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... an anyon ::: is a type of quasiparticle that occurs only in two-dimensional systems, with properties much less restricted than fermions and bosons. In general, the operation of exchanging two identical particles may cause a global phase shift but cannot affect observables. Anyons are generally classified as abelian or non-abelian. Abelian anyons have been detected[1] and play a major role in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Non-abelian anyons have not been definitively detected, although this is an active area of research.

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Physics (fun facts)
The Divinization of Matter Lurianic Kabbalah, Physics, and the Supramental Transformation


2. The attempted clarification of the basic concepts, presuppositions and postulates of the sciences, and the revelation of the empirical, rational, or pragmatic grounds upon which they are presumed to rest. This aspect of the philosophy of science is closely related to the foregoing but includes, in addition to the logical and epistemological subject-matter, a large portion of metaphysics. Roughly, the task here is two-fold. On the one hand it involves the critical analysis of certain basic notions, such as quantity, quality, time, space, cause and law, which are used by the scientist but not subjected to examination. On the other hand it includes a similar study of certain presupposed beliefs, such as the belief in an external world, the belief in the uniformity of nature, and the belief in the rationality of natural processes.

(2) The predominantly naturalistic and positivistic period coincides roughly with the nineteenth century. The wars of independence were accompanied by revolt from scholasticism. In the early part of the century, liberal eclectics like Cousin and P. Janet were popular in South America, but French eighteenth century materialism exerted an increasing influence. Later, the thought of Auguste Comte and of Herbert Spencer came to be dominant especially in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile. Even an idealistically inclined social and educational philosopher like Eugenio Maria de Hostos (1839-1903), although rejecting naturalistic ethics, maintains a positivistic attitude toward metaphysics.

(3) The predominantly idealistic period of the twentieth century was initiated by the work of the Argentine Alejandro Korn (1860-1936), who introduced modern German philosophy to his fellow-countrymen. Francisco Romero, also an Argentine, has brought about the translation of many European philosophical classics into Spanish. Leibniz, Kant, Hegel, and the more recent neo-Kantians and phenomcnologists have exerted wide influence in Latin America. North American personalism has also attracted attention. In Mexico, Jose Vasconcelos and Pedro Gringoire reflect in their own syntheses the main streams of idealistic metaphysics, ethics, esthetics. Puerto Rico, with its recent publication of the writings of Hostes, is also a center of philosophic activity. There are signs of growing philosophical independence throughout Latin America. -- J.F., E.S.B.

Abidharma: The third part of the Buddhist Tripitaka (q.v.) containing lessons in metaphysics and occultism.

Absolute: In metaphysics and mystic philosophy, the Absolute is the ultimate referent of thought, the Unconditioned, the opposite of the Relative.

Absolute, The: (in Metaphysics) Most broadly, the terminus or ultimate referent of thought. The Unconditioned. The opposite of the Relative (Absolute). A distinction is to be made between the singular and generic use of the term.

Absolutism: The opposite of Relativism. Metaphysics: the theory of the Absolute (q.v.). Epistemology: the doctrine that objective or absolute, and not merely relative and human, truth is possible. Axiology: the view that standards of value (moral or aesthetic) are absolute, objective, superhuman, eternal Politics: Cult of unrestricted sovereignty located in the ruler. --W.L. Absolutistic Personalism: The ascription of personality to the Absolute. -- R.T.F.

accidentalism ::: Any system of thought that denies the causal nexus and maintains that events succeed one another haphazardly or by chance (not in the mathematical but in the popular sense). In metaphysics, accidentalism denies the doctrine that everything occurs or results from a definite cause. In this connection it is synonymous with tychism (ruxi, chance), a term used by Charles Sanders Peirce for the theories that make chance an objective factor in the process of the Universe.

aerology ::: n. --> That department of physics which treats of the atmosphere.

Affinity In physics, an unknown force which manifests in cohesion, chemical action, etc. In any particle theory of the universe, affinity has to be assumed, but the assumptions necessary to a mechanical interpretation of nature cannot be defined in terms of mechanism. In the physical world it is but a manifestation of that universal force which tends to bring diversity into unity, the counterpart of the force of repulsion, the two forces cooperating in cosmic harmony. Fohat in its highest aspect as divine love — eros, the electric power of affinity and sympathy — brings spirit into union with subtle nature, producing in man the soul, in nature the first link between the unconditioned and the manifested (SD 1:119).

Agni-Vishnu-Surya (Sanskrit) Agni-Viṣṇu-Sūrya [from agni fire + viṣṇu from the verbal root viś or the verbal root viṣ to pervade + sūrya sun] Fire-pervader-solar deity; this triad of gods is probably a permutation of the original Vedic triad Agni-Indra-Surya, having their influence and place respectively on earth, in the atmosphere, and in the sky. Agni-Vishnu-Surya has been called the “synthesis and head, or the focus whence emanated in physics as in metaphysics, from the Spiritual as from the physical Sun, the Seven Rays, the seven fiery tongues, the seven planets or gods” (SD 2:608).

(a) In metaphysics: Theory which admits in any given domain, two independent and mutually irreducible substances e.g. the Platonic dualism of the sensible and intelligible worlds, the Cartesian dinlism of thinking and extended substances, the Leibnizian dualism of the actual and possible worlds, the Kantian dualism of the noumenal and the phenomenal. The term dualism first appeared in Thomas Hyde, Historia religionis veterum Persarum (1700) ch. IX, p. 164, where it applied to religious dualism of good and evil and is similarly employed by Bayle m his Dictionary article "Zoroaster" and by Leibniz in Theodicee. C. Wolff is responsible for its use in the psycho-physical sense, (cf. A. Lalande, Vocabulaire de la Philosophie. Vol. I, p. 180, note by R. Eucken.)

Alexander, Samuel: (1859-1938) English thinker who developed a non-psychic, neo-realistic metaphysics and synthesis. He makes the process of emergence a metaphysical principle. Although his inquiry is essentially a priori, his method is empirical. Realism at his hands becomes a quasi-materialism, an alternative to absolute idealism and ordinary materialism. It alms to combine the absoluteness of law in physics with the absolute unpredictability of emergent qualities. Whereas to the ancients and in the modern classical conception of physical science, the original stuff was matter and motion, after Minkowski, Einstein, Lorenz and others, it became indivisible space-time, instead of space and time.

Al Farabi: Died 950, introduced Aristotelian logic into the world of Islam. He was known to posterity as the "second Aristotle". He continued the encyclopedic tradition inaugurated by Al Kindi. His metaphysical speculation influenced Avicenna who found in the works of his predecessor the fundamental notion of a distinction between existence and essence, the latter not implying necessarily in a contingent being the former which therefore has to be given by God. He also emphasizes the Aristotelian notion of the "first mover". The concretization of the universal nature in particular things points to a creative power which has endowed being with such a nature. Al Farabi's philosophy is dependent in certain parts on Neo-Platonism. Creation is emanation. There is an anima mundi the images of which become corporeal beings. Logic is considered as the preamble to all science. Physics comprises all factual knowledge, including psychology; metaphysics and ethics are the other parts of philosophy. Cl. Baeumker, Alfarabi, Ueber den Vrsprung der Wissensehaften, Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1916. Vol. XIX. M. Horten, Das Buch der Ringsteine Farabis. ibid. 1906. Vol. V. -- R.A. Al

All Indian doctrines orient themselves by the Vedas, accepting or rejecting their authority. In ranging from materialism to acosmism and nihilism, from physiologism to spiritualism, realism to idealism, monism to pluralism, atheism and pantheism, Hindus believe they have exhausted all possible philosophic attitudes (cf. darsana), which they feel supplement rather than exclude each other. A unnersal feature is the fusion of religion, metaphysics, ethics and psychology, due to the universal acceptance of a psycho-physicalism, further exemplified in the typical doctrines of karma and samsara (q.v.). Rigorous logic is nevertheless applied in theology where metaphvsics passes into eschatology (cf., e.g., is) and the generally accepted belief in the cyclic nature of the cosmos oscillating between srsti ("throwing out") and pralaya (dissolution) of the absolute reality (cf. abhasa), and in psychology, where epistemology seeks practical outlets in Yoga (q.v.). With a genius for abstraction, thinkers were and are almost invariably hedonistically motivated by the desire to overcome the evils of existence in the hope of attaining liberation (cf. moksa) and everlasting bliss (cf. ananda, nirvana). -- K.F.L.

Almost all Jewish philosophers with the exception of Gabirol, ha-Levi, and Gersonides produce proofs for the existence of God. These proofs are based primarily on principles of physics. In the case of the Western philosophers, they are Aristotelian, while in the case of the Eastern, they are a combination of Aristotelian and those of the Mutazilites. The Eastern philosophers, such as Saadia and others and also Bahya of the Western prove the existence of God indirectly, namely that the world was created and consequently there is a creator. The leading Western thinkers, such as Ibn Daud (q.v.) and Maimonides employ the Aristotelian argument from motion, even to positing hypothetically the eternity of the world. Ha-LevI considers the conception of the existence of God an intuition with which man is endowed by God Himself. Crescas, who criticized Aristotle's conception of space and the infinite, in his proof for the existence of God, proves it by positing the need of a being necessarily existent, for it is absurd to posit a world of possibles.

(a) Metaphysical: The view that there is but one fundamental Reality; first used by Wolff. (A Universe.) Sometimes spoken of as Singularism. The classical ancient protagonist of an extreme monism is Parmenides of Elea; a modern exponent is Spinoza. Christian Science is an example of a popular contemporary religion built on an extreme monistic theory of reality. Most metaphysical monists hold to a modified or soft monistic theory (e.g. the metaphysics of Royce).

Animism: (Lat. anima, soul) The doctrine of the reality of souls. Anthropology: (a) the view that souls are attached to all things either as their inner principle of spontaneity or activity, or as their dwellers, (b) the doctrine that Nature is inhabited by various grades of spirits, (s. Spiritism). Biology Psychology: the view that the ground whatever has disowned its relations is an sich. of life is immaterial soul rather than the material body. Metaphysics: the theory that Being is animate, living, ensouled (s. Hylozoism, Personalism, Monadism). Cosmology: the view that the World and the astronomical bodies possess souls (s. World Soul). --W.L. Annihilationism: The doctrine of the complete extinction of the wicked or impenitent at death. Edward White in England in the last century taught the doctrine in opposition to the belief in the eternal punishment of those not to be saved. -- V.F.

Anselmian argument: Anselm (1033-1109) reasoned thus: I have an idea of a Being than which nothing greater can be conceived; this idea is that of the most perfect, complete, infinite Being, the greatest conceivable; now an idea which exists in reality (in re) is greater than one which exists only in conception (in intellectu); hence, if my idea is the greatest it must exist in reality. Accordingly, God, the Perfect Idea, Being, exists. (Anselm's argument rests upon the basis of the realistic metaphysics of Plato.) -- V.F.

Anti-metaphysics: 1. Agnosticism (q.v.). 2. Logical Positivism (see Scientific Empiricism (1)) holds that those metaphysical statements which are not confirmable by experiences (see Verification 4, 5) have no cognitive meaning and hence are pseudo-statements (see Meaning, Kinds of, 1, 5), -- R.C.

Antinomy: (Ger. Antinomie) The mutual contradiction of two principles or inferences resting on premises of equal validity. Kant shows, in the Antinomies of pure Reason, that contradictory conclusions about the cosmos can be established with equal credit; from this he concluded that the Idea of the world, like other transcendent ideas of metaphysics, is a purely speculative, indeterminate notion. (See Kantianism.) -- O.F.K.

Apparent: (Lat, ad + parere, to come forth) 1. Property of seeming to be real or factual. 2. Obvious or clearly given to the mind or senses. Appearance: Neutrally, a presentation to an observer. Epistemology:   A sensuously observable state of affairs.   The mental or subjective correlate of a thing-in-itself.   A sensuous object existent or possible, in space and time, related by the categories (Kant). It differs from illusion by its objectivity or logical validity. Metaphysics: A degree of truth or reality; a fragmentary and self-contradictory judgment about reality.

Arabic Philosophy: The contact of the Arabs with Greek civilization and philosophy took place partly in Syria, where Christian Arabic philosophy developed, partly in other countries, Asia Minor, Persia, Egypt and Spain. The effect of this contact was not a simple reception of Greek philosophy, but the gradual growth of an original mode of thought, determined chiefly by the religious and philosophical tendencies alive in the Arab world. Eastern influences had produced a mystical trend, not unlike Neo-Platonism; the already existing "metaphysics of light", noticeable in the religious conception of the Qoran, also helped to assimilate Plotinlan ideas. On the other hand, Aristotelian philosophy became important, although more, at least in the beginning, as logic and methodology. The interest in science and medicine contributed to the spread of Aristotelian philosophy. The history of philosophy in the Arab world is determined by the increasing opposition of Orthodoxy against a more liberal theology and philosophy. Arab thought became influential in the Western world partly through European scholars who went to Spain and elsewhere for study, mostly however through the Latin translations which became more and more numerous at the end of the 12th and during the 13th centuries. Among the Christian Arabs Costa ben Luca (864-923) has to be mentioned whose De Differentia spiritus et animae was translated by Johannes Hispanus (12th century). The first period of Islamic philosophy is occupied mainly with translation of Greek texts, some of which were translated later into Latin. The Liber de causis (mentioned first by Alanus ab Insulis) is such a translation of an Arab text; it was believed to be by Aristotle, but is in truth, as Aquinas recognized, a version of the Stoicheiosis theologike by Proclus. The so-called Theologia Aristotelis is an excerpt of Plotinus Enn. IV-VI, written 840 by a Syrian. The fundamental trends of Arab philosophy are indeed Neo-Platonic, and the Aristotelian texts were mostly interpreted in this spirit. Furthermore, there is also a tendency to reconcile the Greek philosophers with theological notions, at least so long as the orthodox theologians could find no reason for opposition. In spite of this, some of the philosophers did not escape persecution. The Peripatetic element is more pronounced in the writings of later times when the technique of paraphrasis and commentary on Aristotelian texts had developed. Beside the philosophy dependent more or less on Greek, and partially even Christian influences, there is a mystical theology and philosophy whose sources are the Qoran, Indian and, most of all, Persian systems. The knowledge of the "Hermetic" writings too was of some importance.

Aristotle: A Greek philosopher who lived from 384 BC to 322 BC. Aristotle wrote on numerous subjects including poetry, physics, music, politics and biology. He was the student of Plato. Alongside Plato and Socrates, Aristotle is considered an important figure to the founding of Western knowledge.

Aristotle ::: Aristotle was a famous Greek thinker (died in 322 B.C.E.), a student of Plato, whose interpretation of what constitutes reality (metaphysics, ontology) and of how reality is organized was widely influential both in ancient times and in the “medieval” period of Judaism and Christianity, influenced by the “classical” period of Islamic learning. See e.g., scholasticism.

Aristotle's Experiment: An experiment frequently referred to by Aristotle in which an object held between two crossed fingers of the same hand is felt as two objects. De Somniis 460b 20; Metaphysics 1011a 33; Problems 958b 14, 959a, 15, 965a 36. -- G.R.M.

Asat: (Skr.) "Non-being", a school concept dating back to Vedic (q.v.) times. It offers a theory of origination according to which being (sat; q.v.) was produced from non-being in the beginning; it was rejected by those who believe in being as the logical starting point in metaphysics. -- K.F.L.

as it would be if; as though. (Introducing a supposition, or way of conceiving some entity or situation, that is not to be taken literally, but yields some insight or convenience in metaphysics.)

(a) Speculative philosophy is commonly considered to embrace metaphysics (see Metaphysics) and epistemology as its two coordinate branches or if the term metaphysics be extended to embrace the whole of speculative philosophy, then epistemology and ontology become the two main subdivisions of metaphysics in the wide sense. Whichever usage is adopted, epistemology as the philosophical theory of knowledge is one of the two main branches of philosophy. The question of the relative priority of epistemology and metaphysics (or ontology) has occasioned considerable controversy: the dominant view fostered by Descartes, Locke and Kant is that epistemology is the prior philosophical science, the investigation of the possibility and limits of knowledge being a necessary and indispensible preliminary to any metaphysical speculations regarding the nature of ultimate reality. On the other hand, strongly metaphysical thinkers like Spinoza and Hegel, and more recently S. Alexander and A. N. Whitehead, have first attacked the metaphvsical problems and adopted the view of knowledge consonant with their metaphysics. Between these two extremes is the view that epistemology and metaphysics are logically interdependent and that a metaphysically presuppositionless epistemology is as unattainable as an epistemologically presuppositionless metaphysics.

As the cosmic stuff from which spring in their manifestations the living beings which constitute the universe, it is omnipresent, nor can there be anything without life. But there are many grades or conditions of life, just as there are many orders of living beings who are its aggregate expressions. Thus we can speak of the relatively animate and inanimate, as when comparing a mineral with a plant or a corpse with a living body. But the mineral has life of its own kind, and what has left the corpse is one kind of life, but the life in the physical atoms remains. Materialistic philosophy, for the purposes of its own analysis, has sought to separate life into two independent elements — an inert mass or particles, and more or less theoretical forces which actuate them. Unfortunately these forces are defined as functions of the movements of the particles themselves, which is a logical confusion. Others more logically have supposed a vital fluid; but if this fluid is entirely distinct in nature from the dead matter it is supposed to actuate, we cannot explain how the one can come into relation with the other. More recent advances in physics have shown the futility of trying to separate matter from motion or mass from energy.

Astrology ::: The astrology of the ancients was indeed a great and noble science. It is a term which means the "scienceof the celestial bodies." Modern astrology is but the tattered and rejected outer coating of real, ancientastrology; for that truly sublime science was the doctrine of the origin, of the nature, of the being, and ofthe destiny of the solar bodies, of the planetary bodies, and of the beings who dwell on them. It alsotaught the science of the relations of the parts of kosmic nature among themselves, and more particularlyas applied to man and his destiny as forecast by the celestial orbs. From that great and noble sciencesprang up an exoteric pseudo-science, derived from the Mediterranean and Asian practice, eventuating inthe modern scheme called astrology -- a tattered remnant of ancient wisdom.In actual fact, genuine archaic astrology was one of the branches of the ancient Mysteries, and wasstudied to perfection in the ancient Mystery schools. It had throughout all ancient time the unqualifiedapproval and devotion of the noblest men and of the greatest sages. Instead of limiting itself as modernso-called astrology does to a system based practically entirely upon certain branches of mathematics, inarchaic days the main body of doctrine which astrology then contained was transcendental metaphysics,dealing with the greatest and most abstruse problems concerning the universe and man. The celestialbodies of the physical universe were considered in the archaic astrology to be not merely time markers,or to have vague relations of a psychomagnetic quality as among themselves -- although indeed this istrue -- but to be the vehicles of starry spirits, bright and living gods, whose very existence andcharacteristics, individually as well as collectively, made them the governors and expositors of destiny.

astrophysical ::: a. --> Pertaining to the physics of astronomical science.

Astrophysics - the branch of astronomy concerned with the physical nature of stars and other celestial bodies, and the application of the laws and theories of physics to the interpretation of astronomical observations. See /r/astrophysics.

Atom (Greek) atomos. Indivisible, individual, a unit; among the Greek Atomists what in theosophy is called a monad. Atomic theories of the constitution of the universe or of matter are many and ancient. In modern physics the atom is a small particle once thought indivisible, but now resolved into component units. In some philosophies, as that of Leibniz, the atoms (which he calls monads) are psychological rather than physical units — unitary beings of diverse kinds and grades, composing the universe.

Attraction and Repulsion Two forces ever in operation during periods of manifested activity, called by Empedocles love and hate. In physics attraction is an effect, whose cause cannot be mechanically explained without circular reasoning, and which must therefore be assumed. Newton in speaking of gravitational attraction treats it mathematically as an effect and does not dogmatize on its real nature. These two aspects of the manifestation of universal unity arise out of the polarity inherent in cosmic manifestation as between spirit and matter generally, between the higher hierarchies and the lower. Physical attraction is a manifestation of a cosmic principle which has manifestations on all planes, spiritual, mental, and psychic, so that its influence is seen in our thoughts and feelings.

Attribute: Commonly, what is proper to a thing (Latm, ad-tribuere, to assign, to ascribe, to bestow). Loosely assimilated to a quality, a property, a characteristic, a peculiarity, a circumstance, a state, a category, a mode or an accident, though there are differences among all these terms. For example, a quality is an inherent property (the qualities of matter), while an attribute refers to the actual properties of a thing only indirectly known (the attributes of God). Another difference between attribute and quality is that the former refers to the characteristics of an infinite being, while the latter is used for the characteristics of a finite being. In metaphysics, an attribute is what is indispensable to a spiritual or material substance; or that which expresses the nature of a thing; or that without which a thing is unthinkable. As such, it implies necessarily a relation to some substance of which it is an aspect or conception. But it cannot be a substance, as it does not exist by itself. The transcendental attributes are those which belong to a being because it is a being: there are three of them, the one, the true and the good, each adding something positive to the idea of being. The word attribute has been and still is used more readily, with various implications, by substantialist systems. In the 17th century, for example, it denoted the actual manifestations of substance. [Thus, Descartes regarded extension and thought as the two ultimate, simple and original attributes of reality, all else being modifications of them. With Spinoza, extension and thought became the only known attributes of Deity, each expressing in a definite manner, though not exclusively, the infinite essence of God as the only substance. The change in the meaning of substance after Hume and Kant is best illustrated by this quotation from Whitehead: "We diverge from Descartes by holding that what he has described as primary attributes of physical bodies, are really the forms of internal relationships between actual occasions and within actual occasions" (Process and Reality, p. 471).] The use of the notion of attribute, however, is still favoured by contemporary thinkers. Thus, John Boodin speaks of the five attributes of reality, namely: Energy (source of activity), Space (extension), Time (change), Consciousness (active awareness), and Form (organization, structure). In theodicy, the term attribute is used for the essential characteristics of God. The divine attributes are the various aspects under which God is viewed, each being treated as a separate perfection. As God is free from composition, we know him only in a mediate and synthetic way thrgugh his attributes. In logic, an attribute is that which is predicated or anything, that which Is affirmed or denied of the subject of a proposition. More specifically, an attribute may be either a category or a predicable; but it cannot be an individual materially. Attributes may be essential or accidental, necessary or contingent. In grammar, an attribute is an adjective, or an adjectival clause, or an equivalent adjunct expressing a characteristic referred to a subject through a verb. Because of this reference, an attribute may also be a substantive, as a class-name, but not a proper name as a rule. An attribute is never a verb, thus differing from a predicate which may consist of a verb often having some object or qualifying words. In natural history, what is permanent and essential in a species, an individual or in its parts. In psychology, it denotes the way (such as intensity, duration or quality) in which sensations, feelings or images can differ from one another. In art, an attribute is a material or a conventional symbol, distinction or decoration.

Aufklärung: In general, this German word and its English equivalent Enlightenment denote the self-emancipation of man from mere authority, prejudice, convention and tradition, with an insistence on freer thinking about problems uncritically referred to these other agencies. According to Kant's famous definition "Enlightenment is the liberation of man from his self-caused state of minority, which is the incapacity of using one's understanding without the direction of another. This state of minority is caused when its source lies not in the lack of understanding, but in the lack of determination and courage to use it without the assistance of another" (Was ist Aufklärung? 1784). In its historical perspective, the Aufklärung refers to the cultural atmosphere and contrlbutions of the 18th century, especially in Germany, France and England [which affected also American thought with B. Franklin, T. Paine and the leaders of the Revolution]. It crystallized tendencies emphasized by the Renaissance, and quickened by modern scepticism and empiricism, and by the great scientific discoveries of the 17th century. This movement, which was represented by men of varying tendencies, gave an impetus to general learning, a more popular philosophy, empirical science, scriptural criticism, social and political thought. More especially, the word Aufklärung is applied to the German contributions to 18th century culture. In philosophy, its principal representatives are G. E. Lessing (1729-81) who believed in free speech and in a methodical criticism of religion, without being a free-thinker; H. S. Reimarus (1694-1768) who expounded a naturalistic philosophy and denied the supernatural origin of Christianity; Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86) who endeavoured to mitigate prejudices and developed a popular common-sense philosophy; Chr. Wolff (1679-1754), J. A. Eberhard (1739-1809) who followed the Leibnizian rationalism and criticized unsuccessfully Kant and Fichte; and J. G. Herder (1744-1803) who was best as an interpreter of others, but whose intuitional suggestions have borne fruit in the organic correlation of the sciences, and in questions of language in relation to human nature and to national character. The works of Kant and Goethe mark the culmination of the German Enlightenment. Cf. J. G. Hibben, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1910. --T.G. Augustinianism: The thought of St. Augustine of Hippo, and of his followers. Born in 354 at Tagaste in N. Africa, A. studied rhetoric in Carthage, taught that subject there and in Rome and Milan. Attracted successively to Manicheanism, Scepticism, and Neo-Platontsm, A. eventually found intellectual and moral peace with his conversion to Christianity in his thirty-fourth year. Returning to Africa, he established numerous monasteries, became a priest in 391, Bishop of Hippo in 395. Augustine wrote much: On Free Choice, Confessions, Literal Commentary on Genesis, On the Trinity, and City of God, are his most noted works. He died in 430.   St. Augustine's characteristic method, an inward empiricism which has little in common with later variants, starts from things without, proceeds within to the self, and moves upwards to God. These three poles of the Augustinian dialectic are polarized by his doctrine of moderate illuminism. An ontological illumination is required to explain the metaphysical structure of things. The truth of judgment demands a noetic illumination. A moral illumination is necessary in the order of willing; and so, too, an lllumination of art in the aesthetic order. Other illuminations which transcend the natural order do not come within the scope of philosophy; they provide the wisdoms of theology and mysticism. Every being is illuminated ontologically by number, form, unity and its derivatives, and order. A thing is what it is, in so far as it is more or less flooded by the light of these ontological constituents.   Sensation is necessary in order to know material substances. There is certainly an action of the external object on the body and a corresponding passion of the body, but, as the soul is superior to the body and can suffer nothing from its inferior, sensation must be an action, not a passion, of the soul. Sensation takes place only when the observing soul, dynamically on guard throughout the body, is vitally attentive to the changes suffered by the body. However, an adequate basis for the knowledge of intellectual truth is not found in sensation alone. In order to know, for example, that a body is multiple, the idea of unity must be present already, otherwise its multiplicity could not be recognized. If numbers are not drawn in by the bodily senses which perceive only the contingent and passing, is the mind the source of the unchanging and necessary truth of numbers? The mind of man is also contingent and mutable, and cannot give what it does not possess. As ideas are not innate, nor remembered from a previous existence of the soul, they can be accounted for only by an immutable source higher than the soul. In so far as man is endowed with an intellect, he is a being naturally illuminated by God, Who may be compared to an intelligible sun. The human intellect does not create the laws of thought; it finds them and submits to them. The immediate intuition of these normative rules does not carry any content, thus any trace of ontologism is avoided.   Things have forms because they have numbers, and they have being in so far as they possess form. The sufficient explanation of all formable, and hence changeable, things is an immutable and eternal form which is unrestricted in time and space. The forms or ideas of all things actually existing in the world are in the things themselves (as rationes seminales) and in the Divine Mind (as rationes aeternae). Nothing could exist without unity, for to be is no other than to be one. There is a unity proper to each level of being, a unity of the material individual and species, of the soul, and of that union of souls in the love of the same good, which union constitutes the city. Order, also, is ontologically imbibed by all beings. To tend to being is to tend to order; order secures being, disorder leads to non-being. Order is the distribution which allots things equal and unequal each to its own place and integrates an ensemble of parts in accordance with an end. Hence, peace is defined as the tranquillity of order. Just as things have their being from their forms, the order of parts, and their numerical relations, so too their beauty is not something superadded, but the shining out of all their intelligible co-ingredients.   S. Aurelii Augustini, Opera Omnia, Migne, PL 32-47; (a critical edition of some works will be found in the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna). Gilson, E., Introd. a l'etude de s. Augustin, (Paris, 1931) contains very good bibliography up to 1927, pp. 309-331. Pope, H., St. Augustine of Hippo, (London, 1937). Chapman, E., St. Augustine's Philos. of Beauty, (N. Y., 1939). Figgis, J. N., The Political Aspects of St. Augustine's "City of God", (London, 1921). --E.C. Authenticity: In a general sense, genuineness, truth according to its title. It involves sometimes a direct and personal characteristic (Whitehead speaks of "authentic feelings").   This word also refers to problems of fundamental criticism involving title, tradition, authorship and evidence. These problems are vital in theology, and basic in scholarship with regard to the interpretation of texts and doctrines. --T.G. Authoritarianism: That theory of knowledge which maintains that the truth of any proposition is determined by the fact of its having been asserted by a certain esteemed individual or group of individuals. Cf. H. Newman, Grammar of Assent; C. S. Peirce, "Fixation of Belief," in Chance, Love and Logic, ed. M. R. Cohen. --A.C.B. Autistic thinking: Absorption in fanciful or wishful thinking without proper control by objective or factual material; day dreaming; undisciplined imagination. --A.C.B. Automaton Theory: Theory that a living organism may be considered a mere machine. See Automatism. Automatism: (Gr. automatos, self-moving) (a) In metaphysics: Theory that animal and human organisms are automata, that is to say, are machines governed by the laws of physics and mechanics. Automatism, as propounded by Descartes, considered the lower animals to be pure automata (Letter to Henry More, 1649) and man a machine controlled by a rational soul (Treatise on Man). Pure automatism for man as well as animals is advocated by La Mettrie (Man, a Machine, 1748). During the Nineteenth century, automatism, combined with epiphenomenalism, was advanced by Hodgson, Huxley and Clifford. (Cf. W. James, The Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, ch. V.) Behaviorism, of the extreme sort, is the most recent version of automatism (See Behaviorism).   (b) In psychology: Psychological automatism is the performance of apparently purposeful actions, like automatic writing without the superintendence of the conscious mind. L. C. Rosenfield, From Beast Machine to Man Machine, N. Y., 1941. --L.W. Automatism, Conscious: The automatism of Hodgson, Huxley, and Clifford which considers man a machine to which mind or consciousness is superadded; the mind of man is, however, causally ineffectual. See Automatism; Epiphenomenalism. --L.W. Autonomy: (Gr. autonomia, independence) Freedom consisting in self-determination and independence of all external constraint. See Freedom. Kant defines autonomy of the will as subjection of the will to its own law, the categorical imperative, in contrast to heteronomy, its subjection to a law or end outside the rational will. (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, § 2.) --L.W. Autonomy of ethics: A doctrine, usually propounded by intuitionists, that ethics is not a part of, and cannot be derived from, either metaphysics or any of the natural or social sciences. See Intuitionism, Metaphysical ethics, Naturalistic ethics. --W.K.F. Autonomy of the will: (in Kant's ethics) The freedom of the rational will to legislate to itself, which constitutes the basis for the autonomy of the moral law. --P.A.S. Autonymy: In the terminology introduced by Carnap, a word (phrase, symbol, expression) is autonymous if it is used as a name for itself --for the geometric shape, sound, etc. which it exemplifies, or for the word as a historical and grammatical unit. Autonymy is thus the same as the Scholastic suppositio matertalis (q. v.), although the viewpoint is different. --A.C. Autotelic: (from Gr. autos, self, and telos, end) Said of any absorbing activity engaged in for its own sake (cf. German Selbstzweck), such as higher mathematics, chess, etc. In aesthetics, applied to creative art and play which lack any conscious reference to the accomplishment of something useful. In the view of some, it may constitute something beneficent in itself of which the person following his art impulse (q.v.) or playing is unaware, thus approaching a heterotelic (q.v.) conception. --K.F.L. Avenarius, Richard: (1843-1896) German philosopher who expressed his thought in an elaborate and novel terminology in the hope of constructing a symbolic language for philosophy, like that of mathematics --the consequence of his Spinoza studies. As the most influential apostle of pure experience, the posltivistic motive reaches in him an extreme position. Insisting on the biologic and economic function of thought, he thought the true method of science is to cure speculative excesses by a return to pure experience devoid of all assumptions. Philosophy is the scientific effort to exclude from knowledge all ideas not included in the given. Its task is to expel all extraneous elements in the given. His uncritical use of the category of the given and the nominalistic view that logical relations are created rather than discovered by thought, leads him to banish not only animism but also all of the categories, substance, causality, etc., as inventions of the mind. Explaining the evolution and devolution of the problematization and deproblematization of numerous ideas, and aiming to give the natural history of problems, Avenarius sought to show physiologically, psychologically and historically under what conditions they emerge, are challenged and are solved. He hypothesized a System C, a bodily and central nervous system upon which consciousness depends. R-values are the stimuli received from the world of objects. E-values are the statements of experience. The brain changes that continually oscillate about an ideal point of balance are termed Vitalerhaltungsmaximum. The E-values are differentiated into elements, to which the sense-perceptions or the content of experience belong, and characters, to which belongs everything which psychology describes as feelings and attitudes. Avenarius describes in symbolic form a series of states from balance to balance, termed vital series, all describing a series of changes in System C. Inequalities in the vital balance give rise to vital differences. According to his theory there are two vital series. It assumes a series of brain changes because parallel series of conscious states can be observed. The independent vital series are physical, and the dependent vital series are psychological. The two together are practically covariants. In the case of a process as a dependent vital series three stages can be noted: first, the appearance of the problem, expressed as strain, restlessness, desire, fear, doubt, pain, repentance, delusion; the second, the continued effort and struggle to solve the problem; and finally, the appearance of the solution, characterized by abating anxiety, a feeling of triumph and enjoyment.   Corresponding to these three stages of the dependent series are three stages of the independent series: the appearance of the vital difference and a departure from balance in the System C, the continuance with an approximate vital difference, and lastly, the reduction of the vital difference to zero, the return to stability. By making room for dependent and independent experiences, he showed that physics regards experience as independent of the experiencing indlvidual, and psychology views experience as dependent upon the individual. He greatly influenced Mach and James (q.v.). See Avenarius, Empirio-criticism, Experience, pure. Main works: Kritik der reinen Erfahrung; Der menschliche Weltbegriff. --H.H. Averroes: (Mohammed ibn Roshd) Known to the Scholastics as The Commentator, and mentioned as the author of il gran commento by Dante (Inf. IV. 68) he was born 1126 at Cordova (Spain), studied theology, law, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, became after having been judge in Sevilla and Cordova, physician to the khalifah Jaqub Jusuf, and charged with writing a commentary on the works of Aristotle. Al-mansur, Jusuf's successor, deprived him of his place because of accusations of unorthodoxy. He died 1198 in Morocco. Averroes is not so much an original philosopher as the author of a minute commentary on the whole works of Aristotle. His procedure was imitated later by Aquinas. In his interpretation of Aristotelian metaphysics Averroes teaches the coeternity of a universe created ex nihilo. This doctrine formed together with the notion of a numerical unity of the active intellect became one of the controversial points in the discussions between the followers of Albert-Thomas and the Latin Averroists. Averroes assumed that man possesses only a disposition for receiving the intellect coming from without; he identifies this disposition with the possible intellect which thus is not truly intellectual by nature. The notion of one intellect common to all men does away with the doctrine of personal immortality. Another doctrine which probably was emphasized more by the Latin Averroists (and by the adversaries among Averroes' contemporaries) is the famous statement about "two-fold truth", viz. that a proposition may be theologically true and philosophically false and vice versa. Averroes taught that religion expresses the (higher) philosophical truth by means of religious imagery; the "two-truth notion" came apparently into the Latin text through a misinterpretation on the part of the translators. The works of Averroes were one of the main sources of medieval Aristotelianlsm, before and even after the original texts had been translated. The interpretation the Latin Averroists found in their texts of the "Commentator" spread in spite of opposition and condemnation. See Averroism, Latin. Averroes, Opera, Venetiis, 1553. M. Horten, Die Metaphysik des Averroes, 1912. P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin, 2d ed., Louvain, 1911. --R.A. Averroism, Latin: The commentaries on Aristotle written by Averroes (Ibn Roshd) in the 12th century became known to the Western scholars in translations by Michael Scottus, Hermannus Alemannus, and others at the beginning of the 13th century. Many works of Aristotle were also known first by such translations from Arabian texts, though there existed translations from the Greek originals at the same time (Grabmann). The Averroistic interpretation of Aristotle was held to be the true one by many; but already Albert the Great pointed out several notions which he felt to be incompatible with the principles of Christian philosophy, although he relied for the rest on the "Commentator" and apparently hardly used any other text. Aquinas, basing his studies mostly on a translation from the Greek texts, procured for him by William of Moerbecke, criticized the Averroistic interpretation in many points. But the teachings of the Commentator became the foundation for a whole school of philosophers, represented first by the Faculty of Arts at Paris. The most prominent of these scholars was Siger of Brabant. The philosophy of these men was condemned on March 7th, 1277 by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, after a first condemnation of Aristotelianism in 1210 had gradually come to be neglected. The 219 theses condemned in 1277, however, contain also some of Aquinas which later were generally recognized an orthodox. The Averroistic propositions which aroused the criticism of the ecclesiastic authorities and which had been opposed with great energy by Albert and Thomas refer mostly to the following points: The co-eternity of the created word; the numerical identity of the intellect in all men, the so-called two-fold-truth theory stating that a proposition may be philosophically true although theologically false. Regarding the first point Thomas argued that there is no philosophical proof, either for the co-eternity or against it; creation is an article of faith. The unity of intellect was rejected as incompatible with the true notion of person and with personal immortality. It is doubtful whether Averroes himself held the two-truths theory; it was, however, taught by the Latin Averroists who, notwithstanding the opposition of the Church and the Thomistic philosophers, gained a great influence and soon dominated many universities, especially in Italy. Thomas and his followers were convinced that they interpreted Aristotle correctly and that the Averroists were wrong; one has, however, to admit that certain passages in Aristotle allow for the Averroistic interpretation, especially in regard to the theory of intellect.   Lit.: P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin au XIIIe Siecle, 2d. ed. Louvain, 1911; M. Grabmann, Forschungen über die lateinischen Aristotelesübersetzungen des XIII. Jahrhunderts, Münster 1916 (Beitr. z. Gesch. Phil. d. MA. Vol. 17, H. 5-6). --R.A. Avesta: See Zendavesta. Avicehron: (or Avencebrol, Salomon ibn Gabirol) The first Jewish philosopher in Spain, born in Malaga 1020, died about 1070, poet, philosopher, and moralist. His main work, Fons vitae, became influential and was much quoted by the Scholastics. It has been preserved only in the Latin translation by Gundissalinus. His doctrine of a spiritual substance individualizing also the pure spirits or separate forms was opposed by Aquinas already in his first treatise De ente, but found favor with the medieval Augustinians also later in the 13th century. He also teaches the necessity of a mediator between God and the created world; such a mediator he finds in the Divine Will proceeding from God and creating, conserving, and moving the world. His cosmogony shows a definitely Neo-Platonic shade and assumes a series of emanations. Cl. Baeumker, Avencebrolis Fons vitae. Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1892-1895, Vol. I. Joh. Wittman, Die Stellung des hl. Thomas von Aquino zu Avencebrol, ibid. 1900. Vol. III. --R.A. Avicenna: (Abu Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina) Born 980 in the country of Bocchara, began to write in young years, left more than 100 works, taught in Ispahan, was physician to several Persian princes, and died at Hamadan in 1037. His fame as physician survived his influence as philosopher in the Occident. His medical works were printed still in the 17th century. His philosophy is contained in 18 vols. of a comprehensive encyclopedia, following the tradition of Al Kindi and Al Farabi. Logic, Physics, Mathematics and Metaphysics form the parts of this work. His philosophy is Aristotelian with noticeable Neo-Platonic influences. His doctrine of the universal existing ante res in God, in rebus as the universal nature of the particulars, and post res in the human mind by way of abstraction became a fundamental thesis of medieval Aristotelianism. He sharply distinguished between the logical and the ontological universal, denying to the latter the true nature of form in the composite. The principle of individuation is matter, eternally existent. Latin translations attributed to Avicenna the notion that existence is an accident to essence (see e.g. Guilelmus Parisiensis, De Universo). The process adopted by Avicenna was one of paraphrasis of the Aristotelian texts with many original thoughts interspersed. His works were translated into Latin by Dominicus Gundissalinus (Gondisalvi) with the assistance of Avendeath ibn Daud. This translation started, when it became more generally known, the "revival of Aristotle" at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Albert the Great and Aquinas professed, notwithstanding their critical attitude, a great admiration for Avicenna whom the Arabs used to call the "third Aristotle". But in the Orient, Avicenna's influence declined soon, overcome by the opposition of the orthodox theologians. Avicenna, Opera, Venetiis, 1495; l508; 1546. M. Horten, Das Buch der Genesung der Seele, eine philosophische Enzyklopaedie Avicenna's; XIII. Teil: Die Metaphysik. Halle a. S. 1907-1909. R. de Vaux, Notes et textes sur l'Avicennisme Latin, Bibl. Thomiste XX, Paris, 1934. --R.A. Avidya: (Skr.) Nescience; ignorance; the state of mind unaware of true reality; an equivalent of maya (q.v.); also a condition of pure awareness prior to the universal process of evolution through gradual differentiation into the elements and factors of knowledge. --K.F.L. Avyakta: (Skr.) "Unmanifest", descriptive of or standing for brahman (q.v.) in one of its or "his" aspects, symbolizing the superabundance of the creative principle, or designating the condition of the universe not yet become phenomenal (aja, unborn). --K.F.L. Awareness: Consciousness considered in its aspect of act; an act of attentive awareness such as the sensing of a color patch or the feeling of pain is distinguished from the content attended to, the sensed color patch, the felt pain. The psychologlcal theory of intentional act was advanced by F. Brentano (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte) and received its epistemological development by Meinong, Husserl, Moore, Laird and Broad. See Intentionalism. --L.W. Axiological: (Ger. axiologisch) In Husserl: Of or pertaining to value or theory of value (the latter term understood as including disvalue and value-indifference). --D.C. Axiological ethics: Any ethics which makes the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, by making the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on a consideration of the value or goodness of something, e.g. the action itself, its motive, or its consequences, actual or probable. Opposed to deontological ethics. See also teleological ethics. --W.K.F. Axiologic Realism: In metaphysics, theory that value as well as logic, qualities as well as relations, have their being and exist external to the mind and independently of it. Applicable to the philosophy of many though not all realists in the history of philosophy, from Plato to G. E. Moore, A. N. Whitehead, and N, Hartmann. --J.K.F. Axiology: (Gr. axios, of like value, worthy, and logos, account, reason, theory). Modern term for theory of value (the desired, preferred, good), investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. Had its rise in Plato's theory of Forms or Ideas (Idea of the Good); was developed in Aristotle's Organon, Ethics, Poetics, and Metaphysics (Book Lambda). Stoics and Epicureans investigated the summum bonum. Christian philosophy (St. Thomas) built on Aristotle's identification of highest value with final cause in God as "a living being, eternal, most good."   In modern thought, apart from scholasticism and the system of Spinoza (Ethica, 1677), in which values are metaphysically grounded, the various values were investigated in separate sciences, until Kant's Critiques, in which the relations of knowledge to moral, aesthetic, and religious values were examined. In Hegel's idealism, morality, art, religion, and philosophy were made the capstone of his dialectic. R. H. Lotze "sought in that which should be the ground of that which is" (Metaphysik, 1879). Nineteenth century evolutionary theory, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and economics subjected value experience to empirical analysis, and stress was again laid on the diversity and relativity of value phenomena rather than on their unity and metaphysical nature. F. Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883-1885) and Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887) aroused new interest in the nature of value. F. Brentano, Vom Ursprung sittlicher Erkenntnis (1889), identified value with love.   In the twentieth century the term axiology was apparently first applied by Paul Lapie (Logique de la volonte, 1902) and E. von Hartmann (Grundriss der Axiologie, 1908). Stimulated by Ehrenfels (System der Werttheorie, 1897), Meinong (Psychologisch-ethische Untersuchungen zur Werttheorie, 1894-1899), and Simmel (Philosophie des Geldes, 1900). W. M. Urban wrote the first systematic treatment of axiology in English (Valuation, 1909), phenomenological in method under J. M. Baldwin's influence. Meanwhile H. Münsterberg wrote a neo-Fichtean system of values (The Eternal Values, 1909).   Among important recent contributions are: B. Bosanquet, The Principle of Individuality and Value (1912), a free reinterpretation of Hegelianism; W. R. Sorley, Moral Values and the Idea of God (1918, 1921), defending a metaphysical theism; S. Alexander, Space, Time, and Deity (1920), realistic and naturalistic; N. Hartmann, Ethik (1926), detailed analysis of types and laws of value; R. B. Perry's magnum opus, General Theory of Value (1926), "its meaning and basic principles construed in terms of interest"; and J. Laird, The Idea of Value (1929), noteworthy for historical exposition. A naturalistic theory has been developed by J. Dewey (Theory of Valuation, 1939), for which "not only is science itself a value . . . but it is the supreme means of the valid determination of all valuations." A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic (1936) expounds the view of logical positivism that value is "nonsense." J. Hessen, Wertphilosophie (1937), provides an account of recent German axiology from a neo-scholastic standpoint.   The problems of axiology fall into four main groups, namely, those concerning (1) the nature of value, (2) the types of value, (3) the criterion of value, and (4) the metaphysical status of value.   (1) The nature of value experience. Is valuation fulfillment of desire (voluntarism: Spinoza, Ehrenfels), pleasure (hedonism: Epicurus, Bentham, Meinong), interest (Perry), preference (Martineau), pure rational will (formalism: Stoics, Kant, Royce), apprehension of tertiary qualities (Santayana), synoptic experience of the unity of personality (personalism: T. H. Green, Bowne), any experience that contributes to enhanced life (evolutionism: Nietzsche), or "the relation of things as means to the end or consequence actually reached" (pragmatism, instrumentalism: Dewey).   (2) The types of value. Most axiologists distinguish between intrinsic (consummatory) values (ends), prized for their own sake, and instrumental (contributory) values (means), which are causes (whether as economic goods or as natural events) of intrinsic values. Most intrinsic values are also instrumental to further value experience; some instrumental values are neutral or even disvaluable intrinsically. Commonly recognized as intrinsic values are the (morally) good, the true, the beautiful, and the holy. Values of play, of work, of association, and of bodily well-being are also acknowledged. Some (with Montague) question whether the true is properly to be regarded as a value, since some truth is disvaluable, some neutral; but love of truth, regardless of consequences, seems to establish the value of truth. There is disagreement about whether the holy (religious value) is a unique type (Schleiermacher, Otto), or an attitude toward other values (Kant, Höffding), or a combination of the two (Hocking). There is also disagreement about whether the variety of values is irreducible (pluralism) or whether all values are rationally related in a hierarchy or system (Plato, Hegel, Sorley), in which values interpenetrate or coalesce into a total experience.   (3) The criterion of value. The standard for testing values is influenced by both psychological and logical theory. Hedonists find the standard in the quantity of pleasure derived by the individual (Aristippus) or society (Bentham). Intuitionists appeal to an ultimate insight into preference (Martineau, Brentano). Some idealists recognize an objective system of rational norms or ideals as criterion (Plato, Windelband), while others lay more stress on rational wholeness and coherence (Hegel, Bosanquet, Paton) or inclusiveness (T. H. Green). Naturalists find biological survival or adjustment (Dewey) to be the standard. Despite differences, there is much in common in the results of the application of these criteria.   (4) The metaphysical status of value. What is the relation of values to the facts investigated by natural science (Koehler), of Sein to Sollen (Lotze, Rickert), of human experience of value to reality independent of man (Hegel, Pringle-Pattlson, Spaulding)? There are three main answers:   subjectivism (value is entirely dependent on and relative to human experience of it: so most hedonists, naturalists, positivists);   logical objectivism (values are logical essences or subsistences, independent of their being known, yet with no existential status or action in reality);   metaphysical objectivism (values   --or norms or ideals   --are integral, objective, and active constituents of the metaphysically real: so theists, absolutists, and certain realists and naturalists like S. Alexander and Wieman). --E.S.B. Axiom: See Mathematics. Axiomatic method: That method of constructing a deductive system consisting of deducing by specified rules all statements of the system save a given few from those given few, which are regarded as axioms or postulates of the system. See Mathematics. --C.A.B. Ayam atma brahma: (Skr.) "This self is brahman", famous quotation from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.5.19, one of many alluding to the central theme of the Upanishads, i.e., the identity of the human and divine or cosmic. --K.F.L.

BABEL "language" 1. A subset of {ALGOL 60} with many {ALGOL W} extensions. ["BABEL, A New Programming Language", R.S. Scowen, {National Physics Laboratory}, UK, Report CCU7, 1969]. ["Babel, an application of extensible compilers", R. S. Scowen, National Physical Laboratory, Proceedings of the international symposium on Extensible languages, Grenoble, France 1971-09-06,]. 2. A language mentioned in "The Psychology of Computer Programming", G.M. Weinberg, Van Nostrand 1971, p.241. 3. A language based on {higher-order functions} and {first-order logic}. ["Graph-Based Implementation of a Functional Logic Language", H. Kuchen et al, Proc ESOP 90, LNCS 432, Springer 1990, pp. 271-290]. ["Logic Programming with Functions and Predicates: The Language BABEL", Moreno-Navarro et al, J Logic Prog 12(3), Feb 1992]. (1994-11-28)

Accelerator - A machine that serves as a source for a well-defined beam of high speed particles for studies in nuclear science and high energy (or particle) physics.


Physics - Study of matter and energy and their relationship.

   Piezoelectricity - Electric potential produced by deforming material.

   Pigment - Colored material that absorbs certain colors and transmits or reflects others.


(b) Physics: In Greek philosophy, the ultimate principles of nature and change were contraries: e.g. love-strife; motion-rest; potentiality-actuality. All motion is between contraries. See Heraclitus, Empedodes, Aristotle. -- L.M.H.

