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object:Ludwig Wittgenstein
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--- WIKI
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. From 1929 to 1947, Wittgenstein taught at the University of Cambridge. During his lifetime he published just one slim book (the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 1921), one article ("Some Remarks on Logical Form", 1929), one book review and a children's dictionary. His voluminous manuscripts were edited and published posthumously. Philosophical Investigations appeared as a book in 1953. His teacher, Bertr and Russell, described Wittgenstein as "perhaps the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense, and dominating". Born in Vienna into one of Europe's richest families, he inherited a fortune from his father in 1913. He initially made some donations to artists and writers, and then, in a period of severe personal depression after the First World War, he gave away his entire fortune to his brothers and sisters. Three of his four brothers committed suicide, which Wittgenstein had also contemplated. He left academia several timesserving as an officer on the front line during World War I, where he was decorated a number of times for his courage; teaching in schools in remote Austrian villages where he encountered controversy for hitting children when they made mistakes in mathematics; and working as a hospital porter during World War II in London, where he told patients not to take the drugs they were prescribed while largely managing to keep secret the fact that he was one of the world's most famous philosophers. His philosophy is often divided into an early period, exemplified by the Tractatus, and a later period, articulated in the Philosophical Investigations. "Early Wittgenstein" was concerned with the logical relationship between propositions and the world and he believed that by providing an account of the logic underlying this relationship, he had solved all philosophical problems. "Late Wittgenstein", however, rejected many of the assumptions of the Tractatus, arguing that the meaning of words is best understood as their use within a given language-game. A survey among American university and college teachers ranked the Investigations as the most important book of 20th-century philosophy, standing out as "the one crossover masterpiece in twentieth-century philosophy, appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations".The Investigations also ranked 54th on a list of most influential twentieth-century works in cognitive science prepared by the University of Minnesota's Center for Cognitive Sciences. However, in the words of his friend Georg Henrik von Wright, he believed that "his ideas were generally misunderstood and distorted even by those who professed to be his disciples. He doubted he would be better understood in the future. He once said he felt as though he was writing for people who would think in a different way, brea the a different air of life, from that of present-day men."
Influences:Bertr and Russell, Leo Tolstoy, Gottlob Frege, Arthur Schopenhauer, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Sren Kierkegaard, John Maynard Keynes, Ernst Mach, William James, Rainer Maria Rilke, Georg Trakl, Otto Weininger


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OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

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SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Infinite_Library
Tractatus_Logico-Philosophicus

IN CHAPTERS TITLE

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
1.02_-_MAPS_OF_MEANING_-_THREE_LEVELS_OF_ANALYSIS

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author
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Ludwig Wittgenstein

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QUOTES [18 / 18 - 500 / 646]


KEYS (10k)

   16 Ludwig Wittgenstein
   1 Tom Butler-Bowdon
   1 Alfred Korzybski

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

  472 Ludwig Wittgenstein
   17 Ludwig Wittgenstein

1:Don't think, but look! (PI 66) ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
2:Hell isn't other people. Hell is yourself. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
3:Nothing is so difficult as not deceiving oneself. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
4:For a truly religious man nothing is tragic.
   ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein, [T5],
5:Not how the world is, but that it is, is the mystery. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
6:At the core of all well-founded belief lies belief that is unfounded. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
7:A serious and good philosophical work could be written consisting entirely of jokes.
   ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
8:Telling someone something he does not understand is pointless, even if you add that he will not be able to understand it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
9:The real question of life after death isn't whether or not it exists, but even if it does what problem this really solves. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
10:If you already have a person's love no sacrifice can be too much to give for it; but any sacrifice is too great to buy it for you. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
11:A man will be imprisoned in a room with a door that's unlocked and opens inwards; as long as it does not occur to him to pull rather than push. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
12:Perhaps what is inexpressible (what I find mysterious and am not able to express) is the background against which whatever I could express has its meaning. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
13:An honest religious thinker is like a tightrope walker. He almost looks as though he were walking on nothing but air. His support is the slenderest imaginable. And yet it really is possible to walk on it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
14:In philosophy it is always good to put a question instead of an answer to a question. For an answer to the philosophical question may easily be unfair; disposing of it by means of another question is not. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
15:Philosophy hasn't made any progress? - If somebody scratches the spot where he has an itch, do we have to see some progress? Isn't genuine scratching otherwise, or genuine itching itching? And can't this reaction to an irritation continue in the same way for a long time before a cure for the itching is discovered? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
16:To The Works Of:
   Aristotle, Cassius J. Keyser, Eric T. Bell, G. W. Leibnitz, Eugen Bleuler, J. Locke, Niels Bohr, Jacques Loeb, George Boole, H. A. Lorentz, Max Born, Ernst Mach, Louis De Brogue, J. C. Maxwell, Georg Cantor, Adolf Meyer, Ernst Cassirer, Hermann Minkowsja, Charles M. Child, Isaac Newton, C. Darwin, Ivan Pavlov, Rene Descartes, Giuseppe Peano, P. A. M. Dirac, Max Planck, A. S. Eddington, Plato, Albert Einstein, H. Poincare, Euclid, M. Faraday, Sigmund Freud, Josiah Royce, Karl F. Gauss, G. Y. Rainich, G. B. Riemann, Bertrand Russell, Thomas Graham, Ernest Rutherford, Arthur Haas, E. Schrodinger, Wm. R. Hamilton, C. S. Sherrington, Henry Head, Socrates, Werner Heisenberg, Arnold Sommerfeld, C. Judson Herrick, Oswald Veblen, E. V. Huntington, Wm. Alanson White, Smith Ely Jeluffe, Alfred N. Whitehead, Ludwig Wittgenstein
   Which Have Creatly Influenced My Enquiry
   This System Is Dedicated ~ Alfred Korzybski, Science and Sanity,
17:reading :::
   50 Philosophy Classics: List of Books Covered:
   1. Hannah Arendt - The Human Condition (1958)
   2. Aristotle - Nicomachean Ethics (4th century BC)
   3. AJ Ayer - Language, Truth and Logic (1936)
   4. Julian Baggini - The Ego Trick (2011)
   5. Jean Baudrillard - Simulacra and Simulation (1981)
   6. Simone de Beauvoir - The Second Sex (1952)
   7. Jeremy Bentham - Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789)
   8. Henri Bergson - Creative Evolution (1911)
   9. David Bohm - Wholeness and the Implicate Order (1980)
   10. Noam Chomsky - Understanding Power (2002)
   11. Cicero - On Duties (44 BC)
   12. Confucius - Analects (5th century BC)
   13. Rene Descartes - Meditations (1641)
   14. Ralph Waldo Emerson - Fate (1860)
   15. Epicurus - Letters (3rd century BC)
   16. Michel Foucault - The Order of Things (1966)
   17. Harry Frankfurt - On Bullshit (2005)
   18. Sam Harris - Free Will (2012)
   19. GWF Hegel - Phenomenology of Spirit (1803)
   20. Martin Heidegger - Being and Time (1927)
   21. Heraclitus - Fragments (6th century)
   22. David Hume - An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1748)
   23. William James - Pragmatism (1904)
   24. Daniel Kahneman - Thinking: Fast and Slow (2011)
   25. Immanuel Kant - Critique of Pure Reason (1781)
   26. Soren Kierkegaard - Fear and Trembling (1843)
   27. Saul Kripke - Naming and Necessity (1972)
   28. Thomas Kuhn - The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962)
   29. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Theodicy (1710)
   30. John Locke - An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
   31. Marshall McLuhan - The Medium is the Massage (1967)
   32. Niccolo Machiavelli - The Prince (1532)
   33. John Stuart Mill - On Liberty (1859)
   34. Michel de Montaigne - Essays (1580)
   35. Iris Murdoch - The Sovereignty of Good (1970)
   36. Friedrich Nietzsche - Beyond Good and Evil (1886)
   37. Blaise Pascal - Pensees (1670)
   38. Plato - The Republic (4th century BC)
   39. Karl Popper - The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1934)
   40. John Rawls - A Theory of Justice (1971)
   41. Jean-Jacques Rousseau - The Social Contract (1762)
   42. Bertrand Russell - The Conquest of Happiness (1920)
   43. Michael Sandel - Justice (2009)
   44. Jean Paul Sartre - Being and Nothingness (1943)
   45. Arthur Schopenhauer - The World as Will and Representation (1818)
   46. Peter Singer - The Life You Can Save (2009)
   47. Baruch Spinoza - Ethics (1677)
   48. Nassim Nicholas - Taleb The Black Swan (2007)
   49. Ludwig Wittgenstein - Philosophical Investigations (1953)
   50. Slavoj Zizek - Living In The End Times (2010)
   ~ Tom Butler-Bowdon, 50 Philosophy Classics,
18:The problems are solved not by giving new information, but by arranging what we have known since long. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,

