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branches ::: Bodhidharma

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object:Bodhidharma
subject class:Buddhism
subject class:Zen
subject class:Poetry
class:author

--- WIKI
Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th or 6th century. He is traditionally credited as the transmitter of Chan Buddhism to China, and regarded as its first Chinese patriarch. According to Chinese legend, he also began the physical training of the monks of Shaolin Monastery that led to the creation of Shaolin kungfu. In Japan, he is known as Daruma. Little contemporary biographical information on Bodhidharma is extant, and subsequent accounts became layered with legend and unreliable details. According to the principal Chinese sources, Bodhidharma came from the Western Regions, which refers to Central Asia but may also include the Indian subcontinent, and was either a "Persian Central Asian" or a "South Indian [...] the third son of a great Indian king." Throughout Buddhist art, Bodhidharma is depicted as an ill-tempered, profusely-bearded, wide-eyed non-Chinese person. He is referred as "The Blue-Eyed Barbarian" in Chan texts. Aside from the Chinese accounts, several popular traditions also exist regarding Bodhidharma's origins. The accounts also differ on the date of his arrival, with one early account claiming that he arrived during the Liu Song dynasty (420479) and later accounts dating his arrival to the Liang dynasty (502557). Bodhidharma was primarily active in the territory of the Northern Wei (386534). Modern scholarship dates him to about the early 5th century. Bodhidharma's teachings and practice centered on meditation and the La
kvatra Stra. The Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall (952) identifies Bodhidharma as the 28th Patriarch of Buddhism in an uninterrupted line that extends all the way back to the Gautama Buddha himself. Bodhidharma also known as " The Wall Gazing Brahmin ".



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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Bodhidharma_-_Poems
Infinite_Library
Manual_of_Zen_Buddhism
The_Gateless_Gate
The_Zen_Teaching_of_Bodhidharma

IN CHAPTERS TITLE

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME
1.bd_-_A_deluded_Mind
1.bd_-_Endless_Ages
1.bd_-_The_Greatest_Gift
1.bd_-_You_may_enter

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
1.01_-_The_Highest_Meaning_of_the_Holy_Truths
1.02_-_Outline_of_Practice
1.02_-_The_Ultimate_Path_is_Without_Difficulty
1.03_-_Bloodstream_Sermon
1.03_-_To_Layman_Ishii
1.04_-_Wake-Up_Sermon
1.bd_-_A_deluded_Mind
1.bd_-_Endless_Ages
1.bd_-_The_Greatest_Gift
1.bd_-_You_may_enter
2.05_-_Apotheosis
CASE_4_-_WAKUANS_WHY_NO_BEARD?
CASE_5_-_KYOGENS_MAN_HANGING_IN_THE_TREE
Diamond_Sutra_1
DS4

PRIMARY CLASS

author
SIMILAR TITLES
Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma - Poems
The Zen Teaching of Bodhidharma

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH

Bodhidharma. (C. Putidamo; J. Bodaidaruma; K. Poridalma 菩提達磨) (c. late-fourth to early-fifth centuries). Indian monk who is the putative "founder" of the school of CHAN (K. SoN, J. ZEN, V. THIỀN). The story of a little-known Indian (or perhaps Central Asian) emigré monk grew over the centuries into an elaborate legend of Bodhidharma, the first patriarch of the Chan school. The earliest accounts of a person known as Bodhidharma appear in the Luoyang qielan ji and XU GAOSENG ZHUAN, but the more familiar and developed image of this figure can be found in such later sources as the BAOLIN ZHUAN, LENGQIE SHIZI JI, LIDAI FABAO JI, ZUTANG JI, JINGDE CHUANDENG LU, and other "transmission of the lamplight" (CHUANDENG LU) histories. According to these sources, Bodhidharma was born as the third prince of a South Indian kingdom. Little is known about his youth, but he is believed to have arrived in China sometime during the late fourth or early fifth century, taking the southern maritime route according to some sources, the northern overland route according to others. In an episode appearing in the Lidai fabao ji and BIYAN LU, after arriving in southern China, Bodhidharma is said to have engaged in an enigmatic exchange with the devout Buddhist emperor Wu (464-549, r. 502-549) of the Liang dynasty (502-557) on the subject of the Buddha's teachings and merit-making. To the emperor's questions about what dharma Bodhidharma was transmitting and how much merit (PUnYA) he, Wudi, had made by his munificent donations to construct monasteries and ordain monks, Bodhidharma replied that the Buddha's teachings were empty (hence there was nothing to transmit) and that the emperor's generous donations had brought him no merit at all. The emperor seems not to have been impressed with these answers, and Bodhidharma, perhaps disgruntled by the emperor's failure to understand the profundity of his teachings, left for northern China, taking the Yangtze river crossing (riding a reed across the river, in a scene frequently depicted in East Asian painting). Bodhidharma's journey north eventually brought him to a cave at the monastery of SHAOLINSI on SONGSHAN, where he sat in meditation for nine years while facing a wall (MIANBI), in so-called "wall contemplation" (BIGUAN). During his stay on Songshan, the Chinese monk HUIKE is said to have become Bodhidharma's disciple, allegedly after cutting off his left arm to show his dedication. This legend of Bodhidharma's arrival in China is eventually condensed into the famous Chan case (GONG'AN), "Why did Bodhidharma come from the West?" (see XILAI YI). Bodhidharma's place within the lineage of Indian patriarchs vary according to text and tradition (some list him as the twenty-eighth patriarch), but he is considered the first patriarch of Chan in China. Bodhidharma's name therefore soon became synonymous with Chan and subsequently with Son, Zen, and Thièn. Bodhidharma, however, has often been confused with other figures such as BODHIRUCI, the translator of the LAnKAVATARASuTRA, and the Kashmiri monk DHARMATRATA, to whom the DHYANA manual DAMODUOLUO CHAN JING is attributed. The Lidai fabao ji, for instance, simply fused the names of Bodhidharma and DharmatrAta and spoke of a BodhidharmatrAta whose legend traveled with the Lidai fabao ji to Tibet. Bodhidharma was even identified as the apostle Saint Thomas by Jesuit missionaries to China, such as Matteo Ricci. Several texts, a number of which were uncovered in the DUNHUANG manuscript cache in Central Asia, have been attributed to Bodhidharma, but their authorship remains uncertain. The ERRU SIXING LUN seems to be the only of these texts that can be traced with some certainty back to Bodhidharma or his immediate disciples. The legend of Bodhidharma in the Lengqie shizi ji also associates him with the transmission of the LankAvatArasutra in China. In Japan, Bodhidharma is often depicted in the form of a round-shaped, slightly grotesque-looking doll, known as the "Daruma doll." Like much of the rest of the legends surrounding Bodhidharma, there is finally no credible evidence connecting Bodhidharma to the Chinese martial arts traditions (see SHAOLINSI).

Bodhidharma (Sanskrit) Bodhidharma [from bodhi wisdom + dharma law, spiritual ethics] Wisdom-religion, the wisdom involved in the teachings concerning reality.

Bodhidharma


TERMS ANYWHERE

Also a great arhat Kshatriya (460?-534) who traveled to China, and was instrumental in disseminating Buddhist teachings there. His guru, Panyatara, is said to have given him the name Bodhidharma to mark his understanding (bodhi) of the Law (dharma) of the Buddha.

anxin. (J. anjin; K. ansim 安心). In Chinese, "pacification of mind" or "peace of mind." Used generally to refer to an enlightened state of mind, anxin is used specifically in the Chan school (CHAN ZONG) in the more active sense of focusing one's attention in "wall contemplation" (BIGUAN) and thereby calming or "pacifying" the mind. According to the ERRU SIXING LUN attributed to the founder of Chan, BODHIDHARMA, the result of such cultivation is said to be an immovable state of mind. In the PURE LAND traditions, the "pacification of mind" refers to the firm establishment of a sense of faith in the teachings of the buddhas and the patriarchs (ZUSHI).

asceticism. (S. duskaracaryA; P. dukkarakArikA; T. dka' ba spyod pa; C. kuxing; J. kugyo; K. kohaeng 苦行). Derived from the Greek term askesis, "to exercise"; the performance of austerities, both mental and physical, for the purpose of attaining enlightenment (BODHI) and, in certain cases, special powers or knowledges (ABHIJNA). The basic Buddhist attitude toward asceticism, as found in the narrative surrounding the life of the Buddha, has been a negative one, particularly with regard to those practices associated with physical torment, such as fasting. The Buddha himself is said to have once practiced asceticism with five fellow ascetics in the forest of URUVILVA, only to eventually abandon it for the middle way (MADHYAMAPRATIPAD) between sensual indulgence and mortification of the flesh. Ascetic practices nevertheless continued to be important in the various Buddhist traditions, as attested to by the life stories of the teachers MI LA RAS PA (Milarepa), BODHIDHARMA, and HAKUIN EKAKU to name but a few. See also DUsKARACARYA; DHUTAnGA; TAPAS.

banghe. (J. bokatsu; K. ponghal 棒喝). In Chinese, literally "the stick and the shout." Also known as fojuanbanghe ("fly whisk, fist, stick, and shout"). A method of pedagogical engagement associated with the "question-and-answer" (WENDA) technique and employed primarily by teachers of the CHAN, SoN, and ZEN traditions. In response to questions about the nature of the mind or the teachings of BODHIDHARMA, Chan masters of the Tang dynasty began to respond by hitting, kicking, and shouting at their students. This illocutionary method of instruction is said to have been pioneered by such eminent masters of the Chinese Chan school as HUANGPO XIYUN, DESHAN XUANJIAN, and LINJI YIXUAN. According to his recorded sayings (YULU), Linji Yixuan would often strike or shout at his students before they could even begin to respond. The BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record") specifically refers to "Deshan's stick and Linji's shout" (Deshan bang Linji he) in describing this pedagogical style.

Baolin zhuan. (J. Horinden; K. Porim chon 寶林傳). In Chinese, "Chronicle of the Bejeweled Forest (Monastery)"; an important early lineage record of the early Chinese CHAN tradition, in ten rolls; also known as Da Tang Shaozhou Shuangfeng shan Caoxi Baolin zhuan or Caoxi Baolin zhuan. The title refers to Baolinsi, the monastery in which HUINENG, the legendary "sixth patriarch" (LIUZU) of Chan, resided. The Baolin zhuan was compiled by the obscure monk Zhiju (or Huiju) in 801, and only an incomplete version of this text remains (rolls 7, 9, 10 are no longer extant). As one of the earliest extant records of the crucial CHAN legend of patriarchal succession (cf. FASI, ZUSHI), the Baolin zhuan offers a rare glimpse into how the early Chan tradition conceived of the school's unique place in Buddhist history. Texts like the Baolin zhuan helped pave the way for the rise of a new genre of writing, called the "transmission of the lamplight records" (CHUANDENG LU), which provides much more elaborate details on the principal and collateral lineages of the various Chan traditions. The Baolin zhuan's list of patriarchs includes the buddha sAKYAMUNI, twenty-eight Indian patriarchs beginning with MAHAKAsYAPA down to BODHIDHARMA (the Baolin Zhuan is the earliest extant text to provide this account), and the six Chinese patriarchs: Bodhidharma, HUIKE, SENGCAN, DAOXIN, HONGREN, and HUINENG (the Baolin zhuan's entries on the last three figures are no longer extant). For each patriarch, the text gives a short biography and transmission verse (GATHA).

Baozhi. (J. Hoshi; K. Poji 保誌/寶誌) (418-514). Chinese monk and well-known thaumaturge who comes to be especially revered by the CHAN school. The earliest sources referring to Baozhi are his epitaph written by Lu Chui (470-526) and his hagiography in the GAOSENG ZHUAN. According to these two texts, Baozhi's secular surname was Zhu, and he was a native of Jinling (in present-day Jiansu); he is therefore sometimes known as Jinling Baozhi, using this toponym. Baozhi became a monk at a young age and around 466 suddenly turned eccentric: he would go for days without food, showing no sign of hunger, let his hair grow several inches long, and wander around the streets barefoot with a pair of scissors, a mirror, and a few strips of silk dangling from a long staff that he carried over his shoulder. Portraits of Baozhi often picture him carrying his staff with its various accoutrements, all symbols of his prescience. He also would work miracles, giving predictions and appearing in many places simultaneously. By the middle of the Tang dynasty, he was believed to be an incarnation of AVALOKITEsVARA and was widely worshipped. Baozhi was especially venerated by Emperor Wu of the Liang dynasty (r. 502-549) and appears in the famous GONG'AN that relates Emperor Wu's encounter with the Chan founder BODHIDHARMA; there, Baozhi played the role of a clairvoyant witness who revealed to the emperor Bodhidharma's true identity as an incarnation of Avalokitesvara; YUANWU KEQIN's (1063-1135) commentary to this gong'an in the BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record") refers briefly to the notion that Bodhidharma and Baozhi were both incarnations of Avalokitesvara. A few verses attributed to Baozhi are included in such Chan writings as HUANGBO XIYUN's CHUANXIN FAYAO, GUIFENG ZONGMI's commentary to the YUANJUE JING (Yuanjue xiuduoluo liaoyi jing lüeshu), and YONGMING YANSHOU's ZONGJING LU; these refer, for example, to the metaphor of wheat flour and flour products, and the nonduality between ordinary activities and the functioning of the buddha-nature (BUDDHADHATU; FOXING). These verses, however, are retrospective attributions, since they contain Chan ideas that postdate Baozhi and include terminology and ideology similar to later HONGZHOU ZONG texts, which could not have derived from Baozhi.

Bodhidharma. (C. Putidamo; J. Bodaidaruma; K. Poridalma 菩提達磨) (c. late-fourth to early-fifth centuries). Indian monk who is the putative "founder" of the school of CHAN (K. SoN, J. ZEN, V. THIỀN). The story of a little-known Indian (or perhaps Central Asian) emigré monk grew over the centuries into an elaborate legend of Bodhidharma, the first patriarch of the Chan school. The earliest accounts of a person known as Bodhidharma appear in the Luoyang qielan ji and XU GAOSENG ZHUAN, but the more familiar and developed image of this figure can be found in such later sources as the BAOLIN ZHUAN, LENGQIE SHIZI JI, LIDAI FABAO JI, ZUTANG JI, JINGDE CHUANDENG LU, and other "transmission of the lamplight" (CHUANDENG LU) histories. According to these sources, Bodhidharma was born as the third prince of a South Indian kingdom. Little is known about his youth, but he is believed to have arrived in China sometime during the late fourth or early fifth century, taking the southern maritime route according to some sources, the northern overland route according to others. In an episode appearing in the Lidai fabao ji and BIYAN LU, after arriving in southern China, Bodhidharma is said to have engaged in an enigmatic exchange with the devout Buddhist emperor Wu (464-549, r. 502-549) of the Liang dynasty (502-557) on the subject of the Buddha's teachings and merit-making. To the emperor's questions about what dharma Bodhidharma was transmitting and how much merit (PUnYA) he, Wudi, had made by his munificent donations to construct monasteries and ordain monks, Bodhidharma replied that the Buddha's teachings were empty (hence there was nothing to transmit) and that the emperor's generous donations had brought him no merit at all. The emperor seems not to have been impressed with these answers, and Bodhidharma, perhaps disgruntled by the emperor's failure to understand the profundity of his teachings, left for northern China, taking the Yangtze river crossing (riding a reed across the river, in a scene frequently depicted in East Asian painting). Bodhidharma's journey north eventually brought him to a cave at the monastery of SHAOLINSI on SONGSHAN, where he sat in meditation for nine years while facing a wall (MIANBI), in so-called "wall contemplation" (BIGUAN). During his stay on Songshan, the Chinese monk HUIKE is said to have become Bodhidharma's disciple, allegedly after cutting off his left arm to show his dedication. This legend of Bodhidharma's arrival in China is eventually condensed into the famous Chan case (GONG'AN), "Why did Bodhidharma come from the West?" (see XILAI YI). Bodhidharma's place within the lineage of Indian patriarchs vary according to text and tradition (some list him as the twenty-eighth patriarch), but he is considered the first patriarch of Chan in China. Bodhidharma's name therefore soon became synonymous with Chan and subsequently with Son, Zen, and Thièn. Bodhidharma, however, has often been confused with other figures such as BODHIRUCI, the translator of the LAnKAVATARASuTRA, and the Kashmiri monk DHARMATRATA, to whom the DHYANA manual DAMODUOLUO CHAN JING is attributed. The Lidai fabao ji, for instance, simply fused the names of Bodhidharma and DharmatrAta and spoke of a BodhidharmatrAta whose legend traveled with the Lidai fabao ji to Tibet. Bodhidharma was even identified as the apostle Saint Thomas by Jesuit missionaries to China, such as Matteo Ricci. Several texts, a number of which were uncovered in the DUNHUANG manuscript cache in Central Asia, have been attributed to Bodhidharma, but their authorship remains uncertain. The ERRU SIXING LUN seems to be the only of these texts that can be traced with some certainty back to Bodhidharma or his immediate disciples. The legend of Bodhidharma in the Lengqie shizi ji also associates him with the transmission of the LankAvatArasutra in China. In Japan, Bodhidharma is often depicted in the form of a round-shaped, slightly grotesque-looking doll, known as the "Daruma doll." Like much of the rest of the legends surrounding Bodhidharma, there is finally no credible evidence connecting Bodhidharma to the Chinese martial arts traditions (see SHAOLINSI).

Bodhidharma (Sanskrit) Bodhidharma [from bodhi wisdom + dharma law, spiritual ethics] Wisdom-religion, the wisdom involved in the teachings concerning reality.

Bodhidharma

biguan. (J. hekikan; K. pyokkwan 壁觀). In Chinese, "wall contemplation" or "wall gazing"; a type of meditative practice reputedly practiced by the putative founder of the CHAN school, the Indian monk BODHIDHARMA, whom legend says spent nine years in wall contemplation in a small cave near the monastery SHAOLINSI on SONGSHAN. This practice is explained as a meditation that entails "pacifying the mind" (ANXIN) and is the putative origin of contemplative practice in the CHAN school. Despite the prestige the term carries within the Chan tradition because of its association with Bodhidharma, precisely what "wall contemplation" means has remained fraught with controversy since early in the school's history. Two of the more commonly accepted explanations are that the practitioner renders his or her mind and body silent and still like a wall, or that the mind is "walled in" and kept isolated from sensory disturbance. Some scholars have suggested that the term might actually be a combination of a transcription bi and a translation kuan, both referring to VIPAsYANA (insight) practice, but this theory is difficult to reconcile with the historical phonology of the Sinograph bi. Tibetan translations subsequently interpret biguan as "abiding in luminosity" (lham mer gnas), a gloss that may have tantric implications. Whatever its actual practice, the image of Bodhidharma sitting in a cross-legged meditative posture while facing a wall becomes one of the most frequent subjects of Chan painting.

Bodaidaruma 菩提達磨. See BODHIDHARMA

Bodhiruci. (C. Putiliuzhi; J. Bodairushi; K. Poriryuji 菩提流支) (fl. sixth century). A renowned Indian translator and monk (to be distinguished from a subsequent Bodhiruci [s.v.] who was active in China two centuries later during the Tang dynasty). Bodhiruci left north India for Luoyang, the Northern Wei capital, in 508. He is said to have been well versed in the TRIPItAKA and talented at incantations. Bodhiruci stayed at the monastery of YONGNINGSI in Luoyang from 508 to 512 and with the help of BuddhasAnta (d.u.) and others translated over thirty MAHAYANA sutras and treatises, most of which reflect the latest developments in Indian MahAyAna, and especially YOGACARA. His translations include the DHARMASAMGĪTI, SHIDIJING LUN, LAnKAVATARASuTRA, VAJRACCHEDIKAPRAJNAPARAMITASuTRA, and the WULIANGSHOU JING YOUPOTISHE YUANSHENG JI, attributed to VASUBANDHU. Bodhiruci's translation of the Shidijing lun, otherwise known more simply as the Di lun, fostered the formation of a group of YOGACARA specialists in China that later historians retroactively call the DI LUN ZONG. According to a story in the LIDAI FABAO JI, a jealous Bodhiruci, assisted by a monk from SHAOLINSI on SONGSHAN named Guangtong (also known as Huiguang, 468-537), is said to have attempted on numerous occasions to poison the founder of the CHAN school, BODHIDHARMA, and eventually succeeded. Bodhiruci is also said to have played an instrumental role in converting the Chinese monk TANLUAN from Daoist longevity practices to the PURE LAND teachings of the GUAN WULIANGSHOU JING.

buli wenzi. (J. furyumonji; K. pullip muncha 不立文字). In Chinese, lit. "not establishing words and letters"; a line summarizing the CHAN school's unique sense of its own pedigree, as a school of Buddhism that does not rely on the scriptural teachings of Buddhism but has a direct connection through the "buddhas and patriarchs" (FOZU) to the mind of the Buddha himself. The saying is later attributed to the school's traditional founder, BODHIDHARMA. According to GUIFENG ZONGMI's CHANYUAN ZHUQUANJI DUXU, the Indian monk Bodhidharma taught that the mind was the DHARMA and he transmitted this teaching from mind to mind (YIXIN CHUANXIN) without establishing words or letters. This phrase also often appears together with three other phrases: JIAOWAI BIECHUAN ("a special transmission outside the teachings"), ZHIZHI RENXIN ("directly pointing to the human mind"), and JIANXING CHENGFO ("seeing one's own nature and becoming a buddha"). They appear together for the first time in the ZUTING SHIYUAN compiled in 1108 and soon became a normative teaching in the subsequent CHAN, SoN, THIỀN, and ZEN traditions. As a radical interpretation of the notion of UPAYA, the phrase buli wenzi remains to this day a controversial and frequently debated topic. Song-dynasty exponents of "lettered Chan" (WENZI CHAN), such as JUEFAN HUIHONG (1071-1128), decried the bibliophobic tendencies epitomized in this line and advocated instead that Chan insights were made manifest in both Buddhist SuTRAs as well as in the uniquely Chan genres of discourse records (YULU), lineage histories (see CHUANDENG LU), and public-case anthologies (GONG'AN).

