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subject class:Poetry
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OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
Beating_the_Cloth_Drum__Letters_of_Zen_Master_Hakuin
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Infinite_Library
Manual_of_Zen_Buddhism
Mixed_Collection
Wild_Ivy__A_Spiritual_Autobiography_of_Zen_Master_Hakuin

IN CHAPTERS TITLE
1.he_-_Hakuins_Song_of_Zazen
1.he_-_The_Form_of_the_Formless_(from_Hakuins_Song_of_Zazen)

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME
1.he_-_Hakuins_Song_of_Zazen
1.he_-_Past,_present,_future-_unattainable
1.he_-_The_Form_of_the_Formless_(from_Hakuins_Song_of_Zazen)
1.he_-_The_monkey_is_reaching
1.he_-_You_no_sooner_attain_the_great_void

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
1.01_-_To_Watanabe_Sukefusa
1.02_-_To_Zen_Monks_Kin_and_Koku
1.03_-_To_Layman_Ishii
1.04_-_GOD_IN_THE_WORLD
1.04_-_To_the_Priest_of_Rytan-ji
1.he_-_Hakuins_Song_of_Zazen
1.he_-_Past,_present,_future-_unattainable
1.he_-_The_Form_of_the_Formless_(from_Hakuins_Song_of_Zazen)
1.he_-_The_monkey_is_reaching
1.he_-_You_no_sooner_attain_the_great_void
2.14_-_The_Unpacking_of_God

PRIMARY CLASS

author
SIMILAR TITLES
Beating the Cloth Drum Letters of Zen Master Hakuin
Hakuin
Hakuin Ekaku
Wild Ivy A Spiritual Autobiography of Zen Master Hakuin

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH

Hakuin Ekaku

Hakuin Ekaku. (白隱慧鶴) (1685-1768). Japanese ZEN master renowned for revitalizing the RINZAISHu. Hakuin was a native of Hara in Shizuoka Prefecture. In 1699, Hakuin was ordained and received the name Ekaku (Wise Crane) from the monk Tanrei Soden (d. 1701) at the nearby temple of Shoinji. Shortly thereafter, Hakuin was sent by Tanrei to the temple of Daishoji in Numazu to serve the abbot Sokudo Fueki (d. 1712). Hakuin is then said to have lost faith in his Buddhist training and devoted much of his time instead to art. In 1704, Hakuin visited the monk Bao Sochiku (1629-1711) at the temple Zuiunji in Mino province. While studying under Bao, Hakuin is said to have read the CHANGUAN CEJIN by YUNQI ZHUHONG, which inspired him to further meditative training. In 1708, Hakuin is said to have had his first awakening experience upon hearing the ringing of a distant bell. That same year, Hakuin met Doju Sokaku (1679-1730), who urged him to visit the Zen master Dokyo Etan (1642-1721), or Shoju Ronin, at the hermitage of Shojuan in Iiyama. During one of his begging rounds, Hakuin is said to have had another important awakening after an old woman struck him with a broom. Shortly after his departure from Shojuan, Hakuin suffered from an illness, which he cured with the help of a legendary hermit named Hakuyu. Hakuin's famous story of his encounter with Hakuyu was recounted in his YASENKANNA, Orategama, and Itsumadegusa. In 1716, Hakuin returned to Shoinji and devoted much of his time to restoring the monastery, teaching students, and lecturing. Hakuin delivered famous lectures on such texts as the VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA, VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, BIYAN LU, BAOJING SANMEI, DAHUI PUJUE CHANSHI SHU, and YUANREN LUN, and the recorded sayings (YULU) of LINJI YIXUAN, WUZU FAYAN, and XUTANG ZHIYU. He also composed a number of important texts during this period, such as the Kanzan shi sendai kimon, Kaian kokugo, and SOKKoROKU KAIEN FUSETSU. Prior to his death, Hakuin established the monastery of Ryutakuji in Mishima (present-day Shizuoka prefecture). Hakuin was a strong advocate of "questioning meditation" (J. kanna Zen; C. KANHUA CHAN), which focused on the role of doubt in contemplating the koan (GONG'AN). Hakuin proposed that the sense of doubt was the catalyst for an initial SATORI (awakening; C. WU), which had then to be enhanced through further koan study in order to mature the experience. The contemporary Rinzai training system involving systematic study of many different koans is attributed to Hakuin, as is the famous koan, "What is the sound of one hand clapping?" (see SEKISHU KoAN). Hakuin was a prolific writer who left many other works as well, including the Dokugo shingyo, Oniazami, Yabukoji, Hebiichigo, Keiso dokuzui, Yaemugura, and Zazen wasan. Hakuin also produced many prominent disciples, including ToREI ENJI, Suio Genro (1716-1789), and GASAN JITo. The contemporary Japanese Rinzai school of Zen traces its lineage and teachings back to Hakuin and his disciples.


TERMS ANYWHERE

asceticism. (S. duskaracaryA; P. dukkarakArikA; T. dka' ba spyod pa; C. kuxing; J. kugyo; K. kohaeng 苦行). Derived from the Greek term askesis, "to exercise"; the performance of austerities, both mental and physical, for the purpose of attaining enlightenment (BODHI) and, in certain cases, special powers or knowledges (ABHIJNA). The basic Buddhist attitude toward asceticism, as found in the narrative surrounding the life of the Buddha, has been a negative one, particularly with regard to those practices associated with physical torment, such as fasting. The Buddha himself is said to have once practiced asceticism with five fellow ascetics in the forest of URUVILVA, only to eventually abandon it for the middle way (MADHYAMAPRATIPAD) between sensual indulgence and mortification of the flesh. Ascetic practices nevertheless continued to be important in the various Buddhist traditions, as attested to by the life stories of the teachers MI LA RAS PA (Milarepa), BODHIDHARMA, and HAKUIN EKAKU to name but a few. See also DUsKARACARYA; DHUTAnGA; TAPAS.

Hakuin Ekaku

Hakuin Ekaku. (白隱慧鶴) (1685-1768). Japanese ZEN master renowned for revitalizing the RINZAISHu. Hakuin was a native of Hara in Shizuoka Prefecture. In 1699, Hakuin was ordained and received the name Ekaku (Wise Crane) from the monk Tanrei Soden (d. 1701) at the nearby temple of Shoinji. Shortly thereafter, Hakuin was sent by Tanrei to the temple of Daishoji in Numazu to serve the abbot Sokudo Fueki (d. 1712). Hakuin is then said to have lost faith in his Buddhist training and devoted much of his time instead to art. In 1704, Hakuin visited the monk Bao Sochiku (1629-1711) at the temple Zuiunji in Mino province. While studying under Bao, Hakuin is said to have read the CHANGUAN CEJIN by YUNQI ZHUHONG, which inspired him to further meditative training. In 1708, Hakuin is said to have had his first awakening experience upon hearing the ringing of a distant bell. That same year, Hakuin met Doju Sokaku (1679-1730), who urged him to visit the Zen master Dokyo Etan (1642-1721), or Shoju Ronin, at the hermitage of Shojuan in Iiyama. During one of his begging rounds, Hakuin is said to have had another important awakening after an old woman struck him with a broom. Shortly after his departure from Shojuan, Hakuin suffered from an illness, which he cured with the help of a legendary hermit named Hakuyu. Hakuin's famous story of his encounter with Hakuyu was recounted in his YASENKANNA, Orategama, and Itsumadegusa. In 1716, Hakuin returned to Shoinji and devoted much of his time to restoring the monastery, teaching students, and lecturing. Hakuin delivered famous lectures on such texts as the VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA, VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, BIYAN LU, BAOJING SANMEI, DAHUI PUJUE CHANSHI SHU, and YUANREN LUN, and the recorded sayings (YULU) of LINJI YIXUAN, WUZU FAYAN, and XUTANG ZHIYU. He also composed a number of important texts during this period, such as the Kanzan shi sendai kimon, Kaian kokugo, and SOKKoROKU KAIEN FUSETSU. Prior to his death, Hakuin established the monastery of Ryutakuji in Mishima (present-day Shizuoka prefecture). Hakuin was a strong advocate of "questioning meditation" (J. kanna Zen; C. KANHUA CHAN), which focused on the role of doubt in contemplating the koan (GONG'AN). Hakuin proposed that the sense of doubt was the catalyst for an initial SATORI (awakening; C. WU), which had then to be enhanced through further koan study in order to mature the experience. The contemporary Rinzai training system involving systematic study of many different koans is attributed to Hakuin, as is the famous koan, "What is the sound of one hand clapping?" (see SEKISHU KoAN). Hakuin was a prolific writer who left many other works as well, including the Dokugo shingyo, Oniazami, Yabukoji, Hebiichigo, Keiso dokuzui, Yaemugura, and Zazen wasan. Hakuin also produced many prominent disciples, including ToREI ENJI, Suio Genro (1716-1789), and GASAN JITo. The contemporary Japanese Rinzai school of Zen traces its lineage and teachings back to Hakuin and his disciples.

