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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks









see also



see also the Jewish Encyclopedia 1,593.]

See also AJA



See also DECAD



See also garden-house.

See also GAUTAMA

See also GERM CELL.

See also ILA

See also: Index, Sign, Types of Language.



See also Logic, formal, §§ 7, 9. -- A.C.

See also Logic, formal, § 8. -- A.C.

See also Meaning, Kinds of.


See also printing-house.

See also prison-house.

See also SISHTAS



See also summer-house.

See also the article Recursiveness. -- A.C.

See also the Bruce Codex, Bodleian Library, Oxford.


See also treasure house.



16 bit "architecture, programming" Using {words} containing sixteen {bits}. This adjective often refers to the number of bits used internally by a computer's {CPU}. E.g. "The {Intel 8086} is a sixteen bit processor". Its external {data bus} or {address bus} may be narrower. The term may also refer to the size of an instruction in the computer's {instruction set} or to any other item of data. See also {16-bit application}. (1996-05-13)

32-bit application "architecture, operating system" {IBM PC} software that runs in a 32-bit {flat address space}. The term {32-bit application} came about because {MS-DOS} and {Microsoft Windows} were originally written for the {Intel 8088} and {80286} {microprocessors}. These are {16 bit} microprocessors with a {segmented address space}. Programs with more than 64 kilobytes of code and/or data therefore had to switch between {segments} quite frequently. As this operation is quite time consuming in comparison to other machine operations, the application's performance may suffer. Furthermore, programming with segments is more involved than programming in a flat address space, giving rise to some complications in programming languages like "{memory models}" in {C} and {C++}. The shift from 16-bit software to 32-bit software on {IBM PC} {clones} became possible with the introduction of the {Intel 80386} microprocessor. This microprocessor and its successors support a segmented address space with 16-bit and 32 bit segments (more precisely: segments with 16- or 32-bit address offset) or a linear 32-bit address space. For compatibility reasons, however, much of the software is nevertheless written in 16-bit models. {Operating systems} like {Microsoft Windows} or {OS/2} provide the possibility to run 16-bit (segmented) programs as well as 32-bit programs. The former possibility exists for {backward compatibility} and the latter is usually meant to be used for new software development. See also {Win32s}. (1995-12-11)

6501 "hardware" An eight-bit {microprocessor}, the first sold by {MOS Technology}. The 6501 pin-compatible with the {Motorola 6800} and was the first member of the 650x series. It had an on-chip clock oscillator. See also {6502}. (2001-02-26)

6502 "hardware" An eight-bit {microprocessor} designed by {MOS Technology} around 1975 and made by {Rockwell}. Unlike the {Intel 8080} and its kind, the 6502 had very few {registers}. It was an 8-bit processor, with 16-bit {address bus}. Inside was one 8-bit data register ({accumulator}), two 8-bit {index registers} and an 8-bit {stack pointer} (stack was preset from address 256 to 511). It used these index and stack registers effectively, with more {addressing modes}, including a fast zero-page mode that accessed memory locations from address 0 to 255 with an 8-bit address (it didn't have to fetch a second byte for the address). Back when the 6502 was introduced, {RAM} was actually faster than {CPU}s, so it made sense to optimise for RAM access rather than increase the number of registers on a chip. The 6502 was used in the {BBC Microcomputer}, {Apple II}, {Commodore}, {Apple Computer} and {Atari} {personal computers}. {Steve Wozniak} described it as the first chip you could get for less than a hundred dollars (actually a quarter of the {6800} price). The 6502's {indirect jump} instruction, JMP (xxxx), was {broken}. If the address was hexadecimal xxFF, the processor would not access the address stored in xxFF and xxFF + 1, but rather xxFF and xx00. The {6510} did not fix this bug, nor was it fixed in any of the other {NMOS} versions of the 6502 such as the {8502}. Bill Mensch at {Western Design Center} was probably the first to fix it, in the {65C02}. The 6502 also had undocumented instructions. The {65816} is an expanded version of the 6502. There is a 6502 {assembler} by Doug Jones "" which supports {macros} and conditional features and can be used for linkage editing of object files. It requires {Pascal}. See also {cross-assembler}, {RTI}, {Small-C}. (2001-01-02)

abstract interpretation "theory" A partial execution of a program which gains information about its {semantics} (e.g. control structure, flow of information) without performing all the calculations. Abstract interpretation is typically used by compilers to analyse programs in order to decide whether certain optimisations or transformations are applicable. The objects manipulated by the program (typically values and functions) are represented by points in some {domain}. Each abstract domain point represents some set of real ("{concrete}") values. For example, we may take the abstract points "+", "0" and "-" to represent positive, zero and negative numbers and then define an abstract version of the multiplication operator, *

Abstract Syntax Notation 1 "language, standard, protocol" (ASN.1, X.208, X.680) An {ISO}/{ITU-T} {standard} for transmitting structured {data} on {networks}, originally defined in 1984 as part of {CCITT X.409} '84. ASN.1 moved to its own standard, X.208, in 1988 due to wide applicability. The substantially revised 1995 version is covered by the X.680 series. ASN.1 defines the {abstract syntax} of {information} but does not restrict the way the information is encoded. Various ASN.1 encoding rules provide the {transfer syntax} (a {concrete} representation) of the data values whose {abstract syntax} is described in ASN.1. The standard ASN.1 encoding rules include {BER} (Basic Encoding Rules - X.209), {CER} (Canonical Encoding Rules), {DER} (Distinguished Encoding Rules) and {PER} (Packed Encoding Rules). ASN.1 together with specific ASN.1 encoding rules facilitates the exchange of structured data especially between {application programs} over networks by describing data structures in a way that is independent of machine architecture and implementation language. {OSI} {Application layer} {protocols} such as {X.400} {MHS} {electronic mail}, {X.500} directory services and {SNMP} use ASN.1 to describe the {PDU}s they exchange. Documents describing the ASN.1 notations: {ITU-T} Rec. X.680, {ISO} 8824-1; {ITU-T} Rec. X.681, {ISO} 8824-2; {ITU-T} Rec. X.682, {ISO} 8824-3; {ITU-T} Rec. X.683, {ISO} 8824-4 Documents describing the ASN.1 encoding rules: {ITU-T} Rec. X.690, {ISO} 8825-1; {ITU-T} Rec. X.691, {ISO} 8825-2. [M. Sample et al, "Implementing Efficient Encoders and Decoders for Network Data Representations", IEEE Infocom 93 Proc, v.3, pp. 1143-1153, Mar 1993. Available from Logica, UK]. See also {snacc}. (2005-07-03)

According to another interpretation of the notion of whole and of the part-whole principle, a whole is an object whose parts are mutually interdependent in the sense that a change affecting one of its parts will bring about changes in all of the other parts, and because of this interdependence the whole is said to be "more" than the sum of its parts. The part-whole principle then obviously is true simply by definition, and again, lacks explanatory value. Besides, if the above interdependence criterion for wholes is taken literally, then any object turns out to be a whole. What the concept of whole is actually meant to refer to, are specific types of interdependence as found in living organisms, etc., but then, again, an adequate description and explanation of those phenomena can be attained only by a study of their special regularities, not by a sweeping use of the vague concept of whole and of the unclear part-whole principle. (For the points referred to in the preceding remarks, see also Emergent Evolution, Gestalt, Holism, Mechanism, Vitalism.)

Ada "language" (After {Ada Lovelace}) A {Pascal}-descended language, designed by Jean Ichbiah's team at {CII Honeywell} in 1979, made mandatory for Department of Defense software projects by the Pentagon. The original language was standardised as "Ada 83", the latest is "{Ada 95}". Ada is a large, complex, {block-structured} language aimed primarily at {embedded} applications. It has facilities for {real-time} response, {concurrency}, hardware access and reliable run-time error handling. In support of large-scale {software engineering}, it emphasises {strong typing}, {data abstraction} and {encapsulation}. The type system uses {name equivalence} and includes both {subtypes} and {derived types}. Both fixed and {floating-point} numerical types are supported. {Control flow} is fully bracketed: if-then-elsif-end if, case-is-when-end case, loop-exit-end loop, goto. Subprogram parameters are in, out, or inout. Variables imported from other packages may be hidden or directly visible. Operators may be {overloaded} and so may {enumeration} literals. There are user-defined {exceptions} and {exception handlers}. An Ada program consists of a set of packages encapsulating data objects and their related operations. A package has a separately compilable body and interface. Ada permits {generic packages} and subroutines, possibly parametrised. Ada support {single inheritance}, using "tagged types" which are types that can be extended via {inheritance}. Ada programming places a heavy emphasis on {multitasking}. Tasks are synchronised by the {rendezvous}, in which a task waits for one of its subroutines to be executed by another. The conditional entry makes it possible for a task to test whether an entry is ready. The selective wait waits for either of two entries or waits for a limited time. Ada is often criticised, especially for its size and complexity, and this is attributed to its having been designed by committee. In fact, both Ada 83 and Ada 95 were designed by small design teams to be internally consistent and tightly integrated. By contrast, two possible competitors, {Fortran 90} and {C++} have both become products designed by large and disparate volunteer committees. See also {Ada/Ed}, {Toy/Ada}. {Home of the Brave Ada Programmers (}. {Ada FAQs (} (hypertext), {text only (}. {(}, {(}, {(}. E-mail: "". {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.ada}. {An Ada grammar (} including a lex scanner and yacc parser is available. E-mail: "". {Another yacc grammar and parser for Ada by Herman Fischer ("ADA.EXTERNAL-TOOLS"GRAM2.SRC)}. An {LR parser} and {pretty-printer} for {Ada} from NASA is available from the {Ada Software Repository}. {Adamakegen} generates {makefiles} for {Ada} programs. ["Reference Manual for the Ada Programming Language", ANSI/MIL STD 1815A, US DoD (Jan 1983)]. Earlier draft versions appeared in July 1980 and July 1982. ISO 1987. [{Jargon File}] (2000-08-12)

Adaline "architecture" Name given by Widrow to {adaptive linear neurons}, that is {neurons} (see {McCulloch-Pitts}) which learn using the {Widrow-Huff Delta Rule}. See also {Madaline}. (1995-03-14)

Ada Semantic Interface Specification "language" (ASIS) An intermediate representation for {Ada}. E-mail: "". See also {Diana}. (1995-02-15)

address bus "processor" The connections between the {CPU} and memory which carry the {address} from/to which the CPU wishes to read or write. The number of bits of address bus determines the maximum size of memory which the processor can access. See also {data bus}. (1995-03-22)

Address Resolution Protocol "networking, protocol" (ARP) A method for finding a {host}'s {Ethernet address} from its {Internet address}. The sender broadcasts an ARP {packet} containing the {Internet address} of another host and waits for it (or some other host) to send back its Ethernet address. Each host maintains a {cache} of address translations to reduce delay and loading. ARP allows the Internet address to be independent of the Ethernet address but it only works if all hosts support it. ARP is defined in {RFC 826}. The alternative for hosts that do not do ARP is {constant mapping}. See also {proxy ARP}, {reverse ARP}. (1995-03-20)

ad-hockery "jargon" /ad-hok'*r-ee/ (Purdue) 1. Gratuitous assumptions made inside certain programs, especially {expert systems}, which lead to the appearance of semi-intelligent behaviour but are in fact entirely arbitrary. For example, {fuzzy-matching} of input tokens that might be typing errors against a symbol table can make it look as though a program knows how to spell. 2. Special-case code to cope with some awkward input that would otherwise cause a program to fail, presuming normal inputs are dealt with in some cleaner and more regular way. Also called "ad-hackery", "ad-hocity" (/ad-hos'*-tee/), "ad-crockery". See also {ELIZA effect}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-05)

Administration Management Domain "networking" (ADMD) An {X.400} {Message Handling System} {public service carrier}. The ADMDs in all countries worldwide together provide the X.400 {backbone}. Examples: {MCImail} and {ATTmail} in the U.S., {British Telecom} {Gold400mail} in the U.K. See also {PRMD}. [RFC 1208]. (1997-05-07)

Advanced Communication Function/Network Control Program "networking" (ACF/NCP, usually called just "NCP") The primary {SNA} {network control program}, one of the {ACF} products. ACF/NCP resides in the {communications controller} and interfaces with {ACF/VTAM} in the {host processor} to control network communications. NCP can also communicate with multiple {hosts} using {local channel} or remote links ({PU} type 5 or PU type 4) thus enabling cross {domain} application communication. In a multiple {mainframe} SNA environment, any terminal or application can access any other application on any host using cross domain logon. See also {Emulator program}. [Communication or Communications?] (1999-01-29)

ADVENT "games" /ad'vent/ The prototypical computer {adventure} game, first implemented by Will Crowther for a {CDC} computer (probably the {CDC 6600}?) as an attempt at computer-refereed fantasy gaming. ADVENT was ported to the {PDP-10}, and expanded to the 350-point {Classic} puzzle-oriented version, by Don Woods of the {Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory} (SAIL). The game is now better known as Adventure, but the {TOPS-10} {operating system} permitted only six-letter filenames. All the versions since are based on the SAIL port. David Long of the {University of Chicago} Graduate School of Business Computing Facility (which had two of the four {DEC20s} on campus in the late 1970s and early 1980s) was responsible for expanding the cave in a number of ways, and pushing the point count up to 500, then 501 points. Most of his work was in the data files, but he made some changes to the {parser} as well. This game defined the terse, dryly humorous style now expected in text adventure games, and popularised several tag lines that have become fixtures of hacker-speak: "A huge green fierce snake bars the way!" "I see no X here" (for some noun X). "You are in a maze of twisty little passages, all alike." "You are in a little maze of twisty passages, all different." The "magic words" {xyzzy} and {plugh} also derive from this game. Crowther, by the way, participated in the exploration of the Mammoth & Flint Ridge cave system; it actually *has* a "Colossal Cave" and a "Bedquilt" as in the game, and the "Y2" that also turns up is cavers' jargon for a map reference to a secondary entrance. See also {vadding}. [Was the original written in Fortran?] [{Jargon File}] (1996-04-01)

aeroplane rule "convention" "Complexity increases the possibility of failure; a twin-engine aeroplane has twice as many engine problems as a single-engine aeroplane." By analogy, in both software and electronics, the implication is that simplicity increases robustness and that the right way to build reliable systems is to put all your eggs in one basket, after making sure that you've built a really *good* basket. While simplicity is a useful design goal, and twin-engine aeroplanes do have twice as many engine problems, the analogy is almost entirely bogus. Commercial passenger aircraft are required to have at least two engines (on different wings or nacelles) so that the aeroplane can land safely if one engine fails. As Albert Einstein said, "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". See also {KISS Principle}. (1999-03-22)

aggregate type "programming" A data {type} composed of multiple elements. An aggregate can be homogeneous (all elements have the same type) e.g. an {array}, a list in a {functional language}, a string of characters, a file; or it can be heterogeneous (elements can have different types) e.g. a {structure}. In most languages aggregates can contain elements which are themselves aggregates. e.g. a list of lists. See also {union}. (1996-03-23)

AI-complete "artificial intelligence, jargon" /A-I k*m-pleet'/ (MIT, Stanford: by analogy with "{NP-complete}") A term used to describe problems or subproblems in {artificial intelligence}, to indicate that the solution presupposes a solution to the "strong AI problem" (that is, the synthesis of a human-level intelligence). A problem that is AI-complete is, in other words, just too hard. See also {gedanken}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-04-12)

AI koan "humour" /A-I koh'an/ One of a series of pastiches of Zen teaching riddles created by {Danny Hillis} at the {MIT AI Lab} around various major figures of the Lab's culture. See also {ha ha only serious}, {mu}. In reading these, it is at least useful to know that {Marvin Minsky}, {Gerald Sussman}, and Drescher are {AI} researchers of note, that {Tom Knight} was one of the {Lisp machine}'s principal designers, and that {David Moon} wrote much of Lisp Machine Lisp. * * * A novice was trying to fix a broken Lisp machine by turning the power off and on. Knight, seeing what the student was doing, spoke sternly: "You cannot fix a machine by just power-cycling it with no understanding of what is going wrong." Knight turned the machine off and on. The machine worked. * * * One day a student came to Moon and said: "I understand how to make a better garbage collector. We must keep a reference count of the pointers to each cons." Moon patiently told the student the following story:   "One day a student came to Moon and said: `I understand   how to make a better garbage collector... [Pure reference-count garbage collectors have problems with circular structures that point to themselves.] * * * In the days when Sussman was a novice, Minsky once came to him as he sat hacking at the PDP-6. "What are you doing?", asked Minsky. "I am training a randomly wired neural net to play Tic-Tac-Toe", Sussman replied. "Why is the net wired randomly?", asked Minsky. "I do not want it to have any preconceptions of how to play", Sussman said. Minsky then shut his eyes. "Why do you close your eyes?", Sussman asked his teacher. "So that the room will be empty." At that moment, Sussman was enlightened. * * * A disciple of another sect once came to Drescher as he was eating his morning meal. "I would like to give you this personality test", said the outsider, "because I want you to be happy." Drescher took the paper that was offered him and put it into the toaster, saying: "I wish the toaster to be happy, too." (1995-02-08)

AIR "standard" A future {infrared} standard from {IrDA}. AIR will provide in-room multipoint to multipoint connectivity. AIR supports a data rate of 4 Mbps at a distance of 4 metres, and 250 Kbps at up to 8 metres. It is designed for cordless connections to multiple peripherals and meeting room collaboration applications. See also {IrDA Data} and {IrDA Control} (1999-10-14)

ALAM "language" A language for {symbolic mathematics}, especially General Relativity. See also {CLAM}. ["ALAM Programmer's Manual", Ray D'Inverno, 1970]. (1994-10-28)

Alfl "language" A lazy function language. A {weakly typed}, {lazy} {functional language} developed by Paul Hudak "" of Yale in 1983. Alfl is implemented as a {Scheme} {preprocessor} for the {Orbit} compiler, by transforming laziness into {force}-and-{delay}. ["Alfl Reference Manual and Programmer's Guide", P. Hudak, YALEU/DCS/RR322, Yale U, Oct 1984]. See also {ParAlfl}. (1995-04-24)

ALGOL 60 "language" ALGOrithmic Language 1960. A portable language for scientific computations. ALGOL 60 was small and elegant. It was {block-structured}, nested, {recursive} and {free form}. It was also the first language to be described in {BNF}. There were three {lexical} representations: hardware, reference, and publication. The only structured data types were {arrays}, but they were permitted to have lower bounds and could be dynamic. It also had {conditional expressions}; it introduced :=; if-then-else; very general "for" loops; switch declaration (an array of statement {labels} generalising {Fortran}'s {computed goto}). Parameters were {call-by-name} and {call-by-value}. It had {static} local "own" variables. It lacked user-defined types, character manipulation and {standard I/O}. See also {EULER}, {ALGOL 58}, {ALGOL 68}, {Foogol}. ["Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 60", Peter Naur ed., CACM 3(5):299-314, May 1960]. (1995-01-25)

Algorithmic Model "programming" A method of estimating software cost using mathematical {algorithms} based on the parameters which are considered to be the major cost drivers. These estimate of effort or cost are based primarily on the size of the software or {Delivered Source Instructions} (DSI)s, and other productivity factors known as {Cost Driver Attributes}. See also {Parametric Model}. (1996-05-28)

alt "character" /awlt/ 1. The alt {modifier key} on many {keyboards}, including the {IBM PC}. On some keyboards and {operating systems}, (but not the IBM PC) the alt key sets bit 7 of the character generated. See {bucky bits}. 2. The "{clover}" or "Command" key on a {Macintosh}; use of this term usually reveals that the speaker hacked PCs before coming to the Mac (see also {feature key}). Some Mac hackers, confusingly, reserve "alt" for the Option key (and it is so labelled on some Mac II keyboards). 3. (Obsolete {PDP-10}; often "ALT") An alternate name for the {ASCII} ESC character (Escape, ASCII 27), after the keycap labelling on some older {terminals}; also "altmode" (/awlt'mohd/). This character was almost never pronounced "escape" on an {ITS} system, in {TECO} or under {TOPS-10}, always alt, as in "Type alt alt to end a TECO command" or "alt-U onto the system" (for "log onto the [ITS] system"). This usage probably arose because alt is easier to say. 4. "messaging" One of the {Usenet} {newsgroup} {hierarchies}. It was founded by {John Gilmore} and {Brian Reid}. The alt hierarchy is special in that anyone can create new groups here without going though the normal voting proceduers, hence the regular appearence of new groups with names such as "alt.swedish.chef.bork.bork.bork". [{Jargon File}] (1997-04-12)

Aluminum Book "publication" ["Common LISP: The Language, 2nd Edition", {Guy L. Steele Jr.}, Digital Press 1990, ISBN 1-55558-041-6]. Due to a technical screwup some printings of the second edition are actually what the author calls "yucky green". {On-line version (}. See also {book titles}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-06-25)

American Standard Code for Information Interchange "character, standard" The basis of {character sets} used in almost all present-day computers. {US-ASCII} uses only the lower seven {bits} ({character points} 0 to 127) to convey some {control codes}, {space}, numbers, most basic punctuation, and unaccented letters a-z and A-Z. More modern {coded character sets} (e.g., {Latin-1}, {Unicode}) define extensions to ASCII for values above 127 for conveying special {Latin characters} (like accented characters, or {German} ess-tsett), characters from non-Latin writing systems (e.g., {Cyrillic}, or {Han characters}), and such desirable {glyphs} as distinct open- and close-{quotation marks}. ASCII replaced earlier systems such as {EBCDIC} and {Baudot}, which used fewer bytes, but were each {broken} in their own way. Computers are much pickier about spelling than humans; thus, {hackers} need to be very precise when talking about characters, and have developed a considerable amount of verbal shorthand for them. Every character has one or more names - some formal, some concise, some silly. Individual characters are listed in this dictionary with alternative names from revision 2.3 of the {Usenet} ASCII pronunciation guide in rough order of popularity, including their official {ITU-T} names and the particularly silly names introduced by {INTERCAL}. See {V} {ampersand}, {asterisk}, {back quote}, {backslash}, {caret}, {colon}, {comma}, {commercial at}, {control-C}, {dollar}, {dot}, {double quote}, {equals}, {exclamation mark}, {greater than}, {hash}, {left bracket}, {left parenthesis}, {less than}, {minus}, {parentheses}, {oblique stroke}, {percent}, {plus}, {question mark}, {right brace}, {right brace}, {right bracket}, {right parenthesis}, {semicolon}, {single quote}, {space}, {tilde}, {underscore}, {vertical bar}, {zero}. Some other common usages cause odd overlaps. The "

American Telephone and Telegraph, Inc. "company, telecommunications, Unix" (AT&T) One of the largest US telecommunications providers, also noted for being the birthplace of the {Unix} {operating system} and the {C} and {C++} programming languages. AT&T was incorporated in 1885, but traces its lineage to Alexander Graham Bell and his invention of the telephone in 1876. As parent company of the former {Bell System}, AT&T's primary mission was to provide telephone service to virtually everyone in the United States. In its first 50 years, AT&T established subsidiaries and allied companies in more than a dozen other countries. It sold these interests in 1925 and focused on achieving its mission in the United States. It did, however, continue to provide international long distance service. The Bell System was dissolved at the end of 1983 with AT&T's divestiture of the Bell telephone companies. AT&T split into three parts in 1996, one of which is {Lucent Tecnologies}, the former systems and equipment portion of AT&T (including Bell Laboratories). See also {3DO}, {Advanced RISC Machine}, {Berkeley Software Distribution}, {Bell Laboratories}, {Concurrent C}, {Death Star}, {dinosaurs mating}, {InterNIC}, {System V}, {Nawk}, {Open Look}, {rc}, {S}, {Standard ML of New Jersey}, {Unix International}, {Unix conspiracy}, {USG Unix}, {Unix System Laboratories}. {AT&T Home (}. (2002-06-21)

analogue "electronics" (US: "analog") A description of a continuously variable signal or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. The opposite is "discrete" or "{digital}". Analogue circuits are much harder to design and analyse than digital ones because the designer must take into account effects such as the gain, linearity and power handling of components, the resistance, capacitance and inductance of PCB tracks, wires and connectors, interference between signals, power supply stability and more. A digital circuit design, especially for high switching speeds, must also take these factors into account if it is to work reliably, but they are usually less critical because most digital components will function correctly within a range of parameters whereas such variations will corrupt the outputs of an analogue circuit. See also {analogue computer}. (1995-11-14)

Andrew Project "project" A distributed system project for support of educational and research computing at {Carnegie Mellon University}, named after Andrew Carnegie, an American philanthropist who provided money to establish CMU. See also {Andrew File System}, {Andrew Message System}, {Andrew Toolkit}, {class}. {Home FTP (}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.soft-sys.andrew}. [More detail?] (1997-11-17)

anonymous FTP "networking" An interactive service provided by many {Internet} {hosts} allowing any user to transfer documents, files, programs, and other archived data using {File Transfer Protocol}. The user logs in using the special {user name} "ftp" or "anonymous" and his {e-mail address} as {password}. He then has access to a special directory hierarchy containing the publically accessible files, typically in a subdirectory called "pub". This is usually a separate area from files used by local users. A reference like ftp: /pub/eua/erlang/info means that files are available by anonymous FTP from the host called in the directory (or file) /pub/eua/erlang/info. Sometimes the {hostname} will be followed by an {Internet address} in parentheses. The directory will usually be given as a path relative to the anonymous FTP login directory. A reference to a file available by FTP may also be in the form of a {URL} starting "ftp:". See also {Archie}, {archive site}, {EFS}, {FTP by mail}, {web}. (1995-11-26)

Anthony Hoare "person" (C. Anthony R. Hoare, Tony) A computer scientist working on programming languages, especially {parallel} ones. Hoare was responsible for {Communicating Sequential Processes} (CSP). See also: {pointer}, {Simone}. [Did he invent the Hoare {powerdomain}? Other details?] (1999-07-22)

AppleTalk Filing Protocol "networking" (AFP) A {client/server} {protocol} used in {AppleTalk} communications networks. In order for non-{Apple} networks to access data in an {AppleShare} {server}, their protocols must translate into the AFP language. See also: {Columbia AppleTalk Package}. (1998-06-28)

applicative order reduction "programming" An {evaluation strategy} under which an expression is evaluated by repeatedly evaluating its leftmost innermost {redex}. This means that a function's arguments are evaluated before the function is applied. This method will not terminate if a function is given a non-terminating expression as an argument even if the function is not {strict} in that argument. Also known as {call-by-value} since the values of arguments are passed rather than their names. This is the evaluation strategy used by {ML}, {Scheme}, {Hope} and most {procedural languages} such as {C} and {Pascal}. See also {normal order reduction}, {parallel reduction}. (1995-01-25)

A Programming Language "language" (APL) A programming language designed originally by Ken Iverson at Harvard University in 1957-1960 as a notation for the concise expression of mathematical {algorithms}. It went unnamed (or just called Iverson's Language) and unimplemented for many years. Finally a subset, APL\360, was implemented in 1964. APL is an interactive array-oriented language and programming environment with many innovative features. It was originally written using a non-standard {character set}. It is {dynamically typed} with {dynamic scope}. APL introduced several functional forms but is not {purely functional}. Dyalog APL/W and Visual APL are recognized .{NET} languages. Dyalog APL/W, APLX and APL2000 all offer {object-oriented} extensions to the language. ISO 8485 is the 1989 standard defining the language. Commercial versions: APL SV, VS APL, Sharp APL, Sharp APL/PC, APL*PLUS, APL*PLUS/PC, APL*PLUS/PC II, MCM APL, Honeyapple, DEC APL, {APL+Win, APL+Linux, APL+Unix and VisualAPL (}, {Dyalog APL (}, {IBM APL2 (}, {APLX (}, {Sharp APL (} Open source version: {NARS2000 (}. {APL wiki (}. See also {Kamin's interpreters}. {APLWEB (} translates {WEB} to APL. ["A Programming Language", Kenneth E. Iverson, Wiley, 1962]. ["APL: An Interactive Approach", 1976]. (2009-08-11)

archie "tool, networking" A system to automatically gather, index and serve information on the {Internet}. The initial implementation of archie by {McGill University} School of Computer Science provided an indexed directory of filenames from all {anonymous FTP} archives on the Internet. Later versions provide other collections of information. See also {archive site}, {Gopher}, {Prospero}, {Wide Area Information Servers}. (1995-12-28)

Archimedes "computer" A family of {microcomputers} produced by {Acorn Computers}, Cambridge, UK. The Archimedes, launched in June 1987, was the first {RISC} based {personal computer} (predating {Apple Computer}'s {Power Mac} by some seven years). It uses the {Advanced RISC Machine} (ARM) processor and includes Acorn's {multitasking} {operating system} and {graphical user interface}, {RISC OS} on {ROM}, along with an interpreter for Acorn's enhanced {BASIC}, {BASIC V}. The Archimedes was designed as the successor to Acorn's sucessful {BBC Microcomputer} series and includes some backward compatibility and a {6502} {emulator}. Several utilities are included free on disk (later in ROM) such as a {text editor}, paint and draw programs. Software emulators are also available for the {IBM PC} as well as add-on {Intel} processor cards. There have been several series of Archimedes: A300, A400, A3000, A5000, A4000 and {RISC PC}. {Usenet FAQ (}. {Archive site list (}. {HENSA archive (}. {Stuttgart archive (}. See also {Crisis Software}, {Warm Silence Software}. (1998-04-03)

Architecture Neutral Distribution Format "programming, operating system" (ANDF) An emerging {OSF} {standard} for software distribution. Programs are compiled into ANDF before distribution and {executables} are produced from it for the local target system. This allows software to be developed and distributed in a single version then installed on a variety of hardware. See also {UNCOL}. ["Architecture Neutral Distribution Format: A White Paper", Open Software Foundation, Nov 1990]. (1995-10-20)

Aristotle's Dictum (or the Dictum de Omni et Nullo): The maxim that whatever may be predicated (i.e. affirmed or denied) of a whole may be predicated of any part of that whole; traditionally attributed to Aristotle, though perhaps on insufficient grounds. See Joseph, Introduction to Logic, p. 296, note. See also Dictum de Omni et Nullo. -- G.R.M.

artificial intelligence "artificial intelligence" (AI) The subfield of computer science concerned with the concepts and methods of {symbolic inference} by computer and symbolic {knowledge representation} for use in making inferences. AI can be seen as an attempt to model aspects of human thought on computers. It is also sometimes defined as trying to solve by computer any problem that a human can solve faster. The term was coined by Stanford Professor {John McCarthy}, a leading AI researcher. Examples of AI problems are {computer vision} (building a system that can understand images as well as a human) and {natural language processing} (building a system that can understand and speak a human language as well as a human). These may appear to be modular, but all attempts so far (1993) to solve them have foundered on the amount of context information and "intelligence" they seem to require. The term is often used as a selling point, e.g. to describe programming that drives the behaviour of computer characters in a game. This is often no more intelligent than "Kill any humans you see; keep walking; avoid solid objects; duck if a human with a gun can see you". See also {AI-complete}, {neats vs. scruffies}, {neural network}, {genetic programming}, {fuzzy computing}, {artificial life}. {ACM SIGART (}. {U Cal Davis (}. {CMU Artificial Intelligence Repository (}. (2002-01-19)

Artificial Life "algorithm, application" (a-life) The study of synthetic systems which behave like natural living systems in some way. Artificial Life complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to create lifelike behaviours within computers and other artificial media. Artificial Life can contribute to theoretical biology by modelling forms of life other than those which exist in nature. It has applications in environmental and financial modelling and network communications. There are some interesting implementations of artificial life using strangely shaped blocks. A video, probably by the company Artificial Creatures who build insect-like robots in Cambridge, MA (USA), has several mechanical implementations of artificial life forms. See also {evolutionary computing}, {Life}. [Christopher G. Langton (Ed.), "Artificial Life", Proceedings Volume VI, Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity. Addison-Wesley, 1989]. {Yahoo! (}. {Santa Fe Institute (}. {The Avida Group (}. (1995-02-21)

As against the faulty ethical procedures of the past and of his own day, therefore, Kant very early conceived and developed the more critical concept of "form," -- not in the sense of a "mould" into which content is to be poured (a notion which has falselv been taken over by Kant-students from his theoretical philosophy into his ethics), but -- as a method of rational (not ratiocinative, but inductive) reflection; a method undetermined by, although not irrespective of, empirical data or considerations. This methodologically formal conception constitutes Kant's major distinctive contribution to ethical theory. It is a process of rational reflection, creative construction, and transition, and as such is held by him to be the only method capable if coping with the exigencies of the facts of hunnn experience and with the needs of moral obligation. By this method of creative construction the reflective (inductive) reason is able to create, as each new need for a next reflectively chosen step arises, a new object of "pure" -- that is to say, empirically undetermined -- "practical reason." This makes possible the transition from a present no longer adequate ethical conception or attitude to an untried and as yet "indemonstrable" object. No other method can guarantee the individual and social conditions of progress without which the notion of morality loses all assignable meaning. The newly constructed object of "pure practical reason" is assumed, in the event, to provide a type of life and conduct which, just because it is of my own construction, will be likely to be accompanied by the feeling of self-sufficiency which is the basic pre-requisite of any worthy human happiness. It is this theory which constitutes Kant's ethical formalism. See also Autonomy, Categorical Imperative, Duty, End(s), Freedom, Happiness, Law, Moral, Practical Imperative, Will. -- P. A.S.

ASCII art "graphics" (Or "character graphics", "ASCII graphics") The fine art of drawing diagrams using the {ASCII} character set (mainly "|-/\+"). See also {boxology}. Here is a serious example:  o----)||(--+--|"----+ +---------o + D O   L )||( |    | |       C U  A I )||( +--"|-+ | +-\/\/-+--o - T  C N )||(    | | |   |    P   E )||( +--"|-+--)---+--)|--+-o   U     )||( |    |     | GND  T  o----)||(--+--|"----+----------+  A power supply consisting of a full wave rectifier  circuit feeding a capacitor input filter circuit             Figure 1. And here are some very silly examples:  |\/\/\/|   ____/|       ___  |\_/|  ___  |   |   \ o.O| ACK!   / \_ |` '| _/ \  |   |   =(_)= THPHTH! /   \/   \/   \  | (o)(o)    U       /           \  C   _) (__)        \/\/\/\ _____ /\/\/\/  | ,___|  (oo)           \/   \/  | /   \/-------\     U         (__) /____\    ||   | \  /---V `v'-      oo ) /   \   ||---W|| * * |--| || |`.     |_/\ //-o-\\ ____---=======---____   ====___\ /.. ..\ /___====   Klingons rule OK!  //    ---\__O__/---    \\  \_\             /_/   _____    __...---'-----`---...__    _=============================== ,----------------._/'   `---..._______...---' (_______________||_) . . ,--'   /  /.---'     `/   '--------_- - - - - _/     `--------'   Figure 2. There is an important subgenre of ASCII art that puns on the standard character names in the fashion of a rebus. +--------------------------------------------------------+ |   ^^^^^^^^^^^^                   | | ^^^^^^^^^^^      ^^^^^^^^^           | |         ^^^^^^^^^^^^^      ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ | |    ^^^^^^^     B   ^^^^^^^^^       | | ^^^^^^^^^     ^^^      ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^   | +--------------------------------------------------------+   "A Bee in the Carrot Patch"            Figure 3. Within humorous ASCII art, there is, for some reason, an entire flourishing subgenre of pictures of silly cows. One is shown in Figure 2; here are three more:  (__)       (__)       (__)  (\/)       ($$)       (**)  /-------\/    /-------\/    /-------\/ / | 666 ||    / |=====||    / |   || * ||----||   * ||----||   * ||----||   ~~  ~~     ~~  ~~     ~~  ~~ Satanic cow  This cow is a Yuppie Cow in love Figure 4. {(}. (1996-02-06)

assembly language "language" (Or "assembly code") A symbolic representation of the {machine language} of a specific {processor}. Assembly language is converted to {machine code} by an {assembler}. Usually, each line of assembly code produces one machine instruction, though the use of {macros} is common. Programming in assembly language is slow and error-prone but is the only way to squeeze every last bit of performance out of the hardware. {Filename extension}: .s ({Unix}), .asm ({CP/M} and others). See also {second generation language}. (1996-09-17)

Asset Source for Software Engineering Technology "project" (ASSET) A programme to promote software {reuse} by the US {DoD}. See also {ASSET Reuse Library}. (1996-08-19)

assignment "programming" Storing the value of an expression in a {variable}. This is commonly written in the form "v = e". In {Algol} the assignment operator was ":=" (pronounced "becomes") to avoid mathematicians qualms about writing statements like x = x+1. Assignment is not allowed in {functional languages}, where an {identifier} always has the same value. See also {referential transparency}, {single assignment}, {zero assignment}. (1996-08-19)

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line "communications, protocol" (ADSL, or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop) A form of {Digital Subscriber Line} in which the bandwidth available for {downstream} connection is significantly larger then for {upstream}. Although designed to minimise the effect of {crosstalk} between the upstream and downstream channels this setup is well suited for {web browsing} and {client}-{server} applications as well as for some emerging applications such as {video on demand}. The data-rate of ADSL strongly depends on the length and quality of the line connecting the end-user to the telephone company. Typically the upstream data flow is between 16 and 640 {kilobits} per second while the downstream data flow is between 1.5 and 9 {megabits} per second. ADSL also provides a voice channel. ADSL can carry digital data, analog voice, and broadcast {MPEG2} video in a variety of implementations to meet customer needs. ["Data Cooks, But Will Vendors Get Burned?", "Supercomm Spotlight On ADSL" & "Lucent Sells Paradine", Wilson & Carol, Inter@ctive Week Vol. 3

Aufklärung: In general, this German word and its English equivalent Enlightenment denote the self-emancipation of man from mere authority, prejudice, convention and tradition, with an insistence on freer thinking about problems uncritically referred to these other agencies. According to Kant's famous definition "Enlightenment is the liberation of man from his self-caused state of minority, which is the incapacity of using one's understanding without the direction of another. This state of minority is caused when its source lies not in the lack of understanding, but in the lack of determination and courage to use it without the assistance of another" (Was ist Aufklärung? 1784). In its historical perspective, the Aufklärung refers to the cultural atmosphere and contrlbutions of the 18th century, especially in Germany, France and England [which affected also American thought with B. Franklin, T. Paine and the leaders of the Revolution]. It crystallized tendencies emphasized by the Renaissance, and quickened by modern scepticism and empiricism, and by the great scientific discoveries of the 17th century. This movement, which was represented by men of varying tendencies, gave an impetus to general learning, a more popular philosophy, empirical science, scriptural criticism, social and political thought. More especially, the word Aufklärung is applied to the German contributions to 18th century culture. In philosophy, its principal representatives are G. E. Lessing (1729-81) who believed in free speech and in a methodical criticism of religion, without being a free-thinker; H. S. Reimarus (1694-1768) who expounded a naturalistic philosophy and denied the supernatural origin of Christianity; Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86) who endeavoured to mitigate prejudices and developed a popular common-sense philosophy; Chr. Wolff (1679-1754), J. A. Eberhard (1739-1809) who followed the Leibnizian rationalism and criticized unsuccessfully Kant and Fichte; and J. G. Herder (1744-1803) who was best as an interpreter of others, but whose intuitional suggestions have borne fruit in the organic correlation of the sciences, and in questions of language in relation to human nature and to national character. The works of Kant and Goethe mark the culmination of the German Enlightenment. Cf. J. G. Hibben, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1910. --T.G. Augustinianism: The thought of St. Augustine of Hippo, and of his followers. Born in 354 at Tagaste in N. Africa, A. studied rhetoric in Carthage, taught that subject there and in Rome and Milan. Attracted successively to Manicheanism, Scepticism, and Neo-Platontsm, A. eventually found intellectual and moral peace with his conversion to Christianity in his thirty-fourth year. Returning to Africa, he established numerous monasteries, became a priest in 391, Bishop of Hippo in 395. Augustine wrote much: On Free Choice, Confessions, Literal Commentary on Genesis, On the Trinity, and City of God, are his most noted works. He died in 430.   St. Augustine's characteristic method, an inward empiricism which has little in common with later variants, starts from things without, proceeds within to the self, and moves upwards to God. These three poles of the Augustinian dialectic are polarized by his doctrine of moderate illuminism. An ontological illumination is required to explain the metaphysical structure of things. The truth of judgment demands a noetic illumination. A moral illumination is necessary in the order of willing; and so, too, an lllumination of art in the aesthetic order. Other illuminations which transcend the natural order do not come within the scope of philosophy; they provide the wisdoms of theology and mysticism. Every being is illuminated ontologically by number, form, unity and its derivatives, and order. A thing is what it is, in so far as it is more or less flooded by the light of these ontological constituents.   Sensation is necessary in order to know material substances. There is certainly an action of the external object on the body and a corresponding passion of the body, but, as the soul is superior to the body and can suffer nothing from its inferior, sensation must be an action, not a passion, of the soul. Sensation takes place only when the observing soul, dynamically on guard throughout the body, is vitally attentive to the changes suffered by the body. However, an adequate basis for the knowledge of intellectual truth is not found in sensation alone. In order to know, for example, that a body is multiple, the idea of unity must be present already, otherwise its multiplicity could not be recognized. If numbers are not drawn in by the bodily senses which perceive only the contingent and passing, is the mind the source of the unchanging and necessary truth of numbers? The mind of man is also contingent and mutable, and cannot give what it does not possess. As ideas are not innate, nor remembered from a previous existence of the soul, they can be accounted for only by an immutable source higher than the soul. In so far as man is endowed with an intellect, he is a being naturally illuminated by God, Who may be compared to an intelligible sun. The human intellect does not create the laws of thought; it finds them and submits to them. The immediate intuition of these normative rules does not carry any content, thus any trace of ontologism is avoided.   Things have forms because they have numbers, and they have being in so far as they possess form. The sufficient explanation of all formable, and hence changeable, things is an immutable and eternal form which is unrestricted in time and space. The forms or ideas of all things actually existing in the world are in the things themselves (as rationes seminales) and in the Divine Mind (as rationes aeternae). Nothing could exist without unity, for to be is no other than to be one. There is a unity proper to each level of being, a unity of the material individual and species, of the soul, and of that union of souls in the love of the same good, which union constitutes the city. Order, also, is ontologically imbibed by all beings. To tend to being is to tend to order; order secures being, disorder leads to non-being. Order is the distribution which allots things equal and unequal each to its own place and integrates an ensemble of parts in accordance with an end. Hence, peace is defined as the tranquillity of order. Just as things have their being from their forms, the order of parts, and their numerical relations, so too their beauty is not something superadded, but the shining out of all their intelligible co-ingredients.   S. Aurelii Augustini, Opera Omnia, Migne, PL 32-47; (a critical edition of some works will be found in the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna). Gilson, E., Introd. a l'etude de s. Augustin, (Paris, 1931) contains very good bibliography up to 1927, pp. 309-331. Pope, H., St. Augustine of Hippo, (London, 1937). Chapman, E., St. Augustine's Philos. of Beauty, (N. Y., 1939). Figgis, J. N., The Political Aspects of St. Augustine's "City of God", (London, 1921). --E.C. Authenticity: In a general sense, genuineness, truth according to its title. It involves sometimes a direct and personal characteristic (Whitehead speaks of "authentic feelings").   This word also refers to problems of fundamental criticism involving title, tradition, authorship and evidence. These problems are vital in theology, and basic in scholarship with regard to the interpretation of texts and doctrines. --T.G. Authoritarianism: That theory of knowledge which maintains that the truth of any proposition is determined by the fact of its having been asserted by a certain esteemed individual or group of individuals. Cf. H. Newman, Grammar of Assent; C. S. Peirce, "Fixation of Belief," in Chance, Love and Logic, ed. M. R. Cohen. --A.C.B. Autistic thinking: Absorption in fanciful or wishful thinking without proper control by objective or factual material; day dreaming; undisciplined imagination. --A.C.B. Automaton Theory: Theory that a living organism may be considered a mere machine. See Automatism. Automatism: (Gr. automatos, self-moving) (a) In metaphysics: Theory that animal and human organisms are automata, that is to say, are machines governed by the laws of physics and mechanics. Automatism, as propounded by Descartes, considered the lower animals to be pure automata (Letter to Henry More, 1649) and man a machine controlled by a rational soul (Treatise on Man). Pure automatism for man as well as animals is advocated by La Mettrie (Man, a Machine, 1748). During the Nineteenth century, automatism, combined with epiphenomenalism, was advanced by Hodgson, Huxley and Clifford. (Cf. W. James, The Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, ch. V.) Behaviorism, of the extreme sort, is the most recent version of automatism (See Behaviorism).   (b) In psychology: Psychological automatism is the performance of apparently purposeful actions, like automatic writing without the superintendence of the conscious mind. L. C. Rosenfield, From Beast Machine to Man Machine, N. Y., 1941. --L.W. Automatism, Conscious: The automatism of Hodgson, Huxley, and Clifford which considers man a machine to which mind or consciousness is superadded; the mind of man is, however, causally ineffectual. See Automatism; Epiphenomenalism. --L.W. Autonomy: (Gr. autonomia, independence) Freedom consisting in self-determination and independence of all external constraint. See Freedom. Kant defines autonomy of the will as subjection of the will to its own law, the categorical imperative, in contrast to heteronomy, its subjection to a law or end outside the rational will. (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, § 2.) --L.W. Autonomy of ethics: A doctrine, usually propounded by intuitionists, that ethics is not a part of, and cannot be derived from, either metaphysics or any of the natural or social sciences. See Intuitionism, Metaphysical ethics, Naturalistic ethics. --W.K.F. Autonomy of the will: (in Kant's ethics) The freedom of the rational will to legislate to itself, which constitutes the basis for the autonomy of the moral law. --P.A.S. Autonymy: In the terminology introduced by Carnap, a word (phrase, symbol, expression) is autonymous if it is used as a name for itself --for the geometric shape, sound, etc. which it exemplifies, or for the word as a historical and grammatical unit. Autonymy is thus the same as the Scholastic suppositio matertalis (q. v.), although the viewpoint is different. --A.C. Autotelic: (from Gr. autos, self, and telos, end) Said of any absorbing activity engaged in for its own sake (cf. German Selbstzweck), such as higher mathematics, chess, etc. In aesthetics, applied to creative art and play which lack any conscious reference to the accomplishment of something useful. In the view of some, it may constitute something beneficent in itself of which the person following his art impulse (q.v.) or playing is unaware, thus approaching a heterotelic (q.v.) conception. --K.F.L. Avenarius, Richard: (1843-1896) German philosopher who expressed his thought in an elaborate and novel terminology in the hope of constructing a symbolic language for philosophy, like that of mathematics --the consequence of his Spinoza studies. As the most influential apostle of pure experience, the posltivistic motive reaches in him an extreme position. Insisting on the biologic and economic function of thought, he thought the true method of science is to cure speculative excesses by a return to pure experience devoid of all assumptions. Philosophy is the scientific effort to exclude from knowledge all ideas not included in the given. Its task is to expel all extraneous elements in the given. His uncritical use of the category of the given and the nominalistic view that logical relations are created rather than discovered by thought, leads him to banish not only animism but also all of the categories, substance, causality, etc., as inventions of the mind. Explaining the evolution and devolution of the problematization and deproblematization of numerous ideas, and aiming to give the natural history of problems, Avenarius sought to show physiologically, psychologically and historically under what conditions they emerge, are challenged and are solved. He hypothesized a System C, a bodily and central nervous system upon which consciousness depends. R-values are the stimuli received from the world of objects. E-values are the statements of experience. The brain changes that continually oscillate about an ideal point of balance are termed Vitalerhaltungsmaximum. The E-values are differentiated into elements, to which the sense-perceptions or the content of experience belong, and characters, to which belongs everything which psychology describes as feelings and attitudes. Avenarius describes in symbolic form a series of states from balance to balance, termed vital series, all describing a series of changes in System C. Inequalities in the vital balance give rise to vital differences. According to his theory there are two vital series. It assumes a series of brain changes because parallel series of conscious states can be observed. The independent vital series are physical, and the dependent vital series are psychological. The two together are practically covariants. In the case of a process as a dependent vital series three stages can be noted: first, the appearance of the problem, expressed as strain, restlessness, desire, fear, doubt, pain, repentance, delusion; the second, the continued effort and struggle to solve the problem; and finally, the appearance of the solution, characterized by abating anxiety, a feeling of triumph and enjoyment.   Corresponding to these three stages of the dependent series are three stages of the independent series: the appearance of the vital difference and a departure from balance in the System C, the continuance with an approximate vital difference, and lastly, the reduction of the vital difference to zero, the return to stability. By making room for dependent and independent experiences, he showed that physics regards experience as independent of the experiencing indlvidual, and psychology views experience as dependent upon the individual. He greatly influenced Mach and James (q.v.). See Avenarius, Empirio-criticism, Experience, pure. Main works: Kritik der reinen Erfahrung; Der menschliche Weltbegriff. --H.H. Averroes: (Mohammed ibn Roshd) Known to the Scholastics as The Commentator, and mentioned as the author of il gran commento by Dante (Inf. IV. 68) he was born 1126 at Cordova (Spain), studied theology, law, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, became after having been judge in Sevilla and Cordova, physician to the khalifah Jaqub Jusuf, and charged with writing a commentary on the works of Aristotle. Al-mansur, Jusuf's successor, deprived him of his place because of accusations of unorthodoxy. He died 1198 in Morocco. Averroes is not so much an original philosopher as the author of a minute commentary on the whole works of Aristotle. His procedure was imitated later by Aquinas. In his interpretation of Aristotelian metaphysics Averroes teaches the coeternity of a universe created ex nihilo. This doctrine formed together with the notion of a numerical unity of the active intellect became one of the controversial points in the discussions between the followers of Albert-Thomas and the Latin Averroists. Averroes assumed that man possesses only a disposition for receiving the intellect coming from without; he identifies this disposition with the possible intellect which thus is not truly intellectual by nature. The notion of one intellect common to all men does away with the doctrine of personal immortality. Another doctrine which probably was emphasized more by the Latin Averroists (and by the adversaries among Averroes' contemporaries) is the famous statement about "two-fold truth", viz. that a proposition may be theologically true and philosophically false and vice versa. Averroes taught that religion expresses the (higher) philosophical truth by means of religious imagery; the "two-truth notion" came apparently into the Latin text through a misinterpretation on the part of the translators. The works of Averroes were one of the main sources of medieval Aristotelianlsm, before and even after the original texts had been translated. The interpretation the Latin Averroists found in their texts of the "Commentator" spread in spite of opposition and condemnation. See Averroism, Latin. Averroes, Opera, Venetiis, 1553. M. Horten, Die Metaphysik des Averroes, 1912. P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin, 2d ed., Louvain, 1911. --R.A. Averroism, Latin: The commentaries on Aristotle written by Averroes (Ibn Roshd) in the 12th century became known to the Western scholars in translations by Michael Scottus, Hermannus Alemannus, and others at the beginning of the 13th century. Many works of Aristotle were also known first by such translations from Arabian texts, though there existed translations from the Greek originals at the same time (Grabmann). The Averroistic interpretation of Aristotle was held to be the true one by many; but already Albert the Great pointed out several notions which he felt to be incompatible with the principles of Christian philosophy, although he relied for the rest on the "Commentator" and apparently hardly used any other text. Aquinas, basing his studies mostly on a translation from the Greek texts, procured for him by William of Moerbecke, criticized the Averroistic interpretation in many points. But the teachings of the Commentator became the foundation for a whole school of philosophers, represented first by the Faculty of Arts at Paris. The most prominent of these scholars was Siger of Brabant. The philosophy of these men was condemned on March 7th, 1277 by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, after a first condemnation of Aristotelianism in 1210 had gradually come to be neglected. The 219 theses condemned in 1277, however, contain also some of Aquinas which later were generally recognized an orthodox. The Averroistic propositions which aroused the criticism of the ecclesiastic authorities and which had been opposed with great energy by Albert and Thomas refer mostly to the following points: The co-eternity of the created word; the numerical identity of the intellect in all men, the so-called two-fold-truth theory stating that a proposition may be philosophically true although theologically false. Regarding the first point Thomas argued that there is no philosophical proof, either for the co-eternity or against it; creation is an article of faith. The unity of intellect was rejected as incompatible with the true notion of person and with personal immortality. It is doubtful whether Averroes himself held the two-truths theory; it was, however, taught by the Latin Averroists who, notwithstanding the opposition of the Church and the Thomistic philosophers, gained a great influence and soon dominated many universities, especially in Italy. Thomas and his followers were convinced that they interpreted Aristotle correctly and that the Averroists were wrong; one has, however, to admit that certain passages in Aristotle allow for the Averroistic interpretation, especially in regard to the theory of intellect.   Lit.: P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin au XIIIe Siecle, 2d. ed. Louvain, 1911; M. Grabmann, Forschungen über die lateinischen Aristotelesübersetzungen des XIII. Jahrhunderts, Münster 1916 (Beitr. z. Gesch. Phil. d. MA. Vol. 17, H. 5-6). --R.A. Avesta: See Zendavesta. Avicehron: (or Avencebrol, Salomon ibn Gabirol) The first Jewish philosopher in Spain, born in Malaga 1020, died about 1070, poet, philosopher, and moralist. His main work, Fons vitae, became influential and was much quoted by the Scholastics. It has been preserved only in the Latin translation by Gundissalinus. His doctrine of a spiritual substance individualizing also the pure spirits or separate forms was opposed by Aquinas already in his first treatise De ente, but found favor with the medieval Augustinians also later in the 13th century. He also teaches the necessity of a mediator between God and the created world; such a mediator he finds in the Divine Will proceeding from God and creating, conserving, and moving the world. His cosmogony shows a definitely Neo-Platonic shade and assumes a series of emanations. Cl. Baeumker, Avencebrolis Fons vitae. Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1892-1895, Vol. I. Joh. Wittman, Die Stellung des hl. Thomas von Aquino zu Avencebrol, ibid. 1900. Vol. III. --R.A. Avicenna: (Abu Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina) Born 980 in the country of Bocchara, began to write in young years, left more than 100 works, taught in Ispahan, was physician to several Persian princes, and died at Hamadan in 1037. His fame as physician survived his influence as philosopher in the Occident. His medical works were printed still in the 17th century. His philosophy is contained in 18 vols. of a comprehensive encyclopedia, following the tradition of Al Kindi and Al Farabi. Logic, Physics, Mathematics and Metaphysics form the parts of this work. His philosophy is Aristotelian with noticeable Neo-Platonic influences. His doctrine of the universal existing ante res in God, in rebus as the universal nature of the particulars, and post res in the human mind by way of abstraction became a fundamental thesis of medieval Aristotelianism. He sharply distinguished between the logical and the ontological universal, denying to the latter the true nature of form in the composite. The principle of individuation is matter, eternally existent. Latin translations attributed to Avicenna the notion that existence is an accident to essence (see e.g. Guilelmus Parisiensis, De Universo). The process adopted by Avicenna was one of paraphrasis of the Aristotelian texts with many original thoughts interspersed. His works were translated into Latin by Dominicus Gundissalinus (Gondisalvi) with the assistance of Avendeath ibn Daud. This translation started, when it became more generally known, the "revival of Aristotle" at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Albert the Great and Aquinas professed, notwithstanding their critical attitude, a great admiration for Avicenna whom the Arabs used to call the "third Aristotle". But in the Orient, Avicenna's influence declined soon, overcome by the opposition of the orthodox theologians. Avicenna, Opera, Venetiis, 1495; l508; 1546. M. Horten, Das Buch der Genesung der Seele, eine philosophische Enzyklopaedie Avicenna's; XIII. Teil: Die Metaphysik. Halle a. S. 1907-1909. R. de Vaux, Notes et textes sur l'Avicennisme Latin, Bibl. Thomiste XX, Paris, 1934. --R.A. Avidya: (Skr.) Nescience; ignorance; the state of mind unaware of true reality; an equivalent of maya (q.v.); also a condition of pure awareness prior to the universal process of evolution through gradual differentiation into the elements and factors of knowledge. --K.F.L. Avyakta: (Skr.) "Unmanifest", descriptive of or standing for brahman (q.v.) in one of its or "his" aspects, symbolizing the superabundance of the creative principle, or designating the condition of the universe not yet become phenomenal (aja, unborn). --K.F.L. Awareness: Consciousness considered in its aspect of act; an act of attentive awareness such as the sensing of a color patch or the feeling of pain is distinguished from the content attended to, the sensed color patch, the felt pain. The psychologlcal theory of intentional act was advanced by F. Brentano (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte) and received its epistemological development by Meinong, Husserl, Moore, Laird and Broad. See Intentionalism. --L.W. Axiological: (Ger. axiologisch) In Husserl: Of or pertaining to value or theory of value (the latter term understood as including disvalue and value-indifference). --D.C. Axiological ethics: Any ethics which makes the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, by making the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on a consideration of the value or goodness of something, e.g. the action itself, its motive, or its consequences, actual or probable. Opposed to deontological ethics. See also teleological ethics. --W.K.F. Axiologic Realism: In metaphysics, theory that value as well as logic, qualities as well as relations, have their being and exist external to the mind and independently of it. Applicable to the philosophy of many though not all realists in the history of philosophy, from Plato to G. E. Moore, A. N. Whitehead, and N, Hartmann. --J.K.F. Axiology: (Gr. axios, of like value, worthy, and logos, account, reason, theory). Modern term for theory of value (the desired, preferred, good), investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. Had its rise in Plato's theory of Forms or Ideas (Idea of the Good); was developed in Aristotle's Organon, Ethics, Poetics, and Metaphysics (Book Lambda). Stoics and Epicureans investigated the summum bonum. Christian philosophy (St. Thomas) built on Aristotle's identification of highest value with final cause in God as "a living being, eternal, most good."   In modern thought, apart from scholasticism and the system of Spinoza (Ethica, 1677), in which values are metaphysically grounded, the various values were investigated in separate sciences, until Kant's Critiques, in which the relations of knowledge to moral, aesthetic, and religious values were examined. In Hegel's idealism, morality, art, religion, and philosophy were made the capstone of his dialectic. R. H. Lotze "sought in that which should be the ground of that which is" (Metaphysik, 1879). Nineteenth century evolutionary theory, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and economics subjected value experience to empirical analysis, and stress was again laid on the diversity and relativity of value phenomena rather than on their unity and metaphysical nature. F. Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883-1885) and Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887) aroused new interest in the nature of value. F. Brentano, Vom Ursprung sittlicher Erkenntnis (1889), identified value with love.   In the twentieth century the term axiology was apparently first applied by Paul Lapie (Logique de la volonte, 1902) and E. von Hartmann (Grundriss der Axiologie, 1908). Stimulated by Ehrenfels (System der Werttheorie, 1897), Meinong (Psychologisch-ethische Untersuchungen zur Werttheorie, 1894-1899), and Simmel (Philosophie des Geldes, 1900). W. M. Urban wrote the first systematic treatment of axiology in English (Valuation, 1909), phenomenological in method under J. M. Baldwin's influence. Meanwhile H. Münsterberg wrote a neo-Fichtean system of values (The Eternal Values, 1909).   Among important recent contributions are: B. Bosanquet, The Principle of Individuality and Value (1912), a free reinterpretation of Hegelianism; W. R. Sorley, Moral Values and the Idea of God (1918, 1921), defending a metaphysical theism; S. Alexander, Space, Time, and Deity (1920), realistic and naturalistic; N. Hartmann, Ethik (1926), detailed analysis of types and laws of value; R. B. Perry's magnum opus, General Theory of Value (1926), "its meaning and basic principles construed in terms of interest"; and J. Laird, The Idea of Value (1929), noteworthy for historical exposition. A naturalistic theory has been developed by J. Dewey (Theory of Valuation, 1939), for which "not only is science itself a value . . . but it is the supreme means of the valid determination of all valuations." A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic (1936) expounds the view of logical positivism that value is "nonsense." J. Hessen, Wertphilosophie (1937), provides an account of recent German axiology from a neo-scholastic standpoint.   The problems of axiology fall into four main groups, namely, those concerning (1) the nature of value, (2) the types of value, (3) the criterion of value, and (4) the metaphysical status of value.   (1) The nature of value experience. Is valuation fulfillment of desire (voluntarism: Spinoza, Ehrenfels), pleasure (hedonism: Epicurus, Bentham, Meinong), interest (Perry), preference (Martineau), pure rational will (formalism: Stoics, Kant, Royce), apprehension of tertiary qualities (Santayana), synoptic experience of the unity of personality (personalism: T. H. Green, Bowne), any experience that contributes to enhanced life (evolutionism: Nietzsche), or "the relation of things as means to the end or consequence actually reached" (pragmatism, instrumentalism: Dewey).   (2) The types of value. Most axiologists distinguish between intrinsic (consummatory) values (ends), prized for their own sake, and instrumental (contributory) values (means), which are causes (whether as economic goods or as natural events) of intrinsic values. Most intrinsic values are also instrumental to further value experience; some instrumental values are neutral or even disvaluable intrinsically. Commonly recognized as intrinsic values are the (morally) good, the true, the beautiful, and the holy. Values of play, of work, of association, and of bodily well-being are also acknowledged. Some (with Montague) question whether the true is properly to be regarded as a value, since some truth is disvaluable, some neutral; but love of truth, regardless of consequences, seems to establish the value of truth. There is disagreement about whether the holy (religious value) is a unique type (Schleiermacher, Otto), or an attitude toward other values (Kant, Höffding), or a combination of the two (Hocking). There is also disagreement about whether the variety of values is irreducible (pluralism) or whether all values are rationally related in a hierarchy or system (Plato, Hegel, Sorley), in which values interpenetrate or coalesce into a total experience.   (3) The criterion of value. The standard for testing values is influenced by both psychological and logical theory. Hedonists find the standard in the quantity of pleasure derived by the individual (Aristippus) or society (Bentham). Intuitionists appeal to an ultimate insight into preference (Martineau, Brentano). Some idealists recognize an objective system of rational norms or ideals as criterion (Plato, Windelband), while others lay more stress on rational wholeness and coherence (Hegel, Bosanquet, Paton) or inclusiveness (T. H. Green). Naturalists find biological survival or adjustment (Dewey) to be the standard. Despite differences, there is much in common in the results of the application of these criteria.   (4) The metaphysical status of value. What is the relation of values to the facts investigated by natural science (Koehler), of Sein to Sollen (Lotze, Rickert), of human experience of value to reality independent of man (Hegel, Pringle-Pattlson, Spaulding)? There are three main answers:   subjectivism (value is entirely dependent on and relative to human experience of it: so most hedonists, naturalists, positivists);   logical objectivism (values are logical essences or subsistences, independent of their being known, yet with no existential status or action in reality);   metaphysical objectivism (values   --or norms or ideals   --are integral, objective, and active constituents of the metaphysically real: so theists, absolutists, and certain realists and naturalists like S. Alexander and Wieman). --E.S.B. Axiom: See Mathematics. Axiomatic method: That method of constructing a deductive system consisting of deducing by specified rules all statements of the system save a given few from those given few, which are regarded as axioms or postulates of the system. See Mathematics. --C.A.B. Ayam atma brahma: (Skr.) "This self is brahman", famous quotation from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.5.19, one of many alluding to the central theme of the Upanishads, i.e., the identity of the human and divine or cosmic. --K.F.L.

