classes ::: subject, Science, Systems Science,
children ::: Ontology (information science)
branches ::: Information Science

bookmarks: Instances - Definitions - Quotes - Chapters - Wordnet - Webgen


object:Information Science
object:IS
class:subject
subject class:Science
parent subject class:Systems Science

Library Science?
Wikipedia - Controlled vocabulary - Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing schemes, subject headings, thesauri,[1][2] taxonomies and other knowledge organization systems. Controlled vocabulary schemes mandate the use of predefined, authorised terms that have been preselected by the designers of the schemes, in contrast to natural language vocabularies, which have no such restriction.

Wikipedia - Index term
Wikipedia - Rhetorical modes

Wikipedia - Categorization - Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such as objects, events, or ideas), organizing and classifying experience by associating them to a more abstract group (that is, a category, class, or type),[1][2] on the basis of their traits, features, similarities or other criteria. Categorization is considered one of the most fundamental cognitive abilities, and as such it is studied particularly by psychology and cognitive linguistics.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology_(information_science)


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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS

IN CHAPTERS TITLE

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT

PRIMARY CLASS

subject
SIMILAR TITLES
Information Science
Ontology (information science)

DEFINITIONS

ABCL/1 "language" An Object-Based Concurrent Language. The language for the {ABCL} {MIMD} system, written by Akinori Yonezawa "matsu@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp" of Department of Information Science, {Tokyo University} in 1986. ABCL/1 uses {asynchronous} {message passing} to {objects}. It requires {Common Lisp}. Implementations in {KCL} and {Symbolics Lisp} are available from the author. {(ftp://camille.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/)}. E-mail: "abcl@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp". ["ABCL: An Object-Oriented Concurrent System", A. Yonezawa ed, MIT Press 1990]. (1990-05-23). (1995-02-09)

ABCL/1 ::: (language) An Object-Based Concurrent Language.The language for the ABCL MIMD system, written by Akinori Yonezawa of Department of Information Science, Tokyo requires Common Lisp. Implementations in KCL and Symbolics Lisp are available from the author. .E-mail: .[ABCL: An Object-Oriented Concurrent System, A. Yonezawa ed, MIT Press 1990]. (1995-02-09)

Boolean search "information science" (Or "Boolean query") A query using the {Boolean} operators, {AND}, {OR}, and {NOT}, and parentheses to construct a complex condition from simpler criteria. A typical example is searching for combinatons of keywords on a {web} {search engine}. Examples: car or automobile "New York" and not "New York state" The term is sometimes stretched to include searches using other operators, e.g. "near". Not to be confused with {binary search}. See also: {weighted search}. (1999-10-23)

Boolean search ::: (information science) (Or Boolean query) A query using the Boolean operators, AND, OR, and NOT, and parentheses to construct a complex condition from simpler criteria. A typical example is searching for combinatons of keywords on a World-Wide Web search engine.Examples: car or automobile The term is sometimes stretched to include searches using other operators, e.g. near.Not to be confused with binary search.See also: weighted search. (1999-10-23)

CONCUR "language" A proposal for a language for programming with {concurrent} processes. CONCUR was inspired by {Modula} but removes Modula's restrictions on the placement of process declarations and invocations in order to study the implications of process support more fully. Anderson presents a {compiler} which translates CONCUR into the {object language} for a hypothetical machine. ["CONCUR, A Language for Continuous Concurrent Processes", R.M. Salter et al, Comp Langs 5(3):163-189, 1981]. {["Concur: a High-Level Language for Concurrent Programming", Karen Anderson Thesis, B. Thomas Golisano College of Computing and Information Sciences, 1979] (https://ritdml.rit.edu/handle/1850/15968?show=full)} (2013-06-05)

data science ::: An interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from data in various forms, both structured and unstructured,[135][136] similar to data mining. Data science is a "concept to unify statistics, data analysis, machine learning and their related methods" in order to "understand and analyze actual phenomena" with data.[137] It employs techniques and theories drawn from many fields within the context of mathematics, statistics, information science, and computer science.