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1:I am my world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
2:Ludwig Wittgenstein, ~ Timothy Ferriss
3:Understand or die. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
4:Golden is a surface colour. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
5:Language disguises thought. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
6:Music conveys to us itself! ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
7:The World and Life are one. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
8:All mathematics is tautology. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
9:Only describe, don't explain. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
10:The world divides into facts. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
11:Don't think, but look! (PI 66) ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
12:Ethics and aesthetics are one. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
13:Don't think, but look! (PI 66) ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
14:A picture is a model of reality. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
15:Ambition is the death of thought. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
16:The face is the soul of the body. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
17:What can be shown, cannot be said. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
18:That the world is, is the mystical. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
19:What is thinkable is also possible. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
20:All I know is what I have words for. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
21:All propositions are of equal value. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
22:Man is the microcosm: I am my world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
23:Tell them I've had a wonderful life. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
24:The world is independent of my will. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
25:Die Welt ist alles, was der Fall ist. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
26:We learn by rearranging what we know. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
27:لا شيء أصعب من تجنب خداع المرء لنفسه. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
28:There can never be surprises in logic. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
29:At the end of reasons comes persuasion. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
30:A logical picture of facts is a thought. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
31:Genius is talent exercised with courage. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
32:Roughly speaking: objects are colourless ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
33:Aim at being loved without being admired. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
34:A mathematical proof must be perspicuous. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
35:Elementary propositions consist of names. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
36:The world is everything that is the case. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
37:Hell isn't other people. Hell is yourself. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
38:It is love that believes the resurrection. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
39:Our greatest stupidities may be very wise. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
40:Philosophy is not a theory but an activity ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
41:The I, the I is what is deeplt mysterious. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
42:The world is made up of facts, not things. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
43:Belief in the causal nexus is superstition. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
44:Hell isn't other people. Hell is yourself. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
45:Philosophy is not a theory but an activity. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
46:We must plow through the whole of language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
47:For a truly religious man nothing is tragic. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
48:How small a thought it takes to fill a life. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
49:A confession has to be part of your new life. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
50:Every explanation is after all an hypothesis. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
51:O čem není možno mluvit, o tom se musí mlčet. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
52:The depressed man lives in a depressed world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
53:The form is the possibility of the structure. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
54:Wishing is not acting. But willing is acting. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
55:Anything that can be said can be said clearly. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
56:Dark' and 'blackish' are not the same concept. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
57:Don't look for the meanings; look for the use. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
58:He who lives in the present lives in eternity. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
59:White must be the lightest color in a picture. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
60:Superstition is the belief in the causal nexus. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
61:Everything that can be said, can be said clearly. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
62:Knowledge is in the end based on acknowledgement. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
63:Nothing is so difficult as not deceiving oneself. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
64:the meaning of a word is its use in the language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
65:There are remarks that sow and remarks that reap. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
66:The world is the totality of facts, not of things ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
67:To believe in God is to see that life has meaning ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
68:An entire mythology is stored within our language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
69:How small a thought it takes to fill a whole life. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
70:If a lion could talk, we could not understand him. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
71:Nothing is so difficult as not deceiving oneself. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
72:an inner process stands in need of outward criteria ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
73:Der Satz der Mathematik drückt keinen Gedanken aus. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
74:Don't ask what it means, but rather how it is used. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
75:Genius is what makes us forget the master's talent. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
76:How things stand, is God. God is, how things stand. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
77:If a lion could speak, we could not understand him. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
78:Logic is not a theory but a reflexion of the world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
79:To imagine a language is to imagine a form of life. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
80:6.41 Der Sinn der Welt muss ausserhalb ihrer liegen. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
81:An inner process stands in need of outward criteria. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
82:Someone who knows too much finds it hard not to lie. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
83:To believe in God is to see that life has a meaning. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
84:What cannot be imagined cannot even be talked about. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
85:About what one can not speak, one must remain silent. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
86:For a truly religious man nothing is tragic.
   ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein, [T5],
87:It is much easier to bury a problem than to solve it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
88:Not how the world is, but that it is, is the mystery. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
89:Philosophy is not a body of doctrine but an activity. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
90:The human body is the best picture of the human soul. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
91:The limits of my language means the limit of my world ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
92:The mystical is not how the world is, but that it is. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
93:The wish precedes the event, the will accompanies it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
94:Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
95:Humor is not a mood but a way of looking at the world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
96:Los limites de mi lenguaje son los limites de mi mundo ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
97:Not how the world is, but that it is, is the mystery. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
98:The limits of my language mean the limits of my world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
99:There is such a thing as the impression of luminosity. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
100:When we can't think for ourselves, we can always quote ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
101:Genius is talent in which character makes itself heard. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
102:The limits of my language are the limits of my universe ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
103:The limits of my language means the limits of my world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
104:Idealism leads to realism if it is strictly thought out. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
105:It is clear that the causal nexus is not a nexus at all. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
106:The limits of my language are the limits of my universe. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
107:What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
108:Gränserna för mitt språk innebär gränserna för min värld. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
109:The limits of your language are the limits of your world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
110:Wovon man nicht sprechen kann, darüber muss man schweigen ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
111:Wovon man nicht sprechen kann, darüber muß man schweigen. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
112:You learned the concept 'pain' when you learned language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
113:And to imagine a language means to imagine a form of life. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
114:Philosophical problems arise when language goes on holiday ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
115:So we do sometimes think because it has been found to pay. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
116:أصبحت المهمة الوحيدة المتبقية أمام الفلسفة هي تحليل اللغة. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
117:One must always be prepared to learn something totally new. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
118:Philosophy limits the disputable sphere of natural science. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
119:That of which we cannot speak, we must pass over in silence ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
120:The difficulty in philosophy is to say no more than we know ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
121:The eternal life is given to those who live in the present. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
122:The logic of the world is prior to all truth and falsehood. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
123:We see, not change of aspect, but change of interpretation. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
124:You get tragedy where the tree, instead of bending, breaks. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
125:Die Grenzen meiner Sprache bedeuten die Grenzen meiner Welt. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
126:How hard I find it to see what is right in front of my eyes! ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
127:I act with complete certainty. But this certainty is my own. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
128:Ideas too sometimes fall from the tree before they are ripe. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
129:In art it is hard to say anything as good as saying nothing. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
130:I want to say: We use judgements as principlesof judegement. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
131:One can mistrust one's own senses, but not one's own belief. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
132:One often makes a remark and only later sees how true it is. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
133:The difficulty in philosophy is to say no more than we know. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
134:Only a man who lives not in time but in the present is happy. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
135:یک اثر جدی و خوب فلسفی میتواند نوشته ای سراسر جوک و طنز باشد. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
136:An image is not a picture, but a picture can correspond to it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
137:Philosophy limits the thinkable and therefore the unthinkable. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
138:When I obey a rule, I do not choose. I obey the rule blindly . ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
139:Philosophy ought really to be written only as a form of poetry. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
140:to be considered an important event in the philosophical world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
141:To think that you are not following a rule is to follow a rule. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
142:We just do not see how very specialized the use of "I know" is. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
143:You can't think decently if you're not willing to hurt yourself ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
144:A philosophical problem has the form: I don't know my way about. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
145:Religion as madness is a madness springing from irreligiousness. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
146:I Once wrote: "In mathematics process and result are equivalent." ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
147:The object of philosophy is the logical clarification of thought. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
148:Death is not an event in life: we do not live to experience death. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
149:De filosoof behandelt een vraag zoals men dat met een ziekte doet. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
150:Make sure that your religion is a matter between you and God only. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
151:But all propositions of logic say the same thing. That is, nothing. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
152:Die Welt des Glücklichen ist eine andere als die des Unglücklichen. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
153:Language is a part of our organism and no less complicated than it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
154:The sole remaining task for philosophy is the analysis of language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
155:The world of the happy is quite different from that of the unhappy. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
156:This is how philosophers should salute each other: ‘Take your time. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
157:A new word is like a fresh seed sown on the ground of the discussion ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
158:The essential business of language is to assert or deny facts. Given ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
159:Words are probes. Some reach very deep, some only to a little depth. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
160:You can't be reluctant to give up your lie and still tell the truth. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
161:A new word is like a fresh seed sown on the ground of the discussion. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
162:At the core of all well-founded belief lies belief that is unfounded. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
163:But doesn't it come out here that knowledge is related to a decision? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
164:At the core of all well-founded belief lies belief that is unfounded. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
165:Our life is endless in the way that our visual field is without limit. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
166:You might say that certain words are only pegs to hang intonations on. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
167:Concerning that which cannot be talked about, we should not say anything. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
168:If people never did silly things nothing intelligent would ever get done. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
169:One is unable to notice something because it is always before one's eyes. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
170:the conditions for sense rather than nonsense in combinations of symbols; ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