Auto Idle "processor" A facility provided by some {Intel} {clock doubled} {microprocessors} where the internal {clock} can be slowed to the external {clock rate} while the processor is waiting for {data} from {memory}, returning to full speed as soon as the data arrives. See also {System Management Mode}. (1994-11-09)

Automated Retroactive Minimal Moderation "messaging" (ARMM) A {Usenet} robot created by Dick Depew of Munroe Falls, Ohio. ARMM was intended to automatically cancel posts from anonymous-posting sites. Unfortunately, the robot's recogniser for anonymous postings triggered on its own automatically-generated control messages! Transformed by this stroke of programming ineptitude into a monster of Frankensteinian proportions, it broke loose on the night of 1993-03-31 and proceeded to {spam} {news:news.admin.policy} with a recursive explosion of over 200 messages. Reactions varied from amusement to outrage. The pathological messages crashed at least one mail system, and upset people paying line charges for their {Usenet} feeds. One poster described the ARMM debacle as "instant {Usenet} history" (also establishing the term {despew}), and it has since been widely cited as a cautionary example of the havoc the combination of good intentions and incompetence can wreak on a network. Compare {Great Worm}; {sorcerer's apprentice mode}. See also {software laser}, {network meltdown}. (1996-01-08)

automation "systems, robotics" Control of processes, equipment or systems by computer (or simpler electronics), typically replacing human control. Often used for control of a manufacturing process where the term may or may not imply the use of some kind of general purpose robot. See also {design automation}, {office automation}, {manularity}, {Manufacturing Automation Protocol}, {PEARL}, {QBE}. (1994-10-21)

automaton "robotics, mathematics, algorithm" (Plural automata) A machine, {robot}, or {formal system} designed to follow a precise sequence of instructions. Automata theory, the invention and study of automata, includes the study of the capabilities and limitations of computing processes, the manner in which systems receive input, process it, and produce output, and the relationships between behavioural theories and the operation and use of automated devices. See also {cellular automaton}, {finite state machine}. (1996-04-23)

axiomatic semantics "theory" A set of assertions about properties of a system and how they are effected by program execution. The axiomatic semantics of a program could include pre- and post-conditions for operations. In particular if you view the program as a state transformer (or collection of state transformers), the axiomatic semantics is a set of invariants on the state which the state transformer satisfies. E.g. for a function with the type: sort_list :: [T] -" [T] we might give the precondition that the argument of the function is a list, and a postcondition that the return value is a list that is sorted. One interesting use of axiomatic semantics is to have a language that has a {finitely computable} sublanguage that is used for specifying pre and post conditions, and then have the compiler prove that the program will satisfy those conditions. See also {operational semantics}, {denotational semantics}. (1995-11-09)

back door "security" (Or "{trap door}", "{wormhole}"). A hole in the security of a system deliberately left in place by designers or maintainers. The motivation for such holes is not always sinister; some {operating systems}, for example, come out of the box with privileged accounts intended for use by field service technicians or the vendor's maintenance programmers. See also {iron box}, {cracker}, {worm}, {logic bomb}. Historically, back doors have often lurked in systems longer than anyone expected or planned, and a few have become widely known. The infamous {RTM} worm of late 1988, for example, used a back door in the {BSD} Unix "sendmail(8)" {utility}. {Ken Thompson}'s 1983 Turing Award lecture to the {ACM} revealed the existence of a back door in early {Unix} versions that may have qualified as the most fiendishly clever security hack of all time. The C compiler contained code that would recognise when the "login" command was being recompiled and insert some code recognizing a password chosen by Thompson, giving him entry to the system whether or not an account had been created for him. Normally such a back door could be removed by removing it from the source code for the compiler and recompiling the compiler. But to recompile the compiler, you have to *use* the compiler - so Thompson also arranged that the compiler would *recognise when it was compiling a version of itself*, and insert into the recompiled compiler the code to insert into the recompiled "login" the code to allow Thompson entry - and, of course, the code to recognise itself and do the whole thing again the next time around! And having done this once, he was then able to recompile the compiler from the original sources; the hack perpetuated itself invisibly, leaving the back door in place and active but with no trace in the sources. The talk that revealed this truly moby hack was published as ["Reflections on Trusting Trust", "Communications of the ACM 27", 8 (August 1984), pp. 761--763]. [{Jargon File}] (1995-04-25)

backup "operating system" ("back up" when used as a verb) A spare copy of a file, file system, or other resource for use in the event of failure or loss of the original. The term commonly refers to a copy of the files on a computer's {disks}, made periodically and kept on {magnetic tape} or other removable medium (also called a "{dump}"). This essential precaution is neglected by most new computer users until the first time they experience a {disk crash} or accidentally delete the only copy of the file they have been working on for the last six months. Ideally the backup copies should be kept at a different site or in a fire safe since, though your hardware may be insured against fire, the data on it is almost certainly neither insured nor easily replaced. See also {backup software}, {differential backup}, {incremental backup}, {full backup}. Compare {archive}, {source code management}. (2004-03-16)

backward combatability "humour" /bak'w*d k*m-bat'*-bil'*-tee/ (Play on "{backward compatibility}") A property of hardware or software revisions in which previous {protocols}, formats, layouts, etc. are irrevocably discarded in favour of "new and improved" protocols, formats and layouts, leaving the previous ones not merely deprecated but actively defeated. (Too often, the old and new versions cannot definitively be distinguished, such that lingering instances of the previous ones yield crashes or other infelicitous effects, as opposed to a simple "version mismatch" message.) A backward compatible change, on the other hand, allows old versions to coexist without crashes or error messages, but too many major changes incorporating elaborate backward compatibility processing can lead to extreme {software bloat}. See also {flag day}. [{Jargon File}] (2003-06-23)

backward compatibility "jargon" Able to share data or commands with older versions of itself, or sometimes other older systems, particularly systems it intends to supplant. Sometimes backward compatibility is limited to being able to read old data but does not extend to being able to write data in a format that can be read by old versions. For example, {WordPerfect} 6.0 can read WordPerfect 5.1 files, so it is backward compatible. It can be said that {Perl} is backward compatible with {awk}, because Perl was (among other things) intended to replace awk, and can, with a converter, run awk programs. See also: {backward combatability}. Compare: {forward compatible}. (2003-06-23)

banana problem "programming, humour" From the story of the little girl who said "I know how to spell "banana", but I don't know when to stop". Not knowing where or when to bring a production to a close (compare {fencepost error}). One may say "there is a banana problem" of an {algorithm} with poorly defined or incorrect termination conditions, or in discussing the evolution of a design that may be succumbing to {featuritis} (see also {creeping elegance}, {creeping featuritis}). {HAKMEM} item 176 describes a banana problem in a {Dissociated Press} implementation. Also, see {one-banana problem} for a superficially similar but unrelated usage. (2010-03-20)

baroque Feature-encrusted; complex; gaudy; verging on excessive. Said of hardware or (especially) software designs, this has many of the connotations of {elephantine} or monstrosity but is less extreme and not pejorative in itself. "{Metafont} even has features to introduce random variations to its letterform output. Now *that* is baroque!" See also {rococo}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-22)

baseband A transmission medium through which digital signals are sent without frequency shifting. In general, only one communication channel is available at any given time. {Ethernet} is an example of a baseband network. See also {broadband}. (1995-02-22)

basename "file system" The name of a file which, in contrast to a {pathname}, does not mention any of the {directories} containing the file. Examples: pathname basename -------- -------- /etc/hosts hosts ./alma alma korte/a.a a.a a.a a.a See also {pathname}. (1996-11-23)

Basic Encoding Rules "protocol, standard" (BER) {ASN.1} encoding rules for producing self-identifying and self-delimiting {transfer syntax} for data structures described in {ASN.1} notations. BER is an self-identifying and self-delimiting encoding scheme, which means that each data value can be identified, extracted and decoded individually. Huw Rogers once described BER as "a triumph of bloated theory over clean implementation". He also criticises it as designed around bitstreams with arbitrary boundaries between data which can only be determined at a high level. Documents: {ITU-T} X.690, {ISO} 8825-1. See also {CER}, {DER}, {PER}. (1998-05-28)

BASIC "language" Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. A simple language originally designed for ease of programming by students and beginners. Many dialects exist, and BASIC is popular on {microcomputers} with sound and graphics support. Most micro versions are {interactive} and {interpreted}. BASIC has become the leading cause of brain-damage in proto-hackers. This is another case (like {Pascal}) of the cascading lossage that happens when a language deliberately designed as an educational toy gets taken too seriously. A novice can write short BASIC programs (on the order of 10-20 lines) very easily; writing anything longer is painful and encourages bad habits that will make it harder to use more powerful languages. This wouldn't be so bad if historical accidents hadn't made BASIC so common on low-end micros. As it is, it ruins thousands of potential wizards a year. Originally, all references to code, both {GOTO} and GOSUB (subroutine call) referred to the destination by its line number. This allowed for very simple editing in the days before {text editors} were considered essential. Just typing the line number deleted the line and to edit a line you just typed the new line with the same number. Programs were typically numbered in steps of ten to allow for insertions. Later versions, such as {BASIC V}, allow {GOTO}-less {structured programming} with named {procedures} and {functions}, IF-THEN-ELSE
IF constructs and {WHILE} loops etc. Early BASICs had no graphic operations except with graphic characters. In the 1970s BASIC {interpreters} became standard features in {mainframes} and {minicomputers}. Some versions included {matrix} operations as language {primitives}. A {public domain} {interpreter} for a mixture of {DEC}'s {MU-Basic} and {Microsoft Basic} is {here (}. A {yacc} {parser} and {interpreter} were in the comp.sources.unix archives volume 2. See also {ANSI Minimal BASIC}, {bournebasic}, {bwBASIC}, {ubasic}, {Visual Basic}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-15)

Bastard Operator From Hell "humour" (BOFH) A rogue {network operator} character invented by Simon Travaglia "", regularly featured in "Computing" and "DATAMATION" magazine. See also: {Dilbert}. {(}. (1999-09-17)

bathtub curve Common term for the curve (resembling an end-to-end section of one of those claw-footed antique bathtubs) that describes the expected failure rate of electronics with time: initially high, dropping to near 0 for most of the system's lifetime, then rising again as it "tires out". See also {burn-in period}, {infant mortality}. [{Jargon File}]

baz /baz/ The third {metasyntactic variable} "Suppose we have three functions: FOO, BAR, and BAZ. FOO calls BAR, which calls BAZ..." (See also {fum}). Occasionally appended to {foo} to produce "foobaz". Early versions of the Hacker Jargon dictionary derived "baz" as a Stanford corruption of {bar}. However, Pete Samson (compiler of the {TMRC} lexicon) reports it was already current when he joined TMRC in 1958. He says "It came from "Pogo". Albert the Alligator, when vexed or outraged, would shout "Bazz Fazz!" or "Rowrbazzle!" The club layout was said to model the (mythical) New England counties of Rowrfolk and Bassex (Rowrbazzle mingled with Norfolk/Suffolk/Middlesex/ Essex)." [{Jargon File}] (2008-06-30)

benchmark "benchmark" A standard program or set of programs which can be run on different computers to give an inaccurate measure of their performance. "In the computer industry, there are three kinds of lies: lies, damn lies, and benchmarks." A benchmark may attempt to indicate the overall power of a system by including a "typical" mixture of programs or it may attempt to measure more specific aspects of performance, like graphics, I/O or computation (integer or {floating-point}). Others measure specific tasks like {rendering} polygons, reading and writing files or performing operations on matrices. The most useful kind of benchmark is one which is tailored to a user's own typical tasks. While no one benchmark can fully characterise overall system performance, the results of a variety of realistic benchmarks can give valuable insight into expected real performance. Benchmarks should be carefully interpreted, you should know exactly which benchmark was run (name, version); exactly what configuration was it run on (CPU, memory, compiler options, single user/multi-user, peripherals, network); how does the benchmark relate to your workload? Well-known benchmarks include {Whetstone}, {Dhrystone}, {Rhealstone} (see {h}), the {Gabriel benchmarks} for {Lisp}, the {SPECmark} suite, and {LINPACK}. See also {machoflops}, {MIPS}, {smoke and mirrors}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.benchmarks}. {Tennessee BenchWeb (}. [{Jargon File}] (2002-03-26)

Berkeley Quality Software "abuse" (Often abbreviated "BQS") Term used in a pejorative sense to refer to software that was apparently created by rather spaced-out hackers late at night to solve some unique problem. It usually has nonexistent, incomplete, or incorrect documentation, has been tested on at least two examples, and core dumps when anyone else attempts to use it. This term was frequently applied to early versions of the "dbx(1)" debugger. See also {Berzerkeley}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-01-15)

Berkeley Software Distribution "operating system" (BSD) A family of {Unix} versions developed by {Bill Joy} and others at the {University of California at Berkeley}, originally for the {DEC} {VAX} and {PDP-11} computers, and subsequently ported to almost all modern general-purpose computers. BSD Unix incorporates {paged} {virtual memory}, {TCP/IP} networking enhancements and many other features. BSD UNIX 4.0 was released on 1980-10-19. The BSD versions (4.1, 4.2, and 4.3) and the commercial versions derived from them ({SunOS}, {ULTRIX}, {Mt. Xinu}, {Dynix}) held the technical lead in the Unix world until {AT&T}'s successful standardisation efforts after about 1986, and are still widely popular. See also {Berzerkeley}, {USG Unix}. (2005-01-20)

best first search "algorithm" A {graph} search {algorithm} which optimises {breadth first search} by ordering all current paths according to some {heuristic}. The heuristic attempts to predict how close the end of a path is to a solution. Paths which are judged to be closer to a solution are extended first. See also {beam search}, {hill climbing}. (1995-12-09)

beta reduction [{lambda-calculus}] The {application} of a {lambda abstraction} to an argument expression. A copy of the body of the lambda abstraction is made and occurrences of the {bound variable} being replaced by the argument. E.g. (\ x . x+1) 4 --" 4+1 Beta reduction is the only kind of {reduction} in the {pure lambda-calculus}. The opposite of beta reduction is {beta abstraction}. These are the two kinds of {beta conversion}. See also {name capture}.

Big Red Switch "jargon" (BRS) IBM jargon for the {power switch} on a computer, especially the "Emergency Pull" switch on an IBM {mainframe} or the power switch on an IBM PC where it really is large and red. "This !@%$% {bitty box} is hung again; time to hit the Big Red Switch." It is alleged that the emergency pull switch on an {IBM 360}/91 actually fired a non-conducting bolt into the main power feed; the BRSes on more recent mainframes physically drop a block into place so that they can't be pushed back in. People get fired for pulling them, especially inappropriately (see also {molly-guard}). Compare {power cycle}, {three-finger salute}, {120 reset}; see also {scram switch}. [{Jargon File}] (2014-08-10)

bijection "mathematics" A {function} is bijective or a bijection or a one-to-one correspondence if it is both {injective} (no two values map to the same value) and {surjective} (for every element of the {codomain} there is some element of the {domain} which maps to it). I.e. there is exactly one element of the domain which maps to each element of the codomain. For a general bijection f from the set A to the set B: f'(f(a)) = a where a is in A and f(f'(b)) = b where b is in B. A and B could be disjoint sets. See also {injection}, {surjection}, {isomorphism}, {permutation}. (2001-05-10)

binary 1. "mathematics" {Base} two. A number representation consisting of zeros and ones used by practically all computers because of its ease of implementation using digital electronics and {Boolean algebra}. 2. "file format" {binary file}. 3. "programming" A description of an {operator} which takes two {arguments}. See also {unary}, {ternary}. (2005-02-21)

binary tree (btree) A {tree} in which each node has at most two successors or child nodes. In {Haskell} this could be represented as data BTree a = NilTree    | Node a (BTree a) (BTree a) See also {balanced tree}. (1994-11-29)

BinHex "file format" A {Macintosh} format for representing a {binary file} using only {printable characters}. The file is converted to lines of letters, numbers and punctuation. Because BinHex files are simply text they can be sent through most {electronic mail} systems and stored on most computers. However the conversion to text makes the file larger, so it takes longer to transmit a file in BinHex format than if the file was represented some other way. {Filename extension}: .hqx. See also {BinHex 4.0}, {uuencode}. [Encoding algorithm?] (1994-11-30)

bipolar 1. "electronics" See {bipolar transistor}. 2. "communications" In digital transmission, an electrical line signalling method where the mark value alternates between positive and negative polarities. See also {AMI}. (1995-03-02)

bit bashing (Also "bit diddling" or {bit twiddling}). Any of several kinds of low-level programming characterised by manipulation of {bit}, {flag}, {nibble}, and other smaller-than-character-sized pieces of data. These include low-level device control, encryption algorithms, checksum and error-correcting codes, hash functions, some flavours of graphics programming (see {bitblt}), and assembler/compiler code generation. May connote either tedium or a real technical challenge (more usually the former). "The command decoding for the new tape driver looks pretty solid but the bit-bashing for the control registers still has bugs." See also {bit bang}, {mode bit}.

bitmap "graphics, file format" A data file or structure which corresponds {bit} for bit with an {image} displayed on a screen, probably in the same format as it would be stored in the display's {video memory} or maybe as a {device independent bitmap}. A bitmap is characterised by the width and height of the image in {pixels} and the number of bits per pixel which determines the number of shades of grey or colours it can represent. A bitmap representing a coloured image (a "{pixmap}") will usually have pixels with between one and eight bits for each of the red, green, and blue components, though other colour encodings are also used. The green component sometimes has more bits that the other two to cater for the human eye's greater discrimination in this component. See also {vector graphics}, {image formats}. (1996-09-21)

bit rot "jargon" A hypothetical disease the existence of which has been deduced from the observation that unused programs or features will often stop working after sufficient time has passed, even if "nothing has changed". The theory explains that bits decay as if they were radioactive. As time passes, the contents of a file or the code in a program will become increasingly garbled. People with a physics background tend to prefer the variant "bit decay" for the analogy with particle decay. There actually are physical processes that produce such effects (alpha particles generated by trace radionuclides in ceramic chip packages, for example, can change the contents of a computer memory unpredictably, and various kinds of subtle media failures can corrupt files in mass storage), but they are quite rare (and computers are built with {error detection} circuitry to compensate for them). The notion long favoured among hackers that {cosmic rays} are among the causes of such events turns out to be a myth. Bit rot is the notional cause of {software rot}. See also {computron}, {quantum bogodynamics}. [{Jargon File}] (1998-03-15)

bitty box "abuse" (Or "calculator") /bit'ee boks/ A computer sufficiently small, primitive, or incapable as to cause a hacker acute claustrophobia at the thought of developing software on or for it. The term is especially used of small, obsolescent, {single-tasking}-only {personal computers} such as the {Atari 800}, {Osborne}, {Sinclair}, {VIC-20}, {TRS-80} or {IBM PC}, but the term is a general pejorative opposite of "real computer" (see {Get a real computer!}). See also {mess-dos}, {toaster}, {toy}. (1994-11-29)

bit "unit" (b) {binary} digit. The unit of information; the amount of information obtained by asking a yes-or-no question; a computational quantity that can take on one of two values, such as false and true or 0 and 1; the smallest unit of storage - sufficient to hold one bit. A bit is said to be "set" if its value is true or 1, and "reset" or "clear" if its value is false or 0. One speaks of setting and clearing bits. To {toggle} or "invert" a bit is to change it, either from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0. The term "bit" first appeared in print in the computer-science sense in 1949, and seems to have been coined by the eminent statistician, {John Tukey}. Tukey records that it evolved over a lunch table as a handier alternative to "bigit" or "binit". See also {flag}, {trit}, {mode bit}, {byte}, {word}. [{Jargon File}] (2002-01-22)

black art A collection of arcane, unpublished, and (by implication) mostly ad-hoc techniques developed for a particular application or systems area (compare {black magic}). VLSI design and compiler code optimisation were (in their beginnings) considered classic examples of black art; as theory developed they became {deep magic}, and once standard textbooks had been written, became merely {heavy wizardry}. The huge proliferation of formal and informal channels for spreading around new computer-related technologies during the last twenty years has made both the term "black art" and what it describes less common than formerly. See also {voodoo programming}. [{Jargon File}]

black box "jargon" An {abstraction} of a device or system in which only its externally visible behaviour is considered and not its implementation or "inner workings". See also {functional testing}. (1997-07-03)

blinkenlights /blink'*n-li:tz/ Front-panel diagnostic lights on a computer, especially a {dinosaur}. Derives from the last word of the famous blackletter-Gothic sign in mangled pseudo-German that once graced about half the computer rooms in the English-speaking world. One version ran in its entirety as follows: ACHTUNG! ALLES LOOKENSPEEPERS! Das computermachine ist nicht fuer gefingerpoken und mittengrabben. Ist easy schnappen der springenwerk, blowenfusen und poppencorken mit spitzensparken. Ist nicht fuer gewerken bei das dumpkopfen. Das rubbernecken sichtseeren keepen das cotten-pickenen hans in das pockets muss; relaxen und watchen das blinkenlichten. This silliness dates back at least as far as 1959 at Stanford University and had already gone international by the early 1960s, when it was reported at London University's ATLAS computing site. There are several variants of it in circulation, some of which actually do end with the word "blinkenlights". In an amusing example of turnabout-is-fair-play, German hackers have developed their own versions of the blinkenlights poster in fractured English, one of which is reproduced here:             ATTENTION This room is fullfilled mit special electronische equippment. Fingergrabbing and pressing the cnoeppkes from the computers is allowed for die experts only! So all the "lefthanders" stay away and do not disturben the brainstorming von here working intelligencies. Otherwise you will be out thrown and kicked anderswhere! Also: please keep still and only watchen astaunished the blinkenlights. See also {geef}. [{Jargon File}]

block-structured "language" Any programming language in which sections of {source code} contained within pairs of matching {delimiters} such as "{" and "}" (e.g. in {C}) or "begin" and "end" (e.g. {Algol}) are executed as a single unit. A block of code may be the body of a {subroutine} or {function}, or it may be controlled by conditional execution ({if statement}) or repeated execution ({while statement}, {for statement}, etc.). In all but the most primitive block structured languages a {variable}'s {scope} can be limited to the block in which it is declared. Block-structured languages support {structured programming} where each block can be written without detailed knowledge of the inner workings of other blocks, thus allowing a {top-down design} approach. See also {abstract data type}, {module}. (2004-09-29)

Blue Book 1. "publication" Informal name for one of the four standard references on the page-layout and graphics-control language {PostScript}. The other three official guides are known as the {Green Book}, the {Red Book}, and the {White Book}. ["PostScript Language Tutorial and Cookbook", Adobe Systems, Addison-Wesley 1985, (ISBN 0-201-10179-3)]. 2. "publication" Informal name for one of the three standard references on Smalltalk. This book also has green and red siblings. ["Smalltalk-80: The Language and its Implementation", David Robson, Addison-Wesley 1983, (ISBN 0-201-11371-63)]. 3. "publication" Any of the 1988 standards issued by the {ITU-T}'s ninth plenary assembly. These include, among other things, the {X.400} {electronic mail} specification and the Group 1 through 4 fax standards. See also {book titles}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-10-12)

bogon /boh'gon/ (By analogy with proton/electron/neutron, but doubtless reinforced after 1980 by the similarity to Douglas Adams's "Vogons") 1. The elementary particle of bogosity (see {quantum bogodynamics}). For instance, "the Ethernet is emitting bogons again" means that it is broken or acting in an erratic or bogus fashion. 2. A query {packet} sent from a {TCP/IP} {domain resolver} to a root server, having the reply bit set instead of the query bit. 3. Any bogus or incorrectly formed packet sent on a network. 4. A person who is bogus or who says bogus things. This was historically the original usage, but has been overtaken by its derivative senses. See also {bogosity}; compare {psyton}, {fat electrons}, {magic smoke}. The bogon has become the type case for a whole bestiary of nonce particle names, including the "clutron" or "cluon" (indivisible particle of cluefulness, obviously the antiparticle of the bogon) and the futon (elementary particle of {randomness}, or sometimes of lameness). These are not so much live usages in themselves as examples of a live meta-usage: that is, it has become a standard joke or linguistic maneuver to "explain" otherwise mysterious circumstances by inventing nonce particle names. And these imply nonce particle theories, with all their dignity or lack thereof (we might note parenthetically that this is a generalisation from "(bogus particle) theories" to "bogus (particle theories)"!). Perhaps such particles are the modern-day equivalents of trolls and wood-nymphs as standard starting-points around which to construct explanatory myths. Of course, playing on an existing word (as in the "futon") yields additional flavour. [{Jargon File}]

bogon filter /boh'gon fil'tr/ Any device, software or hardware, that limits or suppresses the flow and/or emission of bogons. "Engineering hacked a bogon filter between the {Cray} and the {VAXen}, and now we're getting fewer dropped packets." See also {bogosity}.

bogosity /boh-go's*-tee/ The degree to which something is "bogus" in the hackish sense of "bad". At CMU, bogosity is measured with a {bogometer}; in a seminar, when a speaker says something bogus, a listener might raise his hand and say "My bogometer just triggered". More extremely, "You just pinned my bogometer" means you just said or did something so outrageously bogus that it is off the scale, pinning the bogometer needle at the highest possible reading (one might also say "You just redlined my bogometer"). The agreed-upon unit of bogosity is the {microLenat}. Also, the potential field generated by a {bogon flux}; see {quantum bogodynamics}. See also {bogon flux}, {bogon filter}. (2002-04-14)

bogotify "jargon" /boh-go't*-fi:/ To make or become bad. A program that has been changed so many times as to become completely disorganised has become bogotified. If you tighten a nut too hard and strip the threads on the bolt, the bolt has become bogotified. See also {bogosity}. (2003-01-25)

bogue out /bohg owt/ To become bogus, suddenly and unexpectedly. "His talk was relatively sane until somebody asked him a trick question; then he bogued out and did nothing but {flame} afterward." See also {bogosity}. [{Jargon File}]

Bohr bug "jargon, programming" /bohr buhg/ (From Quantum physics) A repeatable {bug}; one that manifests reliably under a possibly unknown but well-defined set of conditions. Compare {heisenbug}. See also {mandelbug}, {schroedinbug}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-28)

Boolean search "information science" (Or "Boolean query") A query using the {Boolean} operators, {AND}, {OR}, and {NOT}, and parentheses to construct a complex condition from simpler criteria. A typical example is searching for combinatons of keywords on a {web} {search engine}. Examples: car or automobile "New York" and not "New York state" The term is sometimes stretched to include searches using other operators, e.g. "near". Not to be confused with {binary search}. See also: {weighted search}. (1999-10-23)

BOOTP The Bootstrap Protocol. A {protocol} described in {RFCs} 951 and 1084 and used for booting {diskless workstations}. See also {Reverse Address Resolution Protocol}. (1995-02-16)

bootstrap "operating system, compiler" To load and initialise the {operating system} on a computer. Normally abbreviated to "{boot}". From the curious expression "to pull oneself up by one's bootstraps", one of the legendary feats of Baron von Munchhausen. The {bootstrap loader} is the program that runs on the computer before any (normal) program can run. Derived terms include {reboot}, {cold boot}, {warm boot}, {soft boot} and {hard boot}. The term also applies to the use of a {compiler} to compile itself. The usual process is to write an {interpreter} for a language, L, in some other existing language. The compiler is then written in L and the interpreter is used to run it. This produces an {executable} for compiling programs in L from the source of the compiler in L. This technique is often used to verify the correctness of a compiler. It was first used in the {LISP} community. See also {My Favourite Toy Language}. [{Jargon File}] (2005-04-12)

breadth-first search "algorithm" A {graph search algorithm} which tries all one-step extensions of current paths before trying larger extensions. This requires all current paths to be kept in memory simultaneously, or at least their end points. Opposite of {depth-first search}. See also {best first search}. (1996-01-05)

breath-of-life packet ({XEROX PARC}) An {Ethernet} {packet} that contains {bootstrap} code, periodically sent out from a working computer to infuse the "breath of life" into any computer on the network that has crashed. Computers depending on such packets have sufficient hardware or firmware code to wait for (or request) such a packet during the reboot process. See also {dickless workstation}. The notional "kiss-of-death packet", with a function complementary to that of a breath-of-life packet, is recommended for dealing with hosts that consume too many network resources. Though "kiss-of-death packet" is usually used in jest, there is at least one documented instance of an {Internet} subnet with limited address-table slots in a gateway computer in which such packets were routinely used to compete for slots, rather like Christmas shoppers competing for scarce parking spaces. [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-26)

bridge "networking, hardware" A device which forwards traffic between {network segments} based on {data link layer} information. These segments would have a common {network layer} address. Every network should only have one {root bridge}. See also {gateway}, {router}. (2001-03-04)

Brilliant One of five pedagogical languages based on {Markov} {algorithms}, used in ["Nonpareil, a Machine Level Machine Independent Language for the Study of Semantics", B. Higman, ULICS Intl Report No ICSI 170, U London (1968)]. See also {Diamond}, {Nonpareil}, {Pearl}, {Ruby}.

broadband "communications" A class of communication channel capable of supporting a wide range of frequencies, typically from audio up to video frequencies. A broadband channel can carry multiple signals by dividing the total capacity into multiple, independent bandwidth channels, where each channel operates only on a specific range of frequencies. The term has come to be used for any kind of {Internet} connection with a {download} speed of more than 56 {kbps}, usually some kind of {Digital Subscriber Line}, e.g. {ADSL}. A broadband connection is typically always connected, in contrast to a {dial-up} connection, and a fixed monthly rate is charged, often with a cap on the total amount of data that can be transferred. Domestic broadband connections typically share a telephone line with normal voice calls and the two uses can occur simultaneously without interference. See also {baseband}, {narrowband}. (2006-03-30)

Brooks's Law "programming" "Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later" - a result of the fact that the expected advantage from splitting work among N programmers is O(N) (that is, proportional to N), but the complexity and communications cost associated with coordinating and then merging their work is O(N^2) (that is, proportional to the square of N). The quote is from Fred Brooks, a manager of {IBM}'s {OS/360} project and author of "{The Mythical Man-Month}". The myth in question has been most tersely expressed as "Programmer time is fungible" and Brooks established conclusively that it is not. Hackers have never forgotten his advice; too often, {management} still does. See also {creationism}, {second-system effect}, {optimism}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-09-17)

brute force "programming" A primitive programming style in which the programmer relies on the computer's processing power instead of using his own intelligence to simplify the problem, often ignoring problems of scale and applying naive methods suited to small problems directly to large ones. The term can also be used in reference to programming style: brute-force programs are written in a heavy-handed, tedious way, full of repetition and devoid of any elegance or useful abstraction (see also {brute force and ignorance}). The {canonical} example of a brute-force algorithm is associated with the "{travelling salesman problem}" (TSP), a classical {NP-hard} problem: Suppose a person is in, say, Boston, and wishes to drive to N other cities. In what order should the cities be visited in order to minimise the distance travelled? The brute-force method is to simply generate all possible routes and compare the distances; while guaranteed to work and simple to implement, this algorithm is clearly very stupid in that it considers even obviously absurd routes (like going from Boston to Houston via San Francisco and New York, in that order). For very small N it works well, but it rapidly becomes absurdly inefficient when N increases (for N = 15, there are already 1,307,674,368,000 possible routes to consider, and for N = 1000 - well, see {bignum}). Sometimes, unfortunately, there is no better general solution than brute force. See also {NP-complete}. A more simple-minded example of brute-force programming is finding the smallest number in a large list by first using an existing program to sort the list in ascending order, and then picking the first number off the front. Whether brute-force programming should actually be considered stupid or not depends on the context; if the problem is not terribly big, the extra CPU time spent on a brute-force solution may cost less than the programmer time it would take to develop a more "intelligent" algorithm. Additionally, a more intelligent algorithm may imply more long-term complexity cost and bug-chasing than are justified by the speed improvement. When applied to {cryptography}, it is usually known as {brute force attack}. {Ken Thompson}, co-inventor of {Unix}, is reported to have uttered the epigram "When in doubt, use brute force". He probably intended this as a {ha ha only serious}, but the original {Unix} {kernel}'s preference for simple, robust and portable {algorithms} over {brittle} "smart" ones does seem to have been a significant factor in the success of that {operating system}. Like so many other tradeoffs in software design, the choice between brute force and complex, finely-tuned cleverness is often a difficult one that requires both engineering savvy and delicate aesthetic judgment. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-14)

buffer overflow "programming" What happens when you try to store more data in a {buffer} than it can handle. This may be due to a mismatch in the processing rates of the producing and consuming processes (see {overrun} and {firehose syndrome}), or because the buffer is simply too small to hold all the data that must accumulate before a piece of it can be processed. For example, in a text-processing tool that {crunch}es a line at a time, a short line buffer can result in {lossage} as input from a long line overflows the buffer and overwrites data beyond it. Good defensive programming would check for overflow on each character and stop accepting data when the buffer is full. See also {spam}, {overrun screw}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-13)

bus "architecture, networking" A set of electrical conductors (wires, PCB tracks or connections in an {integrated circuit}) connecting various "stations", which can be {functional units} in a computer or {nodes} in a {network}. A bus is a {broadcast} channel, meaning that each station receives every other station's transmissions and all stations have equal access to the bus. Various schemes have been invented to solve the problem of collisions: multiple stations trying to transmit at once, e.g. {CSMA/CD}, {bus master}. The term is almost certainly derived from the electrical engineering term "bus bar" - a substantial, rigid power supply conductor to which several connections are made. This was once written "'bus bar" as it was a contraction of "omnibus bar" - a connection bar "for all", by analogy with the passenger omnibus - a conveyance "for all". {More on derivation (/pub/misc/omnibus.html)}. There are busses both within the {CPU} and connecting it to external {memory} and {peripheral} devices. The data bus, address bus and control signals, despite their names, really constitute a single bus since each is useless without the others. The width of the data bus is usually specified in {bits} and is the number of parallel connectors. This and the {clock rate} determine the bus's data rate (the number of {bytes} per second which it can carry). This is one of the factors limiting a computer's performance. Most current {microprocessors} have 32-bit busses both internally and externally. 100 or 133 {megahertz} bus clock rates are common. The bus clock is typically slower than the processor clock. Some processors have internal busses which are wider than their external busses (usually twice the width) since the width of the internal bus affects the speed of all operations and has less effect on the overall system cost than the width of the external bus. Various bus designs have been used in the {PC}, including {ISA}, {EISA}, {Micro Channel}, {VL-bus} and {PCI}. Other peripheral busses are NuBus, TURBOchannel, VMEbus, MULTIBUS and STD bus. See also {bus network}. {Ukranian (}. (2010-07-10)

Business Software Alliance "company" The BSA was created by {Microsoft} in 1988 in an attempt to combat {software theft}. The alliance includes the majority of leading software publishers including {Novell}, {Symantec}, and {Autodesk} and is actively campaigning in over 65 countries. The BSA operates a three-pronged approach: 1. Lobbying to strengthen copyright laws and co-operation with law enforcement agencies. 2. Educating the public through marketing, roadshows, etc. 3. Bringing legal actions against counterfeiters. BSA's aims are the same as the {Federation Against Software Theft} but it is not limited to the UK. In December 1990 the BSA obtained the first legal order in the UK which allowed a surprise search on a company's offices for suspected copyright infringement. {(}. UK Office: Business Software Alliance, 1st Floor, Leaconfield House, Curzon Street, London W1Y 8AS, United Kingdom. See also {software audit}. (1996-05-19)

bus master "architecture" The device in a computer which is driving the {address bus} and bus control signals at some point in time. In a simple architecture only the (single) {CPU} can be bus master but this means that all communications between ("slave") I/O devices must involve the CPU. More sophisticated architectures allow other capable devices (or multiple CPUs) to take turns at controling the bus. This allows, for example, a {network controller} card to access a {disk controller} directly while the CPU performs other tasks which do not require the bus, e.g. fetching code from its {cache}. Note that any device can drive data onto the {data bus} when the CPU reads from that device, but only the bus master drives the {address bus} and control signals. {Direct Memory Access} is a simple form of bus mastering where the I/O device is set up by the CPU to read from or write to one or more contiguous blocks of memory and then signal to the CPU when it has done so. Full bus mastering (or "First Party DMA", "bus mastering DMA") implies that the I/O device is capable of performing more complex sequences of operations without CPU intervention (e.g. servicing a complete {NFS} request). This will normally mean that the I/O device contains its own processor or {microcontroller}. See also {distributed kernel}. (1996-08-26)

button 1. "electronics" {push-button}. 2. "operating system" A graphical representation of an electrical {push-button} appearing as part of a {graphical user interface}. Moving the {mouse pointer} over the graphical button and pressing one of the physical mouse buttons starts some software action such as closing a window or deleting a file. See also {radio button}. (1997-07-07)

buzz 1. Of a program, to run with no indication of progress and perhaps without guarantee of ever finishing; especially said of programs thought to be executing a {tight loop} of code. A program that is buzzing appears to be {catatonic}, but never gets out of catatonia, while a buzzing loop may eventually end of its own accord. "The program buzzes for about 10 seconds trying to sort all the names into order." See {spin}; see also {grovel}. 2. [ETA Systems] To test a wire or printed circuit trace for continuity by applying an AC rather than DC signal. Some wire faults will pass DC tests but fail a buzz test. 3. To process an {array} or list in sequence, doing the same thing to each element. "This loop buzzes through the tz array looking for a terminator type." [{Jargon File}]

bytesexual "jargon" /bi:t" sek"shu-*l/ An adjective used to describe hardware, denotes willingness to compute or pass data in either {big-endian} or {little-endian} format (depending, presumably, on a {mode bit} somewhere). See also {NUXI problem}. [{Jargon File}] (2009-05-28)

byte "unit" /bi:t/ (B) A component in the machine {data hierarchy} larger than a {bit} and usually smaller than a {word}; now nearly always eight bits and the smallest addressable unit of storage. A byte typically holds one {character}. A byte may be 9 bits on 36-bit computers. Some older architectures used "byte" for quantities of 6 or 7 bits, and the PDP-10 and IBM 7030 supported "bytes" that were actually {bit-fields} of 1 to 36 (or 64) bits! These usages are now obsolete, and even 9-bit bytes have become rare in the general trend toward power-of-2 word sizes. The term was coined by Werner Buchholz in 1956 during the early design phase for the {IBM} {Stretch} computer. It was a mutation of the word "bite" intended to avoid confusion with "bit". In 1962 he described it as "a group of bits used to encode a character, or the number of bits transmitted in parallel to and from input-output units". The move to an 8-bit byte happened in late 1956, and this size was later adopted and promulgated as a standard by the {System/360} {operating system} (announced April 1964). James S. Jones "" adds: I am sure I read in a mid-1970's brochure by IBM that outlined the history of computers that BYTE was an acronym that stood for "Bit asYnchronous Transmission E..?" which related to width of the bus between the Stretch CPU and its CRT-memory (prior to Core). Terry Carr "" says: In the early days IBM taught that a series of bits transferred together (like so many yoked oxen) formed a Binary Yoked Transfer Element (BYTE). [True origin? First 8-bit byte architecture?] See also {nibble}, {octet}. [{Jargon File}] (2003-09-21)

cable modem "communications, hardware" A type of {modem} that allows people to access the {Internet} via their cable television service. A cable modem can transfer data at 500 {kbps} or higher, compared with 28.8 kbps for common telephone line modems, but the actual transfer rates may be lower depending on the number of other simultaneous users on the same cable. Industry pundits often point out that the cable system still does not have the {bandwidth} or service level in many areas to make this feasible. For example, it has to be capable of two-way communication. See also: {DOCSIS}. (2000-12-19)

cache conflict "storage" A sequence of accesses to memory repeatedly overwriting the same {cache} entry. This can happen if two blocks of data, which are mapped to the same set of cache locations, are needed simultaneously. For example, in the case of a {direct mapped cache}, if {arrays} A, B, and C map to the same range of cache locations, thrashing will occur when the following loop is executed: for (i=1; i"n; i++) C[i] = A[i] + B[i]; Cache conflict can also occur between a program loop and the data it is accessing. See also {ping-pong}. (1997-01-21)

cache "memory management" /kash/ A small fast memory holding recently accessed data, designed to speed up subsequent access to the same data. Most often applied to processor-memory access but also used for a local copy of data accessible over a network etc. When data is read from, or written to, {main memory} a copy is also saved in the cache, along with the associated main memory address. The cache monitors addresses of subsequent reads to see if the required data is already in the cache. If it is (a {cache hit}) then it is returned immediately and the main memory read is aborted (or not started). If the data is not cached (a {cache miss}) then it is fetched from main memory and also saved in the cache. The cache is built from faster memory chips than main memory so a cache hit takes much less time to complete than a normal memory access. The cache may be located on the same {integrated circuit} as the {CPU}, in order to further reduce the access time. In this case it is often known as {primary cache} since there may be a larger, slower {secondary cache} outside the CPU chip. The most important characteristic of a cache is its {hit rate} - the fraction of all memory accesses which are satisfied from the cache. This in turn depends on the cache design but mostly on its size relative to the main memory. The size is limited by the cost of fast memory chips. The hit rate also depends on the access pattern of the particular program being run (the sequence of addresses being read and written). Caches rely on two properties of the access patterns of most programs: temporal locality - if something is accessed once, it is likely to be accessed again soon, and spatial locality - if one memory location is accessed then nearby memory locations are also likely to be accessed. In order to exploit spatial locality, caches often operate on several words at a time, a "{cache line}" or "cache block". Main memory reads and writes are whole {cache lines}. When the processor wants to write to main memory, the data is first written to the cache on the assumption that the processor will probably read it again soon. Various different policies are used. In a {write-through} cache, data is written to main memory at the same time as it is cached. In a {write-back} cache it is only written to main memory when it is forced out of the cache. If all accesses were writes then, with a write-through policy, every write to the cache would necessitate a main memory write, thus slowing the system down to main memory speed. However, statistically, most accesses are reads and most of these will be satisfied from the cache. Write-through is simpler than write-back because an entry that is to be replaced can just be overwritten in the cache as it will already have been copied to main memory whereas write-back requires the cache to initiate a main memory write of the flushed entry followed (for a processor read) by a main memory read. However, write-back is more efficient because an entry may be written many times in the cache without a main memory access. When the cache is full and it is desired to cache another line of data then a cache entry is selected to be written back to main memory or "flushed". The new line is then put in its place. Which entry is chosen to be flushed is determined by a "{replacement algorithm}". Some processors have separate instruction and data caches. Both can be active at the same time, allowing an instruction fetch to overlap with a data read or write. This separation also avoids the possibility of bad {cache conflict} between say the instructions in a loop and some data in an array which is accessed by that loop. See also {direct mapped cache}, {fully associative cache}, {sector mapping}, {set associative cache}. (1997-06-25)

Cadence Design Systems "company" A company that sells {electronic design automation} software and services. {(}. See also {Verilog}. (1999-04-16)

call-by-reference "programming" An {argument} passing convention where the address of an argument {variable} is passed to a {function} or {procedure}, as opposed to passing the value of the argument expression. Execution of the function or procedure may have {side-effects} on the actual argument as seen by the caller. The {C} language's "&" (address of) and "*" (dereference) operators allow the programmer to code explicit call-by-reference. Other languages provide special syntax to declare reference arguments (e.g. {ALGOL 60}). See also {call-by-name}, {call-by-value}, {call-by-value-result}. (2006-05-27)

Canonical Encoding Rules "protocol, standard" (CER) A restricted variant of {BER} for producing unequivocal {transfer syntax} for data structures described by {ASN.1}. Whereas {BER} gives choices as to how data values may be encoded, CER and {DER} select just one encoding from those allowed by the basic encoding rules, eliminating all of the options. They are useful when the encodings must be preserved, e.g. in security exchanges. CER and {DER} differ in the set of restrictions that they place on the encoder. The basic difference between CER and {DER} is that {DER} uses definitive length form and CER uses indefinite length form. Documents: {ITU-T} X.690, {ISO} 8825-1. See also {PER}. (1998-05-19)

can't happen "programming" The traditional program comment for code executed under a condition that should never be true, for example a file size computed as negative. Often, such a condition being true indicates data corruption or a faulty {algorithm}; it is almost always handled by emitting a fatal error message and terminating or crashing, since there is little else that can be done. Some case variant of "can't happen" is also often the text emitted if the "impossible" error actually happens. Although "can't happen" events are genuinely infrequent in production code, programmers wise enough to check for them habitually are often surprised at how frequently they are triggered during development and how many headaches checking for them turns out to head off. See also {firewall code}, {professional programming}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-10)

Captain Abstraction The champion of the principles of {abstraction} and modularity, who protects unwary students on {MIT}'s course {6.001} from the nefarious designs of Sergeant Spaghetticode and his vile {concrete} programming practices. See also {spaghetti code}. (1994-11-22)

card walloper "jargon" An {EDP} programmer who grinds out {batch programs} that do things like print people's paychecks. Compare {code grinder}. See also {punched card}, {eighty-column mind}. [{Jargon File}] (2003-09-20)

Cartesian product "mathematics" (After Renee Descartes, French philosper and mathematician) The Cartesian product of two sets A and B is the set A x B = {(a, b) | a in A, b in B}. I.e. the product set contains all possible combinations of one element from each set. The idea can be extended to products of any number of sets. If we consider the elements in sets A and B as points along perpendicular axes in a two-dimensional space then the elements of the product are the "{Cartesian coordinates}" of points in that space. See also {tuple}. (1995-03-01)

cat "tool" (From "catenate") {Unix}'s command which copies one or more entire files to the screen or some other output sink without pause. See also {dd}, {BLT}. Among {Unix} fans, cat is considered an excellent example of user-interface design, because it delivers the file contents without such verbosity as spacing or headers between the files (the {pr} command can be used to do this), and because it does not require the files to consist of lines of text, but works with any sort of data. Among Unix haters, cat is considered the {canonical} example of *bad* user-interface design, because of its woefully unobvious name. It is far more often used to {blast} a file to standard output than to concatenate files. The name "cat" for the former operation is just as unintuitive as, say, LISP's {cdr}. Of such oppositions are {holy wars} made. (1994-11-29)