Ekaku. (J) (慧鶴). See HAKUIN EKAKU.

fusho Zen. (不生禪). In Japanese, "unborn Zen"; a form of ZEN meditation popularized by the RINZAISHu master BANKEI YoTAKU. The teaching of the "unborn" (fusho) functioned as the central theme of Bankei's vernacular sermons (kana hogo). According to Bankei, the unborn is none other than buddha-nature (FOXING), or buddha mind, itself. As such, he emphatically notes that there is little need actually to seek buddhahood, since everyone is already born with the innate, unborn buddha mind. Bankei's teaching of unborn Zen was harshly criticized by the fellow Rinzai Zen master HAKUIN EKAKU.

gong'an. (J. koan; K. kongan 公案). In Chinese, "public case," or "precedent"; better known in the West by its Japanese pronunciation koan, a word that has now entered common English parlance as "koan." Gong'an was originally a legal term, referring to the magistrate's (gong) table (an), which by metonymy comes to refer to a legal precedent or an authoritative judgment; the term also comes to mean simply a "story" (gong'an in vernacular Chinese refers to the genre of detective stories). The term is widely used in the CHAN school in a way that conveys both denotations of a legal precedent and a story. The study of gong'an seems to have had its beginnings in the practice, probably dating from the late-Tang dynasty, of commenting on the exchanges or "ancient precedents" (guce) culled from Chan genealogical histories (e.g., JINGDE CHUANDENG LU) and the recorded sayings or discourse records (YULU) of the Chan masters of the past. Commenting on old cases (niangu), often using verses (SONGGU), seems to have become a well-established practice by the early Song dynasty, as more recorded sayings began to include separate sections known as nianggu and songgu. Perhaps one of the most famous collections of verse commentaries on old cases is the Chan master XUEDOU CHONGXIAN's Xuedou heshang baice songgu, which now exists only as part of a larger influential collection of gong'ans known as the BIYAN LU. Other famous gong'an collections, such as the CONGRONG LU and WUMEN GUAN, were compiled during the Song dynasty and thereafter. These collections often shared a similar format. Each case (bence), with some exceptions, begins with a pointer (CHUISHI), a short introductory paragraph. The actual case, often a short anecdote, is interspersed with interlinear notes known as "annotations" or "capping phrases" (C. zhuoyu/zhuyu; see J. JAKUGO). After the case, a prose commentary (pingchang), verse commentary (songgu), and subcommentary on the verse commentary follow. Traditionally, 1,700 specific gong'an are said to have been in circulation in the Chan school. Although this number does have antecedents within the tradition, there are no fixed numbers of cases included in Chan gong'an anthologies; for example, a late Qing-dynasty collection, the 1712 Zongjian falin, includes 2,720 gong'an, which were claimed to be all the gong'an then in active use within the tradition. Whatever the number, there seems not to have been any kind of systematic curriculum within the Chinese Chan or Korean Son traditions using this full panoply of gong'an. The creation of a pedagogical system of training involving mastery of a series of many different koans is commonly attributed to HAKUIN EKAKU (1685-1768) in the Japanese RINZAISHu of ZEN. The widespread reference to 1,700 gong'an in Western-language materials may derive from accounts of Japanese government attempts in 1627 to routinize the Rinzai monastic curriculum, by promulgating a regulation requiring all Zen abbots to master 1,700 cases as part of their training. ¶ The literary endeavor of studying old cases also gave rise to new forms of meditation. The Chan master DAHUI ZONGGAO in the YANGQI PAI of the LINJI ZONG systematized a practice in which one focuses on what he termed the "meditative topic" (HUATOU), which in some contexts refers to the "keyword," or "critical phrase" of a gong'an story. For instance, the famous huatou "WU" (no) that Dahui used as a meditative topic was derived from a popular gong'an attributed to ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN: A student asked Zhaozhou, "Does a dog have buddha nature, or not?," to which Zhaozhou replied "wu" (no; lit., "it does not have it") (see WU GONG'AN; GOUZI WU FOXING). This new practice was called the "Chan of observing the meditative topic" or, more freely, "questioning meditation" (KANHUA CHAN). During the Song dynasty, students also began to seek private instruction on gong'an from Chan masters. These instructions often occurred in the abbot's quarters (FANGZHANG). ¶ The active study of gong'an in Korean SoN begins with POJO CHINUL and his disciple CHIN'GAK HYESIM, who learned of Dahui's kanhua Chan largely through the writings of their Chinese counterpart. Hyesim was also the first Korean Son monk to compile his own massive collection of cases, titled the SoNMUN YoMSONG CHIP. The use of cases was later transmitted to Japan by pilgrims and émigré monks, where koan study became emblematic of the Rinzaishu. Because rote memorization of capping phrases came to take precedence over skilled literary composition in classical Chinese, the Japanese compiled large collections of capping phrases, such as the ZENRIN KUSHu, to use in their training.

Gudo Toshoku. (愚堂東寔) (1579-1661). Japanese ZEN master in the RINZAISHu. Gudo Toshoku was born in Mino, present-day Gifu prefecture. In his twenties, he went on a pilgrimage around the country with several other young monks, such as DAIGU SoCHIKU and Ungo Kiyo (1582-1659), in search of a teacher. Gudo later travelled to Shotakuin, a memorial chapel (tatchu) at the Rinzai monastery of MYoSHINJI, where he found a teacher by the name of Yozan Keiyo (1559-1626). Gudo later became Yozan's DHARMA heir (see FASI). In 1614, Gudo became the abbot of a dilapidated monastery named Zuiganji in his native Mino. He was also invited as the abbot of the nearby monastery of Shodenji. In 1621, he was once again invited to restore Daisenji, another dilapidated monastery in Mino. With the support of powerful local patrons, Gudo was able to restore all these monasteries. In 1628, he became the abbot of Myoshinji and served as abbot a total of three times. During his stay at Myoshinji, Gudo led a faction within the monastery that opposed tendering an invitation to the Chinese Chan master YINYUAN LONGQI to serve as abbot of the monastery. Yinyuan instead was invited to Uji in 1661 to establish a new monastery, MANPUKUJI, which led to the foundation of the oBAKUSHu of Japanese Zen. Gudo later returned to his efforts to restore monasteries throughout the country. During the Tokugawa period, monasteries were mandated by the military government (bakufu) to affiliate themselves with a main monastery (honzan), thus becoming branch temples (matsuji). The monasteries that Gudo restored became branch temples of Myoshinji. Through Gudo's efforts, the influence of Myoshinji thus grew extensively. The influential Zen master HAKUIN EKAKU traced his lineage back to Gudo through the latter's disciple Shido Bunan (1603-1676) and Shido's disciple Dokyo Etan (1642-1721). Gudo later received the honorary title Daien Hokan kokushi (State Preceptor Great and Perfect Jeweled Mirror). His teachings can be found in the Hokanroku.

huatou. (J. wato; K. hwadu 話頭). In Chinese, "topic of inquiry"; in some contexts, "critical phrase" or "keyword." The Song-dynasty CHAN master DAHUI ZONGGAO, in the LINJI ZONG, popularized a meditative technique in which he urged his students (many of whom were educated literati) to use a Chan case (GONG'AN) as a "topic of meditative inquiry" (huatou) rather than interpret it from purely intellectual or literary perspectives. Perhaps the most famous and most widely used huatou is the topic "no" (WU) attributed to the Chan master ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN: A monk asked Zhaozhou, "Does a dog have buddha-nature (FOXING), or not?," to which Zhaozhou replied "WU" ("no"; lit. "it does not have it"; see GOUZI WU FOXING; WU GONG'AN). Because of the widespread popularity of this particular one-word topic in China, Korea, and Japan, this huatou is often interpreted as a "critical phrase'" or "keyword," in which the word "wu" is presumed to be the principal topic and thus the "keyword," or "critical phrase," of the longer gong'an exchange. Because Zhaozhou's answer in this exchange goes against the grain of East Asian Mahāyāna Buddhism-which presumes that all sentient beings, including dogs, are inherently enlightened-the huatou helps to foster questioning, or technically "doubt" (YIQING), the focus of a new type of Chan meditation called KANHUA CHAN, "the Chan of investigating the huatou." Huatou (which literally means "head of speech," and thus "topic") might best be taken metaphorically as the "apex of speech," or the "point at which (or beyond which) speech exhausts itself." Speech is of course initiated by thought, so "speech" in this context refers to all the discriminative tendencies of the mind, viz., conceptualization. By leading to the very limits of speech-or more accurately thought-the huatou acts as a purification device that frees the mind of its conceptualizing tendencies, leaving it clear, attentive, and calm. Even though the huatou is typically a word or phrase taken from the teachings of previous Chan masters, it is a word that is claimed to bring an end to conceptualization, leaving the mind receptive to the influence of the unconditioned. As Dahui notes, huatou produces a "cleansing knowledge and vision" (see JNĀNADARsANA) that "removes the defects of conceptual understanding so that one may find the road leading to liberation." Huatou is thus sometimes interpreted in Chinese Buddhism as a type of meditative "homeopathy," in which one uses a small dosage of the poison of concepts to cure the disease of conceptualization. Dahui's use of the huatou technique was first taught in Korea by POJO CHINUL, where it is known by its Korean pronunciation as hwadu, and popularized by Chinul's successor, CHIN'GAK HYESIM. Investigation of the hwadu remains the most widespread type of meditation taught and practiced in Korean Buddhism. In Japanese Zen, the use of the wato became widespread within the RINZAISHu, due in large part to the efforts of HAKUIN EKAKU and his disciples.