171:If you use a trick in logic, whom can you be tricking other than yourself? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
172:It is not how things are in the world that is mystical, but that it exists ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
173:It's not how the world is, but that it is, that is cause for astonishment. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
174:More wisdom is contained in the best
crime fiction than in philosophy. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
175:Nothing in the visual field allows you to infer that it is seen by an eye. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
176:სამყაროში ყველაფერი ისეა, როგორც არის და ყველაფერი ისე ხდება, როგორც ხდება ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
177:A picture whose pictorial form is logical form is called a logical picture. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
178:For the essence of the symbol cannot be altered without altering its sense. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
179:There are no subjects in the world. A subject is a limitation of the world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
180:Uttering a word is like striking a note on the keyboard of the imagination. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
181:What has to be accepted, the given, is - so one could say - forms of life . ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
182:Ludwig Wittgenstein: «Los límites de mi lenguaje son los límites de mi mundo». ~ Mario Alonso Puig
183:Just improve yourself; that is the only thing you can do to better the world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
184:The solution to the problem of life is seen in the vanishing of this problem. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
185:The subject does not belong to the world; rather, it is a limit of the world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
186:Sometimes, in doing philosophy, one just wants to utter an inarticulate sound. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
187:The philosopher's treatment of a question is like the treatment of an illness. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
188:What is your aim in philosophy? To show the fly the way out of the fly-bottle. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
189:If we spoke a different language, we would perceive a somewhat different world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
190:Logic pervades the world; the limits of the world are also the limits of logic. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
191:No one can think a thought for me in the way that no one can don my hat for me. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
192:We are struggling with language.
We are engaged in a struggle with language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
193:Well, God has arrived. I met him on the 5.15 train ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein Keynes ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
194:Logic takes care of itself; all we have to do is to look and see how it does it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
195:We must do away with all explanation, and description alone must take its place. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
196:What is the proof that I know something? Most certainly not my saying I know it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
197:What we do is to bring words back from their metaphysical to their everyday use. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
198:As there is only a logical necessity, so there is only a logical
impossibility. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
199:Bad philosophers are like slum landlords. It's my job to put them out of business. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
200:The world of those who are happy is different from the world of those who are not. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
201:What is your aim in Philosophy?”
“To show the fly the way out of the fly-bottle ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
202:a nothing will serve just as well as a something about which nothing could be said. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
203:Logic must look after itself. In a certain sense, we cannot make mistakes in logic. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
204:A serious and good philosophical work could be written consisting entirely of jokes. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
205:That ∨, ⊃, etc., are not relations in the sense of right and left, etc., is obvious. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
206:The silent adjustments to understand colloquial language are enormously complicated. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
207:The solution of logical problems must be neat for they set the standard of neatness. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
208:If people did not sometimes do silly things, nothing intelligent would ever get done. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
209:What should we gain by a definition, as it can only lead us to other undefined terms? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
210:Just be indipendent of the external world, so you don't have to fear for what's in it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
211:Always come down from the barren heights of cleverness into the green valleys of folly. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
212:A serious and good philosophical work could be written consisting entirely of jokes.
   ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
213:A tautology's truth is certain, a proposition's possible, a contradiction's impossible. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
214:In order to draw a limit to thinking, we should have to think both sides of this limit. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
215:If in life we are surrounded by death, so too in the health of our intellect by madness. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
216:Philosophy is a battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
217:The agreement or disagreement or its sense with reality constitutes its truth or falsity. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
218:The best for me, perhaps, would be if I could lie down one evening and not wake up again. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
219:The riddle does not exist. If a question can be put at all, then it can also be answered. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
220:Transparency painted in a picture produces its effect in a different way than opaqueness. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
221:Logic is not a body of doctrine, but a mirror-image of the world. Logic is transcendental. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
222:The totality of facts determines both what is the case, and also all that is not the case. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
223:What is troubling us is the tendency to believe that the mind is like a little man within. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
224:A color which would be 'dirty' if it were the color of a wall, needn't be so in a painting. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
225:Propositions show what they say: tautologies and contradictions show that they say nothing. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
226:To believe in a God means to see that the facts of the world are not the end of the matter. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
227:To believe in God means to see that life has a meaning. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein Journal entry (8 July 1916), p. 74e
228:When you are philosophizing you have to descend into primeval chaos and feel at home there. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
229:With my full philosophical rucksack I can only climb slowly up the mountain of mathematics. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
230:Is my understanding only blindness to my own lack of understanding? It often seems so to me. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
231:A wheel that can be turned though nothing else moves with it, is not a part of the mechanism. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
232:I don't know why we are here, but I'm pretty sure that it is not in order to enjoy ourselves. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
233:Only when one thinks even much more madly than the philosophers can one solve their problems. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
234:You can't hear God speak to someone else, you can hear him only when you are being addressed. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
235:Because our goals are not lofty but illusory, our problems are not difficult, but nonsensical. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
236:Kierkegaard was by far the most profound thinker of the last century. Kierkegaard was a saint. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
237:It's only by thinking even more crazily than philosophers do that you can solve their problems. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
238:There is not a philosophical method, though there are indeed methods, like different therapies. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
239:If the will did not exist, neither would there be that centre of the world, which we call the I. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
240:What is left over if I subtract the fact that my arms goes up from the fact that I raise my arm? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
241:When one is frightened of the truth then it is never the whole truth that one has an inkling of. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
242:Where our language suggests a body and there is none: there, we should like to say, is a spirit. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
243:A philosopher who is not taking part in discussions is like a boxer who never goes into the ring. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
244:I really do think with my pen, because my head often knows nothing about what my hand is writing. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
245:The philosopher is not a citizen of any community of ideas, that is what makes him a philosopher. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
246:There is no criterion by which to recognize what is a color, except that it is one of our colors. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
247:In practice, language is always more or less vague, so that what we assert is never quite precise. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
248:It is now how things are in the world that is mystical, but that it (the world) exists at all..... ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
249:One age misunderstands another; and a petty age misunderstands all the others in its own ugly way. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
250:One of the most misleading representational techniques in our language is the use of the word 'I.' ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
251:That which cannot be said must not be said. That which cannot be said, one must be silent thereof. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
252:There are, indeed, things that are inexpressible. They show themselves. They are what is mystical. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
253:If God had looked into our minds he would not have been able to see there whom we were speaking of. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
254:One age misunderstands another; and a petty age misunderstands all the others in its own nasty way. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
255:The problems are solved, not by giving new information, but by arranging what we have always known. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
256:Don't for heaven's sake, be afraid of talking nonsense! But you must pay attention to your nonsense. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
257:If a false thought is so much as expressed boldly and clearly, a great deal has already been gained. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
258:Only let's cut out the transcendental twaddle when the whole thing is as plain as a sock on the jaw. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
259:A propositional sign, applied and thought out, is a thought. A thought is a proposition with a sense. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
260:Never stay up on the barren heights of cleverness, but come down into the green valleys of silliness. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
261:Die Welt ist alles, was der Fall ist.
Die Welt ist die Gesamtheit der Tatsachen, nicht der Dinge... ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
262:Tutto ciò che si può dire lo si può dire chiaramente. Su ciò di cui non si può parlare si deve tacere. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
263:A right-hand glove could be put on the left hand if it could be turned round in four-dimensional space. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
264:Es ist ein seltsamer Zufall, dass alle die Menschen, deren Schädel man geöffnet hat, ein Gehirn hatten. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
265:How small a thought it takes to fill someone’s whole life,” the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote. ~ Siddhartha Mukherjee
266:It is clear that ethics cannot be expressed. Ethics are transcendental. (Ethics and æsthetics are one.) ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
267:Philosophy may in no way interfere with the actual use of language; it can in the end only describe it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
268:Suppose someone were to say: 'Imagine this butterfly exactly as it is, but ugly instead of beautiful'?! ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
269:The problems are solved not by giving new information, but by arranging what we have known since long. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
270:The problems are solved, not by giving new information, but by arranging what we have known since long. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
271:We are asleep. Our Life is a dream. But we wake up sometimes, just enough to know that we are dreaming. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
272:When I came home I expected a surprise and there was no surprise for me, so of course, I was surprised. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
273:Courage, not cleverness; not even inspiration, is the grain of mustard that grows up to be a great tree. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
274:For life in the present there is no death. Death is not an event in life. It is not a fact in the world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
275:I am showing my pupils details of an immense landscape which they cannot possibly know their way around. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
276:If in life we are surrounded by death, then in the health of our intellect we are surrounded by madness. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
277:Los límites de mi lenguaje son los límites de mi mente. Sólo conozco aquello para lo que tengo palabras. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
278:Man has to awaken to wonder - and so perhaps do peoples. Science is a way of sending him to sleep again. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
279:Most of the propositions and questions to be found in philosophical works are not false but nonsensical. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
280:My aim is: to teach you to pass from a piece of disguised nonsense to something that is patent nonsense. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
281:My attitude towards him is an attitude towards a soul. I am not of the opinion that he has a soul. . . . ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
282:The aspect of things that are most important to us are hidden because of their familiarity and simplicity. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
283:What Copernicus really achieved was not the discovery of a true theory but of a fertile new point of view. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
284:What signs fail to express, their application shows. What signs slur over, their application says clearly. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
285:Don't for heaven's sake, be afraid of talking nonsense! But you must pay attention to your nonsense. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
286:Philosophy, as we use the word, is a fight against the fascination which forms of expression exert upon us. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
287:Il senso della vita, cioè il senso del mondo, possiamo chiamarlo Dio. Pregare è pensare al senso della vita. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
288:Man has to awaken to wonder — and so perhaps do peoples. Science is a way of sending him off to sleep again. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
289:It is an hypothesis that the sun will rise tomorrow: and this means that we do not know whether it will rise. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
290:The classifications made by philosophers and psychologists are like trying to classify clouds by their shape. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
291:The common behavior of mankind is the system of reference by means of which we interpret an unknown language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
292:Everything that can be thought at all can be thought clearly. Everything that can be said can be said clearly. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
293:Ludwig Wittgenstein (1953), went so far as to say that the limits of our language were, indeed, the limits of our world. ~ Anonymous
294:Hell isn't other people. Hell is yourself."

