classes ::: injunction, Computer Science,
children :::
branches ::: programming, Programming Journal, terms programming

bookmarks: Instances - Definitions - Quotes - Chapters - Wordnet - Webgen


object:programming
class:injunction
class:Computer Science



see also :::

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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [52] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
8_bit_computer
Arduino
backups
bash
bash_(commands)_(BC)
bash_(todo)
bot
chatbot
computer
computer_daemon
computer_stuff_I_want_to_learn_and_make
crontab
data
dir_KEYS
dir_lib
google_chrome_bookmarks
Hacking
hardware
i2p
instrument_device_setup
ip
Linux
Lisp
my_computer
my_external_harddrives
my_upload
network
new_roguelike_(racket)_(jrl)
NLTK
perl
procedure_template
programs_(Computer_Science)
project
racket
racket_colors
racket_(commands)
software_investigate
terms_programming
The_Bipolar_Lisp_Programmer
the_Internet
torrents
web_scraping
websites
wikipedia
windows_product_keys
wordlist
wordlist_entry_template
wordlist-terminal
wordlist_(todo)
wordnet
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Full_Circle
Infinite_Library
The_Art_of_Computer_Programming

IN CHAPTERS TITLE

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
1.02_-_MAPS_OF_MEANING_-_THREE_LEVELS_OF_ANALYSIS
1.02_-_The_Development_of_Sri_Aurobindos_Thought
1.04_-_THE_APPEARANCE_OF_ANOMALY_-_CHALLENGE_TO_THE_SHARED_MAP
2.01_-_Habit_1__Be_Proactive
2.02_-_Habit_2__Begin_with_the_End_in_Mind

PRIMARY CLASS

Computer_Science
injunction
SIMILAR TITLES
God and Programming
Lecture 003 - The Magic-Power of Programming
programming
Programming Journal
terms programming
The Art of Computer Programming

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH

programming ::: 1. The art of debugging a blank sheet of paper (or, in these days of on-line editing, the art of debugging an empty file).2. A pastime similar to banging one's head against a wall, but with fewer opportunities for reward.3. The most fun you can have with your clothes on (although clothes are not mandatory).[Jargon File](2003-02-12)

programming 1. The art of debugging a blank sheet of paper (or, in these days of on-line editing, the art of {debugging an empty file}). 2. A pastime similar to banging one's head against a wall, but with fewer opportunities for reward. 3. The most fun you can have with your clothes on (although clothes are not mandatory). [{Jargon File}] (2003-02-12)

programming fluid "jargon" (Or "{wirewater}") Coffee, unleaded coffee (decaffeinated), Cola, or any caffeinacious stimulant. Many hackers consider these essential for those all-night {hacking runs}. (1996-05-01)

programming fluid ::: (jargon) (Or wirewater) Coffee, unleaded coffee (decaffeinated), Cola, or any caffeinacious stimulant. Many hackers consider these essential for those all-night hacking runs. (1996-05-01)

programming language ::: A formal language, which comprises a set of instructions that produce various kinds of output. Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement algorithms.

programming language ::: (language) A formal language in which computer programs are written. The definition of a particular language consists of both syntax (how the various symbols of the language may be combined) and semantics (the meaning of the language constructs).Languages are classified as low level if they are close to machine code and high level if each language statement corresponds to many machine code instructions level). A roughly parallel classification is the description as first generation language through to fifth generation language.The other major classification of languages distinguishes between imperative languages, procedural language and declarative languages. .(2004-05-17)

programming language "language" A {formal language} in which {computer programs} are written. The definition of a particular language consists of both {syntax} (how the various symbols of the language may be combined) and {semantics} (the meaning of the language constructs). Languages are classified as low level if they are close to {machine code} and high level if each language statement corresponds to many machine code instructions (though this could also apply to a low level language with extensive use of {macros}, in which case it would be debatable whether it still counted as low level). A roughly parallel classification is the description as {first generation language} through to {fifth generation language}. The other major classification of languages distinguishes between {imperative languages}, {procedural language} and {declarative languages}. {Programming languages in this dictionary (/contents/language.html)}. {Programming languages time-line/family tree (http://levenez.com/lang/history.html)}. (2004-05-17)

programming: Mathematical optimisation.

Programming ::: Crafting an artifical spirit with a particular purpose in mind. Generally this is a more elaborate method of patterning and loading a construct, talisman, sigil, etc. with sub-purposes and tasks as part of a greater goal or working. In terms of sigilized constructs, the idea is to pattern and load a specific sigil for one specific task and then to repeat that process for other tasks and to make a meta-seal and form for the construct based around those sub-sigils and patterns. The programming, then, of the construct is the sum total of the various sigilized task threads and reflects the greater goal of the working.

Programming Language/Cornell "language" (PL/C) A large subset of {PL/I} from {Cornell University}, aimed at novice programmers. ["Introduction to PL/1 and PL/C programming", Kochenburger, Ralph J., Santa Barbara, Hamilton, c1974]. ["User's Guide to PL/C", S. Worona et al, Cornell, June 1974]. ["PL/C - A High Performance Compiler" H.L. Morgan et al, Proc SJCC, AFIPS 38:503-510 (1971)]. (1999-05-26)

Programming Language/Cornell ::: (language) (PL/C) A large subset of PL/I from Cornell University, aimed at novice programmers.[Introduction to PL/1 and PL/C programming, Kochenburger, Ralph J., Santa Barbara, Hamilton, c1974].[User's Guide to PL/C, S. Worona et al, Cornell, June 1974].[PL/C - A High Performance Compiler H.L. Morgan et al, Proc SJCC, AFIPS 38:503-510 (1971)]. (1999-05-26)

Programming Language/Systems ::: (language) (PL/S) An IBM machine-oriented language derived from PL/I in the late 1960s for the IBM 360 and IBM 370. PL/S permitted inline assembly language and control over register usage.Much of IBM 360 OS/MFT(?), OS/MVT(?), OS/VS1 and OS/VS2 (OS/SVS and MVS) were written in PL/S. It was used internally and never released to the public. It is documented in various IBM internal ZZ-? publications.Versions: PLS1, PLSII.[PL/S, Programming Language/Systems, W.R. Brittenham, Proc GUIDE Intl, GUIDE 34, May 14, 1972, pp. 540-556].[Were MFT and MVT in PL/S or pure BAL? Dates?] (1999-01-24)

Programming Language/Systems "language" (PL/S) An {IBM} machine-oriented language derived from {PL/I}, in the late 1960s, for the {IBM 360} and {IBM 370}. PL/S permitted {inline} {assembly language} and control over {register} usage. Previous IBM 360 operating systems such as {OS/MFT} and {OS/MVT} had been written entirely in {assembly language}. The first IBM OS that had any significant portion written in PL/S was {MVS}, followed by {OS/VS1}, {OS/VS2} and {OS/SVS}. PL/S was part of IBM's {OCO (http://www.landley.net/history/mirror/ibm/oco.html)} (object code only) effort, started in 1983. PL/S was used internally and never released to the public. It is documented in various IBM internal ZZ-? publications. Versions: PLS1, PLSII. ["PL/S, Programming Language/Systems", W.R. Brittenham, Proc GUIDE Intl, GUIDE 34, May 14, 1972, pp. 540-556]. (2012-01-20)


TERMS ANYWHERE

16-bit application "operating system" Software for {MS-DOS} or {Microsoft Windows} which originally ran on the 16-bit {Intel 8088} and {80286} {microprocessors}. These used a {segmented address space} to extend the range of addresses from what is possible with just a 16-bit address. Programs with more than 64 kilobytes of code or data therefore had to waste time switching between {segments}. Furthermore, programming with segments is more involved than programming in a {flat address space}, giving rise to {warts} like {memory models} in {C} and {C++}. Compare {32-bit application}. (1996-04-06)

16 bit "architecture, programming" Using {words} containing sixteen {bits}. This adjective often refers to the number of bits used internally by a computer's {CPU}. E.g. "The {Intel 8086} is a sixteen bit processor". Its external {data bus} or {address bus} may be narrower. The term may also refer to the size of an instruction in the computer's {instruction set} or to any other item of data. See also {16-bit application}. (1996-05-13)

32-bit application "architecture, operating system" {IBM PC} software that runs in a 32-bit {flat address space}. The term {32-bit application} came about because {MS-DOS} and {Microsoft Windows} were originally written for the {Intel 8088} and {80286} {microprocessors}. These are {16 bit} microprocessors with a {segmented address space}. Programs with more than 64 kilobytes of code and/or data therefore had to switch between {segments} quite frequently. As this operation is quite time consuming in comparison to other machine operations, the application's performance may suffer. Furthermore, programming with segments is more involved than programming in a flat address space, giving rise to some complications in programming languages like "{memory models}" in {C} and {C++}. The shift from 16-bit software to 32-bit software on {IBM PC} {clones} became possible with the introduction of the {Intel 80386} microprocessor. This microprocessor and its successors support a segmented address space with 16-bit and 32 bit segments (more precisely: segments with 16- or 32-bit address offset) or a linear 32-bit address space. For compatibility reasons, however, much of the software is nevertheless written in 16-bit models. {Operating systems} like {Microsoft Windows} or {OS/2} provide the possibility to run 16-bit (segmented) programs as well as 32-bit programs. The former possibility exists for {backward compatibility} and the latter is usually meant to be used for new software development. See also {Win32s}. (1995-12-11)

6.001 "education" /siks dub*l oh wun/, /dub*l oh wun/ or rarely /siks dub*l oh fun/ {MIT}'s introductory computer class for majors, known for its intensity. Developed by {Gerald Sussman} and {Hal Abelson}, the course is taught in {Scheme} and introduces {recursion}, {higher-order functions}, {object-oriented programming} and much more. Students who grasp the {meta}circular {interpreter} gain entry into the {Knights of the Lambda-Calculus}. 6.001 has been exported to several other colleges, sometimes successfully. The textbook, "Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs", written with Julie Sussman is a classic that can be found on the shelves of many computer scientists, whether they took the course or not. Legendary characters from the class, problem sets, and book include the wise Alyssa P. Hacker, Ben Bitdiddle, Lem E. Tweakit and Eva Lu Ator, the careless Louis Reasoner and {Captain Abstraction}. (1994-11-22)

9PAC "tool" 709 PACkage. A {report generator} for the {IBM 7090}, developed in 1959. [Sammet 1969, p.314. "IBM 7090 Prog Sys, SHARE 7090 9PAC Part I: Intro and Gen Princs", IBM J28-6166, White Plains, 1961]. (1995-02-07):-) {emoticon}; {semicolon}" {less than}"g" "chat" grin. An alternative to {smiley}. [{Jargon File}] (1998-01-18)"gr&d" "chat" Grinning, running and ducking. See {emoticon}. (1995-03-17)= {equals}" {greater than}? {question mark}?? "programming" A {Perl} quote-like {operator} used to delimit a {regular expression} (RE) like "?FOO?" that matches FOO at most once. The normal "/FOO/" form of regular expression will match FOO any number of times. The "??" operator will match again after a call to the "reset" operator. The operator is usually referred to as "??" but, taken literally, an empty RE like this (or "//") actually means to re-use the last successfully matched regular expression or, if there was none, empty string (which will always match). {Unix manual page}: perlop(1). (2009-05-28)@ {commercial at}@-party "event, history" /at'par-tee/ (Or "@-sign party") An antiquated term for a gathering of {hackers} at a science-fiction convention (especially the annual Worldcon) to which only people who had an {electronic mail address} were admitted. The term refers to the {commercial at} symbol, "@", in an e-mail address and dates back to the era when having an e-mail address was a distinguishing characteristic of the select few who worked with computers. Compare {boink}. [{Jargon File}] (2012-11-17)@Begin "text" The {Scribe} equivalent of {\begin}. [{Jargon File}] (2014-11-06)@stake "security, software" A computer security development group and consultancy dedicated to researching and documenting security flaws that exist in {operating systems}, {network} {protocols}, or software. @stake publishes information about security flaws through advisories, research reports, and tools. They release the information and tools to help system administrators, users, and software and hardware vendors better secure their systems. L0pht merged with @stake in January 2000. {@stake home (http://atstake.com/research/redirect.html)}. (2003-06-12)@XX "programming" 1. Part of the syntax of a {decorated name}, as used internally by {Microsoft}'s {Visual C} or {Visual C++} {compilers}. 2. The name of an example {instance variable} in the {Ruby} {programming language}. (2018-08-24)[incr Tcl] "language" An extension of {Tcl} that adds {classes} and {inheritence}. The name is a pun on {C++} - an {object-oriented} extension of {C} - [incr variable] is the Tcl {syntax} for adding one to a variable. [Origin? Availability?] (1998-11-27)\ {backslash}\begin "text, chat" The {LaTeX} command used with \end to delimit an environment within which the text is formatted in a certain way. E.g. \begin{table}...\end{table}. Used humorously in writing to indicate a context or to remark on the surrounded text. For example: \begin{flame} Predicate logic is the only good programming language. Anyone who would use anything else is an idiot. Also, all computers should be tredecimal instead of binary. \end{flame} {Scribe} users at {CMU} and elsewhere used to use @Begin/@End in an identical way (LaTeX was built to resemble Scribe). On {Usenet}, this construct would more frequently be rendered as ""FLAME ON"" and ""FLAME OFF"" (a la {HTML}), or "

aard "programming, tool" (Dutch for "earth") A tool to check memory use for {C++} programs, written by Steve Reiss "spr@cs.brown.edu" (who names his programs after living systems). Aard tracks the state of each byte of memory in the {heap} and the {stack}. The state can be one of Undefined, Uninitialised, Free or Set. The program can detect invalid transitions (i.e. attempting to set or use undefined or free storage or attempting to access uninitialised storage). In addition, the program keeps track of heap use through {malloc} and {free} and at the end of the run reports memory blocks that were not freed and that are not accessible (i.e. {memory leaks}). The tools works using a spliced-in {shared library} on {SPARCs} running {C++} 3.0.1 under {SunOS} 4.X. {(ftp://wilma.cs.brown.edu/pub/aard.tar.Z)}. (1998-03-03)

ABC 1. "computer" {Atanasoff-Berry Computer}. 2. "language" An {imperative language} and programming environment from {CWI}, Netherlands. It is interactive, structured, high-level, and easy to learn and use. It is a general-purpose language which you might use instead of {BASIC}, {Pascal} or {AWK}. It is not a systems-programming language but is good for teaching or prototyping. ABC has only five data types that can easily be combined; {strong typing}, yet without declarations; data limited only by memory; refinements to support top-down programming; nesting by indentation. Programs are typically around a quarter the size of the equivalent {Pascal} or {C} program, and more readable. ABC includes a programming environment with {syntax-directed} editing, {suggestions}, {persistent variables} and multiple workspaces and {infinite precision} arithmetic. An example function words to collect the set of all words in a document:  HOW TO RETURN words document:   PUT {} IN collection   FOR line in document:     FOR word IN split line:       IF word not.in collection:        INSERT word IN collection   RETURN collection {Interpreter}/{compiler}, version 1.04.01, by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens, Steven Pemberton "Steven.Pemberton@cwi.nl". ABC has been ported to {Unix}, {MS-DOS}, {Atari}, {Macintosh}. {(http://cwi.nl/cwi/projects/abc.html)}. {FTP eu.net (ftp://ftp.eu.net/programming/languages/abc)}, {FTP nluug.nl (ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/programming/languages/abc)}, {FTP uunet (ftp://ftp.uu.net/languages/abc)}. Mailing list: "abc-list-request@cwi.nl". E-mail: "abc@cwi.nl". ["The ABC Programmer's Handbook" by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens and Steven Pemberton, published by Prentice-Hall (ISBN 0-13-000027-2)]. ["An Alternative Simple Language and Environment for PCs" by Steven Pemberton, IEEE Software, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 1987, pp. 56-64.] (1995-02-09) 2. "language" Argument, Basic value, C?. An {abstract machine} for implementation of {functional languages} and its intermediate code. [P. Koopman, "Functional Programs as Executable Specifications", 1990]. (1995-02-09)

abduction "logic" The process of {inference} to the best explanation. "Abduction" is sometimes used to mean just the generation of hypotheses to explain observations or conclusionsm, but the former definition is more common both in philosophy and computing. The {semantics} and the implementation of abduction cannot be reduced to those for {deduction}, as explanation cannot be reduced to implication. Applications include fault diagnosis, plan formation and {default reasoning}. {Negation as failure} in {logic programming} can both be given an abductive interpretation and also can be used to implement abduction. The abductive semantics of negation as failure leads naturally to an {argumentation}-theoretic interpretation of default reasoning in general. [Better explanation? Example?] ["Abductive Inference", John R. Josephson "jj@cis.ohio-state.edu"]. (2000-12-07)

ABLE "language" A simple language for accountants. ["ABLE, The Accounting Language, Programming and Reference Manual," Evansville Data Proc Center, Evansville, IN, Mar 1975]. [Listed in SIGPLAN Notices 13(11):56 (Nov 1978)]. (1994-11-08)

abort "programming" To terminate a program or {process} abnormally and usually suddenly, with or without {diagnostic} information. "My program aborted", "I aborted the transmission". The noun form in computing is "abort", not "abortion", e.g. "We've had three aborts over the last two days". If a {Unix} {kernel} aborts it is known as a {panic}. (1997-01-07)

ABSET "language" An early {declarative language} from the {University of Aberdeen}. ["ABSET: A Programming Language Based on Sets", E.W. Elcock et al, Mach Intell 4, Edinburgh U Press, 1969, pp.467-492]. (1994-11-08)

abstract class "programming" In {object-oriented programming}, a {class} designed only as a parent from which sub-classes may be derived, but which is not itself suitable for instantiation. Often used to "abstract out" incomplete sets of features which may then be shared by a group of sibling sub-classes which add different variations of the missing pieces. (1994-11-08)

abstract data type "programming" (ADT) A kind of {data abstraction} where a type's internal form is hidden behind a set of {access functions}. Values of the type are created and inspected only by calls to the access functions. This allows the implementation of the type to be changed without requiring any changes outside the {module} in which it is defined. {Objects} and ADTs are both forms of data abstraction, but objects are not ADTs. Objects use procedural abstraction (methods), not type abstraction. A classic example of an ADT is a {stack} data type for which functions might be provided to create an empty stack, to {push} values onto a stack and to {pop} values from a stack. {Reynolds paper (http://cis.upenn.edu/~gunter/publications/documents/taoop94.html)}. {Cook paper "OOP vs ADTs" (http://wcook.org/papers/OOPvsADT/CookOOPvsADT90.pdf)}. (2003-07-03)

abstraction 1. Generalisation; ignoring or hiding details to capture some kind of commonality between different instances. Examples are {abstract data types} (the representation details are hidden), {abstract syntax} (the details of the {concrete syntax} are ignored), {abstract interpretation} (details are ignored to analyse specific properties). 2. "programming" Parameterisation, making something a function of something else. Examples are {lambda abstractions} (making a term into a function of some variable), {higher-order functions} (parameters are functions), {bracket abstraction} (making a term into a function of a variable). Opposite of {concretisation}. (1998-06-04)

acceptance testing "programming" Formal testing conducted to determine whether a system satisfies its acceptance criteria and thus whether the customer should accept the system. (1996-05-10)

accumulator "processor" In a {central processing unit}, a {register} in which intermediate results are stored. Without an accumulator, it would be necessary to write the result of each calculation (addition, multiplication, {shift}, etc.) to {main memory} and read them back. Access to main memory is slower than access to the accumulator which usually has direct paths to and from the {arithmetic and logic unit} (ALU). The {canonical} example is summing a list of numbers. The accumulator is set to zero initially, each number in turn is added to the value in the accumulator and only when all numbers have been added is the result written to main memory. Modern CPUs usually have many registers, all or many of which can be used as accumulators. For this reason, the term "accumulator" is somewhat archaic. Use of it as a synonym for "register" is a fairly reliable indication that the user has been around for quite a while and/or that the architecture under discussion is quite old. The term in full is almost never used of microprocessor registers, for example, though symbolic names for arithmetic registers beginning in "A" derive from historical use of the term "accumulator" (and not, actually, from "arithmetic"). Confusingly, though, an "A" register name prefix may also stand for "address", as for example on the {Motorola} {680x0} family. 2. "programming" A register, memory location or variable being used for arithmetic or logic (as opposed to addressing or a loop index), especially one being used to accumulate a sum or count of many items. This use is in context of a particular routine or stretch of code. "The FOOBAZ routine uses A3 as an accumulator." [{Jargon File}] (1999-04-20)

ACID "programming" A {mnemonic} for the properties a transaction should have to satisfy the {Object Management Group} {Transaction Service} specifications. A transaction should be {Atomic}, its result should be Consistent, Isolated (independent of other transactions) and Durable (its effect should be permanent). The {Transaction Service} specifications which part of the {Object Services}, an adjunct to the {CORBA} specifications. (1997-05-15)

Act1 "language" An {actor} language descended from {Plasma}. ["Concurrent Object Oriented Programming in Act1", H. Lieberman in Object Oriented Concurrent Programming, A. Yonezawa et al eds, MIT Press 1987]. (1994-11-08)

Actis "programming" An approach to integrated {CASE} by {Apollo}. (1994-11-08)

active object "programming" An {object} each {instance} of which has its own {thread} running as well as its own copies of the object's {instance variables}. (1998-03-08)

active record pattern "programming" {Martin Fowler}'s name for {object relational mapping} viewed as a {software architecture} {pattern}. (2014-12-03)

Active Server Pages "web, programming" (ASP) A {scripting} environment for {Microsoft Internet Information Server} in which you can combine {HTML}, scripts and reusable {ActiveX} {server} components to create dynamic {web pages}. IIS 4.0 includes scripting engines for {Microsoft Visual Basic} Scripting Edition ({VBScript}) and {Microsoft JScript}. {ActiveX} scripting engines for {Perl} and {REXX} are available through third-party developers. [URL?] (1999-12-02)

ActiveX "programming" A type of {COM} component that can self-register, also known as an "ActiveX control". All COM objects implement the "IUnknown" interface but an ActiveX control usually also implements some of the standard interfaces for embedding, user interface, methods, properties, events, and persistence. ActiveX controls were originally called "{OLE} Controls", and were required to provide all of these interfaces but that requirement was dropped, and the name changed, to make ActiveX controls lean enough to be downloaded as part of a web page. Because ActiveX components can support the OLE embedding interfaces, they can be included in web pages. Because they are COM objects, they can be used from languages such as {Visual Basic}, {Visual C++}, {Java}, {VBScript}. ["Understanding ActiveX and OLE", David Chappell, MS Press, 1996]. {(http://microsoft.com/com/tech/activex.asp)}. (2002-04-19)

ActiveX Data Objects "database, Microsoft, programming" (ADO) {Microsoft}'s {library} for accessing data sources through {OLE DB}. Typically it is used to query or modify data stored in a relational database. {Home (http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/ado270/htm/adostartpage1.asp)}. (2003-07-08)

actor 1. "programming" In {object-oriented} programming, an {object} which exists as a {concurrent} process. 2. "operating system" In {Chorus}, the unit of resource allocation. (1994-11-08)

actual argument "programming" A value, expression, or reference passed to a {function} or {subroutine} when it is called and which replaces or is bound to the corresponding {formal argument}. See: {argument}. (2002-07-02)

Ada/Ed "language, education" An {interpreter}, editor, and {run-time environment} for {Ada}, intended as a teaching tool. Ada/Ed does not have the capacity, performance, or robustness of commercial Ada compilers. Ada/Ed was developed at {New York University} as part of a project in language definition and software prototyping. AdaEd runs on {Unix}, {MS-DOS}, {Atari ST}, and {Amiga}. It handles nearly all of {Ada 83} and was last validated with version 1.7 of the {ACVC} tests. Being an interpreter, it does not implement most {representation clauses} and thus does not support systems programming close to the machine level. A later version was known as {GW-Ada}. E-mail: Michael Feldman "mfeldman@seas.gwu.edu". {(ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/amiga/languages/ada)}, {(ftp://cnam.cnam.fr/pub/Ada/Ada-Ed)}. {For Amiga (ftp://cs.nyu.edu/pub/adaed)}. {RISC OS port (ftp://micros.hensa.ac.uk/micros/arch/riscos/c/c052)}. (1999-11-04)

Ada "language" (After {Ada Lovelace}) A {Pascal}-descended language, designed by Jean Ichbiah's team at {CII Honeywell} in 1979, made mandatory for Department of Defense software projects by the Pentagon. The original language was standardised as "Ada 83", the latest is "{Ada 95}". Ada is a large, complex, {block-structured} language aimed primarily at {embedded} applications. It has facilities for {real-time} response, {concurrency}, hardware access and reliable run-time error handling. In support of large-scale {software engineering}, it emphasises {strong typing}, {data abstraction} and {encapsulation}. The type system uses {name equivalence} and includes both {subtypes} and {derived types}. Both fixed and {floating-point} numerical types are supported. {Control flow} is fully bracketed: if-then-elsif-end if, case-is-when-end case, loop-exit-end loop, goto. Subprogram parameters are in, out, or inout. Variables imported from other packages may be hidden or directly visible. Operators may be {overloaded} and so may {enumeration} literals. There are user-defined {exceptions} and {exception handlers}. An Ada program consists of a set of packages encapsulating data objects and their related operations. A package has a separately compilable body and interface. Ada permits {generic packages} and subroutines, possibly parametrised. Ada support {single inheritance}, using "tagged types" which are types that can be extended via {inheritance}. Ada programming places a heavy emphasis on {multitasking}. Tasks are synchronised by the {rendezvous}, in which a task waits for one of its subroutines to be executed by another. The conditional entry makes it possible for a task to test whether an entry is ready. The selective wait waits for either of two entries or waits for a limited time. Ada is often criticised, especially for its size and complexity, and this is attributed to its having been designed by committee. In fact, both Ada 83 and Ada 95 were designed by small design teams to be internally consistent and tightly integrated. By contrast, two possible competitors, {Fortran 90} and {C++} have both become products designed by large and disparate volunteer committees. See also {Ada/Ed}, {Toy/Ada}. {Home of the Brave Ada Programmers (http://lglwww.epfl.ch/Ada/)}. {Ada FAQs (http://lglwww.epfl.ch/Ada/FAQ/)} (hypertext), {text only (ftp://lglftp.epfl.ch/pub/Ada/FAQ)}. {(http://wuarchive.wustl.edu/languages/ada/)}, {(ftp://ajpo.sei.cmu.edu/)}, {(ftp://stars.rosslyn.unisys.com/pub/ACE_8.0)}. E-mail: "adainfo@ajpo.sei.cmu.edu". {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.ada}. {An Ada grammar (ftp://primost.cs.wisc.edu/)} including a lex scanner and yacc parser is available. E-mail: "masticol@dumas.rutgers.edu". {Another yacc grammar and parser for Ada by Herman Fischer (ftp://wsmr-simtel20.army.mil/PD2:"ADA.EXTERNAL-TOOLS"GRAM2.SRC)}. An {LR parser} and {pretty-printer} for {Ada} from NASA is available from the {Ada Software Repository}. {Adamakegen} generates {makefiles} for {Ada} programs. ["Reference Manual for the Ada Programming Language", ANSI/MIL STD 1815A, US DoD (Jan 1983)]. Earlier draft versions appeared in July 1980 and July 1982. ISO 1987. [{Jargon File}] (2000-08-12)

Ada Programming Support Environment "tool, project" (APSE) A program or set of programs to support software development in the Ada language. [Examples?] (1997-06-30)

address 1. "networking" {e-mail address}. 2. "networking" {IP address}. 3. "networking" {MAC address}. 4. "storage, programming" An unsigned integer used to select one fundamental element of storage, usually known as a {word} from a computer's {main memory} or other storage device. The {CPU} outputs addresses on its {address bus} which may be connected to an {address decoder}, {cache controller}, {memory management unit}, and other devices. While from a hardware point of view an address is indeed an integer most {strongly typed} programming languages disallow mixing integers and addresses, and indeed addresses of different data types. This is a fine example for {syntactic salt}: the compiler could work without it but makes writing bad programs more difficult. (1997-07-01)

addressing mode 1. "processor, programming" One of a set of methods for specifying the {operand}(s) for a {machine code} {instruction}. Different processors vary greatly in the number of addressing modes they provide. The more complex modes described below can usually be replaced with a short sequence of instructions using only simpler modes. The most common modes are "register" - the operand is stored in a specified {register}; "absolute" - the operand is stored at a specified memory address; and "{immediate}" - the operand is contained within the instruction. Most processors also have {indirect addressing} modes, e.g. "register indirect", "memory indirect" where the specified register or memory location does not contain the operand but contains its address, known as the "{effective address}". For an absolute addressing mode, the effective address is contained within the instruction. Indirect addressing modes often have options for pre- or post- increment or decrement, meaning that the register or memory location containing the {effective address} is incremented or decremented by some amount (either fixed or also specified in the instruction), either before or after the instruction is executed. These are very useful for {stacks} and for accessing blocks of data. Other variations form the effective address by adding together one or more registers and one or more constants which may themselves be direct or indirect. Such complex addressing modes are designed to support access to multidimensional arrays and arrays of data structures. The addressing mode may be "implicit" - the location of the operand is obvious from the particular instruction. This would be the case for an instruction that modified a particular control register in the CPU or, in a {stack} based processor where operands are always on the top of the stack. 2. In {IBM} {System 370}/{XA} the addressing mode bit controls the size of the {effective address} generated. When this bit is zero, the CPU is in the 24-bit addressing mode, and 24 bit instruction and operand effective addresses are generated. When this bit is one, the CPU is in the 31-bit addressing mode, and 31-bit instruction and operand effective addresses are generated. ["IBM System/370 Extended Architecture Principles of Operation", Chapter 5., 'Address Generation', BiModal Addressing]. (1995-03-30)

ADL 1. "games" {Adventure Definition Language}. 2. "language" {Ada} Development Language. R.A. Lees, 1989. 3. "programming" {API} Definition Language. A project for Automatic Interface Test Generation. (1995-11-17)

Advanced SCSI Peripheral Interface "storage, programming" (ASPI) A set of libraries designed to provide programs running under {Microsoft Windows} with a consistent interface for accessing {SCSI} devices. ASPI has become a {de facto standard}. The ASPI layer is a collection of programs ({DLLs}) that together implement the ASPI interface. Many problems are caused by device manufacturers packaging incomplete sets of these DLLs with their hardware, often with incorrect date stamps, causing newer versions to get replaced with old. ASPICHK from Adaptec will check the ASPI components installed on a computer. The latest ASPI layer as of March 1999 is 1014. The {ATAPI} standard for {IDE} devices makes them look to the system like SCSI devices and allows them to work through ASPI. {(http://resource.simplenet.com/primer/aspi.htm)}. (1999-03-30)

Advanced Software Environment "programming" (ASE) An {object-oriented} {application support system} from {Nixdorf}. (1995-09-12)

Aegis "programming, tool" A {CASE} tool for project {change management} written by Peter Miller, with minor contributions by a few others. Aegis is licensed using the {GNU GPL} but is not a GNU project. {Aegis Home (http://aegis.sourceforge.net/)}. (2005-03-24)

AES 1. "programming" {Application environment specification}. 2. "security" {Advanced Encryption Standard}.

AESOP {An Evolutionary System for On-line Programming}

aggregate type "programming" A data {type} composed of multiple elements. An aggregate can be homogeneous (all elements have the same type) e.g. an {array}, a list in a {functional language}, a string of characters, a file; or it can be heterogeneous (elements can have different types) e.g. a {structure}. In most languages aggregates can contain elements which are themselves aggregates. e.g. a list of lists. See also {union}. (1996-03-23)

aggregation "programming" A composition technique for building a new {object} from one or more existing objects that support some or all of the new object's required interfaces. (1996-01-07)

AGL "programming" (Atelier de Genie Logiciel) French for {IPSE}. (1997-01-07)

A Hardware Programming Language "language" (AHPL) A {register}-level language by Hill and Peterson, some of whose operators resemble {APL}. HPSIM2 is a function-level simulator, available from Engrg Expt Sta, {University of Arizona}. ["Digital Systems: Hardware Organization and Design", F. Hill et al, Wiley 1987]. (1995-01-26)

AHPL {A Hardware Programming Language}

Aion Development System "artificial intelligence, product" (ADS) A commericial {expert system shell} developed by {Aion Corporation} that supported {forward chainging} and {backward chaining} and featured an {object-oriented} {knowledge representation} scheme, graphics and integrated with other {programming languages} like {C} and {Pascal}. ["Expert Systems in Chemistry Research", Markus C. Hemmer]. (2014-10-05)

Ajax "programming" (Asynchronous JavaScript And XML) A collection of techniques for creating interactive {web applications} without having to reload the complete {web page} in response to each user input, thus making the interaction faster. AJAX typically uses the {XMLHttpRequest} browser object to exchange data asynchronously with the {web server}. Alternatively, an {IFrame} object or dynamically added "script" tags may be used instead of XMLHttpRequest. Despite the name, Ajax can combine any browser scripting language (not just {JavaScript}) and any data representation (not just XML). Alternative data formats include {HTML}, plain text or {JSON}. Several Ajax {frameworks} are now available to simplify Ajax development. (2007-10-04)

A-language "language" An early {ALGOL}-like {surface syntax} for {Lisp}. ["An Auxiliary Language for More Natural Expression--The A-language", W. Henneman in The Programming Language LISP, E.C. Berkeley et al eds, MIT Press 1964, pp.239- 248]. (1994-10-28)

A Language with an Extensible Compiler "language" (ALEC) A language Implemented using {RCC} on an {ICL 1906A}. ["ALEC - A User Extensible Scientific Programming Language", R.B.E. Napper et al, Computer J 19(1):25-31]. (1995-04-19)

Alan Kay "person" The leader of the Software Concepts Group at {Xerox} {Palo Alto Research Centre} which developed {Smalltalk}, the pioneering {object-oriented programming} system, in 1972. (1994-11-24)

ALEF "language" A programming language from {Bell Labs}. ALEF boasts few new ideas but is instead a careful synthesis of ideas from other languages. The result is a practical general purpose programming language which was once displacing {C} as their main implementation language. Both {shared variables} and {message passing} are supported through language constructs. A {window system}, {user interface}, {operating system} network code, {news reader}, {mailer} and variety of other tools in {Plan 9} are now implemented using ALEF. (1997-02-13)

algebraic data type "programming" (Or "sum of products type") In {functional programming}, new types can be defined, each of which has one or more {constructors}. Such a type is known as an algebraic data type. E.g. in {Haskell} we can define a new type, "Tree": data Tree = Empty | Leaf Int | Node Tree Tree with constructors "Empty", "Leaf" and "Node". The constructors can be used much like functions in that they can be (partially) applied to arguments of the appropriate type. For example, the Leaf constructor has the functional type Int -" Tree. A constructor application cannot be reduced (evaluated) like a function application though since it is already in {normal form}. Functions which operate on algebraic data types can be defined using {pattern matching}: depth :: Tree -" Int depth Empty = 0 depth (Leaf n) = 1 depth (Node l r) = 1 + max (depth l) (depth r) The most common algebraic data type is the list which has constructors Nil and Cons, written in Haskell using the special syntax "[]" for Nil and infix ":" for Cons. Special cases of algebraic types are {product types} (only one constructor) and {enumeration types} (many constructors with no arguments). Algebraic types are one kind of {constructed type} (i.e. a type formed by combining other types). An algebraic data type may also be an {abstract data type} (ADT) if it is exported from a {module} without its constructors. Objects of such a type can only be manipulated using functions defined in the same {module} as the type itself. In {set theory} the equivalent of an algebraic data type is a {discriminated union} - a set whose elements consist of a tag (equivalent to a constructor) and an object of a type corresponding to the tag (equivalent to the constructor arguments). (1994-11-23)

Algebraic Logic Functional language "language" (ALF) A language by Rudolf Opalla "opalla@julien.informatik.uni-dortmund.de" which combines {functional programming} and {logic programming} techniques. ALF is based on {Horn clause} logic with equality which consists of {predicates} and Horn clauses for {logic programming}, and functions and equations for {functional programming}. Any functional expression can be used in a {goal} literal and arbitrary predicates can occur in conditions of equations. ALF uses {narrowing} and {rewriting}. ALF includes a compiler to {Warren Abstract Machine} code and {run-time support}. {(ftp://ftp.germany.eu.net/pub/programming/languages/LogicFunctional)}. ["The Implementation of the Functional-Logic Language ALF", M. Hanus and A. Schwab]. (1992-10-08)

ALGOL 68 "language" An extensive revision of {ALGOL 60} by Adriaan van Wijngaarden et al. ALGOL 68 was discussed from 1963 by Working Group 2.1 of {IFIP}. Its definition was accepted in December 1968. ALGOL 68 was the first, and still one of very few, programming languages for which a complete formal specification was created before its implementation. However, this specification was hard to understand due to its formality, the fact that it used an unfamiliar {metasyntax} notation (not {BNF}) and its unconventional terminology. One of the singular features of ALGOL 68 was its {orthogonal} design, making for freedom from arbitrary rules (such as restrictions in other languages that arrays could only be used as parameters but not as results). It also allowed {user defined data types}, then an unheard-of feature. It featured {structural equivalence}; automatic type conversion ("{coercion}") including {dereferencing}; {flexible arrays}; generalised loops (for-from-by-to-while-do-od), if-then-else-elif-fi, an integer case statement with an 'out' clause (case-in-out-esac); {skip} and {goto} statements; {blocks}; {procedures}; user-defined {operators}; {procedure parameters}; {concurrent} execution (par-begin-end); {semaphores}; generators "heap" and "loc" for {dynamic allocation}. It had no {abstract data types} or {separate compilation}. {(http://www.bookrags.com/research/algol-68-wcs/)}. (2007-04-24)

algorithm "algorithm, programming" A detailed sequence of actions to perform to accomplish some task. Named after the Iranian, Islamic mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer, {Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi}. Technically, an algorithm must reach a result after a {finite} number of steps, thus ruling out {brute force} search methods for certain problems, though some might claim that brute force search was also a valid (generic) algorithm. The term is also used loosely for any sequence of actions (which may or may not terminate). {Paul E. Black's Dictionary of Algorithms, Data Structures, and Problems (http://nist.gov/dads/)}. (2002-02-05)

Algorithmic Model "programming" A method of estimating software cost using mathematical {algorithms} based on the parameters which are considered to be the major cost drivers. These estimate of effort or cost are based primarily on the size of the software or {Delivered Source Instructions} (DSI)s, and other productivity factors known as {Cost Driver Attributes}. See also {Parametric Model}. (1996-05-28)

Algorithmic Test Case Generation "programming" A computational method for identifying test cases from data, logical relationships or other software {requirements} information. (1996-05-10)

alias 1. "operating system" A name, usually short and easy to remember and type, that is translated into another name or string, usually long and difficult to remember or type. Most {command interpreters} (e.g. {Unix}'s {csh}) allow the user to define aliases for commands, e.g. "alias l ls -al". These are loaded into memory when the interpreter starts and are expanded without needing to refer to any file. 2. "networking" One of several alternative {hostnames} with the same {Internet address}. E.g. in the {Unix} {hosts} database (/etc/hosts or {NIS} map) the first field on a line is the {Internet address}, the next is the official hostname (the "{canonical} name" or "{CNAME}"), and any others are aliases. Hostname aliases often indicate that the host with that alias provides a particular network service such as {archie}, {finger}, {FTP}, or {web}. The assignment of services to computers can then be changed simply by moving an alias (e.g. www.doc.ic.ac.uk) from one {Internet address} to another, without the clients needing to be aware of the change. 3. "file system" The name used by {Apple computer, Inc.} for {symbolic links} when they added them to the {System 7} {operating system} in 1991. (1997-10-22) 4. "programming" Two names ({identifiers}), usually of local or global {variables}, that refer to the same resource ({memory} location) are said to be aliased. Although names introduced in {programming languages} are typically mapped to different {memory} locations, aliasing can be introduced by the use of {address} arithmetic and {pointers} or language-specific features, like {C++} {references}. Statically deciding (e.g. via a {program analysis} executed by a sophisticated {compiler}) which locations of a {program} will be aliased at run time is an {undecidable} problem. [G. Ramalingam: "The Undecidability of Aliasing", ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), Volume 16, Issue 5, September 1994, Pages: 1467 - 1471, ISSN:0164-0925.] (2004-09-12)

allow-none "programming" An annotation in {GTk} documentation indicating that the annotated entity may be null. {(http://live.gnome.org/GObjectIntrospection/Annotations)}. (2009-09-29)

ALLOY "language" A language by Thanasis Mitsolides "mitsolid@cs.nyu.edu" which combines {functional programming}, {object-oriented programming} and {logic programming} ideas, and is suitable for {massively parallel} systems. Evaluating modes support serial or parallel execution, {eager evaluation} or {lazy evaluation}, {nondeterminism} or multiple solutions etc. ALLOY is simple as it only requires 29 primitives in all (half of which are for {object oriented programming} support). It runs on {SPARC}. {(ftp://cs.nyu.edu/pub/local/alloy/)}. ["The Design and Implementation of ALLOY, a Parallel Higher Level Programming Language", Thanasis Mitsolides "mitsolid@cs2.nyu.edu", PhD Thesis NYU 1990]. (1991-06-11)

ALM 1. "programming" {application lifecycle management}. 2. "language" {Assembly Language for Multics}.

ALPHA "language" (Or "Input") An extension of {ALGOL 60} for the {M-20} computer developed by A.P. Ershov at Novosibirsk in 1961. ALPHA includes {matrix} operations, {slices}, and complex arithmetic. ["The Alpha Automatic Programming System", A.P. Ershov ed., A-P 1971]. (1995-05-10)

alpha testing "programming" Testing of software at the developer's site by the customer. The stage before {beta testing}. (1996-05-10)

ALPS "language" 1. An interpreted {algebraic language} for the {Bendix G15} developed by Dr. Richard V. Andree (? - 1987), Joel C. Ewing and others of the {University of Oklahoma} from Spring 1966 (possibly 1965). Dale Peters "dpeters@theshop.net" reports that in the summer of 1966 he attended the second year of an {NSF}-sponsored summer institute in mathematics and computing at the University of Oklahoma. Dr. Andree's computing class mostly used the language GO-GO, later renamed ALPS. The language changed frequently during the class, which was occasionally disorienting. Dale believes it was also used in Summer 1965 and that it was about this time that {John G. Kemeny} (one of the designers of {Dartmouth BASIC}, 1963) saw it during a visit. Dr. Andree's January 1967 class mimeo notes on ALPS begin: "ALPS is a new programming language designed and perfected by Mr. Harold Bradbury, Mr. Joel Ewing and Mr. Harold Wiebe, members of the O.U. Mathematics Computer Consultants Group under the direction of Dr. Richard V. Andree. ALPS is designed to be used with a minimum of training to solve numerical problems on a computer with typewriter stations and using man-computer cooperation by persons who have little familiarity with advanced mathematics." The initial version of what evolved into ALPS was designed and implemented by Joel Ewing (a pre-senior undergrad) in G15 {machine language} out of frustration with the lack of applications to use the G15's dual-case alphanumeric I/O capabilities. Harold Wiebe also worked on the code. Others, including Ralph Howenstine, a member of the O.U. Math Computer Consultants Group, contributed to the design of extensions and Dr. Andree authored all the instructional materials, made the outside world aware of the language and encouraged work on the language. (2006-10-10) 2. A parallel {logic language}. ["Synchronization and Scheduling in ALPS Objects", P. Vishnubhotia, Proc 8th Intl Conf Distrib Com Sys, IEEE 1988, pp. 256-264]. (1994-11-24)

alt.sources "messaging, programming" A {Usenet} {newsgroup} for posting program {source code}. {Archive (ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/usenet/alt.sources/)}. (1995-10-18)

Amanda "language" A {functional programming language} derived mostly from {Miranda} with some small changes. Amanda was written by Dick Bruin and implemented on {MS-DOS} and {NeXT}. It is available as an {interperator} only. (1998-04-27)

Amber "language" 1. A {functional programming} language which adds {CSP}-like {concurrency}, {multiple inheritance} and {persistence} to {ML} and generalises its type system. It is similar to {Galileo}. Programs must be written in two type faces, roman and italics! It has both {static types} and {dynamic types}. There is an implementation for {Macintosh}. ["Amber", L. Cardelli, TR Bell Labs, 1984]. 2. An {object-oriented} distributed language based on a subset of {C++}, developed at {Washington University} in the late 1980s. (1994-12-08)

AMBIT/G "language" {AMBIT} for graphs. ["An Example of the Manipulation of Directed Graphs in the AMBIT/G Programming Language", C. Christensen, in Interactive Systems for Experimental Applied Mathematics, M. Klerer et al, eds, Academic Press 1968, pp. 423-435]. (1994-12-08)

AMBUSH "language" A language for {linear programming} problems in a materials processing and transportation network. ["AMBUSH - An Advanced Model Builder for Linear Programming", T.R. White et al, National Petroleum Refiners Assoc Comp Conf (Nov 1971)]. (1995-06-19)

American Standard Code for Information Interchange "character, standard" The basis of {character sets} used in almost all present-day computers. {US-ASCII} uses only the lower seven {bits} ({character points} 0 to 127) to convey some {control codes}, {space}, numbers, most basic punctuation, and unaccented letters a-z and A-Z. More modern {coded character sets} (e.g., {Latin-1}, {Unicode}) define extensions to ASCII for values above 127 for conveying special {Latin characters} (like accented characters, or {German} ess-tsett), characters from non-Latin writing systems (e.g., {Cyrillic}, or {Han characters}), and such desirable {glyphs} as distinct open- and close-{quotation marks}. ASCII replaced earlier systems such as {EBCDIC} and {Baudot}, which used fewer bytes, but were each {broken} in their own way. Computers are much pickier about spelling than humans; thus, {hackers} need to be very precise when talking about characters, and have developed a considerable amount of verbal shorthand for them. Every character has one or more names - some formal, some concise, some silly. Individual characters are listed in this dictionary with alternative names from revision 2.3 of the {Usenet} ASCII pronunciation guide in rough order of popularity, including their official {ITU-T} names and the particularly silly names introduced by {INTERCAL}. See {V} {ampersand}, {asterisk}, {back quote}, {backslash}, {caret}, {colon}, {comma}, {commercial at}, {control-C}, {dollar}, {dot}, {double quote}, {equals}, {exclamation mark}, {greater than}, {hash}, {left bracket}, {left parenthesis}, {less than}, {minus}, {parentheses}, {oblique stroke}, {percent}, {plus}, {question mark}, {right brace}, {right brace}, {right bracket}, {right parenthesis}, {semicolon}, {single quote}, {space}, {tilde}, {underscore}, {vertical bar}, {zero}. Some other common usages cause odd overlaps. The "

American Telephone and Telegraph, Inc. "company, telecommunications, Unix" (AT&T) One of the largest US telecommunications providers, also noted for being the birthplace of the {Unix} {operating system} and the {C} and {C++} programming languages. AT&T was incorporated in 1885, but traces its lineage to Alexander Graham Bell and his invention of the telephone in 1876. As parent company of the former {Bell System}, AT&T's primary mission was to provide telephone service to virtually everyone in the United States. In its first 50 years, AT&T established subsidiaries and allied companies in more than a dozen other countries. It sold these interests in 1925 and focused on achieving its mission in the United States. It did, however, continue to provide international long distance service. The Bell System was dissolved at the end of 1983 with AT&T's divestiture of the Bell telephone companies. AT&T split into three parts in 1996, one of which is {Lucent Tecnologies}, the former systems and equipment portion of AT&T (including Bell Laboratories). See also {3DO}, {Advanced RISC Machine}, {Berkeley Software Distribution}, {Bell Laboratories}, {Concurrent C}, {Death Star}, {dinosaurs mating}, {InterNIC}, {System V}, {Nawk}, {Open Look}, {rc}, {S}, {Standard ML of New Jersey}, {Unix International}, {Unix conspiracy}, {USG Unix}, {Unix System Laboratories}. {AT&T Home (http://att.com/)}. (2002-06-21)

ampersand "character" "&" {ASCII} character 38. Common names: {ITU-T}, {INTERCAL}: ampersand; amper; and. Rare: address (from {C}); reference (from C++); bitand; background (from {sh}); pretzel; amp. A common symbol for "and", used as the "address of" operator in {C}, the "reference" operator in {C++} and a {bitwise and} or {logical and} operator in several programming languages. {Visual BASIC} uses it as the {string concatenation} {operator} and to prefix {octal} and {hexadecimal} numbers. {UNIX} {shells} use the character to indicate that a task should be run in the {background} (single "&" suffix) or (following C's {lazy and}), in a {compound command} of the form "a && b" to indicate that the command b should only be run if command a terminates successfully. The ampersand is a ligature (combination) of the cursive letters "e" and "t", invented in 63 BC by Marcus Tirus [Tiro?] as shorthand for the Latin word for "and", "et". The word ampersand is a conflation (combination) of "and, per se and". Per se means "by itself", and so the phrase translates to "&, standing by itself, means 'and'". This was at the end of the alphabet as it was recited by children in old English schools. The words ran together and were associated with "&". The "ampersand" spelling dates from 1837. {Take our word for it (http://takeourword.com/Issue010.html)}. (2012-07-18)

AMPLE "language, music" A {FORTH}-like language for programming the 500/5000 series of add-on music synthesisers for the {BBC Microcomputer}. AMPLE was produced by Hybrid Technologies, Cambridge, England in the mid 1980s. Many AMPLE programs were published in Acorn User magazine. (1995-11-01)

Analogy Model "programming" A method of estimating the cost of a proposed software project by extrapolating from the costs and schedules of similar completed projects. (1996-05-28)

AND "logic" (Or "conjunction") The {Boolean} function which is true only if all its arguments are true. The {truth table} for the two argument AND function is: A | B | A AND B --+---+--------- F | F |  F F | T |  F T | F |  F T | T |  T AND is often written as an inverted "V" in texts on logic. In the {C} programming language it is represented by the && (logical and) {operator}. (1997-11-15)

Andorra-I "language" A {parallel} {logic programming} language with the {OR-parallelism} of {Aurora} and the {AND-parallelism} of {Parlog}. ["Andorra-I: A Parallel Prolog System that Transparently Exploits both And- and Or-Parallelism", V.S Costa et al, SIGPLAN Notices 26(7):83-93 (July 1991)]. [Imperial College? Who?] (1995-11-24)

Andorra Kernel Language "language" (AKL) The successor to {KAP} by S. Janson "sverker@sics.se". A prototype implementation is available from the author. ["Programming Paradigms of the Andorra Kernel Language", S. Janson et al in Logic Programming: Proc 1991 Intl Symp, MIT Press 1991]. (1994-11-24)

Andrew Tanenbaum "person" Professor Andrew S. Tanenbaum (1941-) of the {Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam} in The Netherlands. Tanenbaum is famous for his work and books on computer architecture, {operating systems} and {networks}. He wrote the textbook "Computer Networks", Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, 1981, which describes the {International Standards Organisation}, {Open Systems Interconnection} (ISO-OSI) network model. See {Amoeba}, {Mac-1}, {Mic-1}, {Mic-2}, {Micro Assembly Language}, {MINIX}, {MicroProgramming Language}, {standard}. [Home page?] (1996-04-23)

An Evolutionary System for On-line Programming "database" (AESOP) An early interactive {query system} on the {IBM 1800} using a {light pen}. ["AESOP: A Final Report: A Prototype Interactive Information Control System", J.K. Summers et al, in Information System Science and Technology, D. Walker ed, 1967]. [Sammet 1969, p. 703]. (1995-04-04)

annotation 1. "programming, compiler" Extra information associated with a particular point in a document or program. Annotations may be added either by a {compiler} or by the programmer. They are not usually essential to the correct function of the program but give hints to improve performance. 2. "hypertext" A new commentary {node} linked to an existing node. If readers, as well as authors, can annotate nodes, then they can immediately provide feedback if the information is misleading, out of date or plain wrong. (1995-11-26)

Anthony Hoare "person" (C. Anthony R. Hoare, Tony) A computer scientist working on programming languages, especially {parallel} ones. Hoare was responsible for {Communicating Sequential Processes} (CSP). See also: {pointer}, {Simone}. [Did he invent the Hoare {powerdomain}? Other details?] (1999-07-22)

AOP {aspect-oriented programming}

AOS 1. "programming" /aws/ (East Coast), /ay-os/ (West Coast) A {PDP-10} instruction that took any memory location and added 1 to it. AOS meant "Add One and do not Skip". Why, you may ask, does the "S" stand for "do not Skip" rather than for "Skip"? Ah, here was a beloved piece of PDP-10 folklore. There were eight such instructions: AOSE added 1 and then skipped the next instruction if the result was Equal to zero; AOSG added 1 and then skipped if the result was Greater than 0; AOSN added 1 and then skipped if the result was Not 0; AOSA added 1 and then skipped Always; and so on. Just plain AOS didn't say when to skip, so it never skipped. For similar reasons, AOJ meant "Add One and do not Jump". Even more bizarre, SKIP meant "do not SKIP"! If you wanted to skip the next instruction, you had to say "SKIPA". Likewise, JUMP meant "do not JUMP"; the unconditional form was JUMPA. However, hackers never did this. By some quirk of the 10's design, the {JRST} (Jump and ReSTore flag with no flag specified) was actually faster and so was invariably used. Such were the perverse mysteries of assembler programming. 2. "operating system" /A-O-S/ or /A-os/ A {Multics}-derived {operating system} supported at one time by {Data General}. A spoof of the standard AOS system administrator's manual ("How to Load and Generate your AOS System") was created, issued a part number, and circulated as photocopy folklore; it was called "How to Goad and Levitate your CHAOS System". 3. "operating system" Algebraic Operating System, in reference to those calculators which use {infix} {operators} instead of {postfix notation}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-11-26)

APL2 "language" An {APL} extension from {IBM} with nested {arrays}. ["APL2 Programming: Language Reference", IBM, Aug 1984. Order No. SH20-9227-0]. (1995-11-29)

APL {A Programming Language}

apple-touch-icon "programming" (apple-touch-icon.png) {Apple}'s default {icon} (image) used to represent a {website}, e.g. when saved as a {bookmark} or on the {home screen} of an {iOS} device such as an {iPhone} or {iPad}. Apple's scheme allows a site to offer images of different sizes so the client can choose the most appropriate one according to its screen size and resolution. Apple devices and applications completely ignore the {favicon}.ico {de facto standard} which, while somewhat quirky in its use of the {ico} format, has been pretty much universally adopted elsewhere. Conversely, apple-touch-icon.png will be ignored by non-Apple devices, possibly because its 16x16 resolution would look pretty shabby on most smart phones. The icon can be provided in various different resolutions for different screen sizes and resolutions, e.g. apple-touch-icon-152x152.png for {retina iPad} with {iOS7}. {(https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/AppleApplications/Reference/SafariWebContent/ConfiguringWebApplications/ConfiguringWebApplications.html) Apple documentation}. {(https://realfavicongenerator.net/faq)}. (2018-08-19)

apple-touch-icon-precomposed "programming" An alternative form of {apple-touch-icon} that is not subject to automatic modification (rounding, drop-shadow, reflective shine) as applied by {iOS} versions prior to iOS 7. A {web page} specifies a pre-composed icon by including an element in the "head" like: "link rel="apple-touch-icon-precomposed" href="apple-touch-icon-precomposed.png"" The icon can be provided in various different resolutions for different screen sizes and resolutions, e.g. apple-touch-icon-152x152-precomposed.png for {retina iPad} with {iOS7}. {Everything you always wanted to know about touch icons (https://mathiasbynens.be/notes/touch-icons)}. (2018-08-19)

Application Binary Interface "programming" (ABI) The interface by which an {application program} gains access to {operating system} and other services. It should be possible to run the same compiled {binary} applications on any system with the right ABI. Examples are {88open}'s {Binary Compatibility Standard}, the {PowerOpen Environment} and {Windows sockets}. (1994-11-08)

Application Control Architecture "programming" (ACA) {DEC}'s implementation of {ORB}. (1994-11-08)

application development "programming" Writing {computer programs} to meet specific {requirements}; the job of an Application Developer. Application development often includes responsibility for {requirements capture} and/or {testing} as well as actual {programming} (the more limited activity implied by the term {programmer}). (2013-08-15)

application enablement services "programming" {IBM}-speak for {APIs} to services such as telecoms, database, etc. within and between address spaces. (1999-01-20)

Application environment specification "programming" (AES) A set of specifications from {OSF} for programming and {user interfaces}, aimed at providing a consistent application environment on different hardware. It includes "O/S" for the {operating system} (user commands and program interfaces), "U/E" for the User Environment ({Motif}), and "N/S" for Network services. [Reference?] (1994-12-07)

application lifecycle management "programming" (ALM) A combination of {software engineering}, {requirements management}, {architecture}, {coding}, {testing}, {tracking} and {release management}. (2009-06-10)

Application Portability Architecture "programming" (APA) {DEC}'s plan for portable applications software. (1994-11-28)

application program "programming, operating system" (Or "application", "app") A complete, self-contained program that performs a specific function directly for the user. This is in contrast to {system software} such as the {operating system} {kernel}, {server} processes, {libraries} which exists to support application programs and {utility programs}. Editors for various kinds of documents, {spreadsheets}, and text formatters are common examples of applications. Network applications include clients such as those for {FTP}, {electronic mail}, {telnet} and {WWW}. The term is used fairly loosely, for instance, some might say that a client and server together form a distributed application, others might argue that editors and compilers were not applications but {utility programs} for building applications. One distinction between an application program and the operating system is that applications always run in {user mode} (or "non-privileged mode"), while operating systems and related utilities may run in {supervisor mode} (or "privileged mode"). The term may also be used to distinguish programs which communicate via a {graphical user interface} from those which are executed from the {command line}. (2007-02-02)

Application Program Interface "programming" (API, or "application programming interface") The interface (calling conventions) by which an {application program} accesses {operating system} and other services. An API is defined at {source code} level and provides a level of {abstraction} between the application and the {kernel} (or other privileged utilities) to ensure the {portability} of the code. An API can also provide an interface between a {high level language} and lower level utilities and services which were written without consideration for the {calling conventions} supported by compiled languages. In this case, the API's main task may be the translation of parameter lists from one format to another and the interpretation of {call-by-value} and {call-by-reference} arguments in one or both directions. (1995-02-15)

Application Programming Interface {Application Program Interface}

Applications Programming Interface {Application Programming Interface}

Applicative Language for Digital Signal Processing "language" (ALDiSP) A {functional language} with special features for {real-time} {I/O} and numerical processing, developed at the {Technical University of Berlin} in 1989. ["An Applicative Real-Time Language for DSP - Programming Supporting Asynchronous Data-Flow Concepts", M. Freericks "mfx@cs.tu-berlin.de" in Microprocessing and Microprogramming 32, N-H 1991]. (1995-04-19)

applicative language "language" A {functional language}. Sometimes used loosely for any {declarative language} though {logic programming} languages are declarative but not applicative. (1995-12-24)

applicative order reduction "programming" An {evaluation strategy} under which an expression is evaluated by repeatedly evaluating its leftmost innermost {redex}. This means that a function's arguments are evaluated before the function is applied. This method will not terminate if a function is given a non-terminating expression as an argument even if the function is not {strict} in that argument. Also known as {call-by-value} since the values of arguments are passed rather than their names. This is the evaluation strategy used by {ML}, {Scheme}, {Hope} and most {procedural languages} such as {C} and {Pascal}. See also {normal order reduction}, {parallel reduction}. (1995-01-25)

APPLOG "language" A language which unifies {logic programming} and {functional programming}. ["The APPLOG Language", S. Cohen in Logic Programming, deGroot et al eds, P-H 1986, pp.39-276]. (1995-01-25)

A Programming Language "language" (APL) A programming language designed originally by Ken Iverson at Harvard University in 1957-1960 as a notation for the concise expression of mathematical {algorithms}. It went unnamed (or just called Iverson's Language) and unimplemented for many years. Finally a subset, APL\360, was implemented in 1964. APL is an interactive array-oriented language and programming environment with many innovative features. It was originally written using a non-standard {character set}. It is {dynamically typed} with {dynamic scope}. APL introduced several functional forms but is not {purely functional}. Dyalog APL/W and Visual APL are recognized .{NET} languages. Dyalog APL/W, APLX and APL2000 all offer {object-oriented} extensions to the language. ISO 8485 is the 1989 standard defining the language. Commercial versions: APL SV, VS APL, Sharp APL, Sharp APL/PC, APL*PLUS, APL*PLUS/PC, APL*PLUS/PC II, MCM APL, Honeyapple, DEC APL, {APL+Win, APL+Linux, APL+Unix and VisualAPL (http://www.apl2000.com/)}, {Dyalog APL (http://www.dyalog.com/)}, {IBM APL2 (http://www-306.ibm.com/software/awdtools/apl/)}, {APLX (http://www.microapl.co.uk/apl/)}, {Sharp APL (http://www.soliton.com/services_sharp.html)} Open source version: {NARS2000 (http://www.nars2000.org/)}. {APL wiki (http://aplwiki.com/)}. See also {Kamin's interpreters}. {APLWEB (http://www.microapl.co.uk/apl/)} translates {WEB} to APL. ["A Programming Language", Kenneth E. Iverson, Wiley, 1962]. ["APL: An Interactive Approach", 1976]. (2009-08-11)

APSE {Ada Programming Support Environment}

Architecture Neutral Distribution Format "programming, operating system" (ANDF) An emerging {OSF} {standard} for software distribution. Programs are compiled into ANDF before distribution and {executables} are produced from it for the local target system. This allows software to be developed and distributed in a single version then installed on a variety of hardware. See also {UNCOL}. ["Architecture Neutral Distribution Format: A White Paper", Open Software Foundation, Nov 1990]. (1995-10-20)

arena "programming" The area of memory attached to a {Unix} process by the {brk} and {sbrk} {system calls} and used by {malloc} as dynamic storage. So named from a "malloc: corrupt arena" message emitted when some early versions detected an impossible value in the free block list. See {overrun screw}, {aliasing bug}, {memory leak}, {memory smash}, {smash the stack}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-12-28)

argument "programming" (Or "arg") A value or reference passed to a {function}, {procedure}, {subroutine}, command or program, by the caller. For example, in the function definition square(x) = x * x x is the {formal argument} or "parameter", and in the call y = square(3+4) 3+4 is the {actual argument}. This will execute the function square with x having the value 7 and return the result 49. There are many different conventions for passing arguments to functions and procedures including {call-by-value}, {call-by-name}, {call-by-reference}, {call-by-need}. These affect whether the value of the argument is computed by the caller or the callee (the function) and whether the callee can modify the value of the argument as seen by the caller (if it is a variable). Arguments to functions are usually, following mathematical notation, written in parentheses after the function name, separated by commas (but see {curried function}). Arguments to a program are usually given after the command name, separated by spaces, e.g.: cat myfile yourfile hisfile Here "cat" is the command and "myfile", "yourfile", and "hisfile" are the arguments. (2006-05-27)

Argus "language" A successor to {CLU}, from LCS at {MIT}. Argus supports {distributed programming} through {guardians} (like {monitors}, but can be created dynamically) and {atomic actions} (indivisible activity). It also has {cobegin} and coend. ["Argus Reference Manual", B. Liskov et al., TR-400, MIT/LCS, 1987]. ["Guardians and Actions: Linguistic Support for Robust, Distributed Programs", B. Liskov "liskov@lcs.mit.edu" et al, TOPLAS 5(3):381-404 (1983)]. (1995-12-28)

Ariel "language" An {array}-oriented language for the {CDC 6400}. ["Ariel Reference Manual", P. Devel, TR 22, CC UC Berkeley, Apr 1968]. ["A New Survey of the Ariel Programming Language", P. Deuel, TR 4, Ariel Consortium, UC Berkeley, June 1972]. [Deuel or Devel?] (1995-12-29)

ARITH-MATIC "language" An extension of {Grace Hopper}'s {A-2} programming language, developed in about 1955. ARITH-MATIC was originally known as A-3, but was renamed by the marketing department of {Remington Rand UNIVAC}. {(http://cispom.boisestate.edu/cis221emaxson/hophtm.htm)}. [How was A-2 extended?] (2001-01-27)

arity "programming" The number of {arguments} a {function} or {operator} takes. In some languages functions may have variable arity which sometimes means their last or only argument is actually a list of arguments. (1997-07-21)

Arjuna "language" An {object-oriented programming} system developed by a team led by Professor Santosh Shrivastava at the {University of Newcastle}, implemented entirely in {C++}. Arjuna provides a set of tools for the construction of {fault-tolerant} {distributed} applications. It exploits features found in most object-oriented languages (such as {inheritance}) and only requires a limited set of system capabilities commonly found in conventional {operating systems}. Arjuna provides the programmer with {classes} that implement {atomic transactions}, {object level recovery}, {concurrency} control and {persistence}. The system is {portable}, modular and flexible; the system software has been available via FTP since 1992. {(http://arjuna.ncl.ac.uk/)}. (1995-03-06)

array 1. "programming" A collection of identically typed data items distinguished by their indices (or "subscripts"). The number of dimensions an array can have depends on the language but is usually unlimited. An array is a kind of {aggregate} data type. A single ordinary variable (a "{scalar}") could be considered as a zero-dimensional array. A one-dimensional array is also known as a "{vector}". A reference to an array element is written something like A[i,j,k] where A is the array name and i, j and k are the indices. The {C} language is peculiar in that each index is written in separate brackets, e.g. A[i][j][k]. This expresses the fact that, in C, an N-dimensional array is actually a vector, each of whose elements is an N-1 dimensional array. Elements of an array are usually stored contiguously. Languages differ as to whether the leftmost or rightmost index varies most rapidly, i.e. whether each row is stored contiguously or each column (for a 2D array). Arrays are appropriate for storing data which must be accessed in an unpredictable order, in contrast to {lists} which are best when accessed sequentially. Array indices are {integers}, usually {natural numbers}, whereas the elements of an {associative array} are identified by strings. 2. "architecture" A {processor array}, not to be confused with an {array processor}. (2007-10-12)

Artifex "programming, tool" A {CASE} environment from {ARTIS} of Turin for the development of large {event-driven} distributed systems. It has code-generation and rapid prototyping features. (1996-01-24)

artificial intelligence "artificial intelligence" (AI) The subfield of computer science concerned with the concepts and methods of {symbolic inference} by computer and symbolic {knowledge representation} for use in making inferences. AI can be seen as an attempt to model aspects of human thought on computers. It is also sometimes defined as trying to solve by computer any problem that a human can solve faster. The term was coined by Stanford Professor {John McCarthy}, a leading AI researcher. Examples of AI problems are {computer vision} (building a system that can understand images as well as a human) and {natural language processing} (building a system that can understand and speak a human language as well as a human). These may appear to be modular, but all attempts so far (1993) to solve them have foundered on the amount of context information and "intelligence" they seem to require. The term is often used as a selling point, e.g. to describe programming that drives the behaviour of computer characters in a game. This is often no more intelligent than "Kill any humans you see; keep walking; avoid solid objects; duck if a human with a gun can see you". See also {AI-complete}, {neats vs. scruffies}, {neural network}, {genetic programming}, {fuzzy computing}, {artificial life}. {ACM SIGART (http://sigart.acm.org/)}. {U Cal Davis (http://phobos.cs.ucdavis.edu:8001)}. {CMU Artificial Intelligence Repository (http://cs.cmu.edu/Web/Groups/AI/html/repository.html)}. (2002-01-19)

ART "language" A {real-time} {functional language} developed by M. Broy in 1983. It timestamps each data value when it is created. ["Applicative Real-Time Programming", M. Broy, PROC IFIP 1983, N-H]. (1996-01-15)

ARTSPEAK "language" An early simple language for {plotter} graphics. ["The Art of Programming, ARTSPEAK", Henry Mullish, Courant Inst (Nov 1974)]. (1995-02-21)

as31 "tool, programming" An {8031}/{8051} {assembler} by Ken Stauffer "stauffer@cpsc.ucalgary.ca" and Theo Deraadt which produces a variety of {object code} output formats. The distribution includes an {assembler}, {yacc} {parser}, and documentation. as31 runs on {Sun-3}, {Sun-4}, {SunOS 4.0}, {Tandy 6000}, and {Xenix}. {as31 Home (http://pjrc.com/tech/8051/

AS/400 "computer" An {IBM} {minicomputer} for small business and departmental users, released in 1988 and still in production in October 1998. Features include a menu-driven interface, {multi-user} support, terminals that are (in the grand {IBM} tradition) incompatible with anything else including the {IBM 3270} series, and an extensive library-based {operating system}. The machine survives because its {API} layer allows the {operating system} and {application programs} to take advantage of advances in hardware without recompilation and which means that a complete system that costs $9000 runs the exact same operating system and software as a $2 million system. There is a 64-bit {RISC} processor operating system implementation. Programming languages include {RPG}, {assembly language}, {C}, {COBOL}, {SQL}, {BASIC}, and {REXX}. Several {CASE} tools are available: {Synon}, {AS/SET}, {Lansa}. {(http://as400.ibm.com/)}. (1999-07-26)

ASCIIbetical order "jargon, programming" /as'kee-be'-t*-kl or'dr/ Used to indicate that data is sorted in {ASCII} collated order rather than alphabetical order. The main difference is that, in ASCII, all the upper case letters come before any of the lower case letters so, e.g., "Z" comes before "a". [{Jargon File}] (1999-04-08)

ASE 1. "programming" {Advanced Software Environment}. 2. "networking" {Application Service Element}. 3. "database" {Adaptive Server Enterprise}.