Circular Accelerator - A type physics research machine that brings moving particles into collision with one another for the purpose of studying the outcome. As opposed to a fixed-target machine, which smashes moving particles into a stationary object.

   Collider - Radiation that is emitted when a free electron is deflected by an ion, but the free electron is not captured by the ion. Generally, it is a type of radiation emitted when high energy electrons are accelerated. (German for braking radiation)


Bergson, Henri: (1859-1941) As the most influential of modern temporalistic, anti-mechanistic and spiritualistic metaphysics, Bergson's writings (Les donnees immediates de l'experience, Matiere et Memoire, L'evolution creatrtce, Le rire, Introduction a la metaphysique, Les deux sources de la morale et de la religion, etc.) were aimed against the dogmatic and crude naturalism, and the mechanistic and static materialism which reached their heights in the second half of the last century.

Besides the universal intelligible being of things, Aristotle was also primarily concerned with an investigation of the being of things from the standpoint of their generation and existence. But only individual things are generated and exist. Hence, for him, substance was primarily the individual: a "this" which, in contrast with the universal or secondary substance, is not communicable to many. The Aristotelian meaning of substance may be developed from four points of view: Grammar: The nature of substance as the ultimate subject of predication is expressed by common usage in its employment of the noun (or substantive) as the subject of a sentence to signify an individual thing which "is neither present in nor predicable of a subject." Thus substance is grammatically distinguished from its (adjectival) properties and modifications which "are present in and predicable of a subject."   Secondary substance is expressed by the universal term, and by its definition which are "not present in a subject but predicable of it." See Categoriae,) ch. 5. Physics: Independence of being emerges as a fundamental characteristic of substance in the analysis of change. Thus we have:   Substantial change: Socrates comes to be. (Change simply).   Accidental change; in a certain respect only: Socrates comes to be 6 feet tall. (Quantitative). Socrates comes to be musical (Qualitative). Socrates comes to be in Corinth (Local).     As substantial change is prior to the others and may occur independently of them, so the individual substance is prior in being to the accidents; i.e., the accidents cannot exist independently of their subject (Socrates), but can be only in him or in another primary substance, while the reverse is not necessarily the case. Logic: Out of this analysis of change there also emerges a division of being into the schema of categories, with the distinction between the category of substance and the several accidental categories, such as quantity, quality, place, relation, etc. In a corresponding manner, the category of substance is first; i.e., prior to the others in being, and independent of them. Metaphysics: The character of substance as that which is present in an individual as the cause of its being and unity is developed in Aristotle's metaphysical writings, see especiallv Bk. Z, ch. 17, 1041b. Primary substnnce is not the matter alone, nor the universal form common to many, but the individual unity of matter and form. For example, each thing is composed of parts or elements, as an organism is composed of cells, yet it is not merely its elements, but has a being and unity over and above the sum of its parts. This something more which causes the cells to be this organism rather than a malignant growth, is an example of what is meant by substance in its proper sense of first substance (substantia prima). Substance in its secondary sense (substantia secunda) is the universal form (idea or species) which is individuated in each thing.

(b) In epistemology and psychology, the term is applied to knowledge, e.g. memory, which lies dormant in the mind but is capable of becoming actual and explicit (see W. Hamilton, Lectures on Metaphysics, xviii, cited by J. M. Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, Vol. I, p. 628). Latency in this restricted sense, designates phenomena now embraced by the term subconscious. See Subconscious. -- L.W.

(b) In idealistic metaphysics: positing, in the philosophy of G. Fichte is the initial act by which the Ego creates itself: "The positing of the Ego through itself is therefore, the pure activity of the Ego." (Fichte, The Science of Knowledge, Trans, by A. F. Kroeger, p. 68.) -- L.W.

Biometry: The scientific application of mathematical analysis to biological problems (also spoken of as "mathematical biophysics" and "mathematical biochemistry"). The journal Biometrtka was founded by Karl Pearson. -- W.M.M.

bit rot "jargon" A hypothetical disease the existence of which has been deduced from the observation that unused programs or features will often stop working after sufficient time has passed, even if "nothing has changed". The theory explains that bits decay as if they were radioactive. As time passes, the contents of a file or the code in a program will become increasingly garbled. People with a physics background tend to prefer the variant "bit decay" for the analogy with particle decay. There actually are physical processes that produce such effects (alpha particles generated by trace radionuclides in ceramic chip packages, for example, can change the contents of a computer memory unpredictably, and various kinds of subtle media failures can corrupt files in mass storage), but they are quite rare (and computers are built with {error detection} circuitry to compensate for them). The notion long favoured among hackers that {cosmic rays} are among the causes of such events turns out to be a myth. Bit rot is the notional cause of {software rot}. See also {computron}, {quantum bogodynamics}. [{Jargon File}] (1998-03-15)

bit rot ::: (jargon) A hypothetical disease the existence of which has been deduced from the observation that unused programs or features will often stop working explains that bits decay as if they were radioactive. As time passes, the contents of a file or the code in a program will become increasingly garbled.People with a physics background tend to prefer the variant bit decay for the analogy with particle decay.There actually are physical processes that produce such effects (alpha particles generated by trace radionuclides in ceramic chip packages, for example, can them). The notion long favoured among hackers that cosmic rays are among the causes of such events turns out to be a myth.Bit rot is the notional cause of software rot.See also computron, quantum bogodynamics.[Jargon File] (1998-03-15)

Blavatsky wrote that astrology is the “science which defines the action of celestial bodies upon mundane affairs, and claims to foretell future events from the positions of the stars. Its antiquity is such as to place it among the very earliest records of human learning. It remained for long ages a secret science in the East, and its final expression remains so to this day, its exoteric application only having been brought to any degree of perfection in the West during the lapse of time since Varaha Mihira wrote his book on Astrology, some 1400 years ago. Claudius Ptolemy, the famous geographer and mathematician, founded the system of astronomy known under his name, wrote his Tetrabiblos which is still the basis of modern Astrology in 135 AD . . . As to the origin of the science, it is known on the one hand that Thebes claimed the honour of the invention of Astrology; whereas, on the other hand, all are agreed that it was the Chaldees who taught that science to the other nations. . . . If later on the name of Astrologer fell into disrepute in Rome and elsewhere, it was owing to the frauds of those who wanted to make money of that which was part and parcel of the Sacred Science of the Mysteries, and who, ignorant of the latter, evolved a system based entirely on mathematics, instead of transcendental metaphysics with the physical celestial bodies as its upadhi or material basis. Yet, all persecutions notwithstanding, the number of adherents to Astrology among the most intellectual and scientific minds was always very great. If Cardan and Kepler were among its ardent supporters, then later votaries have nothing to blush for, even in its now imperfect and distorted form” (Key 318-19).

Blondel, Maurice: (1861-1939) A philosopher in the French "spiritualistic" tradition of Maine de Biran and Boutroux, who in his essays L'action (1893), and Le Proces de l'Intelligence (1922), defended an activistic psychology and metaphysics. "The Philosophy of Action" is a voluntaristic and idealistic philosophy which, as regards the relation of thought to action, seeks to compromise between the extremes of intellectualism and pragmatism. In his more recent book La Pensee (1934), Blondel retains his earlier activistic philosophy combined with a stronger theological emphasis. -- L.W.

B. Lotze, Rudolph Hermann: (1817-1881) Empiricist in science, teleological idealist in philosophy, theist in religion, poet and artist at heart, Lotze conceded three spheres; Necessary truths, facts, and values. Mechanism holds sway in the field of natural science; it does not generate meaning but is subordinated to value and reason which evolved a specific plan for the world. Lotze's psycho-physically oriented medical psychology is an applied metaphysics in which the concept soul stands for the unity of experience. Science attempts the demonstration of a coherence in nature; being is that which is in relationship; "thing" is not a conglomeration of qualities but a unity achieved through law; mutual effect or influence is as little explicable as being: It is the monistic Absolute working upon itself. The ultimate, absolute substance, God, is the good and is personal, personality being the highest value, and the most valuable is also the most real. Lotze disclaimed the ability to know all answers: they rest with God. Unity of law, matter, force, and all aspects of being produce beauty, while aesthetic experience consists in Einfühlung. Main works: Metaphysik, 1841; Logik, 1842; Medezinische Psychologie, 1842; Gesch. der Aesthetik im Deutschland, 1868; Mikrokosmos, 3 vols., 1856-64 (Eng. tr. 1885); Logik 1874; Metaphysik, 1879 (Eng. tr. 1884). --K. F. L. Love: (in Max Scheler) Giving one's self to a "total being" (Gesamtwesen); it therefore discloses the essence of that being; for this reason love is, for Scheler, an aspect of phenomonelogical knowledge. -- P. A.

Bohr bug "jargon, programming" /bohr buhg/ (From Quantum physics) A repeatable {bug}; one that manifests reliably under a possibly unknown but well-defined set of conditions. Compare {heisenbug}. See also {mandelbug}, {schroedinbug}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-28)

Bohr bug ::: (jargon, programming) /bohr buhg/ (From Quantum physics) A repeatable bug; one that manifests reliably under a possibly unknown but well-defined set of conditions.Compare heisenbug. See also mandelbug, schroedinbug.[Jargon File] (1995-02-28)

Boodin, John Elof: American philosopher born in Sweden in 1869 who emigrated in 1886 to the United States. Studied at the Universities of Colorado, Minnesota, Brown and especially Harvard under Royce with whom he kept a life-long friendship though he was opposed to his idealism. His works (Time and Reality, 1904 -- Truth and Reality, 1912 -- A Realistic Universe, 1916 -- Cosmic Evolution, 1925 -- Three Interpretations of the Universe, 1934 -- God, 1935 -- The Social Mind, 1940) form practically a complete system. His philosophy takes the form of a cosmic idealism, though he was interested for a time in certain aspects of pragmatism. It grew gradually from his early studies when he developed a new concept of a real and non-serial time. The structure of the cosmos is that of a hierarchy of fields, as exemplified in physics, in organisms, in consciousness and in society. The interpenetration of the mental fields makes possible human knowledge and social intercourse. Reality as such possesses five attributes: being (the dynamic stuff of all complexes, the active energy), time (the ground of change and transformation), space (which accounts for extension), consciousness (active awareness which lights up reality in spots; it becomes the self when conative tendencies cooperate as one active group), and form (the ground of organization and structure which conditions selective direction). God is the spirit of the whole. -- T.G.J Boole, George: (1815-1864) English mathematician. Professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork, 1849-1864. While he made contributions to other branches of mathematics, he is now remembered primarily as the founder of the Nineteenth Century algebra of logic and through it of modern symbolic logic. His Mathematical Analysis of Logic appeared in 1847 and the fuller Laws of Thought in 1854. -- A.C.

BOS ::: 1. (operating system) Basic Operating System.2. (tool) A data management system written at DESY and used in some high energy physics programs.3. (programming) The Basic Object System. (1999-01-20)

BOS 1. "operating system" {Basic Operating System}. 2. "tool" A data management system written at {DESY} and used in some high energy physics programs. 3. "programming" The {Basic Object System}. (1999-01-20)

Boutroux, E.: (1845-1921) Teacher of Bergson and M. Blondel, is best known for his defense of radical contingency and indeterminacy in metaphysics. Influenced by French "spiritualism" stemming from Maine de Biran, Boutroux was critical of the current psychological and sociological treatment of religious experience. Main works: Contingency of the Laws of Nature (tr. 1920); Philosophy and War (tr. 1916); Science et religion, 1908. -- L.W.

Bowne, Borden Parker: (1847-1910) His influence was not merely confined to the theological world of his religious communion as a teacher of philosophy at Boston University. His philosophy was conspicuous for the combination of theism with an idealistic view which he termed "Personalism" (q.v.). He mainly discussed issues of philosophy which had a bearing on religion, ethics, and epistemology. Main works: Metaphysics, 1882; Philosophy of Theism, 1887; Theory of Thought and Knowledge, 1897; Personalism, 1908; Kant and Spencer, 1912. -- H.H.

Physics Analysis Workbench "tool" (PAW) A general purpose portable tool for analysis and presentation of physics data. (1994-11-28)

Physics Analysis Workbench ::: (tool) (PAW) A general purpose portable tool for analysis and presentation of physics data. (1994-11-28)

Physics: (Gr. physis, nature) In Greek philosophy, one of the three branches of philosophy, Logic and Ethics being the other two among the Stoics (q.v.). In Descartes, metaphysics is the root and physics the trunk of the "tree of knowledge." Today, it is the science (overlapping chemistry, biology and human physiology) of the calculation and prediction of the phenomena of motion of microscopic or macroscopic bodies, e.g. gravitation, pressure, heat, light, sound, magnetism, electricity, radio-activity, etc. Philosophical problems arise concerning the relation of physics to biological and social phenomena, to pure mathematics, and to metaphysics. See Mechanism, Physicalism.. Physis: See Nature, Physics. Picturesque: A modification of the beautiful in English aesthetics, 18th century. -- L.V.

Physics. Lexington, Ky.: U. of Kentucky Press, 1966.

Bradley, Francis Herbert: (1846-1924) Dialectician extraordinary of British philosophy, Bradley sought to purge contemporary thought of the extremely sensationalistic and utilitarian elements embodied in the tradition of empiricism. Though owing much to Hegel, he early repudiated the Hegelian system as such, and his own variety of Absolute Idealism bases itself upon no scheme of categories. His brilliant attack upon the inadequate assumptions of hedonistic ethics (Ethical Studies, 1877) was followed in 1883 by The Principles of Logic in which his dialectic analysis was applied to the problems of inference and judgment. It was, however, his Appearance and Reality (1893) with its famous theory of "the degrees of truth" which first disturbed the somnambulism of modern metaphysics, and led Caird to remark upon "the greatest thing since Kant". In later years Bradley's growing realization of ultimate difficulties in his version of the coherence theory led him to modify his doctrines in the direction of a Platonic mysticism. See Essays on Truth and Reality, the second edition of the Logic Collected Essays, etc. -- W.S.W.

Brentano, Franz: (1838-1917) Who had originally been a Roman Catholic priest may be described as an unorthodox neo-scholastic. According to him the only three forms of psychic activity, representation, judgment and "phenomena of love and hate", are just three modes of "intentionality", i.e., of referring to an object intended. Judgments may be self-evident and thereby characterized as true and in an analogous way love and hate may be characterized as "right". It is on these characterizations that a dogmatic theory of truth and value may be based. In any mental experience the content is merely a "physical phenomenon" (real or imaginary) intended to be referred to, what is psychic is merely the "act" of representing, judging (viz. affirming or denying) and valuing (i.e. loving or hating). Since such "acts" are evidently immaterial, the soul by which they are performed may be proved to be a purely spiritual and imperishable substance and from these and other considerations the existence, spirituality, as also the infinite wisdom, goodness and justice of God may also be demonstrated. It is most of all by his classification of psychic phenomena, his psychology of "acts" and "intentions" and by his doctrine concerning self-evident truths and values that Brentano, who considered himself an Aristotelian, exercised a profound influence on subsequent German philosophers: not only on those who accepted his entire system (such as A. Marty and C. Stumpf) but also those who were somewhat more independent and original and whom he influenced either directly (as A. Meinong and E. Husserl) or indirectly (as M. Scheler and Nik. Hartmann). Main works: Psychologie des Aristoteles, 1867; Vom Dasein Gottes, 1868; Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt, 1874; Vom Ursprung sittliches Erkenntnis, 1884; Ueber die Zukunft der Philosophie, 1893; Die vier Phasen der Philos., 1895. -- H.Go. Broad, C.D.: (1887) As a realistic critical thinker Broad takes over from the sciences the methods that are fruitful there, classifies the various propositions used in all the sciences, and defines basic scientific concepts. In going beyond science, he seeks to reach a total view of the world by bringing in the facts and principles of aesthetic, religious, ethical and political experience. In trying to work out a much more general method which attacks the problem of the connection between mathematical concepts and sense-data better than the method of analysis in situ, he gives a simple exposition of the method of extensive abstraction, which applies the mutual relations of objects, first recognized in pure mathematics, to physics. Moreover, a great deal can be learned from Broad on the relation of the principle of relativity to measurement.

brocard ::: n. --> An elementary principle or maximum; a short, proverbial rule, in law, ethics, or metaphysics.

But by the same token, as Kant now shows in the third part on "Transcendental Dialectic", the forms of sensibility and understanding cannot be employed beyond experience in order to define the nature of such metaphysical entities as God, the immortal soul, and the World conceived as a totality. If the forms are valid in experience only because they are necessary conditions of experience, there is no way of judging their applicability to objects transcending experience. Thus Kant is driven to the denial of the possibility of a science of metaphysics. But though judgments of metaphysics are indemonstrable, they are not wholly useless. The "Ideas of Pure Reason" (Vernunft) have a "regulative use", in that they point to general objects which they cannot, however, constitute. Theoretical knowledge is limited to the realm of experience; and within this realm we cannot know "things-in-themselves", but only the way in which things appear under a priori forms of reason; we know things, in other words, as "phenomena."

But Kant's versatile, analytical mind could not rest here; and gradually his ideas underwent a radical transformation. He questioned the assumption, common to dogmatic metaphysics, that reality can be apprehended in and through concepts. He was helped to this view by the study of Leibniz's Nouveaux Essais (first published in 1765), and the skepticism and empiricism of Hume, through which, Kant stated, he was awakened from his "dogmatic slumbers". He cast about for a method by which the proper limits and use of reason could be firmly established. The problem took the form: By what right and within what limits may reason make synthetic, a priori judgments about the data of sense?

Capacity:Any ability, potentiality, power or talent possessed by anything, either to act or to suffer. It may be innate or acquired, dormant or active. The topic of capacity figures, in the main, in two branches of philosophy: (a) in metaphysics, as in Aristotle's discussion of potentiality and actuality, (b) in ethics, where an agent's capacities are usually regarded as having some bearing on the question as to what his duties are. -- W.K.F.

Cartesianism: The philosophy of the French thinker, Rene Descartes (Cartesius) 1596-1650. After completing his formal education at the Jesuit College at La Fleche, he spent the years 1612-1621 in travel and military service. The reminder of his life was devoted to study and writing. He died in Sweden, where he had gone in 1649 to tutor Queen Christina. His principal works are: Discours de la methode, (preface to his Geometric, Meteores, Dieptrique) Meditationes de prima philosophia, Principia philosophiae, Passions de l'ame, Regulae ad directionem ingenii, Le monde. Descartes is justly regarded as one of the founders of modern epistemology. Dissatisfied with the lack of agreement among philosophers, he decided that philosophy needed a new method, that of mathematics. He began by resolving to doubt everything which could not pass the test of his criterion of truth, viz. the clearness and distinctness of ideas. Anything which could pass this test was to be readmitted as self-evident. From self-evident truths, he deduced other truths which logically follow from them. Three kinds of ideas were distinguished: innate, by which he seems to mean little more than the mental power to think things or thoughts; adventitious, which come to him from without; factitious, produced within his own mind. He found most difficulty with the second type of ideas. The first reality discovered through his method is the thinking self. Though he might doubt nearly all else, Descartes could not reasonably doubt that he, who was thinking, existed as a res cogitans. This is the intuition enunciated in the famous aphorism: I think, therefore I am, Cogito ergo sum. This is not offered by Descartes as a compressed syllogism, but as an immediate intuition of his own thinking mind. Another reality, whose existence was obvious to Descartes, was God, the Supreme Being. Though he offered several proofs of the Divine Existence, he was convinced that he knew this also by an innate idea, and so, clearly and distinctly. But he did not find any clear ideas of an extra-mental, bodily world. He suspected its existence, but logical demonstration was needed to establish this truth. His adventitious ideas carry the vague suggestion that they are caused by bodies in an external world. By arguing that God would be a deceiver, in allowing him to think that bodies exist if they do not, he eventually convinced himself of the reality of bodies, his own and others. There are, then, three kinds of substance according to Descartes: Created spirits, i.e. the finite soul-substance of each man: these are immaterial agencies capable of performing spiritual operations, loosely united with bodies, but not extended since thought is their very essence. Uncreated Spirit, i.e. God, confined neither to space nor time, All-Good and All-Powerful, though his Existence can be known clearly, his Nature cannot be known adequately by men on earth, He is the God of Christianity, Creator, Providence and Final Cause of the universe. Bodies, i.e. created, physical substances existing independently of human thought and having as their chief attribute, extension. Cartesian physics regards bodies as the result of the introduction of "vortices", i.e. whorls of motion, into extension. Divisibility, figurability and mobility, are the notes of extension, which appears to be little more thin what Descartes' Scholastic teachers called geometrical space. God is the First Cause of all motion in the physical universe, which is conceived as a mechanical system operated by its Maker. Even the bodies of animals are automata. Sensation is the critical problem in Cartesian psychology; it is viewed by Descartes as a function of the soul, but he was never able to find a satisfactory explanation of the apparent fact that the soul is moved by the body when sensation occurs. The theory of animal spirits provided Descartes with a sort of bridge between mind and matter, since these spirits are supposed to be very subtle matter, halfway, as it were, between thought and extension in their nature. However, this theory of sensation is the weakest link in the Cartesian explanation of cognition. Intellectual error is accounted for by Descartes in his theory of assent, which makes judgment an act of free will. Where the will over-reaches the intellect, judgment may be false. That the will is absolutely free in man, capable even of choosing what is presented by the intellect as the less desirable of two alternatives, is probably a vestige of Scotism retained from his college course in Scholasticism. Common-sense and moderation are the keynotes of Descartes' famous rules for the regulation of his own conduct during his nine years of methodic doubt, and this ethical attitude continued throughout his life. He believed that man is responsible ultimately to God for the courses of action that he may choose. He admitted that conflicts may occur between human passions and human reason. A virtuous life is made possible by the knowledge of what is right and the consequent control of the lower tendencies of human nature. Six primary passions are described by Descartes wonder, love, hatred, desire, joy and sorrow. These are passive states of consciousness, partly caused by the body, acting through the animal spirits, and partly caused by the soul. Under rational control, they enable the soul to will what is good for the body. Descartes' terminology suggests that there are psychological faculties, but he insists that these powers are not really distinct from the soul itself, which is man's sole psychic agency. Descartes was a practical Catholic all his life and he tried to develop proofs of the existence of God, an explanation of the Eucharist, of the nature of religious faith, and of the operation of Divine Providence, using his philosophy as the basis for a new theology. This attempted theology has not found favor with Catholic theologians in general.

C. D. Broad, Perception, Physics, and Reality, 1914.

ceraunics ::: n. --> That branch of physics which treats of heat and electricity.

CERN "body" The European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Swizerland. Sir {Tim Berners-Lee} invented the {World-Wide Web} while working at CERN. Other notable computing developments at CERN include {ADAMO}, {Application Software Installation Server}, {CERNLIB}, {cfortran.h}, {CHEOPS}, {CICERO}, {Cortex}, {EMDIR}, {HBOOK}, {LIGHT}, {NFT}, {PATCHY}, {PL-11}, {Schoonschip}, {SHIFT}, and {ZEBRA}. {CERN Home (}. (2004-10-24)

CERN ::: (body) The European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Swizerland.Tim Berners-Lee invented the World-Wide Web while working at CERN.Other notable computing developments at CERN include ADAMO, Application Software Installation Server, CERNLIB, cfortran.h, CHEOPS, CICERO, Cortex, EMDIR, HBOOK, LIGHT, NFT, PATCHY, PL-11, Schoonschip, SHIFT, and ZEBRA. .(2004-10-24)

cfortran.h "library" A {transparent}, machine independent interface between {C} and {Fortran} routines and {global data}, developed by Burkhard Burow at CERN. It provides {macros} which allow the {C} {preprocessor} to translate a simple description of a C (Fortran) routine or global data into a Fortran (C) interface. Version 2.6 runs on {VAX}/{VMS}/{Ultrix}, {DECstation}, {Silicon Graphics}, {IBM} {RS/6000}, {Sun}, {Cray}, {Apollo}, {HP9000}, {LynxOS}, {f2c}, {NAG f90}. {(}. cfortran.h was reviewed in RS/Magazine November 1992 and a user's experiences with cfortran.h are described in the Jan 93 issue of Computers in Physics. (1992-04-12)

China. The traditional basic concepts of Chinese metaphysics are ideal. Heaven (T'ien), the spiritual and moral power of cosmic and social order, that distributes to each thing and person its alloted sphere of action, is theistically and personalistically conceived in the Shu Ching (Book of History) and the Shih Ching (Book of Poetry). It was probably also interpreted thus by Confucius and Mencius, assuredly so by Motze. Later it became identified with Fate or impersonal, immaterial cosmic power. Shang Ti (Lord on High) has remained through Chinese history a theistic concept. Tao, as cosmic principle, is an impersonal, immaterial World Ground. Mahayana Buddhism introduced into China an idealistic influence. Pure metaphysical idealism was taught by the Buddhist monk Hsuan Ch'uang. Important Buddhist and Taoist influences appear in Sung Confucianism (Ju Chia). a distinctly idealistic movement. Chou Tun I taught that matter, life and mind emerge from Wu Chi (Pure Being). Shao Yung espoused an essential objective idealism: the world is the content of an Universal Consciousness. The Brothers Ch'eng Hsao and Ch'eng I, together with Chu Hsi, distinguished two primordial principles, an active, moral, aesthetic, and rational Law (Li), and a passive ether stuff (Ch'i). Their emphasis upon Li is idealistic. Lu Chiu Yuan (Lu Hsiang Shan), their opponent, is interpreted both as a subjective idealist and as a realist with a stiong idealistic emphasis. Similarly interpreted is Wang Yang Ming of the Ming Dynasty, who stressed the splritual and moral principle (Li) behind nature and man.

CLHEP "library" A {C++} {class library} for high energy physics {applications}. (1994-12-12)

CLHEP ::: (library) A C++ class library for high energy physics applications. (1994-12-12)

CMZ ::: A portable interactive code management system from CodeME S.A.R.L in use in the high-energy physics community. (1994-12-22)

CMZ "programming" A {portable} {interactive} {code management} system from {CodeME} S.A.R.L in use in the high-energy physics community. (1994-12-22)

coleridgian ::: a. --> Pertaining to Samuel Taylor Coleridge, or to his poetry or metaphysics.

Collider, a physics research machine at Brookhaven National

complex number ::: (mathematics) A number of the form x+iy where i is the square root of -1, and x and y are real numbers, known as the real and imaginary part. Complex numbers can be plotted as points on a two-dimensional plane, known as an Argand diagram, where x and y are the Cartesian coordinates.An alternative, polar notation, expresses a complex number as (r e^it) where e is the base of natural logarithms, and r and t are real numbers, known as the magnitude and phase. The two forms are related: r e^it = r cos(t) + i r sin(t)= x + i y numbers. This is the so-called Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, first proved by Cauchy.Complex numbers are useful in many fields of physics, such as electromagnetism because they are a useful way of representing a magnitude and phase as a single quantity. (1995-04-10)

complex number "mathematics" A number of the form x+iy where i is the square root of -1, and x and y are {real numbers}, known as the "real" and "imaginary" part. Complex numbers can be plotted as points on a two-dimensional plane, known as an {Argand diagram}, where x and y are the {Cartesian coordinates}. An alternative, {polar} notation, expresses a complex number as (r e^it) where e is the base of {natural logarithms}, and r and t are real numbers, known as the magnitude and phase. The two forms are related: r e^it = r cos(t) + i r sin(t)     = x + i y where x = r cos(t) y = r sin(t) All solutions of any {polynomial equation} can be expressed as complex numbers. This is the so-called {Fundamental Theorem of Algebra}, first proved by Cauchy. Complex numbers are useful in many fields of physics, such as electromagnetism because they are a useful way of representing a magnitude and phase as a single quantity. (1995-04-10)

Comte, Auguste: (1798-1857) Was born and lived during a period when political and social conditions in France were highly unstable. In reflecting the spirit of his age, he rose against the tendency prevalent among his predecessors to propound philosophic doctrines in disregard of the facts of nature and society. His revolt was directed particularly against traditional metaphysics with its endless speculations, countless assumptions, and futile controversies. To his views he gave the name of positivism. According to him, the history of humanity should be described in terms of three stages. The first of these was the theological stage when people's interpretation of reality was dominated by superstitions and prejudicesj the second stage was metaphysical when people attempted to comprehend, and reason about, reality, but were unable to support their contentions by facts; and the third and final stage was positive, when dogmatic assumptions began to be replaced by factual knowledge. Accordingly, the history of thought was characterized by a certain succession of sciences, expressing the turning of scholarly interest toward the earthly and human affairs, namely; mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and sociology. These doctrines were discussed in Comte's main work, Cours de philosophic positive. -- R.B.W.

Comtism ::: Auguste Comte's positivistic philosophy that metaphysics and theology should be replaced by a hierarchy of sciences from mathematics at the base to sociology at the top.

Conjugation: (Lat. con + jungere, yoke together) Grammar: The inflections of a verb. Biology: The union of male and female plant or animal. Logic: Joining the extreme terms of a syllogism by the middle term; joining dissimilar things by their common characteristics or by analogy. Ethics: Conjugations or pairings of the passions: love and hate, desire and avoidance, pleasure and sadness, etc. Synonymous with connexio. Metaphysics: In Aristotle, De Gen. et Corr., the pairings of opposites in the simple bodies: dry and hot (fire), hot and moist (air), moist and cold (water), cold and dry (earth).

Consciousness: (Lat. conscire, to know, to be cognizant of) A designation applied to conscious mind as opposed to a supposedly unconscious or subconscious mind (See Subconscious Mind; Unconscious Mind), and to the whole domain of the physical and non-mental. Consciousness is generally considered an indefinable term or rather a term definable only by direct introspective appeal to conscious experiences. The indefinability of consciousness is expressed by Sir William Hamilton: "Consciousness cannot be defined: we may be ourselves fully aware what consciousness is, but we cannot without confusion convey to others a definition of what we ourselves clearly apprehend. The reason is plain: consciousness lies at the root of all knowledge." (Lectures on Metaphysics, I, 191.) Ladd's frequently quoted definition of consciousness succeeds only in indicating the circumstances under which it is directly observable: "Whatever we are when we are awake, as contrasted with what we are when we sink into a profound and dreamless sleep, that is to be conscious."

Continuant: ''That which continues to exist while its states or relations may be changing" (Johnson, Logic I, p. 199). The continuant is in Johnson's metaphysics a revised and somewhat more precise form of the traditional conception of substance; it includes, according to him, that residuum from the traditional conception of substance which is both philosophically justifiable and indispensable.

Conventional Sciences ::: Science as applied to our known physical world. Includes fields such as chemistry, physics, and biology. Contrasted with Occult Sciences.

Cosmecology: This title (meaning the ecology of the cosmic) was suggested by Harlan T. Stetson, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for a synthesis of the contemporary sciences of astronomy, electro-physics, geology and biology. He suggested that we trace the correlation between changes of a cosmic origin that affect our terrestrial environment, and periods of optimism and depression in the psychology of the human race.

Cosmology: A branch of philosophy which treats of the origin and structure of the universe. It is to be contrasted with ontology or metaphysics, the study of the most general features of reality, natural and supernatural, and with the philosophy of nature, which investigates the basic laws, processes and divisions of the objects in nature. It is perhaps impossible to draw or maintain a sharp distinction between these different subjects, and treatises which profess to deal with one of them usually contain considerable material on the others. Encyclopedia, section 35), are the contingency, necessity, eternity, limitations and formal laws of the world, the freedom of man and the origin of evil. Most philosophers would add to the foregoing the question of the nature and interrelationship of space and time, and would perhaps exclude the question of the nature of freedom and the origin of evil as outside the province of cosmology. The method of investigation has usually been to accept the principles of science or the results of metaphysics and develop the consequences. The test of a cosmology most often used is perhaps that of exhibiting the degree of accordance it has with respect to both empirical fact and metaphysical truth. The value of a cosmology seems to consist primarily in its capacity to provide an ultimate frame for occurrences in nature, and to offer a demonstration of where the limits of the spatio-temporal world are, and how they might be transcended.

Cosmology - the science of the origin and development of the universe. Modern astronomy is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics. See /r/cosmology.

Cournot, Antoine Augustin: (1801-1877) French mathematician, economist, and philosopher, is best known for his interest in probability. His philosophical writings, long neglected, reflect disagreement both with the positivism of his own day and with the earlier French rationalism. His place between the two is manifest in his doctrine that order and contingency, continuity and discontinuity, are equally real. This metaphysical position led him to conclude that man, though he cannot attain certain truth of nature, can by increasing the probable truth of his statements approach this truth. Cournot's mathematical investigations into probability and his mathematical treatment of economics thus harmonize with his metaphysics and epistemology. Main works: Exposition de la theorie des chances et des probabdites, 1843; Essai sur les fondements de la connaissance, 2 vols. 1851; Consid. sur les marches des idees, 1872; Materialisme, Vitalisme, Rationalism, 1875; Traite de l'Enchainement des idees fondamentales dans les sciences et dans l'histoire, 1881.

Cousin, Victor: (1792-1867) Was among those principally responsible for producing the shift in French philosophy away from sensationalism in the direction of "spiritualism"; in his own thinking, Cousin was first influenced by Locke and Condillac, and later turned to idealism under the influence of Maine de Biran and Schelling. His most characteristic philosophical insights are contained in Fragments Philosophiques (1826), in which he advocated as the basis of metaphysics a careful observation and analysis of the facts of the conscious life. He lectured at the Sorbonne from 1815 until 1820 when he was suspended for political reasons, but he was reinstated in 1827 and continued to lecture there until 1832. He exercised a great influence on his philosophical contemporaries and founded the spiritualistic or eclectic school in French Philosophy. The members of his school devoted themselves largely to historical studies for which Cousin had provided the example in his Introduction a l'Histoire General de la Philosophie, 7th ed. 1872. -- L.W.

Creighton, James Edwin: (1861-1924) Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at Cornell University. He was one of the founders and a president of the American Philosophical Association, American editor of Kant-Studien and editor of The Philosophical Review. He was greatly influenced by Bosanquet. His Introductory Logic had long been a standard text. His basic ideas as expressed in articles published at various times were posthumously published in a volume entitled Studies in Speculative Philosophy, a term expressive of his intellectualistic form of objective idealism. -- L.E.D.

Criticality ::: A term used in reactor physics to describe the state when the number of neutrons released by fission is exactly balanced by the neutrons being absorbed (by the fuel and poisons) and escaping the reactor core. A reactor is said to be "critical" when it achieves a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, as when the reactor is operating.

critical mass ::: In physics, the minimum amount of fissionable material required to sustain a chain reaction. Of a software product, describes a condition of the software initial design, etc.) When software achieves critical mass, it can never be fixed; it can only be discarded and rewritten.[Jargon File] (1994-12-23)

critical mass In physics, the minimum amount of fissionable material required to sustain a chain reaction. Of a software product, describes a condition of the software such that fixing one bug introduces one plus {epsilon} bugs. (This malady has many causes: {creeping featurism}, ports to too many disparate environments, poor initial design, etc.) When software achieves critical mass, it can never be fixed; it can only be discarded and rewritten. [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-23)

Critique of Pure Reason: (Ger. Kritik der reinen Vernunft) The first of three Critiques written by Immanuel Kant (1781) in which he undertook a critical examination of pure reason, its nature and limits, with a view to exhibiting a criterion for judging the validity of propositions of metaphysics. The first Critique was followed by the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), and the Critique of Judgment (1790). See Kantianism. -- O.F.K.

decay ::: [Nuclear physics] An automatic conversion which is applied to most array-valued expressions in C; they decay into pointer-valued expressions pointing to the array's first element. This term is not used in the official standard for the language.[Jargon File]

decay [Nuclear physics] An automatic conversion which is applied to most array-valued expressions in {C}; they "decay into" pointer-valued expressions pointing to the array's first element. This term is not used in the official standard for the language. [{Jargon File}]

deconstructionism ::: A school and a set of methods of textual criticism aimed at understanding the assumptions and ideas that form the basis for thought and belief. Also called "deconstruction", its central concern is a radical critique of the metaphysics of the Western philosophical tradition, in which it identifies a logicentrism or "metaphysics of presence" which holds that speech-thought (the logos) is a privileged, ideal, and self-present entity, through which all discourse and meaning derive. This logocentrism is the primary target of deconstruction.

degrees of freedom: A number of related concepts in physics, mechanics, engineering and statistics regarding the independence/interdependence of parameters. Informally, any parameters/variables whose value can occur or be set independently of the values of other parameters/variables count as one degree of freedom towards the (total) number of degrees of freedom of the whole system.

delta ::: 1. A quantitative change, especially a small or incremental one (this use is general in physics and engineering). I just doubled the speed of my program! What was the delta on program size? About 30 percent. (He doubled the speed of his program, but increased its size by only 30 percent.)2. [Unix] A diff, especially a diff stored under the set of version-control tools called SCCS (Source Code Control System) or RCS (Revision Control System). See change management.3. A small quantity, but not as small as epsilon. The jargon usage of delta and epsilon stems from the traditional use of these letters in mathematics for very Common constructions include within delta of ---, within epsilon of ---: that is, close to and even closer to.[Jargon File](2000-08-02)

delta 1. A quantitative change, especially a small or incremental one (this use is general in physics and engineering). "I just doubled the speed of my program!" "What was the delta on program size?" "About 30 percent." (He doubled the speed of his program, but increased its size by only 30 percent.) 2. [Unix] A {diff}, especially a {diff} stored under the set of version-control tools called SCCS (Source Code Control System) or RCS (Revision Control System). See {change management}. 3. A small quantity, but not as small as {epsilon}. The jargon usage of {delta} and {epsilon} stems from the traditional use of these letters in mathematics for very small numerical quantities, particularly in "epsilon-delta" proofs in limit theory (as in the differential calculus). The term {delta} is often used, once {epsilon} has been mentioned, to mean a quantity that is slightly bigger than {epsilon} but still very small. "The cost isn't epsilon, but it's delta" means that the cost isn't totally negligible, but it is nevertheless very small. Common constructions include "within delta of ---", "within epsilon of ---": that is, "close to" and "even closer to". [{Jargon File}] (2000-08-02)

Dewey, John: (1859-) Leading American philosopher. The spirit of democracy and an abiding faith in the efficacy of human intelligence run through the many pages he has presented in the diverse fields of metaphysics, epistemology, logic, psychology, aesthetics, religion, ethics, politics and education, in all of which he has spoken with authority. Progressive education owes its impetus to his guidance and its tenets largely to his formulation. He is the chief exponent of that branch of pragmatism known as instrumentalism. Among his main works are Psychology, 1886; Outline of Ethics, 1891; Studies in Logical Theory, 1903; Ethics (Dewey and Tufts), 1908; How We Think, 1910; Influence of Darwin on German Philosophy, 1910; Democracy and Education, 1916; Essays in Experimental Logic, 1916; Reconstruction in Philosophy, 1920; Human Nature and Conduct, 1922; Experience and Nature, 1925; The Quest for Certainty, 1929; Art as Experience, 1933; Logic: The Theory of Inquiry, 1939.   Cf. J. Ratner, The Philosophy of John Dewey, 1940, M. H. Thomas, A Bibliography of John Dewey, 1882-1939, The Philosophy of John Dewey, ed. P. A. Schilpp (Evanston, 1940). Dharma: (Skr.) Right, virtue, duty, usage, law, social as well as cosmic. -- K.F.L.

dominion over physics and astronomy. He is also

Dynamism: (Gr. dynamis, power) A term applied to a philosophical system which, in contrast to philosophy of mechanism (q.v.), adopts force rather than mass or motion as its basic explanatory concept. In this sense the Leibnizian philosophy is dynamism in contrast to the mechanism of Descartes' physics. -- L.W.

Edwards, Jonathan: (1703-1758) American theologian. He is looked upon by many as one of the first theologians that the New World has produced. Despite the formalistic nature of his system, there is a noteworthy aesthetic foundation in his emphasis on "divine and supernatural light" as the basis for illumination and the searchlight to an exposition of such topics as freedom and original sin. Despite the aura of tradition about his pastorates at Northampton and Stockbridge, his missionary services among the Indians and his short lived presidency of Princeton University, then the College of New Jersey, he remains significant in the fields of theology, metaphysics, epistemology, aesthetics and ethics. See Life and Works of Jonathan Edwards, 10 vol. (1830) ed. S. E. Dvsight. -- L.E.D.

Energy [from Greek energeia possessing + ergon active power] In physics, energy is treated as a measurable quantity, without reference to its actual nature or source. It used to be considered as distinct from and correlative to either matter, inertia, or mass; but now the conception of mass or matter as distinct from energy has disappeared.

Energy: (Gr. energos, at work) The power by which things act to change other things. Potentiality in the physical. Employed by Aristotle as a synonym for actuality or reality. (a) In physics: the capacity for performing work. In modern physics, the equivalent of mass. (b) In i axiology: value at the physical level- -- J.K.F.

Enlightened Science: Alteration of apparent reality models based upon advanced scientific principles and understanding; in other words, technomagick. (See hypertech, Inspired Science, reality physics.)

EPCS {Experimental Physics Control Systems}

Epicurean School: Founded by Epicurus in Athens in the year 306 B.C. Epicureanism gave expression to the desire for a refined type of happiness which is the reward of the cultured man who can take pleasure in the joys of the mind over which he can have greater control than over those of a material or sensuous nature. The friendship of gifted and noble men, the peace and contentment that comes from fair conduct, good morals and aesthetic enjoyments are the ideals of the Epicurean who refuses to be perturbed by any metaphysical or religious doctrines which impose duties and thus hinder the freedom of pure enjoyment. Epicurus adopted the atomism of Democritus (q.v.) but modified its determinism by permitting chance to cause a swerve (clinamen) in the fall of the atoms. See C. W. Bailey, Epicurus. However, physics was not to be the main concern of the philosopher. See Apathia, Ataraxia, Hedonism. -- M.F.

Epistemology: (Gr. episteme, knowledge + logos, theory) The branch of philosophy which investigates the origin, structure, methods and validity of knowledge. The term "epistemology" appears to have been used for the first time by J. F. Ferrier, Institutes of Metaphysics (1854) who distinguished two branches of philosophy -- epistemology and ontology. The German equivalent of epistemology, Erkenntnistheorie, was used by the Kantian, K. L. Reinhold, Versuch einer Neuen Theorie des menschlichen Vorstellungsvermögens (1789); Das Fundament des philosophischen Wissens (1791), but the term did not gain currency until after its adoption by E. Zeller, Ueber Aufgabe und Bedeutung der Erkenntnisstheorie (1862). The term theory of knowledge is a common English equivalent of epistemology and translation of Erkenntnistheorie; the term Gnosiology has also been suggested but has gained few adherents.

epistemology ::: Traditionally, the study of knowledge and its validity. In Integral Post-Metaphysics, epistemology is not a separate discipline or activity but that aspect of the AQAL matrix that is experienced as knowingness; the study of that aspect is epistemology. The term “epistemology” is sometimes used in this sense given the lack of alternatives.

Epithumia (Greek) In Greek metaphysics, equivalent in the human constitution to kama or the desire principle. Psyche or soul was a union of bios (physical vitality, prana), epithumia, and phren or mens (mind, manas). (BCW 1:292, 365) “Pythagoras and Plato both divided soul into two representative parts, independent of each other — the one, the rational soul, or logos, the other irrational, alogos — the latter being again subdivided into two parts or aspects the thymichon and the epithymichon, which, with the divine soul and its spirit and the body, make the seven principles of Theosophy” (BCW 7:229). See also PRINCIPLES

eternalism ::: A philosophical approach to the ontological nature of time. It builds on the standard method of modeling time as a dimension in physics, to give time a similar ontology to that of space. This would mean that time is just another dimension, that future events are "already there", and that there is no objective flow of time.

Eucken, Rudolf: (1846-1926) Being a writer of wide popularity, winner of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1908, Eucken defends a spiritualistic-idealistic metaphysics against materialistic naturalism, positivism and mechanism. Spiritual life, not being an oppositionless experience, is a struggle, a self-asserting action by resistance, a matter of great alternatives, either-ors between the natural and the spiritual, a matter of vital choice. Thus all significant oppositions are, within spiritual life itself, at once created and overcome. Immanence and transcendence, personalism and absolutism are the two native spiritual oppositions that agitate Eucken's system. Reconciliation between the vital dualities therefore depends not on mere intellectual insight, but on personal effort, courageous, heroic, militant and devoted action. He handles the basic oppositions of experience in harmony with the activist tenor of liberal Protestantism. Eucken sought to replace the prevailing intellectualistic idealism by an activistic idealism, founded on a comprehensive and historical consideration of culture at large. He sought to interpret the spiritual content of historical movements. He conceived of historical facts as being so many systematized wholes of life, for which he coined the term syntagma. His distinctive historical method consists of the reductive and the noological aspects. The former considers the parts directly in relation to an inward whole. The latter is an inner dialectic and immanent criticism of the inward principles of great minds, embracing the cosmologicnl and psychological ways of philosophical construction and transcending by the concept of spiritual life the opposition of the world and the individual soul. Preaching the need of a cultural renewal, not a few of his popularized ideas found their more articulated form in the philosophical sociology of his most eminent pupil, Max Scheler, in the cultural psychology of both Spranger and Spengler. His philosophy is essentially a call to arms against the deadening influences of modern life. -- H.H.

evolutionist ::: n. --> One skilled in evolutions.

one who holds the doctrine of evolution, either in biology or in metaphysics.

Exemplary cause: (Lat. exemplum, pattern or example) A form of causality resembling that exercised by the Ideas in Platonism, the rationes aeternae in Augustinianism and Thomism. The role of an archetypal, or "pattern" cause is much discussed in Scholastic metaphysics because of the teaching that the universe was created in accord with a Divine Plan consisting of the eternal ideas in the Mind of God. -- V.J.B.

Experimental Physics Control Systems "body" (EPCS) A group of the European Physical Society, focussing on all aspects of controls, especially {informatics}, in experimental physics, including accelerators and experiments. (1994-12-12)

Experimental Physics Control Systems ::: (EPCS) A group of the European Physical Society, focussing on all aspects of controls, especially informatics, in experimental physics, including accelerators and experiments. (1994-12-12)

F. A. Lindemann, The Physical Significance of the Quantum Theory, Oxford, 1932. J. Frenkel, Wave Mechanics, Elementary Theory, Oxford 1937. Louis de Broglie, Matter and Light, The New Physics, translated by W. H. Johnston, New York, 1939.

F. C. S. Schiller, the Oxford pragmatist or humanist, is, if anything, more hostile to rationalism, intellectualism, absolute metaphysics and even systematic and rigorous thinking than James himself. In his Humanism (1903) and his most important book Studies in Humanism (1907), he attempts to resolve or deflate metaphysical issues and controversies by practical distinctions of terms and appeal to personal, human factors, supposedly forgotten by other philosophers. Schiller wrote about many of the topics which James treated: absolute metaphysics, religion, truth, freedom, psychic research, etc., and the outcome is similar. His spirited defense of Protagoras, "the humanist", against Socrates and his tireless bantering critique of all phases of formal logic are elements of novelty. So also is his extreme activism. He goes so far as to say that "In validating our claims to 'truth' . . . we really transform them [realities] by our cognitive efforts, thereby proving our desires and ideas to be real forces in the shaping of the world". (Studies tn Humanism, 1906, p. 425.) Schiller's apparent view that desires and ideas can transform both truth and reality, even without manipulation or experiment, could also be found in James, but is absent in Dewey and later pragmatists.

Ficino, Marsilio: Of Florence (1433-99). Was the main representative of Platonism in Renaissance Italy. His doctrine combines NeoPlatonic metaphysics and Augustinian theologv with many new, original ideas. His major work, the Theologia Ptatonica (1482) presents a hierarchical system of the universe (God, Angelic Mind, Soul, Quality, Body) and a great number of arguments for the immortality of the soul. Man is considered as the center of the universe, and human life is interpreted as an internal ascent of the soul towards God. Through the Florentine Academy Ficino's Platonism exercised a large influence upon his contemporaries. His theory of "Platonic love" had vast repercussions in Italian, French and English literature throughout the sixteenth century. His excellent Latin translations of Plato (1484), Plotinus (1492), and other Greek philosophers provided the occidental world with new materials of the greatest importance and were widely used up to the beginning of the nineteenth century. -- P.O.K.

Fischer, Kuno: (1824-1907) Is one of the series of eminent German historians of philosophy, inspired by the impetus which Hegel gave to the study of history. He personally joined in the revival of Kantianism in opposition to rationalistic, speculative metaphysics and the progress of materialism.

Frank, Philipp: (b. 1884) A member of the "Vienna Circle," who has made his home in the U. S. He has been avowedly influenced by Mach. His major work lies on the borderline between philosophy and physics and he makes an effort "to employ only concepts which will not lose their usefulness outside of physics."

FreeHEP ::: An organisation offering a repository of software and related information for high energy physics applications.

FreeHEP An organisation offering a repository of software and related information for high energy physics applications.

gas ::: 1. A substance in the gaseous state. 2. Physics. A substance possessing perfect molecular mobility and the property of indefinite expansion, as opposed to a solid or liquid.

Gassendi, Pierre: (1592-1655) Was a leading opponent of Cartesianism and of Scholastic Aristotelianism in the field of the physical sciences. Though he was a Catholic priest, with orthodox views in theology, he revived the materialistic atomism of Epicurus and Lucretius. Born in Provence, and at one time Canon of Dijon, he became a distinguished professor of mathematics at the Royal College of Paris in 1645. He seems to have been sincerely convinced that the Logic, Physics and Ethics of Epicureanism were superior to any other type of classical or modern philosophy. His objections to Descartes' Meditationes, with the Cartesian responses, are printed with the works of Descartes. His other philosophical works are Commentarius de vita moribus et placitis Epicuri (Amsterdam, 1659). Syntagma philosophiae Epicuri (Amsterdam, 1684). -- V.J.B.