(Wittgenstein commenting on Sartre's "Hell is other people. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
295:It is one of the chief skills of the philosopher not to occupy himself with questions which do not concern him. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
296:Nothing is more important for teaching us to understand the concepts we have than to construct fictitious ones. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
297:This procedure [selecting the simplest law], however, has no logical justification but only a psychological one. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
298:Here it can be seen that solipsism, when its implications are followed out strictly, coincides with pure realism. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
299:Nothing is more important than the formation of fictional concepts, which teach us at last to understand our own. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
300:Philosophy should make clear and delimit sharply the thoughts which otherwise are, as it were, opaque and blurred. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
301:The aspects of a thing that are most important to us are hidden to us because of their simplicity and familiarity. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
302:There are, indeed, things that cannot be put into words. They make themselves manifest. They are what is mystical. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
303:2.22 What a picture represents it represents independently of its truth or falsity, by means of its pictorial form. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
304:I am now in another hole, though I have to say, it is no better than the old one. Living with human beings is hard! ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
305:It is not humanly possible to gather immediately from it what the logic of language is. Language disguises thought. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
306:Like everything metaphysical the harmony between thought and reality is to be found in the grammar of the language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
307:Talent is a spring from which fresh water always flows.- But this spring is worthless if no good use is made of it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
308:We find certains things about seeing puzzling, because we do not find the whole business of seeing puzzling enough. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
309:The mechanism which we don't understand is not anything in our soul, but rather that of the life of this expression. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
310:To understand a sentence means to understand a language. To understand a language means to be master of a technique. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
311:A main cause of philosophical disease-an unbalanced diet: one nourishes one's thinking with only one kind of example. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
312:I won't say 'See you tomorrow' because that would be like predicting the future, and I'm pretty sure I can't do that. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
313:If there were a verb meaning "to believe falsely," it would not have any significant first person, present indicative. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
314:The fact that we cannot write down all the digits of pi is not a human shortcoming, as mathematicians sometimes think. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
315:To convince someone of the truth, it is not enough to state it, but rather one must find the path from error to truth. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
316:If someone tells me he has bought the outfit of a tightrope walker I am not impressed until I see what is done with it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
317:Proof, one might say, does not merely shew that it is like this, but: how it is like this. It shows how 13+14 yield 27. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
318:The process of induction is the process of assuming the simplest law that can be made to harmonize with our experience. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
319:A philosopher always finds more grass to feed upon in the valleys of stupidity than on the arid heights of intelligence. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
320:Architecture immortalizes and glorifies something. Hence there can be no architecture where there is nothing to glorify. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
321:Resting on your laurels is as dangerous as resting when you are walking in the snow. You doze off and die in your sleep. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
322:Telling someone something he does not understand is pointless, even if you add that he will not be able to understand it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
323:There is no such thing as an isolated proposition. For what I call a "proposition" is a position in the game of language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
324:Telling someone something he does not understand is pointless, even if you add that he will not be able to understand it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
325:The real question of life after death isn't whether or not it exists, but even if it does what problem this really solves. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
326:So in the end, when one is doing philosophy, one gets to the point where one would like just to emit an inarticulate sound. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
327:The real question of life after death isn't whether or not it exists, but even if it does what problem this really solves. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
328:Is it even always an advantage to replace an indistinct picture by a sharp one? Isn't the indistinct one often what we need? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
329:Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote: ‘For life in the present there is no death. Death is not an event in life. It is not a fact in the world. ~ Neil Oliver
330:Thence we pass successively to Theory of Knowledge, Principles of Physics, Ethics, and finally the Mystical (das Mystische). ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
331:The world is my world: this is shown by the fact that the limits of language stand for the limits of my world…I am my world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
332:This sort of thing has got to be stopped. Bad philosophers are like slum landlords. It's my job to put them out of business. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
333:We feel that even if all possible scientific questions be answered, the problems of life have still not been touched at all. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
334:I give no sources, because it is indifferent to me whether what I have thought has already been thought before me by another. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
335:The man who said that one cannot step into the same river twice said something wrong; one can step into the same river twice. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
336:The primary question about life after death is not whether it is a fact, but even if it is, what problems that really solves. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
337:A certeza é por assim dizer um tom de voz em que alguém declara como são as coisas, mas não se infere desse tom que tem razão. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
338:If by eternity is understood not endless temporal duration but timelessness, then he lives eternally who lives in the present. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
339:I think I summed up my attitude to philosophy when I said: philosophy ought really to be written only as a poetic composition. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
340:Believers who have formulated such proofs [for God's existence] ... would never have come to believe as a result of such proofs ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
341:It is difficult to describe paths of thought where there are already many paths laid down, and not fall into one of the grooves ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
342:It's impossible for me to say one word about all that music has meant to me in my life. How, then, can I hope to be understood? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
343:What stands fast does so, not because it is intrinsically obvious or convincing; it is rather held fast by what lies around it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
344:I am not interested in constructing a building, so much as in having a perspicuous view of the foundations of possible buildings. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
345:A picture of a complete apple tree, however accurate, is in a certain sense much less like the tree itself than is a little daisy. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
346:Every sign by itself seems dead. What gives it life?--In use it is alive. Is life breathed into it there?--Or is the use its life? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
347:Everything that can be thought at all can be thought clearly. Everything that can be said can be said clearly. Ludwig Wittgenstein ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
348:If you already have a person's love no sacrifice can be too much to give for it; but any sacrifice is too great to buy it for you. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
349:If you tried to doubt everything you would not get as far as doubting anything. The game of doubting itself presupposes certainty. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
350:Imagine someone pointing to a place in the iris of a Rembrandt eye and saying, 'The walls of my room should be painted this color. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
351:What is good is also divine. Queer as it sounds, that sums up my ethics. Only something supernatural can express the Supernatural. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
352:If one understands eternity as timelessness, and not as an unending timespan, then whoever lives in the present lives for all time. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
353:If you already have a person's love no sacrifice can be too much to give for it; but any sacrifice is too great to buy it for you. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
354:I give no sources, because it is indifferent to me
whether what I have thought has already been
thought before me by another. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
355:[M]an is fulfilling the purpose of existence who no longer needs to have any purpose except to live. That is to say, who is content. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
356:Talent is a spring from which fresh water is constantly flowing. But this spring loses its value if it is not used in the right way. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
357:471. It is so difficult to find the beginning. Or, better: it is difficult to begin at the beginning. And not try to go further back. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
358:476. Children do not learn that books exist, that armchairs exist, etc. etc., - they learn to fetch books sit in armchairs, etc. etc. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
359:471. It is so difficult to find the beginning. Or, better: it is difficult to begin and the beginning. And not try to go further back. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
360:I sit astride life like a bad rider on a horse. I only owe it to the horse's good nature that I am not thrown off at this very moment. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
361:It is obvious that an imagined world, however different it may be from the real one, must have something - a form - in common with it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
362:We could present spatially an atomic fact which contradicted the laws of physics, but not one which contradicted the laws of geometry. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
363:Where two principles really do meet which cannot be reconciled with one another, then each man declares the other a fool and a heretic ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
364:The difference between a good and a poor architect is that the poor architect succumbs to every temptation and the good one resists it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
365:The popular scientific books by our scientists aren't the outcome of hard work, but are written when they are resting on their laurels. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
366:471. It is so difficult to find the beginning. Or, better: it is difficult to being at the beginning. And not to try to go further back. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
367:If we take eternity to mean not infinite temporal duration but timelessness, then eternal life belongs to those who live in the present. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
368:A picture held us captive. And we could not get outside it, for it lay in our language and language seemed to repeat it to us inexorably. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
369:Burning in effigy. Kissing the picture of one's beloved... it aims at nothing at all; we just behave this way and then we feel satisfied. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
370:If we take eternity to mean not infinite temporal duration, but timelessness, then eternal life belongs to those who live in the present. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
371:If you want to go down deep you do not need to travel far; indeed, you don't have to leave your most immediate and familiar surroundings. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
372:Our ordinary language has no means for describing a particular shade of color. Thus it is incapable of producing a picture of this color. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
373:In the world everything is as it is and happens as it does happen. In it, there is no value, - and if there were, it would be of no value. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
374:I should not like my writing to spare other people the trouble of thinking. But, if possible, to stimulate someone to thoughts of his own. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
375:Religion is, as it were, the calm bottom of the sea at its deepest point, which remains calm however high the waves on the surface may be. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
376:IfI wanted to eat an apple, and someone punched me in the stomach, taking away my appetite, then it was this punch that I originally wanted ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
377:If I have exhausted the justifications, I have reached bedrock and my spade is turned. Then I am inclined to say: 'This is simply what I do. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
378:It is obvious that an imagined #‎ world , however different it may be from the real one, must have something - a form - in common with it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
379:O fato de uma proposição poder revelar-se falsa depende, em última instância, daquilo que eu considerar como predominantes dessa proposição. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
380:A French politician once wrote that it was a peculiarity of the French language that in it words occur in the order in which one thinks them. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
381:If, for example, you were to think more deeply about death, then it would be truly strange if, in so doing, you did not encounter new images. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
382:You could attach prices to thoughts. Some cost a lot, some a little. And how does one pay for thoughts? The answer, I think, is: with courage. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
383:A man will be imprisoned in a room with a door that's unlocked and opens inwards; as long as it does not occur to him to pull rather than push. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
384:A proposition is completely logically analyzed if its grammar is made completely clear: no matter what idiom it may be written or expressed in. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
385:I'm doing philosophy like an old woman, first I'm looking for my pencil, then I'm looking for my glasses, then I'm looking for my pencil again. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
386:A man will be imprisoned in a room with a door that's unlocked and opens inwards; as long as it does not occur to him to pull rather than push. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
387:Es ist offenbar, dass auch eine von der wirklichen noch so verschieden gedachte Welt Etwas -- eine Form -- mit der wirklichen gemein haben muss. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
388:A man's thinking goes on within his consciousness in a seclusion in comparison with which any physical seclusion is an exhibition to public view. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
389:Here the term 'language-game' is meant to bring into prominence the fact that the speaking of language is part of an activity, of a form of life. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
390:In the world everything is as it is and happens as it does happen. In it, there is no value, - and if there were, it would be of no value. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
391:A picture held us captive. And we could not get outside it, for it lay in our language and language seemed to repeat it to us inexorably. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
392:A man will be imprisoned in a room with a door that's unlocked and opens inwards; as long as it does not occur to him to pull rather than push it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
393:Certainty is as it were a tone of voice in which one declares how things are, but one does not infer from the tone of voice that one is justified. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
394:If someone does not believe in fairies, he does not need to teach his children 'There are no fairies'; he can omit to teach them the word 'fairy'. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
395:Philosophy unravels the knots in our thinking; hence its results must be simple, but its activity is as complicated as the knots that it unravels. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
396:The only life that is happy is the life that can renounce the amenities of the world. To it the amenities of the world are so many graces of fate. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
397:I know that human beings on the average are not worth much anywhere, but here they are much more good-for-nothing and irresponsible than elsewhere. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
398:Philosophy just puts everything before us, and neither explains nor deduces anything.-Since everything lies open to view there is nothing to explain ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
399:What finds its reflection in language, language cannot represent.