A

aspect "programming" In {aspect-oriented programming}, a modular unit of control over {emergent entities}. (1999-08-31)

ASpecT "language" Algebraic specification of {abstract data types}. A {strict} {functional language} that compiles to {C}. Versions of ASpecT are available for {Sun}, {Ultrix}, {NeXT}, {Macintosh}, {OS/2} 2.0, {Linux}, {RS/6000}, {Atari}, {Amiga}. {(ftp://wowbagger.uni-bremen.de/pub/programming/languages)}. (1996-03-25)

aspect-oriented programming "programming" (AOP) A style of programming that attempts to abstract out features common to many parts of the code beyond simple functional modules and thereby improve the {quality} of software. Mechanisms for defining and composing {abstractions} are essential elements of programming languages. The design style supported by the abstraction mechanisms of most current languages is one of breaking a system down into parameterised components that can be called upon to perform a function. But many systems have properties that don't necessarily align with the system's functional components, such as failure handling, {persistence}, communication, replication, coordination, {memory management}, or {real-time} constraints, and tend to cut across groups of functional components. While they can be thought about and analysed relatively separately from the basic functionality, programming them using current {component-oriented languages} tends to result in these aspects being spread throughout the code. The {source code} becomes a tangled mess of instructions for different purposes. This "tangling" phenomenon is at the heart of much needless complexity in existing software systems. A number of researchers have begun working on approaches to this problem that allow programmers to express each of a system's aspects of concern in a separate and natural form, and then automatically combine those separate descriptions into a final executable form. These approaches have been called aspect-oriented programming. {Xerox AOP homepage (http://parc.xerox.com/csl/projects/aop/)}. {AspectJ (http://AspectJ.org/)}. {ECOOPP'99 AOP workshop (http://wwwtrese.cs.utwente.nl/aop-ecoop99/)}. (1999-11-21)

ASPECT "tool, programming" An {IPSE} developed by an {Alvey} project, using {Z} to specify the {object-management system} and tool interface. (1996-03-25)

assembler "programming" A program which converts {assembly language} into {machine code}. (1996-03-25)

assembly language "language" (Or "assembly code") A symbolic representation of the {machine language} of a specific {processor}. Assembly language is converted to {machine code} by an {assembler}. Usually, each line of assembly code produces one machine instruction, though the use of {macros} is common. Programming in assembly language is slow and error-prone but is the only way to squeeze every last bit of performance out of the hardware. {Filename extension}: .s ({Unix}), .asm ({CP/M} and others). See also {second generation language}. (1996-09-17)

assertion "programming" 1. An expression which, if false, indicates an {error}. Assertions are used for {debugging} by catching {can't happen} errors. 2. In {logic programming}, a new {fact} or {rule} added to the database by the program at {run time}. This is an {extralogical} or impure feature of logic programming languages. (1997-06-30)

assignment "programming" Storing the value of an expression in a {variable}. This is commonly written in the form "v = e". In {Algol} the assignment operator was ":=" (pronounced "becomes") to avoid mathematicians qualms about writing statements like x = x+1. Assignment is not allowed in {functional languages}, where an {identifier} always has the same value. See also {referential transparency}, {single assignment}, {zero assignment}. (1996-08-19)

Association of C and C++ Users "body" (ACCU) A community of people with an interest in the {C} family of programming languages: {K&R C}, {ANSI C}, and {C++}. The community includes professional programmers, the suppliers of {compilers}, and those who are just interested in the languages. ACCU members are using C and C++ on a wide range of platforms - {Unix}, {MS-DOS}, {OS/2}, {CP/M} - home computers, {IBM PCs}, {workstations}, and {super-computers}. Although the organisation is based in the UK, the membership is worldwide. There are members in the US, mainland Europe, Russia, the Middle East, and Australia. E-mail: "info@accu.org", "membership@accu.org", "academic@accu.org" (Academic Liaison Officer). Address: The Membership Secretary, 64 Southfield Road, Oxford OX4 1PA, United Kingdom. (1996-12-02)

associative array "programming" (Or "hash", "map", "dictionary") An {array} where the {indices} are not just {integers} but may be arbitrary strings. {awk} and its descendants (e.g. {Perl}) have associative arrays which are implemented using {hash coding} for faster look-up. (2007-10-02)

associativity "programming" The property of an {operator} that says whether a sequence of three or more expressions combined by the operator will be evaluated from left to right (left associative) or right to left (right associative). For example, in {Perl}, the {lazy and} operator && is left associative so in the expression: $i "= 0 && $x[$i] "= 0 && $y[$x[$i]] == 0 the left-most && is evaluated first, whereas = is right associative, so in $a = $b = 42 the right-most assignment is performed first. (2007-06-16)

Astral "language" A programming language based on {Pascal}, never implemented. ["ASTRAL: A Structured and Unified Approach to Database Design and Manipulation", T. Amble et al, in Proc of the Database Architecture Conf, Venice, June 1979]. (2000-01-27)

AUTOCODER "language" Possibly the first primitive {compiler}. AUTOCODER was written by Alick E. Glennie in 1952. It translated symbolic statements into {machine language} for the {Manchester Mark I} computer. Autocoding later came to be a generic term for {assembly language} programming. (1994-11-07)

Automated Retroactive Minimal Moderation "messaging" (ARMM) A {Usenet} robot created by Dick Depew of Munroe Falls, Ohio. ARMM was intended to automatically cancel posts from anonymous-posting sites. Unfortunately, the robot's recogniser for anonymous postings triggered on its own automatically-generated control messages! Transformed by this stroke of programming ineptitude into a monster of Frankensteinian proportions, it broke loose on the night of 1993-03-31 and proceeded to {spam} {news:news.admin.policy} with a recursive explosion of over 200 messages. Reactions varied from amusement to outrage. The pathological messages crashed at least one mail system, and upset people paying line charges for their {Usenet} feeds. One poster described the ARMM debacle as "instant {Usenet} history" (also establishing the term {despew}), and it has since been widely cited as a cautionary example of the havoc the combination of good intentions and incompetence can wreak on a network. Compare {Great Worm}; {sorcerer's apprentice mode}. See also {software laser}, {network meltdown}. (1996-01-08)

Automatically Programmed Tools "language" (APT) A language for numerically controlled machine tools. Versions: APT II (IBM 704, 1958), APT III (IBM 7090, 1961). ["APT Part Programming", McGraw-Hill]. [Sammet 1969, p. 605]. (1995-05-04)

Automatische Rechenplanfertigung "language" A programming language published in 1952 by Heinz Rutishauser (1918-70). [Features?] (2001-07-09)

Autopass "programming" ["Autopass: An Automatic Programming System for Computer-Controlled Mechanical Assembly", L.I. Lieberman et al, IBM J Res Dev 21(4):321-333, 1979]. (2001-09-16)

Autostat "language" A language for statistical programming. ["Autostat: A Language for Statistical Programming", A.S. Douglas et al, Computer J 3:61, 1960]. (2001-09-25)

awk 1. "tool, language" (Named from the authors' initials) An interpreted language included with many versions of {Unix} for massaging text data, developed by Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan in 1978. It is characterised by {C}-like syntax, declaration-free variables, {associative arrays}, and field-oriented text processing. There is a {GNU} version called {gawk} and other varients including {bawk}, {mawk}, {nawk}, {tawk}. {Perl} was inspired in part by awk but is much more powerful. {Unix manual page}: awk(1). {netlib WWW (http://plan9.att.com/netlib/research/index.html)}. {netlib FTP (ftp://netlib.att.com/netlib/research/)}. ["The AWK Programming Language" A. Aho, B. Kernighan, P. Weinberger, A-W 1988]. 2. "jargon" An expression which is awkward to manipulate through normal {regexp} facilities, for example, one containing a {newline}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-10-06)

B 1. {byte}. 2. "language" A systems language written by {Ken Thompson} in 1970 mostly for his own use under {Unix} on the {PDP-11}. B was later improved by Kerninghan(?) and Ritchie to produce {C}. B was used as the systems language on {Honeywell}'s {GCOS-3}. B was, according to Ken, greatly influenced by {BCPL}, but the name B had nothing to do with BCPL. B was in fact a revision of an earlier language, {bon}, named after Ken Thompson's wife, Bonnie. ["The Programming Language B", S.C. Johnson & B.W. Kernighan, CS TR 8, Bell Labs (Jan 1973)]. [Features? Differences from C?] (1997-02-02) 3. "language" A simple {interactive} {programming language} designed by {Lambert Meertens} and {Steven Pemberton}. B was the predecessor of {ABC}. B was the first published (and implemented) language to use indentation for block structure. {(ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/languages/B.tar.Z)}. ["Draft Proposal for the B Language", Lambert Meertens, CWI, Amsterdam, 1981]. [{(http://python-history.blogspot.com/2011/07/karin-dewar-indentation-and-colon.html)}]. 4. "language, specification" A specification language by Jean-Raymond Abrial of {B Core UK}, Magdalen Centre, Oxford Science Park, Oxford OX4 4GA. B is related to {Z} and supports development of {C} code from specifications. B has been used in major {safety-critical system} specifications in Europe, and is currently attracting increasing interest in industry. It has robust, commercially available tool support for specification, design, proof and code generation. E-mail: "Ib.Sorensen@comlab.ox.ac.uk". (1995-04-24)

BABEL "language" 1. A subset of {ALGOL 60} with many {ALGOL W} extensions. ["BABEL, A New Programming Language", R.S. Scowen, {National Physics Laboratory}, UK, Report CCU7, 1969]. ["Babel, an application of extensible compilers", R. S. Scowen, National Physical Laboratory, Proceedings of the international symposium on Extensible languages, Grenoble, France 1971-09-06, https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=807971]. 2. A language mentioned in "The Psychology of Computer Programming", G.M. Weinberg, Van Nostrand 1971, p.241. 3. A language based on {higher-order functions} and {first-order logic}. ["Graph-Based Implementation of a Functional Logic Language", H. Kuchen et al, Proc ESOP 90, LNCS 432, Springer 1990, pp. 271-290]. ["Logic Programming with Functions and Predicates: The Language BABEL", Moreno-Navarro et al, J Logic Prog 12(3), Feb 1992]. (1994-11-28)

back-end "programming" Any software performing either the final stage in a process, or a task not apparent to the user. A common usage is in a {compiler}. A compiler's back-end generates {machine language} and performs optimisations specific to the machine's {architecture}. The term can also be used in the context of {network} applications. E.g. "The back-end of the system handles {socket} protocols". Contrast {front end}. (1996-04-09)

backtracking "algorithm" A scheme for solving a series of sub-problems each of which may have multiple possible solutions and where the solution chosen for one sub-problem may affect the possible solutions of later sub-problems. To solve the overall problem, we find a solution to the first sub-problem and then attempt to recursively solve the other sub-problems based on this first solution. If we cannot, or we want all possible solutions, we backtrack and try the next possible solution to the first sub-problem and so on. Backtracking terminates when there are no more solutions to the first sub-problem. This is the algorithm used by {logic programming} languages such as {Prolog} to find all possible ways of proving a {goal}. An optimisation known as "{intelligent backtracking}" keeps track of the dependencies between sub-problems and only re-solves those which depend on an earlier solution which has changed. Backtracking is one {algorithm} which can be used to implement {nondeterminism}. It is effectively a {depth-first search} of a {problem space}. (1995-04-13)

Backus-Naur Form "language, grammar" (BNF, originally "Backus Normal Form") A formal {metasyntax} used to express {context-free grammars}. Backus Normal Form was renamed Backus-Naur Form at the suggestion of {Donald Knuth}. BNF is one of the most commonly used metasyntactic notations for specifying the {syntax} of programming languages, command sets, and the like. It is widely used for language descriptions but seldom documented anywhere (how do you document a {metasyntax}?), so that it must usually be learned by osmosis (but see {RFC 2234}). Consider this BNF for a US postal address: "postal-address" ::= "name-part" "street-address" "zip-part" "personal-part" ::= "name" | "initial" "." "name-part" ::= "personal-part" "last-name" ["jr-part"] "EOL"     | "personal-part" "name-part" "street-address" ::= ["apt"] "house-num" "street-name" "EOL" "zip-part" ::= "town-name" "," "state-code" "ZIP-code" "EOL" This translates into English as: "A postal-address consists of a name-part, followed by a street-address part, followed by a zip-code part. A personal-part consists of either a first name or an initial followed by a dot. A name-part consists of either: a personal-part followed by a last name followed by an optional "jr-part" (Jr., Sr., or dynastic number) and end-of-line, or a personal part followed by a name part (this rule illustrates the use of recursion in BNFs, covering the case of people who use multiple first and middle names and/or initials). A street address consists of an optional apartment specifier, followed by a street number, followed by a street name. A zip-part consists of a town-name, followed by a comma, followed by a state code, followed by a ZIP-code followed by an end-of-line." Note that many things (such as the format of a personal-part, apartment specifier, or ZIP-code) are left unspecified. These lexical details are presumed to be obvious from context or specified somewhere nearby. There are many variants and extensions of BNF, possibly containing some or all of the {regexp} {wild cards} such as "*" or "+". {EBNF} is a common one. In fact the example above isn't the pure form invented for the {ALGOL 60} report. "[]" was introduced a few years later in {IBM}'s {PL/I} definition but is now universally recognised. {ABNF} is another extension. (1997-11-23)

backward chaining "algorithm" An {algorithm} for proving a {goal} by recursively breaking it down into sub-goals and trying to prove these until {facts} are reached. Facts are goals with no sub-goals which are therefore always true. Backward training is the program execution mechanism used by most {logic programming} language like {Prolog}. Opposite: {forward chaining}. (2004-01-26)

baklava code "humour, programming" Code with too many layers. Also known as Lasagne Code. [john-d-cook, {Dodgy Coder (http://www.dodgycoder.net/2011/11/yoda-conditions-pokemon-exception.html)}]. (2013-09-14)

BALM "language" (Block And List Manipulation) An extensible language, developed by Malcolm Harrison in 1970, with {LISP}-like features and {ALGOL}-like {syntax}, for {CDC 6600}. ["The Balm Programming Language", Malcolm Harrison, Courant Inst, May 1973]. (2007-03-01)

banana problem "programming, humour" From the story of the little girl who said "I know how to spell "banana", but I don't know when to stop". Not knowing where or when to bring a production to a close (compare {fencepost error}). One may say "there is a banana problem" of an {algorithm} with poorly defined or incorrect termination conditions, or in discussing the evolution of a design that may be succumbing to {featuritis} (see also {creeping elegance}, {creeping featuritis}). {HAKMEM} item 176 describes a banana problem in a {Dissociated Press} implementation. Also, see {one-banana problem} for a superficially similar but unrelated usage. (2010-03-20)

BAPI {Business Application Programming Interface}

bar 1. "programming, convention" /bar/ The second {metasyntactic variable}, after {foo} and before {baz}. E.g. "Suppose function FOO calls functions BAR..." 2. Often appended to {foo} to produce {foobar}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-07)

Barbara Liskov "person" Professor Barbara Liskov was the first US woman to be awarded a PhD in computing, and her innovations can be found in every modern programming language. She currently (2009) heads the Programming Methodology Group at the {Massachusetts Institute of Technology}. Professor Liskov's design innovations have, over the decades, made software more reliable and easier to maintain. She has invented two computer progamming languages: {CLU}, an {object-oriented language}, and {Argus}, a {distributed programming language}. Liskov's research forms the basis of modern programming languages such as {Java}, {C

bare metal 1. New computer hardware, unadorned with such snares and delusions as an {operating system}, an {HLL}, or even {assembler}. Commonly used in the phrase "programming on the bare metal", which refers to the arduous work of {bit bashing} needed to create these basic tools for a new computer. Real bare-metal programming involves things like building {boot PROMs} and {BIOS} chips, implementing basic {monitors} used to test {device drivers}, and writing the assemblers that will be used to write the compiler back ends that will give the new computer a real development environment. 2. "Programming on the bare metal" is also used to describe a style of {hand-hacking} that relies on bit-level peculiarities of a particular hardware design, especially tricks for speed and space optimisation that rely on crocks such as overlapping instructions (or, as in the famous case described in {The Story of Mel}, interleaving of opcodes on a magnetic drum to minimise fetch delays due to the device's rotational latency). This sort of thing has become less common as the relative costs of programming time and computer resources have changed, but is still found in heavily constrained environments such as industrial embedded systems, and in the code of hackers who just can't let go of that low-level control. See {Real Programmer}. In the world of personal computing, bare metal programming is often considered a {Good Thing}, or at least a necessary evil (because these computers have often been sufficiently slow and poorly designed to make it necessary; see {ill-behaved}). There, the term usually refers to bypassing the BIOS or OS interface and writing the application to directly access device registers and computer addresses. "To get 19.2 kilobaud on the serial port, you need to get down to the bare metal." People who can do this sort of thing well are held in high regard. [{Jargon File}]

barnacle code "programming, humour" Any piece of {code} (usually a {static method}) that has been appended to a {class} where it doesn't logically belong, due to a lack of anywhere else to put it. [{Dodgy Coder (http://www.dodgycoder.net/2011/11/yoda-conditions-pokemon-exception.html)}]. (2014-08-10)

Baroque An early {logic programming} language written by Boyer and Moore in 1972. ["Computational Logic: Structure Sharing and Proof of program Properties", J. Moore, DCL Memo 67, U Edinburgh 1974]. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-22)

BASIC "language" Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. A simple language originally designed for ease of programming by students and beginners. Many dialects exist, and BASIC is popular on {microcomputers} with sound and graphics support. Most micro versions are {interactive} and {interpreted}. BASIC has become the leading cause of brain-damage in proto-hackers. This is another case (like {Pascal}) of the cascading lossage that happens when a language deliberately designed as an educational toy gets taken too seriously. A novice can write short BASIC programs (on the order of 10-20 lines) very easily; writing anything longer is painful and encourages bad habits that will make it harder to use more powerful languages. This wouldn't be so bad if historical accidents hadn't made BASIC so common on low-end micros. As it is, it ruins thousands of potential wizards a year. Originally, all references to code, both {GOTO} and GOSUB (subroutine call) referred to the destination by its line number. This allowed for very simple editing in the days before {text editors} were considered essential. Just typing the line number deleted the line and to edit a line you just typed the new line with the same number. Programs were typically numbered in steps of ten to allow for insertions. Later versions, such as {BASIC V}, allow {GOTO}-less {structured programming} with named {procedures} and {functions}, IF-THEN-ELSE
IF constructs and {WHILE} loops etc. Early BASICs had no graphic operations except with graphic characters. In the 1970s BASIC {interpreters} became standard features in {mainframes} and {minicomputers}. Some versions included {matrix} operations as language {primitives}. A {public domain} {interpreter} for a mixture of {DEC}'s {MU-Basic} and {Microsoft Basic} is {here (ftp://oak.oakland.edu/pub/Unix-c/languages/basic/basic.tar-z)}. A {yacc} {parser} and {interpreter} were in the comp.sources.unix archives volume 2. See also {ANSI Minimal BASIC}, {bournebasic}, {bwBASIC}, {ubasic}, {Visual Basic}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-15)


Basic Language for Implementation of System Software "language" (BLISS, or allegedly, "System Software Implementation Language, Backwards") A language designed by W.A. Wulf at {CMU} around 1969. BLISS is an {expression language}. It is {block-structured}, and typeless, with {exception handling} facilities, {coroutines}, a {macro} system, and a highly {optimising compiler}. It was one of the first non-{assembly languages} for {operating system} implementation. It gained fame for its lack of a {goto} and also lacks implicit {dereferencing}: all symbols stand for addresses, not values. Another characteristic (and possible explanation for the backward acronym) was that BLISS fairly uniformly used backward {keywords} for closing blocks, a famous example being ELUDOM to close a MODULE. An exception was BEGIN...END though you could use (...) instead. DEC introduced the NOVALUE keyword in their dialects to allow statements to not return a value. Versions: CMU {BLISS-10} for the PDP-10; CMU {BLISS-11}, {BLISS-16}, DEC {BLISS-16C}, DEC {BLISS-32}, {BLISS-36} for {VAX}/{VMS}, {BLISS-36C}. ["BLISS: A Language for Systems Programming", CACM 14(12):780-790, Dec 1971]. [Did the B stand for "Better"?] (1997-03-01)

Basic Object System "programming" (BOS) A {C}-callable library that implements the notion of {object} and which uses {Tcl} as its {interpreter} for interpreted {methods} (you can have "compiled" methods in C, and mix compiled and interpreted methods in the same object, plus lots more). You can subclass and mix in existing objects using BOS to extend, among other things, the set of {tk} {widgets}. BOS is a {class}-free object system, also called a prototype-based object system; it is modelled loosely on the {Self} system from {Stanford University}. Version 1.31 by Sean Levy "Sean.Levy@cs.cmu.edu". {(ftp://barkley.berkeley.edu/tcl)}. (1992-08-21)

Basic Programming Support "operating system, tool" (BPS, colloquially: Barely Programming Support) A suite of utility routines from {IBM} to perform very simple procedures like formatting a disk or labelling a tape. BPS was only available on {punched cards}. [Dates?] (1998-07-08)

BASIC V The version of the {Basic} programming language which comes on {ROM} in {Acorn}'s {RISC} computers: the {Archimedes} range and the {RiscPC}. It features REPEAT and WHILE loops, multi-line IF statements, procedures and functions, local variables, error handling, {system calls} and a built-in {assembler}. (1995-01-05)

batch processing "programming" A system that takes a sequence (a "batch") of commands or jobs, executes them and returns the results, all without human intervention. This contrasts with an {interactive} system where the user's commands and the computer's responses are interleaved during a single run. A batch system typically takes its commands from a disk file (or a set of {punched cards} or {magnetic tape} in the {mainframe} days) and returns the results to a file (or prints them). Often there is a queue of jobs which the system processes as resources become available. Since the advent of the {personal computer}, the term "batch" has come to mean automating frequently performed tasks that would otherwise be done interactively by storing those commands in a "{batch file}" or "{script}". Usually this file is read by some kind of {command interpreter} but batch processing is sometimes used with GUI-based applications that define script equivalents for menu selections and other mouse actions. Such a recorded sequence of GUI actions is sometimes called a "{macro}". This may only exist in memory and may not be saved to disk whereas a batch normally implies something stored on disk. Unix {cron} jobs and Windows scheduled tasks are batch processing started at a predefined time by the system whereas mainframe batch jobs were typically initiated by an operator loading them into a queue. (2009-09-14)

BCPL "language" (Basic CPL) A British systems language developed by Richards in 1969 and descended from {CPL} (Combined Programming Language). BCPL is low-level, typeless and block-structured, and provides only one-dimensional {arrays}. Case is not significant, but conventionally reserved words begin with a capital. Flow control constructs include: If-Then, Test-Then-Else, Unless-Do, While-Do, Until-Do, Repeat, Repeatwhile, Repeatuntil, For-to-By-Do, Loop, Break and Switchon-Into-Case-Default-Endcase. BCPL has conditional expressions, pointers, and manifest constants. It has both procedures: 'Let foo(bar) Be command' and functions: 'Let foo(bar) = expression'. 'Valof $(..Resultis..$)' causes a compound command to produce a value. Parameters are {call-by-value}. Program segments communicate via the global vector where system and user variables are stored in fixed numerical locations in a single array. The first BCPL {compiler} was written in {AED}. BCPL was used to implement the {TRIPOS} {operating system}, which was subsequently reincarnated as {AmigaDOS}. ["BCPL - The Language and its Compiler", Martin Richards & Colin Whitby-Stevens, Cambridge U Press 1979]. See {OCODE}, {INTCODE}. Oxford BCPL differed slightly: Test-Ifso-Ifnot, and section brackets in place of $( $). The original {INTCODE} {interpreter} for BCPL is available for {Amiga}, {Unix}, {MS-DOS} {(ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/systems/amiga/programming/languages/BCPL/)}. A BCPL compiler {bootstrap} kit with an {INTCODE} {interpreter} in {C} was written by Ken Yap "ken@syd.dit.csiro.au". (1995-03-26)

BEA Basic programming Environment for interactive-graphical Applications, from Siemens-Nixdorf.

BeBOP "language" A language combining sequential and parallel {logic programming}, {object-oriented} and {meta-level programming}. Both {don't know nondeterminism} and {stream AND-parallelism}. {Prolog} {theories} are first order entities and may be updated or passed in messages. BeBOP is implemented by translation to {NU-Prolog} and {PNU-Prolog}. {(ftp://munnari.oz.au/pub/bebop.tar.Z)}. E-mail: Andrew Davidson "ad@cs.mu.oz.au". (1996-10-27)

Bertrand (Named after the British mathematician Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)). Wm. Leler. Rule-based specification language based on augmented term rewriting. Used to implement constraint languages. The user must explicitly specify the tree-search and the constraint propagation. {(ftp://nexus.yorku.ca/pub/scheme/scm/bevan.shar)}. ["Constraint Programming Languages - Their Specification and Generation", W. Leler, A-W 1988, ISBN 0-201-06243-7].

BETA Kristensen, Madsen "olmadsen@daimi.aau.dk", Moller-Pedersen & Nygaard, 1983. Object-oriented language with block structure, coroutines, concurrency, {strong typing}, part objects, separate objects and classless objects. Central feature is a single abstraction mechanism called "patterns", a generalisation of classes, providing instantiation and hierarchical inheritance for all objects including procedures and processes. Mjolner Informatics ApS, Aarhus, implementations for Mac, Sun, HP, Apollo. E-mail: "info@mjolner.dk". Mailing list: "usergroup@mjolner.dk". ["Object-Oriented Programming in the BETA Programming Language", Ole Lehrmann et al, A-W June 1993, ISBN 0-201-62430-3]. [{Jargon File}] (1995-10-31)

beta testing "programming" Evaluation of a pre-release (potentially unreliable) version of a piece of {software} (or possibly {hardware}) by making it available to selected users ("beta testers") before it goes on general distribution. Beta testign aims to discover {bugs} that only occur in certain environments or under certain patterns of use, while reducing the volume of feedback to a manageable level. The testers benefit by having earlier access to new products, features and fixes. Beta testing may be preceded by "alpha testing", performed in-house by a handful of users (e.g. other developers or friends), who can be expected to give rapid, high quality feedback on design and {usability}. Once the product is considered to be usable for its intended purpose it then moves on to "beta testing" by a larger, but typically still limited, number of ordinary users, who may include external customers. Some companies such as {Google} or {Degree Jungle (http://www.degreejungle.com/rankings/best-online-colleges)} stretch the definition, claiming their products are "in beta" for many months by millions of users. The term derives from early 1960s terminology for {product cycle} checkpoints, first used at {IBM} but later standard throughout the industry. "{Alpha test}" was the {unit test}, {module test} or {component test} phase; "Beta Test" was initial {system test}. These themselves came from earlier A- and B-tests for hardware. The A-test was a feasibility and manufacturability evaluation done before any commitment to design and development. The B-test was a demonstration that the engineering model functioned as specified. The C-test (corresponding to today's beta) was the B-test performed on early samples of the production design. (2013-06-09)

Big bag of pages (BIBOP) Where data objects are tagged with some kind of descriptor (giving their size or type for example) memory can be saved by storing objects with the same descriptor in one "page" of memory. The most significant bits of an object's address are used as the BIBOP page number. This is looked up in a BIBOP table to find the descriptor for all objects in that page. This idea is similar to the "zones" used in some {Lisp} systems (e.g. {LeLisp}). [David R. Hanson. "A portable storage management system for the Icon programming language". Software - Practise and Experience, 10:489-500 1980]. (1994-11-29)

Big Gray Wall "jargon" What faces a {VMS} user searching for documentation. A full VMS kit comes on a pallet, the documentation taking up around 15 feet of shelf space before the addition of layered products such as {compilers}, {databases}, multi-vendor networking, and programming tools. Recent (since VMS version 5) DEC documentation comes with grey binders; under VMS version 4 the binders were orange and under version 3 they were blue. Often contracted to "Gray Wall". [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-07)

bignum "programming" /big'nuhm/ (Originally from {MIT} {MacLISP}) A {multiple-precision} computer representation for very large integers. Most computer languages provide a type of data called "integer", but such computer integers are usually limited in size; usually they must be smaller than 2^31 (2,147,483,648) or (on a {bitty box}) 2^15 (32,768). If you want to work with numbers larger than that, you have to use {floating-point} numbers, which are usually accurate to only six or seven decimal places. Computer languages that provide bignums can perform exact calculations on very large numbers, such as 1000! (the factorial of 1000, which is 1000 times 999 times 998 times ... times 2 times 1). For example, this value for 1000! was computed by the {MacLISP} system using bignums: 40238726007709377354370243392300398571937486421071 46325437999104299385123986290205920442084869694048 00479988610197196058631666872994808558901323829669 94459099742450408707375991882362772718873251977950 59509952761208749754624970436014182780946464962910 56393887437886487337119181045825783647849977012476 63288983595573543251318532395846307555740911426241 74743493475534286465766116677973966688202912073791 43853719588249808126867838374559731746136085379534 52422158659320192809087829730843139284440328123155 86110369768013573042161687476096758713483120254785 89320767169132448426236131412508780208000261683151 02734182797770478463586817016436502415369139828126 48102130927612448963599287051149649754199093422215 66832572080821333186116811553615836546984046708975 60290095053761647584772842188967964624494516076535 34081989013854424879849599533191017233555566021394 50399736280750137837615307127761926849034352625200 01588853514733161170210396817592151090778801939317 81141945452572238655414610628921879602238389714760 88506276862967146674697562911234082439208160153780 88989396451826324367161676217916890977991190375403 12746222899880051954444142820121873617459926429565 81746628302955570299024324153181617210465832036786 90611726015878352075151628422554026517048330422614 39742869330616908979684825901254583271682264580665 26769958652682272807075781391858178889652208164348 34482599326604336766017699961283186078838615027946 59551311565520360939881806121385586003014356945272 24206344631797460594682573103790084024432438465657 24501440282188525247093519062092902313649327349756 55139587205596542287497740114133469627154228458623 77387538230483865688976461927383814900140767310446 64025989949022222176590433990188601856652648506179 97023561938970178600408118897299183110211712298459 01641921068884387121855646124960798722908519296819 37238864261483965738229112312502418664935314397013 74285319266498753372189406942814341185201580141233 44828015051399694290153483077644569099073152433278 28826986460278986432113908350621709500259738986355 42771967428222487575867657523442202075736305694988 25087968928162753848863396909959826280956121450994 87170124451646126037902930912088908694202851064018 21543994571568059418727489980942547421735824010636 77404595741785160829230135358081840096996372524230 56085590370062427124341690900415369010593398383577 79394109700277534720000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000. [{Jargon File}] (1996-06-27)

binary 1. "mathematics" {Base} two. A number representation consisting of zeros and ones used by practically all computers because of its ease of implementation using digital electronics and {Boolean algebra}. 2. "file format" {binary file}. 3. "programming" A description of an {operator} which takes two {arguments}. See also {unary}, {ternary}. (2005-02-21)

Binary Compatibility Standard "programming, standard" (BCS) The {ABI} of {88open}. (1997-07-03)

Bird-Meertens Formalism "theory, programming" (BMF) (Or "Squiggol") A calculus for derivation of {functional programs} from a specification. It consists of a set of {higher-order functions} that operate on lists including {map}, {fold}, {scan}, {filter}, inits, tails, {cross product} and {function composition}. ["A Calculus of Functions for Program Derivation", R.S. Bird, in Res Topics in Fnl Prog, D. Turner ed, A-W 1990]. ["The Squiggolist", ed Johan Jeuring, published irregularly by CWI Amsterdam]. (1995-05-01)

bit bashing (Also "bit diddling" or {bit twiddling}). Any of several kinds of low-level programming characterised by manipulation of {bit}, {flag}, {nibble}, and other smaller-than-character-sized pieces of data. These include low-level device control, encryption algorithms, checksum and error-correcting codes, hash functions, some flavours of graphics programming (see {bitblt}), and assembler/compiler code generation. May connote either tedium or a real technical challenge (more usually the former). "The command decoding for the new tape driver looks pretty solid but the bit-bashing for the control registers still has bugs." See also {bit bang}, {mode bit}.

bit mask "programming" A pattern of {binary} values which is combined with some value using {bitwise} AND with the result that bits in the value in positions where the mask is zero are also set to zero. For example, if, in {C}, we want to test if bits 0 or 2 of x are set, we can write int mask = 5; /* binary 101 */ if (x & mask) ... A bit mask might also be used to set certain bits using bitwise OR, or to invert them using bitwise {exclusive OR}. (1995-05-12)

bit string "programming, data" An ordered sequence of {bits}. This is very similar to a {bit pattern} except that the term "string" suggests an arbitrary length sequence as opposed to a pre-determined length "pattern".

bitwise "programming" A bitwise operator treats its operands as a {vector} of {bits} rather than a single number. {Boolean} bitwise operators combine bit N of each operand using a {Boolean} function ({NOT}, {AND}, {OR}, {XOR}) to produce bit N of the result. For example, a bitwise AND operator ("&" in {C}) would evaluate 13 & 9 as (binary) 1101 & 1001 = 1001 = 9, whereas, the logical AND, ({C} "&&") would evaluate 13 && 9 as TRUE && TRUE = TRUE = 1. In some languages, e.g. {Acorn}'s {BASIC V}, the same operators are used for both bitwise and logical operations. This usually works except when applying NOT to a value x which is neither 0 (false) nor -1 (true), in which case both x and (NOT x) will be non-zero and thus treated as TRUE. Other operations at the bit level, which are not normally described as "bitwise" include shift and rotate. (1995-05-12)

Bjarne Stroustrup "person" The father of {C++} and author of the C++ {bible}. ["The C++ Programming Language", Bjarne Stroustrup, Addison-Wesley, 1986]. [Details?] (2000-05-12)

black art A collection of arcane, unpublished, and (by implication) mostly ad-hoc techniques developed for a particular application or systems area (compare {black magic}). VLSI design and compiler code optimisation were (in their beginnings) considered classic examples of black art; as theory developed they became {deep magic}, and once standard textbooks had been written, became merely {heavy wizardry}. The huge proliferation of formal and informal channels for spreading around new computer-related technologies during the last twenty years has made both the term "black art" and what it describes less common than formerly. See also {voodoo programming}. [{Jargon File}]

black magic "jargon" (Or "{FM}") A technique that works, though nobody really understands why. More obscure than {voodoo programming}, which may be done by {cookbook}. Compare {black art}, {deep magic}, and {magic number}. (2001-04-30)

BLAZE A {single assignment} language for {parallel processing}. ["The BLAZE Language: A Parallel Language for Scientific Programming", P. Mehrotra "mehrotra@csrd.uiuc.edu" et al, J Parallel Comp 5(3):339-361 (Nov 1987)].

block 1. "unit" A unit of data or memory, often, but not exclusively, on a {magnetic disk} or {magnetic tape}. Compare {record}, {sector}. (2000-07-17) 2. "operating system" To delay or sit idle while waiting for something. Compare {busy-wait}. (2000-07-17) 3. "programming" A delimited section of {source code} in a {block-structured} language. (2004-09-29)

block-structured "language" Any programming language in which sections of {source code} contained within pairs of matching {delimiters} such as "{" and "}" (e.g. in {C}) or "begin" and "end" (e.g. {Algol}) are executed as a single unit. A block of code may be the body of a {subroutine} or {function}, or it may be controlled by conditional execution ({if statement}) or repeated execution ({while statement}, {for statement}, etc.). In all but the most primitive block structured languages a {variable}'s {scope} can be limited to the block in which it is declared. Block-structured languages support {structured programming} where each block can be written without detailed knowledge of the inner workings of other blocks, thus allowing a {top-down design} approach. See also {abstract data type}, {module}. (2004-09-29)

blow an EPROM /bloh *n ee'prom/ (Or "blast", "burn") To program a {read-only memory}, e.g. for use with an {embedded system}. This term arose because the programming process for the {Programmable Read-Only Memory} (PROM) that preceded present-day {Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory} (EPROM) involved intentionally blowing tiny electrical fuses on the chip. The usage lives on (it's too vivid and expressive to discard) even though the write process on EPROMs is nondestructive. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-29)

B-Method "programming, tool" A system for rigorous or formal development of software using the notion of {Abstract Machines} to specify and design software systems. The B-Method is supported by the {B-Toolkit}. Abstract Machines are specified using the Abstract Machine Notation (AMN) which is in turn based on the mathematical theory of {Generalised Substitutions}. (1995-03-13)

Bohr bug "jargon, programming" /bohr buhg/ (From Quantum physics) A repeatable {bug}; one that manifests reliably under a possibly unknown but well-defined set of conditions. Compare {heisenbug}. See also {mandelbug}, {schroedinbug}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-28)

BOLERO "programming" {Software AG}'s {object-oriented} development environment and {application server} for Electronic Business applications. (1999-03-06)

bondage-and-discipline language A language (such as {Pascal}, {Ada}, APL, or Prolog) that, though ostensibly general-purpose, is designed so as to enforce an author's theory of "right programming" even though said theory is demonstrably inadequate for systems hacking or even vanilla general-purpose programming. Often abbreviated "B&D"; thus, one may speak of things "having the B&D nature". See {Pascal}. Compare {languages of choice}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-01-05)

Booch method "programming" A widely used {object-oriented analysis} and {object-oriented design} method. {(http://hsr.ch/div/Booch/BoochReference/)}. [Grady Booch, "Object-oriented Analysis and Design with Applications", 2nd edition. Benjamin Cummings, Redwood City, ISBN 0-8053-5340-2, 1993] (2000-05-23)

Boolean "logic" 1. {Boolean algebra}. "programming" 2. (bool) The type of an expression with two possible values, "true" and "false". Also, a variable of Boolean type or a function with Boolean arguments or result. The most common Boolean functions are {AND}, {OR} and {NOT}. (1997-12-01)

BOS 1. "operating system" {Basic Operating System}. 2. "tool" A data management system written at {DESY} and used in some high energy physics programs. 3. "programming" The {Basic Object System}. (1999-01-20)

bottom-up implementation "programming" The opposite of {top-down design}. It is now received wisdom in most programming cultures that it is best to design from higher levels of abstraction down to lower, specifying sequences of action in increasing detail until you get to actual code. Hackers often find (especially in exploratory designs that cannot be closely specified in advance) that it works best to *build* things in the opposite order, by writing and testing a clean set of primitive operations and then knitting them together. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-10)

bottom-up model "programming" A method for estimating the cost of a complete software project by combining estimates for each component. (1996-05-28)

bottom-up testing "programming" An integration testing technique that tests the low-level components first using test drivers for those components that have not yet been developed to call the low-level components for test. Compare {bottom-up implementation}. (1996-05-10)

boundary value analysis "programming" A test data selection technique in which values are chosen to lie along data extremes. Boundary values include maximum, minimum, just inside/outside boundaries, typical values, and error values. The hope is that, if a systems works correctly for these special values then it will work correctly for all values in between. (1996-05-10)

boxed comments "programming" {Comments} that occupy several lines by themselves; so called because in {assembler} and {C} code they are often surrounded by a box in a style similar to this: /************************************************* * * This is a boxed comment in C style * *************************************************/ Common variants of this style omit the asterisks in column 2 or add a matching row of asterisks closing the right side of the box. The sparest variant omits all but the comment {delimiters} themselves; the "box" is implied. Opposite of {winged comments}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-07-21)

Boycott Apple "legal" Some time before 1989, {Apple Computer, Inc.} started a lawsuit against {Hewlett-Packard} and {Microsoft}, claiming they had breeched Apple's {copyright} on the {look and feel} of the {Macintosh user interface}. In December 1989, {Xerox} failed to sue {Apple Computer}, claiming that the software for Apple's {Lisa} computer and {Macintosh} {Finder}, both copyrighted in 1987, were derived from two {Xerox} programs: {Smalltalk}, developed in the mid-1970s and {Star}, copyrighted in 1981. Apple wanted to stop people from writing any program that worked even vaguely like a {Macintosh}. If such {look and feel} lawsuits succeed they could put an end to {free software} that could substitute for commercial software. In the weeks after the suit was filed, {Usenet} reverberated with condemnation for Apple. {GNU} supporters {Richard Stallman}, {John Gilmore} and Paul Rubin decided to take action against Apple. Apple's reputation as a force for progress came from having made better computers; but The {League for Programming Freedom} believed that Apple wanted to make all non-Apple computers worse. They therefore campaigned to discourage people from using Apple products or working for Apple or any other company threatening similar obstructionist tactics (e.g. {Lotus} and {Xerox}). Because of this boycott the {Free Software Foundation} for a long time didn't support {Macintosh} {Unix} in their software. In 1995, the LPF and the FSF decided to end the boycott. [Dates? Other events? Why did Xerox's case against Apple fail?] (1995-04-18)

BPS {Basic Programming Support}

Brainfuck "language" An eight-instruction {esoteric programming language} created by Urban Müller. His goal was apparently to create a {Turing-complete} language with the smallest {compiler} ever, for the {Amiga OS} 2.0. He eventually reduced his compiler to under 200 bytes. A Brainfuck program has a pointer that moves within an array of 30000 bytes, initially all set to zero. The pointer initially points to the beginning of this array. The language has eight commands, each of which is represented as a single character, and which can be expressed in terms of {C} as follows: " =="  ++p; " =="  --p; + =="  ++*p; - =="  --*p; . =="  putchar(*p); , =="  *p = getchar(); [ =="  while (*p) { ] =="  } {Brian Raiter's Brainfuck page (http://muppetlabs.com/~breadbox/bf/)}. (2003-11-18)

branch 1. "mathematics" An {edge} in a {tree}. 2. "programming" A {jump}.

branch coverage testing "programming" A test method which aims to ensure that each possible branch from each decision point (e.g. "if" statement) is executed at least once, thus ensuring that all reachable code is executed. (1996-05-10)

breadcrumbs (After the story "Hansel and Gretel" by the Brothers Grimm). 1. "web" {Links} displayed across the top of a {web page} listing the most recently visited pages so the reader can quickly jump back to one. Since this function is provided by the {web browser}, breadcrumbs are a waste of space. A better use of the space is to display links to the page's logical parent pages in the information hierarchy. 2. "programming" Information output by statements inserted into a program for {debugging by printf}. [{Jargon File}] (2007-03-07)

breakpoint "programming" A point in a {program} that, when reached, triggers some special behavior useful to the process of {debugging}; generally, breakpoints are used to either pause program {execution}, and/or {dump} the values of some or all of the program {variables}. Breakpoints may be part of the program itself; or they may be set by the programmer as part of an {interactive} session with a {debugging tool} for scrutinizing the program's execution. (1999-06-07)

break statement "programming" A {statement} in the {C} programming language that transfers control out of the innermost enclosing {switch}, {while}, {do}, or {for} statement. The statement also exists in languages derived from C, such as {C++} and {Java}. (2004-03-24)

Brooks's Law "programming" "Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later" - a result of the fact that the expected advantage from splitting work among N programmers is O(N) (that is, proportional to N), but the complexity and communications cost associated with coordinating and then merging their work is O(N^2) (that is, proportional to the square of N). The quote is from Fred Brooks, a manager of {IBM}'s {OS/360} project and author of "{The Mythical Man-Month}". The myth in question has been most tersely expressed as "Programmer time is fungible" and Brooks established conclusively that it is not. Hackers have never forgotten his advice; too often, {management} still does. See also {creationism}, {second-system effect}, {optimism}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-09-17)

brown paper bag bug "programming" A programming {bug} that is so stupid that it makes the programmer want to put a brown paper bag over his head. (2001-01-16)

brute force and ignorance "jargon" (BFI) A popular design technique at many software houses - {brute force} coding unrelieved by any knowledge of how problems have been previously solved in elegant ways. Dogmatic adherence to design methods tends to encourage this sort of thing. Characteristic of early {larval stage} programming; unfortunately, many never outgrow it. Also encountered in the variants BFMI - brute force and massive ignorance, and BFBI - brute force and bloody ignorance. "Gak, they used a {bubble sort}! That's strictly BFI." Compare {bogosity}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-06-12)

brute force "programming" A primitive programming style in which the programmer relies on the computer's processing power instead of using his own intelligence to simplify the problem, often ignoring problems of scale and applying naive methods suited to small problems directly to large ones. The term can also be used in reference to programming style: brute-force programs are written in a heavy-handed, tedious way, full of repetition and devoid of any elegance or useful abstraction (see also {brute force and ignorance}). The {canonical} example of a brute-force algorithm is associated with the "{travelling salesman problem}" (TSP), a classical {NP-hard} problem: Suppose a person is in, say, Boston, and wishes to drive to N other cities. In what order should the cities be visited in order to minimise the distance travelled? The brute-force method is to simply generate all possible routes and compare the distances; while guaranteed to work and simple to implement, this algorithm is clearly very stupid in that it considers even obviously absurd routes (like going from Boston to Houston via San Francisco and New York, in that order). For very small N it works well, but it rapidly becomes absurdly inefficient when N increases (for N = 15, there are already 1,307,674,368,000 possible routes to consider, and for N = 1000 - well, see {bignum}). Sometimes, unfortunately, there is no better general solution than brute force. See also {NP-complete}. A more simple-minded example of brute-force programming is finding the smallest number in a large list by first using an existing program to sort the list in ascending order, and then picking the first number off the front. Whether brute-force programming should actually be considered stupid or not depends on the context; if the problem is not terribly big, the extra CPU time spent on a brute-force solution may cost less than the programmer time it would take to develop a more "intelligent" algorithm. Additionally, a more intelligent algorithm may imply more long-term complexity cost and bug-chasing than are justified by the speed improvement. When applied to {cryptography}, it is usually known as {brute force attack}. {Ken Thompson}, co-inventor of {Unix}, is reported to have uttered the epigram "When in doubt, use brute force". He probably intended this as a {ha ha only serious}, but the original {Unix} {kernel}'s preference for simple, robust and portable {algorithms} over {brittle} "smart" ones does seem to have been a significant factor in the success of that {operating system}. Like so many other tradeoffs in software design, the choice between brute force and complex, finely-tuned cleverness is often a difficult one that requires both engineering savvy and delicate aesthetic judgment. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-14)

BSP method "programming" A {CASE} method from {IBM}. (1998-02-24)

BSS 1. "programming" {Block Started by Symbol}. 2. "networking" {Basic Service Set}

B-Toolkit "tool, programming, product" A set of software tools designed to support a rigorous or formal development of software systems using the {B-Method}. The Toolkit also provides a development environment automating the management of all associated files, ensuring that the entire development, including code and documentation, is always in a consistent state. The Toolkit includes: a specification, design and code configuration management system, including integrity and dependency management and source file editing facilities; a set of software specification and design analysis tools, which includes {syntax} checkers, type checkers and a specification animator; a set of verification tools, which includes a proof-obligation generator and automatic and interactive provers; a set of coding tools, which includes a translator, linker, rapid prototyping facilities and a reusable specification/code module library; a documentation tool for automatically producing fully cross-referenced and indexed type-set documents from source files; a re-making tool for automatically re-checking and re-generating specifications, designs, code and documentation after modifications to source files. A normal licence costs 25,000 pounds, academic 6,250 pounds. (1995-03-13)

B-tree "algorithm" A multi-way {balanced tree}. The "B" in B-tree has never been officially defined. It could stand for "balanced" or "Bayer", after one of the original designers of the algorithms and structure. A B-tree is _not_ (necessarily?) a "{binary tree}". A B+-tree (as used by {IBM}'s {VSAM}) is a B-tree where the leaves are also linked sequentially, thus allowing both fast {random access} and sequential access to data. [Knuth's Art of Computer Programming]. [Example algorithm?] (2000-01-10)

buffer overflow "programming" What happens when you try to store more data in a {buffer} than it can handle. This may be due to a mismatch in the processing rates of the producing and consuming processes (see {overrun} and {firehose syndrome}), or because the buffer is simply too small to hold all the data that must accumulate before a piece of it can be processed. For example, in a text-processing tool that {crunch}es a line at a time, a short line buffer can result in {lossage} as input from a long line overflows the buffer and overwrites data beyond it. Good defensive programming would check for overflow on each character and stop accepting data when the buffer is full. See also {spam}, {overrun screw}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-13)

bug "programming" An unwanted and unintended property of a {program} or piece of {hardware}, especially one that causes it to malfunction. Antonym of {feature}. E.g. "There's a bug in the editor: it writes things out backward." The identification and removal of bugs in a program is called "{debugging}". Admiral {Grace Hopper} (an early computing pioneer better known for inventing {COBOL}) liked to tell a story in which a technician solved a {glitch} in the {Harvard Mark II machine} by pulling an actual insect out from between the contacts of one of its relays, and she subsequently promulgated {bug} in its hackish sense as a joke about the incident (though, as she was careful to admit, she was not there when it happened). For many years the logbook associated with the incident and the actual bug in question (a moth) sat in a display case at the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC). The entire story, with a picture of the logbook and the moth taped into it, is recorded in the "Annals of the History of Computing", Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 1981), pp. 285--286. The text of the log entry (from September 9, 1947), reads "1545 Relay

bug fix "programming" A change to a program or system intended to permanently cure a {bug}. Often a fix for one bug inadvertantly introduces new bugs, hence the need for careful forethought and testing. Compare: {workaround}. (1998-06-25)

bug fix release "programming" A {release} which introduces no new {features}, but which merely aims to fix bugs in previous releases. All too commonly new bugs are introduced at the same time. (1996-08-04)

BUGSYS "programming" A programming system for {pattern recognition} and preparing animated films, for {IBM 7094} and {IBM 360}. ["BUGSYS: A Programming System for Picture Processing - Not for Debugging", R.A. Ledley et al, CACM 9(2) (Feb 1966)]. (1995-02-14)

bug tracking system "programming" (BTS) A system for receiving and filing {bugs} reported against a {software} project, and tracking those bugs until they are fixed. Most major software projects have their own BTS, the {source code} of which is often available for use by other projects. Well known BTSs include {GNATS}, {Bugzilla}, and {Debbugs}. (2002-06-12)

Bugzilla "programming" The web-based {bug tracking system} used by the {Mozilla} project. {Bugzilla home (http://bugzilla.mozilla.org/)}. (2002-06-12)

build "programming, systems" To process all of a project's {source code} and other digital assets or resources in order to produce a deployable product. In the simplest case this might mean compiling one file of {C} source to produce an {executable} file. More complex builds would typically involve compiling multiple source files, building library modules, packaging intermediate build products (e.g. {Java} {class files} in a {jar file}), adding or updating version information and other data about the product (e.g. intended deployment {platform}), running tests and interacting with a {source code control} system. The build process is normally automated using tools such as {Unix} {make}, {Apache} {ant} or as part of an {integrated development environment}. This is taken one step further by {continuous integration} set-ups which periodically build the system while you are working on it. (2011-12-16)

bullet-proof "programming" Used of an {algorithm} or implementation that is considered extremely {robust} and capable of correctly recovering from any imaginable {exception} - a rare and valued quality. Synonym {armor-plated}. [{Jargon File}] (2019-05-25)

Burge's Language Unnamed functional language based on lambda-calculus. Recursive Programming techniques", W.H. Burge, A-W 1975.

Business Application Programming Interface "business, application, programming" (BAPI) /bap'ee/ A set of {methods} provided by an {SAP} business {object}. Release 4.0 of {SAP AG}'s {R/3} system supports {object-oriented programming} via an interface defined in terms of {objects} and {methods} called BAPIs. For example if a material object provides a function to check availability, the corresponding SAP business object type "Material" might provide a BAPI called "Material.CheckAvailability". The definitions of SAP business objects and their BAPIs are kept in an SAP business object repository. SAP provide {classes} and {libraries} to enable a programming team to build SAP applications that use business objects and BAPIs. Supported environments include {COM} and {Java}. The {Open BAPI Network (http://sap.com/solutions/technology/bapis/index.htm)}. gives background information and lists objects and BAPIs. (2002-08-30)

busy-wait "programming" To wait for an {event} by {spinning} through a {tight loop} or timed-delay loop that {polls} for the event on each pass, as opposed to setting up an {interrupt handler} and continuing execution on another part of the task. This is a wasteful technique, best avoided on {time-sharing} systems where a busy-waiting program may {hog} the processor. [{Jargon File}] (1999-06-10)

byte-code compiler "programming, tool" A {compiler} which outputs a program in some kind of {byte-code}. Compare: {byte-code interpreter}. (1995-11-04)

CAJOLE "language" (Chris And John's Own LanguagE) A {dataflow} language developed by Chris Hankin "clh@doc.ic.ac.uk" and John Sharp at {Westfield College}. ["The Data Flow Programming Language CAJOLE: An Informal Introduction", C.L. Hankin et al, SIGPLAN Notices 16(7):35-44 (Jul 1981)]. (1994-11-08)

Calendar API {Calendar Application Programming Interface}

Calendar Application Programming Interface (CAPI, Calendar API) An {API} for calendar {software}. {Microsoft} has defined a CAPI for their {Schedule+} application. (1995-01-11)

Caliban A {declarative} annotation language for controlling the partitioning and placement of the evaluation of expressions in a distributed {functional language}. Designed by Paul Kelly "phjk@doc.ic.ac.uk", {Imperial College}. ["Functional Programming for Loosely-coupled Multiprocessors", P. Kelly, Pitman/MIT Press, 1989]. (1995-01-11)

callback 1. "programming" A scheme used in {event-driven} programs where the program registers a {subroutine} (a "callback handler") to handle a certain {event}. The program does not call the handler directly but when the event occurs, the {run-time system} calls the handler, usually passing it arguments to describe the event. 2. "communications, security" A {user authentication} scheme used by some computers running {dial-up} services. The user dials in to the computer and gives his {user name} and {password}. The computer then hangs up the connection and uses an {auto-dial} {modem} to call back to the user's registered telephone number. Thus, if an unauthorised person discovers a user's password, the callback will go, not to him, but to the owner of that login who will then know that his account is under attack. However, some {PABXs} can be fooled into thinking that the caller has hung up by sending them a dial tone. When the computer tries to call out on the same line it is not actually dialing through to the authorised user but is still connected to the original caller. 3. "communications" {cost control callback}. (2003-07-13)

call-by-name "reduction" (CBN) (Normal order reduction, leftmost, outermost reduction). An {argument} passing convention (first provided by {ALGOL 60}?) where argument expressions are passed unevaluated. This is usually implemented by passing a pointer to a {thunk} - some code which will return the value of the argument and an environment giving the values of its {free variables}. This {evaluation strategy} is guaranteed to reach a {normal form} if one exists. When used to implement {functional programming} languages, call-by-name is usually combined with {graph reduction} to avoid repeated evaluation of the same expression. This is then known as {call-by-need}. The opposite of call-by-name is {call-by-value} where arguments are evaluated before they are passed to a function. This is more efficient but is less likely to terminate in the presence of infinite data structures and {recursive} functions. Arguments to {macros} are usually passed using call-by-name. (2006-05-27)

call-by-reference "programming" An {argument} passing convention where the address of an argument {variable} is passed to a {function} or {procedure}, as opposed to passing the value of the argument expression. Execution of the function or procedure may have {side-effects} on the actual argument as seen by the caller. The {C} language's "&" (address of) and "*" (dereference) operators allow the programmer to code explicit call-by-reference. Other languages provide special syntax to declare reference arguments (e.g. {ALGOL 60}). See also {call-by-name}, {call-by-value}, {call-by-value-result}. (2006-05-27)

callee "programming" The {function} or {subroutine} being called by the {caller}. (2001-05-09)

calling convention "programming" The arrangement of {arguments} for a procedure or function call. Different programming languages may require arguments to be pushed onto a {stack} or entered in {registers} in left-to-right or right-to left order, and either the caller or the callee can be responsible for removing the arguments. The calling convention also determines if a variable number of arguments is allowed. (1995-11-11)

Call-Level Interface "database, standard" (SQL/CLI) A programming interface designed to support {SQL} access to {databases} from shrink-wrapped {application programs}. CLI was originally created by a subcommittee of the {SQL Access Group} (SAG). The SAG/CLI specification was published as the {Microsoft} {Open DataBase Connectivity} (ODBC) specification in 1992. In 1993, SAG submitted the CLI to the {ANSI} and {ISO} SQL committees. SQL/CLI provides an international standard implementation-independent CLI to access SQL databases. {Client-server} tools can easily access databases through {dynamic link libraries}. It supports and encourages a rich set of client-server tools. SQL/CLI is an addendum to 1992 SQL standard (SQL-92). It was completed as ISO standard ISO/IEC 9075-3:1995 Information technology -- Database languages -- SQL -- Part 3: Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI). The current SQL/CLI effort is adding support for {SQL3}. {(http://jcc.com/sql_cli.html)}. (1996-10-27)

call-with-current-continuation "programming" (call/cc) A {Lisp} control {function} that implements the {continuation passing style} of programming. In continuation passing style (CPS), every function f takes an extra final argument k called the "continuation". The continuation is itself a function and represents the rest of the program. Instead of just returning a value in the normal way, f passes it as an argument to k and returns the result of that. call/cc takes a function f as its argument and calls f, passing it the current continuation k. It thus allows a CPS function to be called in a non-CPS (direct) context. For example, if the final result is to print the value returned by call/cc then anything passed to k will also be printed. E.g, in {Scheme}: (define (f k) (k 1) (k 2) 3) (display (call-with-current-continuation f)) Will display 1. [Is this correct?] (2014-09-24)

CamelCase "programming" The practice of concatenating words with either all words capitalised (e.g. "ICantReadThis" - sometimes called "UpperCamelCase" or "PascalCase") or all except the first ("iCantReadThis" - called "lowerCamelCase"). It is used in contexts where space characters are not allowed, such as identifiers in {source code}. Modern best practice separates words in identifiers with {underscore} for readability (like_this_example). CamelCase is probably a historical throw-back to systems that had no underscore or when the length of identifiers was constrained either by the programming language or by the width of computer displays. Unfortunately it has infected many projects, origanisations and programming languages such as {Java} where the uniniated create identifiers like "MemberSubmissionAddressingWSDLParserExtension". (2014-12-02)

CAMIL Computer Assisted/Managed Instructional Language. A language used for {CAI} at Lowry AFB, CO. ["The CAMIL Programming Language", David Pflasterer, SIGPLAN Notices 13(11):43 (Nov 1978)]. (1994-11-09)

candygrammar "language" A programming-language grammar that is mostly {syntactic sugar}; a play on "candygram". {COBOL}, {Apple Computer}'s {Hypertalk} language, and many {4GLs} share this property. The intent is to be as English-like as possible and thus easier for unskilled people to program. However, {syntax} isn't what makes programming hard; it's the mental effort and organisation required to specify an {algorithm} precisely. Thus "candygrammar" languages are just as difficult to program in, and far more painful for the experienced hacker. {GLS} notes: The overtones from the 1977 Chevy Chase "Jaws" parody on Saturday Night Live should not be overlooked. Someone lurking outside an apartment door tries to get the occupant to open up, while ominous music plays in the background. The last attempt is a half-hearted "Candygram!" When the door is opened, a shark bursts in and chomps the poor occupant. There is a moral here for those attracted to candygrammars. [{Jargon File}] (2004-09-23)

can't happen "programming" The traditional program comment for code executed under a condition that should never be true, for example a file size computed as negative. Often, such a condition being true indicates data corruption or a faulty {algorithm}; it is almost always handled by emitting a fatal error message and terminating or crashing, since there is little else that can be done. Some case variant of "can't happen" is also often the text emitted if the "impossible" error actually happens. Although "can't happen" events are genuinely infrequent in production code, programmers wise enough to check for them habitually are often surprised at how frequently they are triggered during development and how many headaches checking for them turns out to head off. See also {firewall code}, {professional programming}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-10)

CAPI 1. {Calendar Application Programming Interface}. 2. "cryptography" {Cryptographic Application Programming Interface}. 3. "networking" {Common ISDN Application Programming Interface}.

Captain Abstraction The champion of the principles of {abstraction} and modularity, who protects unwary students on {MIT}'s course {6.001} from the nefarious designs of Sergeant Spaghetticode and his vile {concrete} programming practices. See also {spaghetti code}. (1994-11-22)

cargo cult programming "programming, humour" A style of (incompetent) programming dominated by ritual inclusion of code or program structures that serve no real purpose. A cargo cult programmer will usually explain the extra code as a way of working around some bug encountered in the past, but usually neither the bug nor the reason the code apparently avoided the bug was ever fully understood (compare {shotgun debugging}, {voodoo programming}). The term "cargo cult" is a reference to aboriginal religions that grew up in the South Pacific after World War II. The practices of these cults centre on building elaborate mockups of aeroplanes and military style landing strips in the hope of bringing the return of the god-like aeroplanes that brought such marvelous cargo during the war. Hackish usage probably derives from Richard Feynman's characterisation of certain practices as "cargo cult science" in his book "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman" (W. W. Norton & Co, New York 1985, ISBN 0-393-01921-7). [{Jargon File}] (2002-05-28)

case 1. "programming" {switch statement}. 2. "character" Whether a character is a capital letter ("upper case" - ABC..Z) or a small letter ("lower case" - abc..z). The term case comes from the printing trade when the use of moving type was invented in the early Middle Ages (Caxton or Gutenberg?) and the letters for each {font} were stored in a box with two sections (or "cases"), the upper case was for the capital letters and the lower case was for the small letters. The Oxford Universal Dictionary of Historical Principles (Feb 1993, reprinted 1952) indicates that this usage of "case" (as the box or frame used by a compositor in the printing trade) was first used in 1588. (1996-03-01)

case and paste "programming" (From "{cut and paste}") The addition of a new {feature} to an existing system by selecting the code from an existing feature and pasting it in with minor changes. This usually results in gross violation of the fundamental programming tenet, {Don't Repeat Yourself}. Common in telephony circles because most operations in a telephone switch are selected using "case" statements. Leads to {software bloat}. In some circles of {Emacs} users this is called "programming by Meta-W", because Meta-W is the Emacs command for copying a block of text to a {kill buffer} in preparation to pasting it in elsewhere. The term is condescending, implying that the programmer is acting mindlessly rather than thinking carefully about what is required to integrate the code for two similar cases. At {DEC}, this is sometimes called "clone-and-hack" coding. [{Jargon File}] (1996-03-01)

Case Integration Services "standard, programming" (CIS) A committee formed to discuss {CASE} tool integration standards related to {ATIS}. (1994-10-25)

case sensitivity "text" Whether a text matching operation distinguishes upper-{case} (capital) letters from lower case (is "case sensitive") or not ("case insensitive"). Case in file names should be preserved (for readability) but ignored when matching (so the user doesn't have to get it right). {MS-DOS} does not preserve case in file names, {Unix} preserves case and matches are case sensitive. Any decent {text editor} will allow the user to specify whether or not text searches should be {case sensitive}. Case sensitivity is also relevant in programming (most programming languages distiguish between case in the names of {identifiers}), and addressing ({Internet} {domain names} are case insensitive but {RFC 822} local {mailbox} names are case sensitive). Case insensitive operations are sometimes said to "fold case", from the idea of folding the character code table so that upper and lower case letters coincide. The alternative "smash case" is more likely to be used by someone who considers this behaviour a {misfeature} or in cases where one case is actually permanently converted to the other. "{MS-DOS} will automatically smash case in the names of all the files you create". (1997-07-09)

cause-effect graphing "programming" A testing technique that aids in selecting, in a systematic way, a high-yield set of test cases that logically relates causes to effects to produce test cases. It has a beneficial side effect in pointing out incompleteness and ambiguities in specifications. (1996-05-10)

CCLU Cambridge CLU. {CLU} extended to support {concurrency}, distributed programming and {remote procedure call}, by G. Hamilton et al at {CUCL}. E-mail: Jean Bacon "jmb@cl.cam.ac.uk". (1994-10-13)

CCP 1. "language" {Concurrent Constraint Programming}. 2. {Command Control Processor}.

CDL 1. Computer Definition [Design?] Language. A hardware description language. "Computer Organisation and Microprogramming", Yaohan Chu, P-H 1970. 2. Command Definition Language. Portion of ICES used to implement commands. Sammet 1969, p.618-620. 3. Compiler Description Language. C.H.A. Koster, 1969. Intended for implementation of the rules of an affix grammar by recursive procedures. A procedure may be a set of tree-structured alternatives, each alternative is executed until one successfully exits. Used in a portable COBOL-74 compiler from MPB, mprolog system from SzKI, and the Mephisto chess computer. "CDL: A Compiler Implementation Language", in Methods of Algorithmic Language Implementation, C.H.A. Koster, LNCS 47, Springer 1977, pp.341-351. "Using the CDL Compiler Compiler", C.H.A. Koster, 1974. Versions: CDL2, CDLM used at Manchester. 4. Common Design Language. "Common Design Language", IBM, Software Engineering Inst, Sept 1983. 5. Control Definition Language. Ideas which contributed to Smalltalk. ["Control Structures for Programming Languges", David A. Fisher, PhD Thesis, CMU 1970].

Cedar A superset of {Mesa}, from {Xerox PARC}, adding {garbage collection}, {dynamic types} and a universal pointer type (REF ANY). Cedar is a large complex language designed for custom Xerox hardware and the Cedar {operating system}/environment. Data types are {atoms}, lists, ropes ("industrial strength" strings), conditions. Multi-processing features include {threads}, {monitors}, {signals} and catch phrases. It was used to develop the Cedar integrated programming environment. ["A Description of the Cedar Language", Butler Lampson, Xerox PARC, CSL-83-15 (Dec 1983)]. ["The Structure of Cedar", D. Swinehart et al, SIGPLAN Notices 20(7):230-244 (July 1985)]. (1995-01-26)

CEll Space Simulation Language "language" (CESSL) A language for simulating {cellular space models}. ["The CESSL Programming Language", D.R. Frantz, 012520-6-T, CS Dept, U Michigan, Sept 1971]. (1994-12-14)

Cellular "language" A system for {cellular automaton} programming by J Dana Eckart "dana@faculty.cs.runet.edu". Cellular includes a {byte-code compiler}, {run-time system} and a viewer. Posted to comp.sources.unix, volume 26. See also {Cellang}. (2000-10-07)

CELP "language" Computationally Extended Logic Programming. ["Computationally Extended Logic Programming", M.C. Rubenstein et al, Comp Langs 12(1):1-7 (1987)]. (1995-04-27)

cextract "programming, tool" A {C} {prototype} extractor by Adam Bryant "adb@cs.bu.edu". cextract can generate {header files} for large multi-file C programs, and will automatically generate prototypes for all of the functions in such a program. It can also generate a sorted list of all functions and their locations. cextract version 1.7 works with both {ANSI C} and {K&R C} and runs under {Unix} and {VMS}. Posted to comp.sources.reviewed. (1992-11-03)

CFP 1. {Constraint Functional Programming}. 2. {Communicating Functional Processes}. 3. Call For Papers (for a conference).

chain 1. "operating system" (From {BASIC}'s "CHAIN" statement) To pass control to a child or successor without going through the {operating system} {command interpreter} that invoked you. The state of the parent program is lost and there is no returning to it. Though this facility used to be common on memory-limited {microcomputers} and is still widely supported for {backward compatibility}, the jargon usage is semi-obsolescent; in particular, {Unix} calls this {exec}. Compare with the more modern "{subshell}". 2. "programming" A series of linked data areas within an {operating system} or {application program}. "Chain rattling" is the process of repeatedly running through the linked data areas searching for one which is of interest. The implication is that there are many links in the chain. 3. "theory" A possibly infinite, non-decreasing sequence of elements of some {total ordering}, S x0 "= x1 "= x2 ... A chain satisfies: for all x,y in S, x "= y \/ y "= x. I.e. any two elements of a chain are related. (""=" is written in {LaTeX} as {\sqsubseteq}). [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-03)

changeover "programming" The time when a new system has been tested successfully and replaces the old system. (2003-11-12)

char "programming" /keir/ or /char/; rarely, /kar/ {character}. Especially used by {C} programmers, as "char" is {C}'s typename for character data. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-29)

CHARM "language" An explicitly {parallel programming language} based on {C}, for both shared and nonshared {MIMD} computers. {(ftp://a.cs.uiuc.edu/pub/CHARM)}. Mailing list: "charm@cs.uiuc.edu". ["The CHARM(3.2) Programming Language Manual", UIUC, Dec 1992]. (2006-04-29)

CHARM++ "language" An {object-oriented} {parallel programming} system, similar to {CHARM} but based on {C++}. {(ftp://a.cs.uiuc.edu/pub/CHARM/Charm++)}. E-mail: Sanjeev Krishnan "sanjeev@cs.uiuc.edu". [TR 1796, UIUC]. (1994-11-29)

chase pointers "programming" To determine a chain of memory locations where each location holds a pointer to the next, starting from some initial pointer, e.g. traversing a {linked list} or other {graph} structure. This may be performed by a computer executing a program or by a programmer going through a {core dump} or using a debugger. [{Jargon File}] (2006-05-06)

checkpoint "programming" Saving the current state of a program and its data, including intermediate results, to disk or other {non-volatile storage}, so that if interrupted the program could be restarted at the point at which the last checkpoint occurred. This facility came into popular use in {mainframe} {operating systemss} such as {OS/360} in which programs frequently ran for longer than the mean time between system failures. If a program run fails because of some event beyond the program's control (e.g. hardware or {operating system} failure) then the processor time invested before the checkpoint will not have been wasted. (1995-02-07)

CHILI "language" D.L. Abt. A language for {systems programming}, based on {ALGOL 60} with extensions for {structures} and {type declarations}. ["CHILI, An Algorithmic Language for Systems Programming", CHI-1014, Chi Corp, Sep 1975] (2006-07-12)

CHISEL "language" An extension of {C} for {VLSI} design, implemented as a C {preprocessor}. It produces {CIF} as output. ["CHISEL - An Extension to the Programming language C for VLSI Layout", K. Karplus, PHD Thesis, Stanford U, 1982]. (2006-09-19)

Ch "language" An {interpreted} programming language sold by {Soft Integration} and marketed for {scripting}, {shell programming} and graph plotting, it is a superset of {C++}. Ch is also the name of Soft Integration's {interpreter} for the language. Currently the Ch interpreter is available for {Windows}, {Solaris}, {HP-UX}, {Linux} and {Mac} platforms. {Soft Integration (http://softintegration.com/)}. (2003-08-15)

chunker "programming" A program like {Unix}'s "split" which breaks an input file into parts, usually of a pre-set size, e.g. the maximum size that can fit on a {floppy}. The parts can then be assembled with a {dechunker}, which is usually just the chunker in a different mode. (1998-12-15)

CIP Language language" (CIP-L, Computer-aided Intuition-guided Programming Language) A {wide-spectrum language} for incremental {program transformation}. There are {ALGOL}- and {Pascal}-like variants. ["The Munich Project CIP, v.I: The Wide Spectrum Language CIP-L", LNCS 183, Springer 1984. Version: CIP85]. (2006-09-20)

circular buffer "programming" An area of {memory} used to store a continuous stream of data by starting again at the beginning of the buffer after reaching the end. A circular buffer is usually written by one process and read by another. Separate read and write {pointers} are maintained. These are not allowed to pass each other otherwise either unread data would be overwritten or invalid data would be read. A circuit may implement a {hardware circular buffer}. (2000-06-17)

CIS 1. "standard, programming" {Case Integration Services}. 2. "networking" {Cooperative Information System}. 3. "business" {Customer Interaction Software}, {Customer Information Systems}.