grep "tool, information science" "tool" A {Unix} command for searching files for lines matching a given {regular expression} (RE). Named after the {qed}/{ed} editor subcommand "g/re/p", where re stands for a regular expression, to Globally search for the Regular Expression and Print the lines containing matches to it. There are two other variants, fgrep which searches only for fixed strings and {egrep} which accepts extended REs but is usually the fastest of the three. Used by extension to mean "to look for something by pattern". When browsing through a large set of files, one may speak of "grepping around". "Grep the bulletin board for the system backup schedule, would you?" See also {vgrep}. [{Jargon File}]

grep ::: (tool, information science) tool> A Unix command for searching files for lines matching a given regular expression (RE). Named after the qed/ed editor There are two other variants, fgrep which searches only for fixed strings and egrep which accepts extended REs but is usually the fastest of the three.Used by extension to mean to look for something by pattern. When browsing through a large set of files, one may speak of grepping around. Grep the bulletin board for the system backup schedule, would you? See also vgrep.[Jargon File]

inverted index ::: (database, information science) A sequence of (key, pointer) pairs where each pointer points to a record in a database which contains the key value in based on more than one field, multiple indices may be created that are sorted on those keys.An index may contain gaps to allow for new entries to be added in the correct sort order without always requiring the following entries to be shifted out of the way. (1995-02-08)

inverted index "database, information science" A sequence of ({key}, pointer) pairs where each pointer points to a {record} in a {database} which contains the key value in some particular field. The index is sorted on the key values to allow rapid searching for a particular key value, using e.g. {binary search}. The index is "inverted" in the sense that the key value is used to find the record rather than the other way round. For databases in which the records may be searched based on more than one field, multiple indices may be created that are sorted on those keys. An index may contain gaps to allow for new entries to be added in the correct sort order without always requiring the following entries to be shifted out of the way. (1995-02-08)

keyword in context "algorithm, information science" (KWIC) A document search method that creates indexes of document text or titles. Each keyword is stored in the resulting index along with some surrounding text, usually the word or phrase that precedes or follows the keyword in the text or title. (2004-02-17)

Knowbot Information Service "networking, information science" (KIS) Also known as netaddress. The Knowbot Information Service (KIS) provides a uniform user interface to a variety of {remote directory services} such as {whois}, {finger}, {X.500}, {MCIMail}. By submitting a single query to KIS, a user can search a set of remote {white pages} services and see the results of the search in a uniform format. There are several interfaces to the KIS service including {electronic mail} and {telnet}. Another KIS interface imitates the Berkeley {whois} command. KIS consists of two distinct types of modules which interact with each other (typically across a network) to provide the service. One module is a user agent module that runs on the KIS mail host machine. The second module is a remote server module (possibly on a different machine) that interrogates various database services across the network and provides the results to the user agent module in a uniform fashion. Interactions between the two modules can be via messages between Knowbots or by actual movement of Knowbots. There are electronic mail interfaces for KIS at the hosts cnri.reston.va.us and sol.bucknell.edu. Send a message containing just the word "man" to "kis@cnri.reston.va.us" or "netaddress@sol.bucknell.edu". Telnet: info.cnri.reston.va.us port 185.

Knowbot Information Service ::: (networking, information science) (KIS) Also known as netaddress. The Knowbot Information Service (KIS) provides a uniform user interface to a variety submitting a single query to KIS, a user can search a set of remote white pages services and see the results of the search in a uniform format.There are several interfaces to the KIS service including electronic mail and telnet. Another KIS interface imitates the Berkeley whois command.KIS consists of two distinct types of modules which interact with each other (typically across a network) to provide the service. One module is a user agent module in a uniform fashion. Interactions between the two modules can be via messages between Knowbots or by actual movement of Knowbots.There are electronic mail interfaces for KIS at the hosts cnri.reston.va.us and sol.bucknell.edu. Send a message containing just the word man to or . Telnet: info.cnri.reston.va.us port 185.

knowledge ::: (artificial intelligence, information science) The objects, concepts and relationships that are assumed to exist in some area of interest. A collection as a knowledge base and a program for extending and/or querying a knowledge base is a knowledge-based system.Knowledge differs from data or information in that new knowledge may be created from existing knowledge using logical inference. If information is data plus meaning then knowledge is information plus processing.A common form of knowledge, e.g. in a Prolog program, is a collection of facts and rules about some subject.For example, a knowledge base about a family might contain the facts that John is David's son and Tom is John's son and the rule that the son of someone's son is their grandson. From this knowledge it could infer the new fact that Tom is David's grandson.See also Knowledge Level. (1994-10-19)

knowledge "artificial intelligence, information science" The objects, concepts and relationships that are assumed to exist in some area of interest. A collection of {knowledge}, represented using some {knowledge representation} language is known as a {knowledge base} and a program for extending and/or querying a knowledge base is a {knowledge-based system}. Knowledge differs from {data} or {information} in that new knowledge may be created from existing knowledge using logical {inference}. If information is data plus meaning then knowledge is information plus processing. A common form of knowledge, e.g. in a {Prolog} program, is a collection of {facts} and {rules} about some subject. For example, a {knowledge base} about a family might contain the facts that John is David's son and Tom is John's son and the rule that the son of someone's son is their grandson. From this knowledge it could infer the new fact that Tom is David's grandson. See also {Knowledge Level}. (1994-10-19)