Cellular "language" A system for {cellular automaton} programming by J Dana Eckart "". Cellular includes a {byte-code compiler}, {run-time system} and a viewer. Posted to comp.sources.unix, volume 26. See also {Cellang}. (2000-10-07)

chat "chat, messaging" Any system that allows any number of logged-in users to have a typed, real-time, on-line conversation via a {network}. The medium of {chat} is descended from {talk}, but the terms (and the media) have been distinct since at least the early 1990s. {talk} is prototypically for a small number of people, generally with no provision for {channels}. In {chat} systems, however, there are many {channels} in which any number of people can talk; and users may send private (one-to-one) messages. Some early chat systems (in use 1998) include {IRC}, {ICQ} and {Palace}. More recent alternatives include {MSN Messenger} and {Google Talk}. Chat systems have given rise to a distinctive style combining the immediacy of talking with all the precision (and verbosity) that written language entails. It is difficult to communicate inflection, though conventions have arisen to help with this. The conventions of chat systems include special items of jargon, generally abbreviations meant to save typing, which are not used orally. E.g. {BCNU}, {BBL}, {BTW}, {CUL}, {FWIW}, {FYA}, {FYI}, {IMHO}, {OT}, {OTT}, {TNX}, {WRT}, {WTF}, {WTH}, {"g"}, {"gr&d"}, {BBL}, {HHOK}, {NHOH}, {ROTFL}, {AFK}, {b4}, {TTFN}, {TTYL}, {OIC}, {re}. Much of the chat style is identical to (and probably derived from) {Morse code} jargon used by ham-radio amateurs since the 1920s, and there is, not surprisingly, some overlap with {TDD} jargon. Most of the jargon was in use in {talk} systems. Many of these expressions are also common in {Usenet} {news} and {electronic mail} and some have seeped into popular culture, as with {emoticons}. The {MUD} community uses a mixture of {emoticons}, a few of the more natural of the old-style {talk mode} abbreviations, and some of the "social" list above. In general, though, MUDders express a preference for typing things out in full rather than using abbreviations; this may be due to the relative youth of the MUD cultures, which tend to include many touch typists. Abbreviations specific to MUDs include: {FOAD}, ppl (people), THX (thanks), UOK? (are you OK?). Some {BIFF}isms (notably the variant spelling "d00d") and aspects of {ASCIIbonics} appear to be passing into wider use among some subgroups of MUDders and are already pandemic on {chat} systems in general. See also {hakspek}. {Suck article "Screaming in a Vacuum" (}. (2006-05-31)

checksum "storage, communications" A computed value which depends on the contents of a block of data and which is transmitted or stored along with the data in order to detect corruption of the data. The receiving system recomputes the checksum based upon the received data and compares this value with the one sent with the data. If the two values are the same, the receiver has some confidence that the data was received correctly. The checksum may be 8 bits (modulo 256 sum), 16, 32, or some other size. It is computed by summing the bytes or words of the data block ignoring {overflow}. The checksum may be negated so that the total of the data words plus the checksum is zero. {Internet} {packets} use a 32-bit checksum. See also {digital signature}, {cyclic redundancy check}. (1996-03-01)

chess "games" A two-player {game} with {perfect information}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {}. See also {Internet Chess Server}. (1995-03-25)

chicken head "graphics, abuse" The {Commodore} Business Machines logo, which strongly resembles a poultry part. Rendered in {ASCII} as "C=". With the arguable exception of the {Amiga}, Commodore's computers are notoriously crocky little {bitty box}es (see also {PETSCII}). Thus, this usage may owe something to Philip K. Dick's novel "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" (the basis for the movie "Blade Runner"; the novel is now sold under that title), in which a "chickenhead" is a mutant with below-average intelligence. [{Jargon File}] (2006-07-12)

Chip Scale Packaging "hardware" (CSP) A type of {surface mount} {integrated circuit} packaging that provides pre-speed-sorted, pre-tested and pre-packaged {die} without requiring special testing. An example is {Motorola}'s {Micro SMT} packaging. See also: {chip-on-board}, {flip chip}, {multichip module}, {known good die}, {ball grid array}. ["Chip scale packaging gains at SMI. (Surface Mount International)", Bernard Levine, Electronic News (1991), Sept 4, 1995 v41 n2081 p1(2)]. (2006-08-14)

Christopher Strachey "person" Professor of Computation at Oxford, England, born 1916, died May 1975. He invented the term "{currying}". See also: {General Purpose Macro-generator}. (1998-06-29)

chromatic number "mathematics" The smallest number of colours necessary to colour the nodes of a {graph} so that no two adjacent nodes have the same colour. See also: {four colour map theorem}. {Graph Theory Lessons (}. {Eric Weisstein's World Of Mathematics (}. {The Geometry Center (}. (2000-03-18)

Church integer "theory" A representation of integers as functions invented by {Alonzo Church}, inventor of {lambda-calculus}. The integer N is represented as a {higher-order function} which applies a given function N times to a given expression. In the {pure lambda-calculus} there are no constants but numbers can be represented by Church integers. A {Haskell} function to return a given Church integer could be written: church n = c where c f x = if n == 0 then x else c' f (f x)   where   c' = church (n-1) A function to turn a Church integer into an ordinary integer: unchurch c = c (+1) 0 See also {von Neumann integer}. (1994-11-29)

Cinderella Book "publication" "Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation", by John Hopcroft and Jeffrey Ullman, (Addison-Wesley, 1979). So called because the cover depicts a girl (putatively Cinderella) sitting in front of a Rube Goldberg device and holding a rope coming out of it. On the back cover, the device is in shambles after she has (inevitably) pulled on the rope. See also {book titles}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-12-03)

CLAM "mathematics, tool" A system for {symbolic mathematics}, especially General Relativity. It was first implemented in {ATLAS} {assembly language} and later {Lisp}. See also {ALAM}. ["CLAM Programmer's Manual", Ray d'Inverno & Russell-Clark, King's College London, 1971]. (1994-11-08)

C "language" A programming language designed by {Dennis Ritchie} at {AT&T} {Bell Labs} ca. 1972 for systems programming on the {PDP-11} and immediately used to reimplement {Unix}. It was called "C" because many features derived from an earlier compiler named "{B}". In fact, C was briefly named "NB". B was itself strongly influenced by {BCPL}. Before {Bjarne Stroustrup} settled the question by designing {C++}, there was a humorous debate over whether C's successor should be named "D" or "P" (following B and C in "BCPL"). C is terse, low-level and permissive. It has a {macro preprocessor}, {cpp}. Partly due to its distribution with {Unix}, C became immensely popular outside {Bell Labs} after about 1980 and is now the dominant language in systems and {microcomputer} applications programming. It has grown popular due to its simplicity, efficiency, and flexibility. C programs are often easily adapted to new environments. C is often described, with a mixture of fondness and disdain, as "a language that combines all the elegance and power of {assembly language} with all the readability and maintainability of assembly language". Ritchie's original C is known as {K&R C} after Kernighan and Ritchie's book. A modified version has been {standardised (standard)} as {ANSI C}. See also {ACCU}, {ae}, {c68}, {c386}, {C-Interp}, {cxref}, {dbx}, {dsp56k-gcc}, {dsp56165-gcc}, {gc}, {GCT}, {GNU C}, {GNU superoptimiser}, {Harvest C}, {malloc}, {mpl}, {Pthreads}, {ups}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-06-01)

C++ "language" One of the most used {object-oriented} languages, a superset of {C} developed primarily by {Bjarne Stroustrup} "" at {AT&T} {Bell Laboratories} in 1986. In C++ a {class} is a user-defined {type}, syntactically a {struct} with {member functions}. {Constructors} and {destructors} are member functions called to create or destroy {instances}. A {friend} is a nonmember function that is allowed to access the private portion of a class. C++ allows {implicit type conversion}, {function inlining}, {overloading} of operators and function names, and {default function arguments}. It has {streams} for I/O and {references}. C++ 2.0 (May 1989) introduced {multiple inheritance}, {type-safe linkage}, pointers to members, and {abstract classes}. C++ 2.1 was introduced in ["Annotated C++ Reference Manual", B. Stroustrup et al, A-W 1990]. {MS-DOS (}, {Unix ANSI C++ (} - X3J16 committee. (They're workin' on it). See also {cfront}, {LEDA}, {uC++}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.c++}. ["The C++ Programming Language", Bjarne Stroustrup, A-W, 1986]. (1996-06-06)

class 1. "programming" The prototype for an {object} in an {object-oriented language}; analogous to a {derived type} in a {procedural language}. A class may also be considered to be a set of objects which share a common structure and behaviour. The structure of a class is determined by the {class variables} which represent the {state} of an object of that class and the behaviour is given by a set of {methods} associated with the class. Classes are related in a {class hierarchy}. One class may be a specialisation (a "{subclass}") of another (one of its "{superclasses}") or it may be composed of other classes or it may use other classes in a {client-server} relationship. A class may be an {abstract class} or a {concrete class}. See also {signature}. 2. "programming" See {type class}. 3. "networking" One of three types of {Internet addresses} distinguished by their most significant bits. 3. "language" A language developed by the {Andrew Project}. It was one of the first attempts to add {object-oriented} features to {C}. (1995-05-01)

Classless Inter-Domain Routing "networking" (CIDR) /sid*r/ A technique that summarises a block of {Internet addresses} in a {routing table} as an address in {dotted decimal notation} followed by a {forward slash} and a two-digit decimal number giving the number of leading one bits in the subnet mask. For example, specifies a subnet mask of 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 (binary), implying the block of addresses through CIDR is "classless" because it is not limited to the subnet masks specified by {Internet address} classes A, B and C. According to {RFC 1519}, CIDR was implemented to distribute Internet address space more efficiently and to provide a mechanism for {IP route aggregation}. This in turn reduces the number of entries in IP routing tables, enabling faster, more efficient routing, e.g. using {routing} {protocols} such as {OSPF}. CIDR is supported by {BGP4}. See also {RFC 1467}, {RFC 1518}, {RFC 1520}. (2006-01-26)

closure conversion "theory" The transformation of {continuation passing style} code so that the only {free variables} of {functions} are names of other functions. See also {Lambda lifting}. (1994-12-16)

cokebottle "character, humour" /kohk'bot-l/ Any unusual character, particularly one you can't type because it isn't on your keyboard. {MIT} people used to complain about the "control-meta-cokebottle" commands at {SAIL}, and {SAIL} people complained about the "{altmode}-altmode-cokebottle" commands at {MIT}. After the demise of the {space-cadet keyboard}, "cokebottle" was used less, but was often used to describe weird or non-intuitive keystrokes. The {OSF}/{Motif} {window manager}, "{mwm}" keystroke for switching to the default keybindings and behaviour is control-meta-{bang}. Since {exclamation mark} might be thought to look like a Coke bottle, {Motif} hackers referred to this keystroke as "cokebottle". See also {quadruple bucky}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-04)

collision detection "networking" A class of methods for sharing a data transmission medium in which {hosts} transmit as soon as they have data to send and then check to see whether their transmission has suffered a {collision} with another host's. If a collision is detected then the data must be resent. The resending algorithm should try to minimise the chance that two hosts's data will repeatedly collide. For example, the {CSMA/CD} protocol used on {Ethernet} specifies that they should then wait for a random time before re-transmitting. See also {backoff}. This contrasts with {slotted protocols} and {token passing}. (1997-03-18)

colour model "graphics" Any system for representing {colours} as {ordered sets} of numbers. The most common colour models are {RGB}, {CMYK}, and {HSB}. There are several others, e.g. {CMY}, and the "Lab" system(?). See also: {Pantone}. (1999-10-21)

combination 1. "mathematics" A {set} containing a certain number of objects selected from another set. The number of combinations of r objects chosen from a set of n is n C r = n! / ((n-r)! r!) where "n C r" is normally with n and r as subscripts or as n above r in parentheses. See also {permutation}. 2. "reduction" In the theory of {combinators}, a combination denotes an expression in which {function application} is the only operation. (1995-04-10)

comedy ::: 1. The comic element of drama, of literature generally, or of life. 2. A humorous element of life or literature. Comedy (see also Divine Comedy).

Commodore 1581 "storage" {Commodore Business Machines}'s 3.5 inch {disk drive} for the {Commodore 64} and {Commodore 128}. The drive stores 800 {kilobytes} using an {MFM} format which is different from both {messy-dos} 720 kb, and the {Amiga} 880 kb formats. The 1581 supports a poor imitation of {directories} which are really just {partitions} and largely unused. It also supports burst loading like the {Commodore 1571}, but is actually faster as it is better designed. It has 3160 {blocks} free when formatted. The 1581 is the highest density C64 serial bus drive made by Commodore. However Creative Micro Designs (CMD) make the {FD2000} (1.6MB) and (until recently) the {FD4000} (3.2MB) 3.5" disk drives. {GEOS} users like 1581s as they are very fast when used with GEOS. See also {Commodore 1541}, {Commodore 1571}. (1998-12-23)

Commodore 64 "computer" (C64) An 8-bit {Commodore Business Machines} {personal computer} released around September 1981. Prototypes were (apparently) made before Christmas 1980 (and shown at some computer fair). The {CPU} was a {6510} from {MOS Technology} (who were a wholly owned subsiduary of Commodore at this time(?)). The C64 had 64 {kilobytes} of {RAM} as standard and a 40-column text, 320x200 {pixel} display generating {composite video}, usually connected to a television. {DMA}-based memory expanders for the C64 (and C128) allowed 128, 256, and 512 kb of RAM. Several third party manufacturers produce accelerators and RAM expanders for the C64 and C128. (Some, risking a {holy war}, compare this to putting a brick on roller-skates). Such accelerators come in speeds up to 20MHz (20 times the original) and RAM expanders to 16MB. The C64's {1541} 5.25 {floppy disk} drive had a {6502} processor as a {disk controller}. See also {Commodore 65}. ["Assembly language programming with the Commodore 64", Marvin L. De Jong]. (1996-06-05)

Common LISP Object System "language" (CLOS) An {object-oriented} extension to {Common LISP}, based on {generic functions}, {multiple inheritance}, {declarative method combination} and a {meta-object protocol}. A descendant of {CommonLoops} and based on {Symbolics} {FLAVORS} and {Xerox} {LOOPS}, among others. See also {PCL}. ["Common LISP Object System Specification X3J13 Document 88-002R", D.G. Bobrow et al, SIGPLAN Notices 23, Sep 1988]. (1994-11-30)

CommonLoops "language" {Xerox}'s {object-oriented} {Lisp} which led to {CLOS}. See also {Portable CommonLoops}. {(}. ["CommonLoops: Merging Lisp and Object-Oriented Programming", D.G. Bobrow et al, SIGPLAN Notices 21(11):17-29, Nov 1986]. (1999-07-02)

Common Object Request Broker Architecture "standard, programming" (CORBA) An {Object Management Group} specification which provides a standard messaging interface between distributed {objects}. The original CORBA specification (1.1) has been revised through version 2 (CORBA 2) with the latest specification being version 3 (CORBA 3). In its most basic form CORBA consists of the {Interface Definition Language} (IDL) and the Dynamic Invocation Interface (DII). The IDL definition is complied into a Stub (client) and Skeleton (server) component that communicate through an {Object Request Broker} (ORB). When an ORB determines that a request is to a remote object, it may execute the request by communicating with the remote ORB. The Corba IDL can be mapped to a number of languages including {C}, {C++}, {Java}, {COBOL}, {Smalltalk}, {Ada}, {Lisp}, {Python}, and {IDLscript}. CORBA ORBs are widely available for a number of platforms. The OMG standard for inter-ORB communication is {IIOP}, this ensures that all CORBA 2 compliant ORBS are able to interoperate. See also {COSS}, {Component Object Model}, {RMI}. {OMG CORBA specs (}. (2007-09-04)

Commonwealth Hackish "jargon" Hacker jargon as spoken outside the US, especially in the British Commonwealth. It is reported that Commonwealth speakers are more likely to pronounce truncations like "char" and "soc", etc., as spelled (/char/, /sok/), as opposed to American /keir/ and /sohsh/. Dots in {newsgroup} names (especially two-component names) tend to be pronounced more often (so soc.wibble is /sok dot wib'l/ rather than /sohsh wib'l/). The prefix {meta} may be pronounced /mee't*/; similarly, Greek letter beta is usually /bee't*/, zeta is usually /zee't*/, and so forth. Preferred {metasyntactic variables} include {blurgle}, "eek", "ook", "frodo", and "bilbo"; "wibble", "wobble", and in emergencies "wubble"; "banana", "tom", "dick", "harry", "wombat", "frog", {fish}, and so on and on (see {foo}). Alternatives to verb doubling include suffixes "-o-rama", "frenzy" (as in feeding frenzy), and "city" (examples: "barf city!" "hack-o-rama!" "core dump frenzy!"). Finally, note that the American terms "parens", "brackets", and "braces" for (), [], and {} are uncommon; Commonwealth hackish prefers "brackets", "square brackets", and "curly brackets". Also, the use of "pling" for {bang} is common outside the United States. See also {attoparsec}, {calculator}, {chemist}, {console jockey}, {fish}, {go-faster stripes}, {grunge}, {hakspek}, {heavy metal}, {leaky heap}, {lord high fixer}, {loose bytes}, {muddie}, {nadger}, {noddy}, {psychedelicware}, {plingnet}, {raster blaster}, {RTBM}, {seggie}, {spod}, {sun lounge}, {terminal junkie}, {tick-list features}, {weeble}, {weasel}, {YABA}, and notes or definitions under {Bad Thing}, {barf}, {bum}, {chase pointers}, {cosmic rays}, {crippleware}, {crunch}, {dodgy}, {gonk}, {hamster}, {hardwarily}, {mess-dos}, {nibble}, {proglet}, {root}, {SEX}, {tweak} and {xyzzy}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-18)

Communicating Sequential Processes "language, parallel" (CSP) A notation for {concurrency} based on {synchronous message passing} and selective communications designed by {Anthony Hoare} in 1978. It features {cobegin} and coend and was a precursor to {occam}. See also {Contextually Communicating Sequential Processes}. ["Communicating Sequential Processes", A.R. Hoare, P-H 1985]. (1994-11-01)

Compact Disc Read-Only Memory "storage" (CD-ROM) A {non-volatile} optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio {compact discs}, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. CD-ROM is popular for distribution of large databases, software and especially {multimedia} {applications}. The maximum capacity is about 600 megabytes. A CD can store around 640 {megabytes} of data - about 12 billion bytes per pound weight. CD-ROM drives are rated with a speed factor relative to music CDs (1x or 1-speed which gives a data transfer rate of 150 {kilobytes} per second). 12x drives were common in April 1997. Above 12x speed, there are problems with vibration and heat. {Constant angular velocity} (CAV) drives give speeds up to 20x but due to the nature of CAV the actual throughput increase over 12x is less than 20/12. 20x was thought to be the maximum speed due to mechanical constraints but on 1998-02-24, {Samsung Electronics} introduced the SCR-3230, a 32x CD-ROM drive which uses a ball bearing system to balance the spinning CD-ROM in the drive to reduce noise. CD-ROM drives may connect to an {IDE} interface, a {SCSI} interface or a propritary interface, of which there are three - Sony, Panasonic, and Mitsumi. Most CD-ROM drives can also play audio CDs. There are several formats used for CD-ROM data, including {Green Book CD-ROM}, {White Book CD-ROM} and {Yellow Book CD-ROM}. {ISO 9660} defines a standard {file system}, later extended by {Joliet}. See also {Compact Disc Recordable}, {Digital Versatile Disc}. {Byte, February 1997 (}. (2006-09-25)

Compact Disc Recordable "storage" (CD-R) A write-once version of {CD-ROM}. CD-Rs can hold about 650 {megabytes} of data. They are very durable and can be read by normal CD-ROM drives, but once data has been written it cannot be altered. Standard prerecorded CDs have their information permanently stamped into an aluminium reflecting layer. CD-R discs have a dye-based recording layer and an additional golden reflecting layer. Digital information is written to the disc by burning (forming) pits in the recording layer in a pattern corresponding to that of a conventional CD. The laser beam heats the substrate and recording layer to approximately 250 C. The recording layer melts and the substrate expands into the space that becomes available. {Phillips: New Technologies (}. See also {CD-RW} and {DVD-RAM}. (1999-08-01)

Compact Disc Rewritable "storage" (CD-RW) A rewritable version of {CD-ROM}. A CD-RW drive can write about 650 {megabytes} of data to CD-RW media an unlimited number of times. Most CD-RW drives can also write once to {CD-R} media. CD-RW media cannot be read by CD-ROM drives built prior to 1997 due to the reduced reflectivity (15% compared to 70%) of CD-RW media. CD-RW drives and media are currently (1999) more expensive than {CD-R} drives and media. CD-R is sometimes considered a better technology for archival purposes as the data cannot be accidentally modified or tampered with, and encourages better archival practices. Standard prerecorded CDs have their information permanently stamped into an aluminium reflecting layer. CD-WR discs have a phase-change recording layer and an additional silver (aluminium) reflecting layer. A laser beam can melt crystals in the recording layer into a non-crystalline amorphous phase or anneal them slowly at a lower temperature back to the crystalline state. The different reflectance of the areas make them appear as the 'pits' and 'lands' of a standard CD. {Phillips: New Technologies (}. See also {CD-R} and {DVD-RAM}. (1999-08-01)

compatible "jargon" Different systems (e.g., {programs}, {file formats}, {protocols}, even {programming languages}) that can work together or exchange data are said to be compatible. See also {backward compatible}, {forward compatible}. (1998-01-15)

compiler "programming, tool" A program that converts another program from some {source language} (or {programming language}) to {machine language} (object code). Some compilers output {assembly language} which is then converted to {machine language} by a separate {assembler}. A compiler is distinguished from an assembler by the fact that each input statement does not, in general, correspond to a single machine instruction or fixed sequence of instructions. A compiler may support such features as automatic allocation of variables, arbitrary arithmetic expressions, control structures such as FOR and WHILE loops, variable {scope}, input/ouput operations, {higher-order functions} and {portability} of source code. {AUTOCODER}, written in 1952, was possibly the first primitive compiler. {Laning and Zierler}'s compiler, written in 1953-1954, was possibly the first true working algebraic compiler. See also {byte-code compiler}, {native compiler}, {optimising compiler}. (1994-11-07)

complete See also {complete graph}, {complete inference system}, {complete lattice}, {complete metric space}, {complete partial ordering}, {complete theory}. [1. or 2. or both?] (1996-04-24)

complexity "algorithm" The level in difficulty in solving mathematically posed problems as measured by the time, number of steps or arithmetic operations, or memory space required (called time complexity, computational complexity, and space complexity, respectively). The interesting aspect is usually how complexity scales with the size of the input (the "{scalability}"), where the size of the input is described by some number N. Thus an {algorithm} may have computational complexity O(N^2) (of the order of the square of the size of the input), in which case if the input doubles in size, the computation will take four times as many steps. The ideal is a constant time algorithm (O(1)) or failing that, O(N). See also {NP-complete}. (1994-10-20)

component architecture "programming" A notion in {object-oriented} programming where "components" of a program are completely generic. Instead of having a specialised set of {methods} and {fields} they have generic methods through which the component can advertise the functionality it supports to the system into which it is loaded. This enables completely {dynamic loading} of {objects}. {JavaBeans} is an example of a component architecture. See also {design pattern}. (1997-11-20)

compression 1. "application" (Or "compaction") The coding of data to save storage space or transmission time. Although data is already coded in digital form for computer processing, it can often be coded more efficiently (using fewer bits). For example, {run-length encoding} replaces strings of repeated characters (or other units of data) with a single character and a count. There are many compression {algorithms} and utilities. Compressed data must be decompressed before it can be used. The standard {Unix} compression utilty is called {compress} though {GNU}'s superior {gzip} has largely replaced it. Other compression utilties include {pack}, {zip} and {PKZIP}. When compressing several similar files, it is usually better to join the files together into an {archive} of some kind (using {tar} for example) and then compress them, rather than to join together individually compressed files. This is because some common compression {algorithms} build up tables based on the data from their current input which they have already compressed. They then use this table to compress subsequent data more efficiently. See also {TIFF}, {JPEG}, {MPEG}, {Lempel-Ziv Welch}, "{lossy}", "{lossless}". {Compression FAQ (}. {Web Content Compression FAQ (}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:comp.compression}, {news:comp.compression.research}. 2. "multimedia" Reducing the dynamic range of an audio signal, making quiet sounds louder and loud sounds quieter. Thus, when discussing digital audio, the preferred term for reducing the total amount of data is "compaction". Some advocate this term in all contexts. (2004-04-26)

Computer Conservation Society "body" (CCS) A British group that aims to promote the conservation and study of historic computers, past and future. The CCS is a co-operative venture between the {British Computer Society}, the Science Museum of London and the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. The CCS was constituted in September 1989 as a Specialist Group of the BCS. A number of active projects and working groups focus on specific computer restorations, early computer technologies and software. Membership is open to anyone interested. {Home (}. See also {Bletchley Park}. (2012-03-22)

computer crime "legal" Breaking the criminal law by use of a computer. See also {computer ethics}, {software law}. (1997-07-09)

computer geek "jargon" (Or "turbo nerd", "turbo geek") One who eats (computer) {bugs} for a living. One who fulfils all the dreariest negative stereotypes about {hackers}: an asocial, malodourous, pasty-faced monomaniac with all the personality of a cheese grater. The term cannot be used by outsiders without implied insult to all {hackers}; compare black-on-black usage of "nigger". A computer geek may be either a fundamentally clueless individual or a proto-hacker in {larval stage}. See also {Alpha Geek}, {propeller head}, {clustergeeking}, {geek out}, {wannabee}, {terminal junkie}, {spod}, {weenie}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-06-26)

Computer Graphics Metafile "graphics, file format" (CGM) A standard file format for storage and communication of graphical information, widely used on {personal computers} and accepted by {desktop publishing} and technical illustration systems. {MIME type}: image/cgm. {ANSI}/{ISO} 8632-1987. Worked on by the {ISO}/{IEC} group {JTC1/SC24}. {CGM Open Consortium (}. See also: {WebCGM}. (1999-02-16)

Computer Supported Cooperative Work "tool" (CSCW) (Or "groupware") Software tools and technology to support groups of people working together on a project, often at different sites. See also {Lotus Notes}. (1994-11-30)

Computer Telephone Integration "communications" (CTI or "- Telephony -") Enabling computers to know about and control telephony functions such as making and receiving voice, {fax} and data calls, telephone directory services and {caller identification}. CTI is used in call centres to link incoming calls to computer software functions such as database look-up of the caller's number, supported by services such as {Automatic Number Identification} and {Dialled Number Identification Service}. Application software ({middleware}) can link {personal computers} and servers with telephones and/or a {PBX}. Telephony and {software} vendors such as {AT&T}, {British Telecom}, {IBM}, {Novell}, {Microsoft} and {Intel} have developed CTI services. The main {CTI} functions are integrating {messaging} with {databases}, {word processors} etc.; controlling voice, {fax}, and {e-mail} messaging systems from a single {application program}; graphical call control - using a {graphical user interface} to perform functions such as making and receiving calls, forwarding and conferencing; call and {data} association - provision of information about the caller from databases or other applications automatically before the call is answered or transferred; {speech synthesis} and {speech recognition}; automatic logging of call related information for invoicing purposes or callback. CTI can improve customer service, increase productivity, reduce costs and enhance workflow automation. IBM were one of the first with workable CTI, now sold as "CallPath". {Callware}'s {Phonetastic} is another {middleware} product. CTI came out of the 1980s call centre boom, where it linked central servers and {IVRs} with {PBX}es to provide call transfer and {screen popping}. In the 1990s, efforts were made by several vendors, such as IBM, Novell {TSAPI} and Microsoft {TAPI}, to provide a version for {desktop computers} that would allow control of a desktop telephone and assist in {hot desking}. See also {Telephony Application Programming Interface}. (2012-11-18)

computron "jargon" /kom'pyoo-tron"/ 1. A notional unit of computing power combining execution speed and storage capacity. E.g. "That machine can't run GNU Emacs, it doesn't have enough computrons!" 2. A mythical subatomic particle that carries computation or information, in much the same way that an electron carries electric charge (see also {bogon}). [{Jargon File}] (2013-03-02)

Conatus: The drive, force, or urge possessed by a thing which is directed towards the preservation of its own being. Since, for Spinoza, all things are animated, the term is used by him in a broader meaning than that accorded it, for example, in the Stoic philosophy. Spinoza maintains that there is no conatus for self-destruction (Ethica, III, 4; see also IV, 20 Schol., etc.); rather, the conatus relates to a thing's "power of existence", and he thus speaks of it as a kind of amour propre (natuurlyke Liefde) which characterizes a specific thing. See Short Tr., App. H. -- W.S.W.

Concerning the task of philosophy. See also Science of Science, Epistemology.

Concurrent Prolog "language" A {Prolog} variant with {guarded clauses} and {committed-choice nondeterminism} ({don't-care nondeterminism}) by Ehud "Udi" Shapiro, Yale "". A subset has been implemented, but not the full language. See also {Mandala}. ["Concurrent Prolog: Collected Papers", E. Shapiro, V.1-2, MIT Press 1987]. (1994-11-30)

connection-oriented "networking" (Or connection-based, stream-oriented). A type of {transport layer} data communication service that allows a {host} to send data in a continuous stream to another host. The transport service will guarantee that all data will be delivered to the other end in the same order as sent and without duplication. Communication proceeds through three well-defined phases: connection establishment, data transfer, connection release. The most common example is {Transmission Control Protocol} (TCP), another is {ATM}. The network nodes at either end needs to inform all intermediate nodes about their service requirements and traffic parameters in order to establish communication. Opposite of {connectionless}, {datagram}. See also {circuit switching}, {packet switching}, {virtual circuit}. (2014-11-27)

console 1. "hardware, operating system, history" The {operator}'s station of a {mainframe} as opposed to an ordinary user's {terminal}. In times past, the console was a privileged location that conveyed godlike powers to anyone with fingers on its keys. Under {Unix} and other modern {time-sharing} {operating systems}, such privileges are guarded by {passwords} instead, and the console is just the {tty} the system was booted from. On Unix the device is called /dev/console. On a {microcomputer} {Unix} box, the console is the main screen and keyboard. Other, character-only, terminals may be connected to {serial ports}. Typically only the console can do real {graphics} or run {X}. See also {CTY}. 2. "games" A self-contained {microcomputer} optimised for gaming, with powerful graphical output designed to be displayed on a television; equipped with one or more {joystick} controllers for input and an {optical drive} to load software. Later generations also feature {Internet} connection via {wireless} or wired {Ethernet} for downloading games and multiplayer networked play. Typically such devices have no keyboard so text must be input using the controller to operate an on-screen keyboard, e.g. to enter player names. The most successful recent examples are the {Sony Playstation} and {Microsoft Xbox} families. [{Jargon File}] (2014-07-01)

constructed type "types" A {type} formed by applying some {type constructor function} to one or more other types. The usual constructions are functions: t1 -" t2, products: (t1, t2), sums: t1 + t2 and lifting: lift(t1). (In {LaTeX}, the lifted type is written with a subscript {\perp}). See also {algebraic data type}, {primitive type}. (1995-02-03)

constructive solid geometry "graphics" (CSG) A method used in {solid modeling} to describe the geometry of complex three-dimensional scenes by applying {set operations} (union, difference, intersection) to {primitive} shapes (cuboids, cylinders, prisms, pyramids, spheres and cones). See also {CSG-tree}. {CSG in JavaScript (}. (2014-09-22)

content-free "jargon" 1. (By analogy with "context-free") Used of a message that adds nothing to the recipient's knowledge. Though this adjective is sometimes applied to {flamage}, it more usually connotes derision for communication styles that exalt form over substance or are centred on concerns irrelevant to the subject ostensibly at hand. Perhaps most used with reference to speeches by company presidents and other professional manipulators. See also {four-colour glossies}. "education" 2. Within British schools the term refers to general-purpose {software} such as a {word processor}, a {spreadsheet} or a program that tests spelling of words supplied by the teacher. This is in contrast to software designed to teach a particular topic, e.g. a plant growth simulation, an interactive periodic table or a program that tests spelling of a predetermined list of words. Content-free software can be more cost-effective as it can be reused for many lessons throughout the syllabus. [{Jargon File}] (2014-10-30)

Control Language "language" (CL) The {batch} language for {IBM RPG}/38, used in conjunction with {RPG III}. See also {OCL}. (2000-04-08)

cooked mode The normal{Unix} character-input mode, with interrupts enabled and with erase, kill and other special-character interpretations performed directly by the tty driver. Opposite of {raw mode}. See also {rare mode}. Other operating systems often have similar mode distinctions, and the raw/rare/cooked way of describing them has spread widely along with the {C} language and other Unix exports. Most generally, "cooked mode" may refer to any mode of a system that does extensive preprocessing before presenting data to a program. [{Jargon File}]

cookie 1. "web" {HTTP cookie}. 2. "protocol" A handle, transaction ID, or other token of agreement between cooperating programs. "I give him a packet, he gives me back a cookie". The ticket you get from a dry-cleaning shop is an example of a cookie; the only thing it's useful for is to relate a later transaction to this one (so you get the same clothes back). Compare {magic cookie}; see also {fortune cookie}. 3. "security, jargon" A {cracker} term for the {password} list on a {multi-user} computer. 4. "jargon" An adjective describing a computer that just became {toast}. (1997-04-14)

cookie monster "recreation" (From the children's TV program "Sesame Street") Any of a family of early (1970s) hacks reported on {TOPS-10}, {ITS}, {Multics} and elsewhere that would lock up either the victim's terminal (on a {time-sharing} machine) or the {console} (on a batch {mainframe}), repeatedly demanding "I WANT A COOKIE". The required responses ranged in complexity from "COOKIE" through "HAVE A COOKIE" and upward. See also {wabbit}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-02-12)

copyleft "legal" /kop'ee-left/ (A play on "copyright") The {copyright} notice and {General Public License} applying to the works of the {Free Software Foundation}, granting reuse and reproduction rights to everyone. Typically copyrights take away freedoms; copyleft preserves them. It is a legal instrument that requires those who pass on a program to include the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the code; the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable. The copyleft used by the GNU Project combines a regular copyright notice and the "GNU General Public License" (GPL). The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the aforementioned freedoms. The license is included in each GNU source code distribution and manual. See also {General Public Virus}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-04-18)

copyright "legal" The exclusive rights of the owner of the copyright on a work to make and distribute copies, prepare derivative works, and perform and display the work in public (these last two mainly apply to plays, films, dances and the like, but could also apply to software). A work, including a piece of software, is under copyright by default in most coutries, whether of not it displays a copyright notice. However, a copyright notice may make it easier to assert ownership. The copyright owner is the person or company whose name appears in the copyright notice on the box, or the disk or the screen or wherever. Most countries have agreed to uphold each others' copyrights. A copyright notice has three parts. The first can be either the {copyright symbol} (a letter C in a circle), the word "Copyright" or the abbreviation "Copr". Only the first of these is recognised internationally and the common {ASCII} rendering "(C)" is not valid anywhere. This is followed by the name of the copyright holder and the year of publication. The year should be the year of _first_ publication, it is not necessary as some believe to update this every year to the current year. Copyright protection in most countries extends for 50 years after the author's death. Originally, most of the computer industry assumed that only the program's underlying instructions were protected under copyright law but, beginning in the early 1980s, a series of lawsuits involving the video screens of game programs extended protections to the appearance of programs. Use of copyright to restrict redistribution is immoral, unethical and illegitimate. It is a result of brainwashing by monopolists and corporate interests and it violates everyone's rights. Such use of copyrights and patents hamper technological progress by making a naturally abundant resource scarce. Many, from communists to right wing libertarians, are trying to abolish intellectual property myths. See also {public domain}, {copyleft}, {software law}. {Universal Copyright Convention (}. {US Copyright Office (}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {}. [Is this definition correct in the UK? In the US? Anywhere?] (2014-01-08)

Cornell University "body, education" A US Ivy League University founded in 1868 by businessman Ezra Cornell and respected scholar Andrew Dickson White. Cornell includes thirteen colleges and schools. On the Ithaca campus are the seven undergraduate units and four graduate and professional units. The Medical College and the Graduate School of Medical Sciences are in New York City. Cornell has 13,300 undergraduates and 6,200 graduate and professional students. See also {Concurrent ML}, {Cornell Theory Center}, {Cornell University Programming Language}, {CU-SeeMe}, {ISIS}. {(}. (1996-12-01)

cosmic Self ::: Sri Aurobindo: "When one has the cosmic consciousness, one can feel the cosmic Self as one"s own self, one can feel one with other beings in the cosmos, one can feel all the forces of Nature as moving in oneself, all selves as one"s own self. There is no why except that it is so, since all is the One.” Letters on Yoga (See also Cosmic Spirit)

"Impersonality is the first character of cosmic self; . . . .” *The Life Divine

"An eternal infinite self-existence is the supreme reality, but the supreme transcendent eternal Being, Self and Spirit, — an infinite Person, we may say, because his being is the essence and source of all personality, — is the reality and meaning of self-existence: so too the cosmic Self, Spirit, Being, Person is the reality and meaning of cosmic existence; the same Self, Spirit, Being or Person manifesting its multiplicity is the reality and meaning of individual existence.” The Life Divine

"But this cosmic self is spiritual in essence and in experience; it must not be confused with the collective existence, with any group soul or the life and body of a human society or even of all mankind.” The Synthesis of Yoga

"It is the Cosmic Self and Spirit that is in and behind all things and beings, from which and in which all is manifested in the universe — although it is now a manifestation in the Ignorance.” Letters on Yoga*

cottise ::: n. --> A diminutive of the bendlet, containing one half its area or one quarter the area of the bend. When a single cottise is used alone it is often called a cost. See also Couple-close.

cracker "jargon" An individual who attempts to gain unauthorised access to a computer system. These individuals are often malicious and have many means at their disposal for breaking into a system. The term was coined ca. 1985 by hackers in defence against journalistic misuse of "{hacker}". An earlier attempt to establish "worm" in this sense around 1981--82 on {Usenet} was largely a failure. Use of both these neologisms reflects a strong revulsion against the theft and vandalism perpetrated by cracking rings. The neologism "cracker" in this sense may have been influenced not so much by the term "safe-cracker" as by the non-jargon term "cracker", which in Middle English meant an obnoxious person (e.g., "What cracker is this same that deafs our ears / With this abundance of superfluous breath?" -- Shakespeare's King John, Act II, Scene I) and in modern colloquial American English survives as a barely gentler synonym for "white trash". While it is expected that any real hacker will have done some playful cracking and knows many of the basic techniques, anyone past {larval stage} is expected to have outgrown the desire to do so except for immediate practical reasons (for example, if it's necessary to get around some security in order to get some work done). Contrary to widespread myth, cracking does not usually involve some mysterious leap of hackerly brilliance, but rather persistence and the dogged repetition of a handful of fairly well-known tricks that exploit common weaknesses in the security of target systems. Accordingly, most crackers are only mediocre hackers. Thus, there is far less overlap between hackerdom and crackerdom than the {mundane} reader misled by sensationalistic journalism might expect. Crackers tend to gather in small, tight-knit, very secretive groups that have little overlap with the huge, open hacker poly-culture; though crackers often like to describe *themselves* as hackers, most true hackers consider them a separate and lower form of life, little better than {virus} writers. Ethical considerations aside, hackers figure that anyone who can't imagine a more interesting way to play with their computers than breaking into someone else's has to be pretty {losing}. See also {Computer Emergency Response Team}, {dark-side hacker}, {hacker ethic}, {phreaking}, {samurai}, {Trojan horse}. [{Jargon File}] (1998-06-29)

crannoge ::: n. --> One of the stockaded islands in Scotland and Ireland which in ancient times were numerous in the lakes of both countries. They may be regarded as the very latest class of prehistoric strongholds, reaching their greatest development in early historic times, and surviving through the Middle Ages. See also Lake dwellings, under Lake.

crayola books "publication" A humorous and/or disparaging term for the {rainbow series} of National Computer Security Center (NCSC) computer security standards. See also {Orange Book}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-12-03)

creeping elegance Describes a tendency for parts of a design to become {elegant} past the point of diminishing return, something which often happens at the expense of the less interesting parts of the design, the schedule, and other things deemed important in the {Real World}. See also {creeping featurism}, {second-system effect}, {tense}.

creeping featurism "jargon" /kree'ping fee'chr-izm/ (Or "feature creep") A systematic tendency to load more {chrome} and {features} onto systems at the expense of whatever elegance they may have possessed when originally designed. "The main problem with {BSD} Unix has always been creeping featurism." More generally, creeping featurism is the tendency for anything to become more complicated because people keep saying "Gee, it would be even better if it had this feature too". The result is usually a patchwork because it grew one ad-hoc step at a time, rather than being planned. Planning is a lot of work, but it's easy to add just one extra little feature to help someone, and then another, and another, .... When creeping featurism gets out of hand, it's like a cancer. Usually this term is used to describe computer programs, but it could also be said of the federal government, the IRS 1040 form, and new cars. A similar phenomenon sometimes afflicts conscious redesigns; see {second-system effect}. See also {creeping elegance}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-08-03)

cross-assembler An {assembler} which runs on one type of processor and produces {machine code} for another. There is a set of {6502}, 68xx and {Zilog Z80} and {8085} cross-assemblers in {C} by "" and Alan R. Baldwin. They run under {MS-DOS} and could be compiled to run under {Unix} and on the {Amiga} and {Atari ST}. See also {fas}. {(}. (1993-03-10)

cryptography "cryptography" The practise and study of {encryption} and {decryption} - encoding data so that it can only be decoded by specific individuals. A system for encrypting and decrypting data is a cryptosystem. These usually involve an {algorithm} for combining the original data ("{plaintext}") with one or more "keys" - numbers or strings of characters known only to the sender and/or recipient. The resulting output is known as "{ciphertext}". The security of a cryptosystem usually depends on the secrecy of (some of) the keys rather than with the supposed secrecy of the {algorithm}. A strong cryptosystem has a large range of possible keys so that it is not possible to just try all possible keys (a "{brute force}" approach). A strong cryptosystem will produce ciphertext which appears random to all standard statistical tests. A strong cryptosystem will resist all known previous methods for breaking codes ("{cryptanalysis}"). See also {cryptology}, {public-key encryption}, {RSA}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:sci.crypt}, {news:sci.crypt.research}. {FAQ} {MIT (}. {Cryptography glossary (

C. S. Peirce, Collected Papers. See also Communication, Meaning, Referent, Semiotic, Sign, Symbol, Functions of Language, Scientific Empiricism.- -- M.B.

cybernetics "robotics" /si:`b*-net'iks/ The study of control and communication in living and man-made systems. The term was first proposed by {Norbert Wiener} in the book referenced below. Originally, cybernetics drew upon electrical engineering, mathematics, biology, neurophysiology, anthropology, and psychology to study and describe actions, feedback, and response in systems of all kinds. It aims to understand the similarities and differences in internal workings of organic and machine processes and, by formulating abstract concepts common to all systems, to understand their behaviour. Modern "second-order cybernetics" places emphasis on how the process of constructing models of the systems is influenced by those very systems, hence an elegant definition - "applied epistemology". Related recent developments (often referred to as {sciences of complexity}) that are distinguished as separate disciplines are {artificial intelligence}, {neural networks}, {systems theory}, and {chaos theory}, but the boundaries between those and cybernetics proper are not precise. See also {robot}. {The Cybernetics Society (} of the UK. {American Society for Cybernetics (}. {IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society (}. {International project "Principia Cybernetica" (}. ["Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine", N. Wiener, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1948] (2002-01-01)

database 1. "database" One or more large structured sets of persistent data, usually associated with software to update and {query} the data. A simple database might be a single file containing many {records}, each of which contains the same set of {fields} where each field is a certain fixed width. A database is one component of a {database management system}. See also {ANSI/SPARC Architecture}, {atomic}, {blob}, {data definition language}, {deductive database}, {distributed database}, {fourth generation language}, {functional database}, {object-oriented database}, {relational database}. {Carol E. Brown's tutorial (}. 2. "hypertext" A collection of {nodes} managed and stored in one place and all accessible via the same {server}. {Links} outside this are "external", and those inside are "internal". On the {World-Wide Web} this is called a {website}. 3. All the facts and rules comprising a {logic programming} program. (2005-11-17)

database management system "database" (DBMS) A suite of programs which typically manage large structured sets of persistent data, offering ad hoc query facilities to many users. They are widely used in business applications. A database management system (DBMS) can be an extremely complex set of software programs that controls the organisation, storage and retrieval of data (fields, records and files) in a database. It also controls the security and integrity of the database. The DBMS accepts requests for data from the application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organisation's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system. Data security prevents unauthorised users from viewing or updating the database. Using passwords, users are allowed access to the entire database or subsets of the database, called subschemas (pronounced "sub-skeema"). For example, an employee database can contain all the data about an individual employee, but one group of users may be authorised to view only payroll data, while others are allowed access to only work history and medical data. The DBMS can maintain the integrity of the database by not allowing more than one user to update the same record at the same time. The DBMS can keep duplicate records out of the database; for example, no two customers with the same customer numbers (key fields) can be entered into the database. {Query languages} and {report writers} allow users to interactively interrogate the database and analyse its data. If the DBMS provides a way to interactively enter and update the database, as well as interrogate it, this capability allows for managing personal databases. However, it may not leave an audit trail of actions or provide the kinds of controls necessary in a multi-user organisation. These controls are only available when a set of application programs are customised for each data entry and updating function. A business information system is made up of subjects (customers, employees, vendors, etc.) and activities (orders, payments, purchases, etc.). Database design is the process of deciding how to organize this data into record types and how the record types will relate to each other. The DBMS should mirror the organisation's data structure and process transactions efficiently. Organisations may use one kind of DBMS for daily transaction processing and then move the detail onto another computer that uses another DBMS better suited for random inquiries and analysis. Overall systems design decisions are performed by data administrators and systems analysts. Detailed database design is performed by database administrators. The three most common organisations are the {hierarchical database}, {network database} and {relational database}. A database management system may provide one, two or all three methods. Inverted lists and other methods are also used. The most suitable structure depends on the application and on the transaction rate and the number of inquiries that will be made. Database machines are specially designed computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Connected to one or more mainframes via a high-speed channel, database machines are used in large volume transaction processing environments. Database machines have a large number of DBMS functions built into the hardware and also provide special techniques for accessing the disks containing the databases, such as using multiple processors concurrently for high-speed searches. The world of information is made up of data, text, pictures and voice. Many DBMSs manage text as well as data, but very few manage both with equal proficiency. Throughout the 1990s, as storage capacities continue to increase, DBMSs will begin to integrate all forms of information. Eventually, it will be common for a database to handle data, text, graphics, voice and video with the same ease as today's systems handle data. See also: {intelligent database}. (1998-10-07)

data bus "architecture" The bus (connections between and within the {CPU}, memory, and peripherals) used to carry {data}. Other connections are the {address bus} and control signals. The width and {clock rate} of the data bus determine its data rate (the number of {bytes} per second it can carry), which is one of the main factors determining the processing power of a computer. Most current processor designs use a 32-bit bus, meaning that 32 bits of data can be transferred at once. Some processors have an internal data bus which is wider than their external bus in order to make external connections cheaper while retaining some of the benefits in processing power of a wider bus. See also {data path}. (1995-01-16)

Data definition language "language, database" (DDL) 1. A language enabling the structure and instances of a {database} to be defined in a human-, and machine-readable form. {SQL} contains DDL commands that can be used either interactively, or within programming language {source code}, to define databases and their components, e.g. CREATE and DROP. See also {Data manipulation language} (DML). 2. A specification language for databases, based on the {entity-relationship model}. It is used in the {Eli} {compiler-compiler} to manage type definitions. ["DDL Reference Manual", ECE Dept U Colorado, 1991]. (1999-04-26)

datagram A self-contained, independent entity of data carrying sufficient information to be {route}d from the source to the destination computer without reliance on earlier exchanges between this source and destination computer and the transporting {network}. See also {connectionless}, {frame}, {packet}.

Data Manipulation Language "language, database" (DML, or {Data Management Language}) A language for the manipulation of data in a {database} by applications and/or directly by end-users. {SQL} contains DML commands such as INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE. See also {Data Definition Language} (DDL). (1999-04-26)

dead code "programming" (Or "infeasible path") Any part of a {program} that can never be executed because no {control flow} path leads to it. This may be because it is guarded by a {control structure} that will always {transfer control} somewhere else, e.g. if (false) {  

deadlock "parallel, programming" A situation where two or more {processes} are unable to proceed because each is waiting for one of the others to do something. A common example is a program waiting for output from a server while the server is waiting for more input from the controlling program before outputting anything. It is reported that this particular flavour of deadlock is sometimes called a "starvation deadlock", though the term "starvation" is more properly used for situations where a program can never run simply because it never gets high enough priority. Another common flavour is "constipation", in which each process is trying to send stuff to the other but all buffers are full because nobody is reading anything). See {deadly embrace}. Another example, common in {database} programming, is two processes that are sharing some resource (e.g. read access to a {table}) but then both decide to wait for exclusive (e.g. write) access. The term "deadly embrace" is mostly synonymous, though usually used only when exactly two processes are involved. This is the more popular term in Europe, while {deadlock} predominates in the United States. Compare: {livelock}. See also {safety property}, {liveness property}. [{Jargon File}] (2000-07-26)

dead tree "publication, jargon" Paper. Use of this term emphasises the waste of natural resources and limited features available from the printed form of a document compared with an electronic rendition. E.g. "I read the dead tree edition of the {Guardian (} on the train". See also {tree-killer}. (1999-11-03)

deboursification "jargon" Removal of irrelevant {newsgroups} from the Newsgroups header of a {followup}. The term applies particularly to the removal of frivolous groups added by one of the Kooks. See also: {sneck}. [Sam Spade anti-{spam} software]. (1999-09-15)

declarative language "language" Any {relational language} or {functional language}. These kinds of {programming language} describe relationships between variables in terms of {functions} or {inference rules}, and the language executor ({interpreter} or {compiler}) applies some fixed {algorithm} to these relations to produce a result. Declarative languages contrast with {imperative languages} which specify explicit manipulation of the computer's internal state; or {procedural languages} which specify an explicit sequence of steps to follow. The most common examples of declarative languages are {logic programming} languages such as {Prolog} and {functional languages} like {Haskell}. See also {production system}. (2004-05-17)

Defense Data Network Network Information Center (DDN NIC or just "The NIC") The {DDN} {NIC}'s primary responsibility is the assignment of {Internet address}es and {Autonomous System numbers}, the administration of the root domain, and providing information and support services to the {DDN}. It is also a primary repository for {RFCs}. See also {Internet Registry}. (1994-12-07)

Defense Trade Regulations "legal" The U.S. law governening munitions export and defense technology (F-16s, TOW missiles and {cryptology}). According to the U.S. (and Canada) cryptography is a munition and people who export it can be charged as though they were exporting bombs or state secrets. People have been. See also {EFF}. (1995-06-19)

delimiter "character" A {character} or {string} used to separate, or mark the start and end of, items of data in, e.g., a {database}, {source code}, or {text file}. See also: {record}. (2001-03-16)

demand driven A demand driven architecture/language performs computations when the result is required by some other computation. E.g. {Imperial College}'s {ALICE} running {HOPE}. See also {data flow}, {lazy evaluation}, {reduction}. (1995-02-16)

demigod "person" A hacker with years of experience, a national reputation, and a major role in the development of at least one design, tool, or game used by or known to more than half of the hacker community. To qualify as a genuine demigod, the person must recognisably identify with the hacker community and have helped shape it. Major demigods include {Ken Thompson} and {Dennis Ritchie} (co-inventors of {Unix} and {C}) and {Richard Stallman} (inventor of {Emacs}). In their hearts of hearts, most hackers dream of someday becoming demigods themselves, and more than one major software project has been driven to completion by the author's veiled hopes of apotheosis. See also {net.god}, {true-hacker}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-10-27)

Dennis Ritchie "person" Dennis M. Ritchie, co-author of the {Unix} {operating system}, inventor of the {C} programming language and {demigod}. See also {K&R}, {Core War}, {If you want X, you know where to find it}. (2008-03-26)

deprecated Said of a program or feature that is considered obsolescent and in the process of being phased out, usually in favour of a specified replacement. Deprecated features can, unfortunately, linger on for many years. This term appears with distressing frequency in standards documents when the committees writing the documents realise that large amounts of extant (and presumably happily working) code depend on the feature(s) that have passed out of favour. See also {dusty deck}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-04-19)

depth-first search "algorithm" A graph search {algorithm} which extends the current path as far as possible before {backtracking} to the last {choice point} and trying the next alternative path. Depth-first search may fail to find a solution if it enters a cycle in the graph. This can be avoided if we never extend a path to a node which it already contains. Opposite of {breadth first search}. See also {iterative deepening}. (1995-04-19)

Descartes, Rene: See Cartesianism. Description, Knowledge by: (Lat. de + scribere, to write) Knowledge about things in contrast to direct acquaintance with things. See Acquaintance, Knowledge by. Description is opposed to exact definition in the Port Royal Logic (Part II, ch. XVI). Among the first to contrast description and acquaintance was G. Grote (Exploratio Philosophica, p. 60. See also W. James, Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, pp. 221 ff. and B. Russell, Problems of Philosophy, ch. V.) -- L.W.

development environment "programming, tool" An integrated suite of {tools} to aid the {development} of {software} in a particular {language} or for a particular {application}. Usually, this consists of a {compiler} and {editor} and may also include one or more of a {debugger}, {profiler}, and {source code} manager. See also: {IDE}. (1999-08-01)

devo /dee'voh/ (In-house jargon at {Symbolics}) A person in a development group. See also {doco} and {mango}. (1994-11-04)

Dichotomy: (Gr. dicha, in two; temno, to cut) Literally, a division into two parts. In a specific example the view that man consists of soul and body. The earlier view of the Old Testament writers; also, a view found in certain expressions of St. Paul. See also Trichotomy. -- V.F.