Chan. (J. Zen; K. Son; V. Thièn 禪). In Chinese, the "Meditation," or Chan school (CHAN ZONG); one of the major indigenous schools of East Asian Buddhism. The Sinograph "chan" is the first syllable in the transcription channa, the Chinese transcription of the Sanskrit term DHYANA (P. JHANA); thus chan, like the cognate term chanding (chan is a transcription and ding a translation, of dhyAna), is often translated in English simply as "meditation." For centuries, the title CHANSHI (meditation master) was used in such sources as the "Biography of Eminent Monks" (GAOSENG ZHUAN) to refer to a small group of elite monks who specialized in the art of meditation. Some of these specialists adopted the term chan as the formal name of their community (Chan zong), perhaps sometime during the sixth or seventh centuries. These early "Chan" communities gathered around a number of charismatic teachers who were later considered to be "patriarchs" (ZUSHI) of their tradition. The legendary Indian monk BODHIDHARMA was honored as the first patriarch; it was retrospectively claimed that he first brought the Chan teachings to China. Later Chan lineage histories (see CHUANDENG LU) reconstructed elaborate genealogies of such patriarchs that extended back to MAHAKAsYAPA, the first Indian patriarch, and ultimately to the Buddha himself; often, these genealogies would even go back to all of the seven buddhas of antiquity (SAPTABUDDHA). Six indigenous patriarchs (Bodhidharma, HUIKE, SENGCAN, DAOXIN, HONGREN, and HUINENG) are credited by the established tradition with the development and growth of Chan in China, but early records of the Chan school, such as the LENGQIE SHIZI JI and LIDAI FABAO JI, reveal the polemical battles fought between the disparate communities to establish their own teachers as the orthodox patriarchs of the tradition. A particularly controversial dispute over the sixth patriarchy broke out between the Chan master SHENXIU, the leading disciple of the fifth patriarch Hongren, and HEZE SHENHUI, the purported disciple of the legendary Chinese monk Huineng. This dispute is often referred to as the "sudden and gradual debate," and the differing factions came to be retrospectively designated as the gradualist Northern school (BEI ZONG; the followers of Shenxiu) and the subitist Southern school (NAN ZONG; the followers of Huineng). The famous LIUZU TANJING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch"), composed by the followers of this putative Southern school, is an important source for the history of this debate. Following the sixth patriarch, the Chan lineage split into a number of collateral lines, which eventually evolved into the so-called "five houses and seven schools" (WU JIA QI ZONG) of the mature Chan tradition: the five "houses" of GUIYANG (alt. Weiyang), LINJI, CAODONG, YUNMEN, and FAYAN, and the subsequent bifurcation of Linji into the two lineages of HUANGLONG and YANGQI, giving a total of seven schools. ¶ The teachings of the Chan school were introduced to Korea perhaps as early as the end of the seventh century CE and the tradition, there known as SoN, flourished with the rise of the Nine Mountains school of Son (KUSAN SoNMUN) in the ninth century. By the twelfth century, the teachings and practices of Korean Buddhism were dominated by Son; and today, the largest Buddhist denomination in Korea, the CHOGYE CHONG, remains firmly rooted in the Son tradition. The Chan teachings were introduced to Japan in the late twelfth century by MYoAN EISAI (1141-1215); the Japanese tradition, known as ZEN, eventually developed three major sects, RINZAISHu, SoToSHu, and oBAKUSHu. The Chan teachings are traditionally assumed to have been transmitted to Vietnam by VINĪTARUCI (d. 594), a South Indian brAhmana who is claimed (rather dubiously) to have studied in China with the third Chan patriarch SENGCAN before heading south to Guangzhou and Vietnam. In 580, he is said to have arrived in Vietnam and settled at Pháp Van monastery, where he subsequently transmitted his teachings to Pháp Hièn (d. 626), who carried on the Chan tradition, which in Vietnamese is known as THIỀN. In addition to the Vinītaruci lineage, there are two other putative lineages of Vietnamese Thièn, both named after their supposed founders: VÔ NGÔN THÔNG (reputedly a student of BAIZHANG HUAIHAI), and THẢO ĐƯỜNG (reputedly connected to the YUNMEN ZONG lineage in China). Chan had a presence in Tibet during the early dissemination (SNGA DAR) of Buddhism, and the Chan monk MOHEYAN was an influential figure at the Tibetan court in the late eighth century, leading to the famous BSAM YAS DEBATE.

chuandeng lu. (J. dentoroku; K. chondŭng nok 傳燈録). In Chinese, "transmission of the lamplight record"; a generic term for a genre of historical writing associated with the CHAN school, or more specifically to the most representative text of that genre, the JINGDE CHUANDENG LU. These so-called "lamp" or "lamplight histories" (denglu) include the CHODANG CHIP (C. Zutang ji), CHUANFA ZHENGZONG JI, Tiansheng guangdeng lu, Wudeng huiyuan ("Collected Essentials of the Five Lamplight Histories"), and others. These texts were composed primarily to establish a genealogical map of Chan orthodoxy and to reinforce the legitimacy for the lineages, teachings, and practices of the various Chan lines. These mature Chan histories were strongly influenced by earlier genealogical histories compiled during the Tang dynasty, such as the CHUAN FABAO JI, LENGQIE SHIZI JI, LIDAI FABAO JI, and BAOLIN ZHUAN. In these earlier texts, contending groups of masters and their disciples wove together intricate lineages that they traced back to the legendary Indian founder of Chan, BODHIDHARMA, and his immediate successors. These texts began using the metaphor of a "lamplight" (deng) being transmitted from lamp to lamp to suggest the wordless, mind-to-mind transmission (YIXIN CHUANXIN) of the Buddha's insight from master to disciple and down through the generations. These chuandeng lu also came to serve another important purpose as the primary source of the stories about the interactions between masters and students, from which important precedents or cases (GONG'AN) were collected for contemplation or testing of meditative experience.

Chuan fabao ji. (J. Denbohoki; K. Chon poppo ki 傳法寶紀). In Chinese, "Annals of the Transmission of the Dharma Jewel"; compiled c. 713 by the layman Du Fei (d.u.) for followers of the so-called Northern School (BEI ZONG) of CHAN. Along with the LENGQIE SHIZI JI, the Chuan fabao ji is probably one of the earliest Chan chronicles that delineate the theory of the "transmission of the lamplight" (see CHUANDENG LU). The narrative of transmission that appears in the Chuan fabao ji seems to be based on an epitaph for the monk Faru (638-689), which is the oldest extant document outlining the transmission of the lamplight theory (written in 689). According to Faru's epitaph and the Chuan fabao ji, the wordless teaching of Chan that sAKYAMUNI transmitted to his disciple ANANDA was inherited by BODHIDHARMA, HUIKE, SENGCAN, DAOXIN, HONGREN, Faru, and finally by SHENXIU. The Chuan fabao ji is largely comprised of the biography of these figures.

Dainichi(bo) Nonin. (大日[房]能忍) (d.u.). Japanese monk of the late Heian and early Kamakura eras; his surname was Taira. Nonin is the reputed founder of the short-lived ZEN sect known as the DARUMASHu, one of the earliest Zen traditions to develop in Japan. Nonin was something of an autodidact and is thought to have achieved awakening through his own study of scriptures and commentaries, rather than through any training with an established teacher. He taught at the temple of Sanboji in Suita (present-day osaka prefecture) and established himself as a Zen master. Well aware that he did not have formal authorization (YINKE) from a Chan master in a recognized lineage, Nonin sent two of his disciples to China in 1189. They returned with a portrait of BODHIDHARMA inscribed by the Chan master FOZHAO DEGUANG (1121-1203) and the robe of Fozhao's influential teacher DAHUI ZONGGAO. Fozhao also presented Nonin with a portrait of himself (see DINGXIANG), on which he wrote a verse at the request of Nonin's two disciples. Such bestowals suggested that Nonin was a recognized successor in the LINJI lineage. In 1194, the monks of HIEIZAN, threatened by Nonin's burgeoning popularity, urged the court to suppress Nonin and his teachings as an antinomian heresy. His school did not survive his death, and many of his leading disciples subsequently became students of other prominent teachers, such as DoGEN KIGEN; this influx of Nonin's adherents introduced a significant Darumashu component into the early SoToSHu tradition. Nonin was later given the posthumous title Zen Master Shinpo [alt. Jinho] (Profound Dharma).

Damoduoluo chan jing. (J. Darumatara zenkyo; K. Talmadara son kyong 達摩多羅禪經). In Chinese, the "DhyAna Sutra of DharmatrAta"; a scripture on meditation (DHYANA) attributed to the SARVASTIVADA teacher DHARMATRATA (c. fourth century CE) and translated into Chinese by BUDDHABHADRA in the early fifth century. Buddhabhadra arrived in the Chinese capital of Chang'an in 406 and briefly stayed at LUSHAN HUIYUAN's (334-416) monastery on LUSHAN, where he translated the text at the latter's request. The Damoduoluo chan jing describes the transmission of the oral teachings of the Buddha from master to disciple and details the various practices of meditation (GUAN) such as mindfulness of breathing (S. ANAPANASMṚTI; P. AnApAnasati) and meditation on the foul (AsUBHABHAVANA), as well as the categories of, SKANDHA, AYATANA, and DHATU. The text includes a listing of patriarchs of the tradition before and after DharmatrAta, which begins with MAHAKAsYAPA and ANANDA, continues through MADHYANTIKA, sAnAKAVASIN, UPAGUPTA, VASUMITRA, and SaMgharaksa, leading up to DharmatrAta, who is then followed in turn by Punyamitra. This lineage seems to derive from the SARVASTIVADA school in the KASHMIR-GANDHARA region and suggests that the notion of a teaching geneaology as a central part of Buddhist religious identity has its start in the Indian tradition. Prefaces to the Damoduoluo chan jing by Lushan Huiyuan and Huiguan subsequently connect versions of this lineage to BODHIDHARMA, the putative founder of the CHAN school in East Asia, suggesting this text exerted some influence in the rise of transmission lineages within the early Chan tradition.

Daoxin. (J. Doshin; K. Tosin 道信) (580-651). Chan monk and reputed fourth patriarch of the CHAN tradition. Although Daoxin's birthplace is not certain, some sources say he was a native of Qizhou in present-day Hubei province, while others mention Henei in Henan province. Little is known of his early training, but early Chan sources such as the LENGQIE SHIZI JI and CHUAN FABAO JI claim that Daoxin studied under SENGCAN, the putative third patriarch of Chan and supposed successor to BODHIDHARMA and HUIKE, his connection to this dubious figure is tenuous at best, however, and is probably a retrospective creation. The earliest biography of Daoxin, recorded in the XU GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Supplementary Biographies of Eminent Monks"), not only does not posit any connection of Daoxin to the preceding three patriarchs but does not even mention their names. The Chuan fabao ji states that Daoxin was fully ordained in 607, after his purported period of study under Sengcan. Daoxin is subsequently known to have resided at the monastery of Dalinsi on LUSHAN in Jiangxi province for ten years. At the invitation of the inhabitants of his native Qizhou, Daoxin moved again to Mt. Shuangfeng in Huangmei (perhaps in 624), where he remained in seclusion for about thirty years. He is therefore sometimes known as Shuangfeng Daoxin. During his residence at Mt. Shuangfeng, Daoxin is claimed to have attracted more than five hundred students, among whom HONGREN, the fifth patriarch of Chan, is most famous. The lineage and teachings attributed to Daoxin and Hongren are typically called the East Mountain Teachings (DONGSHAN FAMEN) after the easterly peak of Mt. Shuangfeng, where Hongren dwelled. Daoxin was given the posthumous title Chan Master Dayi (Great Physician) by Emperor Daizong (r. 762-779) of the Tang dynasty. According to the Lengqie shizi ji, Daoxin composed the Pusajie zuofa ("Method of Conferring the BODHISATTVA Precepts"), which is no longer extant, and the Rudao anxin yaofangbian famen ("Essentials of the Teachings of the Expedient Means of Entering the Path and Pacifying the Mind"), which is embedded in the Lengqie shizi ji. This latter text employs the analogy of a mirror from the Banzhou sanmei jing (S. PRATYUTPANNABUDDHASAMMUKHAVASTHITASAMADHISuTRA) to illustrate the insubstantiality of all phenomena, viz., one's sensory experiences are no more substantial than the reflections in a mirror. The text then presents the "single-practice SAMADHI" (YIXING SANMEI) as a practical means of accessing the path leading to NIRVAnA, based on the Wenshushuo bore jing ("Perfection of Wisdom Sutra Spoken by Manjusrī"). Single-practice samAdhi here refers to sitting in meditation, the supreme practice that subsumes all other practices. In single-practice samAdhi, the meditator contemplates every single aspect of one's mental and physical existence until one realizes they are all empty, and "guards that one without deviation" (shouyi buyi).

Darumashu. (達摩宗). In Japanese, the "BODHIDHARMA sect"; one of the earliest Japanese Buddhist ZEN sects, established in the tenth century by DAINICHI NoNIN; the sect takes its name from the putative founder of the CHAN tradition, Bodhidharma. Little was known about the teachings of the Darumashu until the late-twentieth century apart from criticisms found in the writings of its contemporary rivals, who considered the school to be heretical. Criticisms focused on issues of the authenticity of Nonin's lineage and antinomian tendencies in Nonin's teachings. A recently discovered Darumashu treatise, the Joto shogakuron ("Treatise on the Attainment of Complete, Perfect Enlightenment"), discusses the prototypical Chan statement "mind is the buddha," demonstrating that a whole range of benefits, both worldly and religious, would accrue to an adept who simply awakens to that truth. As a critique of the Darumashu by Nonin's rival MYoAN EISAI states, however, since the school posits that the mind is already enlightened and the afflictions (KLEsA) do not exist in reality, its adherents claimed that there were therefore no precepts that had to be kept or practices to be followed, for religious cultivation would only serve to hinder the experience of awakening. The Darumashu also emphasized the importance of the transmission of the patriarchs' relics (J. shari; S. sARĪRA) as a mark of legitimacy. Although the Darumashu was influential enough while Nonin was alive to prompt other sects to call for its suppression, it did not survive its founder's death, and most of Nonin's leading disciples affiliated themselves with other prominent teachers, such as DoGEN KIGEN. These Darumashu adherents had a significant influence on early SoToSHu doctrine and self-identity and seem to have constituted the majority of the Sotoshu tradition into its third generation of successors. ¶ Darumashu, as the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese term Damo zong (Bodhidharma lineage), can also refer more generally to the CHAN/SoN/ZEN school, which traces its heritage back to the founder and first Chinese patriarch, Bodhidharma.

Daruma 達摩. See BODHIDHARMA

Denkoroku. (傳光録). In Japanese, "Record of the Transmission of the Light"; a text also known by its full title, Keizan osho denkoroku ("A Record of the Transmission of the Light by Master Keizan"). The anthology is attributed by Soto tradition to KEIZAN JoKIN, but was most probably composed posthumously by his disciples. The Denkoroku is a collection of pithy stories and anecdotes concerning fifty-two teachers recognized by the Japanese SoToSHu as the patriarchs of the school, accompanied by the author's own explanatory commentaries and concluding verses. Each chapter includes a short opening case (honsoku), which describes the enlightenment experience of the teacher; a longer section (called a kien) offering a short biography and history of the teacher, including some of his representative teachings and exchanges with students and other teachers; a prose commentary (teisho; C. TICHANG) by the author; and a concluding appreciatory verse (juko). The teachers discussed in the text include twenty-seven Indian patriarchs from MAHĀKĀsYAPA to PrajNātāra; six Chinese patriarchs from BODHIDHARMA through HUINENG; seventeen Chinese successors of Huineng in the CAODONG ZONG, from QINGYUAN XINGSI to TIANTONG RUJING; and finally the two Japanese patriarchs DoGEN KIGEN and Koun Ejo (1198-1280). The Denkoroku belongs to a larger genre of texts known as the CHUANDENG LU ("transmission of the lamplight records"), although it is a rigidly sectarian lineage history, discussing only the single successor to each patriarch with no treatment of any collateral lines.

dingxiang. (J. chinzo; K. chongsang 頂相). In Chinese, lit. "mark on the forehead" or "head's appearance." The term dingxiang was originally coined as the Chinese translation of the Sanskrit term UsnĪsA, but the term also came to be used to refer to a portrait or image of a monk or nun. Written sources from as early as the sixth century, such as the GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Biographies of Eminent Monks"), recount the natural mummification of eminent Buddhist monks, and subsequently, the making of lifelike sculptures of monks made from ashes (often from cremation) mixed with clay. The earliest extant monk portraits date from the ninth century and depict the five patriarchs of the esoteric school (C. Zhenyan; J. SHINGONSHu); these portraits are now enshrined in the collection of ToJI in Kyoto, Japan. Another early example is the sculpture of the abbot Hongbian in cave 17 at DUNHUANG. Dingxiang portraits were largely, but not exclusively, used within the CHAN, SoN, and ZEN traditions, to be installed in special halls prepared for memorial and mortuary worship. After the rise of the SHIFANGCHA (monasteries of the ten directions) system in the Song dynasty, which guaranteed the abbacy to monks belonging to a Chan lineage, portraits of abbots were hung in these image halls to establish their presence in a shared spiritual genealogy. The portraits of the legendary Indian monk BODHIDHARMA and the Chan master BAIZHANG HUAIHAI were often placed at the center of these arrangements, symbolizing the spiritual and institutional foundations of Chan. The practice of inscribing one's own dingxiang portrait before death also flourished in China; inscribed portraits were presented to disciples and wealthy supporters as gifts and these portraits thus functioned as highly valued commodities within the Buddhist religious community. The practice of preparing dingxiang portraits was transmitted to Japan. Specifically noteworthy are the Japanese monk portrait sculptures dating from the Kamakura period, known for their lifelike appearance. The making of dingxiang portraits continues to flourish even to this day. In Korea, the related term CHINYoNG ("true image") is more commonly used to refer to monks' portraits.

Dongshan famen. (J. Tozan homon; K. Tongsan pommun 東山法門). In Chinese, lit. "East Mountain Dharma Gate" or "East Mountain Teachings"; one of the principal early CHAN schools, which is associated with the putative fourth and fifth patriarchs of the tradition, DAOXIN (580-651) and HONGREN (602-675). The name of the school is a toponym for the location of Hongren's monastery, at Huangmei in Qizhou (present-day Hubei province). "East Mountain" refers to the easterly of the "twin peaks" of Mount Shuangfeng, where Hongren taught after the death of his master Daoxin, who had taught on the westerly peak; the term "East Mountain Teachings," however, is typically used to refer to the tradition associated with both masters. The designations Dongshan famen and Dongshan jingmen (East Mountain Pure Gate) first appear in the LENGQIE SHIZI JI ("Records of the Masters and Disciples of the Lankā[vatāra]") and were used in the Northern school of Chan (BEI ZONG) by SHENXIU (606?-706) and his successors to refer to the lineage and teachings that they had inherited from Daoxin and Hongren. ¶ Although later Chan lineage texts list Daoxin and Hongren as respectively the fourth and the fifth Chan patriarchs, succeeding BODHIDHARMA, HUIKE, and SENGCAN, the connection of the East Mountain lineage to these predecessors is tenuous at best and probably nonexistent. The earliest biography of Daoxin, recorded in the XU GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Supplementary Biographies of Eminent Monks"), not only does not posit any connection between Daoxin and the preceding three patriarchs, but does not even mention their names. This connection is first made explicit in the c. 713 CHUAN FABAO JI ("Annals of the Transmission of the Dharma-Jewel"), one of the earliest Chan "transmission of the lamplight" (CHUANDENG LU) lineage texts. Unlike many of the Chan "schools" that were associated with a single charismatic teacher, the "East Mountain Teachings" was unusual in that it had a single, enduring center in Huangmei, which attracted increasing numbers of students. Some five or six names of students who studied with Daoxin survive in the literature, with another twenty-five associated with Hongren. Although Hongren's biography in the Chuan fabao ji certainly exaggerates when it says that eight to nine out of every ten Buddhist practitioners in China studied under Hongren, there is no question that the number of students of the East Mountain Teachings grew significantly over two generations. ¶ The fundamental doctrines and practices of the East Mountain Teachings can be reconstructed on the basis of the two texts: the RUDAO ANXIN YAO FANGBIAN FAMEN ("Essentials of the Teachings of the Expedient Means of Entering the Path and Pacifying the Mind") and the XIUXIN YAO LUN ("Treatise on the Essentials of Cultivating the Mind"), ascribed respectively to Daoxin and Hongren. The Rudao anxin yao fangbian famen, which is included in the Lengqie shizi ji, employs the analogy of a mirror from the Banzhou sanmei jing (S. PRATYUTPANNABUDDHASAMMUKHĀVASTHITASAMĀDHISuTRA) to illustrate the insubstantiality of all phenomena, viz., one's sensory experiences are no more substantial than the reflections in a mirror. The text then presents the "single-practice SAMĀDHI" (YIXING SANMEI) as a practical means of accessing the path leading to NIRVĀnA, based on the Wenshushuo bore jing ("Perfection of Wisdom Sutra Spoken by MANJUsRĪ"). Single-practice samādhi here refers to sitting in meditation, the supreme practice that subsumes all other practices; it is not one samādhi among others, as it is portrayed in the MOHE ZHIGUAN ("Great Calming and Contemplation"). Single-practice samādhi means to contemplate every single aspect of one's mental and physical existence until one realizes they are all empty, just like the reflections in the mirror, and "to guard that one without deviation" (shouyi buyi). The Xiuxin yao lun, which is attributed to Hongren, stresses the importance of "guarding the mind" (SHOUXIN). Here, the relationship between the pure mind and the afflictions (KLEsA) is likened to that between the sun and clouds: the pure mind is obscured by afflictions, just as the sun is covered by layers of clouds, but if one can guard the mind so that it is kept free from false thoughts and delusions, the sun of NIRVĀnA will then appear. The text suggests two specific meditation techniques for realizing this goal: one is continuously to visualize the original, pure mind (viz., the sun) so that it shines without obscuration; the other is to concentrate on one's own deluded thoughts (the clouds) until they disappear. These two techniques purport to "guard the mind" so that delusion can never recur. The East Mountain Teachings laid a firm foundation for the doctrines and practices of later Chan traditions like the Northern school.

er ru. (J. ninyu; K. i ip 二入). In Chinese, "the two accesses," or "two entrances." The putative Indian founder of the CHAN ZONG, BODHIDHARMA, taught in his ERRU SIXING LUN ("Treatise on the Two Accesses and Four Practices") that enlightenment could be gained by two complementary methods. The "access of principle" (li ru) was a more static approach to practice, which sought an intuitive insight into the DHARMA and a recognition of the fact that each and every person was innately endowed with the capacity for enlightenment. The "access of practice" (xing ru) was a set of four dynamic practices that teach the student how to act with correct understanding of SAMSĀRA and that ultimately culminates in the same understanding achieved through the access of principle. The four practices are: retribution of enmity, acquiescing to conditions, seeking nothing, and practicing in accord with the dharma. Later Chan adepts sometimes sought to ascribe to these two accesses the original inspiration for the Chan notion of sudden enlightenment (see DUNWU), or the soteriological approach of sudden awakening followed by gradual cultivation (see DUNWU JIANXIU).