ontology ::: 1. (philosophy) A systematic account of Existence.2. (artificial intelligence) (From philosophy) An explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them.For AI systems, what exists is that which can be represented. When the knowledge about a domain is represented in a declarative language, the set of interpretation and well-formed use of these terms. Formally, an ontology is the statement of a logical theory.A set of agents that share the same ontology will be able to communicate about a domain of discourse without necessarily operating on a globally shared theory. consistent with the definitions in the ontology. The idea of ontological commitment is based on the Knowledge-Level perspective.3. (information science) The hierarchical structuring of knowledge about things by subcategorising them according to their essential (or at least the previous senses of ontology (above) which has become common in discussions about the difficulty of maintaining subject indices. (1997-04-09)

ontology 1. "philosophy" A systematic account of Existence. 2. "artificial intelligence" (From philosophy) An explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them. For {AI} systems, what "exists" is that which can be represented. When the {knowledge} about a {domain} is represented in a {declarative language}, the set of objects that can be represented is called the {universe of discourse}. We can describe the ontology of a program by defining a set of representational terms. Definitions associate the names of entities in the {universe of discourse} (e.g. classes, relations, functions or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names mean, and formal {axioms} that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms. Formally, an ontology is the statement of a {logical theory}. A set of {agents} that share the same ontology will be able to communicate about a domain of discourse without necessarily operating on a globally shared theory. We say that an agent commits to an ontology if its observable actions are consistent with the definitions in the ontology. The idea of ontological commitment is based on the {Knowledge-Level} perspective. 3. "information science" The hierarchical structuring of knowledge about things by subcategorising them according to their essential (or at least relevant and/or cognitive) qualities. See {subject index}. This is an extension of the previous senses of "ontology" (above) which has become common in discussions about the difficulty of maintaining {subject indices}. (1997-04-09)

query ::: 1. (database, information science) A user's (or agent's) request for information, generally as a formal request to a database or search engine.SQL is the most common database query language.2. (character) question mark. (1997-04-09)

query 1. "database, information science" A user's (or {agent}'s) request for information, generally as a formal request to a {database} or {search engine}. {SQL} is the most common {database query language}. 2. "character" {question mark}. (1997-04-09)

query expansion ::: (information science) Adding search terms to a user's search. Query expansion is the process of a search engine adding search terms to a user's additional terms may be taken from a thesaurus. For example a search for car may be expanded to: car cars auto autos automobile automobiles.The additional terms may also be taken from documents that the user has specified as being relevant; this is the basis for the more like this feature of some search engines.The extra terms can have positive or negative weights. (1999-08-27)

query expansion "information science" Adding {search terms} to a user's search. Query expansion is the process of a {search engine} adding {search terms} to a user's {weighted search}. The intent is to improve {precision} and/or {recall}. The additional terms may be taken from a {thesaurus}. For example a search for "car" may be expanded to: car cars auto autos automobile automobiles. The additional terms may also be taken from documents that the user has specified as being relevant; this is the basis for the "more like this" feature of some search engines. The extra terms can have positive or negative weights. (1999-08-27)

relational database "database" (RDBMS - relational database management system) A {database} based on the {relational model} developed by {E.F. Codd}. A relational database allows the definition of data structures, storage and retrieval operations and {integrity constraints}. In such a database the data and relations between them are organised in {tables}. A table is a collection of rows or {records} and each row in a table contains the same {fields}. Certain fields may be designated as {keys}, which means that searches for specific values of that field will use indexing to speed them up. Where fields in two different tables take values from the same set, a {join} operation can be performed to select related records in the two tables by matching values in those fields. Often, but not always, the fields will have the same name in both tables. For example, an "orders" table might contain (customer_id, product_code) pairs and a "products" table might contain (product_code, price) pairs so to calculate a given customer's bill you would sum the prices of all products ordered by that customer by joining on the product-code fields of the two tables. This can be extended to joining multiple tables on multiple fields. Because these relationships are only specified at retreival time, relational databases are classed as {dynamic database management system}. The first commercial RDBMS was the {Multics Relational Data Store}, first sold in 1978. {INGRES}, {Oracle}, {Sybase, Inc.}, {Microsoft Access}, and {Microsoft SQL Server} are well-known database products and companies. Others include {PostgreSQL}, {SQL/DS}, and {RDB}. ["Managing Data Bases, Four Critical Factors" Michael M. Gorman, QED Information Sciences, Inc.]. ["An Introduction To Database Systems" (6th ed) C. J. Date, Addison Wesley (an excellent source of detailed info)]. ["An End-User's Guide to Data Base" James Martin, Prentice Hall (excellent place to begin learning about DBMS)]. (2002-06-10)

