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object:Albert Bandura
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subject class:Psychology
subject:Psychology


--- WIKI
Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925) is a Canadian-American psychologist who is the David Starr Jordan Professor Emeritus of Social Science in Psychology at Stanford University. Bandura has been responsible for contri butions to the field of education and to several fields of psychology, including social cognitive theory, therapy, and personality psychology, and was also of influence in the transition between behaviorism and cognitive psychology. He is known as the originator of social learning theory (renamed the social cognitive theory) and the theoretical construct of self-efficacy, and is also responsible for the influential 1961 Bobo doll experiment. This Bobo doll experiment demonstrated the concept of observational learning. A 2002 survey ranked Bandura as the fourth most-frequently cited psychologist of all time, behind B. F. Skinner, Sigmund Freud, and Jean Piaget, and as the most cited living one. Bandura is widely described as the greatest living psychologist, and as one of the most influential psychologists of all time.

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OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

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Infinite_Library
Moral_Disengagement__How_Good_People_Can_Do_Harm_and_Feel_Good_About_Themselves

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Albert Bandura

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QUOTES [1 / 1 - 122 / 122]


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   1 Tom Butler-Bowdon

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

  117 Albert Bandura

1:reading :::
   50 Psychology Classics: List of Books Covered:
   Alfred Adler - Understanding Human Nature (1927)
   Gordon Allport - The Nature of Prejudice (1954)
   Albert Bandura - Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (1997)
   Gavin Becker - The Gift of Fear (1997)
   Eric Berne - Games People Play (1964)
   Isabel Briggs Myers - Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type (1980)
   Louann Brizendine - The Female Brain (2006)
   David D Burns - Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (1980)
   Susan Cain - Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking (2012)
   Robert Cialdini - Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (1984)
   Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - Creativity (1997)
   Carol Dweck - Mindset: The New Psychology of Success (2006)
   Albert Ellis & Robert Harper - (1961) A Guide To Rational Living(1961)
   Milton Erickson - My Voice Will Go With You (1982) by Sidney Rosen
   Eric Erikson - Young Man Luther (1958)
   Hans Eysenck - Dimensions of Personality (1947)
   Viktor Frankl - The Will to Meaning (1969)
   Anna Freud - The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936)
   Sigmund Freud - The Interpretation of Dreams (1901)
   Howard Gardner - Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983)
   Daniel Gilbert - Stumbling on Happiness (2006)
   Malcolm Gladwell - Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (2005)
   Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence at Work (1998)
   John M Gottman - The Seven Principles For Making Marriage Work (1999)
   Temple Grandin - The Autistic Brain: Helping Different Kinds of Minds Succeed (2013)
   Harry Harlow - The Nature of Love (1958)
   Thomas A Harris - I'm OK - You're OK (1967)
   Eric Hoffer - The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements (1951)
   Karen Horney - Our Inner Conflicts (1945)
   William James - Principles of Psychology (1890)
   Carl Jung - The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1953)
   Daniel Kahneman - Thinking, Fast and Slow (2011)
   Alfred Kinsey - Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)
   RD Laing - The Divided Self (1959)
   Abraham Maslow - The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (1970)
   Stanley Milgram - Obedience To Authority (1974)
   Walter Mischel - The Marshmallow Test (2014)
   Leonard Mlodinow - Subliminal: How Your Unconscious Mind Rules Your Behavior (2012)
   IP Pavlov - Conditioned Reflexes (1927)
   Fritz Perls - Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality (1951)
   Jean Piaget - The Language and Thought of the Child (1966)
   Steven Pinker - The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002)
   VS Ramachandran - Phantoms in the Brain (1998)
   Carl Rogers - On Becoming a Person (1961)
   Oliver Sacks - The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (1970)
   Barry Schwartz - The Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less (2004)
   Martin Seligman - Authentic Happiness (2002)
   BF Skinner - Beyond Freedom & Dignity (1953)
   Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton & Sheila Heen - Difficult Conversations (2000)
   William Styron - Darkness Visible (1990)
   ~ Tom Butler-Bowdon, 50 Psychology Classics,