Kaian kokugo. (槐安國語). In Japanese, "Words on the Peaceful Land of the Locust-Trees," composed by the Japanese RINZAI ZEN master HAKUIN EKAKU. The peaceful land of the locust-trees (Sophora japonica) is an allusion to the tale of a retired official who dreams of a peaceful paradise, but upon waking realizes that it was nothing but a mound of ants living underneath a locust-tree in the yard. This tale is found in the Nanke taishou zhuan ("Biography of the Governor of Nanke"), written by Li Gongzuo (c. 778-848), and retold in the Nanke ji ("Record of the Southern Bough") by the Ming-dynasty playwright Tang Xianzu (1550-1617). Hakuin composed this treatise in 1749 and published it the next year in 1750. The treatise, which was written at the request of his students, consists largely of Hakuin's prose commentary and notes on the recorded sayings (YULU) of the Zen master Daito (see SoHo MYoCHo). The entire treatise was written in literary Chinese.

kanhua Chan. (J. kannazen/kanwazen; K. kanhwa Son 看話禪). In Chinese, "Chan of investigating the topic of inquiry," or, more freely, "questioning meditation." The systematization of this meditative practice is commonly traced back to the writings of the Song-dynasty CHAN master DAHUI ZONGGAO. The kanhua Chan technique grew out of the growing interest in the study of "public cases" (GONG'AN), viz., old stories and anecdotes of Chan masters, which flourished during the Song dynasty. Dahui's teacher YUANWU KEQIN is also known to have lectured on numerous public cases, and his anthology of gong'an, along with his analysis of them, was recorded in the famous collection the BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Records"). Dahui further elaborated upon Yuanwu's investigation of public cases and applied this process to the practice of Chan meditation. In his lectures and letters (DAHUI PUJUE CHANSHI SHU), Dahui urged his students (many of whom were educated literati) to use the gong'an as a "topic of meditative inquiry" (HUATOU, K. hwadu), rather than interpret it from purely intellectual or conceptual perspectives. Perhaps the most famous huatou is the topic "no" (WU) attributed to the Chan master ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN: A monk asked Zhaozhou, "Does a dog have buddha-nature (FOXING), or not?" to which Zhaozhou replied "WU" ("no"; lit. "it does not have it"). (See WU GONG'AN; GOUZI WU FOXING.) (Because of the popularity of this one-word meditative topic, kanhua Chan is often interpreted to mean the investigation of the "critical phrase" or "keyword," in which the "keyword" "wu" is presumed to have been extracted from the longer gong'an exchange.) The investigation of this huatou starts by "investigating the meaning" (C. canyi; K. ch'amŭi) of the huatou: what could Zhaozhou have meant by answering "no" to this question, when the right answer should be "yes"? The mainstream of East Asian Buddhist doctrine insists that all sentient beings, including dogs, are inherently enlightened and thus do in fact possess the buddha-nature, so this question promotes inquiry. Examining what Zhaozhou might have meant by saying "no" has what Dahui termed "taste" (C. wei, K. mi), meaning intellectual interest. As one's intellectual inquiry into this question continues, however, the student is ultimately left with "doubt" (YIQING), viz., the inability of the (unenlightened) mind to understand Zhaozhou's motive in giving this response to the student's question. Doubt, Dahui says, renders the mind "puzzled, frustrated, and tasteless" (viz., lacking intellectual interest), just as if you were gnawing on an iron rod." Once doubt arises, there is no longer any conceptual support for the meditation, and the student moves on to "investigating the word" (C. canju; K. ch'amgu), viz., just sitting with the huatou wu and no longer trying to understand Zhaozhou's motive in offering this response. At this point, the huatou becomes a "live word" (C. huoju; K. hwalgu) that helps to free the mind from conceptualization and to lead the meditator forward toward liberation. As the sense of doubt becomes more and more intense, it finally "explodes" (C. po; K. p'a), bringing an end to the deluded processes of thought and removing the limiting point of view that is the self. Once the distinctions between self and other disintegrate, the meditator experiences the interconnection between himself or herself and all the phenomena in the universe (SHISHI WU'AI). Kanhua Chan, therefore, employs the inevitable doubt that a benighted person would have about the sayings of the enlightened Chan masters of old to create a powerful sense of inquiry that leads the meditator toward the experience of nonconceptualization and finally enlightenment. ¶ Dahui's system of kanhua Chan was first taught in Korea by POJO CHINUL, where it is known as kanhwa Son, and popularized by Chinul's successor, CHIN'GAK HYESIM. Kanhwa Son continues to be the most common contemplative technique practiced in Korean Son halls. Korean Son monks typically work on one hwadu-often Zhaozhou's "no"-for much of their career, continually deepening their experience of that topic. In China, after the Ming dynasty, kanhua Chan merged with the recitation of the buddha AMITĀBHA's name (NIANFO), so that Chan meditators would turn the recitation into a huatou by reflecting on the topic "Who is reciting the Buddha's name?" In Japanese Zen, due in large part to the efforts of HAKUIN EKAKU and his disciples, kannazen became widespread within the RINZAI ZEN tradition, where it was incorporated into an elaborate system of koan training, involving the systematic investigation of many different koans.

Myoshinji. (妙心寺). In Japanese, "Sublime Mind Monastery"; an influential ZEN monastery in Kyoto that is currently the headquarters (HONZAN) of the Myoshinji branch of the RINZAISHu. After the eminent Zen master Daito's (see SoHo MYoCHo) death in 1337, Emperor Hanazono (r. 1308-1318) converted his country villa into a monastery, which he named Myoshinji, and installed Daito's disciple KANZAN EGEN as its founding abbot (J. kaisan; C. KAISHAN). During the Muromachi period, Myoshinji was excluded from the powerful GOZAN ranking system and became the subject of harsh persecution during Ashikaga's rule. In the early half of the fifteenth century, the monk Nippo Soshun (1358-1448) oversaw the restoration of Myoshinji, but the monastery was consumed in a conflagration during the onin war (1467-1469). In 1477, with the support of Emperor Gotsuchimikado (r. 1464-1500) the monastery was restored once more under the supervision of its abbot Sekko Soshin (1408-1486). At the decree of Emperor Gokashiwabara (r. 1500-1526), Myoshinji was included in the gozan system and enjoyed the financial support of a high-ranking official monastery. Largely through its tight fiscal management and active proselytizing efforts, Myoshinji expanded quickly to control over fifty branch temples and became one of the most influential monasteries of the Rinzai Zen tradition. During the Edo period, a renowned Zen master of the Myoshinji lineage named HAKUIN EKAKU played an important role in the revitalization of the koan (C. GONG'AN) training system.

Nanpo Jomyo. [alt. Shomyo] (南浦紹明) (1235-1308). Japanese ZEN master in the RINZAISHu; a native of Suruga in present-day Shizuoka Prefecture. He studied under the émigré Chinese Chan master LANXI DAOLONG (1213-1278) at the monastery of KENCHoJI in Kamakura. In 1259, Nanpo left for China, where he studied with the LINJI ZONG Chan master XUTANG ZHIYU (1185-1269). Before returning to Japan, Nanpo is said to have received Xutang's seal of approval (see YINKE) and thus inherited Xutang's Linji lineage. In 1267, Nanpo returned to Japan and served his teacher Lanxi. Nanpo later moved to the monastery of Sufukuji in Hakata (present-day Kyushu), where he continued to reside for the next thirty-three years. In 1305, he was invited to the influential monastery of Manjuji in Kyoto and was installed as its abbot. Later, he served as abbot of his home monastery of Kenchoji. In 1309, he received the posthumous title State Preceptor Entsu Daio (Perfect Penetration, Great Resonance). Among his disciples SoHo MYoCHo (1282-1337), also known as Daito, is most famous. Currently, virtually all monks in the Rinzai Zen tradition trace their lineages back to Nanpo via HAKUIN EKAKU (1685-1768). The lineages that originated from Nanpo came to be known collectively as the otokan, which is a combination of Sinographs taken from the names of Dai-o, Dai-to, and Kan-zan (see KANZAN EGEN).