relational database ::: (database) (RDBMS - relational database management system) A database based on the relational model developed by E.F. Codd. A relational database which means that searches for specific values of that field will use indexing to speed them up.Where fields in two different tables take values from the same set, a join operation can be performed to select related records in the two tables by retreival time, relational databases are classed as dynamic database management system.The first commercial RDBMS was the Multics Relational Data Store, first sold in 1978.INGRES, Oracle, Sybase, Inc., Microsoft Access, and Microsoft SQL Server are well-known database products and companies. Others include PostgreSQL, SQL/DS, and RDB.[Managing Data Bases, Four Critical Factors Michael M. Gorman, QED Information Sciences, Inc.].[An Introduction To Database Systems (6th ed) C. J. Date, Addison Wesley (an excellent source of detailed info)].[An End-User's Guide to Data Base James Martin, Prentice Hall (excellent place to begin learning about DBMS)].(2002-06-10)

relevance "information science" A measure of how closely a given object (file, {web page}, database {record}, etc.) matches a user's search for information. The relevance {algorithms} used in most large web {search engines} today are based on fairly simple word-occurence measurement: if the word "daffodil" occurs on a given page, then that page is considered relevant to a {query} on the word "daffodil"; and its relevance is quantised as a factor of the number of times the word occurs in the page, on whether "daffodil" occurs in title of the page or in its META keywords, in the first {N} words of the page, in a heading, and so on; and similarly for words that a {stemmer} says are based on "daffodil". More elaborate (and resource-expensive) relevance algorithms may involve thesaurus (or {synonym ring}) lookup; e.g. it might rank a document about narcissuses (but which may not mention the word "daffodil" anywhere) as relevant to a query on "daffodil", since narcissuses and daffodils are basically the same thing. Ditto for queries on "jail" and "gaol", etc. More elaborate forms of thesaurus lookup may involve multilingual thesauri (e.g. knowing that documents in Japanese which mention the Japanese word for "narcissus" are relevant to your search on "narcissus"), or may involve thesauri (often auto-generated) based not on equivalence of meaning, but on word-proximity, such that "bulb" or "bloom" may be in the thesaurus entry for "daffodil". {Word spamming} essentially attempts to falsely increase a web page's relevance to certain common searches. See also {subject index}. (1997-04-09)

relevance ::: (information science) A measure of how closely a given object (file, web page, database record, etc.) matches a user's search for information.The relevance algorithms used in most large web search engines today are based on fairly simple word-occurence measurement: if the word daffodil occurs on a or in its META keywords, in the first N words of the page, in a heading, and so on; and similarly for words that a stemmer says are based on daffodil.More elaborate (and resource-expensive) relevance algorithms may involve thesaurus (or synonym ring) lookup; e.g. it might rank a document about to a query on daffodil, since narcissuses and daffodils are basically the same thing. Ditto for queries on jail and gaol, etc.More elaborate forms of thesaurus lookup may involve multilingual thesauri (e.g. knowing that documents in Japanese which mention the Japanese word for word-proximity, such that bulb or bloom may be in the thesaurus entry for daffodil.Word spamming essentially attempts to falsely increase a web page's relevance to certain common searches.See also subject index. (1997-04-09)

search engine "web, tool, information science" A remotely accessible program that lets you do keyword searches for information on the {Internet}. There are several types of search engine; the search may cover titles of documents, {URLs}, headers, or the {full text}. {A list of search engines (http://cuiwww.unige.ch/meta-index.html

search engine ::: (World-Wide Web, tool, information science) A remotely accessible program that lets you do keyword searches for information on the Internet. There are several types of search engine; the search may cover titles of documents, URLs, headers, or the full text. , Centre Universitaire d'Informatique at the University of Geneva (1995-11-28)

search term "information science" An element of a search or query. A search term is the basic building block of a {boolean search} or a {weighted search}. In a search engine a search term is typically a word, phrase, or pattern match expression. For example: cosmonaut or "space travel" or astronaut* In a {database} a term is typically the comparison of a column with a constant or with another column. For example: last_name like 'Smith%' (1999-08-27)

search term ::: (information science) An element of a search or query. A search term is the basic building block of a boolean search or a weighted search. In a search engine a search term is typically a word, phrase, or pattern match expression. For example: cosmonaut or space travel or astronaut*In a database a term is typically the comparison of a column with a constant or with another column. For example: last_name like 'Smith%' (1999-08-27)