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:One cannot afford to be a realist. ~ Albert Bandura
2:What is immoral to do is immoral to threaten. ~ Albert Bandura
3:Once established, reputations do not easily change. ~ Albert Bandura
4:Judgments of adequacy involve social comparison processes ~ Albert Bandura
5:Where everyone is responsible, no one is really responsible. ~ Albert Bandura
6:Self-appraisals are influenced by evaluative reactions of others. ~ Albert Bandura
7:Humans are producers of their life circumstance not just products of them. ~ Albert Bandura
8:To grant thought causal efficacy is not to invoke a disembodied mental state ~ Albert Bandura
9:People’s beliefs about their abilities have a profound effect on those abilities. ~ Albert Bandura
10:Very often we developed a better grasp of the subjects than the over worked teachers. ~ Albert Bandura
11:The human mind is generative, creative, proactive, and reflective -- not just reactive. ~ Albert Bandura
12:Even noteworthy performance attainments do not necessarily boost perceived self-efficacy ~ Albert Bandura
13:People behave agentically, but they produce theories that afford people very little agency. ~ Albert Bandura
14:People judge their capabilities partly by comparing their performances with those of others ~ Albert Bandura
15:Perceived self-inefficacy predicts avoidance of academic activities whereas anxiety does not ~ Albert Bandura
16:The performances of others are often selected as standards for self-improvement of abilities ~ Albert Bandura
17:Self-belief does not necessarily ensure success, but self-disbelief assuredly spawns failure. ~ Albert Bandura
18:Perceived self-efficacy and beliefs about the locus of outcome causality must be distinguished ~ Albert Bandura
19:We are more heavily invested in the theories of failure than we are in the theories of success. ~ Albert Bandura
20:It requires conducive social conditions, rather than monstrous people, to produce heinous deeds. ~ Albert Bandura
21:People not only gain understanding through reflection, they evaluate and alter their own thinking. ~ Albert Bandura
22:Self-doubt creates the impetus for learning but hinders adept use of previously established skills ~ Albert Bandura
23:If self-efficacy is lacking, people tend to behave ineffectually, even though they know what to do. ~ Albert Bandura
24:Measures of self-precept must be tailored to the domain of psychological functioning being explored. ~ Albert Bandura
25:Most of the images of reality on which we base our actions are really based on vicarious experience. ~ Albert Bandura
26:Perceived self-efficacy influences the types of causal attributions people make for their performances ~ Albert Bandura
27:Forceful actions arising from erroneous beliefs often create social effects that confirm the misbeliefs ~ Albert Bandura
28:The adequacy of performance attainments depends upon the personal standards against which they are judged ~ Albert Bandura
29:The content of most textbooks is perishable, but the tools of self-directedness serve one well over time. ~ Albert Bandura
30:Stringent standards of self-evaluation [can] make otherwise objective successes seem to be personal failures ~ Albert Bandura
31:The effects of outcome expectancies on performance motivation are partly governed by self-beliefs of efficacy ~ Albert Bandura
32:[Children] receive direct instruction from time to time about the appropriateness of various social comparisons ~ Albert Bandura
33:Even the self-assured will raise their perceived self-efficacy if models teach them better ways of doing things. ~ Albert Bandura
34:If there is any characteristic that is distinctly human, it is the capability for reflective self-consciousness. ~ Albert Bandura
35:It is no more informative to speak of self-efficacy in global terms than to speak of nonspecific social behavior ~ Albert Bandura
36:The satisfactions people derive from what they do are determined to a large degree by their self-evaluative standards ~ Albert Bandura
37:Regression analyses show that self-efficacy contributes to achievement behavior beyond the effects of cognitive skills ~ Albert Bandura
38:Gaining insight into one's underlying motives, it seems, is more like a belief conversion than a self-discovery process ~ Albert Bandura
39:Misbeliefs in one's inefficacy may retard development of the very subskills upon which more complex performances depend ~ Albert Bandura
40:Accomplishment is socially judged by ill defined criteria so that one has to rely on others to find out how one is doing. ~ Albert Bandura
41:Self-efficacy beliefs differ from outcome expectations, judgments of the likely consequence [that] behavior will produce. ~ Albert Bandura
42:People who are insecure about themselves will avoid social comparisons that are potentially threatening to their self-esteem ~ Albert Bandura
43:Because of such conjointedness, behavior that exerts no effect whatsoever on outcomes is developed and consistently performed ~ Albert Bandura
44:A theory that denies that thoughts can regulate actions does not lend itself readily to the explanation of complex human behavior. ~ Albert Bandura