What expresses itself in language, we cannot express by means of language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
400:There is no more light in a genius than in any other honest man - but he has a particular kind of lens to concentrate this light into a burning point. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
401:Roughly speaking: to say of two things that they are identical is nonsense, and to say of one thing that it is identical with itself is to say nothing. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
402:Philosophers are often like little children, who first scribble random lines on a piece of paper with their pencils, and now ask an adult 'What is that? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
403:The atmosphere surrounding this problem is terrible. Dense clouds of language lie about the crucial point. It is almost impossible to get through to it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
404:My work consists of two parts: of the one which is here, and of everything which I have not written. And precisely this second part is the important one. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
405:Tautology and contradiction are, however, not senseless; they are part of the symbolism, in the same way that “0” is part of the symbolism of Arithmetic. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
406:Could one imagine a stone's having consciousness? And if anyone can do so-why should that not merely prove that such image-mongery is of no interest to us? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
407:Perhaps what is inexpressible (what I find mysterious and am not able to express) is the background against which whatever I could express has its meaning. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
408:Perhaps what is inexpressible (what I find mysterious and am not able to express) is the background against which whatever I could express has its meaning. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
409:A religious symbol does not rest on any opinion. And error belongs only with opinion. One would like to say: This is what took place here; laugh, if you can. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
410:One can defend common sense against the attacks of philosophers only by solving their puzzles, i.e., by curing them of the temptation to attack common sense. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
411:All numbers in logic must be capable of justification.   Or rather it must become plain that there are no numbers in logic.   There are no pre-eminent numbers. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
412:Reading the Socratic dialogues one has the feeling: what a frightful waste of time! What's the point of these arguments that prove nothing and clarify nothing? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
413:The so-called law of induction cannot possibly be a law of logic, since it is obviously a proposition with a sense.--Nor, therefore, can it be an a priori law. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
414:For a large class of cases - though not for all - in which we employ the word meaning it can be explained thus: the meaning of a word is its use in the language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
415:It is so characteristic, that just when the mechanics of reproduction are so vastly improved, there are fewer and fewer people who know how music should be played. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
416:If, for example, you were to think more deeply about death, then it would be truly strange if, in doing so, you did not encounter new images, new linguistic fields. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
417:It seems to me that, in every culture, I come across a chapter headed ‘Wisdom.’ And then I know exactly what is going to follow: ‘Vanity of vanities, all is vanity. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
418:It seems to me that, in every culture, I come across a chapter headed 'Wisdom.' And then I know exactly what is going to follow: 'Vanity of vanities, all is vanity.' ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
419:Waltzing is not the same thing as dancing, since the rhumba is also a dance but it is not a waltz. It therefore follows that one can waltz without dancing the waltz. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
420:Language is a labyrinth of paths. You approach from one side and know your way about; you approach the same place from another side and no longer know your way about. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
421:For an answer which cannot be expressed the question too cannot be expressed. The riddle does not exist. If a question can be put at all, then it can also be answered. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
422:It is so characteristic, that just when the mechanics of reproduction are so vastly improved, there are fewer and fewer people who know how the music should be played. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
423:The philosophical I is not the man, not the human body or the human soul of which psychology treats, but the metaphysical subject, the limit - not a part of the world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
424:There is no religious denomination in which so much sin has been committed through the misuse of metaphorical expressions as in mathematics. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein, Culture and Value (1977).
425:In order to be able to set a limit to thought, we should have to find both sides of the limit thinkable (i.e. we should have to be able to think what cannot be thought). ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
426:Always get rid of theory private object in this way: assume that it constantly changes, but that you do not notice the change because your memory constantly deceives you. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
427:Philosophy aims at the logical clarification of thoughts. Philosophy is not a body of doctrine but an activity. A philosophical work consists essentially of elucidations. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
428:The philosopher strives to find the liberating word, that is, the word that finally permits us to grasp what up to now has intangibly weighed down upon our consciousness. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
429:Think of words as instruments characterized by their use, and then think of the use of a hammer, the use of a chisel, the use of a square, of a glue pot, and of the glue. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
430:Commenting on his "Tractatus"...It consists of two parts: the one written here plus all that I have not written. And it is precisely the 2nd part that is the important one. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
431:Don't get involved in partial problems, but always take flight to where there is a free view over the whole single great problem, even if this view is still not a clear one ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
432:Don't get involved in partial problems, but always take flight to where there is a free view over the whole single great problem, even if this view is still not a clear one. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
433:The fact that we can describe the motions of the world using Newtonian mechanics tell us nothing about the world. The fact that we do, does tell us something about the world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
434:El disco gramofónico, el pensamiento musical, la notación musical, las ondas sonoras, están todos entre sí en esa relación interna figurativa que se da entre lenguaje y mundo. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
435:The 2 timeless drivers that underpin the behavior of every generation: the need to belong and the need to be significant. The limits of my language mean the limits of my world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
436:The book deals with the problems of philosophy and shows, as I believe, that the method of formulating these problems rests on the misunderstanding of the logic of our language. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
437:What a curious attitude scientists have: “We still don’t know that; but it is knowable and it is only a matter of time before we get to know it!”’ As if that went without saying. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
438:It used to be said that God could create anything except what would be contrary to the laws of logic. The truth is that we could not say what an "illogical" world would look like. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
439:Philosophy is like trying to open a safe with a combination lock: each little adjustment of the dials seems to achieve nothing, only when everything is in place does the door open. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
440:A good guide will take you through the more important streets more often than he takes you down side streets; a bad guide will do the opposite. In philosophy I'm a rather bad guide. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
441:Black seems to make a colour cloudy, but darkness doesn't. A ruby could thus keep getting darker without ever becoming cloudy; but if it became blackish red, it would become cloudy. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
442:For an answer which cannot be expressed the question too cannot be expressed.