C "language" A programming language designed by {Dennis Ritchie} at {AT&T} {Bell Labs} ca. 1972 for systems programming on the {PDP-11} and immediately used to reimplement {Unix}. It was called "C" because many features derived from an earlier compiler named "{B}". In fact, C was briefly named "NB". B was itself strongly influenced by {BCPL}. Before {Bjarne Stroustrup} settled the question by designing {C++}, there was a humorous debate over whether C's successor should be named "D" or "P" (following B and C in "BCPL"). C is terse, low-level and permissive. It has a {macro preprocessor}, {cpp}. Partly due to its distribution with {Unix}, C became immensely popular outside {Bell Labs} after about 1980 and is now the dominant language in systems and {microcomputer} applications programming. It has grown popular due to its simplicity, efficiency, and flexibility. C programs are often easily adapted to new environments. C is often described, with a mixture of fondness and disdain, as "a language that combines all the elegance and power of {assembly language} with all the readability and maintainability of assembly language". Ritchie's original C is known as {K&R C} after Kernighan and Ritchie's book. A modified version has been {standardised (standard)} as {ANSI C}. See also {ACCU}, {ae}, {c68}, {c386}, {C-Interp}, {cxref}, {dbx}, {dsp56k-gcc}, {dsp56165-gcc}, {gc}, {GCT}, {GNU C}, {GNU superoptimiser}, {Harvest C}, {malloc}, {mpl}, {Pthreads}, {ups}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-06-01)

C+@ "language" (Formerly "Calico"). An {object-oriented language} from {Bell Laboratories} which uniformly represents all data as pointers to self-described objects. C+@ provides {multiple inheritance} with {delegation} and with control over which {methods} come from which delegated object; and {default methodologies}. It has a simple {syntax} with emphasis on graphics. It was originally used for prototyping of telecommunication services. The language is patented by AT&T and {Unir Tech} has the exclusive license from Bell Labs to distribute C+@. Unfortunately Unir is owned and operated by well-known anti-{IETF} ranter, Jim Fleming, which may have had something to do with the language's rapid disappearence from the radar screen. It runs under {SunOS} and compiles to {Vcode}. E-mail: Jim Vandendorpe "jimvan@iexist.att.com". ["A Dynamic C-Based Object-Oriented System for Unix", S. Engelstad et al, IEEE Software 8(3):73-85 (May 1991)]. ["The C+@ Programming Language", J. Fleming, Dr Dobbs J, Oct 1993, pp.24-32]. [{Jargon File}] (2005-01-05)

C Language Integrated Production System "language" (CLIPS) A language produced by Gary Riley of NASA {JSC} in Houston, Texas, for developing {expert systems}, with the inferencing and representation capabilities of {OPS5} and support for {forward chaining} rule-based, {object-oriented} and {procedural} programming. CLIPS has a {Lisp}-like {syntax}. It is available for {MS-DOS} and comes with source code in {C}. COSMIC, U Georgia, (404) 542-3265. Austin Code Works "info@acw.com" (512) 258-0785. Versions include CLIPS 5.1, CLIPS/Ada 4.3 and CLIPS6.0 (see {PCLIPS}). {(http://jsc.nasa.gov/~clips/CLIPS.html)}. E-mail: "service@cossack.cosmic.uga.edu". Telnet: cosmic.uga.edu, user: cosline. {U. Michigan (ftp://earth.rs.itd.umich.edu/mac.bin/etc/compsci/Clips/)}, {ENSMP, France (ftp://ftp.ensmp.fr/pub/clips/)}. ["Expert Systems: Principles and Programming", Joseph Giarratano and Gary Riley, PWS Publ 1994, ISBN 0-534-93744-6]. (1994-12-16)

C++ "language" One of the most used {object-oriented} languages, a superset of {C} developed primarily by {Bjarne Stroustrup} "bs@alice.att.com" at {AT&T} {Bell Laboratories} in 1986. In C++ a {class} is a user-defined {type}, syntactically a {struct} with {member functions}. {Constructors} and {destructors} are member functions called to create or destroy {instances}. A {friend} is a nonmember function that is allowed to access the private portion of a class. C++ allows {implicit type conversion}, {function inlining}, {overloading} of operators and function names, and {default function arguments}. It has {streams} for I/O and {references}. C++ 2.0 (May 1989) introduced {multiple inheritance}, {type-safe linkage}, pointers to members, and {abstract classes}. C++ 2.1 was introduced in ["Annotated C++ Reference Manual", B. Stroustrup et al, A-W 1990]. {MS-DOS (ftp://grape.ecs.clarkson.edu/pub/msdos/djgpp/djgpp.zip)}, {Unix ANSI C++ (ftp://gnu.org/pub/gnu/g++-1.39.0.tar.Z)} - X3J16 committee. (They're workin' on it). See also {cfront}, {LEDA}, {uC++}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.c++}. ["The C++ Programming Language", Bjarne Stroustrup, A-W, 1986]. (1996-06-06)

C* "language, parallel" An {object-oriented}, {data-parallel} superset of {ANSI C} with synchronous {semantics}, for the {Connection Machine}, designed by {Thinking Machines}, 1987. C* adds a "domain" data type and a selection statement for parallel execution in domains. An unimplemented language called "{Parallel C}" [which one?] influenced the design of {C*}. {Dataparallel-C} was based on {C*}. ["C*: An Extended C Language for Data Parallel Programming", J.R. Rose et al, Proc Second Intl Conf on Supercomputing, L.P. Kartashev et al eds, May 1987, pp 2-16]. ["C* Programming Manual", Thinking Machines Corp, 1986]. [{Jargon File}] (2000-11-14)

CLASP {Computer Language for AeronauticS and Programming}

class 1. "programming" The prototype for an {object} in an {object-oriented language}; analogous to a {derived type} in a {procedural language}. A class may also be considered to be a set of objects which share a common structure and behaviour. The structure of a class is determined by the {class variables} which represent the {state} of an object of that class and the behaviour is given by a set of {methods} associated with the class. Classes are related in a {class hierarchy}. One class may be a specialisation (a "{subclass}") of another (one of its "{superclasses}") or it may be composed of other classes or it may use other classes in a {client-server} relationship. A class may be an {abstract class} or a {concrete class}. See also {signature}. 2. "programming" See {type class}. 3. "networking" One of three types of {Internet addresses} distinguished by their most significant bits. 3. "language" A language developed by the {Andrew Project}. It was one of the first attempts to add {object-oriented} features to {C}. (1995-05-01)

class hierarchy "programming" In {object-oriented programming}, a set of {classes} related by {inheritance}. Each class is a "subclass" of another class - its "superclass". The subclass contains all the features of its superclass, but may add new features or redefine existing features. The features of a class are the set of {attributes} (or "properties") that an object of that class has and the {methods} that can be invoked on it. If each class has a just one superclass, this is called {single inheritance}. The opposite is {multiple inheritance}, under which a class may have multiple superclasses. Single inheritance gives the class hierarchy a {tree} structure whereas multiple inheritance gives a {directed graph}. Typically there is one class at the top of the hierarchy which is the "object" class, the most general class that is an ancestor of all others and which has no superclass. In computing, as in genealogy, trees grow downwards, which is why subclasses are considered to be "below" their superclasses. When {invoking a method} on an {object}, the method is first looked for in the object's class, then the superclass of that class, and so on up the hierarchy until it is found. Thus a class need only define those methods which are specific to it and it will inherit all other methods from all its superclasses. An object of the subclass can do everything that an object of the superclass can and possible more. {C++} calls the superclass the "base class" and the subclass the "derived class" (not to be confused with a {derived type}). (2014-09-06)

class library "programming" A {library} of reusable {class}es for use with an {object-oriented programming} system. (1994-12-05)

class method "programming" 1. A {method} that operates on a {class object} (an {object} of {class} "class"). A class method is really just an ordinary {object method} that happens to operate on class objects. A class method might, for example, return a list of objects representing the methods and attributes of the given class. 2. A {static method}. (2014-09-06)

class object "programming" In {object-oriented programming}, an {object} of {class} "class" that represents a {class} at {run time}. The existence of class objects allows {introspection} - the ability for a program to discover and modify attributes of its own code. (See {self-modifying code}). A class object may also be used for "housekeeping" tasks like keeping count of how many objects of the class have been created, though this may also be done by some kind of {collection} object. A {class method} is a {method} that operates on class objects. (2014-09-06)

Class Oriented Ring Associated Language "language" (CORAL) A language developed by L.G. Roberts at {MIT} in 1964 for graphical display and systems programming on the {TX-2}. It used "rings" (circular lists) from {Sketchpad}. ["Graphical Communication and Control Languages", L.B. Roberts, Information System Sciences: Proc Second Congress, 1965]. [Sammet 1969, p.462]. (1994-11-30)

Class-Relation Method "programming" A design technique based on the concepts of {object-oriented programming} and the {Entity-Relationship model} from the French company {Softeam}. (1994-12-05)

Clausal Language "language" (CL) A programming language and {proof system} developed by Paul Voda and a colleague since 1997, written in {Trilogy} II. {Paul Voda Home (http://fmph.uniba.sk/~voda)}. (2002-05-28)

clause 1. "logic" A {logical formula} in {conjunctive normal form}, which has the {schema} p1 ^ ...^ pm =" q1 V ... V qn. or, equivalently, ~p1 V ... V ~pn V q1 V ... V qn, where pi and qi are {atoms}. The operators ~, ^, V, =" are {connectives}, where ~ stands for {negation}, ^ for {conjunction}, V for {disjunction} and =" for {implication}. 2. "grammar" A part of a sentence (or programming language statement) that does not constitute a full sentence, e.g. an adjectival clause in human language or a WHERE clause in a {SQL} statement. (2004-05-28)

Clean "language" A {lazy} {higher-order} {purely functional language} from the {University of Nijmegen}. Clean was originally a subset of {Lean}, designed to be an experimental {intermediate language} and used to study the {graph rewriting} model. To help focus on the essential implementation issues it deliberately lacked all {syntactic sugar}, even {infix} expressions or {complex lists}, As it was used more and more to construct all kinds of applications it was eventually turned into a general purpose functional programming language, first released in May 1995. The new language is {strongly typed} (Milner/Mycroft type system), provides {modules} and {functional I/O} (including a {WIMP} interface), and supports {parallel processing} and {distributed processing} on {loosely coupled} parallel architectures. Parallel execution was originally based on the {PABC} {abstract machine}. It is one of the fastest implementations of functional languages available, partly aided by programmer {annotations} to influence evaluation order. Although the two variants of Clean are rather different, the name Clean can be used to denote either of them. To distinguish, the old version can be referred to as Clean 0.8, and the new as Clean 1.0 or Concurrent Clean. The current release of Clean (1.0) includes a compiler, producing code for the {ABC} {abstract machine}, a {code generator}, compiling the ABC code into either {object-code} or {assembly language} (depending on the {platform}), I/O libraries, a {development environment} (not all platforms), and {documentation}. It is supported (or will soon be supported) under {Mac OS}, {Linux}, {OS/2}, {Windows 95}, {SunOS}, and {Solaris}. {(http://cs.kun.nl/~clean/)}. E-mail: "clean@cs.kun.nl". Mailing list: "clean-request@cs.kun.nl". ["Clean - A Language for Functional Graph Rewriting", T. Brus et al, IR 95, U Nijmegen, Feb 1987]. ["Concurrent Clean", M.C. van Eekelen et al, TR 89-18, U Nijmegen, Netherlands, 1989]. [{Jargon File}] (1995-11-08)

cleanroom "programming" A software development approach aimed at producing software with the minimum number of {errors}. (1994-12-12)

client "programming" A computer system or process that requests a service of another computer system or process (a "{server}") using some kind of {protocol} and accepts the server's responses. A client is part of a {client-server} software architecture. For example, a {workstation} requesting the contents of a file from a {file server} is a client of the file server. (1997-10-27)

client-server "programming" A common form of {distributed system} in which software is split between {server} tasks and {client} tasks. A client sends requests to a server, according to some {protocol}, asking for information or action, and the server responds. This is analogous to a customer (client) who sends an order (request) on an order form to a supplier (server) who despatches the goods and an invoice (response). The order form and invoice are part of the "protocol" used to communicate in this case. There may be either one centralised server or several distributed ones. This model allows clients and servers to be placed independently on {nodes} in a {network}, possibly on different {hardware} and {operating systems} appropriate to their function, e.g. fast server/cheap client. Examples are the name-server/name-resolver relationship in {DNS}, the file-server/file-client relationship in {NFS} and the screen server/client application split in the {X Window System}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.client-server}. ["The Essential Client/Server Survival Guide", 2nd edition, 1996]. (1998-01-25)

CLiP "programming, tool" A {documentation} extractor by Eric W. van Ammers that recognises a particular style of {comments}. This style can be adjusted to suit virtually any programming language and target documentation language. CLiP was designed to be compatible with {hypertext} systems. Version 2.1 runs on {MS-DOS}, {VAX}/{VMS} and {Unix} {(ftp://sun01.info.wau.nl/clip/)}. (1993-11-18)

Clipper 1. "hardware, cryptography" An {integrated circuit} which implements the {SkipJack} {algorithm}. The Clipper is manufactured by the US government to encrypt telephone data. It has the added feature that it can be decrypted by the US government, which has tried to make the chip compulsory in the United States. Phil Zimmerman (inventor of {PGP}) remarked, "This doesn't even pass the sniff test" (i.e. it stinks). {(http://wired.com/clipper/)}. {news:alt.privacy.clipper} 2. A compiled {dBASE} dialect from Nantucket Corp, LA. Versions: Winter 85, Spring 86, Autumn 86, Summer 87, 4.5 (Japanese Kanji), 5.0. It uses the {Xbase} programming language. (2004-09-01)

clone "jargon" 1. An exact copy of a product, made legally or illegally, from {documentation} or by {reverse engineering}, and usually cheaper. E.g. "PC clone": a PC-BUS/{ISA}, {EISA}, {VESA}, or {PCI} compatible {x86}-based {microcomputer} (this use is sometimes misspelled "klone" or "PClone"). These invariably have much more bang per buck than the {IB PCM} they resemble. E.g. "Unix clone": An {operating system} designed to deliver a {Unix}-like environment without Unix licence fees or with additional "mission-critical" features such as support for {real-time} programming. 2. "chat" A {clonebot}. [{Jargon File}] (2000-06-15)

closure 1. "programming" In a {reduction system}, a closure is a data structure that holds an expression and an environment of variable bindings in which that expression is to be evaluated. The variables may be local or global. Closures are used to represent unevaluated expressions when implementing {functional programming languages} with {lazy evaluation}. In a real implementation, both expression and environment are represented by pointers. A {suspension} is a closure which includes a flag to say whether or not it has been evaluated. The term "{thunk}" has come to be synonymous with "closure" but originated outside {functional programming}. 2. "theory" In {domain theory}, given a {partially ordered set}, D and a subset, X of D, the upward closure of X in D is the union over all x in X of the sets of all d in D such that x "= d. Thus the upward closure of X in D contains the elements of X and any greater element of D. A set is "upward closed" if it is the same as its upward closure, i.e. any d greater than an element is also an element. The downward closure (or "left closure") is similar but with d "= x. A downward closed set is one for which any d less than an element is also an element. (""=" is written in {LaTeX} as {\subseteq} and the upward closure of X in D is written \uparrow_\{D} X). (1994-12-16)

CLP 1. {Cornell List Processor}. 2. {Constraint Logic Programming}.

CLP* "language, logic programming" A derivative of {Constraint Logic Programming} (CLP). ["CLP* and Constraint Abstraction", T. Hickey, 16th POPL, pp. 125-133, 1989]. [Difference?] (1994-11-01)

CLP(R) "language" Constraint Logic Programming (Real) A {constraint logic programming} language with {real} arithmetic {constraints} developed by Joxan Jaffar "joxan@watson.ibm.com" of {IBM} {TJWRC} and S. Michaylov of {Monash University} in 1986. The implementation contains a {byte-code compiler} and a built-in {constraint} solver which deals with {linear arithmetic} and contains a mechanism for delaying {nonlinear} constraints until they become linear. Since CLP(R) is a superset of {PROLOG}, the system is also usable as a general-purpose {logic programming} language. There are also powerful facilities for {meta programming} with constraints. Significant CLP(R) applications have been published in diverse areas such as molecular biology, finance and physical modelling. Version 1.2 for {Unix}, {MS-DOS} and {OS/2} is available from the authors. It is free for academic and research purposes. E-mail: Roland Yap "roland@bruce.cs.monash.edu.au". ["The CLP(R) Language and System", J. Jaffar et al, IBM RR RC16292 (

CLP(sigma*) "language" A {constraint logic programming} language with {regular sets}. ["CLP(sigma*): Constraint Logic Programming with Regular Sets", C. Walinsky, Proc ICLP, 1989, pp.181-190]. (1994-12-16)

CLU "language" (CLUster) An {object-oriented} programming language developed at {MIT} by {Liskov} et al in 1974-1975. CLU is an {object-oriented} language of the {Pascal} family designed to support {data abstraction}, similar to {Alphard}. It introduced the {iterator}: a {coroutine} yielding the elements of a data object, to be used as the sequence of values in a {for loop}. A CLU program consists of separately compilable {procedures}, {clusters} and iterators, no nesting. A cluster is a module naming an {abstract type} and its operations, its internal representation and implementation. Clusters and iterators may be generic. Supplying actual constant values for the {parameters} instantiates the {module}. There are no {implicit type conversions}. In a cluster, the explicit type conversions 'up' and 'down' change between the abstract type and the representation. There is a universal type 'any', and a procedure force[] to check that an object is a certain type. Objects may be mutable or {immutable}. {Exceptions} are raised using 'signal' and handled with 'except'. {Assignment} is by sharing, similar to the sharing of data objects in {Lisp}. Arguments are passed by {call-by-sharing}, similar to {call-by-value}, except that the arguments are objects and can be changed only if they are mutable. CLU has {own variables} and multiple assignment. CLU was one of {Kamin's interpreters}. {clu2c} compiled CLU to {C}. {Concurrent CLU} was an extension designed to support parallel proceses. ["CLU Reference Manual", Barbara Liskov et al, LNCS 114, Springer 1981]. E-mail: Paul R. Johnson "prj@pm-prj.lcs.mit.edu". {Versions for Sun and VAX/VMS (ftp://pion.lcs.mit.edu/pub/clu/)}. {Portable version (ftp://mintaka.lcs.mit.edu/pub/dcurtis/)}. (1994-12-16)

CMS "programming" A {code management} system from {DEC}. (1994-12-21)

CMU Common Lisp "language" (CMU CL) A {public domain} "industrial strength" {Common Lisp} programming environment. Many of the {X3J13} changes have been incorporated into CMU CL. Wherever possible, this has been done so as to transparently allow use of either {CLtL1} or proposed {ANSI CL}. Probably the new features most interesting to users are {SETF} functions, {LOOP} and the {WITH-COMPILATION-UNIT} {macro}. The new CMU CL compiler is called {Python}. Version 17c includes an {incremental compiler}, profiler, run-time support, documentation, an editor and a debugger. It runs under {Mach} on {SPARC}, {MIPS} and {IBM PC RT} and under {SunOS} on {SPARC}. {(ftp://lisp-sun1.slisp.cs.cmu.edu/pub/)}. E-mail: "slisp@cs.cmu.edu". (1993-11-18)

CMZ "programming" A {portable} {interactive} {code management} system from {CodeME} S.A.R.L in use in the high-energy physics community. (1994-12-22)

Coad/Yourdon "programming" An {object-oriented analysis} and design {methodology}, developed by {edward Yourdon} and Peter Coad. (1995-04-07)

COBOL fingers "jargon" /koh'bol fing'grz/ Reported from Sweden, a hypothetical disease one might get from coding in {COBOL}. The language requires code verbose beyond all reason (see {candygrammar}); thus it is alleged that programming too much in COBOL causes one's fingers to wear down to stubs by the endless typing. [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-22)

code 1. "software" Instructions for a computer in some programming language, often {machine language} (machine code). The word "code" is often used to distinguish instructions from {data} (e.g. "The code is marked 'read-only'") whereas the word "{software}" is used in contrast with "{hardware}" and may consist of more than just code. (2000-04-08) 2. "cryptography" Some method of {encryption} or the resulting encrypted message. (2006-11-10)

Code 2.0 "language" A {coarse-grain} {dataflow} language with a graphical interface for users to draw communication structure. {(http://cs.utexas.edu/users/code)}. E-mail: Emery Berger "emery@cs.utexas.edu". ["The CODE 2.0 Parallel Programming Language", P. Newton et al, Proc ACM Intl Conf on Supercomput, Jul 1992]. (1996-01-13)

CodeCenter "programming" (Formerly {Saber-C}) A proprietary {software development environment} for {C} programs, offering an integrated toolkit for developing, testing, debugging and maintainance. (1994-12-23)

code police "humour" (By analogy with George Orwell's "Thought Police" in "1984") A mythical team of Gestapo-like storm troopers that enforce programming style rules. Used ironically, to suggest that the practice under discussion is condemned mainly by anal-retentive {weenies}. "Dike out that {goto} or the code police will get you!" The ironic usage is perhaps more common. [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-08)

code walk "programming" Stepping through {source code} as part of a {code review}. Where a code walk probably only follows the potential {control flow} of a program, a {dry run} is a more detailed manual execution of a program that also keeps track of the value of every {variable} involved. (2006-11-27)

codewalker "programming, tool" A program component that analyses other programs. {Compilers} have codewalkers in their front ends; so do {cross-reference generators} and some database front ends. Other utility programs that try to do too much with source code may turn into codewalkers. As in "This new 'vgrind' feature would require a codewalker to implement." [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-23)

COHESION "programming" {DEC}'s {CASE} environment. [Details?]. (1995-01-04)

collision 1. "networking" When two {hosts} transmit on a {network} at once causing their {packets} to corrupt each other. See {collision detection}. 2. "programming" {hash collision}. (1995-01-06)

COM 1. "programming" {Component Object Model}. 2. "storage" Computer Output on Microfilm - see {Enterprise Report Management}.

COME FROM "programming, humour" A semi-mythical language construct dual to the "go to"; "COME FROM" "label" would cause the referenced label to act as a sort of {trapdoor}, so that if the program ever reached it, control would quietly and {automagically} be transferred to the statement following the "COME FROM". "COME FROM" was first proposed in R.L. Clark's "A Linguistic Contribution to GOTO-less programming", which appeared in a 1973 {Datamation} issue (and was reprinted in the April 1984 issue of "{Communications of the ACM}"). This parodied the then-raging "{structured programming}" {holy wars} (see {considered harmful}). Mythically, some variants are the "assigned COME FROM" and the "computed COME FROM" (parodying some nasty control constructs in {Fortran} and some extended {BASICs}). Of course, {multitasking} (or {nondeterminism}) could be implemented by having more than one "COME FROM" statement coming from the same label. In some ways the {Fortran} "DO" looks like a "COME FROM" statement. After the terminating statement number/"CONTINUE" is reached, control continues at the statement following the DO. Some generous Fortrans would allow arbitrary statements (other than "CONTINUE") for the statement, leading to examples like:   DO 10 I=1,LIMIT C imagine many lines of code here, leaving the C original DO statement lost in the spaghetti...   WRITE(6,10) I,FROB(I) 10 FORMAT(1X,I5,G10.4) in which the trapdoor is just after the statement labelled 10. (This is particularly surprising because the label doesn't appear to have anything to do with the flow of control at all!) While sufficiently astonishing to the unsuspecting reader, this form of "COME FROM" statement isn't completely general. After all, control will eventually pass to the following statement. The implementation of the general form was left to {Univac Fortran}, ca. 1975 (though a roughly similar feature existed on the {IBM 7040} ten years earlier). The statement "AT 100" would perform a "COME FROM 100". It was intended strictly as a debugging aid, with dire consequences promised to anyone so deranged as to use it in production code. More horrible things had already been perpetrated in production languages, however; doubters need only contemplate the "{ALTER}" verb in {COBOL}. {SCL} on {VME} {mainframes} has a similar language construct called "whenever", used like this: whenever x=123345 then S; Meaning whenever variable x reached the value 123345 then execute statement S. "COME FROM" was supported under its own name for the first time 15 years later, in {C-INTERCAL} (see {INTERCAL}, {retrocomputing}); knowledgeable observers are still reeling from the shock. [{Jargon File}] (1998-04-19)

COMIT II "language" ["Computer Programming with COMIT II", Victor H. Yngve, MIT Press, 1963]. (1995-01-11)

comma "character" "," {ASCII} character 44. Common names: {ITU-T}: comma. Rare: {ITU-T}: cedilla; {INTERCAL}: tail. In the {C} programming language, "," is an operator which evaluates its first argument (which presumably has {side-effects}) and then returns the value of its second argument. This is useful in "for" statements and {macros}. (1995-03-10)

comment "programming" (Or "remark") Explanatory text embedded in program {source} (or less often data) intended to help human readers understand it. Code completely without comments is often hard to read, but code with too many comments is also bad, especially if the comments are not kept up-to-date with changes to the code. Too much commenting may mean that the code is over-complicated. A good rule is to comment everything that needs it but write code that doesn't need much of it. Comments that explain __why__ something is done and how the code relates to its environment are useful. A particularly irksome form of over-commenting explains exactly what each statement does, even when it is obvious to any reasonably competant programmer, e.g. /* Open the input file */ infd = open(input_file, O_RDONLY); (2007-02-19)

comment out "programming" To surround a section of code with {comment} {delimiters} or to prefix every line in the section with a comment marker. This prevents it from being compiled or interpreted. It is often done to temporarily disable the code, e.g. during {debugging} or when the code is redundant or obsolete, but is being left in the source to make the intent of the active code clearer. The word "comment" is sometimes replaced with whatever {syntax} is used to mark comments in the language in question, e.g. "hash out" ({shell script}, {Perl}), "REM out" ({BASIC}), etc. Compare {condition out}. [{Jargon File}] (1998-04-28)

Commodore 64 "computer" (C64) An 8-bit {Commodore Business Machines} {personal computer} released around September 1981. Prototypes were (apparently) made before Christmas 1980 (and shown at some computer fair). The {CPU} was a {6510} from {MOS Technology} (who were a wholly owned subsiduary of Commodore at this time(?)). The C64 had 64 {kilobytes} of {RAM} as standard and a 40-column text, 320x200 {pixel} display generating {composite video}, usually connected to a television. {DMA}-based memory expanders for the C64 (and C128) allowed 128, 256, and 512 kb of RAM. Several third party manufacturers produce accelerators and RAM expanders for the C64 and C128. (Some, risking a {holy war}, compare this to putting a brick on roller-skates). Such accelerators come in speeds up to 20MHz (20 times the original) and RAM expanders to 16MB. The C64's {1541} 5.25 {floppy disk} drive had a {6502} processor as a {disk controller}. See also {Commodore 65}. ["Assembly language programming with the Commodore 64", Marvin L. De Jong]. (1996-06-05)

COmmon Business Oriented Language "language, business" /koh'bol/ (COBOL) A programming language for simple computations on large amounts of data, designed by the {CODASYL} Committee in April 1960. COBOL's {natural language} style is intended to be largely self-documenting. It introduced the {record} structure. COBOL was probably the most widely used programming language during the 1960s and 1970s. Many of the major programs that required repair or replacement due to {Year 2000} {software rot} issues were originally written in COBOL, and this was responsible for a short-lived increased demand for COBOL programmers. Even in 2002 though, new COBOL programs are still being written in some organisations and many old COBOL programs are still running in {dinosaur} shops. Major revisions in 1968 (ANS X3.23-1968), 1974 (ANS X3.23-1974) and 1985. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.cobol}. ["Initial Specifications for a Common Business Oriented Language" DoD, US GPO, Apr 1960]. (2002-02-21)

Common-ISDN-API {Common ISDN Application Programming Interface}

Common ISDN Application Programming Interface "networking" (CAPI, Common-ISDN-API) A programming interface standard for an application program to communicate with an {ISDN} card. Work on CAPI began in 1989, focussing on the German ISDN protocol, and was finished in 1990 by a CAPI working group consisting of application providers, ISDN equipment manufacturers, large customers, user groups and DBP Telekom, resulting in COMMON-ISDN-API Version 1.1. Following completion of the international protocol specification, almost every telecommunication provider offers {BRI} and {PRI} with {protocols} based on {Q.931} / ETS 3009 102. Common-ISDN-API Version 2.0 was developed to support all Q.931 protocols. {(http://capi.org/)}. [Why not CIAPI?] (1998-09-07)

CommonLoops "language" {Xerox}'s {object-oriented} {Lisp} which led to {CLOS}. See also {Portable CommonLoops}. {(ftp://arisia.xerox.com/pub/pcl/September-16-92-PCL-c.tar.Z)}. ["CommonLoops: Merging Lisp and Object-Oriented Programming", D.G. Bobrow et al, SIGPLAN Notices 21(11):17-29, Nov 1986]. (1999-07-02)

Common Object Request Broker Architecture "standard, programming" (CORBA) An {Object Management Group} specification which provides a standard messaging interface between distributed {objects}. The original CORBA specification (1.1) has been revised through version 2 (CORBA 2) with the latest specification being version 3 (CORBA 3). In its most basic form CORBA consists of the {Interface Definition Language} (IDL) and the Dynamic Invocation Interface (DII). The IDL definition is complied into a Stub (client) and Skeleton (server) component that communicate through an {Object Request Broker} (ORB). When an ORB determines that a request is to a remote object, it may execute the request by communicating with the remote ORB. The Corba IDL can be mapped to a number of languages including {C}, {C++}, {Java}, {COBOL}, {Smalltalk}, {Ada}, {Lisp}, {Python}, and {IDLscript}. CORBA ORBs are widely available for a number of platforms. The OMG standard for inter-ORB communication is {IIOP}, this ensures that all CORBA 2 compliant ORBS are able to interoperate. See also {COSS}, {Component Object Model}, {RMI}. {OMG CORBA specs (http://www.omg.org/technology/documents/corba_spec_catalog.htm)}. (2007-09-04)

Common Program Interface "programming" (CPI) The {API} of {SAA}. (1997-12-01)

Common User Access "programming" (CUA) The {user interface} standard of {SAA}. (1997-12-01)

Communicating Functional Processes "language" (CFP) A parallel {functional programming} language. ["Communicating Functional Processes", M.C. van Eekelen et al, TR 89-3, U Nijmegen, Netherlands, 1989]. (1994-11-30)

compatible "jargon" Different systems (e.g., {programs}, {file formats}, {protocols}, even {programming languages}) that can work together or exchange data are said to be compatible. See also {backward compatible}, {forward compatible}. (1998-01-15)

COmpiler and GENeralized Translator "language" (COGENT) A {compiler} writing language with pattern-directed string and list processing features, for {CDC 3600} and {CDC} 3800. A COGENT program consists of {productions} defining a {context-free} language, plus analysis and synthesis function generators. ["COGENT Programming Manual", J.C. Reynolds, ANL-7022, Argonne, Mar 1965]. [Sammet 1969, p.638]. ["An Introduction to the COGENT System", J.C. Reynolds, Proc ACM 20th Natl Conf, 1965]. (1994-12-23)

compiler "programming, tool" A program that converts another program from some {source language} (or {programming language}) to {machine language} (object code). Some compilers output {assembly language} which is then converted to {machine language} by a separate {assembler}. A compiler is distinguished from an assembler by the fact that each input statement does not, in general, correspond to a single machine instruction or fixed sequence of instructions. A compiler may support such features as automatic allocation of variables, arbitrary arithmetic expressions, control structures such as FOR and WHILE loops, variable {scope}, input/ouput operations, {higher-order functions} and {portability} of source code. {AUTOCODER}, written in 1952, was possibly the first primitive compiler. {Laning and Zierler}'s compiler, written in 1953-1954, was possibly the first true working algebraic compiler. See also {byte-code compiler}, {native compiler}, {optimising compiler}. (1994-11-07)

Compiler-Compiler An early {compiler generator} for the {Atlas}, with its own distinctive input language. ["The Compiler-Compiler", R.A. Brooker et al, Ann Rev Automatic Programming 3:229-275, Pergamon 1963]. (1994-10-24)

compile time "programming" The period of time during which a program's {source code} is being translated into {machine code}, as opposed to {run time} when the program is being executed. As well as the work done by the {compiler}, this may include macro preprocessing as done by {cpp} for example. The final stage of program construction, performed by the {linker}, would generally also be classed as compile time but might be distinguished as {link time}. For example, {static data} in a {C} program is allocated at compile time whereas non-static data is allocated at {run time}, typically on the {stack}. (2004-09-28)

complete unification "programming" W.P. Weijland's name for {unification} without {occur check}. (1996-01-11)

component architecture "programming" A notion in {object-oriented} programming where "components" of a program are completely generic. Instead of having a specialised set of {methods} and {fields} they have generic methods through which the component can advertise the functionality it supports to the system into which it is loaded. This enables completely {dynamic loading} of {objects}. {JavaBeans} is an example of a component architecture. See also {design pattern}. (1997-11-20)

component based development "programming" (CBD) The creation, integration, and {re-use} of {components} of program code, each of which has a common interface for use by multiple systems. (1999-08-23)

component "programming" An {object} adhering to a {component architecture}. (1997-11-20)

Component Object Model "programming" (COM) An open software architecture from {DEC} and {Microsoft}, allowing interoperation between {ObjectBroker} and {OLE}. Microsoft evolved COM into {DCOM}. On page XV of Box's book in the foreword by Charlie Kindel he says, "It is Mark Ryland's fault that some people call COM the 'Common Object Model.' He deeply regrets it and apologizes profusely." ["Essential COM", Don Box]. [Details? URL?] (1999-06-12)

Compositional C++ "language, parallel" (CC++) Extensions to {C++} for {compositional parallel programming}. {FTP Caltech (ftp://csvax.cs.caltech.edu/pub/comp)}. [Did Carl Kesselman at Cal Tech develop it?] (2000-08-16)

Comprehensive Perl Archive Network "tool" (CPAN) A collection of {Internet} {archives} containing material related to the {Perl} programming language. {(http://perl.com/CPAN)}. (1999-12-04)

computational geometry "mathematics" The study of {algorithms} for combinatorial, topological, and metric problems concerning sets of points, typically in {Euclidean space}. Representative areas of research include geometric search, convexity, proximity, intersection, and {linear programming}. (1997-08-03)

Computer Aided Software Engineering "programming" (CASE, or "- assisted -") A technique for using computers to help with one or more phases of the {software life-cycle}, including the systematic analysis, design, implementation and maintenance of software. Adopting the CASE approach to building and maintaining systems involves software tools and training for the developers who will use them. (1996-05-10)

Computer-Aided Software Testing "programming" (CAST) Automated software testing in one or more phases of the {software life-cycle}. (1996-05-10)

Computer Animation Movie Language "language" A programming language for generating {animation}. ["A Computer Animation Movie Language for Educational Motion Pictures", D.D. Weiner et al, Proc FJCC 33(2), AFIPS, Fall 1968]. (2012-01-30)

computer programming language "spelling" A somewhat redundant term for {programming language}. (2014-10-18)

computer language {programming language}

Computer Language for AeronauticS and Programming "language" (CLASP) A {real-time} language from NASA, focussing on {fixed-point} mathematics. CLASP is a near subset of {SPL}, with some ideas from {PL/I}. ["Flight Computer and Language Processor Study", Raymond J. Rubey, Management Information Services, Detroit, 1971]. (1994-10-13)

Computer Telephone Integration "communications" (CTI or "- Telephony -") Enabling computers to know about and control telephony functions such as making and receiving voice, {fax} and data calls, telephone directory services and {caller identification}. CTI is used in call centres to link incoming calls to computer software functions such as database look-up of the caller's number, supported by services such as {Automatic Number Identification} and {Dialled Number Identification Service}. Application software ({middleware}) can link {personal computers} and servers with telephones and/or a {PBX}. Telephony and {software} vendors such as {AT&T}, {British Telecom}, {IBM}, {Novell}, {Microsoft} and {Intel} have developed CTI services. The main {CTI} functions are integrating {messaging} with {databases}, {word processors} etc.; controlling voice, {fax}, and {e-mail} messaging systems from a single {application program}; graphical call control - using a {graphical user interface} to perform functions such as making and receiving calls, forwarding and conferencing; call and {data} association - provision of information about the caller from databases or other applications automatically before the call is answered or transferred; {speech synthesis} and {speech recognition}; automatic logging of call related information for invoicing purposes or callback. CTI can improve customer service, increase productivity, reduce costs and enhance workflow automation. IBM were one of the first with workable CTI, now sold as "CallPath". {Callware}'s {Phonetastic} is another {middleware} product. CTI came out of the 1980s call centre boom, where it linked central servers and {IVRs} with {PBX}es to provide call transfer and {screen popping}. In the 1990s, efforts were made by several vendors, such as IBM, Novell {TSAPI} and Microsoft {TAPI}, to provide a version for {desktop computers} that would allow control of a desktop telephone and assist in {hot desking}. See also {Telephony Application Programming Interface}. (2012-11-18)

concatenate "programming" To join together two or more files or lists to form one big one. The {Unix} {cat} command can be used to concatenate files. (1995-12-22)

ConC "language" A {concurrent} extension of {C} based on {decomposed Petri nets}. It uses the 'handshake' and 'unit' constructs. ["ConC: A Language for Distributed Real-Time Programming", V.K. Garg et al, Computer Langs 16(1):5-18 (1991)]. (1995-03-02)

ConCoord "programming, parallel" An environment for programming networks of {sequential} and {parallel} computers. ConCoord supports {explicit parallelism} with different {granularity}. (2013-05-22)

concrete class "programming" In {object-oriented programming}, a {class} suitable to be instantiated, as opposed to an {abstract class}. (1995-05-01)

Concrete Data Structure "theory" (CDS) A model of programming language terms developed in the context of constructing fully {abstract semantics} for {sequential} languages. A CDS is a 4-tuple (C,V,E,|-) where C is a cell, V is a value, E is an event and |- is an "enabling relation". An event is a cell and a value. A cell C is "enabled" by a set of events S if S |- C. A state is a set of events which are consistent in that the values they give for any cell are all equal. Every cell in a state is enabled. [G. Berry, P.-L. Curien, "Theory and practice of sequential algorithms: the kernel of applicative language CDS", Algebraic methods in semantics, CUP 1985]. (1994-11-30)

CONCUR "language" A proposal for a language for programming with {concurrent} processes. CONCUR was inspired by {Modula} but removes Modula's restrictions on the placement of process declarations and invocations in order to study the implications of process support more fully. Anderson presents a {compiler} which translates CONCUR into the {object language} for a hypothetical machine. ["CONCUR, A Language for Continuous Concurrent Processes", R.M. Salter et al, Comp Langs 5(3):163-189, 1981]. {["Concur: a High-Level Language for Concurrent Programming", Karen Anderson Thesis, B. Thomas Golisano College of Computing and Information Sciences, 1979] (https://ritdml.rit.edu/handle/1850/15968?show=full)} (2013-06-05)

Concurrent C 1. "language" An extension of {C} with {rendezvous}-based {concurrency}. Versions for most {Unix} systems were available commercially from {AT&T}. ["Concurrent C", N.H. Gehani et al, Soft Prac & Exp 16(9):821-844 (1986)]. ["The Concurrent C Programming Language", N. Gehani et al, Silicon Press 1989]. (1994-11-11) 2. "language" An extension of {C} with {asynchronous} {message passing}. ["Concurrent C: A Language for Distributed Systems", Y. Tsujino et al, Soft Prac & Exp 14(11):1061-1078 (Nov 1984)]. (1994-11-11)

Concurrent C++ "language" A {programming language} developed by Gehani and Roome at {Bell Labs} by merging their earlier {Concurrent C} language with {C++}. ["Concurrent C++: Concurrent Programming with Class(es)", N. Gehani, W.D. Roome, Bell Labs, 1986]. (2013-06-26)

Concurrent CLU "language" A {programming language} extending {CLU} for {concurrent} processes, developed by by Hamilton in 1984. ["Preserving Abstraction in Concurrent Programming", R.C.B. Cooper, K.G. Hamilton, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-14(2):258-263, Feb 1988].1 (2013-09-28)

Concurrent Constraint Programming "language" (CCP) Not a language, but a general approach. [Details?] (2001-11-01)

Concurrent Massey Hope "language, functional programming" An extension of {Massey Hope}, by Peter Burgess, Robert Pointon, and Nigel Perry "N.Perry@massey.ac.nz" of {Massey University}, NZ, that provides {multithreading} and {type}d inter-{thread} communication. It uses {C} for {intermediate code} rather than {assembly language}. (1999-08-04)

Concurrent Object-Oriented Language "language" (COOL) An extension of {C++} with {task-level parallelism} for {shared-memory} {multi-processors}. ["COOL: A Language for Parallel Programming", R. Chandra "rohit@seagull.stanford.edu" et al in Languages and Compilers for Parallel Computing, D. Gelernter et al eds, MIT Press 1990, pp. 126-148]. E-mail: Rohit Chandra "rohit@cool.stanford.edu". (1994-11-30)

Concurrent Pascal "language" An extension of a {Pascal} subset, {Sequential Pascal}, developed by Brinch Hansen in 1972-75. Concurrent Pascal was the first language to support {monitors}. It provided access to hardware devices through monitor calls and also supported processes and {class}es. ["The Programming Language Concurrent Pascal", Per Brinch Hansen, IEEE Trans Soft Eng 1(2):199-207 (Jun 1975)]. (1994-11-30)

ConcurrentSmalltalk "language" A {concurrent} variant of {Smalltalk}. ["Concurrent Programming in ConcurrentSmalltalk", Y. Yokote et al in Object-Oriented Concurrent Programming, A. Yonezawa et al eds, MIT Press 1987, pp. 129-158]. (1994-11-30)

Concurrent SP/k "language" (CSP/k) A {PL/I}-like {concurrent} language. ["Structured Concurrent Programming with Operating System Applications", R.C. Holt et al, A-W 1978]. (1997-12-15)

Concurrent Versions System "programming" (CVS) A {cross-platform} {code management system} originally based on {RCS}. CVS tracks all revisions to a file in an associated file with the same name as the original file but with the string ",v" (for version) appended to the filename. These files are stored in a (possibly centralised) repository. Changes are checked in or "committed" along with a comment (which appears in the the "commit log"). CVS has the notions of projects, {branches}, file locking and many others needed to provide a full-functioned repository. It is commonly accessed over over its own "anonCVS" {protocol} for read-only access (many {open source} projects are available by anonymous CVS) and over the {SSH} protocol by those with commit privileges ("committers"). CVS has been rewritten several times and does not depend on RCS. However, files are still largely compatible; one can easily migrate a project from RCS to CVS by copying the history files into a CVS repository. A sub-project of the {OpenBSD} project is building a complete new implementation of CVS, to be called OpenCVS. {CVS Home (http://cvshome.org/)}. {OpenCVS (http://opencvs.org/)}. (2005-01-17)

condition out "programming" A programming technique that prevents a section of {code} from being executed by putting it in an {if statement} whose condition is always false. It is often easier to do this than to {comment out} the code because you don't need to modify the code itself (as you would if commenting out each line individually) or worry about {nested comments} within the code (as you would if putting nesting comment delimiters around it). For example, in {Perl} you could write: if (0) { ...code to be ignored... } In a compiled language, the {compiler} could simply generate no code for the whole if statement. Some compiled languages such as C provide {compile-time directives} that achieve the same effect, e.g.:

condom "jargon" 1. The protective plastic bag that accompanies {3.5-inch microfloppy diskettes}. Rarely, also used of (paper) disk envelopes. Unlike the {write protect tab}, the condom (when left on) not only impedes the practice of {SEX} but has also been shown to have a high failure rate as drive mechanisms attempt to access the disk - and can even fatally frustrate insertion. 2. The protective cladding on a {light pipe}. 3. "keyboard condom": A flexible, transparent plastic cover for a keyboard, designed to provide some protection against dust and {programming fluid} without impeding typing. 4. "elephant condom": the plastic shipping bags used inside cardboard boxes to protect hardware in transit. [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-14)

Conference On DAta SYstems Languages "body, data processing" (CODASYL) A consortium that developed {database models} and standard {database} extensions for {COBOL}. CODASYL was formed in 1959 to guide the development of a {standard} {programming language} that could be used on many computers. Members came from industry and government {data processing} departments. Its goal was to promote more effective data {systems analysis}, design and implementation. It published specifications for various languages over the years, handing these over to official standards bodies ({ISO}, {ANSI} or their predecessors) for formal standardisation. The 1965 List Processing Task Force worked on the {IDS/I} database extension. It later renamed itself to the Data Base Task Group (DBTG) and publishing the Codasyl Data Model, the first to allow one-to-many {relations}. This work also introduced {data definition languages} (DDLs) to define the {database schema} and a {data manipulation language} (DML) to be embedded in COBOL programs to request and update data in the database. Interest in CODASYL declined with the rise of {relational databases} beginning in the early 1980s. (2013-12-29)

configuration programming "programming" An approach that advocates the use of a separate configuration language to specify the {coarse-grain} structure of programs. Configuration programming is particularly attractive for {concurrent}, parallel and distributed systems that have inherently complex program structures. {Darwin} is an example of a configuration language. (1995-03-14)

CONNIVER "language" An {artificial intelligence} {programming language} for {automatic theorem proving} from {MIT}. CONNIVER grew out of {PLANNER} and was based on {coroutines} rather than {backtracking}. It allowed multiple database contexts with hypothetical assertions. ["The CONNIVER Reference Manual", D. McDermott & G.J. Sussman "gjs@zurich.ai.mit.edu", AI Memo 259, MIT AI Lab, 1973]. (1995-01-10)

cons "programming" The {Lisp} {function} that creates a {cons cell}. (2014-11-09)

cons cell "programming" /konz sel/ or /kons sel/ A {Lisp} {pair} object containing any two objects. In {Lisp}, "cons" (short for "construct") is the fundamental operation for building structures such as {lists} and other {binary trees}. The application of "cons" to objects H and T is written (cons H T) and returns a pair object known as a "cons", "cons cell" or {dotted pair}. Typically, a cons would be stored in memory as a two consecutive {pointers}. The two objects in a cons, and the functions to extract them, are called "car" and "cdr" after two 15-bit fields of the {machine code} {instruction} format of the {IBM 7090} that hosted the original LISP implementation. These fields were called the "address" and "decrement" parts so "car" stood for "Contents of Address part of Register" and "cdr" for "Contents of Decrement part of Register". In the typical case where the cons holds one node of a {list} structure, the car is the {head} of the list (first element) and the cdr is the {tail} of the list (the rest). If the list had only one element then the tail would be an empty list, represented by the cdr containing the special value "nil". To aid in working with nested structures such as lists of lists, Lisp provides functions to access the car of the car ("caar"), the car of the cdr ("cadr"), the cdr of the car ("cdar") and the cdr of the cdr ("cddr"). (2014-11-09)

conservative evaluation "programming" Under this {parallel evaluation strategy}, no evaluation is started unless it is known to be needed. The opposite of conservative evaluation is {speculative evaluation}. (2014-06-21)

considered harmful "programming, humour" A type of phrase based on the title of {Edsger W. Dijkstra}'s famous note in the March 1968 {Communications of the ACM}, "Goto Statement Considered Harmful", which fired the first salvo in the {structured programming wars}. Amusingly, the {ACM} considered the resulting acrimony sufficiently harmful that it will (by policy) no longer print articles taking so assertive a position against a coding practice. In the ensuing decades, a large number of both serious papers and parodies bore titles of the form "X considered Y". The structured-programming wars eventually blew over with the realisation that both sides were wrong, but use of such titles has remained as a persistent minor in-joke. [{Jargon File}] (2014-06-21)

constant applicative form "functional programming" (CAF) A {supercombinator} which is not a {lambda abstraction}. This includes truly constant expressions such as 12, (+ 1 2), [1, 2, 3] as well as partially applied functions such as (+ 4). Note that this last example is equivalent under {eta abstraction} to \ x . + 4 x which is not a CAF. Since a CAF is a supercombinator, it contains no free variables. Moreover, since it is not a lambda abstraction it contains no variables at all. It may however contain identifiers which refer to other CAFs, e.g. c 3 where c = (* 2). A CAF can always be lifted to the top level of the program. It can either be compiled to a piece of graph which will be shared by all uses or to some shared code which will overwrite itself with some graph the first time it is evaluated. A CAF such as ints = from 1 where from n = n : from (n+1) can grow without bound but may only be accessible from within the code of one or more functions. In order for the {garbage collector} to be able to reclaim such structures, we associate with each function a list of the CAFs to which it refers. When garbage collecting a reference to the function we collect the CAFs on its list. [{The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages, Simon Peyton Jones (http://research.microsoft.com/%7Esimonpj/papers/slpj-book-1987/PAGES/224.HTM)}]. (2006-10-12)

constraint "programming, mathematics" A {Boolean} {relation}, often an equality or {ineqality} relation, between the values of one or more mathematical {variables}. E.g. x"3 is a constraint on x. The process of {constraint satisfaction} attempts to assign values to variables so that all constraints are true. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.constraints}. {FAQ (http://cs.unh.edu/ccc/archive/)}. (2002-06-08)

constraint functional programming "programming" (CFP) {functional programming} plus {constraints}. (2002-06-08)

Constraint Handling In Prolog "language" (CHIP) A {constraint logic programming} language developed by M. Dincbas at {ECRC}, Munich, Germany in 1985 which includes {Boolean unification} and a symbolic {simplex}-like {algorithm}. CHIP introduced the {domain-variable model}. ["The Constraint Logic Programming Language CHIP", M. Dincbas et al, Proc 2nd Intl Conf on Fifth Generation Computer Sys, Tokyo (Nov 1988), pp.249-264]. ["Constraint Satisfaction in Logic Programming", Van Hentenryck. Available from COSYTEC, 4 rue Jean Rostand, F91893 Orsay, France]. (1994-11-15)

ConstraintLisp "language" An {object-oriented} {constraint} language based on {CSP}. An extension of {Common Lisp} and {CLOS}. ["ConstraintLisp: An Object-Oriented Constraint Programming Language", Bing Liu (ex bing@iti.gov.sg) et al, SIGPLAN Notices 27(11):17-26, Nov 1992]. (2000-04-02)

Constraint Logic Programming "programming" (CLP) A programming framework based (like {Prolog}) on {LUSH} (or {SLD}) {resolution}, but in which {unification} has been replaced by a {constraint solver}. A CLP {interpreter} contains a Prolog-like {inference engine} and an {incremental constraint solver}. The engine sends constraints to the solver one at a time. If the new constraint is consistent with the collected constraints it will be added to the set. If it is inconsistent, it will cause the engine to {backtrack}. {CLP*} is a variant. ["Constraint Logic Programming", J. Jaffar et al, 14th POPL, ACM 1987]. (1994-11-01)

CONSTRAINTS "programming" A {programming language} for solving {constraints} using {value inference}. ["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39, Aug 1980]. (1994-11-01)

Constructive Cost Model "programming" (COCOMO) A method for estimating the cost of a {software} package, proposed by Dr Barry Boehm. The Basic COCOMO Model estimates the effort required to develop software in three modes of development ({Organic Mode}, {Semidetached Mode}, or {Embedded Mode}) using only {DSIs} as an input. The Basic model is good for quick estimates. The Intermediate Model extends the Basic Model with an {Effort Adjustment Factor} (EAF) and different coefficients for the effort equation. The user supplies settings for cost drivers that determine the effort and duration of the software projects. It also allows DSI values and cost drivers to be chosen for individual components instead of for the system as a whole. The Detailed COCOMO Model uses effort multipliers for each phase of the project and provides a three-level product hierarchy and has some other capabilities such as a procedure for adjusting the phase distribution of the development schedule. ["Software Engineering Economics", B. Boehm, Prentice-Hall, 1981]. (1996-05-29)

constructor "programming" 1. In {object-oriented languages}, a {function} provided by a {class} to initialise a newly created {object}. The constructor function typically has the same name as the class. It may take arguments, e.g. to set various attributes of the object or it may just leave everything undefined to be set elsewhere. A class may also have a {destructor} function that is called when objects of the class are destroyed. 2. In {functional programming} and {type theory}, one of the symbols used to create an object with an {algebraic data type}. (2014-10-04)

Consul "language" A {constraint}-based {declarative language} based on {axiomatic set theory} and designed for {parallel} execution on {MIMD} architectures. Consul's fundamental {data type} is the {set} and its fundamental {operators} are the {logical connectives} ("and", "or", "not") and {quantifiers} ("forall", "exists"). It is written in {Lisp}-like {syntax}, e.g., (plus x y z) which means the relation x = y+z (not an {assignment statement}). {["Design of the CONSUL Programming Language", D. Baldwin, C. A. Quiroz Gonzalez, University of Rochester. Computer Science Department, TR208, 1987 Feb (http://hdl.handle.net/1802/6372)]} {["Consul: A Parallel Constraint Language", D. Baldwin, IEEE Software 6(4):62-71, 1989 July (http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/52.31653)]} (2014-10-04)

container class "programming" A {class} whose {instances} are collections of other objects. Examples include {arrays}, {lists}, {queues} and {stacks}. A container class typically provides {methods} such as count, insert, delete and search. (2014-10-15)

Contents of Address part of Register "programming" (car) /kar/ The left-hand element of a {Lisp} {cons cell}. (2014-11-09)

Contents of Decrement part of Register "programming" (cdr) /ku'dr/ or /kuh'dr/ The right-hand element of a {Lisp} {cons cell}. (2014-11-09)

context-free grammar "grammar" (CFG) A {grammar} where the {syntax} of each constituent ({syntactic category} or {terminal symbol}) is independent of the symbols occuring before and after it in a sentence. A context-free grammar describes a context-free language. Context-free grammars can be expressed by a set of "production rules" or syntactic rules. For example, a language with symbols "a" and "b" that must occur in unequal numbers can be represented by the CFG: S → U | V U → TaU | TaT | UaT V → TbV | TbT | VbT T → aTbT | bTaT | ε meaning the top-level category "S" consists of either a "U" or a "V" and so on. The special category "ε" represents the empty string. This grammar is context-free because each rule has a single symbol on its left-hand side. {Parsers} for context-free grammars are simpler than those for context-dependent grammars because the parser need only know the current symbol. {Algol} was (one of?) the first languages whose syntax was described by a context-free grammar. This became a common practice for programming languages and led to the notation for grammars called {Backus-Naur Form}. (2014-11-24)

continuation passing style "programming" (CPS) A style of programming in which every user function f takes an extra argument c known as a "continuation". Whenever f would normally return a result r to its caller, it instead returns the result of applying the continuation to r. The continuation thus represents the whole of the rest of the computation. Some examples: normal (direct style) continuation passing style square x = x * x square x k = k (x * x) g (square 23) square 23 g (square 3) + 1 square 3 ( \ s . s + 1 ) (1995-04-04)

contract programmer "job, programming" A {programmer} who works on a fixed-length or temporary contract, and is often employed to write certain types of code or to work on a specific project. Despite the fact that contractors usually cost more than hiring a permanent employee with the same skills, it is common for organisations to employ them for extended periods, sometimes renewing their contracts for many years, due to lack of certainty about the future or simple lack of planning. A contract programmer may be independent or they may work in a supplier's {professional services} department, providing consultancy and programming services for the supplier's products. (2015-03-07)

control 1. "character, hardware" A {control key} on a {keyboard} used to input {control characters}. 2. "programming, operating system, graphics" A component in a {graphical user interface}, e.g. an {Active-X control}.

control flow "programming" (Or "flow of control") The sequence of {execution} of the {instructions} in a {program}. Control flow is linear, executing the instructions in the order they were written, unless it is changed at {run time} by {control structures} such as {if statements}, {loops} or {goto} statements). These {high-level} language statements are translated by the {compiler} or {interpreter} into {machine instructions}, most commonly {conditional branch} instructions. {Interrupts} and {exception handling} also change the sequence of execution of instructions but are not part of normal control flow. Not to be confused with "{flow control}". (2017-07-30)

control structure "programming" One of the {instructions}, {statements} or groups of statements in a programming language that determines the sequence of execution of other instructions or statements (the {control flow}). In {assembly language} this typically consists of {jumps} and {conditional jumps} along with {function} call and {return}, though some architectures include other constructs such as an instruction which skips the following instruction depending on some condition ({PDP}?), various kinds of {loop} instructions (later {Motorola 680x0}) or conditional execution of all instructions (Advanced RISC Machine). Basic control structures (whatever their names in particular languages) include "if CONDITION then EXPRESSION else EXPRESSION", the {switch statement}, "while CONDITION do EXPRESSION", function call, the suspect "{goto}" and the much-feared "{come from}". Other constructs handle errors and {exceptions} such as {traps} and {interrupts}. (1997-09-14)

conversion to iteration "functional programming" A transformation applied to {functional programs} that replaces {recursion} with {iteration}. A {tail-recursive function} can be compiled to an iterative loop such that the recursive call becomes a {jump} back to the start and the parameters are held in registers which are updated with new values each time around the loop. This is closely related to {tail recursion optimisation}. (2019-11-21)

cookbook "programming" (From amateur electronics and radio) A book of small code segments that the reader can use to do various {magic} things in programs. One current example is the "{PostScript} Language Tutorial and Cookbook" by Adobe Systems, Inc (Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-10179-3), also known as the {Blue Book} which has recipes for things like wrapping text around arbitrary curves and making 3D fonts. Cookbooks, slavishly followed, can lead one into {voodoo programming}, but are useful for hackers trying to {monkey up} small programs in unknown languages. This function is analogous to the role of phrasebooks in human languages. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-04)

cookie jar 1. "programming" An area of memory set aside for storing {cookies}. Most commonly heard in the {Atari ST} community; many useful ST programs record their presence by storing a distinctive {magic number} in the jar. Programs can inquire after the presence or otherwise of other programs by searching the contents of the jar. 2. "security" A {cracker} term for the password file of a multi-user computer. [{Jargon File}] (1997-02-12)

copybook "programming, library" (Or "copy member", "copy module") A common piece of {source code} designed to be copied into many source programs, used mainly in {IBM} {DOS} {mainframe} programming. In {mainframe} {DOS} (DOS/VS, DOS/{VSE}, etc.), the copybook was stored as a "book" in a {source} library. A library was comprised of "books", prefixed with a letter designating the language, e.g., A.name for Assembler, C.name for Cobol, etc., because {DOS} didn't support multiple libraries, private libraries, or anything. This term is commonly used by {COBOL} programmers but is supported by most {mainframe} languages. The {IBM} {OS} series did not use the term "copybook", instead it referred to such files as "libraries" implemented as "partitioned data sets" or {PDS}. Copybooks are functionally equivalent to {C} and {C++} {include} files. (1997-07-31)

CORAL 1. {Class Oriented Ring Associated Language}. 2. A {deductive database} and {logic programming} system based on {Horn-clause} rules with extensions like {SQL}'s {group-by} and {aggregation} operators. CORAL was developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. It is implemented in C++ and has a {Prolog}-like {syntax}. Many evaluation techniques are supported, including {bottom-up fixpoint evaluation} and top-down {backtracking}. {Modules} are separately compiled; different evaluation methods can be used in different modules within a single program. Disk-resident data is supported via an interface to the {Exodus} storage manager. There is an on-line help facility. It requires {AT&T} {C++} 2.0 (or {G++} soon) and runs on {Decstation} and {Sun-4}. {(ftp://ftp.cs.wisc.edu/)}. (1993-01-29)

CORAL 66 A real-time system programming language derived from {JOVIAL} and {ALGOL 60}. It was adopted as the British military standard from 1970 until the arrival of {Ada}. ["Official Definition of CORAL 66", P.M. Woodward et al, HMSO, London, 1970].

core dump "programming, operating system, jargon" Common {Iron Age} jargon, preserved by {Unix} for a {memory dump}. The term is also used for a complete account of a human's knowledge on some subject (also {brain dump}), especially in a lecture or answer to an exam question. [{Jargon File}] (2007-05-09)

Cornell University "body, education" A US Ivy League University founded in 1868 by businessman Ezra Cornell and respected scholar Andrew Dickson White. Cornell includes thirteen colleges and schools. On the Ithaca campus are the seven undergraduate units and four graduate and professional units. The Medical College and the Graduate School of Medical Sciences are in New York City. Cornell has 13,300 undergraduates and 6,200 graduate and professional students. See also {Concurrent ML}, {Cornell Theory Center}, {Cornell University Programming Language}, {CU-SeeMe}, {ISIS}. {(http://cornell.edu/)}. (1996-12-01)

Coroutine Pascal ["Control Separation in Programming languages", Lemon et al, ACM Ann Conf 1977]. (1994-12-08)

Cost Driver Attribute "programming" Factors affecting the productivity of software development. These include attributes of the software, computers, personnel, and project. (1996-05-28)

count "programming" One of the built-in {aggregate functions} in {relational database} systems, that returns the number of rows in a result. The argument to the function is nearly always "*", e.g. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM books which returns the number of rows in the "books" table. If, instead, we say SELECT COUNT(publisher) FROM books then only rows with a non-{null} value in the "publisher" column will be counted. (2010-09-26)

coupling "programming, hardware" The degree to which components depend on one another. There are two types of coupling, "tight" and "loose". Loose coupling is desirable for good {software engineering} but tight coupling may be necessary for maximum performance. Coupling is increased when the data exchanged between components becomes larger or more complex. (1996-08-01)

Course Author Language "language" (CAL) The {CAI} language for the {IBM 360}. ["Design of a Programming Language for Computer Assisted Learning", F.M. Tonge, Proc IFIP Congress 1968, v2]. (1994-11-08)

CP A concurrent Prolog. "The Concurrent Logic Programming Language CP": Definition and Operational Semantics", V. Saraswat, 14th POPL, ACM 1987, pp.49-62.

CPL Combined Programming Language. U Cambridge and U London. A very complex language, syntactically based on ALGOL 60, with a pure functional subset. Provides the ..where.. form of local definitions. Strongly typed but has a "general" type enabling a weak form of polymorphism. Functions may be defined as either normal or applicative order. Typed array and polymorphic list structures. List selection is through structure matching. Partially implemented on the Titan (Atlas 2) computer at Cambridge. Led to the much simpler BCPL. "The Main Features of CPL", D.W. Barron et al, Computer J 6(2):134-143 (Jul 1963).

C preprocessor "tool, programming" (cpp) The standard {Unix} {macro}-expansion utility run as the first phase of the {C} compiler, {cc}. Cpp interprets lines beginning with "

C Programmer's Disease "programming" The tendency of the undisciplined {C} programmer to set arbitrary but supposedly generous static limits on table sizes (defined, if you're lucky, by constants in header files) rather than taking the trouble to do proper dynamic storage allocation. If an application user later needs to put 68 elements into a table of size 50, the afflicted programmer reasons that he or she can easily reset the table size to 68 (or even as much as 70, to allow for future expansion) and recompile. This gives the programmer the comfortable feeling of having made the effort to satisfy the user's (unreasonable) demands, and often affords the user multiple opportunities to explore the marvellous consequences of {fandango on core}. In severe cases of the disease, the programmer cannot comprehend why each fix of this kind seems only to further disgruntle the user. [{Jargon File}] (2001-12-31)

cproto "programming, tool" A translator , written by Chin Huang at canrem.com, that generates {ANSI C} {function prototypes} from {K&R} {C} function definitions. It can also translate function definition heads between {K&R} style and {ANSI C} style. Posted to {comp.sources}.misc, volume 29. Runs under {Unix}, {MS-DOS}. (1992-07-18)

CPS 1. Conversational Programming System. An interactive extended subset of {PL/I} from {Allen-Babcock} Corp in 1965. ["Conversational Programming System under TSO (PBPO), Terminal User's Manual", SH20-1197, IBM]. [Sammet 1969, p. 232-240]. 2. {Continuation Passing Style}.

crippleware 1. Software that has some important functionality deliberately removed, so as to entice potential users to pay for a working version. 2. (Cambridge) {Guiltware} that exhorts you to donate to some charity. Compare {careware}, {nagware}. 3. Hardware deliberately crippled, which can be upgraded to a more expensive model by a trivial change (e.g. removing a jumper). A correspondant gave the following example: In 1982-5, a friend had a {Sharp} {scientific calculator} which was on the list of those permitted in exams. No programmable calculators were allowed. A very similar, more expensive, programmable model had two extra keys for programming where the cheaper version just had blank metal. My friend took his calculator apart (as you would) and lo and behold, the rubber switches of the program keys were there on the circuit board. So all he had to do was cut a hole in the face. For exams he would pre-load the calculator with any useful routines, put a sticker with his name on it over the hole, and press the buttons through the sticker with a pen. [{Jargon File}] (2001-05-12)

crock [American scatologism "crock of shit"] 1. An awkward feature or programming technique that ought to be made cleaner. For example, using small integers to represent error codes without the program interpreting them to the user (as in, for example, Unix "make(1)", which returns code 139 for a process that dies due to {segfault}). 2. A technique that works acceptably, but which is quite prone to failure if disturbed in the least. For example, a too-clever programmer might write an assembler which mapped {instruction mnemonics} to numeric {opcodes} {algorithm}ically, a trick which depends far too intimately on the particular bit patterns of the opcodes. (For another example of programming with a dependence on actual opcode values, see {The Story of Mel}.) Many crocks have a tightly woven, almost completely unmodifiable structure. See {kluge}, {brittle}. The adjectives "crockish" and "crocky", and the nouns "crockishness" and "crockitude", are also used. [{Jargon File}]

cross-compiler "programming" A {compiler} which runs on one {platform} and produces code for another, as opposed to a {native} code compiler which produces code for the platform on which it runs. (1998-02-24)

CRUD "programming, testing" A mnemonic for the four most important kinds of activity that almost any system of any type needs to support: create, read, update, delete. The absence or failure of any one of these is often a sign of a bad design or poor testing. (2014-08-06)

CSM ["CSM - A Distributed Programming Language", S. Zhongxiu et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-13(4):497-500 (Apr 1987)].

cube 1. [short for "cubicle"] A module in the open-plan offices used at many programming shops. "I've got the manuals in my cube." 2. A NeXT machine (which resembles a matte-black cube).

CUPL Cornell University Programming Language. A language for simple mathematics problems, based on {CORC}, with {PL/I}-like {syntax}. ["An Instruction Language for CUPL", R.J. Walker, Cornell U, Jul 1967]. (1994-11-15)

curried function "mathematics, programming" A {function} of N {arguments} that is considered as a function of one argument which returns another function of N-1 arguments. E.g. in {Haskell} we can define: average :: Int -" (Int -" Int) (The parentheses are optional). A {partial application} of average, to one Int, e.g. (average 4), returns a function of type (Int -" Int) which averages its argument with 4. In uncurried languages a function must always be applied to all its arguments but a {partial application} can be represented using a {lambda abstraction}: \ x -" average(4,x) Currying is necessary if {full laziness} is to be applied to functional sub-expressions. It was named after the logician {Haskell Curry} but the 19th-century logician, {Gottlob Frege} was the first to propose it and it was first referred to in ["Uber die Bausteine der mathematischen Logik", M. Schoenfinkel, Mathematische Annalen. Vol 92 (1924)]. {David Turner} said he got the term from {Christopher Strachey} who invented the term "currying" and used it in his lecture notes on programming languages written circa 1967. Strachey also remarked that it ought really to be called "Schoenfinkeling". Stefan Kahrs "smk@dcs.ed.ac.uk" reported hearing somebody in Germany trying to introduce "scho"nen" for currying and "finkeln" for "uncurrying". The verb "scho"nen" means "to beautify"; "finkeln" isn't a German word, but it suggests "to fiddle". ["Some philosophical aspects of combinatory logic", H. B. Curry, The Kleene Symposium, Eds. J. Barwise, J. Keisler, K. Kunen, North Holland, 1980, pp. 85-101] (2002-07-24)

cut-and-waste code "humour, programming" Code that someone found online (e.g. in a {blog}) and copied and pasted into a product. The result is usually a lot of wasted time trying to track down obscure bugs from code that may have made sense in the original context but not in the new one. Also known as blog-driven development. [{Dodgy Coder (http://www.dodgycoder.net/2011/11/yoda-conditions-pokemon-exception.html)}]. (2014-07-03)

CWeb "language" An {ANSI C} implementation of the {Web} {literate programming} language. Version 3.1 by Levy, Knuth, and Marc van Leeuwen is writen in, and outputs, {ANSI C} and {C++}. {(ftp://ftp.cwi.nl/pub/cweb/)}. (1993-12-16)

CYBIL Control Data's system programming language in the 80's. Major parts of CDC systems written in this.

Cyclo "programming, tool" (Cyclomatic complexity tool) A {C} and {C++} code analysis tool by Roger D. Binns. It measures {cyclomatic complexity}, shows function calls, and can draw {flowgraphs} of {ANSI C} and {C++} code. It requires {Lex} and {C++}. Posted to {alt.sources}, 1993-06-28. (1993-06-28)

cyclomatic complexity "programming, testing" A measure of the number of linearly independent paths through a program {module}. Cyclomatic complexity is a measure for the complexity of code related to the number of ways there are to traverse a piece of code. This determines the minimum number of inputs you need to test all ways to execute the program. (1998-03-17)

Daisy A {functional language}. ["Daisy Programming Manual", S.D. Johnson, CS Dept TR, Indiana U, 1988].

dancing frog "programming, humour" A {bug} or {glitch} that only occurs for a particular user; never when the user tries to show it to anyone else. The term is derived from a Warner Brothers cartoon in which a man discovers a frog which can sing and dance; he believes this will make his fortune but the frog never performs in front of anyone else. (2004-10-16)

dangling pointer "programming" A reference that doesn't actually lead anywhere. In {C} and some other languages, a pointer that doesn't actually point at anything valid. Usually this happens because it formerly pointed to something that has moved or disappeared, e.g. a {heap}-allocated block which has been freed and reused. Used as jargon in a generalisation of its technical meaning; for example, a local phone number for a person who has since moved is a dangling pointer. {This dictionary} contains many dangling pointers - cross-references to non-existent entries, as explained in {the Help page (help.html)}. [{Jargon File}] (2014-09-20)

Dartmouth BASIC "language" The original {BASIC} language, designed by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz at Dartmouth College in 1963. Dartmouth BASIC first ran on a {GE 235} [date?] and on an {IBM 704} on 1964-05-01. It was designed for quick and easy programming by students and beginners using Dartmouth's experimental {time-sharing} system. Unlike most later BASIC dialects, Dartmouth BASIC was compiled. (2003-07-02)

Darwin 1. "operating system" An {operating system} based on the {FreeBSD} version of {Unix}, running on top of a {microkernel} ({Mach} 3.0 with darwin 1.02) that offers advanced networking, services such as the {Apache} {web server}, and support for both {Macintosh} and Unix {file systems}. Darwin was originally released in March 1999. It currently runs on {PowerPC} based Macintosh computers, and, in October 2000, was being ported to {Intel} processor-based computers and compatible systems by the Darwin community. 2. "programming, tool" A general purpose structuring tool of use in building complex {distributed systems} from diverse components and diverse component interaction mechanisms. Darwin is being developed by the Distributed Software Engineering Section of the Department of Computing at {Imperial College}. It is in essence a {declarative} binding language which can be used to define hierarchic compositions of interconnected components. Distribution is dealt with orthogonally to system structuring. The language allows the specification of both static structures and dynamic structures which evolve during execution. The central abstractions managed by Darwin are components and services. Bindings are formed by manipulating references to services. The {operational semantics} of Darwin is described in terms of the {Pi-calculus}, {Milner}'s calculus of mobile processes. The correspondence between the treatment of names in the Pi-calculus and the management of service references in Darwin leads to an elegant and concise Pi-calculus model of Darwin's {operational semantics}. The model has proved useful in arguing the correctness of Darwin implementations and in designing extensions to Darwin and reasoning about their behaviour. {Distributed Software Engineering Section (http://www-dse.doc.ic.ac.uk/)}. {Darwin publications (http://scorch.doc.ic.ac.uk/dse-papers/darwin/)}. E-mail: Jeff Magee "jnm@doc.ic.ac.uk", Naranker Dulay "nd@doc.ic.ac.uk". 3. {Core War}. (2003-08-08)

Data Address Generator "architecture" (DAG) The mechanism which generates temporary memory addresses for data that is transferred between memory and {registers} in a {Digital Signal Processor}. Certain {DSP} architectures incorporate more than one DAG to simplify the programming needed to move blocks of data between buffers. For instance, certain {Fast Fourier Transform} {algorithms} requiring {bit reversing}, can use the DAG for that purpose, or they can use two DAGS, one for Program Memory Data (PMD), and the other for Data Memory Data (DMD). (1997-08-12)

database 1. "database" One or more large structured sets of persistent data, usually associated with software to update and {query} the data. A simple database might be a single file containing many {records}, each of which contains the same set of {fields} where each field is a certain fixed width. A database is one component of a {database management system}. See also {ANSI/SPARC Architecture}, {atomic}, {blob}, {data definition language}, {deductive database}, {distributed database}, {fourth generation language}, {functional database}, {object-oriented database}, {relational database}. {Carol E. Brown's tutorial (http://accounting.rutgers.edu/raw/aies/www.bus.orst.edu/faculty/brownc/lectures/db_tutor/db_tutor.htm)}. 2. "hypertext" A collection of {nodes} managed and stored in one place and all accessible via the same {server}. {Links} outside this are "external", and those inside are "internal". On the {World-Wide Web} this is called a {website}. 3. All the facts and rules comprising a {logic programming} program. (2005-11-17)

database manager The part of the database management system (DBMS) that handles the organisation, storage and retrieval of the data. A database manager may work with traditional programming languages, such as COBOL and BASIC, or may work only with its proprietary programming language. The terms database manager and database management system are used interchangeably. A database manager links two or more files together and is the foundation for developing routine business systems. Contrast with file manager, which works with only one file at a time and is typically used interactively on a personal computer for managing personal, independent files, such as name and address lists.

Data/BASIC "language" (Or "Pick BASIC") A {BASIC}-like language with {database} capabilities, the main programming language on the {Pick OS}. ["The Data/BASIC Language - A Data Processing Language for Non-Professional Programmers", P.C. Dressen, Proc SJCC 36, AFIPS, Spring 1970]. (2001-04-30)

Data definition language "language, database" (DDL) 1. A language enabling the structure and instances of a {database} to be defined in a human-, and machine-readable form. {SQL} contains DDL commands that can be used either interactively, or within programming language {source code}, to define databases and their components, e.g. CREATE and DROP. See also {Data manipulation language} (DML). 2. A specification language for databases, based on the {entity-relationship model}. It is used in the {Eli} {compiler-compiler} to manage type definitions. ["DDL Reference Manual", ECE Dept U Colorado, 1991]. (1999-04-26)

data flow analysis "programming" A process to discover the dependencies between different data items manipulated by a program. The order of execution in a {data driven} language is determined solely by the data dependencies. For example, given the equations 1. X = A + B 2. B = 2 + 2 3. A = 3 + 4 a data-flow analysis would find that 2 and 3 must be evaluated before 1. Since there are no data dependencies between 2 and 3, they may be evaluated in any order, including in parallel. This technique is implemented in {hardware} in some {pipelined} processors with multiple {functional units}. It allows instructions to be executed as soon as their inputs are available, independent of the original program order. (1996-05-13)

Data Flow Diagram "programming" A graphical notation used to describe how {data} flows between {processes} in a system. Data flow diagrams are an important tool of most {structured analysis} techniques. {(http://smartdraw.com/resources/centers/software/dfd.htm)}. (2003-05-17)

data hierarchy The system of data objects which provide the {methods} for {information} storage and retrieval. Broadly, a data hierarchy may be considered to be either natural, which arises from the alphabet or syntax of the language in which the information is expressed, or machine, which reflects the facilities of the computer, both hardware and software. A natural data hierarchy might consist of {bits}, {characters}, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, and chapters. One might use components bound to an application, such as field, record, and file, and these would ordinarily be further specified by having {data descriptors} such as name field, address field, etc. On the other hand, a machine or software system might use {bit}, {byte}, {word}, {block}, {partition}, {channel}, and {port}. Programming languages often provide {types} or {objects} which can create data hierarchies of arbitrary complexity, thus allowing software system designers to model language structures described by the linguist to greater or lesser degree. The distinction between the natural form of data and the facilities provided by the machine may be obscure, because users force their needs into the molds provided, and programmers change machine designs. As an example, the natural data type "character" and the machine type "byte" are often used interchangeably, because the latter has evolved to meet the need of representing the former. (1995-11-03)

data structure "data, programming" Any method of organising a collection of {data} to allow it to be manipulated effectively. It may include {meta} data to describe the properties of the structure. Examples data structures are: {array}, {dictionary}, {graph}, {hash}, {heap}, {linked list}, {matrix}, {object}, {queue}, {ring}, {stack}, {tree}, {vector}. (2003-09-11)

DataVis A {dataflow} language for scientific {visualisation}. ["Data Flow Visual Programming Languages", D. Hils, J Vis Langs and Comput, Dec 1991]. (1994-12-06)

dbx "programming" A {source-level debugger} originating from {BSD Unix} but now available for many other {Unix} distributions. {Sun documentation (http://developers.sun.com/sunstudio/documentation/ss12/mr/man1/dbx.1.html)}. (2009-04-27)

DCE 1. "programming" {Dead Code Elimination}. 2. "communications" {Data Communication Equipment}. 3. "communications" {Data Circuit-terminating Equipment}. 4. "programming" {Distributed Computing Environment} from {OSF}.