45:Incongruities between self-efficacy and action may stem from misperceptions of task demands, as well as from faulty self-knowledge ~ Albert Bandura
46:People who hold a low view of themselves [will credit] their achievements to external factors, rather than to their own capabilities. ~ Albert Bandura
47:In the self-appraisal of efficacy, there are many sources of information that must be processed and weighed through self-referent thought ~ Albert Bandura
48:Self-efficacy is the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the sources of action required to manage prospective situations. ~ Albert Bandura
49:Except for events that carry great weight, it is not experience per se, but how they match expectations, that governs their emotional impact ~ Albert Bandura
50:People with high assurance in their capabilities approach difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided. ~ Albert Bandura
51:Students judge how well they might do in a chemistry course from knowing how peers, who performed comparably to them in physics, fared in chemistry ~ Albert Bandura
52:A problem of future research is to clarify how young children learn what type of social comparative information is most useful for efficacy evaluation ~ Albert Bandura
53:Psychology cannot tell people how they ought to live their lives. It can however, provide them with the means for effecting personal and social change. ~ Albert Bandura
54:In order to succeed, people need a sense of self-efficacy, to struggle together with resilience to meet the inevitable obstacles and inequities of life. ~ Albert Bandura
55:There are countless studies on the negative spillover of job pressures on family life, but few on how job satisfaction enhances the quality of family life. ~ Albert Bandura
56:Persons who have a strong sense of efficacy deploy their attention and effort to the demands of the situation and are spurred by obstacles to greater effort. ~ Albert Bandura
57:Self efficacious children tend to attribute their successes to ability, but ability attributions affect performance indirectly through perceived self-efficacy ~ Albert Bandura
58:Discrepancies between self-efficacy judgment and performance will arise when either the tasks or the circumstances under which they are performed are ambiguous ~ Albert Bandura
59:Self-percepts foster actions that generate information, as well as serve as a filtering mechanism for self-referent information in the self-maintaining process ~ Albert Bandura
60:When actions are followed by events that are not causally related to the prior acts, people often erroneously perceive contingencies that do not, in fact, exist ~ Albert Bandura
61:[Attributional] factors serve as conveyors of efficacy information that influence performance largely through their intervening effects on self-percepts of efficacy ~ Albert Bandura
62:How children learn to use diverse sources of efficacy information in developing a stable and accurate sense of personal efficacy is a matter of considerable interest ~ Albert Bandura
63:The evaluative habits developed in sibling interactions undoubtedly affect the salience and choice of comparative referents in self-ability evaluations in later life ~ Albert Bandura
64:The presence of many interacting influences, including the attainments of others, create further leeway in how one's performances and outcomes are cognitively appraised ~ Albert Bandura
65:Among the types of thoughts that affect action, none is more central or pervasive than people's judgments of their capabilities to deal effectively with different realities ~ Albert Bandura
66:Through their capacity to manipulate symbols and to engage in reflective thought, people can generate novel ideas and innovative actions that transcend their past experiences ~ Albert Bandura
67:In social cognitive theory, perceived self-efficacy results from diverse sources of information conveyed vicariously and through social evaluation, as well as through direct experience ~ Albert Bandura
68:Our ability to selectively engage and disengage our moral standards . . . helps explain how people can be barbarically cruel in one moment and compassionate the next. —Albert Bandura20 ~ Philip G Zimbardo
69:What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave. The natural and extrinsic effects of their actions, in turn, partly determine their thought patterns and affective reactions. ~ Albert Bandura
70:Coping with the demands of everyday life would be exceedingly trying if one could arrive at solutions to problems only by actually performing possible options and suffering the consequences. ~ Albert Bandura
71:It is widely assumed that beliefs in personal determination of outcomes create a sense of efficacy and power, whereas beliefs that outcomes occur regardless of what one does result in apathy ~ Albert Bandura
72:Freedom [should not be] conceived negatively as exemption from social influences or situational constraints. Rather...positively as the exercise of self-influence to bring about desired results. ~ Albert Bandura
73:When people are not aiming for anything in particular or when they cannot monitor their performance, there is little basis for translating perceived efficacy into appropriate magnitudes of effort ~ Albert Bandura