STD 2 "networking, standard" The document listing the current {Internet} {Assigned Numbers}. [Reynolds, J., and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", STD 2, RFC 1340, USC/Information Sciences Institute, July 1992]. (2001-04-08)

STD 2 ::: (networking, standard) The document listing the current Internet Assigned Numbers.[Reynolds, J., and J. Postel, Assigned Numbers, STD 2, RFC 1340, USC/Information Sciences Institute, July 1992].(2001-04-08)

stemmer "information science, human language" A program or {algorithm} which determines the morphological root of a given inflected (or, sometimes, derived) word form -- generally a written word form. A stemmer for English, for example, should identify the {string} "cats" (and possibly "catlike", "catty" etc.) as based on the root "cat", and "stemmer", "stemming", "stemmed" as based on "stem". English stemmers are fairly {trivial} (with only occasional problems, such as "dries" being the third-person singular present form of the verb "dry", "axes" being the plural of "ax" as well as "axis"); but stemmers become harder to design as the morphology, orthography, and {character encoding} of the target language becomes more complex. For example, an Italian stemmer is more complex than an English one (because of more possible verb inflections), a Russian one is more complex (more possible noun declensions), a Hebrew one is even more complex (a {hairy} writing system), and so on. Stemmers are common elements in {query} systems, since a user who runs a query on "daffodils" probably cares about documents that contain the word "daffodil" (without the s). ({This dictionary} has a rudimentary stemmer which currently (April 1997) handles only conversion of plurals to singulars). (1997-04-09)

stemmer ::: (information science, human language) A program or algorithm which determines the morphological root of a given inflected (or, sometimes, derived) word form -- generally a written word form.A stemmer for English, for example, should identify the string cats (and possibly catlike, catty etc.) as based on the root cat, and stemmer, stemming, stemmed as based on stem.English stemmers are fairly trivial (with only occasional problems, such as dries being the third-person singular present form of the verb dry, axes is more complex (more possible noun declensions), a Hebrew one is even more complex (a hairy writing system), and so on.Stemmers are common elements in query systems, since a user who runs a query on daffodils probably cares about documents that contain the word daffodil (without the s).(This dictionary has a rudimentary stemmer which currently (April 1997) handles only conversion of plurals to singulars). (1997-04-09)

subject index "information science" An information resource that contains references to other resources, categorised by subject, usually in a {hierarchy}. {Yahoo} is the most popular {Internet} subject index. Like most {other subject indices (http://yahoo.com/Computers_and_Internet/Internet/World_Wide_Web/Searching_the_Web/Web_Directories/)}, Yahoo is arranged {ontologically}. Subject indices are not to be confused with {search engines}, which are based not on subject, but instead on {relevance}, although (1) this difference is often (possibly rightly) hidden from the unsophisticated user, and (2) future integration of {knowledge representation} into relevance ranking {algorithms} will make this a hazy distinction. (1997-04-09)

subject index ::: (information science) An information resource that contains references to other resources, categorised by subject, usually in a hierarchy.Yahoo is the most popular Internet subject index. Like most , Yahoo is arranged ontologically.Subject indices are not to be confused with search engines, which are based not on subject, but instead on relevance, although (1) this difference is often integration of knowledge representation into relevance ranking algorithms will make this a hazy distinction. (1997-04-09)

synonym ring ::: (information science) A list of words with related meanings used to broaden the scope of a word search. As well as returning documents which contain are produced manually and are usually specific to a certain field, e.g. legal knowhow. (1997-04-09)

synonym ring "information science" A list of words with related meanings used to broaden the scope of a word search. As well as returning documents which contain a sought-for word a search using a synonym ring might also return documents which contain words in the same synonym ring as a sought-for word. Synonym rings are produced manually and are usually specific to a certain field, e.g. legal knowhow. (1997-04-09)

Syntax/Semantic Language ::: (language) (S/SL) A high level specification language for recursive descent parsers developed by J.R. Cordy at the University of Toronto in 1980.S/SL is a small language that supports cheap recursion and defines input, output, and error token names (& values), semantic mechanisms (class interfaces accepts. Alternation, control flow and one-symbol look-ahead constructs are part of the language.The S/SL processor compiles this pseudo-code into a table (byte-codes) that is interpreted by the S/SL table-walker (interpreter). The pseudo-code language excellent syntax error recovery and repair. It is more powerful and transparent than yacc but slower.S/SL has been used to implement production commercial compilers for languages such as PL/I, Euclid, Turing, Ada, and COBOL, as well as interpreters, command processors, and domain specific languages of many kinds. .[Specification of S/SL: Syntax/Semantic Language, J.R. Cordy and R.C. Holt, Computer Systems Research Institute, University of Toronto, 1980].[An Introduction to S/SL: Syntax/Semantic Language, R.C. Holt, J.R. Cordy, and D.B. Wortman; ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), Vol 4, No. 2, April 1982, pp 149-178].[Hierarchic Syntax Error Repair, D.T. Barnard and R.C. Holt, International Journal of Computing and Information Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 4, August 1982, Pages 231-258.](2003-10-30)