The riddle does not exist.

If a question can be put at all, then it can also be answered. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
443:People are deeply imbedded in philosophical, i.e., grammatical confusions. And to free them presupposes pulling them out of the immensely manifold connections they are caught up in. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
444:If we were to imagine an orange on the blue side or green on the red side or violet on the yellow side, it would give us the same impression as a north wind coming from the southwest. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
445:Perhaps you regard this thinking about myself as a waste of time - but how can I be a logician before I'm a human being! Far the most important thing is to settle accounts with myself! ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
446:Freud's fanciful pseudo-explanations (precisely because they are brilliant) perform a disservice. Now any ass has these pictures available to use in "explaining" symptoms of an illness. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
447:Said in reference to Ludwig Wittgenstein: "Talent is like the marksman who hits a target which others cannot reach; genius is like the marksman who hits a target others cannot even see. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer
448:The philosophical I is not the human being, not the human body or the human soul with the psychological properties, but the metaphysical subject, the boundary (not a part) of the world. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
449:Christianity is not a doctrine, not, I mean, a theory about what has happened & will happen to the human soul, but a description of something that actually takes place in human life. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
450:If a person tells me he has been to the worst places I have no reason to judge him; but if he tells me it was his superior wisdom that enabled him to go there, then I know he is a fraud. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
451:Tem de admitir-se que é verdade que saber qualquer coisa não implica pensar nisso - mas alguém que saiba de alguma coisa não tem de ser capaz de duvidar dela? E duvidar significa pensar. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
452:People nowadays think that scientists exist to instruct them, poets, musicians, etc. to give them pleasure. The idea that these have something to teach them - that does not occur to them. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
453:Philosophy may in no way interfere with the actual use of language; it can in the end only describe it.