74:Given a sufficient level of perceived self-efficacy to take on threatening tasks, phobics perform them with varying amounts of fear arousal depending on the strength of their perceived self-efficacy ~ Albert Bandura
75:Ironically, it is the talented who have high aspirations, which are possible but exceedingly difficult to realize, who are especially vulnerable to self-dissatisfaction despite notable achievements. ~ Albert Bandura
76:People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. They produce their own future, rather than simply foretell it. ~ Albert Bandura
77:As a general rule, moderate levels of arousal facilitate deployment of skills, whereas high arousal disrupts it. This is especially true of complex activities requiring intricate organization of behavior ~ Albert Bandura
78:Success and failure are largely self-defined in terms of personal standards. The higher the self-standards, the more likely will given attainments be viewed as failures, regardless of what others might think. ~ Albert Bandura
79:Such self-referent misgivings creates stress and undermine effective use of the competencies people possess by diverting attention from how best to proceed to concern over personal failings and possible mishaps ~ Albert Bandura
80:The human condition is better improved by altering detrimental circumstances and personal perspectives than by trying to alter personal outlooks, while ignoring the very circumstances that serve to nourish them ~ Albert Bandura
81:Dualistic doctrines that regard mind and body as separate entities do not provide much enlightenment on the nature of the disembodied mental state or on how an immaterial mind and bodily events act on each other ~ Albert Bandura
82:Indeed there are many competent people who are plagued by a sense of inefficacy, and many less competent ones who remain unperturbed by impending threats because they are self-assured of their coping capabilities ~ Albert Bandura
83:People infer high self-efficacy from successes achieved through minimal effort on difficult tasks, but they infer low self-efficacy if they had to work hard under favorable conditions to master relatively easy tasks ~ Albert Bandura
84:After people become convinced they have what it takes to succeed, they persevere in the face of adversity and quickly rebound from setbacks. By sticking it out through tough times, they emerge stronger from adversity. ~ Albert Bandura
85:People who believe they have the power to exercise some measure of control over their lives are healthier, more effective and more successful than those who lack faith in their ability to effect changes in their lives. ~ Albert Bandura
86:When experience contradicts firmly held judgments of self-efficacy, people may not change their beliefs about themselves if the conditions of performance are such as to lead them to discount the import of the experience ~ Albert Bandura
87:Such knowledge is probably gained in several ways. One process undoubtedly operates through social comparison of success and failure experiences. Children repeatedly observe their own behavior and the attainments of others ~ Albert Bandura
88:In any given instance, behavior can be predicted best by considering both self-efficacy and outcome beliefs . . . different patterns of self-efficacy and outcome beliefs are likely to produce different psychological effects ~ Albert Bandura
89:Perceived self-efficacy in coping with potential threats leads people to approach such situations anxiously, and experience of disruptive arousal may further lower their sense of efficacy that they will be able to perform skillfully ~ Albert Bandura
90:To the extent that children with similar characteristics achieve comparable performance levels, using the performances of similar peers is likely to yield more accurate self-appraisal than using the accomplishments of dissimilar peers ~ Albert Bandura
91:People regulate their level and distribution of effort in accordance with the effects they expect their actions to have. As a result, their behavior is better predicted from their beliefs than from the actual consequences of their actions ~ Albert Bandura
92:Moral justification is a powerful disengagement mechanism. Destructive conduct is made personally and socially acceptable by portraying it in the service of moral ends. This is why most appeals against violent means usually fall on deaf ears. ~ Albert Bandura
93:Self-appraisals of efficacy are reasonably accurate, but they diverge from action because people do not know fully what they will have to do, lack information for regulating their effort, or are hindered by external factors from doing what they can ~ Albert Bandura
94:Moreover, joint occurrences tend to be better recalled than instances when the effect does not occur. The proneness to remember confirming instances, but to overlook disconfirming ones, further serves to convert, in thought, coincidences into causalities. ~ Albert Bandura
95:Agemates provide the most informative points of reference for comparative efficacy appraisal and verification. Children are, therefore, especially sensitive to their relative standing among the peers with whom they affiliate in activities that determine prestige and popularity ~ Albert Bandura