Gautama Buddha: (Skr. Gautama, a patronymic, meaning of the tribe of Gotama; Buddha, the enlightened one) The founder of Buddhism. born about 563 B.C. into a royal house at Kapilavastu. As Prince Siddhartha (Siddhattha) he had all worldly goods and pleasures at his disposal, married, had a son, but was so stirred by sights of disease, old age, and death glimpsed on stolen drives through the city that he renounced all when but 29 years of age, became a mendicant, sought instruction in reaching an existence free from these evils and tortures, fruitlessly however, till at the end of seven years of search while sitting under the Bodhi-tree, he became the Buddha, the Awakened One, and attained the true insight. Much that is legendary and reminds one of the Christian mythos surrounds Buddha's life as retold in an extensive literature which also knows of his former and future existences. Mara, the Evil One, tempted Buddha to enter nirvana (s.v.) directly, withholding thus knowledge of the path of salvation from the world; but the Buddha was firm and taught the rightful path without venturing too far into metaphysics, setting all the while an example of a pure and holy life devoted to the alleviation of suffering. At the age of 80, having been offered and thus compelled to partake of pork, he fell ill and in dying attained nirvana. -- K.F.L.

Gazali: Born 1059 in Tus, in the country of Chorasan, taught at Bagdad, lived for a time in Syria, died in his home town 1111. He started as a sceptic in philosophy and became a mystic and orthodox afterwards. Philosophy is meaningful only as introduction to theology. His attitude resembles Neo-Platonic mysticism and is anti-Aristotelian. He wrote a detailed report on the doctrines of Farabi and Avicenna only to subject them to a scathing criticism in Destructio philosophorum where he points out the self-contradictions of philosophers. His main works are theological. In his writings on logic he wants to ensure to theology a reliable method of procedure. His metaphysics also is mainly based on theology: creation of the world out of nothing, resurrection, and so forth. Cf. H. Bauer, Die Dogmatik Al-Ghazalis, 1912. -- R.A.

gedanken /g*-dahn'kn/ Ungrounded; impractical; not well-thought-out; untried; untested. "Gedanken" is a German word for "thought". A thought experiment is one you carry out in your head. In physics, the term "gedanken experiment" is used to refer to an experiment that is impractical to carry out, but useful to consider because it can be reasoned about theoretically. (A classic gedanken experiment of relativity theory involves thinking about a man in an elevator accelerating through space.) Gedanken experiments are very useful in physics, but must be used with care. It's too easy to idealise away some important aspect of the real world in constructing the "apparatus". Among hackers, accordingly, the word has a pejorative connotation. It is typically used of a project, especially one in artificial intelligence research, that is written up in grand detail (typically as a Ph.D. thesis) without ever being implemented to any great extent. Such a project is usually perpetrated by people who aren't very good hackers or find programming distasteful or are just in a hurry. A "gedanken thesis" is usually marked by an obvious lack of intuition about what is programmable and what is not, and about what does and does not constitute a clear specification of an algorithm. See also {AI-complete}, {DWIM}.

gedanken ::: /g*-dahn'kn/ Ungrounded; impractical; not well-thought-out; untried; untested.Gedanken is a German word for thought. A thought experiment is one you carry out in your head. In physics, the term gedanken experiment is used to refer to used with care. It's too easy to idealise away some important aspect of the real world in constructing the apparatus.Among hackers, accordingly, the word has a pejorative connotation. It is typically used of a project, especially one in artificial intelligence research, does not constitute a clear specification of an algorithm. See also AI-complete, DWIM.

Georg Simon Ohm "person" (1789-1854) A German physicist who became Professor of Physics at Munich University, after whom the unit of electrical resistance was named. (2003-12-02)

Georg Simon Ohm ::: (person) (1789-1854) A German physicist who became Professor of Physics at Munich University, after whom the unit of electrical resistance was named.(2003-12-02)

Greece. Homeric thought centered in Moira (Fate), an impersonal, immaterial power that distributes to gods and men their respective stations. While the main stream of pre-Socratic thought was naturalistic, it was not materialistic. The primordial Being of things, the Physis, is both extended and spiritual (hylozoism). Soul and Mind are invariably identified with Physis. Empedocles' distinction between inertia and force (Love and Hate) was followed by Anaxagoras' introduction of Mind (Nous) as the first cause of order and the principle of spontaneity or life in things. Socrates emphasized the ideological principle and introduced the category of Value as primary both in Nature and Man. He challenged the completeness of the mechanical explanation of natural events. Plato's theory of Ideas (as traditionally interpreted by historians) is at once a metaphysics, epistemology, and axiology. Ideas, forming a hierarchy and systematically united in the Good, are timeless essences comprising the realm of true Being. They are archetypes and causes of things in the realm of Non-Being (Space). Aristotle, while moving in the direction of common-sense realism, was also idealistic. Forms or species are secondary substances, and collectively form the dynamic and rational structure of the World. Active reason (Nous Poietikos), possessed by all rational creatures, is immaterial and eternal. Mind is the final cause of all motion. God is pure Mind, self-contained, self-centered, and metaphysically remote from the spatial World. The Stoics united idealism and hylozoistic naturalism in their doctrine of dynamic rational cosmic law (Logos), World Soul, Pneuma, and Providence (Pronoia).

hack "jargon" 1. Originally, a quick job that produces what is needed, but not well. 2. An incredibly good, and perhaps very time-consuming, piece of work that produces exactly what is needed. 3. To bear emotionally or physically. "I can't hack this heat!" 4. To work on something (typically a program). In an immediate sense: "What are you doing?" "I'm hacking TECO." In a general (time-extended) sense: "What do you do around here?" "I hack TECO." More generally, "I hack "foo"" is roughly equivalent to ""foo" is my major interest (or project)". "I hack solid-state physics." See {Hacking X for Y}. 5. To pull a prank on. See {hacker}. 6. To interact with a computer in a playful and exploratory rather than goal-directed way. "Whatcha up to?" "Oh, just hacking." 7. Short for {hacker}. 8. See {nethack}. 9. (MIT) To explore the basements, roof ledges, and steam tunnels of a large, institutional building, to the dismay of Physical Plant workers and (since this is usually performed at educational institutions) the Campus Police. This activity has been found to be eerily similar to playing adventure games such as {Dungeons and Dragons} and {Zork}. See also {vadding}. See also {neat hack}, {real hack}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-08-26)

hack ::: (jargon) 1. Originally, a quick job that produces what is needed, but not well.2. An incredibly good, and perhaps very time-consuming, piece of work that produces exactly what is needed.3. To bear emotionally or physically. I can't hack this heat!4. To work on something (typically a program). In an immediate sense: What are you doing? I'm hacking TECO. In a general (time-extended) sense: What do you equivalent to foo is my major interest (or project). I hack solid-state physics. See Hacking X for Y.5. To pull a prank on. See hacker.6. To interact with a computer in a playful and exploratory rather than goal-directed way. Whatcha up to? Oh, just hacking.7. Short for hacker.8. See nethack.9. (MIT) To explore the basements, roof ledges, and steam tunnels of a large, institutional building, to the dismay of Physical Plant workers and (since this activity has been found to be eerily similar to playing adventure games such as Dungeons and Dragons and Zork. See also vadding.See also neat hack, real hack.[Jargon File] (1996-08-26)

Hartmann, Nicolai: (1882-) A realist in metaphysics, he refutes nineteenth century idealism and monism, and attacks medieval super-naturalism and the various forms of theism. As exponent of a philosophic humanism, he made extensive contributions to ethics.

H. Bergson, Introduction to Metaphysics, Eng. trans., 1912.

Health Physics ::: The science concerned with the recognition, evaluation, and control of health hazards which may arise from the use and application of ionizing radiation.

Heat In science heat is a class of effects called thermal, and diagnosed as vibratory affections of the particles of bodies, produced by solar radiation, mechanical means, chemical action, or the flow of electric current. In seeking the unity which may reconcile these diversities, science has agreed to call heat a mode of motion or one of the forms of energy. According to this theory, heat energy and mechanical energy are mutually convertible. Heat in the terms of modern physics cannot be described either as a fluid or as a mode of motion; but like all physical phenomena, whether we call them substantial or dynamic, it is a function of the activities of some substratum whose nature science is still striving to define.

heisenbug ::: (jargon) /hi:'zen-buhg/ (From Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle in quantum physics) A bug that disappears or alters its behaviour when one attempts enough that buggy code, such as that which relies on the values of uninitialised memory, behaves quite differently.)In C, nine out of ten heisenbugs result from uninitialised auto variables, fandango on core phenomena (especially lossage related to corruption of the malloc arena) or errors that smash the stack.Opposite: Bohr bug. See also mandelbug, schroedinbug.[Jargon File] (1995-02-28)

heisenbug "jargon" /hi:'zen-buhg/ (From Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle in quantum physics) A bug that disappears or alters its behaviour when one attempts to probe or isolate it. (This usage is not even particularly fanciful; the use of a debugger sometimes alters a program's operating environment enough that buggy code, such as that which relies on the values of uninitialised memory, behaves quite differently.) In {C}, nine out of ten heisenbugs result from uninitialised {auto variables}, {fandango on core} phenomena (especially corruption of the malloc {arena}) or errors that {smash the stack}. Opposite: {Bohr bug}. See also {mandelbug}, {schroedinbug}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-28)

Hence in its widest sense Scholasticism embraces all the intellectual activities, artistic, philosophical and theological, carried on in the medieval schools. Any attempt to define its narrower meaning in the field of philosophy raises serious difficulties, for in this case, though the term's comprehension is lessened, it still has to cover many centuries of many-faced thought. However, it is still possible to list several characteristics sufficient to differentiate Scholastic from non-Scholastic philosophy. While ancient philosophy was the philosophy of a people and modern thought that of individuals, Scholasticism was the philosophy of a Christian society which transcended the characteristics of individuals, nations and peoples. It was the corporate product of social thought, and as such its reasoning respected authority in the forms of tradition and revealed religion. Tradition consisted primarily in the systems of Plato and Aristotle as sifted, adapted and absorbed through many centuries. It was natural that religion, which played a paramount role in the culture of the middle ages, should bring influence to bear on the medieval, rational view of life. Revelation was held to be at once a norm and an aid to reason. Since the philosophers of the period were primarily scientific theologians, their rational interests were dominated by religious preoccupations. Hence, while in general they preserved the formal distinctions between reason and faith, and maintained the relatively autonomous character of philosophy, the choice of problems and the resources of science were controlled by theology. The most constant characteristic of Scholasticism was its method. This was formed naturally by a series of historical circumstances,   The need of a medium of communication, of a consistent body of technical language tooled to convey the recently revealed meanings of religion, God, man and the material universe led the early Christian thinkers to adopt the means most viable, most widely extant, and nearest at hand, viz. Greek scientific terminology. This, at first purely utilitarian, employment of Greek thought soon developed under Justin, Clement of Alexandria, Origin, and St. Augustine into the "Egyptian-spoils" theory; Greek thought and secular learning were held to be propaedeutic to Christianity on the principle: "Whatever things were rightly said among all men are the property of us Christians." (Justin, Second Apology, ch. XIII). Thus was established the first characteristic of the Scholastic method: philosophy is directly and immediately subordinate to theology.   Because of this subordinate position of philosophy and because of the sacred, exclusive and total nature of revealed wisdom, the interest of early Christian thinkers was focused much more on the form of Greek thought than on its content and, it might be added, much less of this content was absorbed by early Christian thought than is generally supposed. As practical consequences of this specialized interest there followed two important factors in the formation of Scholastic philosophy:     Greek logic en bloc was taken over by Christians;     from the beginning of the Christian era to the end of the XII century, no provision was made in Catholic centers of learning for the formal teaching of philosophy. There was a faculty to teach logic as part of the trivium and a faculty of theology.   For these two reasons, what philosophy there was during this long period of twelve centuries, was dominated first, as has been seen, by theology and, second, by logic. In this latter point is found rooted the second characteristic of the Scholastic method: its preoccupation with logic, deduction, system, and its literary form of syllogistic argumentation.   The third characteristic of the Scholastic method follows directly from the previous elements already indicated. It adds, however, a property of its own gained from the fact that philosophy during the medieval period became an important instrument of pedogogy. It existed in and for the schools. This new element coupled with the domination of logic, the tradition-mindedness and social-consciousness of the medieval Christians, produced opposition of authorities for or against a given problem and, finally, disputation, where a given doctrine is syllogistically defended against the adversaries' objections. This third element of the Scholastic method is its most original characteristic and accounts more than any other single factor for the forms of the works left us from this period. These are to be found as commentaries on single or collected texts; summae, where the method is dialectical or disputational in character.   The main sources of Greek thought are relatively few in number: all that was known of Plato was the Timaeus in the translation and commentary of Chalcidius. Augustine, the pseudo-Areopagite, and the Liber de Causis were the principal fonts of Neoplatonic literature. Parts of Aristotle's logical works (Categoriae and de Interpre.) and the Isagoge of Porphyry were known through the translations of Boethius. Not until 1128 did the Scholastics come to know the rest of Aristotle's logical works. The golden age of Scholasticism was heralded in the late XIIth century by the translations of the rest of his works (Physics, Ethics, Metaphysics, De Anima, etc.) from the Arabic by Gerard of Cremona, John of Spain, Gundisalvi, Michael Scot, and Hermann the German, from the Greek by Robert Grosseteste, William of Moerbeke, and Henry of Brabant. At the same time the Judae-Arabian speculation of Alkindi, Alfarabi, Avencebrol, Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides together with the Neoplatonic works of Proclus were made available in translation. At this same period the Scholastic attention to logic was turned to metaphysics, even psychological and ethical problems and the long-discussed question of the universals were approached from this new angle. Philosophy at last achieved a certain degree of autonomy and slowly forced the recently founded universities to accord it a separate faculty.

HEP ::: High Energy (Particle) Physics.

HEP High Energy (Particle) Physics.

History, Philosophy of: History investigates the theories concerning the development of man as a social being within the limits of psychophysical causality. Owing to this double puipose the philosophy of history has to study the principles of historiography, and, first of all, their background, their causes and underlying laws, their meaning and motivation. This can be called the metaphysics of history. Secondly, it concerns itself with the cognitive part, i.e. with historic understanding, and then it is called the logic of history. While in earlier times the philosophy of history was predominantly metaphysics, it has turned more and more to the methodology or logic of history. A complete philosophy of history, however, ought to consider the metaphysical as well as the logical problems involved.

Hobbes, Thomas: (1588-1679) Considering knowledge empirical in origin and results, and philosophy inference of causes from effects and vice versa, regarded matter and motion as the least common denominators of all our percepts, and bodies and their movements as the only subject matter of philosophy. Consciousness in its sensitive and cognitive aspects is a jarring of the nervous system; in its affectional and volitional, motor aspects, a kick-back to the jar. Four subdivisions of philosophy cover all physical and psychological events: geometry describing the spatial movements of bodies; physics, the effects of moving bodies upon one another; ethics, the movements of nervous systems; politics, the effects of nervous systems upon one another. The first law of motion appears in every organic body in its tendency, which in man becomes a natural right, to self-preservation and self-assertion. Hence the primary condition of all organic as of all inorganic bodies is one of collision, conflict, and war. The second law of motion, in its organic application, impels men to relinquish a portion of their natural right to self-assertion in return for a similar relinquishment on the part of their fellows. Thus a component of the antagonistic forces of clashing individual rights and wills is established, embodied in a social contract, or treaty of peace, which is the basis of the state. To enforce this social covenant entered into, pursuant to the second law of motion, by individuals naturally at war in obedience to the first, sovereignty must be set up and exercised through government. Government is most efficient when sovereignty, which has in any case to be delegated in a community of any size, is delegated to one man -- an absolute monarch -- rather than to a group of men, or a parliament.

hydromechanics ::: n. --> That branch of physics which treats of the mechanics of liquids, or of their laws of equilibrium and of motion.

hygrometry ::: n. --> That branch of physics which relates to the determination of the humidity of bodies, particularly of the atmosphere, with the theory and use of the instruments constructed for this purpose.

Hylosystemism: A cosmological theory developed by Mitterer principally, which explains the constitution of the natural inorganic body as an atomary energy system. In opposition to hylomorphism which is considered inadequate in the field of nuclear physics, this system maintains that the atom of an element and the molecule of a compound are reallv composed of subatomic particles united into a dynamic system acting as a functional unit. The main difference between the two doctrines is the hylomeric constitution of inorganic matter: the plurality of parts of a particle form a whole which is more than the sum of the parts, and which gives to a body its specific essence. While hylomorphism contends that no real substantial change can occur in a hylomeric constitution besides the alteration of the specific form, hvlosystemism maintains that in substantial change more remains than primary matter and more changes than the substantial form. -- T.G.

hypermath: Principles of esoteric mathematics, often beyond the minds of unEnlightened people. (See hypertech, Inspired Science, Primal Utility, reality physics.)

Idealists regard such an equalization of physical laws and psychological, historical laws as untenable. The "tvpical case" with which physics or chemistry analyzes is a result of logical abstraction; the object of history, however, is not a unit with universal traits but something individual, in a singular space and at a particular time, never repeatable under the same circumstances. Therefore no physical laws can be formed about it. What makes it a fact worthy of historical interest, is iust the fullness of live activity in it; it is a "value", not a "thing". Granted that historical events are exposed to influences from biological, geological, racial and traditional sources, they aie always carried by a human being whose singularity of character has assimilated the forces of his environment and surmounted them There is a reciprocal action between man and society, but it is always personal initiative and free productivity of the individual which account for history. Denying, therefore, the logical primacy of physical laws in history, does not mean lawlessness, and that is the standpoint of the logic of history in more recent times. Windelband and H. Rickert established another kind of historical order of laws. On their view, to understand history one must see the facts in their relation to a universally applicable and transcendental system of values. Values "are" not, they "hold"; they are not facts but realities of our reason, they are not developed but discovered. According to Max Weber historical facts form an ideally typical, transcendental whole which, although seen, can never be fully explained. G, Simmel went further into metaphysics: "life" is declared an historical category, it is the indefinable, last reality ascending to central values which shaped cultural epochs, such as the medieval idea of God, or the Renaissance-idea of Nature, only to be tragically disappointed, whereupon other values rise up, as humanity, liberty, technique, evolution and others.

Ideology: A term invented by Destutt de Tracy for the analysis of general ideas into the sensations from which he believed them to emanate. The study was advocated as a substitute for metaphysics.

IGL ::: Interactive Graphic Language. Used primarily by Physics Dept at Brooklyn Poly, uses numerical methods on vectors to approximate continuous function problems that don't have closed form solutions.[Is this being confused with Tektronix's graphics library by the same name?]

IGL Interactive Graphic Language. Used primarily by Physics Dept at Brooklyn Poly, uses numerical methods on vectors to approximate continuous function problems that don't have closed form solutions. [Is this being confused with Tektronix's graphics library by the same name?]

II. Metaphysics of History: The metaphysical interpretations of the meaning of history are either supra-mundane or intra-mundane (secular). The oldest extra-mundane, or theological, interpretation has been given by St. Augustine (Civitas Dei), Dante (Divma Commedia) and J. Milton (Paradise Lost and Regained). All historic events are seen as having a bearing upon the redemption of mankind through Christ which will find its completion at the end of this world. Owing to the secularistic tendencies of modern times the Enlightenment Period considered the final end of human history as the achievement of public welfare through the power of reason. Even the ideal of "humanity" of the classic humanists, advocated by Schiller, Goethe, Fichte, Rousseau, Lord Byron, is only a variety of the philosophy of the Enlightenment, and in the same line of thought we find A. Comte, H. Spencer ("human moral"), Engels and K. Marx. The German Idealism of Kant and Hegel saw in history the materialization of the "moral reign of freedom" which achieves its perfection in the "objective spirit of the State". As in the earlier systems of historical logic man lost his individuality before the forces of natural laws, so, according to Hegel, he is nothing but an instrument of the "idea" which develops itself through the three dialectic stages of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. (Example. Absolutism, Democracy, Constitutional Monarchy.) Even the great historian L. v. Ranke could not break the captivating power of the Hegelian mechanism. Ranke places every historical epoch into a relation to God and attributes to it a purpose and end for itself. Lotze and Troeltsch followed in his footsteps. Lately, the evolutionistic interpretation of H. Bergson is much discussed and disputed. His "vital impetus" accounts for the progressiveness of life, but fails to interpret the obvious setbacks and decadent civilizations. According to Kierkegaard and Spranger, merely human ideals prove to be too narrow a basis for the tendencies, accomplishments, norms, and defeats of historic life. It all points to a supra-mundane intelligence which unfolds itself in history. That does not make superfluous a natural interpretation, both views can be combined to understand history as an endless struggle between God's will and human will, or non-willing, for that matter. -- S.V.F.

Immanence: (late Lat. Immanere, to remain in) The state of being immanent, present, or in dwelling. In Medieval Scholasticism a cause is immanent whose effects are exclusively within the agent, as opposed to transient. For Kant the immanent is experiential as opposed to non-experiential or transcendent. In modern metaphysics and theology immanence signifies presence (of essence, being, power, etc.), as opposed to absence. According to pantheism the essence of God or the Absolute is completely immanent in the world, i.e. is identical with it. According to Deism God is essentially absent or transcendent from the world. According to immanent theism He is both immanent (in presence and activity) and transcendent (in essence) with respect to it. Mysticism in its broadest sense posits the mutual immanence of the human and the divine. -- W.L.

impedance "electronics, physics" Opposition to flow of alternating current. Impedance consists of {resistance} plus {reactance} (capacitive or inductive). Measured in {Ohms}. (2003-12-02)

impedance ::: (electronics, physics) Opposition to flow of alternating current. Impedance consists of resistance plus reactance (capacitive or inductive). Measured in Ohms.(2003-12-02)

Impersonalism: The mechanistic conception of the unconditional regularity of nature in mechanics, physics, and the sciences of the living organism. Opposite of Personalism. -- R.T.F.

Inconceivability: The property of being something that is unthinkable. Having self-contradictory properties such that mental representation is impossible. In metaphysics, Herbert Spencer's criterion of truth, that when the denial of a proposition is incapable of being conceived the proposition is to be accepted as necessary or true. Syn. with Inconceptible. -- J.K.F.

Indeterminacy Used in science to mean that the investigation of intra-atomic phenomena has (for the time being) reached the limits of human power to determine the behavior of a particle. The Heisenberg principle of uncertainty states that it is impossible to increase the accuracy of measurement of the velocity of a particle without by this very observational act introducing an uncertainty into the determination of its position. The attempt to represent phenomena as a chain of cause and effect must lead sooner or later to a point where we can no longer trace the cause — not because causes vanish, but because of the imperfection of our observation and of our instruments, so that the chain of causation continues until we lose track of it because of incapacity. Hence we are unable to predict the behavior of a particle. Subsequent investigation may enable us to carry the chain of causation farther, but the process cannot go on indefinitely without carrying us beyond the physical plane. The standards of measurement successfully adopted for molar physics and for phenomena within terrestrial limits have proved inadequate for the definition of phenomena outside those limits; and both theory and experiment show that these standards are largely conceptual and must be changed to suit new conditions.

India. Intimations of advanced theism, both in a deistic and immanentistic form, are to be found in the Rig Veda. The early Upanishads in general teach variously realistic deism, immanent theism, and, more characteristically, mystical, impersonal idealism, according to which the World Ground (brahman) is identified with the universal soul (atman) which is the inner or essential self within each individual person. The Bhagavad Gita, while mixing pantheism, immanent theism, and deism, inclines towards a personahstic idealism and a corresponding ethics of bhakti (selfless devotion). Jainism is atheistic dualism, with a personalistic recognition of the reality of souls. Many of the schools of Buddhism (see Buddhism) teach idealistic doctrines. Thus a monistic immaterialism and subjectivism (the Absolute is pure consciousness) was expounded by Maitreya, Asanga, and Vasubandhu. The Lankavatarasutra combined monistic, immaterialistic idealism with non-absolutistic nihilism. Subjectivistic, phenomenalistic idealism (the view that there is neither absolute Pure Consciousness nor substantial souls) was taught by the Buddhists Santaraksita and Kamalasila. Examples of modern Vedantic idealism are the Yogavasistha (subjective monistic idealism) and the monistic spiritualism of Gaudapada (duality and plurality are illusion). The most influential Vedantic system is the monistic spiritualism of Sankara. The Absolute is pure indeterminate Being, which can only be described as pure consciousness or bliss. For the different Vedantic doctrines see Vedanta and the references there. Vedantic idealism, whether in its monistic and impersonalistic form, or in that of a more personalistic theism, is the dominant type of metaphysics in modern India. Idealism is also pronounced in the reviving doctrines of Shivaism (which see).

Indian Ethics: Ethical speculations are inherent in Indian philosophy (q.v.) with its concepts of karma, moksa, ananda (q.v.). Belief in salvation is universal, hence optimism rather than pessimism is prevalent even though one's own life is sometimes treated contemptuously, fatalism is embraced or the doctrine of non-attachment and desirelessness is subscribed to. Social institutions, thoughts, and habits in India are interdependent with the theory of karma and the belief in universal law and order (cf. dharma). For instance, caste exists because dharma is inviolable, man is born into his circumstances because he reaps what he has sown. Western influence, in changing Indian institutions, will eventually also modify Indian ethical theories. All the same, great moral sensitiveness is not lacking, rather much the contrary, as is proven by the voluminous story and didactic fable literature which has also acted on the West. Hindu moral conscience is evident from the ideals of womanhood (symbolized in Sita), of loyalty (symbolized in Hanuman), of kindness to all living beings (cf. ahimsa), of tolerance (the racial and religious hotchpotch which is India being an eloquent witness), the great respect for the samnyasin (who, as a member of the Brahman caste has precedence over the royal or military). Critics confuse -- and the wretched conduct of some Hindus confirm the indistinction -- practical morality with the fearless statements of metaphysics pursued with relentless logic "beyond good and evil."

In his chief work, the Ethica, Spinoza's teaching is expressed in a manner for which geometry supplies the model. This expository device served various purposes. It may be interpreted as a clue to Spinoza's ideal of knowledge. So understood, it represents the condensed and ordered expression, not of 'philosophy' alone, but rather of all knowledge, 'philosophy' and 'science', as an integrated system. In such an ideal ordering of ideas, (rational) theology and metaphysics provide the anchorage for the system. On the one hand, the theology-metaphysics displays the fundamental principles (definitions, postulates, axioms) upon which the anchorage depends, and further displays in deductive fashion the primary fund of ideas upon which the inquiries of science, both 'descriptive' and 'normative' must proceed. On the other hand, the results of scientific inquiry are anchored at the other end, by a complementary metaphysico-theological development of their significance. Ideally, there obtains, for Spinoza, both an initial theology and metaphysics -- a necessary preparation for science -- and a culminating theology and metaphysics, an interpretative absorption of the conclusions of science.

In metaphysics, one of Aristotle's 10 categories, Hume's ground for causality ("custom of the mind") and Peirce's leading principle or basis of natural law. -- L.W.

In metaphysics: The opposite of determinism, which holds that free activity may enter causally into natural processes. See Boutroux. -- R.T.F.

In physics, mechanics and engineering, derivatives are commonly taken with respect to time: such as velocity and accelration.

In regard to the remarkable achievements that the Atlanteans made in all the arts and sciences, we read that the early fifth root-race received their knowledge from the fourth root-race. “It is from them that they learnt aeronautics, Viwan Vidya [vimana-vidya] (the ‘knowledge of flying in air-vehicles’), and, therefore, their great arts of meteorography and meteorology. It is from them, again, that the Aryans inherited their most valuable science of the hidden virtues of precious and other stones, of chemistry, or rather alchemy, of mineralogy, geology, physics and astronomy” (SD 2:426).

Integral Post-Metaphysics ::: An AQAL approach to ontology and epistemology that replaces perceptions with perspectives, and thus redefines the manifest realm most fundamentally as the realm of perspectives, not things, nor events, nor processes. This also amounts to “post-ontology” and “post-epistemology,” although the terms “ontology” and “epistemology” are still used loosely given the lack of alternatives.

Internal: Inside a thing (or person). Of the thing itself. The relation of part to whole or of whole to part. In logic: compare intension. In metaphysics: the doctrine of internal relations, that all relations are internal, that is, monism. In epistemology: subjective. Opposite of external.

In The Secret Doctrine chemistry is mentioned as being, together with biology, one of the magicians of the future, especially in its form of chemical physics, when it is no longer the mechanistic science into which it has degenerated. “In Esoteric Philosophy, every physical particle corresponds to and depends on its higher noumenon — the Being to whose essence it belongs; and above as below, the Spiritual evolves from the Divine, the psycho-mental from the Spiritual — tainted from its lower plane by the astral — the whole animate and (seemingly) inanimate Nature evolving on parallel lines, and drawing its attributes from above as well as from below” (SD 1:218).

Irony, Socratic: See Socratic method. Is, Isa, Isana, Isvara: (Skr.) "Lord", an example of the vacillating of Indian philosophy between theology and metaphysics. They often use such theistic nomenclature for the Absolute without always wishing to endow it as such with personal attributes except as may be helpful to a lower intelligence or to one who feels the need of worship and bhakti (q.v.). -- K.F.L.

James, William: (1842-1910) Unquestionably one of the most influential of American thinkers, William James began his career as a teacher shortly after graduation (MD, 1870) from Harvard University. He became widely known as a brilliant and original lecturer, and his already considerable reputation was greatly enhanced in 1890 when his Principles of Psychology made its appearance. Had James written no other work, his position in American philosophy and psychology would be secure; the vividness and clarity of his style no less than the keenness of his analysis roused the imagination of a public in this country which had long been apathetic to the more abstract problems of technical philosophy. Nor did James allow this rising interest to flag. Turning to religious and moral problems, and later to metaphysics, he produced a large number of writings which gave ample evidence of his amazing ability to cut through the cumbersome terminology of traditional statement and to lay bare the essential character of the matter in hand. In this sense, James was able to revivify philosophical issues long buried from any save the classical scholars. Such oversimplifications as exist, for example, in his own "pragmatism" and "radical empiricism" must be weighed against his great accomplishment in clearing such problems as that of the One and the Many from the dry rot of centuries, and in rendering such problems immediately relevant to practical and personal difficulties. -- W.S.W.

Jaspers, Karl: (1883-) Inspired by Nietzsche's and Kierkegaard's psychology, but aiming at a strictly scientific method, the "existentialist" Jaspers analyzes the possible attitudes of man towards the world; the decisions which the individual must make in inescapable situations like death, struggle, change, guilt; and the various ways in which man meets these situations. Motivated by the boundless desire for clarity and precision, Jaspers earnestly presents as his main objective to awaken the desire for a fuller, more genuine philosophy, these three methods of philosophizing which have existed from te earliest times to the present: Philosophical world orientation consisting in an analysis of the limitations, incompleteness and relativity of the researches, methods, world pictures of all the sciences; elucidation of existence consisting of a cognitive penetration into reality on the basis of the deepest inner decisions experienced by the individual, and striving to satisfy the deepest demands of human nature; the way of metaphysics, the never-satisfied and unending search for truth in the world of knowledge, conduct of life and in the seeking for the one being, dimly seen through antithetic thoughts, deep existential conflicts and differently conceived metaphysical symbols of the past. Realizing the decisive problematic relation between philosophy and religion in the Middle Ages, Jaspers elevates psychology and history to a more important place in the future of philosophy.

JAZELLE "database" A data management system for High Energy Physics from Stanford Linear Accelerator. (1995-02-22)

JAZELLE ::: (database) A data management system for High Energy Physics from Stanford Linear Accelerator. (1995-02-22)

John Vincent Atanasoff "person" John Vincent Atanasoff, 1903-10-04 - 1995-06-15. An American mathemetical physicist, and the inventor of the electronic {digital computer}. Between 1937 and 1942 he built the {Atanasoff-Berry Computer} with {Clifford Berry}, at the {Iowa State University}. Atanasoff was born on 1903-10-04 in Hamilton, New York. In 1925, he got a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Florida. In 1926 he received a Master's degree in Maths from Iowa State University. He received a PhD as a theoretical physicist from the University of Wisconsin in 1930. While an associate professor of mathematics and physics at Iowa State University, Atanasoff began to envision a {digital} computational device, believing {analogue} devices to be too restrictive. Whilst working on his electronic {digital computer}, Atanasoff was introduced to a graduate student named {Clifford Berry}, who helped him build the {computer}. The first prototype of the {Atanasoff-Berry Computer} was demonstrated in December 1939. Although no patent was awarded for the new {computer}, in 1973 US District Judge Earl R. Larson declared Atanasoff the inventor of the digital computer (declaring the {ENIAC} patent invalid). Atanasoff was awarded the National Medal of {Technology} by US President Bush on 1990-11-13. He died following a stroke on 1995-06-15. {John Vincent Atanasoff and the Birth of the Digital Computer (}. ["Atanasoff Forgotten Father of the Computer", C. R. Mollenhoff, Iowa State University Press 1988]. (2001-10-03)

John Vincent Atanasoff ::: (person) John Vincent Atanasoff, 1903-10-04 - 1995-06-15. An American mathemetical physicist, and the inventor of the electronic digital computer. Between 1937 and 1942 he built the Atanasoff-Berry Computer with Clifford Berry, at the Iowa State University.Atanasoff was born on 1903-10-04 in Hamilton, New York. In 1925, he got a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of University. He received a PhD as a theoretical physicist from the University of Wisconsin in 1930.While an associate professor of mathematics and physics at Iowa State University, Atanasoff began to envision a digital computational device, electronic digital computer, Atanasoff was introduced to a graduate student named Clifford Berry, who helped him build the computer.The first prototype of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer was demonstrated in December 1939. Although no patent was awarded for the new computer, in 1973 US District Judge Earl R. Larson declared Atanasoff the inventor of the digital computer (declaring the ENIAC patent invalid).Atanasoff was awarded the National Medal of Technology by US President Bush on 1990-11-13. He died following a stroke on 1995-06-15. .[Atanasoff Forgotten Father of the Computer, C. R. Mollenhoff, Iowa State University Press 1988].(2001-10-03)

John von Neumann "person" /jon von noy'mahn/ Born 1903-12-28, died 1957-02-08. A Hungarian-born mathematician who did pioneering work in quantum physics, game theory, and {computer science}. He contributed to the USA's Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bomb. von Neumann was invited to Princeton University in 1930, and was a mathematics professor at the {Institute for Advanced Studies} from its formation in 1933 until his death. From 1936 to 1938 {Alan Turing} was a visitor at the Institute and completed a Ph.D. dissertation under von Neumann's supervision. This visit occurred shortly after Turing's publication of his 1934 paper "On Computable Numbers with an Application to the Entscheidungs-problem" which involved the concepts of logical design and the universal machine. von Neumann must have known of Turing's ideas but it is not clear whether he applied them to the design of the IAS Machine ten years later. While serving on the BRL Scientific Advisory Committee, von Neumann joined the developers of {ENIAC} and made some critical contributions. In 1947, while working on the design for the successor machine, {EDVAC}, von Neumann realized that ENIAC's lack of a centralized control unit could be overcome to obtain a rudimentary stored program computer. He also proposed the {fetch-execute cycle}. His ideas led to what is now often called the {von Neumann architecture}. {(}. {(}. {(}. (2004-01-14)

John von Neumann ::: (person) /jon von noy'mahn/ Born 1903-12-28, died 1957-02-08.A Hungarian-born mathematician who did pioneering work in quantum physics, game theory, and computer science. He contributed to the USA's Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bomb. von Neumann was invited to Princeton University in 1930, and was a mathematics professor at the Institute for Advanced Studies from its formation in 1933 until his death.From 1936 to 1938 Alan Turing was a visitor at the Institute and completed a Ph.D. dissertation under von Neumann's supervision. This visit occurred shortly but it is not clear whether he applied them to the design of the IAS Machine ten years later.While serving on the BRL Scientific Advisory Committee, von Neumann joined the developers of ENIAC and made some critical contributions. In 1947, while working rudimentary stored program computer. He also proposed the fetch-execute cycle. His ideas led to what is now often called the von Neumann architecture. . . .(2004-01-14)

John von Neumann ::: (person) /jon von noy'mahn/ Born 1903-12-28, died 1957-02-08.A Hungarian-born mathematician who did pioneering work in quantum physics, game theory, and computer science. He contributed to the USA's Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bomb.von Neumann was invited to Princeton University in 1930, and was a mathematics professor at the Institute for Advanced Studies from its formation in 1933 until his death.From 1936 to 1938 Alan Turing was a visitor at the Institute and completed a Ph.D. dissertation under von Neumann's supervision. This visit occurred shortly but it is not clear whether he applied them to the design of the IAS Machine ten years later.While serving on the BRL Scientific Advisory Committee, von Neumann joined the developers of ENIAC and made some critical contributions. In 1947, while working rudimentary stored program computer. He also proposed the fetch-execute cycle. His ideas led to what is now often called the von Neumann architecture. . . .(2004-01-14)

Kailasa (Sanskrit) Kailāsa A lofty mountain in the Himalayas; in mythology Siva’s paradise is placed upon Kailasa, north of Lake Manasasarovara. The god of wealth, Kuvera, also is said to have his palace there. Because of the occult history attached to Mount Kailasa, Hindu metaphysics not infrequently uses Kailasa for heaven or the abode of the gods.

Kama Rupa: A Sanskrit term used in metaphysics and esoteric philosophy to designate a subjective, astral form which lives on after the death of the physical body; an eidolon. The Kama Rupa is believed to fade away and disintegrate gradually, although necromantic practices and ardent wishes of surviving kin may draw it back into the terrestrial sphere and extend its existence, causing it to become a vampire which feeds on the life force of those who called it back.

Kant, Immanuel: (1724-1804), born and died in Königsberg. Studied the Leibniz-Wolffian philosoohv under Martin Knutzen. Also studied and taught astronomy (see Kant-Laplace hypothesis), mechanics and theology. The influence of Newton's physics and Lockean psychology vied with his Leibnizian training. Kant's personal life was that of a methodic pedant, touched with Rousseauistic piety and Prussian rigidity. He scarcely travelled 40 miles from Königsberg in his life-time, disregarded music, had little esteem for women, and cultivated few friends apart from the Prussian officials he knew in Königsberg. In 1755, he became tutor in the family of Count Kayserling. In 1766, he was made under-librarian, and in 1770 obtained the chair of logic and metaphysics at the University of Königsberg. Heine has made classical the figure of Kant appearing for his daily walk with clock-like regularity. But his very wide reading compensated socially for his narrow range of travel, and made him an interesting coversationalist as well as a successful teacher. Kantianism: The philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804); also called variously, the critical philosophy, criticism, transcendentalism, or transcendental idealism. Its roots lay in the Enlightenment; but it sought to establish a comprehensive method and doctrine of experience which would undercut the rationalistic metaphysics of the 17th and 18th centuries. In an early "pre-critical" period, Kant's interest centered in evolutionary, scientific cosmology. He sought to describe the phenomena of Nature, organic as well as inorganic, as a whole of interconnected natural laws. In effect he elaborated and extended the natural philosophy of Newton in a metaphysical context drawn from Christian Wolff and indirectly from Leibniz.

Kernel User Interface Package "tool" (KUIP) The human interface to {Physics Analysis Workbench} (PAW). (1994-11-11)

Kernel User Interface Package ::: (tool) (KUIP) The human interface to Physics Analysis Workbench (PAW). (1994-11-11)

Kindi: Of the tribe of Kindah, lived in Basra and Bagdad where he died 873. He is the first of the great Arabian followers of Aristotle whose influence is noticeable in Al Kindi's scientific and psychological doctrines. He wrote on geometry, astronomy, astrology, arithmetic, music (which he developed on arithmetical principles), physics, medicine, psychology, meteorology, politics. He distinguishes the active intellect from the passive which is actualized by the former. Discursive reasoning and demonstration he considers as achievements of a third and a fourth intellect. In ontology he seems to hypostasize the categories, of which he knows five: matter, form, motion, place, time, and which he calls primary substances. Al Kindi inaugurated the encyclopedic form of philosophical treatises, worked out more than a century later by Avicenna (q.v.). He also was the first to meet the violent hostility of the orthodox theologians but escaped persecution. A. Nagy, Die philos. Abhandlungen des Jacqub ben Ishaq al-Kindi, Beitr, z. Gesch. d. Phil. d. MA. 1897, Vol. II. -- R.A.

kinology ::: n. --> That branch of physics which treats of the laws of motion, or of moving bodies.

..Knowledge is not a systematised result of mental questionings and reasonings, not a temporary arrangement of conclusions and opinions in the terms of the highest probability, but rather a pure self-existent and self-luminous Truth.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 16 ::: Shun the barren snare of an empty metaphysics and the dry dust of an unfertile intellectuality. Only that knowledge is worth having which can be made use of for a living delight and put out into temperament, action, creation and being.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 12, Page: 443

Korn, Alejandro: Born in San Vicente, Buenos Aires in 1860. Died in Buenos Aires, 1936. Psychiatrist in charge of Melchor Romero Hospital for the Insane and Professor of Anatomy at the National College of La Plata. Professor of Ethics and Metaphysics in the Universities of Buenos Aires and La Plata, from 1906-1930, and one time Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of Buenos Aires. Director of his own review, Valoraciones, and patriarch of the modern philosophical tradition of Argentine. The following may be considered his most important works: Influencias Filosoficas en la Evolucion Nacional, 1919; La Libertad Creadora, 1922; Esquema Gnoseologico, 1924; El Concepto de Ciencia, 1926; Axiologia, 1930; Apuntes Filosoficos, 1935.

Kyoto school. An influential school of modern and contemporary Japanese philosophy that is closely associated with philosophers from Kyoto University; it combines East Asian and especially MAHĀYĀNA Buddhist thought, such as ZEN and JoDO SHINSHu, with modern Western and especially German philosophy and Christian thought. NISHIDA KITARo (1870-1945), Tanabe Hajime (1885-1962), and NISHITANI KEIJI (1900-1991) are usually considered to be the school's three leading figures. The name "Kyoto school" was coined in 1932 by Tosaka Jun (1900-1945), a student of Nishida and Tanabe, who used it pejoratively to denounce Nishida and Tanabe's "Japanese bourgeois philosophy." Starting in the late 1970s, Western scholars began to research the philosophical insights of the Kyoto school, and especially the cross-cultural influences with Western philosophy. During the 1990s, the political dimensions of the school have also begun to receive scholarly attention. ¶ Although the school's philosophical perspectives have developed through mutual criticism between its leading figures, the foundational philosophical stance of the Kyoto school is considered to be based on a shared notion of "absolute nothingness." "Absolute nothingness" was coined by Nishida Kitaro and derives from a putatively Zen and PURE LAND emphasis on the doctrine of emptiness (suNYATĀ), which Kyoto school philosophers advocated was indicative of a distinctive Eastern approach to philosophical inquiry. This Eastern emphasis on nothingness stood in contrast to the fundamental focus in Western philosophy on the ontological notion of "being." Nishida Kitaro posits absolute nothingness topologically as the "site" or "locale" (basho) of nonduality, which overcomes the polarities of subject and object, or noetic and noematic. Another major concept in Nishida's philosophy is "self-awareness" (jikaku), a state of mind that transcends the subject-object bifurcation, which was initially adopted from William James' (1842-1910) notion of "pure experience" (J. junsui keiken); this intuition reveals a limitless, absolute reality that has been described in the West as God or in the East as emptiness. Tanabe Hajime subsequently criticized Nishida's "site of absolute nothingness" for two reasons: first, it was a suprarational religious intuition that transgresses against philosophical reasoning; and second, despite its claims to the contrary, it ultimately fell into a metaphysics of being. Despite his criticism of what he considered to be Nishida's pseudoreligious speculations, however, Tanabe's Shin Buddhist inclinations later led him to focus not on Nishida's Zen Buddhist-oriented "intuition," but instead on the religious aspect of "faith" as the operative force behind other-power (TARIKI). Inspired by both Nishida and such Western thinkers as Meister Eckhart (c. 1260-1327), Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), and Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) (with whom he studied), Nishitani Keiji developed the existential and phenomenological aspects of Nishida's philosophy of absolute nothingness. Concerned with how to reach the place of absolute nothingness, given the dilemma of, on the one hand, the incessant reification and objectification by a subjective ego and, on the other hand, the nullification of reality, he argued for the necessity of overcoming "nihilism." The Kyoto school thinkers also played a central role in the development of a Japanese political ideology around the time of the Pacific War, which elevated the Japanese race mentally and spiritually above other races and justified Japanese colonial expansion. Their writings helped lay the foundation for what came to be called Nihonjinron, a nationalist discourse that advocated the uniqueness and superiority of the Japanese race; at the same time, however, Nishida also resisted tendencies toward fascism and totalitarianism in Japanese politics. Since the 1990s, Kyoto school writings have come under critical scrutiny in light of their ties to Japanese exceptionalism and pre-war Japanese nationalism. These political dimensions of Kyoto school thought are now considered as important for scholarly examination as are its contributions to cross-cultural, comparative philosophy.

Latency: (Lat. latere, to be hidden) (a) In metaphysics, the term latency is equivalent to potency or potentiality. See Potentiality.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory "body" (LLNL) A research organaisatin operated by the {University of California} under a contract with the US Department of Energy. LLNL was founded on 2 September 1952 at the site of an old World War II naval air station. The Lab employs researchers from many scientific and engineering disciplines. Some of its departments are the National Ignition Facility, the Human Genome Center, the ASCI Tera-Scale Computing partnership, the Computer Security Technology Center, and the Site 300 Experimental Test Facility. Other research areas are Astronomy and Astrophysics, Atmospheric Science, Automation and Robotics, Biology, Chemistry, Computing, Energy Research, Engineering, Environmental Science, Fusion, Geology and Geophysics, Health, Lasers and Optics, Materials Science, National Security, Physics, Sensors and Instrumentation, Space Science. LLNL also works with industry in research and licensing projects. At the end of fiscal year 1995, the lab had signed agreements for 193 cost-shared research projects involving 201 companies and worth nearly $600m. {(}. Address: Fremont, California, USA. (1996-10-30)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ::: (body) (LLNL) A research organaisatin operated by the University of California under a contract with the US Department of Energy. LLNL was founded on 2 September 1952 at the site of an old World War II naval air station.The Lab employs researchers from many scientific and engineering disciplines. Some of its departments are the National Ignition Facility, the Human Genome Optics, Materials Science, National Security, Physics, Sensors and Instrumentation, Space Science.LLNL also works with industry in research and licensing projects. At the end of fiscal year 1995, the lab had signed agreements for 193 cost-shared research projects involving 201 companies and worth nearly $600m. .Address: Fremont, California, USA. (1996-10-30)

Ledi, Sayadaw. (1846-1923). In Burmese, "Senior Monk from Ledi"; honorific title of the prominent Burmese (Myanmar) scholar-monk U Nyanadaza (P. Nānadhaja), a well-known scholar of ABHIDHAMMA (S. ABHIDHARMA) and proponent of VIPASSANĀ (S. VIPAsYANĀ) insight meditation. Born in the village of Saingpyin in the Shwebo district of Upper Burma, he received a traditional education at his village monastery and was ordained a novice (P. sāmanera; S. sRĀMAnERA) at the age of fifteen. He took for himself the name of his teacher, Nyanadaza, under whom he studied Pāli language and the Pāli primer on abhidhamma philosophy, the ABHIDHAMMATTHASAnGAHA. At the age of eighteen, he left the order but later returned to the monkhood, he said, to study the Brahmanical science of astrology with the renowned teacher Gandhama Sayadaw. In 1866, at the age of twenty, Nyanadaza took higher ordination (UPASAMPADĀ) as a monk (P. BHIKKHU; S. BHIKsU) and the following year traveled to the Burmese royal capital of Mandalay to continue his Pāli education. He studied under several famous teachers and particularly excelled in abhidhamma studies. His responses in the Pāli examinations were regarded as so exceptional that they were later published under the title Pāramīdīpanī. In 1869, King MINDON MIN sponsored the recitation and revision of the Pāli tipitaka (S. TRIPItAKA) at Mandalay in what is regarded by the Burmese as the fifth Buddhist council (see COUNCIL, FIFTH). During the proceedings, Nyanadaza assisted in the editing of Pāli texts that were inscribed on stone slabs and erected at the Kuthodaw Pagoda at the base of Mandalay hill. Nyanadaza remained in the capital until 1882, when he moved to Monywa and established a forest monastery named Ledi Tawya, whence his toponym Ledi. It is said that it was in Monywa that he took up in earnest the practice of vipassanā meditation. He was an abhidhamma scholar of wide repute and an advocate of meditation for all Buddhists, ordained and lay alike. With the final conquest of Burma by the British and the fall of the monarchy in 1885, there was a strong sentiment among many Burmese monks that the period of the disappearance of the dharma (see SADDHARMAVIPRALOPA) was approaching. According to the MANORATHAPURĀnĪ by BUDDHAGHOSA, when the dharma disappears, the first books to disappear would be the seven books of the abhidhamma. In order to forestall their disappearance, Ledi decided to teach both abhidhamma and vipassanā widely to the laity, something that had not been previously done on a large scale. He produced over seventy-five vernacular manuals on Buddhist metaphysics and insight meditation. He also wrote several treatises in Pāli, the best known of which was the Pāramatthadīpanī. He taught meditation to several disciples who went on to become some of the most influential teachers of vipassanā in Burma in the twentieth century. In recognition of his scholarship, the British government awarded Ledi Sayadaw the title Aggamahāpandita in 1911. Between 1913 and 1917, Ledi Sayadaw corresponded on points of doctrine with the British Pāli scholar CAROLINE A. F. RHYS DAVIDS, and much of this correspondence was subsequently published in the Journal of the Pali Text Society.

libertarianism ::: 1. In metaphysics, the claim that free will exists. In this sense it is generally opposed to determinism (but see compatibilism). ::: 2. In political philosophy, either of two anti-statist political positions.

Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph: (1742-1799) Influential German satirist. Made discoveries in physics. He leaned towards theoretical materialism, and yet had a strong religious (Spinozistic) element. -- H.H.

Line Stages of evolutionary development in cosmic manifestation are sometimes symbolized by the geometrical forms point, line, plane, solid, corresponding to unit or monad, duad, triad, and quaternary. Lines are therefore rays proceeding from an egoic center, and represent cosmic forces and, on the lower planes, the forces familiar in physics. These are dual, bipolar. In geometric symbols, lines may be combined, as for instance in the cross, where common agreement makes the vertical line masculine, the horizontal feminine; or in triangles, where the side lines and the base line each have its particular meaning. A line drawn in physical space may be regarded as a symbol for a real line, but to comprehend what the latter is, we must abstract the idea from all notions of physical space.

Lullic art: The Ars Magna or Generalis of Raymond Lully (1235-1315), a science of the highest and most general principles, even above metaphysics and logic, in which the basic postulates of all the sciences are included, and from which he hoped to derive these fundamental assumptions with the aid of an ingenious mechanical contrivance, a sort of logical or thinking machine. -- J.J.R.

Magnetism [from Greek lithos magnetes Magnesian stone, magnetic oxide of iron, found in Magnesia in Thessaly] Scientifically, magnetic force is due to the movement of electric charges. While physics is concerned only with mineral magnetism, older thought saw the analogy between the various planes of nature and used magnetism in a wiser sense. The term animal magnetism is not so fanciful: The Secret Doctrine speaks of biune creative magnetism as acting in the constitution of man and animals in the form of the attraction of contraries as in sexual polarization; of there being seven forms of kosmic magnetism; of electricity and magnetism being manifestations of kundalini-sakti; of the world-soul as represented by a sevenfold cross whose arms are light, heat, magnetism, etc.

Maine de Biran, F. P. Gonthier: (1766-1824) French philosopher and psychologist, who revolted against the dominant sensationalistic and materialistic psychology of Condlllac and Cabanis and developed, under the influence of Kant and Fichte, an idealistic and voluntaristic psychology. The mind directly experiences the activity of its will and at the same time the resistance offered to it by the "non-moi." Upon this basis, Maine de Biran erected his metaphysics which interprets the conceptions of force, substance, cause, etc. in terms of the directly experienced activity of the will. This system of psychology and metaphysics, which came to be known as French spiritualism, exerted considerable influence on Cousin, Ravaisson and Renouvier. His writings include: De la Decomposition de la Pensee (1805); Les Rapports du Physique et du Moral de l'Homme (1834); Essai sur les Fondements de la Psychologie (1812); Oeuvres Philosophiques, ed. by V. Cousin (1841). -- L.W.

marketroid /mar'k*-troyd/ (Or "marketing slime", "marketeer", "marketing droid", "marketdroid") A member of a company's marketing department, especially one who promises users that the next version of a product will have features that are not actually scheduled for inclusion, are extremely difficult to implement, and/or are in violation of the laws of physics; and/or one who describes existing features (and misfeatures) in ebullient, buzzword-laden adspeak. Derogatory. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-23)

mass ::: n. 1. A body of coherent matter, usually of indefinite shape and often of considerable size. 2. A large amount or number, such as a great body of people. masses, flower-masses. 3. Bulk, size, expanse, or massiveness. 4. The main body, bulk, or greater part of anything. 5. Physics. A measure of the amount of matter contained in or constituting a physical body. adj. 6. Of, involving, composed of masses of people (or things) or the majority of people (or a society, group, etc.); done, made, etc., on a large scale. v. 7. To gather into or dispose in a mass or masses; assemble. massed.

Materialism: A proposition that only matter is existent or real; that matter is the primordial or fundamental constituent of the universe; that only sensible entities, processes, or content are existent or real; that the universe is not governed by intelligence, purpose, or final causes; that everything is strictly caused by material (inanimate, non-mental, or having certain elementary physical powers) processes or entities (mechanism); that mental entities, processes, or events (though existent) are caused solely by material entities, processes, or events and themselves have no causal effect (epiphenomenalism); that nothing supernatural exists (naturalism); that nothing mental exists; that everything is explainable in terms of matter in motion or matter and energy or simply matter (depending upon the conception of matter entertained); that the only objects science can investigate are the physical or material (that is, public, manipulable, non-mental, natural, or sensible). Materialism denies the truth of all doctrines and beliefs of occultism, metaphysics, esoteric philosophy, etc.

MATERIALISM The view that matter is the fundamental reality. A more restricted variety of materialism is physicalism.

Materialism is the only one of the different metaphysical views that it has been possible to confirm scientifically. The atomic theory can no longer be included in

Mean: In general, that which in some way mediates or occupies a middle position among various things or between two extremes. Hence (especially in the plural) that through which an end is attained; in mathematics the word is used for any one of various notions of average; in ethics it represents moderation, temperance, prudence, the middle way. In mathematics:   The arithmetic mean of two quantities is half their sum; the arithmetic mean of n quantities is the sum of the n quantities, divided by n. In the case of a function f(x) (say from real numbers to real numbers) the mean value of the function for the values x1, x2, . . . , xn of x is the arithmetic mean of f(x1), f(x2), . . . , f(xn). This notion is extended to the case of infinite sets of values of x by means of integration; thus the mean value of f(x) for values of x between a and b is ∫f(x)dx, with a and b as the limits of integration, divided by the difference between a and b.   The geometric mean of or between, or the mean proportional between, two quantities is the (positive) square root of their product. Thus if b is the geometric mean between a and c, c is as many times greater (or less) than b as b is than a. The geometric mean of n quantities is the nth root of their product.   The harmonic mean of two quantities is defined as the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of their reciprocals. Hence the harmonic mean of a and b is 2ab/(a + b).   The weighted mean or weighted average of a set of n quantities, each of which is associated with a certain number as weight, is obtained by multiplying each quantity by the associated weight, adding these products together, and then dividing by the sum of the weights. As under A, this may be extended to the case of an infinite set of quantities by means of integration. (The weights have the role of estimates of relative importance of the various quantities, and if all the weights are equal the weighted mean reduces to the simple arithmetic mean.)   In statistics, given a population (i.e., an aggregate of observed or observable quantities) and a variable x having the population as its range, we have:     The mean value of x is the weighted mean of the values of x, with the probability (frequency ratio) of each value taken as its weight. In the case of a finite population this is the same as the simple arithmetic mean of the population, provided that, in calculating the arithmetic mean, each value of x is counted as many times over as it occurs in the set of observations constituting the population.     In like manner, the mean value of a function f(x) of x is the weighted mean of the values of f(x), where the probability of each value of x is taken as the weight of the corresponding value of f(x).     The mode of the population is the most probable (most frequent) value of x, provided there is one such.     The median of the population is so chosen that the probability that x be less than the median (or the probability that x be greater than the median) is ½ (or as near ½ as possible). In the case of a finite population, if the values of x are arranged in order of magnitude     --repeating any one value of x as many times over as it occurs in the set of observations constituting the population     --then the middle term of this series, or the arithmetic mean of the two middle terms, is the median.     --A.C. In cosmology, the fundamental means (arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic) were used by the Greeks in describing or actualizing the process of becoming in nature. The Pythagoreans and the Platonists in particular made considerable use of these means (see the Philebus and the Timaeus more especially). These ratios are among the basic elements used by Plato in his doctrine of the mixtures. With the appearance of the qualitative physics of Aristotle, the means lost their cosmological importance and were thereafter used chiefly in mathematics. The modern mathematical theories of the universe make use of the whole range of means analyzed by the calculus of probability, the theory of errors, the calculus of variations, and the statistical methods. In ethics, the 'Doctrine of the Mean' is the moral theory of moderation, the development of the virtues, the determination of the wise course in action, the practice of temperance and prudence, the choice of the middle way between extreme or conflicting decisions. It has been developed principally by the Chinese, the Indians and the Greeks; it was used with caution by the Christian moralists on account of their rigorous application of the moral law.   In Chinese philosophy, the Doctrine of the Mean or of the Middle Way (the Chung Yung, literally 'Equilibrium and Harmony') involves the absence of immoderate pleasure, anger, sorrow or joy, and a conscious state in which those feelings have been stirred and act in their proper degree. This doctrine has been developed by Tzu Shu (V. C. B.C.), a grandson of Confucius who had already described the virtues of the 'superior man' according to his aphorism "Perfect is the virtue which is according to the mean". In matters of action, the superior man stands erect in the middle and strives to follow a course which does not incline on either side.   In Buddhist philosophy, the System of the Middle Way or Madhyamaka is ascribed more particularly to Nagarjuna (II c. A.D.). The Buddha had given his revelation as a mean or middle way, because he repudiated the two extremes of an exaggerated ascetlsm and of an easy secular life. This principle is also applied to knowledge and action in general, with the purpose of striking a happy medium between contradictory judgments and motives. The final objective is the realization of the nirvana or the complete absence of desire by the gradual destruction of feelings and thoughts. But while orthodox Buddhism teaches the unreality of the individual (who is merely a mass of causes and effects following one another in unbroken succession), the Madhyamaka denies also the existence of these causes and effects in themselves. For this system, "Everything is void", with the legitimate conclusion that "Absolute truth is silence". Thus the perfect mean is realized.   In Greek Ethics, the doctrine of the Right (Mean has been developed by Plato (Philebus) and Aristotle (Nic. Ethics II. 6-8) principally, on the Pythagorean analogy between the sound mind, the healthy body and the tuned string, which has inspired most of the Greek Moralists. Though it is known as the "Aristotelian Principle of the Mean", it is essentially a Platonic doctrine which is preformed in the Republic and the Statesman and expounded in the Philebus, where we are told that all good things in life belong to the class of the mixed (26 D). This doctrine states that in the application of intelligence to any kind of activity, the supreme wisdom is to know just where to stop, and to stop just there and nowhere else. Hence, the "right-mean" does not concern the quantitative measurement of magnitudes, but simply the qualitative comparison of values with respect to a standard which is the appropriate (prepon), the seasonable (kairos), the morally necessary (deon), or generally the moderate (metrion). The difference between these two kinds of metretics (metretike) is that the former is extrinsic and relative, while the latter is intrinsic and absolute. This explains the Platonic division of the sciences into two classes: those involving reference to relative quantities (mathematical or natural), and those requiring absolute values (ethics and aesthetics). The Aristotelian analysis of the "right mean" considers moral goodness as a fixed and habitual proportion in our appetitions and tempers, which can be reached by training them until they exhibit just the balance required by the right rule. This process of becoming good develops certain habits of virtues consisting in reasonable moderation where both excess and defect are avoided: the virtue of temperance (sophrosyne) is a typical example. In this sense, virtue occupies a middle position between extremes, and is said to be a mean; but it is not a static notion, as it leads to the development of a stable being, when man learns not to over-reach himself. This qualitative conception of the mean involves an adaptation of the agent, his conduct and his environment, similar to the harmony displayed in a work of art. Hence the aesthetic aspect of virtue, which is often overstressed by ancient and neo-pagan writers, at the expense of morality proper.   The ethical idea of the mean, stripped of the qualifications added to it by its Christian interpreters, has influenced many positivistic systems of ethics, and especially pragmatism and behaviourism (e.g., A. Huxley's rule of Balanced Excesses). It is maintained that it is also involved in the dialectical systems, such as Hegelianism, where it would have an application in the whole dialectical process as such: thus, it would correspond to the synthetic phase which blends together the thesis and the antithesis by the meeting of the opposites. --T.G. Mean, Doctrine of the: In Aristotle's ethics, the doctrine that each of the moral virtues is an intermediate state between extremes of excess and defect. -- O.R.M.

Meaning, Kinds of: In semiotic (q. v.) several kinds of meaning, i.e. of the function of an expression in language and the content it conveys, are distinguished. An expression (sentence) has cognitive (or theoretical, assertive) meaning, if it asserts something and hence is either true or false. In this case, it is called a cognitive sentence or (cognitive, genuine) statement; it has usually the form of a declarative sentence. If an expression (a sentence) has cognitive meaning, its truth-value (q. v.) depends in general upon both   the (cognitive, semantical) meaning of the terms occurring, and   some facts referred to by the sentence. If it does depend on both (a) and (b), the sentence has factual (synthetic, material) meaning and is called a factual (synthetic, material) sentence. If, however, the truth-value depends upon (a) alone, the sentence has a (merely) logical meaning (or formal meaning, see Formal 1). In this case, if it is true, it is called logically true or analytic (q. v.); if it is false, it is called logically false or contradictory. An expression has an expressive meaning (or function) in so far as it expresses something of the state of the speaker; this kind of meaning may for instance contain pictorial, emotive, and volitional components (e.g. lyrical poetry, exclamations, commands). An expression may or may not have, in addition to its expressive meaning, a cognitive meaning; if not, it is said to have a merely expressive meaning. If an expression has a merely expressive meaning but is mistaken as being a cognitive statement, it is sometimes called a pseudo-statement. According to logical positivism (see Scientific Empiricism, IC) many sentences in metaphysics are pseudo-statements (compare Anti-metaphysics, 2).

Medieval Chinese philosophy was essentially a story of the synthesis of indigenous philosophies and the development of Buddhism. In the second century B.C., the Yin Yang movement identified itself with the common and powerful movement under the names of the Yellow Emperor and Lao Tzu (Huang Lao). This, in turn, became interfused with Confucianism and produced the mixture which was the Eclectic Sinisticism lasting till the tenth century A.D. In both Huai-nan Tzu (d. 122 B.C.), the semi-Taoist, and Tung Chung-shu (177-104- B.C.), the Confucian, Taoist metaphysics and Confucian ethics mingled with each other, with yin and yang as the connecting links. As the cosmic order results from the harmony of yin and yang in nature, namely, Heaven and Earth, so the moral order results from the harmony of yang and yin in man, such as husband and wife, human nature and passions, and love and hate. The Five Agents (wu hsing), through which the yin yang principles operate, have direct correspondence not only with the five directions, the five metals, etc., in nature, but also with the five Constant Virtues, the five senses, etc., in man, thus binding nature and man in a neat macrocosm-microcosm relationship. Ultimately this led to superstition, which Wang Ch'ung (27-c. 100 A.D.) vigorously attacked. He reinstated naturalism on a rational ground by accepting only reason and experience, and thus promoted the critical spirit to such an extent that it gave rise to a strong movement of textual criticism and an equally strong movement of free political thought in the few centuries after him.

Meinong, Alexius: (1853-1921) Was originally a disciple of Brentano, who however emphatically rejected many of Meinong's later contentions. He claimed to have discovered a new a priori science, the "theory of objects" (to be distinguished from metaphysics which is an empirical science concerning reality, but was never worked out by Meinong). Anything "intended" by thought is an "object". Objects may either "exist" (such as physical objects) or "subsist" (such as facts which Meinong unfortunately termed "objectives", or mathematical entities), they may either be possible or impossible and they may belong either to a lower or to a higher level (such as "relations" and "complexions", "founded" on their simple terms or elements). In the "theory of objects," the existence of objects is abstracted from (or as Husserl later said it may be "bracketed") and their essence alone has to be considered. Objects are apprehended either by self-evident judgments or by "assumptions", that is, by "imaginary judgments". In the field of emotions there is an analogous division since there are also "imaginary" emotions (such as those of the spectator in a tragedy). Much of Meinong's work was of a psychological rather than of a metaphysical or epistemological character. -- H.G.

meliorism ::: The idea in metaphysics that humans can, through their interference with natural processes, produce an improvement over the natural outcome. It is at the foundation of contemporary liberal democracy and human rights, and is contrasted by the concept of apologism.

metaphysical ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to metaphysics.
According to rules or principles of metaphysics; as, metaphysical reasoning.
Preternatural or supernatural.

Metaphysical ethics: Any view according to which ethics is a branch of metaphysics, ethical principles being derived from metaphysical principles and ethical notions being defined in terms of metaphysical notions. -- W.K.F.

metaphysician ::: n. --> One who is versed in metaphysics.

metaphysic ::: n. --> See Metaphysics. ::: a. --> Metaphysical.

Metaphysics and psychology are not distinct in Herbert's view. In his day psychology was also philosophy. It was still a metaphysical science in the sense that it is differentiated from physical science. It was only later that psychology repudiated philosophy. Accepting Kant's challenge to make psychology a mathematical science, he developed an elaborate system of mathematical constructions that proved the least fruitful phase of his system. As a mathematical science psychology can use only calculation, not experiment. As the mind or soul is unitary, indivisible. science, including philosophy, is neither analytical nor experimental. Bv denying analysis to psychology, Herbart combatted the division of mind into separate faculties. Psychology is not the mere description of the mind, but the working out of its mathematical laws.

metaphysics ::: A traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it,[18] although the term is not easily defined.[19] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:[20] Ultimately, what is there? and what is it like? A person who studies metaphysics is called a metaphysician.[21] The metaphysician attempts to clarify the fundamental notions by which people understand the world, e.g., existence, objects and their properties, space and time, cause and effect, and possibility. A central branch of metaphysics is ontology, the investigation into the basic categories of being and how they relate to each other. Another central branch of metaphysics is cosmology, the study of the origin, fundamental structure, nature, and dynamics of the universe. Some include epistemology as another central focus of metaphysics, but other philosophers question this.

Metaphysics: (Gr. meta ta Physika) Arbitrary title given by Andronicus of Rhodes, circa 70 B.C. to a certain collection of Aristotelean writings.

Metaphysics: In general, the philosophical theory of reality. Defined variously as the rational science of the supernatural or supersensuous, the science of formal and final causes, the science of the obscure, occult or mysterious.

metaphysics ::: n. --> The science of real as distinguished from phenomenal being; ontology; also, the science of being, with reference to its abstract and universal conditions, as distinguished from the science of determined or concrete being; the science of the conceptions and relations which are necessarily implied as true of every kind of being; phylosophy in general; first principles, or the science of first principles.
Hence: The scientific knowledge of mental phenomena;

Metaphysics. Pure Idealism or Immaterialism identifies ontological reality (substance, substantives, concrete individuality) exclusively with the ideal, ie., Mind, Spirit, Soul, Person, Archetypal Ideas, Thought. See Spiritualism, Mentalism, Monadism, Panpsychtsm, Idealistic Phenomenalism. With respect to the metaphysical status of self-consciousness and purposeful activity, Idealism is either impersonalistic or personalistic. See Personalism.

METAPHYSICS—The science of the first principles of being and of knowledge; the reasoned doctrine of the essential nature and fundamental relations of all that is real.

metaphysics ::: Traditionally, metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of ontology (what is being or reality?) and epistemology (how do we know it?). In Integral Theory, any assertion without injunctions is considered metaphysics, or a meaningless assertion (i.e., postulating a referent for which there is no means of verification). The term is also used in its traditional sense given the lack of alternatives.

Mimamsa: Short for Purva-Mimamsa, one of the six major systems of Indian philosophy, founded by Jaimini, rationalizing Vedic ritual and upholding the authority of the Vedas by a philosophy of the word (see vac). In metaphysics it professes belief in the reality of the phenomenal, a plurality of eternal souls, but is indifferent to a concept of God though assenting to the superhuman and eternal nature of the Vedas. There is also an elaborate epistemology supporting Vedic truths, an ethics which makes observance of Vedic ritual and practice a condition of a good and blissful life.

Mimamsi: Short for Purva-Mimamsa, one of the six major systems of Indian philosophy (q. v.), founded by Jaimini, rationalizing Vedic ritual and upholding the authority of the Vedas by a philosophy of the word (see vac). In metaphysics it professes belief in the reality of the phenomenal, a plurality of eternal souls, but is indifferent to a concept of God though assenting to the superhuman and eternal nature of the Vedas. There is also an elaborate epistemology supporting Vedic truths, an ethics which makes observance of Vedic ritual and practice a condition of a good and blissful life. -- KS.L.

mology and Physics, where, on p. 93, Professor

Moods of the syllogism: See figure (syllogistic), and logic, formal, § 5. Moore, George Edward: (1873-) One of the leading English realists. Professor of Mental Philosophy and Logic at Cambridge. Editor of "Mind." He has been a vigorous opponent of the idealistic tradition in metaphysics, epistemology and in ethics. His best known works are: Principia Ethica, and Philosophical Studies. Belief in external things having the properties they are normally experienced to have. Founder of neo-realistic theory of epistemological monism. See Neo-Realism. -- L.E.D.

Most of the basic problems and theories of cosmology seem to have been discussed by the pre-Socratic philosophers. Their views are modified and expanded in the Timaeus of Plato, and rehearsed and systematized in Aristotle's Physics. Despite multiple divergencies, all these Greek philosophers seem to be largely agreed that the universe is limited in space, has neither a beginning nor end in time, is dominated by a set of unalterable laws, and has a definite and recurring rhythm. The cosmology of the Middle Ages diverges from the Greek primarily through the introduction of the concepts of divine creation and annihilation, miracle and providence. In consonance with the tendencies of the new science, the cosmologies of Descartes, Leibniz and Newton bring the medieval views into closer harmony with those of the Greeks. The problems of cosmology were held to be intrinsically insoluble by Kant. After Kant there was a tendency to merge the issues of cosmology with those of metaphysics. The post-Kantians attempted to deal with both in terms of more basic principles and a more flexible dialectic, their opponents rejected both as without significance or value. The most radical modern cosmology is that of Peirce with its three cosmic principles of chance, law and continuity; the most recent is that of Whitehead, which finds its main inspiration in Plato's Timaeus.

nanocomputer "architecture" /nan'oh-k*m-pyoo'tr/ A computer with molecular-sized switching elements. Designs for mechanical nanocomputers which use single-molecule sliding rods for their logic have been proposed. The controller for a {nanobot} would be a nanocomputer. Some nanocomputers can also be called {quantum computers} because quantum physics plays a major role in calculations. {Richard P. Feynman} is still cited today for his work in this area. ["Feynman Lectures on Computation", Richard P. Feynman (Editor, Author), Robin W. Allen (Editor), Tony Hey (Author)] [{Jargon File}] (2008-01-14)

Natural Theology: In general, natural theology is a term used to distinguish any theology based upon the fundamental premise of the ability of man to construct his theory of God and of the world out of the framework of his own reason and of reasonable probability from the so-called "revealed theology" which presupposes that God and divine purposes are not open to unaided human understanding but rest upon a supernatural and not wholly understandable basis. See Deism; Renaissance. During the 17th and 18th centuries there were attempts to set up a "natural religion" to which men might easily give their assent and to offset the extravagant claims of the supernaturalists and their harsh charges against doubters. The classical attempt to make out a case for the sweet reasonableness of a divine purpose at work in the world of nature was given by Paley in his Natural Theology (1802). Traditional Catholicism, especially that of the late middle Ages developed a kind of natural theology based upon the metaphysics of Aristotle. Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz developed a more definite type of natural theology in their several constructions of what now may well be called philosophical theology wherein reason is made the guide. Natural theology has raised its head in recent times in attempts to combat the extravagant declarations of theologians of human pessimism. The term, however, is unfortunate because it is being widely acknowledged that so-called "revealed theology" is natural (recent psychological and social studies) and that natural theology need not deny to reason its possible character as the bearer of an immanent divine revelation. -- V.F.

necessitarianism ::: A metaphysical principle that denies that any facts or events are contingent or indeterminate, from human actions to the laws of physics themselves.

Neo-Idealism: Primarily a name given unofficially to the Italian school of neo-Hegelianism headed by Benedetto Croce and Giovanni Gentile, founded on a basic distinction that it proposes between two kinds of "concrete universals" (s.v.). In addition to the Hegelian concrete universal, conceived as a dialectical synthesis of two abstract opposltes, is posited a second type in which the component elements are "concretes" rather than dialectical abstracts, i.e. possess relative mutual independence and lack the characteristic of logical opposition. The living forms of Mind, both theoretical and practical, are universal in this latter sense. This implies that fine art, utility, and ethics do not comprise a dialectical series with philosophy at their head, i.e. they are not inferior forms of metaphysics. Thus neo-Idealism rejects Hegel's panlogism. It also repudiates his doctrine of the relative independence of Nature, the timeless transcendence of the Absolute with respect to the historical process, and the view that at any point of history a logically final embodiment of the Absolute Idea is achieved. -- W.L.

neo-Platonism ::: A school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century A.D. The school was characterized by a systematization of Platonic metaphysics along with a pursuit of mystical union with the divine.

New Realism: A school of thought which dates from the beginning of the twentieth century. It began as a movement of reaction against the wide influence of idealistic metaphysics. Whereas the idealists reduce everything to mind, this school reduced mind to everything. For the New Realists Nature is basic and mind is part and parcel of it. How nature was conceived (whether materialistic, neutralistic, etc.) was not the important factor. New Realists differed here among themselves. Their theory of knowledge was strictly monistic, the subject and object are one since there is no fundamental dualism. Two schools of New Realists are recognized:

Nineteenth-century science postulated matter and motion as two bases on which to build, but the attempt to define the nature or cause of motion within the limits of the science thus set up was futile. Motion was defined as an effect of force, force being itself expressed in terms of motion. To reach the cause of physical motion we must go outside of physics and refer it to spirit or some ultraphysical agency.

Nishida Kitaro. (西田幾太郎) (1870-1945). Influential Japanese philosopher of the modern era and founder of what came to be known as the KYOTO SCHOOL, a contemporary school of Japanese philosophy that sought to synthesize ZEN Buddhist thought with modern Western, and especially Germanic, philosophy. Nishida was instrumental in establishing in Japan the discipline of philosophy as practiced in Europe and North America, as well as in exploring possible intersections between European philosophy and such Buddhist ontological notions as the idea of nonduality (ADVAYA). Nishida was born in 1870, just north of Ishikawa prefecture's capital city of Kanazawa. In 1894, he graduated from Tokyo Imperial University with a degree in philosophy and eventually took an appointment at Kyoto University, where he taught from 1910 until his retirement in 1927. At Kyoto University, Nishida attracted a group of students who would later become known collectively as the "Kyoto School." These philosophers addressed an array of philosophical concerns, including metaphysics, ontology, phenomenology, and epistemology, using Western critical methods but in conjunction with Eastern religious concepts. Nishida's influential 1911 publication Zen no kenkyu ("A Study of Goodness") synthesized Zen Buddhist and German phenomenology to explore the unity between the ordinary and the transcendent. He argued that, through "pure experience" (J. junsui keiken), an individual human being is able to come in contact with a limitless, absolute reality that can be described either as God or emptiness (suNYATĀ). In Nishida's treatment, philosophy is subsumed under the broader soteriological quest for individual awakening, and its significance derives from its effectiveness in bringing about this goal of awakening. Other important works by Nishida include Jikaku ni okeru chokkan to hansei ("Intuition and Reflection in Self-Consciousness," 1917), Geijutsu to dotoku ("Art and Morality," 1923), Tetsugaku no konpon mondai ("Fundamental Problems of Philosophy," 1933), and Bashoteki ronri to shukyoteki sekaikan ("The Logic of the Place of Nothingness and the Religious Worldview," 1945). Nishida's Zen no kenkyu also helped lay the foundation for what later became regarded as Nihonjinron, a nationalist discourse that advocated the uniqueness and superiority of the Japanese race. Prominent in Nishida's philosophy is the idea that the Japanese-as exemplified in their exceptional cultivation of Zen, which here can stand for both Zen Buddhism and the homophonous word for "goodness"-are uniquely in tune with this concept of "pure experience." This familiarity, in part influenced by his longtime friend DAISETZ TEITARO SUZUKI, elevates the Japanese race mentally and spiritually above all other races in the world. This view grew in popularity during the era of Japanese colonial expansion and remained strong in some quarters even after the end of World War II. Since at least the 1970s, Nishida's work has been translated and widely read among English-speaking audiences. Beginning in the 1990s, however, his writings have come under critical scrutiny in light of their ties with Nihonjinron and Japanese nationalism.

NODAL ::: Interpreted language implemented on Norsk Data's NORD-10 computers. Used by CERN and DESY high energy physics labs to control their accelerator hardware, PADAC and SEDAC. Included trackball input, graphics.

NODAL Interpreted language implemented on Norsk Data's NORD-10 computers. Used by CERN and DESY high energy physics labs to control their accelerator hardware, PADAC and SEDAC. Included trackball input, graphics.

Nominalism: critical and skeptical, this is the largest and most influential school of the period. Important members are, first, Occam's pupils Adam Wodham (+1358), Walter Chatton, and Robert Holcot (+1349), then come Gregory of Rimini (+1358), John of Mirecourt, Nicholas of Autrecourt, a medieval Hume, John Buridan (+c. 1360) and Nicholas of Oresme (+1382), two forerunners of modern physics and astronomy, Albert of Sachsen (+1390), first Rector of University of Vienna, Peter d'Ailly (+1420), John Gerson (+1429), Marsilius of Inghen (+1396), first Rector of Heidelberg, and Gabriel Biel (+1495), who introduced Luther to Occamism.

Non-ego In European metaphysics, that which is external to or other than the ego; the object as opposed to the subject. Non-ego means both that which has risen above all lower egoities and become universal in its consciousness — in other words a jivanmukta, a monad which has attained mukti or moksha; and that which is beneath the state of egoity in its evolutionary development, in which this egoity has not yet been emanated or brought forth, such as the minerals, plants, and nearly all of the animal. Non-ego, therefore, in another sense corresponds to the term Absolute, that which is freed or above the circumscribing limitations of even egoity, which nevertheless is the abstract self or individual; or paradoxically enough the monad or ego in its jivanmukta form, where the ego becomes one with the surrounding cosmic spirit, while retaining its own individuality.

objective idealism ::: An idealistic metaphysics that postulates that there is in an important sense only one perceiver, and that this perceiver is one with that which is perceived.

OCCULTISM An older term for superphysics.

ontology ::: n. --> That department of the science of metaphysics which investigates and explains the nature and essential properties and relations of all beings, as such, or the principles and causes of being.

Ontology: The theory of being as being. For Aristotle, the First Philosophy, the science of the essence of things. The science of fundamental principles; the doctrine of the categories. Ultimate philosophy; rational cosmology. Synonymous with metaphysics.

ontology ::: Traditionally, the study of being, reality, existence, as well as the given structure of anything, often viewed as unchanging. In Integral Post-Metaphysics, ontology is not a separate discipline or activity but that aspect of the AQAL matrix of any occasion that is experienced as enduring structure; the study of that aspect is ontology. The term “ontology” is sometimes used in this sense given the lack of alternatives.

Operationalism: Scientific propositions are, roughly speaking, predictions and a prediction is an if-then proposition: "If certain operations are performed, then certain phenomena having determinate properties will be observed. Its hypothetical character shows that it is not final or complete but intermediate and instrumental" (Logic, p. 456). P. W. Bridgman's very influential formulation of operationalism is comparable: "In general, we mean by any concept nothing more than a set of operations, the concept is synonymous with the corresponding set of operations". (The Logic of Modern Physics, p. 5.) If the operation is (or can be), carried out the proposition has meaning, if the consequences which it forecasts occur, it is true, has "warranted assertibility" or probability.

Paramanu: (Skr.) An exceedingly (parama) or infinitely small or magnitudeless thing (cf. anu), a discrete physical entity playing a similar role in Indian philosophy as ions, electrons, or protons in modern physics. -- K.F.L.

Parkinson's Law of Data "Data expands to fill the space available for storage"; buying more memory encourages the use of more memory-intensive techniques. It has been observed over the last 10 years that the memory usage of evolving systems tends to double roughly once every 18 months. Fortunately, memory density available for constant dollars also tends to double about once every 12 months (see {Moore's Law}); unfortunately, the laws of physics guarantee that the latter cannot continue indefinitely. [{Jargon File}]

Parkinson's Law of Data ::: Data expands to fill the space available for storage; buying more memory encourages the use of more memory-intensive techniques. It has been observed unfortunately, the laws of physics guarantee that the latter cannot continue indefinitely.[Jargon File]

Particle physics - the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter (particles with mass) and radiation (massless particles). See /r/ParticlePhysics

PAW "tool" {Physics Analysis Workbench}.

PAW ::: (tool) Physics Analysis Workbench.

   Nuclear physics - The study of the atom's nucleus, and the interactions of its parts.

Phenomenology: Since the middle of the Eighteenth Century, "Phänomenologie," like its English equivalent, has been a name for several disciplines, an expression for various concepts. Lambert, in his Neue Organon (1764), attached the name "Phänomenologie" to the theory of the appearances fundamental to all empirical knowledge. Kant adopted the word to express a similar though more restricted sense in his Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft (1786). On the other hand, in Hegel's Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807) the same word expresses a radically different concept. A precise counterpart of Hegel's title was employed by Hamilton to express yet another meaning. In "The Divisions of Philosophy" (Lectures on Metaphysics, 1858), after stating that "Philosophy properly so called" is "conversant about Mind," he went on to say: "If we consider the mind merely with the view of observing and generalizing the various phaenomena it reveals, . . . we have . . . one department of mental science, and this we may call the Phaenomenology of Mind." Similarly Moritz Lazarus, in his Leben der Seele (1856-57), distinguished Phänomenologie from Psychologie: The former describes the phenomena of mental life; the latter seeks their causal explanation.

Ph. Frank, Between Physics and Philosophy (Harvard, 1941). -- R.B.W.

Philosophy: (Gr. philein, to love -- sophia, wisdom) The most general science. Pythagoras is said to have called himself a lover of wisdom. But philosophy has been both the seeking of wisdom and the wisdom sought. Originally, the rational explanation of anything, the general principles under which all facts could be explained; in this sense, indistinguishable from science. Later, the science of the first principles of being; the presuppositions of ultimate reality. Now, popularly, private wisdom or consolation; technically, the science of sciences, the criticism and systematization or organization of all knowledge, drawn from empirical science, rational learning, common experience, or whatever. Philosophy includes metaphysics, or ontology and epistemology, logic, ethics, aesthetics, etc. (all of which see). -- J.K.F.

Philosophy The Greek philosophia meant love of wisdom, but with equal power of significance, although perhaps not etymologically as correct, the meaning was wisdom of love; also, the systematic investigation and instruction of facts and theories regarded as important in the study of truth. In common usage it denotes the mental and moral sciences, in some respects being nearly equivalent to metaphysics, and including a number of divisions. Theosophists speak of a triad of philosophy, religion, and science as being merged by theosophy into a unity; but science was itself at one time called natural philosophy, so that the chief distinction is that between faith and reason.

Phlogiston [from Greek phlog fire] In the 17th century modern chemistry was in process of birth and alchemical ideas still survived, particularly those of the four elements and of the triad of sulphur, salt, and mercury. Stahl (1660-1734) enumerated four elements — water, acid, earth, phlogiston; and the phlogiston theory was elaborated by Priestley (1733-1804). All combustible bodies, it was said, contain phlogiston, and when they are burnt the phlogiston leaves its latent state and escapes from the body in the form of heat and light, leaving behind the ash or dephlogisticated residue. For example, magnesium gives out its phlogiston in an intense light and an inert ash is left. But later chemistry banished the imponderables, and formulated a physical system composed of ponderable matter and energy. Accordingly, when it was shown that the ash weighs more than the original substance, the phlogiston theory was abandoned, and in its place came abstract and indefinite conceptions quite as difficult of explanation as was the phlogiston theory itself, which may be grouped under the general term energy, and include heat, light, chemical energy, etc. The more recent progress of science has proved that the atomo-mechanical system, the representation of the physical world as divisible into matter and energy, or mass and motion, however useful in interpreting molar physics and facilitating practical applications, does not suffice for an interpretation of the intra-molecular world. The distinction between matter (or mass) and energy has become obliterated.

physical ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to nature (as including all created existences); in accordance with the laws of nature; also, of or relating to natural or material things, or to the bodily structure, as opposed to things mental, moral, spiritual, or imaginary; material; natural; as, armies and navies are the physical force of a nation; the body is the physical part of man.
Of or pertaining to physics, or natural philosophy; treating of, or relating to, the causes and connections of natural

physically ::: adv. --> In a physical manner; according to the laws of nature or physics; by physical force; not morally.
According to the rules of medicine.

physicist ::: n. --> One versed in physics.
A believer in the theory that the fundamental phenomena of life are to be explained upon purely chemical and physical principles; -- opposed to vitalist.

physico- ::: --> A combining form, denoting relation to, or dependence upon, natural causes, or the science of physics.

physicochemical ::: a. --> Involving the principles of both physics and chemistry; dependent on, or produced by, the joint action of physical and chemical agencies.

physicologic ::: n. --> Logic illustrated by physics.

physicology ::: n. --> Physics.

physico-theology ::: n. --> Theology or divinity illustrated or enforced by physics or natural philosophy.

physics ::: n. --> The science of nature, or of natural objects; that branch of science which treats of the laws and properties of matter, and the forces acting upon it; especially, that department of natural science which treats of the causes (as gravitation, heat, light, magnetism, electricity, etc.) that modify the general properties of bodies; natural philosophy.

PHYSICS—That science or group of sciences which treats of the phenomena associated with matter in general, especially in its relation to energy and the laws governing these phenomena.

Platonism ::: The school of philosophy founded by Plato. Often used to refer to Platonic idealism, the belief that the entities of the phenomenal world are imperfect reflections of an ideal truth. In metaphysics sometimes used to mean the claim that universals exist independent of particulars. Predecessor and precursor of Aristotelianism.

Plato's theory of knowledge can hardly be discussed apart from his theory of reality. Through sense perception man comes to know the changeable world of bodies. This is the realm of opinion (doxa), such cognition may be more or less clear but it never rises to the level of true knowledge, for its objects are impermanent and do not provide a stable foundation for science. It is through intellectual, or rational, cognition that man discovers another world, that of immutable essences, intelligible realities, Forms or Ideas. This is the level of scientific knowledge (episteme); it is reached in mathematics and especially in philosophy (Repub. VI, 510). The world of intelligible Ideas contains the ultimate realities from which the world of sensible things has been patterned. Plato experienced much difficulty in regard to the sort of existence to be attributed to his Ideas. Obviously it is not the crude existence of physical things, nor can it be merely the mental existence of logical constructs. Interpretations have varied from the theory of the Christian Fathers (which was certainly not that of Plato himself) viz , that the Ideas are exemplary Causes in God's Mind, to the suggestion of Aristotle (Metaphysics, I) that they are realized, in a sense, in the world of individual things, but are apprehended only by the intellect The Ideas appear, however, particularly in the dialogues of the middle period, to be objective essences, independent of human minds, providing not only the foundation for the truth of human knowledge but afso the ontological bases for the shadowy things of the sense world. Within the world of Forms, there is a certain hierarchy. At the top, the most noble of all, is the Idea of the Good (Repub. VII), it dominates the other Ideas and they participate in it. Beauty, symmetry and truth are high-ranking Ideas; at times they are placed almost on a par with the Good (Philebus 65; also Sympos. and Phaedrus passim). There are, below, these, other Ideas, such as those of the major virtues (wisdom, temperance, courage, justice and piety) and mathematical terms and relations, such as equality, likeness, unlikeness and proportion. Each type or class of being is represented by its perfect Form in the sphere of Ideas, there is an ideal Form of man, dog, willow tree, of every kind of natural object and even of artificial things like beds (Repub. 596). The relationship of the "many" objects, belonging to a certain class of things in the sense world, to the "One", i.e. the single Idea which is their archetype, is another great source of difficulty to Plato. Three solutions, which are not mutually exclusive, are suggested in the dialogues (1) that the many participate imperfectly in the perfect nature of their Idea, (2) that the many are made in imitation of the One, and (3) that the many are composed of a mixture of the Limit (Idea) with the Unlimited (matter).

Poincare, Henri: (1854-1912) French mathematician and mathematical physicist to whom many important technical contributions are due. His thought was occupied by problems on the borderline of physics and philosophy. His views reflect the influence of positivism and seem to be closely related to pngmatism. Poincare is known also for his opposition to the logistic method in the foundations of mathematics, especially as it was advocated by Bertrand i (q.v.) and Louis Couturat, and for his proposed resolution of the logical paradoxes (q.v.) by the prohibition of impredicattve definition (q.v.). Among his books, the more influential are Science and Hypothesis, Science and Method, and Dernieres Pensees. -- R.B.W.

Pragmatism: (Gr. pragma, things done) Owes its inception as a movement of philosophy to C. S. Peirce and William James, but approximations to it can be found in many earlier thinkers, including (according to Peirce and James) Socrates and Aristotle, Berkeley and Hume. Concerning a closer precursor, Shadworth Hodgson, James says that he "keeps insisting that realities are only what they are 'known as' ". Kant actually uses the word "pragmatic" to characterize "counsels of prudence" as distinct from "rules of skill" and "commands of morality" (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals, p. 40). His principle of the primacy of practical reason is also an anticipation of pragmatism. It was reflection on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason which originally led Peirce to formulate the view that the muddles of metaphysics can be cleared up if one attends to the practical consequences of ideas. The pragmatic maxim was first stated by Peirce in 1878 (Popular Science Monthly) "Consider what effects, that might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then, our conception of these effects is the whole of our conception of the object". A clearer formulation by the same author reads: "In order to ascertain the meaning of an intellectual conception one should consider what practical consequences might conceivably result by necessity from the truth of that conception, and the sum of these consequences will constitute the entire meaning of the conception". This is often expressed briefly, viz.: The meaning of a proposition is its logical (or physical) consequences. The principle is not merely logical. It is also admonitory in Baconian style "Pragmatism is the principle that everv theoretical judgment expressible in a sentence in the indicative mood is a confused form of thought whose onlv meaning, if it has any, lies in its tendency to enforce a corresponding practical maxim expressible as a conditional sentence having its apodosis in the impentive mood". (Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, edited by Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss, 5.18.) Although Peirce's maxim has been an inspiration not only to later pragmatists, but to operationalists as well, Peirce felt that it might easily be misapplied, so as to eliminate important doctrines of science -- doctrines, presumably, which hive no ascertainable practical consequences.

Preestablished Harmony: A theory expounded by Leibniz and adopted in modified form by other thinkers after him, to refute the theories of interactionism, occasionalism, and the parallel ism of the Spinozistic type, in psycho-physics. According to its dynamism, matter and spirit, body and soul, the physical and the moral, each a "windowless", perfect monad (q.v.) in itself, are once and for all not only corresponding realities, but they are also synchronized by God in their changes like two clocks, thus rendering the assumption of any mutual or other influences nugatory. -- K.F.L.

prefix ::: 1. (unit) The standard metric prefixes used in the Syst�me International d'Units (SI) conventions for scientific measurement.Here are the SI magnifying prefixes, along with the corresponding binary interpretations in common use: prefix abr decimal binary Femto and atto derive not from Greek but from Danish.The abbreviated forms of these prefixes are common in electronics and physics.When used with bytes of storage, these prefixes usually denote multiplication by powers of 1024 = 2^10 (K, M, and G are common in computing). Thus MB stands strictly, reserving upper case K for multiplication by 1024 (KB is thus kilobytes).Also, in data transfer rates the prefixes stand for powers of ten so, for example, 28.8 kb/s means 28,800 bits per second.The unit is often dropped so one may talk of a 40K salary (40000 dollars) or 2 meg of disk space (2*2^20 bytes).The accepted pronunciation of the initial G of giga- is hard, /gi'ga/.Confusing 1000 and 1024 (or other powers of 2 and 10 close in magnitude) - for example, describing a memory in units of 500K or 524K instead of 512K - is a 1440 KB = 1440 * 1024 = 1474560 bytes. Alas, this point is probably lost on the world forever.In 1993, hacker Morgan Burke proposed, to general approval on Usenet, the following additional prefixes: groucho (10^-30), harpo (10^-27), harpi (10^27), available for future expansion. Sadly, there is little immediate prospect that Mr. Burke's eminently sensible proposal will be ratified.2. (language) Related to the prefix notation.(2003-05-06)

Primal Utility: The psychological hypermath juncture between human desire and reality physics; in short, the Syndicate’s version of the Prime Sphere.

Psychology In philosophy, the systematic study of mind, as opposed to physics or the study of matter. Applied in theosophy to the attributes, qualities, and powers of the human intermediate nature, contrasted with physiology. In ancient times psychology was the science of soul; and this science being the causative, and physiology the effective or consequential, no one was considered an informed or expert physiologist who was not previously trained in psychology. In modern days, due to an almost utter ignorance of the inner nature of man, psychology has largely been based on physiology, if indeed not a vague type of physiology itself.

psychophysical ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to psychophysics; involving the action or mutual relations of the psychical and physical in man.

psychophysics ::: n. --> The science of the connection between nerve action and consciousness; the science which treats of the relations of the psychical and physical in their conjoint operation in man; the doctrine of the relation of function or dependence between body and soul.

psychophysics: the study of the relationship between physical stimuli and the mental events that arise as a result of these stimuli. The methods developed are fundamental to sensation and perception.

Pythagoreanism: The doctrines (philosophical, mathematical, moral, and religious) of Pythagoras (c. 572-497) and of his school which flourished until about the end of the 4th century B.C. The Pythagorean philosophy was a dualism which sharply distinguished thought and the senses, the soul and the body, the mathematical forms of things and their perceptible appearances. The Pythagoreans supposed that the substances of all things were numbers and that all phenomena were sensuous expressions of mathematical ratios. For them the whole universe was harmony. They made important contributions to mathematics, astronomv, and physics (acoustics) and were the first to formulate the elementary principles and methods of arithmetic and geometry as taught in the first books of Euclid. But the Pythagorean sect was not only a philosophical and mathematical school (cf. K. von Fritz, Pythagorean Politics in Southern Italy, 1941), but also a religious brotherhood and a fellowship for moral reformation. They believed in the immortality and transmigration (see Metempsychosis) of the soul which they defined as the harmony of the body. To restore harmony which was confused by the senses was the goal of their Ethics and Politics. The religious ideas were closely related to those of the Greek mysteries which sought by various rites and abstinences to purify and redeem the soul. The attempt to combine this mysticism with their mathematical philosophy, led the Pythagoreans to the development of an intricate and somewhat fantastic symbolism which collected correspondences between numbers and things and for example identified the antithesis of odd and even with that of form and matter, the number 1 with reason, 2 with the soul, etc. Through their ideas the Pythagoreans had considerable effect on the development of Plato's thought and on the theories of the later Neo-platonists.

quantum ::: 1. Quantity, amount. 2. Physics. The smallest amount of a physical quantity that can exist independently.

quantum computer "computer" A type of computer which uses the ability of quantum systems, such as a collection of atoms, to be in many different states at once. In theory, such superpositions allow the computer to perform many different computations simultaneously. This capability is combined with interference among the states to produce answers to some problems, such as factoring integers, much more rapidly than is possible with conventional computers. In practice, such machines have not yet been built due to their extreme sensitivity to noise. {Oxford University (}, {Stanford University (}. A {quantum search algorithm (} for {constraint satisfaction} problems exhibits the phase transition for {NP-complete} problems. (1997-02-11)

quantum dot "physics" (Or "single-electron transistor") A location capable of containing a single electrical charge; i.e., a single electron of {Coulomb} charge. Physically, quantum dots are nanometer-size {semiconductor} structures in which the presence or absence of a quantum electron can be used to store information. See also: {quantum cell}, {quantum cell wire}, {quantum-dot cellular automata}. {(}. ["Quantum Dot Heterostructures", D. Bimberg, et al, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Dec 1998]. (2001-07-17)

quantum dot ::: (physics) (Or single-electron transistor) A location capable of containing a single electrical charge; i.e., a single electron of Coulomb which the presence or absence of a quantum electron can be used to store information.See also: quantum cell, quantum cell wire, quantum-dot cellular automata. .[Quantum Dot Heterostructures, D. Bimberg, et al, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Dec 1998].(2001-07-17)

ray ::: 1. A thin line or narrow beam of light or other radiant energy. 2. Radiance; light. 3. Physics, Optics. Any of the lines or streams in which light appears to radiate from a luminous body. 4. A straight line extending from a point. 5. A slight indication, esp. of something anticipated or hoped for. **Ray, soul-ray.

reality physics: Esoteric laws of cause and effect; the deep principles underlying elementary physics; scientifically applied metaphysics; in other words, technomagick. (See Enlightened Science, Inspired Science, hypermath, hypertech.)

Reichenbach's work has been devoted mainly to the philosophy of empirical science; for a brief general survey of the problems which have particularly attracted his attention, and of his conception of an adequate method for their solution, cf. his Raum. Zeit Lehre. His contributions center around (I) the problems of space and time, and (II) those of causality, induction and probability. His studies of the first group of problems include thorough analyses of the nature of geometry and of the logical structure of relativistic physics, these researches led Reichenbach to a rejection of the aprioristic theory of space and time. Reichenbach's contributions to the second group of problems pivot around his general theory of probability which is based on a statistical definition of the probability concept. In terms of this probabilistic approach, Relchenbach has carried out comprehensive analyses of methodological and epistemological problems such as those of causality and induction. He has also extended his formal probability theory into a probability logic in which probabilities play the part of truth values. -- C.G.H.

Relativity Associated with Einsteinian physics; the first postulate of the theory of relativity is the relativity of all motion, a return to the idea of Newton, which holds that there is no stationary ether or any fixed system of coordinates in space, with regard to which motion can be measured. The second postulate states that the velocity of light in free space appears the same to all observers regardless of the relative motion of the source of light and of the observer. A well-known feature of the theory is that by which space and time are no longer treated as independent, but as component elements of a four-dimensional continuum, space-time, and in which the objects whose position and motion are measured are called events. This is a movement in the direction of simplification, since it economizes the number of separate data which we must assume in order to build up our system of interpretation. Einstein also postulates the relativity of the force concept, thus obviating the objection that the Ptolemaic system is dynamically inadequate as compared with the Copernican.