obakushu. (黄檗宗). In Japanese, "obaku school"; one of the three main ZEN traditions in Japan, along with the RINZAISHu and SoToSHu. The émigré Chinese CHAN master YINYUAN LONGQI (1594-1673) is credited with its foundation. In 1654, Yinyuan fled the wars that accompanied the fall of the Ming dynasty and the establishment of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and arrived in Nagasaki, Japan, where he first served as abbot of the monastery of Kofukuji. With the support of the shogun Tokugawa Ietsuna (1639-1680) and Emperor Gomizunoo (r. 1611-1629), in 1661, Yinyuan traveled to a mountain he named obaku (after Mt. Huangbo in China), where he began construction of a new monastery that he named MANPUKUJI (C. Wanfusi), after his old monastery in Fujian, China. The monastery and the broader obaku tradition retained many of the exotic Chinese customs that Yinyuan and his Chinese disciples MU'AN XINGTAO, Jifei Ruyi (1616-1617), and Huilin Xingji (1609-1681) had brought with them from the mainland, including the latest monastic architecture and institutional systems, the use of vernacular Chinese as the official ritual language in the monastery, and training in Chinese artistic and literary styles. In addition, for thirteen generations after Yinyuan, Manpukuji's abbots continued to be Chinese, and only later began to alternate between Chinese and Japanese successors. These Chinese monastic customs that Yinyuan introduced were met with great ambivalence by such Japanese Rinzai leaders as Gudo Toshoku (1577-1661) and later HAKUIN EKAKU. Although Yinyuan himself was affiliated with the YANGQI PAI in the Chinese LINJI ZONG, Chinese Chan traditions during this period had also assimilated the widespread practice of reciting of the Buddha's name (C. NIANFO; J. nenbutsu) by transforming it into a form of "questioning meditation" (C. KANHUA CHAN; J. kannazen): e.g., "Who is it who is reciting the Buddha's name?" Raising this question while engaging in nenbutsu was a technique that initially helped to concentrate the mind, but would also subsequently help raise the sense of doubt (C. YIQING; J. gijo) that was central to Linji school accounts of authentic Chan meditation. However, since buddha-recitation was at this time closely associated in Japan with pure land traditions, such as JoDOSHu and JoDO SHINSHu, this approach to Chan practice was extremely controversial among contemporary Japanese Zen adepts. The Chinese style of Zen that Yinyuan and his followers promulgated in Japan prompted their contemporaries in the Rinzai and Soto Zen traditions to reevaluate their own practices and to initiate a series of important reform movements within their respective traditions (cf. IN'IN EKISHI). During the Meiji period, obaku, Rinzai, and Soto were formally recognized as separate Zen traditions (ZENSHu) by the imperial government. Currently, the monastery Manpukuji in Uji serves as the headquarters (honzan) of the obaku school.

PrajNāpāramitāhṛdayasutra. (T. Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po'i mdo; C. Bore boluomiduo xin jing; J. Hannya haramitta shingyo; K. Panya paramilta sim kyong 般若波羅蜜多心經). In English, the "Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra" (or, in other interpretations, the "DHĀRAnĪ-Sutra of the Perfection of Wisdom"); a work known in English simply as the "Heart Sutra"; one of only a handful of Buddhist SuTRAs (including the "Lotus Sutra" and the "Diamond Sutra") to be widely known by an English title. The "Heart Sutra" is perhaps the most famous, and certainly the most widely recited, of all Buddhist sutras across all Mahāyāna traditions. It is also one of the most commented upon, eliciting more Indian commentaries than any Mahāyāna sutra (eight), including works by such luminaries as KAMALAsĪLA, VIMALAMITRA, and ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNĀNA, as well as such important East Asian figures as FAZANG, KuKAI, and HAKUIN EKAKU. As its title suggests, the scripture purports to be the quintessence or heart (hṛdaya) of the "perfection of wisdom" (PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ), in its denotations as both supreme wisdom and the eponymous genre of scriptures. The sutra exists in long and short versions-with the longer version better known in India and the short version better known in East Asia-but even the long version is remarkably brief, requiring only a single page in translation. The short version, which is probably the earlier of the two recensions, is best known through its Chinese translation by XUANZANG made c. 649 CE. There has been speculation that the Chinese version may be a redaction of sections of the Chinese recension of the MAHĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA (also translated by Xuanzang) as a mnemonic encoding (dhāranī) of the massive perfection of wisdom literature, which was then subsequently translated back into Sanskrit, perhaps by Xuanzang himself. Although there is as yet no scholarly consensus on the provenance of the text, if this argument is correct, this would make the "Heart Sutra" by far the most influential of all indigenous Chinese scriptures (see APOCRYPHA). The long version of the text, set on Vulture Peak (GṚDHRAKutAPARVATA) outside RĀJAGṚHA, begins with the Buddha entering SAMĀDHI. At that point, the BODHISATTVA AVALOKITEsVARA (who rarely appears as an interlocutor in the prajNāpāramitā sutras) contemplates the perfection of wisdom and sees that the five aggregates (SKANDHA) are empty of intrinsic nature (SVABHĀVA). The monk sĀRIPUTRA, considered the wisest of the Buddha's sRĀVAKA disciples, is inspired by the Buddha to ask Avalokitesvara how one should train in the perfection of wisdom. Avalokitesvara's answer constitutes the remainder of the sutra (apart from a brief epilogue in the longer version of the text). That answer, which consists essentially of a litany of negations of the major categories of Buddhist thought-including such seminal lists as the five aggregates (skandha), twelve sense-fields (ĀYATANA), twelve links of dependent origination (PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA), and FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS-contains two celebrated statements. The first, made in reference to the first of the five aggregates, is "form (RuPA) is emptiness (suNYATĀ); emptiness is form" (RuPAM suNYATĀ sUNYATAIVA RuPAM). This is one of the most widely quoted and commented upon statements in the entire corpus of Mahāyāna sutras and thus is not easily amenable to succinct explication. In brief, however, the line suggests that emptiness, as the nature of ultimate reality, is not located in some rarified realm, but rather is found in the ordinary objects of everyday experience. The other celebrated statement is the spell (MANTRA) that concludes Avalokitesvara's discourse-GATE GATE PĀRAGATE PĀRASAMGATE BODHI SVĀHĀ-which, unlike many mantras, is amenable to translation: "gone, gone, gone beyond, gone completely beyond, enlightenment, svāha." This mantra has also been widely commented upon. The presence of the mantra in the sutra has led to its classification as a TANTRA rather than a sutra in some Tibetan catalogues; it also forms the basis of Indian tantric SĀDHANAs. The brevity of the text has given it a talismanic quality, being recited on all manner of occasions (it is commonly used as an exorcistic text in Tibet) and inscribed on all manner of objects, including fans, teacups, and neckties in modern Japan.

Rinzaishu. (濟宗). In Japanese, "Rinzai School"; one of the major Japanese ZEN schools established in the early Kamakura period. The various branches of the Japanese Rinzai Zen tradition trace their lineages back to the Chinese CHAN master LINJI YIXUAN (J. Rinzai Gigen) and his eponymous LINJI ZONG; the name Rinzai, like its Chinese counterpart, is derived from Linji's toponym. The tradition was first transmitted to Japan by the TENDAISHu monk MYoAN EISAI (1141-1215), who visited China twice and received training and certification in the HUANGLONG PAI collateral line of the Linji lineage on his second trip. Eisai's Zen teachings, however, reflected his training in the esoteric (MIKKYo) teachings of the Tendai school; he did not really intend to establish an entirely new school. After Eisai, the Rinzai tradition was transferred through Japanese monks who trained in China and Chinese monks who immigrated to Japan. Virtually all of the Japanese Rinzai tradition was associated with the YANGQI PAI collateral line of the Linji lineage (see YANGQI FANGHUI), which was first imported by the Japanese vinaya specialist Shunjo (1166-1227). According to the early-Edo-period Nijushiryu shugen zuki ("Diagrammatic Record of the Sources of the Twenty-Four Transmissions of the Teaching"), twenty-four Zen lineages had been transmitted to Japan since the Kamakura period, twenty-one of which belonged to the Rinzai tradition; with the exception of Eisai's own lineage, the remaining twenty lineages were all associated with the Yangqi collateral line. Soon after its introduction into Japan, the Rinzai Zen tradition rose to prominence in Kamakura and Kyoto, where it received the patronage of shoguns, emperors, and the warrior class. The Rinzai teachers of this period included monks from Tendai and SHINGONSHu backgrounds, such as ENNI BEN'EN (1202-1280) and SHINCHI KAKUSHIN (1207-1298), who promoted Zen with an admixture of esoteric elements. Chinese immigrant monks like LANXI DAOLONG (J. Rankei Doryu, 1213-1278) and WUXUE ZUYUAN (J. Mugaku Sogen, 1226-1286) also contributed to the rapid growth in the popularity of the Rinzai tradition among the Japanese ruling classes, by transporting the Song-style Linji Chan tradition as well as Song-dynasty Chinese culture more broadly. With the establishment of the Ashikaga shogunate in 1338, the major Zen temples were organized following the Song Chinese model into the GOZAN (five mountains) system, a tripartite state control system consisting of "five mountains" (gozan), "ten temples" (jissetsu), and several associated "miscellaneous mountains" (shozan). The powerful gozan monasteries located in Kamakura and Kyoto functioned as centers of classical Chinese learning and culture, and continued to influence the ruling classes in Japan until the decline of the Ashikaga shogunate in the sixteenth century. The disciples of Enni Ben'en and MUSo SOSEKI (1275-1351) dominated the gozan monasteries. In particular, Muso Soseki was deeply engaged in both literary endeavors and political activities; his lineage produced several famous gozan poets, such as Gido Shushin (1325-1388) and Zekkai Chushin (1336-1405). Outside the official gozan ecclesiastical system were the RINKA, or forest, monasteries. DAITOKUJI and MYoSHINJI, the two principal rinka Rinzai monasteries, belonged to the otokan lineage, which is named after its first three masters NANPO JoMYo (1235-1309), SoHo MYoCHo (1282-1337), and KANZAN EGEN (1277-1360). This lineage emphasized rigorous Zen training rather than the broader cultural endeavors pursued in the gozan monasteries. After the decline of the gozan monasteries, the otokan lineage came to dominate the Rinzai Zen tradition during the Edo period and was the only Rinzai line to survive to the present. Despite the presence of such influential monks as TAKUAN SoHo (1573-1645) and BANKEI YoTAKU (1622-1693), the Rinzai tradition began to decline by the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries. The monk credited with revitalizing the Rinzai tradition during the Edo period is the Myoshinji monk HAKUIN EKAKU (1685-1768). Hakuin systematized the KoAN (see GONG'AN; KANHUA CHAN) method of meditation, which is the basis of modern Rinzai Zen practice; it is also through Hakuin and his disciples that most Rinzai masters of today trace their lineages. The Rinzai tradition is currently divided into the fifteen branches named after each of their head monasteries, which represents the influence of the head and branch temple system designed in the Edo period. Of the fifteen branches, the Myoshinji branch has largely eclipsed its rivals and today is the largest and most influential of all the Rinzai lines.