Erru sixing lun. (J. Ninyu shigyoron; K. Iip sahaeng non 二入四行論). In Chinese, "Treatise on the Two Accesses and Four Practices," attributed to the legendary Indian monk BODHIDHARMA, putative founder of the CHAN ZONG; regardless of the authenticity of this ascription, the text is legitimately regarded as the earliest text of the Chan school. The treatise provides an outline of "two accesses" (ER RU): the access of principle (liru) a more static approach to practice, which sought an intuitive insight into the DHARMA and a recognition of the fact that each and every person was innately endowed with the capacity for enlightenment. This was complemented by the access of practice (xingru), which was subdivided into four progressive practices: retribution of enmity, acquiescing to conditions, seeking nothing, and practicing in accord with the dharma. The treatise underscores the inherent purity of the practitioner, which it glosses as the dharma or principle, and betrays little evidence of features that come to characterize the later Chan tradition, such as the debate over sudden or gradual enlightenment, the rejection of traditional meditative techniques, etc. Numerous copies of this treatise were found in DUNHUANG, and citations of this text are found in the XU GAOSENG ZHUAN, LENGQIE SHIZI JI, and JINGDE CHUANDENG LU. The text was published in Korea as part of the SoNMUN CH'WARYO and in Japan as the SHoSHITSU ROKUMONSHu. A preface to this relatively short treatise was prepared by the monk Tanlin (fl. 506-574) and some editions of the treatise also contain two letters attributed to Bodhidharma's disciple HUIKE.

fozu. (J. busso; K. pulcho 佛祖). In Chinese, "buddhas and patriarchs," referring to the ancestors of the Buddhist tradition. Many traditions of Buddhism, especially those in East Asia, trace their pedigree back through an unbroken lineage of patriarchs (cf. ZUSHI) to the Buddha or buddhas. Positing such a succession of teachers directly connects the contemporary tradition both temporally and geographically to the founder of the religion himself and thus authenticates the school's presentation of the Buddhist tradition. The buddhas in these rosters typically refer to the seven buddhas of antiquity (SAPTATATHĀGATA), the last of whom in the succession is sĀKYAMUNI, the founder of the current dispensation (sĀSANA) of Buddhism. sākyamuni in turn is followed by a succession of Indian patriarchs (ZUSHI), whose numbers vary: in East Asia, the CHAN ZONG ultimately accepts a list of twenty-eight Indian patriarchs, beginning with MAHĀLĀsYAPA and ending with BODHIDHARMA; the TIANTAI ZONG accepts twenty-four Indian patriarchs, beginning with Mahākāsyapa and ending with SiMha bhiksu. These Indian predecessors would then be followed in turn by a list of Chinese patriarchs, of whom six are best known in the Chan school (ending with the sixth patriarch, LIUZU, HUINENG) and nine in the Tiantai school. Especially for a school like Chan, which claims not to base its presentation of Buddhism on the scriptures of the religion (see BULI WENZI) but instead on its direct connection to the mind of the Buddha (foxin), the existence of such an unbroken lineage of "buddhas and patriarchs" is a principal means of legitimating the school. See also FOZU TONGJI; JINGDE CHUANDENG LU.

gewai Chan. (J. kakugai no Zen/kakuge no Zen; K. kyogoe Son 格外禪). In Chinese, lit. "unconventional Chan" (lit. "the Chan that goes beyond all conventions"), referring to one of the styles of practice and pedagogy associated with the CHAN ZONG; often considered to be equivalent to the supreme vehicle Chan (ZUISHANGSHENG CHAN; K. ch'oesangsŭng Son) that is transmitted by the patriarchs (ZUSHI). This form of Chan is said to transcend all conventional standards and styles because its approach transcends all explanations that rely upon language. Based on its fundamental distrust of the ability of language to convey truth, this form of Chan is said to use "unconventional words" (gewai ju; K. kyogoe ku) in its teachings, i.e., absurdities, contradictions, negations, double negations, etc., so that its listeners will come to realize the limits of language itself and thereby seek instead true knowledge that transcends verbal explanations. In addition to this unconventional usage of language, gewai Chan also uses nonverbal expressions, such as shouting and beatings, and many other illocutionary means of teaching. The ideas implicit in this form of Chan are formulated in the well-known phrases retrospectively attributed to BODHIDHARMA by the Chan masters of the Song dynasty: "a separate transmission outside the teaching" (JIAOWAI BIEZHUAN), "mind-to-mind transmission" (YIXIN CHUAN XIN), "no establishment of words and letters" (BULI WENZI), and "directly pointing to the human mind" (ZHIZHI RENXIN). The idea of unconventional Chan also was at times used polemically, i.e., to refer to a form of Chan superior to the more expository style of its opponents, which was denigrated as "theoretical Chan" (yili Chan) or "lettered Chan" (WENZI CHAN).

Guangxiaosi. (光孝寺). In Chinese, "Radiant Filiality Monastery"; located in Guangzhou, it was formerly the residence of Prince Zhao Jiande of the Western Han dynasty. In 401 CE, during the Eastern Jin dynasty (317-420), the GANDHĀRA monk, Dharmayasas (Tanmoyeshe), is said to have converted the residence into a monastery. When BODHIDHARMA (c. early fifth century), the legendary founder of the CHAN school, traveled to China, he is said to have arrived in Guangzhou and visited the monastery before proceeding north. But the monk most closely associated with Guangxiaosi was a native of the region, HUINENG (638-713 CE), the putative sixth patriarch (LIUZU) of Chan Buddhism. Chan doxographies state that Huineng initially arrived at the monastery, which was then called Faxingsi, as a novice during the 660s. Huineng's arrival coincided with an ongoing debate among some resident monks: when the breeze blew a banner located nearby, was it the breeze or the banner that moved? Huineng famously replied that it was actually the minds of the two monks that moved. The story is commemorated in a hall constructed at the monastery named Banner Hall. Huineng is said to have accepted his monastic vows under a BODHI TREE located at the monastery, thus fulfilling a prophecy made over a century earlier, and later became its abbot. Huineng's monastery was renamed Guangxiaosi during the Song dynasty; by the Yuan dynasty, it had achieved fame for being the former residence of Zhao Jiande, as well as for housing the aforementioned bodhi tree and Banner Hall. During the Ming dynasty, the monastery was favored by poets seeking refuge from the summer heat. Three of the Pearl River delta's most celebrated poets, Ou Daren, Li Minbiao, and Liang Youyu, founded a poetry society while residing at the monastery. Guangxiaosi was rebuilt during the Qing dynasty (1644-1911 CE) in its present form. The monastery is also famous for housing the first iron STuPAs in China, which still exist. The west courtyard houses the square West Iron Pagoda, which was cast in 963 CE, during the Five Dynasties period. Only three of the original seven stories still exist. The East Iron Pagoda, cast in 967 CE, was also seven stories high and is preserved on the monastery grounds.

Gunabhadra. (C. Qiunabatuoluo; J. Gunabaddara; K. Kunabaltara 求那跋陀羅) (394-468). Indian scholiast and major translator of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese during the Liu Song period (420-479). Born in central India into a brāhmana family, he is said to have studied in his youth the five traditional Indian sciences, as well as astronomy, calligraphy, mathematics, medicine, and magic. He was converted to Buddhism and began systematically to study Buddhist texts, starting with the ABHIDHARMA and proceeding through the most influential MAHĀYĀNA texts, such as the MAHĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA and AVATAMSAKASuTRA. Around 435, he departed from Sri Lanka for China, arriving in Guangzhou by sea. In China, he devoted himself to teaching and translating Buddhist scriptures, carrying out most of his translations of Mahāyāna and mainstream Buddhist texts while residing at Qiyuansi in Jiankang and Xinsi in Jingzhou. He translated a total of fifty-two scriptures in 134 rolls, including the SAMYUKTĀGAMA and the PRAKARAnAPĀDA [sĀSTRA], both associated with the SARVĀSTIVĀDA school, such seminal Mahāyāna texts as the sRĪMĀLĀDEVĪSIMHANĀDASuTRA and the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA. In the LENGQIE SHIZI JI, a CHAN genealogical history associated with the Northern school (BEI ZONG) of the early Chan tradition, Gunabhadra is placed before BODHIDHARMA in the Chan patriarchal lineage, perhaps because of his role in translating the Lankāvatārasutra, an important scriptural influence in the early Chan school.

Heze Shenhui. (J. Kataku Jinne; K. Hat'aek Sinhoe 荷澤神會) (684-758). Chinese CHAN master and reputed main disciple of the sixth patriarch HUINENG; his collateral branch of Huineng's lineage is sometimes referred to as the Heze school. Shenhui was a native of Xiangyang in present-day Hubei province. He became a monk under the master Haoyuan (d.u.) of the monastery of Kuochangsi in his hometown of Xiangyang. In 704, Shenhui received the full monastic precepts in Chang'an, and extant sources provide differing stories of Shenhui's whereabouts thereafter. He is said to have become a student of SHENXIU and later visited MT. CAOXI where he studied under Huineng until the master's death in 713. After several years of traveling, Shenhui settled down in 720 at the monastery of Longxingsi in Nanyang (present-day Henan province). In 732, during an "unrestricted assembly" (WUZHE DAHUI) held at the monastery Dayunsi in Huatai, Shenhui engaged a monk by the name of Chongyuan (d.u.) and publicly criticized the so-called Bei zong (Northern school) of Shenxiu's disciples PUJI and XIANGMO ZANG as being a mere collateral branch of BODHIDHARMA's lineage that upheld a gradualist soteriological teaching. Shenhui also argued that his teacher Huineng had received the orthodox transmission of Bodhidharma's lineage and his "sudden teaching" (DUNJIAO). In 745, Shenhui is said to have moved to the monastery of Hezesi in Luoyang, whence he acquired his toponym. He was cast out of Luoyang by a powerful Northern school follower in 753. Obeying an imperial edict, Shenhui relocated to the monastery of Kaiyuansi in Jingzhou (present-day Hubei province) and assisted the government financially by performing mass ordinations after the economic havoc wrought by the An Lushan rebellion in 755. He was later given the posthumous title Great Master Zhenzong (Authentic Tradition). Shenhui also plays a minor, yet important, role in the LIUZU TAN JING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch"). A treatise entitled the XIANZONGJI, preserved as part of the JINGDE CHUANDENG LU, is attributed to Shenhui. Several other treatises attributed to Shenhui were also discovered at DUNHUANG. Shenhui's approach to Chan practice was extremely influential in GUIFENG ZONGMI's attempts to reconcile different strands of Chan, and even doctrine, later in the Tang dynasty; through Zongmi, Shenhui's teachings also became a critical component of the Korean Son master POJO CHINUL's accounts of Chan soteriology and meditation.

Huike. (J. Eka; K. Hyega 慧可) (c. 487-593). "Wise Prospect"; putative second patriarch of the CHAN ZONG. Huike (a.k.a. Sengke) was a native of Hulao (alt. Wulao) near Luoyang in present-day Henan province. When he was young, Huike is said to have mastered the Confucian classics and Daoist scriptures in addition to the Buddhist SuTRAs. He was later ordained by a certain Baojing (d.u.) on Mt. Xiang near Longmen, and received the full monastic precepts at Yongmusi. In 520, he is said to have made his famous visit to the monastery of SHAOLINSI on SONGSHAN, where he became the disciple of the Indian monk and founder of Chan, BODHIDHARMA. According to legend, Huike is said to have convinced the Indian master to accept him as a disciple by cutting off his left arm as a sign of his sincerity. (His biography in the GAOSENG ZHUAN tells us instead that he lost his arm to robbers.) Once Bodhidharma finally relented, Huike asked him to pacify his mind. Bodhidharma told him in response to bring him his mind, but Huike replied that he has searched everywhere for his mind but has not been able to find it anywhere. "Well, then," said Bodhidharma, in a widely quoted response, "I've pacified it for you." This brief encounter prompted Huike's awakening experience. Later, Huike taught at the capital Ye (present-day Henan province), where he is said to have amassed a large following. In 550, Huike ostensibly transmitted Bodhidharma's DHARMA to the obscure monk SENGCAN (the putative third patriarch of Chan) and later went into hiding during Emperor Wu's (r. 560-578) persecution of Buddhism (574-578).

Huineng. (J. Eno; K. Hyenŭng 慧能) (638-713). Chinese Chan master and reputed sixth patriarch (LIUZU) of the CHAN ZONG. While little is known of the historical figure, the legendary Huineng of the LIUZU TAN JING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch") is an ubiquitous figure in Chan literature. According to his hagiography, Huineng was born in Xinzhou (present-day Guangdong province). As a youth, he cared for his poor mother by gathering and selling firewood. One day at the market he heard someone reciting the famous VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA ("Diamond Sutra") and immediately decided to enter the monastery. Huineng subsequently visited HONGREN, the fifth Chan patriarch, on East Mountain in Qizhou (present-day Hubei province). After spending eight years in the threshing room, the illiterate Huineng heard a monk reciting a verse that had just been posted on a wall of the monastery, a verse written secretly by Hongren's senior disciple, SHENXIU: "The body is the BODHI TREE, / The mind is like a bright mirror's stand. / Be always diligent in polishing it, / Do not let any dust alight." Immediately recognizing that the writer's understanding was deficient, Huineng in response composed a verse reply, which he asked a colleague to write down for him: "BODHI fundamentally has no tree, / The bright mirror also has no stand. / Fundamentally there is not a single thing, / Where could any dust alight?" After reading the verse the next day, Hongren secretly called Huineng to his room in the middle of the night and recited a line from the "Diamond Sutra," which prompted in Huineng a great awakening. Hongren then secretly transmitted the robe and bowl of Chan's founder and first patriarch, BODHIDHARMA, to Huineng, making him the sixth (and ultimately last) patriarch of the Chan school; but he ordered his successor to go into hiding, lest he be harmed by followers of Shenxiu. Huineng then fled south. In 677, he received the full monastic precepts from the dharma master Yinzong (d.u.) at the monastery of Faxingsi in Nanhai (present-day Guangdong province). The next year, Huineng relocated to the monastery of Baolinsi on CAOXISHAN, the mountain that remains forever associated with him, where he attracted many students and followers. In 815, Emperor Xianzong (r. 805-820) bestowed upon him the posthumous title Chan master Dajian (Great Speculum). The monks QINGYUAN XINGSI, NANYUE HUAIRANG, HEZE SHENHUI, and YONGJIA XUANJUE are said to have been Huineng's preeminent disciples. Huineng is claimed to have been the founder of the so-called "Southern school" (NAN ZONG) of Chan, and to have instructed his students in the "sudden teachings" (DUNJIAO), the explication of which prompted much of the Chan school's subsequent soteriological developments and intrasectarian polemics. Although we have little historical evidence about either Huineng the person or his immediate disciples, all the various strands of the mature Chan tradition retrospectively trace their pedigrees back to him, making the legend of the sixth patriarch one of the most influential in the development of the Chan school.

jianxing chengfo. (J. kensho jobutsu; K. kyonsong songbul 見性成佛). In Chinese, lit. "see one's nature and become a buddha"; a line summarizing the CHAN school's unique approach to Buddhist meditative practice and attributed retrospectively to the school's putative founder, BODHIDHARMA. This phrase seems to have first appeared in Baoliang's (444-509) Niepan jing ji jie but appears in conjunction with the meaning of Bodhidharma's "coming from the West" (XILAI YI) for the first time in HUANGBO XIYUN's CHUANXIN FAYAO. The phrase jianxing chengfo appears together with another phrase, ZHIZHI RENXIN ("directly point to the human mind"), in the Chuanxin fayao; these two phrases would eventually appear together later with two other phrases, BULI WENZI ("without establishing words or letters") and JIAOWAI BIECHUAN ("a special transmission outside the teachings"), in the ZUTING SHIYUAN, compiled in 1108. These four phrases subsequently became a normative teaching within the Chan school and also the foundation on which the Chan traditions constructed their self-identities in China, Korea, and Japan.

jiaowai biechuan. (J. kyoge betsuden; K. kyooe pyolchon 教外別傳). In Chinese, "a special transmission outside the teachings," a line stating the CHAN school's own sense of its unique pedigree within Buddhism, and later attributed to the school's traditional founder, BODHIDHARMA. The phrase first appears in the ZUTANG JI (K. CHODANG CHIP), compiled in 952. Later, in the ZUTING SHIYUAN compiled in 1108, the phrase appeared together with three other phrases: BULI WENZI ("not establishing words and letters"), ZHIZHI RENXIN ("directly pointing to the human mind"), and JIANXING CHENGFO ("seeing one's nature and achieving buddhahood"). These four phrases subsequently became a normative teaching within the school and the foundation on which the East Asian Chan traditions constructed their self-identity.

Jingzhong zong. (J. Joshushu; K. Chongjung chong 淨衆宗). A branch of the early CHAN ZONG that flourished at the monastery Jingzhongsi in Chengdu (present-day Sichuan province). The history of the Jingzhong line is documented in the LIDAI FABAO JI. According to this text, the Jingzhong line is derived from the Chan master Zhishen (609-702), a disciple of the fifth patriarch HONGREN. Zhishen is also said to have received the purple robe of the Chan founder BODHIDHARMA from Empress Dowager WU ZETIAN, which was ostensibly transmitted to Zhishen's disciple Chuji (648-734/650-732/669-736) and then to CHoNGJUNG MUSANG (C. Jingzhong Wuxiang) and BAOTANG WUZHU. The Lidai fabao ji, authored by a disciple of Wuzhu, claims that the Jingzhong lineage is eventually absorbed into the BAOTANG ZONG, though the two seem in fact to have been distinct lineages. The eminent Chan masters MAZU DAOYI and GUIFENG ZONGMI are also known to have once studied under teachers of the Jingzhong line of Chan. The school is most closely associated with the so-called three propositions (sanju), a unique set of Chan precepts that were equated with the traditional roster of the three trainings (TRIsIKsĀ): "no recollection" (wuyi), which was equated with morality (sĪLA); "no thought" (WUNIAN) with concentration (SAMĀDHI); and "no forgetting" (mowang) with wisdom (PRAJNĀ). These three propositions are associated most closely with Musang, but other texts attribute them instead to Musang's putative successor, Wuzhu. The portrayal in the literature of the teachings of the Jingzhong school divides along the fault line of these two great teachers, with Musang's Chan adaptation of mainstream Buddhist teachings contrasting markedly with Wuzhu's more radical, even antinomian approach, deriving from HEZE SHENHUI. The Jingzhong masters are also said to have had some influence in Tibet (see BSAM YAS DEBATE), including on the development of MAHĀYOGA and RDZOGS CHEN.

Jueguan lun. (J. Zetsukanron; K. Cholgwan non 絶觀論). In Chinese, "Extinguishing Cognition Treatise," (translated into English as A Dialogue on the Contemplation-Extinguished), attributed to the legendary Indian founder of the CHAN school, BODHIDHARMA. The treatise largely consists of an imaginary dialogue between a certain learned man named Master Entrance-into-Principle (Ruli xiansheng) and his student Conditionality (Yuanmen), which unfolds as a series of questions and answers. In this dialogue, Entrance-into-Principle continuously negates the premises that underlie the questions his student Conditionality raises about the mind and its pacification, the nature of enlightenment, as well as other matters related to practice, meditation, and attainment. For example, in the opening dialogue, Conditionality asks, "What is the mind? How do we pacify it?" Master Entrance-into-Principle replies, "Neither positing 'mind' nor trying to 'pacify' it-this is pacifying it." By rejecting the dualistic perspectives inherent in Conditionality's questions, the Master finally opens his student to an experience of the pure wisdom that transcends all dualities. This style of negative argumentation, derived from MADHYAMAKA antecedents, is believed to be characteristic of the NIUTOU ZONG of the Chan school; the treatise is therefore often assumed to have been written by an adherent of that school, perhaps even by its seventh-century founder NIUTOU FARONG himself, or else during the zenith of the Niutou school in the third quarter of the eighth century. The treatise also makes use of Daoist terminology and thus serves as a valuable source for studying Chinese reinterpretations of sophisticated Buddhist doctrines. A controversial argument claiming that insentient beings also possess the buddha-nature (FOXING) also appears in the Jueguan lun. The treatise seems to have gone through several editions, some of which were preserved in the DUNHUANG caves in Chinese Xinjiang.