Relativity ::: The modern scientific doctrine of relativity, despite its restrictions and mathematical limitations, isextremely suggestive because it introduces metaphysics into physics, does away with purely speculativeideas that certain things are absolute in a purely relative universe, and brings us back to an examinationof nature as nature is and not as mathematical theorists have hitherto tacitly taken it to be. The doctrine ofrelativity in its essential idea of relations rather than absolutes is true; but this does not mean that wenecessarily accept Einstein's or his followers' deductions. These latter may or may not be true, and timewill show. In any case, relativity is not what it is often misunderstood to be -- the naked doctrine that"everything is relative," which would mean that there is nothing fundamental or basic or real anywhere,whence other things flow forth; in other words, that there is no positively real or fundamental divine andspiritual background of being. The relativity theory is an adumbration, a reaching out for, a groping after,a very, very old theosophical doctrine -- the doctrine of maya.The manner in which theosophy teaches the conception of relativity is that while the universe is a relativeuniverse and all its parts are therefore relative -- each to each, and each to all, and all to each -- yet thereis a deathless reality behind, which forms the substratum or the truth of things, out of which thephenomenal in all its myriad relative manifestations flows. And there is a way, a road, a path, by whichmen may reach this reality behind, because it is in man as his inmost essence and therefore primal origin.In each one is fundamentally this reality of which we are all in search. Each one is the path that leads toit, for it is the heart of the universe.In a sense still more metaphysical, even the heart of a universe may be said to exist relatively inconnection with other universes with their hearts. It would be quite erroneous to suppose that there is oneAbsolute Reality in the old-fashioned European sense, and that all relative manifestations flow forth fromit, and that these relative manifestations although derived from this Absolute Reality are without links ofunion or origin with an Absolute even still more essential and fundamental and vaster. Once theconception of boundless infinitude is grasped, the percipient intelligence immediately realizes that it issimply hopeless, indeed impossible, to postulate ends, absolute Absolutes, as the divine ultima thule. Nomatter how vast and kosmic an Absolute may be, there are in sheer frontierless infinitude alwaysinnumerable other Absolutes equal to or greater than it.

Richard P. Feynman "person, computing, architecture" /fayn'mn/ 1918-1988. A US physicist, computer scientist and author who graduated from {Massachusetts Institute of Technology} and {Princeton}. Feynmane was a key figure in helping Oppenheimer and team develop atomic bomb. In 1950 he became a professor at {Caltech} and in 1965 became Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics for QED (quantum electrodynamics). He was a primary figure in "solving" the Challenger disaster O-ring problem. He "rediscovered" the former Soviet Socialist Republic of Tuva. The 2001 film "Infinity" about Feynman's early life featured Matthew Broderick and Patricia Arquette. In 2001, "QED", a play about Feynman's life featuring Alan Alda opened. {(}. (2008-01-14)

Ross, (William) David: (1877-1940) Is principally known as an Aristotelian scholar. He served first as joint editor, later as editor of the Oxford translation of Aristotle. In this series he himself translated the Metaphysics and the Nicomachean Ethics. In addition he published critical texts with commentaries of the Metaphysics and the Physics, and also an edition of Theophrastus's Metaphysics. Besides enjoying a reputation as Aristotelian interpreter, Sir David has gained repute as a writer on morality and ethics. -- C.K.D.

Sankhya: Perhaps the oldest of the major systems of Indian philosophy, founded by Kapila (sixth century B.C.). Originally not theistic, it is realistic in epistemology, dualistic in metaphysics, assuming two moving ultimates, Cosmic Spirit (purusha) and Cosmic Substance (prakriti), both eternal and uncaused. Prakriti possesses the three qualities or principles of sattva, rajas, tamas, first in equipoise. When this is disturbed, the world in its multifariousness evolves in conjunction with purusha which becomes the plurality of selves in the process. The union (samyoga) of spirit and matter is necessary for world evolution, the inactivity of the former needing the verve of the latter, and the non-intelligence of that needing the guidance of conscious purusha. Successively, prakriti produces mahat or buddhi, ahamkara, manas, the ten indriyas, five tanmatras and five mahabhutas (q.v.).

Sankhya: Perhaps the oldest of the major systems of Indian philosophy (q.v.), founded by Kapila. Originally not theistic, it is realistic in epistemology, dualistic in metaphysics, assuming two moving ultimates, spirit (purusa, q.v.) and matter (prakrti, q.v.) both eternal and uncaused. Prakrti possesses the three qualities or principles of sattva, rajas, tamas (see these and guna), first in equipoise. When this is disturbed, the world in its multifariousness evolves in conjunction with purusa which becomes the plurality of selves in the process. The union (samyoga) of spirit and matter is necessary for world evolution, the inactivity of the former needing the verve of the latter, and the non-intelligence of that needing the guidance of conscious purusa. Successively, prakrti produces mahat or buddhi, ahamkara, manas, the ten indriyas, five tanmatras and five mahabhutas (all of which see). -- K.F.L.

Scepticism, Fourteenth Century: At the beginning of the 14th century, Duns Scotus adopted a position which is not formally sceptical, though his critical attitude to earlier scholasticism may contain the germs of the scepticism of his century. Among Scotistic pre-sceptical tendencies may be mentioned the stress on self-knowledge rather than the knowledge of extra-mental reality, psychological voluntarism which eventuallj made the assent of judgment a matter of will rather than of intellect, and a theory of the reality of universal essences which led to a despair of the intellect's capacity to know such objects and thus spawned Ockhamism. Before 1317, Henry of Harclay noticed that, since the two terms of efficient causal connection are mutually distinct and absolute things, God, by his omnipotent will, can cause anything which naturally (naturaliter) is caused by a finite agent. He inferred from this that neither the present nor past existence of a finite external agent is necessarily involved in cognition (Pelstex p. 346). Later Petrus Aureoli and Ockham made the sime observation (Michalski, p. 94), and Ockham concluded that natural knowledge of substance and causal connection is possible only on the assumption that nature is pursuing a uniform, uninterrupted course at the moment of intuitive cognition. Without this assumption, observed sequences might well be the occasion of direct divine causal action rather than evidence of natural causation. It is possible that these sceptical views were suggested by reading the arguments of certain Moslem theologians (Al Gazali and the Mutakallimun), as well as by a consideration of miracles. The most influential sceptical author of the fourteenth century was Nicholas of Autrecourt (fl. 1340). Influenced perhaps by the Scotist conception of logical demonstration, Nicholas held that the law of noncontradiction is the ultimate and sole source of certainty. In logical inference, certainty is guaranteed because the consequent is identical with part or all of the antecedent. No logical connection can be established, therefore, between the existence or non-existence of one thing and the existence or non-existence of another and different thing. The inference from cause to effect or conversely is thus not a matter of certainty. The existence of substance, spiritual or physical, is neither known nor probable. We are unable to infer the existence of intellect or will from acts of intellection or volition, and sensible experience provides no evidence of external substances. The only certitudes properly so-called are those of immediate experience and those of principles known ex terminis together with conclusions immediately dependent on them. This thoroughgoing scepticism appears to have had considerable influence in its time, for we find many philosophers expressing, expounding, or criticizing it. John Buridan has a detailed criticism in his commentary on Aristotle's Physics (in 1 I, q. 4), Fitz-Ralph, Jacques d'Eltville, and Pierre d'Ailly maintain views similar to Nicholas', with some modifications, and there is at least one exposition of Nicholas' views in an anonymous commentary on the Sentences (British Museum, Ms. Harley 3243). These sceptical views were usually accompanied by a kind of probabilism. The condemnation of Nicholas in 1347 put a damper on the sceptical movement, and there is probably no continuity from these thinkers to the French sceptics of the 16th century. Despite this lack of direct influence, the sceptical arguments of 14th century thinkers bear marked resemblances to those employed by the French Occasionalists, Berkeley and Hume.

Schoonschip ::: (mathematics, tool) (From the Dutch for beautiful ship or clean ship) A program for symbolic mathematics, especially High Energy Physics, written by currently in 680x0 assembly language. Latest versions run on Amiga, Atari ST, Sun-3 and NeXT.It was once maintained by David Williams at the University of Michigan Physics Department. .(2000-11-14)

Schoonschip "mathematics, tool" (From the Dutch for "beautiful ship" or "clean ship") A program for {symbolic mathematics}, especially High Energy Physics, written by M. Veltman of CERN in 1964. Schoonschip only does algebra, no derivatives. It was implemented originally in {CDC 6600} and {CDC 7600} {assembly language} and currently in {680x0} {assembly language}. Runs on {Amiga}, {Atari ST}, {Sun-3} and {NeXT}. It was once maintained by David Williams at the {University of Michigan} Physics Department. {(}. (2000-11-14)

schrödinbug "jargon, programming" /shroh'din-buhg/ ({MIT}, from the Schrödinger's Cat thought-experiment in quantum physics) A design or implementation {bug} that doesn't manifest until someone reading the {source code} or using the program in an unusual way notices that it never should have worked, at which point it stops working until fixed. Though (like {bit rot}) this sounds impossible, it happens; some programs have harboured schrödinbugs for years. Compare {heisenbug}, {Bohr bug}, {mandelbug}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-28)

schroedinbug ::: (jargon, programming) /shroh'din-buhg/ (MIT, from the Schroedinger's Cat thought-experiment in quantum physics) A design or implementation bug in a this sounds impossible, it happens; some programs have harboured latent schroedinbugs for years.Compare heisenbug, Bohr bug, mandelbug.[Jargon File] (1995-02-28)

Science and Engineering Research Council ::: (body) (SERC) Formerly the largest of the five research councils funded by the British Government through the Office of Science and Technology. SERC Daresbury Laboratory, near Warrington; the Royal Greenwich Observatory at Cambridge and the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh.In April 1994 SERC was split into the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. SERC's remote Biotechnology and Biological Sciences RC. The two major SERC laboratories - Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and Daresbury Laboratory are now independent. . (1994-12-15)

Science and Engineering Research Council "body" (SERC) Formerly the largest of the five research councils funded by the British Government through the Office of Science and Technology. SERC funded higher education research in science and engineering, including computing and was responsible for the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, near Oxford; the Daresbury Laboratory, near Warrington; the Royal Greenwich Observatory at Cambridge and the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. In April 1994 SERC was split into the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. SERC's remote sensing efforts have been transferred to the Natural Environment RC and its biotechnology efforts merged with the Agriculture and Food RC to make the new Biotechnology and Biological Sciences RC. The two major SERC laboratories - {Rutherford Appleton Laboratory} and Daresbury Laboratory are now independent. {(}. (1994-12-15)

Serpent One of the most fundamental and prolific symbols of the mystery-language. Its most basic meaning is of the eternal, alternating, cyclic motion during cosmic manifestation. For motion, which to the physicist and the philosopher alike seems an abstraction, is for the ancient wisdom a primordial principle or axiom, of the same order as space and time, existing per se. Never does motion cease utterly even during kosmic pralaya. And motion is essentially circular: where physics would derive circular motion from a composition of rectilinear motions, the opposite procedure would be that of the ancient wisdom. This circular motion, compounding itself into spirals, helixes, and vortices, is the builder of worlds, bringing together the scattered elements of chaos; motion per se is essential cosmic intelligence. This circular motion, returning upon itself like a serpent swallowing its tail, represents the cycles of time. This conscious energy in spirals whirls through all the planes of cosmos as fohat and his innumerable sons — the cosmic energies and forces, fundamentally intelligent, operating in every scale or grade of matter. The caduceus of Hermes, twin serpents wound about a staff, represents cosmically the mighty drama of evolution, in its twin aspects, the staff or tree standing for the structural aspect, the serpent for the fohatic forces that animate the structure.

Simmel, Georg: (1858-1918) Occupying himself mostly with the reciprocal effects between individuals, he practically ignored the pioblem of the individual to the group. Calling attention to the psychical interactions as constituting the real foundation of community life, he stressed the reciprocity of relations. As alleged founder of the "formalistic" sociology, he regards the forms of socialization, the kinds of interactions of individuals upon each other as the distinctive subject of sociology. He defended in his earlier years a descriptive and relative, as opposed to a normative, absolutistic ethics. Subscribing to a metaphysics of life, he characterizes life as ceaseless self-transcendence. -- H.H.

SI prefix "unit, standard" The {standard} metric prefixes used in the {Système International d'Unités} (SI) conventions for scientific measurement. Here are the SI magnifying prefixes, along with the corresponding binary interpretations in common use: prefix abr decimal binary yocto-   1000^-8 zepto-   1000^-7 atto-   1000^-6 femto- f 1000^-5 pico- p 1000^-4 nano- n 1000^-3 micro- * 1000^-2     * Abbreviation: Greek mu milli- m 1000^-1 kilo- k 1000^1 1024^1 = 2^10 = 1,024 mega- M 1000^2 1024^2 = 2^20 = 1,048,576 giga- G 1000^3 1024^3 = 2^30 = 1,073,741,824 tera- T 1000^4 1024^4 = 2^40 = 1,099,511,627,776 peta-   1000^5 1024^5 = 2^50 = 1,125,899,906,842,624 exa-   1000^6 1024^6 = 2^60 = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 zetta-   1000^7 1024^7 = 2^70 = 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 yotta-   1000^8 1024^8 = 2^80 = 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 "Femto" and "atto" derive not from Greek but from Danish. The abbreviated forms of these prefixes are common in electronics and physics. When used with bytes of storage, these prefixes usually denote multiplication by powers of 1024 = 2^10 (K, M, G and T are common in computing). Thus "MB" stands for megabytes (2^20 bytes). This common practice goes against the edicts of the {BIPM} who deprecate the use of these prefixes for powers of two. The formal SI prefix for 1000 is lower case "k"; some, including this dictionary, use this strictly, reserving upper case "K" for multiplication by 1024 (KB is thus "kilobytes"). Also, in data transfer rates the prefixes stand for powers of ten so, for example, 28.8 kb/s means 28,800 bits per second. The unit is often dropped so one may talk of "a 40K salary" (40000 dollars) or "2 meg of disk space" (2*2^20 bytes). The accepted pronunciation of the initial G of "giga-" is hard, /gi'ga/. Confusing 1000 and 1024 (or other powers of 2 and 10 close in magnitude) - for example, describing a memory in units of 500K or 524K instead of 512K - is a sure sign of the {marketroid}. For example, 3.5" {microfloppies} are often described as storing "1.44 MB". In fact, this is completely specious. The correct size is 1440 KB = 1440 * 1024 = 1474560 bytes. Alas, this point is probably lost on the world forever. In 1993, hacker Morgan Burke proposed, to general approval on {Usenet}, the following additional prefixes: groucho (10^-30), harpo (10^-27), harpi (10^27), grouchi (10^30). This would leave the prefixes zeppo-, gummo-, and chico- available for future expansion. Sadly, there is little immediate prospect that Mr. Burke's eminently sensible proposal will be ratified. (2009-09-01)

Sound In physics, a name for a group of phenomena, and in common speech auditory sensations; but in theosophic philosophy, sound is an attribute of one of the fundamental cosmic elements, akasa. Being such, sound becomes more than a mere name describing an attribute: it is an actual efflux or production of the universal working of the akasic fluid. Hence, in a sense, it may be said to be an entity, a real force in nature, and the said phenomena and sensations only some of its effects.

sound-waves ::: physics. Longitudinal waves in an elastic medium, esp. waves producing an audible sensation.

Space-perception: (Lat. spatium) The apprehension of the spatial properties and relations of the concrete objects of ordinary sense perception in contrast to the conceptual knowledge of the abstract spaces of physics and mathematics. Theories of space-perception are: a) nativistic, when they endow the mind with a primitive intuition of space which becomes qualitatively differentiated through sense experience; b) empirical, when they assume that perceptual space emerges fiom the correlation of the spatial features of the different senses. -- L.W.

SPEC CFP92 "benchmark" A {benchmark} suite from {SPEC} containing 14 programs performing {floating-point} computations. 12 are written in {Fortran} and two in {C}. They can be used to estimate the performance of CPU, memory system, and compiler code generation. The individual programs are Circuit Design, Simulation (2x), Quantum Chemistry (3x), Electromagnetism, Geometric Translation, Optics, Robotics, Medical Simulation, Quantum Physics, Astrophysics, NASA Kernels. The benchmark suite can be used either for speed measurement, resulting in {SPEC ratios}, or for throughput measurement, resulting in {SPEC rates} (1994-11-15)

SPEC CFP92 ::: (benchmark) A benchmark suite from SPEC containing 14 programs performing floating-point computations. 12 are written in Fortran and two in C. They can be used to estimate the performance of CPU, memory system, and compiler code generation.The individual programs are Circuit Design, Simulation (2x), Quantum Chemistry (3x), Electromagnetism, Geometric Translation, Optics, Robotics, Medical Simulation, Quantum Physics, Astrophysics, NASA Kernels.The benchmark suite can be used either for speed measurement, resulting in SPEC ratios, or for throughput measurement, resulting in SPEC rates (1994-11-15)

String theory - a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. See /r/strings

St. Thomas was a teacher and a writer for some twenty years (1254-1273). Among his works are: Scriptum in IV Libros Sententiarum (1254-1256), Summa Contra Gentiles (c. 1260), Summa Theologica (1265-1272); commentaries on Boethius. (De Trinitate, c. 1257-1258), on Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite (De Divinis Nominibus, c. 1261), on the anonymous and important Liber de Causis (1268), and especially on Aristotle's works (1261-1272), Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, On the Soul, Posterior Analytics, On Interpretation, On the Heavens, On Generation and Corruption; Quaestiones Disputatae, which includes questions on such large subjects as De Veritate (1256-1259); De Potentia (1259-1263); De Malo (1263-1268); De Spiritualibus Creaturis, De Anima (1269-1270); small treatises or Opuscula, among which especially noteworthy are the De Ente et Essentia (1256); De Aeternitate Mundi (1270), De Unitate Intellecus (1270), De Substantiis Separatis (1272). While it is extremely difficult to grasp in its entirety the personality behind this complex theological and philosophical activity, some points are quite clear and beyond dispute. During the first five years of his activity as a thinker and a teacher, St. Thomas seems to have formulated his most fundamental ideas in their definite form, to have clarified his historical conceptions of Greek and Arabian philosophers, and to have made more precise and even corrected his doctrinal positions, (cf., e.g., the change on the question of creation between In II Sent., d.l, q.l, a.3, and the later De Potentia, q. III, a.4). This is natural enough, though we cannot pretend to explain why he should have come to think as he did. The more he grew, and that very rapidly, towards maturity, the more his thought became inextricably involved in the defense of Aristotle (beginning with c. 1260), his texts and his ideas, against the Averroists, who were then beginning to become prominent in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris; against the traditional Augustinianism of a man like St. Bonaventure; as well as against that more subtle Augustinianism which could breathe some of the spirit of Augustine, speak the language of Aristotle, but expound, with increasing faithfulness and therefore more imminent disaster, Christian ideas through the Neoplatonic techniques of Avicenna. This last group includes such different thinkers as St. Albert the Great, Henry of Ghent, the many disciples of St. Bonaventure, including, some think, Duns Scotus himself, and Meister Eckhart of Hochheim.

Stumpf, Carl: (184-8-1936) A life long Platonic realist, he was philosophically awakened and influenced by Brentano. His most notable contributions were in the psychology of tone and music, and in musicology. Metaphysics is, in his opinion, best constructed inductively as a continuation of the sciences. -- H.H.

Subjective Idealism: Sometimes referred to as psychological idealism or subjectivism. The doctrine of knowledge that the world exists only for the mind. The only world we know is the-world-we-know shut up in the realm of ideas. To be is to be perceived: esse est percipi. This famous doctrine (classically expressed by Bishop Berkeley, 1685-1753) became the cornerstone of modern metaphysical idealism. Recent idealists tend to minimize its significance for metaphysics. -- V.F.

supercomputer ::: (computer) A broad term for one of the fastest computers currently available. Such computers are typically used for number crunching including dynamics, physics, chemistry, electronic design, nuclear energy research and meteorology. Perhaps the best known supercomputer manufacturer is Cray Research.A less serious definition, reported from about 1990 at The University Of New South Wales states that a supercomputer is any computer that can outperform IBM's current fastest, thus making it impossible for IBM to ever produce a supercomputer. (1996-12-13)

supercomputer "computer" A broad term for one of the fastest computers currently available. Such computers are typically used for {number crunching} including scientific {simulations}, (animated) {graphics}, analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting), structural analysis, computational fluid dynamics, physics, chemistry, electronic design, nuclear energy research and meteorology. Perhaps the best known supercomputer manufacturer is {Cray Research}. A less serious definition, reported from about 1990 at The {University Of New South Wales} states that a supercomputer is any computer that can outperform {IBM}'s current fastest, thus making it impossible for IBM to ever produce a supercomputer. (1996-12-13)

SUPERPHYSICS All reality beyond the physical visible (49:5-7) and physical-etheric (49:1-4) is superphysical. The lowest superphysical reality is the emotional (48:1-7).

Only esoterics is able to furnish a superphysics, a science of the superphysical.

Svayambhu-sunyata (Sanskrit) Svayambhū-śūnyatā [from svayambhū self-becoming + śūnyatā void] The self-becoming void of infinitude; in Hindu and Buddhist metaphysics, sunyata means that which is empty or void to human eye or understanding because of feebleness of penetrating vision, but otherwise the absolute fullness of spirit. “Spontaneous self-evolution; self-existence of the real in the unreal, i.e., of the Eternal Sat in the periodical Asat” (TG 315).

Svayambhu, Swayambhuva (Sanskrit) Svayambhū, Svayambhuva Self-generating, self-evolving; in Hindu metaphysics the cosmic primordial beginnings of the solar system from the womb on Aditi, or the spatial Deeps. Less accurately, the Self-existent, or Self-manifesting. A name applied to Brahma, issuing from the still more abstract essence of Brahman, equivalent to universal spirit, not the Boundless or infinitude, but the self-manifesting spiritual essence in the beginnings of its cosmic appearance, which lies at the root of any solar system.

Taylor, Alfred Edward: Born in 1869, professor of philosophy at St. Andrews and Edinburgh, after teaching for many years at Oxford. Taylor's metaphysics were predominantly Hegelian and idealist (as in Elements of Metaphysics) during his early years, in later years (as in numerous essays in Mind, and his Gifford Lectures Faith of a Moralist) he has become something of a neo-scholastic, although he follows no school exclusively. In his Gifford Lectures he argues from moral experience to God; in other essays, he declares that grounds for belief are found in cosmology, in conscience and in religious experience. As an Anglo-Catholic, he has given (in volume two of his Giffords) a learned apologia for this position, on philosophical grounds. -- W.N.P.

Teleology: (Gr. telos, end, completion) The theory of purpose, ends, goals, final causes, values, the Good (s.). The opposite of Mechanism. As opposed to mechanism, which explains the present and the future in terms of the past, teleology explains the past and the present in terms of the future. Teleology as such does not imply personal consciousness, volition, or intended purpose (q.v.). Physics, Biology: See Vitalism. Psychology: See Hormic, Instinct, Hedonism, Voluntarism. Epistemology: the view that mind is guided or governed by purposes, values, interests, "instinct", as well as by "factual", "objective" or logical evidence in its pursuit of truth (see Fideism, Voluntarism, Pragmatism, Will-to-believe, Value judgment). Metaphysics: The doctrine that reality is ordered by goals, ends, purposes, values, formal or final causes (q.v.). Ethics: The view that the standard of human life is value, the Good, rather than duty, law, or formal decorum.

Teleology: In general, the theory of the purpose, ends, goals, final causes and values of the Good. In metaphysics, the doctrine that reality is ordered by goals, ends, purposes, values, formal or final causes.

Thales: 6th Cent. B.C., of the Milesian School of Greek Philosophy, is said to have predicted the eclipse of 585; had probably been to Egypt and was proficient in mathematics and physics. Thales, along with the other cosmological thinkers of the Ionian school, presupposed a single elementary cosmic matter at the base of the transformations of nature and declared this to be water. -- M.F.

The Academy continued as a school of philosophy until closed by Justinian in 529 A.D. The early scholars (Speusippus, Xenocrates, Polemo, Crates) were not great philosophers, they adopted a Pythagorean interpretation of the Ideas and concentrated on practical, moral problems. Following the Older Academy (347-247 B.C.), the Middle and New Academies (Arcesilaus and Carneades were the principal teachers) became scepticil and eclectic. Aristotle (384-322 B.C. ) studied with Plato for twenty years and embodied many Platonic views in his own philosophy. Platonism was very highly regarded by the Christian Fathers (Ambrose, Augustine, John Damascene and Anselm of Canterbury, for instance) and it continued as the approved philosophy of the Christian Church until the 12th century. From the 3rd century on, Neo-Platonism (see Plotinism) developed the other-worldly mystical side of Plato's thought. The School of Chartres (Bernard, Thierry, Wm. of Conches, Gilbert of Poitiers) in the 12th century was a center of Christian Platonism, interested chiefly in the cosmological theory of the Timaeus. The Renaissance witnessed a revival of Platonism in the Florentine Academy (Marsilio Ficino and the two Pico della Mirandolas). In England, the Cambridge Platonists (H. More, Th. Gale, J. Norris) in the 17th century started an interest in Plato, which has not yet died out in the English Universities. Today, the ethical writings of A. E. Taylor, the theoiy of essences developed by G. Santayana, and the metaphysics of A. N. Whitehead, most nearly approach a contemporary Platonism. -- V.J.B.

The atomo-mechanical theory of physics starts with atoms and a vacuum and then tries to fill the vacuum; here the notion of emptiness has become confused with spatial extension, giving rise to the idea that there can be an extended and measurable void, and raising the difficulty of the transmission of influence across it.

The Disputationes Metaphysicae (no Eng. translation) forms a complete exposition of Suarez general metaphysics, psychology, theory of knowledge, cosmology and natural theology. Basic is the rejection of the thomistic real distinction between essence and existence in finite things. Physical substances are individuated, neither by their matter nor their form, but by their total entities. Their components, matter and form, are individual entities united in the composite of physical substance by a "mode" (unio) which has itself no reality apart from the composite. Except in the case of the human form which is the soul, matter and form in the natural order cannot exist in isolation. Accidental "modes" are used to explain the association of accidents with their subjects. Spiritual creatures (angels and human souls) are not specific natures as in Thomism, but are individuals, constituted such by their own entities.

The diversity of concepts that Husserl himself expressed by the word "phenomenology" has been a source of diverse usages among thinkeis who came under his influence and are often referred to as "the phenomenological school." Husserl himself always meant by "phenomenology" a science of the subjective and its intended objects qua intentional; this core of sense pervades the development of his own concept of phenomenology as eidetic, transcendental, constitutive. Some thinkers, appropriating only the psychological version of this central concept, have developed a descriptive intentional psychology -- sometimes empirical, sometimes eidetic -- under the title "phenomenology." On the other hand, Husserl's broader concept of eidetic science based on seeing essences and essentially necessary relations -- especially his concept of material ontology -- has been not only adopted but made central by others, who define phenomenology accordingly. Not uncommonly, these groups reject Husserl's method of transcendental-phenomenological reduction and profess a realistic metaphysics. Finally, there are those who, emphasizing Husserl's cardinal principle that evidence -- seeing something that is itself presented -- is the only ultimate source of knowledge, conceive their phenomenology more broadly and etymologically, as explication of that which shows itself, whatever may be the latter 's nature and ontologicil status. -- D.C.

The early Greek notion of the universe as ordered by destiny or fate was gradually refined until the time of Plato and Aristotle who conceived the world as ordered by an intelligent principle (nous) of divine justice or harmony; Plato, Philebus, 30: ". . . there is in the universe a cause of no mean power, which orders and arranges . . ."; and Aristotle, Physics, 252a-12: "nature is everywhere the cause of order". This cosmic view was an essential element of the Stoic metaphysics, and was later incorporated into medieval philosophy and theology as the divine governance or ordering of creation, i.e. providence.

The extant works of Aristotle cover almost all thc sciences known in his time. They are charactenzed by subtlety of analysis, sober and dispassionate judgment, and a wide mastery of empirical facts; collectively they constitute one of the most amazing achievements ever credited to a single mind. They may conveniently be arranged in seven groups: the Organon, or logical treatises, viz. Categories, De Interpretione, Prior Analytics, Posterior Analytics, Topics, and Sophistici Elenchi; the writings on physical science, viz. Physics, De Coelo, De Generatione et Corruptione, and Meteorologica; the biological works, viz. Historia Animalium, De Partibus Animalium. De Motu and De Incessu Animalium, and De Generatione Animalium; the treatises on psychology, viz. De Anima and a collection of shorter works known as the Parva Naturalia; the Metaphysics; the treatises on ethics and politics, viz. Nicomachean Ethics, Eudemian Ethics, Politics, Constitution of Athens; and two works dealing with the literary arts, Rhetoric and Poetics. A large number of other works in these several fields are usually included in the Aristotelian corpus, though they are now generally believed not to have been written by Aristotle. It is probable also that portions of the works above listed are the work, not of Aristotle, but of his contemporaries or successors in the Lyceum.

The first laboratory of experimental psychology was founded at Leipzig in 1879 by Wundt, who has been called "the first professional psychologist." With such research as that of Stumpf on sound; G. E. Müller on psycho-physics, color and learning; Ebbinghaus on memory; and Kulpe and the Würzburg school on the "higher thought processes," experimental psychology made rapid strides within the next two decades. In America, the chief standard bearer of Wundtian psychology was Titchener. Among the others who were instrumental in the introduction and development of experimental psychology in America, may be mentioned James, Hall, Münsterberg, Cattell, and Watson.

The general superiority of theology in this system over the admittedly distinct discipline of philosophy, makes it impossible for unaided reason to solve certain problems which Thomism claims are quite within the province of the latter, e.g., the omnipotence of God, the immortality of the soul. Indeed the Scotist position on this latter question has been thought by some critics to come quite close to the double standard of truth of Averroes, (q.v.) namely, that which is true in theology may be false in philosophy. The univocal assertion of being in God and creatures; the doctrine of universal prime matter (q.v.) in all created substances, even angels, though characteristically there are three kinds of prime matter); the plurality of forms in substances (e.g., two in man) giving successive generic and specific determinations of the substance; all indicate the opposition of Scotistic metaphysics to that of Thomism despite the large body of ideas the two systems have in common. The denial of real distinction between the soul and its faculties; the superiority of will over intellect, the attainment of perfect happiness through a will act of love; the denial of the absolute unchangeableness of the natural law in view of its dependence on the will of God, acts being good because God commanded them; indicate the further rejection of St. Thomas who holds the opposite on each of these questions. However the opposition is not merely for itself but that of a voluntarist against an intellectualist. This has caused many students to point out the affinity of Duns Scotus with Immanuel Kant. (q.v.) But unlike the great German philosopher who relies entirely upon the supremacy of moral consciousness, Duns Scotus makes a constant appeal to revelation and its order of truth as above all philosophy. In his own age, which followed immediately upon the great constructive synthesis of Saints Albert, Bonaventure, and Thomas, this lesser light was less a philosopher because he and his School were incapable of powerful synthesis and so gave themselves to analysis and controversy. The principal Scotists were Francis of Mayron (d. 1327) and Antonio Andrea (d. 1320); and later John of Basoles, John Dumbleton, Walter Burleigh, Alexander of Alexandria, Lychetus of Brescia and Nicholas de Orbellis. The complete works with a life of Duns Scotus were published in 1639 by Luke Wadding (Lyons) and reprinted by Vives in 1891. (Paris) -- C.A.H.

The historical antecedents of experimental psychology are various. From British empiricism and the psychological philosophy of Locke, Berkeley and Hume came associationism (see Associationism), the psychological implications of which were more fully developed by Herbart and Bain. Associationism provided the conceptual framework and largely colored the procedures of early experimental psychology. Physics and physiology gave impetus to experiments on sensory phenomena while physiology and neurology fostered studies of the nervous system and reflex action. The names of Helmholtz, Johannes Müller, E. H. Weber and Fechner are closely linked with this phase of the development of experimental psychology. The English biologist Galton developed the statistical methods of Quetelet for the analysis of data on human variation and opened the way for the mental testing movement; the Russian physiologist Pavlov, with his researches on "conditioned reflexes," contributed an experimental technique which has proved of paramount importance for the psychologist. Even astronomy made its contribution; variations in reaction time of different observers having long been recognized by astronomers as an important source of error in their observations.

The influence of Kant has penetrated more deeply than that of any other modern philosopher. His doctrine of freedom became the foundation of idealistic metaphysics in Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, but not without sacrifice of the strict critical method. Schopenhauer based his voluntarism on Kant's distinction between phenomena and things-in-themselves. Lotze's teleological idealism was also greatly indebted to Kant. Certain psychological and pragmatic implications of Kant's thought were developed by J. F. Fries, Liebmann, Lange, Simmel and Vaihinger. More recently another group in Germany, reviving the critical method, sought a safe course between metaphysics and psychology; it includes Cohen, Natorp, Riehl, Windelband, Rickert, Husserl, Heidegger, and E. Cassirer. Until recent decades English and American idealists such as Caird, Green, Bradley, Howison, and Royce, saw Kant for the most part through Hegel's eyes. More recently the study of Kant's philosophy has come into its own in English-speaking countries through such commentaries as those of N. K. Smith and Paton. In France the influence of Kant was most apparent in Renouvier's "Phenomenism". -- O.F.K.

Theism: (Gr. theos, god) Is in general that type of religion or religious philosophy (see Religion, Philosophy of) which incorporates a conception of God as a unitary being; thus may be considered equivalent to monotheism. The speculation as to the relation of God to world gave rise to three great forms: God identified with world in pantheism (rare with emphasis on God); God, once having created the world, relatively disinterested in it, in deism (mainly an 18th cent, phenomenon); God working in and through the world, in theism proper. Accordingly, God either coincides with the world, is external to it (deus ex machina), or is immanent. The more personal, human-like God, the more theological the theism, the more appealing to a personal adjustment in prayer, worship, etc., which presuppose either that God, being like man, may be swayed in his decision, has no definite plan, or subsists in the very stuff man is made of (humanistic theism). Immanence of God entails agency in the world, presence, revelation, involvement in the historic process, it has been justified by Hindu and Semitic thinkers, Christian apologetics, ancient and modern metaphysical idealists, and by natural science philosophers. Transcendency of God removes him from human affairs, renders fellowship and communication in Church ways ineffectual, yet preserves God's majesty and absoluteness such as is postulated by philosophies which introduce the concept of God for want of a terser term for the ultimate, principal reality. Like Descartes and Spinoza, they allow the personal in God to fade and approach the age-old Indian pantheism evident in much of Vedic and post-Vedic philosophy in which the personal pronoun may be the only distinguishing mark between metaphysical logic and theology, similarly as in Hegel. The endowment postulated of God lends character to a theistic system of philosophy. Much of Hindu and Greek philosophy stresses the knowledge and ration aspect of the deity, thus producing an epistemological theism; Aristotle, in conceiving him as the prime mover, started a teleological one; mysticism is psychologically oriented in its theism, God being a feeling reality approachable in appropriate emotional states. The theism of religious faith is unquestioning and pragmatic in its attitude toward God; theology has often felt the need of offering proofs for the existence of God (see God) thus tending toward an ontological theism; metaphysics incorporates occasionally the concept of God as a thought necessity, advocating a logical theism. Kant's critique showed the respective fields of pure philosophic enquiry and theistic speculations with their past in historic creeds. Theism is left a possibility in agnosticism (q.v.). -- K.F.L.

The necessity of assuming such a supreme form appears also from the side of physics. Since every movement or change implies a mover, and since the chain of causes cannot be infinite if the world is to be intelligible, there must be an unmoved first mover. Furthermore, since motion is eternal (for time is eternal, and time is but the measure of motion), the first mover must be eternal. This eternal unmoved first mover, whose existence is demanded by physical theory, is described in the Metaphysics as the philosophical equivalent of the god or gods of popular religion. Being one, he is the source of the unity of the world process. In himself he is pure actuality, the only form without matter, the only being without extension. His activity consists in pure thought, that is, thought which has thought for its object; and he influences the world not by mechanical impulse, but by virtue of the perfection of his being, which makes him not only the supreme object of all knowledge, but also the ultimate object of all desire.

Theosophically, heat is a manifestation of one of seven forces emanating from the fount of cosmic life and manifesting itself by various effects on various planes. It is a form of one of the seven primordial conscious forces emanating from anima mundi, one of the seven sons of fohat, or one of seven radicals — one aspect of universal motion; in other words, the emanation from a living entity expressing itself on our plane as heat. The forces of physics are manifestations of elementals, which themselves are manifestations of noumena on a still higher plane. Heat is both substantial and energic in character, and we may speak of it as being actually a fluidic emanation from living bodies; although it is equally possible to produce heat in so-called inanimate matter because of the stirring up of the same fluid in these bodies by means of intelligence acting to that end.

the science of physics and medicine and is in charge

The scope of epistemology may be indicated by considering its relations to the allied disciplines: (a) metaphysics, (b) logic, and (c) psychology.

The Singularity ::: A point of phase change of conscious experience. There does seem to be a connection between this and astrophysics but we will refer to the more occult usages of the term. The Singularity between Kether and The Veils of Non-Existence is the main one. However between each "world" (levels of stable conscious awareness) and the next there is a point of density through which consciousness collapses and stabilizes into the next level. See also Da'ath.

The structural problem stated in terms of the antithesis between subjective and objective is rather too vague for the purposes of epistemology and a more precise analysis of the knowledge-situation and statement of the issues involved is required. The perceptual situation -- and this analysis may presumably be extended with appropriate modifications to memory, imagination and other modes of cognition -- consists of a subject (the self, or pure act of perceiving), the content (sense data) and the object (the physical thing perceived). In terms of this analysis, two issues may be formulated Are content and object identical (epistemological monism), or are they numerically distinct (epistemological dualism)? and Does the object exist independently of the knowing subject (epistemological idealism) or is it dependent upon the subject (epistemological realism)? (h) The problem of truth is perhaps the culmination of epistemological enquiry -- in any case it is the problem which brings the enquiry to the threshold of metaphysics. The traditional theories of the nature of truth are: the correspondence theory which conceives truth as a relation between an "idea" or a proposition and its object --the relation has commonly been regarded as one of resemblance but it need not be so considered (see Correspondence theory of truth); the Coherence theory which adopts as the criterion of truth, the logical consistency of a proposition with a wider system of propositions (see Coherence theory of truth), and the intrinsic theory which views truth as an intrinsic property of the true proposition. See Intrinsic theory of truth. --L-W. Bibliography:

The study of society, societal relations. Originally called Social Physics, meaning that the methods of the natural sciences were to be applied to the study of society. Whereas the pattern originally was physics and the first sociologists thought that it was possible to find laws of nature in the social realm (Quetelet, Comte, Buckle), others turned to biological considerations. The "organic" conception of society (Lilienfeld, Schaeffle) treated society as a complex organism, the evolutionists, Gumplowicz, Ratzenhofer, considered the struggle between different ethnic groups the basic factor in the evolution of social structures and institutions. Other sociologists accepted a psychological conception of society; to them psychological phenomena (imitation, according to Gabriel Tarde, consciousness of kind, according to F. H. Giddings) were the basic elements in social interrelations (see also W. McDougall, Alsworth Ross, etc.). These relations themselves were made the main object of sociological studies by G. Simmel, L. Wiese, Howard Becker. A kind of sociological realism was fostered by the French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, and his school. They considered society a reality, the group-mind an actual fact, the social phenomena "choses sociales". The new "sociology of knowledge", inaugurated by these French sociologists, has been further developed by M. Scheler, K. Mannheim and W. Jerusalem. Recently other branches of social research have separated somewhat from sociology proper: Anthropogeography, dealing with the influences of the physical environment upon society, demography, social psychology, etc. Problems of the methodology of the social sciences have also become an important topic of recent studies. -- W.E.

The term dialectical expresses the dynamic interconnectedness of things, the universality of change and its radical character everything possessing any sort of reality is in process of self-transformation, owing to the fact that its content is made up of opposing factors or forces the internal movement of which interconnects everything, changes each thing into something else. Mechanism in the sense of non-dialectical materialism as well as metaphysics in the sense of idealistic ontology are thus rejected.

Three senses of "Ockhamism" may be distinguished: Logical, indicating usage of the terminology and technique of logical analysis developed by Ockham in his Summa totius logicae; in particular, use of the concept of supposition (suppositio) in the significative analysis of terms. Epistemological, indicating the thesis that universality is attributable only to terms and propositions, and not to things as existing apart from discourse. Theological, indicating the thesis that no tneological doctrines, such as those of God's existence or of the immortality of the soul, are evident or demonstrable philosophically, so that religious doctrine rests solely on faith, without metaphysical or scientific support. It is in this sense that Luther is often called an Ockhamist.   Bibliography:   B. Geyer,   Ueberwegs Grundriss d. Gesch. d. Phil., Bd. II (11th ed., Berlin 1928), pp. 571-612 and 781-786; N. Abbagnano,   Guglielmo di Ockham (Lanciano, Italy, 1931); E. A. Moody,   The Logic of William of Ockham (N. Y. & London, 1935); F. Ehrle,   Peter von Candia (Muenster, 1925); G. Ritter,   Studien zur Spaetscholastik, I-II (Heidelberg, 1921-1922).     --E.A.M. Om, aum: (Skr.) Mystic, holy syllable as a symbol for the indefinable Absolute. See Aksara, Vac, Sabda. --K.F.L. Omniscience: In philosophy and theology it means the complete and perfect knowledge of God, of Himself and of all other beings, past, present, and future, or merely possible, as well as all their activities, real or possible, including the future free actions of human beings. --J.J.R. One: Philosophically, not a number but equivalent to unit, unity, individuality, in contradistinction from multiplicity and the mani-foldness of sensory experience. In metaphysics, the Supreme Idea (Plato), the absolute first principle (Neo-platonism), the universe (Parmenides), Being as such and divine in nature (Plotinus), God (Nicolaus Cusanus), the soul (Lotze). Religious philosophy and mysticism, beginning with Indian philosophy (s.v.), has favored the designation of the One for the metaphysical world-ground, the ultimate icility, the world-soul, the principle of the world conceived as reason, nous, or more personally. The One may be conceived as an independent whole or as a sum, as analytic or synthetic, as principle or ontologically. Except by mysticism, it is rarely declared a fact of sensory experience, while its transcendent or transcendental, abstract nature is stressed, e.g., in epistemology where the "I" or self is considered the unitary background of personal experience, the identity of self-consciousness, or the unity of consciousness in the synthesis of the manifoldness of ideas (Kant). --K.F.L. One-one: A relation R is one-many if for every y in the converse domain there is a unique x such that xRy. A relation R is many-one if for every x in the domain there is a unique y such that xRy. (See the article relation.) A relation is one-one, or one-to-one, if it is at the same time one-many and many-one. A one-one relation is said to be, or to determine, a one-to-one correspondence between its domain and its converse domain. --A.C. On-handedness: (Ger. Vorhandenheit) Things exist in the mode of thereness, lying- passively in a neutral space. A "deficient" form of a more basic relationship, termed at-handedness (Zuhandenheit). (Heidegger.) --H.H. Ontological argument: Name by which later authors, especially Kant, designate the alleged proof for God's existence devised by Anselm of Canterbury. Under the name of God, so the argument runs, everyone understands that greater than which nothing can be thought. Since anything being the greatest and lacking existence is less then the greatest having also existence, the former is not really the greater. The greatest, therefore, has to exist. Anselm has been reproached, already by his contemporary Gaunilo, for unduly passing from the field of logical to the field of ontological or existential reasoning. This criticism has been repeated by many authors, among them Aquinas. The argument has, however, been used, if in a somewhat modified form, by Duns Scotus, Descartes, and Leibniz. --R.A. Ontological Object: (Gr. onta, existing things + logos, science) The real or existing object of an act of knowledge as distinguished from the epistemological object. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ontologism: (Gr. on, being) In contrast to psychologism, is called any speculative system which starts philosophizing by positing absolute being, or deriving the existence of entities independently of experience merely on the basis of their being thought, or assuming that we have immediate and certain knowledge of the ground of being or God. Generally speaking any rationalistic, a priori metaphysical doctrine, specifically the philosophies of Rosmini-Serbati and Vincenzo Gioberti. As a philosophic method censored by skeptics and criticists alike, as a scholastic doctrine formerly strongly supported, revived in Italy and Belgium in the 19th century, but no longer countenanced. --K.F.L. Ontology: (Gr. on, being + logos, logic) The theory of being qua being. For Aristotle, the First Philosophy, the science of the essence of things. Introduced as a term into philosophy by Wolff. The science of fundamental principles, the doctrine of the categories. Ultimate philosophy; rational cosmology. Syn. with metaphysics. See Cosmology, First Principles, Metaphysics, Theology. --J.K.F. Operation: "(Lit. operari, to work) Any act, mental or physical, constituting a phase of the reflective process, and performed with a view to acquiring1 knowledge or information about a certain subject-nntter. --A.C.B.   In logic, see Operationism.   In philosophy of science, see Pragmatism, Scientific Empiricism. Operationism: The doctrine that the meaning of a concept is given by a set of operations.   1. The operational meaning of a term (word or symbol) is given by a semantical rule relating the term to some concrete process, object or event, or to a class of such processes, objectj or events.   2. Sentences formed by combining operationally defined terms into propositions are operationally meaningful when the assertions are testable by means of performable operations. Thus, under operational rules, terms have semantical significance, propositions have empirical significance.   Operationism makes explicit the distinction between formal (q.v.) and empirical sentences. Formal propositions are signs arranged according to syntactical rules but lacking operational reference. Such propositions, common in mathematics, logic and syntax, derive their sanction from convention, whereas an empirical proposition is acceptable (1) when its structure obeys syntactical rules and (2) when there exists a concrete procedure (a set of operations) for determining its truth or falsity (cf. Verification). Propositions purporting to be empirical are sometimes amenable to no operational test because they contain terms obeying no definite semantical rules. These sentences are sometimes called pseudo-propositions and are said to be operationally meaningless. They may, however, be 'meaningful" in other ways, e.g. emotionally or aesthetically (cf. Meaning).   Unlike a formal statement, the "truth" of an empirical sentence is never absolute and its operational confirmation serves only to increase the degree of its validity. Similarly, the semantical rule comprising the operational definition of a term has never absolute precision. Ordinarily a term denotes a class of operations and the precision of its definition depends upon how definite are the rules governing inclusion in the class.   The difference between Operationism and Logical Positivism (q.v.) is one of emphasis. Operationism's stress of empirical matters derives from the fact that it was first employed to purge physics of such concepts as absolute space and absolute time, when the theory of relativity had forced upon physicists the view that space and time are most profitably defined in terms of the operations by which they are measured. Although different methods of measuring length at first give rise to different concepts of length, wherever the equivalence of certain of these measures can be established by other operations, the concepts may legitimately be combined.   In psychology the operational criterion of meaningfulness is commonly associated with a behavioristic point of view. See Behaviorism. Since only those propositions which are testable by public and repeatable operations are admissible in science, the definition of such concepti as mind and sensation must rest upon observable aspects of the organism or its behavior. Operational psychology deals with experience only as it is indicated by the operation of differential behavior, including verbal report. Discriminations, or the concrete differential reactions of organisms to internal or external environmental states, are by some authors regarded as the most basic of all operations.   For a discussion of the role of operational definition in phvsics. see P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics, (New York, 1928) and The Nature of Physical Theory (Princeton, 1936). "The extension of operationism to psychology is discussed by C. C. Pratt in The Logic of Modem Psychology (New York. 1939.)   For a discussion and annotated bibliography relating to Operationism and Logical Positivism, see S. S. Stevens, Psychology and the Science of Science, Psychol. Bull., 36, 1939, 221-263. --S.S.S. Ophelimity: Noun derived from the Greek, ophelimos useful, employed by Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) in economics as the equivalent of utility, or the capacity to provide satisfaction. --J.J.R. Opinion: (Lat. opinio, from opinor, to think) An hypothesis or proposition entertained on rational grounds but concerning which doubt can reasonably exist. A belief. See Hypothesis, Certainty, Knowledge. --J.K.F- Opposition: (Lat. oppositus, pp. of oppono, to oppose) Positive actual contradiction. One of Aristotle's Post-predicaments. In logic any contrariety or contradiction, illustrated by the "Square of Opposition". Syn. with: conflict. See Logic, formal, § 4. --J.K.F. Optimism: (Lat. optimus, the best) The view inspired by wishful thinking, success, faith, or philosophic reflection, that the world as it exists is not so bad or even the best possible, life is good, and man's destiny is bright. Philosophically most persuasively propounded by Leibniz in his Theodicee, according to which God in his wisdom would have created a better world had he known or willed such a one to exist. Not even he could remove moral wrong and evil unless he destroyed the power of self-determination and hence the basis of morality. All systems of ethics that recognize a supreme good (Plato and many idealists), subscribe to the doctrines of progressivism (Turgot, Herder, Comte, and others), regard evil as a fragmentary view (Josiah Royce et al.) or illusory, or believe in indemnification (Henry David Thoreau) or melioration (Emerson), are inclined optimistically. Practically all theologies advocating a plan of creation and salvation, are optimistic though they make the good or the better dependent on moral effort, right thinking, or belief, promising it in a future existence. Metaphysical speculation is optimistic if it provides for perfection, evolution to something higher, more valuable, or makes room for harmonies or a teleology. See Pessimism. --K.F.L. Order: A class is said to be partially ordered by a dyadic relation R if it coincides with the field of R, and R is transitive and reflexive, and xRy and yRx never both hold when x and y are different. If in addition R is connected, the class is said to be ordered (or simply ordered) by R, and R is called an ordering relation.   Whitehcid and Russell apply the term serial relation to relations which are transitive, irreflexive, and connected (and, in consequence, also asymmetric). However, the use of serial relations in this sense, instead ordering relations as just defined, is awkward in connection with the notion of order for unit classes.   Examples: The relation not greater than among leal numbers is an ordering relation. The relation less than among real numbers is a serial relation. The real numbers are simply ordered by the former relation. In the algebra of classes (logic formal, § 7), the classes are partially ordered by the relation of class inclusion.   For explanation of the terminology used in making the above definitions, see the articles connexity, reflexivity, relation, symmetry, transitivity. --A.C. Order type: See relation-number. Ordinal number: A class b is well-ordered by a dyadic relation R if it is ordered by R (see order) and, for every class a such that a ⊂ b, there is a member x of a, such that xRy holds for every member y of a; and R is then called a well-ordering relation. The ordinal number of a class b well-ordered by a relation R, or of a well-ordering relation R, is defined to be the relation-number (q. v.) of R.   The ordinal numbers of finite classes (well-ordered by appropriate relations) are called finite ordinal numbers. These are 0, 1, 2, ... (to be distinguished, of course, from the finite cardinal numbers 0, 1, 2, . . .).   The first non-finite (transfinite or infinite) ordinal number is the ordinal number of the class of finite ordinal numbers, well-ordered in their natural order, 0, 1, 2, . . .; it is usually denoted by the small Greek letter omega. --A.C.   G. Cantor, Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Numbers, translated and with an introduction by P. E. B. Jourdain, Chicago and London, 1915. (new ed. 1941); Whitehead and Russell, Princtpia Mathematica. vol. 3. Orexis: (Gr. orexis) Striving; desire; the conative aspect of mind, as distinguished from the cognitive and emotional (Aristotle). --G.R.M.. Organicism: A theory of biology that life consists in the organization or dynamic system of the organism. Opposed to mechanism and vitalism. --J.K.F. Organism: An individual animal or plant, biologically interpreted. A. N. Whitehead uses the term to include also physical bodies and to signify anything material spreading through space and enduring in time. --R.B.W. Organismic Psychology: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, an instrument) A system of theoretical psychology which construes the structure of the mind in organic rather than atomistic terms. See Gestalt Psychology; Psychological Atomism. --L.W. Organization: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, work) A structured whole. The systematic unity of parts in a purposive whole. A dynamic system. Order in something actual. --J.K.F. Organon: (Gr. organon) The title traditionally given to the body of Aristotle's logical treatises. The designation appears to have originated among the Peripatetics after Aristotle's time, and expresses their view that logic is not a part of philosophy (as the Stoics maintained) but rather the instrument (organon) of philosophical inquiry. See Aristotelianism. --G.R.M.   In Kant. A system of principles by which pure knowledge may be acquired and established.   Cf. Fr. Bacon's Novum Organum. --O.F.K. Oriental Philosophy: A general designation used loosely to cover philosophic tradition exclusive of that grown on Greek soil and including the beginnings of philosophical speculation in Egypt, Arabia, Iran, India, and China, the elaborate systems of India, Greater India, China, and Japan, and sometimes also the religion-bound thought of all these countries with that of the complex cultures of Asia Minor, extending far into antiquity. Oriental philosophy, though by no means presenting a homogeneous picture, nevertheless shares one characteristic, i.e., the practical outlook on life (ethics linked with metaphysics) and the absence of clear-cut distinctions between pure speculation and religious motivation, and on lower levels between folklore, folk-etymology, practical wisdom, pre-scientiiic speculation, even magic, and flashes of philosophic insight. Bonds with Western, particularly Greek philosophy have no doubt existed even in ancient times. Mutual influences have often been conjectured on the basis of striking similarities, but their scientific establishment is often difficult or even impossible. Comparative philosophy (see especially the work of Masson-Oursel) provides a useful method. Yet a thorough treatment of Oriental Philosophy is possible only when the many languages in which it is deposited have been more thoroughly studied, the psychological and historical elements involved in the various cultures better investigated, and translations of the relevant documents prepared not merely from a philological point of view or out of missionary zeal, but by competent philosophers who also have some linguistic training. Much has been accomplished in this direction in Indian and Chinese Philosophy (q.v.). A great deal remains to be done however before a definitive history of Oriental Philosophy may be written. See also Arabian, and Persian Philosophy. --K.F.L. Origen: (185-254) The principal founder of Christian theology who tried to enrich the ecclesiastic thought of his day by reconciling it with the treasures of Greek philosophy. Cf. Migne PL. --R.B.W. Ormazd: (New Persian) Same as Ahura Mazdah (q.v.), the good principle in Zoroastrianism, and opposed to Ahriman (q.v.). --K.F.L. Orphic Literature: The mystic writings, extant only in fragments, of a Greek religious-philosophical movement of the 6th century B.C., allegedly started by the mythical Orpheus. In their mysteries, in which mythology and rational thinking mingled, the Orphics concerned themselves with cosmogony, theogony, man's original creation and his destiny after death which they sought to influence to the better by pure living and austerity. They taught a symbolism in which, e.g., the relationship of the One to the many was clearly enunciated, and believed in the soul as involved in reincarnation. Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Plato were influenced by them. --K.F.L. Ortega y Gasset, Jose: Born in Madrid, May 9, 1883. At present in Buenos Aires, Argentine. Son of Ortega y Munillo, the famous Spanish journalist. Studied at the College of Jesuits in Miraflores and at the Central University of Madrid. In the latter he presented his Doctor's dissertation, El Milenario, in 1904, thereby obtaining his Ph.D. degree. After studies in Leipzig, Berlin, Marburg, under the special influence of Hermann Cohen, the great exponent of Kant, who taught him the love for the scientific method and awoke in him the interest in educational philosophy, Ortega came to Spain where, after the death of Nicolas Salmeron, he occupied the professorship of metaphysics at the Central University of Madrid. The following may be considered the most important works of Ortega y Gasset:     Meditaciones del Quijote, 1914;   El Espectador, I-VIII, 1916-1935;   El Tema de Nuestro Tiempo, 1921;   España Invertebrada, 1922;   Kant, 1924;   La Deshumanizacion del Arte, 1925;   Espiritu de la Letra, 1927;   La Rebelion de las Masas, 1929;   Goethe desde Adentio, 1934;   Estudios sobre el Amor, 1939;   Ensimismamiento y Alteracion, 1939;   El Libro de las Misiones, 1940;   Ideas y Creencias, 1940;     and others.   Although brought up in the Marburg school of thought, Ortega is not exactly a neo-Kantian. At the basis of his Weltanschauung one finds a denial of the fundamental presuppositions which characterized European Rationalism. It is life and not thought which is primary. Things have a sense and a value which must be affirmed independently. Things, however, are to be conceived as the totality of situations which constitute the circumstances of a man's life. Hence, Ortega's first philosophical principle: "I am myself plus my circumstances". Life as a problem, however, is but one of the poles of his formula. Reason is the other. The two together function, not by dialectical opposition, but by necessary coexistence. Life, according to Ortega, does not consist in being, but rather, in coming to be, and as such it is of the nature of direction, program building, purpose to be achieved, value to be realized. In this sense the future as a time dimension acquires new dignity, and even the present and the past become articulate and meaning-full only in relation to the future. Even History demands a new point of departure and becomes militant with new visions. --J.A.F. Orthodoxy: Beliefs which are declared by a group to be true and normative. Heresy is a departure from and relative to a given orthodoxy. --V.S. Orthos Logos: See Right Reason. Ostensible Object: (Lat. ostendere, to show) The object envisaged by cognitive act irrespective of its actual existence. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ostensive: (Lat. ostendere, to show) Property of a concept or predicate by virtue of which it refers to and is clarified by reference to its instances. --A.C.B. Ostwald, Wilhelm: (1853-1932) German chemist. Winner of the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1909. In Die Uberwindung des wissenschaftlichen Materialistmus and in Naturphilosophie, his two best known works in the field of philosophy, he advocates a dynamic theory in opposition to materialism and mechanism. All properties of matter, and the psychic as well, are special forms of energy. --L.E.D. Oupnekhat: Anquetil Duperron's Latin translation of the Persian translation of 50 Upanishads (q.v.), a work praised by Schopenhauer as giving him complete consolation. --K.F.L. Outness: A term employed by Berkeley to express the experience of externality, that is the ideas of space and things placed at a distance. Hume used it in the sense of distance Hamilton understood it as the state of being outside of consciousness in a really existing world of material things. --J.J.R. Overindividual: Term used by H. Münsterberg to translate the German überindividuell. The term is applied to any cognitive or value object which transcends the individual subject. --L.W. P