96:Social cognitive theory rejects the dichotomous conception of self as agent and self as object. Acting on the environment and acting on oneself entail shifting the perspective of the same agent rather than reifying different selves regulating each other or transforming the self from agent to object ~ Albert Bandura
97:Comparative appraisals of efficacy require not only evaluation of one;s own performances but also knowledge of how others do, cognizance of nonability determinants of their performances, and some understanding that it is others, like oneself, who provide the most informative social criterion for comparison ~ Albert Bandura
98:Convictions that outcomes are determined by one's own actions can be either demoralizing or heartening, depending on the level of self-judged efficacy. People who regard outcomes as personally determined, but who lack the requisite skills, would experience low self-efficacy and view the activities with a sense of futility ~ Albert Bandura
99:Perceived self-efficacy also shapes causal thinking. In seeking solutions to difficult problems, those who perceived themselves as highly efficacious are inclined to attribute their failures to insufficient effort, whereas those of comparable skills but lower perceived self-efficacy ascribe their failures to deficient ability ~ Albert Bandura
100:For many activities, people cannot rely solely on themselves in evaluating their ability level because such judgments require inferences from probabilistic indicants of talent about which they may have limited knowledge. Self-appraisals are, therefore, partly based on the opinions of others who presumably possess evaluative competence ~ Albert Bandura
101:Many people who gain recognition and fame shape their lives by overcoming seemingly insurmountable obstacles, only to be catapulted into new social realities over which they have less control and manage badly. Indeed, the annals of the famous and infamous are strewn with individuals who were both architects and victims of their life courses. ~ Albert Bandura
102:It requires a strong sense of responsibility to be a good functionary. In situations involving obedience to authority, people carry out orders partly to honor the obligations they have undertaken. One must, therefore, distinguish between two levels of responsibility—duty to one's superiors, and accountability for the effects of one's actions. ~ Albert Bandura
103:If you look at our theories of social pathology and then at the dismal conditions in which children grow up in our ghettos, you would predict that all of them would be on drugs or psychological basket cases. Yet if you use criteria like gainful employment, forming partnerships and life without crime, you will find that most of those kids make it. ~ Albert Bandura
104:People's conceptions about themselves and the nature of things are developed and verified through four different processes: direct experience of the effects produced by their actions, vicarious experience of the effects produced by somebody else's actions, judgments voiced by others, and derivation of further knowledge from what they already know by using rules of inference ~ Albert Bandura
105:People are much more likely to act on their self-percepts of efficacy inferred from many sources of information rather than rely primarily on visceral cues. This is not surprising because self knowledge based on information about one's coping skills, past accomplishments, and social comparison is considerably more indicative of capability than the indefinite stirrings of the viscera ~ Albert Bandura
106:Behavior must also be adequately assessed under appropriate circumstances. Ill-defined global measures of perceived self-efficacy or defective assessments of performance will yield discordances. Disparities will also arise when efficacy is judged for performances in actual situations but performance is measured in simulated situations that are easier to deal with than the actualities ~ Albert Bandura
107:Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. ~ Albert Bandura
108:Expected outcomes contribute to motivation independently of self-efficacy beliefs when outcomes are not completely controlled by quality of performance. This occurs when extraneous factors also affect outcomes, or outcomes are socially tied to a minimum level of performance so that some variations in quality of performance above and below the standard do not produce differential outcomes ~ Albert Bandura
109:From the social cognitive perspective, it is mainly perceived inefficacy to cope with potentially aversive events that makes them fearsome. To the extent that people believe they can prevent, terminate, or lessen the severity of aversive events, they have little reason to be perturbed by them. But if they believe they are unable to manage threats safely, they have much cause for apprehension. ~ Albert Bandura
110:People who are burdened by acute misgivings about their coping capabilities suffer much distress and expend much effort in defensive action... they cannot get themselves to do things they find subjectively threatening even though they are objectively safe. They may even shun easily manageable activities because they see them as leading to more threatening events over which they will be unable to exercise adequate control. ~ Albert Bandura
