Peterson, #Psychology
  and to present them in logical and purely semantic form. Sufficient data have been gathered to present a
  compelling portrait of evil.

1.06 - Being Human and the Copernican Principle, #Preparing for the Miraculous, #George Van Vrekhem, #Integral Yoga
  cycles to make his model fit the data of observation. There
  fore, when we talk today about the Copernican system we

1.06 - On Induction, #The Problems of Philosophy, #Bertrand Russell, #Philosophy
  In almost all our previous discussions we have been concerned in the attempt to get clear as to our data in the way of knowledge of existence. What things are there in the universe whose existence is known to us owing to our being acquainted with them? So far, our answer has been that we are acquainted with our sense- data, and, probably, with ourselves. These we know to exist. And past sense- data which are remembered are known to have existed in the past. This knowledge supplies our data.
  But if we are to be able to draw inferences from these data--if we are to know of the existence of matter, of other people, of the past before our individual memory begins, or of the future, we must know general principles of some kind by means of which such inferences can be drawn.
  It must be known to us that the existence of some one sort of thing, A, is a sign of the existence of some other sort of thing, B, either at the same time as A or at some earlier or later time, as, for example, thunder is a sign of the earlier existence of lightning. If this were not known to us, we could never extend our knowledge beyond the sphere of our private experience; and this sphere, as we have seen, is exceedingly limited. The question we have now to consider is whether such an extension is possible, and if so, how it is effected.
  --
  It should be noted that probability is always relative to certain data.
  In our case, the data are merely the known cases of coexistence of A and
  B. There may be other data, which _might_ be taken into account, which would gravely alter the probability. For example, a man who had seen a great many white swans might argue, by our principle, that on the data it was _probable_ that all swans were white, and this might be a perfectly sound argument. The argument is not disproved ny the fact that some swans are black, because a thing may very well happen in spite of the fact that some data render it improbable. In the case of the swans, a man might know that colour is a very variable characteristic in many species of animals, and that, therefore, an induction as to colour is peculiarly liable to error. But this knowledge would be a fresh datum, by no means proving that the probability relatively to our previous data had been wrongly estimated. The fact, therefore, that things often fail to fulfil our expectations is no evidence that our expectations will not
  _probably_ be fulfilled in a given case or a given class of cases. Thus our inductive principle is at any rate not capable of being _disproved_ by an appeal to experience.

1.06 - The Desire to be, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  If the secret of the being is concealed at once in his absolute conditionment and in his relative affirmation, it is in the latter first that he must seek for it. It is by scrutinising its primary data that we shall succeed, perhaps, in perceiving through and behind them the final reason of his existence, the cause of his cause. It is by reaching down to his roots that we shall discover the profundities of that antecedent, not previous in time but permanent, to which Knowledge gives the name of Unknowable.
  For the secret of the being is within him.

1.06 - The Objective and Subjective Views of Life, #The Human Cycle, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  The principle of subjectivism entering into human thought and action, while necessarily it must make a great difference in the view-point, the motive-power and the character of our living, does not at first appear to make any difference in its factors. Subjectivism and objectivism start from the same data, the individual and the collectivity, the complex nature of each with its various powers of the mind, life and body and the search for the law of their self-fulfilment and harmony. But objectivism proceeding by the analytical reason takes an external and mechanical view of the whole problem. It looks at the world as a thing, an object, a process to be studied by an observing reason which places itself abstractly outside the elements and the sum of what it has to consider and observes it thus from outside as one would an intricate mechanism. The laws of this process are considered as so many mechanical rules or settled forces acting upon the individual or the group which, when they have been observed and distinguished by the reason, have by ones will or by some will to be organised and applied fully much as Science applies the laws it discovers. These laws or rules have to be imposed on the individual by his own abstract reason and will isolated as a ruling authority from his other parts or by the reason and will of other individuals or of the group, and they have to be imposed on the group itself either by its own collective reason and will embodied in some machinery of control which the mind considers as something apart from the life of the group or by the reason and will of some other group external to it or of which it is in some way a part. So the State is viewed in modern political thought as an entity in itself, as if it were something apart from the community and its individuals, something which has the right to impose itself on them and control them in the fulfilment of some idea of right, good or interest which is inflicted on them by a restraining and fashioning power rather than developed in them and by them as a thing towards which their self and nature are impelled to grow. Life is to be managed, harmonised, perfected by an adjustment, a manipulation, a machinery through which it is passed and by which it is shaped. A law outside oneself,outside even when it is discovered or determined by the individual reason and accepted or enforced by the individual will,this is the governing idea of objectivism; a mechanical process of management, ordering, perfection, this is its conception of practice.
  Subjectivism proceeds from within and regards everything from the point of view of a containing and developing self-consciousness. The law here is within ourselves; life is a self-creating process, a growth and development at first subconscious, then half-conscious and at last more and more fully conscious of that which we are potentially and hold within ourselves; the principle of its progress is an increasing self-recognition, self-realisation and a resultant self-shaping. Reason and will are only effective movements of the self, reason a process in self-recognition, will a force for self-affirmation and self-shaping. Moreover, reason and intellectual will are only a part of the means by which we recognise and realise ourselves. Subjectivism tends to take a large and complex view of our nature and being and to recognise many powers of knowledge, many forces of effectuation. Even, we see it in its first movement away from the external and objective method discount and belittle the importance of the work of the reason and assert the supremacy of the life-impulse or the essential Will-to-be in opposition to the claims of the intellect or else affirm some deeper power of knowledge, called nowadays the intuition, which sees things in the whole, in their truth, in their profundities and harmonies while intellectual reason breaks up, falsifies, affirms superficial appearances and harmonises only by a mechanical adjustment. But substantially we can see that what is meant by this intuition is the self-consciousness feeling, perceiving, grasping in its substance and aspects rather than analysing in its mechanism its own truth and nature and powers. The whole impulse of subjectivism is to get at the self, to live in the self, to see by the self, to live out the truth of the self internally and externally, but always from an internal initiation and centre.