To be an Aristotelian under such extremely complicated circumstances was the problem that St. Thomas set himself. What he did reduced itself fundamentally to three points: (a) He showed the Platonic orientation of St. Augustine's thought, the limitations that St. Augustine himself placed on his Platonism, and he inferred from this that St. Augustine could not be made the patron of the highly elaborated and sophisticated Platonism that an Ibn Gebirol expounded in his Fons Vitae or an Avicenna in his commentaries on the metaphysics and psychology of Aristotle. (b) Having singled out Plato as the thinker to search out behind St. Augustine, and having really eliminated St. Augustine from the Platonic controversies of the thirteenth century, St. Thomas is then concerned to diagnose the Platonic inspiration of the various commentators of Aristotle, and to separate what is to him the authentic Aristotle from those Platonic aberrations. In this sense, the philosophical activity of St. Thomas in the thirteenth century can be understood as a systematic critique and elimination of Platonism in metaphysics, psychology and epistemology. The Platonic World of Ideas is translated into a theory of substantial principles in a world of stable and intelligible individuals; the Platonic man, who was scarcely more than an incarcerated spirit, became a rational animal, containing within his being an interior economy which presented in a rational system his mysterious nature as a reality existing on the confines of two worlds, spirit and matter; the Platonic theory of knowledge (at least in the version of the Meno rather than that of the later dialogues where the doctrine of division is more prominent), which was regularly beset with the difficulty of accounting for the origin and the truth of knowledge, was translated into a theory of abstraction in which sensible experience enters as a necessary moment into the explanation of the origin, the growth and the use of knowledge, and in which the intelligible structure of sensible being becomes the measure of the truth of knowledge and of knowing.

Transcendentalism: Any doctrine giving emphasis to the transcendent or transcendental (q.v.). Originally, a convenient synonym for the "transcendental philosophy" (q.v.) of Kant and Schelling. By extension, post-Kantian idealism. Any idealistic philosophy positing the immanence of the ideal or spiritual in sensuous experience. The philosophy of the Absolute (q.v.), the doctrine of: a) the immanence of the Absolute in the finite; b) the transcendence of the Absolute above the finite conceived as illusion or "unreality". A name, onginally pejorative, given to and later adopted by an idealistic movement in New England centering around the informal and so-called "Transcendental Club," organized at Boston in 1836. An outgrowth of the romantic movement, its chief influences were Coleridge, Schelling and Orientalism. While it embodied a general attitude rather than a systematically worked out philosophy, in general it opposed Lockean empiricism, materialism, rationalism, Calvinism, Deism, Trinitarianism, and middle-class commercialism. Its metaphysics followed that of Kant and post-Kantian idealism posited the immanancc of the divine in finite existence, and tended towards pantheism (Emerson's "Nature", "Oversoul", "The Transcendentalist"). Its doctrine of knowledge was idealistic and intuitive. Its ethics embraced idealism, individualism, mysticism, reformism and optimism regarding human nature. Theologically it was autosoteric, unitarian, and broadly mystical (Theo. Parker's "The Transient and Permanent in Christianity"). Popularly, a pejorative term for any view that is "enthusiastic", "mystical", extravagant, impractical, ethereal, supernatural, vague, abstruse, lacking in common sense. --W.L. Transcendentals (Scholastic): The transcendentalia are notions which apply to any being whatsoever. They are Being, Thing, Something, One, True, Good. While thing (res) and being (ens) are synonymous, the other four name properties of being which, however, are only virtually distinct from the concept to which they apply. -- R.A.

Transcendent: (L. transcendere to climb over, surpass, go beyond) That which is beyond, in any of several senses. The opposite of the immanent (q.v.). In Scholasticism notions are transcendent which cannot be subsumed under the Aristotelian categories. The definitive list of transcendentia comprises ens, unum, bonum, verum, res, and aliquid. For Kant whatever is beyond possible experience is transcendent, and hence unknowable. Metaphysics and Theology: God (or the Absolute) is said to be transcendent in the following senses:   perfect, i e., beyond limitation or imperfection (Scholasticism);   incomprehensible (negative theology, mysticism);   remote from Nature (Deism);   alienated from natural man (Barthianism). Pluralism posits the essential mutual transcendence of substances or reals. Epistemology: Epistemological dualism (q.v.) holds that the real transcends apprehending consciousness, i.e., is directly inaccessible to it. Thought is said to be "self-transcendent" when held to involve essentially reference beyond itself (s. intentionahty). Ethics. Moral idealism posits the transcendence of the will over Nature (see Freedom). --W.L. Transcendent Reference: The reference of a mental state to something beyond itself. See Reference. -- L.W.

Tripitaka: "The Three Baskets", the Buddhistic Canon as finally adopted by the Council of Sthaviras, or elders, held under the auspices of Emperor Asoka, about 245 B.C., at Pataliputra, consisting of three parts "The basket of discipline", "the basket of (Buddha's) sermons", and "the basket of metaphysics." -- K.F.L.

Tripitaka: “The Three Baskets,” the Buddhistic Canon as finally adopted by the Council of Sthaviras, or elders, held under the auspices of Emperor Asoka, about 245 B.C., at Pataliputra, consisting of three parts: “The basket of discipline” (Vinaya), “the basket of (Buddha’s) sermons” (Sutras), and “the basket of metaphysics” (Abidharma).

Uncertainty principle: A principle of quantum mechanics (q.v.), according to which complete quantitative measurement of certain states and processes in terms of the usual space-time coordinates is impossible. Macroscopically negligible, the effect becomes of importance on the electronic scale. In particular, if simultaneous measurements of the position and the momentum of an electron are pressed beyond a certain degree of accuracy, it becomes impossible to increase the accuracy of either measurement except at the expense of a decrease in the accuracy of the other more exactly, if a is the uncertaintv of the measurement of one of the coordinates of position of the electron and b is the uncertainty of the measurement of the corresponding component of momentum, the product ab (on principle) cannot be less than a certain constant h (namely Planck's constant, q.v.). On the basis that quantities in principle unobservable are not to be considered physically real, it is therefore held by quantum theorists that simultaneous ascription of an exact position and an exact momentum to an electron is memingless. This has been thought to have a bearing on, or to limit or modify the principle of determinism in physics. -- A.C.

Undulatory Theory The theory that light is propagated in waves, devised by Young, Fresnel, and others to explain certain phenomena, such as diffraction, which could not be explained by the corpuscular or emission theory of Newton. It has been elaborated into that branch of physics known as physical optics.

Unitarianism: The mme for the theological view which emphasises the oneness of God in opposition to the Triitarian formula (q.v.). Although the term is modern, the idea underlying Unitarianism is old. In Christian theology any expression of the status of Jesus as being less than a metaphysical part of Deity is of the spirit of Unitarianism (e.g., Dynamistic Monarchianists, Adoptionists, Socinians, and many others). Unitarians hold only the highest regard for Jesus but refuse to bind that regard to a Trinitarian metaphysics. In general, their views of the religious life have been prophetic of liberal thought. Today there are numbers of liberal Christian ministers who are Unitarian in thought but not in name. The British and Foreign Unitarian Association dates formally to 1825. Manchester College, Oxford, was claimed Unitarian. Leading theologians were Joseph Priestly (1733-1804), James Martineau (1805-1900), James Drummond and J. E. Carpenter. American Unitarianism wis given expression in King's Chapel, Boston (1785), in a number of associations, in Meaddville Theological School (1844) and Harvard Divinity School (the chief seat of the movement prior to 1878). Channing (1780-1842) and Theodore Parker (1810-1860) directed the movement into wider liberal channels. -- V.F.

Universe: (a) Metaphysics (1) The complete natural world, (2) That whole composed of all particulars and of all universals. (3) The Absolute. (b) Logic: The universe of discourse in any given treatment is that class such that all other classes treated are subclasses of it and consequently such that all members of any class treated are members of it. See logic, formal, §§7, 8. -- C.A.B.

University of Twente "body, education" A university in the east of The Netherlands for technical and social sciences. It was founded in 1961, making it one of the youngest universities in The Netherlands. It has 7000 students studying Applied Educational Science; Applied Mathematics; Applied Physics; Chemical Technology; Computer Science; Electrical Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Philosophy of science, Technology and Society; Educational Technology. {(}. (1995-04-16)

Verification, Confirmation: Verification: the procedure of finding out whether a sentence (or proposition) is true or false. A sentence is verifiable (in principle) if a (positive or negative) verification of it is possible under suitable conditions, leaving aside technical difficulties. Many philosophical doctrines (e.g. Scientific Empiricism, q.v.) hold that a verification is replaced here by the concept of confirmation. A certain hypothesis is said to be confirmed to a certain degree by a certain amount of evidence. The concept of degree of confirmation is closely connected or perhaps identical (Reichenbach) with the statistical concept of probability (q.v.). A sentence is confirmable if suitable (possible, not necessarily actual) experiences could contribute positively or negatively to its confirmation. Many etnpiricists (see e.g. Scientific Empiricism 1C) regard either verifiability (e.g. Wittgenstein, the Vienna Circle in its earlier phase) or confirimability as a criterion of meaningfulness (in the sense of factual meaning, see Meaning, Kinds of, 2). This view leads to a rejection of certain metaphysical doctrines (see Anti-metaphysics, 2)

Very useful in physics and engineering. The Fourier coefficients, that is, the coefiicients of the above series can be found by

Vikramasīla. (T. Rnam gnon ngang tshul). A monastery and monastic university in the northern region of ancient MAGADHA, in the modern Bihar state of India, located along the Ganges River in the Bhagalpur District of Bihar, about 150 miles east of NĀLANDĀ. King Dharmapāla of the Pāla dynasty founded Vikramasīla between the late eighth and early ninth centuries and appointed his teacher, BuddhajNānapāda, to be abbot of the monastic university. Throughout its existence, leaders of the Pāla dynasty supported the teachers, students, and maintenance of the institution. There were six areas of religious study, supplemented by such secular subjects as grammar, metaphysics, and logic. The two monastic universities of Vikramasīla and Nālandā had a great deal of scholarly interaction, and, like Nālandā, Vikramasīla served as a model for Tibetan monasteries. There were more foreign students at Vikramasīla than at Nālandā, and the monastery is said to have been large enough to accommodate around ten thousand resident students, including specific dormitories for visiting Tibetan students. Vikramasīla also housed a substantial library, where texts were both stored and recopied by students and teachers. By the tenth century CE, Vikramasīla had outgrown even Nālandā, reaching its peak in the eleventh century, and offered a famous PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ curriculum. The monastery became the focus of tantric scholarship during this period, and pilgrims came to study from many regions of Asia. During the reign of King Nayapāla, in the eleventh century, ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNĀNA was considered the greatest scholar at the monastery. Other famous scholars also taught there, including JITĀRI, JNĀNAsRĪMITRA, NĀROPA (briefly), and RATNĀKARAsĀNTI. Vikramasīla was attacked by Muslim armies between 1199 and 1203 CE. During the same period, ODANTAPURĪ was also attacked, and the surviving scholars and students were forced to flee. Many scholars escaped to Nepal and Tibet, saving many texts from their libraries. sĀKYAsRĪBHADRA was the last abbot of Vikramasīla, and also the last to flee to Tibet from the monastery, arriving in 1204.

virial ::: n. --> A certain function relating to a system of forces and their points of application, -- first used by Clausius in the investigation of problems in molecular physics.

Vortices: (Lat. vortex) Whirling figures used in Cartesian physics to explain the differentiation on geometrical principles of pure extension into vanous kinds of bodies. See Cartesianism. -- V.J.B.

Ward Christensen ::: (person) The inventor of XMODEM and of the BBS. Ward did physics in college and programmed mainframes for IBM.Ward and friend Randy Suess set up their BBS on first on 1978-02-16 in Chicago. It ran on an S-100 computer with 64k RAM and two single-sided 8 250kB diskettes. .(2005-09-20)

Ward Christensen "person" The inventor of {XMODEM} and of the {BBS}. Ward did physics in college and programmed {mainframes} for {IBM}. Ward and friend Randy Suess set up their BBS on first on 1978-02-16 in Chicago. It ran on an {S-100} computer with 64k {RAM} and two single-sided 8" 250kB {diskettes}. {Freeware Hall of Fame (}. (2005-09-20)

Weber-Fechner Law: Basic law of psychophysics which expresses in quantitative terms the relation between the intensity of a stimulus and the intensity of the resultant sensation. E. H. Weber applying the method of "just noticeable difference" in experiments involving weight discrimination found that the ability to discriminate two stimuli depends not on the absolute difference between the two stimuli but on their relative intensities and suggested the hypothesis that for each sense there is a constant expressing the relative intensities of stimuli producing a just noticeable difference of sensation. Fechner, also employing the method of just perceptible difference, arrived at the formula that the sensation varies with the logarithm of the stimulus: S = C log R where S represents the intensity of the sensation, R that of the stimulus and C a constant which varies for the different senses and from individual to individual and even for the same individual at different times. -- L.W.

Weber's Law: is a law of psychophysics which states that the amount by which a stimulus must change in order for that change to be noticeable is proportional to the intensity of that stimulus. Thus, stronger stimuli would need to be increased by greater amounts than would weaker stimuli for noticeable change.

Whitehead, Alfred North: British philosopher. Born in 1861. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1911-14. Lecturer in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics at University College, London, 1914-24. Professor of Applied Mathematics at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. From 1924 until retirement in 1938, Professor of Philosophy at Harvard University. Among his most important philosophical works are the Principia Mathematica, 3 vols. (1910-13) (with Bertrand Russell; An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Natural Knowledge (1919); The Concept of Nature (1920); Science and the Modern World (1926); Religion tn the Making (1926); Symbolism (1928); Process and Reality (1929); and Adventures of Ideas (1933). The principle of relativity in physics is the key to the understanding of metaphysics. Whitehead opposes the current philosophy of static substance having qualities which he holds to be based on the simply located material bodies of Newtonian physics and the "pure sensations" of Hume. This 17th century philosophy depends upon a "bifurcation of nature" into two unequal systems of reality on the Cartesian model of mind and matter. The high abstractions of science must not be mistaken for concrete realities. Instead, Whitehead argues that there is only one reality, what appears, whatever is given in perception, is real. There is nothing existing beyond what is present in the experience of subjects, understanding by subject any actual entity. There are neither static concepts nor substances in the world; only a network of events. All such events are actual extensions or spatio-temporal unities. The philosophy of organism, as Whitehead terms his work, is based upon the patterned process of events. All things or events are sensitive to the existence of all others; the relations between them consisting in a kind of feeling. Every actual entity is then a "prehensive occasion", that is, it consists of all those active relations with other things into which it enters. An actual entity is further determined by "negative prehension", the exclusion of all that which it is not. Thus every feeling is a positive prehension, every abstraction a negative one. Every actual entity is lost as an individual when it perishes, but is preserved through its relations with other entities in the framework of the world. Also, whatever has happened must remain an absolute fact. In this sense, past events have achieved "objective immortality". Except for this, the actual entities are involved in flux, into which there is the ingression of eternal objects from the realm of possibilities. The eternal objects are universals whose selection is necessary to the actual entities. Thus the actual world is a certain selection of eternal objects. God is the principles of concretion which determines the selection. "Creativity" is the primal cause whereby possibilities are selected in the advance of actuality toward novelty. This movement is termed the consequent nature of God. The pure possibility of the eternal objects themsehes is termed his primordial nature. -- J.K.F.

Within the context of these views there is evidently allowance for divergent doctrines, but certain general tendencies can be noticed. The metaphysics of naturalism is always monistic and if any teleological element is introduced it is emergent. Man is viewed as coordinate with other parts of nature, and naturalistic psychology emphasizes the physical basis of human behavior; ideas and ideals are largely treated as artifacts, though there is disagreement as to the validity to be assigned them. The axiology of naturalism can seek its values only within the context of human character and experience, and must ground these values on individual self-realization or social utility; though again there is disagreement as to both the content and the final validity of the values there discovered. Naturalistic epistemologies have varied between the extremes of rationalism and positivism, but they consistently limit knowledge to natural events and the relationships holding between them, and so direct inquiry to a description and systematization of what happens in nature. The beneficent task that naturalism recurrently performs is that of recalling attention from a blind absorption in theory to a fresh consideration of the facts and values exhibited in nature and life.

With reference to the approach to the central reality of religion, God, and man's relation to it, types of the Philosophy of Religion may be distinguished, leaving out of account negative (atheism), skeptical and cynical (Xenophanes, Socrates, Voltaire), and agnostic views, although insertions by them are not to be separated from the history of religious consciousness. Fundamentalism, mainly a theological and often a Church phenomenon of a revivalist nature, philosophizes on the basis of unquestioning faith, seeking to buttress it by logical argument, usually taking the form of proofs of the existence of God (see God). Here belong all historic religions, Christianity in its two principal forms, Catholicism with its Scholastic philosophy and Protestantism with its greatly diversified philosophies, the numerous religions of Hinduism, such as Brahmanism, Shivaism and Vishnuism, the religion of Judaism, and Mohammedanism. Mysticism, tolerated by Church and philosophy, is less concerned with proof than with description and personal experience, revealing much of the psychological factors involved in belief and speculation. Indian philosophy is saturated with mysticism since its inception, Sufism is the outstanding form of Arab mysticism, while the greatest mystics in the West are Plotinus, Meister Eckhart, Tauler, Ruysbroek, Thomas a Kempis, and Jacob Bohme. Metaphysics incorporates religious concepts as thought necessities. Few philosophers have been able to avoid the concept of God in their ontology, or any reference to the relation of God to man in their ethics. So, e.g., Plato, Spinoza, Leibniz, Schelling, and especially Hegel who made the investigation of the process of the Absolute the essence of the Philosophy of Religion.

World-germs are “viewed by Science as material particles in a highly attenuated condition, but in Occult physics as ‘Spiritual particles,’ i.e., supersensuous matter existing in a state of primeval differentiation” (SD 1:200-1).

world-lines ::: physics and Philos.: The succession of points in space-time that are occupied by a particle.

World-Wide Web "web, networking, hypertext" (WWW, W3, the web) A {client-server} {hypertext} distributed information retrieval system, often referred to as "The Internet" though strictly speaking, the Internet is the network and the web is just one use of the network (others being {e-mail}, {DNS}, {SSH}). Basically, the web consists of documents or {web pages} in {HTML} format (a kind of {hypertext}), each of which has a unique {URL} or "web address". {Links} in a page are URLs of other pages which may be part of the same {website} or a page on another site on a different {web server} anywhere on the {Internet}. As well as HTML pages, a URL may refer to an image, some code ({JavaScript} or {Java}), {CSS}, a {video} stream or other kinds of object. URLs typically start with "http://", indicating that the page needs to be fetched using the {HTTP} {protocol} or or "https://" for the {HTTPS} protocol which {encrypts} the request and the resulting page for security. The URL "scheme" (the bit before the ":") indicates the protocol to use. These include {FTP}, the original protocol for transferring files over the Internet. {RTSP} is a {streaming protocol} that allow a continuous feed of {audio} or {video} from the server to the browser. {Gopher} was a predecessor of HTTP and {Telnet} starts an {interactive} {command-line} session with a remote server. The web is accessed using a {client} program known as a {web browser} that runs on the user's computer. The browser fetches and displays pages and allows the user to follow {links} by clicking on them (or similar action) and to input queries to the server. A variety of browsers are freely available, e.g. {Google Chrome}, {Microsoft} {Internet Explorer}, {Apple} {Safari} and {Mozilla} {Firefox}. Early browsers included {NCSA} {Mosaic} and {Netscape} {Navigator}. Queries can be entered into "forms" which allow the user to enter arbitrary text and select options from customisable menus and other controls. The server processes each request - either a simple URL or data from a form - and returns a response, typically a page of HTML. The World-Wide Web originated from the {CERN} High-Energy Physics laboratories in Geneva, Switzerland. In the early 1990s, the developers at CERN spread word of the Web's capabilities to scientific and academic audiences worldwide. By September 1993, the share of Web traffic traversing the {NSFNET} {Internet} {backbone} reached 75 {gigabytes} per month or one percent. By July 1994 it was one {terabyte} per month. The {World Wide Web Consortium} is the main standards body for the web. Following the widespread availability of web browsers and servers from about 1995, organisations started using the same software and protocols on their own private internal {TCP/IP} networks giving rise to the term "{intranet}". {This dictionary} is accessible via the Web at {(}. {An article by John December (}. {W3 servers, clients and tools (}. (2017-11-01)

World-Wide Web ::: (World-Wide Web, networking, hypertext) (WWW, W3, The Web) An Internet client-server hypertext distributed information retrieval system which originated from the CERN High-Energy Physics laboratories in Geneva, Switzerland.An extensive user community has developed on the Web since its public introduction in 1991. In the early 1990s, the developers at CERN spread word of share of Web traffic traversing the NSFNET Internet backbone reached 75 gigabytes per month or one percent. By July 1994 it was one terabyte per month.On the WWW everything (documents, menus, indices) is represented to the user as a hypertext object in HTML format. Hypertext links refer to other documents by Gopher, Telnet or news, as well as those available via the http protocol used to transfer hypertext documents.The client program (known as a browser), e.g. NCSA Mosaic, Netscape Navigator, runs on the user's computer and provides two basic navigation operations: to follow a link or to send a query to a server. A variety of client and server software is freely available.Most clients and servers also support forms which allow the user to enter arbitrary text as well as selecting options from customisable menus and on/off switches.Following the widespread availability of web browsers and servers, many companies from about 1995 realised they could use the same software and protocols on their own private internal TCP/IP networks giving rise to the term intranet.If you don't have a WWW browser, but you are on the Internet, you can access the Web using the command: telnet (Internet address but it's much better if you install a browser on your own computer.The World Wide Web Consortium is the main standards body for the web. . . .Mailing list: .Usenet newsgroups: comp.infosystems.www.misc, comp.infosystems.www.providers, comp.infosystems.www.users, comp.infosystems.announce.The best way to access this dictionary is via the Web since you will get the latest version and be able to follow cross-references easily. If you are reading a plain text version of this dictionary then you will see lots of curly brackets and strings like {(http://hostname/here/there/page.html)}. These are transformed into hypertext links when you access it via the Web.See also Java, webhead. (1996-10-28)

XPOP "language" An extensible {macro assembly} language with user-redefinable {grammar}, for use with {FAP}. ["XPOP: A Meta-language Without Metaphysics", M.I. Halpern, Proc FJCC 25:57-68, AFIPS (Fall 1964)]. (1995-04-28)

XPOP ::: (language) An extensible macro assembly language with user-redefinable grammar, for use with FAP.[XPOP: A Meta-language Without Metaphysics, M.I. Halpern, Proc FJCC 25:57-68, AFIPS (Fall 1964)]. (1995-04-28)

Yerk "language" (After Yerkes Observatory) An {object-oriented} language based on a {Forth} {Kernel} with some major modifications. It was originally known as {Neon}, developed and sold as a product by {Kriya Systems} from 1985 to 1989. Several people at The {University of Chicago} have maintained Yerk since its demise as a product. Because of possible trademark conflict they named it Yerk, which is not an acronym for anything, but rather stands for Yerkes Observatory, part of the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics at U of C. Version 3.62. {(}. E-mail: Bob Lowenstein "". (1994-11-23)

Yerk ::: (language) (After Yerkes Observatory) An object-oriented language based on a Forth Kernel with some major modifications. It was originally known as which is not an acronym for anything, but rather stands for Yerkes Observatory, part of the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics at U of C.Version 3.62. .E-mail: Bob Lowenstein . (1994-11-23)

QUOTES [30 / 30 - 1500 / 2508]

KEYS (10k)

   3 Ken Wilber
   2 Fritjof Capra
   2 Albert Einstein
   1 Wikipedia
   1 Voltaire
   1 Tom Butler-Bowdon
   1 Thaddeus Golas
   1 Stephen Hawkings
   1 S T Coleridge
   1 Samuel Taylor Coleridge
   1 Robert Anton Wilson
   1 Richard P Feynman
   1 Peter J Carroll
   1 Peter Hodgson
   1 Michio Kaku
   1 Leonard Susskind
   1  Israel Gelfand
   1 Harold Abelson
   1 Eugene Paul Wigner
   1 Editors of Discovery Magazine
   1  Bertrand Russell
   1 Alfred North Whitehead
   1 Alfred Korzybski
   1 Saint Thomas Aquinas
   1 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
   1 Aristotle


   29 Albert Einstein
   27 Stephen Hawking
   27 Neil deGrasse Tyson
   22 Richard P Feynman
   21 Michio Kaku
   18 Max Tegmark
   16 Bertrand Russell
   15 Carlo Rovelli
   12 Anonymous
   11 Paul Davies
   10 Friedrich Nietzsche
   10 Brian Greene
   9 Voltaire
   9 Steven Weinberg
   9 Paul Dirac
   9 Fritjof Capra
   8 Sean Carroll
   8 Immanuel Kant
   8 Bill Bryson
   7 Werner Heisenberg

1:Physics is the most fundamental, and least significant, of the sciences. ~ Ken Wilber, Sex Ecology Spirituality, p.93,
2:or it is not at all. Faith is as real as life; as actual as force ; as effectual as volition. It is the physics of the moral being. ~ S T Coleridge,
3:Biology is the study of the larger organisms, whereas physics is the study of the smaller organisms. ~ Alfred North Whitehead, Science and the Modern World,
4:If nature operates for an end, it is necessary that it be ordered by someone intelligent ~ Saint Thomas Aquinas, (On Physics 2, lect. 12).,
5:Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little; it is only its mathematical properties that we can discover. ~ Bertrand Russell,
6:There is only one thing which is more unreasonable than the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in physics, and this is the unreasonable ineffectiveness of mathematics in biology. ~ Israel Gelfand,
7:Thus if every intellectual activity [διάνοια] is either practical or productive or speculative (θεωρητική), physics (φυσικὴ) will be a speculative [θεωρητική] science. ~ Aristotle,
8:The Alphabet of Physics no less than of Metaphysics, of Physiology no less than of Psychology is an Alphabet of Relations, in which N is N only because M is M and 0, 0. ~ Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Collected Letters 688,
9:No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it." ~ Albert Einstein, (1879 - 1955) German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics, (alongside quantum mechanics), Wikipedia,
10:It's a beautiful paradox: the more you open your consciousness, the fewer unpleasant events intrude themselves into your awareness." ~ Thaddeus Golas, (1924 - 1997) American, author of "The Lazy Mans Guide to Enlightenment," a blending of physics & spirituality, Wikipedia,
11:Simple or complicated, small or large, the passage from non-existence to existence is the most radical of all steps... the passage from non-being to being is the greatest possible transition. We are talking about creation itself. ~ Peter Hodgson, Theology and Modern Physics,
12:Mystics understand the roots of the Tao but not its branches; scientists understand its branches but not its roots." ~ Fritjof Capra, (b. 1939) American physicist and systems theorist. Author of "The Tao of Physics", (1975), "The Systems View of Life", (2014), etc., Wikipedia,
13:No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it." ~ Albert Einstein, (1879 - 18 April 1955) German-born theoretical physicist, developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics, (alongside quantum mechanics), Wikipedia.,
14:Physics is becoming so unbelievably complex that it is taking longer and longer to train a physicist. It is taking so long, in fact, to train a physicist to the place where he understands the nature of physical problems that he is already too old to solve them. ~ Eugene Paul Wigner,
15:Paracelcus, Eliphas Levi, MacGregor Mathers, Aleister Crowley, Austin Spare, and Michael Moorcock all fed ideas into Chaos Magic. Plus it made some acknowledgement to the ideas of Quantum Physics and other bits of strange science.
   ~ Peter J Carroll, The Octavo: A sorcerer-scientist's grimoire,
16:In string theory, all particles are vibrations on a tiny rubber band; physics is the harmonies on the string; chemistry is the melodies we play on vibrating strings; the universe is a symphony of strings, and the 'Mind of God' is cosmic music resonating in 11-dimensional hyperspace. ~ Michio Kaku,
17:Insofar as he makes use of his healthy senses, man himself is the best and most exact scientific instrument possible. The greatest misfortune of modern physics is that its experiments have been set apart from man, as it were, physics refuses to recognize nature in anything not shown by artificial instruments, and even uses this as a measure of its accomplishments. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
18:Although it was unfortunate to get motor neurone disease, I have been very fortunate in almost everything else.
   I have been lucky to work in theoretical physics at a fascinating time and it' s one of the few areas in which my disability was not a serious handicap.
   It's also important not to become angry, no matter how difficult life may seem because you can lose all hope if you can't laugh at yourself and life in general.
   ~ Stephen Hawkings,
19:Scientists, therefore, are responsible for their research, not only intellectually but also morally. This responsibility has become an important issue in many of today's sciences, but especially so in physics, in which the results of quantum mechanics and relativity theory have opened up two very different paths for physicists to pursue. They may lead us - to put it in extreme terms - to the Buddha or to the Bomb, and it is up to each of us to decide which path to take. ~ Fritjof Capra,
20:The Copenhagen Interpretation is sometimes called 'model agnosticism' and holds that any grid we use to organize our experience of the world is a model of the world and should not be confused with the world itself. Alfred Korzybski, the semanticist, tried to popularize this outside physics with the slogan, 'The map is not the territory.' Alan Watts, a talented exegete of Oriental philosophy, restated it more vividly as 'The menu is not the meal.'
   ~ Robert Anton Wilson, Cosmic Trigger,
21:the three-dimensional world of ordinary experience-the universe filled with galaxies, stars, planets, houses, boulders, and people-is a hologram, an image of reality coded on a distant two-dimensional surface. This new law of physics, known as the Holographic Principle, asserts that everything inside a region of space can be described by bits of information restricted to the boundary. ~ Leonard Susskind, The Black Hole War: My Battle with Stephen Hawking to Make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics,
22:John von Neumann (/vɒn ˈnɔɪmən/; Hungarian: Neumann Janos Lajos, pronounced [ˈnɒjmɒn ˈjaːnoʃ ˈlɒjoʃ]; December 28, 1903 - February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, inventor, computer scientist, and polymath. He made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics (foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, geometry, topology, and numerical analysis), physics (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and quantum statistical mechanics), economics (game theory), computing (Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, self-replicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics.
   ~ Wikipedia,
23:[Computer science] is not really about computers -- and it's not about computers in the same sense that physics is not really about particle accelerators, and biology is not about microscopes and Petri dishes...and geometry isn't really about using surveying instruments. Now the reason that we think computer science is about computers is pretty much the same reason that the Egyptians thought geometry was about surveying instruments: when some field is just getting started and you don't really understand it very well, it's very easy to confuse the essence of what you're doing with the tools that you use. ~ Harold Abelson, Introductory lecture to Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs,
24:There is only one Ethics, as there is only one geometry. But the majority of men, it will be said, are ignorant of geometry. Yes, but as soon as they begin to apply themselves a little to that science, all are in agreement. Cultivators, workmen, artisans have not gone through courses in ethics; they have not read Cicero or Aristotle, but the moment they begin to think on the subject they become, without knowing it, the disciples of Cicero. The Indian dyer, the Tartar shepherd and the English sailor know what is just and what is injust. Confucius did not invent a system of ethics as one invents a system of physics. He had discovered it in the heart of all mankind. ~ Voltaire, the Eternal Wisdom
25:It marshals a vast amount of scientific evidence, from physics to biology, and offers extensive arguments, all geared to objectively proving the holistic nature of the universe. It fails to see that if we take a bunch of egos with atomistic concepts and teach them that the universe is holistic, all we will actually get is a bunch of egos with holistic concepts. Precisely because this monological approach, with its unskillful interpretation of an otherwise genuine intuition, ignores or neglects the "I" and the "we" dimensions, it doesn't understand very well the exact nature of the inner transformations that are necessary in the first place in order to be able to find an identity that embraces the manifest All. Talk about the All as much as we want, nothing fundamentally changes. ~ Ken Wilber, Sex Ecology Spirituality,
26:An integral approach is based on one basic idea: no human mind can be 100% wrong. Or, we might say, nobody is smart enough to be wrong all the time. And that means, when it comes to deciding which approaches, methodologies, epistemologies, or ways or knowing are "correct" the answer can only be, "All of them." That is, all of the numerous practices or paradigms of human inquiry - including physics, chemistry, hermeneutics, collaborative inquiry, meditation, neuroscience, vision quest, phenomenology, structuralism, subtle energy research, systems theory, shamanic voyaging, chaos theory, developmental psychology-all of those modes of inquiry have an important piece of the overall puzzle of a total existence that includes, among other many things, health and illness, doctors and patients, sickness and healing. ~ Ken Wilber,
27:If we do not objectify, and feel instinctively and permanently that words are not the things spoken about, then we could not speak abouth such meaningless subjects as the 'beginning' or the 'end' of time. But, if we are semantically disturbed and objectify, then, of course, since objects have a beginning and an end, so also would 'time' have a 'beggining' and an 'end'. In such pathological fancies the universe must have a 'beginning in time' and so must have been made., and all of our old anthropomorphic and objectified mythologies follow, including the older theories of entropy in physics. But, if 'time' is only a human form of representation and not an object, the universe has no 'beginning in time' and no 'end in time'; in other words, the universe is 'time'-less. The moment we realize, feel permanently, and utilize these realizations and feelings that words are not things, then only do we acquire the semantic freedom to use different forms of representation. We can fit better their structure to the facts at hand, become better adjusted to these facts which are not words, and so evaluate properly m.o (multi-ordinal) realities, which evaluation is important for sanity. ~ Alfred Korzybski, Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics,
28:A poet once said, 'The whole universe is in a glass of wine.' We will probably never know in what sense he meant it, for poets do not write to be understood. But it is true that if we look at a glass of wine closely enough we see the entire universe. There are the things of physics: the twisting liquid which evaporates depending on the wind and weather, the reflection in the glass; and our imagination adds atoms. The glass is a distillation of the earth's rocks, and in its composition we see the secrets of the universe's age, and the evolution of stars. What strange array of chemicals are in the wine? How did they come to be? There are the ferments, the enzymes, the substrates, and the products. There in wine is found the great generalization; all life is fermentation. Nobody can discover the chemistry of wine without discovering, as did Louis Pasteur, the cause of much disease. How vivid is the claret, pressing its existence into the consciousness that watches it! If our small minds, for some convenience, divide this glass of wine, this universe, into parts -- physics, biology, geology, astronomy, psychology, and so on -- remember that nature does not know it! So let us put it all back together, not forgetting ultimately what it is for. Let it give us one more final pleasure; drink it and forget it all! ~ Richard P Feynman,
29:science reading list :::
   1. and 2. The Voyage of the Beagle (1845) and The Origin of Species (1859) by Charles Darwin [tie
   3. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) by Isaac Newton (1687)
   4. Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems by Galileo Galilei (1632)
   5. De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres) by Nicolaus Copernicus (1543)
   6. Physica (Physics) by Aristotle (circa 330 B.C.)
   7. De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body) by Andreas Vesalius (1543)
   8. Relativity: The Special and General Theory by Albert Einstein (1916)
   9. The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins (1976)
   10. One Two Three . . . Infinity by George Gamow (1947)
   11. The Double Helix by James D. Watson (1968)
   12. What Is Life? by Erwin Schrodinger (1944)
   13. The Cosmic Connection by Carl Sagan (1973)
   14. The Insect Societies by Edward O. Wilson (1971)
   15. The First Three Minutes by Steven Weinberg (1977)
   16. Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (1962)
   17. The Mismeasure of Man by Stephen Jay Gould (1981)
   18. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat and Other Clinical Tales by Oliver Sacks (1985)
   19. The Journals of Lewis and Clark by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark (1814)
   20. The Feynman Lectures on Physics by Richard P Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands (1963)
   21. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male by Alfred C. Kinsey et al. (1948)
   22. Gorillas in the Mist by Dian Fossey (1983)
   23. Under a Lucky Star by Roy Chapman Andrews (1943)
   24. Micrographia by Robert Hooke (1665)
   25. Gaia by James Lovelock (1979)
   ~ Editors of Discovery Magazine, Website,
30:reading :::
   50 Spiritual Classics: List of Books Covered:
   Muhammad Asad - The Road To Mecca (1954)
   St Augustine - Confessions (400)
   Richard Bach - Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1970)
   Black Elk Black - Elk Speaks (1932)
   Richard Maurice Bucke - Cosmic Consciousness (1901)
   Fritjof Capra - The Tao of Physics (1976)
   Carlos Castaneda - Journey to Ixtlan (1972)
   GK Chesterton - St Francis of Assisi (1922)
   Pema Chodron - The Places That Scare You (2001)
   Chuang Tzu - The Book of Chuang Tzu (4th century BCE)
   Ram Dass - Be Here Now (1971)
   Epictetus - Enchiridion (1st century)
   Mohandas Gandhi - An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments With Truth (1927)
   Al-Ghazzali - The Alchemy of Happiness (1097)
   Kahlil Gibran - The Prophet (1923)
   GI Gurdjieff - Meetings With Remarkable Men (1960)
   Dag Hammarskjold - Markings (1963)
   Abraham Joshua Heschel - The Sabbath (1951)
   Hermann Hesse - Siddartha (1922)
   Aldous Huxley - The Doors of Perception (1954)
   William James - The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902)
   Carl Gustav Jung - Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1955)
   Margery Kempe - The Book of Margery Kempe (1436)
   J Krishnamurti - Think On These Things (1964)
   CS Lewis - The Screwtape Letters (1942)
   Malcolm X - The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1964)
   Daniel C Matt - The Essential Kabbalah (1994)
   Dan Millman - The Way of the Peaceful Warrior (1989)
   W Somerset Maugham - The Razor's Edge (1944)
   Thich Nhat Hanh - The Miracle of Mindfulness (1975)
   Michael Newton - Journey of Souls (1994)
   John O'Donohue - Anam Cara: A Book of Celtic Wisdom (1998)
   Robert M Pirsig - Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (1974)
   James Redfield - The Celestine Prophecy (1994)
   Miguel Ruiz - The Four Agreements (1997)
   Helen Schucman & William Thetford - A Course in Miracles (1976)
   Idries Shah - The Way of the Sufi (1968)
   Starhawk - The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess (1979)
   Shunryu Suzuki - Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind (1970)
   Emanuel Swedenborg - Heaven and Hell (1758)
   Teresa of Avila - Interior Castle (1570)
   Mother Teresa - A Simple Path (1994)
   Eckhart Tolle - The Power of Now (1998)
   Chogyam Trungpa - Cutting Through Spiritual Materialism (1973)
   Neale Donald Walsch - Conversations With God (1998)
   Rick Warren - The Purpose-Driven Life (2002)
   Simone Weil - Waiting For God (1979)
   Ken Wilber - A Theory of Everything (2000)
   Paramahansa Yogananda - Autobiography of a Yogi (1974)
   Gary Zukav - The Seat of the Soul (1990)
   ~ Tom Butler-Bowdon, 50 Spirital Classics (2017 Edition),