Kŭmgang sammae kyong. (S. *Vajrasamādhisutra; C. Jingang sanmei jing; J. Kongo sanmaikyo 金剛三昧經). In Korean, "Adamantine Absorption Scripture," usually known in English by its reconstructed Sanskrit title *Vajrasamādhisutra. East Asian Buddhists presumed that the scripture was an anonymous Chinese translation of an Indian sutra, but the text is now known to be an apocryphal scripture (see APOCRYPHA), which was composed in Korea c. 685 CE, perhaps by an early adept of the nascent SoN (C. CHAN) school, which would make it the second oldest text associated with the emerging Chan movement. The sutra purports to offer a grand synthesis of the entirety of MAHĀYĀNA doctrine and VINAYA, as the foundation for a comprehensive system of meditative practice. One of the main goals of the scripture seems to have been to reconcile the newly imported Chan teachings with the predominantly Hwaom (HUAYAN) orientation of Korean Buddhist doctrine (see KYO). The text also includes quotations from BODHIDHARMA's ERRU SIXING LUN and teachings associated with the East Mountain Teachings (DONGSHAN FAMEN) of the Chan monks DAOXIN and HONGREN, arranged in such a way as to suggest that the author was trying to bring together these two distinct lineages of the early Chan tradition. Unaware of the text's provenance and dating, WoNHYO (617-686), in the first commentary written on the sutra, the KŬMGANG SAMMAEGYoNG NON, presumed that the sutra was the scriptural source of the emblematic teaching of a treatise, the DASHENG QIXIN LUN ("Awakening of Faith According to the Mahāyāna"), that was written over a century earlier, viz., the one mind and its two aspects, true-thusness (ZHENRU; viz., S. TATHATĀ) and production-and-cessation (shengmie), which correspond respectively to ultimate truth (PARAMĀRTHASATYA) and conventional truth (SAMVṚTISATYA), or the unconditioned (ASAMSKṚTA) and conditioned (SAMSKṚTA) realms. (For the traditional account of the putative "rediscovery" of the sutra and the writing of its commentary, see KŬMGANG SAMMAEGYoNG NON s.v.).

Lankāvatārasutra. (T. Lang kar gshegs pa'i mdo; C. Ru Lengqie jing; J. Nyu Ryogakyo; K. Ip Nŭngga kyong 入楞伽經). In Sanskrit, "Scripture on the Descent into Lanka"; a seminal MAHĀYĀNA sutra that probably dates from around the fourth century CE. In addition to the Sanskrit recension, which was discovered in Nepal, there are also three extant translations in Chinese, by GUnABHADRA (translated in 443), BODHIRUCI (made in 513), and sIKsĀNANDA (made in 700), and two in Tibetan. The text is composed as a series of exchanges between the Buddha and the BODHISATTVA Mahāmati, who asks his questions on behalf of Rāvana, the YAKsA king of Lanka. Thanks to the wide-ranging nature of Mahāmati's questions, the text covers many of the major themes that were the focus of contemporary Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism, and especially the emerging YOGĀCĀRA school, including the theory of the storehouse consciousness (ĀLAYAVIJNĀNA), the womb or embryo of the buddhas (TATHĀGATAGARBHA), and mind-only (CITTAMĀTRA); despite these apparent parallels, however, the sutra is never quoted in the writings of the most famous figures of Indian Yogācāra, ASAnGA (c. 320-390) and VASUBANDHU (c. fourth century CE). The sutra also offers one of the earliest sustained condemnations in Buddhist literature of meat eating, a practice that was not proscribed within the mainstream Buddhist tradition (see JAINA; DHUTAnGA). The Lankāvatāra purports to offer a comprehensive synthesis of the Mahāyāna, and indeed, its many commentators have sought to discover in it a methodical exposition of scholastic doctrine. In fact, however, as in most Mahāyāna sutras, there is little sustained argumentation through the scripture, and the scripture is a mélange composed with little esprit de synthèse. ¶ The emerging CHAN school of East Asia retrospectively identified the Lankāvatāra as a source of scriptural authority; indeed, some strands of the tradition even claimed that the sutra was so influential in the school's development that its first translator, Gunabhadra, superseded BODHIDHARMA in the roster of the Chan patriarchal lineage, as in the LENGQIE SHIZI JI ("Records of the Masters and Disciples of the Lankāvatāra"). Rather than viewing the Chan school as a systematic reading of the Lankāvatāra, as the tradition claims, it is perhaps more appropriate to say that the tradition was inspired by similar religious concerns. The Newari Buddhist tradition of Nepal also includes the Lankāvatāra among its nine principal books of the Mahāyāna (NAVAGRANTHA; see NAVADHARMA).

Lengqie shizi ji. (J. Ryoga shishiki; K. Nŭngga saja ki 楞伽師資). In Chinese, "Records of the Masters and Disciples of the Lankāvatāra"; a genealogical anthology associated with the Northern school (BEI ZONG) of the early CHAN tradition, compiled by JINGJUE (683-c. 760). The Lengqie shizi ji contains the biographies and sayings of eight generations of masters (twenty-four in total), who received the "transmission of the lamp" (chuandeng) as patriarchs (ZUSHI) in the Chan school. The transmission narrative presented in this text differs markedly from that found in the LIUZU TAN JING ("Platform Sutra"), which becomes normative in the mature Chan tradition. The recipients of the special transmission of the Chan teachings in the Lenqi shizi ji belong instead to the Northern school. Jingjue places GUnABHADRA before BODHIDHARMA in the Chan patriarchal lineage (probably because of his role in translating the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA, an important scriptural influence in the early Chan school); in addition, SHENXIU is listed as the successor to the fifth Chinese patriarch, HONGREN, in place of HUINENG. The Lenqie shizi ji also contains a set of rhetorical questions and doctrinal admonitions known as zhishi wenyi (lit. "pointing at things and inquiring into their meaning") in the biographies of Gunabhadra, Bodhidharma, Hongren, and Shenxiu. Jingjue quotes from numerous sources, including his teacher Xuanze's (d.u.) Lengqie renfa zhi ("Records of the Men and Teachings of the Lankāvatāra," apparently extant only in these embedded quotations in the Lenqie shizi ji), the DASHENG QIXIN LUN, the XIUXIN YAO LUN, Bodhidharma's ERRU SIXING LUN, and the Rudao anxin yao fangpian famen attributed to DAOXIN (which also seems to exist only as quoted, apparently in its entirety, in the Lenqie shizi ji). As one of the earliest Chan texts to delineate the transmission-of-the-lamplight theory as espoused by the adherents of the Northern school of Chan, the Lenqie shizi ji is an invaluable tool for understanding the development of the lineage of Chan patriarchs and the early history of the Chan school. See also CHUANDENG LU; LIDAI FABAO JI.

Lidai fabao ji. (J. Rekidai hoboki; K. Yoktae poppo ki 歴代法寶). In Chinese, "Record of the Dharma-Jewel throughout Successive Generations"; an influential genealogical history of the early CHAN tradition, composed by disciples of the Chan master BAOTANG WUZHU in the JINGZHONG ZONG. The history of the Chan school as related in the Lidai fabao ji begins with the arrival of Buddhism in China during the Han dynasty, which is followed by a brief discussion of the lineages of dharma transmission in the FU FAZANG YINYUAN ZHUAN and LENGQIE SHIZI JI. The Lidai fabao ji then provides the biographies of the six patriarchs (ZUSHI) of Chan in China: Bodhidharmatrāta [alt. BODHIDHARMA], Huike, Sengcan, Daoxin, Hongren, and Huineng. Each biography ends with a brief reference to the transmission of the purple monastic robe of Bodhidharma as a symbol of authority. The manner in which this robe came into the hands of Zhishen (609-702), a disciple of the fifth patriarch Hongren, is told following the biography of the sixth, and last, patriarch Huineng. According to the Lidai fabao ji's transmission story, Huineng entrusted the robe to Empress WU ZETIAN, who in turn gave it to Zhishen during his visit to the imperial palace. Zhishen is then said to have transmitted this robe to Chuji [alt. 648-734, 650-732, 669-736], who later passed it on to his disciple CHoNGJUNG MUSANG (C. Jingzhong Wuxiang). The robe finally came into the possession of Musang's disciple Baotang Wuzhu, whose teachings comprise the bulk of the Lidai fabao ji. After the Lidai fabao ji was translated into Tibetan, Wuzhu's teachings made their way to Tibetan plateau, where they seem to have exerted some influence over the early development of Tibetan Buddhism. The Lidai fabao ji was thought to have been lost until the modern discovery of several copies of the text in the manuscript cache at DUNHUANG. Cf. CHUANDENG LU; LENGQIE SHIZI JI.

Nan zong. (J. Nanshu; K. Nam chong 南宗). In Chinese, "Southern School," an appellation used widely throughout the Tang dynasty, largely due to the efforts of HEZE SHENHUI (684-758) and his lineage, to describe what they claimed to be the orthodox lineage of the CHAN ZONG; in distinction to the collateral lineage of the "Northern School" (BEI ZONG) of SHENXIU (606-706) and his successors. Heze Shenhui toured various provinces and constructed ordination platforms, where he began to preach that HUINENG (638-713), whom he claimed as his teacher, was the true sixth patriarch (LIUZU) of the Chan school. In 732, during an "unrestricted assembly" (WUZHE DAHUI) held at the monastery of Dayunsi in Huatai, Shenhui engaged a monk by the name of Chongyuan (d.u.) and publicly criticized what he called the "Northern School" of Shenxiu's disciples PUJI (651-739), YIFU (661-736), and XIANGMO ZANG (d.u.) as being merely a collateral branch of BODHIDHARMA's lineage, which advocated an inferior gradualistic teaching. Shenhui argued that his teacher Huineng had received the orthodox transmission of Bodhidharma's lineage and the "sudden teaching" (DUNJIAO), which was the unique soteriological doctrine of Bodhidharma and his Chan school. Shenhui launched a vociferous attack on the Northern School, whose influence and esteem in both religious and political circles were unrivaled at the time. He condemned Shenxiu's so-called "Northern School" for having wrongly usurped the mantle of the Chan patriarchy from Huineng's "Southern School." Shenhui also (mis)characterized the teaching of the "Northern School" as promoting a "gradual" approach to enlightenment (JIANWU), which ostensibly stood in stark contrast to Huineng's and thus Shenhui's own "sudden awakening" (DUNWU) teachings. As a result of Shenhui's polemical attacks on Shenxiu and his disciples, subsequent Chan historians, such as GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841), came to refer reflexively to a gradualist "Northern School" that was to be rigidly distinguished from a subitist "Southern School." Modern scholarship has demonstrated that, in large measure, the centrality of the "Southern School" to early Chan history is a retrospective creation. The Chan patriarchal lineage going back to Chan's putative founder, Bodhidharma, was still inchoate in the eighth century; indeed, contemporary genealogical histories, such as the LIDAI FABAO JI, CHUAN FABAO JI, LENGQIE SHIZI JI, and BAOLIN ZHUAN, demonstrate how fluid and fragile the notion of the Chan lineage remained at this early period. Because the lineages that eventually came to be recognized within the later tradition were not yet cast in stone, it was therefore possible for Shenhui to advocate that a semilegendary, and relatively unknown figure, Huineng, rather than the leading Chan figures of his time, was the orthodox successor of the fifth patriarch HONGREN and the real sixth patriarch (liuzu). While this characterization is now known to be misleading, subsequent histories of the Chan tradition more or less adopted Shenhui's vision of early Chan history. The influential LIUZU TAN JING played an important role in this process of distinguishing a supposedly inferior, gradualist Northern School from a superior, subitist Southern School. By the eleventh century, with the composition of the mature Chan genealogical histories, such as the CHODANG CHIP (C. ZUTANG JI) and JINGDE CHUANDENG LU, this orthodox lineage was solidified within the tradition and became mainstream. In these later "transmission of the lamplight" records (CHUANDENG LU), the "Southern School" was now unquestioned as the orthodox successor in Bodhidharma's lineage, a position it retained throughout the subsequent history of the Chan tradition. Despite Shenhui's virulent attacks against the "Northern School," we now know that Shenxiu and his disciples were much more central to the early Chan school, and played much more important roles in Chan's early growth and development, than the mature tradition realized.

Niutou Farong. (J. Gozu Hoyu; K. Udu Pobyung 牛頭法融) (594-657). In Chinese, "Oxhead, Dharma Interfusion"; proper name of the founder of an early CHAN school often known in English as the "Oxhead school" (NIUTOU ZONG), after his toponym Niutou (Oxhead). Farong was a native of Yanling in present-day Jiangsu province. Little is known of his early years. He is said to have studied the teachings of MADHYAMAKA and to have spent twenty years in the mountains after his ordination by a certain dharma master Ling (d.u.). In 643, Farong entered the monastery of Youqisi on Mt. Niutou (in present-day Jiangsu province), whence he acquired his toponym. In 647, he gave a public lecture on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA, and six years later he lectured on the PANCAVIMsATISĀHASRIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA at the monastery of Jianchusi (see BAO'ENSI). The influential treatise JUEGUAN LUN ("Extinguishing Cognition Treatise") is attributed by tradition to BODHIDHARMA, the legendary founder of the Chan school, but it is now generally believed to have been composed by Farong or one of his students. Although Farong's official biography in the XU GAOSENG ZHUAN does not mention this event, later stele inscriptions and Chan genealogical histories (see CHUANDENG LU) report that DAOXIN, the putative fourth patriarch of the Chan school, instructed Farong in the sudden teaching (DUNJIAO); Farong's connections with Daoxin are, however, historically dubious. Some of the more unusual positions Farong took include the notion that even inanimate objects, such as rocks, rivers, and flowers, possess the buddha-nature (FOXING). Farong was also one of the earliest teachers in the Chan school to advocate the nonreliance on conceptual descriptions of Buddhism (see BULI WENZI).

Pha dam pa sangs rgyas. (Padampa Sangye) (d. 1117). An Indian tantric master renowned in Tibet for his teachings on the practice of "pacification" (ZHI BYED). His name in Sanskrit is sometimes given as Paramabuddha, although Pha dam pa is also regarded as an affectionate title, "Excellent Father." According to traditional accounts, he was from a family of seafaring merchants on the southeast coast of India. After his father's death, he was ordained at VIKRAMAsĪLA, with the ordination name Kamalasīla, leading some Tibetan sources to claim that he was the great pandita of the same name who participated in the BSAM YAS DEBATE several centuries earlier. Other sources give his Indian name as Kamalasrī. He visited Tibet on numerous occasions (according to some sources, seven times). Referred to by Tibetans as the "little black Indian" (rgya gar nag chung), he attracted few disciples initially, gaining greater fame on subsequent visits. He spent much time in the region of Ding ri in central Tibet, especially around the village of GLANG 'KHOR, where he is still venerated for the earthy and practical advice he gave on how to practice Buddhism. The most famous of these teachings is his Ding ri brgya tsa ma ("Dingri One Hundred"). He dressed as an Indian ascetic and sometimes taught simply through gestures, although it is unclear whether this was his tantric mode of expression or was because he initially spoke little Tibetan. Pha dam pa sangs rgyas reportedly encountered the famous YOGIN MI LA RAS PA on a nearby mountain pass, where they exchanged teachings and acknowledged each other's spiritual attainment. He was known for including women among his disciples. Indeed, his most famous disciple, the great female adept MA GCIG LAB SGRON, based her practice tradition known as severance (GCOD) partly on his instructions. After leaving Tibet for the last time, he is said to have traveled to China; according to a Tibetan tradition, he was known in China as BODHIDHARMA.

Poridalma 菩提達摩. See BODHIDHARMA

Puji. (J. Fujaku; K. Pojok 普寂) (651-739). In Chinese, "Universal Quiescence"; CHAN monk and disciple of SHENXIU (606?-706) in the so-called "Northern School" (BEI ZONG) of the early Chan tradition. In his youth, Puji is said to have studied a wide range of Buddhist scriptures before ordaining at the age of thirty-eight. Soon afterwards, he left to study with Shenxiu at Yuquansi (Jade Spring Monastery) on Mt. Dangyang in Jingzhou. As the best-known disciple of Shenxiu, Puji was one of the subjects of a series of polemical attacks by the HEZE SHENHUI (684-758) beginning in 732. Shenhui denounced Puji and other disciples of Shenxiu as representing a mere collateral branch of BODHIDHARMA's lineage and for promoting what Shenhui called a "gradual" (jian) approach to enlightenment. Shenhui instead promoted a "sudden teaching" (DUNJIAO), which he claimed derived from a so-called "Southern school" (NAN ZONG) founded by HUINENG (638-713), whom Shenhui claimed was the true successor of the fifth patriarch HONGREN (601-74). Later Chan historians such as GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841) came to refer to a "Northern school" (Bei zong) of Chan to describe this lineage of Shenxiu's, to which Puji, Yifu (661-736), and XIANGMO ZANG (d.u.) were said to have belonged.

Pulcho chikchi simch'e yojol. (佛組直指心體要節). In Korean, "Essential Excerpts of the Buddhas and Patriarchs Pointing Directly to the Essence of Mind," also known by the abbreviated titles Chikchi simch'e yojol, or simply Chikchi; the earliest surviving example from anywhere in the world of a text printed using movable metal type, predating Gutenberg's 1455 printing of the Bible by seventy-eight years. The two-roll lineage anthology of the CHAN school was compiled in 1372 by PAEGUN KYoNGHAN (1299-1374), one of the three great Son masters of the late-Koryo dynasty. This anthology was first printed in 1377 at Hŭngdoksa (the ruins of which were located in 1985 in Unch'ondong, near the city of Ch'ongju in South Korea) using movable cast-metal type. This printing technology was known to have been in use in Koryo-period Korea prior to the Mongol invasions of 1231-1232, but no examples survive. The metal-type printing of the Chikchi is held in the collection of the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris, and its existence was first noted by Maurice Courant in 1901. The first roll of the anthology includes the enlightenment poems of the seven buddhas of antiquity (SAPTATATHĀGATA), the twenty-eight Indian patriarchs of the Son school (starting with MAHĀKĀsYAPA and ending with BODHIDHARMA), the six Chinese patriarchs (ZUSHI) of Chan, and several later Son masters. The second roll is a collection of the poetry, epitaphs, discourse records, and seminal teachings of eminent masters of the Son school, such as the fourteen "nondualities" (ADVAYA) of Kyonghan's Indian teacher ZHIKONG CHANXIAN (K. Chigong Sonhyon; S. *Dhyānabhadra). Like many of these lineage anthologies, the text is derivative, drawing on such earlier genealogical collections as the JINGDE CHUANDENG LU and the SoNMUN YoMSONG CHIP of CHIN'GAK HYESIM (1178-1234). Although the entire first roll and the first page of the second roll of the metal-type recension are lost, a complete xylographic edition of the anthology survives, which dates to 1378, one year later than the metal-type recension.

Putidamo 菩提達磨. See BODHIDHARMA

sanju. (J. sanku; K. samgu 三句). In Chinese, "three propositions," a unique set of precepts taught by CHoNGJUNG MUSANG (680-756, alt. 684-762) in the JINGZHONG ZONG lineage of the early CHAN school. Musang sought to summarize the method of practice taught by the founder of Chinese Chan school, BODHIDHARMA, in three propositions, which he described as "no-recollection" (wuyi), which he equated with morality (sĪLA); "no-thought" (WUNIAN), which corresponded to concentration (SAMĀDHI); and "not-forgetting" (mowang), which was the equivalent of wisdom (PRAJNĀ). In other Jingzhong zong texts, Musang's successor BAOTANG WUZHU later claims that he was in fact the creator of these three propositions and makes the explicit connection between them and the three trainings (TRIsIKsĀ) of mainstream Buddhism. GUIFENG ZONGMI later explains the first proposition, "no-recollection," as not tracing back the past; the second "no-thought," as not yearning for the future; and the third "not-forgetting" as "always conforming to this knowledge without confusion or mistake."

Sengcan. (J. Sosan; K. Sŭngch'an 僧粲) (d. 606?). Chinese monk and reputed third patriarch of the CHAN tradition. Although the influential Chan poem XINXIN MING ("Faith in Mind") is attributed to Sengcan, little is actually known of this mysterious figure, and he may simply have been a later invention created to connect the BODHIDHARMA-HUIKE line of early Chan with the East Mountain teachings (DONGSHAN FAMEN) of DAOXIN (580-651) and HONGREN (602-675). Most of what is known of Sengcan is constructed retrospectively in such early Chan genealogical histories as the BAOLIN ZHUAN, LENGQIE SHIZI JI, CHUAN FABAO JI, and LIDAI FABAO JI, and in later Chan histories known as "transmission of the lamplight records" (CHUANDENG LU). Sengcan is claimed to have studied under Huike, the first Chinese disciple of the Chan founder, Bodhidharma, and the second patriarch of the Chan school. During Emperor Wu's (r. 502-549) persecution of Buddhism, Sengcan is said to have gone into hiding and later resided on Mt. Sikong in Shuzhou (present-day Anhui province). The Lengqie shizi ji and Chuan fabao ji claim that Daoxin became Sengcan's disciple sometime in the late-sixth century, but Daoxin's connection to this dubious figure is tenuous at best and most probably spurious. Sengcan was later given the posthumous title Chan Master Jingzhi (Mirror-like Wisdom).

Shaolinsi. (J. Shorinji; K. Sorimsa 少林寺). In Chinese, "Small Grove Monastery"; located at the foot of SONGSHAN in Dengfeng county, Henan province. According to the XU GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks"), the Xiaowen emperor (r. 471-500 CE) of the Northern Wei dynasty built the monastery in 496 CE for the Indian monk Fotuo (d.u.). Shaolinsi initially was an important center of translation activities, and many famous monks, including BODHIRUCI, RATNAMATI, JINGYING HUIYUAN, and XUANZANG, resided at the monastery. But the monastery is best known in the East Asian tradition as the putative center of martial arts in China. Fotuo, the monastery's founder, is claimed to have had two disciples who displayed sublime acrobatic skills, perhaps a harbinger of later martial-arts exercises. Li Shimin (599-649; r. 626-649), second ruler and Taizong emperor of the Tang dynasty (618-907), is said to have used the Shaolin monks' martial talents, especially with the heavy cudgel, to help his father found their new dynasty. Within another century, Shaolinsi became associated with the legend of the Indian monk BODHIDHARMA (c. early fifth century), the putative founder of the CHAN school, who is said to have practiced wall-gazing meditation (BIGUAN) for nine years in a cave above the monastery; according to later traditions, Bodhidharma also taught himself self-defense techniques both to protect himself against wild animals and for exercise, which he transmitted to his disciples at the monastery. In subsequent years, the monastery continued to be renowned as a center of both martial arts and Chan Buddhism. In 1245, the Yuan emperor Shizu (r. 1260-1294) appointed the Chan master Xueting Fuyu (1203-1275) abbot of Shaolinsi, and under Xueting's guidance the monastery flourished. At least by the fifteenth century, the connection between Shaolinsi and the martial arts became firmly established in the Chinese popular imagination and "Shaolin monks" remain popular on the international performing-arts circuit.