Syntax/Semantic Language "language" (S/SL) A high level {specification language} for {recursive descent parsers} developed by J.R. Cordy "cordy@cs.queensu.ca" and R.C. Holt "holt@uwaterloo.ca" at the University of Toronto in 1980. S/SL is a small language that supports cheap recursion and defines input, output, and error token names (& values), semantic mechanisms (class interfaces whose methods are really escapes to routines in a host programming language but allow good abstraction in the pseudo-code) and a pseudo-code program that defines the syntax of the input language by the token stream the program accepts. Alternation, control flow and one-symbol look-ahead constructs are part of the language. The S/SL processor compiles this pseudo-code into a table (byte-codes) that is interpreted by the S/SL table-walker (interpreter). The pseudo-code language processes the input language in recursive descent LL1 style but extensions allow it to process any LRk language relatively easily. S/SL is designed to provide excellent syntax error recovery and repair. It is more powerful and transparent than yacc but slower. S/SL has been used to implement production commercial compilers for languages such as {PL/I}, {Euclid}, {Turing}, {Ada}, and {COBOL}, as well as {interpreters}, {command processors}, and domain specific languages of many kinds. {(ftp://ftp.cs.queensu.ca/pub/cordy/ssl)}. ["Specification of S/SL: Syntax/Semantic Language", J.R. Cordy and R.C. Holt, Computer Systems Research Institute, University of Toronto, 1980]. ["An Introduction to S/SL: Syntax/Semantic Language", R.C. Holt, J.R. Cordy, and D.B. Wortman; ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), Vol 4, No. 2, April 1982, pp 149-178]. ["Hierarchic Syntax Error Repair", D.T. Barnard and R.C. Holt, International Journal of Computing and Information Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 4, August 1982, Pages 231-258.] (2003-10-30)

topic map "information science" A collection of "topics", their relationships, and information sources. A topic map captures the subjects of which information sources speak, and the relationships between them, in a way that is implementation independent. A topic is a symbol within the computer that represents something in the world such as the play Hamlet, the playwright William Shakespeare, or the "authorship" relationship. Topics can have names. They can also have occurrences, that is, information resources that are considered to be relevant in some way to their subject. Topics can play roles in relationships. Thus, topics have three kinds of characteristics: names, sources, and roles played in relationships. The assignment of such characteristics is considered to be valid within a certain scope, or context. Topic maps can be merged. Merging can take place at the discretion of the user or application (at runtime), or may be indicated by the topic map's author at the time of its creation. (2003-07-19)

Veronica ::: (information science) Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives. Veronica offers a keyword search of most gopher menu Gopher Client, it is easy to use, and gives access to all types of data supported by the Gopher protocol.To try Veronica, select it from the Other Gophers menu on Minnesota's gopher server, or point your gopher at: Name=veronica (search menu items in most of GopherSpace)Type=1 .

Veronica "information science" Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives. Veronica offers a keyword search of most {gopher} menu titles in the entire gopher web. As {archie} is to {FTP} archives, Veronica is to {Gopherspace}. A Veronica search produces a menu of Gopher items, each of which is a direct pointer to a Gopher data source. Because Veronica is accessed through a Gopher Client, it is easy to use, and gives access to all types of data supported by the Gopher {protocol}. To try Veronica, select it from the "Other Gophers" menu on Minnesota's gopher server, or point your gopher at: Name=veronica (search menu items in most of GopherSpace) Type=1 Port=70 Path=1/veronica Host=gopher.scs.unr.edu {(gopher://gopher.scs.unr.edu/1/veronica)}.

weighted search "information science" A search based on frequencies of the {search terms} in the documents being searched. Weighted search is often used by {search engines}. It produces a numerical score for each possible document. A document's score depends on the frequency of each {search term} in that document compared with the overall frequency of that term in the entire corpus of documents. A common approach is called tf.idf which stands for term frequency * inverse document frequency. Term frequency means "the more often a term occurs in a document, the more important it is in describing that document." {http://ciir.cs.umass.edu/cmpsci646/ir4/tsld034.htm} Inverse document frequency means the more documents a term appears in, the less important the term is. A simple weighted search is just a list of search terms, for example: car automobile Weighted search is often contrasted with {boolean search}. It is possible to have a search that syntactically is a boolean search but which also does a weighted search. See also {query expansion}. For a detailed technical discussion see Chapter 5, "Search Strategies", in the reference below. [{"Information Retrieval", C. J. van Rijsbergen, (http://dcs.gla.ac.uk/Keith/Chapter.5/Ch.5.html)}]. (1999-08-28)