111:This has increased with the tremendous technological advances in communications. We have a vast new world of images brought into our sitting rooms electronically. Most of the images of reality on which we base our actions are really based on vicarious experience. This has increased with the tremendous technological advances in communications. We have a vast new world of images brought into our sitting-rooms electronically. ~ Albert Bandura
112:I think I can, I think I can!” Another word for that mind-set is “self-efficacy,” a central concept within the field of human psychology developed in the 1970s by eminent psychologist Albert Bandura. Self-efficacy means having the belief in your abilities to complete a task, reach goals, and manage a situation.2 It means believing in your abilities—not in your parents’ abilities to help you do those things or to do them for you. ~ Julie Lythcott Haims
113:Accurate processing of information about outcomes is no simple task under the variable conditions of everyday life . . . usually, many factors enter into determining what effects, if any, given actions will have, Actions, therefore, produce outcomes probabilistically rather than certainly. Depending on the particular conjunction of factors, the same course of action may produce given outcomes regularly, occasionally, or only infrequently ~ Albert Bandura
114:Albert Bandura, a Stanford psychologist who has done much of the research on self-efficacy, sums it up well: “People’s beliefs about their abilities have a profound effect on those abilities. Ability is not a fixed property; there is a huge variability in how you perform. People who have a sense of self-efficacy bounce back from failures; they approach things in terms of how to handle them rather than worrying about what can go wrong.”24 ~ Daniel Goleman
115:Analyses of moral disengagement mechanisms usually draw heavily on examples from military and political violence. This tends to convey the impression that selective disengagement of self-sanctions occurs only under extraordinary circumstances. The truth is quite the contrary. Such mechanisms operate in everyday situations in which decent people routinely perform activities having injurious human effects, to further their own interests or for profit. ~ Albert Bandura
116:Dysfunctions can occur in each of the self-regulatory subfunctions-in how personal experiences are self-monitored and cognitively processed, in the evaluative self-standards that are adopted, and in the evaluative self-reactions to one's own behavior.. Problems at any one of these points can create self-dissatisfactions and dejection. dysfunctions in all aspects of the self system are most apt to produce the most chronic self-disparagement and despondency ~ Albert Bandura
117:People who underestimate their capabilities also bear costs, although, as already noted, these are more likely to take self-limiting rather than aversive forms. By failing to cultivate personal potentialities and constricting their activities, such persons cut themselves off from many rewarding experiences. Should they attempt tasks having evaluative significance, they create internal obstacles to effective performance by approaching them with unnerving self-doubts ~ Albert Bandura
118:Reasonably accurate appraisal of one's own capabilities is, therefore, of considerable value in successful functioning. Large misjudgments of personal efficacy in either direction have consequences. People who grossly overestimate their capabilities undertake activities that are clearly beyond their reach. As a result, they get themselves into considerable difficulties, undermine their credibility, and suffer needless failures. Some of the missteps, of course, can produce serious, irreparable harm ~ Albert Bandura
119:The difficulty in judging what type of behavior works well arises not only because a given course of action does not always produce the outcomes. Similar outcomes can occur for reasons other than the person's actions, which further complicates inferential judgment. Effects that arise independently of one's actions distort the influence of similar effects produced by the actions, but only on some occasions. Given a strong cognitive set to perceive regularities, even chance joint occurrences of events can be easily misjudged as genuine relationships of low contingent probability ~ Albert Bandura
120:Authorities usually invite and support detrimental conduct in insidious ways that minimize personal responsibility for what is happening. Moreover, the intended purpose of sanctioned destructiveness is usually disguised so that neither issuers nor perpetrators regard their actions as censurable. When reprehensible practices are publicized, they are officially dismissed as only isolated incidents arising through misunderstanding of what had, in fact, been authorized. Efforts are made to limit any blame to subordinates, who are portrayed as misguided or overzealous. Investigators who go searching for "smoking guns" display naivete about the surreptitious manner in which culpable behavior is sanctioned and executed. Generally one finds mazy devices of nonresponsibility rather than smoking guns. ~ Albert Bandura