For it cannot give any foundation either.
It leaves everything as it is. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
454:حينما نفكر في مستقبل العالم، فنحن نعني الغاية التي سيصلها إذا ماواصل السير في الإتجاه الذي نراه يسير فيه الأن، ولا يخطر لنا أن مساره ليس خطا مستفيما، بل هو منحنى، يغير على الدوام من اتجاهه. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
455:deep inside me there's a perpetual seething, like the bottom of a geyser, and I keep hoping that things will come to an eruption once and for all, so that I can turn into a different person. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
456:Philosophy is not a body of doctrine but an activity. ...Without philosophy thoughts are, as it were, cloudy and indistinct: its task is to make them clear and to give them sharp boundaries. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
457:The truth can be spoken only by someone who is already at home in it; not by someone who still lives in untruthfulness, and does no more than reach out towards it from within untruthfulness. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
458:Vi känner att även när alla möjliga vetenskapliga frågor har besvarats, så har våra livsproblem inte ens blivit berörda. Då återstår förstås inte heller någon fråga - och just det är svaret. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
459:No pain can be greater than the pain of one person. [...] In other words, no suffering can be greater than that of one human being. [...} The whole planet cannot suffer more than a lone soul. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
460:[Philosophy] must set limits to what can be thought; and, in doing so, to what cannot be thought. It must set limits to what cannot be thought by working outwards through what can be thought. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
461:It is possible--indeed possible even according to the old conception of logic--to give in advance a description of all 'true' logical propositions. Hence there can never be surprises in logic. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
462:Suppose we think while we talk or write--I mean, as we normally do--we shall not in general say that we think quicker than we talk, but the thought seems not to be separate from the expression. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
463:Think of the tools in a tool-box: there is a hammer, pliers, a saw, a screwdriver, a rule, a glue-pot, nails and screws.--The function of words are as diverse as the functions of these objects. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
464:The sense of a truth-function of p is a function of the sense of p.   Denial, logical addition, logical multiplication, etc. etc., are operations.   (Denial reverses the sense of a proposition.) ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
465:Nowadays it is the fashion to emphasize the horrors of the last war. I didn't find it so horrible. There are just as horrible things happening all round us today, if only we had eyes to see them. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
466:We feel that even if all possible scientific questions be answered, the problems of life have still not been touched at all. Of course there is then no question left, and just this is the answer. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
467:Me siento inclinado a decir que la expresión lingüística correcta del milagro de la existencia del mundo -a pesar de no ser una proposición en el lenguaje- es la existencia del lenguaje mismo ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
468:Think, for example, of the words which you perhaps utter in this space of time. They are no longer part of this language. And in different surroundings the institution of money doesn’t exist either. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
469:Ludwig Wittgenstein once said that names are the only things that exist in the world. Maybe that's true, but the problem is that as time passes by, names do not remain the same - even if they don't change. ~ Victor Pelevin
470:One cannot guess how a word functions. One has to look at its use and learn from that. But the difficulty is to remove the prejudice which stands in the way of doing this. It is not a stupid prejudice. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
471:All philosophy is a 'critique of language' (though not in Mauthner's sense). It was Russell who performed the service of showing that the apparent logical form of a proposition need not be its real one. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
472:Remember that we sometimes demand explanations for the sake not of their content, but of their form. Our requirement is an architectural one; the explanation a kind of sham corbel that supports nothing. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
473:...the tendency of all men who ever tried to write or talk Ethics or Religion was to run against the boundaries of language. This running against the walls of our cage is perfectly, absolutely hopeless. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
474:Death is not an event in life: we do not live to experience death. If we take eternity to mean not infinite temporal duration but timelessness, then eternal life belongs to those who live in the present. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
475:You must always be puzzled by mental illness. The thing I would dread most, if I became mentally ill, would be your adopting a common sense attitude; that you could take it for granted that I was deluded ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
476:An honest religious thinker is like a tightrope walker. He almost looks as though he were walking on nothing but air. His support is the slenderest imaginable. And yet it really is possible to walk on it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
477:In philosophy it is always good to put a question instead of an answer to a question. For an answer to the philosophical question may easily be unfair; disposing of it by means of another question is not. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
478:The work of art is the object seen sub specie aeternitatis [i.e., under the aspect of eternity]; and the good life is the world seen sub specie aeternitatis. This is the connection between art and ethics. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
479:You must always be puzzled by mental illness. The thing I would dread most, if I became mentally ill, would be your adopting a common sense attitude; that you could take it for granted that I was deluded. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
480:An honest religious thinker is like a tightrope walker. He almost looks as though he were walking on nothing but air. His support is the slenderest imaginable. And yet it really is possible to walk on it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
481:In philosophy it is always good to put a question instead of an answer to a question. For an answer to the philosophical question may easily be unfair; disposing of it by means of another question is not. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
482:The real discovery is the one which enables me to stop doing philosophy when I want to. The one that gives philosophy peace, so that it is no longer tormented by questions which bring itself into question. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
483:I have extremely little courage myself, much less than you; but I have found that whenever, after a long struggle, I have screwed my courage up to do something I always felt much freer & happy after it. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
484:6.4311
Der Tod ist kein Ereignis des Lebens. Den Tod erlebt man nicht.
Wenn man unter Ewigkeit nicht unendliche Zeitdauer, sondern Unzeitlichkeit versteht, dann lebt der ewig, der in der Gegenwart lebt. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
485:In philosophy the race is to the one who can run slowest—the one who crosses the finish line last. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein, Culture and Value (1998), p. 40. Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 596-97.
486:My day passes between logic, whistling, going for walks, and being depressed. I wish to God that I were more intelligent and everything would finally become clear to me - or else that I needn't live much longer. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
487:My day passes between logic, whistling, going for walks, and being depressed. I wish to God that I were more intelligent and everything would finally become clear to me - or else that I needn’t live much longer. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
488:Self-evidence, of which Russell has said so much, can only be discarded in logic by language itself preventing every logical mistake. That logic is a priori consists in the fact that we cannot think illogically. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
489:The same operation which makes “q” from “p”, makes “r” from “q”, and so on. This can only be expressed by the fact that “p”, “q”, “r”, etc., are variables which give general expression to certain formal relations. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
490:The sense of the world must lie outside the world... What we cannot speak about we must remain silent about... What can be described can happen too, and what is excluded by the laws of causality cannot be described. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
491:Everything ritualistic must be strictly avoided, because it immediately turns rotten. Of course a kiss is a ritual too and it isn't rotten, but ritual is permissible only to the extent that it is as genuine as a kiss. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
492:What I called jottings would not be a rendering of the text, not so to speak a translation with another symbolism. The text would not be stored up in the jottings. And why should it be stored up in our nervous system? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
493:If a lion could talk, we could not understand him,' the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein once said.