Dictionary of Terms from also Glossary of Sri Aurobindo's Terms

Dictum de omni et nullo: The leading principles of the syllogisms in Barbara and Celarent, variously formulated, and attributed to Aristotle. "Whatever is affirmed (denied) of an entire class or kind may be affirmed (denied) of any part." The four moods of the first figure were held to be directly validated by this dictum, and this was given as the motive for the traditional reductions of the last three syllogistic figures to the first. See also Aristotle's dictum. -- A.C.

die 1. "jargon" {crash}. Unlike {crash}, which is used primarily of hardware, this verb is used of both hardware and software. See also {go flatline}, {casters-up mode}. 2. "electronics" Plural: dies. An unpackaged {integrated circuit}. [{Jargon File}] (2002-12-09)

diff /dif/ 1. A change listing, especially giving differences between (and additions to) different versions of a piece of source code or documentation (the term is often used in the plural "diffs"). "Send me your diffs for the Jargon File!" Compare {vdiff}. 2. Specifically, such a listing produced by the diff {Unix} command, especially when used as input to the {patch} utility (which actually performs the modifications). This is a common method of distributing patches and source updates. 3. To compare (whether or not by use of automated tools on machine-readable files). See also {vdiff}, {mod}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-10)

digital audio "multimedia, file format" A sequence of discrete samples taken from a continuous sound ({audio}) waveform. Tens of thousands of samples are taken each second. Each sample represents the intensity of the sound pressure wave at that instant. Apart from the sampling frequency, the other parameter is the digital encoding of each sample including the number of {bits} used. The encoding may be linear, logarithmic or {mu-law}. Digital audio is typically created by taking 16-bit samples over a spectrum of 44.1 thousand cycles per second (kHz), this means that CD quality sound requires 1.4 million bits of data per second. Digital telephone systems use lower sample rates. {Filename extension}: .au ({Unix}), .snd ({MS-DOS}, {MS Windows}). See also {Audio IFF}, {MP3}, {wav}. {Usenet} newsgroups: alt.binaries.sounds.*. A {FAQ} on audio file formats is available. {Part 1 (}, {Part 2 (}. (1999-07-30)

digit An employee of Digital Equipment Corporation. See also {VAX}, {VMS}, {PDP-10}, {TOPS-10}, {DEChead}, {double DECkers}, {field circus}. [{Jargon File}]

Dilbert "humour" A cartoon computer worker drawn by Scott Adams "", who works in Silicon Valley. The cartoon became so popular he left his day job. The cartoon satirises typical corporate life, especially that which revolves around computers. See also: {BOFH}. {(}. (1996-10-11)

dinosaur 1. Any hardware requiring raised flooring and special power. Used especially of old {minicomputers} and {mainframes}, in contrast with newer {microprocessor}-based machines. In a famous quote from the 1988 Unix EXPO, {Bill Joy} compared the liquid-cooled mainframe in the massive {IBM} display with a grazing dinosaur "with a truck outside pumping its bodily fluids through it". IBM was not amused. Compare {big iron}; see also {dinosaurs mating}. 2. [IBM] A very conservative user; a {zipperhead}. [{Jargon File}]

directed graph (digraph) A graph with one-way edges. See also {directed acyclic graph}. (1994-11-11)

direct mapped cache "architecture" A {cache} where the cache location for a given address is determined from the middle address bits. If the {cache line} size is 2^n then the bottom n address bits correspond to an offset within a cache entry. If the cache can hold 2^m entries then the next m address bits give the cache location. The remaining top address bits are stored as a "tag" along with the entry. In this scheme, there is no choice of which block to flush on a cache miss since there is only one place for any block to go. This simple scheme has the disadvantage that if the program alternately accesses different addresses which map to the same cache location then it will suffer a cache miss on every access to these locations. This kind of {cache conflict} is quite likely on a multi-processor. See also {fully associative cache}, {set associative cache}.

discrete Fourier transform "mathematics" (DFT) A {Fourier transform}, specialized to the case where the {abscissas} are integers. The DFT is central to many kinds of {signal processing}, including the analysis and {compression} of video and {sound} information. A common implementation of the DFT is the {Fast Fourier Transform} (FFT). See also {discrete cosine transform}. (1997-03-10)

disk drive "hardware, storage" (Or "hard disk drive", "hard drive", "floppy disk drive", "floppy drive") A {peripheral} device that reads and writes {hard disks} or {floppy disks}. The drive contains a motor to rotate the disk at a constant rate and one or more read/write heads which are positioned over the desired {track} by a servo mechanism. It also contains the electronics to amplify the signals from the heads to normal digital logic levels and vice versa. In order for a disk drive to start to read or write a given location a read/write head must be positioned radially over the right track and rotationally over the start of the right sector. Radial motion is known as "{seek}ing" and it is this which causes most of the intermittent noise heard during disk activity. There is usually one head for each disk surface and all heads move together. The set of locations which are accessible with the heads in a given radial position are known as a "{cylinder}". The "{seek time}" is the time taken to seek to a different cylinder. The disk is constantly rotating (except for some {floppy disk} drives where the motor is switched off between accesses to reduce wear and power consumption) so positioning the heads over the right sector is simply a matter of waiting until it arrives under the head. With a single set of heads this "{rotational latency}" will be on average half a revolution but some big drives have multiple sets of heads spaced at equal angles around the disk. If seeking and rotation are independent, access time is seek time + rotational latency. When accessing multiple tracks sequentially, data is sometimes arranged so that by the time the seek from one track to the next has finished, the disk has rotated just enough to begin accessing the next track. See also {sector interleave}. Early disk drives had a capacity of a few {megabytes} and were housed inside a separate cabinet the size of a washing machine. Over a few decades they shrunk to fit a {terabyte} or more in a box the size of a paperback book. The disks may be {removable disks}; floppy disks always are, removable hard disks were common on {mainframes} and {minicomputers} but less so on {microcomputers} until the mid 1990s(?) with products like the {Zip Drive}. A {CD-ROM} drive is not usually referred to as a disk drive. Two common interfaces for disk drives (and other devices) are {SCSI} and {IDE}. {ST-506} used to be common in microcomputers (in the 1980s?). (1997-04-15)

diskless workstation "computer, networking" A {personal computer} or {workstation} which has neither a {hard disk} nor {floppy disk} drive and which performs all file access via a {local area network} connection to a {file server}. The lowest level {bootstrap} code is stored in {non-volatile storage}. This uses a simple {protocol} such as {BOOTP} to request and {download} more sophisticated boot code and eventually, the {operating system}. The archtypal product was the {3Station} developed by Bob Metcalfe at {3Com}. Another example was the {Sun} 3/50. Diskless workstations are ideal when many users are running the same application. They are small, quiet, more reliable than products with disks, and help prevent both the theft of data and the introduction of viruses since the software and data available on them is controlled by the network administrator or system administrator. They do however rely on a server which becomes a disadvantage if it is heavily loaded or {down}. See also {breath-of-life packet}. (1995-03-28)

display standard "hardware, standard" {IBM} and others have introduced a bewildering plethora of graphics and text display {standards} for {IBM PC}s. The standards are mostly implemented by plugging in a video display board (or "{graphics adaptor}") and connecting the appropriate monitor to it. Each new standard subsumes its predecessors. For example, an {EGA} board can also do {CGA} and {MDA}. With the {PS/2}, IBM introduced the {VGA} standard and built it into the main system board {motherboard}. VGA is also available as a plug-in board for PCs from third-party vendors. Also with the PS/2, IBM introduced the {8514} high-resolution graphics standard. An 8514 adaptor board plugs into the PS/2, providing a dual-monitor capability. Graphics software had to support the major IBM graphics standards and many non-IBM, proprietary standards for displays. Either software vendors provided {display drivers} or display vendors provided drivers for the software package. In either case, switching software or switching display systems was fraught with compatibility problems. Display  Resolution Colours Sponsor Systems MDA   720x350 T 2 IBM   PC CGA   320x200 4 IBM   PC EGA   640x350 16 IBM   PC PGA   640x480 256 IBM   PC Hercules 729x348 2 non-IBM PC MCGA   720x400 T   320x200 G 256 PS/2 VGA   720x400 T   640x480 G 16 SVGA   800x600 16 VESA XVGA 1024x768 256 (IBM name: 8514) T: text, G: graphics. More colours are available from third-party vendors for some display types. See also {MDA}, {CGA}, {EGA}, {PGA}, {Hercules}, {MCGA}, {VGA}, {SVGA}, {8514}, {VESA}. [What were the corresponding "mode" numbers"?] (2011-03-20)

doco "jargon" /do'koh/ 1. (In-house jargon at Symbolics) A documentation writer. See also {devo} and {mango}. 2. (UK) A short technical document. A "doco" is often not the documentation passed to management. Compare {doc}. [{Jargon File}] (1999-10-08)

documentation "programming" The multiple kilograms of macerated, pounded, steamed, bleached, and pressed trees that accompany most modern software or hardware products (see also {tree-killer}). Hackers seldom read paper documentation and (too) often resist writing it; they prefer theirs to be terse and {on-line}. A common comment on this predilection is "You can't {grep} dead trees". See {drool-proof paper}, {verbiage}, {treeware}. [{Jargon File}] (2003-10-25)

domainist "jargon" /doh-mayn'ist/ 1. Said of a domain address (as opposed to a {bang path}) because the part to the right of the "@" specifies a nested series of "domains"; for example, specifies the machine called snark in the subdomain called thyrsus within the top-level domain called com. See also {big-endian}. 2. Said of a site, mailer or routing program which knows how to handle domainist addresses. 3. Said of a person (especially a site admin) who prefers domain addressing, supports a domainist mailer, or proselytises for domainist addressing and disdains {bang paths}. This term is now (1993) semi-obsolete, as most sites have converted. [{Jargon File}] (1995-04-21)

domain theory "theory" A branch of mathematics introduced by Dana Scott in 1970 as a mathematical theory of programming languages, and for nearly a quarter of a century developed almost exclusively in connection with {denotational semantics} in computer science. In {denotational semantics} of programming languages, the meaning of a program is taken to be an element of a domain. A domain is a mathematical structure consisting of a set of values (or "points") and an ordering relation, "= on those values. Domain theory is the study of such structures. (""=" is written in {LaTeX} as {\subseteq}) Different domains correspond to the different types of object with which a program deals. In a language containing functions, we might have a domain X -" Y which is the set of functions from domain X to domain Y with the ordering f "= g iff for all x in X, f x "= g x. In the {pure lambda-calculus} all objects are functions or {applications} of functions to other functions. To represent the meaning of such programs, we must solve the {recursive} equation over domains, D = D -" D which states that domain D is ({isomorphic} to) some {function space} from D to itself. I.e. it is a {fixed point} D = F(D) for some operator F that takes a domain D to D -" D. The equivalent equation has no non-trivial solution in {set theory}. There are many definitions of domains, with different properties and suitable for different purposes. One commonly used definition is that of Scott domains, often simply called domains, which are {omega-algebraic}, {consistently complete} {CPOs}. There are domain-theoretic computational models in other branches of mathematics including {dynamical systems}, {fractals}, {measure theory}, {integration theory}, {probability theory}, and {stochastic processes}. See also {abstract interpretation}, {bottom}, {pointed domain}. (1999-12-09)

Donald Knuth "person" Donald E. Knuth, the author of the {TeX} document formatting system, {Metafont} its {font}-design program and the 3 volume computer science "Bible" of {algorithms}, "The Art of Computer Programming". Knuth suggested the name "{Backus-Naur Form}" and was also involved in the {SOL} simulation language, and developed the {WEB} {literate programming} system. See also {MIX}, {Turingol}. (1994-11-04)

dot "character" {decimal point}. See also {dot file}, {dot notation}. (1995-03-14)

dot file "operating system, convention" A {Unix} {application program} configuration file. On {Unix}, files named with a leading dot are not normally shown in directory listings. Many programs define one or more dot files in which startup or configuration information may be optionally recorded; a user can customise the program's behaviour by creating the appropriate file in the current or {home directory}. Dot files tend to proliferate - with every nontrivial application program defining at least one, a user's home directory can be filled with scores of dot files, without the user really being aware of it. Common examples are .profile, .cshrc, .login, .emacs, .mailrc, .forward, .newsrc, .plan, .rhosts, .sig, .xsession. See also {profile}, {rc file}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-07)

double bucky Using both the CTRL and META keys. "The command to burn all LEDs is double bucky F." This term originated on the Stanford extended-ASCII keyboard, and was later taken up by users of the {space-cadet keyboard} at MIT. A typical MIT comment was that the Stanford {bucky bits} (control and meta shifting keys) were nice, but there weren't enough of them; you could type only 512 different characters on a Stanford keyboard. An obvious way to address this was simply to add more shifting keys, and this was eventually done; but a keyboard with that many shifting keys is hard on touch-typists, who don't like to move their hands away from the home position on the keyboard. It was half-seriously suggested that the extra shifting keys be implemented as pedals; typing on such a keyboard would be very much like playing a full pipe organ. This idea is mentioned in a parody of a very fine song by Jeffrey Moss called "Rubber Duckie", which was published in "The Sesame Street Songbook" (Simon and Schuster 1971, ISBN 0-671-21036-X). These lyrics were written on May 27, 1978, in celebration of the Stanford keyboard:         Double Bucky Double bucky, you're the one! You make my keyboard lots of fun.   Double bucky, an additional bit or two: (Vo-vo-de-o!) Control and meta, side by side, Augmented ASCII, nine bits wide!   Double bucky! Half a thousand glyphs, plus a few!     Oh,     I sure wish that I     Had a couple of       Bits more!     Perhaps a     Set of pedals to     Make the number of       Bits four:     Double double bucky! Double bucky, left and right OR'd together, outta sight!   Double bucky, I'd like a whole word of   Double bucky, I'm happy I heard of   Double bucky, I'd like a whole word of you! - The Great Quux (With apologies to Jeffrey Moss. This, by the way, is an excellent example of computer {filk} --- ESR). See also {meta bit}, {cokebottle}, and {quadruple bucky}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-07)

Doug Lenat "person" One of the world's leading computer scientists specialising in {Artificial Intelligence}. He is currently (1999) head of the {Cyc} Project at {MCC}, and President of Cycorp. He has been a Professor of Computer Science at {Carnegie-Mellon University} and {Stanford University}. See also {microLenat}. (1999-08-24)

Dragon Book "publication" The classic text "Compilers: Principles, Techniques and Tools", by Alfred V. Aho, Ravi Sethi, and Jeffrey D. Ullman (Addison-Wesley 1986; ISBN 0-201-10088-6). So called because of the cover design featuring a dragon labelled "complexity of compiler design" and a knight bearing the lance "LALR parser generator" among his other trappings. This one is more specifically known as the "Red Dragon Book" (1986); an earlier edition, sans Sethi and titled "Principles Of Compiler Design" (Alfred V. Aho and Jeffrey D. Ullman; Addison-Wesley, 1977; ISBN 0-201-00022-9), was the "Green Dragon Book" (1977). (Also "New Dragon Book", "Old Dragon Book".) The horsed knight and the Green Dragon were warily eying each other at a distance; now the knight is typing (wearing gauntlets!) at a terminal showing a video-game representation of the Red Dragon's head while the rest of the beast extends back in normal space. See also {book titles}. (1996-12-03)

drake ::: a male duck. drakes. (See also mystic drake.)

DRECNET /drek'net/ [Yiddish/German "dreck", meaning filth] Deliberate distortion of DECNET, a networking protocol used in the {VMS} community. So called because DEC helped write the Ethernet specification and then (either stupidly or as a malignant customer-control tactic) violated that spec in the design of DRECNET in a way that made it incompatible. See also {connector conspiracy}.

drop on the floor To react to an error condition by silently discarding messages or other valuable data. "The gateway ran out of memory, so it just started dropping packets on the floor." Also frequently used of faulty mail and netnews relay sites that lose messages. See also {black hole}, {bit bucket}.

drum Ancient slow, cylindrical magnetic media that were once state-of-the-art storage devices. Under {BSD} {Unix} the disk partition used for swapping is still called "/dev/drum"; this has led to considerable humour and not a few straight-faced but utterly bogus "explanations" getting foisted on {newbies}. See also "{The Story of Mel}". (1994-12-22)

dup killer /d[y]oop kill'r/ Software that is supposed to detect and delete duplicates of a message that may have reached the {FidoNet} system via different routes. See also {dup loop}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-02)

DYnamic LANguage "language" (Dylan) A simple {object-oriented} {Lisp} dialect, most closely resembling {CLOS} and {Scheme}, developed by Advanced Technology Group East at {Apple Computer}. {Thomas} is a Dylan {compiler} implemented in {Scheme}. See also {Marlais}. ["Dylan(TM) an Object-Oriented Dynamic Language", {Apple Computer}, Eastern Research and Technology, April 1992]. (1995-04-19)

dynner "data, jargon" /din'r/ 32 {bits}, by analogy with {byte}. Usage: rare and extremely silly. See also {playte}, {tayste}, {crumb}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-12-03)

E 1. An extension of {C++} with {database} types and {persistent} {objects}. E is a powerful and flexible {procedural} programming language. It is used in the {Exodus} database system. See also {GNU E}. {(}. ["Persistence in the E Language: Issues and Implementation", J.E. Richardson et al, Soft Prac & Exp 19(12):1115-1150 (Dec 1989)]. 2. "language" A {procedural language} by Wouter van Oortmerssen with {semantics} similar to {C}. E features lists, low-level {polymorphism}, {exception} handling, quoted expressions, {pattern matching} and {object} {inheritance}. {Amiga E} is a version for the {Amiga}. (1999-10-05)

eager evaluation Any {evaluation strategy} where evaluation of some or all function arguments is started before their value is required. A typical example is {call-by-value}, where all arguments are passed evaluated. The opposite of eager evaluation is {call-by-need} where evaluation of an argument is only started when it is required. The term "{speculative evaluation}" is very close in meaning to eager evaluation but is applied mostly to parallel architectures whereas eager evaluation is used of both sequential and parallel evaluators. Eager evaluation does not specify exactly when argument evaluation takes place - it might be done fully speculatively (all {redex}es in the program reduced in parallel) or may be done by the caller just before the function is entered. The term "eager evaluation" was invented by Carl Hewitt and Henry Baker "" and used in their paper ["The Incremental Garbage Collection of Processes", Sigplan Notices, Aug 1977. {(}]. It was named after their "eager beaver" evaluator. See also {conservative evaluation}, {lenient evaluation}, {strict evaluation}. (1994-12-22)

Early PL/I "language" (EPL) A {PL/I} subset dialect by McIlroy, Morris et al, the first running PL/I {compiler}. It was used by {Bell Labs} and {MIT} to write {Multics}. EPL had extensions to handle the segment/offset nature of {Multics} pointers. See also {REPL}, {TMG}. ["EPL Reference Manual", Project MAC, April 1966]. [Sammet 1969, p. 542]. (1995-11-15)

ECRC-Prolog Evidently {Prolog} with {coroutine} extensions. See also {SEPIA}. ["ECRC-Prolog User's Manual Version 1.0", K. Estenfeld, TR-LP-08 ECRC, Feb 1986]. (1994-12-01)

EDIF Electronic Design Interchange Format. Not a programming language, but a format to simplify data transfer between CAD/CAE systems. LISP-like syntax. See also {Berkeley EDIF200}. E-mail: "" {(}. ["Designer's Guide to EDIF", E. Marx et al, EDN 1987."EDIF Electronic Design Interchange Format Version 200", ANSI/EIA Standard 548]. (1995-03-10)

EDS+ "database, hardware" A {database accelerator} built by {ICL} as part of the {EDS} project. The machine has up to 64 nodes, each node having 64Mb of memory, 2 {SPARC} processors and a 1Gb of disk. See also {PARADE}. (1994-11-02)

EEPROM {Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory} See also {EAPROM}.

EFNet "networking" (From "Eris-free Net", eris being The dominant {Internet Relay Chat} network. See also {Undernet}. (1995-11-09)

Eh /A/. Software Portability Group, U Waterloo. A typeless language derived from (and similar to) B. Provides guaranteed order of evaluation for side effects in expressions. Also character indexing operators. See also {Zed}. ["Eh Reference Manual", R.S.C. Braga, RR CS-76-45, U Waterloo, Nov 1976].

Eiffel "language" An {object-oriented} language produced by {Bertrand Meyer} in 1985. Eiffel has {classes} with {multiple inheritance} and {repeated inheritance}, {deferred class}es (like {Smalltalk}'s {abstract class}), and {clusters} of classes. Objects can have both {static types} and {dynamic types}. The dynamic type must be a descendant of the static (declared) type. {Dynamic binding} resolves {multiple inheritance} clashes. It has flattened forms of classes, in which all of the inherited features are added at the same level and {generic class}es parametrised by type. Other features are {persistent objects}, {garbage collection}, {exception} handling, {foreign language interface}. Classes may be equipped with {assertions} (routine preconditions and postconditions, class {invariants}) implementing the theory of "{Design by Contract}" and helping produce more reliable software. Eiffel is compiled to {C}. It comes with libraries containing several hundred classes: data structures and {algorithms} (EiffelBase), graphics and user interfaces (EiffelVision) and language analysis (EiffelLex, EiffelParse). The first release of Eiffel was release 1.4, introduced at the first {OOPSLA} in October 1986. The language proper was first described in a University of California, Santa Barbara report dated September 1985. Eiffel is available, with different libraries, from several sources including {Interactive Software Engineering}, USA (ISE Eiffel version 3.3); Sig Computer GmbH, Germany (Eiffel/S); and {Tower, Inc.}, Austin (Tower Eiffel). The language definition is administered by an open organisation, the Nonprofit International Consortium for Eiffel (NICE). There is a standard kernel library. An {Eiffel source checker} and compiler {front-end} is available. See also {Sather}, {Distributed Eiffel}, {Lace}, {shelf}. E-mail: "". ["Eiffel: The Language", Bertrand Meyer, P-H 1992]. (1998-11-15)

either of the ends of a new moon. See also gate of horn.

elder days The heroic age of hackerdom (roughly, pre-1980); the era of the {PDP-10}, {TECO}, {ITS} and the {ARPANET}. This term has been rather consciously adopted from J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy epic "The Lord of the Rings". Compare {Iron Age}. See also {elvish} and {Great Worm}. [{Jargon File}]

Electromagnetic Compatibility "hardware, testing" (EMC) The extent to which a piece of hardware will tolerate electrical interference from other equipment, and will interfere with other equipment. There are strict legal EMC requirements for the sale of any electrical or electronic hardware in most countries, although the actual standards differ. See, for example, {EMCNet (}. See also {Electrostatic Discharge}, {Radio Frequency Interference}. (1997-12-19)

Electrostatic Discharge "hardware, testing" (ESD) One kind of test that hardware usually has to pass to prove it is suitable for sale and use. The hardware must still work after is has been subjected to some level of electrostatic discharge. Some organisations have their own ESD requirements which hardware must meet before it will be considered for purchase. Different countries have different legal regulations about levels of ESD. See also {Radio Frequency Interference}, {Electromagnetic Compatibility}. (1997-12-19)

elephantine Used of programs or systems that are both conspicuous {hogs} (owing perhaps to poor design founded on {brute force and ignorance}) and exceedingly {hairy} in source form. An elephantine program may be functional and even friendly, but (as in the old joke about being in bed with an elephant) it's tough to have around all the same (and, like a pachyderm, difficult to maintain). In extreme cases, hackers have been known to make trumpeting sounds or perform expressive proboscatory mime at the mention of the offending program. Usage: semi-humorous. Compare "has the elephant nature" and the somewhat more pejorative monstrosity. See also {second-system effect} and {baroque}. [{Jargon File}]

ELIZA "artificial intelligence" A famous program by {Joseph Weizenbaum}, which simulated a Rogerian psychoanalyst by rephrasing many of the patient's statements as questions and posing them to the patient. It worked by simple {pattern recognition} and substitution of key words into canned phrases. It was so convincing, however, that there are many anecdotes about people becoming very emotionally caught up in dealing with ELIZA. All this was due to people's tendency to attach to words meanings which the computer never put there. See also {ELIZA effect}. (1997-09-13)

ELIZA effect "jargon" /e-li:'z* *-fekt'/ (From {ELIZA}) The tendency of humans to attach associations to terms from prior experience. For example, there is nothing magic about the symbol "+" that makes it well-suited to indicate addition; it's just that people associate it with addition. Using "+" or "plus" to mean addition in a computer language is taking advantage of the ELIZA effect. The ELIZA effect is a {Good Thing} when writing a programming language, but it can blind you to serious shortcomings when analysing an {Artificial Intelligence} system. Compare {ad-hockery}; see also {AI-complete}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-09-13)

Emacs "text, tool" /ee'maks/ (Editing MACroS, or Extensible MACro System, GNU Emacs) A popular {screen editor} for {Unix} and most other {operating systems}. Emacs is distributed by the {Free Software Foundation} and was {Richard Stallman}'s first step in the {GNU} project. Emacs is extensible - it is easy to add new functions; customisable - you can rebind keys, and modify the behaviour of existing functions; self-documenting - there is extensive on-line, context-sensitive help; and has a real-time "what you see is what you get" display. Emacs is writen in {C} and the higher levels are programmed in {Emacs Lisp}. Emacs has an entire {Lisp} system inside it. It was originally written in {TECO} under {ITS} at the {MIT} {AI lab}. AI Memo 554 described it as "an advanced, self-documenting, customisable, extensible real-time display editor". It includes facilities to view directories, run compilation subprocesses and send and receive {electronic mail} and {Usenet} {news} ({GNUS}). {W3} is a {web browser}, the ange-ftp package provides transparent access to files on remote {FTP} {servers}. {Calc} is a calculator and {symbolic mathematics} package. There are "modes" provided to assist in editing most well-known programming languages. Most of these extra functions are configured to load automatically on first use, reducing start-up time and memory consumption. Many hackers (including {Denis Howe}) spend more than 80% of their {tube time} inside Emacs. GNU Emacs is available for {Unix}, {VMS}, {GNU}/{Linux}, {FreeBSD}, {NetBSD}, {OpenBSD}, {MS Windows}, {MS-DOS}, and other systems. Emacs has been re-implemented more than 30 times. Other variants include {GOSMACS}, CCA Emacs, UniPress Emacs, Montgomery Emacs, and {XEmacs}. {Jove}, {epsilon}, and {MicroEmacs} are limited look-alikes. Some Emacs versions running under {window managers} iconify as an overflowing kitchen sink, perhaps to suggest the one feature the editor does not (yet) include. Indeed, some hackers find Emacs too {heavyweight} and {baroque} for their taste, and expand the name as "Escape Meta Alt Control Shift" to spoof its heavy reliance on keystrokes decorated with {bucky bits}. Other spoof expansions include "Eight Megabytes And Constantly Swapping", "Eventually "malloc()'s All Computer Storage", and "Emacs Makes A Computer Slow" (see {recursive acronym}). See also {vi}. Version 21.1 added a redisplay engine with support for {proportional text}, images, {toolbars}, {tool tips}, toolkit scroll bars and a mouse-sensitive mode line. {FTP} from your nearest {GNU archive site}. E-mail: (bug reports only) "". {Usenet} newsgroups: {}, {news:gnu.emacs.bug}, {news:alt.religion.emacs}, {news:gnu.emacs.sources}, {news:gnu.emacs.announce}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-02-04)

empeg "hardware" An in-car audio product that plays {MP3} files from a {hard disk}. It is based around a {DEC}/{Intel} {StrongARM} {S-1100} processor and runs a version of {Linux}. The {user interface} is written in {Python}. {(}. See also {MPEG}. (1999-09-14)

Emulator program "networking" (EP) {IBM} software that emulates a 2701/2/3 hard-wired {IBM 360} communications controller and resides in a 370x/372x/374x comms controller. See also {Partitioned Emulation Program} (PEP). (1999-01-29)

encode 1. "algorithm, hardware" To convert {data} or some physical quantity into a given format. E.g. {uuencode}. See also {encoder}. 2. "cryptography" To encrypt, to perform {encryption}. (1999-07-06)

endian "data, architecture" Suffix used in the terms {big-endian} and {little-endian} that describe the ordering of {bytes} in a multi-byte number. The term comes from Swift's "Gulliver's Travels" via the famous paper "On Holy Wars and a Plea for Peace" by Danny Cohen, USC/ISI IEN 137, 1980-04-01. The Lilliputians, being very small, had correspondingly small political problems. The Big-Endian and Little-Endian parties debated over whether soft-boiled eggs should be opened at the big end or the little end. See also {middle-endian}, {holy wars}, {NUXI problem}, {swab}. (2007-08-14)

End Of Line "character" (EOL) Synonym for {newline}, derived perhaps from the original {CDC 6600} {Pascal}. The abbreviation "EOL" is now rare, but widely recognised and occasionally used for brevity. Used in the example entry under {BNF}. Out of context this would probably be (deliberately) ambiguous because different systems used different (combinations of) characters to mark the end of a line. {Unix} uses a {line feed}; DOS uses {carriage return}, line feed ({CRLF}) and the {Macintosh} uses carriage return. See also {EOF}. (2002-03-22)

Enigma "hardware, cryptography" The electro-mechanical {cipher} engine used by the Germans in World War II to encrypt and decrypt field orders. Many of their messages were deciphered at {Bletchley Park}, by {Alan Turing} and others. See also: {Tunny Emulator}. (2012-03-25)

epoch 1. "operating system" (Probably from astronomical timekeeping) A term used originally in {Unix} documentation for the time and date corresponding to zero in an {operating system}'s {clock} and {timestamp} values. Under most Unix versions the epoch is 1970-01-01 00:00:00 GMT; under {VMS}, it's 1858-11-17 00:00:00 (the base date of the US Naval Observatory's ephemerides); on a {Macintosh}, it's 1904-01-01 00:00:00. System time is measured in seconds or {ticks} past the epoch. Weird problems may ensue when the clock wraps around (see {wrap around}), which is not necessarily a rare event; on systems counting 10 ticks per second, a signed 32-bit count of ticks is good only for 0.1 * 2**31-1 seconds, or 6.8 years. The one-tick-per-second clock of Unix is good only until 2038-01-18, assuming at least some software continues to consider it signed and that word lengths don't increase by then. See also {wall time}. 2. "editor" (Epoch) A version of {GNU Emacs} for the {X Window System} from {NCSA}. [{Jargon File}] (2004-06-10)

equivalence relation "mathematics" A relation R on a set including elements a, b, c, which is reflexive (a R a), symmetric (a R b =" b R a) and transitive (a R b R c =" a R c). An equivalence relation defines an {equivalence} class. See also {partial equivalence relation}. (1996-05-13)

ESMTP "messaging, protocol" Extended {SMTP}. Initially defined in {RFC 1869} and extended thereafter. See also {ETRN}. (1997-11-21)

eta conversion "theory" In {lambda-calculus}, the eta conversion rule states \ x . f x "--" f provided x does not occur as a {free variable} in f and f is a function. Left to right is eta reduction, right to left is eta abstraction (or eta expansion). This conversion is only valid if {bottom} and \ x . bottom are equivalent in all contexts. They are certainly equivalent when applied to some argument - they both fail to terminate. If we are allowed to force the evaluation of an expression in any other way, e.g. using {seq} in {Miranda} or returning a function as the overall result of a program, then bottom and \ x . bottom will not be equivalent. See also {observational equivalence}, {reduction}.

Ethernet address "networking" (Or "{MAC} address") The physical address identifying an individual {Ethernet controller} board. An Ethernet addess is a 48-bit number aabbccddeeff where a-f are {hexadecimal} digits. The first 24 bits, aabbcc, identify the manufacturer of the controller. The Ethernet address is hard-wired on some controllers, stored in a {ROM} on some, and others allow it to be changed from software. It is usually written as six hexadecimal numbers, e.g. 08:00:20:03:72:DC. See also {ARP}, {Internet address}. (1996-02-21)

EuLisp 1985-present. A {Lisp} dialect intended to be a common European {standard}, with influences from {Common LISP}, {Le LISP}, {Scheme} and {T}. {First-class functions}, {class}es and {continuations}, both {static scope} and {dynamic scope}, {modules}, support for {parallelism}. The class system ({TELOS}) incorporates ideas from {CLOS}, {ObjVLisp} and {Oaklisp}. See also {Feel}. E-mail: "".

event 1. "software" An occurrence or happening of significance to a task or program, such as the completion of an asynchronous input/output operation. A task may wait for an event or any of a set of events or it may (request to) receive asynchronous notification (a {signal} or {interrupt}) that the event has occurred. See also {event-driven}. 2. "data" A transaction or other activity that affects the records in a file. (2000-02-09)

event-driven "programming" A kind of program, such as a {graphical user interface}, with a main loop which just waits for {events} to occur. Each event has an associated handler which is passed the details of the event, e.g. mouse button 3 pressed at position (355, 990). For example, {X window system} and most {Visual Basic} {application programs} are event-driven. See also {callback}. (2000-02-09)

execution "operating system, programming" The process of carrying out the {instructions} in a computer program by a computer. See also {dry run}. (1996-05-13)

Expanded Memory Specification "storage" (EMS) An {IBM PC} memory {paging} scheme enabling access to memory other than {conventional memory} in {real mode}. {Expanded memory} is provided through a {page frame} of at least 64 {kilobytes} in the {reserved memory} address region. Access to this memory is provided by an {expanded memory manager} (EMM) software. The EMM functions are accessible through {interrupt} 67H. In {8086} or {8088} based systems this is the only way to use memory beyond conventional memory. In systems based on {80286} or later, {XMS} and {HMA} provide alternative methods. EMS was developed jointly by {Lotus}, {Intel}, and {Microsoft} prior to 1988. Accordingly, this specification is sometimes referred to as LIM EMS. A complete discussion of EMS and programming examples can be found in ["PC System Programming for developers", 1989, ISBN 1-55755-035-2 (Book only) and ISBN 1-55755-036-0 (Book and diskette)]. {EEMS}, a competing expanded memory management standard, was developed by {AST Research}, {Quadram} and {Ashton-Tate}. See also {upper memory block}. (1996-01-10)

exponential-time algorithm "complexity" An {algorithm} (or {Turing Machine}) that is guaranteed to terminate within a number of steps which is a {exponential} function of the size of the problem. For example, if you have to check every number of n digits to find a solution, the {complexity} is O(10^n), and if you add an extra digit, you must check ten times as many numbers. Even if such an algorithm is practical for some given value of n, it is likely to become impractical for larger values. This is in contrast to a {polynomial-time algorithm} which grows more slowly. See also {computational complexity}, {polynomial-time}, {NP-complete}. (1995-04-27)

eXtended Graphics Array "hardware" (XGA) An {IBM} {display standard} introduced in 1990. XGA supports a {resolution} of 1024 x 768 {pixels} with a {palette} of 256 colours, or 640 x 480 with {high colour} (16 {bits per pixel}). XGA-2 added 1024 x 768 support for high colour and higher refresh rates, improved performance, and supports 1360 x 1024 in 16 colours. XGA is probably not the same as {8514-A}. See also {VESA}'s {EVGA} released at a similar time. (1999-08-01)

extended memory "storage" Memory above the first {megabyte} of {address space} in an {IBM PC} with an {80286} or later processor. Extended memory is not directly available in {real mode}, only through {EMS}, {UMB}, {XMS}, or {HMA}; only applications executing in {protected mode} can use extended memory directly. In this case, the extended memory is provided by a supervising {protected-mode} {operating system} such as {Microsoft Windows}. The processor makes this memory available through a system of {global descriptor tables} and {local descriptor tables}. The memory is "protected" in the sense that memory assigned a local descriptor cannot be accessed by another program without causing a hardware {trap}. This prevents programs running in protected mode from interfering with each other's memory. A {protected-mode} {operating system} such as Windows can also run {real-mode} programs and provide {expanded memory} to them. {DOS Protected Mode Interface} is {Microsoft}'s prescribed method for an {MS-DOS} program to access extended memory under a {multitasking} environment. Having extended memory does not necessarily mean that you have more than one megabyte of memory since the reserved memory area may be partially empty. In fact, if your 386 or higher uses extended memory as expanded memory then that part is not in excess of 1Mb. See also {conventional memory}. (1996-01-10)

Extended Self-containing Prolog "language" (ESP) An {object-oriented} extension of {KL0} by Chikayama. ESP has {backtracking}-based control, {unification}-based parameter passing and {object-oriented} calling. An {object} in ESP is an {axiom} set. A {class} definition consists of nature definitions ({inheritance}), slot definitions ({class variables}) and {clause} definitions. ESP has {multiple inheritance} similar to {Flavors}. It has been implemented for {ICOT}'s {PSI} Sequential Inference machine. See also {CESP}. E-mail: "". ["Unique Features of ESP", T. Chikayama, Proc Intl Conf 5th Gen Comp Sys, ICOT 1984]. (1994-12-08)

extensible "programming" Said of a system (e.g., {program}, {file format}, {programming language}, {protocol}, etc.) designed to easily allow the addition of new {features} at a later date, e.g. through the use of {hooks}, an {API} or {plug-ins}. See also {extend}, {forward compatible}. (1998-01-15)

Extensible Stylesheet Language "web" (XSL) A {standard} developed by the {World Wide Web Consortium} defining a language for transforming and formatting {XML (eXtensible Markup Language)} documents. An XSL {stylesheet} is written in {XML} and consists of instructions for tree transformation and formatting. The tree transformations describe how each XML {tag} relates to other data and the formatting instructions describe how to output the various types of data. {(}. See also {Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations}. (2005-09-30)

extensional equality (Or extensionality). Functions, f and g are extensionally equal if and only if f x = g x for all x. where "=" means both expressions fail to terminate (under some given {reduction strategy}) or they both terminate with the same basic value. Two functions may be extensionally equal but not inter-convertible (neither is reducible to the other). E.g. \ x . x+x and \ x . 2*x. See also {observational equivalence}, {referential transparency}.

Exterior Gateway Protocol "networking" (EGP) A {protocol} which distributes {routing} information to the {routers} which connect {autonomous systems}. The term "{gateway}" is historical, and "router" is currently the preferred term. There is also a routing protocol called {EGP} defined in {STD 18}, {RFC 904}. See also {Border Gateway Protocol}, {Interior Gateway Protocol}.

factor A quantity which is multiplied by another quantity. See also {divisor}. [{Jargon File}]

fall through "programming" (The American misspelling "fall thru" is also common) 1. To exit a loop by exhaustion, i.e. by having fulfilled its exit condition rather than via a break or exception condition that exits from the middle of it. This usage appears to be *really* old, dating from the 1940s and 1950s. 2. To fail a test that would have passed control to a subroutine or some other distant portion of code. 3. In C, "fall-through" occurs when the flow of execution in a {switch statement} reaches a "case" label other than by jumping there from the switch header, passing a point where one would normally expect to find a "break". A trivial example: switch (colour) { case GREEN:  do_green();  break; case PINK:  do_pink();  /* FALL THROUGH */ case RED:  do_red();  break; default:  do_blue();  break; } The effect of the above code is to "do_green()" when colour is "GREEN", "do_red()" when colour is "RED", "do_blue()" on any other colour other than "PINK", and (and this is the important part) "do_pink()" __and then__ "do_red()" when colour is "PINK". Fall-through is {considered harmful} by some, though there are contexts (such as the coding of state machines) in which it is natural; it is generally considered good practice to include a comment highlighting the fall-through where one would normally expect a break. See also {Duff's Device}.

fatal exception "programming, operating system" A program execution error which is trapped by the {operating system} and which results in abrupt termination of the program. It may be possible for the program to catch some such errors, e.g. a {floating point} {underflow}; others, such as an invalid memory access (an attempt to write to read-only memory or an attempt to read memory outside of the program's {address space}), may always cause control to pass to the operating system without allowing the program an opportunity to handle the error. The details depend on the language's {run-time system} and the operating system. See also: {fatal error}. (1997-08-03)

feature creature [Possibly from slang "creature feature" for a horror movie] 1. One who loves to add features to designs or programs, perhaps at the expense of coherence, concision or {taste}. 2. Alternately, a mythical being that induces otherwise rational programmers to perpetrate such crocks. See also {feeping creaturism}, {creeping featurism}. [{Jargon File}]

feature "jargon" 1. A good property or behaviour (as of a program). Whether it was intended or not is immaterial. 2. An intended property or behaviour (as of a program). Whether it is good or not is immaterial (but if bad, it is also a {misfeature}). 3. A surprising property or behaviour; in particular, one that is purposely inconsistent because it works better that way - such an inconsistency is therefore a {feature} and not a {bug}. This kind of feature is sometimes called a {miswart}. 4. A property or behaviour that is gratuitous or unnecessary, though perhaps also impressive or cute. For example, one feature of {Common LISP}'s "format" function is the ability to print numbers in two different Roman-numeral formats (see {bells, whistles, and gongs}). 5. A property or behaviour that was put in to help someone else but that happens to be in your way. 6. A bug that has been documented. To call something a feature sometimes means the author of the program did not consider the particular case, and that the program responded in a way that was unexpected but not strictly incorrect. A standard joke is that a bug can be turned into a {feature} simply by documenting it (then theoretically no one can complain about it because it's in the manual), or even by simply declaring it to be good. "That's not a bug, that's a feature!" is a common catch-phrase. Apparently there is a Volkswagen Beetle in San Francisco whose license plate reads "FEATURE". See also {feetch feetch}, {creeping featurism}, {wart}, {green lightning}. The relationship among bugs, features, misfeatures, warts and miswarts might be clarified by the following hypothetical exchange between two hackers on an airliner: A: "This seat doesn't recline." B: "That's not a bug, that's a feature. There is an emergency exit door built around the window behind you, and the route has to be kept clear." A: "Oh. Then it's a misfeature; they should have increased the spacing between rows here." B: "Yes. But if they'd increased spacing in only one section it would have been a wart - they would've had to make nonstandard-length ceiling panels to fit over the displaced seats." A: "A miswart, actually. If they increased spacing throughout they'd lose several rows and a chunk out of the profit margin. So unequal spacing would actually be the Right Thing." B: "Indeed." "Undocumented feature" is a common euphemism for a {bug}. 7. An attribute or function of a {class} in {Eiffel}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-10-22)

feep /feep/ 1. The soft electronic "bell" sound of a display terminal (except for a VT-52); a beep (in fact, the microcomputer world seems to prefer {beep}). 2. To cause the display to make a feep sound. ASR-33s (the original TTYs) do not feep; they have mechanical bells that ring. Alternate forms: {beep}, "bleep", or just about anything suitably onomatopoeic. (Jeff MacNelly, in his comic strip "Shoe", uses the word "eep" for sounds made by computer terminals and video games; this is perhaps the closest written approximation yet.) The term "breedle" was sometimes heard at SAIL, where the terminal bleepers are not particularly soft (they sound more like the musical equivalent of a raspberry or Bronx cheer; for a close approximation, imagine the sound of a Star Trek communicator's beep lasting for five seconds). The "feeper" on a VT-52 has been compared to the sound of a '52 Chevy stripping its gears. See also {ding}. [{Jargon File}]

fencepost error 1. (Rarely "lamp-post error") A problem with the discrete equivalent of a {boundary condition}, often exhibited in programs by iterative loops. From the following problem: "If you build a fence 100 feet long with posts 10 feet apart, how many posts do you need?" (Either 9 or 11 is a better answer than the obvious 10). For example, suppose you have a long list or array of items, and want to process items m through n; how many items are there? The obvious answer is n - m, but that is off by one; the right answer is n - m + 1. The "obvious" formula exhibits a fencepost error. See also {zeroth} and note that not all {off-by-one errors} are fencepost errors. The game of Musical Chairs involves a catastrophic off-by-one error where N people try to sit in N - 1 chairs, but it's not a fencepost error. Fencepost errors come from counting things rather than the spaces between them, or vice versa, or by neglecting to consider whether one should count one or both ends of a row. 2. (Rare) An error induced by unexpected regularities in input values, which can (for instance) completely thwart a theoretically efficient {binary tree} or {hash coding} implementation. The error here involves the difference between expected and worst case behaviours of an {algorithm}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-01)

FFP Formal FP. A language similar to FP, but with regular sugarless {syntax}, for machine execution. See also {FL}. ["Can Programming be Liberated From the von Neumann Style? A Functional Style and Its Algebra of Programs", John Backus, 1977 Turing Award Lecture, CACM 21(8):165-180 (Aug 1978)]. (1994-10-24)

FGHC Flat GHC. A {flat} variant of {GHC} in which {guard} calls can be only to {primitives}. See also {KL1}. (1994-10-24)

file transfer "networking" Copying a {file} from one computer to another over a computer {network}. See also {File Transfer Protocol}, {Kermit}, {Network File System}, {rcp}, {uucp}, {XMODEM}, {ZMODEM}. (1997-04-10)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) A {client-server} protocol which allows a user on one computer to transfer files to and from another computer over a {TCP/IP} network. Also the client program the user executes to transfer files. It is defined in {STD 9}, {RFC 959}. See also {anonymous FTP}, {FSP}, {TFTP}. {Unix manual page}: ftp(1). (1994-12-01)

file type "file format" The kind of data stored in a file. Most modern {operating systems} use the {filename extension} to determine the file type though others store this information elsewhere in the {file system}. The file type is used to choose an appropriate icon to represent the file in a {GUI} and the correct {application} with which to view, edit, run, or print the file. Different operating systems support different sets of file types though most agree on a large common set and allow arbitrary new types to be defined. See also {MIME}. { - The File Extensions Resource (} (2009-03-27)

filter 1. (Originally {Unix}, now also {MS-DOS}) A program that processes an input data stream into an output data stream in some well-defined way, and does no I/O to anywhere else except possibly on error conditions; one designed to be used as a stage in a {pipeline} (see {plumbing}). Compare {sponge}. 2. ({functional programming}) A {higher-order function} which takes a {predicate} and a list and returns those elements of the list for which the predicate is true. In {Haskell}: filter p []   = [] filter p (x:xs) = if p x then x : rest else rest where rest = filter p xs See also {filter promotion}. [{Jargon File}]

finger "tool" A {Unix} program that displays information about a particular user or all users logged on the system, or a remote system. Finger typically shows full name, last login time, idle time, terminal line, and terminal location (where applicable). It may also display a {plan file} left by the user (see also {Hacking X for Y}). Some versions take a "-l" (long) argument which yields more information. [{Jargon File}] (2002-10-06)

Finite State Machine "mathematics, algorithm, theory" (FSM or "Finite State Automaton", "transducer") An {abstract machine} consisting of a set of {states} (including the initial state), a set of input events, a set of output events, and a state transition function. The function takes the current state and an input event and returns the new set of output events and the next state. Some states may be designated as "terminal states". The state machine can also be viewed as a function which maps an ordered sequence of input events into a corresponding sequence of (sets of) output events. A {deterministic} FSM (DFA) is one where the next state is uniquely determinied by a single input event. The next state of a {nondeterministic} FSM (NFA) depends not only on the current input event, but also on an arbitrary number of subsequent input events. Until these subsequent events occur it is not possible to determine which state the machine is in. It is possible to automatically translate any nondeterministic FSM into a deterministic one which will produce the same output given the same input. Each state in the DFA represents the set of states the NFA might be in at a given time. In a probabilistic FSM [proper name?], there is a predetermined {probability} of each next state given the current state and input (compare {Markov chain}). The terms "acceptor" and "transducer" are used particularly in language theory where automata are often considered as {abstract machines} capable of recognising a language (certain sequences of input events). An acceptor has a single {Boolean} output and accepts or rejects the input sequence by outputting true or false respectively, whereas a transducer translates the input into a sequence of output events. FSMs are used in {computability theory} and in some practical applications such as {regular expressions} and digital logic design. See also {state transition diagram}, {Turing Machine}. [J.H. Conway, "regular algebra and finite machines", 1971, Eds Chapman & Hall]. [S.C. Kleene, "Representation of events in nerve nets and finite automata", 1956, Automata Studies. Princeton]. [Hopcroft & Ullman, 1979, "Introduction to automata theory, languages and computations", Addison-Wesley]. [M. Crochemore "tranducters and repetitions", Theoritical. Comp. Sc. 46, 1986]. (2001-09-22)

firefighting 1. What sysadmins have to do to correct sudden operational problems. An opposite of hacking. "Been hacking your new newsreader?" "No, a power glitch hosed the network and I spent the whole afternoon fighting fires." 2. The act of throwing lots of manpower and late nights at a project, especially to get it out before deadline. See also {gang bang}, {Mongolian Hordes technique}; however, the term "firefighting" connotes that the effort is going into chasing bugs rather than adding features. (1994-12-01)

fixed point "mathematics" The fixed point of a function, f is any value, x for which f x = x. A function may have any number of fixed points from none (e.g. f x = x+1) to infinitely many (e.g. f x = x). The {fixed point combinator}, written as either "fix" or "Y" will return the fixed point of a function. See also {least fixed point}. (1995-04-13)

flag 1. "programming" A variable or quantity that can take on one of two values; a bit, particularly one that is used to indicate one of two outcomes or is used to control which of two things is to be done. "This flag controls whether to clear the screen before printing the message." "The program status word contains several flag bits." See also {hidden flag}, {mode bit}. 2. {command line option}. [{Jargon File}] (1998-05-02)

flag day "jargon" A software change that is neither forward- nor backward-compatible, and which is costly to make and costly to reverse. E.g. "Can we install that without causing a flag day for all users?" This term has nothing to do with the use of the word {flag} to mean a variable that has two values. It came into use when a massive change was made to the {Multics} {time-sharing} system to convert from the old {ASCII} code to the new one; this was scheduled for Flag Day (a US holiday), June 14, 1966. See also {backward combatability}, {lock-in}. [{Jargon File}] (1998-01-15)

flame "messaging" To rant, to speak or write incessantly and/or rabidly on some relatively uninteresting subject or with a patently ridiculous attitude or with hostility toward a particular person or group of people. "Flame" is used as a verb ("Don't flame me for this, but..."), a flame is a single flaming message, and "flamage" /flay'm*j/ the content. Flamage may occur in any medium (e.g. spoken, {electronic mail}, {Usenet} news, {web}). Sometimes a flame will be delimited in text by marks such as ""flame on"..."flame off"". The term was probably independently invented at several different places. Mark L. Levinson says, "When I joined the Harvard student radio station (WHRB) in 1966, the terms flame and flamer were already well established there to refer to impolite ranting and to those who performed it. Communication among the students who worked at the station was by means of what today you might call a paper-based Usenet group. Everyone wrote comments to one another in a large ledger. Documentary evidence for the early use of flame/flamer is probably still there for anyone fanatical enough to research it." It is reported that "flaming" was in use to mean something like "interminably drawn-out semi-serious discussions" (late-night bull sessions) at Carleton College during 1968-1971. {Usenetter} Marc Ramsey, who was at {WPI} from 1972 to 1976, says: "I am 99% certain that the use of "flame" originated at WPI. Those who made a nuisance of themselves insisting that they needed to use a {TTY} for "real work" came to be known as "flaming asshole lusers". Other particularly annoying people became "flaming asshole ravers", which shortened to "flaming ravers", and ultimately "flamers". I remember someone picking up on the Human Torch pun, but I don't think "flame on/off" was ever much used at WPI." See also {asbestos}. It is possible that the hackish sense of "flame" is much older than that. The poet Chaucer was also what passed for a wizard hacker in his time; he wrote a treatise on the astrolabe, the most advanced computing device of the day. In Chaucer's "Troilus and Cressida", Cressida laments her inability to grasp the proof of a particular mathematical theorem; her uncle Pandarus then observes that it's called "the fleminge of wrecches." This phrase seems to have been intended in context as "that which puts the wretches to flight" but was probably just as ambiguous in Middle English as "the flaming of wretches" would be today. One suspects that Chaucer would feel right at home on {Usenet}. [{Jargon File}] (2001-03-11)

flap 1. "storage, jargon" To unload a {DECtape} (so it goes flap, flap, flap). Old-time {hackers} at {MIT} tell of the days when the disk was device 0 and {microtapes} were 1, 2, etc. and attempting to flap device 0 would instead start a motor banging inside a cabinet near the disk. The term is used, by extension, for unloading any magnetic tape. See also {macrotape}. Modern {cartridge tapes} no longer actually flap, but the usage has remained. The term could well be re-applied to {DEC}'s {TK50} cartridge tape drive, a spectacularly misengineered contraption which makes a loud flapping sound, almost like an old reel-type lawnmower, in one of its many tape-eating failure modes. 2. "networking" See {flapping router}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-06-17)

flat file "operating system, storage" A single file containing {flat ASCII} representing or encoding some structure, e.g. a {database}, tree or network. Flat files can be processed with general purpose tools such as {Perl} and {text editors} but are less efficient than {binary files} if they must be {parsed} repeatedly by a program. Flat files are more portable between different {operating systems} and {application programs} than binary files, and are more easily transmitted in {electronic mail}. See also {flatten}, {sharchive}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-01-26)

flat thunk "programming" A software mechanism that allows a {Win32} application to load and call a 16-bit {DLL}, or a 16-bit application to load and call a Win32 DLL. See also {generic thunk}, {universal thunk}. (1999-04-05)

floating-point "programming, mathematics" A number representation consisting of a {mantissa}, M, an {exponent}, E, and a {radix} (or "base"). The number represented is M*R^E where R is the radix. In science and engineering, {exponential notation} or {scientific notation} uses a radix of ten so, for example, the number 93,000,000 might be written 9.3 x 10^7 (where ^7 is superscript 7). In computer hardware, floating point numbers are usually represented with a radix of two since the mantissa and exponent are stored in binary, though many different representations could be used. The {IEEE} specify a {standard} representation which is used by many hardware floating-point systems. Non-zero numbers are {normalised} so that the {binary point} is immediately before the most significant bit of the mantissa. Since the number is non-zero, this bit must be a one so it need not be stored. A fixed "bias" is added to the exponent so that positive and negative exponents can be represented without a sign bit. Finally, extreme values of exponent (all zeros and all ones) are used to represent special numbers like zero and positive and negative {infinity}. In programming languages with {explicit typing}, floating-point types are introduced with the keyword "float" or sometimes "double" for a higher precision type. See also {floating-point accelerator}, {floating-point unit}. Opposite: {fixed-point}. (2008-06-13)

flood "chat" On a real-time network (whether at the level of {TCP/IP}, or at the level of, say, {IRC}), to send a huge amount of data to another user (or a group of users, in a channel) in an attempt to annoy him, lock his terminal, or to overflow his network buffer and thus lose his network connection. The basic principles of flooding are that you should have better network {bandwidth} than the person you're trying to flood, and that what you do to flood them (e.g., generate ping requests) should be *less* resource-expensive for your machine to produce than for the victim's machine to deal with. There is also the corrolary that you should avoid being caught. Failure to follow these principles regularly produces hilarious results, e.g., an IRC user flooding himself off the network while his intended victim is unharmed, the attacker's flood attempt being detected, and him being banned from the network in semi-perpetuity. See also {pingflood}, {clonebot} and {botwar}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-04-07)