sekishu koan. (隻手公案). In Japanese, "the case of one-hand [clapping]"; a famous koan (C. GONG'AN) attributed to the Japanese RINZAI ZEN master HAKUIN EKAKU (1685-1768), in which he asks, "What is the sound of one hand [clapping]?" The koan is included in his 1752 collection Yabukoji, along with Hakuin's autocommentary. The sekishu koan came to be used within some Rinzai kanna Zen (see KANHUA CHAN) systems as the first case given to neophytes in Zen training and, along with the mu koan (C. WU GONG'AN), continues to be one of the emblematic koans used in Japanese Rinzai Zen circles.

Yasenkanna. [alt. Yasenkanwa] (夜船閑話). In Japanese, "Idle Talk on a Night Boat"; a short meditative text composed by the ZEN master HAKUIN EKAKU in the RINZAISHu, and his most popular piece. The Yasenkanna was first published in 1757 and has remained in print ever since. The title seems to be an allusion to the popular saying, "night boat on the Shirakawa River" (Shirakawa yasen), which refers to the story of a man from the countryside and the lies he tells about his trip to Kyoto. Hakuin wrote the Yasenkanna to offer beginners of meditation an expedient technique for overcoming "Zen illness" (zenbyo) and fatigue. The Yasenkanna details Hakuin's own bout with this illness and his miraculous recovery with the help of a secret technique known as inner discernment or visualization (naikan), which he purports to have learned from the obscure hermit Hakuyu. Different versions of this story also appear in Hakuin's other writings, such as the Kanzanshi sendai kimon, Orategama, and Itsumadegusa.

Zazen wasan. (坐禪和讚). In Japanese, "Praise of Seated Meditation"; a short song by the Japanese ZEN master HAKUIN EKAKU in the RINZAISHu, which is probably his most popular work. The Zazen wasan is still printed in manuals for scripture recitation and is chanted at many Rinzai temples and monasteries today. In his song, Hakuin extols as the supreme virtues original enlightenment (J. HONGAKU; C. BENJUE), seated meditation (J. zazen; C. ZUOCHAN), and seeing one's own nature (J. kensho; C. JIANXING).



QUOTES [8 / 8 - 38 / 38]


KEYS (10k)

   8 Hakuin Ekaku

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   28 Hakuin Ekaku
   6 Hakuin

1:If you forget yourself, you become the universe. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
2:If you forget yourself, you become the universe." ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
3:Not knowing how near the truth is, we seek it far away." ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
4:Should you desire the great tranquility prepare to sweat white beads. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
5:Contemplation within activity is a million times better than contemplation within stillness. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
6:At the bottom of great doubt lies great awakening. If you doubt fully, you will awaken fully.
   ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
7:I encourage all you superior seekers in the secret depths to devote yourselves to penetrating and clarifying the self, as earnestly as you would put out a fire on the top of your head.
   ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
8:It's like chopping down a huge tree of immense girth. You won't accomplish it with one swing of your axe. If you keep chopping away at it, though, and do not let up, eventually, whether it wants to or not, it will suddenly topple down. When that time comes, you could round up everyone you could find and pay them to hold the tree up, but they wouldn't be able to do it. It would still come crashing to the ground. . . . But if the woodcutter stopped after one or two strokes of his axe to ask the third son of Mr. Chang, Why doesn't this tree fall? And after three or four more strokes stopped again to ask the fourth son of Mr. Li, Why doesn't this tree fall? he would never succeed in felling the tree. It is no different for someone who is practicing the Way.
   ~ Hakuin Ekaku,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:If only you could hear ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
2:What is the sound of one hand? ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
3:Nirvana is right here, before our eyes. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
4:From the very beginning all beings are Buddha. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
5:In singing and dancing is the voice of the Law. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
6:If you forget yourself, you become the universe. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
7:If you forget yourself, you become the universe. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
8:How bright and transparent the moonlight of wisdom. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
9:Not knowing how near the truth is, we seek it far away. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
10:Should you desire the great tranquility prepare to sweat white beads. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
11:Should you desire the great tranquility prepare to sweat white beads. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
12:Meditation in action is endlessly more important than meditation in stillness. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
13:From the sea of effortlessness, let your great uncaused compassion shine forth. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
14:You know the sound of two hands clapping; tell me, what is the sound of one hand? ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
15:"At the bottom of great doubt lies great awakening. If you doubt fully, you will awaken fully." ~ Hakuin,
16:Contemplation within activity is a million times better than contemplation within stillness. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
17:Meditation in the midst of activity is a thousand times superior to meditation in stillness. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
18:At the bottom of great doubt lies great awakening. If you doubt fully, you will awaken fully. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
19:Contemplation within activity is a million times better than contemplation within stillness. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
20:At the bottom of great doubt lies great awakening. If you doubt fully, you will awaken fully.
   ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
21:The spirit of meditation is the combating of self-willed thinking-it is a combat against the weight of one's feelings. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
22:All beings are by nature are Buddhas, as ice by nature is water. Apart from water there is no ice; apart from beings, no Buddhas. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
23:Underlying great doubt there is great satori, where there is thorough questioning there will be thoroughgoing experience of awakening. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
24:At this moment, is there anything lacking? Nirvana is right here now before our eyes. This place is the lotus land. This body now is the Buddha. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
25:I encourage all you superior seekers in the secret depths to devote yourselves to penetrating and clarifying the self, as earnestly as you would put out a fire on the top of your head. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
26:I encourage all you superior seekers in the secret depths to devote yourselves to penetrating and clarifying the self, as earnestly as you would put out a fire on the top of your head.
   ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
27:Once a person is able to achieve true singlemindedness in his practice and smash apart the old nest... into which he has settled... Wisdom immediately appears... and the all-discerning Fivefold Eye opens wide. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
28:What is this true meditation? It is to make everything: coughing, swallowing, waving the arms, motion, stillness, words, action, the evil and the good, prosperity and shame, gain and loss, right and wrong, into one single koan. ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
29:A bird gives a cry–the mountains quiet all the more.’ 49 (This is also perhaps the real meaning behind Hakuin Ekaku’s famous eighteenth-century-BCE koan ‘What is the Sound of the Single Hand?’: it is an invitation to attend to the silence, the emptiness. ~ Julian Baggini,
30:Past, present, future: unattainable, Yet clear as the moteless sky. Late at night the stool's cold as iron, But the moonlit window smells of plum. [1506.jpg] -- from Zen Poetry: Let the Spring Breeze Enter, Translated by Lucien Stryk / Translated by Takashi Ikemoto

~ Hakuin, Past, present, future- unattainable
,
31:The monkey is reaching For the moon in the water. Until death overtakes him He'll never give up. If he'd let go the branch and Disappear in the deep pool, The whole world would shine With dazzling pureness. [1799.jpg] -- from Essential Teachings of Zen Master Hakuin, by Norman Waddell

~ Hakuin, The monkey is reaching
,
32:You no sooner attain the great void Than body and mind are lost together. Heaven and Hell -- a straw. The Buddha-realm, Pandemonium -- shambles. Listen: a nightingale strains her voice, serenading the snow. Look: a tortoise wearing a sword climbs the lampstand. Should you desire the great tranquility, Prepare to sweat white beads. [1506.jpg] -- from Zen Poetry: Let the Spring Breeze Enter, Translated by Lucien Stryk / Translated by Takashi Ikemoto