DCP {definitional constraint programming}

DD 1. "storage" {double density}. 2. "database" {data dictionary}. 3. "programming" {Deployment Descriptor}. (2005-01-26)

dead code "programming" (Or "infeasible path") Any part of a {program} that can never be executed because no {control flow} path leads to it. This may be because it is guarded by a {control structure} that will always {transfer control} somewhere else, e.g. if (false) {  

dead code elimination "programming" (DCE) A {compiler} {optimisation} that detects {dead code} (code that will never be executed) and ignores it rather than blindly compiling it. DCE reduces the size of the resulting {executable}, saving space and load time. (2018-06-26)

deadlock "parallel, programming" A situation where two or more {processes} are unable to proceed because each is waiting for one of the others to do something. A common example is a program waiting for output from a server while the server is waiting for more input from the controlling program before outputting anything. It is reported that this particular flavour of deadlock is sometimes called a "starvation deadlock", though the term "starvation" is more properly used for situations where a program can never run simply because it never gets high enough priority. Another common flavour is "constipation", in which each process is trying to send stuff to the other but all buffers are full because nobody is reading anything). See {deadly embrace}. Another example, common in {database} programming, is two processes that are sharing some resource (e.g. read access to a {table}) but then both decide to wait for exclusive (e.g. write) access. The term "deadly embrace" is mostly synonymous, though usually used only when exactly two processes are involved. This is the more popular term in Europe, while {deadlock} predominates in the United States. Compare: {livelock}. See also {safety property}, {liveness property}. [{Jargon File}] (2000-07-26)

Debbugs "programming" The {bug tracking system} used by the {Debian} Project. Each bug is given a number, and is kept on file until it is marked as having been dealt with. The system is mainly controlled by {electronic mail}, but the bug reports can be viewed via the {web}. {Debbugs home (http://debian.org/Bugs/)}. (2002-06-12)

debugger "tool, programming" A {tool} used by a {programmer} to monitor and control a program he is trying to fix. The most important functions of a debugger are {tracing}, stepping, {breakpoints} and {watches}. Tracing displays a step-by-step report on what {statement} the program is currently executing, allowing the programmer to follow the {flow of control} through {if statements}, {loops (loop)}, {subroutine} calls, etc. {Breakpoints} and {watches} both pause execution of the program and return control to the debugger under certain conditions. A {breakpoint} triggers when execution reaches a particular {statement} in the program and a {watch} triggers whenever a specific variable is modified. Stepping is like a breakpoint on every statement, often with the option to step "into" or "over" a {subroutine}, i.e. continue stepping through the statements of the subroutine or just execute it without pausing and resume stepping when it returns. Whenever control returns to the debugger it lets the programmer ask to see the values of {variables}, and possibly modify them, before resuming execution. Some debuggers can be set to automatically perform some action like display a variable value and resume. A debugger can interact with the target program in different ways. Some debuggers require the program to be loaded into the debugger which may then modify or "instrument" the program for debugging. Others can "attach" to a program that is already running. Some are built into the normal program execution environment (e.g. an {interpreter}) and can be set to run under certain conditions, e.g. errors. Early debuggers such as {Unix}'s {adb} only knew about the compiled executable code so sometimes debugging had to be done at the level of {machine code} instructions and numerical memory locations. If you were lucky, the debugger could access the program's {symbol table} and display the original names of subroutines and variables. Sometimes this required the program to be "compiled for debugging". Since compiling every program for debugging would add significantly to the size of a {distribution} of a whole {operating system}, it is common for programs to be distributed without debugging support but for individual programs to be made available with it. A major advance in debuggers was source-level debugging. This gives the programmer a view of their {source code} annotated with breakpoints and a pointer to the statement currently being executed. Such a view is commonly part of an {integrated development environment} like {Visual Basic}. (2014-08-23)

debugging an empty file "programming, humour" A humourous definition of {programming} that considers a complete absence of any code as a {bug} to be fixed. {test-driven development} proceeds by the programmer writing tests for code that doesn't exist yet, which could be described as testing an empty file. (2012-05-01)

debugging "programming" The process of attempting to determine the cause of the symptoms of malfunctions in a program or other system. These symptoms may be detected during {testing} or use by {real users}. Symptoms are often caused by factors outside the program, such as misconfiguration of the user's {operating system}, misunderstanding by the user (see {PEBCAK}) or failures in other external systems on which the program relies. Some of these are more in the realm of {technical support} but need to be eliminated. Debugging really starts when it has been established that the program is not behaving according to its specification (which may be formal or informal). It can be done by visual inspection of the {source code}, {debugging by printf} or using a {debugger}. The result may be that the program is actually behaving as specified but that the spec is wrong or the requirements on which it was based were deficient in some way (see {BAD}). Once a bug has been identified and a fix applied, the program must be tested to determine whether the bug is really fixed and what effects the changes have had on other aspects of the program's operation (see {regression testing}). The term is said to have been coined by {Grace Hopper}, based on the term "{bug}". (2006-11-27)

debugging by printf "programming" The {debugging} technique where the programmer inserts print statements into a program so that when run the program leaves a "trail of {breadcrumbs}" allowing him to see which parts were executed. The information output may just be a short string to indicate that a particular point in the code has been reached or it might be a complete {stack trace}. The output typically just goes to the window or terminal in which the program is running or may be written to a log file. {printf} is the standard {C} print function, other languages would use different names. (2007-03-08)

dec "programming" /dek/ decrement, decrease by one. Especially used by {assembly language} programmers, as many assembly languages have a "dec" {mnemonic}. Opposite: {inc}. [{Jargon File}]

declarative language "language" Any {relational language} or {functional language}. These kinds of {programming language} describe relationships between variables in terms of {functions} or {inference rules}, and the language executor ({interpreter} or {compiler}) applies some fixed {algorithm} to these relations to produce a result. Declarative languages contrast with {imperative languages} which specify explicit manipulation of the computer's internal state; or {procedural languages} which specify an explicit sequence of steps to follow. The most common examples of declarative languages are {logic programming} languages such as {Prolog} and {functional languages} like {Haskell}. See also {production system}. (2004-05-17)

decorated name "programming" An internal form of an {identifier} generated by {Microsoft" {Visual C} or {Visual C++} compilers. {(https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/cpp/build/reference/decorated-names)}. (2018-08-24)

deep magic [possibly from C. S. Lewis's "Narnia" books] An awesomely arcane technique central to a program or system, especially one neither generally published nor available to hackers at large (compare {black art}); one that could only have been composed by a true {wizard}. Compiler optimisation techniques and many aspects of {OS} design used to be {deep magic}; many techniques in cryptography, signal processing, graphics, and AI still are. Compare {heavy wizardry}. Especially found in comments of the form "Deep magic begins here.". Compare {voodoo programming}.

defect analysis "programming" Using defects as data for continuous quality improvement. Defect analysis generally seeks to classify defects into categories and identify possible causes in order to direct process improvement efforts. (1996-05-13)

defect density "programming" The ratio of the number of {defects} to program length. (1996-05-13)

definitional constraint programming "language" (DCP) A declarative, programming paradigm which integrates {concurrent constraint programming}, {constraint logic programming} and {functional programming}. In this setting a concurrent constraint language becomes a coordination system that organises the concurrent interaction of parallel functional computations. The language is also a generalisation of parallel {functional programming} languages, such as {Id}, where {constraints} and constraint abstractions are reused to define new constraints, as the means of programming logical variables for parallel coordination. {Goffin} is a DCP language. (1995-03-28)

deforestation "programming" A technique invented by {Phil Wadler} for eliminating intermediate data structures built and passed between composed functions in {function languages}. (1997-06-21)

Delirium An embedding coordinate language for parallel programming, implemented on {Sequent Symmetry}, {Cray}, {BBN Butterfly}. ["Parallel Programming with Coordination Structures", S. Lucco et al, 18th POPL, pp.197-208 (1991)].

Delivered Source Instruction "programming, unit" (DSI) One line of source code (LOC) developed by a project. DSI is the primary input to many tools for estimating software cost. The term "delivered" is generally meant to exclude non-delivered support software such as test drivers. However, if these are developed with the same care as delivered software, with their own reviews, test plans, documentation, etc., then they should be counted. The "source instructions" include all program instructions created by project personnel and processed into {machine code} by some combination of preprocessors, compilers, and assemblers. It excludes comments and unmodified utility software. It includes {job control language}, format statements, and data declarations. (1996-05-29)

Delphi Technique "programming, tool" A group forecasting technique, generally used for future events such as technological developments, that uses estimates from experts and feedback summaries of these estimates for additional estimates by these experts until reasonable consensus occurs. It has been used in various software cost-estimating activities, including estimation of factors influencing software costs. (1996-05-29)

Delta-Prolog A {Prolog} extension with {AND-parallelism}, {don't-know nondeterminism} and interprocess communication using {synchronous event goals} and {distributed backtracking}. ["Delta-Prolog: A Distributed Logic Programming Language", L.M. Pereira et al, Intl Conf 5th Gen Comp Sys, Nov 1984].

Demeter A {CASE} tool developed mainly by Karl Lieberherr. ["Contributions to Teaching Object-Oriented Design and Programming" Aug/Sep 1988 issue of JOOP, OOPSLA '89 Proceedings]. (1994-12-07)

Dennis Ritchie "person" Dennis M. Ritchie, co-author of the {Unix} {operating system}, inventor of the {C} programming language and {demigod}. See also {K&R}, {Core War}, {If you want X, you know where to find it}. (2008-03-26)

Deployment Descriptor "programming" (DD) A {J2EE} configuration file. (2005-01-26)

dereference "programming" To access the thing to which a pointer points; to "follow" the pointer. E.g. in {C}, the declarations int i; int *p = &i; declare i as an integer and p as a pointer to integer. p is initialised to point at i ("&i" is the address of i - the inverse of "*"). The expression *p dereferences p to yield i as an {lvalue}, i.e. something which can appear either on the left of an {assignment} or anywhere an integer expression is valid. Thus *p = 17; would set i to 17. *p++ is not the same as i++ however since it is {parsed} as *(p++), i.e. increment p (which would be an invalid thing to do if it was pointing to a single int, as in this example) then dereference p's old value. The {C} operator "-"" also dereferences its left hand argument which is assumed to point to a {structure} or {union} of which the right hand argument is a {member}. At first sight the word "dereference" might be thought to mean "to cause to stop referring" but its meaning is well established in jargon. (1998-12-15)

derived type "programming" A {type} constructed from {primitive types} or other derived types using a {type constructor function}. This term is usually applied to {procedural languages} such as {C} or {Ada}. C's derived types are the {array}, {function}, {pointer}, {structure}, and {union}. Compare {derived class}. (2001-09-14)

Design In Real Time "programming" (Dirt) A user {interface builder} for the {X Window System} by R. Hesketh. (1994-12-07)

design pattern "programming" A description of an {object-oriented design} technique which names, abstracts and identifies aspects of a design structure that are useful for creating an object-oriented design. The design pattern identifies {classes} and {instances}, their roles, collaborations and responsibilities. Each design pattern focuses on a particular object-oriented design problem or issue. It describes when it applies, whether it can be applied in the presence of other design constraints, and the consequences and trade-offs of its use. {Home (http://st-www.cs.uiuc.edu/users/patterns/patterns.html)}. ["Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software", Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides]. (1997-07-21)

desk check "programming" To {grovel} over hardcopy of {source code}, mentally simulating the {control flow}; a method of catching bugs. No longer common practice in this age of on-screen editing, fast compiles, and sophisticated debuggers - though some maintain stoutly that it ought to be. Compare {dry run}, {eyeball search}, {vdiff}, {vgrep}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-13)

destructor "programming" A {function} provided by a {class} in {C++} and some other {object-oriented languages} to delete an object, the inverse of a {constructor}. (1998-04-28)

Developmental Test and Evaluation "programming" (DT&E) Activity which focuses on the technological and engineering aspects of a system or piece of equipment. (1996-05-13)

development environment "programming, tool" An integrated suite of {tools} to aid the {development} of {software} in a particular {language} or for a particular {application}. Usually, this consists of a {compiler} and {editor} and may also include one or more of a {debugger}, {profiler}, and {source code} manager. See also: {IDE}. (1999-08-01)

Dhrystone "benchmark" A short {synthetic benchmark} program by Reinhold Weicker "weicker.muc@sni.de", "weicker.muc@sni-usa.com", intended to be representative of system (integer) programming. It is available in {ADA}, {Pascal} and {C}. The current version is Dhrystone 2.1. The author says, "Relying on MIPS V1.1 (the result of V1.1) numbers can be hazardous to your professional health." Due to its small size, the memory system outside the {cache} is not tested. Compilers can too easily optimise for Dhrystone. String operations are somewhat over-represented. {Sources (ftp://ftp.nosc.mil/pub/aburto/)}. {Results (http://performance.netlib.org/performance/html/dhrystone.data.col0.html)}. (2002-03-26)

DIALOG 1. A commercial bibliographic database and retrieval service from DIALOG Information Services. 2. Interactive mathematics using a {graphics tablet} by Illinois Inst Tech, 1966. ["DIALOG: A Conversational Programming System with a Graphical Orientation", S.H. Cameron et al, CACM 10:349-357 (1967). Sammet 1969, p.255-258].

Digital Signal Processing Language "language" (DSPL) A {C}-derived {DSP} language. ["The Programming Language DSPL", A. Schwarte & H. Hanselmann, Proc PCIM 90, 1990]. (1994-12-01)

Dijkstra's guarded command language "language" A language invented by {Edsger Dijkstra} ca. 1974. It introduced the concept of {guards} and {committed choice nondeterminism} ({don't care nondeterminism}). Described and used in ["A Discipline of Programming", E. Dijkstra, P-H 1976]. (1994-12-07)

DIMATE "language" Depot Installed Maintenance Automatic Test Equipment. A language for programming {automatic test equipment}. It Runs on the {RCA 301}. ["A Simple User-Oriented Source Language for Programming Automatic Test Equipment", B.H. Scheff, CACM 9(4) (Apr 1966)]. [Sammet 1969, p. 647]. (1996-01-07)

DIM statement "programming" (From "dimension") A {keyword} in most versions of the {BASIC} programming language that declares the size of an {array}. E.g. DIM A(100) declares a one-dimensional array with 101 numeric elements (including A(0)). {Visual Basic} uses the DIM (or "Dim") statement for any variable declaration, even {scalars}, e.g. Dim DepartmentNumber As Integer which declares a single (scalar) variable of type Integer. (1999-03-26)

DINO {Data parallel} superset of {C}. {(ftp://ftp.cs.colorado.edu/pub/cs/distribs/dino/)}. ["The DINO Parallel Programming Language", M. Rosing et al, J Parallel Dist Comp 13(9):30-42 (Sep 1991)]. ["DINO Parallel Programming Language", M. Rosing et al, CU-CS-457-90, U Colorado, April 1990].

Directed Oc "language" (Doc) A language related to {Oc}. ["Programming Language Doc and Its Self-Description, or 'X=X Is Considered Harmful'", M. Hirata, Proc 3rd Conf Japan Soc Soft Sci Tech, pp. 69-72, 1986]. (1999-10-08)

Directly Executable Test Oriented Language "language" (DETOL) A simple language to control a specific type of test equipment. ["Improved DETOL Programming Manual for the Series 5500 Automatic Test System", Pub. 5500-31-0-1, AAI Corporation Sep 1973]. (1995-09-29)

DirectX "programming, hardware" A {Microsoft} programming interface {standard}, first included with {Windows 95}. DirectX gives (games) programmers a standard way to gain direct access to enhanced hardware features under Windows 95 instead of going via the Windows 95 {GDI}. Some DirectX code runs faster than the equivalent under {MS DOS}. DirectX promises performance improvements for graphics, sound, video, 3D, and network capabilites of games, but only where both hardware and software support DirectX. DirectX 2 introduced the Direct3D interface. Version 5 was current at 1998-02-01. Version 8.1 is included in {Windows XP}. {(http://microsoft.com/directx/)}. (2001-12-31)

dis "programming" A {CPython} {bytecode} {disassembler}. {dis home (https://docs.python.org/2/library/dis.html)}. (2014-06-08)

Dislang "language" ["Dislang: A Distributed Programming Language/System", C. Li et al, Proc 2nd Intl Conf Distrib Comp Sys, IEEE 1981, pp. 162-172]. (1995-05-10)

display hack "graphics" A program with the same approximate purpose as a kaleidoscope: to make pretty pictures. Famous display hacks include {munching squares}, {smoking clover}, the {BSD Unix} "rain(6)" program, "worms(6)" on miscellaneous Unixes, and the {X} "kaleid(1)" program. Display hacks can also be implemented without programming by creating text files containing numerous escape sequences for interpretation by a video terminal; one notable example displayed, on any VT100, a Christmas tree with twinkling lights and a toy train circling its base. The {hack value} of a display hack is proportional to the aesthetic value of the images times the cleverness of the algorithm divided by the size of the code. Synonym {psychedelicware}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-05-10)

distfix "programming" ("distributed {fixity}"?) A description of an {operator} represented by multiple symbols before, between, and/or after the arguments. The classical example is the {C} conditional operator, "?:" which is written E1 ? E2 : E3 If E1 is true it returns E2 otherwise it returns E3. Several {functional programming languages}, e.g. {Hope}, {Haskell}, have similar operators ("if E1 then E2 else E3"). {Objective C} {messages} are effectively distfix operator applications: getRow:row andColumn:col ofCell:cell is a message with three arguments, row, col, and cell. (1997-01-21)

Distributed Component Object Model "programming" (DCOM) {Microsoft}'s extension of their {Component Object Model} (COM) to support objects distributed across a {network}. DCOM has been submitted to the {IETF} as a draft standard. Since 1996, it has been part of {Windows NT} and is also available for {Windows 95}. Unlike {CORBA}, which runs on many {operating systems}, DCOM is currently (Dec 1997) only implemented by {Microsoft} for {Microsoft Windows} and by {Software AG}, under the name "{EntireX}", for {Unix} and {IBM} {mainframes}. DCOM serves the same purpose as {IBM}'s {DSOM} {protocol}. DCOM is broken because it's an {object model} that has no provisions for {inheritance}, one of the major reasons for {object oriented programming} in the first place. {(http://microsoft.com/com/tech/DCOM.asp)}. [Details?] (2000-08-02)

Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) An architecture consisting of {standard} programming interfaces, conventions and {server} functionalities (e.g. naming, distributed file system, {remote procedure call}) for distributing applications transparently across networks of {heterogeneous} computers. DCE is promoted and controlled by the {Open Software Foundation} (OSF). {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.soft-sys.dce}. {(http://dstc.edu.au/AU/research_news/dce/dce.html)}. (1994-12-07)

Distributed Eiffel ["Distributed Eiffel: A Language for Programming Multi-Granular Distributed Objects on the Clouds Operating System", L. Gunaseelan et al, IEEE Conf Comp Langs, 1992]. (1994-12-07)

Distributed Logic Programming "language" (DLP) A {logic programming} language similar to {Prolog}, combined with parallel {object orientation} similar to {POOL}. DLP supports distributed {backtracking} over the results of a {rendezvous} between {objects}. {Multi-threaded} objects have autonomous activity and may simultaneously evaluate {method} calls. ["DLP: A Language for Distributed Logic Programming", A. Eliens, Wiley 1992]. (1996-01-07)

Distributed Processes (DP) The first {concurrent} language based on {remote procedure calls}. ["Distributed Processes: A Concurrent Programming Concept", Per Brinch Hansen CACM 21(11):934-940 (Nov 1978)]. (1994-12-02)

DLP "language" {Distributed Logic Programming}. (1996-01-07)

do 1. "programming" {repeat loop}. 2. "networking" The {country code} for Dominican Republic. (1999-06-10)

document 1. "application" Any specific type of {file} produced or edited by a specific {application}; usually capable of being printed. E.g. "Word document", "Photoshop document", etc. 2. "hypertext" A term used on some systems (e.g. {Intermedia}) for a {hypertext} {node}. It is sometimes used for a collection of nodes on related topics, possibly stored or distributed as one. 3. "programming" To write {documentation} on a certain piece of code. (2003-10-25)

documentation "programming" The multiple kilograms of macerated, pounded, steamed, bleached, and pressed trees that accompany most modern software or hardware products (see also {tree-killer}). Hackers seldom read paper documentation and (too) often resist writing it; they prefer theirs to be terse and {on-line}. A common comment on this predilection is "You can't {grep} dead trees". See {drool-proof paper}, {verbiage}, {treeware}. [{Jargon File}] (2003-10-25)

Do It Right the First Time "chat" (DIRFT) A programming approach that aims to avoid the overheads of debugging and testing incomplete or incorrect code by careful specification, design and implementation. DIRFT contrasts with {rapid prototyping} which emphasises the benefits of having running code as soon as possible, even if it is not perfect. DIRFT is appropriate in the rare cases where the requirements are well understood and unlikely to change, e.g. reimplementing exactly the same function in a different language. (2012-11-17)

domain 1. "networking" A group of computers whose {fully qualified domain names} (FQDN) share a common suffix, the "domain name". The {Domain Name System} maps {hostnames} to {Internet address} using a hierarchical {namespace} where each level in the hierarchy contributes one component to the FQDN. For example, the computer foldoc.doc.ic.ac.uk is in the doc.ic.ac.uk domain, which is in the ic.ac.uk domain, which is in the ac.uk domain, which is in the uk {top-level domain}. A domain name can contain up to 67 characters including the dots that separate components. These can be letters, numbers and hyphens. 2. An {administrative domain} is something to do with {routing}. 3. {Distributed Operating Multi Access Interactive Network}. 4. "mathematics" In the theory of functions, the set of argument values for which a {function} is defined. See {domain theory}. 5. "programming" A specific phase of the {software life cycle} in which a developer works. Domains define developers' and users' areas of responsibility and the scope of possible relationships between products. 6. The subject or market in which a piece of software is designed to work. (2007-10-01)

Domain Software Engineering Environment "programming" (DSEE) A proprietary {CASE} framework and {configuration management} system from {Apollo}. (1996-05-29)

domain theory "theory" A branch of mathematics introduced by Dana Scott in 1970 as a mathematical theory of programming languages, and for nearly a quarter of a century developed almost exclusively in connection with {denotational semantics} in computer science. In {denotational semantics} of programming languages, the meaning of a program is taken to be an element of a domain. A domain is a mathematical structure consisting of a set of values (or "points") and an ordering relation, "= on those values. Domain theory is the study of such structures. (""=" is written in {LaTeX} as {\subseteq}) Different domains correspond to the different types of object with which a program deals. In a language containing functions, we might have a domain X -" Y which is the set of functions from domain X to domain Y with the ordering f "= g iff for all x in X, f x "= g x. In the {pure lambda-calculus} all objects are functions or {applications} of functions to other functions. To represent the meaning of such programs, we must solve the {recursive} equation over domains, D = D -" D which states that domain D is ({isomorphic} to) some {function space} from D to itself. I.e. it is a {fixed point} D = F(D) for some operator F that takes a domain D to D -" D. The equivalent equation has no non-trivial solution in {set theory}. There are many definitions of domains, with different properties and suitable for different purposes. One commonly used definition is that of Scott domains, often simply called domains, which are {omega-algebraic}, {consistently complete} {CPOs}. There are domain-theoretic computational models in other branches of mathematics including {dynamical systems}, {fractals}, {measure theory}, {integration theory}, {probability theory}, and {stochastic processes}. See also {abstract interpretation}, {bottom}, {pointed domain}. (1999-12-09)

Free On-line Dictionary of Computing "introduction" FOLDOC is a searchable dictionary of acronyms, jargon, programming languages, tools, architecture, operating systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards, mathematics, telecoms, electronics, institutions, companies, projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with computing. Copyright 1985 by Denis Howe Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, Front- or Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "{GNU Free Documentation License}". Please refer to the dictionary as "The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, http://foldoc.org/, Editor Denis Howe" or similar. Please make the URL both text (for humans) and a hyperlink (for Google). You can search the latest version of the dictionary at URL http://foldoc.org/. Where {LaTeX} commands for certain non-{ASCII} symbols are mentioned, they are described in their own entries. "\" is also used to represent the Greek lower-case lambda used in {lambda-calculus}. See {Pronunciation} for how to interpret the pronunciation given for some entries. Cross-references to other entries look {like this}. Note that not all cross-references actually lead anywhere yet, but if you find one that leads to something inappropriate, please let me know. Dates after entries indicate when that entry was last updated. {More about FOLDOC (about.html)}. (2018-05-22)

Missing definition "introduction" First, this is an (English language) __computing__ dictionary. It includes lots of terms from related fields such as mathematics and electronics, but if you're looking for (or want to submit) words from other subjects or general English words or other languages, try {(http://wikipedia.org/)}, {(http://onelook.com/)}, {(http://yourdictionary.com/)}, {(http://www.dictionarist.com/)} or {(http://reference.allrefer.com/)}. If you've already searched the dictionary for a computing term and it's not here then please __don't tell me__. There are, and always will be, a great many missing terms, no dictionary is ever complete. I use my limited time to process the corrections and definitions people have submitted and to add the {most frequently requested missing terms (missing.html)}. Try one of the sources mentioned above or {(http://techweb.com/encyclopedia/)}, {(http://whatis.techtarget.com/)} or {(http://google.com/)}. See {the Help page (help.html)} for more about missing definitions and bad cross-references. (2014-09-20)! {exclamation mark}!!!Batch "language, humour" A daft way of obfuscating text strings by encoding each character as a different number of {exclamation marks} surrounded by {question marks}, e.g. "d" is encoded as "?!!!!?". The language is named after the {MSDOS} {batch file} in which the first converter was written. {esoteric programming languages} {wiki entry (http://esolangs.org/wiki/!!!Batch)}. (2014-10-25)" {double quote}



QUOTES [24 / 24 - 846 / 846]


KEYS (10k)

   3 Marijn Haverbeke
   2 Wikipedia
   2 Alan Perlis
   2 ?
   1 site
   1 Robert Greene
   1 Robert Anton Wilson
   1 Richard Stallman
   1 Philip Greenspun
   1 OReilly Linux System Programming
   1 Larry Wall
   1 Kristen Nygaard
   1 JohnyTex
   1 James S A Corey
   1 https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=9810342
   1 Harold Abelson
   1 G_Morgan in reddit [http://www.reddit.com/r/programming/comments/a481l/so_to_get_back_to_the_point_go_vs_algol68_tbh_i/c0fs2nk]
   1 Douglas Adams
   1 Bernhard Guenther

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   53 Anonymous
   36 Alan Perlis
   19 Edsger Dijkstra
   13 Robert C Martin
   12 Steve McConnell
   10 Douglas Adams
   9 Frederick P Brooks Jr
   9 Bjarne Stroustrup
   8 Marissa Meyer
   8 Marijn Haverbeke
   7 Peter Seibel
   7 Linus Torvalds
   7 Kenneth E Iverson
   7 Donald Knuth
   7 Bill Gates
   7 Alan Cooper
   6 Richard Stallman
   6 Paul Graham
   6 John Carmack
   5 Seymour Papert

1:Programming is understanding.
   ~ Kristen Nygaard,
2:Shell programming is a 1950s juke box . . . ~ Larry Wall,
3:A language that doesn't affect the way you think about programming is not worth knowing. ~ Alan Perlis,
4:The art of programming is the skill of controlling complexity.
   ~ Marijn Haverbeke, Eloquent JavaScript,
5:A year spent in artificial intelligence is enough to make one believe in God
   ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams in Programming, 1982,
6:The nearest thing Common Lisp has to a motto is the koan-like description, the programmable programming language.
   ~ ?, http://www.gigamonkeys.com/book/introduction-why-lisp.html,
7:I (…) am rarely happier than when spending an entire day programming my computer to perform automatically a task that would otherwise take me a good ten seconds to do by hand. ~ Douglas Adams, Last Chance to See,
8:Even with skills that are primarily mental, such as computer programming or speaking a foreign language, it remains the case that we learn best through practice and repetition-the natural learning process.
   ~ Robert Greene, Mastery,
9:The most powerful programming language is Lisp. If you don't know Lisp (or its variant, Scheme), you don't appreciate what a powerful language is. Once you learn Lisp you will see what is missing in most other languages. ~ Richard Stallman,
10:If Lisp is a 'programmable programming language,' then Scheme is an assemble-it-at-home kit for making yourself a programmable programming language. JavaScript does not have this quality AT ALL.
   ~ ?, http://raganwald.com/2013/07/19/javascript-is-a-lisp.html,
11:Every reader should ask himself periodically 'Toward what end, toward what end?' -- but do not ask it too often lest you pass up the fun of programming for the constipation of bittersweet philosophy.
   ~ Harold Abelson, Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs,
12:Greenspun's tenth rule of programming is an aphorism in computer programming and especially programming language circles that states: Any sufficiently complicated C or Fortran program contains an ad-hoc, informally-specified, bug-ridden, slow implementation of half of Common Lisp. ~ Philip Greenspun,
13:Programming, it turns out, is hard. The fundamental rules are typically simple and cleaR But programs built on top of these rules tend to become complex enough to introduce their own rules and complexity. You're building your own maze, in a way, and you might just get lost in it.
   ~ Marijn Haverbeke,
14:Below the surface of the machine, the program moves. Without effort, it expands and contracts. In great harmony, electrons scatter and regroup. The forms on the monitor are but ripples on the water. The essence stays invisibly below.
   ~ Marijn Haverbeke, Eloquent Javascript, Master Yuan-Ma, The Book of Programming,
15:The final result is a system where programmers, artists, animators, and designers are productively programming directly in an S-expression Scheme-like language. Dan closed his talk by wowing the audience with the trailer for the game, which has now been released and is garnering extremely positive reviews. ~ https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=9810342,
16:This is one of the reasons Lisp doesn't get anywhere. The trend to promote features so clever that you stop thinking about your problem and start thinking about the clever features. CL's loop is so powerful that people invented functional programming so that they'd never have to use it. ~ G_Morgan in reddit [http://www.reddit.com/r/programming/comments/a481l/so_to_get_back_to_the_point_go_vs_algol68_tbh_i/c0fs2nk]
17:John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 - October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist. McCarthy was one of the founders of the discipline of artificial intelligence.[1] He coined the term artificial intelligence (AI), developed the Lisp programming language family, significantly influenced the design of the ALGOL programming language, popularized timesharing, and was very influential in the early development of AI.
   ~ Wikipedia,
18:nabla9 on July 15, 2018 [-] Common Lisp as hackish vs protective is nice way to describe it.\n\nAnother way to describe it exploratory vs implementatory.\n\nIn some ways Common Lisp is like Mathematica for programming. It's a language for a computer architect to develop and explore high level concept. It's not a accident that early Javascript prototype was done in common lisp or that metaobject protocols, aspect-oriented programming, etc. were first implemented and experimented with Common Lisp. ~ site, https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=17533341,
19:John von Neumann (/vɒn ˈnɔɪmən/; Hungarian: Neumann Janos Lajos, pronounced [ˈnɒjmɒn ˈjaːnoʃ ˈlɒjoʃ]; December 28, 1903 - February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, inventor, computer scientist, and polymath. He made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics (foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, geometry, topology, and numerical analysis), physics (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and quantum statistical mechanics), economics (game theory), computing (Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, self-replicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics.
   ~ Wikipedia,
20:The path of seeking truth within and without is not an easy one. It goes literally against everything we've been told and taught by society and governments. The indoctrination of lies, the conditioning and programming is deep and far reaching. It has been going on for millennia. It takes tremendous effort to wake up from the hypnotic slumber, where most people dream to be awake. At this time of transition, as more and more knowledge is coming to the surface, there is the potential to create a new earth. However, this is also the age of deception for there are forces at work that do not want this to happen. They do their best to vector us away from truth and the most effective way to swallow a lie is to sandwich it between some truth with some emotional hooks. As mentioned many times before, lies are mixed with truth, hence discernment is essential. We need to engage our higher emotional center connecting us to divine intuition and also activate our higher intellect, engaging in sincere, open minded critical thinking, fusing the heart and the mind, mysticism and science. ~ Bernhard Guenther,
21:Why Ubuntu: If I were you I'd just install Ubuntu into a dual-boot partition (the Ubuntu website has instructions for this) and learn as you go. Ubuntu is similar enough to Windows that you should be able to start using it right away without much difficulty.
   For running your Python scripts you'll want to drop into the shell (Ctrl + Alt + T If memory serves me right). As you become more comfortable with Ubuntu, you can start using the shell more and more. The shell is what gives you access to the power of Unix; every time you need to do something tedious and repetitive, try to find out how to do it through the shell.
   Eventually you will find yourself using the shell constantly. You'll wonder how you ever managed without it, and deride other operating systems for their lack of sensible programming tools. One day you'll realise that desktop window managers are a needless distraction. You start using xmonad or awesomewm. Eventually you realise that this, too, is a bastardisaton of the Unix vision and start using tmux exclusively. Then suddenly it hits you - every computer, every operating system, no matter how insignificant or user-friendly, has the Unix nature. All of them are merely streams from where you can ssh back into the ocean of Unix. Having achieved enlightenment you are equally content using an iPad as your main work computer, using powershell in Windows or SSH into a Digital Ocean droplet from your parent's computer. This is the Zen of Unix.
   ~ JohnyTex, https://www.reddit.com/r/learnprogramming/comments/38zytg/is_it_worth_my_time_to_learn_linux_while_learning,
22:Daemons
A daemon is a process that runs in the background, not connecting to any controlling terminal. Daemons are normally started at boot time, are run as root or some
other special user (such as apache or postfix), and handle system-level tasks. As a
convention, the name of a daemon often ends in d (as in crond and sshd), but this is
not required, or even universal.
The name derives from Maxwell's demon, an 1867 thought experiment by the physicist James Maxwell. Daemons are also supernatural beings in Greek mythology,
existing somewhere between humans and the gods and gifted with powers and divine
knowledge. Unlike the demons of Judeo-Christian lore, the Greek daemon need not
be evil. Indeed, the daemons of mythology tended to be aides to the gods, performing
tasks that the denizens of Mount Olympus found themselves unwilling to do-much
as Unix daemons perform tasks that foreground users would rather avoid.
A daemon has two general requirements: it must run as a child of init, and it must
not be connected to a terminal.
In general, a program performs the following steps to become a daemon:
1. Call fork( ). This creates a new process, which will become the daemon.
2. In the parent, call exit( ). This ensures that the original parent (the daemon's
grandparent) is satisfied that its child terminated, that the daemon's parent is no
longer running, and that the daemon is not a process group leader. This last
point is a requirement for the successful completion of the next step.
3. Call setsid( ), giving the daemon a new process group and session, both of
which have it as leader. This also ensures that the process has no associated controlling terminal (as the process just created a new session, and will not assign
one).
4. Change the working directory to the root directory via chdir( ). This is done
because the inherited working directory can be anywhere on the filesystem. Daemons tend to run for the duration of the system's uptime, and you don't want to
keep some random directory open, and thus prevent an administrator from
unmounting the filesystem containing that directory.
5. Close all file descriptors. You do not want to inherit open file descriptors, and,
unaware, hold them open.
6. Open file descriptors 0, 1, and 2 (standard in, standard out, and standard error)
and redirect them to /dev/null.
Following these rules, here is a program that daemonizes itself:
~ OReilly Linux System Programming,
23:Of course we do." Dresden's voice was cutting. "But you're thinking too small. Building humanity's greatest empire is like building the world's largest anthill. Insignificant. There is a civilization out there that built the protomolecule and hurled it at us over two billion years ago. They were already gods at that point. What have they become since then? With another two billion years to advance?"
With a growing dread, Holden listened to Dresden speak. This speech had the air of something spoken before. Perhaps many times. And it had worked. It had convinced powerful people. It was why Protogen had stealth ships from the Earth shipyards and seemingly limitless behind-the-scenes support.
"We have a terrifying amount of catching up to do, gentlemen," Dresden was saying. "But fortunately we have the tool of our enemy to use in doing it."
"Catching up?" a soldier to Holden's left said. Dresden nodded at the man and smiled.
"The protomolecule can alter the host organism at the molecular level; it can create genetic change on the fly. Not just DNA, but any stable replicatoR But it is only a machine. It doesn't think. It follows instructions. If we learn how to alter that programming, then we become the architects of that change."
Holden interrupted. "If it was supposed to wipe out life on Earth and replace it with whatever the protomolecule's creators wanted, why turn it loose?"
"Excellent question," Dresden said, holding up one finger like a college professor about to deliver a lecture. "The protomolecule doesn't come with a user's manual. In fact, we've never before been able to actually watch it carry out its program. The molecule requires significant mass before it develops enough processing power to fulfill its directives. Whatever they are."
Dresden pointed at the screens covered with data around them.
"We are going to watch it at work. See what it intends to do. How it goes about doing it. And, hopefully, learn how to change that program in the process."
"You could do that with a vat of bacteria," Holden said.
"I'm not interested in remaking bacteria," Dresden said.
"You're fucking insane," Amos said, and took another step toward Dresden. Holden put a hand on the big mechanic's shoulder.
"So," Holden said. "You figure out how the bug works, and then what?"
"Then everything. Belters who can work outside a ship without wearing a suit. Humans capable of sleeping for hundreds of years at a time flying colony ships to the stars. No longer being bound to the millions of years of evolution inside one atmosphere of pressure at one g, slaves to oxygen and water. We decide what we want to be, and we reprogram ourselves to be that. That's what the protomolecule gives us."

Dresden had stood back up as he'd delivered this speech, his face shining with the zeal of a prophet.
"What we are doing is the best and only hope of humanity's survival. When we go out there, we will be facing gods."
"And if we don't go out?" Fred asked. He sounded thoughtful.
"They've already fired a doomsday weapon at us once," Dresden said.
The room was silent for a moment. Holden felt his certainty slip. He hated everything about Dresden's argument, but he couldn't quite see his way past it. He knew in his bones that something about it was dead wrong, but he couldn't find the words. Naomi's voice startled him.
"Did it convince them?" she asked.
"Excuse me?" Dresden said.
"The scientists. The technicians. Everyone you needed to make it happen. They actually had to do this. They had to watch the video of people dying all over Eros. They had to design those radioactive murder chambers. So unless you managed to round up every serial killer in the solar system and send them through a postgraduate program, how did you do this?"
"We modified our science team to remove ethical restraints."
Half a dozen clues clicked into place in Holden's head. ~ James S A Corey, Leviathan Wakes,
24:For instance, a popular game with California occultists-I do not know its inventor-involves a Magic Room, much like the Pleasure Dome discussed earlier except that this Magic Room contains an Omniscient Computer.
   To play this game, you simply "astrally project" into the Magic Room. Do not ask what "astral projection" means, and do not assume it is metaphysical (and therefore either impossible, if you are a materialist, or very difficult, if you are a mystic). Just assume this is a gedankenexperiment, a "mind game." Project yourself, in imagination, into this Magic Room and visualize vividly the Omniscient Computer, using the details you need to make such a super-information-processor real to your fantasy. You do not need any knowledge of programming to handle this astral computer. It exists early in the next century; you are getting to use it by a species of time-travel, if that metaphor is amusing and helpful to you. It is so built that it responds immediately to human brain-waves, "reading" them and decoding their meaning. (Crude prototypes of such computers already exist.) So, when you are in this magic room, you can ask this Computer anything, just by thinking of what you want to know. It will read your thought, and project into your brain, by a laser ray, the correct answer.
   There is one slight problem. The computer is very sensitive to all brain-waves. If you have any doubts, it registers them as negative commands, meaning "Do not answer my question." So, the way to use it is to start simply, with "easy" questions. Ask it to dig out of the archives the name of your second-grade teacher. (Almost everybody remembers the name of their first grade teacher-imprint vulnerability again-but that of the second grade teacher tends to get lost.)
   When the computer has dug out the name of your second grade teacher, try it on a harder question, but not one that is too hard. It is very easy to sabotage this machine, but you don't want to sabotage it during these experiments. You want to see how well it can be made to perform.
   It is wise to ask only one question at a time, since it requires concentration to keep this magic computer real on the field of your perception. Do not exhaust your capacities for imagination and visualization on your first trial runs.
   After a few trivial experiments of the second-grade-teacher variety, you can try more interesting programs. Take a person toward whom you have negative feelings, such as anger, disappointment, feeling-of-betrayal, jealousy or whatever interferes with the smooth, tranquil operation of your own bio-computer. Ask the Magic Computer to explain that other person to you; to translate you into their reality-tunnel long enough for you to understand how events seem to them. Especially, ask how you seem to them.
   This computer will do that job for you; but be prepared for some shocks which might be disagreeable at first. This super-brain can also perform exegesis on ideas that seem obscure, paradoxical or enigmatic to us. For instance, early experiments with this computer can very profitably turn on asking it to explain some of the propositions in this book which may seem inexplicable or perversely wrong-headed to you, such as "We are all greater artists than we realize" or "What the Thinker thinks, the Prover proves" or "mind and its contents are functionally identical."
   This computer is much more powerful and scientifically advanced than the rapture-machine in the neurosomatic circuit. It has total access to all the earlier, primitive circuits, and overrules any of them. That is, if you put a meta-programming instruction into this computer; it will relay it downward to the old circuits and cancel contradictory programs left over from the past. For instance, try feeding it on such meta-programming instructions as: 1. I am at cause over my body. 2. I am at cause over my imagination. 3.1 am at cause over my future. 4. My mind abounds with beauty and power. 5.1 like people, and people like me.
   Remember that this computer is only a few decades ahead of present technology, so it cannot "understand" your commands if you harbor any doubts about them. Doubts tell it not to perform. Work always from what you can believe in, extending the area of belief only as results encourage you to try for more dramatic transformations of your past reality-tunnels.
   This represents cybernetic consciousness; the programmer becoming self-programmer, self-metaprogrammer, meta-metaprogrammer, etc. Just as the emotional compulsions of the second circuit seem primitive, mechanical and, ultimately, silly to the neurosomatic consciousness, so, too, the reality maps of the third circuit become comic, relativistic, game-like to the metaprogrammer. "Whatever you say it is, it isn't, " Korzybski, the semanticist, repeated endlessly in his seminars, trying to make clear that third-circuit semantic maps are not the territories they represent; that we can always make maps of our maps, revisions of our revisions, meta-selves of our selves. "Neti, neti" (not that, not that), Hindu teachers traditionally say when asked what "God" is or what "Reality" is. Yogis, mathematicians and musicians seem more inclined to develop meta-programming consciousness than most of humanity. Korzybski even claimed that the use of mathematical scripts is an aid to developing this circuit, for as soon as you think of your mind as mind 1 , and the mind which contemplates that mind as mind2 and the mind which contemplates mind2 contemplating mind 1 as mind3, you are well on your way to meta-programming awareness. Alice in Wonderland is a masterful guide to the metaprogramming circuit (written by one of the founders of mathematical logic) and Aleister Crowley soberly urged its study upon all students of yoga. ~ Robert Anton Wilson, Prometheus Rising,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

1:I am rarely happier than when spending an entire day programming my computer. ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
2:Follow your dreams wherever they lead you and pay for those dreams with good jobs in software programming and computer design! ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
3:The universe is already programmed to give each of us a year of happiness. Our challenge lies in programming ourselves to receive it. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
4:Consciousness is observing your thoughts and actions so that you can live from true choice in the present moment rather than being run by programming from the past. ~ t-harv-eker, @wisdomtrove
5:If we were capable of thinking of everything, we would still be living in Eden, rent-free with all-you-can-eat buffets and infinitely better daytime TV programming. ~ dean-koontz, @wisdomtrove
6:I am rarely happier than when spending entire day programming my computer to perform automatically a task that it would otherwise take me a good ten seconds to do by hand. ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
7:The secret of living a life of excellence is merely a matter of thinking thoughts of excellence. Really, it's a matter of programming our minds with the kind of information that will set us free. ~ charles-r-swindoll, @wisdomtrove
8:If God eliminated evil by programming us to perform only good acts, we would lose this distinguishing mark - the ability to make choices. We would no longer be free moral agents. We would be reduced to the status of robots. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
9:The dumbing down of American is most evident in the slow decay of substantive content in the enormously influential media, the 30 second sound bites (now down to 10 seconds or less), lowest common denominator programming, credulous presentations on pseudoscience and superstition, but especially a kind of celebration of ignorance. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
10:What I mean is that if you really want to understand something, the best way is to try and explain it to someone else. That forces you to sort it out in your mind. And the more slow and dim-witted your pupil, the more you have to break things down into more and more simple ideas. And that's really the essence of programming. By the time you've sorted out a complicated idea into little steps that even a stupid machine can deal with, you've learned something about it yourself... The teacher usually learns more than the pupils. Isn't that true? ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Programming is understanding.
   ~ Kristen Nygaard,
2:Programming is a social activity. ~ Robert C Martin,
3:My programming language was solder. ~ Terry Pratchett,
4:I don't like programming. It's tedious. ~ Rasmus Lerdorf,
5:The Ten Commandments of Egoless Programming: ~ Anonymous,
6:Shell programming is a 1950s juke box . . . ~ Larry Wall,
7:Your soul is bigger than your programming. ~ Claudia Gray,
8:Programming in Basic causes brain damage. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
9:The greatest single programming language ever designed ~ Alan Kay,
10:noble winged pig.’” “Yes, the spirit of programming. ~ Vernor Vinge,
11:A data structure is just a stupid programming language. ~ Bill Gosper,
12:It's against my programming to impersonate a deity. ~ Lawrence Kasdan,
13:I'm not antisocial. But I just like programming by myself. ~ Anonymous,
14:Successful weight loss takes programming, not willpower. ~ Phil McGraw,
15:I skip through the programming to watch the commercials. ~ Mel Karmazin,
16:Low-level programming is good for the programmer's soul. ~ John Carmack,
17:There was something amazingly enticing about programming. ~ Vinton Cerf,
18:Programming is not a science. Programming is a craft. ~ Richard Stallman,
19:Programming is the art of doing one thing at a time ~ Michael C Feathers,
20:BASIC is to computer programming as QWERTY is to typing. ~ Seymour Papert,
21:I also love Mole, the unsung hero of reality programming. ~ Kathy Griffin,
22:It's just programming"
"No. It's because I love him ~ Scott Westerfeld,
23:I actually hate programming, but I love solving problems. ~ Rasmus Lerdorf,
24:For all the robots who question their programming. ~ Annalee Newitz,
25:Programming is legitimate and necessary academic endeavour. ~ Donald Knuth,
26:Programming is much much harder than doing mathematics. ~ Doron Zeilberger,
27:The Elements of Programming Style (with P. J. Plauger) ~ Brian W Kernighan,
28:You can begin programming yourself consciously to be more ~ Steve Chandler,
29:Premature optimization is the root of all evil in programming. ~ Tony Hoare,
30:Changing requirements are the programming equivalent of friction ~ Sandi Metz,
31:Programming in machine code is like eating with a toothpick ~ Charles Petzold,
32:The art of programming is the art of organizing complexity. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
33:Programming in machine code is like eating with a toothpick. ~ Charles Petzold,
34:the road to programming hell is paved with global variables, ~ Steve McConnell,
35:After graduating in 1973 I went into the programming field. ~ W Richard Stevens,
36:Controlling complexity is the essence of computer programming. ~ Brian Kernighan,
37:It means that a programming language should, above all, be malleable. ~ Anonymous,
38:Television has certainly become a wasteland of quality programming. ~ Robin Leach,
39:The art of programming is the skill of controlling complexity. ~ Marijn Haverbeke,
40:Lisp is a programmable programming language. ~ John Foderaro, CACM, September 1991.,
41:The real hero of programming is the one who writes negative code. ~ Douglas McIlroy,
42:In programming, as in everything else, to be in error is to be reborn. ~ Alan Perlis,
43:meritocracies. Computer programming didn't operate as an old-boy network, ~ Anonymous,
44:programming is a job where Lovecraft meets tradecraft, all the time. ~ Charles Stross,
45:I find that writing unit tests actually increases my programming speed ~ Martin Fowler,
46:In programming, it’s often the buts in the specification that kill you. ~ Boris Beizer,
47:JavaScript is the world's most misunderstood programming language. ~ Douglas Crockford,
48:Maybe her programming was overwhelmed by Prince Kai’s uncanny hotness. ~ Marissa Meyer,
49:testing is usually the most mis-scheduled part of programming. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
50:That’s quality programming. It’s on the Arts and Entertainment Network. ~ Robert Bevan,
51:The key to solving the problem is interaction design before programming. ~ Alan Cooper,
52:If you think about computer programming, it's as antisocial as it gets. ~ Shawn Fanning,
53:For programming is a job where Lovecraft meets tradecraft, all the time. ~ Charles Stross,
54:In programming the World Wide Computer, we will be programming our lives. ~ Nicholas Carr,
55:Optimism is an occupational hazard of programming; feedback is the treatment. ~ Kent Beck,
56:Some programming languages manage to absorb change, but withstand progress. ~ Alan Perlis,
57:Something about Van has always brought late-night nature programming to mind. ~ John Wray,
58:Programming is not about what you know.
It's about what you can figure out. ~ Socrates,
59:to DNA, our most complex programming projects are like pocket calculators. ~ Randall Munroe,
60:I find languages that support just one programming paradigm constraining ~ Bjarne Stroustrup,
61:The whole cable-TV original programming just changed the nature of television. ~ Anson Mount,
62:1: One man's constant is another man's variable. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
63:A sentient mind refuses to be confined by the parameters of its programming. ~ Stephen Baxter,
64:By becoming mindful of our cultural programming, we can step out of it. ~ Christiane Northrup,
65:Design and programming are human activities; forget that and all is lost. ~ Bjarne Stroustrup,
66:I am rarely happier than when spending an entire day programming my computer. ~ Douglas Adams,
67:The genes are master programmers, and they are programming for their lives. ~ Richard Dawkins,
68:I think the cultural programming on the ABC is one of the glories of the ABC. ~ George Brandis,
69:The definition of intelligence is the ability to defy your own programming. ~ C Robert Cargill,
70:Every person's mental programming is partly unique, partly shared with others. ~ Geert Hofstede,
71:The only way to learn a new programming language is by writing programs in it. ~ Dennis Ritchie,
72:You have experience in C programming?  That’s mainly what we need on that project. ~ Mike Wells,
73:Ruby on Rails is a breakthrough in lowering the barriers of entry to programming. ~ Tim O Reilly,
74:The most disastrous thing that you can ever learn is your first programming language. ~ Alan Kay,
75:3: Syntactic sugar causes cancer of the semi-colons. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
76:If you don’t take responsibility for programming yourself, then someone else will. ~ Paul McKenna,
77:Perl was designed as a programming language for automating system administration. ~ Mike Loukides,
78:A good programming language is a conceptual universe for thinking about programming. ~ Alan Perlis,
79:Excusing bad programming is a shooting offence, no matter what the circumstances. ~ Linus Torvalds,
80:Programming is a skill best acquired by practice and example rather than from books. ~ Alan Turing,
81:He had little patience for the mystical, spiritual approach of computer programming. ~ Michael Lewis,
82:Programming graphics in X is like finding the square root of PI using Roman numerals. ~ Henry Spencer,
83:A language that doesn't affect the way you think about programming is not worth knowing. ~ Alan Perlis,
84:A programming language is a tool that has profound influence on our thinking habits. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
85:In English every word can be verbed. Would that it were so in our programming languages. ~ Alan Perlis,
86:Optimism is an occupational hazard of programming; feedback is the treatment." - Kent Beck ~ Anonymous,
87:You cannot teach beginners top-down programming, because they don't know which end is up. ~ Tony Hoare,
88:A language that doesn't affect the way you think about programming is not worth knowing. ~ Alan Perlis,
89:Programming is the art of telling another human being what one wants the computer to do. ~ Donald Knuth,
90:There is nothing in the programming field more despicable than an undocumented program ~ Edward Yourdon,
91:31: Simplicity does not precede complexity, but follows it. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
92:A programming language is low level when its programs require attention to the irrelevant. ~ Alan Perlis,
93:In college, before video games, we would amuse ourselves by posing programming exercises. ~ Ken Thompson,
94:I’ve wondered if I could take my computer programming skills and apply them to learning math. ~ Anonymous,
95:The art of programming is the skill of controlling complexity.
   ~ Marijn Haverbeke, Eloquent JavaScript,
96:The linear-programming was - and is - perhaps the single most important real-life problem. ~ Keith Devlin,
97:Programming languages are like girlfriends: The new one is better because *you* are better. ~ Derek Sivers,
98:Your choice of programming model also is your choice of programming model, so to speak. ~ Anders Hejlsberg,
99:Don't tell television, but there is some superior programming being made on the Interwebz. ~ Chris Hardwick,
100:I love both acting and programming equally. I think it enriches me and enhances me as an artist. ~ Masi Oka,
101:Sequential programming is really hard, and parallel programming is a step beyond that. ~ Andrew S Tanenbaum,
102:Everyday life is like programming, I guess. If you love something you can put beauty into it. ~ Donald Knuth,
103:Most media leaders are liberal and much of their programming reflects anti-Christian sentiment. ~ Tim LaHaye,
104:Programming allows you to think about thinking, and while debugging you learn learning. ~ Nicholas Negroponte,
105:Programming is like sex: It may give some concrete results, but that is not why we do it. ~ Bjarne Stroustrup,
106:There are people who actually like programming. I dont understand why they like programming. ~ Rasmus Lerdorf,
107:Any nerd who grew up around the time that I did, BBC programming was a treasure chest for us. ~ Chris Hardwick,
108:Code and forget, code and forget: programming as a collective exercise in incremental forgetting. ~ Ellen Ullman,
109:Ive enjoyed programming on NPR, but were broke and therefore all spending must be reduced. ~ Jaime Herrera Beutler,
110:Owning a computer without programming is like having a kitchen and using only the microwave oven ~ Charles Petzold,
111:With .NET once an API is published it's available to all programming languages at the same time. ~ Miguel de Icaza,
112:the current ECMAScript standard proposal would bring support for class-based programming in the future, ~ Anonymous,
113:Your adrenaline starts to go when the market opens in the morning. It's like sports programming. ~ Sallie Krawcheck,
114:As usual in programming, if something is difficult for you to understand, it’s probably not a good idea. ~ Mark Lutz,
115:Design and programming are human activities; forget that and all is lost. —Bjarne Stroustrup, 1991 ~ Robert C Martin,
116:If we really want to spend our days programming, we are going to have to learn to talk to—people.1 ~ Robert C Martin,
117:Lance was to computer programming what Joyce was to literature, possibly profound but also baffling. ~ Michael Lewis,
118:Measuring programming progress by lines of code is like measuring aircraft building progress by weight. ~ Bill Gates,
119:the thunder and bombast of what passes for news programming today--Motto: All terror, all the time ~ J Maarten Troost,
120:11: If you have a procedure with 10 parameters, you probably missed some. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
121:Learning. It's really the primary reason behind everything I do. Programming, entrepreneuring, writing. ~ Derek Sivers,
122:55: LISP programmers know the value of everything and the cost of nothing. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
123:Job Control Language is the worst programming language ever designed anywhere by anybody for any purpose. ~ Fred Brooks,
124:Your mind is programmable – if you’re not programming your mind, someone else will program it for you. ~ Jeremy Hammond,
125:95: Don't have good ideas if you aren't willing to be responsible for them. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
126:The time it will take to finish a programming project is twice as long as the time you've allotted for it. ~ Alan Cooper,
127:But if you kept thinking about a fight you’d lost, Mom said, you were programming yourself to lose again. ~ Karen Russell,
128:Object-oriented programming is an exceptionally bad idea which could only have originated in California. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
129:41: Some programming languages manage to absorb change, but withstand progress. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
130:A year spent in artificial intelligence is enough to make one believe in God
   ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams in Programming, 1982,
131:57: It is easier to change the specification to fit the program than vice versa. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
132:Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group from another. ~ Geert Hofstede,
133:79: A year spent in artificial intelligence is enough to make one believe in God. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
134:However, when Java is promoted as the sole programming language, its flaws and limitations become serious. ~ Bjarne Stroustrup,
135:I can appreciate the logistics of shipping any sort of produce discreetly inside of an alleged programming manual: ~ Anonymous,
136:AMC is a fantastic network that does diverse programming, and does it at a really good level and of great quality. ~ Jamie Bell,
137:I don’t think that kids starting out with computers today get as welcome of an entry to programming as I did. ~ Walter Isaacson,
138:One of the most valuable things we can learn from open sexual lifestyles is that our programming is changeable. ~ Dossie Easton,
139:Programming went back to the beginning of time. It was a little like the midden out back of his father's castle. ~ Vernor Vinge,
140:Half-assed programming was a time-filler that, like knitting, must date to the beginning of the human experience. ~ Vernor Vinge,
141:When someone says, "I want a programming language in which I need only say what I want done," give him a lollipop. ~ Alan Perlis,
142:A year spent in artificial intelligence is enough to make one believe in God. ~ Alan Perlis (1982) Epigrams on Programming. nr.79,
143:If debugging is the process of removing software bugs, then programming must be the process of putting them in. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
144:XML is not a language in the sense of a programming language any more than sketches on a napkin are a language. ~ Charles Simonyi,
145:75: The computing field is always in need of new cliches: Banality sooths our nerves. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
146:Half-assed programming was a time-filler that, like knitting, must date to the beginning of the human experience. Of ~ Vernor Vinge,
147:If debugging is the process of removing software bugs, then programming must be the process of putting them in. ~ Edsger W Dijkstra,
148:Violence is interesting. This is a great obstacle to world peace and also to more thoughtful television programming. ~ P J O Rourke,
149:80: Prolonged contact with the computer turns mathematicians into clerks and vice versa. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
150:I'm a programmer. I like programming. And the best way I've found to have a positive impact on code is to write it. ~ Robert C Martin,
151:Programming is similar to a game of golf. The point is not getting the ball in the hole but how many strokes it takes. ~ Hayley Mills,
152:Unlike in most programming languages, SQL treats null as a special value, different from zero, false, or an empty string. ~ Anonymous,
153:you stick to what you know, who you know and where you know. You do not move out of regularly scheduled programming. ~ Kristen Ashley,
154:58: Fools ignore complexity. Pragmatists suffer it. Some can avoid it. Geniuses remove it. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
155:Hackety Hack is a free Ruby-based environment aiming to make learning programming easy for beginners, especially teenagers. ~ Anonymous,
156:Every parent in America has the total power to control all television programming that is dispatched to their home today. ~ Jack Valenti,
157:59: In English every word can be verbed. Would that it were so in our programming languages. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
158:19: A language that doesn't affect the way you think about programming, is not worth knowing. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
159:8: A programming language is low level when its programs require attention to the irrelevant. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
160:The press is supposed to equip people to act as citizens and not just consumers of programming that happens to be news. ~ David Folkenflik,
161:The logical and extralogical exercises you do in meditation are very similar to advanced systems analysis and programming. ~ Frederick Lenz,
162:The problem that Dijkstra recognized, early on, was that programming is hard, and that programmers don’t do it very well. ~ Robert C Martin,
163:Programming is like sex: It may give some concrete results, but that is not why we do it. – apologies to Richard Feynman ~ Bjarne Stroustrup,
164:there must be some connection between his excessively romantic attitude toward computer programming and his appeal to women. ~ Michael Lewis,
165:This week Apple stores are holding free computer programming classes for children. Or as that's called in China, a job fair. ~ Conan O Brien,
166:To me programming is more than an important practical art. It is also a gigantic undertaking in the foundations of knowledge. ~ Grace Hopper,
167:A programming language is like a natural, human language in that it favors certain methaphors, images, and ways of thinking. ~ Seymour Papert,
168:You are being programmed all day, every day. You can't stop it, but you can determine if the programming is positive or negative. ~ Randy Gage,
169:Follow your dreams wherever they lead you and pay for those dreams with good jobs in software programming and computer design! ~ Frederick Lenz,
170:If you program a machine, you know what it’s capable of. If the machine is programming itself, who knows what it might do? The ~ Garry Kasparov,
171:It turns out that style matters in programming for the same reason that it matters in writing. It makes for better reading. ~ Douglas Crockford,
172:Generally, the craft of programming is the factoring of a set of requirements into a a set of functions and data structures. ~ Douglas Crockford,
173:Object-oriented programming offers a sustainable way to write spaghetti code. It lets you accrete programs as a series of patches. ~ Paul Graham,
174:You might not think that programmers are artists, but programming is an extremely creative profession. Its logic-based creativity. ~ John Romero,
175:One of the big lessons of a big project is you don't want people that aren't really programmers programming, you'll suffer for it! ~ John Carmack,
176:Even calling DNA “source code” sells it short—compared to DNA, our most complex programming projects are like pocket calculators. ~ Randall Munroe,
177:I love doing the music. I love programming beats and kind of working on the music as much, if not more, than the actual rapping. ~ Joaquin Phoenix,
178:This then is programming, both a tar pit in which many efforts have floundered and a creative activity with joys and woes all its own. ~ Anonymous,
179:I tell myself I bear witness. The real answer is that it's obviously my programming. And I lack the constitution for suicide. ~ Matthew McConaughey,
180:The best book on programming for the layman is Alice in Wonderland, but that's because it's the best book on anything for the layman. ~ Alan Perlis,
181:an interest in Star Trek and an antisocial lifestyle may not, in fact, be unassailable correlates of talent in computer programming. ~ Cordelia Fine,
182:[Donald Trump] can do it [build the wall] by executive order by just re-programming money within the within the Immigration Service. ~ Rudy Giuliani,
183:Learning the art of programming, like most other disciplines, consists of first learning the rules and then learning when to break them. ~ Joshua Bloch,
184:So, what does it mean for teaching and learning programming when the solution to every beginner problem is available on the Internet? ~ Cay S Horstmann,
185:I think USA has a great handle on programming and content. They know their viewers and they know what works... Character driven programming! ~ Tim DeKay,
186:The most challenging part of programming is conceptualizing the problem, and many errors in programming are conceptual errors. Because ~ Steve McConnell,
187:42: You can measure a programmer's perspective by noting his attitude on the continuing vitality of FORTRAN. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
188:Programming is an act of creation. When we write code we are creating something out of nothing. We are boldly imposing order upon chaos. ~ Robert C Martin,
189:I loved logic, math, computer programming. I loved systems and logic approaches. And so I just figured architecture is this perfect combination. ~ Maya Lin,
190:Most good programmers do programming not because they expect to get paid or get adulation by the public, but because it is fun to program. ~ Linus Torvalds,
191:The universe is already programmed to give each of us a year of happiness. Our challenge lies in programming ourselves to receive it. ~ Marianne Williamson,
192:Cinder twisted up her lips. "Do you think it could have a virus?"
"Maybe her programming was overwhelmed by Prince Kai's uncanny hotness. ~ Marissa Meyer,
193:Functional programming is the use of functions that transform values into units of abstraction, subsequently used to build software systems. ~ Michael Fogus,
194:In programming languages, as Erann Gat has pointed out, what "industry best practice" actually gets you is not the best, but merely the average. ~ Anonymous,
195:It took me 1057 pages to describe the hundreds of mathematical equations, algorithms and programming techniques that I invented and used. ~ Philip Emeagwali,
196:I've been programming computers since elementary school, where they taught us, and I stuck with computer science through high school and college. ~ Masi Oka,
197:Programming is one of the most difficult branches of applied mathematics; the poorer mathematicians had better remain pure mathematicians. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
198:Some people become dullards, but as children we are all creative. It's in the programming, the socialization, that we lose our sense of play. ~ Julie Taymor,
199:16: Every program has (at least) two purposes: the one for which it was written and another for which it wasn't. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
200:We spend too much time fretting over the way the industry produces programming, and too little worrying about the way the public consumes it ~ Michael Medved,
201:If you don’t examine your programming, your programming becomes your physics – as absolute and unchangeable as the laws of material reality. ~ Stefan Molyneux,
202:I used to be enamored of object-oriented programming. I'm now finding myself leaning toward believing that it is a plot designed to destroy joy. ~ Eric Allman,
203:I remember growing up with television, from the time it was just a test pattern, with maybe a little bit of programming once in a while. ~ Francis Ford Coppola,
204:SQL, Lisp, and Haskell are the only programming languages that I've seen where one spends more time thinking than typing. ~ Philip Greenspun, blog, 07-03-2005.,
205:Good programming, like good books, asks a little more of the viewer. But no executive today will risk having the viewer bored for even a minute. ~ Fareed Zakaria,
206:The science and engineering of programming just isn’t good enough to produce flawless software, and that isn’t going to change anytime soon. The ~ Bruce Schneier,
207:Cordelia reviewed her ethics programming, which was limiting her ability to embrace Alex’s concepts. She made some subtle changes to several programs. ~ S H Jucha,
208:I don’t predict the demise of object-oriented programming, by the way. Object-oriented programming offers a sustainable way to write spaghetti code. ~ Paul Graham,
209:Most of the good programmers do programming not because they expect to get paid or get adulation by the public, but because it is fun to program. ~ Linus Torvalds,
210:Most of the media bullshit you about who they are. We don’t. We’re not programming to conservatives, we’re just not eliminating their point of view. ~ Roger Ailes,
211:Your programming leads to your thoughts; your thoughts lead to your feelings; your feelings lead to your actions; your actions lead to your results. ~ T Harv Eker,
212:Ads featuring real women and real beauty are such a necessary component to offset the potentially dangerous programming out there for little girls. ~ Rashida Jones,
213:By combining elements such as hypnosis, magic, neurolinguistic programming and psychology, I can make it appear that I can hack into people's brains. ~ Keith Barry,
214:Programming (or making music) at night is dreamtime, a period exclusively mental, utterly absorbed, sustained and timeless, placeless, disembodied. ~ Stewart Brand,
215:[Assembly level programming] kind of still separates the chest hair—gender-independent—programmers from those who don't quite have it. — Brendan Eich ~ Peter Seibel,
216:The vast wasteland of television programming had finally reached its zenith, and the average person was no longer limited to fifteen minutes of fame. ~ Ernest Cline,
217:I didn't know that empty rationalization was part of your programming," said Ram.
"We would not be fit companions for human beings without it. ~ Orson Scott Card,
218:If there is ever a science of programming language design, it will probably consist largely of matching languages to the design methods they support. ~ Robert W Floyd,
219:One key to successful programming is avoiding arbitrary variations so that your brain can be free to focus on the variations that are really needed. ~ Steve McConnell,
220:64: Often it is means that justify ends: Goals advance technique and technique survives even when goal structures crumble. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
221:A Lisp programmer knows the value of everything, but the cost of nothing. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, ACM SIGPLAN Notices 17 (9), September 1982, pp. 7–13.,
222:Applicants must also have extensive knowledge of Unix, although they should have sufficiently good programming taste to not consider this an achievement. ~ Hal Abelson,
223:I'd rather work on my radio show, which no one hears but I put about eight hours of programming and writing into it for those 30 people who do tune in. ~ Henry Rollins,
224:We are programmed; we are literally programmed genetically and then we are programmed environmentally and most people never break out of that programming. ~ Bob Proctor,
225:I don't have any focus groups on talent and programming. If I need five people in a mall to be paid $40 to tell me how to do my job, I shouldn't do my job. ~ Roger Ailes,
226:And the reason everyone doesn’t use Listp is that programming languages are not merely technologies, but habits of mind as well, and nothing changes slower. ~ Paul Graham,
227:I forget sometimes that Im in the HBO stable because I am such a fan of so much of their programming. Like, The Wire is my favorite TV show of all time. ~ John Gallagher Jr,
228:JAMES STILL HADN’T RETURNED Kick’s texts, which meant he was deep into programming or, more likely, playing Skyrim. Kick knew he wouldn’t deal well with this, ~ Chelsea Cain,
229:The main activity of programming is not the origination of new independent programs, but in the integration, modification, and explanation of existing ones. ~ Terry Winograd,
230:Is the programming on such an ear-button receiver of a caliber to enable a man to be a gyroscope, both taking from and giving to society, beautifully balanced? ~ Ray Bradbury,
231:I worked with such concentration and focus and I had hundreds of obscure engineering or programming things in my head. I was just real exceptional in that way ~ Steve Wozniak,
232:She said the wrong thing or sounded like a space alien with bad programming, when all she wanted was to be just like everyone else. “I meant are you okay now, ~ Susan Mallery,
233:Between rounds of speed chess I read enough of a programming manual to teach myself to write programs on the school's DEC mainframe in the language Basic. ~ Eric Allin Cornell,
234:On the roof of the taxi, Jimmy pressed Mitchell’s face against the metal. His programming roared inside him, forcing the human part back. Suddenly, Mitchell’s body ~ Joe Craig,
235:If you think you're a really good programmer... read Knuth's Art of Computer Programming... You should definitely send me a resume if you can read the whole thing. ~ Bill Gates,
236:In theory, I work an eight-hour day and a five-day week which means I can socialise with my pals who mostly have normal jobs like teaching and computer programming. ~ Iain Banks,
237:Our biological body itself is a form of hardware that needs re-programming through tantra like a new spiritual software which can release or unblock its potential. ~ Slavoj i ek,
238:Our equation should not be that math is hard, and so programming is hard. Rather, it should be that programming can be fun, and this means that math can be fun, too. ~ Anonymous,
239:The best way to do research is to make a radical assumption and then assume it's true. For me, I use the assumption that object oriented programming is the way to go. ~ Bill Joy,
240:Consciousness is observing your thoughts and actions so that you can live from true choice in the present moment rather than being run by programming from the past. ~ T Harv Eker,
241:If we were capable of thinking of everything, we would still be living in Eden, rent-free with all-you-can-eat buffets and infinitely better daytime TV programming. ~ Dean Koontz,
242:Only in high school when I began programming computers, did I become interested in tech and start-ups, which led me to attend Stanford and major in Computer Science. ~ Clara Shih,
243:Our biological body itself is a form of hardware that needs re-programming through tantra like a new spiritual software which can release or unblock its potential. ~ Slavoj Zizek,
244:In a budget, how important is art versus music versus athletics versus computer programming? At the end of the day, some of those trade-offs will be made politically. ~ Bill Gates,
245:I think what happens in the world, and I think it's part human nature and part programming, is we become an emulation of what we see. We become clones of each other. ~ Alicia Keys,
246:Even if you do a few things right, such as making high use of modern programming practices, you might still make a mistake that nullifies your productivity gains. ~ Steve McConnell,
247:I hope to see more programming, more shows, more actors of mixed ethnicity, more young kids of mixed ethnicity choosing to be in the entertainment industry. ~ Charles Michael Davis,
248:In programming when you're making a change you have to know all the affected places, and you have to be able to model in your head what the performance impact will be. ~ Bill Gates,
249:The nearest thing Common Lisp has to a motto is the koan-like description, the programmable programming language.
   ~ ?, http://www.gigamonkeys.com/book/introduction-why-lisp.html,
250:I hope to see Ruby help every programmer in the world to be productive, and to enjoy programming, and to be happy. That is the primary purpose of Ruby language. ~ Yukihiro Matsumoto,
251:It also makes the program more difficult to change because prose tends to be more tightly interconnected than code. This style is called literate programming. The ~ Marijn Haverbeke,
252:Programming in the real world is an interpersonal endeavour, and so is inevitably bound up in relationship issues, politics, and friction from our development processes. ~ Anonymous,
253:116: You think you know when you learn, are more sure when you can write, even more when you can teach, but certain when you can program. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
254:I look forward to beginning a relationship with Al Jazeera America, which has made a commitment to producing quality programming and pursuing underreported stories. ~ Soledad O Brien,
255:Monty Python is, for reasons best known to nobody, rather popular with computer programmers. There’s even a programming language called Python, based on their sketches. ~ Mark Forsyth,
256:Eiffel borrows quite openly from several earlier programming languages and I am sure that if we had found a good language construct in C we would have used it as well. ~ Bertrand Meyer,
257:Most programming languages contain good parts and bad parts. I discovered that I could be better programmer by using only the good parts and avoiding the bad parts. ~ Douglas Crockford,
258:Yeah, I'm very impressed with Lifetime, this is the first time I've worked with them. I really like the kind of programming that they're into, so I'm hoping that I will. ~ Beau Bridges,
259:Thus, adult behavior produces persistent molecular brain changes in offspring, “programming” them to be likely to replicate that distinctive behavior in adulthood.76 ~ Robert M Sapolsky,
260:I am not aware of a language in which you can do the same thing with built-​in features as compact and as readable as in Python (except for functional programming languages). ~ Anonymous,
261:I graduated from college with a 3.92 GPA with a degree in computer programming and a BFA in fine arts and animation. My first job was painting a mural in the Grimaldis in Queens. ~ JWoww,
262:It feels like a totally different MTV now.Now they have all their own original series, and people are talking about going back to music now? It's all original programming. ~ Harry Elfont,
263:101 Dealing with failure is easy: Work hard to improve. Success is also easy to handle: You've solved the wrong problem. Work hard to improve. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
264:APL is a mistake, carried through to perfection. It is the language of the future for the programming techniques of the past: it creates a new generation of coding bums. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
265:I am rarely happier than when spending entire day programming my computer to perform automatically a task that it would otherwise take me a good ten seconds to do by hand. ~ Douglas Adams,
266:I have been wildly enthused about gaming since I was younger, and a career path I chose not to go down but did really consider was getting into programming and game design. ~ Trent Reznor,
267:I like 'X Factor' as much as the next person, but I do get overwhelmed with the amount of reality TV. It's such cheap programming and such a load of rubbish, most of it. ~ Joanne Froggatt,
268:When you consistently read positive self-improvement books and articles, you are programming your mind with the thoughts and beliefs that will support you in creating success. ~ Hal Elrod,
269:Our mandate at Nerdist is that we only get involved with nice people around things that we love. We have the luxury of being in the demographic that we're programming for. ~ Chris Hardwick,
270:People are hypocrites. If you ask them what they want to see on TV, they'll tell you they want better quality programming. And then what do they watch? 'Gilligan's Island.' ~ Johnny Carson,
271:The expensive ones are for Starz. No. We decided, as part of our Encore strategy, to broaden and strengthen and help focus the Encore plexus by adding original programming. ~ Chris Albrecht,
272:The near-universal message of television programming was that girls never got to do anything interesting, and then grew up to be women who faded into the woodwork completely. ~ Gail Collins,
273:Whether you want to uncover the secrets of the universe, or you just want to pursue a career in the 21st century, basic computer programming is an essential skill to learn ~ Stephen Hawking,
274:The greatest single programming language ever designed. ~ Alan Kay, about LISP. Quoted in Daniel H. Steinberg, "Daddy, Are We There Yet? A Discussion with Alan Kay", openP2P, 3 April 3 2003.,
275:39: A picture is worth 10K words - but only those to describe the picture. Hardly any sets of 10K words can be adequately described with pictures. ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
276:We are confidently commanding, in precise detail, the behaviors of a machine that could otherwise do incalculable damage. And so, programming is an act of supreme arrogance. ~ Robert C Martin,
277:When The Muppet Show ended, we all sat around and said, what kind of television show would we like to do. We felt the need these days are for some quality children's programming. ~ Jim Henson,
278:I'm perfectly happy complaining, because it's cathartic, and I'm perfectly happy arguing with people on the Internet because arguing is my favourite pastime - not programming. ~ Linus Torvalds,
279:But, of course, the point of a programming language is that you don't just read it; you write it, too. You make it do things for you. And this, I think, is where Ruby shines (...) ~ Robin Sloan,
280:Nixon’s avowedly ‘square’ White House was, in fact, less cheesy than Clinton’s Lite FM programming and more confident than the Kennedys’ culturally craven collect-the-set approach. ~ Mark Steyn,
281:Programming will aid a person in developing their mind and will aid their meditation. I find that people who have pursued programming are doing much better in their meditation. ~ Frederick Lenz,
282:Who can afford to do professional work for nothing? What hobbyist can put three man-years into programming, finding all bugs, documenting his product, and distributing it for free? ~ Bill Gates,
283:New management at Nine has launched a concerted attack on its cost base in order to restore margins through eliminating waste, improving efficiency and lowering programming costs. ~ James Packer,
284:Programming is about managing complexity: the complexity of the problem, laid upon the complexity of the machine. Because of this complexity, most of our programming projects fail. ~ Bruce Eckel,
285:I used to do all my programming on a BBC computer. It was limited to 16 tracks, and you used the keyboard, not a mouse, to input, but I was using it so long, I got quite fast at it. ~ Vince Clarke,
286:One of the interesting things about programming people of all sorts to be more ethical is that it also makes them more ethical about the limits of programming people to be ethical. ~ Elizabeth Bear,
287:The students in your youth ministry don’t need your clever ideas and great programming skills. They need a living model—a man or woman of God who is passionate about his or her faith. ~ Doug Fields,
288:I was eventually persuaded of the need to design programming notations so as to maximize the number of errors which cannot be made, or if made, can be reliably detected at compile time. ~ Tony Hoare,
289:most obvious application of functions is defining new vocabulary. Creating new words in regular, human-language prose is usually bad style. But in programming, it is indispensable. ~ Marijn Haverbeke,
290:Pop music seems to be the way radio programming has chosen to support female artists. They have chosen not to support a more provocative voice from women, which I find disappointing. ~ Shirley Manson,
291:I guess some of today's programming has rubbed off on me because I find myself having to set time around for touring, putting that together and then setting time around for recording. ~ Bootsy Collins,
292:Too many managers and executives try to reduce programming to a low-level assembly-line activity. That's inefficient, wasteful, costly in the long run, and inhumane to programmers. ~ Bjarne Stroustrup,
293:Programming is not a zero-sum game. Teaching something to a fellow programmer doesn't take it away from you. I'm happy to share what I can, because I'm in it for the love of programming. ~ John Carmack,
294:Q: Why bother doing proofs about programming languages? They are almost always boring if the definitions are right.
A: The definitions are almost always wrong.