weighted search ::: (information science) A search based on frequencies of the search terms in the documents being searched. Weighted search is often used by search http://ciir.cs.umass.edu/cmpsci646/ir4/tsld034.htm Inverse document frequency means the more documents a term appears in, the less important the term is.A simple weighted search is just a list of search terms, for example: car automobileWeighted search is often contrasted with boolean search. It is possible to have a search that syntactically is a boolean search but which also does a weighted search.See also query expansion.For a detailed technical discussion see Chapter 5, Search Strategies, in the reference below.[ (1999-08-28)

Wide Area Information Servers ::: (networking, information science) (WAIS) A distributed information retrieval system. WAIS is supported by Apple Computer, Thinking Machines and Dow allows the results of initial searches to influence future searches. It uses the ANSI Z39.50 service. Public domain implementations are available.Other information retrieval systems include archie, Gopher, Prospero, and World-Wide Web.Usenet newsgroup: comp.infosystems.wais. . (1995-03-13)

Wide Area Information Servers "networking, information science" (WAIS) A distributed information retrieval system. WAIS is supported by {Apple Computer}, {Thinking Machines} and Dow Jones. {Clients} are able to retrieve documents using keywords. The search returns a list of documents, ranked according to the frequency of occurrence of the keyword(s) used in the search. The client can retrieve text or {multimedia} documents stored on the {server}. WAIS offers simple {natural language} input, indexed searching for fast retrieval, and a "relevance feedback" mechanism which allows the results of initial searches to influence future searches. It uses the {ANSI Z39.50} service. {Public domain} implementations are available. Other information retrieval systems include {archie}, {Gopher}, {Prospero}, and {web}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.infosystems.wais}. {Telnet (telnet://sunsite.unc.edu)}. (1995-03-13)

word spamming "web, information science" Repeating a word many times in a {web page}, in a (usually futile) attempt to increase its {relevance} ranking in a {search engine}'s index (to "{spam}" the index). "Repeating a word over and over in a Web page (known as word spamming) has no effect on the [page's] ranking [in the index]." -- {Altavista FAQ (http://altavista.digital.com/cgi-bin/query?pg=tmpl&v=faq.html)}. See also {spamdex}. (1997-04-09)

word spamming ::: (World-Wide Web, information science) Repeating a word many times in a web page, in a (usually futile) attempt to increase its relevance ranking in a search engine's index (to spam the index).Repeating a word over and over in a Web page (known as word spamming) has no effect on the [page's] ranking [in the index]. -- .See also spamdex. (1997-04-09)



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1:biology has become an information science, ~ James Gleick,
2:The major thing is to view biology as an information science. ~ Leroy Hood,
3:Earning your Masters in Library and Information Science is beautiful. ~ Lil Wayne,
4:In the world of information science, the tricky question of where to put things is known as the “ontology problem. ~ Chris Anderson,
5:Most of human behavior is a result of subconscious processes. We are unaware of them. As a result, many of our beliefs about how people behave—including beliefs about ourselves—are wrong. That is why we have the multiple social and behavioral sciences, with a good dash of mathematics, economics, computer science, information science, and neuroscience. ~ Donald A Norman,
6:We are unaware of them. As a result, many of our beliefs about how people behave—including beliefs about ourselves—are wrong. That is why we have the multiple social and behavioral sciences, with a good dash of mathematics, economics, computer science, information science, and neuroscience. Consider the following simple experiment. Do all three steps:        1.   Wiggle the second finger of your hand.        2.   Wiggle the third finger of the same hand.        3.   Describe what you did differently those two times. ~ Donald A Norman,
7:The mind is more difficult to comprehend than actions. Most of us start by believing we already understand both human behavior and the human mind. After all, we are all human: we have all lived with ourselves all of our lives, and we like to think we understand ourselves. But the truth is, we don’t. Most of human behavior is a result of subconscious processes. We are unaware of them. As a result, many of our beliefs about how people behave—including beliefs about ourselves—are wrong. That is why we have the multiple social and behavioral sciences, with a good dash of mathematics, economics, computer science, information science, and neuroscience. ~ Donald A Norman,

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WORDNET



--- Overview of noun information_science

The noun information science has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts)
            
1. information science, informatics, information processing, IP ::: (the sciences concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information)