~ Hakuin, You no sooner attain the great void
,
33:Great works of art in all cultures succeed in capturing within the constraints of their form both the pathos of anguish and a vision of its resolution. Take, for example, the languorous sentences of Proust or the haiku of Basho, the late quartets and sonatas of Beethoven, the tragicomic brushwork of Sengai or the daunting canvases of Rothko, the luminous self-portraits of Rembrandt and Hakuin. Such works achieve their resolution not through consoling or romantic images whereby anguish is transcended. They accept anguish without being overwhelmed by it. They reveal anguish as that which gives beauty its dignity and depth. ~ Stephen Batchelor,
34:When you understand that form is the form of the formless, Your coming-and-going takes place nowhere else but where you are. When you understand that thought is the thought of the thought-less. Your singing-and-dancing is no other than the voice of the Dharma. How boundless is the sky of Samadhi! How refreshingly bright is the moon of the Fourfold Wisdom! Being so is there anything you lack? As the Absolute presents itself before you The place where you stand is the Land of the Lotus, And your person -- the body of the Buddha. [2139.jpg] -- from Essays in Zen Buddhism, First Series, by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki

~ Hakuin, The Form of the Formless (from Hakuins Song of Zazen)
,
35:It's like chopping down a huge tree of immense girth. You won't accomplish it with one swing of your axe. If you keep chopping away at it, though, and do not let up, eventually, whether it wants to or not, it will suddenly topple down. When that time comes, you could round up everyone you could find and pay them to hold the tree up, but they wouldn't be able to do it. It would still come crashing to the ground. . . . But if the woodcutter stopped after one or two strokes of his axe to ask the third son of Mr. Chang, Why doesn't this tree fall? And after three or four more strokes stopped again to ask the fourth son of Mr. Li, Why doesn't this tree fall? he would never succeed in felling the tree. It is no different for someone who is practicing the Way.
   ~ Hakuin Ekaku,
36:It’s like chopping down a huge tree of immense girth. You won’t accomplish it with one swing of your axe. If you keep chopping away at it, though, and do not let up, eventually, whether it wants to or not, it will suddenly topple down. When that time comes, you could round up everyone you could find and pay them to hold the tree up, but they wouldn’t be able to do it. It would still come crashing to the ground…. But if the woodcutter stopped after one or two strokes of his axe to ask the third son of Mr. Chang, “Why doesn’t this tree fall?” And after three or four more strokes stopped again to ask the fourth son of Mr. Li, “Why doesn’t this tree fall?” he would never succeed in felling the tree. It is no different for someone who is practicing the Way. —ZEN MASTER HAKUIN ~ Robert Greene,
37:Zen wishes to storm this citadel of topsy-turvydom and to show that we live psychologically or biologically and not logically. ~ D.T. Suzuki, An Introduction to Zen BuddhismZen Words for the Heart: Hakuin's Commentary on the Heart Sutra by Hakuin and Norman Waddell ★★★★ 1/2 "Hakuin Zenji (1689-1769) was one of the most important of all Japanese Zen masters" ad amzn.to/2ZexAsyZen: Zen For Beginners a Beginners Guide to Mindfulness and Meditation by Daniel D'apollonio ★★★★ 1/2 "easy-to-follow steps guaranteed to help you bring the essence of Zen into your everyday life" ad amzn.to/2SLOQRB@Zer0Books Glad to hear it sold out. Here's to it happening again with this run. 🍻@Zer0Books Reminds me of Belters from the Expanse. They developed physical gestures in their language after being in space suits for generations. Guess we're kind of virtual space suits these days,
38:All beings are primarily Buddhas. It is like water and ice: There is no ice apart from water; There are no Buddhas apart from beings. Not knowing how close the truth is to them, Beings seek for it afar -- what a pity! They are like those who, being in the midst of water, Cry out for water, feeling thirst. They are like the son of the rich man, Who, wandering away from his father, Goes astray amongst the poor. It is all due to their ignorance That beings transmigrate in the darkness Of the Six Paths of existence. When they wander from darkness to darkness, How can they ever be free from birth-and-death? As for the Dhyana practice as taught in the Mahayana, No amount of praise can exhaust its merits. The Six Paramitas--beginning with the Giving, Observing the Precepts, And other good deeds, variously enumerated, Such as Nembutsu, Repentance, Moral Training, and so on -- All are finally reducible to the practice of Dhyana. The merit of Dhyana practice, even during a single sitting, Erases the countless sins accumulated in the past. Where then are the Evil Paths to misguide us? The Pure Land cannot be far away. Those who, for once, listening to the Dharma In all humility, Praise it and faithfully follow it, Will be endowed with innumerable merits. But how much more so when you turn your eyes within yourselves And have a glimpse into your self-nature! You find that the self-nature is no-nature - The truth permitting no idle sophistry. For you, then, open the gate leading to the oneness of cause and effect; Before you, then, lies a straight road of non-duality and non-trinity. When you understand that form is the form of the formless, Your coming-and-going takes place nowhere else but where you are. When you understand that thought is the thought of the thought-less. Your singing-and-dancing is no other than the voice of the Dharma. How boundless is the sky of Samadhi! How refreshingly bright is the moon of the Fourfold Wisdom! Being so is there anything you lack? As the Absolute presents itself before you The place where you stand is the Land of the Lotus, And your person -- the body of the Buddha. [2139.jpg] -- from Essays in Zen Buddhism, First Series, by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki

~ Hakuin, Hakuins Song of Zazen
,

IN CHAPTERS [8/8]



   3 Poetry


   3 Hakuin


   4 Beating the Cloth Drum Letters of Zen Master Hakuin


1.01 - To Watanabe Sukefusa, #Beating the Cloth Drum Letters of Zen Master Hakuin, #unset, #Integral Yoga
  This is Hakuin's earliest surviving letter, written in 1714 when he was twenty-nine years old and the only one from the years of his pilgrimage. In it, he scolds a childhood friend named Watanabe
  Sukehiko, eldest son of the wealthy Watanabe family of Hara, for unspecified unfilial acts. Citing cautionary stories, Hakuin warns his friend of the dire karmic consequences lying in store if he doesn't mend his ways. The letter owes its survival to its inclusion in Hakuin's publication The Cloth
  Drum Refitted, subtitled A Letter to an Unfilial Son, which first appeared in his fifties.
  --
  It is interesting to note Hakuin's deep concern with filial devotion at this early stage of his career, a theme that continues to have a significant, though subordinate, role in his mature Zen teaching. It is most conspicuous in some of the calligraphic works he distributed, which are discussed below.
  Another example of the consistency of Hakuin's views is his willingness to take up the village priest's function of moral correction, a purpose he fulfills through his attempts to resolve family discords in other letters in this volume. Also to be noted is that Hakuin does not offer Sukefusa a specific Zen solution to his problem, as he no doubt would have later on.
  At some point, either when Hakuin wrote the letter itself or soon afterward, he transcribed it in manuscript form, added a short preface, and titled it The Cloth Drum: A Letter to an Unfilial Son.
  Years later this brief letter became the basis for The Cloth Drum Refitted [with a New Drumhead], a series of accounts of retri bution for unfilial behavior that appeared as a single volume in 1747. It was greatly enlarged and reissued in 1753 in a five-volume edition. This edition opens with the letter to
  Watanabe Sukefusa, which takes up less than a third of volume one, and is followed by twenty-two more stories of karmic cause and effect. Hakuin returned to this genre in later collections such as
  Accounts of the Miraculous Effects of the Ten Phrase Kannon Sutra for Prolonging Life. Whereas
  --
  In the preface Hakuin wrote for The Cloth Drum Refitted, he alludes briefly to his friendship with
  Watanabe Sukefusa, then explains the circumstances that led him to send Watanabe the remonstrance.
  After stating that unfilial behavior invariably arises from an addiction to wine and women, presumably the vices his friend had succumbed to, Hakuin goes on to say:
  Obsession with these seductions is a serious disease, and it is one that neither the wise nor the foolish can escape. A wise person blinded by delusion is like a tiger that falls into a well and yet has sufficient strength to claw its way out without losing its skin. When a foolish man is similarly blinded, he is like a tired, skinny old fox that falls in but perishes miserably at the bottom of the well because he lacks the strength to clamber out. Even a person who is just tolerably clever will, once he has fallen victim to these seductions and begins behaving in an unfilial manner, heed the warnings of his elders and the advice of the good and virtuous, immediately change his ways and become a kind and considerate son to his parents. Receiving heaven's favor and the gods' hidden assistance, he will be blessed with great happiness and long life. When he dies, he will leave a sterling reputation for wisdom and goodness behind him.
  --
  [As this next paragraph seems addressed to Watanabe Sukefusa, it must have been written when Hakuin composed the original letter. Did Hakuin leave it in unintentionally when he reworked the preface for inclusion in the published edition of The Cloth Drum Refitted forty years later?]
  You yourself have recently fallen prey to delusions of a similar kind. Your relations look on with wrinkled brows, your friends with foreheads furrowed. You have come right up against a firmly locked barrier that you will find extremely difficult to pass through.
  --
  In the spring of 1746, shortly before writing this preface, Hakuin had acted on the advice he had given thirty-three years earlier about recycling the letter. Learning that one Murabayashi Tokusabur, the son of a friend and a student in Edo, whom the father had praised as an "extremely sincere, mildmannered, and obedient young man, loved by one and all," was in fact given to wild drinking sprees and other generally reprehensible behavior, Hakuin retrieved the letter, made some necessary revisions, and sent it to the young man (also see Letter 9). As this occurred only months before
   Hakuin prepared The Cloth Drum Refitted for publication, it seems reasonable to conjecture that revamping the letter for Tokusabur stimulated Hakuin to write and publish this almost entirely new
  23
  --
  Sharing these premises, Hakuin launched vehement attacks on what he considered the mistaken understanding purveyed by such architects of Confucian orthodoxy as Hayashi Razan (see chapter
  12). Hakuin's ideas on the subject may be summed up fairly well in the calligraphic works he prepared and distributed in large numbers to people. These works consisted of one large character, filiality or parent, followed by the inscription, "There is no more valuable act of filiality than to save one's father and mother from the sad fate of an unfortunate rebirth in the next life"-exactly the sentiments Hakuin had expressed to Sukefusa as a young monk. a It was considered extremely unfilial to injure or disfigure the body of one's (male) children. This was especially heinous in the case of an eldest son, who, according to the canons of filial piety, is venerated because of his superior birth, age, and gender. b Although not all of these references can be traced, most of them are found in Tales of the TwentyFour Paragons of Filial Virtue (Ehr-shih-ssu hsiao), a popular Confucian text of the Yuan dynasty that was reprinted and widely read in Edo Japan. c A legendary sage ruler of ancient China. According to Mencius, when ministers came to him with good advice, Yu always received it with deep gratitude.
  24