1:I like physics, but I love cartoons. ~ stephen-hawking, @wisdomtrove
2:Physics is the study of the structure of consciousness. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
3:Physics is the most fundamental, and least significant, of the sciences. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
4:The question not many ask is: why are the laws of physics like they are? ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
5:I accept no principles of physics which are not also accepted in mathematics. ~ rene-descartes, @wisdomtrove
6:The laws of physics that we regard as &
7:The laws of physics must provide a mechanism for the universe to come into being. ~ john-wheeler, @wisdomtrove
8:So far as physics is concerned, time's arrow is a property of entropy alone. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
9:So far as physics is concerned, time’s arrow is a property of entropy alone. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
10:It is the nature of physics to hear the loudest of mouths over the most comprehensive ones. ~ criss-jami, @wisdomtrove
11:Physics most strongly insists that its methods do not penetrate behind the symbolism. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
12:I study myself more than any other subject. That is my metaphysics, that is my physics. ~ michel-de-montaigne, @wisdomtrove
13:The point is that for our ancestors, the universe was a picture; for modern physics it is a story. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
14:Physics is based on the assumption that certain fundamental features of nature are constant. ~ rupert-sheldrake, @wisdomtrove
15:Physics has in the main contented itself with studying the abridged edition of the book of nature. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
16:Don't be surprised if in the 21st century lectures on meditation appear in university catalogues for physics. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
17:Physics is a good framework for thinking. ... Boil things down to their fundamental truths and reason up from there. ~ elon-musk, @wisdomtrove
18:The laws of physics ... seem to be the product of exceedingly ingenious design... The universe must have a purpose. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
19:It is because the method of physics does not satisfy the comprehension that we have to go on further. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
20:The ultimate aim of the modern movement in biology is in fact to explain all biology in terms of physics and chemistry. ~ francis-crick, @wisdomtrove
21:We study biology, physics, movements of glaciers... Where are the classes on envy, feeling wronged, despair, bitterness. ~ alain-de-botton, @wisdomtrove
22:I tend to approach things from a physics framework. And physics teaches you to reason from first principles rather than by analogy. ~ elon-musk, @wisdomtrove
23:In modern physics, the universe is experienced as a dynamic inseparable whole which always includes the observer in an essential way. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
24:Physics is really figuring out how to discover new things that are counterintuitive, like quantum mechanics. It's really counterintuitive. ~ elon-musk, @wisdomtrove
25:There are two worlds we live in: a material world, bound by the laws of physics, and the world inside our mind, which is just as important. ~ alan-moore, @wisdomtrove
26:Just as there is no such thing as Christian physics or Muslim Algebra, we will see tht there is no such thing as Christian or Muslim morality. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
27:In the most modern theories of physics probability seems to have replaced aether as "the nominative of the verb &
28:Silly ideas, worth the admission price in smiles, but they're true. Is high-energy physics interesting because it's true or because it's crazy? ~ richard-bach, @wisdomtrove
29:It is impossible to trap modern physics into predicting anything with perfect determinism because it deals with probabilities from the outset. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
30:People like us who believe in physics know that the distinction between the past, the present and the future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion. ~ albert-einstein, @wisdomtrove
31:It is now quite lawful for a Catholic woman to avoid pregnancy by a resort to mathematics, though she is still forbidden to resort to physics or chemistry. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
32:One can't prove that God doesn't exist. But science makes God unnecessary. The laws of physics can explain the universe without the need for a creator. ~ stephen-hawking, @wisdomtrove
33:Physics is unable to stand on its own feet, but needs a metaphysics on which to support itself, whatever fine airs it may assume towards the latter. ~ arthur-schopenhauer, @wisdomtrove
34:The observer, when he seems to himself to be observing a stone, is really, if physics is to be believed, observing the effects of the stone upon himself. ~ bertrand-russell, @wisdomtrove
35:It wasn't by accident that the Gettysburg address was so short. The laws of prose writing are as immutable as those of flight, of mathematics, of physics. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
36:The thing about lucid dreams is that it's not like the real world where you are constrained by all sorts of things, including the laws of physics-you can do magic. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
37:A multitude of aspects of the natural world that were considered miraculous only a few generations ago are now thoroughly understood in terms of physics and chemistry. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
38:Proof is an idol before whom the pure mathematician tortures himself. In physics we are generally content to sacrifice before the lesser shrine of Plausibility. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
39:I should consider that I know nothing about physics if I were able to explain only how things might be, and were unable to demonstrate that they could not be otherwise. ~ rene-descartes, @wisdomtrove
40:There are no accidents or coincidences in life - everything is synchronicity - because everything has a frequency. It's simply the physics of life and the universe in action. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
41:Their minds sang with the ecstatic knowledge that either what they were doing was completely and utterly and totally impossible or that physics had a lot of catching up to do. ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
42:A page from a journal of modern experimental physics will be as mysterious to the uninitiated as a Tibetan mandala. Both are records of enquiries into the nature of the universe. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
43:The prediction of nuclear winter is drawn not, of course, from any direct experience with the consequences of global nuclear war, but rather from an investigation of the governing physics. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
44:No theory of physics that deals only with physics will ever explain physics. I believe that as we go on trying to understand the universe, we are at the same time trying to understand man. ~ john-wheeler, @wisdomtrove
45:The difference between physics and metaphysics is not that the practitioners of one are smarter than the practitioners of the other. The difference is that the metaphysicist has no laboratory. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
46:When I was a student, the laws of physics were regarded as completely off limits. The job of the scientist, we were told, is to discover the laws and apply them, not inquire into their provenance. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
47:This book is about physics and its about physics and its relationship with mathematics and how they seem to be intimately related and to what extent can you explore this relationship and trust it. ~ roger-penrose, @wisdomtrove
48:Both the old and new physics were dealing with shadow-symbols, but the new physics was forced to be aware of that fact - forced to be aware that it was dealing with shadows and illusions, not reality. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
49:The influence of modern physics goes beyond technology. It extends to the realm of thought and culture where it has led to a deep revision in man's conception of the universe and his relation to it ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
50:There were many stages to the Atlantean civilization. During the later stages, scientists became involved with advanced particle physics. In particular they were interested in reverse gravity fields. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
51:It surprises me how disinterested we are today about things like physics, space, the universe and philosophy of our existence, our purpose, our final destination. It's a crazy world out there. Be curious. ~ stephen-hawking, @wisdomtrove
52:Matter is regarded as being constituted by a region of space in which the field is extremely intense . . . . . . There is no place in this new kind of Physics both for the field and matter, for the field is the only reality. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
53:In a lot of scientists, the ratio of wonder to skepticism declines in time. That may be connected with the fact that in some fields-mathematics, physics, some others-the great discoveries are almost entirely made by youngsters. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
54:I hope we once again have reminded people that man is not free unless government is limited. There's a clear cause and effect here that is as neat and predictable as a law of physics: As government expands, liberty contracts. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
55:Those interested in celestial navigation are advised to first obtain a rudimentary knowledge of integral calculus, phlebotomy, astral physics and related subjects. The use of liquor is strictly forbidden on interplanetary flights. ~ henry-miller, @wisdomtrove
56:For more than 200 years, materialists have promised that science will eventually explain everything in terms of physics and chemistry. Believers are sustained by the faith that scientific discoveries will justify their beliefs. ~ rupert-sheldrake, @wisdomtrove
57:First, some physicists insist that quantum mechanics cannot be formulated without taking into account the minds of observers. They argue that minds cannot be reduced to physics because physics presupposes the minds of physicists ~ rupert-sheldrake, @wisdomtrove
58:The laws of history are as absolute as the laws of physics, and if the probabilities of error are greater, it is only because history does not deal with as many humans as physics does atoms, so that individual variations count for more. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
59:Unless the structure of the nucleus has a surprise in store for us, the conclusion seems plain — there is nothing in the whole system of laws of physics that cannot be deduced unambiguously from epistemological considerations. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
60:To believe in an invisible order, a divine or implicate order, as quantum physics calls it, or the order beneath the disorder that chaos theory describes, is a healthier, more interesting choice than seeing no meaning in life whatsoever. ~ caroline-myss, @wisdomtrove
61:The usual derivation of the word Metaphysics is not to be sustainedthe science is supposed to take its name from its superiority to physics. The truth is, that Aristotle's treatise on Morals is next in succession to his Book of Physics. ~ edgar-allan-poe, @wisdomtrove
62:For me, science is already fantastical enough. Unlocking the secrets of nature with fundamental physics or cosmology or astrobiology leads you into a wonderland compared with which beliefs in things like alien abductions pale into insignificance. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
63:Most people have no concept of how an automatic transmission works, yet they know how to drive a car. You don't have to study physics to understand the laws of motion to drive a car. You don't have to understand any of this stuff to use Macintosh. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
64:To believe in an invisible order, a divine or implicate order, as quantum physics calls it, or the order beneath the disorder that chaos theory describes, is a healthier, more interesting choice than seeing no meaning in life whatsoever. ~ norman-vincent-peale, @wisdomtrove
65:[The black hole] teaches us that space can be crumpled like a piece of paper into an infinitesimal dot, that time can be extinguished like a blown-out flame, and that the laws of physics that we regard as “sacred,” as immutable, are anything but. ~ john-wheeler, @wisdomtrove
66:It is funny that men who are supposed to be scientific cannot get themselves to realise the basic principle of physics, that action and reaction are equal and opposite, that when you persecute people you always rouse them to be strong and stronger. ~ gertrude-stein, @wisdomtrove
67:The parallels to modern physics [with mysticism] appear not only in the Vedas of Hinduism, in the I Ching, or in the Buddhist sutras, but also in the fragments of Heraclitus, in the Sufism of Ibn Arabi, or in the teachings of the Yaqui sorcerer Don Juan. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
68:The development of physics in the twentieth century already has transformed the consciousness of those involved with it. The study (of modern physics) produces insights into the nature of reality very similar to those produced by the study of eastern philosophy. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
69:It is impossible to trap modern physics into predicting anything with perfect determinism because it deals with probabilities from the outset. Arthur Eddington ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
70:While physics and mathematics may tell us how the universe began, they are not much use in predicting human behaviour because there are far too many equations to solve. I’m no better than anyone else at understanding what makes people tick, particularly women. ~ stephen-hawking, @wisdomtrove
71:Integrative simply means that this approach attempts to include as many important truths from as many disciplines as possible-from East as well as the West, from premodern and modern and postmodern, from the hard sciences of physics to the tender sciences of spirituality. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
72:Don’t just follow the trend. You may have heard me say that it’s good to think in terms of the physics approach of first principles. Which is, rather than reasoning by analogy, you boil things down to the most fundamental truths you can imagine and you reason up from there. ~ elon-musk, @wisdomtrove
73:I never studied science or physics at school, and yet when I read complex books on quantum physics I understood them perfectly because I wanted to understand them. The study of quantum physics helped me to have a deeper understanding of the Secret, on an energetic level. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
74:Chemistry ceases to improve when one element is found from which all others are deductible. Physics ceases to progress when one force is found of which all others are manifestations. So religion ceases to progress when unity is reached, which is the case with Hinduism. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
75:The birth of science as we know it arguably began with Isaac Newton's formulation of the laws of gravitation and motion. It is no exaggeration to say that physics was reborn in the early 20th-century with the twin revolutions of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
77:Modern physics has definitely decided for Plato. For the smallest units of matter are not physical objects in the ordinary sense of the word: they are forms, structures, or – in Plato’s sense – Ideas, which can be unambiguously spoken of only in the language of mathematics. ~ rupert-sheldrake, @wisdomtrove
78:We have a closed circle of consistency here: the laws of physics produce complex systems, and these complex systems lead to consciousness, which then produces mathematics, which can then encode in a succinct and inspiring way the very underlying laws of physics that gave rise to it. ~ roger-penrose, @wisdomtrove
79:Even as rigorous a determinist as Karl Marx, who at times described the social behaviour of the bourgeoisie in terms which suggested a problem in social physics, could subject it at other times to a withering scorn which only the presupposition of moral responsibility could justify. ~ reinhold-niebuhr, @wisdomtrove
80:Modern physics had shown that the rhythm of creation and destruction is not only manifest in the turn of the seasons and in the birth and death of living creatures, but is also the very essence of inorganic matter. For modern physicists... Shiva's dance is the dance of subatomic matter. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
81:Mathematics is not something that you find lying around in your back yard. It's produced by the human mind. Yet if we ask where mathematics works best, it is in areas like particle physics and astrophysics, areas of fundamental science that are very, very far removed from everyday affairs. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
82:Traditionally, scientists have treated the laws of physics as simply &
83:There may be organic life out there, or maybe machines created by long-dead civilizations, but any signals, even if they are difficult to decode, would tell us that the concepts of logic and physics are not limited to the hardware in human skulls, and will transform our view of the universe. ~ martin-rees, @wisdomtrove
84:I was lucky to get into computers when it was a very young and idealistic industry. There weren't many degrees offered in computer science, so people in computers were brilliant people from mathematics, physics, music, zoology, whatever. They loved it, and no one was really in it for the money. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
85:Atlantis was a highly evolved civilization where the sciences and arts were far more advanced than one might guess. Atlantis was technologically advanced in genetic engineering, computer science, inter-dimensional physics, and artistically developed with electronic music and crystal art forms. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
86:The natural world, on the other hand, is one of infinite varieties and complexities, a multidimensional world which contains no straight lines or completely regular shapes, where things do not happen in sequences, but all together; a world where—as modern physics tells us—even empty space is curved. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
87:If physics leads us today to a world view which is essentially mystical, it returns, in a way, to its beginning, 2,500 years ago. ... This time, however, it is not only based on intuition, but also on experiments of great precision and sophistication, and on a rigorous and consistent mathematical formalism. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
88:Hundreds of years ago, Indian artists created visual images of dancing Shivas in a beautiful series of bronzes. In our time, physicists have used the most advanced technology to portray the patterns of the cosmic dance. The metaphor of the cosmic dance thus unifies ancient mythology, religious art and modern physics. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
89:The influence of modern physics goes beyond technology. It extends to the realm of thought and culture where it has led to a deep revision in man's conception of the universe and his relation to it. (Fritjof Capra, The Tao of Physics: An Exploration of the Parallels Between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism, 1975) ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
90:The external world of physics has thus become a world of shadows. In removing our illusions we have removed the substance, for indeed we have seen that substance is one of the greatest of our illusions. Arthur Eddington ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
91:So why study history? Unlike physics or economics, history is not a means for making accurate predictions. We study history not to know the future but to widen our horizons, to understand that our present situation is neither natural nor inevitable, and that we consequently have many more possibilities before us than we imagine. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
92:According to the ‘uncertainty principle’ of quantum physics, on an elementary level the physical universe is a collection of possibilities. Scientists have discovered that there has to be a conscious observer to ‘collapse’ the quantum possibilities, which stops particles being in two places at once and creates a world we can examine and measure. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
93:We could tell them [alien civilization] things that we have discovered in the realm of mathematical physics, but there is stuff that I would like to know. There are some famous problems like how to bring gravitation and quantum physics together, the long-sought-after theory of quantum gravity. But it may be hard to understand the answer that comes back. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
94:The burgeoning field of computer science has shifted our view of the physical world from that of a collection of interacting material particles to one of a seething network of information. In this way of looking at nature, the laws of physics are a form of software, or algorithm, while the material world-the hardware-plays the role of a gigantic computer. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
95:Science may explain the world, but we still have to explain science. The laws which enable the universe to come into being spontaneously seem themselves to be the product of exceedingly ingenious design. If physics is the product of design, the universe must have a purpose, and the evidence of modern physics suggests strongly to me that the purpose includes us ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
96:The fact that modern physics, the manifestation of an extreme specialization of the rational mind, is now making contact with mysticism, the essence of religion and manifestation of an extreme specialization of the intuitive mind, shows very beautifully the unity and complementary nature of the rational and intuitive modes of consciousness; of the yang and the yin. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
97:Goddard represented a unique combination of visionary dedication and technological brilliance. He studied physics because he needed physics to get to Mars. In reading the notebooks of Robert Goddard, I am struck by how powerful his exploratory and scientific motivations were - and how influental speculative ideas, even erroneous ones, can be on the shaping of the future. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
98:There are many hypotheses in physics of almost comparable brillance and elegance that have been rejected because they did not survive such a confrontation with experiment. In my view, the human condition would be greatly improved if such confrontations and willingness to reject hypotheses were a regular part of our social, political, economic, religious and cultural lives. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
99:Scientific education for the masses will do little good, and probably a lot of harm, if it simply boils down to more physics, more chemistry, more biology, etc to the detriment of literature and history. Its probable effect on the average human being would be to narrow the range of his thoughts and make him more than ever contemptuous of such knowledge as he did not possess. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
100:If I were a physics teacher or a science teacher, it'd be on my mind all the time as how the hell we really got this way. It's a perfectly natural human thought and, okay, if you go into the science class you can't think this. Well, alright, as soon as you leave you can start thinking about it again without giving aid and comfort to the lunatic fringe of the Christian religion. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
101:What would it mean if there were a theory that explained everything? And just what does "everything" actually mean, anyway? Would this new theory in physics explain, say the meaning of human poetry? Or how economics work? Or the stages of psychosexual development? Can this new physics explain the currents of ecosystems, or the dynamics of history, or why human wars are so terribly common? ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
102:In the world of physics we watch a shadowgraph performance of the drama of familiar life. The shadow of my elbow rests on the shadow table as the shadow ink flows over the shadow paper. It is all symbolic, and as a symbol the physicist leaves it. ... The frank realisation that physical science is concerned with a world of shadows is one of the most significant of recent advances. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
103:In the world of physics we watch a shadowgraph performance of the drama of familiar life. The shadow of my elbow rests on the shadow table as the shadow ink flows over the shadow paper. It is all symbolic, and as a symbol the physicist leaves it. ... The frank realization that physical science is concerned with a world of shadows is one of the most significant of recent advances. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
104:I suppose my interest in looking for life elsewhere in the universe really dates back to my teens. What teenager doesn't look up at the sky at night and think am I alone in the universe? Well most people get over it, but I never did and though I made a career more in physics and cosmology than astrobiology I've always had a soft spot for the subject of life because it does seem so mysterious. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
105:Leaders trust their guts. "Intuition" is one of those good words that has gotten a bad rap. For some reason, intuition has become a "soft" notion. Garbage! Intuition is the new physics. It's an Einsteinian, seven-sense, practical way to make tough decisions. Bottom line, circa 2001 to 2010: The crazier the times are, the more important it is for leaders to develop and to trust their intuition. ~ tom-peters, @wisdomtrove
106:It's becoming clear that in a sense the cosmos provides the only laboratory where sufficiently extreme conditions are ever achieved to test new ideas on particle physics. The energies in the Big Bang were far higher than we can ever achieve on Earth. So by looking at evidence for the Big Bang, and by studying things like neutron stars, we are in effect learning something about fundamental physics. ~ martin-rees, @wisdomtrove
107:The Heart of Gold fled on silently through the night of space, now on conventional photon drive. Its crew of four were ill as ease knowing that they had been brought together not of their own volition or by simple coincidence, but by some curious perversion of physics- as if relationships between people were susceptible to the same laws that governed the relationships between atoms and molecules ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
108:It remains a real world if there is a background to the symbols—an unknown quantity which the mathematical symbol x stands for. We think we are not wholly cut off from this background. It is to this background that our own personality and consciousness belong, and those spiritual aspects of our nature not to be described by any symbolism… to which mathematical physics has hitherto restricted itself. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
109:By late accounts from Rotterdam, that city seems to be in a high state of philosophical excitement. Indeed, phenomena have there occurred of a nature so completely unexpected&
110:Wheeler hopes that we can discover, within the context of physics, a principle that will enable the universe to come into existence "of its own accord." In his search for such a theory, he remarks: "No guiding principle would seem more powerful than the requirement that it should provide the universe with a way to come into being." Wheeler likened this &
111:It is unreasonable to expect science to produce a system of ethics-ethics are a kind of highway code for traffic among mankind-and the fact that in physics atoms which were yesterday assumed to be square are now assumed to be round is exploited with unjustified tendentiousness by all who are hungry for faith; so long as physics extends our dominion over nature, these changes ought to be a matter of complete indifference to you. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
112:The shift of paradigms requires an expansion not only of our perceptions and ways of thinking, but also of our values. […] scientific facts emerge out of an entire constellation of human perceptions, values, and actions-in one word, out of a paradigm-from which they cannot be separated. […] Today the paradigm shift in science, at its deepest level, implies a shift from physics to the life sciences. (Fritjof Capra, The Web of Life, 1996) ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
113:The universe does not exist “out there,” independent of us. We are inescapably involved in bringing about that which appears to be happening. We are not only observers. We are participators. In some strange sense, this is a participatory universe. Physics is no longer satisfied with insights only into particles, fields of force, into geometry, or even into time and space. Today we demand of physics some understanding of existence itself. ~ john-wheeler, @wisdomtrove
114:The way the world works now, the way the rules of engagement operate, you can't claim to make sense out of the exterior without booking voyages into the interior. Think about it: How can you understand &
115:Truth is disputable; not taste: what exists in the nature of things is the standard of our judgement; what each man feels within himself is the standard of sentiment. Propositions in geometry may be proved, systems in physics may be controverted; but the harmony of verse, the tenderness of passion, the brilliancy of wit, must give immediate pleasure. No man reasons concerning another's beauty; but frequently concerning the justice or injustice of his actions. ~ david-hume, @wisdomtrove
116:The only thing harder to understand than a law of statistical origin would be a law that is not of statistical origin, for then there would be no way for it—or its progenitor principles—to come into being. On the other hand, when we view each of the laws of physics—and no laws are more magnificent in scope or better tested—as at bottom statistical in character, then we are at last able to forego the idea of a law that endures from everlasting to everlasting. ~ john-wheeler, @wisdomtrove
117:Scientists, therefore, are responsible for their research, not only intellectually but also morally. This responsibility has become an important issue in many of today's sciences, but especially so in physics, in which the results of quantum mechanics and relativity theory have opened up two very different paths for physicists to pursue. They may lead us - to put it in extreme terms - to the Buddha or to the Bomb, and it is up to each of us to decide which path to take. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
118:Synchronicity is no more baffling or mysterious than the discontinuities of physics. It is only the ingrained belief in the sovereign power of causality that creates intellectual difficulties and makes it appear unthinkable that causeless events exist or could ever exist. But if they do, then we must regard them as creative acts, as the continuous creation of a pattern that exists from all eternity, repeats itself sporadically, and is not derivable from any known antecedents. ~ carl-jung, @wisdomtrove
119:The physicist is like someone who's watching people playing chess and, after watching a few games, he may have worked out what the moves in the game are. But understanding the rules is just a trivial preliminary on the long route from being a novice to being a grand master. So even if we understand all the laws of physics, then exploring their consequences in the everyday world where complex structures can exist is a far more daunting task, and that's an inexhaustible one I'm sure. ~ martin-rees, @wisdomtrove
120:To the pure geometer the radius of curvature is an incidental characteristic - like the grin of the Cheshire cat. To the physicist it is an indispensable characteristic. It would be going too far to say that to the physicist the cat is merely incidental to the grin. Physics is concerned with interrelatedness such as the interrelatedness of cats and grins. In this case the "cat without a grin" and the "grin without a cat" are equally set aside as purely mathematical phantasies. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
121:So much of what we said sounded crazy, yet none of it was false... as if two theoretical physicists stood on stage to say that when we travel near lightspeed, we get younger than nontravellers; that a mile of space next to the sun is differnt than a mile of space next to the earth because the sun-mile space is curved more than the the earth-mile. Silly ideas, worth the admission price in smiles, but they're true. Is high-energy physics interesting because it's true or because it's crazy? ~ richard-bach, @wisdomtrove
122:Time, among all concepts in the world of physics, puts up the greatest resistance to being dethroned from ideal continuum to the world of the discrete, of information, of bits... . Of all obstacles to a thoroughly penetrating account of existence, none looms up more dismayingly than &
123:My main professional interest during the 1970s has been in the dramatic change of concepts and ideas that has occurred in physics during the first three decades of the century, and that is still being elaborated in our current theories of matter. The new concepts in physics have brought about a profound change in our world view; from the mechanistic conception of Descartes and Newton to a holistic and ecological view, a view which I have found to be similar to the views of mystics of all ages and traditions. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
124:Science fiction - and the correct shortcut is &
125:Scott Pelley: “How did you get the expertise to be the Chief Technology Officer of a rockship company?” Musk: “Well, I do have a physics background, let's helpful as a foundation, um and then I read a lot of books and talked to a lot of smart people.” Scott Pelley: “You're self taught?!?!” Musk: “Yeah. Well self-taught meaning, I don't have an aerospace degree.” Scott Pelley: “So how did you go about acquiring the knowledge?” Elon: “Well, like I said, I read a lot of books, and talked to a lot of people, and have a great team… ~ elon-musk, @wisdomtrove
126:People take it for granted that the physical world is both ordered and intelligible. The underlying order in nature - the laws of physics - are simply accepted as given, as brute facts. Nobody asks where they came from; at least not in polite company. However, even the most atheistic scientist accepts as an act of faith that the universe is not absurd, that there is a rational basis to physical existence manifested as law-like order in nature that is at least partly comprehensible to us. So science can proceed only if the scientist adopts an essentially theological worldview. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
127:When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is very probably wrong. Perhaps the adjective &
128:The external world of physics has … become a world of shadows. In removing our illusions we have removed the substance, for indeed we have seen that substance is one of the greatest of our illusions. Later perhaps we may inquire whether in our zeal to cut out all that is unreal we may not have used the knife too ruthlessly. Perhaps, indeed, reality is a child which cannot survive without its nurse illusion. But if so, that is of little concern to the scientist, who has good and sufficient reasons for pursuing his investigations in the world of shadows and is content to leave to the philosopher the determination of its exact status in regard to reality. ~ sir-arthur-eddington, @wisdomtrove
129:Whenever the Eastern mystics express their knowledge in words - be it with the help of myths, symbols, poetic images or paradoxical statements-they are well aware of the limitations imposed by language and &
130:The Battle of Good and Evil Polytheism gave birth not merely to monotheist religions, but also to dualistic ones. Dualistic religions espouse the existence of two opposing powers: good and evil. Unlike monotheism, dualism believes that evil is an independent power, neither created by the good God, nor subordinate to it. Dualism explains that the entire universe is a battleground between these two forces, and that everything that happens in the world is part of the struggle. Dualism is a very attractive world view because it has a short and simple answer to the famous Problem of Evil, one of the fundamental concerns of human thought. ‘Why is there evil in the world? Why is there suffering? Why do bad things happen to good people?’ Monotheists have to practise intellectual gymnastics to explain how an all-knowing, all-powerful and perfectly good God allows so much suffering in the world. One well-known explanation is that this is God’s way of allowing for human free will. Were there no evil, humans could not choose between good and evil, and hence there would be no free will. This, however, is a non-intuitive answer that immediately raises a host of new questions. Freedom of will allows humans to choose evil. Many indeed choose evil and, according to the standard monotheist account, this choice must bring divine punishment in its wake. If God knew in advance that a particular person would use her free will to choose evil, and that as a result she would be punished for this by eternal tortures in hell, why did God create her? Theologians have written countless books to answer such questions. Some find the answers convincing. Some don’t. What’s undeniable is that monotheists have a hard time dealing with the Problem of Evil. For dualists, it’s easy to explain evil. Bad things happen even to good people because the world is not governed single-handedly by a good God. There is an independent evil power loose in the world. The evil power does bad things. Dualism has its own drawbacks. While solving the Problem of Evil, it is unnerved by the Problem of Order. If the world was created by a single God, it’s clear why it is such an orderly place, where everything obeys the same laws. But if Good and Evil battle for control of the world, who enforces the laws governing this cosmic war? Two rival states can fight one another because both obey the same laws of physics. A missile launched from Pakistan can hit targets in India because gravity works the same way in both countries. When Good and Evil fight, what common laws do they obey, and who decreed these laws? So, monotheism explains order, but is mystified by evil. Dualism explains evil, but is puzzled by order. There is one logical way of solving the riddle: to argue that there is a single omnipotent God who created the entire universe – and He’s evil. But nobody in history has had the stomach for such a belief. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Take it down to the physics, ~ Ashlee Vance,
2:Through the power of physics ~ Marissa Meyer,
3:Physics, beware of metaphysics. ~ Isaac Newton,
4:Physics is simple, but subtle. ~ Paul Ehrenfest,
5:research in physics and cosmology). ~ Anonymous,
6:The Physics of Immortality, ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
7:Physics has the cutest words. ~ Sherry Stringfield,
8:Physics Works, and I'm still alive! ~ Walter Lewin,
9:I love physics with all my heart ... ~ Lise Meitner,
10:physics. All the other kids teased me, ~ Morgan Rice,
11:I love it when you talk dirty physics. ~ Rachel Caine,
12:I am fascinated by quantum physics. ~ Vinny Guadagnino,
13:I like physics, but I love cartoons. ~ Stephen Hawking,
14:A superintellect has monkeyed with physics. ~ Fred Hoyle,
15:If you miss one day in physics, that's it. ~ Robert Iler,
16:I need physics more than friends. ~ J Robert Oppenheimer,
17:Literary physics. It sounded crazy, ~ Allison van Diepen,
18:Physics is much too hard for physicists. ~ David Hilbert,
19:In the beginning, there was physics. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
20:Politics is more difficult than physics. ~ Albert Einstein,
21:No, no, no, no physics over breakfast! ~ Karen Marie Moning,
22:Physics without mathematics is meaningless. ~ Edward Teller,
23:The labor we delight in physics pain. ~ William Shakespeare,
24:The labour we delight in physics pain ~ William Shakespeare,
25:The laws of physics that we regard ~ John Archibald Wheeler,
26:Physics as we know it will be over in six months. ~ Max Born,
27:Relativity applies to physics, not ethics. ~ Albert Einstein,
28:Teacher who make Physics boring are criminals ~ Walter Lewin,
29:Chemistry is the dirty part of physics. ~ Johann Philipp Reis,
30:Physics changes, but reality stays the same ~ Richard Bandler,
32:Life is a physics problem. Bodies in motion. ~ Robin Wasserman,
33:The day I went into physics class it was death. ~ Sylvia Plath,
34:Yes, I was really good in physics and in math. ~ Eva Herzigova,
35:I went to Princeton specifically to study physics. ~ Jeff Bezos,
36:All science is either physics or stamp collecting, ~ Bill Bryson,
37:Blown minds are occupational hazards of physics. ~ George Musser,
38:Geometry is the noblest branch of physics. ~ William Fogg Osgood,
39:Politics is far more complicated than physics. ~ Albert Einstein,
40:Physics is experience, arranged in economical order. ~ Ernst Mach,
41:The physics of undergraduate text-books is 90% true. ~ John Ziman,
42:The Tao of Physics and The Dancing Wu-Lei Masters, ~ Robert Lanza,
43:Life adapted to the laws of physics, not vice versa. ~ Matt Ridley,
44:Physics is, hopefully, simple. Physicists are not. ~ Edward Teller,
45:the dead still obey the laws of physics, don’t they? ~ Joe McKinney,
46:The labor we delight in physics [cures] pain. ~ William Shakespeare,
47:Dark energy is perhaps the biggest mystery in physics. ~ Steve Allen,
48:We're machines for turning caffeine into physics ~ Nima Arkani Hamed,
49:All of you have now lost your virginity... in Physics! ~ Walter Lewin,
50:Gravity has no pity,” her mother said. “Nor physics. ~ Elizabeth Moon,
51:Physics is becoming too difficult for the physicists. ~ David Hilbert,
52:Physics is not the most important thing. Love is. ~ Richard P Feynman,
53:The only watchmaker is the blind forces of physics. ~ Richard Dawkins,
54:The truth is, everyone is confused by quantum physics. ~ David Walton,
55:All science is either physics or stamp collecting. ~ Ernest Rutherford,
56:Funny how physics didn't go away when you were murdered. ~ Rachel Caine,
57:...physics is the study of the structure of consciousness. ~ Gary Zukav,
58:There is only chance in this world, chance and physics. ~ Anthony Doerr,
59:Apparently you don’t have to understand physics to protest. ~ John Scalzi,
60:I do not keep up with the details of particle physics. ~ Murray Gell Mann,
61:Roak lived to defy anyone and everything, including physics. ~ Jake Bible,
62:Well, I'm leaning probably toward the sciences like physics. ~ Amy Carter,
63:What one man calls God, another calls the laws of physics. ~ Nikola Tesla,
64:If the laws of physics be for us, who can be against us?! ~ Frank J Tipler,
65:Physics is to mathematics what sex is to masturbation. ~ Richard P Feynman,
66:After the laws of physics, everything else is opinion ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
67:It's tough for magic to argue with physics, most of the time. ~ Jim Butcher,
68:Think how hard physics would be if particles could think ~ Murray Gell Mann,
69:after the laws of physics, everything else is opinion. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
70:I have sold more books on physics than Madonna has on sex. ~ Stephen Hawking,
71:The more physics you have the less engineering you need. ~ Ernest Rutherford,
72:Going to the moon is not a matter of physics but of economics. ~ John R Platt,
73:oceanography, meteorology, and upper-atmosphere physics, ~ William Manchester,
74:Physics as we know it will be over in six months - Max Born ~ Stephen Hawking,
75:Then we'll work a hundred years without physics and chemistry. ~ Adolf Hitler,
76:All fiction that does not violate the laws of physics is fact. ~ David Deutsch,
77:All of science can be divided into physics and stamp-collecting. ~ Lord Kelvin,
78:I am now convinced that theoretical physics is actually philosophy. ~ Max Born,
79:At my level, the laws of physics are more like suggestions. And ~ Craig Alanson,
80:But even physics cannot be defined from an atomic topography. ~ Michael Polanyi,
81:There is only chance in this world, chance and physics. Anyway, ~ Anthony Doerr,
82:Aren’t you violating the building codes? Or the laws of physics? ~ Scott Hawkins,
83:Inertia is the first law of history, as it is of physics. ~ Morris Raphael Cohen,
84:I've always liked all the sciences like math, physics and biology ~ Sigrid Agren,
85:God is a sadist on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and His name is Physics. ~ Peter Watts,
86:In science there is only physics; all the rest is stamp collecting. ~ Lord Kelvin,
87:I view the measure problem as the greatest crisis in physics today. ~ Max Tegmark,
88:I will make you love physics and your life will never be the same. ~ Walter Lewin,
89:Physics is like acne. The more you scratch, the more it expands.... ~ Shikha Kaul,
90:Quantum physics thus reveals a basic oneness of the universe. ~ Erwin Schrodinger,
91:The rules of physics are, in some cases, suspiciously anthropic. ~ Charles Stross,
92:The whole point of physics is to use maths to describe the universe. ~ Chad Orzel,
93:Wikipedia’s triumph seems to defy the laws of behavioral physics. ~ Daniel H Pink,
94:Physics will speak where voices won’t, and this, I think, is best. ~ Dexter Palmer,
95:Quantum mechanics has explained all of chemistry and most of physics. ~ Paul Dirac,
96:The more I learn of physics, the more I am drawn to metaphysics. ~ Albert Einstein,
97:American laws don't work, but at least the laws of physics might work. ~ Gore Vidal,
98:As revealed by physics, the truth is so remarkable, so amazing! ~ Richard P Feynman,
99:I remember being in strong physics, physiology and biology classes. ~ Barbara Block,
100:is information from the inside; physics is information from the outside. ~ Jim Holt,
101:I was going to engineering school but fell in love with physics. ~ Leonard Susskind,
102:My particles made me do it by moving according to the laws of physics ~ Max Tegmark,
103:Quantum physics shows us the universe as a dynamic web of connection. ~ Robert Moss,
104:Since physics is poetry, then poetry is physics, he propounded. ~ Rebecca Goldstein,
105:Galileo - the father of modern physics - indeed of modern science. ~ Albert Einstein,
106:It's basic physics, really. We all need an equal and opposing force. ~ Julie Buxbaum,
107:It should be possible to explain the laws of physics to a barmaid. ~ Albert Einstein,
108:Most important part of doing physics is the knowledge of approximation. ~ Lev Landau,
109:There is only one science, physics: everything else is social work. ~ James D Watson,
110:There's nothing special in the world. Nothing magic. Just physics. ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
111:Think how hard physics would be if particles could think.” Irrationally ~ Dan Ariely,
112:Physics is the most fundamental, and least significant, of the sciences. ~ Ken Wilber,
113:The bottom line is that time travel is allowed by the laws of physics. ~ Brian Greene,
114:There is nothing special in the world. nothing magic. just physics. ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
115:They can shout down the head of the physics department at Cal Tech. ~ James Stockdale,
116:If stupidity were theoretical physics, then I would be Albert Einstein. ~ Alan Bradley,
117:Philosophy set knowledge adrift; physics anchored knowledge to reality. ~ James Gleick,
118:The question not many ask is: why are the laws of physics like they are? ~ Paul Davies,
119:You believe in God?
Dude. Only God could have created physics. ~ Karen Marie Moning,
120:Basically, I wasn't properly socialized, so it made sense to do physics. ~ Lisa Randall,
121:I was just more stubborn and more passionate than most about physics. ~ Albert Einstein,
122:I was so pleased to be at university to do physics and mathematics. ~ John Henry Carver,
123:none of the weird-physics inversion a contained color bomb would leave. ~ Max Gladstone,
124:Werewolves had to obey the laws of physics just like everyone else. The ~ Gail Carriger,
125:When you read about chemistry and physics, you want to do them too. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
127:Mathematics should be mixed not only with physics but with ethics. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
128:Physics depends on a universe infinitely centred on an equals sign. ~ Mark Z Danielewski,
129:The terrifying physics of going up-mast in heavy seas are inescapable. ~ Abby Sunderland,
130:A watched pot never boils. That's all you need to know about quantum physics. ~ Matt Haig,
131:But against all the odds, against even the laws of physics and logic, we did. ~ C D Reiss,
132:The most cherished goal in physics, as in bad romance novels, is unification. ~ Lee Smolin,
133:But in physics there is nothing that corresponds to the notion of the “now. ~ Carlo Rovelli,
134:Linguistics got me into this excellent mess––only physics can get me out. ~ Neal Stephenson,
135:Other than the laws of physics, rules have never really worked out for me. ~ Craig Ferguson,
136:Privacy, in fact, was almost as desirable for physics as it was for sex. ~ Ursula K Le Guin,
137:Turbulence is the most important unsolved problem of classical physics. ~ Richard P Feynman,
138:Geography is just physics slowed down, with a couple of trees stuck in it. ~ Terry Pratchett,
139:Government is like physics, you know - for every action, there's a reaction. ~ Jesse Ventura,
140:In other words, after the laws of physics, everything else is opinion. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
141:Real Martial Arts is Mathematics, Physics, Poetry; Meditation in Action ~ Soke Behzad Ahmadi,
142:Why can't parents dance? Is it some universal law of physics or something? ~ Sophie Kinsella,
143:Each juggler should be trained in the ignorance of the laws of physics. ~ Stanislaw Jerzy Lec,
144:I make figurative portraits as a way to explore theories of quantum physics. ~ Oliver Jeffers,
145:Any time things go to infinity in physics, we know we haven't gotten it right. ~ Andrea M Ghez,
146:Everyone complains about the laws of physics, but no one does anything about them. ~ Anonymous,
147:I accept no principles of physics which are not also accepted in mathematics. ~ Rene Descartes, used in physics simply as a shorthand for "a very big number. ~ Victor J Stenger,
149:Aww!” said Kizzy, clasping her hands over her heart. “You’re a physics virgin! ~ Becky Chambers,
150:If [quantum theory] is correct, it signifies the end of physics as a science. ~ Albert Einstein,
151:Neutrino physics is largely an art of learning a great deal by observing nothing. ~ Haim Harari,
152:Physics is not about how the world is, it is about what we can say about the world ~ Niels Bohr,
153:So far as physics is concerned, time's arrow is a property of entropy alone. ~ Arthur Eddington,
154:The laws of physics are the canvas God laid down on which to paint his masterpiece. ~ Dan Brown,
155:Without us here to witness, the universe is just pointless physics unfolding. ~ Daniel H Wilson,
156:I canna’ change the laws of physics, Captain! –SCOTTY, CHIEF ENGINEER IN STAR TREK ~ Michio Kaku,
157:In physics: It’s called simultaneity. In music: rhythm. In your life: epic failure. ~ Laura Dave,
158:It’s about spiritual physics. Something has to die for something new to live. ~ Nadia Bolz Weber,
159:Quantum physics shows that it is in the nature of reality to be unpredictable. ~ David Christian,
160:Thanks to those pesky laws of physics, when things aren't sustainable, they stop. ~ Paul Gilding,
161:The laws of physics demand the existence of something called ‘negative energy’. ~ Stephen Hawking,
162:The physics chip adds a level of reality in games we just haven't been able to get. ~ Rob Enderle,
163:we know more about the physics of faraway stars than we know about human nutrition. ~ Peter Thiel,
164:Either this guy’s a total idiot, or he’s the biggest genius to hit physics in years! ~ Michio Kaku,
165:In mathematics, as in physics, so much depends on chance, on a propitious moment. ~ Stanislaw Ulam,
166:It really is the most poetic thing I know about physics: you are all stardust. ~ Lawrence M Krauss,
167:Physics is the belief that a simple and consistent description of nature is possible. ~ Niels Bohr,
168:Thankfully for us, water seems unaware of the rules of chemistry or laws of physics. ~ Bill Bryson,
169:When I give this talk to a physics audience, I remove the quotes from my 'Theorem'. ~ Brian Greene,
170:For me, [John Wheeler] was the last Titan, the only physics superhero still standing. ~ Max Tegmark,
171:Nature is one. It is not divided into physics, chemistry, quantum mechanics. ~ Albert Szent Gyorgyi,
172:The laws of physics in my stories are poetic. So they don’t complain when I break them. ~ Ben Loory,
173:I like the beauty of physics, nature is beautiful, it is my second soul to music. ~ Fabiola Gianotti,
174:It would be better for the true physics if there were no mathematicians on earth. ~ Daniel Bernoulli,
175:No inanimate object is ever fully determined by the laws of physics and chemistry. ~ Michael Polanyi,
176:One begins to wonder if all the most interesting problems in physics are now in biology. ~ Nick Lane,
177:Physics isn't a religion. If it were, we'd have a much easier time raising money. ~ Leon M Lederman,
178:String theory is 21 st century physics that fell accidentally into the 20th century. ~ Edward Witten,
179:Understanding physics is child's play when compared to understanding child's play. ~ Albert Einstein,
180:we know more about the physics of faraway stars than we know about human nutrition. It ~ Peter Thiel,
181:He needs "space" and "time," as if this were physics and not a human relationship. ~ Kathryn Stockett,
182:If all of mathematics disappeared, physics would be set back by exactly one week. ~ Richard P Feynman,
183:If we are brave enough often enough, we will fall; this is the physics of vulnerability. ~ Bren Brown,
184:All theoretical chemistry is really physics; and all theoretical chemists know it. ~ Richard P Feynman,
185:It is only slightly overstating the case to say that physics is the study of symmetry. ~ Dave Goldberg,
186:I am too good for philosophy and not good enough for physics. Mathematics is in between. ~ George Polya,
187:So in the physics of the heart, distance is relative; it's time that's absolute. ~ Lois McMaster Bujold,
188:It is the nature of physics to hear the loudest of mouths over the most comprehensive ones. ~ Criss Jami,
189:Physics is the only profession in which prophecy is not only accurate but routine. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
190:Politics follows the lines of physics: every action creates an equal and opposite reaction. ~ John Avlon,
191:[Question: What do you think was the most important physics idea to emerge this year?] ~ Stephen Hawking,
192:So. The laws of physics were the OS of some inconceivable supercomputer called reality. At ~ Peter Watts,
193:The development of physics, like the development of any science, is a continuous one. ~ Owen Chamberlain,
194:The laws of physics were the OS of some inconceivable supercomputer called reality. ~ Peter Watts,
195:It's not brain surgery. It's not nuclear physics. It's television. It's only television. ~ Linda Ellerbee,
196:Stuart needs "space" and "time," as if this were physics and not a human relationship. ~ Kathryn Stockett,
197:I've always been fascinated by quantum physics and the possibility of alternate realities. ~ James Dashner,
198:Philosophers have not kept up with modern developments in science. Particularly physics. ~ Stephen Hawking,
199:Slums are always a marvel; how human desperation can seem to warp the very laws of physics. ~ Sam J Miller,
200:The laws of physics have already been violated. What happens if they decide to press charges? ~ Mira Grant,
201:We live, I think, in the century of science and, perhaps, even in the century of physics. ~ Polykarp Kusch,
202:Come on, Rory! It isn't rocket science, it's just quantum physics! -The Doctor (Matt Smith) ~ Steven Moffat,
203:enabling all physics measurements ever made to be successfully calculated from the 32 numbers ~ Max Tegmark,
204:Gods of math and physics," she intoned, "I accept your gift of this clever, fair-haired boy. ~ Laini Taylor,
205:Thankfully for us, water seems unaware of the rules of chemistry or laws of physics. Everyone ~ Bill Bryson,
206:This is 911 dispatch, and the nature of your emergency… fire, ambulance, police or… physics? ~ Simon Oliver,
207:All you are is a bag of particles acting out the laws of physics. That to me is pretty clear. ~ Brian Greene,
208:A quantum theory of gravity that unites it with the other forces is the Holy Grail of physics. ~ Michio Kaku,
209:It is important to realize that in physics today, we have no knowledge of what energy is ~ Richard P Feynman,
210:Memories are not recycled like atoms and particles in quantum physics; they can be lost forever. ~ Lady Gaga,
211:Revolutionary art and visionary physics are both investigations into the nature of reality. ~ Leonard Shlain,
212:There are very few things that can be proved rigorously in condensed matter physics. ~ Anthony James Leggett,
213:we will have learned to understand and express all of physics in the language of information. ~ James Gleick,
214:What quantum physics teaches us is that everything we thought was physical is not physical. ~ Bruce H Lipton,
215:In physics, you don't have to go around making trouble for yourself - nature does it for you. ~ Frank Wilczek,
216:I study myself more than any other subject. That is my metaphysics, that is my physics. ~ Michel de Montaigne,
217:It’s like the cartoon physics of awareness: we can’t hurt until we see that we’re supposed to. ~ Roan Parrish,
218:See, those who wield the primordial forces of creation have a long-running grudge with physics. ~ Jim Butcher,
219:The laws of physics say if there’s a party, Isla will eventually end up dancing on a table. ~ Corey Ann Haydu,
220:Come on, Rory! It isn't rocket science, it's just quantum physics!
-The Doctor (Matt Smith) ~ Steven Moffat,
221:Physics should represent a reality in time and space, free from spooky action at a distance. ~ Walter Isaacson,
222:The atomic hypothesis which had worked so splendidly in Physics breaks down in Psychics. ~ John Maynard Keynes,
223:The content of physics is the concern of physicists, its effect the concern of all men. ~ Friedrich Durrenmatt,
224:The laws of physics have already been violated. What happens if they decide to press charges? ~ Seanan McGuire,
225:The point is that for our ancestors, the universe was a picture; for modern physics it is a story. ~ C S Lewis,
226:We may as well cut out group theory. That is a subject that will never be of any use in physics. ~ James Jeans,
227:Brian and I were both science students. You know science sort of math and physics side, you know. ~ John Deacon,
228:Einstein...even failed physics once, but he'd never thought of giving up school to make a living. ~ Orhan Pamuk,
229:In his autobiography, What Mad Pursuit, he speaks of the difference between physics and biology: ~ Oliver Sacks,
230:In my schooling through high school, I excelled mainly in chemistry, physics and mathematics. ~ James Rainwater,
231:Physics is like sex: sure, it may give some practical results, but that's not why we do it. ~ Richard P Feynman,
232:That which is not measurable is not science. That which is not physics is stamp collecting. ~ Ernest Rutherford,
233:The physics principles behind the three-body problem28 are very simple. It’s mainly a math problem. ~ Liu Cixin,
234:there’s a certain lack of respect for physics and biology when you ignore the power of a firearm. ~ L H Thomson,
235:Quantum physics results are quite baffling when viewed from the purely materialist perspective. ~ Eben Alexander,
236:The present situation in physics is as if we know chess, but we don't know one or two rules. ~ Richard P Feynman,
237:The universal laws of physics are the most terrifying weapons, and also the most effective defenses. ~ Liu Cixin,
238:A common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with physics. ~ Fred Hoyle,
239:...the most complex physics question was a breeze compared to the contradictions of the human heart. ~ Elan Mastai,
240:An X-wing fighter flies like an airplane. If you look at the physics, it's actually quite impossible. ~ Jon Spaihts,
241:If you pursue a distancer, he or she will distance more. Consider it a fundamental law of physics. ~ Harriet Lerner,
242:It seems to be almost a law of physics, that the winds of change awaken fear and fundamentalism. ~ Elizabeth Lesser,
243:Modern science cannot explain why the laws of physics are exactly balanced for animal life to exist. ~ Robert Lanza,
244:Physics can be difficult sometimes. And by sometimes, I mean always. And by Physics, I mean everything. ~ Sam Davis,
245:Physics is a hobby of mine, as much as a person of limited intelligence can understand physics. ~ Arthur D Levinson,
246:We were making the first step out of the age of chemistry and physics, and into the age of biology. ~ Jeremy Rifkin,
247:I've always been fascinated by physics and cosmology. It gets more and more scary the older you get. ~ John Banville,
248:So far as we know, all the fundamental laws of physics, like Newton's equations, are reversible. ~ Richard P Feynman,
249:The next grand extensions of mathematical physics will, in all likelihood, be furnished by quaternions. ~ Peter Tait,
250:If (the antiproton) had not been discovered, the foundations of physics really would have crumbled. ~ Steven Weinberg,
251:I got into physics through pop science and quantum science and ended up being such a quantum groupie. ~ Talulah Riley,
252:I'm the son of an everyman. My father is a teacher. He teaches physics at a boys' school in Sydney. ~ Alex O Loughlin,
253:Ronan didn't need physics. He could intimidate even a piece of plywood into doing what he wanted. ~ Maggie Stiefvater,
254:The origin and the operation of the universe do not require any violations of the laws of physics. ~ Victor J Stenger,
255:Think of color, pitch, loudness, heaviness, and hotness. Each is the topic of a branch of physics ~ Benoit Mandelbrot,
256:For him it was no laughing matter, for at stake was the very nature of reality and the soul of physics. ~ Manjit Kumar,
257:One of the most beautiful papers in physics that I know of is yours in the American Journal of Physics. ~ David Mermin,
258:Physics is the most fundamental, and least significant, of the sciences. ~ Ken Wilber, Sex Ecology Spirituality, p.93,
259:The best that most of us can hope to achieve in physics is simply to misunderstand at a deeper level. ~ Wolfgang Pauli,
260:The former pair offered physics and logic; the latter offered primarily politics and fear plus a ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
261:I never got into 'Star Wars.' Maybe because they made no attempt to portray real physics. At all. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
262:Originally I had planned to revert to nuclear physics there, in particular the structure of the deuteron. ~ Walter Kohn,
263:Physics advances by accepting absurdities. Its history is one of unbelievable ideas proving to be true. ~ Rivka Galchen,
264:The abstract analysis of the world by mathematics and physics rests on the concepts of space and time. ~ James J Gibson,
265:The basic ingredients of quantum physics are: paying attention, thinking and choosing, and consequence. ~ Caroline Leaf,
266:Yeah, I am a guy working on physics outside of academia. But I'm nowhere near Einstein's caliber. ~ Antony Garrett Lisi,
267:A consistent pursuit of classical physics forces a transformation in the very heart of that physics. ~ Werner Heisenberg,
268:I was already sort of mixing my science physics enthusiasm with entertainment and directing and puppetry. ~ Brian Henson,
269:Now on Tines World, the Zone physics was still improving. What was it like thirty lightyears higher? Bili ~ Vernor Vinge,
270:A book on the new physics, if not purely descriptive of experimental work, must essentially be mathematical. ~ Paul Dirac,
271:Animals that fly seem to violate the laws of physics, but only until you learn a bit more about physics. ~ Jonathan Haidt,
272:As the Nobel laureate Murray Gell-Mann once said, “Think how hard physics would be if particles could think. ~ Dan Ariely,
273:I had no new ideas on the physics we might learn, and I could not compete with the younger generation. ~ Jack Steinberger,
274:I'm going to play with physics, whenever I want to, without worrying about any importance whatsoever. ~ Richard P Feynman,
275:In 1948 I was appointed to a Lectureship in Physics and in 1949 elected to a Fellowship at Trinity College. ~ Martin Ryle,
276:Don't be surprised if in the 21st century lectures on meditation appear in university catalogues for physics. ~ Gary Zukav,
277:He could be doing quantum physics in his head or undressing her in his mind—she’d never know the difference. ~ Kelly Moran,
278:our successful theories aren’t mathematics approximating physics, but mathematics approximating mathematics. ~ Max Tegmark,
279:So we’re damned if we do and damned if we don’t.” She shrugged. “That pretty much sums up quantum physics. ~ James Rollins,
280:There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now. All that remains is more and more precise measurement. ~ Lord Kelvin,
281:I'm a bit of a layman physics junkie. I don't really understand it, but I love trying to understand it. ~ Laura San Giacomo,
282:In science, if the last 50 years were the age of physics, the next 50 years will be the age of biology. ~ William J Clinton,
283:...quantum mechanics—the physics of our world—requires that you hold such pedestrian complaints in abeyance. ~ Brian Greene,
284:What’s the difference between physics and psychiatry? One’s full of quarks, and the other’s full of quacks. ~ Brian Freeman,
285:Mathematical physics is in the first place physics and it could not exist without experimental investigations. ~ Peter Debye,
286:My wish is to construct a system of sociology on the model of celestial mechanics, physics, and chemistry. ~ Vilfredo Pareto,
287:physics is the ultimate intellectual adventure, the quest to understand the deepest mysteries of our Universe. ~ Max Tegmark,
288:All the standard equations of mathematical physics can be separated and solved in Kerr geometry. ~ Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar,
289:Blackhole doesn't crush those things in the vicinity.
It miniaturises everything in different laws of physics. ~ Toba Beta,
290:Relativity must replace absolutism in the realm of morals as well as in the spheres of physics and biology. ~ Thomas Cochrane,
291:So Whitehead's metaphysics doesn't fit very well on to physics as we understand the process of the world. ~ John Polkinghorne,
292:There are relatively few experiments in atomic physics these days that don't involve the use of a laser. ~ Eric Allin Cornell,
293:A pair of legs engineered to defy the laws of physics and a mindset to master the most epic of splits. ~ Jean Claude Van Damme,
294:It would be most satisfactory if physics and psyche could be seen as complementary aspects of the same reality ~ Wolfgang Paul,
295:(Rutherford himself was fond of saying, “In science, there is only physics; all the rest is stamp collecting”—words ~ Sam Kean,
296:The paradigm of physics - with its interplay of data, theory and prediction - is the most powerful in science. ~ Geoffrey West,
297:The physics are simple in theory, but in practice they are filled with the possibility for limitless error. ~ Christopher Pike,
298:What is it possible to do well, in physics particularly, if things are not reduced to degrees and measures? ~ Alessandro Volta,
299:What physics looks for: The simplest possible system of thought which will bind together the observed facts. ~ Albert Einstein,
300:The twentieth century showed us the evil face of physics. This century will show us the evil face of biology. ~ Douglas Preston,
301:I am sure that history does not repeat itself in physics, as you can tell from looking at the examples I have given. ~ Anonymous,
302:Look at the world, Georg, look at the world before you've filled yourself with too much physics and chemistry. ~ Jostein Gaarder,
303:Physics is a good framework for thinking. ... Boil things down to their fundamental truths and reason up from there. ~ Elon Musk,
304:The good thing about the laws of physics is that they require no law enforcement agencies to maintain them ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
305:There is no logical staircase running from the physics of 10-28 cm. to the physics of 1028 light-years. ~ Norwood Russell Hanson,
306:I may have made a straight A in physics, but I was panic-struck. Physics made me sick the whole time I learned it. ~ Sylvia Plath,
307:Nonetheless, to the extent that there is a favored theory in physics and philosophy, it is certainly eternalism. ~ Dean Buonomano,
308:Our civil rights have no dependence upon our religious opinions more than our opinions in physics or geometry. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
309:The laws of physics ... seem to be the product of exceedingly ingenious design... The universe must have a purpose. ~ Paul Davies,
310:The origin of the universe might be forever unknown, but all that had happened after obeyed the laws of physics ~ Arthur C Clarke,
311:There is no place in this new kind of physics both for the field and matter, for the field is the only reality. ~ Albert Einstein,
312:Failed a physics test," Nick said.
"You know how I solve that problem?" Said his twin. "I don't take physics. ~ Brigid Kemmerer,
313:If the business of physics is ever finished, the world will be a much less interesting place in which to live . . . ~ John Gribbin,
314:I would hope that the publicity around the Higgs boson would increase the public awareness of physics and cosmology. ~ Michio Kaku,
315:My background is in physics, so I was the mission specialist, who is sort of like the flight engineer on an airplane. ~ Sally Ride,
316:What we usually consider as impossible are simply engineering problems... there's no law of physics preventing them. ~ Michio Kaku,
317:I do not see how a man can work on the frontiers of physics and write poetry at the same time. They are in opposition. ~ Paul Dirac,
318:If I wasn't acting or doing stand-up, I would be in animation. Or if I had the discipline I might studies physics. ~ Chris Hardwick,
319:It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. Physics concerns what we say about nature. ~ Niels Bohr,
320:What we usually consider are impossible are simply engineering problems ... there's no law of physics preventing them ~ Michio Kaku,
321:Albert Einstein once said that black holes are where God divided by zero, and that created some strange physics. ~ Erik Brynjolfsson,
322:Feigning stupidity was one of my specialties. If stupidity were theoretical physics, then I would be Albert Einstein. ~ Alan Bradley,
323:I cross my arms. 'Seriously? That's the answer you're going with? First quantum physics and now nowhere and everywhere? ~ Wendy Mass,
324:In fact, according to quantum physics, each particle has some probability of being found anywhere in the universe. ~ Stephen Hawking,
325:The body thinks it’s real. That’s the problem of modern physics. How to convince our minds that they’re not our own. ~ Dominic Smith,
326:It is a bizarre world. It is an upside down, inside out, quantum physics world. It is the eve of destruction in America. ~ Glenn Beck,
327:It is because the method of physics does not satisfy the comprehension that we have to go on further. ~ Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
328:It would be most satisfactory if physics and psyche could be seen as complementary aspects of the same reality ~ Wolfgang Ernst Pauli,
329:Our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions any more than our opinions in physics or geometry... ~ Thomas Jefferson,
330:There is no democracy in physics. We can't say that some second-rate guy has as much right to opinion as Fermi. ~ Luis Walter Alvarez,
331:That students of philosophy ought first to learn logics, then ethics, next physics, last of all the nature of the gods.”1 ~ David Hume,
332:Theology, philosophy, metaphysics, and quantum physics are merely ways for God to have his smart people believe in him ~ Jeremy Aldana,
333:The physics of motion provides one of the clearest examples of the counter-intuitive and unexpected nature of science. ~ Lewis Wolpert,
334:The smallest thought could not exist unless the entire universe and the laws of physics were in some way encouraging it. ~ Kevin Kelly,
335:an excessive and unproductive deference of British physics students to their seniors. He therefore founded a club, the ~ Richard Rhodes,
336:Ever since I was a kid, I've had an enormous interest in the sciences - everything from quantum physics to anthropology. ~ Micky Dolenz,
337:His projects conduct electricity, engage motion with toothed wheels, react in concert with universal laws of physics. ~ Cristina Garc a,
338:Really really really difficult," Tony allowed. "But theoretically possible because, hey, it's a quantum physics universe. ~ John Scalzi,
339:The physics faculty of the University of Berlin included Nobel laureates Albert Einstein, Max Planck and Max von Laue, ~ Richard Rhodes,
340:The ultimate aim of the modern movement in biology is in fact to explain all biology in terms of physics and chemistry. ~ Francis Crick,
341:Geology differs from physics, chemistry, and biology in that the possibilities for experiment are limited. ~ Reinout Willem van Bemmelen,
342:The physics of undergraduate text-books is 90% true; the contents of the primary research journals of physics is 90% false. ~ John Ziman,
343:You can go your whole life and not need math or physics for a minute, but the ability to tell a joke is always handy. ~ Garrison Keillor,
344:For many years quantum physics had been giving indications that there are levels of reality other than the material level. ~ Amit Goswami,
345:I think that the discovery of antimatter was perhaps the biggest jump of all the big jumps in physics in our century. ~ Werner Heisenberg,
346:Magnetism, as you recall from physics class, is a powerful force that causes certain items to be attracted to refrigerators. ~ Dave Barry,
347:Progress in social psychology is necessary to counteract the dangers which arise from the progress in physics and medicine. ~ Erich Fromm,
348:All of physics is either impossible or trivial. It is impossible until you understand it, and then it becomes trivial. ~ Ernest Rutherford,
349:In physics, to be in two places at the same time would be a miracle; in politics it seems not merely normal, but natural. ~ Charles Edison,
350:It’s a quantum physics concept where everything that can happen, is happening, in an infinite number of parallel universes. ~ Maria Semple,
351:Physics is really nothing more than a search for ultimate simplicity, but so far all we have is a kind of elegant messiness. ~ Bill Bryson,
352:That was the same week my physics teacher taught my class the concept of infinity. I cried about it every night for months. ~ Vendela Vida,
353:We study biology, physics, movements of glaciers... Where are the classes on envy, feeling wronged, despair, bitterness. ~ Alain de Botton,
354:Biology will tell you a lot of things, but there are many that it can not explain and you need to look at physics instead. ~ Walter Gilbert,
355:It's physics. Pure physics,
I'm falling fast and faster still.
So fall with me. Fall down with me.
And stay. ~ Cecily von Ziegesar,
356:It’s the tensile strength,” she said in her loud voice. “Like surface cohesion in a cup of water. We did this in physics.” I ~ Jeff Lindsay,
357:There can be no final truth in ethics any more than in physics, until the last man has had his experience and said his say. ~ William James,
358:Try not to get killed by some handsome, paranoid elf who thinks he’s stuck in a ballad. I’ll try not to flunk out of physics. ~ Holly Black,
359:A bullet fired level from a gun will hit ground at same time as a bullet dropped from the same height. Do the Physics. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
360:Physics, owing to the simplicity of its subject matter, has reached a higher state of development than any other science. ~ Bertrand Russell,
361:The creation of Physics is the shared heritage of all mankind. East and West, North and South have equally participated in it. ~ Abdus Salam,
362:We study biology, physics, movements of glaciers... Where are the classes on envy, feeling wronged, despair, bitterness... ~ Alain de Botton,
363:Applied physics and chemistry bring more grist to the mill; applied biology will also be capable of changing the mill itself. ~ Julian Huxley,
364:Understanding how DNA transmits all it knows about cancer, physics, dreaming and love will keep man searching for some time. ~ David R Brower,
365:As was often the case, Magic just chuckled and kicked physics in the balls, leaving it groaning and wondering what just happened. ~ Jim C Hines,
366:I tend to approach things from a physics framework. And physics teaches you to reason from first principles rather than by analogy. ~ Elon Musk,
367:It's as if we think the laws of physics are subject to debate and amendment and political contributions can sway the laws of physics. ~ Al Gore,
368:The fundamental concept in social science is Power, in the same sense in which Energy is the fundamental concept in physics. ~ Bertrand Russell,
369:But I do not know what to tell myself. Stuart needs "space" and "time," as if this were physics and not a human relationship. ~ Kathryn Stockett,
370:Spooky,” I whispered under my breath, and wondered if the last thing I ever said was going to be a not-very-funny physics joke. ~ Elizabeth Bear,
371:The laws of Congress and the laws of physics have grown increasingly divergent, and the laws of physics are not likely to yield. ~ Bill McKibben,
372:The Web is now philosophical engineering. Physics and the Web are both about the relationship between the small and the large. ~ Tim Berners Lee,
373:You can't publish a paper on physics without the full experimental data and results; that should be the standard in journalism. ~ Julian Assange,
374:If I want to understand the laws of physics I have to first believe what I read about physics. I have to have faith in what I read. ~ Ray Comfort,
375:Michael O'Toole had no difficulty recognizing which questions in life should be answered by physics and which ones by religion. ~ Arthur C Clarke,
376:The person who wishes to attain human perfection should study logic first, next mathematics, then physics, and, lastly, metaphysics. ~ Maim nides,
377:The world appears rectilinear, but is in fact curvilinear - a literal truth in physics, and a metaphorical one in metaphysics. ~ Iain McGilchrist,
378:[T]he yeoman's work in any science, and especially physics, is done by the experimentalist, who must keep the theoreticians honest. ~ Michio Kaku,
379:We could call order by the name of God, but it would be an impersonal God. There's not much personal about the laws of physics. ~ Stephen Hawking,
380:A mathematician is an individual who calls himself a 'physicist' and does 'physics' and physical experiments with abstract concepts. ~ Bill Gaede,
381:As Nathan Myhrvold of Microsoft (a former post-doc of mine) remarked: I have sold more books on physics than Madonna has on sex. ~ Stephen Hawking,
382:He couldn’t imagine such a moment, believed instead that Serena’s beauty was like certain laws of math and physics, fixed and immutable ~ Ron Rash,
383:I can't think that it would be terrible of me to say - and it is occasionally true - that I need physics more than friends. ~ J Robert Oppenheimer,
384:If you want to penetrate into the heart of physics, then let yourself be initiated into the mysteries of poetry. ~ Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel,
385:In the most modern theories of physics probability seems to have replaced aether as "the nominative of the verb 'to undulate'." ~ Arthur Eddington,
386:I once read in my physics book that the universe begs to be observed, that energy travels and transfers when people pay attention. ~ Jasmine Warga,
387:Ive always really been into science, and in the last five years Ive gotten into theoretical physics and the origins of the universe. ~ Adam Pascal,
388:That Hellboy gun of Yours? It's not scientifically possible. It flaunts the laws of physics like a teenager on Rumspringa... ~ Michael R Underwood,
389:Thence we pass successively to Theory of Knowledge, Principles of Physics, Ethics, and finally the Mystical (das Mystische). ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
390:There is no true understanding of Biology without Chemistry. And there's no true understanding of Chemistry without Physics. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
391:To understand the precise point when the possible becomes the impossible, you have to appreciate and understand the laws of physics. ~ Michio Kaku,
392:As you know, a theory in physics is not useful unless it is able to predict underlined effects which we would otherwise expect. ~ Richard P Feynman,
393:If you can't illustrate 'it', 'it' doens't belong in Physics as a noun! You can't put an article in front. You can't put a verb after! ~ Bill Gaede,
394:In my field, physics, I see that most of us are engage in physics not for the money but for the sheer joy of discovery an innovation. ~ Michio Kaku,
395:It's always a combination of physics and poetry that I find inspiring. It's hard to wrap your head around things like the Hubble scope. ~ Tom Hanks,
396:Listen, dumb ass, I have a PhD in physics. I can handle ‘complicated.’ You won’t even have to talk slow or use elementary vocabulary. ~ Jewel E Ann,
397:Time travel is real, and does not require any speculative physics. It just requires a culture with clearly defined market segments. ~ Brian Awehali,
398:when you thumb your nose at the laws of physics like you've been doing, the universe tends to get you back through biology." Atticus ~ Kevin Hearne,
399:I considered law and math. My Dad was a lawyer. I think though I would have ended up in physics if I didn't end up in computer science. ~ Bill Gates,
400:Santa knows Physics: Of all colors, Red Light penetrates fog best. That's why Benny the Blue-nosed reindeer never got the gig. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
401:We were told that we had to win. Against whom? The atom? Physics? The universe? Victory is not an event for us, but a process. ~ Svetlana Alexievich,
402:When I was 18, science, physics, and math were my favorite. I was a bit of a nerd - the only girl with a lot of boys at chess championships. ~ Bjork,
403:In modern physics, the universe is experienced as a dynamic inseparable whole which always includes the observer in an essential way. ~ Fritjof Capra,
404:The biggest advantage to believing in God is you don't have to understand anything, no physics, no biology. I wanted to understand. ~ James D Watson,
405:The physics of water is central to cooking, because food is mostly water. All steak that you cook is actually boiled on the inside. ~ Nathan Myhrvold,
406:As my physics teacher always said, “My dear students! Just remember that money solves all problems, even differential equations. ~ Svetlana Alexievich,
407:Beyond the corridor of our space-time there are infinite numbers of universes, each of them is governed by its own set of laws and physics. ~ Amit Ray,
408:I began peering into the corners of the room, making sure all the shadows were cast by objects and obeying known laws of physics. ~ Karen Marie Moning,
409:Physics is essentially an intuitive and concrete science. Mathematics is only a means for expressing the laws that govern phenomena. ~ Albert Einstein,
410:Physics is really figuring out how to discover new things that are counterintuitive, like quantum mechanics. It's really counterintuitive. ~ Elon Musk,
411:The idea that you know more than the intelligence community knows, it's a little like saying, I know more about physics than my professor. ~ Joe Biden,
412:The real goal of physics is to come up with an equation that could explain the universe but still be small enough to fit on a T-shirt ~ Leon M Lederman,
413:Assessing existence while failing to embrace the insights of modern physics would be like wrestling in the dark with an unknown opponent. ~ Brian Greene,
414:I am no fan of plane travel. I have always been too skeptical of the physics of the phenomenon to ever be truly comfortable in an airplane. ~ Julie Metz,
415:If anybody says he can think about quantum physics without getting giddy, that only shows he has not understood the first thing about them. ~ Niels Bohr,
416:There are two worlds we live in: a material world, bound by the laws of physics, and the world inside our mind, which is just as important. ~ Alan Moore,
417:1905. In that year, Einstein published three papers that revolutionized physics. In the same year he was turned down for two teaching jobs. ~ Bill Bryson,
418:Free will is the sensation of making a choice. The sensation is real, but the choice seems illusory. Laws of physics determine the future. ~ Brian Greene,
419:Let all the disciples of Aristotle…,” he would write, “recognize that experiment is the true master who must be followed in Physics.”6 ~ Leonard Mlodinow,
420:Newton's laws of physics can rarely be applied to the real world. There is more to life than cause and effect. Things just aren't that simple ~ Amy Zhang,
421:No one undertakes research in physics with the intention of winning a prize. It is the joy of discovering something no one knew before. ~ Stephen Hawking,
422:Physics grapples with the largest questions the universe presents. Where did the totality of reality come from? Did time have a beginning? ~ Brian Greene,
423:technology was unfamiliar territory for me. See, those who wield the primordial forces of creation have a long-running grudge with physics. ~ Jim Butcher,
424:The basic science is not physics or mathematics but biology -- the study of life. We must learn to think both logically and bio-logically. ~ Edward Abbey,
425:How far would people get in physics if discovery was described as disgusting - "Your formula is disgusting and filthy"? Not very far. ~ William S Burroughs,
426:Just as there is no such thing as Christian physics or Muslim Algebra, we will see tht there is no such thing as Christian or Muslim morality. ~ Sam Harris,
427:Thinking about quantum physics is like unraveling your brain and putting it back together again upside down. Much like studying Kabbalah. ~ Rebecca Pidgeon,
428:We are not at the end but at the beginning of a new physics. But whatever we find, there will always be new horizons continually awaiting us. ~ Michio Kaku,
429:When I was a college student at Yale, I was studying physics and mathematics and was absolutely intent on becoming a theoretical physicist. ~ James Rothman,
430:But it’s not clear that there exists a well-defined end of time in physics. If the particles are arranged in that way at an earlier time, that ~ Max Tegmark,
431:If it squirms, it's biology; if it stinks, it's chemistry; if it doesn't work, it's physics; and if you can't understand it, it's mathematics. ~ Magnus Pyke,
432:...this marvelous graceful thing, this joy of physics, this perfect balance between rebellion and obedience, is God's own signature on earth. ~ Mark Helprin,
433:We could present spatially an atomic fact which contradicted the laws of physics, but not one which contradicted the laws of geometry. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
434:Digital mechanics predicts that for every continuous symmetry of physics there will be some microscopic process that violates that symmetry. ~ Edward Fredkin,
435:Einstein attributed many of his physics breakthroughs to his violin breaks, which he believed helped him connect ideas in very different ways. ~ Sean Patrick,
436:Extraordinary emblems of math's ability to illuminate the dark corners of the cosmos, black holes have become the cynosures of modern physics. ~ Brian Greene,
437:If something is permitted by the laws of physics, then the only thing that can prevent it from being technologically possible is not knowing how. ~ Anonymous,
438:I went to engineering school, I went to physics class. I said, 'Screw this, I don't want to be here. I'd much rather be at a club playing music. ~ Huey Lewis,
439:Quantum physics was put together on a Friday afternoon. That's why humanity will never figure it out. Some of the bits are the wrong way round. ~ Dave Turner,
440:Ultimately, my Ph.D. is in mathematical physics, focusing on quantum field theory and curved space-time, and I worked with Stephen Hawking. ~ Nathan Myhrvold,
441:All the quantum physics experiments have occurred chiefly on the atomic scale and we are taught to believe that nature's laws are consistent. ~ Mitch Horowitz,
442:A time will however come (as I believe) when physiology will invade and destroy mathematical physics, as the latter has destroyed geometry. ~ John B S Haldane,
443:If you don’t examine your programming, your programming becomes your physics – as absolute and unchangeable as the laws of material reality. ~ Stefan Molyneux,
444:I would teach children music, physics, and philosophy; but most importantly music, for the patterns in music and all the arts are the keys to learning ~ Plato,
445:Physics does not describe how things evolve "in time" but how things evolve in their own times, and how "times" evolve relative to each other. ~ Carlo Rovelli,
446:So, economics should emulate physics' basic ethos, but its search for precision in physics-like formulas is almost always wrong in economics. ~ Charlie Munger,
447:... The approach of von Neumann and Connes to the use of non-commutative algebra in physics is naive, the situation is much more complicated. ~ Israel Gelfand,
448:A humanist is anyone who rejects the attempt to describe or account for man wholly on the basis of physics, chemistry or animal behaviour. ~ Joseph Wood Krutch,
449:I do find that Western medicine is more and more open to proving energetic concepts. Why not, because modern physics is 100 percent based on it. ~ Deborah King,
450:Our broken hearts always break His. It's the quantum physics of God: Your one broken heart always splits God's heart in two. You never cry alone. ~ Ann Voskamp,
451:People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion. ~ Albert Einstein,
452:Physics tells us observations can't be predicted absolutely. Rather, there's a range of possible observations each with a different probability. ~ Robert Lanza,
453:Plato considered the golden section proportion the most binding of all mathematical relations, making it the key to the physics of the cosmos. ~ Peter Tompkins,
454:Quantum physics is a bit of a passion of mine. It's extraordinary. There's a branch of mathematics that is based on lunacy, and that's wonderful. ~ Bob Hoskins,
455:Silly ideas, worth the admission price in smiles, but they're true. Is high-energy physics interesting because it's true or because it's crazy? ~ Richard Bach,
456:The theoretical determination of the fine structure constant is certainly the most important of the unsolved problems of modern physics. ~ Wolfgang Ernst Pauli,
457:To a Mahayana Buddhist exposed to Nagarjuna’s thought, there is an unmistakable resonance between the notion of emptiness and the new physics. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
458:laws of physics laws of love of time and space and the (in)between place (in)between you and me and where we are lost and looking looking and lost ~ Kami Garcia,
459:Nothing can be more incorrect than the assumption one sometimes meets with, that physics has one method, chemistry another, and biology a third. ~ Thomas Huxley,
460:Quantum physics is one of the hardest things to understand intuitively, because essentially the whole point is that our classical picture is wrong. ~ Neil Turok,
461:The goal of particle physics is to discover matter’s most basic constituents and the most fundamental physical laws obeyed by those constituents. ~ Lisa Randall,
462:After the conversations about Indian philosophy, some of the ideas of Quantum Physics that had seemed so crazy suddenly made much more sense. ~ Werner Heisenberg,
463:Clearly, if atoms can be assembled to make humans, the laws of physics also permit the construction of vastly more advanced forms of sentient life. ~ Max Tegmark,
464:It is impossible to trap modern physics into predicting anything with perfect determinism because it deals with probabilities from the outset. ~ Arthur Eddington,
465:Once again I repeat: the aim pf physics at its most fundamental level is not just to describe the world but ti explain why it is the way it is. ~ Steven Weinberg,
466:The new physics provides a modern version of ancient spirituality. In a universe made out of energy, everything is entangled; everything is one. ~ Bruce H Lipton,
467:Computer science is to biology what calculus is to physics. It's the natural mathematical technique that best maps the character of the subject. ~ Harold Morowitz,
468:It is wrong,” Bohr once said, “to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about nature. ~ Jeffrey M Schwartz,
469:Maybe I’d already guessed that the physics of us didn’t defy any laws of gravity, and with her, there was always an equal and opposite reaction. ~ Robyn Schneider,
470:You know," he huffed, "for such a skinny girl you weigh a ton. It's like a miracle of physics or something. Are you sure you're not made of lead? ~ Kiersten White,
471:Computer science needs to be part of the core curriculum - like algebra, biology, physics, or chemistry. We need all schools to teach it, not just 10%. ~ Brad Feld,
472:If the aim of physical theories is to explain experimental laws, theoretical physics is not an autonomous science; it is subordinate to metaphysics. ~ Pierre Duhem,
473:In physics, opinions don't matter, only demonstrated experiments. The day the fellow succeeds, if ever, he won't need anybody else's opinion. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
474:It is hardly surprising that there are more things in heaven and earth, dear reader, than have been dreamed of in our philosophy—or in our physics. ~ Carlo Rovelli,
475:Quantum physics has found that there is no empty space in the human cell, but it is a teeming, electric-magnet ic field of possibility or potential ~ Deepak Chopra,
476:The methods of theoretical physics should be applicable to all those branches of thought in which the essential features are expressible with numbers. ~ Paul Dirac,
477:This web of life, the most complex system we know of in the universe, breaks no law of physics, yet is partially lawless, ceaselessly creative. ~ Stuart A Kauffman,
478:A crumb is a great thing: If you break a crumb in half, you don't get two half-crumbs, you get two crumbs. Doesn't that violate some law of physics? ~ George Carlin,
479:Biology is more like history than it is like physics. You have to know the past to understand the present. And you have to know it in exquisite detail. ~ Carl Sagan,
480:Cambridge was the place for someone from the Colonies or the Dominions to go on to, and it was to the Cavendish Laboratory that one went to do physics. ~ Aaron Klug,
481:I just really like ants, and I really like science. I was interested and curious about the quantum world and the physics behind how it all works. ~ Evangeline Lilly,
482:People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction between past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion. Einstein ~ John Gribbin,
483:Seriousness of mind was a prerequisite for understanding Newtonian physics. I am not convinced it is not a handicap in understanding quantum theory. ~ Connie Willis,
484:Students judge how well they might do in a chemistry course from knowing how peers, who performed comparably to them in physics, fared in chemistry ~ Albert Bandura,
485:The hurt was too great for crying—tears belonged to a realm of earthly physics, but the murder of her son had transcended the coordinates of her world. ~ Jill Leovy,
486:To me quantum computation is a new and deeper and better way to understand the laws of physics, and hence understanding physical reality as a whole. ~ David Deutsch,
487:We are out of munitions, We will have to depend on theoretical physics.
(Spoken in the heat of battle by Sammuil Petrovitch in Theories of Flight ~ Simon Morden,
488:What’s the fundamental physics breakthrough you’d most like to see? Breakthroughs, by definition, are unanticipated surprises that lead to great things. ~ Anonymous,
489:Criticizing a person’s ideas about God and the afterlife is thought to be impolitic in a way that criticizing his ideas about physics or history is not. ~ Sam Harris,
490:It is hardly surprising that there are more things in heaven and earth, dear reader, than have been dreamed of in our philosophy - or in our physics. ~ Carlo Rovelli,
491:It's because somebody knows something about it that we can't talk about physics. It's the things that nobody knows anything about we can discuss. ~ Richard P Feynman,
492:Our job in physics is to see things simply, to understand a great many complicated phenomena in a unified way, in terms of a few simple principles. ~ Steven Weinberg,
493:Quantum physics is no longer an abstract theory for specialists. We must now absolutely include it in our education and also in our culture. ~ Claude Cohen Tannoudji,
494:So great a contribution to physics was Two New Sciences that scholars have long maintained that the book anticipated Isaac Newton's laws of motion. ~ Stephen Hawking,
495:That's the trouble with cookbooks. Like sex education and nuclear physics, they are founded on an illusion. They bespeak order, but they end in tears. ~ Anthony Lane,
496:Well, your timing is impressive,” said Zengo as he fumbled to secure his safety bar into place. “How did you do that, anyhow?” “Simple physics! ~ Jarrett J Krosoczka,
497:Longbow archers can fire eight to ten arrows per minute. In physics terms, a longbow archer is an arrow generator with a frequency of 150 millihertz. ~ Randall Munroe,
498:Louis Armstrong is quite simply the most important person in American music. He is to 20th century music (I did not say jazz) what Einstein is to physics. ~ Ken Burns,
499:We can deduce, often, from one part of physics like the law of gravitation, a principle which turns out to be much more valid than the derivation. ~ Richard P Feynman,
500:Even the laws of physics sounded asinine coming from her mouth. “Like, for every action, there’s, like, an equal and opposite reaction, like, you know? ~ Nicole Archer,
501:The real negotiation is between humans on the one hand and chemistry and physics on the other. And chemistry and physics, unfortunately, don't bargain. ~ Bill McKibben,
502:I tell you the solemn truth, that the doctrine of the Trinity is not so difficult to accept for a working proposition as any one of the axioms of physics. ~ Henry Adams,
503:It is difficult to make good scalable use of a CPU like you can of a graphics card. You certainly don't want 'better or worse' physics or AI in your game ~ John Carmack,
504:Mathematics began to seem too much like puzzle solving. Physics is puzzle solving, too, but of puzzles created by nature, not by the mind of man. ~ Maria Goeppert Mayer,
505:My intention was to enroll at McGill University but an unexpected series of events led me to study physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ~ Sidney Altman,
506:Past, present and future CO2 emissions will have a cumulative impact on both global warming and ocean acidification. The laws of physics are non-negotiable. ~ Anonymous,
507:Whether you function as welders or inspectors, the laws of physics are implacable lie-detectors. You may fool men. You will never fool the metal. ~ Lois McMaster Bujold,
508:It is now quite lawful for a Catholic woman to avoid pregnancy by a resort to mathematics, though she is still forbidden to resort to physics or chemistry. ~ H L Mencken,
509:Nothing is accidental in the universe - this is one of my Laws of Physics - except the entire universe itself, which is Pure Accident, pure divinity. ~ Joyce Carol Oates,
510:One can't prove that God doesn't exist. But science makes God unnecessary. The laws of physics can explain the universe without the need for a creator. ~ Stephen Hawking,
511:Student: Dr. Einstein, Aren't these the same questions as last year's [physics] final exam? Dr. Einstein: Yes; But this year the answers are different. ~ Albert Einstein,
512:What role do we have as human beings who perceive, make decisions, laugh, and cry, in this great fresco of the world as depicted by contemporary physics? ~ Carlo Rovelli,
513:Whether it's in an inner-city school or a rural community, I want those students to have a chance to take A.P. biology and A.P. physics and marine biology. ~ Arne Duncan,
514:As physics is a mental reconstruction of material processes, perhaps a physical reconstruction of psychic processes is possible in nature itself. ~ Marie Louise von Franz,
515:A third finding from quantum physics is that entanglement, as mentioned earlier, has been established as a real, empirically proven aspect of our world. ~ Daniel J Siegel,
516:In 1947 I defended my thesis on nuclear physics, and in 1948 I was included in a group of research scientists whose task was to develop nuclear weapons. ~ Andrei Sakharov,
517:It is now quite lawful for a Catholic woman to avoid pregnancy by a resort to mathematics, though she is still forbidden to resort to physics and chemistry. ~ H L Mencken,
518:Life is strong and fragile. It's a paradox... It's both things, like quantum physics: It's a particle and a wave at the same time. It all exists all together. ~ Joan Jett,
519:My father was on the faculty in the Chemistry Department of Harvard University; my mother had one year of graduate work in physics before her marriage. ~ Kenneth G Wilson,
520:Physics is unable to stand on its own feet, but needs a metaphysics on which to support itself, whatever fine airs it may assume towards the latter. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
521:Some PhD physicists write software or work for hedge funds, but physics still has a problem with having very smart people but not enough opportunities. ~ Stuart J Russell,
522:Heisenberg, who was attempting to hold German physics together, resented Schrödinger’s departure, “since he was neither Jewish nor otherwise endangered. ~ Leonard Mlodinow,
523:…The wonders of life and the universe are mere reflections of microscopic particles engaged in a pointless dance fully choreographed by the laws of physics. ~ Brian Greene,
524:Twentieth-century physics, going full circle back to Heracleitus, postulates that all matter is in motion. In other words, there is no thing, only energy. ~ Camille Paglia,
525:Naive realism leads to physics, and physics, if true, shows naive realism to be false. Therefore naive realism, if true, is false; therefore it is false. ~ Bertrand Russell,
526:The observer, when he seems to himself to be observing a stone, is really, if physics is to be believed, observing the effects of the stone upon himself. ~ Bertrand Russell,
527:When you track, you're creating causal connections in your mind, because you didn't actually see what the animal did. That's the essence of physics. ~ Christopher McDougall,
528:It’s only because the data force us into corners that we are inspired to create the highly counterintuitive structures that form the basis for modern physics. ~ Sean Carroll,
529:It wasn't by accident that the Gettysburg address was so short. The laws of prose writing are as immutable as those of flight, of mathematics, of physics. ~ Ernest Hemingway,
530:Laws of physics aside, there are no universal constants, so separating the predictable from the unpredictable is difficult work. There’s no way around it. ~ Philip E Tetlock,
531:One of the many happy things about physics is that it works anywhere in the world. No matter whether you’re in Bishop’s Lacey or Bombay, friction is friction. ~ Alan Bradley,
532:That was desire messing with physics: putting its finger on the record and then slowing it down, making sure you heard every word spoken, and memorized it. ~ Heather O Neill,
533:The specific areas of science that I have explored most over the years are subatomic physics, cosmology, and biology, including neuroscience and psychology. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
534:Certain first-year-physics conservation-of-momentum issues dictated that I be showered with former pig bowel contents in order to enhance shareholder value. ~ Neal Stephenson,
535:Why should we have perfect senses that can directly perceive everything? The big lesson of physics over the centuries is how much is hidden from our view. From ~ Lisa Randall,
536:No, this trick won't work... How on earth are you ever going to explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love? ~ Albert Einstein,
537:Our knowledge of physics only takes us back so far. Before this instant of cosmic time, all the laws of physics or chemistry are as evanescent as rings of smoke. ~ Joseph Silk,
538:The gradual recognition that what we think may physically influence what we observe has led to a revolution in thought and philosophy, not to mention physics. ~ Fred Alan Wolf,
539:The laws of physics are not about to change. Set your agenda by what’s happening in the atmosphere, not by what is happening in the artificial world of Kyoto. ~ Ross McKitrick,
540:Thus, physics and astronomy relegated our world to a corner of the cosmos, and biology shifted our status from a simulacrum of God to a naked, upright ape. ~ Stephen Jay Gould,
541:Student: Dr. Einstein, Aren't these the same questions as last year's [physics] final exam?