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun information_science

1 sense of information science                    

Sense 1
information science, informatics, information processing, IP
   => science, scientific discipline
     => discipline, subject, subject area, subject field, field, field of study, study, bailiwick
       => knowledge domain, knowledge base, domain
         => content, cognitive content, mental object
           => cognition, knowledge, noesis
             => psychological feature
               => abstraction, abstract entity
                 => entity


--- Hyponyms of noun information_science

1 sense of information science                    

Sense 1
information science, informatics, information processing, IP
   => natural language processing, NLP, human language technology
   => cybernetics


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun information_science

1 sense of information science                    

Sense 1
information science, informatics, information processing, IP
   => science, scientific discipline




--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun information_science

1 sense of information science                    

Sense 1
information science, informatics, information processing, IP
  -> science, scientific discipline
   => natural history
   => natural science
   => mathematics, math, maths
   => agronomy, scientific agriculture
   => agrobiology
   => agrology
   => architectonics, tectonics
   => metallurgy
   => metrology
   => nutrition
   => psychology, psychological science
   => information science, informatics, information processing, IP
   => cognitive science
   => social science
   => strategics
   => systematics
   => thanatology
   => cryptanalysis, cryptanalytics, cryptography, cryptology
   => linguistics




--- Grep of noun information_science
information science



IN WEBGEN [10000/93]

Wikipedia - American Society for Information Science and Technology
Wikipedia - American Society for Information Science
Wikipedia - Annual Review of Information Science and Technology -- American information technology journal
Wikipedia - Association for Library and Information Science Education
Wikipedia - Category:Information science by discipline
Wikipedia - Category:Information science
Wikipedia - Category:Ontology (information science)
Wikipedia - Category:Quantum information science
Wikipedia - Computer and information science
Wikipedia - Elizabeth Yakel -- Archivist, researcher, and educator in information science
Wikipedia - Geoinformatics -- The application of information science methods in geography, cartography, and geosciences
Wikipedia - Glossary of library and information science -- Wikipedia glossary
Wikipedia - History of library and information science
Wikipedia - Information Sciences Institute
Wikipedia - Information Sciences (journal)
Wikipedia - Information sciences
Wikipedia - Information Science
Wikipedia - Information science
Wikipedia - Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences
Wikipedia - Jeff M. Allen -- Professor of information science
Wikipedia - Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology
Wikipedia - Kinshuk (professor) -- Professor of information science
Wikipedia - Library and Information Science
Wikipedia - Library and information science
Wikipedia - List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (Computer and information sciences)
Wikipedia - List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (computer and information sciences)
Wikipedia - List of schools of Library and Information Science in India -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Master of Library and Information Science
Wikipedia - O'Moore Medal -- Information science award
Wikipedia - Ontology (information science) -- Specification of a conceptualization
Wikipedia - Outline of information science
Wikipedia - Penn State College of Information Sciences and Technology
Wikipedia - Portal:Library and information science
Wikipedia - Profiling (information science)
Wikipedia - Quantum information science
Wikipedia - Sarah T. Roberts -- Professor of Library & Information Science, author, and scholar
Wikipedia - Sensemaking (information science)
Wikipedia - Template talk:Information science
Wikipedia - The Royal School of Library and Information Science
Wikipedia - University of Oregon Department of Computer and Information Science
Wikipedia - Upper ontology (information science)
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2791391-case-studies-in-library-and-information-science-ethics
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Information_science
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Library_and_information_science
African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science
Annual Review of Information Science and Technology
Archetype (information science)
Association for Information Science and Technology
Association for Library and Information Science Education
Beijing Information Science & Technology University
B. Thomas Golisano College of Computing and Information Sciences
Canadian Association for Information Science
Cartography and Geographic Information Science
Conceptions of Library and Information Science
Conceptualization (information science)
Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi
Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences
Flux Information Sciences
Geographic information science
Geographic Information Science and Technology Body of Knowledge
Glossary of library and information science
Implication (information science)
Information science
Information Sciences (journal)
Information Sciences University
Institute of Management & Information Science, Bhubaneswar
International Journal of Geographical Information Science
Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology
Journal of Information Science
Journal of Librarianship and Information Science
Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science
Journal of Spatial Information Science
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology
Library and information science
Library and Information Science Abstracts
Library and Information Science program at the University of Western Ontario
Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts
Library Literature and Information Science
List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (computer and information sciences)
Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science
Master of Library and Information Science
Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology
National Commission on Libraries and Information Science
National Institute of Library and Information Sciences
Ontology (information science)
Profiling (information science)
Quantum information science
South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science
Tokyo University of Information Sciences
University Consortium for Geographic Information Science
University of Information Science
University of Information Science and Technology "St. Paul The Apostle"
UO Computer and Information Science Department



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