1.02 - To Zen Monks Kin and Koku, #Beating the Cloth Drum Letters of Zen Master Hakuin, #unset, #Integral Yoga
  This letter, in which Hakuin declines an invitation to lecture on the Vimalakirti Sutra, can be dated from internal evidence to 1729. As one of very few letters that can be dated confidently to Hakuin's forties, it gives us a rare glimpse of Shin-ji during the early years of Hakuin's residency. Neither
  Kin or Koku, nor the name of the temple issuing the invitation to Hakuin, have been identified, although the temple was no doubt located close by, probably in Suruga Province.
  Note that Hakuin initially refers to the Vimalakirti Sutra as the Beyond Comprehension Sutra, using one of the Vimalakirti Sutra's chapter titles.
  MY HUMBLEST APPRECIATION for the letter Brother Rai recently delivered to me containing your request to conduct a lecture meeting on the Beyond Comprehension Sutra, together with the list of expected participants. While I seriously doubt you can rely on a shuffling jackass to perform like a thorough-bred stallion, or hope for an old crow to start caroling like a celestial phoenix, I am nonetheless sincerely grateful that you even remembered this boorish rustic and thought it worthwhile to make a sincere effort to assist in his upbringing. I have no doubt that you were inspired by a deep aspiration to promote the teaching of the Dharma.
  --
  In his autobiographies, Hakuin describes his small, impoverished temple as being in an
  "indescribable state of disrepair" when he was installed as abbot in 1717. Judging from occasional references in his books and letters to the privations of life at Shin-ji, there does not seem to have
  --
   been much improvement in living conditions for some time afterward. Hakuin's primary focus in the first decade of his incumbency was his own post-satori practice, although the records mention a small number of students, mostly villagers from Hara, who were coming to him for instruction at this time.
   Hakuin's teaching career did not really begin, however, until an autumn night in 1726, a little over two years prior to this letter. While reading the Lotus Sutra, he suddenly achieved the decisive enlightenment that brought his religious quest to an end, and with it the knowledge, "beyond any doubt," that he was "ready to teach others with the perfect, untrammeled freedom of the
  --
  In view of how vigorously Hakuin dedicated himself to such teaching activity during his sixties and seventies-in one two-year period, for example, he visited and taught at twenty-five different temples
  -it is interesting to find him here at the age of forty-three, at the start of his teaching career, showing such reluctance to accept a teaching assignment. Evidently, Hakuin did not lecture at the request of another temple until eight years after this. His text was the Blue Cliff Record.
  26