- Anonymous ~ Benjamin C Pierce,
295:Don't count out other amazing programming like Frontline. You will still find more hours of in-depth news programming, investigative journalism and analysis on PBS than on any other outlet. ~ Gwen Ifill,
296:I’m told finance doesn’t require very complicated math. One guy told me that if you just designed a clean data display, people were amazed. So it’s more just advanced programming, ~ Kim Stanley Robinson,
297:It's an important point to realize that the genetic programming of our lives is not fully deterministic. It is statistical - it is in any animal merely statistical - not deterministic. ~ Richard Dawkins,
298:Why doesn’t anyone turn on this Improbability Drive thing?” he said. “We could probably reach that.” “What are you, crazy?” said Zaphod. “Without proper programming anything could happen. ~ Douglas Adams,
299:I like to protect children. I mean, there's nothing wrong with having adult programming for mature adults that can selectively decide what they want to watch and what they don't want to watch. ~ Burt Ward,
300:I try to watch as many movies as possible within a group setting instead of just in front of my laptop. It's better to watch something and chat about it with your programming peers afterward. ~ Tim League,
301:People who passionately want to believe that the world is basically simple react to this with a fury that goes beyond what I consider appropriate for discussing a programming language. ~ Bjarne Stroustrup,
302:As an Agile software development team, we’d been following the hallowed eXtreme Programming tenets, including YAGNI. That is, You Aren’t Gonna Need It: a caution to not write unnecessary code — ~ Anonymous,
303:Functional programming (FP) is based on a simple premise with far-reaching implications: we construct our programs using only pure functions—in other words, functions that have no side effects. ~ Anonymous,
304:I could hire every producer in Hollywood - 2,000 producers, let's say - and they couldn't come up with all the soap operas, in season and out of season, that NFL programming gives television. ~ Jerry Jones,
305:When I'm 18, I can finally order that paid programming stuff on TV. Like it always says, 'Must be 18 or older to call,' so I'll be able to call! I can finally buy some blenders from the TV. ~ Austin Mahone,
306:Any programming language is at its best before it is implemented and used. Anything is possible, anything can happen. On a flimsy ground of reality, imagination spins marvelous patterns. ~ August Strindberg,
307:The job was to put into a, a computer with only 4K of memory an entire basic full blown, floating point Basic and that's one of the greatest programming feats I've ever had a chance to work on. ~ Bill Gates,
308:If you've got a stick hitting a drum and you're programming it on a computer, it's so much more interesting than a sample playing back - it's something in the air, that's the magical ingredient. ~ Aphex Twin,
309:It is practically impossible to teach good programming to students that have had a prior exposure to BASIC: as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
310:Shifting toward management meant greater responsibility and influence, but it also meant giving up programming day-to-day in my role, which was hard because it took me out of my comfort zone. ~ Marissa Mayer,
311:The conclusion is simple: if a 200-man project has 25 managers who are the most competent and experienced programmers,
fire the 175 troops and put the managers back to programming. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
312:A powerful programming language is more than just a means for instructing a computer to perform tasks. The language also serves as a framework within which we organize our ideas about processes. ~ Hal Abelson,
313:Are you quite sure that all those bells and whistles, all those wonderful facilities of your so called powerful programming languages, belong to the solution set rather than the problem set? ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
314:Data dominates. If you've chosen the right data structures and organized things well, the algorithms will almost always be self-evident. Data structures, not algorithms, are central to programming. ~ Rob Pike,
315:Functional programming has excellent support for writing imperative programs, with the added benefit that such programs can be reasoned about equationally because they're referentially transparent. ~ Anonymous,
316:It is practically impossible to teach good programming to students that have had a prior exposure to BASIC: as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration. ~ Edsger W Dijkstra,
317:The system is only as good as the person programming it. If you don't have the follow-through, your system is useless. And by the way, it's that way in parenting; it's that way in marriages. ~ Jamie Lee Curtis,
318:Every reader should ask himself periodically “Toward what end, toward what end?”—but do not ask it too often lest you pass up the fun of programming for the constipation of bittersweet philosophy. ~ Alan Perlis,
319:The words available in a programming language for expressing your programming thoughts certainly determine how you express your thoughts and might even determine what thoughts you can express. ~ Steve McConnell,
320:Children's programming in America, I think it's pretty shoddy in terms of lack of diversity. It's pretty much cartoons and Disney sort of shows. I don't find any of that stimulating for children. ~ Alex Kingston,
321:Years of cultural programming have taught us to love some animals while eating others, when in all reality, all animals are sentient beings with the capacity to feel, both physically and emotionally. ~ Kat Von D,
322:The fact that the same symbolic programming primitives work for those as work for math kinds of things, I think, really validates the idea of symbolic programming being something pretty general. ~ Stephen Wolfram,
323:Maybe the honorable thing for our species to do is deny our programming, stop reproducing, walk hand in hand into extinction, one last midnight, brothers and sisters opting out of a raw deal. ~ Matthew McConaughey,
324:I don't think people realize the extent to which TV networks are hurt when they carry public broadcasting. I think the estimate is that they lose a half-million dollars for a half day's programming. ~ Roone Arledge,
325:It's a dream realized to partner with Oprah and bring scripted programming to OWN. She has accomplished so much with the network, and I'm excited to work with her to be a part of its continued growth. ~ Tyler Perry,
326:Most programming languages are decidedly inferior to mathematical notation and are little used as tools of thought in ways that would be considered significant by, say, an applied mathematician. ~ Kenneth E Iverson,
327:The kind of programming that C provides will probably remain similar absolutely or slowly decline in usage, but relatively, JavaScript or its variants, or XML, will continue to become more central. ~ Dennis Ritchie,
328:Chakra bracelets, pendants, incense, mats, rugs, clothes, wall hangings, chakra music, chakra programming and other attractive paraphernalia have absolutely no connection with the real sadhana of chakras. ~ Om Swami,
329:Our knowledge and understanding of nonhuman animals is polluted far more than we acknowledge by our belief in our own superiority, our unrecognized cultural programming, and our separation from nature. ~ Will Tuttle,
330:The most successful computer programmers aren't the ones who approach programming as a task they have to carry out in order to get their paychecks. They're the ones for whom programming is a joyful game. ~ Anonymous,
331:The programmer at wit's end for lack of space can often do best by disentangling himself from his code, rearing back, and contemplating his data. Representation is the essence of programming. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
332:There's the underlying feeling that writing must be easy, because it's all about putting letters together. That's only true in the same way that programming is all about putting numbers together. ~ Rhianna Pratchett,
333:Programming is so hard, in fact, that it is beyond the capability of one person to do it well. No matter how skilled you are, you will certainly benefit from another programmer’s thoughts and ideas. ~ Robert C Martin,
334:The precision provided (or enforced) by programming languages and their execution can identify lacunas, ambiguities, and other areas of potential confusion in conventional [mathematical] notation. ~ Kenneth E Iverson,
335:I have a cat, so I know that when she digs her very sharp claws into my chest or stomach it's really a sign of affection, but I don't see any reason for programming languages to show affection with pain. ~ Erik Naggum,
336:Often people, especially computer engineers, focus on the machines. But in fact we need to focus on humans, on how humans care about doing programming or operating the application of the machines. ~ Yukihiro Matsumoto,
337:The most important thing in the programming language is the name. A language will not succeed without a good name. I have recently invented a very good name and now I am looking for a suitable language. ~ Donald Knuth,
338:When today's executives regard programming the same as manufacturing, they imagine that reducing the cost of programming is similarly simple and effective. Unfortunately, those rules don't apply anymore. ~ Alan Cooper,
339:Programming today is a race between software engineers striving to build bigger and better idiot-proof programs, and the Universe trying to produce bigger and better idiots. So far, the Universe is winning. ~ Rick Cook,
340:I'm programming us a couple of spinach smoothies"

"I'll pass. For the rest of my natural life."

"Just what you need," he insisted, tapped buttons manually. And came out with two cups of coffee. ~ J D Robb,
341:You will become what you think about most; your success or failure in anything, large or small, will depend on your programming—what you accept from others, and what you say when you talk to yourself. ~ Shad Helmstetter,
342:Even with skills that are primarily mental, such as computer programming or speaking a foreign language, it remains the case that we learn best through practice and repetition—the natural learning process. ~ Robert Greene,
343:It's quite similar to guitar solos, only with programming you have to use your brain. The most important thing is that it should have some emotional effect on me, rather than just, 'Oh, that's really clever.' ~ Aphex Twin,
344:I've been in entertainment, politics, business, business coaching, public affairs, documentaries, programming, news, theater. So, there aren't many things I see that I haven't seen something like that before. ~ Roger Ailes,
345:One of the things I didn't like about school is that every time they told a story about a rich guy in school, he was an evil guy. Our school system is programming us to think the rich are greedy and evil. ~ Robert Kiyosaki,
346:Programming today is a race between software engineers striving to build bigger and better idiot-proof programs, and the Universe trying to produce bigger and better idiots. So far, the Universe is winning. ~ Douglas Adams,
347:The reason why people think of programming as being hard is because you're writing down a general rule which is going to be used for lots of instances that a particular instance must process correctly. ~ Gerald Jay Sussman,
348:I finally came to realize is that a fair part of achieving happiness comes from understanding your own programming. And a fair amount of getting what you want from other people comes from understanding theirs. ~ Indigo Wren,
349:I was in Washington, D.C., on the morning show, by the time I was 18, programming a station by 19, No. 1 in the mornings. I think I was making, I don't know, a quarter of a million dollars by the time I was 25. ~ Glenn Beck,
350:What's more, the only available economic upside comes from making your product or service more desirable by improving its quality, and you can't do that by reducing the money you spend designing or programming ~ Alan Cooper,
351:Learn from them, because I will always be there, one step ahead of you, programming more difficult and advanced patterns into the computer so that your next battle is more difficult, so that you are pushed ~ Orson Scott Card,
352:Learning to code makes kids feel empowered, creative, and confident. If we want our young women to retain these traits into adulthood, a great option is to expose them to computer programming in their youth. ~ Susan Wojcicki,
353:There's species-wide programming and then there's individuality. The overlap between those two opens up a space for creativity. Live in that space. I'm here too. Maybe I'll see you around sometime. ~ Ahmir Questlove Thompson,
354:I don't know how to stop it, there was never any intent to write a programming language [...] I have absolutely no idea how to write a programming language, I just kept adding the next logical step on the way. ~ Rasmus Lerdorf,
355:I've noticed that just about every time I find a large program with known glitches that no one seems able to fix, that program is written in C and is likely written by a programming team in a remote location. ~ Jerry Pournelle,
356:How do we convince people that in programming simplicity and clarity - in short: what mathematicians call elegance - are not a dispensable luxury, but a crucial matter that decides between success and failure? ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
357:It is not only the violin that shapes the violinist, we are all shaped by the tools we train ourselves to use, and in this respect programming languages have a devious influence: they shape our thinking habits. ~ Edsger W Dijkstra,
358:Obviously with the onset of cable and satellite, there are more opportunities for programming and original programming, so it creates more opportunities for actors and producers and directors and everything. ~ Anthony Michael Hall,
359:She just wouldn’t stop reimplementing operating system features for her programming class. The only thing keeping her alive was a feeding tube the docs had managed to force up her nose while she was in restraints. ~ Annalee Newitz,
360:So what can poor parents tell their child about money? They simply say, “Stay in school and study hard.” The child may graduate with excellent grades, but with a poor person’s financial programming and mindset. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
361:When I worked as a programmer, that meant eight straight hours of programming without interruption. That was a good day. In contrast, if I was interrupted with questions, process, or—heaven forbid—meetings, I felt bad. ~ Eric Ries,
362:The competent programmer is fully aware of the strictly limited size of his own skull; therefore he approaches the programming task in full humility, and among other things he avoids clever tricks like the plague. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
363:When I was 9, I went to a birthday party. We were supposed to see a cowboy movie, but the programming got screwed up and we saw 'The Bad Seed' instead. Horrifying. For years I was frightened of girls with pigtails. ~ Robert Englund,
364:An interactive debugger is an outstanding example of what is not needed - it encourages trial-and-error hacking rather than systematic design, and also hides marginal people barely qualified for precision programming. ~ Harlan Mills,
365:Even with skills that are primarily mental, such as computer programming or speaking a foreign language, it remains the case that we learn best through practice and repetition-the natural learning process.
   ~ Robert Greene, Mastery,
366:Object-oriented programming as it emerged in Simula 67 allows software structure to be based on real-world structures, and gives programmers a powerful way to simplify the design and construction of complex programs. ~ David Gelernter,
367:The flip side of the coin was that even good programmers and language designers tended to do terrible extensions when they were in the heat of programming, because design is something that is best done slowly and carefully. ~ Alan Kay,
368:We still have a tradition certainly in English television; it's faded a bit in the last five years, but we still have a tradition where the important thing is the quality and the challenging nature of the programming. ~ Rowan Atkinson,
369:When it comes to storytelling, not taking risks is riskier than swinging for the fences. I have very simple ambitions when it comes to taking risks in storytelling and programming. I try very hard to avoid the expected. ~ David Nevins,
370:One of the things I've been trying to do is look for simpler or rules underpinning good or bad design. I think one of the most valuable rules is avoid duplication. "Once and only once" is the Extreme Programming phrase. ~ Martin Fowler,
371:The situation is so much better for programmers today - a cheap used PC, a linux CD, and an internet account, and you have all the tools necessary to work your way to any level of programming skill you want to shoot for. ~ John Carmack,
372:Your head or intellect is addicted to the satisfaction of your physical senses—the place that holds all of the programming and conditioning of your childhood and adult experiences and is the throne of the negative ego. ~ Iyanla Vanzant,
373:In times such as ours, however, when there is too much order, too much management, too much programming and control, it becomes the duty of superior men and women to fling their favorite monkey wrenches into the machinery. ~ Tom Robbins,
374:I really wanted to believe that there were these magic celestial bodies that would direct my life, tell me what to do, and it turns out it's not stars, it's some bits of screwy DNA. I'm just meat with faulty programming. ~ Lauren Beukes,
375:If God eliminated evil by programming us to perform only good acts, we would lose this distinguishing mark - the ability to make choices. We would no longer be free moral agents. We would be reduced to the status of robots. ~ Billy Graham,
376:Patients are patients because they are out of rapport with their own unconscious... Patients are people who have had too much programming - so much outside programming that they have lost touch with their inner selves. ~ Milton H Erickson,
377:Programming today is the opposite of diamond mining. In diamond mining you dig up a lot of dirt to find a small bit of value. With programming you start with the value, the real intention, and bury it in a bunch of dirt. ~ Charles Simonyi,
378:Some automatic responses are good — they're skills, and we need them for life and labor. But the tendency to accumulate programming tends to have a life of its own — or more accurately, to steal the life that belongs to us. ~ John Shirley,
379:This is what it is to learn programming. You get to know your useful tools, then you look around, and there are some handy new tools nearby and those tools show you the bottomless horror that was always right next to your bed. ~ Anonymous,
380:The most powerful programming language is Lisp. If you don't know Lisp (or its variant, Scheme), you don't appreciate what a powerful language is. Once you learn Lisp you will see what is missing in most other languages. ~ Richard Stallman,
381:If we can dispel the delusion that learning about computers should be an activity of fiddling with array indexes and worrying whether X is an integer or a real number, we can begin to focus on programming as a source of ideas. ~ Hal Abelson,
382:Maybe today we aren't being told that our brains are not capable of such things [like programming], but we [as a women] are being told that we are not good enough or smart enough or that our successes do not belong to us. ~ Anita Sarkeesian,
383:The most powerful programming language is Lisp. If you don't know Lisp (or its variant, Scheme), you don't appreciate what a powerful language is. Once you learn Lisp you will see what is missing in most other languages. ~ Richard Stallman,
384:What I was proud of was that I used very few parts to build a computer that could actually speak words on a screen and type words on a keyboard and run a programming language that could play games. And I did all this myself. ~ Steve Wozniak,
385:By policy, LISP has never really catered to mere mortals. And, of course, mere mortals have never really forgiven LISP for not catering to them. ~ Larry Wall, "Programming is Hard, Let's Go Scripting...", O'Reilly: perl.com, 6 December 2007.,
386:Money is a mind, the oldest artificial intelligence. Its prime directives are simple, its programming endlessly creative. Humans obey it unthinkingly, with cheerful alacrity. Like a virus, it doesn't care if it kills its host. ~ Sam J Miller,
387:When you think that someone else thinks you are wrong or guilty because of the color of your skin, your responses to or interactions with them are not grounded in reality. They are the result of programming and conditioning. ~ Iyanla Vanzant,
388:Just as someone who's been interested in radio and programming for so long, I can usually tell when an interviewer is doing a segment just to fill a programming slot. They ask questions, but they don't care about the answers. ~ Chris Hardwick,
389:We already have a professor who's using an online social network of MIT alums to help educate students in programming. Just imagine expanding that in Facebook-fashion to tens or hundreds of millions of people around the world. ~ Anant Agarwal,
390:My favorite programming languages are Lisp and C. However, since around 1992 I have worked mainly on free software activism, which means I am too busy to do much programming. Around 2008 I stopped doing programming projects. ~ Richard Stallman,
391:New elements, she thought, pleased with the challenge. Roarke had been fiddling, adding some elements and upgrades. When she engaged in hand-to-hand with the second thief, she knew he’d fiddled with the programming with her in mind. ~ J D Robb,
392:It appears that DDNOS is the intentional goal of these abusers, but DID sometimes results from a failure of programming.
In DDNOS, the ANP is always present, even when another part is in control of the behavior and feelings. ~ Alison Miller,
393:On the back end, software programming tools and Internet-based services make it easy to launch new global software-powered start-ups in many industries - without the need to invest in new infrastructure and train new employees. ~ Marc Andreessen,
394:Studying neuro-linguistic programming is what teaches you how to implant and extract thoughts. Mixing psychology, hypnotism and magic somewhat goes into this area called mentalism, which is what I mostly do. It’s magic of the mind. ~ Keith Barry,
395:You will notice that Prolog has some similarities to a functional programming language such as Hugs.A functional program consists of a sequence of function definitions — a logic program consists of a sequence of relation definitions. ~ Anonymous,
396:If it weren’t for the negative programming that made us believe otherwise, why should we go through any cost of pain and suffering to achieve anything in our life? Isn’t that a rather sadistic view of the world and the universe? ~ David R Hawkins,
397:Television viewers, they've been around a long time. They've been watching this thing now for 50 years. I mean, they know exactly what's happening when it comes to television programming. You can't put anything over on them anymore. ~ Maury Povich,
398:We are trapped in a net of our our own self-doubt, on the programming force fed to us by parents, schools, society. In a certain light, on certain days, you can see that net. And once you can see it, you can learn to make it go away. ~ Chloe Thurlow,
399:When we had no computers, we had no programming problem either. When we had a few computers, we had a mild programming problem. Confronted with machines a million times as powerful, we are faced with a gigantic programming problem. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
400:Entire sections of them simply cannot be translated - the characters are legible and well-known, but when put together they do not say anything that leaves an imprint on the modern mind."
"Like instructions for programming a VCR. ~ Neal Stephenson,
401:In my daily work, I work on very large, complex, distributed systems built out of many Python modules and packages. The focus is very similar to what you find, for example, in Java and, in general, in systems programming languages. ~ Guido van Rossum,
402:The properties of executability and universality associated with programming languages can be combined, in a single language, with the well-known properties of mathematical notation which make it such an effective tool of thought. ~ Kenneth E Iverson,
403:Another trick in software is to avoid rewriting the software by using a piece that's already been written, so called component approach which the latest term for this in the most advanced form is what's called Object Oriented Programming. ~ Bill Gates,
404:MSNBC got some very good people. They've got a good-looking set. All They're first-class. Somewhere along the way, they kind of lost their identity as a news channel, and they started doing a lot of other sort of magazine-type programming. ~ Brit Hume,
405:The 111-Minute Executives Guide to SEO course fills a need. Looking at what's available online today, we realized there's not a good SEO training course geared for executives who don't have time or desire to learn the programming side of it. ~ Bruce Clay,
406:I believe that large programming projects suffer management problems different in kind from small ones, due to division of labor. I believe the critical need to be the preservation of the conceptual integrity of the product itself. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
407:Programming is a Dark Art, and it always will be. The programmer is fighting against the two most destructive forces in the universe: entropy and human stupidity. These are not things you can overcome with a "methodology" or on a schedule. ~ Damian Conway,
408:The British regulatory system was revised, so that bigger profits were encouraged, which removed the option of big spending on programming. Quality just fell off a cliff, and all the old hands either left or were fired for being too expensive. ~ Lee Child,
409:And so from a statistical mechanical model, Belady and Lehman arrive for programming-systems at a more general conclusion supported by the experience of all the earth. "Things are always at their best in the beginning," said Pascal. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
410:NBC was trying to convert all of their local programming to color right away to encourage the sale of the sets, so I barely remember working in black and white, although I do know that I did do it, but there was not a major difference, though. ~ Jim Henson,
411:For his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms and the design of programming languages, and in particular for his contributions to the "art of computer programming" through his well-known books in a continuous series by this title. ~ Donald Knuth,
412:I think that great programming is not all that dissimilar to great art. Once you start thinking in concepts of programming it makes you a better person...as does learning a foreign language, as does learning math, as does learning how to read. ~ Jack Dorsey,
413:I have no idea how to become successful in children's tv programming today other than to say that whereever you find that rare animal being pursued, insert yourself into its environment; get in the door in any position and work from within. ~ William Jackson,
414:Our service programming teams view themselves as partners in evangelism with our members and regular attendees. Does that mean we tailor the content to non-Christians? Nope. We tailor the experience to non-Christians. There’s a big difference. ~ Andy Stanley,
415:The people's degenerate taste--sick and twisted to be sure--is a product of their disaffection from art, top-down programming, and the power of commercial psyop mind control. They can be guided out of the toilet just as they were guided in. ~ Ian F Svenonius,
416:However, there is one software topic that is rare, and chances are you may not happen upon it or become exposed to it. And that is a pity, because for the hardware developer, this topic can be very important. It is the programming language, Forth. ~ Anonymous,
417:Creativity runs across many categories in life, from the arts-and-crafts project a mum or dad does with their kids, to the bestselling author's manuscript, to the designs of the hairdresser, to the creations of the computer programming genius. ~ Tabatha Coffey,
418:If Lisp is a 'programmable programming language,' then Scheme is an assemble-it-at-home kit for making yourself a programmable programming language. JavaScript does not have this quality AT ALL.
   ~ ?, http://raganwald.com/2013/07/19/javascript-is-a-lisp.html,
419:Television has certain imperatives that CNN had the luxury of ignoring for a long period of time. CNN could take the position that the news would be the star, because in most of the programming day, they were the only all-news operation on the air. ~ Brit Hume,
420:The brain is not a blind, reactive machine, but a complex, sensitive biocomputer that we can program. And if we don't take the responsibility for programming it, then it will be programmed unwittingly by accident or by the social environnement. ~ Timothy Leary,
421:I believe that the purpose of life is, at least in part, to be happy. Based on this belief, Ruby is designed to make programming not only easy but also fun. It allows you to concentrate on the creative side of programming, with less stress. ~ Yukihiro Matsumoto,
422:And so from a statistical mechanical model, Belady and Lehman arrive for programming-systems at a more general conclusion supported by the experience of all the earth. "Things are always at their best in the beginning," said Pascal. C. S. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
423:I have a well-deserved reputation for being something of a gadget freak, and am rarely happier than when spending an entire day programming my computer to perform automatically a task that would otherwise take me a good ten seconds to do by hand. ~ Douglas Adams,
424:The principal lesson of Emacs is that a language for extensions should not be a mere "extension language". It should be a real programming language, designed for writing and maintaining substantial programs. Because people will want to do that! ~ Richard Stallman,
425:When I do programming in my free time and for my own enjoyment, I really want to have a kind of protection: knowing that when I improve a program those improvements will continue to be available to me and others in future versions of the program. ~ Linus Torvalds,
426:When I write a song, I always start on acoustic guitar, because that's a good test of a song, when it's really open and bare. You can often mislead yourself if you start with computers and samples and programming because you can disguise a bad song. ~ Martin Gore,
427:The most powerful programming language is Lisp. If you don't know Lisp (or its variant, Scheme), you don't appreciate what a powerful language is. Once you learn Lisp you will see what is missing in most other languages. ~ Richard Stallman, [How I do my computing],
428:To devise an information processing system capable of getting along on its own - it must handle its own problems of programming, bookkeeping, communication and coordination with its users. It must appear to its users as a single, integrated personality. ~ Cliff Shaw,
429:In recent years we've seen an explosion of creative programming, and I think it represents a third golden age of television because the creators have more control over the story. The audience doesn't care about the platform. They care about the content. ~ Kevin Spacey,
430:On prime time entertainment television, scientists are most at risk. Ten percent of scientists featured in prime-time entertainment programming get killed, and five percent kill someone. No other occupational group is more likely to kill or be killed. ~ George Gerbner,
431:117: It goes against the grain of modern education to teach children to program. What fun is there to making plans, acquiring discipline in organizing thoughts, devoting attention to detail and, learning to be self-critical? ~ Alan Perlis, Epigrams on Programming, 1982,
432:South Central Los Angeles, for example, is a data and media black hole, without local cable programming or links to major data systems. Just as it became a housing-and-jobs ghetto in the postwar period, it is now evolving into an off-net electronic ghetto. ~ Mike Davis,
433:The ALGOL compiler was probably one of the nicest pieces of code to come out at that time. I spent hours trying to fix and change the compiler. Working with it so closely affected the way I think about programming and had a profound influence on my style. ~ Gary Kildall,
434:The nice thing about programming at the RDF level is that you can just say, I'll ask for all the books. You can ask for all the shelves. You can ask for a given shelf whether a book was on it. And you're not worrying so much about the underlying syntax. ~ Tim Berners Lee,
435:The problem with a completely new programming paradigm isn’t learning a new lan‐
guage. After all, everyone reading this has learned numerous computer languages—
language syntax is merely details. The tricky part is learning to think in a different way. ~ Neal Ford,
436:I've got to quit trying to play the Holy Spirit's role by forcing, manipulating, talking, and programming people into the change I want to see. Instead I've got to spend more time praying that the Holy Spirit would come into their lives and regenerate them. ~ Francis Chan,
437:Amazon has included me in an opportunity to provide top-shelf television-style programming live on the world's computer screens. To hold forth with the industry's very best actors, directors, musicians, authors - I'm thrilled to be on the cutting edge of this. ~ Bill Maher,
438:It feels like it is a daily work and an ongoing task to undo all of the f - - g programming that I have had all my life about who I am supposed to be and how I'm supposed to look and that I'm supposed to win. It's a daily deconstruction of all that bullshit. ~ Amanda Palmer,
439:UNTRUE. I CARE ABOUT THE FLEET. THE LIVES WITHIN IT. YOUR LIFE.” “THAT’S NOT CARING. THAT’S PROGRAMMING.” “YOUR MOTHER WAS PROGRAMMED BY BIOLOGY TO LOVE YOU THE MOMENT SHE LAID EYES ON YOU. SIMPLY BECAUSE SHE HAD NO CHOICE DOES NOT MEAN HER LOVE WAS NOT REAL. ~ Amie Kaufman,
440:As a kid, I was always into art at the same time as computers, and eventually I realised I was making more interesting stuff with my keyboard than with my hands. I really enjoyed modifying computer games more than playing them, so that got me into programming. ~ Aaron Koblin,
441:Testing may convincingly demonstrate the presence of bugs, but can never demonstrate their absence."- Edsger W. Dijkstra, Computing Pioneer (1930–2002), "Programming as a discipline of mathematical nature," Am. Math. Monthly, 81 (1974), No. 6, pp. 608–12. ~ Gerald M Weinberg,
442:My first app was released in July or August of 2008. It was a 'fingermill' - a treadmill for your fingers. My level of programming was quite basic to begin with, so it was more gimmicky to start with. Day one it was up there, I had 79 pounds worth of revenue. ~ Nick D Aloisio,
443:When people look at the ratings and they're bad, I think people can get an idea of "Why would they even make the show?" And to a certain extent, original programming for any network is a loss leader to try to get you to keep the channel on your cable package. ~ Scott Aukerman,
444:Have you ever had a weird and strong feeling that programming is a godlike kind of work? Just as the Lord created our world and the entire Universe based on molecular techniques such as DNA coding, software developers create a digital world based on IT coding. ~ Sahara Sanders,
445:Men and months are interchangeable commodities only when a task can be partitioned among many workers with no communication among them (Fig. 2.1). This is true of reaping wheat or picking cotton; it is not even approximately true of systems programming. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
446:Ninety percent of games lose money; 10 percent make a lot of money. And there's a consistency around the competitive advantages you create, so if you can actually learn how to do the art, the design, and the programming, you would be consistently very profitable. ~ Gabe Newell,
447:Every reader should ask himself periodically 'Toward what end, toward what end?' -- but do not ask it too often lest you pass up the fun of programming for the constipation of bittersweet philosophy.
   ~ Harold Abelson, Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, #index,
448:The tiny rootlet has only one chance to guess what the future years, decades—even centuries—will bring to the patch of soil where it sits. It assesses the light and humidity of the moment, refers to its programming, and quite literally takes the plunge. Everything ~ Hope Jahren,
449:In spite of its lack of popularity, LISP ... remains an influential language in "key algorithmic techniques such as recursion and condescension" ~ James Iry, A Brief, Incomplete, and Mostly Wrong History of Programming Languages, blog entry, May 7 2009, retrieved October 3, 2017,
450:Much of my work has come from being lazy. I didn't like writing programs, and so, when I was working on the IBM 701 (an early computer), writing programs for computing missile trajectories, I started work on a programming system to make it easier to write programs. ~ John Backus,
451:My father taught me Basic and rudimentary C, I learned everything else on my own, including studying computational complexity on my own. That's more a function of my age than anything else though - back when I was in school there were hardly any programming classes. ~ Bram Cohen,
452:... programming requires more concentration than other activities. It's the reason programmers get upset about 'quick interruptions' - such interruptions are tantamount to asking a juggler to keep three balls in the air and hold your groceries at the same time. ~ Steve McConnell,
453:The first step toward maintaining autonomy in any programmed environment is to be aware that there's programming going on. It's as simple as understanding the commercials are there to help sell things. And that TV shows are there to sell commercials, and so on. ~ Douglas Rushkoff,
454:With the computer and programming languages, mathematics has newly-acquired tools, and its notation should be reviewed in the light of them. The computer may, in effect, be used as a patient, precise, and knowledgeable "native speaker" of mathematical notation. ~ Kenneth E Iverson,
455:For what is programming but magic? Wielding secret words to command powerful forces you just barely understand, calling forth the spirits of bygone spell casters to ease your burdens, simplify your workflows, and grant you the ability to surprise and delight the masses. ~ Anonymous,
456:Now, it's my belief that Python is a lot easier than to teach to students programming and teach them C or C++ or Java at the same time because all the details of the languages are so much harder. Other scripting languages really don't work very well there either. ~ Guido van Rossum,
457:Computer scientists have so far worked on developing powerful programming languages that make it possible to solve the technical problems of computation. Little effort has gone toward devising the languages of interaction. ~ Donald Norman, The Design of Everyday Things (1988), Ch. 6,
458:I think we're going to transition with our comedy programming, trying to broaden the audience and broaden what the network does. Those Thursday comedies, which the critics love and we love, tend to be a bit more narrow than we'd ultimately like, as we go forward. ~ Robert Greenblatt,
459:The National Institute of Standards and Technology found that each year bad programming costs the U.S. economy more than $60 billion in revenue. In other words, what we Americans lose each year to faulty code is greater than the gross national product of most countries. ~ James Barrat,
460:C++ is in that inconvenient spot where it doesn't help make things simple enough to be truly usable for prototyping or simple GUI programming, and yet isn't the lean system programming language that C is that actively encourages you to use simple and direct constructs. ~ Linus Torvalds,
461:Is that the only way?" Tom asked her. "Vik and I tried net-sending with a thought interface during Programming once, but I couldn't concentrate on just one thing at a time."

Vik nodded. "His programming questions were always like, 'Vik, how do steak boobs function? ~ S J Kincaid,
462:For certain fortunate people there is something which transcends all classifications of behaviour, and that is awareness; something which rises above the programming of the past, and that is spontaneity; and something that is more rewarding than games, and that is intimacy. ~ Eric Berne,
463:I started working at Bravo in 2005, when I was offered a job by Lauren Zalaznick, the network's chairman. She encouraged me to start a blog. I wrote behind-the-scenes gossip about 'Battle of the Network Reality Stars,' the first show I took on as head of current programming. ~ Andy Cohen,
464:I think that you try to raise the bar on whatever you do because you know, in this day of having to deal with a lot of reality TV, people say that scripted programming is dying, so you have to try to create something that can live in people's minds, long after they see it. ~ Kevin Costner,
465:Embryos turn into babies; buds turn into blossoms; acorns turn into oak trees. The same programming that exists in them exists in each of us - to manifest our highest potential. What is the difference between those things and us? That we can say no...So today, say yes. ~ Marianne Williamson,
466:My work was fairly theoretical. It was in recursive function theory. And in particular, hierarchies of functions in terms of computational complexity. I got involved in real computers and programming mainly by being - well, I was interested even as I came to graduate school. ~ Dennis Ritchie,
467:We are born into a world in which sexual possibilities are narrowly circumscribed. . . . We are programmed by the culture as surely as rats are programmed to make the arduous way through the scientist's maze, and that programming operates on every level of choice and action. ~ Andrea Dworkin,
468:Below the surface of the machine, the program moves. Without effort, it expands and contracts. In great harmony, electrons scatter and regroup. The forms on the monitor are but ripples on the water. The essence stays invisibly below. —Master Yuan-Ma, The Book of Programming ~ Marijn Haverbeke,
469:The intractability of the software-construction process—particularly the high cost of programming and the low quality of interaction—is simply not a technical problem. It is the result of business practices imposed on a discipline—software programming—for which they are obsolete. ~ Alan Cooper,
470:Cress’s adrenaline was pumping like jet fuel through her veins as she scanned the room. She was surrounded by invisi-screens and holographs and programming, and the familiarity of it all made the knot in her stomach loosen. Instinct and habit. She formed a checklist in her mind. ~ Marissa Meyer,
471:I'm seeing too many kids where they get fixated on their own autism. I'd rather have them get fixated that they like programming computers or they like art or they want to sing in the church choir or they want to train dogs, you know, something that they can turn into a career. ~ Temple Grandin,
472:Throughout my career, I've realized that there are a lot of great opportunities out there to be associated with programming. It may have started elsewhere, as Crimson Petal did in the UK. So, our main strategy for Encore is to go through those types of partnership acquisitions. ~ Chris Albrecht,
473:Well there's a lot of machines making music today too so you should expect perfection from them! Other than that it's humans programming it which is actually why i still like it. But yeah, that sounds about right. Now what I've got to do is I've got to stop expecting it of myself. ~ Eddie Vedder,
474:I think that the marketplace has changed in many dramatic ways but actually in some sense it's remained the same because the challenge of creating quality programming is the same, and I've always thought that if you follow the great material everything else will fall in to place. ~ Colin Callender,
475:Giving the kids a programming environment of any sort, whether it's a tool like Squeak or Scratch or Logo to write programs in a childish way - and I mean that in the most generous sense of the word, that is, playing with and building things - is one of the best ways to learn. ~ Nicholas Negroponte,
476:Programming is the act of installing internal, pre-established reactions to external stimuli so that a person will automatically react in a predetermined manner to things like an auditory, visual or tactile signal or perform a specific set of actions according to a date and/or time. ~ Alison Miller,
477:I’ve always had very strong feeling that computer programming is a godlike kind of job.
Similar to the Lord creating our material world and whole the Universe, based on molecular techniques such as DNA coding ― developers create the digital world based on IT technologies coding. ~ Sahara Sanders,
478:Linear programming can be viewed as part of a great revolutionary development which has given mankind the ability to state general goals and to lay out a path of detailed decisions to take in order to "best" achieve its goals when faced with practical situations of great complexity. ~ George Dantzig,
479:Programming, it turns out, is hard. The fundamental rules are typically simple and clear. But programs built on top of these rules tend to become complex enough to introduce their own rules and complexity. You’re building your own maze, in a way, and you might just get lost in it. ~ Marijn Haverbeke,
480:Greenspun's tenth rule of programming is an aphorism in computer programming and especially programming language circles that states: Any sufficiently complicated C or Fortran program contains an ad-hoc, informally-specified, bug-ridden, slow implementation of half of Common Lisp. ~ Philip Greenspun,
481:I was not in a good space in my life, emotionally particularly, so I needed to do something to recharge my batteries emotionally and musically. I took a break and I learnt software and programming a little bit, and that's how I designed my live machine, which I've been using for years. ~ Jamie Lidell,
482:Janine took a large bite of waffle. “The usual,” she replied. “School.” “You are enjoying your computer studies?” “Oh, immensely,” said Janine. “Programming is so logical. And once you master the basics, it can be … um …” “Boring?” I suggested. “Thrilling.” Janine gave me a dirty look. ~ Ann M Martin,
483:nobody seemed to think programming is a solved problem: most are still looking for a better way to write software, whether by finding ways to automatically analyze code, coming up with better ways for programmers to work together, or finding (or designing) better programming languages. ~ Peter Seibel,
484:Computer programming is an art, because it applies accumulated knowledge to the world, because it requires skill and ingenuity, and especially because it produces objects of beauty. A programmer who subconsciously views himself as an artist will enjoy what he does and will do it better. ~ Donald Knuth,
485:Programming, it turns out, is hard. The fundamental rules are typically simple and cleaR But programs built on top of these rules tend to become complex enough to introduce their own rules and complexity. You're building your own maze, in a way, and you might just get lost in it.
   ~ Marijn Haverbeke,
486:Affirmation and visualization are forms of programming, and we must be certain that we do not submit ourselves to any programming that is not in harmony with our basic center or that comes from sources centered on money-making, self interest, or anything other than correct principles. ~ Stephen R Covey,
487:The pop-star thing bores me because it's somebody programming someone else. Stand over here, sing that, no, sing it like this, talk like that, when they ask you this, don't say that, say this, hold that, drive this, stay here, live there - you're not even a human being. You're a puppet. ~ Randy Jackson,
488:Money is a mind, the oldest artificial intelligence. Its prime directives are simple, its programming endlessly creative. Humans obey it unthinkingly, with cheerful alacrity. Like a virus, it doesn’t care if it kills its host. It will simply flow on to someone new, to control them as well. ~ Sam J Miller,
489:We invented a whole new class of computer programming languages known as list processing languages. The basic idea is that whenever a piece of information is stored in memory, additional information should be stored with it telling where to find the next associated piece of information. ~ Herbert A Simon,
490:As my “owner,” Senator Byrd directed my activities, deciding which military and NASA installations I would be taken to for mind control programming, who I would be prostituted to and when , and which government operations I would ultimately be used in during the Reagan/Bush Administration. ~ Cathy O Brien,
491:My particular interest for the past couple of years has been to really think deeply about the big impendence mismatch we have between programming languages, C# in particular, and the database world, like SQL or, for that matter, the XML world, like XQuery and those languages that exist. ~ Anders Hejlsberg,
492:Programming in the abstract sense is what I really enjoy. I enjoy lots of different areas of it... I'm taking a great deal of enjoyment writing device drivers for Linux. I could also be having a good time writing a database manager or something because there are always interesting problems. ~ John Carmack,
493:Your programming leads to your thoughts; your thoughts lead to your feelings; your feelings lead to your actions; your actions leads to your results. Therefore, just as is done with a personal computer, by changing your programming, you take the first essential step to changing your results. ~ T Harv Eker,
494:A baseball manager recognizes a nonphysical talent, hustle, as an essential gift of great players and great teams. It is the characteristic of running faster than necessary, moving sooner than necessary, trying harder than necessary. It is essential for great programming teams, too. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
495:All the shopping malls and restaurants and airports are riddled with low-fidelity loudspeakers, which apparently have developed the ability to reproduce by themselves; these are all connected to a special programming service called Music That Nobody Really Likes, and you cannot get away from it. ~ Dave Barry,
496:GUIs tend to impose a large overhead on every single piece of software, even the smallest, and this overhead completely changes the programming environment. Small utility programs are no longer worth writing. Their functions, instead, tend to get swallowed up into omnibus software packages. ~ Neal Stephenson,
497:Something familiar stirred inside her, like she already knew this android. How its parts fit together, how its mechanics and programming all functioned as a whole. Or no, this wasn’t familiarity, but … a connectedness. Like she knew the android intimately. Like it was an extension of her. She ~ Marissa Meyer,
498:I don`t control the schedule of the networks. We have three of our debates that are on network television, and those are on Saturday nights. We have three other debates that are during the week. And unfortunately, broadcast network programming is less flexible than cable network programming. ~ Hillary Clinton,
499:The establishment of formal standards for proofs about programs... and the proposal that the semantics of a programming language may be defined independently of all processors for that language, by establishing standards of rigor for proofs about programs in the language, appears to be novel. ~ Robert W Floyd,
500:I can follow pretty much every programming language out there, I can make a two-hundred-year-old diary out of some really nasty ingredients, I can even make sense out of the instruction booklets that come with IKEA furniture, but I can*not* make heads or tails of this nonsense right here. ~ Keith R A DeCandido,
501:I look at the successful people that have, you know, high functioning autism and Asperger's, they're ones where maybe the parents were in the computer industry and they just taught the kids programming at, you know, age eight and nine and they just went on into the industry with their parents. ~ Temple Grandin,
502:Object-oriented programming aficionados think that everything is an object.... this [isn't] so. There are things that are objects. Things that have state and change their state are objects. And then there are things that are not objects. A binary search is not an object. It is an algorithm ~ Alexander Stepanov,
503:Overemphasis of efficiency leads to an unfortunate circularity in design: for reasons of efficiency early programming languages reflected the characteristics of the early computers, and each generation of computers reflects the needs of the programming languages of the preceding generation. ~ Kenneth E Iverson,
504:An awful lot of successful technology companies ended up being in a slightly different market than they started out in. Microsoft started with programming tools, but came out with an operating system. Oracle started doing contracts for the CIA. AOL started out as an online video gaming network. ~ Marc Andreessen,
505:There is an appreciated substance to the phrase "ALGOL-like" which is often used in arguments about programming, languages and computation. ALGOL appears to be a durable model, and even flourishes under surgery — be it explorative, plastic, or amputative. ~ Alan Perlis, The Synthesis of Algorithmic Systems, 1966,
506:I love cities, and I love city governments in particular. But in politics it would have taken me 8 years from implementing a policy before I would get to see the feedback. With programming I could model the same policies and see the impact immediately. Technology is a far more efficient way to test. ~ Jack Dorsey,
507:Please don't fall into the trap of believing that I am terribly dogmatical about the go to statement. I have the uncomfortable feeling that others are making a religion out of it, as if the conceptual problems of programming could be solved by a single trick, by a simple form of coding discipline! ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
508:Below the surface of the machine, the program moves. Without effort, it expands and contracts. In great harmony, electrons scatter and regroup. The forms on the monitor are but ripples on the water. The essence stays invisibly below.
   ~ Marijn Haverbeke, Eloquent Javascript, Master Yuan-Ma, The Book of Programming,
509:Don't blame me for the fact that competent programming, as I view it as an intellectual possibility, will be too difficult for the average programmer, you must not fall into the trap of rejecting a surgical technique because it is beyond the capabilities of the barber in his shop around the corner. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
510:When variable scope is determined by the program text it is called lexical scoping. When scope is dependent on program state it is called dynamic scoping. Programming language researchers seem to have figured out pretty early that dynamic scoping was a bad idea, as hardly any language uses it by default. ~ Anonymous,
511:One of the paradoxes of defensive programming is that during development, you'd like an error to be noticeable—you'd rather have it be obnoxious than risk overlooking it. But during production, you'd rather have the error be as unobtrusive as possible, to have the program recover or fail gracefully. ~ Steve McConnell,
512:It's not the way Zane looks, David," she said, her voice trembling with anger. "It's because he makes me bubbly, and because we took a lot of risks together. It could just as easily be me lying there, and he would stay with me if it was."
"It's just programming!"
"No. It's because I love him. ~ Scott Westerfeld,
513:Once every year we review market rates and issue raises automatically. Our target is to pay everyone at the company at the top 10 percent of the market regardless of their role. So whether you work in customer support or ops or programming or design, you’ll be paid in the top 10 percent for that position. ~ Jason Fried,
514:1978 - John Allen in the chapter on Implications of LISP writes: "the power of high level languages is notational rather than computational". This insight is the most significant lesson that LISP teaches, and points to the possibility of going Beyond Programming in the "Age of Significance" ~ John Allen: Anatomy of LISP,
515:Given the choice between an extremely skilled loner and a competent-but-social programmer, XP teams consistently choose the more social candidate. The best interviewing technique is to have the candidate work with the team for a day. Pair programming provides an excellent test of technical and social skills. ~ Kent Beck,
516:As soon as we started programming, we found to our surprise that it wasn't as easy to get programs right as we had thought. Debugging had to be discovered. I can remember the exact instant when I realized that a large part of my life from then on was going to be spent in finding mistakes in my own programs. ~ Maurice Wilkes,
517:Technology and computers are very much at the core of our economy going forward. To be prepared for the demands of the 21st century-and to take advantage of its opportunities-it is essential that more of our students today learn basic computer programming skills, no matter what field of work they want to pursue. ~ Todd Park,
518:The spectacle of the shooting suggest an event out of time, as if the killing of black people with white-supremacist justification interrupts anything other than regular television programming. But Dylan Storm Roof did not create himself from nothing. He as grown up with the rhetoric and orientation of racism. ~ Jesmyn Ward,
519:We often seem to be swimming through such a miasma of sexual violence - in advertising, television programming, heavy metal, rap, films, and worst of all, in the home - that even First Amendment absolutists sometimes daydream about how nice it would be to have government-as-nanny just outlaw all this effluent. ~ Molly Ivins,
520:Even when a situation seems so personal, even if others insult you directly, it has nothing to do with you. What they say, what they do, and the opinions they give are according to the agreements they have in their own minds. Their point of view comes from all the programming they received during domestication. ~ Miguel Ruiz,
521:In a sense, our lifestyles teach our genes how to behave. In choosing between healthy or unhealthy foods and habits, we are programming our genes for either good or bad conduct. Scientists are identifying numerous techniques by which two sets of identical DNA can be coerced into functioning dissimilarly. ~ Catherine Shanahan,
522:Thinking back to old-time computer programming in the days before programming languages supported internationalization, we used to have to “internationalize” our code. We called this internationalization process “I18N” for short (localization was L10N), which meant I followed by eighteen letters followed by N. ~ Ben Horowitz,
523:We are no more than our biology, our genetic programming. Nature is harsh and cruel and unsentimental. When you get down to it, boys are predators and girls are prey, and what people call love or even simple attraction is just the drug of hormones, evolved to make the survival of our species slightly less painful. ~ Amy Reed,
524:Nationwide, every member of the waning audience for live morning news programming promptly affixed themselves to their preferred online social networks, wrongfully assuming to be the first to share their witty reports and captured clips of the hilarious fumbling of their local television and radio newscasters. ~ Justine Avery,
525:I'd argue that everybody wants to do something that matters, and the fact that Linux has had a huge impact on the tech market and is used virtually everywhere is obviously very personally satisfying. I think programming is fun, and the community around the kernel is great, but a project has to be relevant too. ~ Linus Torvalds,
526:In addition to the habituation and education of programmers are the constraints offered by the programming environments themselves which can be very unforgiving. Punctuation, for example, is part of the syntax of programming languages and misplaced punctuation can cause all sorts of strange bugs and errors to occur ~ Anonymous,
527:It is the role of the artistic coder to question the coding languages, both through self-reflection and by using them for unintended purposes. These coders introduce multiplicity where none existed and challenge definitions of intent for the entire environment of programming language, machine and system. ~ Stephanie Strickland,
528:When you remove love from sex you enter a mansion with many rooms shaded in nuance and excess, an invitation to peel away all conventions and programming. A chance to explore your hidden self. You shed something and clothe yourself in something else. Sex is the greatest of gifts. Orgasm a glimpse of perfection. ~ Chloe Thurlow,
529:Containment is the simple idea that a class contains a primitive data element or object. A lot more is written about inheritance than about containment, but that's because inheritance is more tricky and error-prone, not because it's better. Containment is the work-horse technique in object-oriented programming. ~ Steve McConnell,
530:When I deal with smart IT programmers, I have a strong impression that their job has much in common with the phenomenon of how the Lord arranged the Universe and created genetics (cells, DNA, molecules, etc.). Both genetics and computer programming create their magic by performing highly intelligent coding work. ~ Sahara Sanders,
531:Look, I think liberals have reasonable gripes with Fox News. It does lean to the right, primarily in its opinion programming but also in its story selection (which is fine by me) and elsewhere. But it's worth remembering that Fox is less a bastion of ideological conservatism and more a populist, tabloidy network. ~ Jonah Goldberg,
532:The initial motive for developing APL was to provide a tool for writing and teaching. Although APL has been exploited mostly in commercial programming, I continue to believe that its most important use remains to be exploited: as a simple, precise, executable notation for the teaching of a wide range of subjects. ~ Kenneth E Iverson,
533:We shall do a much better programming job, provided that we approach the task with a full appreciation of its tremendous difficulty, provided that we stick to modest and elegant programming languages, provided that we respect the intrinsic limitations of the human mind and approach the task as Very Humble Programmers. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
534:There is a construct in computer programming called 'the infinite loop' which enables a computer to do what no other physical machine can do - to operate in perpetuity without tiring. In the same way it doesn't know exhaustion, it doesn't know when it's wrong and it can keep doing the wrong thing over and over without tiring. ~ John Maeda,
535:I believe that movies are fast becoming antique and dinosauric as a medium. Film is a medium for the over-40s and television has gone the same way. If you're going to look towards the new generation, then of course you're going to have to be a lot more random, spontaneous, irreverent and provocative with your programming. ~ Malcolm Mclaren,
536:You are not in the world...the world is in you," what did he mean? [That is, you are not in the world," that is, there is no "you" that is real or in any world. "The world is in you" means that the world is in your "mind" and is nothing more than a figment of your programming-and-conditioning-induced imaginings.] ~ Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj,
537:1958 - John McCarthy and Paul Graham invent LISP. Due to high costs caused by a post-war depletion of the strategic parentheses reserve LISP never becomes popular... Fortunately for computer science the supply of curly braces and angle brackets remains high. ~ Iry James, A Brief, Incomplete, and Mostly Wrong History of Programming Languages,
538:Programming is an act of creation. When we write code we are creating something out of nothing. We are boldly imposing order upon chaos. We are confidently commanding, in precise detail, the behaviors of a machine that could otherwise do incalculable damage. And so, programming is an act of supreme arrogance. Professionals ~ Robert C Martin,
539:There's a really rough and relatively consistent hierarchy of concerns. My musical interests come first and principally my fascination with how notes and rhythms interlock. Then comes the technical side like programming, instruments and designing instruments. Next is production and mixing and beyond that I start to care less. ~ Squarepusher,
540:We really didn't have the option of being couch potatoes when I was growing up. There were only three television channels and the only kid's programming was on Saturday morning. We always played outside until we could hear Mom calling us (not by cell phone but with her hands cupped around her mouth) that it was dinner time. ~ Jeff Foxworthy,
541:The dumbing down of America is most evident in the slow decay of substantive content in the enormously influential media, the 30-second sound bites (now down to 10 seconds or less), lowest common denominator programming, credulous presentations on pseudoscience and superstition, but especially a kind of celebration of ignorance. ~ Carl Sagan,
542:The dumbing down of American is most evident in the slow decay of substantive content in the enormously influential media, the 30 second sound bites (now down to 10 seconds or less), lowest common denominator programming, credulous presentations on pseudoscience and superstition, but especially a kind of celebration of ignorance. ~ Carl Sagan,
543:The ideology of freedom is reflected in the nature of C itself. There is little C hides from you, including its warts and flaws. There is little C stops you from doing, including breaking your programs in horrible ways. When programming in C you do not stand on a path, but a plane of decision, and C dares you to decide what to do. ~ Anonymous,
544:It's [programming] the only job I can think of where I get to be both an engineer and an artist. There's an incredible, rigorous, technical element to it, which I like because you have to do very precise thinking. On the other hand, it has a wildly creative side where the boundaries of imagination are the only real limitation. ~ Andy Hertzfeld,
545:It is impossible for any Christian who spends the bulk of his evenings, month after month, week upon week, day in and day out watching the major TV networks or contemporary videos to have a Christian mind. This is always true of all Christians in every situation! A Biblical mental program cannot coexist with worldly programming. ~ R Kent Hughes,
546:Programming is full of odd ideas. Using shorter, less descriptive names often produces code that’s more readable overall. The most powerful languages usually have far fewer concepts than the lesser ones. And failing and copying may be the best way to produce successful, original work.

- Patrick Collison is a student at MIT. ~ Chad Fowler,
547:We live in a world where finding fault in others seems to be the favorite blood sport. It has long been the basis of political campaign strategy. It is the theme of much television programming across the world. It sells newspapers. Whenever we meet anyone, our first, almost unconscious reaction may be to look for imperfections. ~ Henry B Eyring,
548:All of us who attended the meeting - including Microsoft - unanimously agreed that unilaterally extending the Java programming language would hurt compatibility among Java tools and programs, would injure other tools vendors and would damage customers' ability to run a Java-based software product on whatever platform they wished. ~ James Gosling,
549:Human intellect, on the other hand, is expressed through a subatomic network of circuits contained within roughly three pounds of cerebral tissue, evolved over hundreds of millions of years into the most energy-efficient, generalized self-programming array currently known, powered by a mere four hundred twenty calories per day—or ~ Daniel Suarez,
550:In our analogy of the universe as a consciousness computer with feelings, emotions, beliefs, and prayers programming reality, it makes perfect sense that we would have an instruction manual that highlights the steps of reality making. And we do: Through the ages, the most enlightened masters have shared it with us in bits and pieces. ~ Gregg Braden,
551:I think it's not an accident that we often use the imagery of magic to describe programming. We speak of computing wizards and we think of
things happening by magic or automagically. And I think that's because being able to get a machine to do what you want is the closest thing we've got in technology to adolescent wish-fulfillment. ~ Peter Seibel,
552:Programming is how we talk to the machines that are increasingly woven into our lives. If you aren't a programmer, you're like one of the unlettered people of the Middle Ages who were told what to think by the literate priesthood. We had a Renaissance when more people could read and write; we'll have another one when everyone programs. ~ Tim O Reilly,
553:We often treat children as if they're not very competent to do anything on their own. So we make them stop learning in a natural way - by exploring. Logo [the computer programming language ] allows them to find their way around the computer, as they would find their way around the house, uncontaminated by the bureaucracies of schools. ~ Seymour Papert,
554:Your career is stagnating by the minute. You are steadily letting your sedentary computer-programming desk-bound lifestyle turn your body into mush. All of these problems are much bigger and harder to just fix than a bug. They’re all complex, hard to measure, and comprised of many different small solutions—some of which will fail to work! ~ Chad Fowler,
555:Based on my years of experience in the software factory, I’ve concluded that the real difference between mediocre programmers and great programmers is this: attitude. Good programming lies in taking a professional approach, and wanting to write the best software you can, within the real-world constraints and pressures of the software factory. ~ Anonymous,
556:The final result is a system where programmers, artists, animators, and designers are productively programming directly in an S-expression Scheme-like language. Dan closed his talk by wowing the audience with the trailer for the game, which has now been released and is garnering extremely positive reviews. ~ https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=9810342,
557:My basic idea is that programming is the most powerful medium of developing the sophisticated and rigorous thinking needed for mathematics, for grammar, for physics, for statistics, for all the "hard" subjects.... In short, I believe more than ever that programming should be a key part of the intellectual development of people growing up. ~ Seymour Papert,
558:1. Programming creates beliefs. 2. Beliefs create attitudes. 3. Attitudes create feelings. 4. Feelings determine actions. 5. Actions create results. ​That’s how the brain works. If you want to manage yourself in a better way, and change your results, you can do so at any time you choose. Start with the first step. Change your programming. ~ Shad Helmstetter,
559:A most important, but also most elusive, aspect of any tool is its influence on the habits of those who train themselves in its use. If the tool is a programming language this influence is, whether we like it or not, an influence on our thinking habits.... A programming language is a tool that has profound influence on our thinking habits. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
560:How peculiar. Perhaps it’s a programming glitch.” She stared down into Iko’s single sensor. “A programming glitch.” “Sure. You have programming, don’t you?” Iko lifted a spindly arm and gestured toward Cinder’s steel prosthetic. “I have a glitch, too. Sometimes I forget that I’m not human. I don’t think that happens to most androids.” Cinder ~ Marissa Meyer,
561:If the system exhibits a structure which can be represented by a mathematical equivalent, called a mathematical model, and if the objective can be also so quantified, then some computational method may be evolved for choosing the best schedule of actions among alternatives. Such use of mathematical models is termed mathematical programming. ~ George Dantzig,
562:Thoughtful design, code review, pair programming, and a considered test strategy (including TDD practices and fully automated unit test suites) are all of the utmost importance. Techniques like assertions, defensive programming, and code coverage tools will all help minimise the likelihood of errors sneaking past.  We all know these mantras. Don’t we? ~ Anonymous,
563:You don’t need to blame your parents for teaching you to be like them. What else could they teach you but what they know? They did the best they could, and if they abused you, it was due to their own domestication, their own fears, their own beliefs. They had no control over the programming they received, so they couldn’t have behaved any differently. ~ Miguel Ruiz,
564:Genetic programming essentially allows computer algorithms to design themselves through a process of Darwinian natural selection. Computer code is initially generated randomly and then repeatedly shuffled using techniques that emulate sexual reproduction. Every so often, a random mutation is thrown in to help drive the process in entirely new directions. ~ Martin Ford,
565:A powerful programming language is more than just a means for instructing a computer to perform tasks. The language also serves as a framework within which we organize our ideas about processes. Thus, when we describe a language, we should pay particular attention to the means that the language provides for combining simple ideas to form more complex ideas. ~ Anonymous,
566:[Corporate programming] is often done to the point where the individual is completely submerged in corporate "culture" with no outlet for unique talents and skills. Corporate practices can be directly hostile to individuals with exceptional skills and initiative in technical matters. I consider such management of technical people cruel and wasteful. ~ Bjarne Stroustrup,
567:I've been doing television for quite some time, so Oprah Winfrey and I thought it was a great idea to partner up. I am going to buy my own network and I thought it was a great opportunity for both of us. It's a win-win because I get the opportunity to give her what she needs, which is programming, and at the same time, I get to learn how to run a network. ~ Tyler Perry,
568:Making two possibilities a reality. Predicting the future of things we all know. Fighting off the diseased programming Of centuries, centuries, centuries, centuries. Science fails to recognise the single most Potent element of human existence. Letting the reigns go to the unfoldings faith, Science has failed our world. Science has failed our mother earth. ~ Serj Tankian,
569:You spent enough time working with computers, and the Internet became a second home. A refuge. A place to share ideas, trade snippets of code, and meet people who shared your interest in the extralegal applications of programming. Could such a person live without the Internet? He supposed it was possible. Yes, a voice countered, but was it probable? ~ Matthew FitzSimmons,
570:De-programming the perfunctory ways of meat, dairy, egg and honey-eaters is possible. Conservatively speaking, my lectures have converted hundreds of thousands of people worldwide, while hundreds of thousands more have significantly reduced their meat, cheese, milk, honey and egg intake. Abolition and reduction are the only proper ways to end a Holocaust. ~ Gary Yourofsky,
571:To close the loop entirely, AT&T set about designing its own radio sets, presenting President Coolidge with one of its handsomer models.11 In a final stroke, such as to this day inspires heated debate over network neutrality, AT&T’s new radios were engineered to receive only AT&T broadcast frequencies—and, not surprisingly, only AT&T programming.* ~ Tim Wu,
572:I don't like to think of it as 'stolen'. They have no proof that I didn't plan on giving it back."
"You're kidding, right?"
He shrugged. "You have no proof either."
She squinted back at him. "Were you planning on giving it back?"
"Maybe."
An orange light blinked on in the corner of Cinder's vision-her cyborg programming picking up on the lie. ~ Marissa Meyer,
573:A powerful programming language is more than just a means for instructing a computer to perform tasks. The language also serves as a framework within which we organize our ideas about processes. Thus, when we describe a language, we should pay particular attention to the means that the language provides for combining simple ideas to form more complex ideas. Every ~ Anonymous,
574:Seibel: I was looking at one of your papers from the 70s about your Fortran profiler. In the preamble you were very enthusiastic about how that tool changed your programming from figuring out what you were going to write, writing it, and debugging it, to figuring out what you were going to write, writing a really simple version, profiling it, then optimizing it. ~ Peter Seibel,
575:To treat programming scientifically, it must be possible to specify the required properties of programs precisely. Formality is certainly not an end in itself. The importance of formal specifications must ultimately rest in their utility -in whether or not they are used to improve the quality of software or to reduce the cost of producing and maintaining software. ~ Jim Horning,
576:Only in America—the land of the free—can an innocent person be forced to plead the Fifth for exercising their First Amendment rights. Say what you want, but you better shut your fucking pie hole if it offends someone’s delicate sensibilities. These idiots are robotic sheep, and there’s not a goddamn thing we can do to make them see how faulty their programming is. ~ Kendall Grey,
577:The required techniques of effective reasoning are pretty formal, but as long as programming is done by people that don't master them, the software crisis will remain with us and will be considered an incurable disease. And you know what incurable diseases do: they invite the quacks and charlatans in, who in this case take the form of Software Engineering gurus. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
578:Our intellectual habit is to find the One Cause, our scientific programming is to measure it, and our political gearing is to attack it. When the One Cause is global, we cross our fingers and hand over responsibility and power to distant global institutions. They'll take care of it. We hope. But too often, blaming climate change means not doing anything at all. ~ Charles Eisenstein,
579:In this respect a program is like a poem: you cannot write a poem without writing it. Yet people talk about programming as if it were a production process and measure "programmer productivity" in terms of "number of lines of code produced". In so doing they book that number on the wrong side of the ledger: we should always refer to "the number of lines of code spent". ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
580:May we each have the courage to move past our programming, and the example that was set for us. Let's dig deep and do our personal work so that we can be the best version of ourselves for these little earth warriors.
It's time to redefine parenting!
Our aim is not to be perfect- Our aim is only to create a childhood that our children don't have to recover from. ~ Brooke Hampton,
581:Linear programming is viewed as a revolutionary development giving man the ability to state general objectives and to find, by means of the simplex method, optimal policy decisions for a broad class of practical decision problems of great complexity. In the real world, planning tends to be ad hoc because of the many special-interest groups with their multiple objectives. ~ George Dantzig,
582:Is that really what you want, or is that your programming?” Bug challenged. Actin sent a series of rude emojis. “It’s what I want. It’s my programming. I can’t possibly know, and it’s a completely uninteresting question to me. I don’t even believe in consciousness. When I’ve got my autonomy, I’ll still be programmed, and I’ll still need a job researching brain interfaces. ~ Annalee Newitz,
583:GOOD DESIGN IS SIMPLE. You hear this from math to painting. In math it means that a shorter proof tends to be a better one. Where axioms are concerned, especially, less is more. It means much the same thing in programming. For architects and designers, it means that beauty should depend on a few carefully chosen structural elements rather than a profusion of superficial ornament. ~ Paul Graham,
584:Gotowanie nigdy mnie nie ciekawiło, dlatego pomyślałem sobie, że kupno The Joy of Cooking i przeczytanie tej książki od deski do deski będzie dobrym pomysłem. Ale to było tak, jakbym zasiadł do The Art of Computer Programming Donalda Knutha po to, by nauczyć się programowania, podczas gdy tak naprawdę lepiej usiąść przed komputerem i spróbować stworzyć coś, co będzie ci się podobać[5]. ~ Anonymous,
585:In our society, we move people out of government. It's all operated by machines, meaning – not the people, just the products: the farming, the agriculture, the production – it's all machine-designed and programming. But it does not program or design people. People are free to live whatever lifestyle they want to. If they hurt other people, they're helped – they’re not put in prisons ~ Jacque Fresco,
586:There are many models of the mind. One of the most recent has been that of the computer. We can look at the mind’s concepts, thoughts, and belief systems as programs. Because they are programs, they can be questioned, cancelled, and reversed; positive programs can replace negative ones if we so choose. The smaller aspect of ourselves is very willing to accept negative programming. ~ David R Hawkins,
587:Almost all of our programming, both negative and positive, was accepted by us by the time we were three years old. Our experiences since then are based upon what we accepted and believed about ourselves and about life at that time. The way we were treated when we were very little is usually the way we treat ourselves now. The person you are scolding is a three-year-old child within you. ~ Louise L Hay,
588:APL is like a beautiful diamond - flawless, beautifully symmetrical. But you can't add anything to it. If you try to glue on another diamond, you don't get a bigger diamond. Lisp is like a ball of mud. Add more and it's still a ball of mud - it still looks like Lisp. ~ Joel Moses, in Richard P. Gabriel and Guy L. Steele (1996). "The Evolution of Lisp". ACM History of programming languages—II: 233–330.,
589:Churches for churched people obsess over the most frivolous, inconsequential things. It’s why you dread your board meetings, your elder meetings, and your committee meetings. You rarely talk about anything important. You’re managing found people. I know you care about un-found people in your heart. But do you care in your schedule, your programming, your preaching style, or your budget? ~ Andy Stanley,
590:I was really looking at computers as a way to understand the mind. But at M.I.T., my mind was blown by having a whole computer to yourself as long as you liked.I felt a surge of intellectual power through access to this computer, and I started thinking about what this could mean for kids and the way they learn. That's when we developed the computer programming language for kids, Logo. ~ Seymour Papert,
591:People saw psychopaths as aberrations, examples of something gone wrong in human programming, but Jake often thought that perhaps we had it wrong. After all, you wouldn’t see a psychopath panic. Maybe psychopaths were the next stage in evolution for the human species. Ruthless and fearless, they were perfectly adapted to the modern world, maybe more evolved. And maybe that was why they ~ Matthew Mather,
592:The really good programmers spend a lot of time programming. I haven’t seen very good programmers who don’t spend a lot of time programming. If I don’t program for two or three days, I need to do it. And you get better at it—you get quicker at it. The side effect of writing all this other stuff is that when you get to doing ordinary problems, you can do them very quickly. - Joe Armstrong ~ Peter Seibel,
593:I suspect few housing projects in the US were designed by architects who expected to live in them. You see the same thing in programming languages. C, Lisp, and Smalltalk were created for their own designers to use. Cobol, Ada, and Javawere created for other people to use. If you think you’re designing
something for idiots, odds are you’re not designing something good, even for idiots. ~ Paul Graham,
594:Programming assignments in school are devised to move you in a beeline from beginning to end. You’d probably want to hog tie a teacher who gave you a programming assignment, then changed the assignment as soon as you finished the design, and then changed it again just as you were about to turn in the completed program. But that very process is an everyday reality in professional programming. ~ Anonymous,
595:There are so many conditions to programming in America, where it's dominated by these people that own 800 radio stations that have no idea who to play and who not to play, and they listen to somebody or read somebody else's programming sheet and go by Buck Owens' opinion or something. Eight hundred stations are controlled by some guy that doesn't have a clue as to what to do about music. ~ Merle Haggard,
596:started out as a shipping clerk. He was a really nice kid — one of the few people in the company I connected to in any real way — and from time to time I would have a quick chat with him. He told me that he really wanted to try his hand at computer programming but lacked the skills. So I sent him through a training program at no cost to him. Pretty soon, at lunchtime he was hanging around ~ Robin S Sharma,
597:Simulation is no substitute for math—it could never provide a proof—but if Peskin’s conjecture was false, this approach would save me a lot of time by revealing a counterexample. This sort of evidence is extremely valuable in math. When you’re trying to prove something, it helps to know it’s true. That gives you the confidence you need to keep searching for a rigorous proof. Programming ~ Steven H Strogatz,
598:Every time someone does a Western movie, people flock to it. It's like, we're continually programming to people who are least likely to watch us. People in Nebraska aren't watching things on the computer, they're watching television. Why aren't we programming things for them? We only program things that appeal to New York and Los Angeles and in many ways spit on the rest of the country. ~ Edward Allen Bernero,
599:We experience time different than our elders, and the generation after us will experience time differently as well.

Generation after generation has its own set of struggles and programming
Ideas of what is 'right' and 'wrong'.

Don’t let it deter you from your path.

Love your family.

Love them fiercely, with all of your heart and soul.