1.07 - Cybernetics and Psychopathology, #Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, #Norbert Wiener, #Cybernetics
  against each other; and if there is a discrepancy, all data are trans-
  ferred to permanent storage, the machine stops, and a signal is
  --
  ent data the difficulty may not recur. Failing this, if the difficulty
  is in some point permanently or temporarily inaccessible to the

1.07 - Medicine and Psycho therapy, #The Practice of Psycho therapy, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  special emphasis. His assessment of anainnestic data may therefore turn
  out to be very different from a purely medical one.

1.07 - On Our Knowledge of General Principles, #The Problems of Philosophy, #Bertrand Russell, #Philosophy
  Some of these principles have even greater evidence than the principle of induction, and the knowledge of them has the same degree of certainty as the knowledge of the existence of sense- data. They constitute the means of drawing inferences from what is given in sensation; and if what we infer is to be true, it is just as necessary that our principles of inference should be true as it is that our data should be true. The principles of inference are apt to be overlooked because of their very obviousness--the assumption involved is assented to without our realizing that it is an assumption. But it is very important to realize the use of principles of inference, if a correct theory of knowledge is to be obtained; for our knowledge of them raises interesting and difficult questions.
  In all our knowledge of general principles, what actually happens is that first of all we realize some particular application of the principle, and then we realize that the particularity is irrelevant, and that there is a generality which may equally truly be affirmed. This is of course familiar in such matters as teaching arithmetic: 'two and two are four' is first learnt in the case of some particular pair of couples, and then in some other particular case, and so on, until at last it becomes possible to see that it is true of any pair of couples.
  --
  A, B, C, to Socrates, than to go round by the general proposition, 'all men are mortal'. For the probability that Socrates is mortal is greater, on our data, than the probability that all men are mortal. (This is obvious, because if all men are mortal, so is Socrates; but if Socrates is mortal, it does not follow that all men are mortal.) Hence we shall reach the conclusion that Socrates is mortal with a greater approach to certainty if we make our argument purely inductive than if we go by way of 'all men are mortal' and then use deduction.
  This illustrates the difference between general propositions known _a priori_ such as 'two and two are four', and empirical generalizations such as 'all men are mortal'. In regard to the former, deduction is the right mode of argument, whereas in regard to the latter, induction is always theoretically preferable, and warrants a greater confidence in the truth of our conclusion, because all empirical generalizations are more uncertain than the instances of them.

1.07 - Standards of Conduct and Spiritual Freedom, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  24:The ethical idealist tries to discover this supreme law in his own moral data, in the inferior powers and factors that belong to the mental and ethical formula. And to sustain and organise them he selects a fundamental principle of conduct essentially unsound and constructed by the intellect - utility, hedonism, reason, intuitive conscience or any other generalised standard. All such efforts are foredoomed to failure. Our inner nature is the progressive expression of the eternal Spirit and too complex a power to be tied down by a single dominant mental or moral principle. Only the supramental consciousness can reveal to its differing and conflicting forces their spiritual truth and harmonise their divergences.
  25:The later religions endeavour to fix the type of a supreme truth of conduct, erect a system and declare God's law through the mouth of Avatar or prophet. These systems, more powerful and dynamic than the dry ethical idea, are yet for the most part no more than idealistic glorifications of the moral principle sanctified by religious emotion and the label of a superhuman origin. Some, like the extreme Christian ethic, are rejected by Nature because they insist unworkably on an impracticable absolute rule. Others prove in the end to be evolutionary compromises and become obsolete in the march of Time. The true divine law, unlike these mental counterfeits, cannot be a system of rigid ethical determinations that press into their cast-iron moulds all our life-movements. The Law divine is truth of life and truth of the spirit and must take up with a free living plasticity and inspire with the direct touch of its eternal light each step of our action and all the complexity of our life issues. It must act not as a rule and formula but as an enveloping and penetrating conscious presence that determines all our thoughts, activities, feelings, impulsions of will by its infallible power and knowledge.

1.07 - The Farther Reaches of H