'It's clear that Wittgenstein hadn't spent much time with lions,' commented the gambler and conservationist John Aspinall. ~ John N Gray
494:5.641 [...] Das philosophische Ich ist nicht der Mensch, nicht der menschliche Körper, oder die menschliche Seele, von der die Psychologie handelt, sondern das metaphysische Subjekt, die Grenze - nicht ein Teil - der Welt. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
495:Human beings have a physical need to tell themselves when at work: "Let's have done with it now," and it's having constantly to go on thinking in the face of this need when philosophizing that makes this work so strenuous. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
496:I am still at Trattenbach, surrounded, as ever, by odiousness and baseness. I know that human beings on the average are not worth much anywhere, but here they are much more good-for-nothing and irresponsible than elsewhere. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
497:Prior to my breakdown I went through a 5 week manic phase, with increasing mental excitation, decreasing sleep, and a near certainty that I wa sthe first person to actually understand what Ludwig Wittgenstein was actually saying. ~ Robert Trivers
498:I did not get my picture of the world by satisfying myself of its correctness; nor do I have it because I am satisfied of its correctness. No: it is the inherited background against which I distinguish between true and false. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
499:Most propositions and questions, that have been written about philosophical matters, are not false, but senseless. ... (They are of the same kind as the question whether the Good is more or less identical than the Beautiful.) ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein
500:Indeed how might it be if things revealed their colors only when (in our terms) no light fell on them - if, for example, the sky were black? Could we not then say, only by black light do they appear to us in their full colors? ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein

IN CHAPTERS



   1 Psychology






1.02 - MAPS OF MEANING - THREE LEVELS OF ANALYSIS, #Maps of Meaning, #Jordan Peterson, #Psychology
  5) They contain phenomena associated as a consequence of familial resemblance, a term used first in
  this context by Ludwig Wittgenstein.203 Things with familial resemblance all share similarities with a
  potentially hypothetical object. The prototypical Smith brother, to use a famous example,204 may have a

WORDNET



--- Overview of noun ludwig_wittgenstein

The noun ludwig wittgenstein has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts)
            
1. Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johan Wittgenstein ::: (British philosopher born in Austria; a major influence on logic and logical positivism (1889-1951))




--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun ludwig_wittgenstein

1 sense of ludwig wittgenstein                    

Sense 1
Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johan Wittgenstein
   INSTANCE OF=> philosopher
     => scholar, scholarly person, bookman, student
       => intellectual, intellect
         => person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
           => organism, being
             => living thing, animate thing
               => whole, unit
                 => object, physical object
                   => physical entity
                     => entity
           => causal agent, cause, causal agency
             => physical entity
               => entity




--- Hyponyms of noun ludwig_wittgenstein
                                    




--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun ludwig_wittgenstein

1 sense of ludwig wittgenstein                    

Sense 1
Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johan Wittgenstein
   INSTANCE OF=> philosopher










--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun ludwig_wittgenstein

1 sense of ludwig wittgenstein                    

Sense 1
Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johan Wittgenstein
  -> philosopher
   => nativist
   => Cynic
   => eclectic, eclecticist
   => empiricist
   => epistemologist
   => esthetician, aesthetician
   => ethicist, ethician
   => existentialist, existentialist philosopher, existential philosopher
   => gymnosophist
   => libertarian
   => mechanist
   => moralist
   => naturalist
   => necessitarian
   => nominalist
   => pluralist
   => pre-Socratic
   => realist
   => Scholastic
   => Sophist
   => Stoic
   => transcendentalist
   => yogi
   HAS INSTANCE=> Abelard, Peter Abelard, Pierre Abelard
   HAS INSTANCE=> Anaxagoras
   HAS INSTANCE=> Anaximander
   HAS INSTANCE=> Anaximenes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Arendt, Hannah Arendt
   HAS INSTANCE=> Aristotle
   HAS INSTANCE=> Averroes, ibn-Roshd, Abul-Walid Mohammed ibn-Ahmad Ibn-Mohammed ibn-Roshd
   HAS INSTANCE=> Avicenna, ibn-Sina, Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bacon, Francis Bacon, Sir Francis Bacon, Baron Verulam, 1st Baron Verulam, Viscount St. Albans
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bentham, Jeremy Bentham
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bergson, Henri Bergson, Henri Louis Bergson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Berkeley, Bishop Berkeley, George Berkeley
   HAS INSTANCE=> Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bruno, Giordano Bruno
   HAS INSTANCE=> Buber, Martin Buber
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cassirer, Ernst Cassirer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cleanthes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Comte, Auguste Comte, Isidore Auguste Marie Francois Comte
   HAS INSTANCE=> Condorcet, Marquis de Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat
   HAS INSTANCE=> Confucius, Kongfuze, K'ung Futzu, Kong the Master
   HAS INSTANCE=> Democritus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Derrida, Jacques Derrida
   HAS INSTANCE=> Descartes, Rene Descartes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Dewey, John Dewey
   HAS INSTANCE=> Diderot, Denis Diderot
   HAS INSTANCE=> Diogenes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Empedocles
   HAS INSTANCE=> Epictetus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Epicurus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Haeckel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hartley, David Hartley
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Heraclitus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Herbart, Johann Friedrich Herbart
   HAS INSTANCE=> Herder, Johann Gottfried von Herder
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hobbes, Thomas Hobbes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hume, David Hume
   HAS INSTANCE=> Husserl, Edmund Husserl
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hypatia
   HAS INSTANCE=> James, William James
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kant, Immanuel Kant
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kierkegaard, Soren Kierkegaard, Soren Aabye Kierkegaard
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lao-tzu, Lao-tse, Lao-zi
   HAS INSTANCE=> Leibniz, Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz
   HAS INSTANCE=> Locke, John Locke
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lucretius, Titus Lucretius Carus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lully, Raymond Lully, Ramon Lully
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mach, Ernst Mach
   HAS INSTANCE=> Machiavelli, Niccolo Machiavelli
   HAS INSTANCE=> Maimonides, Moses Maimonides, Rabbi Moses Ben Maimon
   HAS INSTANCE=> Malebranche, Nicolas de Malebranche
   HAS INSTANCE=> Marcuse, Herbert Marcuse
   HAS INSTANCE=> Marx, Karl Marx
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mead, George Herbert Mead
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mill, John Mill, John Stuart Mill
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mill, James Mill
   HAS INSTANCE=> Montesquieu, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat
   HAS INSTANCE=> Moore, G. E. Moore, George Edward Moore
   HAS INSTANCE=> Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
   HAS INSTANCE=> Occam, William of Occam, Ockham, William of Ockham
   HAS INSTANCE=> Origen
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ortega y Gasset, Jose Ortega y Gasset
   HAS INSTANCE=> Parmenides
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pascal, Blaise Pascal
   HAS INSTANCE=> Peirce, Charles Peirce, Charles Sanders Peirce
   HAS INSTANCE=> Perry, Ralph Barton Perry
   HAS INSTANCE=> Plato
   HAS INSTANCE=> Plotinus
   => Popper, Karl Popper, Sir Karl Raimund Popper
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pythagoras
   HAS INSTANCE=> Quine, W. V. Quine, Willard Van Orman Quine
   HAS INSTANCE=> Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
   HAS INSTANCE=> Reid, Thomas Reid
   HAS INSTANCE=> Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
   HAS INSTANCE=> Russell, Bertrand Russell, Bertrand Arthur William Russell, Earl Russell
   HAS INSTANCE=> Schopenhauer, Arthur Schopenhauer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Schweitzer, Albert Schweitzer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Seneca, Lucius Annaeus Seneca
   HAS INSTANCE=> Socrates
   HAS INSTANCE=> Spencer, Herbert Spencer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Spengler, Oswald Spengler
   HAS INSTANCE=> Spinoza, de Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza
   HAS INSTANCE=> Steiner, Rudolf Steiner
   HAS INSTANCE=> Stewart, Dugald Stewart
   HAS INSTANCE=> Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Sir Rabindranath Tagore
   HAS INSTANCE=> Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Thales, Thales of Miletus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Theophrastus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Weil, Simone Weil
   HAS INSTANCE=> Whitehead, Alfred North Whitehead
   HAS INSTANCE=> Williams, Sir Bernard Williams, Bernard Arthur Owen Williams
   HAS INSTANCE=> Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johan Wittgenstein
   HAS INSTANCE=> Xenophanes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Zeno, Zeno of Citium
   HAS INSTANCE=> Zeno, Zeno of Elea










--- Grep of noun ludwig_wittgenstein
ludwig wittgenstein





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