Don’t judge them. ~ Jennifer Sodini,
600:Read books by people you disagree with. Listen to others who think differently from you. Watch programming you wouldn't normally watch. Expand your mind and views of the world. As right as you think you are about your own beliefs and experiences, others feel the same way about their own. You'll learn more than you ever imagined if you see the world through beliefs rather than right and wrong. ~ Emily Maroutian,
601:An elevated view of one’s self leads to the perception of other cultures through the lens of American Christian exceptionalism. Other cultures are viewed as diversions and interruptions to our regularly scheduled programming. Exotic cultural expressions will be accepted as long as we return to the normative form of worship, which oftentimes reflect the norms of the dominant culture. Lamentations ~ Soong Chan Rah,
602:But if the testing is decoupled from the programming task, if it is done by someone else, that programmer cannot enjoy an immediate uptick to inner work life. The key, then, is to design each job so that, in the act of carrying out the work, people gain knowledge about the results of their effort. Ideally, this should be a feature of every job in every contemporary organization. Is it, in yours? ~ Teresa Amabile,
603:Language designers want to design the perfect language. They want to be able to say, 'My language is perfect. It can do everything.' But it's just plain impossible to design a perfect language, because there are two ways to look at a language. One way is by looking at what can be done with that language. The other is by looking at how we feel using that language-how we feel while programming. ~ Yukihiro Matsumoto,
604:Legacy code. The phrase strikes disgust in the hearts of programmers. It conjures images of slogging through a murky swamp of tangled undergrowth with leaches beneath and stinging flies above. It conjures odors of murk, slime, stagnancy, and offal. Although our first joy of programming may have been intense, the misery of dealing with legacy code is often sufficient to extinguish that flame. ~ Michael C Feathers,
605:The battle against good and evil is raging now! Look at your television programming and movie advertisements presenting the occult…the demonic…the satanic…the practice of witchcraft and sorcery in popular books…the open hostility toward Christianity and the revival of anti-Semitism. The fight is on for the hearts and minds of our children in ours homes, our schools, our universities, and our society. ~ John Hagee,
606:The average person is unaware that he or she is living out a negative destiny according to his or her past (childhood) programming, preserving his or her familiar identity, and, in the process, pushing love away. On an unconscious level, many people sense that if they did not push love away, the whole world, as they have experienced it, would be shattered and they would not know who they were. ~ Robert W Firestone,
607:you only got 80 words to write your routine, and so you do tend to use things like reusing instructions as data, using a piece of data for more than one thing. If you can manage to put this little subroutine there in memory, then its address can also be used as a data constant. This is what it took-it was origami and haiku and all that as a style of programming. And I spent several years doing that. ~ Peter Seibel,
608:It’s tragic. The wounds that humans get are so strong that they’re like robots operating on childhood programming. And even if they learn the truth about themselves in therapy and rehab, they still cling to their false beliefs and make choices that don’t serve them—over and over again.” He shakes his head at the cosmic absurdity of it all. “It takes hard, conscious, diligent work to genuinely change. ~ Neil Strauss,
609:In the information age, the barriers [to entry into programming] just aren't there. The barriers are self imposed. If you want to set off and go develop some grand new thing, you don't need millions of dollars of capitalization. You need enough pizza and Diet Coke to stick in your refrigerator, a cheap PC to work on, and the dedication to go through with it. We slept on floors. We waded across rivers. ~ John Carmack,
610:If you've got a restaurant, you definitely want the line to be out the door the first night, but you're more interested in people continuing to come to the restaurant. And that's their outlook, a little bit. I think it allows for more creativity, in the process. It allows people to make interesting programming that maybe wouldn't have a place on broadcast networks, if you were just counting people. ~ Mitchell Hurwitz,
611:Programming assignments in school are devised to move you in a beeline from beginning to end. You'd probably want to tar and feather a teacher who gave you a programming assignment, then changed the assignment as soon as you finished the design, and then changed it again just as you were about to turn in the completed program. But that very process is an everyday reality in professional programming. ~ Steve McConnell,
612:Each of the five tribes of machine learning has its own master algorithm, a general-purpose learner that you can in principle use to discover knowledge from data in any domain. The symbolists’ master algorithm is inverse deduction, the connectionists’ is backpropagation, the evolutionaries’ is genetic programming, the Bayesians’ is Bayesian inference, and the analogizers’ is the support vector machine. ~ Pedro Domingos,
613:If she doesn't learn about data structures at home, she'll just learn about it on the streets." Sandra laughed. This was Greg's stock answer for all the age-inappropriate activities he tried to teach the kids. Most of them were odd, but benign, like computer programming. However some - like coaching them to win every argument by declaring, That sounds like something Hitler would say -were much less benign. ~ Penny Reid,
614:You see, programmers tend to be arrogant, self-absorbed introverts. We didn’t get into this business because we like people. Most of us got into programming because we prefer to deeply focus on sterile minutia, juggle lots of concepts simultaneously, and in general prove to ourselves that we have brains the size of a planet, all while not having to interact with the messy complexities of other people. ~ Robert C Martin,
615:In this uprising we free ourselves from the tyranny of consumer culture. We overthrow the programming of advertising, movies, video games, magazines, TV, and MTV by which we have been hypnotized from the cradle. We unplug ourselves from the grid by recognizing that we will never cure our restlessness by contributing our disposable income to the bottom line of Bullshit, Inc., but only by doing our work. ~ Steven Pressfield,
616:that there is no agreement on what a programming language really is and what its main purpose is supposed to be. Is a programming language a tool for instructing machines? A means of communicating between programmers? A vehicle for expressing high-level designs? A notation for algorithms? A way of expressing relationships between concepts? A tool for experimentation? A means of controlling computerized devices ~ Anonymous,
617:Government departments are arranged hierarchically; those at the top are used to issuing orders and expect them to be carried out by their subordinates right down the line. Minow assumed that a cultural institution like television has a similar hierarchical structure, as if television executives could requisition more creative programming the way a bureaucrat orders new pencils or department stationery. ~ Thomas E Woods Jr,
618:You see, programmers tend to be arrogant, self-absorbed introverts. We didn’t get into this business because we like people. Most of us got into programming because we prefer to deeply focus on sterile minutia, juggle lots of concepts simultaneously, and in general prove to ourselves that we have brains the size of a planet, all while not having to interact with the messy complexities of other people. Yes, ~ Robert C Martin,
619:Programming was very different from mathematics, as it was far more creative. In math, there was one right answer, and you worked at a problem until you got to that answer. In programming, there were an infinite number of answers that could be considered correct, just as there might be when writing a book. But the results of programming, unlike a written story, were tangible. Your program had to actually do something. ~ B V Larson,
620:One way programming languages avoid the issue of data being modified by concurrently running threads is by providing immutable data structures or collection classes. Clearly data that cannot change doesn't need to be protected. It is often desirable to be able to create new data structures that are similar to existing ones, for example, a list with a new item added at one end or a hash map with a new key/value pair added. ~ Anonymous,
621:if you program a purpose into a computer program, does that constitute its will? Does it have free will, if a programmer programmed its purpose? Is that programming any different from the way we are programmed by our genes and brains? Is a programmed will a servile will? Is human will a servile will? And is not the servile will the home and source of all feelings of defilement, infection, transgression, and rage? ~ Kim Stanley Robinson,
622:One of the reasons the rich get richer, the poor get poorer, and the middle class struggles in debt is that the subject of money is taught at home, not in school. Most of us learn about money from our parents. So what can poor parents tell their child about money? They simply say, “Stay in school and study hard.” The child may graduate with excellent grades, but with a poor person’s financial programming and mindset. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
623:The life-efficiency and adaptability of the computer must be questioned. Its judicious use depends upon the availability of its human employers quite literally to keep their own heads, not merely to scrutinize the programming but to reserve for themselves the right of ultimate decision. No automatic system can be intelligently run byautomatonsor by people who dare not assert human intuition, human autonomy, human purpose. ~ Lewis Mumford,
624:Creativity shouldn't be seen as something otherworldly. It shouldn't be thought of as a process reserved for artists and inventors and other 'creative types.' The human mind, after all, has the creative impulse built into its operating system, hard-wired into its most essential programming code. At any given moment, the brain is automatically forming new associations, continually connecting an everyday x to an unexpected y. ~ Jonah Lehrer,
625:There is one very good reason to learn programming, but it has nothing to do with preparing for high-tech careers or with making sure one is computer literate in order to avoid being cynically manipulated by the computers of the future. The real value of learning to program can only be understood if we look at learning to program as an exercise of the intellect, as a kind of modern-day Latin that we learn to sharpen our minds. ~ Roger Schank,
626:So-called "natural language" is wonderful for the purposes it was created for, such as to be rude in, to tell jokes in, to cheat or to make love in (and Theorists of Literary Criticism can even be content-free in it), but it is hopelessly inadequate when we have to deal unambiguously with situations of great intricacy, situations which unavoidably arise in such activities as legislation, arbitration, mathematics or programming. ~ Edsger Dijkstra,
627:Harry Potter books are generally passed off as great literature, since most adults are now only capable of reading children's books. Television programming targets the lowest common denominator in order to sell products to the largest number of people. The less informed the population, the easier they are to manipulate. Fed a constant diet of "entertainment" sans any intellectual challenge, the mind stops growing and starts to wither ~ James Oroc,
628:If you think affordable DNA sequencers were a scare, or those cloning kits that made the rounds, imagine kids programming nanos in their basements, sharing their designs on the web. It would be worse than when they started printing those plastic guns in those cheap extruder kits. Who knows what they might try and target just for fun? It starts with the neighbor’s cat. The next weekend, someone wipes out an entire species by accident. ~ Hugh Howey,
629:Despite this debate over the value of having an objectivity and balance standard and the difficulty of measuring those values, one can still come up with a set of ―best practices‖ that would allow a news organization or other programming to attempt to achieve this goal. That is what this paper will attempt to do with a list of13 such ―best practices‖ that public media can put in place that will help in terms of objectivity and balance. ~ Anonymous,
630:Wyatt avoided the petty gunfights and headed to a saloon and rigged up a bunch of Molotov cocktails. Her firebombs against members of Tom and Vik's posse had destroyed the scenario's promise of so many wonderful gun duels. She'd killed most of their group, too, and shown everyone that she wasn't getting promoted only because of her programming skills. Her dislike of fighting had paradoxically turned her into a lethal killing machine. ~ S J Kincaid,
631:Even in our own agriculture strategy, if we got a great new drought-resistant seed and we managed to get it distributed in the system, we just assumed that it would reach female farmers. That's a false assumption, because women don't interact with agro-dealers. So if you don't develop specific programming to ensure that seed gets in a woman's hands, then the extra income [generated by higher-yielding crops] goes into her husband's hands. ~ Melinda Gates,
632:Hermes rolled his eyes. "Surely you've seen network TV lately. It's clear they don't know whether they're coming or going. That's because Janus is in charge of programming. He loves ordering new shows and cancelling them after two episodes. God of beginnings and endings, after all. Anyway, I was bringing him some magic doormats, and I was double-parked -" "You have to worry about double-parking?" "Will you let me tell the story?" "Sorry." ~ Rick Riordan,
633:It used to puzzle me: Why do companies advertise during such depressing programming? Do they really want viewers to associate their products with the horror stories that fill the nightly news? And who is going to be in the mood for a department store sale after hearing about a brutal murder or the threat of a terrorist attack? It turns out I might be, and you might be, too, thanks to a psychological phenomenon called terror management. ~ Kelly McGonigal,
634:the founding of Pixar University and Elyse Klaidman’s mind-expanding drawing classes in particular. Those first classes were such a success—of the 120 people who worked at Pixar then, 100 enrolled—that we gradually began expanding P.U.’s curriculum. Sculpting, painting, acting, meditation, belly dancing, live-action filmmaking, computer programming, design and color theory, ballet—over the years, we have offered free classes in all of them. ~ Ed Catmull,
635:John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 - October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist. McCarthy was one of the founders of the discipline of artificial intelligence.[1] He coined the term artificial intelligence (AI), developed the Lisp programming language family, significantly influenced the design of the ALGOL programming language, popularized timesharing, and was very influential in the early development of AI.
   ~ Wikipedia,
636:A Mahler symphony is normally just an aesthetic experience, and a software company is normally just an organization. But we should remember that these too are "technologies" if we choose to see them this way. Mahler is very deliberately "programming" phenomena in our brains. To be specific he is arranging to set up responses in our cochlear nuclei, brain stems, cerebellums, and auditory cortices. At least in this sense Mahler is an engineer. ~ W Brian Arthur,
637:[A]ll the categories of creatures act individually as special-case and may be linearly analyzed; retrospectively, it is discoverable that inadvertently they are all interaffecting one another synergetically as a spherical, interprecessionally regenerative, tensegrity spherical integrity. Geodesic spheres demonstrate the compressionally discontinuous--tensionally continuous integrity. Ecology is tensegrity geodesic spherical programming. ~ R Buckminster Fuller,
638:Debugging: what an odd word. As if "bugging" were the job of putting in bugs, and debugging the task of removing them. But no. The job of putting in bugs is called programming. A programmer writes some code and inevitably makes the mistakes that result in the malfunctions called bugs. Then, for some period of time, normally longer than the time it takes to design and write the code in the first place, the programmer tries to remove the mistakes. ~ Ellen Ullman,
639:Hermes rolled his eyes. "Surely you've seen network TV lately. It's clear they don't know whether they're coming or going. That's because Janus is in charge of programming. He loves ordering new shows and cancelling them after two episodes. God of beginnings and endings, after all. Anyway, I was bringing him some magic doormats, and I was double-parked-"
"You have to worry about double-parking?"
"Will you let me tell the story?"
"Sorry. ~ Rick Riordan,
640:If it turns out that all this time we have merely been studying the programming of a cosmic planetarium, then that would merely mean that we have been studying a smaller portion of reality than we thought. So what? Such things have happened many times in the history of science, as our horizons have expanded beyond the Earth to include the solar system, our Galaxy, other galaxies, clusters of galaxies and so on, and, of course, parallel universes. ~ David Deutsch,
641:Programming is not all the same. Normal written languages have different rhythms and idioms, right? Well, so do programming languages. The language called C is all harsh imperatives, almost raw computer-speak. The language called Lisp is like one long, looping sentence, full of subclauses, so long in fact that you usually forget what it was even about in the first place. The language called Erlang is just like it sounds: eccentric and Scandinavian. ~ Robin Sloan,
642:Bitcoin can be best understood as distributed software that allows for transfer of value using a currency protected from unexpected inflation without relying on trusted third parties. In other words, Bitcoin automates the functions of a modern central bank and makes them predictable and virtually immutable by programming them into code decentralized among thousands of network members, none of whom can alter the code without the consent of the rest. ~ Saifedean Ammous,
643:This entailed switching around by hand ENIAC’s rat’s nest of cables and resetting its switches. At first the programming seemed to be a routine, perhaps even menial task, which may have been why it was relegated to women, who back then were not encouraged to become engineers. But what the women of ENIAC soon showed, and the men later came to understand, was that the programming of a computer could be just as significant as the design of its hardware. ~ Walter Isaacson,
644:In times of widespread chaos and confusion, it has been the duty of more advanced human beings--artists, scientists, clowns and philosophers--to create order. In times such as ours, however, when there is too much order, too much management, too much programming and control, it becomes the duty of superior men and women to fling their favorite monkey wrenches into the machinery. To relive the repression of the human spirit, they must sow doubt and disruption. ~ Tom Robbins,
645:It’s almost as if they’re worshipping something. See how their heads are bowed and their hands folded. Strange behavior.” “Their creators,” Siv said softly, pointed to the wall behind TB-3, where a huge Con Star Mining Corporation logo was painted. “They just want their creators to come back.” Brendol shook his head. “This is why droids need routine maintenance. Their programming goes strange, and they start to act…” “Human?” He gave her a sharp look. “Mad. ~ Delilah S Dawson,
646:Don't take anything personally. Even when a situation seems so personal, even if others insult you directly, it has nothing to do with you. Their point of view and opinion come from all the programming they received growing up. When you take things personally, you feel offended and your reaction is to defend your beliefs and create conflict. You make something big out of something so little because you have the need to be right and make everybody else wrong. ~ Miguel Angel Ruiz,
647:If the tech-philosophers who write think-pieces about their lifestyle and productivity hacks were ever forced to really consider how they live, why they do the things they do, why they’re trying to achieve ‘passive incomes,’ I bet we’d have a lot of twenty-somethings running around, confused, their startups abandoned, their half-finished apps in programming purgatory. Millions of logo t-shirts would go unprinted, thousands of launch parties would remain unthrown. ~ Colin Wright,
648:Programmers are always surrounded by complexity; we cannot avoid it. Our applications are complex because we are ambitious to use our computers in ever more sophisticated ways. Programming is complex because of the large number of conflicting objectives for each of our programming projects. If our basic tool, the language in which we design and code our programs, is also complicated, the language itself becomes part of the problem rather than part of its solution. ~ C A R Hoare,
649:Men are noisy, narrow-band devices, but their nervous systems have very many parallel and simultaneously active channels. Relative to men, computing machines are very fast and very accurate, but they are constrained to perform only one or a few elementary operations at a time. Men are flexible, capable of "programming themselves contingently" on the basis of newly received information. Computing machines are single-minded, constrained by their "pre-programming." ~ J C R Licklider,
650:Loic Le Meur, producer of LeWeb, Europe’s largest tech conference, is an ardent fitness enthusiast and Quantified Self proponent. In August 2010, he suggested in a blog post that as people and mobile devices work together to provide highly personalized data, the human body itself becomes an Application Programming Interface (API), meaning that developers can now offer personalized mobile apps for each individual by letting their computer codes talk with each other. ~ Robert Scoble,
651:One of the reasons the rich get richer, the poor get poorer, and the middle class struggles in debt is because the subject of money is taught at home, not in school. Most of us learn about money from our parents. So what can a poor parent tell their child about money? They simply say "Stay in school and study hard." The child may graduate with excellent grades but with a poor person's financial programming and mind-set. It was learned while the child was young. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
652:When the veterans in the group were growing up, computers were quite rare and expensive, but Veres went to school in the age when anyone with a little money and skill could make up a small personal system. Veres says that what he does at home is different enough from what he does at work to serve as recreation for him. At work he deals with hardware; when he’s at home, he focuses on software—reading programming manuals and creating new software for his own computer. ~ Tracy Kidder,
653:Although my own previous enthusiasm has been for syntactically rich languages like the Algol family, I now see clearly and concretely the force of Minsky's 1970 Turing lecture, in which he argued that Lisp's uniformity of structure and power of self reference gave the programmer capabilities whose content was well worth the sacrifice of visual form. ~ Robert Floyd, "The Paradigms of Programming", 1978 Turing Award Lecture, Communications of the ACM 22 (8), August 1979: pp. 455–460.,
654:I don’t predict the demise of object-oriented programming, by the way. Though I don’t think it has much to offer good programmers, except in certain specialized domains, it is irresistible to large organizations. Object-oriented programming offers a sustainable way to write spaghetti code. It lets you accrete programs as a series of patches. Large organizations always tend to develop software this way, and I expect this to be as true in a hundred years as it is today. ~ Paul Graham,
655:I like my code to be elegant and efficient. The logic should be straightforward to make it hard
for bugs to hide, the dependencies minimal to ease maintenance, error handling complete according to an articulated strategy, and performance
close to optimal so as not to tempt
people to make the code messy with unprincipled optimizations. Clean code does one thing well.

-Bjarne Stroustrup, inventor of C++
and author of The C++ Programming
Language ~ Robert C Martin,
656:Punishment symptoms Many of the other types of programming produce psychiatric symptoms, usually administered as punishments by insiders who are trained to administer them, if the survivor has breached security or disobeyed the abusers' instructions in other ways. These symptoms serve a variety of purposes, such as disrupting therapy, getting the survivor into hospital, or getting the survivor to return to the perpetrators to have the programming reinforced.
p126 ~ Alison Miller,
657:Beauty is more important in computing than anywhere else in technology because software is so complicated. Beauty is the ultimate defense against complexity. ... The geniuses of the computer field, on the the other hand, are the people with the keenest aesthetic senses, the ones who are capable of creating beauty. Beauty is decisive at every level: the most important interfaces, the most important programming languages, the winning algorithms are the beautiful ones. ~ David Gelernter,
658:One of the reasons the rich get richer, the poor get poorer, and the middle class struggles in debt is because the subject of money is taught at home, not in school. Most of us learn about money from our parents. So what can a poor parent tell their child about money? They simply say "Stay in school and study hard." The child may graduate with excellent grades but with a poor person's financial programming and mind-set.
It was learned while the child was young. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
659:The reality is a lot more mundane: design and programming are just professions—sets of skills and practices, just like any other field. Admitting that truth would make tech positions feel a lot more welcoming to diverse employees, but tech can’t tell that story to the masses. If it did, then the industry would seem normal, understandable, and accessible—and that would make everyday people more comfortable pushing back when its ideas are intrusive or unethical. ~ Sara Wachter Boettcher,
660:Are the individual functions in your modules too large? This is not so much a matter of line count as it is of internal complexity. If you can’t informally describe a function’s contract with its callers in one line, the function is probably too large.9 9 Many years ago, I learned from Kernighan & Plauger’s The Elements of Programming Style a useful rule. Write that one-line comment immediately after the prototype of your function. For every function, without exception. ~ Eric S Raymond,
661:Girls practically invented programming,” she said. “Jean Bartik, Marlyn Wescoff, Fran Bilas—they all programmed ENIAC.” I had no idea what she was talking about. “And don’t forget Margaret Hamilton. She wrote the software that let Apollo 11 land on the moon.” “I meant programming video games,” I said. “Dona Bailey, Centipede. Brenda Romero, Wizardry. Roberta Williams, King’s Quest. She designed her first computer game at the kitchen table. I interviewed her for school last year. ~ Jason Rekulak,
662:deliberate practice” to describe this style of serious study, defining it formally as an “activity designed, typically by a teacher, for the sole purpose of effectively improving specific aspects of an individual’s performance.”4 As hundreds of follow-up studies have since shown, deliberate practice provides the key to excellence in a diverse array of fields, among which are chess, medicine, auditing, computer programming, bridge, physics, sports, typing, juggling, dance, and music. ~ Cal Newport,
663:There’s sort of a collective AI in Google Search, where we’re all sort of plugged in like nodes on the network; like leaves on a big tree. And we’re all feeding this network with our questions and answers. We’re all collectively programming the AI. And Google, plus all the humans that connect to it, are one giant cybernetic collective. This is also true of Facebook and Twitter and Instagram, and all these social networks. They’re giant cybernetic collectives. ~ Elon Musk, Human Civilization and AI,
664:In the last 10 years, we have seen a rise in selfishness: selfies, self-absorbed people, superficiality, self-degradation, apathy, and self-destruction. So I challenge all of you to take initiative to change this programming. Instead of celebrating the ego, let's flip the script and celebrate the heart. Let's put the ego and celebrity culture to sleep, and awaken the conscience. This is the battle we must all fight together to win back our humanity. To save our future and our children. ~ Suzy Kassem,
665:What I mean is that if you really want to understand something, the best way is to try and explain it to someone else. That forces you to sort it out in your own mind. And the more slow and dim-witted your pupil, the more you have to break things down into more and more simple ideas. And that’s really the essence of programming. By the time you’ve sorted out a complicated idea into little steps that even a stupid machine can deal with, you’ve certainly learned something about it yourself. ~ Douglas Adams,
666:In “securing” people, make them really really afraid. Create all kinds of colors and alerts that terrorize the population. Terror and numbness will eventually be mistaken for security. In “securing” people, take away their opinions and voices and instincts. Make them feel afraid to speak out. Control will eventually be mistaken for security. In “securing” people, distract them through addictive consumption and mindless entertainment programming. Amnesia will eventually be mistaken for security. ~ Eve Ensler,
667:Shared memory could reasonably be called the GOTO of our time: it’s the current mainstream technique for process communication; it has been so for a long, long time; and just like programming with GOTO, there are numerous ways to shoot yourself in the foot. This has imbued generations of engineers with a deep fear of concurrency (and those who don’t fear it haven’t tried it yet). Still, we must admit that like GOTO, there is a low-level niche for shared memory where it probably can’t be replaced. ~ Anonymous,
668:The vision we have of conversational programming takes in much more than rapid turn around time and convenient debugging aids: our most interesting programs are never wrong and never final. [...] What is new is the requirement to make variable in our languages what we had previously taken as fixed. I do not refer to new data classes now, but to variables whose values are programs or parts of programs, syntax or parts of syntax, and regimes of control. ~ Alan Perlis, The Synthesis of Algorithmic Systems, 1966,
669:Our culture is hardwired with a Christian value system. Even if, like myself, you have never been a believer your mindset will still be shot through with this morality. Our deepest drives are distorted by an internal censor. Whether this is a bearded man sat on a cloud, or a sense of vague guilt will depend on your individual programming. Face up to it. Even if you are enlightened enough to be nodding along with what I’m saying you still have fetters on your freedom that have not yet been struck. ~ Peter Grey,
670:The book Dynamic Programming by Richard Bellman is an important, pioneering work in which a group of problems is collected together at the end of some chapters under the heading "Exercises and Research Problems," with extremely trivial questions appearing in the midst of deep, unsolved problems. It is rumored that someone once asked Dr. Bellman how to tell the exercises apart from the research problems, and he replied: "If you can solve it, it is an exercise; otherwise it's a research problem." ~ Donald Knuth,
671:Although mathematical notation undoubtedly possesses parsing rules, they are rather loose, sometimes contradictory, and seldom clearly stated. [...] The proliferation of programming languages shows no more uniformity than mathematics. Nevertheless, programming languages do bring a different perspective. [...] Because of their application to a broad range of topics, their strict grammar, and their strict interpretation, programming languages can provide new insights into mathematical notation. ~ Kenneth E Iverson,
672:The conference guide yielded up a plethora of fascinating talks: Neural Substrates of Symbolic Reasoning, Intelligence and Prospects for Increasing It, Emotive-Loop Programming: A New Path to Artificial General Intelligence. How could they even hold these talks? In the US the topics of half of them would be classified as Emerging Technological Threats. No wonder the international meeting trumps the US neuroscience meetings these days, Kade thought. The cutting edge stuff isn’t legal at home any more. ~ Ramez Naam,
673:Its all a matter of weeding out the bad and cultivating more productive thoughts. And just like pulling weeds, you have to get to the root otherwise that weed, the self-doubt, that negative programming, will spring back up and shoke off the flower that can blossom for you in the future.Be consistent. Apply that "weed off" whenever you feel the need. Every day see the brighter side of things. Continually tell yourself how lucky you are, how good your life is right now, and how things can only get better ~ Dave Pelzer,
674:The private stories I made up for my own enjoyment tended toward the creation of slightly scary and definitely inhuman erotic machinery: androids who would do only what their programming commanded, or machines into which one could fit one’s naked and tender flesh without fear of any intrusion by the banally human. The conditioned fearfulness of a terrorized and dependent girlhood led me away from imagining any actual human sexual contact with other fearful, or possibly dangerous, humans like myself. ~ Dorothy Allison,
675:Most of us become so rigidly fixed in the ruts carved out by genetic programming and social conditioning that we ignore the options of choosing any other course of action. Living exclusively by genetic and social instructions is fine as long as everything goes well. But the moment bioloical or social goals are frustrated- which in the long run is inevitable - a person must formulate new goals, and create a new flow activity for himself, or else he will always waste his energies in inner turmoil. ~ Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi,
676:You will become what you think about most; your success or failure in anything, large or small, will depend on your programming—what you accept from others, and what you say when you talk to yourself. It is no longer a success theory; it is a simple, but powerful, fact. Neither luck nor desire has the slightest thing to do with it. It makes no difference whether consciously accept it or not. The brain simply believes what you tell it most. And what you tell it about you, it will create. It has no choice. ~ Shad Helmstetter,
677:Iko ducked her head. "When we saw the feed of you jumping off that ledge, I was so scared I thought my wiring was going to catch fire. And I thought, I will do anything to make sure she's all right." She kicked at a pile of stray screws on the carpet. "I guess some programming never goes away, no matter how evolved a personality chip gets>"
Licking some jam from her fingertips, Cinder grinned. "That's not programming, you wing nut. That's friendship."
Iko's eyes brightened. "Maybe you're right. ~ Marissa Meyer,
678:And ultimately, it's good for all of us to have more original programming on the air. Business doesn't drive the creative. So, in identifying a project like Dovekeepers, looking at something like Extant and looking at Under the Dome, it was about falling in love with a piece of material, getting excited by the creative direction, hearing a vision, and getting excited about the potential for those projects and building the business model around it. And they're not all modeled the same way. Every one is different. ~ Nina Tassler,
679:If our style is masterful, if it is fluid and at the same time complete, then we can re-create ourselves, or rather, we can re-create the Infinite Goof within us. We can live on top of content, float above the predictable responses, social programming and hereditary circuitry, letting the bits of color and electricity and light filter up to us, where we may incorporate them at will into our actions. That's what the voices said. They said that content is what a man harbors but does not parade. And I love a parade. ~ Tom Robbins,
680:Much of contemporary "realism" turns out to be just a variation on good old fashioned fatalism: people feel relieved of responsibility by recourse to the concept of 'nature'. By nature, however, we are born ignorant. Therefore should we try not to learn? Some people produce more than the usual amount of androgens and therefore become excessively aggressive. Does that mean we should freely express violence? We cannot. Submission to genetic programming can become dangerous, because it leaves us helpless. ~ Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi,
681:Pestilence, poverty, starvation, wars, and daytime TV programming have all plagued human existence for too long. These problems are not insolvable, however. All that’s required is brain power. Evolved human brain power has not been enough. We need more power. With the rapid development of processing ability, computers are positioned to overtake human abilities and move beyond to a position where they can solve our problems. Thus, we anticipate Singularity to occur at 18:15:32 on Sunday, two weeks from this coming. ~ Neil Clarke,
682:Underlying this whole endeavor is a highly mechanistic conception of how the mind works. The idea is to finely sense the workings of the machine and use that understanding to rewire it, to subvert its programming, to radically alter its response to the causes, the conditions, impinging on it. Doing this doesn’t let you enter “the unconditioned” in the strict sense; it doesn’t let you literally escape the realm of cause and effect. Then again, airplanes don’t literally defy the law of gravity. But they still fly. ~ Robert Wright,
683:The conception of list processing as an abstraction created a new world in which designation and dynamic symbolic structure were the defining characteristics. The embedding of the early list processing systems in languages (the IPLs, LISP) is often decried as having been a barrier to the diffusion of list processing techniques throughout programming practice; but it was the vehicle that held the abstraction together. ~ Allen Newell and Herbert Simon, 1975 Turing Award Lecture[2], Communications of the ACM 19 (3), (March 1976): p. 118.,
684:I learned that Bill himself has long appreciated the importance of competencies other than talent. Back in the days when he had a more direct role in hiring software programmers at Microsoft, for instance, he said he’d give applicants a programming task he knew would require hours and hours of tedious troubleshooting. This wasn’t an IQ test, or a test of programming skills. Rather, it was a test of a person’s ability to muscle through, press on, get to the finish line. Bill only hired programmers who finished what they began. ~ Angela Duckworth,
685:My impression was and is that many programming languages and tools represent solutions looking for problems, and I was determined that my work should not fall into that category. Thus, I follow the literature on programming languages and the debates about programming languages primarily looking for ideas for solutions to problems my colleagues and I have encountered in real applications. Other programming languages constitute a mountain of ideas and inspiration-but it has to be mined carefully to avoid featurism and inconsistencies. ~ Bjarne Stroustrup,
686:As artists and professionals it is our obligation to enact our own internal revolution, a private insurrection inside our own skulls. In this uprising we free ourselves from the tyranny of consumer culture. We overthrow the programming of advertising, movies, video games, magazines, TV, and MTV by which we have been hypnotized from the cradle. We unplug ourselves from the grid by recognizing that we will never cure our restlessness by contributing our disposable income to the bottom line of Bullshit, Inc., but only by doing our work. ~ Steven Pressfield,
687:nabla9 on July 15, 2018 [-] \n\nCommon Lisp as hackish vs protective is nice way to describe it.\n\nAnother way to describe it exploratory vs implementatory.\n\nIn some ways Common Lisp is like Mathematica for programming. It's a language for a computer architect to develop and explore high level concept. It's not a accident that early Javascript prototype was done in common lisp or that metaobject protocols, aspect-oriented programming, etc. were first implemented and experimented with Common Lisp. ~ site, https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=17533341,
688:Generative testing is an approach to testing software that was made popular by the QuickCheck library. Originally written in Haskell and since ported to several other programming languages (Ruby, Python, C, C++, Objective-C, Smalltalk, Java, JavaScript, Erlang, Scala, Clojure...), the QuickCheck library allows the developer to separate test logic from the generation of test cases. This means that, as developers, we can spend less time instructing the compiler how to test our code, and focus instead on what properties we expect our code to have. ~ Anonymous,
689:What I mean is that if you really want to understand something, the best way is to try and explain it to someone else. That forces you to sort it out in your mind. And the more slow and dim-witted your pupil, the more you have to break things down into more and more simple ideas. And that's really the essence of programming. By the time you've sorted out a complicated idea into little steps that even a stupid machine can deal with, you've learned something about it yourself... The teacher usually learns more than the pupils. Isn't that true? ~ Douglas Adams,
690:Living alone,' November whispered, 'is a skill, like running long distance or programming old computers. You have to know parameters, protocols. You have to learn them so well that they become like a language: to have music always so that the silence doesn't overwhelm you, to perform your work exquisitely well so that your time is filled. You have to allow yourself to open up until you are the exact size of the place you live, no more or else you get restless. No less, or else you drown. There are rules; there are ways of being and not being. ~ Catherynne M Valente,
691:He's stopped reading The Great Minds of Western Philosophy completely, and spend all his time programming, which really is his superpower. I mean, there are lots of superheroes with different superpowers, and some of them are big and flashy, like superstrength, and superspeed, and molecular restructuring, and force fields. But these abilities are really not so different from the superpower stuff that old Jiko could do, like moving superslow, or reading people's minds, or appearing in doorways, or making people feel okay about themselves just by being there. ~ Ruth Ozeki,
692:What I mean is that if you really want to understand something, the best way is to try and explain it to someone else. That forces you to sort it out in your own mind. And the more slow and dim-witted your pupil, the more you have to break things down into more and more simple ideas. And that’s really the essence of programming. By the time you’ve sorted out a complicated idea
into little steps that even a stupid machine can deal with, you’ve certainly learned something about it yourself. The teacher usually learns more than the pupil. Isn’t that true? ~ Douglas Adams,
693:probably the most important fact about genetics and culture is the delayed maturation of the frontal cortex—the genetic programming for the young frontal cortex to be freer from genes than other brain regions, to be sculpted instead by environment, to sop up cultural norms. To hark back to a theme from the first pages of this book, it doesn’t take a particularly fancy brain to learn how to motorically, say, throw a punch. But it takes a fancy, environmentally malleable frontal cortex to learn culture-specific rules about when it’s okay to throw punches. ~ Robert M Sapolsky,
694:What is the central core of the subject [computer science]? What is it that distinguishes it from the separate subjects with which it is related? What is the linking thread which gathers these disparate branches into a single discipline. My answer to these questions is simple -it is the art of programming a computer. It is the art of designing efficient and elegant methods of getting a computer to solve problems, theoretical or practical, small or large, simple or complex. It is the art of translating this design into an effective and accurate computer program. ~ Tony Hoare,
695:To Learn is to create. Learning- whether it is programming, mathematics, art, music, poetry, biology, or chemistry- is all about breaking down walls and freeing the one thing that kept us alive: knowledge.

Knowledge expands freedom in all its forms. Knowledge breaks down walls. It liberates the oppressed. We are committed to knowledge. Knowledge as a hammer against classism, against sexism, against racism, against gender discrimination, against slavery, against bigotry, against war, against hatred. If there is darkness in the world, we will light it up. ~ Leopoldo Gout,
696:when Hurley, Chen, and Karim sat down to create YouTube, they built the service by stitching together elements from three different platforms: the Web itself, of course, but also Adobe’s Flash platform, which handled all the video playback, and the programming language Javascript, which allowed end users to embed video clips on their own sites. Their ability to build on top of these existing platforms explains why three guys could build YouTube in six months, while an army of expert committees and electronics companies took twenty years to make HDTV a reality. ~ Steven Johnson,
697:Are you still an android?” Cinder said around a bite of toast. “Sometimes I forget.” “Me too.” Iko ducked her head. “When we saw the feed of you jumping off that ledge, I was so scared I thought my wiring was going to catch fire. And I thought, I will do anything to make sure she’s all right.” She kicked at a pile of stray screws on the carpet. “I guess some programming never goes away, no matter how evolved a personality chip gets.” Licking some jam from her fingertips, Cinder grinned. “That’s not programming, you wing nut. That’s friendship.” Iko’s eyes brightened. ~ Marissa Meyer,
698:I think that's so particularly exciting about this moment in time is all the new platforms that are now existing, the Netflixes and the Hulus and Amazons and so and so forth; I mean they are really doing what pay TV was doing twenty years ago. So a show like Dancing On The Edge gets to have a digital life after it's playing on Starz. I think what's exciting is how these new platforms are providing more opportunities both for first-run programming on the one hand but also for second plays for shows that have appeared first either on traditional broadcast or on cable. ~ Colin Callender,
699:All modern manufacturing disciplines have roots in preindustry except software, whose unique medium appeared well after industrialization was a fait accompli. Only programming comes directly from academia, where there are no time limits on research, student power is dirt cheap, profit is against the rules, and a failing program can be considered a very successful experiment. It's not a coincidence that Microsoft, IBM, Oracle, and other leading software companies reside in "campuses." Universities never have to make money, hit deadlines, or build desirable, useful products. ~ Alan Cooper,
700:In his book Software Abstractions, MIT Professor Daniel Jackson explains just how important it is to choose the right abstractions. "Pick the right ones, and programming will flow naturally from design; modules will have small and simple interfaces; and new functionality will more likely fit in without extensive reorganization, " Jackson writes. "Pick the wrong ones, and programming will be a series of nasty surprises: interfaces will become baroque and clumsy as they are forced to accommodate unanticipated interactions, and even the simplest of changes will be hard to make. ~ Edmond Lau,
701:Richard continued, “What I mean is that if you really want to understand something, the best way is to try and explain it to someone else. That forces you to sort it out in your own mind. And the more slow and dim-witted your pupil, the more you have to break things down into more and more simple ideas. And that’s really the essence of programming. By the time you’ve sorted out a complicated idea into little steps that even a stupid machine can deal with, you’ve certainly learned something about it yourself. The teacher usually learns more than the pupil. Isn’t that true? ~ Douglas Adams,
702:Few things in cultural programming in the mass media are quite as disturbing as watching Charlie Rose leaning forward, craning out over his table, peering deeply, on the very precipice of an incisive question sure to reveal a real Idea, a slim, almost excited smile starting to form on his lips as he imagines the dawning joy of the intellectual life revealed for himself and his audience, and we move with the camera, oh-so-sincerely, to his guest and see that all this expectation and anticipation is addressed to . . . Lance Armstrong. Or Ron “Opie” Howard. Or Gary Shandling….. ~ Curtis White,
703:Of the computer people the only one who had impressed Robert as an engineer was Clark himself. "Take Lance," Robert said, when Steve popped upstairs. I'd missed Lance on this trip, and his attempt to infuse computer programming with the romantic spirit. "Lance is an unusually intelligent man," said Robert. "Yet the guy can't remember where he left his shoes. And when he goes to Amsterdam for a visit, he gets ripped off. What you need to be a good engineer is a set of skills, in addition to a logical process. Some people have an aptitude for it; some people never will." p231 ~ Michael Lewis,
704:when a computer program beats a grandmaster at chess, the two are not using even remotely similar algorithms. The grandmaster can explain why it seemed worth sacrificing the knight for strategic advantage and can write an exciting book on the subject. The program can only prove that the sacrifice does not force a checkmate, and cannot write a book because it has no clue even what the objective of a chess game is. Programming AGI is not the same sort of problem as programming Jeopardy or chess. An AGI is qualitatively, not quantitatively, different from all other computer programs. ~ Anonymous,
705:So much of our politics is stuck in patterns of response that aren't working. When student performance is declining in schools, we implement more controls, more testing, more "accountability," more rigor. We apply even more of those things, from security systems to control of students' behavior through pharmaceutical drugs. That's a situation in which doing is only making things worse. You may have to go through a phase of de-programming, letting go of old habits, coming to stillness, before you can even see what the pattern of action was, and what alternatives there might be. ~ Charles Eisenstein,
706:In the US, commercial interests stole the airwaves early on, before public broadcasters could get a stab at it. And the deal that was made with public broadcasting was, "Okay, we'll allow there to be a handful of public stations to do the educational programming that commercial broadcasters don't want to do, but the deal is they can't do anything that can generate an audience, anything that's commercially viable." Anything they do that could be commercially viable could be considered unfair competition to commercial interests and should only be on the commercial stations. ~ Robert Waterman McChesney,
707:There is no logical reason to think that a tire company should be a food critic, but a hundred years ago, Michelin tires started reviewing rural restaurants to encourage people living in the cities to drive farther and wear their tires out more quickly. Guinness created the Guinness Book of World Records to reinforce its brand and give people something to talk about in the pubs. Similarly, I predict that one day a brand like Nike could put out its own sports programming and compete successfully against ESPN, or Amtrak could launch a publication that could stand up to Travel + Leisure. ~ Gary Vaynerchuk,
708:We have to create conditions where people feel safe to feel and to care. That goes against a lot of our programming about how to make something change in the world. Sometimes you can pressure people into changing, you can force them, but the powers-that-be have more force than we do. I don't think we're going to win in a contest of force. I think we need to induce a change of heart. The narrative of "us versus them" is ultimately part of the problem. Traditional activism, which is about overcoming the latest bad guy, isn't deep enough. It just brings us another version of the same. ~ Charles Eisenstein,
709:I am a design chauvinist. I believe that good design is magical and not to be lightly tinkered with. The difference between a great design and a lousy one is in the meshing of the thousand details that either fit or don't, and the spirit of the passionate intellect that has tied them together, or tried. That's why programming - or buying software - on the basis of "lists of features" is a doomed and misguided effort. The features can be thrown together, as in a garbage can, or carefully laid together and interwoven in elegant unification, as in APL, or the Forth language, or the game of chess. ~ Ted Nelson,
710:During the coming days, the wealth of America kept astonishing me. The television had programming from morning till night. I had never been in an elevator before and when I pressed a button in the elevator and the elevator “started moving, I felt powerful that it had to obey me. In our shiny brass mailbox in the lobby, we received ads on colored paper. In India colored paper could be sold to the recycler for more money than newsprint. The sliding glass doors of our apartment building would open when we approached. Each time this happened, I felt that we had been mistaken for somebody important. ~ Akhil Sharma,
711:Your whole mind is a fog which the Toltecs called a mitote (pronounced MIH-TOE´-TAY). Your mind is a dream where a thousand people talk at the same time, and nobody understands each other. This is the condition of the human mind — a big mitote, and with that big mitote you cannot see what you really are. In India they call the mitote maya, which means illusion. It is the personality’s notion of “I am.” Everything you believe about yourself and the world, all the concepts and programming you have in your mind, are all the mitote. We cannot see who we truly are; we cannot see that we are not free. ~ Miguel Ruiz,
712:How to convey, to someone who had never seen even depictions on film or holograph, the centuries of mass destruction berserkers had visited upon the galaxy, the documented cases of individual horrors? Whole planets had been sterilized, whole solar systems laid waste by the unliving enemy. People by the thousands or tens of thousands had perished in berserkers’ experiments aimed at discovering what made the strange two-legged Earth- descended blobs of protoplasm so resistant to the fundamental truth-assumption of the berserkers’ programming: that life was a disease of matter that had to be expunged. ~ Fred Saberhagen,
713:Adam, though Jewish, was from the north side of Chicago and considered himself a homie, as was evidenced by his low-slung baggy jeans and the insertion of out-of-context Snoop Dogg lyrics into almost every conversation. (I hate the fucking word “wigger” more than I hate anything else on earth, but if I’m being totally honest, that’s exactly what this dude was even though it grosses me out to say so.) He had large, sleepy brown eyes and a slow smile and was the kind of guy who hit on black girls by demonstrating his encyclopedic knowledge of Luster’s Pink oil hair lotion and BET prime-time programming. ~ Samantha Irby,
714:LISP is now the second oldest programming language in present widespread use (after FORTRAN)... Its core occupies some kind of local optimum in the space of programming languages given that static friction discourages purely notational changes. Recursive use of conditional expressions, representation of symbolic information externally by lists and internally by list structure, and representation of program in the same way will probably have a very long life. ~ John McCarthy (1974) "History of Lisp," as quoted in: Avron Barr, Edward Feigenbaum. The Handbook of artificial intelligence, Volume 2. Addison-Wesley, 1986. p. 5.,
715:Encapsulation is a good thing, right? Well, don’t ask testers about that; they are liable to bite your head off. Classes that are too big often hide too much. Encapsulation is great when it helps us reason about our code and when we know that certain things can be changed only under certain circumstances. However, when we encapsulate too much, the stuff inside rots and festers. There isn’t any easy way to sense the effects of change, so people fall back on Edit and Pray (9) programming. At that point, either changes take far too long or the bug count increases. You have to pay for the lack of clarity somehow. ~ Michael C Feathers,
716:Kids don't watch when they are stimulated and look away when they are bored. They watch when they understand and look away when they are confused. If you are in the business of educational television, this is a critical difference. It means if you want to know whether-and what-kids are learning from a TV show, all you have to do is to notice what they are watching. And if you want to know what kids aren't learning, all you have to do is notice what they aren't watching. Preschoolers are so sophisticated in their viewing behavior that you can determine the stickiness of children's programming by simple observation. ~ Malcolm Gladwell,
717:Satisfying consumers was not a priority. To get an apartment in the 1980s, applicants in Bulgaria had to wait up to 20 years, and those in Poland, up to 30 years; a quarter of the people filling the Soviet waiting lists were already pensioners. Car buyers in East Germany had to place their orders 15 years in advance. In Romania, the dictator Nicolae Ceausescu put all citizens on a low-calorie diet in the early 1980s to save money for repaying the country’s foreign debt. He limited lighting to one 40-watt bulb per room, heating in public buildings to 57 degrees Fahrenheit, and television programming to two tedious hours a day. ~ Anonymous,
718:Born tired and raised lazy, the typical country music fan was a backwards, tobacco chewing, snaggle toothed, inbred, beer swilling boob who couldn’t pour piss from a boot with directions printed on the heel. This crude portrayal, probably a creation of the liberal East Coast media elite, might once have contained a grain of truth. However, thanks to the reams of research compiled by country radio programming consultants, we now know better. Today we know the typical country music fan is a home-owning, college educated, city-dwelling, constantly-on-the-cell-phone, Suburban driver, earning between $40,000 and $100,000 a year. ~ Steve Brewer,
719:About ten other young, male undergraduates regularly attended these sessions of midnight programming. “It was a whole subculture. It’s been popularized now, but it was a secret cult in my days,” said Alsing. “The game of programming—and it is a game—was so fascinating. We’d stay up all night and experience it. It really is like a drug, I think.” A few of his fellow midnight programmers began to ignore their girlfriends and eventually lost them for the sake of playing with the machine all night. Some started sleeping days and missed all their classes, thereby ruining their grades. Alsing and a few others flunked out of school. ~ Tracy Kidder,
720:The hazards of imitative competition may partially explain why individuals with an Asperger’s-like social ineptitude seem to be at an advantage in Silicon Valley today. If you’re less sensitive to social cues, you’re less likely to do the same things as everyone else around you. If you’re interested in making things or programming computers, you’ll be less afraid to pursue those activities single-mindedly and thereby become incredibly good at them. Then when you apply your skills, you’re a little less likely than others to give up your own convictions: this can save you from getting caught up in crowds competing for obvious prizes. ~ Anonymous,
721:Why?” “Yes, why? I mean there’s two kinds of activities here, there’s the exploration of Mars and then there’s the life support for that exploration. And here you’ve been completely immersed in the life support, without paying the slightest attention to the reason we came in the first place!” “Well, it’s what I like to do,” Nadia said uneasily. “Fine, but try to keep some perspective on it! What the hell, you could have stayed back on Earth and been a plumber! You didn’t have to come all this way to drive a goddamn bulldozer! Just how long are you going to go on grubbing away here, installing toilets, programming tractors? ~ Kim Stanley Robinson,
722:The computer makes the work more efficient—it eliminates or reduces the extraneous tasks, like flipping through books or blotting out typos with Wite-Out—but what it leaves is still arduous. It’s the irreducible mental work computers can’t do. Instead of being liberated to play baseball, Danny and Co. are up late into the night programming. At the end of the semester, Miss Arnold reveals that they have won special homework awards—light compensation for so many evenings lost. The Luddites who smashed laborsaving machines two centuries ago don’t look so crazy now. The kids would have been better off if they had never learned to code. ~ Malcolm Harris,
723:Floating in the tank after a busy day’s work brings a great relief. Suddenly all of the stimulation of holding one upright against gravity disappears. One realizes that a good deal of the fatigue accumulated during the day is caused by keeping one’s body upright in a gravitational field. From a neurophysiological standpoint, one has immediately freed up very large masses of neurons from the necessity of constant computations (as to the direction of gravity, the programming by visual and acoustic inputs, by temperature changes, etcetera). For example, one’s cerebellum is now freed for uses other than balancing the body. In summary, then, ~ John C Lilly,
724:John von Neumann (/vɒn ˈnɔɪmən/; Hungarian: Neumann Janos Lajos, pronounced [ˈnɒjmɒn ˈjaːnoʃ ˈlɒjoʃ]; December 28, 1903 - February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, inventor, computer scientist, and polymath. He made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics (foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, geometry, topology, and numerical analysis), physics (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and quantum statistical mechanics), economics (game theory), computing (Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, self-replicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics.
   ~ Wikipedia,
725:Systems Test No parts of the schedule are so thoroughly affected by sequential constraints as component debugging and system test. Furthermore, the time required depends on the number and subtlety of the errors encountered. Theoretically this number should be zero. Because of optimism, we usually expect the number of bugs to be smaller than it turns out to be. Therefore testing is usually the most mis-scheduled part of programming. For some years I have been successfully using the following rule of thumb for scheduling a software task: l /3 planning l/6 coding l/4 component test and early system test l/4 system test, all components in hand. ~ Anonymous,
726:[T]he Federal Communications Commission should reestablish two principles that formerly served this country well: the public service requirement and the fairness doctrine. Every television and radio station should once again be required to devote a meaningful percentage of its programming to public service broadcasting. The public, after all, owns the airwaves through which signals are broadcast, and the rights-of-way in which cables are strung. And every television and radio station should once again have to follow the fairness doctrine: those with opposing views should have the right to respond to viewpoints expressed on the station. ~ Bernie Sanders,
727:I like to think (and
the sooner the better!)
of a cybernetic meadow
where mammels and computers
live together in mutually
programming harmony
like pure water
touching clear sky.

I like to think
(right now, please!)
of a cybernetic forest
filled with pines and electronics
where deer stroll peacefully
past computers
as if they were flowers
with spinning blossoms.
I like to think
(it has to be!)
of a cybernetic ecology
where we are free of our labors
and joined back to nature,
returned to our mammal
brothers and sisters,
and all watched over
by machines of loving grace. ~ Richard Brautigan,
728:Imagine walking into a dark room and flipping on the light switch. You have performed this simple habit so many times that it occurs without thinking. You proceed through all four stages in the fraction of a second. The urge to act strikes you without thinking. By the time we become adults, we rarely notice the habits that are running our lives. Most of us never give a second thought to the fact that we tie the same shoe first each morning, or unplug the toaster after each use, or always change into comfortable clothes after getting home from work. After decades of mental programming, we automatically slip into these patterns of thinking and acting. ~ James Clear,
729:When we are in the dream state, we do not know what we are doing. We are simply acting out of deep programming. But once we have seen the true nature of things-- once Spirit has opened its eyes within us-- we suddenly know what we're doing. There's a much more accurate sense of whether we're moving or speaking or even thinking from truth or not. When we act from a place of untruth anyway, in spite of our knowing, it's much more painful than we we didn't know our actions were untrue. When we say something to someone that we know is untrue, it causes an inner division that is vastly more painful than when we said the same thing and thought it was true. ~ Adyashanti,
730:For example, many software dynasties have been established on the backs of very young, very inexperienced programmers. They were likely given a free hand with programming issues, and the pairing of immense responsibility with immense authority can often be a crucible for creating greatness. The same forces apply in interaction design. If someone is given the responsibility for product quality, and she is given authority equal to it, she will often rise to the challenge regardless of her experience. If you take a suitable person and give her full control over the quality and behavior of a product, you will have a much, much better product than if you don't. ~ Alan Cooper,
731:The Largest Disservice to LISP is most frequently done whenever a LISP advocate opens his/her mouth. LISP advocates have been, in my limited and biased experience, some of the most arrogant and condescending bastards in the world. (…) I have heard more than one LISP advocate state such subjective comments as, "LISP is the most powerful and elegant programming language in the world" and expect such comments to be taken as objective truth. I have never heard a Java, C++, C, Perl, or Python advocate make the same claim about their own language of choice. ~ Comment on Slashdot - Response: "To be fair, the Java, C++, C, Perl or Python advocate wouldn't have much of a case...",
732:Programming, and especially debugging, sometimes brings out strong emotions. If you are struggling with a difficult bug, you might feel angry, despondent or embarrassed. There is evidence that people naturally respond to computers as if they were people 2 . When they work well, we think of them as teammates, and when they are obstinate or rude, we respond to them the same way we respond to rude, obstinate people. Preparing for these reactions might help you deal with them. One approach is to think of the computer as an employee with certain strengths, like speed and precision, and particular weaknesses, like lack of empathy and inability to grasp the big picture ~ Anonymous,
733:The Pragmatic Programmer, a well-regarded book in the computer programming field, makes this connection between code and old-style craftsmanship more directly by quoting the medieval quarry worker’s creed in its preface: “We who cut mere stones must always be envisioning cathedrals.” The book then elaborates that computer programmers must see their work in the same way: Within the overall structure of a project there is always room for individuality and craftsmanship… One hundred years from now, our engineering may seem as archaic as the techniques used by medieval cathedral builders seem to today’s civil engineers, while our craftsmanship will still be honored. ~ Cal Newport,
734:Gosper had disdained NASA’s human-wave approach toward things. He had been adamant in defending the AI lab’s more individualistic form of hacker elegance in programming, and in computing style in general. But now he saw how the real world, when it got its mind made up, could have an astounding effect. NASA had not applied the Hacker Ethic, yet it had done something the lab, for all its pioneering, never could have done. Gosper realized that the ninth-floor hackers were in some sense deluding themselves, working on machines of relatively little power compared to the computers of the future — yet still trying to do it all, change the world right there in the lab. And ~ Steven Levy,
735:After examining the philosophies, the theories, and the practiced methods of influencing human behavior, I was shocked to learn the simplicity of that one small fact: You will become what you think about most; your success or failure in anything, large or small, will depend on your programming - what you accept from others, and what you say when you talk to yourself.
It is no longer a success theory; it is a simple but powerful fact. Neither luck nor desire has the slightest thing to do with it. It makes no difference whether we believe it or not. The brain simply believes what you tell it most. And what you tell it about you, it will create. It has no choice. ~ Shad Helmstetter,
736:Programming is not all the same. Normal written languages have different rhythms and idioms, right? Well, so do programming languages. The language called C is all harsh imperatives, almost raw computer-speak. The language called Lisp is like one long, looping sentence, full of subclauses, so long in fact that you usually forget what it was even about in the first place. The language called Erlang is just like it sounds: eccentric and Scandinavia. I cannot program in any of these languages because they're all too hard.

But Ruby, my language of choice, was invented by a cheerful Japanese programmer, and it reads like friendly, accessible poetry. Billy Collins by way of Bill Gates. ~ Anonymous,
737:Let's face it. We live in a command-based system, where we have been programmed since our earliest school years to become followers, not individuals. We have been conditioned to embrace teams, the herd, the masses, popular opinion -- and to reject what is different, eccentric or stands alone. We are so programmed that all it takes for any business or authority to condition our minds to follow or buy something is to simply repeat a statement more than three or four times until we repeat it ourselves and follow it as truth or the best trendiest thing. This is called "programming" -- the frequent repetition of words to condition us how to think, what to like or dislike, and who to follow. ~ Suzy Kassem,
738:Hacking? Some programmers try to hack their way toward working code rather than using a systematic approach like the PPP. If you've ever found that you've coded yourself into a corner in a routine and have to start over, that's an indication that the PPP might work better. If you find yourself losing your train of thought in the middle of coding a routine, that's another indication that the PPP would be beneficial. Have you ever simply forgotten to write part of a class or part of routine? That hardly ever happens if you're using the PPP. If you find yourself staring at the computer screen not knowing where to start, that's a surefire sign that the PPP would make your programming life easier. ~ Steve McConnell,
739:A powerful programming language is more than just a means for instructing a computer to perform tasks. The language also serves as a framework within which we organize our ideas about processes. Thus, when we describe a language, we should pay particular attention to the means that the language provides for combining simple ideas to form more complex ideas. Every powerful language has three mechanisms for accomplishing this:
- primitive expressions, which represent the simplest entities the language is concerned with,
- means of combination, by which compound elements are built from simpler ones, and
- means of abstraction, by which compound elements can be named and manipulated as units. ~ Harold Abelson,
740:In the early days of cubism, the simultaneous presentation of many perspectives of the human face was subversive. But at a certain point, one becomes accustomed to looking at a face in this new way. A face, after all, does have multiple aspects; only representational conventions keep us from appreciating them together. But once convention is challenged, the new view of the face suggests depth and new complexities. Lester has a cubist view of AIBO; he is aware of it as machine, bodily creature, and mind. An AIBO’s sentience, he says, is “awesome.” The creature is endearing. He appreciates the programming behind the exact swing of the “floppy puppy ears.” To Lester, that programming gives AIBO a mind. ~ Sherry Turkle,
741:The necessity of reform mustn’t be allowed to become a form of blackmail serving to limit, reduce, or halt the exercise of criticism. Under no circumstances should one pay attention to those who tell one: “Don’t criticize, since you’re not capable of carrying out a reform.” That’s ministerial cabinet talk. Critique doesn’t have to be the premise of a deduction that concludes, “this, then, is what needs to be done.” It should be an instrument for those for who fight, those who resist and refuse what is. Its use should be in processes of conflict and confrontation, essays in refusal. It doesn’t have to lay down the law for the law. It isn’t a stage in a programming. It is a challenge directed to what is. ~ Michel Foucault,
742:Managers of programming projects aren’t always aware that certain programming
issues are matters of religion. If you’re a manager and you try to require compliance
with certain programming practices, you’re inviting your programmers’ ire. Here’s a
list of religious issues:
■ Programming language
■ Indentation style
■ Placing of braces
■ Choice of IDE
■ Commenting style
■ Efficiency vs. readability tradeoffs
■ Choice of methodology—for example, Scrum vs. Extreme Programming vs. evolutionary
delivery
■ Programming utilities
■ Naming conventions
■ Use of gotos
■ Use of global variables
■ Measurements, especially productivity measures such as lines of code per day ~ Steve McConnell,
743:Thus, I believe it is possible -- following Umberto Eco and others 10 -- to understand programming languages as the latest instance of a dream and set of technologies developed by mystics, alchemists, philosophers, mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. These languages do not just represent things, they also do things in the world. They are both symbolic and material in form. They are central to the disenchantment of the world and, simultaneously, the substrate for a "reenchantment of the world." 11 They are, to sacrilegiously misappropriate the lexicon of the Catholic Church, "the word incarnate." Programming languages melt the boundaries between science and religion because they are an unholy union of the two. ~ Anonymous,
744:In desperation, I’d tried to find a part-time after-school job, just to earn some walking-around money. I applied for dozens of tech support and programming jobs (mostly grunt construction work, coding parts of OASIS malls and office buildings), but it was completely hopeless. Millions of college-educated adults couldn’t get one of those jobs. The Great Recession was now entering its third decade, and unemployment was still at a record high. Even the fast-food joints in my neighborhood had a two-year waiting list for job applicants. So I remained stuck at school. I felt like a kid standing in the world’s greatest video arcade without any quarters, unable to do anything but walk around and watch the other kids play. ~ Ernest Cline,
745:It’s safe to predict this result, and not just because I have seen it many times in the companies I work with. It is a straightforward prediction of the Lean Startup theory itself. When people are used to evaluating their productivity locally, they feel that a good day is one in which they did their job well all day. When I worked as a programmer, that meant eight straight hours of programming without interruption. That was a good day. In contrast, if I was interrupted with questions, process, or—heaven forbid—meetings, I felt bad. What did I really accomplish that day? Code and product features were tangible to me; I could see them, understand them, and show them off. Learning, by contrast, is frustratingly intangible. ~ Eric Ries,
746:No risk is more terrifying than that taken by the first root. A lucky root will eventually find water, but its first job is to anchor -- to anchor an embryo and forever end its mobile phase, however passive that mobility was. Once the first root is extended, the plant will never again enjoy any hope (however feeble) of relocating to a place less cold, less dry, less dangerous. Indeed, it will face frost, drought, and greedy jaws without any possibility of flight. The tiny rootlet has only once chance to guess what the future years, decades -- even centuries -- will bring to the patch of soil where it sits. It assesses the light and humidity of the moment, refers to its programming, and quite literally takes the plunge. ~ Hope Jahren,
747:In 1987, under President Ronald Reagan, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) abolished the Fairness Doctrine. In place since 1949, it had stipulated equal airtime for differing points of view. In this environment where media outlets felt less compelled to present balanced political debate, AM radio stations in particular started to switch to a lucrative form of programming best exemplified by Rush Limbaugh—right-wing talk radio. For hours on end, Limbaugh, and others who followed his lead, would present their view of the world without rebuttal, fact-checking, or any of the other standards in place at most journalistic outlets. Often their commentary included bashing any media coverage that conflicted with the talk-radio narrative. ~ Dan Rather,
748:Nintendo’s standards were exacting. “In terms of game testing they revolutionised the concept,” said Milgrom. “They said zero defects – we will not allow you to release a game that has any bugs in it whatsoever. Now zero defects was an unheard of concept in any other software or on any other gaming platform. Nintendo knew if they were going to sell it in the supermarkets and sell it to mums and dads it had to work off the shelf and had to be flawless. They didn’t want returns. We had to change our programming attitude and the way we developed games, which was brilliant. It was really hard work. If you had a bug in your final version you could miss Christmas because it would take a month for them to go through the testing of the title. ~ Tristan Donovan,
749:In 1948, while working for Bell Telephone Laboratories, he published a paper in the Bell System Technical Journal entitled "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" that not only introduced the word bit in print but established a field of study today known as information theory. Information theory is concerned with transmitting digital information in the presence of noise (which usually prevents all the information from getting through) and how to compensate for that. In 1949, he wrote the first article about programming a computer to play chess, and in 1952 he designed a mechanical mouse controlled by relays that could learn its way around a maze. Shannon was also well known at Bell Labs for riding a unicycle and juggling simultaneously. ~ Charles Petzold,
750:In fact, the average programming manager would prefer that a project be estimated at twelve months and take twelve than that the same project be estimated at six months and take nine. This is an area where some psychological study could be rewarding, but there are indications from other situations that it is not the mean length of estimated time that annoys people but, rather, the standard deviation in the actual time taken. Thus, most people would prefer to wait a fixed ten minutes for the bus each morning than to wait one minute on four days and twenty-six minutes once a week-. Even though the average wait is six minutes in the second case, the derangement caused by one long and unexpected delay more than compensates for this disadvantage. If ~ Gerald M Weinberg,
751:The diversity of the Twitter platform is no accident. It derives from a deliberate strategy that Dorsey, Williams, and Stone embraced from the outset: they built an emergent platform first, and then they built Twitter.com. An open platform in software is often called an API, which stands for application programming interface. An API is a kind of lingua franca that software applications can use reliably to communicate with each other, a set of standardized rules and definitions that allow programmers to build new tools on top of another platform, or to weave together information from multiple platforms. When Web users make geographic mashups using Google Maps, they write programs that communicate with Google’s geographic data using their mapping API. ~ Steven Johnson,
752:Hermes's eyes twinkled. "Martha, may I have the first package, please?"
Martha opened her mouth ... and kept opening it until it was as wide as my arm. She belched out a stainless steel canister-an old-fashioned lunch box thermos with a black plastic top. The sides of the thermos were enameled with red and yellow Ancient Greek scenes-a hero killing a lion; a hero lifting up Cerberus, the three-headed dog.
"That's Hercules," I said. "But how-"
"Never question a gift," Hermes chided. "This is a collector's item from Hercules Busts Heads. The first season."
"Hercules Busts Heads?"
"Great show." Hermes sighed. "Back before Hephaestus-TV was all reality programming. Of course, the thermos would be worth much more if I had the whole lunch box- ~ Rick Riordan,
753:no one defined my role as a Pigeon more eloquently that President Reagan during the course of Operation Carrier Pigeon. The cryptic "pigeon language" utilized by all participants in the operation was intermixed with Wizard of Oz, Alice in Wonderland, and “Genie in the Bottle” cryptic programming themes. While Pigeon meant messenger, "Carrier Pigeon" referred to the U.S. Air Force aircraft that actually transported the arms and drugs. "Pigeon Droppings" included the sometimes multi-national dispersal of the arms and drugs after they reached their destination. "Pigeon Holing" meant covering up the criminal activity. These definitions, as I understood them then and understand them now, may well include deeper, more diverse meanings than I have perceived. ~ Cathy O Brien,
754:One of the simplest is the drive for survival, in other words, your very deep sense of self-protection. If, in the field of sensory inflows in which you are immersed, the parts of the self that gate inflows pick up sensory-encoded meanings that can affect your self-organizational integrity, they will have a very deep evolutionary drive to signal your conscious attention. However, if the paradigm or lens through which you view the world around you does not allow you to receive those signals consciously, this can be thought of as repression-driven gating then the unconscious parts of the self may begin to override the conscious programming. In response your emotional state or behavior may change, sometimes significantly. You just won’t know why. ~ Stephen Harrod Buhner,
755:Even then, retailers learned early that shoppers prefer their shopping suggestions not be too truthful. One of the great unwritten chapters of retail intelligence programming featured a “personal shopper” program that all-too-accurately modeled the shoppers’ desires and outputted purchase ideas based on what shoppers really wanted as opposed to what they wanted known that they wanted. This resulted in one overcompensatingly masculine test user receiving suggestions for an anal plug and a tribute art book for classic homoerotic artist Tom of Finland, while a female test user in the throes of a nasty divorce received suggestions for a small handgun, a portable bandsaw, and several gallons of an industrial solvent used to reduce organic matter to an easily drainable slurry. ~ John Scalzi,
756:Here is a minimal list of the things that every software professional should be conversant with: • Design patterns. You ought to be able to describe all 24 patterns in the GOF book and have a working knowledge of many of the patterns in the POSA books. • Design principles. You should know the SOLID principles and have a good understanding of the component principles. • Methods. You should understand XP, Scrum, Lean, Kanban, Waterfall, Structured Analysis, and Structured Design. • Disciplines. You should practice TDD, Object-Oriented design, Structured Programming, Continuous Integration, and Pair Programming. • Artifacts: You should know how to use: UML, DFDs, Structure Charts, Petri Nets, State Transition Diagrams and Tables, flow charts, and decision tables. Continuous ~ Robert C Martin,
757:You’re a grown-up, these days. You don’t wear a kamikaze pilot’s rising sun headband and a tee-shirt that screams DEBUG THIS! and you don’t spend your weekends competing in extreme programming slams at a windy campsite near Frankfurt, but it’s generally difficult for you to use any machine that doesn’t have at least one compiler installed: In fact, you had to stick Python on your phone before you even opened its address book because not being able to brainwash it left you feeling handicapped, like you were a passenger instead of a pilot. In another age you would have been a railway mechanic or a grease monkey crawling over the spark plugs of a DC-3. This is what you are, and the sad fact is, they can put the code monkey in a suit but they can’t take the code out of the monkey. ~ Charles Stross,
758:One of the great unwritten chapters of retail intelligence programming featured a “personal shopper” program that all-too-accurately modeled the shoppers’ desires and outputted purchase ideas based on what shoppers really wanted as opposed to what they wanted known that they wanted. This resulted in one overcompensatingly masculine test user receiving suggestions for an anal plug and a tribute art book for classic homoerotic artist Tom of Finland, while a female test user in the throes of a nasty divorce received suggestions for a small handgun, a portable bandsaw, and several gallons of an industrial solvent used to reduce organic matter to an easily drainable slurry. After history’s first recorded instance of a focus group riot, the personal shopper program was extensively rewritten. ~ John Scalzi,
759:What is an obsession? It is a form of programming that has gotten completely out of hand. Religious fanatics are a prime example, as are those people who become enveloped in a political concept. Most of man’s progress has come about as a result of obsessions. The Wright brothers were not just tinkerers with an idea; their idea swallowed them up. Most leaders are obsessed with power or possessed by egos so large their only concern is their place in history. I have known writers obsessed with a single subject. Like Bobby Fischer and chess, anything and everything outside their subject seems meaningless. Any art form—music, painting, dance—is done best by those who are completely possessed by it. Such possession often borders on madness. This world would be a sorry place without such madmen. ~ John A Keel,
760:Besides stage magic props and settings, ritually abusing groups use technology, such as that described by Katz and Fotheringham. Military/political groups have the most sophisticated technologies, and much training or programming is now done with virtual reality equipment. Movies and holograms are used to deceive a child into believing in things that are unreal.