Floppy "programming, tool" A {Fortran} coding convention checker. A later version can generate {HTML}. See also {Flow}. ffccc posted to comp.sources.misc volume 12. (1996-08-23)

flow chart "programming" An archaic form of visual control-flow specification employing arrows and "speech balloons" of various shapes. Hackers never use flow charts, consider them extremely silly, and associate them with {COBOL} programmers, {card wallopers}, and other lower forms of life. This attitude follows from the observations that flow charts (at least from a hacker's point of view) are no easier to read than code, are less precise, and tend to fall out of sync with the code (so that they either obfuscate it rather than explaining it, or require extra maintenance effort that doesn't improve the code). See also {Program Design Language}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-01)

foo "jargon" /foo/ A sample name for absolutely anything, especially programs and files (especially {scratch files}). First on the standard list of {metasyntactic variables} used in {syntax} examples. See also {bar}, {baz}, {qux}, quux, {corge}, {grault}, {garply}, {waldo}, {fred}, {plugh}, {xyzzy}, {thud}. The etymology of "foo" is obscure. When used in connection with "bar" it is generally traced to the WWII-era Army slang acronym {FUBAR}, later bowdlerised to {foobar}. However, the use of the word "foo" itself has more complicated antecedents, including a long history in comic strips and cartoons. "FOO" often appeared in the "Smokey Stover" comic strip by Bill Holman. This surrealist strip about a fireman appeared in various American comics including "Everybody's" between about 1930 and 1952. FOO was often included on licence plates of cars and in nonsense sayings in the background of some frames such as "He who foos last foos best" or "Many smoke but foo men chew". Allegedly, "FOO" and "BAR" also occurred in Walt Kelly's "Pogo" strips. In the 1938 cartoon "The Daffy Doc", a very early version of Daffy Duck holds up a sign saying "SILENCE IS FOO!". Oddly, this seems to refer to some approving or positive affirmative use of foo. It has been suggested that this might be related to the Chinese word "fu" (sometimes transliterated "foo"), which can mean "happiness" when spoken with the proper tone (the lion-dog guardians flanking the steps of many Chinese restaurants are properly called "fu dogs"). Earlier versions of this entry suggested the possibility that hacker usage actually sprang from "FOO, Lampoons and Parody", the title of a comic book first issued in September 1958, a joint project of Charles and Robert Crumb. Though Robert Crumb (then in his mid-teens) later became one of the most important and influential artists in underground comics, this venture was hardly a success; indeed, the brothers later burned most of the existing copies in disgust. The title FOO was featured in large letters on the front cover. However, very few copies of this comic actually circulated, and students of Crumb's "oeuvre" have established that this title was a reference to the earlier Smokey Stover comics. An old-time member reports that in the 1959 "Dictionary of the TMRC Language", compiled at {TMRC} there was an entry that went something like this: FOO: The first syllable of the sacred chant phrase "FOO MANE PADME HUM." Our first obligation is to keep the foo counters turning. For more about the legendary foo counters, see {TMRC}. Almost the entire staff of what became the {MIT} {AI LAB} was involved with TMRC, and probably picked the word up there. Another correspondant cites the nautical construction "foo-foo" (or "poo-poo"), used to refer to something effeminate or some technical thing whose name has been forgotten, e.g. "foo-foo box", "foo-foo valve". This was common on ships by the early nineteenth century. Very probably, hackish "foo" had no single origin and derives through all these channels from Yiddish "feh" and/or English "fooey". [{Jargon File}] (1998-04-16)

footprint 1. "jargon, hardware" The floor or desk area taken up by a piece of hardware. 2. "jargon, storage" The amount of {disk} or {RAM} taken up by a program or file. 3. ({IBM}) The {audit trail} left by a crashed program (often "footprints"). See also {toeprint}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-04-25)

fork bomb "programming" A particular species of {wabbit} that can be written in one line of {C}: main() {for(;;)fork();} or {shell}: $0 & $0 & on any {Unix} system, or occasionally created by an egregious coding bug. A fork bomb process "explodes" by {recursive}ly spawning copies of itself using the {Unix} {system call} "{fork}(2)". Eventually it eats all the process table entries and effectively wedges the system. Fortunately, fork bombs are relatively easy to spot and kill, so creating one deliberately seldom accomplishes more than to bring the just wrath of the {gods} down upon the perpetrator. See also {logic bomb}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-14)

fork "operating system" A {Unix} {system call} used by a {process} (the "parent") to make a copy (the "child") of itself. The child process is identical to the parent except it has a different {process identifier} and a zero return value from the fork call. It is assumed to have used no resources. A fork followed by an {exec} can be used to start a different process but this can be inefficient and some later Unix variants provide {vfork} as an alternative mechanism for this. See also {fork bomb}. (1996-12-08)

FORTH 1. "language" An interactive extensible language using {postfix syntax} and a data stack, developed by Charles H. Moore in the 1960s. FORTH is highly user-configurable and there are many different implementations, the following description is of a typical default configuration. Forth programs are structured as lists of "words" - FORTH's term which encompasses language keywords, primitives and user-defined {subroutines}. Forth takes the idea of subroutines to an extreme - nearly everything is a subroutine. A word is any string of characters except the separator which defaults to space. Numbers are treated specially. Words are read one at a time from the input stream and either executed immediately ("interpretive execution") or compiled as part of the definition of a new word. The sequential nature of list execution and the implicit use of the data stack (numbers appearing in the lists are pushed to the stack as they are encountered) imply postfix syntax. Although postfix notation is initially difficult, experienced users find it simple and efficient. Words appearing in executable lists may be "{primitives}" (simple {assembly language} operations), names of previously compiled procedures or other special words. A procedure definition is introduced by ":" and ended with ";" and is compiled as it is read. Most Forth dialects include the source language structures BEGIN-AGAIN, BEGIN-WHILE-REPEAT, BEGIN-UNTIL, DO-LOOP, and IF-ELSE-THEN, and others can be added by the user. These are "compiling structures" which may only occur in a procedure definition. FORTH can include in-line {assembly language} between "CODE" and "ENDCODE" or similar constructs. Forth primitives are written entirely in {assembly language}, secondaries contain a mixture. In fact code in-lining is the basis of compilation in some implementations. Once assembled, primitives are used exactly like other words. A significant difference in behaviour can arise, however, from the fact that primitives end with a jump to "NEXT", the entry point of some code called the sequencer, whereas non-primitives end with the address of the "EXIT" primitive. The EXIT code includes the scheduler in some {multi-tasking} systems so a process can be {deschedule}d after executing a non-primitive, but not after a primitive. Forth implementations differ widely. Implementation techniques include {threaded code}, dedicated Forth processors, {macros} at various levels, or interpreters written in another language such as {C}. Some implementations provide {real-time} response, user-defined data structures, {multitasking}, {floating-point} arithmetic, and/or {virtual memory}. Some Forth systems support virtual memory without specific hardware support like {MMUs}. However, Forth virtual memory is usually only a sort of extended data space and does not usually support executable code. FORTH does not distinguish between {operating system} calls and the language. Commands relating to I/O, {file systems} and {virtual memory} are part of the same language as the words for arithmetic, memory access, loops, IF statements, and the user's application. Many Forth systems provide user-declared "vocabularies" which allow the same word to have different meanings in different contexts. Within one vocabulary, re-defining a word causes the previous definition to be hidden from the interpreter (and therefore the compiler), but not from previous definitions. FORTH was first used to guide the telescope at NRAO, Kitt Peak. Moore considered it to be a {fourth-generation language} but his {operating system} wouldn't let him use six letters in a program name, so FOURTH became FORTH. Versions include fig-FORTH, FORTH 79 and FORTH 83. {FAQs (}. {ANS Forth standard, dpANS6 (}. FORTH Interest Group, Box 1105, San Carlos CA 94070. See also {51forth}, {F68K}, {cforth}, {E-Forth}, {FORML}, {TILE Forth}. [Leo Brodie, "Starting Forth"]. [Leo Brodie, "Thinking Forth"]. [Jack Woehr, "Forth, the New Model"]. [R.G. Loeliger, "Threaded Interpretive Languages"]. 2. {FOundation for Research and Technology - Hellas}. (1997-04-16)

for The Rest Of Us "abuse" (From the {Macintosh} slogan "The computer for the rest of us") 1. Used to describe a {spiffy} product whose affordability shames other comparable products, or (more often) used sarcastically to describe {spiffy} but very overpriced products. 2. Describes a program with a limited interface, deliberately limited capabilities, non-{orthogonal}ity, inability to compose primitives, or any other limitation designed to not "confuse" a naïve user. This places an upper bound on how far that user can go before the program begins to get in the way of the task instead of helping accomplish it. Used in reference to {Macintosh} software which doesn't provide obvious capabilities because it is thought that the poor {luser} might not be able to handle them. Becomes "the rest of *them*" when used in third-party reference; thus, "Yes, it is an attractive program, but it's designed for The Rest Of Them" means a program that superficially looks neat but has no depth beyond the surface flash. See also {point-and-drool interface}, {user-friendly}. [{Jargon File}] (2000-08-08)

Fortran "language" (Formula Translation) The first and, for a long time, the most widely used programming language for numerical and scientific applications. The original versions lacked {recursive} procedures and {block structure} and had a line-oriented {syntax} in which certain columns had special significance. There have been a great many versions. The name is often written "FORTRAN", harking back to the days before computers were taught about lower case, but {ANSI} decreed, in about 1985 via the ANSI {FORTRAN} Technical Committee {TC}, that it should be "Fortran". See also: {Fortrash}. [Was {Fortran I} the first version?] (2000-07-07)

forward compatibility "jargon" The ability to accept input from later versions of itself. Forward compatibility is harder to achieve than {backward compatibility}, since, in the backward case, the input format is know whereas a forward compatible system needs to cope gracefully with unknown future features. An example of future compatibility is the stipulation that a {web browser} should ignore {HTML tags} it does not recognise. See also {extensible}. (2003-06-23)

For Your Information (FYI) A subseries of {RFCs} that are not technical {standards} or descriptions of {protocols}. FYIs convey general information about topics related to {TCP/IP} or the {Internet}. See also {STD}. (1994-10-26)

four colour map theorem "mathematics, application" (Or "four colour theorem") The theorem stating that if the plane is divided into connected regions which are to be coloured so that no two adjacent regions have the same colour (as when colouring countries on a map of the world), it is never necessary to use more than four colours. The proof, due to Appel and Haken, attained notoriety by using a computer to check tens of thousands of cases and is thus not humanly checkable, even in principle. Some thought that this brought the philosophical status of the proof into doubt. There are now rumours of a simpler proof, not requiring the use of a computer. See also {chromatic number} (1995-03-25)

Fourier transform "mathematics" A technique for expressing a waveform as a weighted sum of sines and cosines. Computers generally rely on the version known as {discrete Fourier transform}. Named after J. B. Joseph Fourier (1768 -- 1830). See also {wavelet}, {discrete cosine transform}. (1997-03-9)

FP 1. {functional programming}. 2. {floating-point}. 3. Functional Programming. A {combinator}-based {functional language} by John Backus stressing the use of {higher-order functions}. Implementation by Andy Valencia. {(}. See also {FFP}, {FL}, {IFP}, {Berkeley FP}. ["Can Programming be Liberated From the von Neumann Style? A Functional Style and Its Algebra of Programs", John Backus, 1977 Turing Award Lecture, CACM 21(8):165-180 (Aug 1978)]. 4. "programming" {Function Point}. (1995-03-12)

fractal "mathematics, graphics" A fractal is a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be subdivided in parts, each of which is (at least approximately) a smaller copy of the whole. Fractals are generally self-similar (bits look like the whole) and independent of scale (they look similar, no matter how close you zoom in). Many mathematical structures are fractals; e.g. {Sierpinski triangle}, {Koch snowflake}, {Peano curve}, {Mandelbrot set} and {Lorenz attractor}. Fractals also describe many real-world objects that do not have simple geometric shapes, such as clouds, mountains, turbulence, and coastlines. {Benoit Mandelbrot}, the discoverer of the {Mandelbrot set}, coined the term "fractal" in 1975 from the Latin fractus or "to break". He defines a fractal as a set for which the {Hausdorff Besicovich dimension} strictly exceeds the {topological dimension}. However, he is not satisfied with this definition as it excludes sets one would consider fractals. {sci.fractals FAQ (}. See also {fractal compression}, {fractal dimension}, {Iterated Function System}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:sci.fractals}, {}, {}. ["The Fractal Geometry of Nature", Benoit Mandelbrot]. [Are there non-self-similar fractals?] (1997-07-02)

frame 1. "networking" A {data link layer} "packet" which contains the header and trailer information required by the physical medium. That is, {network layer} {packets} are encapsulated to become frames. See also {datagram}, {encapsulation}, {packet}, {Maximum Transmission Unit}. 2. "programming" (language implementation) See {activation record}. 3. "hardware" One complete scan of the active area of a {display screen}. Each frame consists of a number N of horizontal {scan lines}, each of which, on a computer display, consists of a number M of {pixels}. N is the {vertical resolution} of the display and M is the {horizontal resolution}. The rate at which the displayed image is updated is the {refresh rate} in frames per second. (2000-10-07)

FrameMaker "text" A commercial document preparation program produced by {Frame Technology Corporation} who were taken over by {Adobe Systems, Inc.} in 1995/6. FrameMaker is available for a wide variety of {workstations} and is designed for technical and scientific documents. It uses a powerful system of templates and paragraph styles to control {WYSIWYG} formatting. It supports graphics, tables, and contents pages among other things. Version: FrameMaker 6, due April 2000. See also {Maker Interchange Format}. (2000-04-04)

fred 1. The personal name most frequently used as a {metasyntactic variable} (see {foo}). Allegedly popular because it's easy for a non-touch-typist to type on a standard QWERTY keyboard. Unlike {J. Random Hacker} or "J. Random Loser", this name has no positive or negative loading (but see {Mbogo, Dr. Fred}). See also {barney}. 2. An acronym for "Flipping Ridiculous Electronic Device"; other F-verbs may be substituted for "flipping".

free variable 1. A variable referred to in a function, which is not an argument of the function. In {lambda-calculus}, x is a {bound variable} in the term M = \ x . T, and a free variable of T. We say x is bound in M and free in T. If T contains a subterm \ x . U then x is rebound in this term. This nested, inner binding of x is said to "shadow" the outer binding. Occurrences of x in U are free occurrences of the new x. Variables bound at the top level of a program are technically free variables within the terms to which they are bound but are often treated specially because they can be compiled as fixed addresses. Similarly, an identifier bound to a recursive function is also technically a free variable within its own body but is treated specially. A {closed term} is one containing no free variables. See also {closure}, {lambda lifting}, {scope}. 2. In {logic}, a variable which is not quantified (see {quantifier}).

friode "humour, electronics" /fri:'ohd/ (TMRC) A reversible (that is, fused, blown, or {fried}) {diode}. A friode may have been a {SED} at some time. See also {LER}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-04-28)

fritterware An excess of capability that serves no productive end. The canonical example is font-diddling software on the Mac (see {macdink}); the term describes anything that eats huge amounts of time for quite marginal gains in function but seduces people into using it anyway. See also {window shopping}. [{Jargon File}]

full laziness "functional programming" A transformation, described by Wadsworth in 1971, which ensures that subexpressions in a function body which do not depend on the function's arguments are only evaluated once. E.g. each time the function f x = x + sqrt 4 is applied, (sqrt 4) will be evaluated. Since (sqrt 4) does not depend on x, we could transform this to: f x = x + sqrt4 sqrt4 = sqrt 4 We have replaced the dynamically created (sqrt 4) with a single shared constant which, in a {graph reduction} system, will be evaluated the first time it is needed and then updated with its value. See also {fully lazy lambda lifting}, {let floating}. (1994-11-09)

fully qualified domain name "networking" (FQDN) The full name of a system, consisting of its local {hostname} and its {domain} name, including a {top-level domain} (tld). For example, "venera" is a hostname and "" is an FQDN. An FQDN should be sufficient to determine a unique {Internet address} for any host on the {Internet}. This process, called "name resolution", uses the {Domain Name System} (DNS). With the explosion of interest in the {Internet} following the advent of the {web}, domain names (especially the most significant two components, e.g. "", and especially in the ".com" tld) have become a valuable part of many companies' "brand". The allocation of these, overseen by {ICANN}, has therefore become highly political and is performed by a number of different registrars. There are different registries for the different tlds. A final dot on the end of a FQDN can be used to tell the DNS that the name is fully qualified and so needs no extra suffixes added, but it is not required. See also {network, the}, {network address}. (2005-06-09)

function 1. "mathematics" (Or "map", "mapping") If D and C are sets (the domain and codomain) then a function f from D to C, normally written "f : D -" C" is a subset of D x C such that: 1. For each d in D there exists some c in C such that (d,c) is an element of f. I.e. the function is defined for every element of D. 2. For each d in D, c1 and c2 in C, if both (d,c1) and (d,c2) are elements of f then c1 = c2. I.e. the function is uniquely defined for every element of D. See also {image}, {inverse}, {partial function}. 2. "programming" Computing usage derives from the mathematical term but is much less strict. In programming (except in {functional programming}), a function may return different values each time it is called with the same argument values and may have {side effects}. A {procedure} is a function which returns no value but has only {side-effects}. The {C} language, for example, has no procedures, only functions. {ANSI C} even defines a {type}, {void}, for the result of a function that has no result. (1996-09-01)

functional programming "programming" (FP) A program in a functional language consists of a set of (possibly {recursive}) {function} definitions and an expression whose value is output as the program's result. Functional languages are one kind of {declarative language}. They are mostly based on the {typed lambda-calculus} with constants. There are no {side-effects} to expression evaluation so an expression, e.g. a function applied to certain arguments, will always evaluate to the same value (if its evaluation terminates). Furthermore, an expression can always be replaced by its value without changing the overall result ({referential transparency}). The order of evaluation of subexpressions is determined by the language's {evaluation strategy}. In a {strict} ({call-by-value}) language this will specify that arguments are evaluated before applying a function whereas in a non-strict ({call-by-name}) language arguments are passed unevaluated. Programs written in a functional language are generally compact and elegant, but have tended, until recently, to run slowly and require a lot of memory. Examples of purely functional languages are {Clean}, {FP}, {Haskell}, {Hope}, {Joy}, {LML}, {Miranda}, and {SML}. Many other languages such as {Lisp} have a subset which is purely functional but also contain non-functional constructs. See also {lazy evaluation}, {reduction}. {Lecture notes (}. or the same {in dvi-format (}. {FAQ (}. {SEL-HPC Article Archive (}. (2003-03-25)

Function Point Analysis "programming" (FPA) A standard metric for the relative size and complexity of a software system, originally developed by Alan Albrecht of {IBM} in the late 1970s. Functon points (FPs) can be used to estimate the relative size and complexity of software in the early stages of development - analysis and design. The size is determined by identifying the components of the system as seen by the end-user: the inputs, outputs, inquiries, interfaces to other systems, and logical internal files. The components are classified as simple, average, or complex. All of these values are then scored and the total is expressed in Unadjusted FPs (UFPs). Complexity factors described by 14 general systems characteristics, such as reusability, performance, and complexity of processing can be used to weight the UFP. Factors are also weighted on a scale of 0 - not present, 1 - minor influence, to 5 - strong influence. The result of these computations is a number that correlates to system size. Although the FP metric doesn't correspond to any actual physical attribute of a software system (such as {lines of code} or the number of subroutines) it is useful as a relative measure for comparing projects, measuring productivity, and estimating the amount a development effort and time needed for a project. See also {International Function Point Users Group}. (1996-05-16)

fusion "programming" A {program transformation} where a {composition} of two functions is replaced by in-lining them and combining their bodies. E.g. f x = g (h x) ==" f x = g (2 * x) g x = x + 1 f x = 2 * x + 1 h x = 2 * x This has the beneficial effect of reducing the number of function calls. It can be especially useful where the intermediate result is a large data structure which can be eliminated. See also {vertical loop combination}. (1994-12-05)

gag Equivalent to {choke}, but connotes more disgust. "Hey, this is Fortran code. No wonder the C compiler gagged." See also {barf}. [{Jargon File}]

games "games" "The time you enjoy wasting is not time wasted." -- {Bertrand Russell}. Here are some games-related pages on the {Web}: {Imperial Nomic (}, {Thoth's games and recreations page (}, {Games Domain (}, {Zarf's List of Games on the Web (}, {Dave's list of pointers to games resources (}, {Collaborative Fiction (}. See also {3DO}, {ADL}, {ADVENT}, {ADVSYS}, {alpha/beta pruning}, {Amiga}, {CHIP-8}, {Core Wars}, {DROOL}, {empire}, {I see no X here.}, {Infocom}, {Inglish}, {initgame}, {life}, {minimax}, {moria}, {mudhead}, {multi-user Dimension}, {nethack}, {ogg}, {plugh}, {rogue}, {SPACEWAR}, {virtual reality}, {wizard mode}, {wumpus}, {xyzzy}, {ZIL}, {zorkmid}. See also {game theory}. (1996-03-03)

gang bang The use of large numbers of loosely coupled programmers in an attempt to wedge a great many features into a product in a short time. Though there have been memorable gang bangs (e.g. that over-the-weekend assembler port mentioned in Steven Levy's "Hackers"), most are perpetrated by large companies trying to meet deadlines; the inevitable result is enormous buggy masses of code entirely lacking in {orthogonal}ity. When market-driven managers make a list of all the features the competition has and assign one programmer to implement each, the probability of maintaining a coherent (or even functional) design goes infinitesimal. See also {firefighting}, {Mongolian Hordes technique}, {Conway's Law}. [{Jargon File}]

garbage collection "programming" (GC) The process by which dynamically allocated storage is reclaimed during the execution of a program. The term usually refers to automatic periodic storage reclamation by the garbage collector (part of the {run-time system}), as opposed to explicit code to free specific blocks of memory. Automatic garbage collection is usually triggered during memory allocation when the amount free memory falls below some threshold or after a certain number of allocations. Normal execution is suspended and the garbage collector is run. There are many variations on this basic scheme. Languages like {Lisp} represent expressions as {graphs} built from {cells} which contain pointers and data. These languages use automatic {dynamic storage allocation} to build expressions. During the evaluation of an expression it is necessary to reclaim space which is used by subexpressions but which is no longer pointed to by anything. This reclaimed memory is returned to the free memory pool for subsequent reallocation. Without garbage collection the program's memory requirements would increase monotonically throughout execution, possibly exceeding system limits on {virtual memory} size. The three main methods are {mark-sweep garbage collection}, {reference counting} and {copying garbage collection}. See also the {AI koan} about garbage collection. (1997-08-25)

gated "networking" /gayt-dee/ Gate daemon. A program which supports multiple {routing} {protocols} and protocol families. It may be used for routing, and makes an effective {platform} for routing {protocol} research. {(}. See also {Exterior Gateway Protocol}, {Open Shortest Path First}, {Routing Information Protocol}, {routed}. (1994-12-07)

gedanken /g*-dahn'kn/ Ungrounded; impractical; not well-thought-out; untried; untested. "Gedanken" is a German word for "thought". A thought experiment is one you carry out in your head. In physics, the term "gedanken experiment" is used to refer to an experiment that is impractical to carry out, but useful to consider because it can be reasoned about theoretically. (A classic gedanken experiment of relativity theory involves thinking about a man in an elevator accelerating through space.) Gedanken experiments are very useful in physics, but must be used with care. It's too easy to idealise away some important aspect of the real world in constructing the "apparatus". Among hackers, accordingly, the word has a pejorative connotation. It is typically used of a project, especially one in artificial intelligence research, that is written up in grand detail (typically as a Ph.D. thesis) without ever being implemented to any great extent. Such a project is usually perpetrated by people who aren't very good hackers or find programming distasteful or are just in a hurry. A "gedanken thesis" is usually marked by an obvious lack of intuition about what is programmable and what is not, and about what does and does not constitute a clear specification of an algorithm. See also {AI-complete}, {DWIM}.

geef (Ostensibly from "gefingerpoken") {mung}. See also {blinkenlights}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-18)

General Electric "company" (GE) A US company that manufactured computers from 1956 until 1970, when it sold its computer division to {Honeywell} and left the computer business. Notable GE computers were the {GE-265}, which supported the {Dartmouth Time-sharing System} (DTSS), and the {GE-645} used for {Multics} development. See also {GCOS}. Not to be confused with the General Electric Company (GEC) in the UK (where FOLDOC's first seeds were sown). (2002-02-27)

General Packet Radio Service "communications" (GPRS) A {GSM} data transmission technique that transmits and receives data in {packets}. This contrasts with systems that set up a persistent channel. GPRS makes very efficient use of available radio spectrum, and users pay only for the volume of data sent and received. See also: {packet radio}. (1999-09-12)

General Public License "legal" (GPL, note US spelling) The licence applied to most {software} from the {Free Software Foundation} and the {GNU} project and other authors who choose to use it. The licences for most software are designed to prevent users from sharing or changing it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee the freedom to share and change {free software} - to make sure the software is free for all its users. The GPL is designed to make sure that anyone can distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if they wish); that they receive source code or can get it if they want; that they can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that they know they can do these things. The GPL forbids anyone to deny others these rights or to ask them to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for those who distribute copies of the software or modify it. See also {General Public Virus}. (1994-10-27)

generic thunk "programming" A software mechanism that allows a 16-bit {Windows} application to load and call a {Win32} {DLL} under {Windows NT} and {Windows 95}. See also {flat thunk}, {universal thunk}. (1999-04-05)

German "human language" \j*r'mn\ A human language written (in latin alphabet) and spoken in Germany, Austria and parts of Switzerland. German writing normally uses four non-{ASCII} characters: "ä", "ö" and "ü" have "umlauts" (two dots over the top) and "ß" is a double-S ("scharfes S") which looks like the Greek letter beta (except in capitalised words where it should be written "SS"). These can be written in ASCII in several ways, the most common are ae, oe ue AE OE UE ss or sz and the {TeX} versions "a "o "u "A "O "U "s. See also {ABEND}, {blinkenlights}, {DAU}, {DIN}, {gedanken}, {GMD}, {kluge}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:soc.culture.german}. {(}, {(}. (1995-03-31)

ghost ::: a mere shadow or semblance; a trace. ghosts, ghostlike. ::: (See also Holy Ghost.)

glitch /glich/ [German "glitschen" to slip, via Yiddish "glitshen", to slide or skid] 1. (Electronics) When the inputs of a circuit change, and the outputs change to some {random} value for some very brief time before they settle down to the correct value. If another circuit inspects the output at just the wrong time, reading the random value, the results can be very wrong and very hard to debug (a glitch is one of many causes of electronic {heisenbugs}). 2. A sudden interruption in electric service, sanity, continuity, or program function. Sometimes recoverable. An interruption in electric service is specifically called a "power glitch" (or {power hit}), of grave concern because it usually crashes all the computers. See also {gritch}. 2. [Stanford] To scroll a display screen, especially several lines at a time. {WAITS} terminals used to do this in order to avoid continuous scrolling, which is distracting to the eye. 4. Obsolete. Same as {magic cookie}. [{Jargon File}]

glork /glork/ 1. Used as a name for just about anything. See {foo}. 2. Similar to {glitch}, but usually used reflexively. "My program just glorked itself." See also {glark}. [{Jargon File}]

GNU "body, project" /g*noo/ 1. A {recursive acronym}: "GNU's Not Unix!". The {Free Software Foundation}'s project to provide a freely distributable replacement for {Unix}. The GNU Manifesto was published in the March 1985 issue of Dr. Dobb's Journal but the GNU project started a year and a half earlier when {Richard Stallman} was trying to get funding to work on his freely distributable editor, {Emacs}. {Emacs} and the GNU {C} compiler, {gcc}, two tools designed for this project, have become very popular. GNU software is available from many {GNU archive sites}. See also {Hurd}. 2. "person" {John Gilmore}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-04-12)

gobble "jargon" 1. To consume, usually used with "up". "The output spy gobbles characters out of a {tty} output buffer." 2. To obtain, usually used with "down". "I guess I'll gobble down a copy of the documentation tomorrow." See also {snarf}. [{Jargon File}] (2010-01-19)

gonk "jargon" /gonk/ 1. To prevaricate or to embellish the truth beyond any reasonable recognition. In German the term is (mythically) "gonken"; in Spanish the verb becomes "gonkar". "You're gonking me. That story you just told me is a bunch of gonk." In German, for example, "Du gonkst mir" (You're pulling my leg). See also {gonkulator}. 2. (British) To grab some sleep at an odd time. Compare {gronk out}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-07)

googol "mathematics" The number represented in base-ten by a one with a hundred zeroes after it. According to Webster's Dictionary, the name was coined in 1938 by Milton Sirotta, the nine-year-old nephew of American mathematician, Edward Kasner. See also {googolplex}. (2001-03-29)

Gosperism /gos'p*r-izm/ A hack, invention, or saying due to arch-hacker R. William (Bill) Gosper. This notion merits its own term because there are so many of them. Many of the entries in {HAKMEM} are Gosperisms. See also {life}.

goto "programming" (Or "GOTO", "go to", "GO TO", "JUMP", "JMP") A construct and {keyword} found in several higher-level programming languages (e.g. {Fortran}, {COBOL}, {BASIC}, {C}) to cause an {unconditional jump} or transfer of {control} from one point in a program to another. The destination of the jump is usually indicated by a {label} following the GOTO keyword. In some languages, a label is a line number, in which case every statement may be labelled, in others a label is an optional alphanumeric {identifier}. Use of the GOTO instruction in {high level language} programming fell into disrepute with the development and general acceptance of {structured programming}, and especially following the famous article "GOTO statement {considered harmful}". Since a GOTO is effectively an {assignment} to the {program counter}, it is tempting to make the generalisation "assignment considered harmful" and indeed, this is the basis of {functional programming}. Nearly(?) all {machine language} {instruction sets} include a GOTO instruction, though in this context it is usually called branch or jump or some {mnemonic} based on these. See also {COME FROM}. (2000-12-13)

Grace Hopper "person" US Navy Rear Admiral Grace Brewster Hopper (1906-12-09 to 1992-01-01), née Grace Brewster Murray. Hopper is believed to have concieved the concept of the {compiler} with the {A-0} in 1952. She also developed the first commercial {high-level language}, which eventually evolved into {COBOL}. She worked on the {Mark I} computer with Howard Aiken and with {BINAC} in 1949. She is credited with having coined the term "debug", and the adage "it is always easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission" (with various wordings), which has been the guiding principle in {sysadmin} decisions ever since. See also the entries {debug} and {bug}. Hopper is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. In 1994, the US Navy named a new ship, the guided-missile destroyer {USS Hopper (}, after her. (1999-06-29)

grammar "language" A formal definition of the syntactic structure (the {syntax}) of a language. A grammar is normally represented as a set of {production rules} which specify the order of constituents and their sub-constituents in a {sentence} (a well-formed string in the language). Each rule has a left-hand side symbol naming a syntactic category (e.g. "noun-phrase" for a {natural language} grammar) and a right-hand side which is a sequence of zero or more symbols. Each symbol may be either a {terminal symbol} or a non-terminal symbol. A terminal symbol corresponds to one "{lexeme}" - a part of the sentence with no internal syntactic structure (e.g. an identifier or an operator in a computer language). A non-terminal symbol is the left-hand side of some rule. One rule is normally designated as the top-level rule which gives the structure for a whole sentence. A {parser} (a kind of {recogniser}) uses a grammar to parse a sentence, assigning a terminal syntactic category to each input token and a non-terminal category to each appropriate group of tokens, up to the level of the whole sentence. Parsing is usually preceded by {lexical analysis}. The opposite, generation, starts from the top-level rule and chooses one alternative production wherever there is a choice. In computing, a formal grammar, e.g. in {BNF}, can be used to {parse} a linear input stream, such as the {source code} of a program, into a data structure that expresses the (or a) meaning of the input in a form that is easier for the computer to work with. A {compiler compiler} like {yacc} might be used to convert a grammar into code for the parser of a {compiler}. A grammar might also be used by a {transducer}, a {translator} or a {syntax directed editor}. See also {attribute grammar}. (2009-02-06)

graph 1. "mathematics" A collection of {nodes} and {edges}. See also {connected graph}, {degree}, {directed graph}, {Moore bound}, {regular graph}, {tree}. 2. "graphics" A visual representation of algebraic equations or data. (1996-09-22)

graph colouring "application" A {constraint-satisfaction} problem often used as a test case in research, which also turns out to be equivalent to certain real-world problems (e.g. {register allocation}). Given a {connected graph} and a fixed number of colours, the problem is to assign a colour to each node, subject to the constraint that any two connected nodes cannot be assigned the same colour. This is an example of an {NP-complete} problem. See also {four colour map theorem}.

Graphics Interchange Format "graphics, file format" /gif/, occasionally /jif/ (GIF, GIF 89A) A standard for digitised {images} compressed with the {LZW} {algorithm}, defined in 1987 by {CompuServe} (CIS). Graphics Interchange Format and GIF are service marks of {CompuServe} Incorporated. This only affects use of GIF within Compuserve, and pass-through licensing for software to access them, it doesn't affect anyone else's use of GIF. It followed from a 1994 legal action by {Unisys} against CIS for violating Unisys's {LZW} {software patent}. The CompuServe Vice President has stated that "CompuServe is committed to keeping the GIF 89A specification as an open, fully-supported, non-proprietary specification for the entire on-line community including the {web}". {Filename extension}: .gif. {File format (}. {GIF89a specification (}. See also {progressive coding}, {animated GIF}. (2000-09-12)

greater than "character" """ {ASCII} character 62. Common names: {ITU-T}: greater than; ket (""" = bra); right angle; right angle bracket; right broket. Rare: into, toward; write to; blow (""" = suck); gozinta; out; zap (all from {Unix} {I/O redirection}); {INTERCAL}: right angle. See also {less than}. (1995-03-17)

greatest common divisor "mathematics" (GCD) A function that returns the largest positive {integer} that both arguments are integer multiples of. See also {Euclid's Algorithm}. Compare: {lowest common multiple}. (1999-11-02)

Great Runes Uppercase-only text or display messages. Some archaic {operating systems} still emit these. See also {runes}, {smash case}, {fold case}. Back in the days when it was the sole supplier of long-distance hardcopy transmision devices, the {Teletype Corporation} was faced with a major design choice. To shorten code lengths and cut complexity in the printing mechanism, it had been decided that {teletypes} would use a {monocase} {font}, either ALL UPPER or all lower. The Question Of The Day was therefore, which one to choose. A study was conducted on readability under various conditions of bad ribbon, worn print hammers, etc. Lowercase won; it is less dense and has more distinctive letterforms, and is thus much easier to read both under ideal conditions and when the letters are mangled or partly obscured. The results were filtered up through {management}. The chairman of Teletype killed the proposal because it failed one incredibly important criterion: "It would be impossible to spell the name of the Deity correctly." In this way (or so, at least, hacker folklore has it) superstition triumphed over utility. Teletypes were the major input devices on most early computers, and terminal manufacturers looking for corners to cut naturally followed suit until well into the 1970s. Thus, that one bad call stuck us with Great Runes for thirty years. (1994-12-02)

Green Book 1. "publication" Informal name for one of the four standard references on {PostScript}. The other three official guides are known as the {Blue Book}, the {Red Book}, and the {White Book}. ["PostScript Language Program Design", Adobe Systems, Addison-Wesley, 1988 (ISBN 0-201-14396-8)]. 2. "publication" Informal name for one of the three standard references on {SmallTalk}. Also associated with blue and red books. ["Smalltalk-80: Bits of History, Words of Advice", by Glenn Krasner (Addison-Wesley, 1983; QA76.8.S635S58; ISBN 0-201-11669-3)]. 3. "publication" The "X/Open Compatibility Guide", which defines an international standard {Unix} environment that is a proper superset of {POSIX}/SVID. It also includes descriptions of a standard utility toolkit, systems administrations features, and the like. This grimoire is taken with particular seriousness in Europe. See {Purple Book}. 4. "publication" The {IEEE} 1003.1 {POSIX} Operating Systems Interface standard has been dubbed "The Ugly Green Book". 5. "publication" Any of the 1992 standards issued by the {ITU-T}'s tenth plenary assembly. These include, among other things, the dreadful {X.400} {electronic mail} standard and the Group 1 through 4 fax standards. 6. {Green Book CD-ROM}. See also {book titles}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-12-03)

green lightning [IBM] 1. Apparently random flashing streaks on the face of 3278-9 terminals while a new symbol set is being downloaded. This hardware bug was left deliberately unfixed, as some genius within IBM suggested it would let the user know that "something is happening". That, it certainly does. Later microprocessor-driven IBM colour graphics displays were actually *programmed* to produce green lightning! 2. [proposed] Any bug perverted into an alleged feature by adroit rationalisation or marketing. "Motorola calls the CISC {cruft} in the 88000 architecture "compatibility logic", but I call it green lightning". See also {feature}.

grep "tool, information science" "tool" A {Unix} command for searching files for lines matching a given {regular expression} (RE). Named after the {qed}/{ed} editor subcommand "g/re/p", where re stands for a regular expression, to Globally search for the Regular Expression and Print the lines containing matches to it. There are two other variants, fgrep which searches only for fixed strings and {egrep} which accepts extended REs but is usually the fastest of the three. Used by extension to mean "to look for something by pattern". When browsing through a large set of files, one may speak of "grepping around". "Grep the bulletin board for the system backup schedule, would you?" See also {vgrep}. [{Jargon File}]

Grim File Reaper "storage, operating system" (GFR) An {ITS} and {LISP Machine} utility to remove files according to some program-automated or semi-automatic manual procedure, especially one designed to reclaim mass storage space or reduce name-space clutter (the original GFR actually moved files to tape). See also {prowler}, {reaper}. Compare {GC}, which discards only provably worthless stuff. (1996-06-20)

grind 1. (MIT and Berkeley) To prettify hardcopy of code, especially LISP code, by reindenting lines, printing keywords and comments in distinct fonts (if available), etc. This usage was associated with the MacLISP community and is now rare; {prettyprint} was and is the generic term for such operations. 2. (Unix) To generate the formatted version of a document from the {nroff}, {troff}, {TeX}, or Scribe source. 3. To run seemingly interminably, especially (but not necessarily) if performing some tedious and inherently useless task. Similar to {crunch} or {grovel}. Grinding has a connotation of using a lot of CPU time, but it is possible to grind a disk, network, etc. See also {hog}. 4. To make the whole system slow. "Troff really grinds a PDP-11." 5. "grind grind" excl. Roughly, "Isn't the machine slow today!" [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-16)

groff GNU roff. {GNU}'s implementation of {roff} in {C++}. See also {nroff}, {troff}. Version 1.07 by James J. Clark "". FTP groff-1.07.tar.z from a {GNU archive site}. (1993-03-03)

grok /grok/, /grohk/ (From the novel "Stranger in a Strange Land", by Robert A. Heinlein, where it is a Martian word meaning literally "to drink" and metaphorically "to be one with") 1. To understand, usually in a global sense. Connotes intimate and exhaustive knowledge. Contrast {zen}, which is similar supernal understanding experienced as a single brief flash. See also {glark}. 2. Used of programs, may connote merely sufficient understanding. "Almost all C compilers grok the "void" type these days." [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-31)

Group 3 "protocol, compression" (G3) The {CCITT} fax {protocol} which uses data {compression} and allows a variety of file types (e.g. {electronic mail}, pictures, {PostScript}) to be transmitted over {analogue} telephone lines. The Group 3 protocol was published by {CCITT} in 1993. Full details of the protocol are available from {ITU-T}. See also {Group 4}. (1998-10-03)

Group 4 "protocol, compression" (G4) The {CCITT} fax {protocol} which uses data {compression} and allows a variety of file types (e-mail, pictures, {PostScript}, etc.) to be transmitted over digital ({ISDN}) telephone lines. The Group 4 protocol was published by {CCITT} in 1993. Full details of the protocol are available from {ITU-T}. See also {Group 3}. (1998-09-10)

Guarded Horn Clauses "language" (GHC) A parallel dialect of {Prolog} by K. Ueda in which each {clause} has a {guard}. GHC is similar to {Parlog}. When several clauses match a {goal}, their guards are evaluated in parallel and the first clause whose guard is found to be true is used and others are rejected. It uses {committed-choice nondeterminism}. See also {FGHC}, {KL1}. (1995-05-09)

H.261 "networking, standard" A {video compression} {standard} developed by {ITU-T} before 1992 to work with {integrated service digital network}. Data is compressed at the rate of 64P kilobits per second, where P can range from 1 to 30 depending on the number of ISDN channels used. This standard was developed primarily to support {video phones} and {video conferencing}. See also {ivs}. {(

hacker ethic "philosophy" 1. The belief that information-sharing is a powerful positive good, and that it is an ethical duty of hackers to share their expertise by writing free software and facilitating access to information and to computing resources wherever possible. 2. The belief that system-cracking for fun and exploration is ethically OK as long as the cracker commits no theft, vandalism, or breach of confidentiality. Both of these normative ethical principles are widely, but by no means universally, accepted among hackers. Most hackers subscribe to the hacker ethic in sense 1, and many act on it by writing and giving away free software. A few go further and assert that *all* information should be free and *any* proprietary control of it is bad; this is the philosophy behind the {GNU} project. Sense 2 is more controversial: some people consider the act of cracking itself to be unethical, like breaking and entering. But the belief that "ethical" cracking excludes destruction at least moderates the behaviour of people who see themselves as "benign" crackers (see also {samurai}). On this view, it may be one of the highest forms of hackerly courtesy to (a) break into a system, and then (b) explain to the sysop, preferably by e-mail from a {superuser} account, exactly how it was done and how the hole can be plugged - acting as an unpaid (and unsolicited) {tiger team}. The most reliable manifestation of either version of the hacker ethic is that almost all hackers are actively willing to share technical tricks, software, and (where possible) computing resources with other hackers. Huge cooperative networks such as {Usenet}, {FidoNet} and Internet (see {Internet address}) can function without central control because of this trait; they both rely on and reinforce a sense of community that may be hackerdom's most valuable intangible asset. (1995-12-18)

hacker humour A distinctive style of shared intellectual humour found among hackers, having the following marked characteristics: 1. Fascination with form-vs.-content jokes, paradoxes, and humour having to do with confusion of metalevels (see {meta}). One way to make a hacker laugh: hold a red index card in front of him/her with "GREEN" written on it, or vice-versa (note, however, that this is funny only the first time). 2. Elaborate deadpan parodies of large intellectual constructs, such as specifications (see {write-only memory}), standards documents, language descriptions (see {INTERCAL}), and even entire scientific theories (see {quantum bogodynamics}, {computron}). 3. Jokes that involve screwily precise reasoning from bizarre, ludicrous, or just grossly counter-intuitive premises. 4. Fascination with puns and wordplay. 5. A fondness for apparently mindless humour with subversive currents of intelligence in it - for example, old Warner Brothers and Rocky & Bullwinkle cartoons, the Marx brothers, the early B-52s, and Monty Python's Flying Circus. Humour that combines this trait with elements of high camp and slapstick is especially favoured. 6. References to the symbol-object antinomies and associated ideas in Zen Buddhism and (less often) Taoism. See {has the X nature}, {Discordianism}, {zen}, {ha ha only serious}, {AI koan}. See also {filk} and {retrocomputing}. If you have an itchy feeling that all 6 of these traits are really aspects of one thing that is incredibly difficult to talk about exactly, you are (a) correct and (b) responding like a hacker. These traits are also recognizable (though in a less marked form) throughout {science-fiction fandom}. (1995-12-18)

hackish "jargon" /hak'ish/ 1. Said of something that is or involves a {hack}. 2. Of or pertaining to {hackers} or the hacker subculture. See also {true-hacker}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-08)

hack "jargon" 1. Originally, a quick job that produces what is needed, but not well. 2. An incredibly good, and perhaps very time-consuming, piece of work that produces exactly what is needed. 3. To bear emotionally or physically. "I can't hack this heat!" 4. To work on something (typically a program). In an immediate sense: "What are you doing?" "I'm hacking TECO." In a general (time-extended) sense: "What do you do around here?" "I hack TECO." More generally, "I hack "foo"" is roughly equivalent to ""foo" is my major interest (or project)". "I hack solid-state physics." See {Hacking X for Y}. 5. To pull a prank on. See {hacker}. 6. To interact with a computer in a playful and exploratory rather than goal-directed way. "Whatcha up to?" "Oh, just hacking." 7. Short for {hacker}. 8. See {nethack}. 9. (MIT) To explore the basements, roof ledges, and steam tunnels of a large, institutional building, to the dismay of Physical Plant workers and (since this is usually performed at educational institutions) the Campus Police. This activity has been found to be eerily similar to playing adventure games such as {Dungeons and Dragons} and {Zork}. See also {vadding}. See also {neat hack}, {real hack}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-08-26)

hack mode "jargon" Engaged in {hack}ing. A Zen-like state of total focus on The Problem that may be achieved when one is hacking (this is why every good hacker is part mystic). Ability to enter such concentration at will correlates strongly with wizardliness; it is one of the most important skills learned during {larval stage}. Sometimes amplified as "deep hack mode". Being yanked out of hack mode (see {priority interrupt}) may be experienced as a physical shock, and the sensation of being in hack mode is more than a little habituating. The intensity of this experience is probably by itself sufficient explanation for the existence of hackers, and explains why many resist being promoted out of positions where they can code. See also {cyberspace}. Some aspects of hackish etiquette will appear quite odd to an observer unaware of the high value placed on hack mode. For example, if someone appears at your door, it is perfectly okay to hold up a hand (without turning one's eyes away from the screen) to avoid being interrupted. One may read, type, and interact with the computer for quite some time before further acknowledging the other's presence (of course, he or she is reciprocally free to leave without a word). The understanding is that you might be in {hack mode} with a lot of delicate state in your head, and you dare not {swap} that context out until you have reached a good point to pause. See also {juggling eggs}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-07-31)

ha ha only serious (SF fandom, originally as mutation of HHOK, "Ha Ha Only Kidding") A phrase (often seen abbreviated as HHOS) that aptly captures the flavour of much hacker discourse. Applied especially to parodies, absurdities, and ironic jokes that are both intended and perceived to contain a possibly disquieting amount of truth, or truths that are constructed on in-joke and self-parody. The {Jargon File} contains many examples of ha-ha-only-serious in both form and content. Indeed, the entirety of hacker culture is often perceived as ha-ha-only-serious by hackers themselves; to take it either too lightly or too seriously marks a person as an outsider, a {wannabee}, or in {larval stage}. For further enlightenment on this subject, consult any Zen master. See also {AI koan}. [{Jargon File}]

hairy 1. Annoyingly complicated. "{DWIM} is incredibly hairy." 2. Incomprehensible. "{DWIM} is incredibly hairy." 3. Of people, high-powered, authoritative, rare, expert, and/or incomprehensible. Hard to explain except in context: "He knows this hairy lawyer who says there's nothing to worry about." See also {hirsute}. The adjective "long-haired" is well-attested to have been in slang use among scientists and engineers during the early 1950s; it was equivalent to modern "hairy" and was very likely ancestral to the hackish use. In fact the noun "long-hair" was at the time used to describe a hairy person. Both senses probably passed out of use when long hair was adopted as a signature trait by the 1960s counterculture, leaving hackish "hairy" as a sort of stunted mutant relic. 4. "topology" {hairy ball}. [{Jargon File}] (2001-03-29)

HAKMEM "publication" /hak'mem/ MIT AI Memo 239 (February 1972). A legendary collection of neat mathematical and programming hacks contributed by many people at MIT and elsewhere. (The title of the memo really is "HAKMEM", which is a 6-letterism for "hacks memo".) Some of them are very useful techniques, powerful theorems, or interesting unsolved problems, but most fall into the category of mathematical and computer trivia. Here is a sampling of the entries (with authors), slightly paraphrased: Item 41 (Gene Salamin): There are exactly 23,000 prime numbers less than 2^18. Item 46 (Rich Schroeppel): The most *probable* suit distribution in bridge hands is 4-4-3-2, as compared to 4-3-3-3, which is the most *evenly* distributed. This is because the world likes to have unequal numbers: a thermodynamic effect saying things will not be in the state of lowest energy, but in the state of lowest disordered energy. Item 81 (Rich Schroeppel): Count the magic squares of order 5 (that is, all the 5-by-5 arrangements of the numbers from 1 to 25 such that all rows, columns, and diagonals add up to the same number). There are about 320 million, not counting those that differ only by rotation and reflection. Item 154 (Bill Gosper): The myth that any given programming language is machine independent is easily exploded by computing the sum of powers of 2. If the result loops with period = 1 with sign +, you are on a sign-magnitude machine. If the result loops with period = 1 at -1, you are on a twos-complement machine. If the result loops with period greater than 1, including the beginning, you are on a ones-complement machine. If the result loops with period greater than 1, not including the beginning, your machine isn't binary - the pattern should tell you the base. If you run out of memory, you are on a string or bignum system. If arithmetic overflow is a fatal error, some fascist pig with a read-only mind is trying to enforce machine independence. But the very ability to trap overflow is machine dependent. By this strategy, consider the universe, or, more precisely, algebra: Let X = the sum of many powers of 2 = ...111111 (base 2). Now add X to itself: X + X = ...111110. Thus, 2X = X - 1, so X = -1. Therefore algebra is run on a machine (the universe) that is two's-complement. Item 174 (Bill Gosper and Stuart Nelson): 21963283741 is the only number such that if you represent it on the {PDP-10} as both an integer and a {floating-point} number, the bit patterns of the two representations are identical. Item 176 (Gosper): The "banana phenomenon" was encountered when processing a character string by taking the last 3 letters typed out, searching for a random occurrence of that sequence in the text, taking the letter following that occurrence, typing it out, and iterating. This ensures that every 4-letter string output occurs in the original. The program typed BANANANANANANANA.... We note an ambiguity in the phrase, "the Nth occurrence of." In one sense, there are five 00's in 0000000000; in another, there are nine. The editing program TECO finds five. Thus it finds only the first ANA in BANANA, and is thus obligated to type N next. By Murphy's Law, there is but one NAN, thus forcing A, and thus a loop. An option to find overlapped instances would be useful, although it would require backing up N - 1 characters before seeking the next N-character string. Note: This last item refers to a {Dissociated Press} implementation. See also {banana problem}. HAKMEM also contains some rather more complicated mathematical and technical items, but these examples show some of its fun flavour. HAKMEM is available from MIT Publications as a {TIFF} file. {(}. (1996-01-19)

hakspek "jargon" /hak'speek/ A shorthand method of spelling found on many British academic bulletin boards and {chat} systems. Syllables and whole words in a sentence are replaced by single {ASCII} characters the names of which are phonetically similar or equivalent, while multiple letters are usually dropped. Hence, "for" becomes "4"; "two", "too", and "to" become "2"; "ck" becomes "k". "Before I see you tomorrow" becomes "b4 i c u 2moro". First appeared in London about 1986, and was probably caused by the slowness of available {talk} systems, which operated on archaic machines with outdated {operating systems} and no standard methods of communication. Has become rarer since. See also {chat}, {B1FF}, {ASCIIbonics}. [{Jargon File}] (1998-01-25)

halftone "graphics" The reproducion of {greyscale} {images} using dots of a single shade but varying size to simulate the different shades of grey. {Laser printers} that cannot print different sized dots, halftones are produced by varying the numbers of dots in a given area. This process is also used to produce a black and white version of a colour original using shades of grey in place of colours. See also {device independent bitmap}. (1996-09-20)

hard boot "operating system" A {boot} which resets the entire {system}. The phrase has connations of hostility toward, or frustration with, the computer being booted. For example, "I'll have to hard boot this {losing} {Sun}", or "I recommend booting it hard". Hard boots are often performed with a {power cycle}. Contrast {soft boot}. See also {cold boot} and {reboot} [{Jargon File}] (1995-11-27)

hard crash "programming" When a program stops running completely and unexpectedly, often due to external events, e.g. the {CPU} overheating or an unrecoverable memory error. See also {disk crash}. (2009-07-01)

hardware "hardware" The physical, touchable, material parts of a computer or other system. The term is used to distinguish these fixed parts of a system from the more changeable {software} or {data} components which it executes, stores, or carries. Typical computer hardware consists of electronic devices ({CPU}, {memory}, {display}) with some electromechanical parts (keyboard, {printer}, {disk drives}, {tape drives}, loudspeakers) for input, output and storage. Completely non-electronic (mechanical, electromechanical, hydraulic, biological) computers have also been conceived of and built. See also {firmware}, {wetware}. (1997-01-23)

hash coding "programming, algorithm" (Or "hashing") A scheme for providing rapid access to data items which are distinguished by some {key}. Each data item to be stored is associated with a key, e.g. the name of a person. A {hash function} is applied to the item's key and the resulting hash value is used as an index to select one of a number of "hash buckets" in a hash table. The table contains pointers to the original items. If, when adding a new item, the hash table already has an entry at the indicated location then that entry's key must be compared with the given key to see if it is the same. If two items' keys hash to the same value (a "{hash collision}") then some alternative location is used (e.g. the next free location cyclically following the indicated one). For best performance, the table size and {hash function} must be tailored to the number of entries and range of keys to be used. The hash function usually depends on the table size so if the table needs to be enlarged it must usually be completely rebuilt. When you look up a name in the phone book (for example), you typically hash it by extracting its first letter; the hash buckets are the alphabetically ordered letter sections. See also: {btree}, {checksum}, {CRC}, {pseudorandom number}, {random}, {random number}, {soundex}. (1997-08-03)

has the X nature (From Zen Buddhist koans of the form "Does an X have the Buddha-nature?") Common hacker construction for "is an X", used for humorous emphasis. "Anyone who can't even use a program with on-screen help embedded in it truly has the {loser} nature!" See also {the X that can be Y is not the true X}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-11)

having a specified kind of heart, lit. and fig. (now used only in combination). dim-hearted, Rich-hearted, sensuous-hearted, swift-hearted. See also hard-hearted, iron-hearted, stone-hearted.

head normalisation theorem Under the typed lambda-calculus, beta/delta reduction of the left-most redex (normal order reduction) is guaranteed to terminate with a head normal form if one exists. See also Church-Rosser theorem.