Shenxiu. (J. Jinshu; K. Sinsu 神秀) (606?-706). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty and putative founder of the "Northern school" (BEI ZONG) of early Chan Buddhism. Shenxiu was a native of Kaifeng in present-day Henan province. As an extraordinarily tall man with well-defined features, Shenxiu is said to have had a commanding presence. In 625, Shenxiu was ordained at the monastery of Tiangongsi in Luoyang, but little is known of his activities in the first two decades following his ordination. In 651, Shenxiu became a disciple of HONGREN (601-674), cofounder of the East Mountain Teachings (DONGSHAN FAMEN) and the monk later recognized as the fifth patriarch of the Chan school; indeed, by many early accounts, such as the CHUAN FABAO JI and LENGQIE SHIZI JI, Shenxiu became Hongren's legitimate successor. According to the famous story in the LIUZU TANJING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch"), however, Shenxiu lost a verse-writing contest to the unlettered HUINENG (638-713), whom Hongren then in secret sanctioned as the sixth patriarch. However, it is unclear how long Shenxiu studied with Hongren. One source states that it was for a period of six years, in which case he would have left Hongren's monastery long before Huineng's arrival, making the famous poetry contest impossible. Regardless of the date of his departure, Shenxiu eventually left Hongren's monastery for Mt. Dangyang in Jingzhou (present-day Hubei province), where he remained for over twenty years and attracted many disciples. Shenxiu and his disciples were the subjects of a polemical attack by HEZE SHENHUI (684-758), who disparaged Shenxiu as representing a mere collateral branch of BODHIDHARMA's lineage and for promoting what Shenhui called a "gradual" (jian) approach to enlightenment. Shenhui instead promoted a "sudden teaching" (DUNJIAO), which he claimed derived from a so-called "Southern school" (NAN ZONG) founded by Huineng, another (and relatively obscure) disciple of Hongren, whom Shenhui claimed was Hongren's authentic successor and the true sixth patriarch (LIUZU). Later Chan historians such as GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841) began to use the designation "Northern school" (Bei zong) to describe the lineage of Shenxiu and his disciples YIFU (661-736), PUJI (651-739), and XIANGMO ZANG (d.u.). While Shenhui's characterization of Shenxiu and his supposed "gradualism" is now known to be misleading, subsequent histories of the Chan tradition (see CHUANDENG LU) more or less adopted Shenhui's vision of early Chan; thus Huineng, rather than Shenxiu, comes to be considered the bearer of the orthodox Chan transmission. As one mark of Shenxiu's high standing within the Chan tradition of his time, in 700, Shenxiu was invited to the imperial palace by Empress WU ZETIAN, where the empress prostrated herself before the nonagenarian monk. She was so impressed with the aged Chan master that she decided to build him a new monastery on Mt. Dangyang named Dumensi. She also gave him the title of state preceptor (GUOSHI). Upon his death, he was given a state funeral. He is one of only three Buddhist monks whose biography is included in the Tang shi ("Tang Annals"). This is clearly not the profile of an imposter within the Chan lineage. Shenxiu's teachings are known to have focused on the transcendence of thoughts (linian) and the five expedient means (fangbian; S. UPĀYA); these teachings appear in "Northern school" treatises discovered at Dunhuang, such as the YUANMING LUN, Guanxin lun, and DASHENG WUSHENG FANGBIAN MEN. Shenxiu was an expert on the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA, a text favored by Hongren and the early Chan tradition, and is also thought to have written a substantial commentary on the AVATAMSAKASuTRA. Despite the uncomplimentary portrayal of the "Northern school" in mainstream Chan materials, it is now recognized that Shenxiu and his disciples actually played a much more important role in the early growth and development of the Chan school than the mature tradition acknowledged.

shikan taza. (C. zhiguan dazuo; K. chigwan t'ajwa 祇/只管打坐). In Japanese, "just sitting"; a style of meditation emblematic of the Japanese SoToSHu of ZEN, in which the act of sitting itself is thought to be the manifestation of enlightenment. The Soto school attributes the introduction of this style of practice to DoGEN KIGEN (1200-1253), who claimed to have learned it from his Chinese CAODONG ZONG teacher TIANTONG RUJING (1162-1227). In this degenerate age of the dharma (J. mappo; C. MOFA), Soto claims, a radical simplification of practice was necessary. Rather than attempting to master the full range of meditative techniques used for concentrating the mind, such as counting the breaths (J. susokukan) or investigating a Zen question (J. kanna Zen; C. KANHUA CHAN), Dogen is claimed to have advocated "just sitting" in the posture that had been used by the buddhas (e.g., sĀKYAMUNI's seven days beneath the BODHI TREE) and the patriarchs of Zen (e.g., BODHIDHARMA's "wall contemplation," C. BIGUAN). As the later Soto school interprets shikan taza, by maintaining this posture of "just sitting," the mind would also become stabilized and concentrated in a state of full clarity and alertness, free from any specific content (i.e., "with body and mind sloughed off," J. SHINJIN DATSURAKU). By adopting this posture of the buddhas and patriarchs, the student's own body and mind would thus become identical to the body and mind of his spiritual ancestors. Shikan taza is therefore portrayed as the most genuine form of meditation in which a Buddhist adept can engage. The Soto tradition also deploys shikan taza polemically against the rival RINZAISHu, whose use of koans (C. GONG'AN) in meditation training was portrayed as an inferior, expedient attempt at concentration. In Dogen's own writings, however, there is little of this later Soto portrayal of the psychological dimensions of "just sitting"; instead, Dogen uses shikan taza simply as a synonym of "sitting in meditation" (zazen, C. ZUOCHAN), and may have spent most of his time while "just sitting" in the contemplation of koans.

Shin-sieu (Chinese) A sage and seer; the sixth Buddhist Patriarch of North China who taught the esoteric doctrine of bodhidharma, one of whose sayings appears in The Voice of the Silence: “For mind is like a mirror; it gathers dust while it reflects. It needs the gentle breezes of Soul Wisdom to brush away the dust of our illusions. Seek, O Beginner, to blend thy Mind and Soul”; “The human mind is like a mirror which attracts and reflects every atom of dust, and has to be, like that mirror, watched over and dusted every day” (VS 26, 83).

Shoshitsu rokumonshu. (少室六門集). In Japanese, "Collection of Six Treatises from Small Caves," a Japanese anthology of works attributed to BODHIDHARMA, the legendary Indian monk and founder of the CHAN school. "Small caves" (shaoshi) refers to the western peak of SONGSHAN, where Bodhidharma purportedly spent nine years facing a wall in meditation (see BIGUAN) near the monastery of SHAOLINSI. The anthology includes the Xinjing song ("Panegyric to the 'Heart Sutra'"), Poxiang lun, Erzhong ru (see ERRU SIXING LUN), Anxin famen, Wuxing lun, and XUEMO LUN. The Shoshitsu rokumonshu was published sometime during the late Kamakura period and was republished in 1647, 1667, and 1675.

Songshan. (J. Suzan; K. Sungsan 嵩山). In Chinese, "Lofty Mountain"; sacred mountain located in northern Henan province. Mt. Song, also known as Zhongyue (Middle Marchmount), belongs to what is known as the wuyue, or five marchmounts. Mt. Song is actually a mountain range consisting of two groups of peaks. To the east there are twenty-four peaks known collectively as Taishi, and to the west twenty-six peaks known as Shaoshi. Since ancient times, Mt. Song has been considered sacred. Emperors frequently made visits to the mountain and many who sought physical immortality found it to be an ideal dwelling place. Mt. Song has also been the home of many Buddhist monks. Sometime during the Han dynasty, a monastery known as Fawangsi (Dharma King Monastery) was built on Mt. Song. For centuries, the monastery received the support of many emperors, such as Emperor Wendi of the Sui dynasty, who renamed it Shelisi (sARĪRA Monastery), Emperor Taizong (r. 626-649) who renamed it Gongdesi (Merit Monastery), and Emperor Daizong (r. 762-779) who renamed it Wenshushili Guangde Bao'ensi (MaNjusrī's Vast Virtue, Requiting Kindness Monastery). During the Song dynasty, the monastery was supported by Emperor Renzong (r. 1022-1063), who once again renamed it Fawangsi. Mt. Song was also the home of the famous monastery of SHAOLINSI, which is claimed to have been built on its Shaoshi peaks by a certain Indian monk named Fotuo (d.u.) in 496. Shaolinsi is perhaps best remembered as the home of the semilegendary Indian monk BODHIDHARMA, who is presumed to have dwelled in a cave nearby for nine years, engaged in BIGUAN (wall contemplation). To the west of Fawangsi, there was also a monastery by the name of Xianjusi (Tranquil Dwelling Monastery), which had once been the private villa of Emperor Xuanwudi (r. 499-515) of the Northern Wei dynasty. Xianjusi was the residence of the meditation master Sengchou (480-560), and also PUJI (651-739), the disciple of CHAN master SHENXIU, and his disciple YIXING. Other monasteries such as Yongtaisi, Fengchansi, and Qingliangsi were also built on Mt. Song.

Sonmun ch'waryo. (禪門撮要). In Korean, "Selected Essentials from the Gate of Son"; a Korean anthology of the essential canon of the Korean SoN (CHAN) school, in two rolls. Although the Sonmun ch'waryo is often attributed to the late-Choson-period Son master KYoNGHo SoNGU (1849-1912), its authorship remains a matter of debate. The text uses as its primary source material the Pophae pobol ("Precious Raft on the Ocean of Dharma"), which was compiled in 1883 at Kamnosa. The Sonmun ch'waryo contains texts that are foundational to the Korean Son tradition. The first roll consists of the writings of the Chinese Chan patriarchs and teachers: the Xuemo lun ("Treatise of the Blood Lineage"), the Guanxin lun ("Treatise of Contemplating the Mind," sometimes otherwise attributed to SHENXIU [606?-706]), and the ERRU SIXING LUN ("Treatise on the Two Accesses and Four Practices"), all attributed to the first Chan patriarch, BODHIDHARMA; the Xiuxin yao lun ("Treatise on the Essentials of Cultivating the Mind"), attributed to the fifth patriarch HONGREN (600-674); the Wanleng lu ("Wanleng Record") and the CHUANXIN FAYAO ("Essential Teachings on Transmitting the Mind"), attributed to HUANGBO XIYUN (d. 850); the Mengshan fayu ("Mengshan's Dharma Discourses") composed of eleven dharma-talks by five masters including Mengshan Deyi (1231-1308) and NAONG HYEGŬN (1320-1376); and an excerpt from the Canchan jingyu ("Words of Admonition on Investigating Chan") attributed to Boshan Wuyi (1575-1630). The second roll consists of the writings of eminent Korean Son monks from the Koryo and Choson periods: POJO CHINUL's (1158-1210) SUSIM KYoL ("Secrets on Cultivating the Mind"), Chinsim chiksol ("Straight Talk on the True Mind"), Kwonsu Chonghye kyolsa mun ("Encouragement to Practice: The Compact of the Samādhi and PrajNā Community"), and KANHWA KYoRŬI NON ("Resolving Doubts About Observing the Hwadu"); the SoNMUN POJANG NOK ("Record of the Treasure Trove of the Son Tradition") and the Sonmun kangyo ("Essentials of the Son Gate"), both attributed to CH'oNCH'AEK (b. 1206); and the Son'gyo sok ("Explication of Son and Kyo") attributed to CH'oNGHo HYUJoNG (1520-1604). The first roll of the Sonmun ch'waryo was published in 1907 at the monastery of Unmunsa and the second in 1908 at PoMoSA. Among the 118 total xylographs of the book, the seventy-eighth and 118th xylographs list the names of people involved in the publication of the text, such as proofreaders, transcribers, and engravers, as well the donors, government officials, and landed gentry who contributed to the cost of the publication.

Sonmun pojang nok. (禪門寶藏). In Korean, "Record of the Treasure Trove of the Son Tradition"; an anthology, in three rolls, of stories excerpted from various Chinese CHAN and Korean SoN texts. Although the preface of the Sonmun pojangnok was written in 1293 by the Koryo CH'oNTAE (Ch. TIANTAI) monk CH'oNCH'AEK (1206-?) to whom it is attributed, the exact authorship of the anthology is still a matter of some debate. The epilogue to the text was written in 1294 by the Koryo lay Buddhist literatus Yi Hon (1252-1312). The first roll, "The Gate That Compares Son and Kyo" (Son'gyo taebyon mun) advocates that Son is distinct from, and surpasses, KYO (Doctrinal Teachings) because, unlike Kyo, Son directly reveals Buddhist truth without relying on verbal explanation. The second roll, "The Gate through which all Kyo Lecturers Return and Yield" (Chegang kwibok mun) illustrates this superiority of Son over Kyo by citing several examples in which Kyo monks were embarrassed, or guided to an authentic awakening, by Chan or Son monks. The third roll, "The Gate Revered and Trusted by Kings and Vassals" (Kunsin sungsin mun) includes stories of kings and government officials respecting and honoring Chan and Son monks. One of the most interesting stories collected in the Sonmun pojang nok relates to the otherwise-unknown Patriarch Chin'gwi (Chin'gwi chosa). The story is recited twice in the first roll and once in the third, excerpted respectively from the Talma millok ("Secret Record of Bodhidharma"), the Haedong ch'iltae nok ("Record of the Seven Generations of the Patriarchs of Haedong [Korea]"), and the Wimyongje somun chegyong p'yon ("Section on the Emperor Ming of Wei Inquires about the Sutras"), none of which are extant. The story is extremely controversial, because it states that because sĀKYAMUNI Buddha's awakening under the BODHI TREE was still imperfect, he continued to wander looking for guidance, until he met a Chan patriarch in the Snowy Mountains (Himālaya) who was finally able to lead him to true awakening. Later, the renowned Choson monk SoNSAN HYUJoNG also included the same story in his Son'gyo sok ("Exposition of Son and Kyo"), but cited it instead from the Pomil kuksa chip ("Collected Works of the State Preceptor Pomil"), which is also not extant. However, since neither the story itself nor even the titles of any of the three texts cited in the Sonmun pojang nok are found in any Chinese Buddhist sources, it is presumed that the story itself was fabricated in Korea sometime between the times of PoMIL (810-889) and Ch'onch'aek. The Sonmun pojang nok is now embedded in the SoNMUN CH'WARYO and is also published in volume six of the Han'guk Pulgyo chonso ("Collected Works of Korean Buddhism").

Thông Biẹn. (通辦) (d. 1134). The first Vietnamese Buddhist author to write a history of Vietnamese Buddhism based on the model of the "transmission of the lamplight" (CHUANDENG) histories of the Chinese CHAN school. He was a native of Đan Phượng (which is now in Hà Tay province, North Vietnam). His family name was Ngô and he was born into a Buddhist family. He was respected by the Lý court and was bestowed the title quềc sư (state preceptor; C. GUOSHI). The THIỀN UYỂN TẬP ANH relates that in a lecture in 1096 he interpreted Vietnamese Buddhist history as the continuation of the transmission of both the scriptural school and the mind (or Chan) school of Chinese Buddhism. According to Thông Biẹn, the Scriptural School began with Mou Bo and Kang Senghui, and the Chan school was transmitted by BODHIDHARMA. He further claimed that Chan came to Vietnam through two streams, represented, respectively, by VINĪTARUCI (d. 594) and VÔ NGÔN THÔNG (d. 826). Vinītaruci and Vô Ngôn Thông thus were the ancestral teachers of the two streams of Chan that produced numerous side branches in Vietnam. Later in his life, Thông Biẹn founded a great teaching center and taught the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA. His contemporaries referred to him as Ngộ Phap Hoa (Awakened to the Lotus). Thông Biẹn's model of Vietnamese Buddhist history was subsequently adopted by Buddhist authors of later generations and thus exercised lasting influence on the traditional understanding of Vietnamese Buddhist history. Many modern Vietnamese Buddhist leaders still accept Thông Biẹn's views about the history of Buddhism in Vietnam.

tingqian boshuzi. (J. teizen no hakujushi; K. chongjon paeksuja 庭前柏樹子). In Chinese, "cypress tree in front of the courtyard"; a CHAN expression that becomes a popular meditative topic (HUATOU) and is used in Chan questioning meditation (KANHUA CHAN). The phrase appears in a GONG'AN exchange attributed to the Tang-dynasty monk ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN (778-897): Once when Zhaozhou was asked, "Why did Bodhidharma come from the West?" (XILAI YI), he replied, "Cypress tree in front of the courtyard," suggesting that enlightenment, the reason that Bodhidharma traveled to China, is to be found in everyday experience. This gong'an appears as case no. 37 in the WUMEN GUAN ("Gateless Checkpoint"). See also XILAI YI.

Wuxin lun. (J. Mushinron; K. Musim non 無心論). In Chinese, "Treatise on No-Mind"; an early CHAN treatise attributed by tradition to the legendary monk BODHIDHARMA, which, in both content and style, resembles NIUTOU FARONG'S JUEGUAN LUN. As the title indicates, the treatise is concerned with the notion of WUXIN, or "no-mind," which the text attempts to elucidate by enumerating a long list of dichotomies, such as visible and invisible, bright and dark, and differentiated and undifferentiated. The treatise argues largely in catechistic format that the attainment of no-mind engenders a state that is unmarred by the myriad afflictions (KLEsA), birth and death, and even NIRVĀnA. The treatise was largely unknown until its rediscovery in the manuscript cache at the DUNHUANG caves at the end of the nineteenth century.

Xiangyan Zhixian. (J. Kyogen Chikan; K. Hyangom Chihan 香嚴智閑) (d. 898). Chinese CHAN master in the GUIYANG ZONG of the Chan tradition. Zhixian entered the monastery under BAIZHANG HUAIHAI and later became a student of YANGSHAN HUIJI. Zhixian dwelled for a long time at Mt. Xiangyan, whence his toponym. One day while he was sweeping the garden, Zhixian is said to have attained awakening when he heard the bamboo brush against the roof tiles. He is best known for the GONG'AN case "Xiangyan Hanging from a Tree": A man is dangling by his mouth from the branch of a tall tree, his hands tied behind his back and nothing beneath his feet. Someone comes under the tree branch and asks, "Why did BODHIDHARMA come from the West?" If he keeps his mouth clenched and refuses to answer, he is rude to the questioner; but if he opens his mouth to answer, he will fall to his death. How does he answer? Upon Zhixian's death, he was given the posthumous title Chan master Xideng (Inheritor of the Lamplight).

Xianzong ji. (J. Kenshuki; K. Hyonjong ki 顯宗). In Chinese, "Notes on Revealing the Cardinal Principle," attributed to HEZE SHENHUI; also known as the Heze dashi xianzong ji ("Notes on Revealing the Cardinal Principle of Great Master Heze") and Xianzong lun ("Treatise on Revealing the Cardinal Principle"). A simpler version of the Xianzong ji, entitled Dunwu wusheng bore song ("Verses on Sudden Enlightenment, the Unborn, and PrajNā"), was also discovered at DUNHUANG. As the title of the Dunhuang version makes clear, in this treatise Shenhui expounds on the notions of no-thought (WUNIAN), the unborn, or nonarising (ANUTPĀDA), and wisdom (prajNā), which all seem to function as synonyms for emptiness (suNYATĀ). Shenhui also mentions the Indian patriarch BODHIDHARMA's transmission of this "secret teaching" to China and his conferral of the patriarchal robe as a mark of transmission. The Xianzong ji was later included in the genealogical history of the Chan tradition, the JINGDE CHUANDENG LU.

xilai yi. (J. seiraii; K. sorae ŭi 西來意). In Chinese, lit. "the meaning of coming from the west"; in CHAN literature, a common allusion to the question "What was the meaning of [Bodhidharma's] coming from the west?" (xilai yi ruohe), i.e., "Why did BODHIDHARMA, the founding patriarch of Chan, come from India to propagate Chan?" This question was commonly asked in Chan GONG'AN exchanges to test the spiritual depth of a teacher or disciple and as a meditative topic in "questioning meditation" (KANHUA CHAN). The phrase is found in HUANGBO XIYUN's (d. c. 850) CHUANXIN FAYAO, and the use of the question is well displayed in a famous exchange involving MAZU DAOYI (709-788) and his disciple Hongzhou Shuiliao (d.u.): when Shuiliao asks Mazu this question, Mazu encourages him to come closer, whereupon he kicks him to the ground, and Shuiliao immediately jumps up, enlightened. ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN's (778-897) answer to this question is the famous gong'an: "Cypress tree in front of the courtyard" (TINGQIAN BOSHUZI). Some of the other answers that appear in Chan literature include "sitting for a long time is a bother" (BIYAN LU, case no. 17), "there is no meaning in Bodhidharma's coming from the west" (Biyan lu, case no. 20), and "Zang's head is white, Hai's head is black" (Biyan lu, case no. 73).

xindi. (S. cintābhumikā; J. shinji; K. simji 心地). In Chinese, lit. "mind-ground" or "mind as ground"; a common metaphor used in MAHĀYĀNA literature to suggest that mind or thought is the source, or "ground," of all phenomena. The Dasheng bensheng xindi guan jing ("Sutra on the Great-Vehicle Contemplation of the Innate Mind Ground"), for example, metaphorically refers to the minds of the sentient beings of the three realms of existence as a "mind-ground," since all phenomena-whether mundane (LAUKIKA) or supramundane (LOKOTTARA), and including all virtuous and nonvirtuous dharmas, as well as the five rebirth destinies (GATI) and the states of a PRATYEKABUDDHA, BODHISATTVA, or even a buddha-are generated from the mind of sentient beings, just as all grains and fruits are generated from soil. A commentary to the MAHĀVAIROCANĀBHISAMBODHISuTRA (Dari jing shu) says that the mind is also metaphorically referred to as a "ground," since the practice of bodhisattvas relies on the mind, just as activities of ordinary people rely on the ground. In the FANWANG JING ("Brahmā's Net Sutra"), the mind-ground refers to the bodhisattva precepts (PUSA JIE), which help to restrain the activities of body, speech, and mind; the precepts are the mind-ground because the activities of mind, or thought, are the basis for actions performed via body and speech. The buddha Vairocana says in the sutra that he achieved complete, perfect enlightenment (SAMYAKSAMBODHI) only after cultivating the mind-ground over a hundred incalculable eons (ASAMKHYEYAKALPA). The Korean monk WoNHYO (617-686), in his Pommanggyong Posal kyebon sagi ("Personal Exposition on the Bodhisattva Precepts Text of the 'Brahmā's Net Sutra'"), described three different denotations of mind-ground in terms of the abider and the ground on which that abider resides. These are (1) the fifty stages of the bodhisattva path (the ten BODHISATTVABHuMI, plus the forty stages preliminary to the bhumis), which is the ground on which the thought of enlightenment (BODHICITTA) of the bodhisattva abides; (2) the three categories of precepts (sĪLATRAYA), which is the ground on which the enlightened mind abides; and (3) the realm of reality (DHARMADHĀTU), which is the ground on which the practitioner abides. In the CHAN ZONG, the mind that was transmitted by BODHIDHARMA, the putative founder of Chan, is termed the mind-ground, and his teaching of the one (enlightened) mind is called the dharma teaching of the mind-ground (xindi famen). HUANGBO XIYUN (d. 850) says in his CHUANXIN FAYAO that the "dharma teaching of the mind-ground means that all dharmas are constructed depending upon this mind." Finally, GUIFENG ZONGMI in his CHANYUAN CHUCHUANJI TUXU ("Prolegomenon to the Comprehensive References to the Fountainhead of Chan Collection") equates mind-ground with the buddha-nature (FOXING): "the originally enlightened true nature of sentient beings is called both buddha-nature and mind-ground."