121:With every post, tweet, or pin, users anticipate social validation. Rewards of the tribe keep users coming back, wanting more. Sites that leverage tribal rewards benefit from what psychologist Albert Bandura called “social learning theory.”[lxxvi] Bandura studied the power of modeling and ascribed special powers to our ability to learn from others. In particular, Bandura showed that people who observe someone being rewarded for a particular behavior are more likely to alter their own beliefs and subsequent actions. Notably, Bandura also showed that this technique works particularly well when people observe the behavior of people most like themselves, or those who are slightly more experienced (and, therefore, role models).[lxxvii] This is exactly the kind of targeted demographic and interest-level segmentation that social media companies such as Facebook and industry-specific sites such as Stack Overflow selectively apply. ~ Nir Eyal
122:reading :::
   50 Psychology Classics: List of Books Covered:
   Alfred Adler - Understanding Human Nature (1927)
   Gordon Allport - The Nature of Prejudice (1954)
   Albert Bandura - Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (1997)
   Gavin Becker - The Gift of Fear (1997)
   Eric Berne - Games People Play (1964)
   Isabel Briggs Myers - Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type (1980)
   Louann Brizendine - The Female Brain (2006)
   David D Burns - Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (1980)
   Susan Cain - Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking (2012)
   Robert Cialdini - Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (1984)
   Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - Creativity (1997)
   Carol Dweck - Mindset: The New Psychology of Success (2006)
   Albert Ellis & Robert Harper - (1961) A Guide To Rational Living(1961)
   Milton Erickson - My Voice Will Go With You (1982) by Sidney Rosen
   Eric Erikson - Young Man Luther (1958)
   Hans Eysenck - Dimensions of Personality (1947)
   Viktor Frankl - The Will to Meaning (1969)
   Anna Freud - The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936)
   Sigmund Freud - The Interpretation of Dreams (1901)
   Howard Gardner - Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983)
   Daniel Gilbert - Stumbling on Happiness (2006)
   Malcolm Gladwell - Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (2005)
   Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence at Work (1998)
   John M Gottman - The Seven Principles For Making Marriage Work (1999)
   Temple Grandin - The Autistic Brain: Helping Different Kinds of Minds Succeed (2013)
   Harry Harlow - The Nature of Love (1958)
   Thomas A Harris - I'm OK - You're OK (1967)
   Eric Hoffer - The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements (1951)
   Karen Horney - Our Inner Conflicts (1945)
   William James - Principles of Psychology (1890)
   Carl Jung - The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1953)
   Daniel Kahneman - Thinking, Fast and Slow (2011)
   Alfred Kinsey - Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)
   RD Laing - The Divided Self (1959)
   Abraham Maslow - The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (1970)
   Stanley Milgram - Obedience To Authority (1974)
   Walter Mischel - The Marshmallow Test (2014)
   Leonard Mlodinow - Subliminal: How Your Unconscious Mind Rules Your Behavior (2012)
   IP Pavlov - Conditioned Reflexes (1927)
   Fritz Perls - Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality (1951)
   Jean Piaget - The Language and Thought of the Child (1966)
   Steven Pinker - The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002)
   VS Ramachandran - Phantoms in the Brain (1998)
   Carl Rogers - On Becoming a Person (1961)
   Oliver Sacks - The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (1970)
   Barry Schwartz - The Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less (2004)
   Martin Seligman - Authentic Happiness (2002)
   BF Skinner - Beyond Freedom & Dignity (1953)
   Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton & Sheila Heen - Difficult Conversations (2000)
   William Styron - Darkness Visible (1990)
   ~ Tom Butler-Bowdon, 50 Psychology Classics,

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IN WEBGEN [10000/6]

Wikipedia - The Two Paths (1911 film) -- 1911 film
Sliding Doors(1998) - Sliding Doors is a 1998 British-American romantic comedy-drama film written and directed by Peter Howitt and starring Gwyneth Paltrow and John Hannah, while also featuring John Lynch, Jeanne Tripplehorn and Virginia McKenna. The film alternates between two parallel universes, based on the two paths...
https://fireemblem.fandom.com/wiki/The_Two_Paths
https://fireemblem.fandom.com/wiki/Two_Paths
The Two Paths
Two Paths (1954 film)


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last updated: 2021-08-18 16:47:03
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