heads down [Sun] Concentrating, usually so heavily and for so long that everything outside the focus area is missed. See also {hack mode} and {larval stage}, although this mode is hardly confined to fledgling hackers. [{Jargon File}]

head-strict "theory" A head-strict function will not necessarily evaluate every {cons cell} of its (list) argument, but whenever it does evaluate a cons cell it will also evaluate the element in the head of that cell. An example of a head-strict function is beforeZero :: [Int] -" [Int] beforeZero []   = [] beforeZero (0:xs) = [] beforeZero (x:xs) = x : beforeZero xs which returns a list up to the first zero. This pattern of evaluation is important because it is common in functions which operate on a list of inputs. See also {tail-strict}, {hyperstrict}. (1995-05-11)

heap 1. "programming" An area of memory used for {dynamic memory allocation} where blocks of memory are allocated and freed in an arbitrary order and the pattern of allocation and size of blocks is not known until {run time}. Typically, a program has one heap which it may use for several different purposes. Heap is required by languages in which functions can return arbitrary data structures or functions with {free variables} (see {closure}). In {C} functions {malloc} and {free} provide access to the heap. Contrast {stack}. See also {dangling pointer}. 2. "programming" A data structure with its elements partially ordered (sorted) such that finding either the minimum or the maximum (but not both) of the elements is computationally inexpensive (independent of the number of elements), while both adding a new item and finding each subsequent smallest/largest element can be done in O(log n) time, where n is the number of elements. Formally, a heap is a {binary tree} with a key in each {node}, such that all the {leaves} of the tree are on two adjacent levels; all leaves on the lowest level occur to the left and all levels, except possibly the lowest, are filled; and the key in the {root} is at least as large as the keys in its children (if any), and the left and right subtrees (if they exist) are again heaps. Note that the last condition assumes that the goal is finding the minimum quickly. Heaps are often implemented as one-dimensional {arrays}. Still assuming that the goal is finding the minimum quickly the {invariant} is  heap[i] "= heap[2*i] and heap[i] "= heap[2*i+1] for all i, where heap[i] denotes the i-th element, heap[1] being the first. Heaps can be used to implement {priority queues} or in {sort} algorithms. (1996-02-26)

heartbeat 1. "networking" The signal emitted by a Level 2 Ethernet transceiver at the end of every {packet} to show that the collision-detection circuit is still connected. 2. A periodic synchronisation signal used by software or hardware, such as a {bus} clock or a periodic {interrupt}. 3. The "natural" oscillation frequency of a computer's clock crystal, before frequency division down to the machine's clock rate. 4. A signal emitted at regular intervals by software to demonstrate that it is still alive. Sometimes hardware is designed to reboot the machine if it stops hearing a heartbeat. See also {breath-of-life packet}, {watchdog}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-03-12)

heisenbug "jargon" /hi:'zen-buhg/ (From Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle in quantum physics) A bug that disappears or alters its behaviour when one attempts to probe or isolate it. (This usage is not even particularly fanciful; the use of a debugger sometimes alters a program's operating environment enough that buggy code, such as that which relies on the values of uninitialised memory, behaves quite differently.) In {C}, nine out of ten heisenbugs result from uninitialised {auto variables}, {fandango on core} phenomena (especially corruption of the malloc {arena}) or errors that {smash the stack}. Opposite: {Bohr bug}. See also {mandelbug}, {schroedinbug}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-28)

Helen Keller mode 1. State of a hardware or software system that is deaf, dumb, and blind, i.e. accepting no input and generating no output, usually due to an {infinite loop} or some other excursion into {deep space}. (Unfair to the real Helen Keller, whose success at learning speech was triumphant.) See also {go flatline}, {catatonic}. 2. On {IBM PCs} under {MS-DOS}, refers to a specific failure mode in which a screen saver has kicked in over an {ill-behaved} application which bypasses the very interrupts the screen saver watches for activity. Your choices are to try to get from the program's current state through a successful save-and-exit without being able to see what you're doing, or to {re-boot} the machine. This isn't (strictly speaking) a crash. [{Jargon File}]

Heterotelic: (from Gr. heteros, another, and telos, end) Said of any activity having a conscious or implied reference to the accomplishment of some end. In aesthetics applied to creative art and play in which a useful purpose may be discerned or may constitute the motive. See also Autotelic. -- K.F.L.

hierarchical file system "file system" A {file system} in which the {files} are organised into a {hierarchy}. The nodes of the hierarchy are called {directories} while the leaves are the files themselves. See also {root directory}. Compare {flat file system}. (1996-11-21)

high bit (Or "high-order bit") The most significant {bit} in a {byte}. See also {meta bit}, {hobbit}, {dread high bit disease}. [{Jargon File}] (2012-08-31)

high-level language (HLL) A programming language which provides some level of abstraction above {assembly language}. These normally use statements consisting of English-like keywords such as "FOR", "PRINT" or "GOTO", where each statement corresponds to several {machine language} instructions. It is much easier to program in a high-level language than in {assembly language} though the efficiency of execution depends on how good the {compiler} or {interpreter} is at optimising the program. Rarely, the variants "{VHLL}" and "{MLL}" are found. See also {languages of choice}, {generation}. (1994-12-07)

High Performance Serial Bus "hardware, standard" (Or "{IEEE} 1394") A 1995 {Macintosh}/{IBM PC} {serial bus} interface {standard} offering {isochronous} {real-time} data transfer. 1394 can transfer data between a computer and its {peripherals} at 100, 200, or 400 {Mbps}, with a planed increase to 2 {Gbps}. Cable length is limited to 4.5 m but up to 16 cables can be daisy-chained yielding a total length of 72 m. It can {daisy-chain} together up to 63 peripherals in a tree-like structure (as opposed to {SCSI}'s linear structure). It allows peer-to-peer communication, e.g. between a {scanner} and a {printer}, without using system memory or the {CPU}. It is designed to support {plug-and-play} and {hot swapping}. Its six-wire cable is not only more convenient than SCSI cables but can supply up to 60 watts of power, allowing low-consumption devices to operate without a separate power cord. Some expensive camcorders included this bus from 1995. It is expected to be used to carry {SCSI}, with possible application to {home automation} using {repeaters}. {Sony} calls it {I-Link}, most people call it "FireWire". See also {Universal Serial Bus}, {FC-AL}. (2014-09-06)

High Voltage Differential "hardware" (HVD) {Differential SCSI} scheme that has been in use for years. The {terminators} run on 5 Volts DC. See also {LVD}. (1999-02-16)

hlp "filename extension" A {Microsoft Windows} {filename extension} for {hypertext} {WinHelp} files. These are in a {proprietary} format, and are compiled from {source files} written in a dialect of {RTF}. See also {gid}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {}. (1997-01-30)

holy wars [{Usenet}, but may predate it] {flame wars} over {religious issues}. The paper by Danny Cohen that popularised the terms {big-endian} and {little-endian} was entitled "On Holy Wars and a Plea for Peace". Other perennial Holy Wars have included {Emacs} vs. {vi}, my personal computer vs. everyone else's personal computer, {ITS} vs. {Unix}, {Unix} vs. {VMS}, {BSD} Unix vs. {USG Unix}, {C} vs. {Pascal}, {C} vs. Fortran, etc., ad nauseam. The characteristic that distinguishes holy wars from normal technical disputes is that in a holy wars most of the participants spend their time trying to pass off personal value choices and cultural attachments as objective technical evaluations. See also {theology}. [{Jargon File}]

Honeywell "company" A US company known for its {mainframes} and {operating systems}. The company's history is long and tortuous, with many mergers, acquisitions and name changes. A company formed on 1886-04-23 to make furnace regulators eventually merged in 1927 with another company formed in 1904 by a young plumbing and heating engineer named Mark Honeywell who was perfecting the heat generator. A 1955 joint venture with {Raytheon Corp.}, called {Datamatic Corporation}, marked Honeywell's entry into the computer business. Their first computer was the {D-1000}. In 1960 Honeywell bought out Raytheon's interest and the name changed to {Electronic Data Processing} (EDP) then in 1963 it was officially renamed Honeywell Inc. In 1970 Honeywell merged its computer business with {General Electric}'s to form Honeywell Information Systems. In 1986 a joint venture with the french company {Bull} and japanese {NEC Corporation} created Honeywell Bull. By 1991 Honeywell had withdrawn from the computer business, focussing more on aeropspace. {CII Honeywell} was an important department. Honeywell operating systems included {GCOS} and {Multics}. See also: {brain-damaged}. {History (}. (2009-01-14)

Hope+C "language" A further evolution of {Hope+} with {continuation-based I/O}, {coroutines}, and {RFCs}. Hope+C was developed as part of the {Flagship} project at {Imperial College}. It has been implemented for {Sun-3s} with {Motorola} {FPUs}. See also {Massey Hope}, {Concurrent Massey Hope}. E-mail: John Darlington "". [What kind of RFCs?] (1999-06-23)

Hope "language" A {functional programming} language designed by R.M. Burstall, D.B. MacQueen and D.T. Sanella at {University of Edinburgh} in 1978. It is a large language supporting user-defined {prefix}, {infix} or {distfix} operators. Hope has {polymorphic} typing and allows {overloading} of operators which requires explicit type declarations. Hope has {lazy lists} and was the first language to use {call-by-pattern}. It has been ported to {Unix}, {Macintosh}, and {IBM PC}. See also {Hope+}, {Hope+C}, {Massey Hope}, {Concurrent Massey Hope}. {(}. [R.M.Burstall, D.B.MacQueen, D.T.Sanella, "HOPE: An experimental applicative language", Proc. 1980 Lisp conf., Stanford, CA, p.136-143, Aug 1980]. ["A HOPE Tutorial", R. Bailey, BYTE Aug 1985, pp.235-258]. ["Functional Programming with Hope", R. Bailey, Ellis Horwood 1990]. (1992-11-27)

Hope+ "language, functional programming" An extension of {Hope} implemented in the Alvey {Flagship} project at {Imperial College}. Hope+ has vectors, real numbers, best fit {pattern matching}, lazy data constructors, absolute {set abstractions} and {constraints}. It has a {continuation}-based I/O system with {referential transparency} and is capable of handling all common I/O tasks such as terminal and file I/O, {signal} handling and interprocess communications. It has {modules} and {separate compilation}. See also {Hope+C}, {Massey Hope}, {Concurrent Massey Hope}. ["Hope+", N. Perry, Imperial College, IC/FPR/LANG/2.5.1/7, 1988.] (1999-08-24)

hose 1. To make non-functional or greatly degraded in performance. "That big ray-tracing program really hoses the system." See {hosed}. 2. A narrow channel through which data flows under pressure. Generally denotes data paths that represent performance bottlenecks. 3. Cabling, especially {thick Ethernet cable}. This is sometimes called "bit hose" or "hosery" (a play on "hosiery") or "etherhose". See also {washing machine}. [{Jargon File}]

hosed "jargon" A somewhat humorous variant of "{down}", used primarily by {Unix} {hackers}. "Hosed" implies a condition thought to be relatively easy to reverse. It is also widely used of people in the mainstream sense of "in an extremely unfortunate situation". The term was popularised by fighter pilots refering to being hosed by machine gun fire (date?). Usage in hackerdom dates back to {CMU} in the 1970s or earlier. {"Acronyms and Abbreviations" from UCC, Ireland (} expands it as "Hardware Or Software Error Detected", though this is probably a back-formation. The {Jargon File} version 4.1.4 1999-06-17 says that it was probably derived from the Canadian slang "hoser" (meaning "a man, esp. one who works at a job that uses physical rather than mental skills and whose habits are slightly offensive but amusing"). One correspondant speculates about an allusion to a hose-like body part. Once upon a time, a {Cray} that had been experiencing periodic difficulties crashed, and it was announced to have been hosed. It was discovered that the crash was due to the disconnection of some coolant hoses. The problem was corrected, and users were then assured that everything was OK because the system had been rehosed. See also {dehose}. See also: {hose}. (1999-10-28)

hostname 1. (Or "sitename"). The unique name by which a computer is known on a {network}, used to identify it in {electronic mail}, {Usenet} {news}, or other forms of electronic information interchange. On the {Internet} the hostname is an {ASCII} string, e.g. "" which, consists of a local part (foldoc) and a {domain} name ( The hostname is translated into an {Internet address} either via the {hosts file}, {NIS} or by the {Domain Name System} (DNS) or {resolver}. It is possible for one computer to have several hostnames (aliases) though one is designated as its {canonical} name. It is often possible to guess a hostname for a particular institution. This is useful if you want to know if they operate network services like {anonymous FTP}, {World-Wide Web} or {finger}. First try the institution's name or obvious abbreviations thereof, with the appropriate {domain} appended, e.g. "". If this fails, prepend "ftp." or "www." as appropriate, e.g. "". You can use the {ping} command as a quick way to test whether a hostname is valid. The folklore interest of hostnames stems from the creativity and humour they often display. Interpreting a sitename is not unlike interpreting a vanity licence plate; one has to mentally unpack it, allowing for mono-case and length restrictions and the lack of whitespace. Hacker tradition deprecates dull, institutional-sounding names in favour of punchy, humorous, and clever coinages (except that it is considered appropriate for the official public gateway machine of an organisation to bear the organisation's name or acronym). Mythological references, cartoon characters, animal names, and allusions to SF or fantasy literature are probably the most popular sources for sitenames (in roughly descending order). The obligatory comment is Harris's Lament: "All the good ones are taken!" See also {network address}. 2. {Berkeley} {Unix} command to set and get the application level name used by the host. {Unix manual page}: hostname(1). (1995-02-16)

Human-Computer Interaction "software, hardware" (HCI) The study of how humans interact with computers, and how to design computer systems that are easy, quick and productive for humans to use. See also {Human-Computer Interface}. {HCI Sites (}. (1999-05-09)

Human-Computer Interface "software, hardware" (HCI) Any {software} or {hardware} that allows a user to interact with a computer. Examples are {WIMP}, {command-line interpreter}, or {virtual reality}. See also {Human-Computer Interaction}. (1999-05-09)

hung ["hung up"] Equivalent to {wedged}, but more common at Unix/C sites. Not generally used of people. Synonym with {locked up}, {wedged}; compare {hosed}. See also {hang}. A hung state is distinguished from {crash}ed or {down}, where the program or system is also unusable but because it is not running rather than because it is waiting for something. However, the recovery from both situations is often the same. [{Jargon File}]

HyperBase "database" An experimental active multi-user {database} for {hypertext} systems from the {University of Aalborg}, written in {C++}. It is built on the {client-server} model enabling distributed, {concurrent}, and shared access from {workstations} in a {local area network}. See also {EHTS}. (1995-03-19)

Hypertext Markup Language "hypertext, web, standard" (HTML) A {hypertext} document format used on the {web}. HTML is built on top of {SGML}. "Tags" are embedded in the text. A tag consists of a """, a "directive" (in lower case), zero or more parameters and a """. Matched pairs of directives, like ""title"" and ""/title"" are used to delimit text which is to appear in a special place or style. Links to other documents are in the form "a href="""foo"/a" where ""a"" and ""/a"" delimit an "anchor", "href" introduces a hypertext reference, which is most often a {Uniform Resource Locator} (URL) (the string in double quotes in the example above). The link will be represented in the browser by the text "foo" (typically shown underlined and in a different colour). A certain place within an HTML document can be marked with a named anchor, e.g.: "a name="baz"" The "fragment identifier", "baz", can be used in an href by appending "

Hypertext Transfer Protocol "protocol" (HTTP) The {client-server} {TCP/IP} {protocol} used on the {web} for the exchange of {HTML} documents. It conventionally uses {port} 80. See also {Uniform Resource Locator}. (1994-10-27)

IBM 3270 "hardware" A class of {terminals} made by {IBM} known as "Display Devices", normally used to talk to {IBM} {mainframes}. The 3270 attempts to minimise the number of {I/O} {interrupts} required by accepting large blocks of data, known as datastreams, in which both text and control (or formatting functions) are interspersed allowing an entire screen to be "painted" as a single output operation. The concept of "formatting" in these devices allows the screen to be divided into clusters of contiguous character cells for which numerous attributes (color, highlighting, {character set}, protection from modification) can be set. Further, using a technique known as 'Read Modified' the changes from any number of formatted fields that have been modified can be read as a single input without transferring any other data, another technique to enhance the terminal throughput of the CPU. The 3270 had twelve, and later twenty-four, special Programmed Function Keys, or PF keys. When one of these keys was pressed, it would cause the device to generate an I/O {interrupt} and present a special code identifying which key was pressed. {Application program} functions such as termination, page-up, page-down or help could be invoked by a single key-push, thereby reducing the load on very busy processors. A version of the {IBM PC} called the "3270 PC" was released in October 1983. It included 3270 {terminal emulation}. {tn3270} is modified version of {Telnet} which acts as a 3270 {terminal emulator} and can be used to connect to an IBM computer over a network. See also {broken arrow}. (1995-02-07)

IBM PC "computer" International Business Machines Personal Computer. IBM PCs and compatible models from other vendors are the most widely used computer systems in the world. They are typically single user {personal computers}, although they have been adapted into multi-user models for special applications. Note: "IBM PC" is used in this dictionary to denote IBM and compatible personal computers, and to distinguish these from other {personal computers}, though the phrase "PC" is often used elsewhere, by those who know no better, to mean "IBM PC or compatible". There are hundreds of models of IBM compatible computers. They are based on {Intel}'s {microprocessors}: {Intel 8086}, {Intel 8088}, {Intel 80286}, {Intel 80386}, {Intel 486} or {Pentium}. The models of IBM's first-generation Personal Computer (PC) series have names: IBM PC, {IBM PC XT}, {IBM PC AT}, Convertible and Portable. The models of its second generation, the Personal System/2 ({PS/2}), are known by model number: Model 25, Model 30. Within each series, the models are also commonly referenced by their {CPU} {clock rate}. All IBM personal computers are software compatible with each other in general, but not every program will work in every machine. Some programs are time sensitive to a particular speed class. Older programs will not take advantage of newer higher-resolution {display standards}. The speed of the {CPU} ({microprocessor}) is the most significant factor in machine performance. It is determined by its {clock rate} and the number of bits it can process internally. It is also determined by the number of bits it transfers across its {data bus}. The second major performance factor is the speed of the {hard disk}. {CAD} and other graphics-intensive {application programs} can be sped up with the addition of a mathematics {coprocessor}, a chip which plugs into a special socket available in almost all machines. {Intel 8086} and {Intel 8088}-based PCs require {EMS} (expanded memory) boards to work with more than one megabyte of memory. All these machines run under {MS-DOS}. The original {IBM PC AT} used an {Intel 80286} processor which can access up to 16 megabytes of memory (though standard {MS-DOS} applications cannot use more than one megabyte without {EMS}). {Intel 80286}-based computers running under {OS/2} can work with the maximum memory. Although IBM sells {printers} for PCs, most printers will work with them. As with display hardware, the software vendor must support a wide variety of printers. Each program must be installed with the appropriate {printer driver}. The original 1981 IBM PC's keyboard was severely criticised by typists for its non-standard placement of the return and left shift keys. In 1984, IBM corrected this on its AT keyboard, but shortened the backspace key, making it harder to reach. In 1987, it introduced its Enhanced keyboard, which relocated all the function keys and placed the control key in an awkward location for touch typists. The escape key was relocated to the opposite side of the keyboard. By relocating the function keys, IBM made it impossible for software vendors to use them intelligently. What's easy to reach on one keyboard is difficult on the other, and vice versa. To the touch typist, these deficiencies are maddening. An "IBM PC compatible" may have a keyboard which does not recognize every key combination a true IBM PC does, e.g. shifted cursor keys. In addition, the "compatible" vendors sometimes use proprietary keyboard interfaces, preventing you from replacing the keyboard. The 1981 PC had 360K {floppy disks}. In 1984, IBM introduced the 1.2 megabyte floppy disk along with its AT model. Although often used as {backup} storage, the high density floppy is not often used for interchangeability. In 1986, IBM introduced the 720K 3.5" microfloppy disk on its Convertible {laptop computer}. It introduced the 1.44 megabyte double density version with the PS/2 line. These disk drives can be added to existing PCs. Fixed, non-removable, {hard disks} for IBM compatibles are available with storage capacities from 20 to over 600 megabytes. If a hard disk is added that is not compatible with the existing {disk controller}, a new controller board must be plugged in. However, one disk's internal standard does not conflict with another, since all programs and data must be copied onto it to begin with. Removable hard disks that hold at least 20 megabytes are also available. When a new peripheral device, such as a {monitor} or {scanner}, is added to an IBM compatible, a corresponding, new controller board must be plugged into an {expansion slot} (in the bus) in order to electronically control its operation. The PC and XT had eight-bit busses; the AT had a 16-bit bus. 16-bit boards will not fit into 8-bit slots, but 8-bit boards will fit into 16-bit slots. {Intel 80286} and {Intel 80386} computers provide both 8-bit and 16-bit slots, while the 386s also have proprietary 32-bit memory slots. The bus in high-end models of the PS/2 line is called "{Micro Channel}". {EISA} is a non-IBM rival to Micro Channel. The original IBM PC came with {BASIC} in {ROM}. Later, Basic and BasicA were distributed on floppy but ran and referenced routines in ROM. IBM PC and PS/2 models PC range Intro CPU Features PC Aug 1981 8088 Floppy disk system XT Mar 1983 8088 Slow hard disk XT/370 Oct 1983 8088 IBM 370 mainframe emulation 3270 PC Oct 1983 8088 with 3270 terminal emulation PCjr Nov 1983 8088 Floppy-based home computer PC Portable Feb 1984 8088 Floppy-based portable AT Aug 1984 286 Medium-speed hard disk Convertible Apr 1986 8088 Microfloppy laptop portable XT 286 Sep 1986 286 Slow hard disk PS/2 range Intro CPU Features Model 1987-08-25 8086 PC bus (limited expansion) Model 1987-04-30 8086 PC bus Model 30 1988-09-286 286 PC bus Model 1987-04-50 286 Micro Channel bus Model 50Z Jun 1988 286 Faster Model 50 Model 55 SX May 1989 386SX Micro Channel bus Model 1987-04-60 286 Micro Channel bus Model 1988-06-70 386 Desktop, Micro Channel bus Model P1989-05-70 386 Portable, Micro Channel bus Model 1987-04-80 386 Tower, Micro Channel bus IBM PC compatible specifications CPU CPU  Clock  Bus   Floppy Hard    bus  speed width RAM  disk disk OS    bit  Mhz   bit byte  inch byte Mbyte 8088 16  4.8-9.5 8  1M*   5.25 360K 10-40 DOS    3.5 720K    3.5 1.44M 8086 16   6-12   16  1M* 20-60 286 16   6-25   16 1-8M*  5.25 360K 20-300 DOS    5.25 1.2M OS/2 386 32   16-33  32 1-16M** 3.5 720K Unix    3.5 1.44M 40-600 386SX 32   16-33  16 1-16M** 40-600 *Under DOS, RAM is expanded beyond 1M with EMS memory boards **Under DOS, RAM is expanded beyond 1M with normal "extended" memory and a memory management program. See also {BIOS}, {display standard}. (1995-05-12)

icebreaker "security, jargon" A program designed for cracking security on a system. See also: {ICE}. [{Jargon File}] (2000-03-18)

Icon "language" A descendant of {SNOBOL4} with {Pascal}-like syntax, produced by Griswold in the 1970's. Icon is a general-purpose language with special features for string scanning. It has dynamic types: records, sets, lists, strings, tables. If has some {object oriented} features but no {modules} or {exceptions}. It has a primitive {Unix} interface. The central theme of Icon is the generator: when an expression is evaluated it may be suspended and later resumed, producing a result sequence of values until it fails. Resumption takes place implicitly in two contexts: iteration which is syntactically loop-like ('every-do'), and goal-directed evaluation in which a conditional expression automatically attempts to produce at least one result. Expressions that fail are used in lieu of Booleans. Data {backtracking} is supported by a reversible {assignment}. Icon also has {co-expressions}, which can be explicitly resumed at any time. Version 8.8 by Ralph Griswold "" includes an {interpreter}, a compiler (for some {platforms}) and a library (v8.8). Icon has been ported to {Amiga}, {Atari}, {CMS}, {Macintosh}, {Macintosh/MPW}, {MS-DOS}, {MVS}, {OS/2}, {Unix}, {VMS}, {Acorn}. See also {Ibpag2}. {(}, {MS-DOS FTP ( norman/}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.icon}. E-mail: "", "". Mailing list: ["The Icon Programmming Language", Ralph E. Griswold and Madge T. Griswold, Prentice Hall, seond edition, 1990]. ["The Implementation of the Icon Programmming Language", Ralph E. Griswold and Madge T. Griswold, Princeton University Press 1986]. (1992-08-21)

I didn't change anything! An aggrieved cry often heard as bugs manifest during a regression test. The {canonical} reply to this assertion is "Then it works just the same as it did before, doesn't it?" See also {one-line fix}. This is also heard from applications programmers trying to blame an obvious applications problem on an unrelated systems software change, for example a divide-by-0 fault after terminals were added to a network. Usually, their statement is found to be false. Upon close questioning, they will admit some major restructuring of the program that shouldn't have broken anything, in their opinion, but which actually {hosed} the code completely. [{Jargon File}]

Id Nouveau A {dataflow} language by Arvind "" and R.S. Nikhil "", {MIT} {LCS}, ca. 1986. Id Nouveau began as a {functional language}, added {streams}, resource managers and {I-structures} ({mutable arrays}). Loops are {syntactic sugar} for {tail recursion}. See also {Id}. ["Id Nouveau Reference Manual", R.S. Nikhil, CS TR, MIT, March 1988]. ["Id (Version 90.1) Reference Manual", R.S. Nikhil, CSG Memo 284-2, LCS MIT, July 15, 1991].

ill-behaved 1. [numerical analysis] Said of an {algorithm} or computational method that tends to blow up because of accumulated roundoff error or poor convergence properties. 2. Software that bypasses the defined {operating system} interfaces to do things (like screen, keyboard, and disk I/O) itself, often in a way that depends on the hardware of the machine it is running on or which is nonportable or incompatible with other pieces of software. In the {IBM PC}/{mess-dos} world, there is a folk theorem (nearly true) to the effect that (owing to gross inadequacies and performance penalties in the OS interface) all interesting applications are ill-behaved. See also {bare metal}. Opposite: {well-behaved}, compare {PC-ism}. [{Jargon File}]

image 1. "data, graphics" Data representing a two-dimensional scene. A digital image is composed of {pixels} arranged in a rectangular array with a certain height and width. Each pixel may consist of one or more {bits} of information, representing the brightness of the image at that point and possibly including colour information encoded as {RGB} triples. {Images} are usually taken from the real world via a {digital camera}, {frame grabber}, or {scanner}; or they may be generated by computer, e.g. by {ray tracing} software. See also {image formats}, {image processing}. (1994-10-21) 2. "mathematics" The image (or range) of a {function} is the set of values obtained by applying the function to all elements of its {domain}. So, if f : D -" C then the set f(D) = \{ f(d) | d in D \} is the image of D under f. The image is a subset of C, the {codomain}. (2000-01-19)

image processing "graphics" Computer manipulation of {images}. Some of the many {algorithms} used in image processing include {convolution} (on which many others are based), {FFT}, {DCT}, {thinning} (or {skeletonisation}), {edge detection} and {contrast enhancement}. These are usually implemented in {software} but may also use special purpose {hardware} for speed. Image processing contrasts with {computer graphics}, which is usually more concerned with the generation of artificial images, and {visualisation}, which attempts to understand (real-world) data by displaying it as an artificial image (e.g. a graph). Image processing is used in {image recognition} and {computer vision}. {Silicon Graphics} manufacture {workstations} which are often used for image processing. There are a few programming languages designed for image processing, e.g. {CELIP}, {VPL}. See also {Pilot European Image Processing Archive}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:sci.image.processing}. [Other algorithms, languages? FAQ?] (1995-04-12)

imaging "graphics" The production of graphic {images}, either from a video camera or from digitally generated data (see {visualisation}), or the recording of such images on microfilm, videotape or laser disk. See also {scanner}. (1997-07-20)

implicit type conversion "programming" (Or "coercion") The abilty of some {compilers} to automatically insert {type} conversion {functions} where an expression of one type is used in a context where another type is expected. A common example is coercion of {integers} to {reals} so that an expression like sin(1) is compiled as sin(integerToReal(1)) where sin is of type Real -" Real. A coercion is usually performed automatically by the compiler whereas a {cast} is an {explicit type conversion} inserted by the programmer. See also {subtype}. (1997-07-28)

inference "logic" The logical process by which new facts are derived from known facts by the application of {inference rules}. See also {symbolic inference}, {type inference}. (1995-03-20)

infinite loop "programming" (Or "endless loop") Where a piece of program is executed repeatedly with no hope of stopping. This is nearly always because of a {bug}, e.g. if the condition for exiting the loop is wrong, though it may be intentional if the program is controlling an {embedded system} which is supposed to run continuously until it is turned off. The programmer may also intend the program to run until interrupted by the user. An endless loop may also be used as a last-resort error handler when no other action is appropriate. This is used in some {operating system} kernels following a {panic}. A program executing an infinite loop is said to {spin} or {buzz} forever and goes {catatonic}. The program is "wound around the axle". A standard joke has been made about each generation's exemplar of the ultra-fast machine: "The Cray-3 is so fast it can execute an infinite loop in under 2 seconds!" See also {black hole}, {recursion}, {infinite loop}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-11)

infinite "mathematics" 1. Bigger than any {natural number}. There are various formal set definitions in {set theory}: a set X is infinite if (i) There is a {bijection} between X and a {proper subset} of X. (ii) There is an {injection} from the set N of natural numbers to X. (iii) There is an injection from each natural number n to X. These definitions are not necessarily equivalent unless we accept the {Axiom of Choice}. 2. The length of a line extended indefinitely. See also {infinite loop}, {infinite set}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-29)

Infinite Monkey Theorem "humour" "If you put an {infinite} number of monkeys at typewriters, eventually one will bash out the script for Hamlet." (One may also hypothesise a small number of monkeys and a very long period of time.) This theorem asserts nothing about the intelligence of the one {random} monkey that eventually comes up with the script (and note that the mob will also type out all the possible *incorrect* versions of Hamlet). It may be referred to semi-seriously when justifying a {brute force} method; the implication is that, with enough resources thrown at it, any technical challenge becomes a {one-banana problem}. This theorem was first popularised by the astronomer Sir Arthur Eddington. It became part of the idiom through the classic short story "Inflexible Logic" by Russell Maloney, and many younger hackers know it through a reference in Douglas Adams's "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy". See also: {RFC 2795}. [{Jargon File}] (2002-04-07)

infinity 1. "mathematics" The size of something {infinite}. Using the word in the context of sets is sloppy, since different {infinite sets} aren't necessarily the same size {cardinality} as each other. See also {aleph 0} 2. "programming" The largest value that can be represented in a particular type of variable ({register}, memory location, data type, whatever). See also {minus infinity}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-18)

information superhighway "communications" (Or "Infobahn", "Info Strada") The name coined by US Vice-president Al Gore in the early 1990s for the emerging high-speed global communications network capable of carrying voice, data, video, and other services around the world. These services use satellite, copper cable, {optical fibre}, {mobile telecommunications}, and are accessible via {set-top boxes} or suitably equipped computers. See also {National Information Infrastructure}. (2001-03-31)

infrastructure "systems" Basic support services for computing, particularly national networks. See also {information superhighway}. (1995-06-27)

inheritance "programming, object-oriented" In {object-oriented programming}, the ability to derive new {classes} from existing classes. A {derived class} (or "subclass") inherits the {instance variables} and {methods} of the "{base class}" (or "superclass"), and may add new instance variables and methods. New methods may be defined with the same names as those in the base class, in which case they override the original one. For example, bytes might belong to the class of integers for which an add method might be defined. The byte class would inherit the add method from the integer class. See also {Liskov substitution principle}, {multiple inheritance}. (2000-10-10)

initgame "games" /in-it'gaym/ [IRC] An {IRC} version of the venerable trivia game "20 questions", in which one user changes his {nick} to the initials of a famous person or other named entity, and the others on the channel ask yes or no questions, with the one to guess the person getting to be "it" next. As a courtesy, the one picking the initials starts by providing a 4-letter hint of the form sex, nationality, life-status, reality-status. For example, MAAR means "Male, American, Alive, Real" (as opposed to "fictional"). Initgame can be surprisingly addictive. See also {hing}. [{Jargon File}]

inline "programming" (Or "unfold") To replace a {function} call with an instance of the function's body. {Actual argument} expressions are substituted for {formal parameters} as in {beta reduction}. Inlining is usually done as a {compile-time} transformation. If done recklessly (e.g. attempting to inline a {recursive} function) the {compiler} will fail to terminate. If done over-enthusiastically the code size may increase exponentially, e.g. if function f calls g twice, and g calls h twice and h is inlined in g which is inlined in f (in either order) then there will be four copies of h's body in f. See also {linear argument}, {unfold/fold}. (1994-11-03)

inner join "database" (Commonly "join", but see also "{outer join}") A {relational database} operation which selects rows from two {tables} such that the value in one {column} of the first table also appears in a certain column of the second table. An example in {SQL}: select * from A, B where A.x = B.y The column names (x and y in this example) are often, but not necessarily, the same. (1998-11-23)

inode A data structure holding information about files in a {Unix} {file system}. There is an inode for each file and a file is uniquely identified by the file system on which it resides and its inode number on that system. Each inode contains the following information: the device where the inode resides, locking information, mode and type of file, the number of links to the file, the owner's user and group ids, the number of bytes in the file, access and modification times, the time the inode itself was last modified and the addresses of the file's blocks on disk. A {Unix} directory is an association between file leafnames and inode numbers. A file's inode number can be found using the "-i" switch to ls. {Unix manual page}: fs(5). See also /usr/include/ufs/inode.h.

In Spinoza's sense, that which "is", preeminently and without qualification -- the source and ultimate subject of all distinctions. Being is thus divided into that which is "in itself" and "in another" (Ethica, I, Ax. 4; see also "substance" and "mode", Defs. 3 and 5). Being is likewise distinguished with respect to "finite" and "infinite", under the qualifications of absolute and relative, thus God is defined (Ibid, I, Def. 6) as "Being absolutely infinite". Spinoza seems to suggest that the term, Being, has, in the strict sense, no proper definition (Cog. Met., I, 1). The main characteristics of Spinoza's treatment of this notion are (i) his clear-headed separation of the problems of existence and Being, and (ii) his carefully worked out distinction between ens reale and ens rationis by means of which Spinoza endeavors to justify the ontological argument (q.v.) in the face of criticism by the later Scholastics. -- W.S.W.

Integrated Services Digital Network "communications" (ISDN) A set of communications {standards} allowing a single wire or {optical fibre} to carry voice, digital network services and video. ISDN is intended to eventually replace the {plain old telephone system}. ISDN was first published as one of the 1984 {ITU-T} {Red Book} recommendations. The 1988 {Blue Book} recommendations added many new features. ISDN uses mostly existing {Public Switched Telephone Network} (PSTN) switches and wiring, upgraded so that the basic "call" is a 64 kilobits per second, all-digital end-to-end channel. {Packet} and {frame} modes are also provided in some places. There are different kinds of ISDN connection of varying bandwidth (see {DS level}): DS0 =  1 channel PCM at   64 kbps T1 or DS1 = 24 channels PCM at 1.54 Mbps T1C or DS1C = 48 channels PCM at 3.15 Mbps T2 or DS2 = 96 channels PCM at 6.31 Mbps T3 or DS3 = 672 channels PCM at 44.736 Mbps T4 or DS4 = 4032 channels PCM at 274.1 Mbps Each channel here is equivalent to one voice channel. DS0 is the lowest level of the circuit. T1C, T2 and T4 are rarely used, except maybe for T2 over microwave links. For some reason 64 kbps is never called "T0". A {Basic Rate Interface} (BRI) is two 64K "bearer" channels and a single "delta" channel ("2B+D"). A {Primary Rate Interface} (PRI) in North America and Japan consists of 24 channels, usually 23 B + 1 D channel with the same physical interface as T1. Elsewhere the PRI usually has 30 B + 1 D channel and an {E1} interface. A {Terminal Adaptor} (TA) can be used to connect ISDN channels to existing interfaces such as {EIA-232} and {V.35}. Different services may be requested by specifying different values in the "Bearer Capability" field in the call setup message. One ISDN service is "telephony" (i.e. voice), which can be provided using less than the full 64 kbps bandwidth (64 kbps would provide for 8192 eight-bit samples per second) but will require the same special processing or {bit diddling} as ordinary PSTN calls. Data calls have a Bearer Capability of "64 kbps unrestricted". ISDN is offered by local telephone companies, but most readily in Australia, France, Japan and Singapore, with the UK somewhat behind and availability in the USA rather spotty. (In March 1994) ISDN deployment in Germany is quite impressive, although (or perhaps, because) they use a specifically German signalling specification, called {1.TR.6}. The French {Numeris} also uses a non-standard protocol (called {VN4}; the 4th version), but the popularity of ISDN in France is probably lower than in Germany, given the ludicrous pricing. There is also a specifically-Belgian V1 experimental system. The whole of Europe is now phasing in {Euro-ISDN}. See also {Frame Relay}, {Network Termination}, {SAPI}. {FAQ (}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.dcom.isdn}. (1998-03-29)

jail ::: american spelling of the British gaol. See also gaol. (In Savitri both spellings are used.)

James' definition of pragmatism, written for Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy, is simply a restatement, or "exegesis", of Peirce's definition (see first definition listed above) appearing in the same place. The resemblance between their positions is illustrated by their common insistence upon the feasibility and desirability of resolving metaphysical problems by practical distinctions, unprejudiced by dogmatic presuppositions, their willingness to put every question to the test. "The pragmatic method", says James, "tries to interpret each notion by tracing its respective practical consequences. . . . If no practical difference whatever can be traced", between two alternatives, they "mean practically the same thing, and all dispute is idle". (Pragmatism, p. 45. See also Chapters III and IV.)

lead ::: v. 1. To go in advance; act as a guide; show the way. 2. To guide in direction, course, action, opinion, etc. 3. Of a way, road, etc.: To serve as a passage for, conduct (a person) to or into a place; hence, to have a specified goal or direction. 4. To pass or go through; live. 5. To result in; tend toward (often followed by to). 6. To indicate, as a clue, guide or indication of a route way, course. leads, leading, leadst.* n. 7. Anything or anyone who guides or directs by leading; going in front. ::: (Note: See also *sounding leads.)

leaf ::: 1. A usually green, flattened, lateral structure attached to a stem and functioning as a principle organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in most plants. 2. A page of a book or manuscript. lotus-leaf. (See also gold-leaf.)

likewise ::: n. --> In like manner; also; moreover; too. See Also.

marvel ::: n. 1. Something that causes feelings of wonder, astonishment or admiration. Marvel, marvel"s, marvels. *v. 2. To become filled with wonder or astonishment. marvelled, marvelling, marvel-fraught, marvel-house, marvel-mooned, marvel-wefts. adv. marvellingly. See also: *Winged marvel

masque ::: a form of aristocratic entertainment in England in the 16th and 17th centuries, originally consisting of pantomime and dancing but later including dialogue and song, presented in elaborate productions. masques. *See also *mask.

Mechanism: (Gr. mechane, machine) Theory that all phenomena are totally explicable on mechanical principles. The view that all phenomena is the result of matter in motion and can be explained by its law. Theory of total explanation by efficient, as opposed to final, cause (q.v.). Doctrine that nature, like a machine, is a whole whose single function is served automatically by its parts. In cosmology, first advanced by Leucippus and Democritus (460 B.C.-370 B.C.) as the view that nature is explicable on the basis of atoms in motion and the void. Held by Galileo (1564-1641) and others in the seventeenth century as the rnechanical philosophy. For Descartes (1596-1650), the essence of matter is extension, and all physical phenomena are explicable by mechanical laws. For Kant (1724-1804), the necessity in time of all occurrence in accordance with causality as a law of nature. In biology, theory that organisms are totally explicable on mechanical principles. Opposite of: vitalism (q.v.). In psychology, applied to associational psychology, and in psychoanalysis to the unconscious direction of a mental process. In general, the view that nature consists merely of material in motion, and that it operates automatically. Opposite of: all forms of super-naturalism. See also Materialism, Atomism. -- J.K.F.

Missing definition "introduction" First, this is an (English language) __computing__ dictionary. It includes lots of terms from related fields such as mathematics and electronics, but if you're looking for (or want to submit) words from other subjects or general English words or other languages, try {(}, {(}, {(}, {(} or {(}. If you've already searched the dictionary for a computing term and it's not here then please __don't tell me__. There are, and always will be, a great many missing terms, no dictionary is ever complete. I use my limited time to process the corrections and definitions people have submitted and to add the {most frequently requested missing terms (missing.html)}. Try one of the sources mentioned above or {(}, {(} or {(}. See {the Help page (help.html)} for more about missing definitions and bad cross-references. (2014-09-20)! {exclamation mark}!!!Batch "language, humour" A daft way of obfuscating text strings by encoding each character as a different number of {exclamation marks} surrounded by {question marks}, e.g. "d" is encoded as "?!!!!?". The language is named after the {MSDOS} {batch file} in which the first converter was written. {esoteric programming languages} {wiki entry (!!!Batch)}. (2014-10-25)" {double quote}

motive ::: n. --> That which moves; a mover.

That which incites to action; anything prompting or exciting to choise, or moving the will; cause; reason; inducement; object.
The theme or subject; a leading phrase or passage which is reproduced and varied through the course of a comor a movement; a short figure, or melodic germ, out of which a whole movement is develpoed. See also Leading motive, under Leading.

n. 1. A structure serving as a dwelling for one or more persons, especially for a family. 2.* Fig. An abode; dwelling-place. houses, marvel-house. v. 3. To be a receptacle for or repository of. 4. To shelter, keep, or store in or as if in a house; to give shelter to. *housed, housing. ::: See also dwelling-house.

Neo-Confucianism: See Li hsueh and Chinese philosophy. Neo-Criticism: The designation of his philosophy used by Cournot, and in the early stage of his thought by Renouvier, who later changed to Personalism as the more fitting title. See also Monadology, The New. -- R.T.F.

Pantheistic Personalism: The doctrine that reality consists of a Supreme Personality of which the world of persons are parts. The Divine Personality having no separate existence from its creation. See also Critical Personalism, Mono-Personalism. -- R.T.F.

passion-play ::: a dramatic performance, of medieval origin, that represents the events associated with the Passion of Jesus; also transf. See also passion, definition 7.

perfectibilist ::: n. --> A perfectionist. See also Illuminati, 2.

picture ::: 1. A visual representation or image painted, drawn, photographed, or otherwise rendered on a flat surface. 2. A visible image however produced. 3. A particular image or reality as portrayed in an account or description; depiction; version. pictures. (See also moving picture (‘s).)

poop ::: n. --> See 2d Poppy.
A deck raised above the after part of a vessel; the hindmost or after part of a vessel&

porch ::: n. --> A covered and inclosed entrance to a building, whether taken from the interior, and forming a sort of vestibule within the main wall, or projecting without and with a separate roof. Sometimes the porch is large enough to serve as a covered walk. See also Carriage porch, under Carriage, and Loggia.
A portico; a covered walk.

psychic being ::: the evolving soul of the individual, the divine portion in him which evolves from life to life, growing by its experiences until it becomes a fully conscious being. From its place behind the heart-centre, the psychic being supports the mind, life and body, aiding their growth and development. The term "soul" is often used as a synonym for "psychic being", but strictly speaking there is a distinction: the soul is the psychic essence, the psychic being is the soul-personality put forward and developed by the psychic essence to represent it in the evolution. ::: See also psychic.

Purna: (Skr.) The plenum, a synonym for the Absolute, brahman, used by Ajatasatru in Kausitaki Upanishad 4.8. See also Brhadaranyaka Up. 5.1. -- K.F.L.

rough-browed ::: [In this instance, -browed refers to the projecting edge of a cliff or hill.] See also browed.

sea devil ::: --> Any very large ray, especially any species of the genus Manta or Cepholoptera, some of which become more than twenty feet across and weigh several tons. See also Ox ray, under Ox.
Any large cephalopod, as a large Octopus, or a giant squid (Architeuthis). See Devilfish.
The angler.

See also garden-house.

*See also *high-browed.

See also: Index, Sign, Types of Language.

See also Logic, formal, §§ 7, 9. -- A.C.

See also Logic, formal, § 8. -- A.C.

:::   See also lotus (as chakras*).

See also Meaning, Kinds of.

See also printing-house.

See also prison-house.

See also summer-house.

See also the article Recursiveness. -- A.C.

See also treasure house.

Semiosis: The process in which something functions as a sign. It involves that which acts as a sign (the sign vehicle), that which the sign refers to (the designatum), and that effect upon some interpreter in virtue of which the thing in question is a sign to that interpreter. See also Semiotic. Semiotic; Theory of Signs: A general theory of signs and their applications, especially in language, developed and systematized within Scientific Empiricism (q.v. II C). Three branches: grammatics, semantics, syntactics.

siredon ::: n. --> The larval form of any salamander while it still has external gills; especially, one of those which, like the axolotl (Amblystoma Mexicanum), sometimes lay eggs while in this larval state, but which under more favorable conditions lose their gills and become normal salamanders. See also Axolotl.

Synthetic Judgment: (Kant. Ger. synthetische Urteil) A judgment relating a subject concept with a predicate concept not included within the subject proper. The validity of such a judgment depends on its 'ground'. Kant's central question was: "Are synthetic a priori judgments possible?" See Kantianism, Scientific Empiricism. See also Meaning, kinds of, 2. -- O.F.K.

The definition is suggested by that of Jeremy Bentham. Reference: C. K. Ogden, Bentham's Theory of Fictions, 12. See also Incomplete Symbol, Construction. -- M.B.

"The Divine Force concealed in the subconscient is that which has originated and built up the worlds. At the other end in the superconscient it reveals itself as the Divine Being, Lord and Knower who has manifested Himself out of the Brahman.” The Upanishads ::: See also divine Force for additional definitions.

The study of society, societal relations. Originally called Social Physics, meaning that the methods of the natural sciences were to be applied to the study of society. Whereas the pattern originally was physics and the first sociologists thought that it was possible to find laws of nature in the social realm (Quetelet, Comte, Buckle), others turned to biological considerations. The "organic" conception of society (Lilienfeld, Schaeffle) treated society as a complex organism, the evolutionists, Gumplowicz, Ratzenhofer, considered the struggle between different ethnic groups the basic factor in the evolution of social structures and institutions. Other sociologists accepted a psychological conception of society; to them psychological phenomena (imitation, according to Gabriel Tarde, consciousness of kind, according to F. H. Giddings) were the basic elements in social interrelations (see also W. McDougall, Alsworth Ross, etc.). These relations themselves were made the main object of sociological studies by G. Simmel, L. Wiese, Howard Becker. A kind of sociological realism was fostered by the French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, and his school. They considered society a reality, the group-mind an actual fact, the social phenomena "choses sociales". The new "sociology of knowledge", inaugurated by these French sociologists, has been further developed by M. Scheler, K. Mannheim and W. Jerusalem. Recently other branches of social research have separated somewhat from sociology proper: Anthropogeography, dealing with the influences of the physical environment upon society, demography, social psychology, etc. Problems of the methodology of the social sciences have also become an important topic of recent studies. -- W.E.

The term "empiricism" has been used with extreme looseness and confused with numerous related propositions, practices, and attitudes. Many definitions here listed are themselves ambiguous, but to remove their ambiguity would require misrepresentation of usage of the term. See also Scepticism, Sensationalism, Pluralism, Phenomenalism, Pragmatism, Positivism, Intuitionalism, Nativism, Rationalism, A Priorism, Intellectualism, Idealism, Transcendentalism, Scientific Empiricism. -- M.T.K.