Xuemo lun. [alt. Xuemai lun] (J. Kechimyakuron; K. Hyolmaek non 血脈論). In Chinese, "Treatise on the Blood-Vessel." This short treatise has been traditionally attributed to the legendary Indian monk BODHIDHARMA and is also referred to as the Damo dashi xuemo lun ("Great Master [Bodhi]dharma's Treatise on the Blood-Vessel"). Judging from its style of argumentation and doctrinal content, the treatise was most probably composed by a CHAN adept of the HONGZHOU ZONG or NIUTOU ZONG sometime during the ninth century, long after Bodhidharma's death. The treatise begins with the claim that the three realms of existence (TRAIDHĀTUKA) return to the "one mind" (YIXIN), which was transmitted from one buddha to another without recourse to words or letters (BULI WENZI). From beginning to end, the treatise consistently underscores the importance of the inherent purity of the mind (xin) and claims that the mind is none other than the buddha, DHARMAKĀYA, BODHI, and NIRVĀnA. The treatise also polemically contends that the practice of chanting and being mindful of the buddha AMITĀBHA's name (NIANFO), reading scriptures, and upholding the precepts may guarantee a better rebirth and intelligence but do not ensure the achievement of buddhahood. According to the treatise, only the practice of seeing one's own nature (JIANXING) can lead to buddhahood (see JIANXING CHENGFO). The first known edition of the Xuemo lun was first published in Korea in 1473 and was republished on several subsequent occasions. It is often anthologized in larger compilations such as the SoNMUN CH'WARYO and SHoSHITSU ROKUMON.

yinke. (J. inka; K. in'ga 印可). In Chinese, lit. "seal of/in approval," "certification" and often seen in Western sources in its Japanese pronunciation inka; a seal of approval, certification, or transmission, which is given by masters in the various CHAN traditions across East Asia to practitioners who, in their estimation, have attained a satisfactory level of awakening or maturity of understanding to serve as public exponents of their lineage. Because these lineages are presumed to trace back to BODHIDHARMA, the founder of the Chan school, and ultimately to the person of the Buddha himself, the person who receives such certification is considered to be qualified to speak for the current generation of Chan adepts on behalf of the Chan patriarchs, masters, and even the Buddha, to accept and train students, and to give them certification in turn once their training is complete. The manner of certification differs within traditions. Certification often entails admission into the master's lineage; the conferral of such symbols of religious authority and memorial worship as robes, bowls, chowries (BINGFU), or portraits; and the right to serve in high ecclesiastical office in a sectarian monastery. In the modern ZEN traditions of Japan, certification is offered by a RoSHI, a teacher who has himself been previously certified. Especially in the Japanese traditions, receiving inka need not necessarily be testimony to the profundity of a person's enlightenment experience, but may simply be public recognition that a student has sufficient maturity and ability to serve as abbot or hold other high ecclesiastical office in the monasteries and temples of a specific sectarian lineage. In some cases, yinke is an abbreviation for yinke zhengming, or "certification via seal of approval." Certification is also known as yinding (seal of meditation), renke (acceptance and approval), and yinzheng (seal and certify). See also CHUANFA; FASI.

zuishangsheng Chan. (J. saijojozen; K. ch'oesangsŭng Son 最上乘禪). In Chinese, lit. "supreme vehicle Chan," referring to one of the styles of practice and pedagogy associated with the CHAN school; often considered to be equivalent to "unconventional Chan" (GEWAI CHAN). Supreme vehicle Chan is one of the five categories of Chan listed by GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841) in his CHANYUAN ZHUJUAN JI DUXU ("Prolegomena to the Source of Chan Collection"). According to Zongmi's treatment, "supreme vehicle Chan" refers to meditation practices that rely on sudden approaches to awakening (DUNWU) and generate an initial insight into the true nature of mind, i.e., the original purity of mind that is shared by both sentient beings and buddhas. The text equates this form of Chan with the "pure Chan of the TATHĀGATAs" (rulai qingjing Chan), also known by its abbreviated name, tathāgata Chan (rulai Chan); it also is said to be equivalent to "single-practice SAMĀDHI" (YIXING SANMEI) and the "samādhi of suchness" (zhenru sanmei), since "supreme vehicle Chan" is the root of all kinds of samādhi. The text also defines supreme vehicle Chan as the "Chan transmitted from BODHIDHARMA"; this latter form of Chan is subsequently named "patriarchal Chan" (zushi Chan) in the Song-dynasty Chan collections, such as the JINGDE ZHUANDENG LU ("Record of the Transmission of the Lamplight Published during the Jingde Era") and Puji's (1179-1253) Wudeng huiyuan ("Collected Essentials of the Five Lamplight Histories"), which in turn redefines "tathāgata Chan" as subordinate to "patriarchal Chan."

zuochan. (J. zazen; K. chwason 坐禪). In Chinese, "seated meditation." Zuochan is a combination of the Chinese term "to sit" (zuo) and the character CHAN, a transcription of the Sanskrit term DHYĀNA (meditation); often referred to in English-language sources by the Japanese pronunciation zazen. As its etymology implies, zuochan refers to sitting with legs folded on top of each other and eyes slightly closed in meditation. This meditative practice may be generically considered to be directed at samādhi, one of the three trainings (C. sanxue; S. siksātraya), along with morality (sĪLA) and wisdom (PRAJNĀ), or alternatively at dhyāna, one of the six PĀRAMITĀs emblematic of BODHISATTVA practice, along with charity (DĀNA), precepts (sīla), forbearance (KsĀNTI), effort (VĪRYA), and wisdom (prajNā). Sitting has long held pride of place within the Buddhist tradition as the archetypal position (ĪRYĀPATHA) most suited to sustained meditation training. The prototype for zuochan is the Buddha's own seated meditation under the BODHI TREE, as well as the legendary Indian monk BODHIDHARMA's "wall gazing" (BIGUAN) for nine years in a cave. Because of these associations with both the Buddha and Bodhidharma, the founder of the Chan school, zuochan was widely considered to be the primary practice within the CHAN, SoN, and ZEN traditions. In China, zuochan came to be viewed as such a stereotypical aspect of the Chan school, broadly conceived, that Chan teachers began to critique its necessity and importance; these critiques suggested instead that Chan practice was not to be confined just to zuochan, but should also be conducted throughout the three other standard deportments of walking, standing, and lying down. For example, the LIUZU TANJING ("Platform Sutra"), attributed to the sixth patriarch HUINENG, includes such a rectification of the meaning of zuochan when it says that "'seated' means, externally, to refrain from generating thoughts related to wholesome or unwholesome objects; 'meditation' means, internally, to see that the self-nature is unmoving." In this redefinition, zuochan means not just "seated meditation" but instead encompasses a way of understanding that is to be carried through all aspects of one's experience.

zushi. (J. soshi; K. chosa 祖師). In Chinese, "patriarch" (lit. "ancestral teacher"), referring to eminent teachers in lineages that are claimed to trace back to sĀKYAMUNI Buddha or even earlier buddhas. Indian Sanskrit texts dating from the 2nd century CE onward refer to a tradition of five "masters of the dharma" (dharmācārya) who succeeded the Buddha as head of the SAMGHA: MAHĀKĀsYAPA, ĀNANDA, MADHYĀNTIKA, sĀnAKAVĀSIN, and UPAGUPTA . Later sources expand this list into a roster of nine eminent masters who "handed down the lamplight of wisdom successively through the generations." Often, these genealogies were extended as far back as the seven buddhas of antiquity (SAPTATATHĀGATA). It is widely presumed that this notion of dharma-transmission lineages developed from the earlier VINAYA concept of the "preceptor" (UPĀDHYĀYA), a senior monk who confers the lower ordination (pravrajyā, see PRAVRAJITA) to new novices (sRĀMAnERA) and higher ordination (UPASAMPADĀ) to monks (BHIKsU). This personal connection between preceptor and disciple created incipient ordination families connected to specific preceptors, connections that later could be extended to dharma transmission as well. ¶ In East Asia, these lists of Indian dharma masters continued to be expanded and elaborated upon so that they also included the preeminent indigenous figures within each lineage, thus connecting the Chinese patriarchs of each lineage with their Indian predecessors. Most of the indigenous traditions of East Asian Buddhism, including the CHAN ZONG, TIANTAI ZONG, JINGTU ZONG, and HUAYAN ZONG, draw their legitimacy at least partially from their claims that their teachings and practices derive from an unbroken lineage of authoritative teachers that can be traced back geographically to India and temporally to the person of the Buddha himself. The specific names and numbers of patriarchs recognized within each lineage typically change over time and vary widely between the different traditions. Of these lists, the list of patriarchs recognized in the Chan school has received the lion's share of scholarly attention in the West. This Chan list varies widely, but a well-established roster includes twenty-eight Indian and six Chinese patriarchs. These six Chinese patriarchs (liu zu)-BODHIDHARMA, HUIKE, SENGCAN, DAOXIN, HONGREN, and HUINENG-are credited by the classical tradition with the development and growth of Chan in China, but early records of the Chan school, such as the LENGQIE SHIZU JI and LIDAI FABAO JI, reveal the polemical battles fought between disparate contemporary Chan communities to place their own teachers on this roster of patriarchal orthodoxy. It is important to note that all of these various lists of patriarchs, in all the different traditions, are created retrospectively as a way of legitimizing specific contemporary lineages or teachers and verifying the authenticity of their teachings; thus their accounts of the chronology and history of their lineages must be used critically. The compound zushi can mean either "patriarch" (lit., ancestral teacher) or in other contexts "patriarchs and teachers," as in the stock phrase "all the buddhas of the three time-periods and patriarchs and teachers throughout successive generations" (sanshi zhufo lidai zushi), which explicitly traces a school's ancestral lineage from the past to the present and into the future. Some modern Buddhists, especially in the West, deplore the sexism inherent in the term "patriarch," preferring instead to render it with the gender-neutral term "ancestor." See also CHUANDENG LU; FASI; PARAMPARĀ; YINKE.



QUOTES [39 / 39 - 178 / 178]


KEYS (10k)

   36 Bodhidharma
   1 Shunryu Suzuki
   1 Sengcan
   1 Osho

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

  162 Bodhidharma
   3 Frederick Lenz
   2 Shunryu Suzuki
   2 Pema Ch dr n

1:Not engaging in ignorance is wisdom." ~ Bodhidharma,
2:Go beyond language. Go beyond thought. ~ Bodhidharma,
3:Not Engaging in Ignorance is Wisdom.
   ~ Bodhidharma,
4:The essence of the Way is detachment." ~ Bodhidharma,
5:Not creating delusions is enlightenment." ~ Bodhidharma,
6:Freeing oneself from words is liberation.
   ~ Bodhidharma,
7:All know the way, but few actually walk it." ~ Bodhidharma,
8:Reality has no inside, outside, or middle part. ~ Bodhidharma,
9:If your mind is pure, all buddha-lands are pure. ~ Bodhidharma,
10:Reality has no inside, outside, or middle part." ~ Bodhidharma,
11:To seek is to suffer. To seek nothing is bliss." ~ Bodhidharma,
12:All know the Way, but few actually walk it.
   ~ Bodhidharma, [T5],
13:Regardless of what we do, our karma has no hold on us. ~ Bodhidharma,
14:When one transcends right and wrong, he is truly right. ~ Bodhidharma,
15:A Buddha is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad." ~ Bodhidharma,
16:In contemplation, one's mind should be stable and unmoving, like a wall. ~ Bodhidharma,
17:You should realize that everything you see is like a dream or illusion.
   ~ Bodhidharma,
18:A Buddha is an idle person. He doesn't run around after fortune and fame." ~ Bodhidharma,
19:Awareness isn't hidden. But you can only find it right now. It's only now. ~ Bodhidharma,
20:The ultimate Truth is beyond words. Doctrines are words. They're not the Way." ~ Bodhidharma,
21:The farther away you are from the truth, the more the hateful and pleasurable states will arise." ~ Bodhidharma,
22:Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either." ~ Bodhidharma,
23:But deluded people don't realize that their own mind is the Buddha. They keep searching outside.
   ~ Bodhidharma,
24:Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either.
   ~ Bodhidharma,
25:People of this world are deluded. They're always longing for something - always, in a word, seeking." ~ Bodhidharma,
26:know the way
few actually walk it
~ Bodhidharma, @BashoSociety
27:The mind is the root from which all things grow. If you can understand the mind, everything else is included." ~ Bodhidharma,
28:Once you stop clinging and let things be, you'll be free, even of birth and death. You'll transform everything. ~ Bodhidharma,
29:Once you stop clinging and let things be, you'll be free, even of birth and death. You'll transform everything." ~ Bodhidharma,
30:Not thinking about anything is Zen. Once you know this, walking, sitting, or lying down, everything you do is Zen. ~ Bodhidharma,
31:just say, 'Not Two!'' ~ Sengcan, (died 606) Third Chinese Patriarch of Chán after Bodhidharma and thirtieth Patriarch after Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha, Wikipedia.,
32:The ignorant mind, with its infinite afflictions, passions, and evils, is rooted in the three poisons. Greed, anger, and delusion." ~ Bodhidharma,
33:If you use your mind to study reality, you won't understand either your mind or reality. If you study reality without using your mind, you'll understand both. ~ Bodhidharma,
34:If you use your mind to study reality, you won't understand either your mind or reality. If you study reality without using your mind, you'll understand both." ~ Bodhidharma,
35:The whole effort of Jesus or a Buddha or a Bodhidharma is nothing but how to undo that which society has done to you." ~ Osho, (1931 - 1990), Indian godman, Wikipedia. Quote from "ZEN the Path of Paradox,", (2001).,
36:Externally keep yourself away from all relationships, and internally have no pantings in your heart; when your mind is like unto a straight-standing wall, you may enter into the Path. ~ Bodhidharma,
37:The highest truth is daiji, translated as dai jiki in Chinese scriptures. This is the subject of the question the emperor asked Bodhidharma: "What is the First Principle?" Bodhidharma said, "I don't know." "I don't know" is the First Principle. ~ Shunryu Suzuki,
38:Even if you have mountains of jewels and as many servants as there are grains of sand along the Ganges, you see them when your eyes are open. But what about when your eyes are shut?You should realize then that everything you see is like a dream or illusion. ~ Bodhidharma,
39:Every suffering is a buddha-seed, because suffering impels mortals to seek wisdom. But you can only say that suffering gives rise to buddhahood. You can't say that suffering is buddhahood. Your body and mind are the field. Suffering is the seed, wisdom the sprout, and buddhahood the grain. ~ Bodhidharma,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