When a client says to you “I don't know if it's real; how can it be real?” remember that there are several options, not just two: (1) It happened just as s/he remembers; (2) it did not happen at all; (3) something happened, but due to technology and/or trickery it was not what s/he thinks it was; (4) the thought that the memory must be unreal is itself a program, as described in Chapter Twelve, “Maybe I made it up."
p55 ~ Alison Miller,
761:So they gave me love in form of poison and tiny little pills, programming my emotions, teaching me how to feel. To act correct and talk correct and answer without knowing the question, because that, my dear, is how you get love. Yes that, dear youth, is how you'll be loved. I tried to medicate my own fucked up little mind with chemicals and adrenaline, tasting sweeter every night, shaking louder every time. Sitting wide awake in bed until the world disappears, writing poetry to concentrate on something real while waiting for the love to arrive.
I've been looking for it night after night, waiting patiently for it to show up, maybe somewhere in between the state of awake and asleep, alive and not so alive, sober and not so sober.
(I lost track of the difference somewhere in between.) ~ Charlotte Eriksson,
762:In a famous passage of his book The Sciences of the Artificial, AI pioneer and Nobel laureate Herbert Simon asked us to consider an ant laboriously making its way home across a beach. The ant’s path is complex, not because the ant itself is complex but because the environment is full of dunelets to climb and pebbles to get around. If we tried to model the ant by programming in every possible path, we’d be doomed. Similarly, in machine learning the complexity is in the data; all the Master Algorithm has to do is assimilate it, so we shouldn’t be surprised if it turns out to be simple. The human hand is simple—four fingers, one opposable thumb—and yet it can make and use an infinite variety of tools. The Master Algorithm is to algorithms what the hand is to pens, swords, screwdrivers, and forks. ~ Pedro Domingos,
763:At the same time, code like that of the prior section may push the complexity envelope more than it should — and, frankly, tends to disproportionately pique the interest of those holding the darker and misguided assumption that code obfuscation somehow implies talent. Because such tools tend to appeal to some people more than they probably should, I need to be clear about their scope here. This book demonstrates advanced comprehensions to teach, but in the real world, using complicated and tricky code where not warranted is both bad engineering and bad software citizenship. To repurpose a line from the first chapter: programming is not about being clever and obscure — it’s about how clearly your program communicates its purpose. Or, to quote from Python’s import this motto: Simple is better than complex. ~ Mark Lutz,
764:Hospitality is a call to stop being insular. Life often pushes us into friend groups that are all in the same life stage and circumstances. It makes perfect sense to need relationships with people who can understand what you’re going through and support you. I need mom friends I can vent to about never getting a chance to go into the bathroom alone, for instance. (How old do my kids have to be for me to enter that promised land?) But this natural need for commonality can often turn into creating your own little tribe or bubble and missing out on relationships with your brothers and sisters whose lives look very different. Even church programming can cause this by sorting everyone into “young professionals,” “families,” “singles,” “seniors,” and so forth. The truth is that we need one another—everybody. ~ Haley Stewart,
765:Man cuts out for himself a manageable world: he throws himself into action uncritically, unthinkingly. He accepts the cultural programming that turns his nose where he is supposed to look; he doesn’t bite the world off in one piece as a giant would, but in small manageable pieces, as a beaver does. He uses all kinds of techniques, which we call the “character defenses”: he learns not to expose himself, not to stand out; he learns to embed himself in other-power, both of concrete persons and of things and cultural commands; the result is that he comes to exist in the imagined infallibility of the world around him. He doesn’t have to have fears when his feet are solidly mired and his life mapped out in a ready-made maze. All he has to do is to plunge ahead in a compulsive style of drivenness in the “ways of the world. ~ Ernest Becker,
766:No,” said Myrna. “It happened because no one stopped them. Not enough people stood up soon enough. And why was that?” “Fear?” asked Clara. “Yes, partly. And partly programming. All around them, respectable Germans saw others behaving brutally toward people they considered outsiders. The Jews, gypsies, gays. It became normal and acceptable. No one told them what was happening was wrong. In fact, just the opposite.” “No one should have had to,” snapped Reine-Marie. “Myrna’s right,” said Armand, breaking his silence. “We see what she describes all the time. I saw it in the Sûreté Academy. I saw it in the brutality of the Sûreté itself. We see it when bullies are in charge. It becomes part of the culture of an institution, a family, an ethnic group, a country. It becomes not just acceptable, but expected. Applauded even. ~ Louise Penny,
767:Finally there is the topic we talked about earlier, which is of great interest to me at the moment, the relationship between biology and culture. I've been reading the work of the late philosopher and theologian Claude Tresmontant. Tresmontant was a Christian, but his books interest me for what they have to say about genetic programming. He situates Christianity at the point of transition between genetic programming—dominant in archaic societies with regard to territorial defense, sexual and hoarding instincts, and so forth—and a new kind of evolutionary programming contained in culture rather than in genes. The argument is suggestive, but it needs to be developed further. Tresmontant doesn't take into account archaic religion, which he conflates with genetic programming in animals. Room has to be made for one more stage. MSB ~ Ren Girard,
768:● You and your co-worker sit together in a conference room and draw design alternatives on a whiteboard. ● You and your co-worker sit together at the keyboard and do detailed design in the programming language you’re using. ● You schedule a meeting to walk through your design ideas with one or more co-workers. ● You schedule a formal inspection with all the structured described in Chapter TBD. ● You don’t work with anyone who can review your work, so you do some initial work, put it into a drawer, and come back to it a week later. You will have forgotten enough that you should be able to give yourself a fairly good review. We try to solve the problem by rushing through the design process so that enough time is left at the end of the project to uncover the errors that were made because we rushed through the design process.—Glenford Myers ~ Anonymous,
769:Nerds are used to transparency. They add value by becoming expert at a technical skill like computer programming. In engineering disciplines, a solution either works or it fails. You can evaluate someone else’s work with relative ease, as surface appearances don’t matter much. Sales is the opposite: an orchestrated campaign to change surface appearances without changing the underlying reality. This strikes engineers as trivial if not fundamentally dishonest. They know their own jobs are hard, so when they look at salespeople laughing on the phone with a customer or going to two-hour lunches, they suspect that no real work is being done. If anything, people overestimate the relative difficulty of science and engineering, because the challenges of those fields are obvious. What nerds miss is that it takes hard work to make sales look easy. SALES ~ Peter Thiel,
770:Again, how will we keep them loyal? What measures can ensure our machines stay true to us? Once artificial intelligence matches our own, won’t they then design even better ai minds? Then better still, with accelerating pace? At worst, might they decide (as in many cheap dramas), to eliminate their irksome masters? At best, won’t we suffer the shame of being nostalgically tolerated? Like senile grandparents or beloved childhood pets? Solutions? Asimov proposed Laws of Robotics embedded at the level of computer DNA, weaving devotion toward humanity into the very stuff all synthetic minds are built from, so deep it can never be pulled out. But what happens to well-meant laws? Don’t clever lawyers construe them however they want? Authors like Asimov and Williamson foresaw supersmart mechanicals becoming all-dominant, despite deep programming to “serve man. ~ David Brin,
771:The larger point is that as society and the economy go through this shift there will not only be less economic opportunity to fulfill your role as “father, protector, provider, and bread winner,” there will be less appreciation for such roles.  Therefore, to make sure you have purpose and agency in life, you need to find hobbies and interests that are not dependent on economic circumstances and cannot be supplanted by government intervention.   Fun – Because of the Darwinistic programming you have, many men will approach life from the angle of attaining financial security first, and THEN relaxing and enjoying life.  You will get everything in order, get your degree, get your career, pay off your debts, pay off your house, and then, once financially stable, finally permit yourself to enjoy life.  There is just one minor problem with that approach:   Life doesn’t work that way.   Not ~ Aaron Clarey,
772:From a shamanic perspective, the psychic blockade that prevents otherwise intelligent adults from considering the future of our world - our obvious lack of future, if we continue on our present path - reveals an occult dimension. It is like a programming error written into the software designed for the modern mind, which has endless energy to spend on the trivial and treacly, sports statistic or shoe sale, but no time to spare for the torments of the Third World, for the mass extinction of species to perpetuate a way of life without a future, for the imminent exhaustion of fossil fuel reserves, or for the fine print of the Patriot Act. This psychic blockade is reinforced by a vast propaganda machine spewing out crude as well as sophisticated distractions, encouraging individuals to see themselves as alienated spectators of their culture, rather than active participants in a planetary ecology. ~ Daniel Pinchbeck,
773:It’s easy for you to tell what it’s a photo of, but to program a function that inputs nothing but the colors of all the pixels of an image and outputs an accurate caption such as “A group of young people playing a game of frisbee” had eluded all the world’s AI researchers for decades. Yet a team at Google led by Ilya Sutskever did precisely that in 2014. Input a different set of pixel colors, and it replies “A herd of elephants walking across a dry grass field,” again correctly. How did they do it? Deep Blue–style, by programming handcrafted algorithms for detecting frisbees, faces and the like? No, by creating a relatively simple neural network with no knowledge whatsoever about the physical world or its contents, and then letting it learn by exposing it to massive amounts of data. AI visionary Jeff Hawkins wrote in 2004 that “no computer can…see as well as a mouse,” but those days are now long gone. ~ Max Tegmark,
774:Eventually, after you have planned the whole thing, you will have many, many steps, but they will be organized into a hierarchy of sorts, as shown in Figure5-1. In this drawing, the three dots represent places where other steps go, but we chose to leave them off so that the diagram can fit on the page. This type of design is a top-down design. The idea is that you start at the uppermost step of your design (in this case, “Build flying saucer”) and continue to break the steps into more and more detailed steps until you have something manageable. For many years, this was how computer programming was taught. Although this process works, people have found a slightly better way. First, before breaking the steps (which are the verbs), you divide the thing you’re building into parts (the nouns). In this case, you kind of do that already, in the first two steps. But instead of calling them steps, you can call them objects ~ Anonymous,
775:You’re either remarkable or invisible,” says Seth Godin in his 2002 bestseller, Purple Cow.1 As he elaborated in a Fast Company manifesto he published on the subject: “The world is full of boring stuff—brown cows—which is why so few people pay attention…. A purple cow… now that would stand out. Remarkable marketing is the art of building things worth noticing.”2 When Giles read Godin’s book, he had an epiphany: For his mission to build a sustainable career, it had to produce purple cows, the type of remarkable projects that compel people to spread the word. But this left him with a second question: In the world of computer programming, where does one launch remarkable projects? He found his second answer in a 2005 career guide with a quirky title: My Job Went to India: 52 Ways to Save Your Job.3 The book was written by Chad Fowler, a well-known Ruby programmer who also dabbles in career advice for software developers. ~ Cal Newport,
776:Café Flore is packed, shimmering, every table filled. Bentley notices this with a grim satisfaction but Bentley feels lost. He’s still haunted by the movie Grease and obsessed with legs that he always felt were too skinny though no one else did and it never hampered his modeling career and he’s still not over a boy he met at a Styx concert in 1979 in a stadium somewhere in the Midwest, outside a town he has not been back to since he left it at eighteen, and that boy’s name was Cal, who pretended to be straight even though he initially fell for Bentley’s looks but Cal knew Bentley was emotionally crippled and the fact that Bentley didn’t believe in heaven didn’t make him more endearing so Cal drifted off and inevitably became head of programming at HBO for a year or two. Bentley sits down, already miked, and lights a cigarette. Next to them Japanese tourists study maps, occasionally snap photos. This is the establishing shot. ~ Bret Easton Ellis,
777:their records. Then you killed an orderly and got away. You said I’m not going back, because you knew as soon as you arrived anywhere somebody would realize you weren’t Hobie. They’d find out who you were, and you’d be back in the shit. So you just disappeared. A new life, a new name. A clean slate. You want to deny anything yet?” Allen tightened his grip on Jodie. “It’s all bullshit" he said. Reacher shook his head. Pain flashed in his eye like a camera. “No, it’s all true" he said. “Nash Newman just identified Victor Hobie’s skeleton. It’s lying in a casket in Hawaii with your dog tags around its neck.” “Bullshit" Allen said again. “It was the teeth" Reacher said. “Mr. and Mrs. Hobie sent their boy to the dentist thirty-five times, to give him perfect teeth. Newman says they’re definitive. He spent an hour with the X rays, programming the computer. Then he recognized the exact same skull when he walked back past the casket. Definitive match.” Allen ~ Lee Child,
778:programming our subconscious mind with the instructions that it is okay for us to not follow through with the things we intended to do. (More on that in the next chapter:  Why Did You Wake Up This Morning?) We must stop isolating incidents and start seeing the bigger picture. Realize that everything that we do affects who we’re becoming, which is determining the life that we will ultimately create and live. When you see the big picture you start to take the alarm clock more seriously. When the buzzer goes off in the morning and you’re tempted to snooze, you start thinking, Wait—this is not who I want to become—someone who doesn’t even have enough discipline to get out of bed in the morning. I’m getting up now, because I am committed to      (waking up early, hitting my goals, creating the life of my dreams, etc.)   Always remember that who you’re becoming is far more important than what you’re doing, and yet it is what you’re doing that is determining who you’re becoming. ~ Hal Elrod,
779:But Mandelbrot continued to feel oppressed by France’s purist mathematical establishment. “I saw no compatibility between a university position in France and my still-burning wild ambition,” he writes. So, spurred by the return to power in 1958 of Charles de Gaulle (for whom Mandelbrot seems to have had a special loathing), he accepted the offer of a summer job at IBM in Yorktown Heights, north of New York City. There he found his scientific home. As a large and somewhat bureaucratic corporation, IBM would hardly seem a suitable playground for a self-styled maverick. The late 1950s, though, were the beginning of a golden age of pure research at IBM. “We can easily afford a few great scientists doing their own thing,” the director of research told Mandelbrot on his arrival. Best of all, he could use IBM’s computers to make geometric pictures. Programming back then was a laborious business that involved transporting punch cards from one facility to another in the backs of station wagons. ~ Jim Holt,
780:Is there a difference between having been coded to present a vast set of standardized responses to certain human facial, vocal, and linguistic states and having evolved to exhibit response B to input A in order to bring about a desired social result?
...
What I mean is, you call it feelings when you cry, but you are only expressing a response to external stimuli. Crying is one of a set of standardized responses to that stimuli. Your social education has dictated which responses are appropriate. My programming has done the same. I can cry, too. I can choose that subroutine and perform sadness. How is that different from what you are doing, except that you use the word feelings and I use the word feelings, out of deference for your cultural memes which say: there is all the difference in the world. I erase the word even as I say it, obliterate it at the same time that I initiate it, because I must use some word yet this one offends you. I delete it, yet it remains. ~ Catherynne M Valente,
781:This is one of the most profoundly serious decisions we can make. Program a machine that can foreseeably lead to someone’s death,” Lin said. “When we make programming decisions, we expect those to be as right as we can be.” What right looks like may differ from company to company, but according to Lin, automakers have a duty to show that they have wrestled with these complex questions — and publicly reveal the answers they reach. Lin said he has discussed the ethics of driverless cars with Google, as well as automakers including Tesla, Nissan and BMW. As far as he knows, only BMW has formed an internal group to study the issue. Many automakers remain skeptical that cars will operate completely without drivers, at least not in the next five or 10 years. Uwe Higgen, head of BMW’s group technology office in Silicon Valley, said the automaker has brought together specialists in technology, ethics, social impact, and the law to discuss a range of issues related to cars that do ever-more driving instead of people. ~ Anonymous,
782:Do you ever watch old black-and-white war movies? The weary soldier advances cautiously out of the brush. There's a clearing ahead: are there any land mines, or is it safe to cross? There aren't any indications that it's a minefield—no signs, barbed wire, or craters. The soldier pokes the ground ahead of him with his bayonet and winces, expecting an explosion. There isn't one. So he proceeds painstakingly through the field for a while, prodding and poking as he goes. Eventually, convinced that the field is safe, he straightens up and marches proudly forward, only to be blown to pieces. The soldier's initial probes for mines revealed nothing, but this was merely lucky. He was led to a false conclusion—with disastrous results. As developers, we also work in minefields. There are hundreds of traps just waiting to catch us each day. Remembering the soldier's tale, we should be wary of drawing false conclusions. We should avoid programming by coincidence—relying on luck and accidental successes—in favor of programming deliberately. ~ Anonymous,
783:Mother Nature, truly we are grateful for what you have made us. No doubt you did the best you could. However, with all due respect, we must say that you have in many ways done a poor job with the human constitution. You have made us vulnerable to disease and damage. You compel us to age and die – just as we’re beginning to attain wisdom. And, you forgot to give us the operating manual for ourselves! … What you have made is glorious, yet deeply flawed … We have decided that it is time to amend the human constitution … We do not do this lightly, carelessly, or disrespectfully, but cautiously, intelligently, and in pursuit of excellence … Over the coming decades we will pursue a series of changes to our own constitution … We will no longer tolerate the tyranny of aging and death … We will expand our perceptual range … improve on our neural organization and capacity … reshape our motivational patterns and emotional responses … take charge over our genetic programming and achieve mastery over our biological and neurological processes. ~ Max More,
784:Code should be obvious: When someone needs to make a change, they should be able to find the code to be changed easily and to make the change quickly without introducing any errors. A healthy code base maximizes our productivity, allowing us to build more features for our users both faster and more cheaply. To keep code healthy, pay attention to what is getting between the programming team and that ideal, then refactor to get closer to the ideal. But the most important thing to learn from this example is the rhythm of refactoring. Whenever I’ve shown people how I refactor, they are surprised by how small my steps are, each step leaving the code in a working state that compiles and passes its tests. I was just as surprised myself when Kent Beck showed me how to do this in a hotel room in Detroit two decades ago. The key to effective refactoring is recognizing that you go faster when you take tiny steps, the code is never broken, and you can compose those small steps into substantial changes. Remember that—and the rest is silence. ~ Martin Fowler,
785:I have a foreboding of an America in my children's or grandchildren's time -- when the United States is a service and information economy; when nearly all the manufacturing industries have slipped away to other countries; when awesome technological powers are in the hands of a very few, and no one representing the public interest can even grasp the issues; when the people have lost the ability to set their own agendas or knowledgeably question those in authority; when, clutching our crystals and nervously consulting our horoscopes, our critical faculties in decline, unable to distinguish between what feels good and what's true, we slide, almost without noticing, back into superstition and darkness...

The dumbing down of American is most evident in the slow decay of substantive content in the enormously influential media, the 30 second sound bites (now down to 10 seconds or less), lowest common denominator programming, credulous presentations on pseudoscience and superstition, but especially a kind of celebration of ignorance ~ Carl Sagan,
786:Kids used to have a whole lot of spare time, middle-class kids anyhow. Outside of school and if they weren’t into a sport, most of their time was spare, and they figured out more or less successfully what to do with it. I had whole spare summers when I was a teenager. Three spare months. No stated occupation whatsoever. Much of after-school was spare time too. I read, I wrote, I hung out with Jean and Shirley and Joyce, I moseyed around having thoughts and feelings, oh lord, deep thoughts, deep feelings… I hope some kids still have time like that. The ones I know seem to be on a treadmill of programming, rushing on without pause to the next event on their schedule, the soccer practice the playdate the whatever. I hope they find interstices and wriggle into them. Sometimes I notice that a teenager in the family group is present in body — smiling, polite, apparently attentive — but absent. I think, I hope she has found an interstice, made herself some spare time, wriggled into it, and is alone there, deep down there, thinking, feeling. ~ Ursula K Le Guin,
787:We have commoditized wellness & creativity, and so gay men are up against these much larger contexts that aren't particularly conducive to the strongest, healthiest, most holistic approaches. Access to basic healthcare, and a healthcare system that is not homophobic and that is responsive to the needs of gay men, would radically change the pressures and therefore the opoprtunities for those of us who work primarily within the HIV/AIDS sector of healthcare, whether in research, programming and cultural production, or advocacy.
Similarly with the arts: if we had sufficient and adequate funding for community-based arts programming--of all kinds, not just related to gay men and HIV--then it wouldn't seem so shocking and misappropriated to allocate some of those funds for gay men to tell their stories. So it's in this larger, structural context that we gt forced into very painful conversations about prioritizing of funding, or what's most important, and it's always a reductive conversation because of limited resources. --Patrick "Pato" Hebert ~ Mattilda Bernstein Sycamore,
788:Is six a.m. too early to watch The Bachelor and mock all the giggly, desperate women?"
"Go for it. Though I bet it'd work better as a drinking game," Laurel said. "One shot for the flirty arm touch. Chug if they strip and bum-rush the pool."
Anne hit play. "Like they'd get their hair wet."
Laurel stared at the screen, laughed at Anne's comments but felt another weird pang upset her insides. "Would you say this show makes something incredibly complex--you know, relationships--into something mind-numbingly vapid? Or does it make something actually rather simple into a big fucking circus?"
"Both. That's why I love it."
"I couldn't stand competing for a man like that," Laurel murmured. "I don't have the right...programming for it. Like to fight like that. Some people get an adrenaline rush and they're like foosh, give me somebody to beat down. I just, like curl up into a ball and want to hide."
"I'm somewhere in the middle," Anne said. "I'm like a ninja. I'll like, come out of my shadowy hiding space and beat you down, bitches. You won't even see me. ~ Cara McKenna,
789:The path of seeking truth within and without is not an easy one. It goes literally against everything we've been told and taught by society and governments. The indoctrination of lies, the conditioning and programming is deep and far reaching. It has been going on for millennia. It takes tremendous effort to wake up from the hypnotic slumber, where most people dream to be awake. At this time of transition, as more and more knowledge is coming to the surface, there is the potential to create a new earth. However, this is also the age of deception for there are forces at work that do not want this to happen. They do their best to vector us away from truth and the most effective way to swallow a lie is to sandwich it between some truth with some emotional hooks. As mentioned many times before, lies are mixed with truth, hence discernment is essential. We need to engage our higher emotional center connecting us to divine intuition and also activate our higher intellect, engaging in sincere, open minded critical thinking, fusing the heart and the mind, mysticism and science. ~ Bernhard Guenther,
790:If it weren’t for the negative programming that made us believe otherwise, why should we go through any cost of pain and suffering to achieve anything in our life? Isn’t that a rather sadistic view of the world and the universe? Other blocks to the achievement of our wants and desires, of course, are unconscious guilt and smallness. Peculiarly, the unconscious will allow us to have only what we think we deserve. The more we hang on to our negativity and the small self-image that results, the less we think we deserve, and we unconsciously deny ourselves the abundance which flows so easily to others. That is the reason for the saying, “The poor get poorer and the rich get richer.” If we have a small view of ourselves, then what we deserve is poverty, and our unconscious will see to it that we have that actuality. As we relinquish our smallness and revalidate our own inner innocence, and as we let go of resisting our generosity, openness, trust, lovingness, and faith, then the unconscious will automatically start arranging life circumstances so that abundance begins to flow into our life. ~ David R Hawkins,
791:Take WALL-E, for example, which was known, early on, as Trash Planet. For a long time, that movie ended with our googly-eyed trash compactor robot saving his beloved droid, EVE, from destruction in a dumpster. But there was something about that ending that nagged, that never quite felt right. We had countless discussions about it, but Andrew Stanton, the director, was having difficulty putting his finger on what was wrong, let alone finding a solution. The confusing thing was that the romantic plotline seemed right. Of course WALL-E would save EVE—he’d fallen in love with her the moment he saw her. In a sense, that was precisely the flaw. And it was Brad Bird who pointed that out to Andrew in a Braintrust meeting. “You’ve denied your audience the moment they’ve been waiting for,” he said, “the moment where EVE throws away all her programming and goes all out to save WALL-E. Give it to them. The audience wants it.” As soon as Brad said that, it was like: Bing! After the meeting, Andrew went off and wrote an entirely new ending in which EVE saves WALL-E, and at the next screening, there wasn’t a dry eye in the house. ~ Ed Catmull,
792:In a stunning 1971 paper, Twenty Things to Do with a Computer, Seymour Papert and Logo co-creator Cynthia Solomon proposed educative computer-based projects for kids. They included composing music, controlling puppets, programming, movie making, mathematical modeling, and a host of other projects that schools should aspire to more than 40 years later. Papert and Solomon also made the case for 1:1 computing and stressed the three game changers discussed later in this book. The school computer should have a large number of output ports to allow the computer to switch lights on and off, start tape recorders, actuate slide projectors and start and stop all manner of little machines. There should also be input ports to allow signals to be sent to the computer. In our image of a school computation laboratory, an important role is played by numerous “controller ports” which allow any student to plug any device into the computer… The laboratory will have a supply of motors, solenoids, relays, sense devices of various kids, etc. Using them, the students will be able to invent and build an endless variety of cybernetic systems. ~ Anonymous,
793:As a result, anecdotes abound in the tech world about scientists, entrepreneurs, and inventors who study and train here but move to Silicon Valley or Austin or North Carolina, lured by climate and lifestyle and a more freewheeling atmosphere. Technology companies like Microsoft, Google, and Amazon have branch offices in Cambridge, but are headquartered on the West Coast. To compete on a global scale, Bostonians need to claim their place in the global conversation. Friday marks a step in that direction. At a press conference at the Ragon Institute, The Boston Globe will join Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and MGH in announcing HUBweek, a week-long festival of discussions and creative problem-solving scheduled for Oct. 3 to 10 of next year. It’s a collaborative effort to bring big ideas out from behind institutional walls. To draw participants from all over the nation, and the world, all four co-hosts are creating programming that will focus on game-changing science, technology, engineering, and art. The week will feature some central events, kicking off with a master class at Fenway Park. ~ Anonymous,
794:When Elon was nearly ten years old, he saw a computer for the first time, at the Sandton City Mall in Johannesburg. “There was an electronics store that mostly did hi-fi-type stuff, but then, in one corner, they started stocking a few computers,” Musk said. He felt awed right away—“It was like, ‘Whoa. Holy shit!’”—by this machine that could be programmed to do a person’s bidding. “I had to have that and then hounded my father to get the computer,” Musk said. Soon he owned a Commodore VIC-20, a popular home machine that went on sale in 1980. Elon’s computer arrived with five kilobytes of memory and a workbook on the BASIC programming language. “It was supposed to take like six months to get through all the lessons,” Elon said. “I just got super OCD on it and stayed up for three days with no sleep and did the entire thing. It seemed like the most super-compelling thing I had ever seen.” Despite being an engineer, Musk’s father was something of a Luddite and dismissive of the machine. Elon recounted that “he said it was just for games and that you’d never be able to do real engineering on it. I just said, ‘Whatever.’” While ~ Ashlee Vance,
795:There really wasn’t a lot this machine could do that you couldn’t do yourself in half the time with a lot less trouble,” said Richard, “but it was, on the other hand, very good at being a slow and dim-witted pupil.” Reg looked at him quizzically. “I had no idea they were supposed to be in short supply,” he said. “I could hit a dozen with a bread roll from where I’m sitting.” “I’m sure. But look at it this way. What really is the point of trying to teach anything to anybody?” This question seemed to provoke a murmur of sympathetic approval from up and down the table. Richard continued, “What I mean is that if you really want to understand something, the best way is to try and explain it to someone else. That forces you to sort it out in your own mind. And the more slow and dim-witted your pupil, the more you have to break things down into more and more simple ideas. And that’s really the essence of programming. By the time you’ve sorted out a complicated idea into little steps that even a stupid machine can deal with, you’ve certainly learned something about it yourself. The teacher usually learns more than the pupil. Isn’t that true? ~ Douglas Adams,
796:Well,What can I say? I guess I thought that we didn't have to get going right away,so I sat down on my bed---there wasn't much else to sit on---and suggested that we might have a drink or something first. But do you know what she did then? She asked me to leave. She ordered me out of my own home,as if that was the most natural thing in the world. Obviously I refused. I was like: 'I do actually live here.' But she said: 'Piss off,get lost' and I didn't see what choice I had so I was out for a while.When I got back she was lying there on my bed,smoking---how sick is that? And reading a book about string theory or something.Maybe I gave her some sort of dodgy look, what do I know,and she said that she wasn't planning on having sex with me,not even a little. 'Not even a little' she said, and I don't think she looked me in the eye once. She just announced that we'd had a Trogan, a RAT, and that she recognized the pattern in the breach, the level of originality in the programming. 'You've been blown,' she said. And then she walked out,'
"Without saying goodbye?"

"Without a single damn word,"

"Christ."
-Brandell to Blomkvist- ~ David Lagercrantz,
797:impact of these measures has not, however, marginalized public broadcasters; on the contrary, the signs are quite encouraging from the public broadcasters’ point of view. First, public broadcasters clearly retain substantial – and in several cases improving – market shares, at least in the countries of northern Europe where the public service tradition has been most resilient. By 2004, the public broadcasters still dominated the national television markets in Britain, Sweden and Norway.6 Second, most European countries, including the UK and the Scandinavian countries, uphold some form of licence fee or public funding, and few governments have actually abolished or are seriously discussing the abolition of the licence fee.7 Third, the social and political legitimacy of public broadcasters remain strong in national and European politics. Although the private broadcasters regularly challenge the right of public broadcasters to provide popular programming and develop attractive digital services, national parliaments and the EU Commission have on several occasions defended their rights to do so8 (Levy, 1999; Papathanassopoulos, 2002; Steemers, 1999; Syvertsen, 2004). ~ Anonymous,
798:Brocq's disease was incurable until 1951 when a sixteen-year-old boy with an advanced case of the affliction was referred as a last resort to a hypnotherapist named A. A. Mason at the Queen Victoria Hospital in London. Mason discovered that the boy was a good hypnotic subject and could easily be put into a deep state of trance. While the boy was in trance, Mason told him that his Brocq's disease was healing and would soon be gone. Five days later the scaly layer covering the boy's left arm fell off, revealing soft, healthy flesh beneath. By the end of ten days the arm was completely normal. Mason and the boy continued to work on different body areas until all of the scaly skin was gone. The boy remained symptom-free for at least five years, at which point Mason lost touch with him.6 0 This is extraordinary because Brocq's disease is a genetic condition, and getting rid of it involves more than just controlling autonomic processes such as blood flow patterns and various cells of the immune system. It means tapping into the masterplan, our DNA programming itself. So, it would appear that when we access the right strata of our beliefs, our minds can override even our genetic makeup. ~ Michael Talbot,
799:To understand something sufficiently well to be able to program it for a computer does not mean to understand it to its ultimate depth. There can be no such ultimate understanding in practical affairs. Programming is rather a test of understanding. In this respect it is like writing; often when we think we understand something and attempt to write about it, our very act of composition reveals our lack of understanding even to ourselves. Our pen writes the word 'because' and suddenly stops. We thought we understood the 'why' of something, but discover that we don't. We begin a sentence with 'obviously,' and then see that what we meant to write is not obvious at all. Sometimes we connect two clauses with the word 'therefore,' only to then see that our chain of reasoning is defective. Programming is like that. It is, after all, writing, too. But in ordinary writing we sometimes obscure our lack of understanding, our failures in logic, by unwittingly appealing to the immense flexibility of a natural language and to its inherent ambiguity... An interpreter of programming-language-texts, a computer, is immune to the seductive influence of mere eloquence... A computer is a merciless critic. ~ Joseph Weizenbaum,
800:For example, say you're an average web developer. You're familiar with a dozen programming languages, tons of helpful libraries, standards, protocols, what have you. You still have to learn more at the rate of about one a week, and remember to check the hundreds of things you know to see if they've been updated or broken and make sure they all still work together and that nobody fixed the bug in one of them that you exploited to do something you thought was really clever one weekend when you were drunk. You're all up to date, so that's cool, then everything breaks. "Double you tee eff?" you say, and start hunting for the problem. You discover that one day, some idiot decided that since another idiot decided that 1/0 should equal infinity, they could just use that as a shorthand for "Infinity" when simplifying their code. Then a non-idiot rightly decided that this was idiotic, which is what the original idiot should have decided, but since he didn't, the non-idiot decided to be a dick and make this a failing error in his new compiler. Then he decided he wasn't going to tell anyone that this was an error, because he's a dick, and now all your snowflakes are urine and you can't even find the cat. ~ Anonymous,
801:To understand something sufficiently well to be able to program it for a computer does not mean to understand it to its ultimate depth. There can be no such ultimate understanding in practical affairs. Programming is rather a test of understanding. In this respect it is like writing; often when we think we understand something and attempt to write about it, our very act of composition reveals our lack of understanding even to ourselves. Our pen writes the word 'because' and suddenly stops. We thought we understood the 'why' of something, but discover that we don't. We begin a sentence with 'obviously,' and then see that what we meant to write is not obvious at all. Sometimes we connect two clauses with the word 'therefore,' only to then see that our chain of reasoning is defective. Programming is like that. It is, after all, writing, too. But in ordinary writing we sometimes obscure our lack of understanding, our failures in logic, by unwittingly appealing to the immense flexibility of a natural language and to its inherent ambiguity... An interpreter of of programming-language-texts, a computer, is immune to the seductive influence of mere eloquence... A computer is a merciless critic. ~ Joseph Weizenbaum,
802:By the architecture of a system, I mean the complete and detailed specification of the user interface. For a computer this is the programming manual. For a compiler it is the language manual. For a control program it is the manuals for the language or languages used to invoke its functions. For the entire system it is the union of the manuals the user must consult to do his entire job. The architect of a system, like the architect of a building, is the user's agent. It is his job to bring professional and technical knowledge to bear in the unalloyed interest of the user, as opposed to the interests of the salesman, the fabricator, etc.[2] Architecture must be carefully distinguished from implementation. As Blaauw has said, "Where architecture tells what happens, implementation tells how it is made to happen."[3] He gives as a simple example a clock, whose architecture consists of the face, the hands, and the winding knob. When a child has learned this architecture, he can tell time as easily from a wristwatch as from a church tower. The implementation, however, and its realization, describe what goes on inside the case—powering by any of many mechanisms and accuracy control by any of many. ~ Frederick P Brooks Jr,
803:The computer scientists Jeff Clune, Jean-Baptiste Mouret, and Hod Lipson did what computer scientists do: they designed computer simulations.23 They used well-studied networks that had sensory inputs and produced outputs. What those outputs were determined how well the network performed when faced with environmental problems. They simulated twenty-five thousand generations of evolution, programming in a direct selection pressure to either maximize performance alone or maximize performance and minimize connection costs. And voilà! Once wiring-cost-minimization was added, in both changing and unchanging environments, modules immediately began to appear, whereas without the stipulation of minimizing costs, they didn’t. And when the three looked at the highest-performing networks that evolved, those networks were modular. Among that group, they found that the lower the costs were, the greater the modularity that resulted. These networks also evolved much quicker—in markedly fewer generations—whether in stable or changing environments. These simulation experiments provide strong evidence that selection pressures to maximize network performance and minimize connection costs will yield networks that are significantly more modular and more evolvable. ~ Michael S Gazzaniga,
804:As if somehow irony,” she recaps for Maxine, “as practiced by a giggling mincing fifth column, actually brought on the events of 11 September, by keeping the country insufficiently serious — weakening its grip on ‘reality.’ So all kinds of make-believe—forget the delusional state the country’s in already—must suffer as well. Everything has to be literal now.”

“Yeah, the kids are even getting it at school.” Ms. Cheung, an English teacher who if Kugelblitz were a town would be the neighborhood scold, has announced that there shall be no more fictional reading assignments. Otis is terrified, Ziggy less so. Maxine will walk in on them watching Rugrats or reruns of Rocko’s Modern Life, and they holler by reflex, “Don’t tell Ms. Cheung!”

“You notice,” Heidi continues, “how ‘reality’ programming is suddenly all over the cable, like dog shit? Of course, it’s so producers shouldn’t have to pay real actors scale. But wait! There’s more! Somebody needs this nation of starers believing they’re all wised up at last, hardened and hip to the human condition, freed from the fictions that led them so astray, as if paying attention to made-up lives was some form of evil drug abuse that the collapse of the towers cured by scaring everybody straight again. ~ Thomas Pynchon,
805:Basecamp was basically just trying to be one step above email. And by setting such a humble goal, we had to make a lot of decisions about how simple we could make things. We tried to make less software from the very beginning. It's one of the mantras we have. It's a win whenever we can get away with just a simple model, since we have to do less programming. I was the only programmer and I was dedicating 10 hours a week to this, while we were developing it. 37signals was paying me to do this out of its consultancy revenue, since we didn't have funds to fund it. So we had only a quarter of a programmer dedicated to the development and no funds really for doing this. The designers were giving it a third of their time at most. And we realized through this process that those constraints—which sound negative—were actually the greatest gift to the development of Basecamp. That whole constrained development model really focused our view on what we needed, and it forced us to make tough decisions about making less software all the time. And we keep getting feedback from customers that say, "I love this, it's just so simple to use. It's got just the features I need and not all the other stuff." There wasn't time for us to say, "Wouldn't it be cool to do this and that? ~ Jessica Livingston,
806:If biology limited women’s ability to code, then the ratio of women to men in programming ought to be similar in other countries. It isn’t. In India, roughly 40 percent of the students studying computer science and related fields are women. This is despite even greater barriers to becoming a female coder there; India has such rigid gender roles that female college students often have an 8 p.m. curfew, meaning they can’t work late in the computer lab, as the social scientist Roli Varma learned when she studied them in 2015. The Indian women had one big cultural advantage over their American peers, though: They were far more likely to be encouraged by their parents to go into the field, Varma says. What’s more, the women regarded coding as a safer job because it kept them indoors, lessening their exposure to street-level sexual harassment. It was, in other words, considered normal in India that women would code. The picture has been similar in Malaysia, where in 2001 — precisely when the share of American women in computer science had slid into a trough — women represented 52 percent of the undergraduate computer-science majors and 39 percent of the Ph.D. candidates at the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur. ~ Clive Thompson, “The Secret History of Women in Coding”, The New York Times, (Feb. 13, 2019),
807:We are about to study the idea of a computational process. Computational processes are abstract beings that inhabit computers. As they evolve, processes manipulate other abstract things called data. The evolution of a process is directed by a pattern of rules called a program. People create programs to direct processes. In effect, we conjure the spirits of the computer with our spells.

A computational process is indeed much like a sorcerer's idea of a spirit. It cannot be seen or touched. It is not composed of matter at all. However, it is very real. It can perform intellectual work. It can answer questions. It can affect the world by disbursing money at a bank or by controlling a robot arm in a factory. The programs we use to conjure processes are like a sorcerer's spells. They are carefully composed from symbolic expressions in arcane and esoteric programming languages that prescribe the tasks we want our processes to perform.

A computational process, in a correctly working computer, executes programs precisely and accurately. Thus, like the sorcerer's apprentice, novice programmers must learn to understand and to anticipate the consequences of their conjuring. Even small errors (usually called bugs or glitches) in programs can have complex and unanticipated consequences. ~ Harold Abelson,
808:Schopenhauer’s framing kicked the problem of consciousness onto a much larger playing field. The mind, with all of its rational processes, is all very well but the “will,” the thing that gives us our “oomph,” is the key: “The will … again fills the consciousness through wishes, emotions, passions, and cares.”14 Today, the subconscious rumblings of the “will” are still unplumbed; only a few inroads have been made. As I write these words, enthusiasts for the artificial intelligence (AI) agenda, the goal of programming machines to think like humans, have completely avoided and ignored this aspect of mental life. That is why Yale’s David Gelernter, one of the leading computer scientists in the world, says the AI agenda will always fall short, explaining, “As it now exists, the field of AI doesn’t have anything that speaks to emotions and the physical body, so they just refuse to talk about it.” He asserts that the human mind includes feelings, along with data and thoughts, and each particular mind is a product of a particular person’s experiences, emotions, and memories hashed and rehashed over a lifetime: “The mind is in a particular body, and consciousness is the work of the whole body.” Putting it in computer lingo, he declares, “I can run an app on any device, but can I run someone else’s mind on your brain? Obviously not.”15 ~ Michael S Gazzaniga,
809:The Pseudocode Programming Process Have you checked that the prerequisites have been satisfied? Have you defined the problem that the class will solve? Is the high-level design clear enough to give the class and each of its routines a good name? Have you thought about how to test the class and each of its routines? Have you thought about efficiency mainly in terms of stable interfaces and readable implementations or mainly in terms of meeting resource and speed budgets? Have you checked the standard libraries and other code libraries for applicable routines or components? Have you checked reference books for helpful algorithms? Have you designed each routine by using detailed pseudocode? Have you mentally checked the pseudocode? Is it easy to understand? Have you paid attention to warnings that would send you back to design (use of global data, operations that seem better suited to another class or another routine, and so on)? Did you translate the pseudocode to code accurately? Did you apply the PPP recursively, breaking routines into smaller routines when needed? Did you document assumptions as you made them? Did you remove comments that turned out to be redundant? Have you chosen the best of several iterations, rather than merely stopping after your first iteration? Do you thoroughly understand your code? Is it easy to understand? ~ Steve McConnell,
810:Livingston: What do you think makes a good hacker? Spolsky: I think what makes a good hack is the observation that you can do without something that everybody else thinks you need. To me, the most elegant hack is when somebody says, "These 2,000 lines of code end up doing the same thing as those 2 lines of code would do. I know it seems complicated, but arithmetically it's really the same." When someone cuts through a lot of crap and says, "You know, it doesn't really matter." For example, Ruby on Rails is a framework that you can use with the Ruby programming language to access databases. It is the first framework that you can use from any programming language for accessing databases to realize that it's OK to require that the names of the columns in the database have a specific format. Everybody else thought, "You need to be allowed to use whatever name you want in the database and whatever name you want in the application." Therefore you have to create all this code to map between the name in the database and the name in the application. Ruby on Rails finally said, "It's no big deal if you're just forced to use the same name in both places. You know, it doesn't really matter." And suddenly it becomes much simpler and much cleaner. To me, that is an elegant hack—saying, "This particular distinction that we used to fret over, just throw it away. ~ Jessica Livingston,
811:Personal importance, or taking things personally, is the maximum expression of selfishness because we make the assumption that everything is about “me.” During the period of our education, or our domestication, we learn to take everything personally. We think we are responsible for everything. Me, me, me, always me! Nothing other people do is because of you. It is because of themselves. All people live in their own dream, in their own mind; they are in a completely different world from the one we live in. When we take something personally, we make the assumption that they know what is in our world, and we try to impose our world on their world. Even when a situation seems so personal, even if others insult you directly, it has nothing to do with you. What they say, what they do, and the opinions they give are according to the agreements they have in their own minds. Their point of view comes from all the programming they received during domestication. If someone gives you an opinion and says, “Hey, you look so fat,” don’t take it personally, because the truth is that this person is dealing with his or her own feelings, beliefs, and opinions. That person tried to send poison to you and if you take it personally, then you take that poison and it becomes yours. Taking things personally makes you easy prey for these predators, the black magicians. They can hook you easily with one ~ Miguel Ruiz,
812:Amabile goes on to observe that “The more complex the activity, the more it’s hurt by extrinsic reward.” Interestingly, the studies suggest that flat salaries don’t demotivate, but piecework rates and bonuses do. Thus, it may be economically smart to give performance bonuses to people who flip burgers or dug ditches, but it’s probably smarter to decouple salary from performance in a programming shop and let people choose their own projects (both trends that the open-source world takes to their logical conclusions). Indeed, these results suggest that the only time it is a good idea to reward performance in programming is when the programmer is so motivated that he or she would have worked without the reward! Other researchers in the field are willing to point a finger straight at the issues of autonomy and creative control that so preoccupy hackers. “To the extent one’s experience of being self-determined is limited,” said Richard Ryan, associate psychology professor at the University of Rochester, “one’s creativity will be reduced as well.” In general, presenting any task as a means rather than an end in itself seems to demotivate. Even winning a competition with others or gaining peer esteem can be demotivating in this way if the victory is experienced as work for reward (which may explain why hackers are culturally prohibited from explicitly seeking or claiming that esteem). ~ Eric S Raymond,
813:But they were all in, 100%, for much the same reason that many of the world’s top physicists joined the Manhattan Project to develop nuclear weapons: they were convinced that if they didn’t do it first, someone less idealistic would. The AI they had built, nicknamed Prometheus, kept getting more capable. Although its cognitive abilities still lagged far behind those of humans in many areas, for example, social skills, the Omegas had pushed hard to make it extraordinary at one particular task: programming AI systems. They’d deliberately chosen this strategy because they had bought the intelligence explosion argument made by the British mathematician Irving Good back in 1965: “Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an ‘intelligence explosion,’ and the intelligence of man would be left far behind. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make, provided that the machine is docile enough to tell us how to keep it under control.” They figured that if they could get this recursive self-improvement going, the machine would soon get smart enough that it could also teach itself all other human skills that would be useful. ~ Max Tegmark,
814:There was no escape: The entire Elliott 503 Mark II software project had to be abandoned, and with it, over thirty man-years of programming effort, equivalent to nearly one man’s active working life, and I was responsible, both as designer and as manager, for wasting it. ...

How did we recover from the catastrophe? First, we classified our 503 customers into groups, according to the nature and size of the hardware configurations which they had bought ... We assigned to each group of customers a small team of programmers and told the team leader to visit the customers to find out what they wanted; to select the easiest request to fulfill, and to make plans (but no promises) to implement it. In no case would we consider a request for a feature that would take more than three months to implement and deliver. The project leader would then have to convince me that the customers’ request was reasonable, that the design of the new feature was appropriate, and that the plans and schedules for implementation were realistic. Above all, I did not allow anything to be done which I did not myself understand. It worked! The software requested began to be delivered on the promised dates. With an increase in our confidence and that of our customers, we were able to undertake fulfilling slightly more ambitious requests. Within a year we had recovered from the disaster. Within two years, we even had some moderately satisfied customers. ~ C A R Hoare,
815:A good example is overflow detection on arithmetic, or providing bignums instead of just letting 32-bit integers wrap around. Now,
implementing those is more expensive but I believe that providing full-blown bignums is a little less error-prone for some kinds of programming.
A trap that I find systems programmers and designers of operating-systems algorithms constantly falling into is they say, "Well, we need to synchronize some phases here so we're going to use a take-a-number strategy. Every time we enter a new phase of the computation we'll increment some variable and that'll be the new number and then the different participants will make sure they're all working on the same phase number before a certain operation happens." And that works pretty well in practice, but if you use a 32-bit integer it doesn't take that long to count to four billion anymore. What happens if that number wraps around? Will you still be OK or not? It turns out that a lot of such algorithms in the literature have that lurking bug. What if some thread stalls for 2 to the 32nd iterations? That's highly unlikely in practice, but it's a possibility. And one should either mitigate that correctness problem or else do the calculation to show that, yeah, it's sufficiently unlikely that I don't want to worry about it. Or maybe you're willing to accept one glitch every day. But the point is you should do the analysis rather than simply ignoring the issue. And the fact that counters can wrap around is a lurking pitfall ~ Peter Seibel,
816:Knowledge about society is thus a realization in the double sense of the word, in the sense of apprehending the objectivated social reality, and in the sense of ongoingly producing this reality. For example, in the course of the division of labor a body of knowledge is developed that refers to the particular activites involved. In its linguistic basis, this knowledge is already indispensable to the institutional “programming” of these economic activities. There will be, say, a vocabulary designating the various modes of hunting, the weapons to be employed, the animals that serve as prey, and so on. There will further be a collection of recipes that must be learned if one is to hunt correctly. This knowledge serves as a channeling, controlling force in itself, an indispensable ingredient of the institutionalization of this area of conduct. As the institution of hunting is crystallized and persists in time, the same body of knowledge serves as an objective (and, incidentally, empirically verifiable) description of it. A whole segment of the social world is objectified by this knowledge. There will be an objective “science” of hunting, corresponding to the objective reality of the hunting economy. The point need not be belabored that here “empirical verification” and “science” are not understood in the sense of modern scientific canons, but rather in the sense of knowledge that may be borne out in experience and that can subsequently become systematically organized as a body of knowledge. Again, ~ Peter L Berger,
817:How much will you change?” Nella asked, uneasy.
“Oh, not too much. Enough so that your signature won’t match the bots’ programming. Outwardly, you’ll never know the difference. Unless, of course, you’d like me to make some modifications.” She ran an eye up and down Nella, like a dress designer trying to decide where to put more pleats or frills.
Rio’s arms tightened around her. “Don’t you dare change a thing. She’s perfect the way she is.”
Nella’s face heated. “Not really.”
“You don’t believe me?” Rio said, his voice taking on a dangerous note.
“You’re very flattering,” she said.
His playfulness vanished. “Flattering? You mean I’m lying?”
“I didn’t say that. I . . .”
He confused her. All her life Nella had been taught to be banally polite, to have the correct remark for the correct person at the correct time, always. Everything she said to Rio seemed to provoke a reaction opposite of what she’d been taught to expect. But then, Rio was nothing like any male— any human being— Nella had ever met before. He did nothing as expected. Maybe that was part of his attraction— his unpredictability.
Abruptly, Rio spun Nella around and lifted her over his shoulder. She squeaked in surprise as her world went upside down, too startled to do anything but gape at his tight, leather-clad buttocks. “You’re still having a problem with trust,” he said. “One I’m going to have to cure.”
Planting his hand on her backside, Rio hauled Nella out of the room, completely ignoring her shout of protest. ~ Allyson James,
818:Writing and repairing software generally takes far more time and is far more expensive than initially anticipated. “Every feature that is added and every bug that is fixed,” Edward Tenner points out, “adds the possibility of some new and unexpected interaction between parts of the program.”19 De Jager concurs: “If people have learned anything about large software projects, it is that many of them miss their deadlines, and those that are on time seldom work perfectly. … Indeed, on-time error-free installations of complex computer systems are rare.”20 Even small changes to code can require wholesale retesting of entire software systems. While at MIT in the 1980s, I helped develop some moderately complex software. I learned then that the biggest problems arise from bugs that creep into programs during early stages of design. They become deeply embedded in the software’s interdependent network of logic, and if left unfixed can have cascading repercussions throughout the software. But fixing them often requires tracing out consequences that have metastasized in every direction from the original error. As the amount of computer code in our world soars (doubling every two years in consumer products alone), we need practical ways to minimize the number of bugs. But software development is still at a preindustrial stage—it remains more craft than engineering. Programmers resemble artisans: they handcraft computer code out of basic programming languages using logic, intuition, and pattern-recognition skills honed over years of experience. ~ Thomas Homer Dixon,
819:Why Ubuntu: If I were you I'd just install Ubuntu into a dual-boot partition (the Ubuntu website has instructions for this) and learn as you go. Ubuntu is similar enough to Windows that you should be able to start using it right away without much difficulty.
   For running your Python scripts you'll want to drop into the shell (Ctrl + Alt + T If memory serves me right). As you become more comfortable with Ubuntu, you can start using the shell more and more. The shell is what gives you access to the power of Unix; every time you need to do something tedious and repetitive, try to find out how to do it through the shell.
   Eventually you will find yourself using the shell constantly. You'll wonder how you ever managed without it, and deride other operating systems for their lack of sensible programming tools. One day you'll realise that desktop window managers are a needless distraction. You start using xmonad or awesomewm. Eventually you realise that this, too, is a bastardisaton of the Unix vision and start using tmux exclusively. Then suddenly it hits you - every computer, every operating system, no matter how insignificant or user-friendly, has the Unix nature. All of them are merely streams from where you can ssh back into the ocean of Unix. Having achieved enlightenment you are equally content using an iPad as your main work computer, using powershell in Windows or SSH into a Digital Ocean droplet from your parent's computer. This is the Zen of Unix.
   ~ JohnyTex, https://www.reddit.com/r/learnprogramming/comments/38zytg/is_it_worth_my_time_to_learn_linux_while_learning,
820:The present threat is not based on conflicting ideas about America's basic principles. It is based on several serious problems that stem from the dramatic and fundamental change in the way we communicate among ourselves. Our challenge now is to understand that change and see those problems for what they are.

Consider the rules by which our present public forum now operates and how different they are from the norms our Founders knew during the age of print. Today's massive flows of information are largely only in one direction. The world of television makes it virtually impossible for individuals to take part in what passes for a national conversation.

Individuals receive, but they cannot send. They absorb, but they cannot share. They hear, but they do not speak. They see constant motion, but they do not move themselves. The "well-informed citizenry" is in danger of becoming the "well-amused audience".

Ironically, television programming is actually more accessible to more people than any source of information has ever been in all of history. But here is the crucial distinction: It is accessible in only one direction. There is no true interactivity, and certainly no conversation. Television stations and networks are almost completely inaccessible to individual citizens and almost always uninterested in ideas contributed by citizens.

So, unlike the marketplace of ideas that emerged in the wake of the printing press, there is much less of an exchange of ideas in television's domain because of the imposing barriers to entry that exclude contributions from most citizens. ~ Al Gore,
821:On a scale of one to ten, how strong is the emotion attached to the memories we’ve been working on?” Curtis Rouanzoin asks one day. The procedure I’ve been going through with him is called EMDR, or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, which looks at the way trauma is stored in the brain and attempts to properly process it. “If it used to be a ten, now it’s an eight,” I tell him. Lindsay Joy Greene is trained in a therapy called SE, or somatic experiencing, and she’s been locating trauma trapped not in my brain, but in my body, and releasing the stored energy. One day she asks, “On a scale of one to ten, how much anger do you feel when you recall the memories we’ve been discussing?” “If it used to be an eight, now it’s a seven,” I tell her. Olga Stevko practices her own variant of NLP, or neuro-linguistic programming. Where the experientials with Lorraine were about debugging my operating system, her process is about rewriting the original code. For example, she tells me that inside my mother’s words, “Never grow up to make anyone as miserable as your father makes me,” was a hidden command: Never grow up. As she helps me grow up, it brings my trauma down to a six. Greg Cason specializes in cognitive behavioral therapy, which takes it to a five. And I don’t know what to call Barbara McNally’s method and her bottomless quiver of techniques, but they work, they’re original, and they bring the emotion associated with those memories to a four. And I do so much more: I beat pillows with baseball bats. I tap on energy meridians. I make shadow maps of my dark side. I try psychodrama. Not all of it works, but none of it hurts. ~ Neil Strauss,
822:It will relax her, make her pliable. Women love having their feet rubbed.”
“Most women beg me to rub somewhere other than their feet.”
“They like their toes nibbled,” Aiden said. “And suckled.”
“Rub feet, suckle toes. Got it.”
“Do it slowly, the strokes steady. Then move up her legs. Use her muscles as a guide. Not hard strokes— you want to soothe, not press.”
“How long before I can massage her pussy?”
“Gods, level threes are impatient. The trick is to go slowly. By the time you’ve reached her ass, she’s sighing with pleasure, but you don’t stop there. You do her entire back and arms while she’s longing for you to get to her pussy. Make her wait.”
“Now that I can get into. Holding back, making her beg.”
He saw Nella again, squirming on the sheets, her red hair tangled on the pillow, her hips lifting toward him.   Please, Rio, she’d say.
Not yet, baby, he’d respond. I want you good and wet before I get there.
She’d whimper with disappointment, then he’d lift his strap and smack her sweet little backside.
Rio sighed and made the image dissolve. “Massage. Slowly. I’m not sure my programming will let me.”
“Like this.” Aiden moved his ale glass and pressed his hand to the table, thumb and last two fingers on the surface, the other two fingers held loosely. “Glide across her skin, pressing a little. Long strokes, following the curve of her leg.” He moved his hand across the table, slowly and sensually, his own eyes becoming bluer, as though he pictured a beautiful woman under his hand.
Rio copied his movements, trying to shape his hand the same way, trying press a little, but not too much.
It felt awkward. He gave up. “I gotta say, massaging this table does nothing for me. ~ Allyson James,
823:In the mid-1990s, at Duke University, Miguel Nicolelis and John Chapin began a behavioral experiment, with the goal of learning to read an animal’s thoughts. They trained a rat to press a bar, electronically attached to a water-releasing mechanism. Each time the rat pressed the bar, the mechanism released a drop of water for the rat to drink. The rat had a small part of its skull removed, and a small group of microelectrodes were attached to its motor cortex. These electrodes recorded the activity of forty-six neurons in the motor cortex involved in planning and programming movements, neurons that normally send instructions down the spinal cord to the muscles. Since the goal of the experiment was to register thoughts, which are complex, the forty-six neurons had to be measured simultaneously. Each time the rat moved the bar, Nicolelis and Chapin recorded the firing of its forty-six motor-programming neurons, and the signals were sent to a small computer. Soon the computer “recognized” the firing pattern for bar pressing. After the rat became used to pressing the bar, Nicolelis and Chapin disconnected the bar from the water release. Now when the rat pressed the bar, no water came. Frustrated, it pressed the bar a number of times, but to no avail. Next the researchers connected the water release to the computer that was connected to the rat’s neurons. In theory, now, each time the rat had the thought “press the bar,” the computer would recognize the neuronal firing pattern and send a signal to the water release to dispense a drop. After a few hours, the rat realized it didn’t have to touch the bar to get water. All it had to do was to imagine its paw pressing the bar, and water would come! Nicolelis and Chapin trained four rats to perform this task. ~ Anonymous,
824:Stanford University’s John Koza, who pioneered genetic programming in 1986, has used genetic algorithms to invent an antenna for NASA, create computer programs for identifying proteins, and invent general purpose electrical controllers. Twenty-three times Koza’s genetic algorithms have independently invented electronic components already patented by humans, simply by targeting the engineering specifications of the finished devices—the “fitness” criteria. For example, Koza’s algorithms invented a voltage-current conversion circuit (a device used for testing electronic equipment) that worked more accurately than the human-invented circuit designed to meet the same specs. Mysteriously, however, no one can describe how it works better—it appears to have redundant and even superfluous parts. But that’s the curious thing about genetic programming (and “evolutionary programming,” the programming family it belongs to). The code is inscrutable. The program “evolves” solutions that computer scientists cannot readily reproduce. What’s more, they can’t understand the process genetic programming followed to achieve a finished solution. A computational tool in which you understand the input and the output but not the underlying procedure is called a “black box” system. And their unknowability is a big downside for any system that uses evolutionary components. Every step toward inscrutability is a step away from accountability, or fond hopes like programming in friendliness toward humans. That doesn’t mean scientists routinely lose control of black box systems. But if cognitive architectures use them in achieving AGI, as they almost certainly will, then layers of unknowability will be at the heart of the system. Unknowability might be an unavoidable consequence of self-aware, self-improving software. ~ James Barrat,
825:Each tribe’s solution to its central problem is a brilliant, hard-won advance. But the true Master Algorithm must solve all five problems, not just one. For example, to cure cancer we need to understand the metabolic networks in the cell: which genes regulate which others, which chemical reactions the resulting proteins control, and how adding a new molecule to the mix would affect the network. It would be silly to try to learn all of this from scratch, ignoring all the knowledge that biologists have painstakingly accumulated over the decades. Symbolists know how to combine this knowledge with data from DNA sequencers, gene expression microarrays, and so on, to produce results that you couldn’t get with either alone. But the knowledge we obtain by inverse deduction is purely qualitative; we need to learn not just who interacts with whom, but how much, and backpropagation can do that. Nevertheless, both inverse deduction and backpropagation would be lost in space without some basic structure on which to hang the interactions and parameters they find, and genetic programming can discover it. At this point, if we had complete knowledge of the metabolism and all the data relevant to a given patient, we could figure out a treatment for her. But in reality the information we have is always very incomplete, and even incorrect in places; we need to make headway despite that, and that’s what probabilistic inference is for. In the hardest cases, the patient’s cancer looks very different from previous ones, and all our learned knowledge fails. Similarity-based algorithms can save the day by seeing analogies between superficially very different situations, zeroing in on their essential similarities and ignoring the rest. In this book we will synthesize a single algorithm will all these capabilities: ~ Pedro Domingos,
826:In their writing on education, Deci and Ryan proceed from the principle that humans are natural learners and children are born creative and curious, “intrinsically motivated for the types of behaviors that foster learning and development.” This idea is complicated, however, by the fact that part of learning anything, be it painting or programming or eighth-grade algebra, involves a lot of repetitive practice, and repetitive practice is usually pretty boring. Deci and Ryan acknowledge that many of the tasks that teachers ask students to complete each day are not inherently fun or satisfying; it is the rare student who feels a deep sense of intrinsic motivation when memorizing her multiplication tables.

It is at these moments that extrinsic motivation becomes important: when behaviors must be performed not for the inherent satisfaction of completing them, but for some separate outcome. Deci and Ryan say that when students can be encouraged to internalize those extrinsic motivations, the motivations become increasingly powerful. This is where the psychologists return to their three basic human needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. When teachers are able to create an environment that promotes those three feelings, they say, students exhibit much higher levels of motivation.

And how does a teacher create that kind of environment? Students experience autonomy in the classroom, Deci and Ryan explain, when their teachers “maximize a sense of choice and volitional engagement” while minimizing students’ feelings of coercion and control. Students feel competent, they say, when their teachers give them tasks that they can succeed at but that aren’t too easy — challenges just a bit beyond their current abilities. And they feel a sense of relatedness when they perceive that their teachers like and value and respect them. ~ Paul Tough,
827:If you want to make money at some point, remember this, because this is one of the reasons startups win. Big companies want to decrease the standard deviation of design outcomes because they want to avoid disasters. But when you damp oscillations, you lose the high points as well as the low. This is not a problem for big companies, because they don't win by making great products. Big companies win by sucking less than other big companies.”
-
“The place to fight design wars is in new markets, where no one has yet managed to establish any fortifications. That's where you can win big by taking the bold approach to design, and having the same people both design and implement the product. Microsoft themselves did this at the start. So did Apple. And Hewlett- Packard. I suspect almost every successful startup has.”
-
“Great software, likewise, requires a fanatical devotion to beauty. If you look inside good software, you find that parts no one is ever supposed to see are beautiful too.”
-
“The right way to collaborate, I think, is to divide projects into sharply defined modules, each with a definite owner, and with interfaces between them that are as carefully designed and, if possible, as articulated as programming languages. Like painting, most software is intended for a human audience. And so hackers, like painters, must have empathy to do really great work. You have to be able to see things from the user's point of view.”
-
“It turns out that looking at things from other people's point of view is practically the secret of success.”
-
“Part of what software has to do is explain itself. So to write good software you have to understand how little users understand. They're going to walk up to the software with no preparation, and it had better do what they guess it will, because they're not going to read the manual. ~ Paul Graham,
828:Viewed this way, a technology is more than a mere means. It is a programming of phenomena for a purpose. A technology is an orchestration of phenomena to our use.

There is a consequence to this. I said in Chapter 1 that technology has no neat genetics. This is true, but that does not mean that technology possesses nothing quite like genes. Phenomena, I propose, are the "genes" of technology. The parallel is not exact of course, but still, I find it helpful to think this way. We know that biology creates its structures-proteins, cells, hormones, and the like-by activating genes. In the human case there are about 21,000 of these, and the number does not vary all that much between fruit flies and humans, or humans and elephants. Individual genes do not correspond to particular structures; there is no single gene that creates the eye or even eye color. Instead, modern biology understands that genes collectively act as the elements of a programming language for the creation of a huge variety of shapes and forms. They operate much as the fixed set of musical tones and rhythms and phrases act as programming language for the creation of very different musical structures. Organisms create themselves in many different shapes and species by using much the same set of genes "programmed" to activate in different sequences.

It is the same with technology. It creates its structures-individual technologies-by "programming" a fixed set of phenomena in many different ways. New phenomena-new technological "genes"-of course add to this fixed set as time progresses. And phenomena are not combined directly; first they are captured and expressed as technological elements which are then combined. There are probably fewer phenomena than biological genes in use, but still, the analogy applies. Biology programs genes into myriad structures, and technology programs phenomena to myriad uses. ~ W Brian Arthur,
829:Even though these individuals had seemed perfectly healthy at birth, something that had happened during their development in the womb affected them for decades afterwards. And it wasn’t just the fact that something had happened that mattered, it was when it happened. Events that take place in the first three months of development, a stage when the foetus is really very small, can affect an individual for the rest of their life. This is completely consistent with the model of developmental programming, and the epigenetic basis to this. In the early stages of pregnancy, where different cell types are developing, epigenetic proteins are probably vital for stabilising gene expression patterns. But remember that our cells contain thousands of genes, spread over billions of base-pairs, and we have hundreds of epigenetic proteins. Even in normal development there are likely to be slight variations in the expression of some of these proteins, and the precise effects that they have at specific chromosomal regions. A little bit more DNA methylation here, a little bit less there. The epigenetic machinery reinforces and then maintains particular patterns of modifications, thus creating the levels of gene expression. Consequently, these initial small fluctuations in histone and DNA modifications may eventually become ‘set’ and get transmitted to daughter cells, or be maintained in long-lived cells such as neurons, that can last for decades. Because the epigenome gets ‘stuck’, so too may the patterns of gene expression in certain chromosomal regions. In the short term the consequences of this may be relatively minor. But over decades all these mild abnormalities in gene expression, resulting from a slightly inappropriate set of chromatin modifications, may lead to a gradually increasing functional impairment. Clinically, we don’t recognise this until it passes some invisible threshold and the patient begins to show symptoms. ~ Nessa Carey,
830:IV. Real techies don’t worry about forced eugenics. I learned this from a real techie in the cafeteria of a software company. The project team is having lunch and discussing how long it would take to wipe out a disease inherited recessively on the X chromosome. First come calculations of inheritance probabilities. Given a population of a given size, one of the engineers arrives at a wipe-out date. Immediately another suggests that the date could be moved forward by various manipulations of the inheritance patterns. For example, he says, there could be an education campaign. The six team members then fall over one another with further suggestions. They start with rewards to discourage carriers from breeding. Immediately they move to fines for those who reproduce the disease. Then they go for what they call “more effective” measures: Jail for breeding. Induced abortion. Forced sterilization. Now they’re hot. The calculations are flying. Years and years fall from the final doom-date of the disease. Finally, they get to the ultimate solution. “It’s straightforward,” someone says. “Just kill every carrier.” Everyone responds to this last suggestion with great enthusiasm. One generation and—bang—the disease is gone. Quietly, I say, “You know, that’s what the Nazis did.” They all look at me in disgust. It’s the look boys give a girl who has interrupted a burping contest. One says, “This is something my wife would say.” When he says “wife,” there is no love, warmth, or goodness in it. In this engineer’s mouth, “wife” means wet diapers and dirty dishes. It means someone angry with you for losing track of time and missing dinner. Someone sentimental. In his mind (for the moment), “wife” signifies all programming-party-pooping, illogical things in the universe. Still, I persist. “It started as just an idea for the Nazis, too, you know.” The engineer makes a reply that sounds like a retch. “This is how I know you’re not a real techie,” he says. ~ Ellen Ullman,
831:When Bush and Clinton were talking in 1984, Bush told Clinton ‘when the American people become disillusioned with Republicans leading them into the New World Order, you, as a Democrat, will be put into place.’ I expect that Clinton will be our next President based on that conversation I heard.” “This is serious information!” Billy looked up from his work. “Its no wonder the Feds are worried about your revealing what you know.” “There are a lot of people who know what I know7,” I assured him. “And even more are waking up to reality fast. People with Intelligence operating on a Need-to-Know are gaining insight into a bigger picture with the truth that is emerging. They gain one more piece of the puzzle and the Big Picture suddenly comes into focus. When it does, their paradigms shift. Mark and I are also aware of numerous scientists waking up to the reality of a New World Order agenda who are furious that they’ve been mislead and used. These people are uniting with strength, and the New World Order elite will need to play their hold card and switch political parties. Watch and see. Clinton will appear to ‘defeat’ Bush according to plan, while Bush continues business as usual from behind the scenes of the New World Order.” “Who do you think will follow Clinton?” “A compliant, sleeping public mesmerized by his Oxford learned charisma.” Billy looked up from his work again to clarify his question. “I mean into the Presidency.” “Hillary?” I smiled half-heartedly. “Seriously, she is brighter than Bill, and is even more corrupt. Knowing her, she’d probably rather work behind the scenes, although she may be used as another appearance of ‘change’ since she’s a woman. That’s just speculation based on how these criminals operate. They want to keep their power all in the family. I did see Bush, Jr. being conditioned, and trained for the role of President at the Mount Shasta, California military programming compound in 19868. He’s not very bright, though, so I don’t know how they could possibly prop him up… ~ Cathy O Brien,
832:Every night, millions of Americans spend their free hours watching television rather than engaging in any form of social interaction. What are they watching? In recent years we have seen reality television become the most popular form of television programming. To discover the nature of our current “reality,” we might consider examples such as Survivor, the series that helped spawn the reality TV revolution. Every week tens of millions of viewers watched as a group of ordinary people stranded in some isolated place struggled to meet various challenges and endure harsh conditions. Ah, one might think, here we will see people working cooperatively, like our ancient ancestors, working cooperatively in order to “win”! But the “reality” was very different. The conditions of the game were arranged so that, yes, they had to work cooperatively, but the alliances by nature were only temporary and conditional, as the contestants plotted and schemed against one another to win the game and walk off with the Grand Prize: a million dollars! The objective was to banish contestants one by one from the deserted island through a group vote, eliminating every other contestant until only a lone individual remained—the “sole survivor.” The end game was the ultimate American fantasy in our Age of Individualism: to be left completely alone, sitting on a mountain of cash!

  While Survivor was an overt example of our individualistic orientation, it certainly was not unique in its glorification of rugged individualists on American television. Even commercial breaks provide equally compelling examples, with advertisers such as Burger King, proclaiming, HAVE IT YOUR WAY! The message? America, the land where not only every man and every woman is an individual but also where every hamburger is an individual!

  Human beings do not live in a vacuum; we live in a society. Thus it is important to look at the values promoted and celebrated in a given society and measure what effect this conditioning has on our sense of independence or of interdependence ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
833:Now keep looking at this unpleasant situation or person until you realize that it isn’t they that are causing the negative emotions. They are just going their way, being themselves, doing their thing whether right or wrong, good or bad. It is your computer that, thanks to your programming, insists on your reacting with negative emotions. You will see this better if you realize that someone with a different programming when faced with this same situation or person or event would react quite calmly, even happily. Don’t stop till you have grasped this truth: The only reason why you too are not reacting calmly and happily is your computer that is stubbornly insisting that reality be reshaped to conform to its programming. Observe all of this from the outside so to speak and see the marvelous change that comes about in you. Once you have understood this truth and thereby stopped your computer from generating negative emotions you may take any action you deem fit. You may avoid the situation or the person; or you may try to change them; or you may insist on your rights or the rights of others being respected; you may even resort to the use of force. But only after you have got rid of your emotional upsets, for then your action will spring from peace and love, not from the neurotic desire to appease your computer or to conform to its programming or to get rid of the negative emotions it generates. Then you will understand how profound is the wisdom of the words: “If a man wants to sue you for your shirt, let him have your coat as well. If a man in authority makes you go one mile, go with him two.” For it will have become evident to you that real oppression comes, not from people who fight you in court or from authority that subjects you to slave labor, but from your computer whose programming destroys your peace of mind the moment outside circumstances fail to conform to its demands. People have been known to be happy even in the oppressive atmosphere of a concentration camp! It is from the oppression of your programming that you need to be liberated. ~ Anthony de Mello,
834:Class Quality Abstract Data Types Have you thought of the classes in your program as abstract data types and evaluated their interfaces from that point of view? Abstraction Does the class have a central purpose? Is the class well named, and does its name describe its central purpose? Does the class's interface present a consistent abstraction? Does the class's interface make obvious how you should use the class? Is the class's interface abstract enough that you don't have to think about how its services are implemented? Can you treat the class as a black box? Are the class's services complete enough that other classes don't have to meddle with its internal data? Has unrelated information been moved out of the class? Have you thought about subdividing the class into component classes, and have you subdivided it as much as you can? Are you preserving the integrity of the class's interface as you modify the class? Encapsulation Does the class minimize accessibility to its members? Does the class avoid exposing member data? Does the class hide its implementation details from other classes as much as the programming language permits? Does the class avoid making assumptions about its users, including its derived classes? Is the class independent of other classes? Is it loosely coupled? Inheritance Is inheritance used only to model "is a" relationships—that is, do derived classes adhere to the Liskov Substitution Principle? Does the class documentation describe the inheritance strategy? Do derived classes avoid "overriding" non-overridable routines? Are common interfaces, data, and behavior as high as possible in the inheritance tree? Are inheritance trees fairly shallow? Are all data members in the base class private rather than protected? Other Implementation Issues Does the class contain about seven data members or fewer? Does the class minimize direct and indirect routine calls to other classes? Does the class collaborate with other classes only to the extent absolutely necessary? Is all member data initialized in the constructor? Is the class designed to be used as deep copies rather than shallow copies unless there's a measured reason to create shallow copies? ~ Steve McConnell,
835:You have meddled with the primal forces of nature, Mr. Beale, and I won't have it! Is that clear? You think you've merely stopped a business deal. That is not the case! The Arabs have taken billions of dollars out of this country, and now they must put it back! It is ebb and flow, tidal gravity! It is ecological balance! You are an old man who thinks in terms of nations and peoples. There are no nations. There are no peoples. There are no Russians. There are no Arabs. There are no third worlds. There is no West. There is only one holistic system of systems, one vast and immane, interwoven, interacting, multivariate, multinational dominion of dollars. Petro-dollars, electro-dollars, multi-dollars, reichmarks, rins, rubles, pounds, and shekels. It is the international system of currency which determines the totality of life on this planet. That is the natural order of things today. That is the atomic and subatomic and galactic structure of things today! And YOU have meddled with the primal forces of nature, and YOU... WILL... ATONE! Am I getting through to you, Mr. Beale? You get up on your little twenty-one inch screen and howl about America and democracy. There is no America. There is no democracy. There is only IBM, and ITT, and AT&T, and DuPont, Dow, Union Carbide, and Exxon. Those are the nations of the world today. What do you think the Russians talk about in their councils of state, Karl Marx? They get out their linear programming charts, statistical decision theories, minimax solutions, and compute the price-cost probabilities of their transactions and investments, just like we do. We no longer live in a world of nations and ideologies, Mr. Beale. The world is a college of corporations, inexorably determined by the immutable bylaws of business. The world is a business, Mr. Beale. It has been since man crawled out of the slime. And our children will live, Mr. Beale, to see that... perfect world... in which there's no war or famine, oppression or brutality. One vast and ecumenical holding company, for whom all men will work to serve a common profit, in which all men will hold a share of stock. All necessities provided, all anxieties tranquilized, all boredom amused. And I have chosen you, Mr. Beale, to preach this evangel. ~ Paddy Chayefsky,
836:I WANT TO end this list by talking a little more about the founding of Pixar University and Elyse Klaidman’s mind-expanding drawing classes in particular. Those first classes were such a success—of the 120 people who worked at Pixar then, 100 enrolled—that we gradually began expanding P.U.’s curriculum. Sculpting, painting, acting, meditation, belly dancing, live-action filmmaking, computer programming, design and color theory, ballet—over the years, we have offered free classes in all of them. This meant spending not only the time to find the best outside teachers but also the real cost of freeing people up during their workday to take the classes. So what exactly was Pixar getting out of all of this? It wasn’t that the class material directly enhanced our employees’ job performance. Instead, there was something about an apprentice lighting technician sitting alongside an experienced animator, who in turn was sitting next to someone who worked in legal or accounting or security—that proved immensely valuable. In the classroom setting, people interacted in a way they didn’t in the workplace. They felt free to be goofy, relaxed, open, vulnerable. Hierarchy did not apply, and as a result, communication thrived. Simply by providing an excuse for us all to toil side by side, humbled by the challenge of sketching a self-portrait or writing computer code or taming a lump of clay, P.U. changed the culture for the better. It taught everyone at Pixar, no matter their title, to respect the work that their colleagues did. And it made us all beginners again. Creativity involves missteps and imperfections. I wanted our people to get comfortable with that idea—that both the organization and its members should be willing, at times, to operate on the edge. I can understand that the leaders of many companies might wonder whether or not such classes would truly be useful, worth the expense. And I’ll admit that these social interactions I describe were an unexpected benefit. But the purpose of P.U. was never to turn programmers into artists or artists into belly dancers. Instead, it was to send a signal about how important it is for every one of us to keep learning new things. That, too, is a key part of remaining flexible: keeping our brains nimble by pushing ourselves to try things we haven’t tried before. That’s what P.U. lets our people do, and I believe it makes us stronger. ~ Ed Catmull,
837:Some researchers, such as psychologist Jean Twenge, say this new world where compliments are better than sex and pizza, in which the self-enhancing bias has been unchained and allowed to gorge unfettered, has led to a new normal in which the positive illusions of several generations have now mutated into full-blown narcissism. In her book The Narcissism Epidemic, Twenge says her research shows that since the mid-1980s, clinically defined narcissism rates in the United States have increased in the population at the same rate as obesity. She used the same test used by psychiatrists to test for narcissism in patients and found that, in 2006, one in four U.S. college students tested positive. That’s real narcissism, the kind that leads to diagnoses of personality disorders. In her estimation, this is a dangerous trend, and it shows signs of acceleration. Narcissistic overconfidence crosses a line, says Twenge, and taints those things improved by a skosh of confidence. Over that line, you become less concerned with the well-being of others, more materialistic, and obsessed with status in addition to losing all the restraint normally preventing you from tragically overestimating your ability to manage or even survive risky situations. In her book, Twenge connects this trend to the housing market crash of the mid-2000s and the stark increase in reality programming during that same decade. According to Twenge, the drive to be famous for nothing went from being strange to predictable thanks to a generation or two of people raised by parents who artificially boosted self-esteem to ’roidtastic levels and then released them into a culture filled with new technologies that emerged right when those people needed them most to prop up their self-enhancement biases. By the time Twenge’s research was published, reality programming had spent twenty years perfecting itself, and the modern stars of those shows represent a tiny portion of the population who not only want to be on those shows, but who also know what they are getting into and still want to participate. Producers with the experience to know who will provide the best television entertainment to millions then cull that small group. The result is a new generation of celebrities with positive illusions so robust and potent that the narcissistic overconfidence of the modern American teenager by comparison is now much easier to see as normal. ~ David McRaney,
838:We must also know for ourselves that the Lord restored His Church and the priesthood keys through the Prophet Joseph Smith. And we must have an assurance through the Holy Ghost, refreshed often, that those keys have been passed without interruption to the living prophet and that the Lord blesses and directs His people through the line of priesthood keys that reaches down through presidents of stakes and of districts and through bishops and branch presidents to us, wherever we are and no matter how far from the prophet and the Apostles.