Three senses of "Ockhamism" may be distinguished: Logical, indicating usage of the terminology and technique of logical analysis developed by Ockham in his Summa totius logicae; in particular, use of the concept of supposition (suppositio) in the significative analysis of terms. Epistemological, indicating the thesis that universality is attributable only to terms and propositions, and not to things as existing apart from discourse. Theological, indicating the thesis that no tneological doctrines, such as those of God's existence or of the immortality of the soul, are evident or demonstrable philosophically, so that religious doctrine rests solely on faith, without metaphysical or scientific support. It is in this sense that Luther is often called an Ockhamist.   Bibliography:   B. Geyer,   Ueberwegs Grundriss d. Gesch. d. Phil., Bd. II (11th ed., Berlin 1928), pp. 571-612 and 781-786; N. Abbagnano,   Guglielmo di Ockham (Lanciano, Italy, 1931); E. A. Moody,   The Logic of William of Ockham (N. Y. & London, 1935); F. Ehrle,   Peter von Candia (Muenster, 1925); G. Ritter,   Studien zur Spaetscholastik, I-II (Heidelberg, 1921-1922).     --E.A.M. Om, aum: (Skr.) Mystic, holy syllable as a symbol for the indefinable Absolute. See Aksara, Vac, Sabda. --K.F.L. Omniscience: In philosophy and theology it means the complete and perfect knowledge of God, of Himself and of all other beings, past, present, and future, or merely possible, as well as all their activities, real or possible, including the future free actions of human beings. --J.J.R. One: Philosophically, not a number but equivalent to unit, unity, individuality, in contradistinction from multiplicity and the mani-foldness of sensory experience. In metaphysics, the Supreme Idea (Plato), the absolute first principle (Neo-platonism), the universe (Parmenides), Being as such and divine in nature (Plotinus), God (Nicolaus Cusanus), the soul (Lotze). Religious philosophy and mysticism, beginning with Indian philosophy (s.v.), has favored the designation of the One for the metaphysical world-ground, the ultimate icility, the world-soul, the principle of the world conceived as reason, nous, or more personally. The One may be conceived as an independent whole or as a sum, as analytic or synthetic, as principle or ontologically. Except by mysticism, it is rarely declared a fact of sensory experience, while its transcendent or transcendental, abstract nature is stressed, e.g., in epistemology where the "I" or self is considered the unitary background of personal experience, the identity of self-consciousness, or the unity of consciousness in the synthesis of the manifoldness of ideas (Kant). --K.F.L. One-one: A relation R is one-many if for every y in the converse domain there is a unique x such that xRy. A relation R is many-one if for every x in the domain there is a unique y such that xRy. (See the article relation.) A relation is one-one, or one-to-one, if it is at the same time one-many and many-one. A one-one relation is said to be, or to determine, a one-to-one correspondence between its domain and its converse domain. --A.C. On-handedness: (Ger. Vorhandenheit) Things exist in the mode of thereness, lying- passively in a neutral space. A "deficient" form of a more basic relationship, termed at-handedness (Zuhandenheit). (Heidegger.) --H.H. Ontological argument: Name by which later authors, especially Kant, designate the alleged proof for God's existence devised by Anselm of Canterbury. Under the name of God, so the argument runs, everyone understands that greater than which nothing can be thought. Since anything being the greatest and lacking existence is less then the greatest having also existence, the former is not really the greater. The greatest, therefore, has to exist. Anselm has been reproached, already by his contemporary Gaunilo, for unduly passing from the field of logical to the field of ontological or existential reasoning. This criticism has been repeated by many authors, among them Aquinas. The argument has, however, been used, if in a somewhat modified form, by Duns Scotus, Descartes, and Leibniz. --R.A. Ontological Object: (Gr. onta, existing things + logos, science) The real or existing object of an act of knowledge as distinguished from the epistemological object. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ontologism: (Gr. on, being) In contrast to psychologism, is called any speculative system which starts philosophizing by positing absolute being, or deriving the existence of entities independently of experience merely on the basis of their being thought, or assuming that we have immediate and certain knowledge of the ground of being or God. Generally speaking any rationalistic, a priori metaphysical doctrine, specifically the philosophies of Rosmini-Serbati and Vincenzo Gioberti. As a philosophic method censored by skeptics and criticists alike, as a scholastic doctrine formerly strongly supported, revived in Italy and Belgium in the 19th century, but no longer countenanced. --K.F.L. Ontology: (Gr. on, being + logos, logic) The theory of being qua being. For Aristotle, the First Philosophy, the science of the essence of things. Introduced as a term into philosophy by Wolff. The science of fundamental principles, the doctrine of the categories. Ultimate philosophy; rational cosmology. Syn. with metaphysics. See Cosmology, First Principles, Metaphysics, Theology. --J.K.F. Operation: "(Lit. operari, to work) Any act, mental or physical, constituting a phase of the reflective process, and performed with a view to acquiring1 knowledge or information about a certain subject-nntter. --A.C.B.   In logic, see Operationism.   In philosophy of science, see Pragmatism, Scientific Empiricism. Operationism: The doctrine that the meaning of a concept is given by a set of operations.   1. The operational meaning of a term (word or symbol) is given by a semantical rule relating the term to some concrete process, object or event, or to a class of such processes, objectj or events.   2. Sentences formed by combining operationally defined terms into propositions are operationally meaningful when the assertions are testable by means of performable operations. Thus, under operational rules, terms have semantical significance, propositions have empirical significance.   Operationism makes explicit the distinction between formal (q.v.) and empirical sentences. Formal propositions are signs arranged according to syntactical rules but lacking operational reference. Such propositions, common in mathematics, logic and syntax, derive their sanction from convention, whereas an empirical proposition is acceptable (1) when its structure obeys syntactical rules and (2) when there exists a concrete procedure (a set of operations) for determining its truth or falsity (cf. Verification). Propositions purporting to be empirical are sometimes amenable to no operational test because they contain terms obeying no definite semantical rules. These sentences are sometimes called pseudo-propositions and are said to be operationally meaningless. They may, however, be 'meaningful" in other ways, e.g. emotionally or aesthetically (cf. Meaning).   Unlike a formal statement, the "truth" of an empirical sentence is never absolute and its operational confirmation serves only to increase the degree of its validity. Similarly, the semantical rule comprising the operational definition of a term has never absolute precision. Ordinarily a term denotes a class of operations and the precision of its definition depends upon how definite are the rules governing inclusion in the class.   The difference between Operationism and Logical Positivism (q.v.) is one of emphasis. Operationism's stress of empirical matters derives from the fact that it was first employed to purge physics of such concepts as absolute space and absolute time, when the theory of relativity had forced upon physicists the view that space and time are most profitably defined in terms of the operations by which they are measured. Although different methods of measuring length at first give rise to different concepts of length, wherever the equivalence of certain of these measures can be established by other operations, the concepts may legitimately be combined.   In psychology the operational criterion of meaningfulness is commonly associated with a behavioristic point of view. See Behaviorism. Since only those propositions which are testable by public and repeatable operations are admissible in science, the definition of such concepti as mind and sensation must rest upon observable aspects of the organism or its behavior. Operational psychology deals with experience only as it is indicated by the operation of differential behavior, including verbal report. Discriminations, or the concrete differential reactions of organisms to internal or external environmental states, are by some authors regarded as the most basic of all operations.   For a discussion of the role of operational definition in phvsics. see P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics, (New York, 1928) and The Nature of Physical Theory (Princeton, 1936). "The extension of operationism to psychology is discussed by C. C. Pratt in The Logic of Modem Psychology (New York. 1939.)   For a discussion and annotated bibliography relating to Operationism and Logical Positivism, see S. S. Stevens, Psychology and the Science of Science, Psychol. Bull., 36, 1939, 221-263. --S.S.S. Ophelimity: Noun derived from the Greek, ophelimos useful, employed by Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) in economics as the equivalent of utility, or the capacity to provide satisfaction. --J.J.R. Opinion: (Lat. opinio, from opinor, to think) An hypothesis or proposition entertained on rational grounds but concerning which doubt can reasonably exist. A belief. See Hypothesis, Certainty, Knowledge. --J.K.F- Opposition: (Lat. oppositus, pp. of oppono, to oppose) Positive actual contradiction. One of Aristotle's Post-predicaments. In logic any contrariety or contradiction, illustrated by the "Square of Opposition". Syn. with: conflict. See Logic, formal, § 4. --J.K.F. Optimism: (Lat. optimus, the best) The view inspired by wishful thinking, success, faith, or philosophic reflection, that the world as it exists is not so bad or even the best possible, life is good, and man's destiny is bright. Philosophically most persuasively propounded by Leibniz in his Theodicee, according to which God in his wisdom would have created a better world had he known or willed such a one to exist. Not even he could remove moral wrong and evil unless he destroyed the power of self-determination and hence the basis of morality. All systems of ethics that recognize a supreme good (Plato and many idealists), subscribe to the doctrines of progressivism (Turgot, Herder, Comte, and others), regard evil as a fragmentary view (Josiah Royce et al.) or illusory, or believe in indemnification (Henry David Thoreau) or melioration (Emerson), are inclined optimistically. Practically all theologies advocating a plan of creation and salvation, are optimistic though they make the good or the better dependent on moral effort, right thinking, or belief, promising it in a future existence. Metaphysical speculation is optimistic if it provides for perfection, evolution to something higher, more valuable, or makes room for harmonies or a teleology. See Pessimism. --K.F.L. Order: A class is said to be partially ordered by a dyadic relation R if it coincides with the field of R, and R is transitive and reflexive, and xRy and yRx never both hold when x and y are different. If in addition R is connected, the class is said to be ordered (or simply ordered) by R, and R is called an ordering relation.   Whitehcid and Russell apply the term serial relation to relations which are transitive, irreflexive, and connected (and, in consequence, also asymmetric). However, the use of serial relations in this sense, instead ordering relations as just defined, is awkward in connection with the notion of order for unit classes.   Examples: The relation not greater than among leal numbers is an ordering relation. The relation less than among real numbers is a serial relation. The real numbers are simply ordered by the former relation. In the algebra of classes (logic formal, § 7), the classes are partially ordered by the relation of class inclusion.   For explanation of the terminology used in making the above definitions, see the articles connexity, reflexivity, relation, symmetry, transitivity. --A.C. Order type: See relation-number. Ordinal number: A class b is well-ordered by a dyadic relation R if it is ordered by R (see order) and, for every class a such that a ⊂ b, there is a member x of a, such that xRy holds for every member y of a; and R is then called a well-ordering relation. The ordinal number of a class b well-ordered by a relation R, or of a well-ordering relation R, is defined to be the relation-number (q. v.) of R.   The ordinal numbers of finite classes (well-ordered by appropriate relations) are called finite ordinal numbers. These are 0, 1, 2, ... (to be distinguished, of course, from the finite cardinal numbers 0, 1, 2, . . .).   The first non-finite (transfinite or infinite) ordinal number is the ordinal number of the class of finite ordinal numbers, well-ordered in their natural order, 0, 1, 2, . . .; it is usually denoted by the small Greek letter omega. --A.C.   G. Cantor, Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Numbers, translated and with an introduction by P. E. B. Jourdain, Chicago and London, 1915. (new ed. 1941); Whitehead and Russell, Princtpia Mathematica. vol. 3. Orexis: (Gr. orexis) Striving; desire; the conative aspect of mind, as distinguished from the cognitive and emotional (Aristotle). --G.R.M.. Organicism: A theory of biology that life consists in the organization or dynamic system of the organism. Opposed to mechanism and vitalism. --J.K.F. Organism: An individual animal or plant, biologically interpreted. A. N. Whitehead uses the term to include also physical bodies and to signify anything material spreading through space and enduring in time. --R.B.W. Organismic Psychology: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, an instrument) A system of theoretical psychology which construes the structure of the mind in organic rather than atomistic terms. See Gestalt Psychology; Psychological Atomism. --L.W. Organization: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, work) A structured whole. The systematic unity of parts in a purposive whole. A dynamic system. Order in something actual. --J.K.F. Organon: (Gr. organon) The title traditionally given to the body of Aristotle's logical treatises. The designation appears to have originated among the Peripatetics after Aristotle's time, and expresses their view that logic is not a part of philosophy (as the Stoics maintained) but rather the instrument (organon) of philosophical inquiry. See Aristotelianism. --G.R.M.   In Kant. A system of principles by which pure knowledge may be acquired and established.   Cf. Fr. Bacon's Novum Organum. --O.F.K. Oriental Philosophy: A general designation used loosely to cover philosophic tradition exclusive of that grown on Greek soil and including the beginnings of philosophical speculation in Egypt, Arabia, Iran, India, and China, the elaborate systems of India, Greater India, China, and Japan, and sometimes also the religion-bound thought of all these countries with that of the complex cultures of Asia Minor, extending far into antiquity. Oriental philosophy, though by no means presenting a homogeneous picture, nevertheless shares one characteristic, i.e., the practical outlook on life (ethics linked with metaphysics) and the absence of clear-cut distinctions between pure speculation and religious motivation, and on lower levels between folklore, folk-etymology, practical wisdom, pre-scientiiic speculation, even magic, and flashes of philosophic insight. Bonds with Western, particularly Greek philosophy have no doubt existed even in ancient times. Mutual influences have often been conjectured on the basis of striking similarities, but their scientific establishment is often difficult or even impossible. Comparative philosophy (see especially the work of Masson-Oursel) provides a useful method. Yet a thorough treatment of Oriental Philosophy is possible only when the many languages in which it is deposited have been more thoroughly studied, the psychological and historical elements involved in the various cultures better investigated, and translations of the relevant documents prepared not merely from a philological point of view or out of missionary zeal, but by competent philosophers who also have some linguistic training. Much has been accomplished in this direction in Indian and Chinese Philosophy (q.v.). A great deal remains to be done however before a definitive history of Oriental Philosophy may be written. See also Arabian, and Persian Philosophy. --K.F.L. Origen: (185-254) The principal founder of Christian theology who tried to enrich the ecclesiastic thought of his day by reconciling it with the treasures of Greek philosophy. Cf. Migne PL. --R.B.W. Ormazd: (New Persian) Same as Ahura Mazdah (q.v.), the good principle in Zoroastrianism, and opposed to Ahriman (q.v.). --K.F.L. Orphic Literature: The mystic writings, extant only in fragments, of a Greek religious-philosophical movement of the 6th century B.C., allegedly started by the mythical Orpheus. In their mysteries, in which mythology and rational thinking mingled, the Orphics concerned themselves with cosmogony, theogony, man's original creation and his destiny after death which they sought to influence to the better by pure living and austerity. They taught a symbolism in which, e.g., the relationship of the One to the many was clearly enunciated, and believed in the soul as involved in reincarnation. Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Plato were influenced by them. --K.F.L. Ortega y Gasset, Jose: Born in Madrid, May 9, 1883. At present in Buenos Aires, Argentine. Son of Ortega y Munillo, the famous Spanish journalist. Studied at the College of Jesuits in Miraflores and at the Central University of Madrid. In the latter he presented his Doctor's dissertation, El Milenario, in 1904, thereby obtaining his Ph.D. degree. After studies in Leipzig, Berlin, Marburg, under the special influence of Hermann Cohen, the great exponent of Kant, who taught him the love for the scientific method and awoke in him the interest in educational philosophy, Ortega came to Spain where, after the death of Nicolas Salmeron, he occupied the professorship of metaphysics at the Central University of Madrid. The following may be considered the most important works of Ortega y Gasset:     Meditaciones del Quijote, 1914;   El Espectador, I-VIII, 1916-1935;   El Tema de Nuestro Tiempo, 1921;   España Invertebrada, 1922;   Kant, 1924;   La Deshumanizacion del Arte, 1925;   Espiritu de la Letra, 1927;   La Rebelion de las Masas, 1929;   Goethe desde Adentio, 1934;   Estudios sobre el Amor, 1939;   Ensimismamiento y Alteracion, 1939;   El Libro de las Misiones, 1940;   Ideas y Creencias, 1940;     and others.   Although brought up in the Marburg school of thought, Ortega is not exactly a neo-Kantian. At the basis of his Weltanschauung one finds a denial of the fundamental presuppositions which characterized European Rationalism. It is life and not thought which is primary. Things have a sense and a value which must be affirmed independently. Things, however, are to be conceived as the totality of situations which constitute the circumstances of a man's life. Hence, Ortega's first philosophical principle: "I am myself plus my circumstances". Life as a problem, however, is but one of the poles of his formula. Reason is the other. The two together function, not by dialectical opposition, but by necessary coexistence. Life, according to Ortega, does not consist in being, but rather, in coming to be, and as such it is of the nature of direction, program building, purpose to be achieved, value to be realized. In this sense the future as a time dimension acquires new dignity, and even the present and the past become articulate and meaning-full only in relation to the future. Even History demands a new point of departure and becomes militant with new visions. --J.A.F. Orthodoxy: Beliefs which are declared by a group to be true and normative. Heresy is a departure from and relative to a given orthodoxy. --V.S. Orthos Logos: See Right Reason. Ostensible Object: (Lat. ostendere, to show) The object envisaged by cognitive act irrespective of its actual existence. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ostensive: (Lat. ostendere, to show) Property of a concept or predicate by virtue of which it refers to and is clarified by reference to its instances. --A.C.B. Ostwald, Wilhelm: (1853-1932) German chemist. Winner of the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1909. In Die Uberwindung des wissenschaftlichen Materialistmus and in Naturphilosophie, his two best known works in the field of philosophy, he advocates a dynamic theory in opposition to materialism and mechanism. All properties of matter, and the psychic as well, are special forms of energy. --L.E.D. Oupnekhat: Anquetil Duperron's Latin translation of the Persian translation of 50 Upanishads (q.v.), a work praised by Schopenhauer as giving him complete consolation. --K.F.L. Outness: A term employed by Berkeley to express the experience of externality, that is the ideas of space and things placed at a distance. Hume used it in the sense of distance Hamilton understood it as the state of being outside of consciousness in a really existing world of material things. --J.J.R. Overindividual: Term used by H. Münsterberg to translate the German überindividuell. The term is applied to any cognitive or value object which transcends the individual subject. --L.W. P

Truth: See also Semiotic 2. Truth: A characteristic of some propositional meanings, namely those which are true. Truth (or falsity) as predicated of "ideas" is today normally restricted to those which are propositional in nature, concepts being spoken of as being exemplified or not rather than as being true or false. Truth is predicable indirectly of sentences or symbols which express true meanings. (See Truth, semantical.)

Vagueness needs to be distinguished from Generality and Ambiguity (q.v.). See also Vague.

Vitalism: (Lat. vita, life) The doctrine that phenomena of life possess a character sui generis by virtue of which they differ radically from physico-chemical phenomena. The vitalist ascribes the activities of living organisms to the operation of a "vital force" such as Driesch's "entelechy" or Bergson's elan vital. (See H. Driesch, Der Vttalismus als Geschichte und als Lehre (1905); The Science and Philosophy of Organism, 2 Vols. (1908); The Problem of Individuality (1914); H. Bergson, Creative Evolution.) Opposed to Vitalism is biological mechanism (see Mechanism) which asserts that living phenomena can be explained exclusively in physico-chemical terms. (See J. Loeb, The Organism as a Whole from a Physico-Chemical View-Point, 1919; The Dynamics of Living Matter, 1910. See also C. D. Broad, The Mind and Its Place in Nature, ch. II.) -- L.W.

wainbote ::: n. --> See Cartbote. See also the Note under Bote.

"We see that the Absolute, the Self, the Divine, the Spirit, the Being is One; the Transcendental is one, the Cosmic is one: but we see also that beings are many and each has a self, a spirit, a like yet different nature. And since the spirit and essence of things is one, we are obliged to admit that all these many must be that One, and it follows that the One is or has become many; but how can the limited or relative be the Absolute and how can man or beast or bird be the Divine Being? But in erecting this apparent contradiction the mind makes a double error. It is thinking in the terms of the mathematical finite unit which is sole in limitation, the one which is less than two and can become two only by division and fragmentation or by addition and multiplication; but this is an infinite Oneness, it is the essential and infinite Oneness which can contain the hundred and the thousand and the million and billion and trillion. Whatever astronomic or more than astronomic figures you heap and multiply, they cannot overpass or exceed that Oneness; for, in the language of the Upanishad, it moves not, yet is always far in front when you would pursue and seize it. It can be said of it that it would not be the infinite Oneness if it were not capable of an infinite multiplicity; but that does not mean that the One is plural or can be limited or described as the sum of the Many: on the contrary, it can be the infinite Many because it exceeds all limitation or description by multiplicity and exceeds at the same time all limitation by finite conceptual oneness.” The Life Divine

“We see that the Absolute, the Self, the Divine, the Spirit, the Being is One; the Transcendental is one, the Cosmic is one: but we see also that beings are many and each has a self, a spirit, a like yet different nature. And since the spirit and essence of things is one, we are obliged to admit that all these many must be that One, and it follows that the One is or has become many; but how can the limited or relative be the Absolute and how can man or beast or bird be the Divine Being? But in erecting this apparent contradiction the mind makes a double error. It is thinking in the terms of the mathematical finite unit which is sole in limitation, the one which is less than two and can become two only by division and fragmentation or by addition and multiplication; but this is an infinite Oneness, it is the essential and infinite Oneness which can contain the hundred and the thousand and the million and billion and trillion. Whatever astronomic or more than astronomic figures you heap and multiply, they cannot overpass or exceed that Oneness; for, in the language of the Upanishad, it moves not, yet is always far in front when you would pursue and seize it. It can be said of it that it would not be the infinite Oneness if it were not capable of an infinite multiplicity; but that does not mean that the One is plural or can be limited or described as the sum of the Many: on the contrary, it can be the infinite Many because it exceeds all limitation or description by multiplicity and exceeds at the same time all limitation by finite conceptual oneness.” The Life Divine

“When one has the cosmic consciousness, one can feel the cosmic Self as one’s own self, one can feel one with other beings in the cosmos, one can feel all the forces of Nature as moving in oneself, all selves as one’s own self. There is no why except that it is so, since all is the One.” Letters on Yoga (See also Cosmic Spirit)

W. V. Quine, Mathematical Logic, New York, 1940. Logic, symbolic, or mathematical logic, or logistic, is the name given to the treatment of formal logic by means of a formalized logical language or calculus whose purpose is to avoid the ambiguities and logical inadequacy of ordinary language. It is best characterized, not as a separate subject, but as a new and powerful method in formal logic. Foreshadowed by ideas of Leibniz, J. H. Lambert, and others, it had its substantial historical beginning in the Nineteenth Century algebra of logic (q. v.), and received its contemporary form at the hands of Frege, Peano, Russell, Hilbert, and others. Advantages of the symbolic method are greater exactness of formulation, and power to deal with formally more complex material. See also logistic system. -- A. C.

QUOTES [4 / 4 - 58 / 58]

KEYS (10k)

   1 Ramakrishna
   1 Krishnaprem
   1 Sri Aurobindo
   1 Aleister Crowley


   11 Anonymous
   3 Wayne Grudem
   2 Umberto Eco
   2 John F MacArthur Jr
   2 Chuck Palahniuk

1:When I see the chaste women of respectable families, I see in them the Divine clothed in the robe of a chaste woman; and again, when I see the public women of the city seated on their verandahs in their rajment of immorality and shame, I see also in them the Divine at play after another fashion. ~ Ramakrishna, the Eternal Wisdom
2:three paths as one :::
   We can see also that in the integral view of things these three paths are one. Divine Love should normally lead to the perfect knowledge of the Beloved by perfect intimacy, thus becoming a path of Knowledge, and to divine service, thus becoming a path of Works. So also should perfect Knowledge lead to perfect Love and Joy and a full acceptance of the works of That which is known; dedicated Works to the entire love of the Master of the Sacrifice and the deepest knowledge of His ways and His being. It is in the triple path that we come most readily to the absolute knowledge, love and service of the One in all beings and in the entire cosmic manifestation.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, Introduction - The Conditions of the Synthesis, The Systems of Yoga,
3:Savitri is neither fantasy nor yet mere philosophical thought, but vision and revelation of the actual structure of the inner Cosmos and of the pilgrim of life within its sphere — the Stairway of the Worlds reveals itself to our gaze — worlds of Light above, worlds of Darkness beneath, and we see also ever-encircling life ('kindled in measure and quenched in measure') ascending that stair under the calm unwinking gaze of the Cosmic Gods who shine forth now as of old. Poetry is indeed the full manifestation of the Logos and, when as here, it is no mere iridescence dependent on some special standpoint, but the wondrous structure of the mighty Cosmos, the 'Adored One', that is revealed, then in truth does it manifest its full, its highest grandeur.
It is an omen of the utmost significance and hope that in these years of darkness and despair such a poem as Savitri should have appeared. ~ Krishnaprem,
4:The general characteristics and attributions of these Grades are indicated by their correspondences on the Tree of Life, as may be studied in detail in the Book 777.
   Student. -- His business is to acquire a general intellectual knowledge of all systems of attainment, as declared in the prescribed books. (See curriculum in Appendix I.) {231}
   Probationer. -- His principal business is to begin such practices as he my prefer, and to write a careful record of the same for one year.
   Neophyte. -- Has to acquire perfect control of the Astral Plane.
   Zelator. -- His main work is to achieve complete success in Asana and Pranayama. He also begins to study the formula of the Rosy Cross.
   Practicus. -- Is expected to complete his intellectual training, and in particular to study the Qabalah.
   Philosophus. -- Is expected to complete his moral training. He is tested in Devotion to the Order.
   Dominus Liminis. -- Is expected to show mastery of Pratyahara and Dharana.
   Adeptus (without). -- is expected to perform the Great Work and to attain the Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel.
   Adeptus (within). -- Is admitted to the practice of the formula of the Rosy Cross on entering the College of the Holy Ghost.
   Adeptus (Major). -- Obtains a general mastery of practical Magick, though without comprehension.
   Adeptus (Exemptus). -- Completes in perfection all these matters. He then either ("a") becomes a Brother of the Left Hand Path or, ("b") is stripped of all his attainments and of himself as well, even of his Holy Guardian Angel, and becomes a babe of the Abyss, who, having transcended the Reason, does nothing but grow in the womb of its mother. It then finds itself a
   Magister Templi. -- (Master of the Temple): whose functions are fully described in Liber 418, as is this whole initiation from Adeptus Exemptus. See also "Aha!". His principal business is to tend his "garden" of disciples, and to obtain a perfect understanding of the Universe. He is a Master of Samadhi. {232}
   Magus. -- Attains to wisdom, declares his law (See Liber I, vel Magi) and is a Master of all Magick in its greatest and highest sense.
   Ipsissimus. -- Is beyond all this and beyond all comprehension of those of lower degrees. ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA,


*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:See also the note on “Herodians” in Mark 3:6. ~ Anonymous,
2:14:55 Sanhedrin. See the article “Jesus’ Trial,” see also Sanhedrin. ~ Anonymous,
3:We are in bondage to that which overcomes us. See also 2 Peter 2:19. ~ Neal A Maxwell,
4:The only way sinners can be saved is by faith in the shed blood of Christ (Heb. 9:22; see also Isa. 61:10; Eph. 2:8–9). ~ Anonymous,
5:Destiny, noun: 1. The inevitable or irresistible course of events. 2. The inescapable future. 3. See also “screwed. ~ Seanan McGuire,
6:Grief. The state of mind brought about when love, having lost to death, learns to breathe beside it. See also love. ~ Roger Rosenblatt,
7:the Holy Ghost carrieth it unto the hearts of the children of men” (2 Nephi 33:1; see also D&C 50:13–22). ~ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints,
8:Schizophrenia: A psychotic disorderncharacterized by withdrawal from reality, illogical patterns of thinking, delusions, and hallucinations. See also: Nightmare. ~ Holly Schindler,
9:There are some things around us that are not actually useful. I didn't know that before. It's very new for me to understand. That became my way of writing: I can see also the new myself. ~ Rokia Traore,
10:Tremont, Lord John B. 1772. Third son of the 8th Duke of Parkerton. (See also, James Tremont, 9th Duke of Parkerton, Tremont Lord Michael.) Current residence: Thistleton Park. Miranda ~ Elizabeth Boyle,
11:Just as in money we see the sign of wealth, we see also in paper money the sign of money; and thence conclude that there is a very easy and simple method of procuring for everybody the pleasures of fortune. ~ Fr d ric Bastiat,
12:For, I must tell you, in this world where today all lose their minds over many & wondrous Machines - some of which, alas, you can see also in this Siege - I construct Aristotelian Machines, that allow anyone to see with Words. ~ Umberto Eco,
13:For, I must tell you, in this world where today all lose their minds over many & wondrous Machines -- some of which, alas, you can see also in this Siege -- I construct Aristotelian Machines, that allow anyone to see with Words... ~ Umberto Eco,
14:see also positrons; virtual particles Aristotle, 172–73 Atkins, Peter, 191 baryons, 76 Big Bang, xvii, 95, 107, 150, 173, 189 CMBR left from, see cosmic microwave background radiation dating of, 3, 15–16, 77, 87 density of protons and neutrons in, ~ Lawrence M Krauss,
15:Has ‘jump the shark’ jumped the shark?” (“Granted, Jump the Shark is a brilliant cultural concept.… But now the damn thing is everywhere.”) Like any good meme, it spawned mutations. The “jumping the shark” entry in Wikipedia advised in 2009, “See also: jumping the couch; nuking the fridge. ~ James Gleick,
16:After you find out all the things that can go wrong, you life becomes less about living and more about waiting. For cancer. For dementia. Every look in a mirror, you scan for the red rash that means shingles. See also: Ringworm. See also: Lyme disease, meningitis, rheumatic fever, syphilis ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
17:After you find out all the things that can go wrong, you life becomes less about living and more about waiting. For cancer. For dementia. Every look in a mirror, you scan for the red rash that means shingles. See also: Ringworm. See also: Lyme disease, meningitis, rheumatic fever, syphilis. ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
18:When I see the chaste women of respectable families, I see in them the Divine clothed in the robe of a chaste woman; and again, when I see the public women of the city seated on their verandahs in their rajment of immorality and shame, I see also in them the Divine at play after another fashion. ~ Sri Ramakrishna,
19:The lives of most people are small tight pallid and sad, more to be mourned than their deaths. We starve at the banquet: We cannot see that there is a banquet because seeing the banquet requires that we see also ourselves sitting there starving-seeing ourselves clearly, even for a moment, is shattering. We are not dead but asleep, dreaming of ourselves. ~ David Foster Wallace,
20:Dreyfus (1991) claims that Heidegger radicalized “the insights already contained in the writings of such pragmatists as Nietzsche, Peirce, James, and Dewey” (p. 6). See also Haugeland 1982, where he writes: “I make Heidegger out to be less like Husserl and/or Sartre than is usual, and more like Dewey (and to a lesser extent) Sellars and the later Wittgenstein” (p. 15). ~ Richard J Bernstein,
21:Kankedort (n.) An awkward situation or affair.

I take comfort in the fact that even when the editors of the OED do not have the answer to something, they manage to impart this lack of knowledge in a particularly graceful fashion, thereby diffusing what would otherwise be a bit of a kankedort. The etymology for this work reads "of unascertained etymology".

see also: zugzwang ~ Ammon Shea,
22:People may "resort to [empty] idols" for security (Is 19:3), but such idols will "vanish" and be "cast away" to the trash because they are worthless and cannot provide any security at all, except false security (Is 2:18-20).42 We may commit ourselves to some earthly idol for fulfillment, but there will be none, since such idols are truly empty and have no spiritual reality except a demonic one (see also Is 41:29).43 ~ G K Beale,
23:marathon: (noun)
A popular form of overpriced torture wherein participants wake up at ass-o-clock in the morning and stand in the freezing cold until it's time to run, at which point they miserably trot for a god-awful interval of time that could be better spent sleeping in and/or consuming large quantities of beer and cupcakes.
See also: masochism, awfulness, "a bunch of bullshit", boob-chafing, cupcake deprivation therapy ~ Matthew Inman,
24:Jesus taught [this] to the Nephites, who also lived in a difficult world. ‘For the mountains shall depart and the hills be removed,’ he said, ‘but my kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall the covenant of my peace be removed [from thee]’ (3 Ne. 22:10; see also 3 Ne. 22:13–14)… After all, he has, he reminds us, ‘graven thee upon the palms of my hands’ (1 Ne. 21:16). Considering the incomprehensible cost of the Crucifixion, Christ is not going to turn his back on us now. ~ Jeffrey R Holland,
25:boots… Pushkin: Dostoyevsky takes issue with the utilitarian and materialist strain in Russian criticism as exemplified by the critic Dmitry Pisarev (1840–68). In his essay ‘Mr Shchedrin, or a Schism among the Nihilists’ (1864), Dostoyevsky wrote: ‘From this it follows that boots in any case are better than Pushkin, because one can get by without Pushkin, but it’s utterly impossible to get by without boots, and consequently, Pushkin — is a luxury and nonsense.’ See also III, 1, note 17. ~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
26:The most important thing is that you turn to Me, trusting that I am indeed with you. When you cannot sense My Presence, it is enough to know that I love you with compassionate, unfailing Love. If your heart is sinking under waves of panic, don’t focus on those feelings. Instead, look up to Me! As your soul clings to Me, My right hand will uphold you—keeping you safe in turbulent waters. See also Isaiah 43:2–4; Matthew 6:10; Lamentations 3:32; Psalm 63:8 (From Jesus Lives by Sarah Young) FOR MORE ON THIS TOPIC, SEE PAGE 1283. ~ Anonymous,
27:I love knowing and learning about people around the world displaying my art online. Also, it's how I learn about new artists that are in various parts of the world. The positive thing about Tumblr and Instagram is that they're a fantastic platform for art lovers. I also like, when I search for my art and it says, "see also or related artists," and I see those other artists that relate to me, at least according to the internet. I think it's fascinating - it's interesting to see hashtags people are using in relation to my work. It's another tool of communication. ~ Mickalene Thomas,
28:Mental space (App):The openness to possibilities enabling a pause before acting on a thought, behavioral impulse, or emotional reaction. If the mind is seen as a self-organizing, emergent process of energy and information flow, then “mental space” refers, literally, to the distribution of probabilities that are embedded within the full range of possible energy patterns. Mental space, then, is the opening of probabilities in a movement toward the plane of possibility, a shift that overlaps with the metaphor of the hub of the wheel of awareness. See also Space of mind. ~ Daniel J Siegel,
29:mind regarded as a store of things remembered: he searched his memory frantically for an answer. - the capacity of a substance to return to a previous state or condition after having been altered or deformed. See also SHAPE MEMORY. 2 something remembered from the past; a recollection: one of my earliest memories is of sitting on his knee | the mind can bury all memory of traumatic abuse. - the remembering or recollection of a dead person, esp. one who was popular or respected: clubs devoted to the memory of Sherlock Holmes. - the length of time over which people continue ~ Erin McKean,
30:Peace THE PEACE THAT I GIVE YOU TRANSCENDS YOUR INTELLECT. When most of your mental energy goes into efforts to figure things out, you are unable to receive this glorious gift. I look into your mind and see thoughts spinning round and round: going nowhere, accomplishing nothing. All the while, My Peace hovers over you, searching for a place to land. Be still in My Presence, inviting Me to control your thoughts. Let My Light soak into your mind and heart, until you are aglow with My very Being. This is the most effective way to receive My Peace. See also 2 Thessalonians 3:16; Job 22:21 (From Jesus Calling by Sarah Young) ~ Anonymous,
31:Finding Your Truth — A two-part process of 1) removing behaviors which are based on receiving the approval of others rather than your own values and 2) getting in touch with emotions and desires which were previously unconscious. Finding one’s truth is based on the idea that most of our behaviors and beliefs are actually unconscious habits we picked up for the wrong reasons throughout our lives. Getting in touch with one’s real emotions and desires and discarding the unconfident habits and behaviors leads one to become more vulnerable, more confident, and, therefore, more attractive. See Also: Attractive Behavior, Non-Neediness, Vulnerability ~ Mark Manson,
32:Each house looks secure in good weather. But Palestine is known for torrential rains that can turn dry wadis into raging torrents. Only storms reveal the quality of the work of the two builders. The thought reminds us of the parable of the sower, in which the seed sown on rocky ground lasts only a short time, until “trouble or persecution comes because of the word” (13:21). The greatest storm is eschatological (cf. Isa 28:16–17; Eze 13:10–13; see also Pr 12:7). But Jesus’ words about the two houses need not be thus restricted. The point is that the wise man (a repeated term in Matthew; cf. 10:16; 24:45; 25:2, 4, 8–9) builds to withstand anything. ~ D A Carson,
33:God would bless the “pure in heart” (Ps 73:1). God’s people in the end time would “see” him. 5:9 the peacemakers. Some Judeans and Galileans believed that God would help them wage war against the Romans to establish God’s kingdom, but Jesus assigns the kingdom instead to the meek (v. 5), those who show mercy (v. 7), those who are persecuted (v. 10), and those who make peace (v. 9). 5:10 theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Ancient writers sometimes bracketed off a special section of material by starting and finishing it with the same point—here, that “the kingdom of heaven” (cf. v. 3, see also the article “Kingdom”) will be given to the righteous and humble. ~ Anonymous,
34:16 gave orders to kill all the boys. Herod acts here in keeping with what we know of his character from other sources (see the article “Herod the Great”). The actual size of ancient Bethlehem is unclear, but some estimate perhaps 20 boys under the age of two were killed. Jewish people considered abandoning or killing babies a pagan practice, conspicuously associated with evil kings such as Antiochus IV Epiphanes. The most widely known example, however, was Pharaoh in the OT (Ex 1:16, 22). In this narrative, the pagan Magi worship the true king, whereas the Jewish ruler acts like a pagan one. (For Matthew’s interest in Gentiles, see the Introduction to Matthew: Provenance and Date; see also 28:19.) ~ Anonymous,
35:The rest I omit, for many a bitter Pill can be swallowed under a golden Cover: I make no Mencion that in each of my Churches I put a Signe so that he who sees the Fabrick may see also the Shaddowe of the Reality of which it is the Pattern or Figure. Thus, in the church of Lime-house, the nineteen Pillars in the Aisles will represent the Names of Baal-Berith, the seven Pillars of the Chappell will signify the Chapters of his Covenant. All those who wish to know more of this may take up Clavis Salomonis, Niceron's Thaumaturgus Opticus where he speaks of Line and Distance, Cornelius Agrippa his De occuItia philosophia and Giordano Bruno his De magia and De vinculis in genere where he speaks of Hieroglyphs and the Raising of the Devilles. ~ Peter Ackroyd,
36:50 tn Traditionally “more righteous”; cf. NCV, NRSV, NLT “more in the right.” sn She is more upright than I. Judah had been irresponsible and unfaithful to his duty to see that the family line continued through the levirate marriage of his son Shelah. Tamar fought for her right to be the mother of Judah’s line. When she was not given Shelah and Judah’s wife died, she took action on her own to ensure that the line did not die out. Though deceptive, it was a desperate and courageous act. For Tamar it was within her rights; she did nothing that the law did not entitle her to do. But for Judah it was wrong because he thought he was going to a prostitute. See also Susan Niditch, “The Wronged Woman Righted: An Analysis of Genesis 38,” HTR 72 (1979): 143-48. ~ Anonymous,
37:Alas, alas! we poor mortals are often little better than wood-ashes — there is small sign of the sap, and the leafy freshness, and the bursting buds that were once there; but wherever we see wood-ashes, we know that all that early fullness of life must have been. I, at least, hardly ever look at a bent old man, or a wizened old woman, but I see also, with my mind’s eye, that Past of which they are the shrunken remnant, and the unfinished romance of rosy cheeks and bright eyes seems sometimes of feeble interest and significance, compared with that drama of hope and love which has long ago reached its catastrophe, and left the poor soul, like a dim and dusty stage, with all its sweet garden-scenes and fair perspectives overturned and thrust out of sight. ~ George Eliot,
38:...the most important aspects of someone’s life are the very things not listed in an index.' There were never entries for “memory,” or 'regrets,' or even 'love,' in the lowercase. It was always 'Education (post-secondary)' or 'Awards (see also: Best Debut R&B Country CD by a Female Artist, Solo).' Indexes never seemed to get to the heart of the matter. There was never a heading for hope or fear. Or dreams, recalled. Smiles, remem­ bered. Anger. Beauty. Or even images that lingered, glimpses of something that had made an impression. A doorway. A window. A reflection on glass. The smell of rain. Never any of that. Just a tally of proper nouns and famous names. And why only one life? Why not the web of other lives that define us? What of their indexes, their moments? ~ Will Ferguson,
39:three paths as one :::
   We can see also that in the integral view of things these three paths are one. Divine Love should normally lead to the perfect knowledge of the Beloved by perfect intimacy, thus becoming a path of Knowledge, and to divine service, thus becoming a path of Works. So also should perfect Knowledge lead to perfect Love and Joy and a full acceptance of the works of That which is known; dedicated Works to the entire love of the Master of the Sacrifice and the deepest knowledge of His ways and His being. It is in the triple path that we come most readily to the absolute knowledge, love and service of the One in all beings and in the entire cosmic manifestation.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, Introduction - The Conditions of the Synthesis, The Systems of Yoga,
40:Prayer COME TO ME WITH A THANKFUL HEART, SO THAT YOU CAN ENJOY MY PRESENCE. This is the day that I have made. I want you to rejoice today, refusing to worry about tomorrow. Search for all that I have prepared for you, anticipating abundant blessings and accepting difficulties as they come. I can weave miracles into the most mundane day if you keep your focus on Me. Come to Me with all your needs, knowing that My glorious riches are a more-than-adequate supply. Stay in continual communication with Me, so that you can live above your circumstances even while you are in the midst of them. Present your requests to Me with thanksgiving, and My Peace, which surpasses all comprehension, will guard your heart and mind. See also Psalm 118:24; Philippians 4:19, 6, 7 (From Jesus Calling by Sarah Young) ~ Anonymous,
41:A group of grandmothers is a tapestry. A group of toddlers, a jubilance (see also: a bewailing). A group of librarians is an enlightenment. A group of visual artists is a bioluminescence. A group of short story writers is a Flannery. A group of musicians is--a band.

A resplendence of poets.
A beacon of scientists.
A raft of social workers.

A group of first responders is a valiance. A group of peaceful protestors is a dream. A group of special education teachers is a transcendence. A group of neonatal ICU nurses is a divinity. A group of hospice workers, a grace.

Humans in the wild, gathered and feeling good, previously an exhilaration, now: a target.

A target of concert-goers.
A target of movie-goers.
A target of dancers.

A group of schoolchildren is a target. ~ Kathy Fish,
42:It seemed to Niels that he understood everything: the hardness in her, the dreary humility, and her coarseness, which was the bitterest drop in the whole goblet. By degrees he came to see also that his delicacy and deferential homage must oppress and irritate her, because a woman who has been hurled from the purple couch of her dreams to the pavement below will quickly resent any attempt to spread carpets over the stones which she longs to feel in all their hardness. In her first despair she is not satisfied to tread the path with her feet: she is determined to crawl it on her knees, choosing the way that is steepest and roughest. She desires no helping hand and will not lift her head--let it sink down with its own heaviness, so that she may put her face to the ground and taste the dust with her tongue! ~ Jens Peter Jacobsen,
43:41 tn The phrase ἔφθασεν ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς (ephthasen eph’ humas) is quite important. Does it mean merely “approach” (which would be reflected in a translation like “has come near to you”) or actually “come upon” (as in the translation given above, “has already overtaken you,” which has the added connotation of suddenness)? Is the arrival of the kingdom merely anticipated or already in process? Two factors favor arrival over anticipation here. First, the prepositional phrase ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς (eph’ humas, “upon you”) in the Greek text suggests arrival (Dan 4:24, 28 Theodotion). Second, the following illustration in v. 29 looks at the healing as portraying Satan being overrun. So the presence of God’s authority has arrived. See also L&N 13.123 for the translation of φθάνω (phthanō) as “to happen to already, to come upon, to come upon already. ~ Anonymous,
44:Even as the apostle Paul described his mission to unbelievers, so it is the primary task of all Christians to reach out to the lost “to open their eyes, in order to turn them from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in [Christ]” (Acts 26:18; see also Exodus 19:6; 1 Peter 2:5, 9). If we do not evangelize the lost and make disciples of new converts, nothing else we do for people—no matter how beneficial it seems—is of any eternal consequence. Whether a person is an atheist or a theist, a criminal or a model citizen, sexually promiscuous and perverse or strictly moral and virtuous, a greedy materialist or a gracious philanthropist—if he does not have a saving relationship with Christ, he is going to hell. ~ John F MacArthur Jr,
45:Savitri is neither fantasy nor yet mere philosophical thought, but vision and revelation of the actual structure of the inner Cosmos and of the pilgrim of life within its sphere — the Stairway of the Worlds reveals itself to our gaze — worlds of Light above, worlds of Darkness beneath, and we see also ever-encircling life (‘kindled in measure and quenched in measure’) ascending that stair under the calm unwinking gaze of the Cosmic Gods who shine forth now as of old. Poetry is indeed the full manifestation of the Logos and, when as here, it is no mere iridescence dependent on some special standpoint, but the wondrous structure of the mighty Cosmos, the ‘Adored One’, that is revealed, then in truth does it manifest its full, its highest grandeur.
It is an omen of the utmost significance and hope that in these years of darkness and despair such a poem as Savitri should have appeared. ~ Krishnaprem,
46:See Leon Podles, The Church Impotent: The Feminization of Christianity (Dallas: Spence, 1999), who notes that in 1952 the adult attenders on Sunday morning in typical Protestant churches were 53 percent female and 47 percent male, which was almost exactly the same as the proportion of women and men in the adult population in the U.S. But by 1986 (after several decades of feminist influence in liberal denominations) the ratios were closer to 60 percent female and 40 percent male, with many congregations reporting a ratio of 65 percent to 35 percent (11-12). Podles focuses primarily on Roman Catholic and liberal Protestant churches in his study, and he concludes that, if present trends continue, the “Protestant clergy will be characteristically a female occupation, like nursing, within a generation” (xiii). See also, Why Men Hate Going to Church, by David Murrow (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2005). Murrow describes in detail the increasing “feminization” of many churches, a trend that is driving men away. ~ Wayne Grudem,
47:Paul makes a salvation-historical argument here, for those who are led by the Spirit do not belong to the old era of redemptive history when the law reigned.27 To be “under law,” as was noted previously (see also 3:23; 4:21), is to be “under a curse” (3:10), “under sin” (3:22), “under the custodian” (3:25), “under guardians and managers” (4:2), “enslaved under the elements of the world” (4:3), and in need of redemption (4:4–5). If one is “under law,” then one is not “under grace” (Rom 6:14–15). Paul’s argument here is illuminating and fits with what he says in Romans 6 as well. Those who are directed by the Spirit are no longer under the law, and therefore they no longer live in the old era of redemptive history under the reign of sin. Freedom from law does not, according to Paul, mean freedom to sin; it means freedom from sin. Conversely, those who are under the law live under the dominion of the sin. Hence, for the Galatians to subjugate themselves to the message of the Judaizers would be a disaster, for it would open the floodgates for the power of sin to be unleashed in the Galatian community. The answer to the dominion of sin is the cross of Christ and the gift of the Spirit. If the Galatians follow the Spirit, they will not live under the tyranny of sin and the law. ~ Thomas R Schreiner,
48:We spread the Gospel by the proclamation of the Word of God (see Rom. 10:17). But God has told us that we should restrain evil by the power of the sword and by the power of civil government (as in the teaching of Romans 13:1–6, quoted above, p. 37). If the power of government (such as a policeman) is not present in an emergency, when great harm is being done to another person, then my love for the victim should lead me to use physical force to prevent any further harm from occurring. If I found a criminal attacking my wife or children, I would use all my physical strength and all the physical force at my disposal against him, not to persuade him to trust in Christ as his Savior, but to immediately stop him from harming my wife and children! I would follow the command of Nehemiah, who told the men of Israel, “Remember the Lord, who is great and awesome, and fight for your brothers, your sons, your daughters, your wives, and your homes” (Neh. 4:14; see also Genesis 14:14–16, where Abraham rescued his kinsman Lot who had been taken captive by a raiding army). Boyd has wrongly taken one of the ways that God restrains evil in this world (changing hearts through the Gospel of Christ) and decided that it is the only way that God restrains evil (thus neglecting the valuable role of civil government). Both means are from God, both are good, and both should be used by Christians. ~ Wayne Grudem,
49:In 2009 the staid British journal New Scientist published an article with the provocative title “Space Storm Alert: 90 Seconds from Catastrophe,” which opens with the following lines: It is midnight on 22 September 2012 and the skies above Manhattan are filled with a flickering curtain of colourful light. Few New Yorkers have seen the aurora this far south but their fascination is short-lived. Within a few seconds, electric bulbs dim and flicker, then become unusually bright for a fleeting moment. Then all the lights in the state go out. Within 90 seconds, the entire eastern half of the US is without power. A year later and millions of Americans are dead and the nation’s infrastructure lies in tatters. The World Bank declares America a developing nation. Europe, Scandinavia, China and Japan are also struggling to recover from the same fateful event—a violent storm, 150 million kilometres away on the surface of the Sun. It sounds ridiculous. Surely the Sun couldn’t create so profound a disaster on Earth. Yet an extraordinary report funded by NASA and issued by the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) . . . claims it could do just that. (Brooks 2009; see also National Research Council 2008 for the NAS report that New Scientist is referring to) In fact, this scenario is not so ridiculous at all, as the New Scientist article goes on to relate (see also International Business Times 2011b; Lovett 2011; National Research Council 2008). Indeed, if things do not change, it may be inevitable. ~ Robert M Schoch,
50:Kraus asks the question of Freudian analysis: What would be enough? At what point would talking about one’s problems for x hours a week, be sufficient to bring one to a state of “normalcy”?

The genius of Freudianism, Kraus writes, is not the creation of a cure, but of a disease—the universal, if intermittent, human sentiment that “something is not right,” elaborated into a state whose parameters, definitions, and prescriptions are controlled by a self-selecting group of “experts,” who can never be proved wrong.

It was said that the genius of the Listerine campaign was attributable to the creation not of mouthwash, but of halitosis. Kraus indicts Freud for the creation of the nondisease of dissatisfaction. (See also the famous “malaise” of Jimmy Carter, which, like Oscar Wilde’s Pea Soup Fogs, didn’t exist ’til someone began describing it.) To consider a general dissatisfaction with one’s life, or with life in general as a political rather than a personal, moral problem, is to exercise or invite manipulation. The fortune teller, the “life coach,” the Spiritual Advisor, these earn their living from applying nonspecific, nonspecifiable “remedies” to nonspecifiable discomforts.The sufferers of such, in medicine, are called “the worried well,” and provide the bulk of income and consume the bulk of time of most physicians. It was the genius of the Obama campaign to exploit them politically. The antecedent of his campaign has been called Roosevelt’s New Deal, but it could, more accurately, be identified as The Music Man. ~ David Mamet,
51:Ten things you should never do when you form a group 1.​Work with your friends (they won’t be for long if you do) 2.​Let the singer do his own backing vocals (this is a great opportunity for the band to pull together – ignore it at your peril; see also ‘narcissism’) 3.​Have a couple in the band (they will always conspire against you) 4.​Listen to an A&R man (apart from Pete Tong, everyone I have ever met has been an idiot) 5.​Let your manager open a club/bar (see The Haçienda: How Not to Run a Club) 6.​Let the publishing/performance split go unspoken (sort it out as soon as the recording is finished and put it in writing; this is the worst thing you will ever have to do, but the most important, and usually splits most bands before they even start) 7.​Get off the bus (Fatty Molloy did this once and has regretted it ever since) 8.​Think one member is bigger than the group (courtesy Gene Simmons again) 9.​Sign anything that says ‘in perpetuity’ (that means forever, even you won’t live that long) 10.​Let your record company owe you money (see Factory Records) 11.​Ship your gear – always hire (a very famous sub-dance sub-indie outfit once phoned their manager after they’d split and said, ‘Hey, where did all the money go?’ See above!) 12.​Interfere with another group member’s sleep (they will turn very nasty and may call the police) 13.​Interfere with another group member’s girlfriend/wife (this will always end in violence) 14.​Never have a party in your own hotel room (always go to someone else’s) . . . Oh shit, way too many. I’ll stop now. ~ Peter Hook,
52:Resting in Him MY PRESENCE WILL GO WITH YOU, AND I WILL GIVE YOU REST. Sometimes when you are quite weary, all you can think about is finding rest. As a result, your awareness of My Presence grows dim. I assure you, though, that even when your attention falters, Mine remains steadfast. Rejoice that the One who always takes care of you has an infinite attention span! Even the most devoted parents cannot be constantly attentive to their children: They have to sleep some of the time. Also, they can be distracted by other demands on their attention. Many deeply loved children have drowned when their devoted parents took their eyes off them ever so briefly. Only I have the capability of watching over My beloved children continually—without the least interruption. Instead of worrying about where and when you will find rest, remember that I have promised to provide it for you. Worrying wastes vast quantities of energy—the very thing you need most to help you reach a resting place. If you were driving a car with little gas in the tank and the nearest service station was far away, you would drive carefully and steadily—so as to minimize gas consumption. Similarly, when you are low on energy you need to minimize consumption of this precious commodity. Go gently and steadily through your day, looking to Me for help. Rest in the knowledge that My watch-care over you is perfect. Thus, you make the most of your limited energy. Whenever you are struggling with weariness, come to Me and I will give you rest. See also Exodus 33:14; Psalm 121:2, 3; Matthew 11:28 (From Jesus Lives by Sarah Young) ~ Anonymous,
53:DAY 25: What specific instructions did Paul give Timothy that would apply to a young person? A young person seeking to live as a disciple of Jesus Christ can find essential guidelines in 4:12–16, where Paul listed five areas (verse 12) in which Timothy was to be an example to the church: 1. In “word” or speech—see also Matthew 12:34–37; Ephesians 4:25, 29, 31. 2. In “conduct” or righteous living—see also Titus 2:10; 1 Peter 1:15; 2:12; 3:16. 3. In “love” or self-sacrificial service for others—see also John 15:13. 4. In “faith” or faithfulness or commitment, not belief—see also 1 Corinthians 4:2. 5. In “purity” and particularly sexual purity—see also 4:2. The verses that follow hold several other building blocks to a life of discipleship: 1. Timothy was to be involved in the public reading, study, and application of Scripture (v. 13). 2. Timothy was to diligently use his spiritual gift that others had confirmed and affirmed in a public way (v. 14). 3. Timothy was to be committed to a process of progress in his walk with Christ (v. 15). 4. Timothy was to “take heed” to pay careful attention to “yourself and to the doctrine” (v. 16). The priorities of a godly leader should be summed up in Timothy’s personal holiness and public teaching. All of Paul’s exhortations in vv. 6–16 fit into one or the other of those two categories. By careful attention to his own godly life and faithful preaching of the Word, Timothy would continue to be the human instrument God would use to bring the gospel and to save some who heard him. Though salvation is God’s work, it is His pleasure to do it through human instruments. ~ John F MacArthur Jr,
54:it isn’t also true for a poor single Christian mom in Haiti, it isn’t true. If a sermon promises health and wealth to the faithful, it isn’t true, because that theology makes God an absolute monster who only blesses rich westerners and despises Christians in Africa, India, China, South America, Russia, rural Appalachia, inner-city America, and everywhere else a sincere believer remains poor. If it isn’t also true for a poor single Christian mom in Haiti, it isn’t true. If doctrine elevates a woman’s married-with-children status as her highest calling, it isn’t true, because that omits single believers (whose status Paul considered preferable), widows, the childless by choice or fate or loss, the divorced, and the celibate gay. If these folks are second-class citizens in the kingdom because they aren’t married with children, then God just excluded millions of people from gospel work, and I guess they should just eat rocks and die. If it isn’t also true for a poor single Christian mom in Haiti, it isn’t true. Theology is either true everywhere or it isn’t true anywhere. This helps untangle us from the American God Narrative and sets God free to be God instead of the My-God-in-a-Pocket I carried for so long. It lends restraint when declaring what God does or does not think, because sometimes my portrayal of God’s ways sounds suspiciously like the American Dream and I had better check myself. Because of the Haitian single mom. Maybe I should speak less for God. This brings me to the question at hand, another popular subject I am asked to pontificate on: What is my calling? (See also: How do I know my calling? When did you know your calling? How can I get your calling? Has God told you my calling? Can you get me out of my calling?) Ah yes, “The Calling.” This is certainly a favorite Christian concept over in these parts. Here is the trouble: Scripture barely confirms our elusive calling—the bull’s-eye, life purpose, individual mission every hardworking Protestant wants to discover. I found five scriptures, three of which referred to ~ Jen Hatmaker,
55:We spread the Gospel by the proclamation of the Word of God (see Rom. 10:17). But God has told us that we should restrain evil by the power of the sword and by the power of civil government (as in the teaching of Romans 13:1–6, quoted above, p. 37). If the power of government (such as a policeman) is not present in an emergency, when great harm is being done to another person, then my love for the victim should lead me to use physical force to prevent any further harm from occurring. If I found a criminal attacking my wife or children, I would use all my physical strength and all the physical force at my disposal against him, not to persuade him to trust in Christ as his Savior, but to immediately stop him from harming my wife and children! I would follow the command of Nehemiah, who told the men of Israel, “Remember the Lord, who is great and awesome, and fight for your brothers, your sons, your daughters, your wives, and your homes” (Neh. 4:14; see also Genesis 14:14–16, where Abraham rescued his kinsman Lot who had been taken captive by a raiding army). Boyd has wrongly taken one of the ways that God restrains evil in this world (changing hearts through the Gospel of Christ) and decided that it is the only way that God restrains evil (thus neglecting the valuable role of civil government). Both means are from God, both are good, and both should be used by Christians. This is why Boyd misunderstands Jesus’ statement, “If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also” (Matt. 5:39). When this verse is rightly understood (see below, p. 82), we see that Jesus is telling individuals not to take revenge for a personal insult or a humiliating slap on the cheek.51 But this command for individual kindness is not the same as the instructions that the Bible gives to governments, who are to “bear the sword” and be a “terror” to bad conduct and are to carry out “God’s wrath on the wrongdoer” (Rom. 13:3–4). The verses must be understood rightly in their own contexts. One is talking about individual conduct and personal revenge. The other is talking about the responsibilities of government. We should not confuse the two passages. ~ Wayne Grudem,
56:The general characteristics and attributions of these Grades are indicated by their correspondences on the Tree of Life, as may be studied in detail in the Book 777.
   Student. -- His business is to acquire a general intellectual knowledge of all systems of attainment, as declared in the prescribed books. (See curriculum in Appendix I.) {231}
   Probationer. -- His principal business is to begin such practices as he my prefer, and to write a careful record of the same for one year.
   Neophyte. -- Has to acquire perfect control of the Astral Plane.
   Zelator. -- His main work is to achieve complete success in Asana and Pranayama. He also begins to study the formula of the Rosy Cross.
   Practicus. -- Is expected to complete his intellectual training, and in particular to study the Qabalah.
   Philosophus. -- Is expected to complete his moral training. He is tested in Devotion to the Order.
   Dominus Liminis. -- Is expected to show mastery of Pratyahara and Dharana.
   Adeptus (without). -- is expected to perform the Great Work and to attain the Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel.
   Adeptus (within). -- Is admitted to the practice of the formula of the Rosy Cross on entering the College of the Holy Ghost.
   Adeptus (Major). -- Obtains a general mastery of practical Magick, though without comprehension.
   Adeptus (Exemptus). -- Completes in perfection all these matters. He then either ("a") becomes a Brother of the Left Hand Path or, ("b") is stripped of all his attainments and of himself as well, even of his Holy Guardian Angel, and becomes a babe of the Abyss, who, having transcended the Reason, does nothing but grow in the womb of its mother. It then finds itself a
   Magister Templi. -- (Master of the Temple): whose functions are fully described in Liber 418, as is this whole initiation from Adeptus Exemptus. See also "Aha!". His principal business is to tend his "garden" of disciples, and to obtain a perfect understanding of the Universe. He is a Master of Samadhi. {232}
   Magus. -- Attains to wisdom, declares his law (See Liber I, vel Magi) and is a Master of all Magick in its greatest and highest sense.
   Ipsissimus. -- Is beyond all this and beyond all comprehension of those of lower degrees. ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA,
57:A Personal Atonement At some point the multitudinous sins of countless ages were heaped upon the Savior, but his submissiveness was much more than a cold response to the demands of justice. This was not a nameless, passionless atonement performed by some detached, stoic being. Rather, it was an offering driven by infinite love. This was a personalized, not a mass atonement. Somehow, it may be that the sins of every soul were individually (as well as cumulatively) accounted for, suffered for, and redeemed for, all with a love unknown to man. Christ tasted "death for every man" (Hebrews 2:9; emphasis added), perhaps meaning for each individual person. One reading of Isaiah suggests that Christ may have envisioned each of us as the atoning sacrifice took its toll—"when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed" (Isaiah 53:10; emphasis added; see also Mosiah 15:10–11). Just as the Savior blessed the "little children, one by one" (3 Nephi 17:21); just as the Nephites felt his wounds "one by one" (3 Nephi 11:15); just as he listens to our prayers one by one; so, perhaps, he suffered for us, one by one. President Heber J. Grant spoke of this individual focus: "Not only did Jesus come as a universal gift, He came as an individual offering with a personal message to each one of us. For each one of us He died on Calvary and His blood will conditionally save us. Not as nations, communities or groups, but as individuals."55 Similar feelings were shared by C. S. Lewis: "He [Christ] has infinite attention to spare for each one of us. He does not have to deal with us in the mass. You are as much alone with Him as if you were the only being He had ever created. When Christ died, He died for you individually just as much as if you had been the only man in the world."56 Elder Merrill J. Bateman spoke not only of the Atonement's infinite nature, but also of its intimate reach: "The Savior's atonement in the garden and on the cross is intimate as well as infinite. Infinite in that it spans the eternities. Intimate in that the Savior felt each person's pains, sufferings, and sicknesses."57 Since the Savior, as a God, has the capacity to simultaneously entertain multiple thoughts, perhaps it was not impossible for the mortal Jesus to contemplate each of our names and transgressions in concomitant fashion as the Atonement progressed, without ever sacrificing personal attention for any of us. His suffering need never lose its personal nature. While such suffering had both macro and micro dimensions, the Atonement was ultimately offered for each one of us. ~ Tad R Callister,
58:Gary Taubes, Why We Get Fat: And What to Do About It (New York: Anchor Books, 2010). For an expanded discussion of Taubes’s arguments, see Good Calories, Bad Calories: Fats, Carbs, and the Controversial Science of Diet and Health (New York: Anchor Books, 2008). It includes a helpful summary of Taubes’s conclusions (p. 454): 1. Dietary fat, whether saturated or not, is not a cause of obesity, heart disease, or any other chronic disease of civilization. 2. The problem is the carbohydrates in the diet, their effect on insulin secretion, and thus the hormonal regulation of homeostasis—the entire harmonic ensemble of the human body. The more easily digestible and refined the carbohydrates, the greater the effect on our health, weight, and well-being. 3. Sugars—sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup, specifically—are particularly harmful, probably because the combination of fructose and glucose simultaneously elevates insulin levels while overloading the liver with carbohydrates. 4. Through their direct effect on insulin and blood sugar, refined carbohydrates, starches, and sugars are the dietary cause of coronary heart disease and diabetes. They are the most likely dietary causes of cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and the other chronic diseases of civilization. 5. Obesity is a disorder of excess fat accumulation, not overeating, and not sedentary behavior. 6. Consuming excess calories does not cause us to grow fatter, any more than it causes a child to grow taller. Expending more energy than we consume does not lead to long-term weight loss; it leads to hunger. 7. Fattening and obesity are caused by an imbalance—a disequilibrium—in the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue and fat metabolism. Fat synthesis and storage exceed the mobilization of fat from the adipose tissue and its subsequent oxidation. We become leaner when the hormonal regulation of the fat tissue reverses this balance. 8. Insulin is the primary regulator of fat storage. When insulin levels are elevated—either chronically or after a meal—we accumulate fat in our fat tissue. When insulin levels fall, we release fat from our fat tissue and use it for fuel. 9. By stimulating insulin secretion, carbohydrates make us fat and ultimately cause obesity. The fewer carbohydrates we consume, the leaner we will be. 10. By driving fat accumulation, carbohydrates also increase hunger and decrease the amount of energy we expend in metabolism and physical activity. For a fascinating discussion of the role of fat in a healthy diet, see also Nina Teicholz, The Big Fat Surprise: Why Butter, Meat and Cheese Belong in a Healthy Diet (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014). ~ Gretchen Rubin,


   12 Integral Yoga
   9 Occultism
   6 Christianity
   4 Philosophy
   4 Hinduism
   3 Psychology
   2 Science
   1 Mythology
   1 Alchemy

   11 Sri Aurobindo
   8 Aleister Crowley
   5 Satprem
   4 Vyasa
   4 The Mother
   3 Nolini Kanta Gupta
   3 Carl Jung
   2 Plotinus
   2 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin

   7 Liber ABA
   4 Vishnu Purana
   4 The Synthesis Of Yoga
   4 The Secret Doctrine
   2 Vedic and Philological Studies
   2 The Life Divine
   2 The Future of Man
   2 Aion
   2 Agenda Vol 09

00.03 - Upanishadic Symbolism, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   In Yajnavalkya's enumeration, however, it is to be noted, first of all, that he stresses on the number three. The principle of triplicity is of very wide application: it permeates all fields of consciousness and is evidently based upon a fundamental fact of reality. It seems to embody a truth of synthesis and comprehension, points to the order and harmony that reigns in the cosmos, the spheric music. The metaphysical, that is to say, the original principles that constitute existence are the well-known triplets: (i) the superior: Sat, Chit, Ananda; and (ii) the inferior: Body, Life and Mindthis being a reflection or translation or concretisation of the former. We can see also here how the dual principle comes in, the twin godhead or the two gods to which Yajnavalkya refers. The same principle is found in the conception of Ardhanarishwara, Male and Female, Purusha-Prakriti. The Upanishad says 14 yet again that the One original Purusha was not pleased at being alone, so for a companion he created out of himself the original Female. The dual principle signifies creation, the manifesting activity of the Reality. But what is this one and a half to which Yajnavalkya refers? It simply means that the other created out of the one is not a wholly separate, independent entity: it is not an integer by itself, as in the Manichean system, but that it is a portion, a fraction of the One. And in the end, in the ultimate analysis, or rather synthesis, there is but one single undivided and indivisible unity. The thousands and hundreds, very often mentioned also in the Rig Veda, are not simply multiplications of the One, a graphic description of its many-sidedness; it indicates also the absolute fullness, the complete completeness (prasya pram) of the Reality. It includes and comprehends all and is a rounded totality, a full circle. The hundred-gated and the thousand-pillared cities of which the ancient Rishis chanted are formations and embodiments of consciousness human and divine, are realities whole and entire englobing all the layers and grades of consciousness.
   Besides this metaphysics there is also an occult aspect in numerology of which Pythagoras was a well-known adept and in which the Vedic Rishis too seem to take special delight. The multiplication of numbers represents in a general way the principle of emanation. The One has divided and subdivided itself, but not in a haphazard way: it is not like the chaotic pulverisation of a piece of stone by hammer-blows. The process of division and subdivision follows a pattern almost as neat and methodical as a genealogical tree. That is to say, the emanations form a hierarchy. At the top, the apex of the pyramid, stands the one supreme Godhead. That Godhead is biune in respect of manifestation the Divine and his creative Power. This two-in-one reality may be considered, according to one view of creation, as dividing into three forms or aspects the well-known Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra of Hindu mythology. These may be termed the first or primary emanations.