1:Everything sacred, nothing sacred. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
2:Life And Death, Suffering, Important ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
3:Not engaging in ignorance is wisdom. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
4:The essence of the Way is detachment. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
5:Not creating delusions is enlightenment. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
6:Freeing oneself from words is liberation. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
7:All know the way, but few actually walk it. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
8:In order to see a fish you must watch the water ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
9:Reality has no inside, outside, or middle part. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
10:To seek is to suffer. To seek nothing is bliss. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
11:If your mind is pure, all buddha-lands are pure. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
12:The Buddha is your real body, your original mind. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
13:The Dharma is the truth that all natures are pure. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
14:The mind is always present. You just don't see it. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
15:Our nature is the mind. And the mind is our nature. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
16:The mind is the Buddha, and the Buddha is the mind. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
17:Not suffering another existence is reaching the Way. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
18:Mortals liberate Buddhas and Buddhas liberate mortals. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
19:Once you see your nature, sex is basically immaterial. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
20:Regardless of what we do, our karma has no hold on us. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
21:Someone who seeks the Way doesn't look beyond himself. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
22:To find a Buddha all you have to do is see your nature. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
23:As mortals, we're ruled by conditions, not by ourselves. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
24:Life and death are important. Don't suffer them in vain. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
25:Delusion means mortality. And awareness means Buddhahood. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
26:At every moment where language can't go, that's your mind. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
27:To give up yourself without regret is the greatest charity. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
28:The Way is basically perfect. It doesn't require perfecting. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
29:All the suffering and joy we experience depend on conditions. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
30:You can't know your real mind as long as you deceive yourself. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
31:Those who worship don't know, and those who know don't worship. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
32:As long as you're enthralled by a lifeless form, you're not free. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
33:If you use your mind to look for a Buddha, you won't see the Buddha. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
34:Those who remain unmoved by the wind of joy silently follow the Path. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
35:And the Buddha is the person who's free: free of plans, free of cares. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
36:Trying to find a buddha or enlightenment is like trying to grab space. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
37:All quotesAwarenessEvilKarmaRealitySufferingUnderstandingWisdommore... ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
38:Neither gods nor men can foresee when an evil deed will bear its fruit. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
39:An Awakened person is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
40:Without the mind there is no Buddha. Without the Buddha there's no mind. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
41:Only one person in a million becomes enlightened without a teacher's help. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
42:I do not need any writing, since I transmit teaching beyond words and ideas. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
43:Our true buddha-nature has no shape. And the dust of affliction has no form. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
44:The ultimate Truth is beyond words. Doctrines are words. They're not the Way. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
45:I never lost or fail, not yet conquered. If I fall seven times, I get up eight ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
46:Buddhas move freely through birth and death, appearing and disappearing at will. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
47:Many roads lead to the Path, but basically there are only two: reason and practice. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
48:And as long as you're subject to birth and death, you'll never attain enlightenment. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
49:But while success and failure depend on conditions, the mind neither waxes nor wanes. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
50:When we're deluded there's a world to escape. When we're aware, there's nothing to escape. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
51:According to the Sutras, evil deeds result in hardships and good deeds result in blessings. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
52:But deluded people don't realize that their own mind is the Buddha. They keep searching outside. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
53:Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
54:When you don't understand, you depend on reality. When you do understand, reality depends on you. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
55:Everything good and bad comes from your own mind. To find something beyond the mind is impossible. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
56:The essence of the Way is detachment. And the goal of those who practice is freedom from appearances. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
57:The mind is the root from which all things grow. If you can understand the mind, everything else is included. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
58:Once you stop clinging and let things be, you'll be free, even of birth and death. You'll transform everything. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
59:Unless you see your nature, all this talk about cause & effect is nonsense. Buddhas don't practice nonsense. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
60:Not thinking about anything is Zen. Once you know this, walking, sitting, or lying down, everything you do is Zen. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
61:To go from mortal to Buddha, you have to put an end to karma, nurture your awareness, and accept what life brings. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
62:People who don't see their own nature and imagine they can practice thoughtlessness all the time are liars and fools. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
63:If we should be blessed by some great reward, such as fame or fortune, it's the fruit of a seed planted by us in the past. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
64:Whoever knows that the mind is a fiction and devoid of anything real knows that his own mind neither exists nor doesn't exist. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
65:The ignorant mind, with its infinite afflictions, passions, and evils, is rooted in the three poisons. Greed, anger, and delusion. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
66:Follow AzQuotes on Facebook, Twitter and Google+. Every day we present the best quotes! Improve yourself, find your inspiration, share with friends ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
67:Leaving behind the false, return to the true: make no discriminations between self and others. In contemplation, one's mind should be stable and unmoving, like a wall. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
68:The true Way is sublime. It can't be expressed in language. Of what use are scriptures? But someone who sees his own nature finds the Way, even if he can't read a word. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
69:All Buddhas preach emptiness. Why? Because they wish to crush the concrete ideas of the students. If a student even clings to an idea of emptiness, he betrays all Buddhas. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
70:This one life has no form and is empty by nature. If you become attached by any form, you should reject it. If you see an ego, a soul, a birth, or a death, reject them all. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
71:But people of the deepest understanding look within, distracted by nothing. Since a clear mind is the Buddha, they attain the understanding of a Buddha without using the mind. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
72:Whoever realizes that the six senses aren't real, that the five aggregates are fictions, that no such things can be located anywhere in the body, understands the language of Buddhas. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
73:Externally keep yourself away from all relationships, and internally have no pantings in your heart; when your mind is like unto a straight-standing wall, you may enter into the Path. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
74:When your mind doesn't stir inside, the world doesn't arise outside. When the world and the mind are both transparent, this is true vision. And such understanding is true understanding. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
75:As long as you look for a Buddha somewhere else, you'll never see that your own mind is the Gautama Buddha ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
76:Bodhidharma who brought Zen from India to the Orient, taught a very pure Zen - in that it was pure Zen. He wanted to show that the way still existed and wanted to get back to its essence. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
77:The awareness of mortals falls short. As long as they're attached to appearances, they're unaware that their minds are empty. And by mistakenly clinging to the appearance of things they lose the Way. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
78:To enter by reason means to realize the essence through instruction and to believe that all living things share the same true nature, which isn't apparent because it's shrouded by sensation and delusion. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
79:Don't hate life and death or love life and death. Keep your every thought free of delusion, and in life you'll witness the beginning of nirvana, and in death you'll experience the assurance of no rebirth. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
80:To see nothing is to perceive the Way, and to understand nothing is to know the Dharma, because seeing is neither seeing nor not seeing, and because understanding is neither understanding nor not understanding. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
81:The Way is basically perfect. It doesn't require perfecting. The Way has no form or sound. It's subtle and hard to perceive. It's like when you drink water: you know how hot or cold it is, but you can't tell others. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
82:One clings to life although there is nothing to be called life; another clings to death although there is nothing to be called death. In reality, there is nothing to be born; consequently, there is nothing to perish. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
83:Worship means reverence and humility. It means revering your real self and humbling delusions. If you can wipe out evil desires and harbor good thoughts, even if nothing shows, it's worship. Such form is its real form. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
84:But when you first embark on the Path, your awareness won't be focused. You're likely to see all sorts of strange, dreamlike scenes. But you shouldn't doubt that all such scenes come from your own mind and nowhere else. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
85:But this mind isn't somewhere outside the material body of the four elements. Without this mind we can't move. The body has no awareness. Like a plant or a stone, the body has no nature. So how does it move? It's the mind that moves. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
86:People of this world are deluded. They're always longing for something, always, in a word, seeking. But the wise wake up. They choose reason over custom. They fix their minds on the sublime and let their bodies change with the seasons. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
87:The mind's capacity is limitless, and its manifestations are inexhaustible. Seeing forms with your eyes, hearing sounds with your ears, smelling odors with your nose, tasting flavors with your tongue, every movement or state is all your mind. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
88:To have a body is to suffer. Does anyone with a body know peace? Those who understand this detach themselves from all that exists and stop imagining or seeking anything. The sutras say, "To seek is to suffer. To seek nothing is bliss." When you seek nothing, you're on the Path. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
89:When mortals are alive, they worry about death. When they're full, they worry about hunger. Theirs is the Great Uncertainty. But sages don't consider the past. And they don't worry about the future. Nor do they cling to the present. And from moment to moment they follow the Way. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
90:Still others commit all sorts of evil deeds, claiming karma doesn't exist. They erroneously maintain that since everything is empty, committing evil isn't wrong. Such persons fall into a hell of endless darkness with no hope of release. Those who are wise hold no such conception. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
91:A buddha is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad. Such is his power that karma can't hold him. No matter what kind of karma, a buddha transforms it. Heaven and hell are nothing to him. But the awareness of a mortal is dim compared to that of a buddha, who penetrates everything, inside and out. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
92:Not thinking about anything is zen. Once you know this, walking, standing, sitting, or lying down, everything you do is zen. To know that the mind is empty is to see the buddha... . Using the mind to reality is delusion. Not using the mind to look for reality is awareness. Freeing oneself from words is liberation. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
93:The Buddha is your real body, your original mind. This mind has no form or characteristics, no cause or effect, no tendons or bones. It's like space. You can't hold it. It's not the mind of materialists or nihilists. If you don't see your own miraculously aware nature, you'll never find a Buddha, even if you break your body into atoms. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
94:To find Buddha, you have to see your nature. Whoever sees his nature is a Buddha. If you don't see your nature, invoking buddhas, reciting sutras, making offerings, and keeping precepts are all useless. Invoking buddhas results in good karma, reciting sutras results in a good memory, keeping precepts results in good rebirth, and making offerings results in future blessings-but no Buddha. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
95:If you use your mind to study reality, you won't understand either your mind or reality. If you study reality without using your mind, you'll understand both. . . . The mind and the world are opposites, and vision arises where they meet. When your mind doesn't stir inside, the world doesn't arise outside. When the world and the mind are both transparent, this is true vision. And such understanding is true understanding. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
96:. . . the fools of this world prefer to look for sages far away. They don't believe that the wisdom of their own mind is the sage . . . the sutras say, "Mind is the teaching." But people of no understanding don't believe in their own mind or that by understanding this teaching they can become a sage. They prefer to look for distant knowledge and long for things in space, buddha-images, light, incense, and colors. They fall prey to falsehood and lose their minds to insanity. ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove
97:If you know that everything comes from the mind, don't become attached. Once attached, you're unaware. But once you see your own nature, the entire Canon becomes so much prose. It's thousands of sutras and shastras only amount to a clear mind. Understanding comes in midsentence. What good are doctrines? The ultimate Truth is beyond words. Doctrines are words. They're not the Way. The Way is wordless. Words are illusions. . . . Don't cling to appearances, and you'll break through all barriers. . . . ~ bodhidharma, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:To have a body is to suffer. ~ Bodhidharma,
2:Vast emptiness, nothing holy. ~ Bodhidharma,
3:Buddhas don't practice nonsense. ~ Bodhidharma,
4:Everything sacred, nothing sacred. ~ Bodhidharma,
5:Not engaging in ignorance is wisdom. ~ Bodhidharma,
6:The essence of the Way is detachment. ~ Bodhidharma,
7:Go beyond language. Go beyond thought. ~ Bodhidharma,
8:All know the way; few actually walk it. ~ Bodhidharma,
9:Go beyond language. Go beyond thought. ~ Bodhidharma,
10:"Go beyond language.Go beyond thought." ~ Bodhidharma,
11:Not Engaging in Ignorance is Wisdom.
   ~ Bodhidharma,
12:Not creating delusions is enlightenment. ~ Bodhidharma,
13:"All know the way; few actually walk it." ~ Bodhidharma,
14:Freeing oneself from words is liberation. ~ Bodhidharma,
15:All know the way, but few actually walk it. ~ Bodhidharma,
16:Freeing oneself from words is liberation.
   ~ Bodhidharma,
17:In order to see a fish you must watch the water ~ Bodhidharma,
18:Reality has no inside, outside, or middle part. ~ Bodhidharma,
19:To seek is to suffer. To seek nothing is bliss. ~ Bodhidharma,
20:All know the way of prosperity only few walk it. ~ Bodhidharma,
21:If your mind is pure, all buddha-lands are pure. ~ Bodhidharma,
22:Reality has no inside, outside, or middle part. ~ Bodhidharma,
23:If your mind is pure, all buddha-lands are pure. ~ Bodhidharma,
24:"Reality has no inside, outside, or middle part." ~ Bodhidharma,
25:The Buddha is your real body, your original mind. ~ Bodhidharma,
26:"To seek is to suffer. To seek nothing is bliss." ~ Bodhidharma,
27:The Dharma is the truth that all natures are pure. ~ Bodhidharma,
28:The mind is always present. You just don't see it. ~ Bodhidharma,
29:Our nature is the mind. And the mind is our nature. ~ Bodhidharma,
30:Poverty and hardship are created by false thinking. ~ Bodhidharma,
31:The mind is the Buddha, and the Buddha is the mind. ~ Bodhidharma,
32:All know the Way, but few actually walk it.
   ~ Bodhidharma, [T5],
33:Not suffering another existence is reaching the Way. ~ Bodhidharma,
34:Mortals liberate Buddhas and Buddhas liberate mortals. ~ Bodhidharma,
35:Once you see your nature, sex is basically immaterial. ~ Bodhidharma,
36:Regardless of what we do, our karma has no hold on us. ~ Bodhidharma,
37:Someone who seeks the Way doesn't look beyond himself. ~ Bodhidharma,
38:Regardless of what we do, our karma has no hold on us. ~ Bodhidharma,
39:To find a Buddha all you have to do is see your nature. ~ Bodhidharma,
40:As mortals, we're ruled by conditions, not by ourselves. ~ Bodhidharma,
41:Life and death are important. Don't suffer them in vain. ~ Bodhidharma,
42:When one transcends right and wrong, he is truly right. ~ Bodhidharma,
43:Delusion means mortality. And awareness means Buddhahood. ~ Bodhidharma,
44:"When one transcends right and wrong, he is truly right." ~ Bodhidharma,
45:At every moment where language can't go, that's your mind. ~ Bodhidharma,
46:To give up yourself without regret is the greatest charity. ~ Bodhidharma,
47:The Way is basically perfect. It doesn't require perfecting. ~ Bodhidharma,
48:All the suffering and joy we experience depend on conditions. ~ Bodhidharma,
49:"To give up yourself without regret is the greatest charity." ~ Bodhidharma,
50:A Buddha is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad. ~ Bodhidharma,
51:You can't know your real mind as long as you deceive yourself. ~ Bodhidharma,
52:Those who worship don't know, and those who know don't worship. ~ Bodhidharma,
53:"A Buddha is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad." ~ Bodhidharma,
54:As long as you're enthralled by a lifeless form, you're not free. ~ Bodhidharma,
55:"Those who worship don't know, and those who know don't worship." ~ Bodhidharma,
56:If you use your mind to look for a Buddha, you won't see the Buddha. ~ Bodhidharma,
57:Those who remain unmoved by the wind of joy silently follow the Path. ~ Bodhidharma,
58:And the Buddha is the person who's free: free of plans, free of cares. ~ Bodhidharma,
59:Trying to find a buddha or enlightenment is like trying to grab space. ~ Bodhidharma,
60:Neither gods nor men can foresee when an evil deed will bear its fruit. ~ Bodhidharma,
61:You should realize that everything you see is like a dream or illusion. ~ Bodhidharma,
62:An Awakened person is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad. ~ Bodhidharma,
63:Without the mind there is no Buddha. Without the Buddha there's no mind. ~ Bodhidharma,
64:A buddha is an idle person. He doesn't run around after fortune and fame. ~ Bodhidharma,
65:In contemplation, one's mind should be stable and unmoving, like a wall. ~ Bodhidharma,
66:"An Awakened person is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad." ~ Bodhidharma,
67:"In contemplation, one's mind should be stable and unmoving, like a wall." ~ Bodhidharma,
68:Only one person in a million becomes enlightened without a teacher's help. ~ Bodhidharma,
69:You should realize that everything you see is like a dream or illusion.
   ~ Bodhidharma,
70:"A Buddha is an idle person. He doesn't run around after fortune and fame." ~ Bodhidharma,
71:I do not need any writing, since I transmit teaching beyond words and ideas. ~ Bodhidharma,
72:Our true buddha-nature has no shape. And the dust of affliction has no form. ~ Bodhidharma,
73:The ultimate Truth is beyond words. Doctrines are words. They're not the Way. ~ Bodhidharma,
74:I never lost or fail, not yet conquered. If I fall seven times, I get up eight ~ Bodhidharma,
75:"The ultimate Truth is beyond words. Doctrines are words. They're not the Way." ~ Bodhidharma,
76:Buddhas move freely through birth and death, appearing and disappearing at will. ~ Bodhidharma,
77:Many roads lead to the Path, but basically there are only two: reason and practice. ~ Bodhidharma,
78:And as long as you're subject to birth and death, you'll never attain enlightenment. ~ Bodhidharma,
79:But while success and failure depend on conditions, the mind neither waxes nor wanes. ~ Bodhidharma,
80:When we're deluded there's a world to escape. When we're aware, there's nothing to escape. ~ Bodhidharma,
81:According to the Sutras, evil deeds result in hardships and good deeds result in blessings. ~ Bodhidharma,
82:"When you observe your delusions, you will know that they are baseless and not dependable." ~ Bodhidharma,
83:The Dharma is the truth that all natures are pure. By this truth, all appearances are empty. ~ Bodhidharma,
84:Worship means reverence and humility it means revering your real self and humbling delusions. ~ Bodhidharma,
85:But deluded people don't realize that their own mind is the Buddha. They keep searching outside. ~ Bodhidharma,
86:Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either. ~ Bodhidharma,
87:When you don't understand, you depend on reality. When you do understand, reality depends on you. ~ Bodhidharma,
88:As long as you look for a Buddha somewhere else, you'll never see that your own mind is the Buddha ~ Bodhidharma,
89:Everything good and bad comes from your own mind. To find something beyond the mind is impossible. ~ Bodhidharma,
90:"The farther away you are from the truth, the more the hateful and pleasurable states will arise." ~ Bodhidharma,
91:"Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either." ~ Bodhidharma,
92:But deluded people don't realize that their own mind is the Buddha. They keep searching outside.
   ~ Bodhidharma,
93:Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either.
   ~ Bodhidharma,
94:People of this world are deluded. They're always longing for something - always, in a word, seeking. ~ Bodhidharma,
95:The essence of the Way is detachment. And the goal of those who practice is freedom from appearances. ~ Bodhidharma,
96:"People of this world are deluded. They're always longing for something – always, in a word, seeking." ~ Bodhidharma,
97:Unless you see your nature, all this talk about cause & effect is nonsense. Buddhas don't practice nonsense. ~ Bodhidharma,
98:The mind is the root from which all things grow. If you can understand the mind, everything else is included. ~ Bodhidharma,
99:Once you stop clinging and let things be, you'll be free, even of birth and death. You'll transform everything. ~ Bodhidharma,
100:"The mind is the root from which all things grow. If you can understand the mind, everything else is included." ~ Bodhidharma,
101:"The Way is wordless. Words are illusions … Don't cling to appearances, and you'll break through all barriers…" ~ Bodhidharma,
102:Once you stop clinging and let things be, you'll be free, even of birth and death. You'll transform everything. ~ Bodhidharma,
103:"Once you stop clinging and let things be, you'll be free, even of birth and death. You'll transform everything." ~ Bodhidharma,
104:Not thinking about anything is Zen. Once you know this, walking, sitting, or lying down, everything you do is Zen. ~ Bodhidharma,
105:To go from mortal to Buddha, you have to put an end to karma, nurture your awareness, and accept what life brings. ~ Bodhidharma,
106:Not thinking about anything is Zen. Once you know this, walking, sitting, or lying down, everything you do is Zen. ~ Bodhidharma,
107:"Not thinking about anything is Zen. Once you know this, walking, sitting, or lying down, everything you do is Zen." ~ Bodhidharma,
108:The whole effort of a Jesus or a Buddha or a Bodhidharma is nothing but how to undo that which society has done to you. ~ Rajneesh,
109:People who don't see their own nature and imagine they can practice thoughtlessness all the time are liars and fools. ~ Bodhidharma,
110:If we should be blessed by some great reward, such as fame or fortune, it's the fruit of a seed planted by us in the past. ~ Bodhidharma,
111:The farther away you are from the truth, the more the hateful and pleasurable states will arise. There is also self—deception. ~ Bodhidharma,
112:Whoever knows that the mind is a fiction and devoid of anything real knows that his own mind neither exists nor doesn't exist. ~ Bodhidharma,
113:The ignorant mind, with its infinite afflictions, passions, and evils, is rooted in the three poisons. Greed, anger, and delusion. ~ Bodhidharma,
114:"The ignorant mind, with its infinite afflictions, passions, and evils, is rooted in the three poisons. Greed, anger, and delusion." ~ Bodhidharma,
115:The ignorant mind, with its infinite afflictions, passions, and evils, is rooted in the three poisons. Greed, anger, and delusion."
Bodhidharma ~ Bodhidharma,
116:Sri Krishna's message is the message of anyone who comes from far away. His message is the same as Buddha, Lao Tsu, Bodhidharma, Milarepa, Padmasambhava. ~ Frederick Lenz,
117:If you use your mind to study reality, you won't understand either your mind or reality. If you study reality without using your mind, you'll understand both. ~ Bodhidharma,
118:"If you use your mind to study reality, you won't understand either your mind or reality. If you study reality without using your mind, you'll understand both." ~ Bodhidharma,
119:Next on the programme was ‘A wife Eats Husks’, from ‘The Story of the Lute’, followed by ‘Bodhidharma and his Disciple Crossing the River’, from ‘The Pilgrim’s Path’. ~ Cao Xueqin,
120:Leaving behind the false, return to the true: make no discriminations between self and others. In contemplation, one's mind should be stable and unmoving, like a wall. ~ Bodhidharma,
121:The true Way is sublime. It can't be expressed in language. Of what use are scriptures? But someone who sees his own nature finds the Way, even if he can't read a word. ~ Bodhidharma,
122:All Buddhas preach emptiness. Why? Because they wish to crush the concrete ideas of the students. If a student even clings to an idea of emptiness, he betrays all Buddhas. ~ Bodhidharma,
123:This one life has no form and is empty by nature. If you become attached by any form, you should reject it. If you see an ego, a soul, a birth, or a death, reject them all. ~ Bodhidharma,
124:But people of the deepest understanding look within, distracted by nothing. Since a clear mind is the Buddha, they attain the understanding of a Buddha without using the mind. ~ Bodhidharma,
125:Whoever realizes that the six senses aren't real, that the five aggregates are fictions, that no such things can be located anywhere in the body, understands the language of Buddhas. ~ Bodhidharma,
126:Externally keep yourself away from all relationships, and internally have no pantings in your heart; when your mind is like unto a straight-standing wall, you may enter into the Path. ~ Bodhidharma,
127:Externally keep yourself away from all relationships, and internally have no pantings in your heart; when your mind is like unto a straight-standing wall, you may enter into the Path. ~ Bodhidharma,
128:When your mind doesn't stir inside, the world doesn't arise outside. When the world and the mind are both transparent, this is true vision. And such understanding is true understanding. ~ Bodhidharma,
129:Bodhidharma who brought Zen from India to the Orient, taught a very pure Zen - in that it was pure Zen. He wanted to show that the way still existed and wanted to get back to its essence. ~ Frederick Lenz,
130:The awareness of mortals falls short. As long as they're attached to appearances, they're unaware that their minds are empty. And by mistakenly clinging to the appearance of things they lose the Way. ~ Bodhidharma,
131:Tantric Zen is for someone who is really broad-minded. It is Bodhidharma's Zen, your Zen, my Zen. Which doesn't mean I have a problem with Japanese Zen. Most Japanese Zen is minding your p's and q's. ~ Frederick Lenz,
132:To enter by reason means to realize the essence through instruction and to believe that all living things share the same true nature, which isn't apparent because it's shrouded by sensation and delusion. ~ Bodhidharma,
133:Don't hate life and death or love life and death. Keep your every thought free of delusion, and in life you'll witness the beginning of nirvana, and in death you'll experience the assurance of no rebirth. ~ Bodhidharma,
134:To see nothing is to perceive the Way, and to understand nothing is to know the Dharma, because seeing is neither seeing nor not seeing, and because understanding is neither understanding nor not understanding. ~ Bodhidharma,
135:Externally keep yourself away from all relationships,
and internally have no pantings in your heart;
when your mind is like unto a straight-standing wall,
you may enter into the Path.
~ Bodhidharma, You may enter
,
136:The Way is basically perfect. It doesn't require perfecting. The Way has no form or sound. It's subtle and hard to perceive. It's like when you drink water: you know how hot or cold it is, but you can't tell others. ~ Bodhidharma,
137:One clings to life although there is nothing to be called life; another clings to death although there is nothing to be called death. In reality, there is nothing to be born; consequently, there is nothing to perish. ~ Bodhidharma,
138:Worship means reverence and humility. It means revering your real self and humbling delusions. If you can wipe out evil desires and harbor good thoughts, even if nothing shows, it's worship. Such form is its real form. ~ Bodhidharma,
139:But when you first embark on the Path, your awareness won't be focused. You're likely to see all sorts of strange, dreamlike scenes. But you shouldn't doubt that all such scenes come from your own mind and nowhere else. ~ Bodhidharma,
140:But this mind isn't somewhere outside the material body of the four elements. Without this mind we can't move. The body has no awareness. Like a plant or a stone, the body has no nature. So how does it move? It's the mind that moves. ~ Bodhidharma,
141:People of this world are deluded. They're always longing for something, always, in a word, seeking. But the wise wake up. They choose reason over custom. They fix their minds on the sublime and let their bodies change with the seasons. ~ Bodhidharma,
142:The mind's capacity is limitless, and its manifestations are inexhaustible. Seeing forms with your eyes, hearing sounds with your ears, smelling odors with your nose, tasting flavors with your tongue, every movement or state is all your mind. ~ Bodhidharma,
143:A Buddha doesn’t observe precepts. A Buddha doesn’t do good or evil. A Buddha isn’t energetic or lazy. A Buddha is someone who does nothing, someone who can’t even focus his mind on a Buddha. A Buddha isn’t a Buddha. Don’t think about Buddhas. ~ Bodhidharma,
144:The highest truth is daiji, translated as dai jiki in Chinese scriptures. This is the subject of the question the emperor asked Bodhidharma: "What is the First Principle?" Bodhidharma said, "I don't know." "I don't know" is the First Principle. ~ Shunryu Suzuki,
145:The highest truth is daiji, translated as dai jiki in Chinese scriptures. This is the subject of the question the emperor asked Bodhidharma: "What is the First Principle?" Bodhidharma said, "I don't know." "I don't know" is the First Principle. ~ Shunryu Suzuki,
146:If you see your nature, you don't need to read sutras or invoke buddhas. Erudition and knowledge are not only useless but also cloud your awareness. Doctrines are only for pointing to the mind. Once you see your mind, why pay attention to doctrines? ~ Bodhidharma,
147:We might think we can find a buddha or enlightenment somewhere beyond this mind; we might think we can find serenity, clarity, and meaning beyond this mind, but such place does not exist. Everything that appears is this mind, Bodhidharma says. ~ Geoffrey Shugen Arnold,
148:Even if you have mountains of jewels and as many servants as there are grains of sand along the Ganges, you see them when your eyes are open. But what about when your eyes are shut?You should realize then that everything you see is like a dream or illusion. ~ Bodhidharma,
149:Even if you have mountains of jewels and as many servants as there are grains of sand along the Ganges, you see them when your eyes are open. But what about when your eyes are shut?You should realize then that everything you see is like a dream or illusion. ~ Bodhidharma,
150:"To find a buddha, all you have to do is see your nature. Your nature is the buddha. And the buddha is the person who's free, free of plans, free of cares. If you don't see your nature and run around all day looking somewhere else, you'll never find a buddha." ~ Bodhidharma,
151:To have a body is to suffer. Does anyone with a body know peace? Those who understand this detach themselves from all that exists and stop imagining or seeking anything. The sutras say, "To seek is to suffer. To seek nothing is bliss." When you seek nothing, you're on the Path. ~ Bodhidharma,
152:When mortals are alive, they worry about death. When they're full, they worry about hunger. Theirs is the Great Uncertainty. But sages don't consider the past. And they don't worry about the future. Nor do they cling to the present. And from moment to moment they follow the Way. ~ Bodhidharma,
153:Still others commit all sorts of evil deeds, claiming karma doesn't exist. They erroneously maintain that since everything is empty, committing evil isn't wrong. Such persons fall into a hell of endless darkness with no hope of release. Those who are wise hold no such conception. ~ Bodhidharma,
154:Every suffering is a buddha-seed, because suffering impels mortals to seek wisdom. But you can only say that suffering gives rise to buddhahood. You can’t say that suffering is buddhahood. Your body and mind are the field. Suffering is the seed, wisdom the sprout, and buddhahood the grain. ~ Bodhidharma,
155:Every suffering is a buddha-seed, because suffering impels mortals to seek wisdom. But you can only say that suffering gives rise to buddhahood. You can’t say that suffering is buddhahood. Your body and mind are the field. Suffering is the seed, wisdom the sprout, and buddhahood the grain. ~ Bodhidharma,
156:People of this world are deluded. They’re always longing for something-always, in a word, seeking. But the wise wake up. They choose reason over custom. They fix their minds on the sublime and let their bodies change with the seasons. All phenomena are empty. They contain nothing worth desiring. ~ Bodhidharma,
157:A buddha is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad. Such is his power that karma can't hold him. No matter what kind of karma, a buddha transforms it. Heaven and hell are nothing to him. But the awareness of a mortal is dim compared to that of a buddha, who penetrates everything, inside and out. ~ Bodhidharma,
158:Not thinking about anything is zen. Once you know this, walking, standing, sitting, or lying down, everything you do is zen. To know that the mind is empty is to see the buddha.... Using the mind to reality is delusion. Not using the mind to look for reality is awareness. Freeing oneself from words is liberation. ~ Bodhidharma,
159:Bodhidharma brought Zen Buddhism from India to China. He was well known for being fierce and uncompromising. There is a story about how he kept nodding off during meditation, so he cut off his eyelids. When he threw them on the ground, they turned into a tea plant, and then he realized he could simply drink the tea to stay awake! ~ Pema Ch dr n,
160:The Buddha is your real body, your original mind. This mind has no form or characteristics, no cause or effect, no tendons or bones. It's like space. You can't hold it. It's not the mind of materialists or nihilists. If you don't see your own miraculously aware nature, you'll never find a Buddha, even if you break your body into atoms. ~ Bodhidharma,
161:finally I went over to an old cook in the doorway of the kitchen and asked him “Why did Bodhidharma come from the West?” (Bodhidharma was the Indian who brought Buddhism eastward to China.) “I don’t care,” said the old cook, with lidded eyes, and I told Japhy and he said, “Perfect answer, absolutely perfect. Now you know what I mean by Zen. ~ Jack Kerouac,
162:When the mortal mind appears, buddhahood disappears. When the mortal mind disappears, buddhahood appears. When the mind appears, reality disappears. When the mind disappears, reality appears. Whoever knows that nothing depends on anything has found the Way. And whoever knows that the mind depends on nothing is always at the place of enlightenment. ~ Bodhidharma,
163:The mind is the root from which all things grow if you can understand the mind, everything else is included. It’s like the root of a tree. All a tree’s fruit and flowers, branches and leaves depend on its root. If you nourish its root, a tree multiplies. If you cut its root, it dies. Those who understand the mind reach enlightenment with minimal effort. ~ Bodhidharma,
164:To find Buddha, you have to see your nature. Whoever sees his nature is a Buddha. If you don't see your nature, invoking buddhas, reciting sutras, making offerings, and keeping precepts are all useless. Invoking buddhas results in good karma, reciting sutras results in a good memory, keeping precepts results in good rebirth, and making offerings results in future blessings-but no Buddha. ~ Bodhidharma,
165:If you use your mind to study reality, you won't understand either your mind or reality. If you study reality without using your mind, you'll understand both. . . . The mind and the world are opposites, and vision arises where they meet. When your mind doesn't stir inside, the world doesn't arise outside. When the world and the mind are both transparent, this is true vision. And such understanding is true understanding. ~ Bodhidharma,
166:Poem by Stonehouse