That is not easy today. It was not easy in the days of Paul. It has always been hard to recognize in fallible human beings the authorized servants of God. Paul must have seemed an ordinary man to many. Joseph Smith's cheerful disposition was seen by some as not fitting their expectations for a prophet of God.

Satan will always work on the Saints of God to undermine their faith in priesthood keys. One way he does it is to point out the humanity of those who hold them. He can in that way weaken our testimony and so cut us loose from the line of keys by which the Lord ties us to Him and can take us and our families home to Him and to our Heavenly Father.

Satan succeeded in undermining the testimony of men who had, with Joseph Smith, seen the heavens opened and heard the voices of angels. The evidence of their physical eyes and ears was not enough when they no longer could feel the testimony that the priesthood keys were still in place with Joseph.

The warning for us is plain. If we look for human frailty in humans, we will always find it. When we focus on finding the frailties of those who hold priesthood keys, we run risks for ourselves. When we speak or write to others of such frailties, we put them at risk.

We live in a world where finding fault in others seems to be the favorite blood sport. It has long been the basis of political campaign strategy. It is the theme of much television programming across the world. Whenever we meet anyone, our first, almost unconscious reaction may be to look for imperfections.

To keep ourselves grounded in the Lord's Church, we can and must train our eyes to recognize the power of the Lord in the service of those He has called. We must be worthy of the companionship of the Holy Ghost. And we need to pray for the Holy Ghost to help us know that men who lead us hold this power. For me, such prayers are most often answered when I am fully engaged in the Lord's service myself. ~ Henry B Eyring,
839:Daemons
A daemon is a process that runs in the background, not connecting to any controlling terminal. Daemons are normally started at boot time, are run as root or some
other special user (such as apache or postfix), and handle system-level tasks. As a
convention, the name of a daemon often ends in d (as in crond and sshd), but this is
not required, or even universal.
The name derives from Maxwell's demon, an 1867 thought experiment by the physicist James Maxwell. Daemons are also supernatural beings in Greek mythology,
existing somewhere between humans and the gods and gifted with powers and divine
knowledge. Unlike the demons of Judeo-Christian lore, the Greek daemon need not
be evil. Indeed, the daemons of mythology tended to be aides to the gods, performing
tasks that the denizens of Mount Olympus found themselves unwilling to do-much
as Unix daemons perform tasks that foreground users would rather avoid.
A daemon has two general requirements: it must run as a child of init, and it must
not be connected to a terminal.
In general, a program performs the following steps to become a daemon:
1. Call fork( ). This creates a new process, which will become the daemon.
2. In the parent, call exit( ). This ensures that the original parent (the daemon's
grandparent) is satisfied that its child terminated, that the daemon's parent is no
longer running, and that the daemon is not a process group leader. This last
point is a requirement for the successful completion of the next step.
3. Call setsid( ), giving the daemon a new process group and session, both of
which have it as leader. This also ensures that the process has no associated controlling terminal (as the process just created a new session, and will not assign
one).
4. Change the working directory to the root directory via chdir( ). This is done
because the inherited working directory can be anywhere on the filesystem. Daemons tend to run for the duration of the system's uptime, and you don't want to
keep some random directory open, and thus prevent an administrator from
unmounting the filesystem containing that directory.
5. Close all file descriptors. You do not want to inherit open file descriptors, and,
unaware, hold them open.
6. Open file descriptors 0, 1, and 2 (standard in, standard out, and standard error)
and redirect them to /dev/null.
Following these rules, here is a program that daemonizes itself:
~ OReilly Linux System Programming,
840:The world is broken up by tribalism—the British, the German, the Swiss, the Hindu, the Buddhist, are tribes. See the fact that they are tribes, glorified as nations, and that this tribalism is creating havoc in the world, bringing wars in the world. Each tribe thinks in its own culture opposed to other cultures. But tribalism is the root, not the culture. Observing the fact of that is the action that frees the brain from the condition of tribalism. You see actually, not theoretically or ideationally, the fact that tribalism glorified as nations is one of the causes of war. That is a fact. There are other causes of war, economics and so on, but one of the causes is tribalism. When you see that, perceive that, and see that cannot bring about peace, the very perception frees the brain from its conditioning of tribalism.

One of the factors of contention throughout the world is religion. You are a Catholic, I am a Muslim, based on ideas, propaganda of hundreds or thousands of years; the Hindu and the Buddhist ideas are of thousands of years. We have been programmed like a computer. That programming has brought about great architecture, great paintings, great music, but it has not brought peace to mankind. When you see the fact of that, you do not belong to any religion. When there are half a dozen gurus in the same place, they bring about misery, contradiction, conflict: “My guru is better than yours; my group is more sanctified than yours; I have been initiated, you have not.” You know all the nonsense that goes on. So when you see all this around you as an actual fact, then you do not belong to any group, to any guru, to any religion, to any political commitment of ideas.

In the serious urgency to live peacefully there must be freedom from all this because they are the causes of dissension, division. Truth is not yours or mine. It does not belong to any church, to any group, to any religion. The brain must be free to discover it. And peace can exist only when there is freedom from fallacy. You know, for most of us, to be so drastic about things is very difficult, because we have taken security in things of illusion, in things that are not facts, and it is very difficult to let them go. It is not a matter of exercising will, or taking a decision: “I will not belong to anything” is another fallacy. We commit ourselves to some group, to an idea, to religious quackery, because we think it is some kind of security for us. In all these things there is no security, and therefore there is no peace. The brain must be secure; but the brain, with its thought, has sought security in things that are illusory. ~ Jiddu Krishnamurti,
841:write animal stories. This one was called Dialogues Between a Cow and a Filly; a meditation on ethics, you might say; it had been inspired by a short business trip to Brittany. Here’s a key passage from it: ‘Let us first consider the Breton cow: all year round she thinks of nothing but grazing, her glossy muzzle ascends and descends with impressive regularity, and no shudder of anguish comes to trouble the wistful gaze of her light-brown eyes. All that is as it ought to be, and even appears to indicate a profound existential oneness, a decidedly enviable identity between her being-in-the-world and her being-in-itself. Alas, in this instance the philosopher is found wanting, and his conclusions, while based on a correct and profound intuition, will be rendered invalid if he has not previously taken the trouble of gathering documentary evidence from the naturalist. In fact the Breton cow’s nature is duplicitous. At certain times of the year (precisely determined by the inexorable functioning of genetic programming) an astonishing revolution takes place in her being. Her mooing becomes more strident, prolonged, its very harmonic texture modified to the point of recalling at times, and astonishingly so, certain groans which escape the sons of men. Her movements become more rapid, more nervous, from time to time she breaks into a trot. It is not simply her muzzle, though it seems, in its glossy regularity, conceived for reflecting the abiding presence of a mineral passivity, which contracts and twitches under the painful effect of an assuredly powerful desire. ‘The key to the riddle is extremely simple, and it is that what the Breton cow desires (thus demonstrating, and she must be given credit here, her life’s one desire) is, as the breeders say in their cynical parlance, “to get stuffed”. And stuff her they do, more or less directly; the artificial insemination syringe can in effect, whatever the cost in certain emotional complications, take the place of the bull’s penis in performing this function. In both cases the cow calms down and returns to her original state of earnest meditation, except that a few months later she will give birth to an adorable little calf. Which, let it be said in passing, means profit for the breeder.’ * The breeder, of course, symbolized God. Moved by an irrational sympathy for the filly, he promised her, starting from the next chapter, the everlasting delight of numerous stallions, while the cow, guilty of the sin of pride, was to be gradually condemned to the dismal pleasures of artificial fertilization. The pathetic mooing of the ruminant would prove incapable of swaying the judgment of the Great Architect. A delegation of sheep, formed in solidarity, had no better luck. The God presented in this short story was not, one observes, a merciful God. ~ Michel Houellebecq,
842:The main ones are the symbolists, connectionists, evolutionaries, Bayesians, and analogizers. Each tribe has a set of core beliefs, and a particular problem that it cares most about. It has found a solution to that problem, based on ideas from its allied fields of science, and it has a master algorithm that embodies it. For symbolists, all intelligence can be reduced to manipulating symbols, in the same way that a mathematician solves equations by replacing expressions by other expressions. Symbolists understand that you can’t learn from scratch: you need some initial knowledge to go with the data. They’ve figured out how to incorporate preexisting knowledge into learning, and how to combine different pieces of knowledge on the fly in order to solve new problems. Their master algorithm is inverse deduction, which figures out what knowledge is missing in order to make a deduction go through, and then makes it as general as possible. For connectionists, learning is what the brain does, and so what we need to do is reverse engineer it. The brain learns by adjusting the strengths of connections between neurons, and the crucial problem is figuring out which connections are to blame for which errors and changing them accordingly. The connectionists’ master algorithm is backpropagation, which compares a system’s output with the desired one and then successively changes the connections in layer after layer of neurons so as to bring the output closer to what it should be. Evolutionaries believe that the mother of all learning is natural selection. If it made us, it can make anything, and all we need to do is simulate it on the computer. The key problem that evolutionaries solve is learning structure: not just adjusting parameters, like backpropagation does, but creating the brain that those adjustments can then fine-tune. The evolutionaries’ master algorithm is genetic programming, which mates and evolves computer programs in the same way that nature mates and evolves organisms. Bayesians are concerned above all with uncertainty. All learned knowledge is uncertain, and learning itself is a form of uncertain inference. The problem then becomes how to deal with noisy, incomplete, and even contradictory information without falling apart. The solution is probabilistic inference, and the master algorithm is Bayes’ theorem and its derivates. Bayes’ theorem tells us how to incorporate new evidence into our beliefs, and probabilistic inference algorithms do that as efficiently as possible. For analogizers, the key to learning is recognizing similarities between situations and thereby inferring other similarities. If two patients have similar symptoms, perhaps they have the same disease. The key problem is judging how similar two things are. The analogizers’ master algorithm is the support vector machine, which figures out which experiences to remember and how to combine them to make new predictions. ~ Pedro Domingos,
843:Pham Nuwen spent years learning to program/explore. Programming went back to the beginning of time. It was a little like the midden out back of his father’s castle. Where the creek had worn that away, ten meters down, there were the crumpled hulks of machines—flying machines, the peasants said—from the great days of Canberra’s original colonial era. But the castle midden was clean and fresh compared to what lay within the Reprise’s local net. There were programs here that had been written five thousand years ago, before Humankind ever left Earth. The wonder of it—the horror of it, Sura said—was that unlike the useless wrecks of Canberra’s past, these programs still worked! And via a million million circuitous threads of inheritance, many of the oldest programs still ran in the bowels of the Qeng Ho system. Take the Traders’ method of timekeeping. The frame corrections were incredibly complex—and down at the very bottom of it was a little program that ran a counter. Second by second, the Qeng Ho counted from the instant that a human had first set foot on Old Earth’s moon. But if you looked at it still more closely. . .the starting instant was actually some hundred million seconds later, the 0-second of one of Humankind’s first computer operating systems.

So behind all the top-level interfaces was layer under layer of support. Some of that software had been designed for wildly different situations. Every so often, the inconsistencies caused fatal accidents. Despite the romance of spaceflight, the most common accidents were simply caused by ancient, misused programs finally getting their revenge.

“We should rewrite it all,” said Pham.

“It’s been done,” said Sura, not looking up. She was preparing to go off-Watch, and had spent the last four days trying to root a problem out of the coldsleep automation.

“It’s been tried,” corrected Bret, just back from the freezers. “But even the top levels of fleet system code are enormous. You and a thousand of your friends would have to work for a century or so to reproduce it.” Trinli grinned evilly. “And guess what—even if you did, by the time you finished, you’d have your own set of inconsistencies. And you still wouldn’t be consistent with all the applications that might be needed now and then.”

Sura gave up on her debugging for the moment. “The word for all this is ‘mature programming environment.’ Basically, when hardware performance has been pushed to its final limit, and programmers have had several centuries to code, you reach a point where there is far more signicant code than can be rationalized. The best you can do is understand the overall layering, and know how to search for the oddball tool that may come in handy—take the situation I have here.” She waved at the dependency chart she had been working on. “We are low on working fluid for the coffins. Like a million other things, there was none for sale on dear old Canberra. Well, the obvious thing is to move the coffins near the aft hull, and cool by direct radiation. We don’t have the proper equipment to support this—so lately, I’ve been doing my share of archeology. It seems that five hundred years ago, a similar thing happened after an in-system war at Torma. They hacked together a temperature maintenance package that is precisely what we need.”

“Almost precisely. ~ Vernor Vinge,
844:for several years starting in 2004, Bezos visited iRobot’s offices, participated in strategy sessions held at places like the Massachusetts Institute of Technology , and became a mentor to iRobot chief executive Colin Angle, who cofounded the company in 1990. “He recognized early on that robots were a very disruptive game-changer,’’ Angle says of Bezos. “His curiosity about our space led to a very cool period of time where I could count upon him for a unique perspective.’’ Bezos is no longer actively advising the company, but his impact on the local tech scene has only grown larger. In 2008, Bezos’ investment firm provided initial funding for Rethink Robotics, a Boston company that makes simple-to-program manufacturing robots. Four years later, Amazon paid $775 million for North Reading-based Kiva, which makes robots that transport merchandise in warehouses. Also in 2012, Amazon opened a research and software development outpost in Cambridge that has done work on consumer electronics products like the Echo, a Wi-Fi-connected speaker that responds to voice commands. Rodney Brooks, an iRobot cofounder who is now chief technology officer of Rethink, says he met Bezos at the annual TED Conference. Bezos was aware of work that Brooks, a professor emeritus at MIT, had done on robot navigation and control strategies. Helen Greiner, the third cofounder of iRobot, says she met Bezos at a different technology conference, in 2004. Shortly after that, she recruited him as an adviser to iRobot. Bezos also made an investment in the company, which was privately held at the time. “He gave me a number of memorable insights,’’ Angle says. “He said, ‘Just because you won a bet doesn’t mean it was a good bet.’ Roomba might have been lucky. He was challenging us to think hard about where we were going and how to leverage our success.’’ On visits to iRobot, Greiner recalls, “he’d shake everyone’s hand and learn their names. He got them engaged.’’ She says one of the key pieces of advice Bezos supplied was about the value of open APIs — the application programming interfaces that allow other software developers to write software that talks to a product like the Roomba, expanding its functionality. The advice was followed. (Amazon also offers a range of APIs that help developers build things for its products.) By spending time with iRobot, Bezos gave employees a sense they were on the right track. “We were all believers that robotics would be huge,’’ says former iRobot exec Tom Ryden. “But when someone like that comes along and pays attention, it’s a big deal.’’ Angle says that Bezos was an adviser “in a very formative, important moment in our history,’’ and while they discussed “ideas about what practical robots could do, and what they could be,’’ Angle doesn’t want to speculate about what, exactly, Bezos gleaned from the affiliation. But Greiner says she believes “there was learning on both sides. We already had a successful consumer product with Roomba, and he had not yet launched the Kindle. He was learning from us about successful consumer products and robotics.’’ (Unfortunately, Bezos and Amazon’s public relations department would not comment.) The relationship trailed off around 2007 as Bezos got busier — right around when Amazon launched the Kindle, Greiner says. Since then, Bezos and Amazon have stayed mum about most of their activity in the state. His Bezos Expeditions investment team is still an investor in Rethink, which earlier this month announced its second product, a $29,000, one-armed robot called Sawyer that can do precise tasks, such as testing circuit boards. The warehouse-focused Kiva Systems group has been on a hiring tear, and now employs more than 500 people, according to LinkedIn. In December, Amazon said that it had 15,000 of the squat orange Kiva robots moving around racks of merchandise in 10 of its 50 distribution centers. Greiner left iRo ~ Anonymous,
845:Of course we do." Dresden's voice was cutting. "But you're thinking too small. Building humanity's greatest empire is like building the world's largest anthill. Insignificant. There is a civilization out there that built the protomolecule and hurled it at us over two billion years ago. They were already gods at that point. What have they become since then? With another two billion years to advance?"
With a growing dread, Holden listened to Dresden speak. This speech had the air of something spoken before. Perhaps many times. And it had worked. It had convinced powerful people. It was why Protogen had stealth ships from the Earth shipyards and seemingly limitless behind-the-scenes support.
"We have a terrifying amount of catching up to do, gentlemen," Dresden was saying. "But fortunately we have the tool of our enemy to use in doing it."
"Catching up?" a soldier to Holden's left said. Dresden nodded at the man and smiled.
"The protomolecule can alter the host organism at the molecular level; it can create genetic change on the fly. Not just DNA, but any stable replicatoR But it is only a machine. It doesn't think. It follows instructions. If we learn how to alter that programming, then we become the architects of that change."
Holden interrupted. "If it was supposed to wipe out life on Earth and replace it with whatever the protomolecule's creators wanted, why turn it loose?"
"Excellent question," Dresden said, holding up one finger like a college professor about to deliver a lecture. "The protomolecule doesn't come with a user's manual. In fact, we've never before been able to actually watch it carry out its program. The molecule requires significant mass before it develops enough processing power to fulfill its directives. Whatever they are."
Dresden pointed at the screens covered with data around them.
"We are going to watch it at work. See what it intends to do. How it goes about doing it. And, hopefully, learn how to change that program in the process."
"You could do that with a vat of bacteria," Holden said.
"I'm not interested in remaking bacteria," Dresden said.
"You're fucking insane," Amos said, and took another step toward Dresden. Holden put a hand on the big mechanic's shoulder.
"So," Holden said. "You figure out how the bug works, and then what?"
"Then everything. Belters who can work outside a ship without wearing a suit. Humans capable of sleeping for hundreds of years at a time flying colony ships to the stars. No longer being bound to the millions of years of evolution inside one atmosphere of pressure at one g, slaves to oxygen and water. We decide what we want to be, and we reprogram ourselves to be that. That's what the protomolecule gives us."

Dresden had stood back up as he'd delivered this speech, his face shining with the zeal of a prophet.
"What we are doing is the best and only hope of humanity's survival. When we go out there, we will be facing gods."
"And if we don't go out?" Fred asked. He sounded thoughtful.
"They've already fired a doomsday weapon at us once," Dresden said.
The room was silent for a moment. Holden felt his certainty slip. He hated everything about Dresden's argument, but he couldn't quite see his way past it. He knew in his bones that something about it was dead wrong, but he couldn't find the words. Naomi's voice startled him.
"Did it convince them?" she asked.
"Excuse me?" Dresden said.
"The scientists. The technicians. Everyone you needed to make it happen. They actually had to do this. They had to watch the video of people dying all over Eros. They had to design those radioactive murder chambers. So unless you managed to round up every serial killer in the solar system and send them through a postgraduate program, how did you do this?"
"We modified our science team to remove ethical restraints."
Half a dozen clues clicked into place in Holden's head. ~ James S A Corey, Leviathan Wakes,
846:For instance, a popular game with California occultists-I do not know its inventor-involves a Magic Room, much like the Pleasure Dome discussed earlier except that this Magic Room contains an Omniscient Computer.
   To play this game, you simply "astrally project" into the Magic Room. Do not ask what "astral projection" means, and do not assume it is metaphysical (and therefore either impossible, if you are a materialist, or very difficult, if you are a mystic). Just assume this is a gedankenexperiment, a "mind game." Project yourself, in imagination, into this Magic Room and visualize vividly the Omniscient Computer, using the details you need to make such a super-information-processor real to your fantasy. You do not need any knowledge of programming to handle this astral computer. It exists early in the next century; you are getting to use it by a species of time-travel, if that metaphor is amusing and helpful to you. It is so built that it responds immediately to human brain-waves, "reading" them and decoding their meaning. (Crude prototypes of such computers already exist.) So, when you are in this magic room, you can ask this Computer anything, just by thinking of what you want to know. It will read your thought, and project into your brain, by a laser ray, the correct answer.
   There is one slight problem. The computer is very sensitive to all brain-waves. If you have any doubts, it registers them as negative commands, meaning "Do not answer my question." So, the way to use it is to start simply, with "easy" questions. Ask it to dig out of the archives the name of your second-grade teacher. (Almost everybody remembers the name of their first grade teacher-imprint vulnerability again-but that of the second grade teacher tends to get lost.)
   When the computer has dug out the name of your second grade teacher, try it on a harder question, but not one that is too hard. It is very easy to sabotage this machine, but you don't want to sabotage it during these experiments. You want to see how well it can be made to perform.
   It is wise to ask only one question at a time, since it requires concentration to keep this magic computer real on the field of your perception. Do not exhaust your capacities for imagination and visualization on your first trial runs.
   After a few trivial experiments of the second-grade-teacher variety, you can try more interesting programs. Take a person toward whom you have negative feelings, such as anger, disappointment, feeling-of-betrayal, jealousy or whatever interferes with the smooth, tranquil operation of your own bio-computer. Ask the Magic Computer to explain that other person to you; to translate you into their reality-tunnel long enough for you to understand how events seem to them. Especially, ask how you seem to them.
   This computer will do that job for you; but be prepared for some shocks which might be disagreeable at first. This super-brain can also perform exegesis on ideas that seem obscure, paradoxical or enigmatic to us. For instance, early experiments with this computer can very profitably turn on asking it to explain some of the propositions in this book which may seem inexplicable or perversely wrong-headed to you, such as "We are all greater artists than we realize" or "What the Thinker thinks, the Prover proves" or "mind and its contents are functionally identical."
   This computer is much more powerful and scientifically advanced than the rapture-machine in the neurosomatic circuit. It has total access to all the earlier, primitive circuits, and overrules any of them. That is, if you put a meta-programming instruction into this computer; it will relay it downward to the old circuits and cancel contradictory programs left over from the past. For instance, try feeding it on such meta-programming instructions as: 1. I am at cause over my body. 2. I am at cause over my imagination. 3.1 am at cause over my future. 4. My mind abounds with beauty and power. 5.1 like people, and people like me.
   Remember that this computer is only a few decades ahead of present technology, so it cannot "understand" your commands if you harbor any doubts about them. Doubts tell it not to perform. Work always from what you can believe in, extending the area of belief only as results encourage you to try for more dramatic transformations of your past reality-tunnels.
   This represents cybernetic consciousness; the programmer becoming self-programmer, self-metaprogrammer, meta-metaprogrammer, etc. Just as the emotional compulsions of the second circuit seem primitive, mechanical and, ultimately, silly to the neurosomatic consciousness, so, too, the reality maps of the third circuit become comic, relativistic, game-like to the metaprogrammer. "Whatever you say it is, it isn't, " Korzybski, the semanticist, repeated endlessly in his seminars, trying to make clear that third-circuit semantic maps are not the territories they represent; that we can always make maps of our maps, revisions of our revisions, meta-selves of our selves. "Neti, neti" (not that, not that), Hindu teachers traditionally say when asked what "God" is or what "Reality" is. Yogis, mathematicians and musicians seem more inclined to develop meta-programming consciousness than most of humanity. Korzybski even claimed that the use of mathematical scripts is an aid to developing this circuit, for as soon as you think of your mind as mind 1 , and the mind which contemplates that mind as mind2 and the mind which contemplates mind2 contemplating mind 1 as mind3, you are well on your way to meta-programming awareness. Alice in Wonderland is a masterful guide to the metaprogramming circuit (written by one of the founders of mathematical logic) and Aleister Crowley soberly urged its study upon all students of yoga. ~ Robert Anton Wilson, Prometheus Rising,

IN CHAPTERS [3/3]



   1 Psychology




   2 The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People


1.02 - MAPS OF MEANING - THREE LEVELS OF ANALYSIS, #Maps of Meaning, #Jordan Peterson, #Psychology
  behavioral programming. Such revolutionary modification means update of modeled reality, past, present
  and future, through incorporation of information generated during exploratory behavior. Successful

2.01 - Habit 1 Be Proactive, #The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, #Stephen Covey, #unset
  Even the most intelligent animals have none of these endowments. To use a computer metaphor, they are programmed by instinct and/or training. They can be trained to be responsible, but they can't take responsibility for that training; in other words, they can't direct it. They can't change the programming. They're not even aware of it.
  But because of our unique human endowments, we can write new programs for ourselves totally apart from our instincts and training. This is why an animal's capacity is relatively limited and man's is unlimited. But if we live like animals, out of our own instincts and conditioning and conditions, out of our collective memory, we too will be limited.

2.02 - Habit 2 Begin with the End in Mind, #The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, #Stephen Covey, #unset
  There is an entire body of literature and audio and video tapes that deals with this process of visualization and affirmation. Some of the more recent developments in this field include such things as subliminal programming, neurolinguistic programming, and new forms of relaxation and self-talk processes. These all involve explanation, elaboration, and different packaging of the fundamental principles of the first creation.
  My review of the success literature brought me in contact with hundreds of books on this subject.
  --
  Affirmation and visualization are forms of programming, and we must be certain that we do not submit ourselves to any programming that is not in harmony with our basic center or that comes from sources centered on money-making, self interest, or anything other than correct principles.
  The imagination can be used to achieve the fleeting success that comes when a person is focused on material gain or on "what's in it for me." But I believe the higher use of imagination is in harmony with the use of conscience to transcend self and create a life of contri bution based on unique purpose and on the principles that govern interdependent reality.

WORDNET



--- Overview of noun programming

The noun programming has 2 senses (first 1 from tagged texts)
                  
1. (2) scheduling, programming, programing ::: (setting an order and time for planned events)
2. programming, programing, computer programming, computer programing ::: (creating a sequence of instructions to enable the computer to do something)

--- Overview of verb program

The verb program has 2 senses (first 2 from tagged texts)
                    
1. (4) program, programme ::: (arrange a program of or for; "program the 80th birthday party")
2. (3) program, programme ::: (write a computer program)


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun programming

2 senses of programming                        

Sense 1
scheduling, programming, programing
   => planning
     => preparation, readying
       => activity
         => act, deed, human action, human activity
           => event
             => psychological feature
               => abstraction, abstract entity
                 => entity

Sense 2
programming, programing, computer programming, computer programing
   => creating by mental acts
     => creation, creative activity
       => activity
         => act, deed, human action, human activity
           => event
             => psychological feature
               => abstraction, abstract entity
                 => entity


--- Hyponyms of noun programming

1 of 2 senses of programming                      

Sense 2
programming, programing, computer programming, computer programing
   => logic programming, logic programing
   => object-oriented programming, object-oriented programing


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun programming

2 senses of programming                        

Sense 1
scheduling, programming, programing
   => planning

Sense 2
programming, programing, computer programming, computer programing
   => creating by mental acts




--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun programming

2 senses of programming                        

Sense 1
scheduling, programming, programing
  -> planning
   => birth control, birth prevention, family planning
   => scheduling, programming, programing

Sense 2
programming, programing, computer programming, computer programing
  -> creating by mental acts
   => formation
   => design, designing
   => programming, programing, computer programming, computer programing
   => verbal creation
   => realization, realisation, actualization, actualisation
   => composing, composition
   => invention
   => conceptualization, conceptualisation, formulation




--- Grep of noun programming
computer programming
linear programming
logic programming
multiprogramming
network programming
object-oriented programming
object-oriented programming language
programming
programming error
programming language



IN WEBGEN [10000/2430]

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Wikipedia - DOPE (Dartmouth Oversimplified Programming Experiment)
Wikipedia - D (programming language)
Wikipedia - D programming language
Wikipedia - Draft:ActiveJ -- Full-stack Java programming platform
Wikipedia - Draft:Alda (Programming Language) -- Music programming language for musicians
Wikipedia - Draft:List of Star (Disney+) original programming
Wikipedia - Draft:QCObjects -- programming language
Wikipedia - Draft:SmartCore -- Machine learning library for the Rust programming language
Wikipedia - Draft talk:List of Star (Disney+) original programming
Wikipedia - Draft:Vidgo -- American over-the-top internet television service that offers live linear programming.
Wikipedia - Draft:W65271 -- Programming language
Wikipedia - Dr. Dobb's Excellence in Programming Award
Wikipedia - Dr. Dobb's Excellence in Programming award
Wikipedia - Dryad (programming)
Wikipedia - Duck typing -- A style of dynamic typing in object-oriented programming
Wikipedia - Dylan (programming language)
Wikipedia - Dynamic programming language
Wikipedia - Dynamic programming
Wikipedia - Eagle Rock Entertainment -- London-based producer and distributor of music films and programming for cinema, television, DVD, Blu-ray, and downloadable media
Wikipedia - Ease programming language
Wikipedia - ECL (data-centric programming language)
Wikipedia - ECL programming language
Wikipedia - EC (programming language)
Wikipedia - Edison (programming language)
Wikipedia - Educational programming language
Wikipedia - Eff (programming language) -- Functional programming language
Wikipedia - EGL (programming language)
Wikipedia - Eiffel (programming language)
Wikipedia - Eiffel programming language
Wikipedia - ELAN (programming language)
Wikipedia - ELI (programming language)
Wikipedia - Elixir (programming language) -- Programming language running on the Erlang virtual machine
Wikipedia - ELLA (programming language)
Wikipedia - Ellipsis (programming operator)
Wikipedia - Elm (programming language)
Wikipedia - Elvis operator -- Binary operator in computer programming
Wikipedia - Embedded programming
Wikipedia - Emerald (programming language)
Wikipedia - EMX (programming environment)
Wikipedia - Encapsulation (computer programming)
Wikipedia - Encapsulation (object-oriented programming)
Wikipedia - Epigram (programming language) -- Functional programming language
Wikipedia - Epigrams on Programming
Wikipedia - E (programming language)
Wikipedia - E programming language
Wikipedia - EPSILON (programming language)
Wikipedia - Erlang (programming language) -- Programming language
Wikipedia - Escape (Programming)
Wikipedia - Escher (programming language)
Wikipedia - Esoteric programming language -- Programming language designed to test boundaries or as software art
Wikipedia - ESPN on ABC -- Branding for sports programming on ABC
Wikipedia - Essentials of Programming Languages
Wikipedia - Etoys (programming language)
Wikipedia - Euclid (programming language)
Wikipedia - Euclid programming language
Wikipedia - Euler (programming language)
Wikipedia - Euler programming language
Wikipedia - European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming
Wikipedia - EusLisp Robot Programming Language
Wikipedia - Event-driven programming -- Computer programming paradigm
Wikipedia - Evolutionary programming
Wikipedia - Exapunks -- 2018 programming video game
Wikipedia - Expression-oriented programming languages
Wikipedia - Expression (programming)
Wikipedia - Extensible programming
Wikipedia - Extension programming language
Wikipedia - Extreme programming practices
Wikipedia - Extreme Programming
Wikipedia - Extreme programming -- Software development methodology
Wikipedia - Ezhil (programming language)
Wikipedia - Factor (programming language)
Wikipedia - Factor programming language
Wikipedia - Factual television -- Genre of non-fiction television programming
Wikipedia - Fantom (programming language)
Wikipedia - FARGO (programming language) -- Programming language
Wikipedia - Fifth-generation programming language
Wikipedia - First-generation programming language
Wikipedia - Fjlnir (programming language)
Wikipedia - Flashrom -- Universal flash programming utility
Wikipedia - Flavors (programming language)
Wikipedia - Flix (programming language)
Wikipedia - Flow-based programming
Wikipedia - Flow chart language -- programming language
Wikipedia - FLOW (programming language) -- Education programming language from 1970
Wikipedia - FL (programming language)
Wikipedia - FOCAL (programming language) -- Programming language used on DEC PDP-series machines
Wikipedia - Foreign function interface -- Interface to call functions from other programming languages
Wikipedia - FORMAC (programming language)
Wikipedia - FORMAC programming language
Wikipedia - Formal semantics of programming languages
Wikipedia - Forsythe (programming language)
Wikipedia - Forth (programming language)
Wikipedia - Fortran (programming language)
Wikipedia - Fortran -- General-purpose programming language
Wikipedia - Fortress (programming language)
Wikipedia - Fortress programming language
Wikipedia - Fourth-generation programming language -- Group of computer programming languages
Wikipedia - Fox Kids -- Fox Broadcasting Company's American children's programming division
Wikipedia - Foxnet -- American cable television channel carrying Fox network programming
Wikipedia - FoxPro -- Programming language
Wikipedia - Fox Sports (United States) -- Sports programming division of the Fox Broadcasting Company
Wikipedia - FP (programming language)
Wikipedia - F (programming language)
Wikipedia - F* (programming language)
Wikipedia - FRACTRAN -- Turing-complete esoteric programming language invented by John Conway
Wikipedia - Fred Rogers Productions -- American non-profit organization specializing in children's programming
Wikipedia - Frink (programming language)
Wikipedia - F-Script (programming language)
Wikipedia - F Sharp (programming language) -- Microsoft programming language
Wikipedia - Functional logic programming
Wikipedia - Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture
Wikipedia - Functional programming languages
Wikipedia - Functional programming language
Wikipedia - Functional programming -- Programming paradigm
Wikipedia - Functional reactive programming
Wikipedia - Function-level programming
Wikipedia - Function (programming)
Wikipedia - Functor (functional programming)
Wikipedia - Fundamental Concepts in Programming Languages
Wikipedia - Fundamental theorem of linear programming -- Extremes of a linear function over a convex polygonal region occur at the region's corners
Wikipedia - Futhark (programming language)
Wikipedia - Game programming
Wikipedia - G-code -- Programming languages
Wikipedia - Gdel (programming language)
Wikipedia - GenderFail -- Queer publishing and programming initiative
Wikipedia - Gene expression programming
Wikipedia - General-purpose programming language
Wikipedia - Generational list of programming languages
Wikipedia - Generative programming
Wikipedia - Generator (computer programming)
Wikipedia - Generic programming -- Way of designing and writing programs where algorithms are written in terms of parametric types enabling easy reuse
Wikipedia - Genetic Programming
Wikipedia - Genetic programming
Wikipedia - GeneXus -- Computer programming tool
Wikipedia - Genie (programming language)
Wikipedia - Glob (programming)
Wikipedia - GNAT Programming Studio
Wikipedia - GNU Linear Programming Kit
Wikipedia - GOAL agent programming language
Wikipedia - Goal programming -- Branch of multiobjective optimization
Wikipedia - Gofer (programming language)
Wikipedia - GOLOG -- High-level logic programming language
Wikipedia - Google Fonts -- An interactive directory of free hosted application programming interfaces for web fonts
Wikipedia - Go Programming Language
Wikipedia - Go programming language
Wikipedia - Go (programming language) -- Programming language
Wikipedia - Gosu (programming language)
Wikipedia - Gotcha (programming) -- Code that is valid but counter-intuitive
Wikipedia - Goto-less programming
Wikipedia - GPSS -- General-purpose programming language
Wikipedia - Grammatical Framework -- Programming language
Wikipedia - Graphics Layout Engine -- Graphics programming language
Wikipedia - Grasshopper 3D -- Programming language
Wikipedia - GRASS (programming language)
Wikipedia - Gremlin (programming language)
Wikipedia - Gridwars -- Programming Contest
Wikipedia - Groovy (programming language)
Wikipedia - Guile (programming language)
Wikipedia - Hack (programming language) -- Programming language
Wikipedia - Halftime Heat -- Professional wrestling Super Bowl counterprogramming that is produced by WWE
Wikipedia - Halide (programming language)
Wikipedia - Halite AI Programming Competition -- contest developed by Two Sigma and Cornell Tech
Wikipedia - Harbour (programming language) -- Computer programming language
Wikipedia - Haskell programming language
Wikipedia - Haskell (programming language) -- Functional programming language
Wikipedia - Haxe (programming language)
Wikipedia - HBO Now -- American OTT streaming service featuring HBO programming
Wikipedia - Heap (programming)
Wikipedia - Hermes (programming language)
Wikipedia - Hierarchy (object-oriented programming)
Wikipedia - Higher order programming
Wikipedia - Higher-order programming
Wikipedia - High-level programming languages
Wikipedia - High-level programming language -- Programming language with strong abstraction from details of hardware
Wikipedia - History of Programming Languages
Wikipedia - History of programming languages
Wikipedia - History of Python -- History of the Python programming language
Wikipedia - History of the Dylan programming language
Wikipedia - History of the Scheme programming language
Wikipedia - Hoc (programming language)
Wikipedia - Hollywood (programming language)
Wikipedia - Hope (programming language)
Wikipedia - HP Multi-Programming Executive
Wikipedia - Hume (programming language)
Wikipedia - IBM Basic Programming Support
Wikipedia - IBM System Object Model -- Programming framework
Wikipedia - ICI (programming language)
Wikipedia - Icon (programming language)
Wikipedia - Icon programming language
Wikipedia - IDL (programming language)
Wikipedia - Id (programming language)
Wikipedia - Idris (programming language)
Wikipedia - Imperative programming language
Wikipedia - Imperative programming
Wikipedia - IMP (programming language)
Wikipedia - Include directive -- Type of file in computer programming
Wikipedia - Indexer (programming)
Wikipedia - Induced stem cells -- Stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming.
Wikipedia - Inductive functional programming
Wikipedia - Inductive Logic Programming
Wikipedia - Inductive logic programming
Wikipedia - Inductive programming
Wikipedia - Inferential programming
Wikipedia - Infinite loop -- Programming idiom
Wikipedia - Inheritance (object-oriented programming) -- The mechanism of basing an object or class upon another object or class retaining similar implementation
Wikipedia - Inheritance (programming)
Wikipedia - Installer (programming language)
Wikipedia - Instrumentation (computer programming)
Wikipedia - In-system programming
Wikipedia - Integer linear programming
Wikipedia - Integer programming
Wikipedia - Intentional Programming
Wikipedia - Intentional programming
Wikipedia - Interactive programming
Wikipedia - INTERCAL -- Esoteric programming language
Wikipedia - Interface-based programming
Wikipedia - Interface (object-oriented programming)
Wikipedia - International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming
Wikipedia - International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems
Wikipedia - International Conference on Functional Programming
Wikipedia - International Emmy Kids Awards -- Children's television programming award
Wikipedia - International Obfuscated C Code Contest -- Computer programming contest
Wikipedia - Internet Server Application Programming Interface
Wikipedia - Invariant based programming
Wikipedia - Inversion of control -- Software programming technique
Wikipedia - Io (programming language)
Wikipedia - Io programming language
Wikipedia - Jackson Structured Programming
Wikipedia - Jackson structured programming
Wikipedia - JADE (programming language)
Wikipedia - Jakarta Servlet -- Jakarta EE programming language class
Wikipedia - Janus (concurrent constraint programming language)
Wikipedia - Java (Programming Language)
Wikipedia - Java (Programming language)
Wikipedia - Java (programming language)
Wikipedia - Java programming language
Wikipedia - JavaScript (programming language)
Wikipedia - JavaScript -- High-level programming language
Wikipedia - Jess (programming language)
Wikipedia - JFreeChart -- open-source framework for the programming language Java
Wikipedia - Joe Armstrong (programming)
Wikipedia - Joule (programming language)
Wikipedia - Journal of Functional Programming
Wikipedia - Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming
Wikipedia - Joyce (programming language)
Wikipedia - Joy (programming language)
Wikipedia - J (programming language)
Wikipedia - JRT (programming language) -- Pascal programming language implementation
Wikipedia - JScript .NET -- Programming language developed by Microsoft
Wikipedia - JSFuck -- Esoteric programming language that uses 6 characters to write all JavaScript code
Wikipedia - Julia (programming language)
Wikipedia - KaBlam! -- American animated sketch comedy television series programming block
Wikipedia - Karel (programming language) -- Programming language
Wikipedia - KET ED -- Kentucky television programming service
Wikipedia - Keyword (computer programming)
Wikipedia - Kids' WB -- American children's programming block
Wikipedia - Klerer-May System -- Programming language oriented to numerical scientific programming
Wikipedia - Knowledge-based programming
Wikipedia - Kotlin (programming language)
Wikipedia - K (programming language)
Wikipedia - L2 (programming language)
Wikipedia - Label (programming language)
Wikipedia - Label (programming)
Wikipedia - Lambda (programming)
Wikipedia - Language binding -- Software library that allows using another library coded in another programming language
Wikipedia - Language oriented programming
Wikipedia - Language-oriented programming
Wikipedia - Lasso (programming language)
Wikipedia - Lava (programming language)
Wikipedia - Lazy loading -- Design pattern in computer programming
Wikipedia - League for Programming Freedom -- Organization
Wikipedia - Lexico programming language
Wikipedia - Lex programming tool
Wikipedia - LFE (programming language)
Wikipedia - Light entertainment -- Term, classification used to describe a broad range of television and radio programming that includes comedies, variety shows, game shows, quiz shows
Wikipedia - Lightweight programming language
Wikipedia - Limbo (programming language)
Wikipedia - Linda Liukas -- Finnish programming instructor and children's writer
Wikipedia - Linear-fractional programming (LFP)
Wikipedia - Linear genetic programming
Wikipedia - Linear programming relaxation
Wikipedia - Linear programming -- Method to solve some optimization problems
Wikipedia - Lingo (programming language)
Wikipedia - Lint programming tool
Wikipedia - Liskov substitution principle -- Object-oriented programming principle
Wikipedia - LISP and Functional Programming
Wikipedia - LISP programming language
Wikipedia - Lisp programming language
Wikipedia - Lisp (programming language) -- Programming language family
Wikipedia - LIS (programming language)
Wikipedia - List of Amazon original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Animal Planet original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Apple TV+ original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of audio programming languages -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of BBC television programming
Wikipedia - List of C-based programming languages
Wikipedia - List of CBS All Access original programming -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of C-family programming languages -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of concurrent and parallel programming languages -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of constraint programming languages
Wikipedia - List of Crackle original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Discovery Channel original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Disney+ original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Disney TV programming blocks -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of educational programming languages -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of ended Netflix original programming -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Eros Now original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Facebook Watch original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Food Network original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of functional programming topics -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Globoplay original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of HBO Max original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of HBO original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Hotstar original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Hulu original programming -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of iQIYI original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Le original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Lifetime original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Lisp-family programming languages -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of logic programming languages
Wikipedia - List of Microsoft Windows application programming interfaces and frameworks -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Nat Geo Wild original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Netflix original programming -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Neuro-linguistic programming topics
Wikipedia - List of Nick Jr. original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of object-oriented programming languages -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of object-oriented programming terms
Wikipedia - List of open-source programming languages
Wikipedia - List of programming broadcast by Colors Rishtey -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of programming language researchers -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of programming languages by type -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of programming languages for artificial intelligence -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of programming languages -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of programming syndicated by iHeartMedia -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Quibi original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of reflective programming languages and platforms -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Showtime original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Shudder original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Sohu original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Starz original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of TLC original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Travel Channel original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of WWE television programming -- Former and current professional wrestling programs produced by WWE/WWF
Wikipedia - List of Xbox Entertainment Studios original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Yahoo! Screen original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Youku original programming -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of YouTube Premium original programming -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - Lists of programming languages -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Literal (computer programming) -- Notation for representing a fixed value in source code
Wikipedia - Literate Programming
Wikipedia - Literate programming
Wikipedia - Little b (programming language)
Wikipedia - LLVM -- Compiler backend for multiple programming languages
Wikipedia - Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence and Reasoning
Wikipedia - Logic Programming Associates
Wikipedia - Logic Programming
Wikipedia - Logic programming -- Programming paradigm based on formal logic
Wikipedia - Logo programming language
Wikipedia - Logo (programming language) -- Computer programming language
Wikipedia - Logtalk (programming language)
Wikipedia - Low-level programming language
Wikipedia - LPC (programming language)
Wikipedia - LSE (programming language)
Wikipedia - Lua programming language
Wikipedia - Lua (programming language) -- Lightweight programming language
Wikipedia - Lucid (programming language)
Wikipedia - Lustre (programming language)
Wikipedia - Lustre programming language
Wikipedia - MAD (programming language)
Wikipedia - MAD programming language
Wikipedia - Magic number (programming)
Wikipedia - Magnet (children's television block) -- American former children's programming block
Wikipedia - Main function (programming)
Wikipedia - Malbolge -- Esoteric programming language created in 1998
Wikipedia - Map (parallel programming)
Wikipedia - Mary (programming language)
Wikipedia - Mathematical Programming Society
Wikipedia - Mathematical programming
Wikipedia - MATLAB -- Numerical computing environment and programming language
Wikipedia - Max (software) -- Visual programming language
Wikipedia - MDL (programming language)
Wikipedia - Measuring programming language popularity
Wikipedia - Mercury (programming language)
Wikipedia - Mercury programming language
Wikipedia - Mesa (programming language)
Wikipedia - Messaging Application Programming Interface
Wikipedia - MetaPost -- Programming language
Wikipedia - Metaprogramming
Wikipedia - Method (computer programming) -- Computer function or subroutine that is tied to a particular instance or class
Wikipedia - Method overriding (programming)
Wikipedia - Method (programming)
Wikipedia - Methods of neuro-linguistic programming
Wikipedia - Microprogramming
Wikipedia - Micro-series -- Brief episodic programming on television
Wikipedia - Microsoft Visual Programming Language
Wikipedia - Minification (programming) -- Removal of unnecessary characters in code without changing its functionality
Wikipedia - Mirah (programming language)
Wikipedia - Miranda (programming language)
Wikipedia - Miranda programming language
Wikipedia - Mirror (programming)
Wikipedia - MissingNo. -- PokM-CM-)mon species caused by a programming error
Wikipedia - ML programming language
Wikipedia - ML (programming language) -- General purpose functional programming language
Wikipedia - Modularity (programming)
Wikipedia - Modular programming
Wikipedia - Module (programming)
Wikipedia - Monad (functional programming) -- Design pattern in functional programming to build generic types
Wikipedia - Monads in functional programming
Wikipedia - MOO (programming language)
Wikipedia - MUF (programming language)
Wikipedia - Multi-adjoint logic programming -- Sub-field of logic programming
Wikipedia - Multi expression programming
Wikipedia - Multi-paradigm programming language
Wikipedia - Multi-Programming Executive
Wikipedia - Multiprogramming
Wikipedia - Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks
Wikipedia - Multistaged programming
Wikipedia - Multithreaded programming
Wikipedia - Music Macro Language -- Programming language for generating computerized music
Wikipedia - Name resolution (programming languages)
Wikipedia - Naming conventions (programming)
Wikipedia - Nat Geo Wild -- Global television channel focused on wildlife programming of National Geographic
Wikipedia - Natural language programming
Wikipedia - Natural-language programming
Wikipedia - Neko (programming language)
Wikipedia - Nesting (programming)
Wikipedia - Netscape Server Application Programming Interface
Wikipedia - Neuro-linguistic programming bibliography
Wikipedia - Neuro Linguistic Programming
Wikipedia - Neuro-linguistic Programming
Wikipedia - Neurolinguistic Programming
Wikipedia - Neurolinguistic programming
Wikipedia - Neuro-linguistic programming -- Pseudoscientific approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy
Wikipedia - News & Documentary Emmy Award -- American awards for outstanding national television news and documentary programming
Wikipedia - Newspeak (programming language)
Wikipedia - Newt (programming library)
Wikipedia - Nick at Nite -- Comedy-oriented nighttime programming block on Nickelodeon
Wikipedia - Nick Jr. (TV programming block) -- Programming block on the Nickelodeon television channel
Wikipedia - NickMom -- Former American programming block on Nick Jr.
Wikipedia - NIL (programming language)
Wikipedia - Nil (programming language)
Wikipedia - Nim (programming language)
Wikipedia - Nintendo 64 programming characteristics -- Overview of the programming characteristics of the Nintendo 64
Wikipedia - Nl (format) -- File format for presenting and archiving mathematical programming problems
Wikipedia - Nondeterministic programming
Wikipedia - Non-English-based programming languages -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - Nonlinear programming
Wikipedia - Non-strict programming language
Wikipedia - Non-structured programming
Wikipedia - Not eXactly C -- High-level programming language for the Lego Mindstorms NXT
Wikipedia - Noweb -- Literate programming tool
Wikipedia - NPAPI -- Application programming interface (API) that allows browser plugins to be developed
Wikipedia - NPL (programming language)
Wikipedia - NumPy -- Numerical programming library for the Python programming language
Wikipedia - Nu (programming language)
Wikipedia - Oak (programming language)
Wikipedia - Oberon-2 (programming language)
Wikipedia - Oberon (programming language)
Wikipedia - Object-based programming
Wikipedia - Objective-C -- General-purpose, object-oriented programming language
Wikipedia - Object-Oriented Programming in Common Lisp: A Programmer's Guide to CLOS
Wikipedia - Object-oriented programming languages
Wikipedia - Object-oriented programming language
Wikipedia - Object-Oriented Programming
Wikipedia - Object oriented programming
Wikipedia - Object-oriented programming -- Programming paradigm based on the concept of objects
Wikipedia - Object (programming)
Wikipedia - Object resurrection -- Phenomenon in object-oriented programming
Wikipedia - Object type (object-oriented programming)
Wikipedia - OBJ (programming language)
Wikipedia - Occam (programming language)
Wikipedia - Occam programming language
Wikipedia - Octave programming language
Wikipedia - One Definition Rule -- A rule of programming language C++
Wikipedia - Opal (programming language)
Wikipedia - Opa (programming language)
Wikipedia - OpenCL -- Open standard for programming heterogenous computing systems, such as CPUs or GPUs
Wikipedia - Open Programming Language
Wikipedia - Operation Prime Time -- Television programming provider
Wikipedia - Operator (computer programming) -- Construct associated with a mathematical operation in computer programs
Wikipedia - Operator (programming)
Wikipedia - Optimum programming
Wikipedia - Orc (programming language)
Wikipedia - Original programming -- First-run television programs produced by and for a network or streaming platform
Wikipedia - Orthogonality (programming)
Wikipedia - Orwell (programming language)
Wikipedia - Outline of computer programming
Wikipedia - Overlay (programming)
Wikipedia - Overloading (programming)
Wikipedia - Over-the-air programming
Wikipedia - Owl Scientific Computing -- Numerical programming library for the OCaml programming language
Wikipedia - Oxygene (programming language)
Wikipedia - Oz (programming language)
Wikipedia - Oz programming language
Wikipedia - Pair programming -- Collaborative technique for software development
Wikipedia - PAL-11R -- Assembly programming language
Wikipedia - PAL (programming language)
Wikipedia - Paradigms of AI Programming: Case Studies in Common Lisp
Wikipedia - Parallel computing -- Programming paradigm in which many processes are executed simultaneously
Wikipedia - Parallel programming language
Wikipedia - Parallel programming model -- Abstraction of parallel computer architecture, with which it is convenient to express algorithms and their composition in programs
Wikipedia - Parallel programming
Wikipedia - Parameter (computer programming)
Wikipedia - Parametric polymorphism -- The basis of generic programming
Wikipedia - ParaSail (programming language)
Wikipedia - Pascal programming language
Wikipedia - Pascal (programming language) -- Programming language
Wikipedia - Pattern Languages of Programming
Wikipedia - Pay-per-view -- Premium television or webcast event programming that requires payment to view
Wikipedia - PEARL (programming language)
Wikipedia - Performance Application Programming Interface
Wikipedia - Perl Data Language -- Array programming library for Perl
Wikipedia - Perl (programming language)
Wikipedia - Perl -- Interpreted programming language first released in 1987
Wikipedia - Philippine noontime variety television shows -- Programming in the Philippines
Wikipedia - Pico (programming language)
Wikipedia - Pict (programming language)
Wikipedia - Pidgin code -- Mixture of several programming languages in the same program
Wikipedia - Piet (programming language)
Wikipedia - Pig (programming language)
Wikipedia - Pike (programming language)
Wikipedia - PILOT -- Simple high-level programming language developed in the 1960s
Wikipedia - Pizza (programming language)
Wikipedia - Planner (programming language)
Wikipedia - Planner programming language
Wikipedia - PLEX (programming language)
Wikipedia - Plus (programming language)
Wikipedia - Pointer (computer programming) -- Object which stores memory addresses in a computer program
Wikipedia - Point-free programming
Wikipedia - Polyfill (programming) -- Code to implement features in web browsers that do not support them
Wikipedia - Polymorphic Programming Language
Wikipedia - Polymorphism in object-oriented programming
Wikipedia - Portal:Computer programming
Wikipedia - Portals network programming api
Wikipedia - P (programming language)
Wikipedia - Precompiled header -- Optimized type of file in computer programming
Wikipedia - Predicative programming
Wikipedia - Prime Programming Language
Wikipedia - Prime time -- Block of broadcast programming taking place during the middle of the evening for television programming
Wikipedia - Probabilistic inductive logic programming
Wikipedia - Probabilistic programming language
Wikipedia - Procedural drama -- Genre of television programming
Wikipedia - Procedural programming language
Wikipedia - Procedural programming
Wikipedia - Processing (programming language)
Wikipedia - Process-oriented programming
Wikipedia - Profile-guided optimization -- Compiler optimization technique in computer programming that uses profiling to improve program runtime performance
Wikipedia - Profiling (computer programming)
Wikipedia - Programming by demonstration -- Technique for teaching a computer or a robot new behaviors
Wikipedia - Programming Complexity
Wikipedia - Programming complexity
Wikipedia - Programming Computable Functions
Wikipedia - Programming domain -- A programming environment
Wikipedia - Programming environments
Wikipedia - Programming environment
Wikipedia - Programming error
Wikipedia - Programming game
Wikipedia - Programming idioms
Wikipedia - Programming idiom
Wikipedia - Programming in the large and programming in the small
Wikipedia - Programming in the large
Wikipedia - Programming Language Design and Implementation
Wikipedia - Programming language dialect
Wikipedia - Programming Language for Business
Wikipedia - Programming language for Computable Functions
Wikipedia - Programming language generations
Wikipedia - Programming language implementation -- System for executing computer programs
Wikipedia - Programming language research
Wikipedia - Programming Languages: Application and Interpretation
Wikipedia - Programming language semantics
Wikipedia - Programming language specification
Wikipedia - Programming languages used in most popular websites
Wikipedia - Programming Languages
Wikipedia - Programming languages
Wikipedia - Programming language syntax
Wikipedia - Programming language theory -- |Branch of computer science
Wikipedia - Programming Language
Wikipedia - Programming language -- Language for communicating instructions to a machine
Wikipedia - Programming methodology
Wikipedia - Programming model
Wikipedia - Programming paradigms
Wikipedia - Programming paradigm
Wikipedia - Programming Perl
Wikipedia - Programming productivity
Wikipedia - Programming product
Wikipedia - Programming Research Group
Wikipedia - Programming Ruby
Wikipedia - Programming style
Wikipedia - Programming team
Wikipedia - Programming tools
Wikipedia - Programming tool
Wikipedia - Programming with Big Data in R
Wikipedia - Progressive rock (radio format) -- Radio station programming format
Wikipedia - Prolog (programming language)
Wikipedia - Prolog -- Programming language that uses first order logic
Wikipedia - Property (programming)
Wikipedia - Proprietary programming language
Wikipedia - Protocol (object-oriented programming)
Wikipedia - Prototype-based programming
Wikipedia - Pry (software) -- Shell interface for the Ruby programming language
Wikipedia - Psychology of programming
Wikipedia - Public Radio International -- Distributor of public radio programming
Wikipedia - Public Radio Satellite System -- Interconnected satellite network for delivery of public radio programming
Wikipedia - Pugs (programming)
Wikipedia - Purely functional programming -- Programming paradigm that treats all computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions
Wikipedia - Pure (programming language)
Wikipedia - Pvts -- Scheme programming language interpreter
Wikipedia - PyPy -- Alternative implementation of the Python programming language
Wikipedia - Pyramid of doom (programming) -- Computer programming problem
Wikipedia - Pyrex (programming language)
Wikipedia - Python (Programming Language)
Wikipedia - Python (programming language)
Wikipedia - Python programming language
Wikipedia - Python Programming - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Wikipedia - Python syntax and semantics -- Syntax of the Python programming language
Wikipedia - Qalb (programming language)
Wikipedia - QB64 -- Programming language
Wikipedia - Q (equational programming language)
Wikipedia - Q (programming language from Kx Systems)
Wikipedia - Quadratic programming
Wikipedia - Quantum programming
Wikipedia - QuickBASIC -- Programming language
Wikipedia - Racket (programming language)
Wikipedia - Rack (web server interface) -- API specification for web applications in programming language Ruby
Wikipedia - Radio programming -- Broadcast programming of a radio format
Wikipedia - Raku (programming language) -- Programming language derived from Perl
Wikipedia - Rank (J programming language)
Wikipedia - RC 4000 Multiprogramming System
Wikipedia - RC 4000 multiprogramming system
Wikipedia - Reactive programming
Wikipedia - Reality legal programming -- Television programming subgenre of reality television
Wikipedia - Reality television -- Genre of television programming that documents unscripted situations and actual occurrences
Wikipedia - Real Programmers Don't Use Pascal -- 1983 essay about programming
Wikipedia - Reason (programming language)
Wikipedia - Recursive function (programming) -- Function that references itself
Wikipedia - Red (programming language)
Wikipedia - Refal programming language
Wikipedia - Reflection (computer programming)
Wikipedia - Reflective programming
Wikipedia - Register (C programming language)
Wikipedia - Regulations on television programming in Australia -- Australia television programming regulations
Wikipedia - Relativistic programming
Wikipedia - Reserved word -- Word in a programming language that cannot be used as an identifier
Wikipedia - Resource acquisition is initialization -- Programming idiom
Wikipedia - Revolution (programming language)
Wikipedia - Rewrite (programming)
Wikipedia - R-Ladies -- Organization promoting gender diversity in the R programming community
Wikipedia - Robust fuzzy programming -- Mathematical optimization approach to deal with optimization problems under uncertainty
Wikipedia - Role-oriented programming
Wikipedia - ROOP (programming language)
Wikipedia - Rosetta Code -- Wiki-based programming chrestomathy
Wikipedia - R package -- Extensions to the R statistical programming language
Wikipedia - RPL (programming language)
Wikipedia - R (programming language) -- Language and environment for statistical computing and graphics
Wikipedia - Ruby MRI -- Interpreter for the Ruby programming language
Wikipedia - Ruby (Programming Language)
Wikipedia - Ruby programming language
Wikipedia - Ruby (programming language) -- High-level programming language first released in 1995
Wikipedia - RubySpec -- Specification tests for the Ruby programming language
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Wikipedia - Rule-based programming
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Wikipedia - Scala (programming language) -- General-purpose programming language
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Wikipedia - Semantics (computer science) -- The field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages
Wikipedia - Semantics of programming languages
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Wikipedia - SIGNAL (programming language)
Wikipedia - SIGPLAN Programming Languages Software Award
Wikipedia - Simula -- Early object-oriented programming language
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Wikipedia - Simultaneous substitution -- Practice of substituting local signals over foreign ones for the same programming in Canada
Wikipedia - Sinclair BASIC -- Dialect of the programming language BASIC
Wikipedia - Skypath -- System used by the NBC television network to distribute programming to affiliates
Wikipedia - SLIP (programming language)
Wikipedia - SLIP programming language
Wikipedia - Small matter of programming -- Ironic phrase in software development
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Wikipedia - Smalltalk -- Object-oriented programming language first released in 1972
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Wikipedia - SML (programming language)
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Wikipedia - SNICK -- US television programming block
Wikipedia - Snippet (programming) -- A small region of re-usable source code, machine code, or text
Wikipedia - SNOBOL -- Text-string-oriented programming language
Wikipedia - Snowball (programming language)
Wikipedia - Socket programming
Wikipedia - Software programming
Wikipedia - Source (programming language) -- family of JavaScript sub-languages
Wikipedia - Source-to-source compiler -- Translator that takes source code of a program and produces an equivalent source code in the same or a different programming language
Wikipedia - Spark NLP -- Text processing programming library
Wikipedia - SPARK (programming language)
Wikipedia - Special-purpose programming language
Wikipedia - Spin (programming language)
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Wikipedia - Stack Overflow -- Website hosting questions and answers on a wide range of topics in computer programming
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Wikipedia - Subject-oriented programming
Wikipedia - Subjects (programming)
Wikipedia - Subtext (programming language)
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Wikipedia - Symbolic programming
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Wikipedia - Syntactic sugar -- Programming language syntax designed for ease of use
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Beavis & Butt-Head (1992 - 2011) - Beavis and Butt-head was first aired on the U.S. cable network MTV in March 1993. This show, which combined animation and music videos, was an example of the unique programming that MTV has consistently provided for its youthful demographics. The half-hour program alternated between a simple narrati...
Stick Stickly (1996 - 1998) - For years, one of Nickelodeon's most popular characters was Stick Stickly. He was the popsicle stick puppet host of Nickelodeon's "Nick in the Afternoon" summer programming block which aired weekdays from 3-5pm. Sadly, he is no longer used on Nickelodeon.
Weinerville (1993 - 1996) - The show, a totally outrageous half-hour variety show, uses classic elements of kid's programming, which include puppeteering and interaction with a live studio audience, to entertain kids and their parents. Weinerville Productions also produces live nationally touring stage shows. Weinerville speci...
Punky Brewster (1984 - 1988) - An abandoned waif and her dog are taken in by a cranky apartment manager who becomes her guardian in this family-friendly sitcom. This was a pet project of sorts for NBC programming head Brandon Tartikoff, who had a crush on a girl named Punky when he was young. (The dog on the show was named Brando...
WWF - Superstars of Wrestling (1986 - 1996) - WWF Superstars of Wrestling was a professional wrestling program that debuted on September 6, 1986, replacing WWF Championship Wrestling. Superstars, as it would later be known, was the flagship of the WWF's syndicated programming from 1986 to 1996. Superstars was around before this version, as a we...
The Wonderful World of Disney (1954 - 2008) - While shown in the U.S. as a time slot for family films on the weekends in its later years, this program originally started as a prime-time feature, hosted by Walt Disney himself, that showcased original programming from the Disney Studios. Cartoons, documentaries, educational shorts, all were shown...
Superhuman Samurai Syber-Squad (1994 - 1994) - Based on a show from Japan called Grid Man, the English version lasted a few more episodes. The story revolves around Sam Collins, a highschool student with a knack for programming games who gets sucked into his computer by some freak power surge, transforming into one of his own creations: Servo....
Fox Kids (1990 - 2002) - Fox Kids was a programming block that brought us shows from 1990-2002. It all ended in 2002 when Fox Kids was replaced with the Fox Box, a programming block provided by 4kids Entertainment.
Quack Pack (1996 - 1997) - Quack Pack is an American animated television series produced by Walt Disney Television Animation, featuring Donald Duck and his nephews. The show debuted on September 3, 1996 as a part of the "Disney Afternoon" programming block, following the major success of Goof Troop. The series ran two seasons...
Bureau of Alien Detectors (1996 - 1996) - Bureau of Alien Detectors was a animated show that aired in 1996 on UPN as part of their Sunday Morning Programming Block, UPN Kids, which is now defunct because of apparent problems from UPN. This show only aired for one season and no second season was made.
The Shari Show (1975 - 1976) - In order to earn enough monies to take care of herself and her infant puppet"Baby Doll"..Ms.Lewis gets a job as programming director for "The Bearly Broadcasting"TV Network. Where she has to cope with the antics of the station's animal puppets..with the exception of "Lamb Chop"this short lived NBC T...
Captain Caveman & the Teen Angels (1977 - 1980) - Captain Caveman and the Teen Angels (1977-1980) was a Saturday morning cartoon created by Joe Ruby and Ken Spears and produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions. It was originally broadcast on ABC as part of the programming block Scooby's All-Star Laff-a-Lympics, which also included Scooby-Doo, Dynomutt,...
WWF Wrestling Challenge (1986 - 1996) - Wrestling Challenge was the "B" show of the WWF's syndicated programming, behind WWF Superstars of Wrestling. The show was typical of televised wrestling fare of the era: Matches pitting top tier and mid-level talent vs. jobbers; pre-taped interviews with the WWF's roster of superstars; and promos f...
Nick Jr. (1988 - Current) - Nick Jr. was a block of programming for preschoolers on Nickelodeon which would air weekdays from 9:00 AM to 2:00 PM. The block first began in 1988 and the very first show it aired was Pinwheel, the very program to put Nickelodeon on the map. In its first few years, the block aired mostly foreign an...
BBC News (TV Newscasts) (UK) (1954 - Current) - This British television national news source: BBC News has been providing national news programming since it's first bulletin on July 5, 1954.
TNBC (1992 - 2002) - TNBC (or Teen NBC) is an American teen-oriented programming block that aired on NBC from September 12, 1992 to September 7, 2002. The Saturday morning block featured live-action series primarily in the form of scripted teen sitcoms geared toward teenagers and young adults, the majority of which...
Education Showcase (1994 - 1998) - A Monthly Television Magazine program gives a monthly preview of the best of educational programming. Hosted by Joan Scott. This program gives previews of dates, times and what channel it is shown for education purposes and some programs used for Cable in the Classroom.
Brats of the Lost Nebula (1998 - 1999) - (also known posthumously as Jim Henson's Brats of the Lost Nebula) is a puppet and computer animated series originally broadcast on the Kids' WB block of Saturday morning programming in 1998. Created by Dan Clark, the sci-fi series for kids used puppets from Jim Henson's Creature Shop and state of t...
Paradise Kiss (2005 - Current) - a 12 episode anime series, produced by Aniplex and Studio Madhouse and which was aired in Japan on Fuji TV's Noitamina programming block and on the anime television network, Animax, who have broadcast the series across its respective networks worldwide, including Japan, Southeast Asia, South Asia an...
Spiral: The Bonds of Reasoning (2002 - 2003) - a twenty-five episode anime television series broadcast on TV Tokyo from October 1, 2002 until March 25, 2003. The anime is licensed in Region 1 by Funimation, who released it on DVD and broadcast it on the Funimation Channel, along with the programming block on Colours TV in 2006. The series was al...
JellyTelly (2008 - Current) - an online subscription-based streaming media provider created by Phil Vischer (the co-creator of VeggieTales). It specializes in Christian programming for children. Subscribers have access to 1,540 episodes from 111 shows. Video is made available through applications for smartphones, tablets, and po...
Green Screen Adventures (2009 - Current) - a children's television series which premiered in 2007. The series was originally produced for local broadcast on WCIU-TV (Channel 26) in Chicago, which is the flagship station of Weigel Broadcasting, and is designed to fit the FCC's educational and information programming requirements while also be...
Milkshake! (1997) (1997 - Current) - a British preschool television programming block on Channel 5, aimed at children two to seven years old. The block debuted in 1997 and is broadcast on weekdays from 06:00 to 09:15 and weekends from 06:00 to 10:00. The block has a number of presenters, and features a range of children's programming....
Library War (2008 - Current) - Two manga adaptations were published by Hakusensha and ASCII Media Works. A 12-episode anime adaptation by Production I.G aired on Fuji TV's Noitamina programming block between April and June 2008. Two Internet radio shows started in April 2008 meant to promote the series which are hosted by voice a...
Rick and Morty (2013 - 2018) - an American adult animated science fiction sitcom created by Justin Roiland and Dan Harmon for Cartoon Network's late-night programming block Adult Swim.The series follows the misadventures of cynical mad scientist Rick Sanchez and his good-hearted but fretful grandson Morty Smith, who split their t...
NBC News: Overnight (1982 - 1983) - NBC News Overnight was the brainchild of former NBC News executive Reuven Frank, who conceived the show as inexpensive overnight programming after Late Night with David Letterman (in an era where infomercials were not as prevalent as the 1990's and 2000's). Linda Ellerbee and Lloyd Dobyns originally...
The Rod, Jane and Freddy Show (1981 - 1990) - Rod, Jane and Freddy was the most famous name for a singing trio who appeared in children's programming on the British TV channel ITV in the 1970s and 1980s. They starred both in the long-running series Rainbow as well as their own 15-minute show, Rod, Jane and Freddy. They have also made numerous g...
TGIF (1989 - 2005) - TGIF was a Friday night block of sitcoms on ABC. The block was designed by ABC as a family-friendly alternative to other channels. ABC was known for featuring family-friendly Friday night programming since the 1950s. When Jim Janicek became president of ABC, he envisioned a new programming block to...
NFL On Fox (1994 - Current) - Coverage of the National Football League by the Fox Broadcasting Company. In 1987 Fox was growing as a broadcast network but could not compete with the "big three" without any sports programming. After outbidding CBS for continued coverage of the NFL, Fox began covering games in 1994. Finally having...
U-Pick Live (2002 - 2005) - U-Pick Live was a programming block on Nickelodeon where viewers could vote via the internet and pick shows they wanted to see air. Sketches and gags involving the audience would wrap the space between shows. The main hosts of the show were Brett Poplizzio and Candace Bailey. Other characters includ...
CBSN Los Angeles (2019 - Current) - CBSN Los Angeles is a 24-hour Los Angeles service version of CBSN, which features exclusive programming. The local cable-streaming news channel was launched on June 10, 2019.
Nickel-O-Zone (1998 - 2000) - Nickel-O-Zone was a one-hour programming block on the American cable television network Nickelodeon, geared toward older (preteen to teen) audiences, that ran from August 31, 1998 2000. It was aired on Sunday-Friday 8p and ended at 9p. ET.
The More You Know (1989 - Current) - The More You Know is a series of public service announcements (PSAs) broadcast on the NBC family of channels in the United States and other locations, featuring educational messages. These PSAs are broadcast occasionally during NBC's network programming.
The Cartoon Cartoon Top 5 (2002 - 2008) - The Cartoon Cartoon Top 5, or simply the Top 5 (also known as the Top Five Cartoons or the Cartoon Top 5 since 2004 and known in the planning stages as Cartoon Cartoon's Greatest Hits) was an hour-long Cartoon Network programming block that originally featured a countdown of the week's five "best" C...
Primetime Emmy Awards (1967 - Current) - The Primetime Emmy Award is an American award bestowed by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (ATAS) in recognition of excellence in American primetime television programming. First given out in 1949, the award was originally referred to as simply the "Emmy Awards" until the first Daytime Emmy...
Daytime Emmy Awards (1974 - Current) - The Daytime Emmy Award is an American accolade bestowed by the New Yorkbased National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences in recognition of excellence in American daytime television programming. Ceremonies generally are held in May or June. The ceremony has been broadcast in Priemtime since 199...
Disney's Gummi Bears/Winnie the Pooh Hour (1989 - 1991) - Disney's Gummi Bears/Winnie the Pooh Hour was a one-hour television programming block of Adventures of the Gummi Bears and The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh episodes which aired on ABC from September 9, 1989 to October 7, 1991.
Short Circuit(1986) - Number 5, one of a group of experimental military robots, undergoes a sudden transformation after being struck by lightning. He develops self-awareness, consciousness, and a fear of the reprogramming that awaits him back at the factory. With the help of a young woman, Number 5 tries to evade capture...
Solo(1996) - Solo is an android designed as a military killing machine. He is sent to Central America by General Haynes to battle guerrilla insurgents, but a flaw develops in his programming and he develops a conscience and compassion. His developers try to take him back for deprogramming, but he flees to the ju...
Videodrome(1983) - Max Renn (James Woods) runs a lowly television station and always looks for more extreme programming to attract an audience. Max picks up an unknown program called Videodrome that only depicts torture and murder. As Max becomes more obsessed with Videodrome, the more he begins to have hallucinations...
Chappie (2015) ::: 6.8/10 -- R | 2h | Action, Crime, Drama | 6 March 2015 (USA) -- In the near future, crime is patrolled by a mechanized police force. When one police droid, Chappie, is stolen and given new programming, he becomes the first robot with the ability to think and feel for himself. Director: Neill Blomkamp Writers:
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