0.04 - The Systems of Yoga, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  We can see also that in the integral view of things these three paths are one. Divine Love should normally lead to the perfect knowledge of the Beloved by perfect intimacy, thus becoming a path of Knowledge, and to divine service, thus becoming a path of Works. So also should perfect Knowledge lead to perfect
  Love and Joy and a full acceptance of the works of That which is known; dedicated Works to the entire love of the Master of the Sacrifice and the deepest knowledge of His ways and His being. It is in this triple path that we come most readily to the absolute knowledge, love and service of the One in all beings and in the entire cosmic manifestation.

0 1960-07-23 - The Flood and the race - turning back to guide and save amongst the torrents - sadhana vs tamas and destruction - power of giving and offering - Japa, 7 lakhs, 140000 per day, 1 crore takes 20 years, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   Mother means that the Ashramites themselves create the armor. see also X's reflections in an undated letter of May 1959.
   One lakh = 100,000.

0 1967-07-15, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   see also Agenda I, October 30, 1960.
   See conversation of May 10, 1967 (Amenhotep).

0 1968-03-16, #Agenda Vol 09, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   We may recall Agenda 4 of November 13, 1963: "Traditions tell us that a universe is created, then withdrawn into pralaya, and then a new one comes; and according to them, ours is the seventh universe, and being the seventh universe, it is the one that will not return to pralaya but will go on progressing, without retreat." see also Agenda 7 of March 4, 1966, and Agenda 8 of May 6, 1967

0 1968-11-27, #Agenda Vol 09, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   "...Pain that travails towards the touch of an unimaginable ecstasy." see also Thoughts and Aphorisms: 93"Pain is the touch of our Mother teaching us how to bear and grow in rapture. She has three stages of her schooling, endurance first, next equality of soul, last ecstasy."

04.04 - Evolution of the Spiritual Consciousness, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   This means to say that with the knowledge that is given us today, one can determine more or less definitely the altitudes to which the various spiritual realisations of the past rose and one can see also the degrees or graded stages of the evolution of the spiritual consciousness. A broad landmark can be noted here which concerns us at the present moment. The spiritual consciousness has been rising to higher and higher peaks and possessing them one after another. At the present moment we are at a crisis, at a crucial crossing. The spiritual consciousness attained till now and securely held in human possession (in man's inner nature) is confined to the highest level of the mind with some infiltration from the Overmind and through that, as a springing board, a leap into an indefinite, almost a blank Beyond. Now the time is come and the conditions are ready for the spiritual consciousness in humanity to arrive at the status above the Overmind to the Supermind, and make that a living reality and build in and through that its normal consciousness.
   A progressive revelation of higher and higher and more integral states of the spiritual consciousness in and through the realisations of mystics and sages and seersdivine men of all ages, such is the process of evolution that marks the life of man upon earth. This spiritual evolution, however, may not be obviously visible in the external life and character of man: it has been a phenomenon more in his inner being and consciousness, an occult phenomenon. Hence there has intervened a veil, wall of separation between the two. The veil has not been rent precisely because the very highest spiritual potential has not been reached and brought into play. The call of the present age is just to do away with this veil, make of human nature a unified, a streamlined entity, a complete incarnation of the spiritual consciousness in the fullness of its own nature at its source and origin.

04.06 - Evolution of the Spiritual Consciousness, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   This means that with the knowledge that is given us today one can determine more or less definitely the altitudes to which the various spiritual realisations of the past rose and one can see also the degrees or graded stages of the evolution of the spiritual consciousness. A broad landmark can be noted here which concerns us at the present moment. The spiritual consciousness has been rising to higher and higher peaks and possessing them one after another. At the present moment we are at a crisis, at a crucial crossing. The spiritual consciousness attained till now and securely held in human possession (in man's inner nature) is confined to the highest level of the mind with some infiltration from the Overmind and through that, as a springing board, a leap into an indefinite, almost a blank Beyond. Now the time is come and the conditions are ready for the spiritual consciousness in humanity to arrive at the status above the Overmind, the Supermind, and make that a living reality and build in and through that its normal consciousness.
   A progressive revelation of higher and higher and more integral states of the spiritual consciousness in and through the realisations of mystics and sages and seersdivine menof all ages, such is the process of evolution that marks the life of man upon earth. This spiritual evolution, however, may not be obviously visible in the external life and character of man: it has been a phenomenon more in his inner being and consciousness, an occult phenomenon. Hence there has intervened a veil, a wall of separation between the two. The veil has not been rent precisely because the very highest spiritual potential has not been reached and brought into play. The call of the present age is just to do away with this veil, make of human nature a unified, a streamlined entity, a complete incarnation of the spiritual consciousness in the fullness of its own nature at its source and origin.

1.00 - The way of what is to come, #The Red Book Liber Novus, #unset, #Zen
  36. Jung later described his personal transformation at this time as an example of the beginning of the second half of life, which frequently marked a return to the soul, after the goals and ambitions of the first half of life had been achieved (Symbols of Traniformation [1952], CW 5, p. xxvi); see also The turning point of life (1930, CW 8).
  37. Jung is referring here to his earlier work. For example, he had written in 1905, Through the associations experiment we are at least given the means to pave the way for the experimental research of the mysteries of the sick soul (The psychopathological meaning of the associations experiment, CW 2, 897)

1.01 - Maitreya inquires of his teacher (Parashara), #Vishnu Purana, #Vyasa, #Hinduism
  [1]: An address of this kind, to one or other Hindu divinity, usually introduces Sanscrit compositions, especially those considered sacred. The first term of this mantra or brief prayer, Om or Omkāra, is well known as a combination of letters invested by Hindu mysticism with peculiar sanctity. In the Vedas it is said to comprehend all the gods; and in the Purāṇas it is directed to be prefixed to all such formulæ as that of the text. Thus in the Uttara Khaṇḍa of the Pādma Purāṇa: 'The syllable Om, the mysterious name, or Brahma, is the leader of all prayers: let it therefore, O lovely-faced, (Śiva addresses Durgā,) be employed in the beginning of all prayers:' According to the same authority, one of the mystical imports of the term is the collective enunciation of Viṣṇu expressed by A, of Srī his bride intimated by U, and of their joint worshipper designated by M. A whole chapter of the Vāyu Purāṇa is devoted to this term. A text of the Vedas is there cited: 'Om, the monosyllable Brahma;' the latter meaning either the Supreme Being or the Vedas collectively, of which this monosyllable is the type. It is also said to typify the three spheres of the world, the three holy fires, the three steps of Viṣṇu, &c.-Frequent meditation upon it, and repetition of it, ensure release from worldly existence. see also Manu, II. 76. Vāsudeva, a name of Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa, is, according to its grammatical etymology, a patronymic derivative implying son of Vasudeva. The Vaiṣṇava Purāṇas, however, devise other explanations: see the next chapter, and again, b. VI. c. 5.
  [2]: In this stanza occurs a series of the appellations of Viṣṇu: 1. Puṇḍarīkākṣa, having eyes like a lotus, or heart-pervading; or Puṇḍarīka is explained supreme glory, and Akṣa imperishable: the first is the most usual etymon. 2. Vīswabhāvana, the creator of the universe, or the cause of the existence of all things. 3. Hṛṣīkeśa, lord of the senses. 4. Mahā puruṣa, great or supreme spirit; puruṣa meaning that which abides or is quiescent in body (puri sété), 5. Pūrvaja, produced or appearing before creation; the Orphic πρωτογόνος. In the fifth book, c. 18, Viṣṇu is described by five appellations, which are considered analogous to these; or, 1. Bhūtātmā, one with created things, or Puṇḍarīkākṣa; 2. Pradhānātmā, one with crude nature, or Viśvabhāvana; 3. Indriyātmā, one with the senses, or Hṛṣikeśa; 4. Paramātmā, supreme spirit, or Mahāpuruṣa; and Ātmā, soul; living soul, animating nature and existing before it, or Pūrvaja.
  [8]: Brahmā and the rest is said to apply to the series of teachers through whom this Purāṇa was transmitted from its first reputed author, Brahmā, to its actual narrator, the sage Parāśara. see also b. VI. c. 8.
  [9]: The Guru, or spiritual preceptor, is said to be Kapila or Sāraswata; the latter is included in the series of teachers of the Purāṇa. Parāśara must be considered also as a disciple of Kapila, as a teacher of the Sā - Self-Realisation, #Isha Upanishad, #unset, #Zen
  1 Gita XV. 16, 17. see also XIII passim.
  2 Taittiriya Upanishad II. 1 - 6.
  We see also all minds, lives, bodies to be active formations of
  the same existence in the extended being of the Self.

1.02 - Prayer of Parashara to Vishnu, #Vishnu Purana, #Vyasa, #Hinduism
  [10]: The ordinary derivation of Vāsudeva has been noticed above (p. 1): here it is derived from Vas, 'to dwell,' from Viṣṇu's abiding in all things, and all in him. The Mahābhārata explains Vāsu in the same manner, and Deva to signify radiant, shining: 'He causes all things to dwell in him, and he abides in all; whence he is named Vāsu: being resplendent as the sun, he is called Deva: and he who is both these, is denominated Vāsudeva.' see also b. VI. c. 5.
  [11]: The commentator argues that Vāsudeva must be the Brahma, or supreme being, of the Vedas, because the same circumstances are predicated of both, as eternity, omnipresence, omnipotence, &c.; but he does not adduce any scriptural text with the name Vāsudeva.
  kāra being derived from Aham, 'I;' as in the Hari Vaṃśa: 'He (Brahmā), oh Bhārata, said, I will create creatures.' see also S. Kārikā, p. 91.
  [24]: These three varieties of Aha

1.02 - The Eternal Law, #Sri Aurobindo or the Adventure of Consciousness, #Satprem, #Integral Yoga
  seems unnatural to the average Indian, who will bow respectfully before Christ (with as much spontaneous reverence as before his own image of God), but who will see also the face of God in the laughter of Krishna, the terror of Kali, the sweetness of Saraswati, and in the thousands upon thousands of other gods who dance, multicolored and mustachioed, mirthful or terrifying, illuminated or compassionate, on the deliriously carved towers of Indian temples. A God who cannot smile could not have created this humorous universe,13 said Sri Aurobindo. All is His face, all is His play, terrible or beautiful, as many-faceted as our world itself. For this country so teeming with 13
  Thoughts and Aphorisms, 17:138

1.05 - Ritam, #Vedic and Philological Studies, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  The second verse neither confirms as yet nor contradicts this initial suggestion. These three great gods, it says, are to the mortal as a multitude of arms which bring to him his desires & fill him with an abundant fullness and protect him from any who may will to do him hurt, rishah; fed with that fullness he grows until he is sarvah, complete in every part of his being(that is to say, if we admit the sense of a spiritual protection and a spiritual activity, in knowledge, in power, in joy, in mental, vital & bodily fullness)and by the efficacy of that protection he enjoys all this fullness & completeness unhurt. No part of it is maimed by the enemies of man, whose activities do him hurt, the Vritras, Atris, Vrikas, the Coverer on the heights, the devourer in the night, the tearer on the path.We may note in passing how important [it] is to render every Vedic word by its exact value; rish & dwish both mean enemy; but if we render them by one word, we lose the fine shade of meaning to which the poet himself calls our attention by the collocation pnti rishaharishta edhate. We see also the same care of style in the collocation sarva edhate, where, as it seems to me, it is clearly suggested that the completeness is the result of the prosperous growth, we have again the fine care & balance with which the causes pipratipnti are answered by the effects arishtahedhate. There is even a good literary reason of great subtlety & yet perfect force for the order of the words & the exact place of each word in the order. In this simple, easy & yet faultless balance & symmetry a great number of the Vedic hymns represent exactly in poetry the same spirit & style as the Greek temple or the Greek design in architecture & painting. Nor can anyone who neglects to notice it & give full value to it, catch rightly, fully & with precision the sense of the Vedic writings.
  In the third verse we come across the first confirmation of the spiritual purport of the hymn. The protected of Varuna, Mitra & Aryama the plural is now used to generalise the idea more decisivelyare travellers to a moral & spiritual goal, nayanti durit tirah. It follows that the durgni, the obstacles in the path are moral & spiritual obstacles, not material impediments. It follows equally that the dwishah, the haters, are spiritual enemies, not human; for there would be no sense or appropriateness in the scattering of human enemies by Varuna as a condition of the seeker after Truth & Rights reaching a state of sinlessness. It is the spiritual, moral & mental obstacles, the spiritual beings & forces who are opposed to the souls perfection, Brahmadwishah, whom Varuna, Mitra & Aryama remove from the path of their worshippers. They smite them & scatter them utterly, vi durg vi dwishah,the particle twice repeated in order to emphasise the entire clearance of the path; they scatter them in front,not allowing even the least struggle to be engaged before their intervention, but going in front of the worshippers & maintaining a clear way, suga anrikshara, in which they can pass not only without hurt, but without battle. The image of the sins, the durit is that of an army besetting the way which is scattered to all sides by the divine vanguard & is compelled beyond striking distance. The armed pilgrims of the Right pass on & through & not an arrow falls across their road. The three great Kings of heaven & their hosts, rjnah, have passed before & secured the great passage for the favoured mortal.
  So far the image has been a double image of a journey & a battle,the goal of the ritam, the journey of the sin-afflicted human being towards the Truth of the divine nature; the thorns, the pitfall, the enemy ambushed in the path; the great divine helpers whose divine knowledge, for they are prachetasah, becomes active in the human mind and conducts us unerringly & unfalteringly on that sublime journey. In the next rik the image of the path is preserved, but another image is associated with it, the universal Vedic image of the sacrifice. We get here our first clear & compelling indication of the truth which is the very foundation of our hypothesis that the Vedic sacrifice is only a material symbol of a great psychological or spiritual process. The divine children of Infinity lead1 the sacrifice on the straight path to the goal of the ritam; under their guidance it progresses to their goal & reaches the gods in their home, pravah sa dhtaye nashat.What is sacrifice which is itself a traveller, which has a motion in a straight path, a goal in the highest seat of Truth, parasmin dhmann ritasya? If it is not the activities of the human being in us offered as a sacrifice to the higher & divine being so that human activities may be led up to the divine nature & be established in the divine consciousness, then there is either no meaning in human language or no sense or coherence in the Veda. The Vedic sacrificer is devayu,devakmah,one who desires the god or the godhead, the divine nature; or devayan, one who is in the process of divinising his human life & being; the sacrifice itself is essentially devavtih & devattih, manifestation of the divine & the extension of the divine in man. We see also the force of dhtaye. The havya or offering of human faculty, human having, human action, reaches its goal when it is taken up in the divine thought, the divine consciousness & there enjoyed by the gods.
  In return for his offering the gods give to the sacrificer the results of the divine nature. The mortal favoured by them moves forward unstumbling & unoverthrown, accha gacchati astrita,towards or to what? Ratnam vasu visvam tokam uta tman. This is his goal; but we have seen too that the goal is the ritam. Therefore the expressions ratnam vasu, visvam tokam tman must describe either the nature of the ritam or the results of successful reaching & habitation in the ritam. Toka means son, says the ritualist. I fail to see how the birth of a son can be the supreme result of a mans perfecting his nature & reaching the divine Truth; I fail to see also what is meant by a man marching unoverthrown beyond sin & falsehood towards pleasant wealth & a son. In a great number of passages in the Veda, the sense of son for toka or of either son or grandson for tanaya is wholly inadmissible except by doing gross violence to sense, context & coherence & convicting the Vedic Rishis of an advanced stage of incoherent dementia. Toka, from the root tuch, to cut, form, create (cf tach & twach, in takta, tashta, twashta, Gr. tikto, etekon, tokos, a child) may mean anything produced or created. We shall see, hereafter, that praj, apatyam, even putra are used in the Veda as symbolic expressions for action & its results as children of the soul. This is undoubtedly the sense here. There are two results of life in the ritam, in the vijnana, in the principle of divine consciousness & its basis of divine truth; first ratnam vasu, a state of being the nature of which is delight, for vijnana or ritam is the basis of divine ananda; secondly, visvam tokam uta tman,this state of Ananda is not the actionless Brahmananda of the Sannyasin, but the free creative joy of the Divine Nature, universal creative action by the force of the self. The action of the liberated humanity is not to be like that of the mortal bound, struggling & stumbling through ignorance & sin towards purity & light, originating & bound by his action, but the activity spontaneously starting out of self-existence & creating its results without evil reactions or bondage.
  To complete our idea of the hymn & its significance, I shall give my rendering of its last three slokas,the justification of that rendering or comment on it would lead me far from the confines of my present subject. How, O friends, cries Kanwa to his fellow-worshippers, may we perfect (or enrich) the establishment in ourselves (by the mantra of praise) of Mitra & Aryaman or how the wide form of Varuna? May I not resist with speech him of you who smites & rebukes me while he yet leads me to the godhead; through the things of peace alone may I establish you in all my being. Let a man fear the god even when he is giving him all the four states of being (Mahas, Swar, Bhuvah, Bhuh), until the perfect settling in the Truth: let him not yearn towards evil expression. In other words, perfect adoration & submission to the gods who are leading us in the path, those who are yajnanh, leaders of the sacrifice, is the condition of the full wideness of Varunas being in us & the full indwelling ofMitra & Aryaman in the principles of the Ananda & the Ritam.

1.05 - THE HOSTILE BROTHERS - ARCHETYPES OF RESPONSE TO THE UNKNOWN, #Maps of Meaning, #Jordan Peterson, #Psychology
  Evans, P.I. (1973). see also footnote 595.
  Foa, E.B, Molnar, C., & Cashman, L. (1995). see also Pennebaker, J.W. (1997); Pennebaker, J., Mayne, T.J., &
  Francis, M.E. (1997).

1.05 - Vishnu as Brahma creates the world, #Vishnu Purana, #Vyasa, #Hinduism
  ga Purāṇa, which enumerates the different series of creation in the words of the Viṣṇu, except in this passage, which is there transposed, with a slight variation of the reading. Instead of ### it is ### 'The first creation was that of Mahat: Intellect being the first in manifestation.' The reading of the Vāyu P. is still more tautological, but confirms that here preferred: see also n. 12.
  [11]: The Anugraha creation, of which no notice has been found in the Mahābhārata, seems to have been borrowed from the Sā

1.09 - Legend of Lakshmi, #Vishnu Purana, #Vyasa, #Hinduism
  ga, and Kūrma Purāṇas. The Vāyu and Padma have much the same narrative as that of our text; and so have the Agni and Bhāgavata, except that they refer only briefly to the anger of Durvāsas, without narrating the circumstances; indicating their being posterior, therefore, to the original tale. The part, however, assigned to Durvāsas appears to be an embellishment added to the original, for no mention of him occurs in the Matsya P. nor even in the Hari Vaṃśa, neither does it occur in what may be considered the oldest extant versions of the story, those of the Rāmāyana and Mahābhārata: both these ascribe the occurrence to the desire of the gods and Daityas to become immortal. The Matsya assigns a similar motive to the gods, instigated by observing that the Daityas slain by them in battle were restored to life by Śukra with the Sañjīvinī, or herb of immortality, which he had discovered. The account in the Hari Vaṃśa is brief and obscure, and is explained by the commentator as an allegory, in which the churning of the ocean typifies ascetic penance, and the ambrosia is final liberation: but this is mere mystification. The legend of the Rāmāyana is translated, vol. I. p. 410. of the Serampore edition; and that of the Mahābhārata by Sir C. Wilkins, in the notes to his translation of the Bhāgavata Gītā. see also the original text, Cal. ed. p. 40. It has been presented to general readers in a more attractive form by my friend H. M. Parker, in his Draught of Immortality, printed with other poems, Lond. 1827. The Matsya P. has many of the stanzas of the Mahābhārata interspersed with others. There is some variety in the order and number of articles produced from the ocean. As I have observed elsewhere (Hindu Theatre, I. 59. Lond. ed.), the popular enumeration is fourteen; but the Rāmāyana specifies but nine; the Mahābhārata, nine; the Bhāgavata, ten; the Padma, nine; the Vāyu, twelve; the p. 78 Matsya, perhaps, gives the whole number. Those in which most agree, are, 1. the Hālāhala or Kālakūta poison, swallowed by Śiva: 2. Vārunī or Surā, the goddess of wine, who being taken by the gods, and rejected by the Daityas, the former were termed Suras, and the latter Asuras: 3. the horse Uccaiśśravas, taken by Indra: 4. Kaustubha, the jewel worn by Viṣṇu: 5. the moon: 6. Dhanwantari, with the Amrita in his Kamaṇḍalu, or vase; and these two articles are in the Vāyu considered as distinct products: 7. the goddess Padmā or Śrī: 8. the Apsarasas, or nymphs of heaven: 9. Surabhi, or the cow of plenty: 10. the Pārijāta tree, or tree of heaven: 11. Airāvata, the elephant taken by Indra. The Matsya adds, 12. the umbrella taken by Varuna: 13. the earrings taken by Indra, and given to Aditī: and apparently another horse, the white horse of the sun: or the number may be completed by counting the Amrita separately from Dhanwantari. The number is made up in the popular lists by adding the bow and the conch of Viṣṇu; but there does not seem to be any good authority for this, and the addition is a sectarial one: so is that of the Tulaśī tree, a plant sacred to Kṛṣṇa, which is one of the twelve specified by the Vāyu P. The Uttara Khanda of the Padma P. has a peculiar enumeration, or, Poison; Jyeṣṭhā or Alakṣmī, the goddess of misfortune, the elder born to fortune; the goddess of wine; Nidrā, or sloth; the Apsarasas; the elephant of Indra; Lakṣmī; the moon; and the Tulaśī plant. The reference to Mohinī, the female form assumed by Viṣṇu, is very brief in our text; and no notice is taken of the story told in the Mahābhārata and some of the Purāṇas, of the Daitya Rāhu's insinuating himself amongst the gods, and obtaining a portion of the Amrita: being beheaded for this by Viṣṇu, the head became immortal, in consequence of the Amrita having reached the throat, and was transferred as a constellation to the skies; and as the sun and moon detected his presence amongst the gods, Rāhu pursues them with implacable hatred, and his efforts to seize them are the causes of eclipses; Rāhu typifying the ascending and descending nodes. This seems to be the simplest and oldest form of the legend. The equal immortality of the body, under the name Ketu, and his being the cause of meteorical phenomena, seems to have been an after-thought. In the Padma and Bhāgavata, Rāhu and Ketu are the sons of Sinhikā, the wife of the Dānava Viprachitti.
  [9]: The four Vidyās, or branches of knowledge, are said to be, Yajña vidyā, knowledge or performance of religious rites; Mahā vidyā, great knowledge, the worship of the female principle, or Tāntrika worship; Guhya vidyā, knowledge of mantras, mystical prayers, and incantations; and Ātma vidyā, knowledge of soul, true wisdom.

1.14 - Bibliography, #Aion, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  Leipzig, 1610. see also (A) Ars chemica, i; Theatrum chemicum,
  -. see also Adamantius.
  Orosius. "Ad Aurelium Augustum commonitorium de errore
  furt a. M., 1625. see also (A) Artis auriferae, iv.
  Thorndike, Lynn. A History of Magic and Experimental Science.
  . see also Vaughan.
  Weiss, Johannes. The History of Primitive Christianity. London,

1.15 - Index, #Aion, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  acetum, 160; see also vinegar
  Achamoth, see Sophia
  session by, 23; see also anima/
  tive aspect of, 16; see also anima/
  of, 242; see also Adam; Archan-
  thropos; Man, original; Protan-
  baptism, 89, 90, 1 88; see also font
  Barabbas, 91
  156; see also massa confusa
  Charles, R. H., 115/2, 118/2, 147/2
  God, 57, 147; see also Adam; 234; archetypes and, 8; autonomy
  androgyny; Ichthys
  69, 111; voluntary, 70; see also
  267; see also coniunctio opposi-
  159, 167, 268; see also opposites,
  conjunction of
  4; see also ego
  consensus omnium j consensus gen-
  cosmos, and chaos, 32; see also
  146; see also Satan
  dharma, 21771
  divisio, 168, 187; see also separatio
  doctrinairism, 86
  "sacred history," 179; see also
  103-4; see also snake
  dream-analysis, 203
  Eden, 225, 234; see also Paradise
  education, modern, and dissocia-
  what it is, 3; see also assimilation;
  hvoia, 191, 197/2; see also conscious-
  Eve, 204, 205/, 206, 235; see also
  shadow and, 266-67; see also
  privatio boni
  existence, 165; see also subjective
  58; see also Imago Dei
  God-man, archetype, 181-82
  of, 208; "Ter Unus," 177; see also
  Mercurius/ Mercury
  78; quaternio, 243; see also Heru-
  of Derceto, 104, 111; see also
  illusion, 11, 16; see also may a
  image of God: Christ and the soul
  as, 37; see also imago Dei
  imagination, active, 19, 223, 243
  in, 247/; see also stone
  lapis angularis (Christ), 208
  lime, unslaked, 130; see also quick-
  lodestone, 18972; see also magnet
  Logos, 148, 187/, 201, 252; animus
  Luna, 235; see also moon
  Luther, Martin, 89, 235; as Anti-
  Mahomet, 97; see also Mohammed
  Maier, Michael, 18772, 220, 249, 252,
  214, 216, 237, 239, see also Adam,
  Anthropos, Archanthropos, Pro-
  55 57"-> 5 8 > 6in ; 99, see also
  Mohammed, 102; see also Mahomet
  molecular movement, 250/
  12; see also Great Mother(s);
  mummy, 122; see also mumia
  Mundus, 137
  226/; see also quaternio
  name, and thing, 32
  245; see also names of individual
  nigredo, 148, 149, 194, 210; see also
  Old Testament, 70; see also names
  of individual books
  194, see also coniunctio opposi-
  torum; day/night, 123; equiva-
  Epistles of, 68; see also names of
  separate Epistles
  Phrygians, 198, 213; see also Naas-
  acal sign for, 91, 114; see also
  110, 269; see also evil
  problems, moral, 25/
  197; see also Adam; Anthropos;
  Man, original; Archanthropos
  Prunicus/npouyiKos, 19671; see also
  "puffed-up-ness," 24; see also infla-
  224; see also Anthropos quater-
  nio; Horus quaternio; lapis qua-
  Ram ( c f), 7772; see also Aries
  ram: Christ as, 90, 92; daemonic,
  103; see also lamb
  Rameses II, 78
  Reguel, 229; see also J e thro
  Reitzenstein, Richard, 7572, 103;
  self-aggrandizement, 24; see also in-
  of opposites, 247; see also dragon;
  snake; uroboros
  steel, 133; alchemical, 161; see also
  unity and totality, 31; see also
  anima; animus; mandala
  31; see also opposites
  Tabari, Chronique of, 79ft, 107
  in uroboros, 248/; see also oppo-
  and one, motif, 225, 253; see also
  symbols of, 31, 190; see also
  vas, 238; naturale, 241; see also
  vinegar, 23972; see also ace turn
  viper, 72
  whitening, 148; see also albedo;
  - , and God, 195; see also com-
  pleteness; totality
  Word, the, 200; see also Logos
  world situation, present, 70

1.15 - THE DIRECTIONS AND CONDITIONS OF THE FUTURE, #The Future of Man, #Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, #Christianity
  4 Brown & Co., Boston, 1948. see also in Harper's (February 1948) the well-
  documented article by C. Lester Walker: "Too Many People."

1.15 - The Supreme Truth-Consciousness, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  18:We can speak of this new status of the all-pervading Supermind as a further departure from the unitarian truth of things and from the indivisible consciousness which constitutes inalienably the unity essential to the existence of the cosmos. We can see that pursued a little farther it may become truly Avidya, the great Ignorance which starts from multiplicity as the fundamental reality and in order to travel back to real unity has to commence with the false unity of the ego. We can see also that once the individual centre is accepted as the determining standpoint, as the knower, mental sensation, mental intelligence, mental action of will and all their consequences cannot fail to come into being. But also we have to see that so long as the soul acts in the Supermind, Ignorance has not yet begun; the field of knowledge and action is still the truth-consciousness, the basis is still the unity.
  19:For the Self still regards itself as one in all and all things as becomings in itself and of itself; the Lord still knows his Force as himself in act and every being as himself in soul and himself in form; it is still his own being that the Enjoyer enjoys, even though in a multiplicity. The one real change has been an unequal concentration of consciousness and a multiple distribution of force. There is a practical distinction in consciousness, but there is no essential difference of consciousness or true division in its vision of itself. The Truth-consciousness has arrived at a position which prepares our mentality, but is not yet that of our mentality. And it is this that we must study in order to seize Mind at its origin, at the point where it makes its great lapse from the high and vast wideness of the Truth-consciousness into the division and the ignorance. Fortunately, this apprehending Truth-consciousness5 is much more facile to our grasp by its nearness to us, by its foreshadowing of our mental operations than the remoter realisation that we have hitherto been struggling to express in our inadequate language of the intellect. The barrier that has to be crossed is less formidable.

1.22 - THE END OF THE SPECIES, #The Future of Man, #Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, #Christianity
  albuminoids, 99; see also proteins
  animals: "education" among, i8f ;
  limbs of, as tools, i58f.; see also
  Communism, 263; see also Marxism
  complexification, 154, 168, 195, 206,
  of, 123; see also complexity;
  reflection; self-knowledge
  planetization and, 112; see also

1.56 - Marriage - Property - War - Politics, #Magick Without Tears, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
  There are any number of other passages, equally warlike; but see II, 24. It is a warning against internecine conflict between the masters; see also III 58,59. Hitler might well quote these two reminders that the real danger is the revolt of the slave classes. They cannot rule or build; no sooner do they find themselves in a crisis than mephitic rubbish about democracy is swept into the dustbin by a Napoleon or a Stalin.
  There is just one exception to the general idea of ruthlessness; some shadowy vision of a chivalrous type of warfare is granted to us in AL III, 59: Significant, perhaps, that this and a restatement of Thelema came immediately before "There is an end of the word of the God enthroned in Ra's seat, lightening the girders of the soul." (AL III, 61) And this is "As brothers fight ye!" Perhaps the Aeon may give birth to some type of warfare "under Queensbery rules" so to say. A baptism of those who assert their right to belong to the Master class. Something, in short, not wholly dissimilar from the jousts of Feudal times. But on such points I should not care to adventure any very positive opinion.

2.00 - BIBLIOGRAPHY, #The Perennial Philosophy, #Aldous Huxley, #Philosophy
  . see also J. P. Camus.
  The Secret of the Golden Flower. Translated from the Chinese by Richard Wilhelm. Commentary by Dr. C. G. Jung (London and New York, 1931).

2.02 - Brahman, Purusha, Ishwara - Maya, Prakriti, Shakti, #The Life Divine, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  We see that the Absolute, the Self, the Divine, the Spirit, the Being is One; the Transcendental is one, the Cosmic is one: but we see also that beings are many and each has a self, a spirit, a like yet different nature. And since the spirit and essence of things is one, we are obliged to admit that all these many must be that One, and it follows that the One is or has become many; but how can the limited or relative be the Absolute and how can man or beast or bird be the Divine Being? But in erecting this apparent contradiction the mind makes a double error. It is thinking in the terms of the mathematical finite unit which is sole in limitation, the one which is less than two and can become two only by division and fragmentation or by addition and multiplication; but this is an infinite Oneness, it is the essential and infinite Oneness which can contain the hundred and the thousand and the million and billion and trillion. Whatever astronomic or more than astronomic figures you heap and multiply, they cannot overpass or exceed that Oneness; for, in the language of the Upanishad, it moves not, yet is always far in front when you would pursue and seize it. It can be said of it that it would not be the infinite Oneness if it were not capable of an infinite multiplicity; but that does not mean that the One is plural or can be limited or described as the sum of the Many: on the contrary, it can be the infinite Many because it exceeds all limitation or description by multiplicity and exceeds at the same time all limitation by finite conceptual oneness. Pluralism is an error because, though there is the spiritual plurality, the many souls are dependent and interdependent existences; their sum also is not the One nor is it the cosmic totality; they depend on the One and exist by its Oneness: yet the plurality is not unreal, it is the One Soul that dwells as the individual in these many souls and they are eternal in the One and by the one Eternal.
  This is difficult for the mental reason which makes an opposition between the Infinite and the finite and associates finiteness with plurality and infinity with oneness; but in the logic of the Infinite there is no such opposition and the eternity of the Many in the One is a thing that is perfectly natural and possible.

2.05 - Apotheosis, #The Hero with a Thousand Faces, #Joseph Campbell, #Mythology
  Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus. see also, Ovid, Metamorphoses, III, 324 ff.,
  511, and 516. For other examples of the hermaphrodite as priest, god, or seer,
  See Okakura Kakuzo, The Book of Tea (New York, 1906). see also
  Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Essays in Zen Buddhism (London, 1927), and Lafcadio

2.05 - On Poetry, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   (Both quoted in "The Advent and Progress of the Spiritual Age", Chapter 24, The Human Cycle, SABCL, Vol. 15, p. 253. see also The Future Poetry, CWSA Vol. 26, p. 222.")

3.01 - The Principles of Ritual, #Liber ABA, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
  Appendix VII, p. 387 of this book]). see also Liber CXI, Aleph.
  2. [Appendix VII, p. 363.]

3.02 - The Formulae of the Elemental Weapons, #Liber ABA, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
  the proper attitude. see also Liber 370 [Appendix VII, p. 404]. Infra, furthermore,
  there is special instruction: Chapter XV and elsewhere.

3.06 - The Formula of The Neophyte, #Liber ABA, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
  Golden Dawn and The Complete Golden Dawn System of Magic. see also Liber 671 vel
  Pyramidos, which is based on this formula.]

3.07 - The Formula of the Holy Grail, #Liber ABA, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
  affords the means of analysis and application required. see also Equinox I (5), The
  Temple of Solomon the King.
  Liber Aleph, and in Part IV of this Book 4. see also Cap. V, paragraph on F final of

3.13 - Of the Banishings, #Liber ABA, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
  2. see also the Ritual called The Mark of the Beast given in [Appendix VI, p.
  304]. But this is pantomorphous.

3.16.2 - Of the Charge of the Spirit, #Liber ABA, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
  explained in Liber LXV. see also Liber Aleph vel CXI.
  3. Of course this should have been done in preparing the Ritual. But he renews

3.17 - Of the License to Depart, #Liber ABA, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
  Malkah be-Tarshisim ve-ad Ruachoth Schechlim. see also Appendix V, Table III.]

3-5 Full Circle, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  Evolution (n.) The change, gradual or sudden, of any entity's organization (q.v.) in the direction of higher organization. See Ectropy, Omega. see also Devolution.
  Evolution, abiotic Evolution (q.v.) of non-living systems such as atoms, molecules or geoid systems. See fold-out chart and Figure II-2.

4.23 - The supramental Instruments -- Thought-process, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  The mental activity that can be most readily organised is, as has been already indicated, that of pure ideative knowledge. This is transformed on the higher level to the true jnana, supramental thought, supramental vision, the supramental knowledge by identity. The essential action of this supramental knowledge has been described in the preceding chapter. It is necessary however to see also how this knowledge works in outward application and how it deals with the data of existence. It differs from the action of the mind first in this respect that it works naturally with those operations that are to the mind the highest and the most difficult, acting in them or on them from above downward and not with the hampered straining upward of the mind or with its restriction to its own and the inferior levels. The higher operations are not dependent on the lower assistance, but rather the lower operations depend on the higher not only for their guidance but for their existence. The lower mental operations are therefore not only changed in character by the transformation, but are made entirely subordinate. And the higher mental operations too change their character, because, supramentalised, they begin to derive their light directly from the highest, the self-knowledge or infinite knowledge.
  The normal thought-action of the mind may for this purpose be viewed as constituted of a triple motion. First and lowest and most necessary to the mental being in the body is the habitual thought mind that founds its ideas upon the data given by the senses and by the surface experiences of the nervous and emotional being and on the customary notions formed by the education and the outward life and environment. This habitual mind has two movements, one a kind of constant undercurrent of mechanically recurrent thought always repeating itself in the same round of physical, vital, emotional, practical and summarily intellectual notion and experience, the other more actively working upon all new experience that the mind is obliged to admit and reducing it to formulas of habitual thinking. The mentality of the average man is limited by this habitual mind and moves very imperfectly outside its circle.

5.4.01 - Notes on Root-Sounds, #Vedic and Philological Studies, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Growth. see also words meaning plants.
   to thrive, prosper.

6.0 - Conscious, Unconscious, and Individuation, #The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  Sheed. London and New York, 1942. see also Confessiones, in
  Migne, P.L., vol. 32.
  . see also Woodroffe.
  Bacon, Josephine Daskam. In the Border Country. New York, 1919.
  tion to a Science of Mythology, London, 1950.) see also Torch-
  books edn., rev., 1963.
  rae et artis admirabilium libri tres. Antwerp, 1604. see also "De
  aureo vellere" in (A) Theatrum chemicum, vii.
  man's Library.) London and New York, 1938. see also Deussen.
  Riklin, F. "Uber Gefangnispsychosen," Psychologisch-neurologische
  phico. Frankfurt a. M., 1550. see also (A) Artis auriferae, viii.
  Roscher, Wilhelm Heinrich. Ausfiihrliches Lexikon der Grie-
  . see also I Ching.
  Williams, Mentor L. (ed.). Schoolcraft's Indian Legends. East
  . see also Avalon.
  Wundt, Wilhelm. Principles of Physiological Psychology. Trans-
  Africa, East, 95; see also Kenya
  agathodaimon, 317
  types, 47; see also dream-analysis
  analyst: parental imagos projected
  on, 60; as saviour, 61; see also doc-
  talking, 215; see also bear; bees;
  beetle; birds; bull; butterfly; cat;
  wholeness, 388; see also anima;
  animus; child; father; maiden;
  reum, 305; see also gold, philo-
  57; see also alcheringa
  authority, magic, of female, 82
  261ft; see also Woodroffe, Sir John
  avatars, 310
  Bible, 20, 141, 237*2; see also New
  Testament; Old Testament;
  white, 191, 338; see also crow;
  dove; eagle; falcon; goose; hawk;
  320; see also Hinayana; Maha-
  yana; Zen
  ter of, 168; see also motif
  children, ancestors reincarnated in,
  bolical, 313; see also black; green;
  Nicholas Cusanus and, 11; see also
  known, 283; see also ego-conscious-
  doctor, 216; see also analyst
  doctrinairism, 93
  Eleusis, 14; see also Mysteries
  elf, 158
  of Wotan, 226; see also evil eye
  Ezekiel, 346/2; seraphim of, 319;
  Faust, 284; see also Goe the
  "fear, maker of," 17, 170
  feeling-values, 103; see also functions
  femininity, threeness and, 244
  dent, 289; triads of, 33071; see also
  syzygies in, 59, 70; see also Barbelo-
  Gnosis; Soul, Hymn to the
  tion of, 11; see also Son of God
  goddess, 330; anima as, 29; as
  God-image, 4, 246, 324, 354; see also
  Imago Dei
  348, see also aurum philosophi-
  cum; and sun, 312; symbol of
  Ichthys, 370; see also fish
  icons, 361
  Imago Dei, 4, 246, 354; see also God-
  282, 389, see also Hindu philoso-
  phy; Sankhya philosophy
  Jehovah, 214; see also Yahweh
  Jerome, St., 31672
  Gospels, 26; see also Christ; Virgin
  Kingdom of God, 81; see also
  Heaven, Kingdom of
  Madonna, 103, 201; see also Mary,
  the Virgin
  tarian, 213; see also emotion,
  mass; intoxication, mass; psyche,
  136; see also Isis
  mysterium iniquitatis, 103, 175
  of, 11; see also names of individual
  306, 307, 310, 335; see also dyad;
  triad; tetrad; quaternity; pentad;
  old man: one-sided, 226; see also
  wise old man
  pair: divine, 60, see also syzygies;
  parental, 65; see also brother-sister
  33172; tail, 33072; see also cauda
  Persephone, 90, 186; see also Proser-
  2 35> 243, 378, 389; see also idea
  Pleroma, 295ft
  Proserpina, 107, 350; see also Per-
  Freud, 3ft; loss of, 139; see also un-
  quadratura circuit, 387; see also cir-
  cle, squaring of
  transformed hero, 128; see also
  cury as, 31 1, 312, 314, 31772, see also
  serpens mercurialis; Moses' staff
  iour, 35, 202; see also snake; uro-
  of unconscious, 363, 376; see also
  man, 35; see also anima; "perils of
  the soul"
  spiritual exercises, 6371, 318; see also
  exercitia spiritualia
  "that is no stone," 312; see also
  tension, 147; see also opposites, ten-
  sion of
  Two-horned One, 145; see also Dhul-
  Upanishads, 312; see also Maitra-
  yana-Brahmana Upanishad; Shvet-
  vessel motif, 364; see also vas her-
  wand, 29672, 311; see also caduceus
  wings: in mandala, 378; see also Mer-
  curius/ Mercury
  Woodroffe, Sir John, 7072; see also
  Avalon, Arthur (pseudonym)
  Yahweh, 11, 103, 256, 34172; see also

BOOK II. -- PART I. ANTHROPOGENESIS., #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  * see also Memoires a l'Academie, etc., of de Mirville, Vol. III., for a mass of evidence. (17 von 26) [06.05.2003 03:36:05]
  Amsterdam edition). Elsewhere the same volume shows these b'ne-aleim belonging to the tenth subdivision of the "Thrones" (Zohar, part iii., col. 113. But see also 1st vol. 184). It also explains that the
  Ischin, "men-spirits," viri spirituales, now that men can see them no longer, help magicians to produce,
  * Orient. Trad., p. 454. see also Bailly's "Lettres sur l'Atlantide."
  ** Remember that the Rabbins teach that there are to be seven successive renewals of the globe; that

BOOK II. -- PART II. THE ARCHAIC SYMBOLISM OF THE WORLD-RELIGIONS, #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  ** see also his Memoires de la Societe de la Linguistique following the "Fire Myths," (Vol. I, p. 337,
  et seq.)

BOOK I. -- PART I. COSMIC EVOLUTION, #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  Paranirvana. see also for other data on this peculiar expression, the day of "Come-To-Us," The
  Funerary Ritual of the Egyptians, by Viscount de Rouge. It corresponds to the Day of the Last
  man-plant. see also the Section of that name in Part II. (8 von 19) [06.05.2003 03:31:13]
  Such are the distorted copies of the esoteric doctrine in the Kabala. But see also "The Primeval Manus
  of Humanity" in Book II.

  more of it are referred to Vol. II. of ISIS UNVEILED, chap. x. see also several sections in Book II.,
  Part II. of this work. The present subject is touched upon and fresh explanations attempted for a very
  ** see also King's Gnostics. Other sects regarded Jehovah as Ildabaoth himself King identifies him
  with Saturn.
  named Adonai, whose name is also Kadush and El-El" (Cod. Naz., I, 47; see also Psalm lxxxix., 18),
  and also "Lord Bacchus." Baal-Adonis of the Sods or Mysteries of the pre-Babylonian Jews became

Book of Exodus, #The Bible, #Anonymous, #Various
  allah (Challah) - - was a cake or loaf of unleavened bread to be offered to the Lord. The plural of allah is allot - , as in unleavened cakes of bread - - allot Matzot. "With bran flour make unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers spread with oil" (Exodus 29:2). see also Exodus 29:23, Leviticus 24:5-9 and Numbers 15:17-21.
  However, in an act of disobedience, the people built a golden calf (Chapter 32) and suffered punishment; the calf is destroyed and the guilty died at the hands of the Levites. After God appeared to Moses alone in a fifth theophany (33:17-34:9), the Israelites finally built the Sanctuary or Tabernacle with the Ark of the Covenant, in which God filled the Dwelling with his presence.

Book of Imaginary Beings (text), #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  Apes, , , . see also
  Chimpanzee, Monkeys
  , , . see also names
  of species
  Chimpanzee, . see also Apes,
  Hog, , . see also Pig, Sow
  Lambs, , , , . see also
  Ram, Sheep
  Monkeys, , . see also
  Apes, Chimpanzee
  Pig, , . see also Hog, Sow
  Pisanello, Antonio,
  Ram, , , . see also
  Lambs, Sheep
  Sheep, , , , . see also
  Lambs, Ram
  , , . see also
  Reptiles, Serpents
  , , . see also Turtle
  Tower of the Phoenix,
  Turtle, , , . see also

BOOK XIII. - That death is penal, and had its origin in Adam's sin, #City of God, #Saint Augustine of Hippo, #Christianity
  [61] Diogenes especially, and his followers. see also Seneca, De Tranq. c. 14, and Epist. 92; and in Cicero's Tusc. Disp. i. 43, the answer of Theodorus, the Cyrenian philosopher, to Lysimachus, who threatened him with the cross: "Threaten that to your courtiers; it is of no consequence to Theodorus whether he rot in the earth or in the air."
  [62] Lucan, Pharsalia, vii. 819, of those whom Csar forbade to be buried after the battle of Pharsalia.

Conversations with Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  It is not necessary to fix the consciousness anywhere. When you begin to participate in the higher consciousness, you will find it diffuse, englobing everything and without any particular centre. One makes for oneself one's own centre (above the head). In the beginning, what you are doing is natural; but let go. As for attention to the outer world you will see also at one time all the phenomena, noises, etc. as though you were a part of them; you will embrace them in your consciousness, "they will occur in it".
  The half-dream state is not to be feared, but keep your consciousness attentive; it will then probably shift inwards. But have you succeeded in quietening your mind?

ENNEAD 02.09 - Against the Gnostics; or, That the Creator and the World are Not Evil., #Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 02, #Plotinus, #Christianity
  128 As was taught by Himerius; see also Plutarch and Themistius.
  129 As Numenius said, fr. 26.3.

ENNEAD 06.05 - The One and Identical Being is Everywhere Present In Its Entirety.345, #Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 04, #Plotinus, #Christianity
  1 It is significant that the subject of the first treatise of Plotinos, after the departure of Porphyry, should treat of happiness as the object of life. These may have been the arguments he advanced to persuade Porphyry to abstain from suicide (to which he refers in sections 8, 16), and, rather, to take a trip to Sicily, the land of natural beauty. He also speaks of losing friends, in section 8. The next book, on Providence, may also have been inspired by reflections on this untoward and unexpected circumstance. We see also a change from abstract speculation to his more youthful fancy and comparative learning and culture.
  2 Diog. Laert. x.; Cicero, de Fin. i. 14, 46.
  87 Plato, Timaeus, p. 42, Cary, 17; see also Enn. ii. 3.10. 11, 15, 16.
  88 Timaeus, p. 42, 91, Cary, 17, 72, 73.

Talks With Sri Aurobindo 1, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  Mother India, the journal in which these talks first appeared. see also the
  talk of 25 January 1939.

The Act of Creation text, #The Act of Creation, #Arthur Koestler, #Psychology
  (1959), p- 407. 38, Ibid., p. 411. see also Mackay, D. M. and Sutherland, N. S.,
  ibid., pp. 607-9. 3'9 Drever, J., 2nd. in Annual Review of Psychology (i960), p. 131.

Theaetetus, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  b. What are we to think of time and space? Time seems to have a nearer connexion with the mind, space with the body; yet time, as well as space, is necessary to our idea of either. We see also that they have an analogy with one another, and that in Mathematics they often interpenetrate. Space or place has been said by Kant to be the form of the outward, time of the inward sense. He regards them as parts or forms of the mind. But this is an unfortunate and inexpressive way of describing their relation to us. For of all the phenomena present to the human mind they seem to have most the character of objective existence. There is no use in asking what is beyond or behind them; we cannot get rid of them. And to throw the laws of external nature which to us are the type of the immutable into the subjective side of the antithesis seems to be equally inappropriate.
  c. When in imagination we enter into the closet of the mind and withdraw ourselves from the external world, we seem to find there more or less distinct processes which may be described by the words, 'I perceive,' 'I feel,' 'I think,' 'I want,' 'I wish,' 'I like,' 'I dislike,' 'I fear,' 'I know,' 'I remember,' 'I imagine,' 'I dream,' 'I act,' 'I endeavour,' 'I hope.' These processes would seem to have the same notions attached to them in the minds of all educated persons. They are distinguished from one another in thought, but they intermingle. It is possible to reflect upon them or to become conscious of them in a greater or less degree, or with a greater or less continuity or attention, and thus arise the intermittent phenomena of consciousness or self-consciousness. The use of all of them is possible to us at all times; and therefore in any operation of the mind the whole are latent. But we are able to characterise them sufficiently by that part of the complex action which is the most prominent. We have no difficulty in distinguishing an act of sight or an act of will from an act of thought, although thought is present in both of them. Hence the conception of different faculties or different virtues is precarious, because each of them is passing into the other, and they are all one in the mind itself; they appear and reappear, and may all be regarded as the ever-varying phases or aspects or differences of the same mind or person.

The Dwellings of the Philosophers, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  (18) Mutus Liber, see also Alchimie by Canseliet, published by J.-J. Pauvert, p. 40 et seq.
  (19) J.F. Hecnkel: Flora Saturnisans ; Paris, J.-T. Herissant, 1760, Ch. IV, p. 78.

the Eternal Wisdom, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
  13) When I see the chaste women of respectable families, I see in them the Divine clothed in the robe of a chaste woman; and again, when I see the public women of the city seated on their verandahs in their rajment of immorality and shame, I see also in them the Divine at play after another fashion. ~ Ramakrishna
  The Intuitive Mind View Similar A Rationalistic Critic on Indian Culture - XVII

The Monadology, #unset, #Arthur C Clarke, #Fiction
   25. We see also that nature has given heightened perceptions to animals, from the care she has taken to provide them with organs, which collect numerous rays of light, or numerous undulations of the air, in order, by uniting them, to make them have greater effect.
  Something similar to this takes place in smell, in taste and in touch, and perhaps in a number of other senses, which are unknown to us.


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