"I was a Zen monk who didn't know Zen
so I chose the woods for the years I had left
a robe made of patches over my body
a belt of bamboo around my waist
mountains and streams explain Bodhidharma's meaning
flower smiles and birdsongs reveal the hidden key
sometimes I sit on a flat-topped rock
after midnight cloudless nights when the moon fills the sky"

Translated by Red Pine ~ Red Pine,
167:Emperor Wu asked Bodhidharma, the founder of Zen Buddhism in China, how much merit he had earned by building temples all over the country. Bodhidharma said, “None whatsoever.” But if you wash one dish in mindfulness, if you build one small temple while dwelling deeply in the present moment — not wanting to be anywhere else, not caring about fame or recognition — the merit from that act will be boundless, and you will feel very happy. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
168:A deluded mind is hell.
Without delusions.
the mind is the country of the Buddhas.
When the mind creates the idea of the mind.
people are deluded and in hell.

Those established on the path to Buddhahood
dont use the mind to create the idea
of the mind and so are always
in the country of the Buddhas.

Bodhidharma



From: The Wisdom of the Zen Masters

Edited: Timothy Freke

~ Bodhidharma, A deluded Mind
,
169:. . . the fools of this world prefer to look for sages far away. They don't believe that the wisdom of their own mind is the sage . . . the sutras say, "Mind is the teaching." But people of no understanding don't believe in their own mind or that by understanding this teaching they can become a sage. They prefer to look for distant knowledge and long for things in space, buddha-images, light, incense, and colors. They fall prey to falsehood and lose their minds to insanity. ~ Bodhidharma,
170:If you know that everything comes from the mind, don't become attached. Once attached, you're unaware. But once you see your own nature, the entire Canon becomes so much prose. It's thousands of sutras and shastras only amount to a clear mind. Understanding comes in midsentence. What good are doctrines? The ultimate Truth is beyond words. Doctrines are words. They're not the Way. The Way is wordless. Words are illusions. . . . Don't cling to appearances, and you'll break through all barriers. . . . ~ Bodhidharma,
171:Unless you see your nature, you shouldn't go around criticizing the goodness of others. There's no advantage in deceiving yourself. Good and bad are distinct. Cause and effect are clear. But fools don't believe and fall straight into a hell of endless darkness without even knowing it. What keeps them from believing is the heaviness of their karma. They're like blind people who don't believe there's such a thing as light. Even if you explain it to them, they still don't believe, because they're blind. How can they possibly distinguish light? ~ Bodhidharma,
172:When one of the emperors of China asked Bodhidharma (the Zen master who brought Zen from India to China) what enlightenment was, his answer was, “Lots of space, nothing holy.” Meditation is nothing holy. Therefore there’s nothing that you think or feel that somehow gets put in the category of “sin.” There’s nothing that you can think or feel that gets put in the category of “bad.” There’s nothing that you can think or feel that gets put in the category of “wrong.” It’s all good juicy stuff—the manure of waking up, the manure of achieving enlightenment, the art of living in the present moment. ~ Pema Ch dr n,
173:our nature is the mind. and the mind is our nature.this nature is the same as the mind of all buddhas. buddhas of the past and future only transmit this mind. beyond this mind there’s no buddha anywhere.but deluded people don’t realize that their own mind is the buddha.they keep searching outside.they never stop invoking buddhas or worshipping buddhas and wondering where is the buddha? don’t indulge in such illusions. just know your mind. beyond your mind there’s no other buddha.the sutras say, "everything that has form is an illusion."they also say, "wherever you are, there’s a buddha." your mind is the buddha. don’t use a buddha to worship a buddha. ~ Bodhidharma,
174:Wordly fools search for exotic masters.
not realizing that their own mind is the master.





The greatest gift to others
is to freely relinquish yourself.





When the mind is always moving, you travel
from one hell to the next hell.





If you use your mind to try and understand reality.
you will understand neither your mind nor reality.

If you try and understand reality without using your mind.
you will understand both your mind and reality.



Bodhidharma

From: The Wisdom of the Zen Masters

Edited: Timothy Freke
~ Bodhidharma, The Greatest Gift
,
175:Through endless ages, the mind has never changed

It has not lived or died, come or gone, gained or lost.

It isnt pure or tainted, good or bad, past or future.
true or false, male or female. It isnt reserved for
monks or lay people, elders to youths, masters or
idiots, the enlightened or unenlightened.

It isnt bound by cause and effect and doesnt
struggle for liberation. Like space, it has no form.

You cant own it and you cant lose it. Mountains.
rivers or walls cant impede it. But this mind is
ineffable and difficult to experience. It is not the
mind of the senses. So many are looking for this

mind, yet it already animates their bodies.

It is theirs, yet they dont realize it.



Bodhidharma

From: The Wisdom of the Zen Masters

Edited: Timothy Freke

~ Bodhidharma, Endless Ages
,
176:He invited the Indian scholar Paramartha to come and set up a Translation Bureau for Buddhist texts, and the scholar stayed for twenty-three years. He invited the great Bodhidharma, the twenty-eighth patriarch after the Shakyamuni Buddha, to come from Kanchipuram in India, near the Temple of the Golden Lizard, but their meeting was disappointing. The Emperor asked Bodhidharma what merit he had accumulated by building monasteries and stupas in his kingdom. “No merit” was the reply. He asked what was the supreme meaning of sacred truth. “The expanse of emptiness. Nothing sacred.” Finally, the Emperor pointed at Bodhidharma and said, “Who is that before Us?” “Don’t know,” said Bodhidharma. The Emperor didn’t understand. So Bodhidharma left Ch’ien-k’ang and wandered until he came to the Shao-lin Monastery, where he sat motionless for nine years facing a wall, and then transmitted his teachings, the origin of Ch’an in China and Japanese Zen. ~ Eliot Weinberger,
177:Lao Tzu, Chuang Tzu, Bodhidharma, Sosan – they are the Masters of this law of reverse effect. And this is the difference between Yoga and Zen. Yoga makes every effort and Zen makes no effort, and Zen is truer than any Yoga. But Yoga appeals, because as far as you are concerned doing is easy – howsoever hard, but doing is easy.

Non-doing is difficult. If someone says, ”Don’t do anything,” you are at a loss. You again ask, ”What to do?” If someone says, ”Don’t do anything,” that is the most difficult thing for you. It should not be so if you understand.

Non-doing does not require any qualification. Doing may require qualification, doing may require practice. Non-doing requires no practice. That’s why Zen says enlightenment can happen in a single moment – because it is not a question of how to bring it, it is a question of how to allow it. It is just like sleep: you relax and it is there, you relax and it pops up. It is struggling within your heart to come up. You are not allowing it because you have too much activity on the surface. ~ Osho,
178:translated by Richard B. Clarke Practice of Meditation by Zen Master Dogen TRUTH is perfect and complete in itself. It is not something newly discovered; it has always existed. Truth is not far away; it is ever present. It is not something to be attained since not one of your steps leads away from it. Do not follow the ideas of others, but learn to listen to the voice within yourself. Your body and mind will become clear and you will realize the unity of all things. The slightest movement of your dualistic thought will prevent you from entering the palace of meditation and wisdom. The Buddha meditated for six years, Bodhidharma for nine. The practice of meditation is not a method for the attainment of realization—it is enlightenment itself. Your search among books, word upon word, may lead you to the depths of knowledge, but it is not the way to receive the reflection of your true self. When you have thrown off your ideas as to mind and body, the original truth will fully appear. Zen is simply the expression of truth; therefore longing and striving are not the true attitudes of Zen. To actualize the blessedness of meditation you should practice with pure intention and firm determination. Your meditation room should be clean and quiet. Do not dwell in ~ Jack Kornfield,

IN CHAPTERS [14/14]



   3 Zen
   3 Poetry
   3 Buddhism
   1 Psychology
   1 Mythology


   3 Bodhidharma


   3 The Zen Teaching of Bodhidharma
   3 Bodhidharma - Poems
   2 The Gateless Gate
   2 The Blue Cliff Records


1.01 - The Highest Meaning of the Holy Truths, #The Blue Cliff Records, #Yuanwu Keqin, #Zen
  Emperor Wu of Liang asked the great master Bodhidharma, 1
  "What
  --
  said, "Who is facing me?"4 Bodhidharma replied, "I don't
  know."5
  --
  should be given thirty blows. Bodhidharma has come.
  10. After all this is Emperor Wu's understanding of Bodhidharma's
  public case.
  --
  12. After all, Bodhidharma couldn't be held. As I said before, Wu is
  dull.
  --
  From afar Bodhidharma saw that this country (China) had
  people capable of the Great Vehicle, so he came by sea, intent
  --
  When Bodhidharma first met Emperor Wu, the Emperor
  asked, "I have built temples and ordained monks; what merit
  is there in this?" Bodhidharma said, "There is no merit." He
  immediately doused the Emperor with dirty water. If you can
  --
  truths?" Bodhidharma answered, "Empty, without holiness."
  No monk in the world can leap clear of this. Bodhidharma
  gives them a single swordblow that cuts off everything. These
  --
  does not stop Bodhidharma from smashing the lacquer bucketh
  for others. Among all, Bodhidharma is most extraordinary. So
  it is said, "If you can penetrate a single phrase, at the same
  --
  facing me?" Bodhidharma's compassion was excessive; again
  he addressed him, saying, "I don't know." At this, Emperor Wu
  was taken aback; he did not know what Bodhidharma meant.
  When you get to this point, as to whether there is something or
  --
  Since Emperor Wu did not understand, Bodhidharma se
  cretly left the country; all this old fellow got was embarrass
  --
  call themselves Chinese. When Bodhidharma arrived there, he
  did not appear for any more audiences, but went directly to
  --
  same as what Bodhidharma said, or is it different? In appear
  ance it indeed seems the same, but in reality isn't. People often
  misunderstand and say, "Before, when Bodhidharma said 'I
  don't know' he was replying about Ch'an; later, when Emperor
  --
  and was going to send an emissary to bring Bodhidharma back.
  How stupid! When Chih said, "This is Mahasattva Avalokites
  --
  while Bodhidharma came to Liang in 520; since there is a seven
  year discrepancy, why is it said that the two met? This must be
  --
  understand the gist of the matter. Tell me, Bodhidharma is
  Avalokitesvara, Master Chih is Avalokitesvara, but which is
  --
  Later in Wei, Bodhidharma debated with the Vinaya Master
  Kuang T'ung and the canonical master Bodhiruci. The Master
  --
  and tried to poison Bodhidharma several times. On the sixth
  attempt, since his mission was completed and he had found
  someone to succeed to the Dharma, Bodhidharma made no
  further attempt to save himself, but sat upright and passed on.
  --
  Emperor Wu mourned Bodhidharma's death and personally
  wrote an inscription for his monument. It read, "Alas! I saw
  --
  Tell me, where is Bodhidharma right now? You've stumbled
  past him without even realizing it.
  --
  Tell me, where is Bodhidharma? If you see Bodhidharma, then
  you see where Hsueh Tou helps people in the end.
  --
  mind for him; Bodhidharma said, "Bring me your mind and I will
  pacify it for you." Hui K'e said, "When I search for my mind, I
  cannot find it." Bodhidharma said, "I have pacified your mind for
  you." At this Hui K'e was enlightened.

1.02 - Outline of Practice, #The Zen Teaching of Bodhidharma, #Bodhidharma, #Buddhism

1.02 - The Ultimate Path is Without Difficulty, #The Blue Cliff Records, #Yuanwu Keqin, #Zen
  **Bah! The dead tree blooms again. Bodhidharma
  travels through the eastern land.*

1.03 - Bloodstream Sermon, #The Zen Teaching of Bodhidharma, #Bodhidharma, #Buddhism

1.03 - To Layman Ishii, #Beating the Cloth Drum Letters of Zen Master Hakuin, #unset, #Integral Yoga
  "Long ago, when the First Patriarch Bodhidharma was living in seclusion doing zazen at Shao-shih, he had a student named Hui-k'o. Hui-k'o possessed outstanding talent and learning, and a dauntless and heroic spirit. For three years he continued to refine his attainment while serving as
   Bodhidharma's attendant. Untold hardship and suffering were his constant companions.
  "Today's students practice the Way clothed in warm garments and get plenty to eat, and they are as soft and weak as the eldest son of a wealthy family. Could any of them venture to stand stalwart and resolute in a courtyard on a bitterly cold night like Hui-k'o? Buried up to the waist in icy snow like a stack of firewood? Suffering of this intensity cannot be endured unless one is made of stone or metal, or has wooden legs like a statue. The marrow-chilling cold of the northern Wei winter constantly penetrated the thin cotton robe he wore, but he stood resolutely and silently through that adversity until dawn, never relaxing his efforts for a second, or weeping a single tear. Bodhidharma never offered him the slightest help whatsoever. Finally, Hui-k'o took a knife and cut off his left arm. h Hsisou Shou-t'an was perfectly justified in holding Hui-k'o up as a model for all Zen monks throughout the world.
  "When the Sixth Patriarch Hui-neng raised the Dharma standard at Ts'ao-hsi, the priest Nan-yueh came to study with him. Hui-neng asked, 'What is this that thus comes?' Nan-yueh stood in a daze, unable to respond. Hui-neng did not utter a single word to relieve his confusion, and it was not until
  --
  'Why is that?' asked the monk. 'I won't say. I won't say,' replied Tao-wu. p Tao-wu did not refuse to speak because he was reluctant to teach the monk. He was trying to protect him. Anything he had tried to teach him would only have harmed him. In fact, there is no way a teacher can teach the Buddhapatriarchs' marvelous, untransmittable Dharma to others. If a priest tells you he has liberated students by teaching them the Dharma, you can be sure of two things: he has not penetrated the source, and he is not a genuine Zen teacher. But for you what is essential is not whether he is genuine or not. What is essential is to pledge that you will never have anything to do with false teachers like him. Zen practice must be true and au thentic, and it must be practiced under a true and au thentic teacher. Could you call Zen sages like Bodhidharma, Hui-neng, Huang-po, Hsueh-feng, and Tao-wu dead otters?
  Would you charac-terize venerable teachers like Hui-k'o, Nan-yueh, Lin-chi, Hsuan-sha, and Hsiangyen as dumb sheep?

1.04 - Wake-Up Sermon, #The Zen Teaching of Bodhidharma, #Bodhidharma, #Buddhism

1.bd - A deluded Mind, #Bodhidharma - Poems, #Bodhidharma, #Buddhism
   Bodhidharma
  From: The Wisdom of the Zen Masters

1.bd - Endless Ages, #Bodhidharma - Poems, #Bodhidharma, #Buddhism
   Bodhidharma
  From: The Wisdom of the Zen Masters

1.bd - The Greatest Gift, #Bodhidharma - Poems, #Bodhidharma, #Buddhism
   Bodhidharma
  From: The Wisdom of the Zen Masters

2.05 - Apotheosis, #The Hero with a Thousand Faces, #Joseph Campbell, #Mythology
  twenty-eighth Buddhist patriarch, Bodhidharma, "to pacify his
  soul." Bodhidharma retorted, "Produce it and I will pacify it."
  The Confucian replied, "That is my trouble, I cannot find it."

CASE 4 - WAKUANS WHY NO BEARD?, #The Gateless Gate, #Mumonkan, #unset
  Waku'an (looking at Bodhidharma's picture) complained,
  "Why has that Barbarian no beard?"
  --
  you really meet Bodhidharma face to face, then you finally have
  gotten it right. However when you start explaining it with words,

CASE 5 - KYOGENS MAN HANGING IN THE TREE, #The Gateless Gate, #Mumonkan, #unset
  'Why did Bodhidharma come to China from the West (India)?' If
  the man in the tree does not answer, he misses the question, and

Diamond Sutra 1, #unset, #Anonymous, #Various
  The division of the text into thirty-two chapters was the work of Prince Chao-ming (501-531), who was the eldest son of Emperor Wu of the Liang dynasty. This was the same Emperor Wu who asked a visiting Indian monk named Bodhidharma what merit he acquired as a result of all his religious philanthropy. The Zen patriarch told him, None. Ironically, the acquisition and nature of merit are at the heart of this sutra. Buddhas are the manifestation of merit, not the material merit of Emperor Wu, but the merit produced by the practice of this teaching.
  It is also ironic that while the father was busy emptying his treasury to support the Buddhist order, the son was compiling Chinas great literary anthology known as the Wen Hsuan and devoting himself to the Diamond Sutra, which he is said to have recited ten thousand times before his early death. In dividing this sutra into thirty-two chapters, Chao-ming was acknowledging what will become clearer in the chapters that follow: this sutra is not only about the body of the Buddha, which was said to be marked by thirty-two unique attributes, it is the body of the Buddha. In addition, Chao-ming gave each chapter a title. This first one he called The Cause and Reason for the Dharma Assembly. The aptness of his titles led a number of commentators, including the Tang-dynasty prime minister, Chang Wu-chin, and the Sixth Zen Patriarch, Hui-neng, to begin each chapter with an explanation of these titles.

DS4, #unset, #Anonymous, #Various
  (the giving of the gift). In his Outline of Practice, Bodhidharma says, Since what is real includes
  nothing worth begrudging, we give our bodies, our lives, and our property in charity, without regret,
  --
  Zen Teaching of Bodhidharma, p. 7)
  Vasubandhu says, What follows explains how those who set forth on the bodhisattva path should

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