1.03 - To Layman Ishii, #Beating the Cloth Drum Letters of Zen Master Hakuin, #unset, #Integral Yoga
  This letter, dating from Hakuin's forty-ninth year, is addressed to his friend and student Ishii Gentoku
  (1671-1751), a physician who resided in Hina village, six miles west of the Hara post station.
  Fifteen years Hakuin's senior, Ishii began practicing at Shin-ji in 1728, eight years after Hakuin was installed as abbot, a little over a year after Hakuin's decisive enlightenment at the age of forty-one.
  The closeness of the relationship that formed between the two men is evident in Hakuin's letters to
  Ishii, as well as from the fact that Hakuin at times secluded himself in Ishii's retirement retreat for periods of rest and writing (Chronological Biography, 1731). A number of miscellaneous pieces inscribed to Layman Ishii that are included in Poison Blossoms from a Thicket of Thorn confirm that he was considerably advanced in his Zen study, a point further substantiated by the difficulty of the teaching Hakuin addresses to him in this letter.
  MY ATTENDANT BOKU, while on a trip to his native place, stopped by the residence of Layman Ishii and claiming to be indisposed threw himself at the Layman's feet and implored him for his help. He took possession of the Layman's private chambers and for ten days devoted himself diligently to zazen.a
  --
  Although a handful of friends and fellow villagers had been studying at Shin-ji during the first decade of Hakuin's incumbency, Ishii was one of the earliest of the lay students from outside Hara village, another indication that the unsung young Zen teacher's reputation had spread to other parts of the province, and probably beyond as well.
  Ishii became an important patron of the impoverished temple, and later helped fund a number of
   Hakuin's building and publishing projects. Most of the half-dozen or so other letters that Hakuin wrote Ishii are expressions of gratitude for donations and gifts received, or services rendered. In one letter, Hakuin thanks Ishii for a large supply of cut tobacco that Ishii had sent to fuel Hakuin's wellknown pipe habit. A long verse Hakuin sent Ishii, one of the most remarkable pieces in the Poison
  Blossoms collection, is an expression of thanks for two large boulders Ishii had donated to the Shinji gardens. The verse is filled with vivid images describing the progress of the unwieldy objects as they are rafted down from the foothills of Mount Fuji, landed on the coast near Hara village, then manhandled overl and to Shin-ji, making us feel the excitement and impatience Hakuin experienced as he awaited their arrival (a translation is found in The Religious Art of Zen Master Hakuin, 129-
  30).
  Although remarks of a personal nature are scattered throughout this letter, reminding the reader that it is indeed a letter, it is for the most part a series of discourses that Hakuin apparently composed to express his gratitude to Ishii for having taken care of one of his monks, an attendant named Boku, who had fallen ill. Hakuin presents these as a word-for-word account of the instructions he gave Boku upon the attendant's return from Ishii's residence, although the message they contain seems intended
  36
  --
  Dharma words-that Hakuin sent to individual students throughout his life, and more or less indistinguishable from the works he later wrote expressly for publication. He criticizes contemporary
  Zen teachers who, by giving in to feelings of pity and offering untimely advice to struggling students, end up preventing them from carrying their practice through to completion, ruining their chance of ever reaching the release of final enlightenment. Hakuin contrasts this with the method used by himself, as well as the great Zen figures of the past, of refusing to give any such help until the critical moment is reached and the student is ready to benefit from a teacher's timely intervention. The classic image is that of a mother hen pecking an egg at the exact same time the baby chick is pecking from within the shell to make its way out. Hakuin also stresses the importance of the post-satori training that begins after the original kensh or satori is attained.
  This letter is perhaps the earliest written enunciation of these themes, preceding by almost a decade their initial appearance in print, in Talks Introductory to Lectures on the Record of Hsi-keng
  --
  Talks, and since the preface to that work states that Hakuin stayed at Ishii's private retreat for over a month while he was drafting the Talks, it is not difficult to imagine Ishii urging his friend to include portions of this letter in the Talks so they might be shared with others.
  Attendant Boku's unspecified complaint may have been purely physical in nature, but it may also have been practice related, perhaps even a touch of the "Zen sickness" that had troubled Hakuin during his early years of training. The identity of this attendant monk is uncertain. The most logical candidate, Sui Genro (1717-89), Hakuin's successor at Shin-ji, who as a young monk used the name [E]Boku, has to be rejected, since Sui's study at Shin-ji did not begin until 1746, twelve years after this letter was written. The Hakuin specialist Rikugawa Taiun identified Boku as "a monk from western Japan who fell ill while training at Shin-ji and subsequently left the temple" (Detailed
  Biography of Priest Hakuin, p. 252), but offered no details. An anonymous annotator inscribed another hypothesis in a copy of Poison Blossoms from a Thicket of Thorn: "Attendant Boku is not an actual person. The master seems to be using the name in an allegorical sense for a story on the oxherding theme" [Boku translates literally as "herder"]. Again, it would be entirely in character for
   Hakuin, well-known for his yarn spinning, to create a fictitious character of this sort, but we have no way of confirming this supposition.
  --
   e [Wild] fox slobber (koen, or yako-enda) is generally poison, used by Hakuin with a positive connotation for the "turning words" used by Zen teachers. For a recipe for making it, see Hakuin's
  Precious Mirror Cave (244). f Hakuin loosely paraphrases a statement in the Comprehensive Records of Yun-men (Yun-men kuang-lu). An early Chinese commentary on this apprises us of the fact that warm excrement produced during the summer months has an especially foul smell. g The Dragon Gate is a three-tiered waterfall cut through the mountains of Lung-men to open up a passage for the Yellow River. It was said that on the third day of the third month, when peach trees are in flower, carp that succeeded in scaling this waterfall turned into dragons. h Compendium of the Five Lamps, ch. 1. Also Case 41 in the Gateless Barrier. i Compendium of the Five Lamps, ch. 3. j Based on lines in a verse by Yuan-wu K'o-ch'in: "I venerate the Sixth Patriarch, an au thentic old
  Buddha who manifested himself in the human world as a good teacher for eighty lifetimes in order to help others" (cited in Trei's Snake Legs for Kaien-fusetsu, 21v). k The head monk in Huang-po's assembly at this time is not identified in the standard accounts of this episode in Record of Lin-chi and Records of the Lamp. He is given as Chen Tsun-su (Mu-chou Taotsung, n.d.) in some other accounts. In none of the versions does he utter such words directly to Linchi. l A winged tiger would be even more formidable. m In the Record of Lin-chi account (also Blue Cliff Record, Case 11), the head monk in Huang-po's assembly tells Lin-chi to ask Huang-po about the essential meaning of the Buddha Dharma. He goes to
  --
  Mount Sumeru, because inhabitants enjoy lives of interminable pleasure; and being enthralled in the worldly wisdom and skillful words (sechibens) of secular life. Dried buds and dead seeds (shge haishu) is a term of reproach directed at followers of the Two Vehicles, who are said to have no possibility for attaining complete enlightenment. t In the system of koan study that developed in later Hakuin Zen, hosshin or Dharmakaya koans are used in the beginning stages of practice (see Zen Dust, 46-50). The lines Hakuin quotes here are not found in the Poems of Han-shan (Han-shan shih). They are attributed to Han-shan in Compendium of the Five Lamps (ch. 15, chapter on Tung-shan Mu-ts'ung): "The master ascended the teaching seat and said, 'Han-shan said that "Red dust dances at the bottom of the well. / White waves rise on the mountain peaks. / The stone woman gives birth to a stone child. / Fur on the tortoise grows longer by the day." If you want to know the Bodhi-mind, all you have to do is to behold these sights.'" The lines are included in a Japanese edition of the work published during Hakuin's lifetime. u The Ten Ox-herding Pictures are a series of illustrations, accompanied by verses, showing the Zen student's progress to final enlightenment. The Five Ranks, comprising five modes of the particular and universal, are a teaching device formulated by Tung-shan of the Sto tradition. v Records of the Lamp, ch. 10. w Liu Hsiu (first century) was a descendant of Western Han royalty who defeated the usurper Wang
  Mang and established the Eastern Han dynasty. Emperor Su Tsung (eighth century) regained the throne that his father had occupied before being been driven from power. x Wang Mang (c. 45 BC-23 AD) , a powerful official of the Western Han dynasty, and rebellious
  --
  The Eye of Men and Gods, ch. 1. Hakuin, who liked to quote it, included it in Redolence from the
  Cold Forest, a selection of quotations from Zen texts he made for students that was first published in
  --
   mon) Trei explains the Zen terms "gains you half" (literally, "raises it up halfway") and "gaining it all" as follows: "'Raising it totally up' refers to grasping the treasury of the Buddha's true Dharma eye and making it one's own activity. 'Raising it partially up' refers to not having yet achieved this total attainment; to having achieved only half, or only one tenth" (hoz, 7:157-58). aa No source has been found for this quotation; it may have been written by Hakuin. bb "If you cease your mind from its constant strivings, you are no different from the Buddhas and patriarchs. You want to grasp the Buddhas and patriarchs, but you yourself, the person listening to my teaching at this moment, are the Buddha-patriarch" (see Record of Lin-chi, 23).
  NOTES TO CHAPTER 3
  --
  The term appears in a number of Hakuin's own works; the following are three examples.
  1. "You often find students who lack the determination to place themselves under a teacher and study the Great Way and have no true understanding of the perfection of the self-nature within them, pointlessly trying to empty minds that are caught up in birth-and-death, and ending up like incense
  --
  2. "Not even Buddhas and patriarchs can cure misunderstanding as gross as this. Every day these people seek out places of peace and quiet, but they're dead otters today, they'll be dead otters tomorrow, they'll be dead otters even after endless kalpas have passed. Utterly useless to themselves or to anyone else. The Buddha compared people like this to mangy foxes. Angulimala despised them as people with the intelligence of earthworms. Vimalakirti placed them among the blasted buds and rotten seeds. They are the ones Ch'ang-sha said were unable to leap from the tip of a hundred-foot pole, the ones Lin-chi said lived at the bottom of a deep black pit" (Oradegama; Zen Master Hakuin,
  115).
  --
  3. Dumb sheep Zen is said to refer to monks who are unable to tell good from bad and without sense enough to correct their mistakes. Hakuin generally applies the term to "do-nothing" Zennists, that is to say, those who do not actively seek kensh through koan study.
  4. Box-shrub Zen. The growth of the box tree or shrub (tsuge no ki) is so slow that it was said to sometimes cease growing altogether, and to even shrink in size during intercalary years. Ta-hui uses the term to describe students who not only cease making headway in their practice, but by attaching to satori actually regress (Ta-hui's General Talks, ch. 2). Carry the day roughly paraphrases the expression "bare the left arm," referring to a gesture that is made to show one has been won over and will support another's cause. "Marquis Chou Po, before setting out to subjugate the Lu family, issued an order to his army, saying, 'Those who are for the Lu family bare their right arms, those for the Liu family bare their left arms!' They all bared their left arms, and he was able to launch an attack and gain the upper hand" (Records of the Grand Historian, 280).

1.04 - To the Priest of Rytan-ji, #Beating the Cloth Drum Letters of Zen Master Hakuin, #unset, #Integral Yoga
  This letter from Hakuin's mid-fifties shows him accepting an invitation from a temple in neighboring
  Ttmi Province to lecture on a Chinese Zen text, Precious Lessons of the Zen School. He was in the middle of his second decade of teaching at Shin-ji, having two years before completed a highly successful meeting that had established his reputation as one of the foremost Zen teachers in the country, and had also attracted a large assembly of trainees to the temple. Hakuin now seems more willing to accept requests from other temples to conduct lecture meetings.
  It was a convention to address letters of this type to the attendant rather than to the head priest himself. Hakuin also mentions that this is the third time he has received a letter from the attendant, alluding to a famous episode from the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history when the warlord
  Liu Pei paid three visits in person to the wise scholar Chu-ko Liang to solicit his aid in establishing his reign. The "three visits" became proverbial for the sincerity one should evince when seeking someone's help.
  --
  (Zents Shuso) is probably the person later known as Kanj Ets (1699-1777), a Rytan-ji monk who had gone to Shin-ji to study with Hakuin. He later succeeded Dokus at Rytan-ji.
  Nothing is known of either Jik Anj (Master of Jik Hermitage) or Dait Osh (Priest Dait).
  --
  But we learn from Trei's draft manuscript of the Chronological Biography that the meeting was actually held in autumn to commemorate the 650th anniversary of the temple's founding, and that "a hundred monks accompanied Hakuin on the journey to Ttmi to take part in the meeting." Precious
  Lessons of the Zen School is a late twelfth-century work Hakuin frequently used as a text for lectures.
  It is made up of words, instructions, and episodes of eminent Chinese Zen priests.
  This letter was first published in 2009 in Hakuin's Zen Painting and Calligraphy.
  44

1.he - Hakuins Song of Zazen, #unset, #Anonymous, #Various
  object:1.he - Hakuins Song of Zazen
  author class: Hakuin

1.he - The Form of the Formless (from Hakuins Song of Zazen), #unset, #Anonymous, #Various
  object:1.he - The Form of the Formless (from Hakuins Song of Zazen)
  author class: Hakuin

1.he - The monkey is reaching, #unset, #Anonymous, #Various
   English version by Norman Waddell Original Language Japanese The monkey is reaching For the moon in the water. Until death overtakes him He'll never give up. If he'd let go the branch and Disappear in the deep pool, The whole world would shine With dazzling pureness. [1799.jpg] -- from Essential Teachings of Zen Master Hakuin, by Norman Waddell <
2.14 - The Unpacking of God, #Sex Ecology Spirituality, #Ken Wilber, #Philosophy
  Let the ecstasy overflow and outshine the loveless self, driven mad with the torments of its self-embracing ways, hugging mightily samsara's spokes of endless agony, and sing instead triumphantly with Saint Catherine, "My being is God, not by simple participation, but by a true transformation of my Being. My me is God!" And let the joy sing with Dame Julian, "See! I am God! See! I am in all things! See! I do all things!" And let the joy shout with Hakuin, "This very body is the Body of Buddha! and this very land the Pure Land!"
  And this Earth becomes a blessed being, and every I becomes a God, and every We becomes God's sincerest worship, and every It becomes God's most gracious temple.

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