Dr. Einstein: Yes; But this year the answers are different. ~ Albert Einstein,
542:Theoretical physics is no longer concerned with things, but with the mathematical relations between abstractions which are the residue of the vanished things. ~ Arthur Koestler,
543:There is nothing that living things do that cannot be understood from the point of view that they are made of atoms acting according to the laws of physics. ~ Richard P Feynman,
544:Everyone and everything that shows up in the world of form in this universe originates not from a particle, as quantum physics teaches us, but from an energy field. ~ Wayne Dyer,
545:[Heisenberg's seminal 1925 paper initiating quantum mechanics marked] one of the great jumps—perhaps the greatest—in the development of twentieth century physics. ~ Abraham Pais,
546:If someone says that he can think or talk about quantum physics without becoming dizzy, that shows only that he has not understood anything whatever about it. ~ Murray Gell Mann,
547:Physics has found no straight lines. Instead, the physical universe consists of only waves undulating back and forth allowing for corrections and balance. ~ R Buckminster Fuller,
548:Physics investigates the essential nature of the world, and biology describes a local bump. Psychology, human psychology, describes a bump on the bump. ~ Willard Van Orman Quine,
549:Physics is now saying we might be living in one of an infinite number of parallel universes. We can learn practical and creative things to do with the information. ~ Robert Moss,
550:Traditionally these are questions for philosophy, but philosophy is dead. Philosophy has not kept up with modern developments in science, particularly physics. ~ Stephen Hawking,
551:Within this circle of ideas, c, h, and G attain an exalted status. They are the enablers of profound principles of physics that couldn't make sense without them. ~ Frank Wilczek,
552:It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is', Bohr would argue later. 'Physics concerns what we can say about nature'. Nothing More. ~ Manjit Kumar,
553:I was very good in math and physics. In the Soviet time, we had a lot of Olympic-style competitions for different disciplines: I was always winning in my region. ~ Oleg Deripaska,
554:Jung and Pauli were ultimately brought to the archetypal hypothesis as the result of perceiving parallel developments in depth psychology and quantum physics. ~ Vasile V. Morariu,
555:Mathematics is a part of physics. Physics is an experimental science, a part of natural science. Mathematics is the part of physics where experiments are cheap. ~ Vladimir Arnold,
556:Mathematics is the cheapest science. Unlike physics or chemistry, it does not require any expensive equipment. All one needs for mathematics is a pencil and paper. ~ George P lya,
557:Mathematics is the cheapest science. Unlike physics or chemistry, it does not require any expensive equipment. All one needs for mathematics is a pencil and paper. ~ George Polya,
558:Nevertheless, all of us who work in quantum physics believe in the reality of a quantum world, and the reality of quantum entities like protons and electrons. ~ John Polkinghorne,
559:Well, I was always... I used to get 100% in physics and chemistry and mathematics (well, maybe a couple of points off in mathematics), and that was in high school. ~ James Doohan,
560:Evolution endowed us with intuition only for those aspects of physics that had survival value for our distant ancestors, such as the parabolic orbits of flying rocks ~ Max Tegmark,
561:It has become part of the accepted wisdom to say that the twentieth century was the century of physics and the twenty-first century will be the century of biology. ~ Freeman Dyson,
562:Sci-fi has never really been my bag. But I do believe in a lot of weird things these days, such as synchronicity. Quantum physics suggests it's possible, so why not? ~ John Cleese,
563:‎Theorists of journalism have long noted parallels to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in physics: by reporting on something, one subtly but irrevocably changes it. ~ Ben Yagoda,
564:The real thing that physics tell us about the universe is that it's big, rare event happens all the time — including life — and that doesn't mean it's special. ~ Lawrence M Krauss,
565:The thing about lucid dreams is that it's not like the real world where you are constrained by all sorts of things, including the laws of physics - you can do magic. ~ Paul Davies,
566:The Universe is a big ship and its captain is the Laws of Physics! The bad news is that there seems to be no safe harbour to dock and no lifeboats if we sink! ~ Mehmet Murat ildan,
567:A multitude of aspects of the natural world that were considered miraculous only a few generations ago are now thoroughly understood in terms of physics and chemistry. ~ Carl Sagan,
568:From the point of view of physics, it is a miracle that [seven million New Yorkers are fed each day] without any control mechanism other than sheer capitalism. ~ John Henry Holland,
569:I am acutely aware of the fact that the marriage between mathematics and physics, which was so enormously fruitful in past centuries, has recently ended in divorce. ~ Freeman Dyson,
570:I continued to study Math and Physics on my own, but one and a half years later I realized that I did want to be a composer, and after that I never changed my mind. ~ Gyorgy Ligeti,
571:My hope is that in the future, women stop referring to themselves as 'the only woman' in their physics lab or 'only one of two' in their computer science jobs. ~ Kirsten Gillibrand,
572:Thus if every intellectual activity [διάνοια] is either practical or productive or speculative (θεωρητική), physics (φυσικὴ) will be a speculative [θεωρητική] science. ~ Aristotle,
573:What I do know about physics is that to a man standing on the shore, time passes quicker than to a man on a boat - especially if the man on the boat is with his wife. ~ Woody Allen,
574:Laws of physics
laws of love
of time and space
and the (in)between place
(in)between you and me
and where we are
lost and looking
looking and lost ~ Kami Garcia,
575:One of your American professors said that to study religion was merely to know the mind of man, but if one truly wanted to know the mind of God, you must study physics. ~ Iain Banks,
576:The result that Noether obtained was stunning. She showed that to every continuous symmetry of the laws of physics there corresponds a conservation law and vice versa. ~ Mario Livio,
577:When it turned out that he could, Karou dropped to her knees to genuflect. "Gods of math and physics," she intoned, "I accept your gift of this clever fair-haired boy ~ Laini Taylor,
578:I have yet to find a genre of music I enjoy; it’s basically audible physics, waves and energized particles, and, like most sane people, I have no interest in physics. ~ Gail Honeyman,
579:One does not have to appeal to God to set the initial conditions for the creation of the universe, but if one does He would have to act through the laws of physics. ~ Stephen Hawking,
580:The complexity of the connection between the world of perception and the world of physics does not preclude that such a connection can be shown to exist at any time. ~ Max Horkheimer,
581:What is especially striking and remarkable is that in fundamental physics a beautiful or elegant theory is more likely to be right than a theory that is inelegant. ~ Murray Gell Mann,
582:world seems filled with people who are genuinely, deeply interested in physics but whose lives have taken them in different directions. This book is for all of us. ~ Leonard Susskind,
583:John,” I said, “when you get older, you’re going to understand a lot of things you don’t understand now.” “You must mean nuclear physics,” he said. “I can hardly wait. ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
584:One of the most extraordinary and exciting things about modern physics is the way the microscopic world of quantum mechanics challenges our commonsense understanding. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
585:People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction made between past, present and future is nothing more than a persistent, stubborn illusion.” Illusion ~ Carlo Rovelli,
586:Physics is nothing but the ABC's. Nature is an equation with an unknown, a Hebrew word which is written only with consonants to which reason has to add the dots. ~ Johann Georg Hamann,
587:That's absolutely correct and in addition to that life just isn't an accident of the laws of physics. There's a long list of experiments that suggest just the opposite. ~ Robert Lanza,
588:The final section of the book returns to ourselves and asks how it is possible to think about our existence in the light of the strange world described by physics. The ~ Carlo Rovelli,
589:like physics before it,” Woese wrote, “has moved to a level where the objects of interest and their interactions often cannot be perceived through direct observation.” In ~ Bill Bryson,
590:Mathematics catalogues everything that is not self-contradictory; within that vast inventory, physics is an island of structures rich enough to contain their own beholders. ~ Greg Egan,
591:The chief philosophical value of physics is that it gives the mind something distinct to lay hold of, which, if you don't, Nature at once tells you you are wrong. ~ James Clerk Maxwell,
592:There are children playing in the streets who could solve some of my top problems in physics, because they have modes of sensory perception that I lost long ago. ~ J Robert Oppenheimer,
593:To me, the difference between mythology and real history is that the real history has to tell a kind of believable story of how things happened. The physics has to work. ~ Bruno Heller,
594:if nothing else around it changes, heat cannot pass from a cold body to a hot one......This is the only basic law of physics that distinguishes the past from the future. ~ Carlo Rovelli,
595:I should consider that I know nothing about physics if I were able to explain only how things might be, and were unable to demonstrate that they could not be otherwise. ~ Rene Descartes,
596:I started out as a molecules kid. In high school and early college I loved chemistry, but I gradually shifted toward physics, which seemed cleaner - odorless, in fact. ~ Leon M Lederman,
597:Mathematicians grow very old; it is a healthy profession. The reason you live long is that you have pleasant thoughts. Math and physics are very pleasant things to do. ~ Dirk Jan Struik,
598:Politicians think that if matters look difficult, compromise is a good approach. Unfortunately, nature and the laws of physics cannot compromise - they are what they are. ~ James Hansen,
599:The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics for the formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve. ~ Eugene Wigner,
600:The most fundamental laws of physics are not restrictions on the behaviour of matter. Rather, they are restrictions on the way physicists may describe that behaviour. ~ Victor J Stenger,
601:Eight months later, having left Columbia, I was studying physics in a summer program and working in Colorado when I decided to enroll as a graduate student in biophysics. ~ Sidney Altman,
602:I am a particle physicist, which is the nearest branch to nuclear physics. So in that sense I was the sort of right connection with the subject of nuclear energy and so on. ~ Abdus Salam,
603:Particle physics suffers more from being infected by the socio-political mood of the day than from lack of spectacular opportunities for major and profound discoveries. ~ Leon M Lederman,
604:The cognitive science's challenge is to link our consensus reality to our internal reality, but physics' challenge is to link our consensus reality to our external reality. ~ Max Tegmark,
605:the world seems filled with people who are genuinely, deeply interested in physics but whose lives have taken them in different directions. This book is for all of us. ~ Leonard Susskind,
606:Electrons, quarks, photons, and gluons are the components of everything that sways in the space around us. They are the “elementary particles” studied in particle physics. ~ Carlo Rovelli,
607:Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little; it is only its mathematical properties that we can discover. ~ Arthur Koestler,
608:But in spite of the obvious effectiveness of mathematics in physics, I have never heard of a good a prioriargument that the world must be organised to mathematical principles. ~ Lee Smolin,
609:Newtonian physics is over. You don't act on the world to change the world. You realize the world is a projection of your inner self. If you change, the world changes. ~ Marianne Williamson,
610:Only in mathematics and physics was I, through self-study, far beyond the school curriculum, and also with regard to philosophy as it was taught in the school curriculum. ~ Albert Einstein,
611:Physics is an attempt conceptually to grasp reality as something that is considered to be independent of its being observed. In this sense one speaks of physical reality. ~ Albert Einstein,
612:Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: it is only its mathematical properties that we can discover. ~ Bertrand Russell,
613:Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little; it is only its mathematical properties that we can discover. ~ Bertrand Russell,
614:The world of conceptualized ideas is quite wonderful, even when it's - like Aristotle's Physics - an outmoded book. The physics is not true. But the reasoning is dazzling. ~ William H Gass,
615:Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little; it is only its mathematical properties that we can discover. ~ Bertrand Russell,
616:There are no accidents or coincidences in life - everything is synchronicity - because everything has a frequency. It's simply the physics of life and the universe in action. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
617:I think the writing of literature should give pleasure. What else should it be about? It is not nuclear physics. It actually has to give pleasure or it is worth nothing. ~ Stephen Greenblatt,
618:Modern physics has... revealed that every sub-atomic particle not only performs an energy dance, but also is an energy dance; a pulsating process of creation and destruction. ~ Fritjof Capra,
619:Noether's theorem fused together symmetries and conservation laws-these two giant pillars of physics are actually nothing but different facets of the same fundamental property. ~ Mario Livio,
620:We must be physicists in order to be creative since so far codes of values and ideals have been constructed in ignorance of physics or even in contradiction to physics. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
621:Commenting on the importance of Maxwell's equations, Einstein wrote that they are "the most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton. ~ Michio Kaku,
622:I love physics because it is about truth, a world determined by principles and laws—no messing around or twisting things like in politics, particularly those in my country. ~ Malala Yousafzai,
623:Life and consciousness are no longer chance anomalies in nature; rather, we find in biology a complement to the physics of matter. ~ Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, The Formation of the Noösphere,
624:Their minds sang with the ecstatic knowledge that either what they were doing was completely and utterly and totally impossible or that physics had a lot of catching up to do. ~ Douglas Adams,
625:The problem is that most of life just isn’t as black and white as Newtonian physics. And trying to treat human beings like variables in an equation leads to some bad thinking. ~ Eric Greitens,
626:The real problem is in the hearts and minds of men. It is not a problem of physics but of ethics. It is easier to denature plutonium than to denature the evil spirit of man. ~ Albert Einstein,
627:At least in physics my classmates aren't desperately trying to make uncomplicated shit complicated. Nope, in physics, we're all trying to make complicated things uncomplicated. ~ Jasmine Warga,
628:Classical physics has been superseded by quantum theory: quantum theory is verified by experiments. Experiments must be described in terms of classical physics. ~ Carl Friedrich von Weizsacker,
629:It disguises itself as motor vehicle knowledge, but really it's physics, which any other time would be fascinating but not right now, not while you're trying to learn to drive. ~ Polly Horvath,
630:There is a physics to the world, which non-fiction has a contract to stand in awe of, otherwise it becomes completely self-centered and ego-driven, which is the death of a memoir. ~ Nick Flynn,
631:With physics, you don’t have problems; you only have the consequences of your actions. They become problems when we decide that what happened wasn’t what we wanted to happen. ~ L David Marquet,
632:One of the curious problems of physics is that it has two beautifully effective theories – quantum mechanics and general relativity – but they govern different realms of Nature. ~ John D Barrow,
633:... the laws of physics and of logic ... the number system ... the principle of algebraic substitution. These are ghosts. We just believe in them so thoroughly they seem real. ~ Robert M Pirsig,
634:There are great science books that were conceived as books. Feynman's famous introductory lectures in physics, which have a beginning and an end, which are written with style. ~ David Gelernter,
635:The remarkable feature of physical laws is that they apply everywhere, whether or not you choose to believe in them. After the laws of physics, everything else is opinion. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
636:To label Jason Randal a magician does a disservice. You'll think the laws of physics, nature, the universe itself have been suspended. He's as good as Houdini was at his best! ~ David Letterman,
637:We have lived in a world where the discoveries of physics and genetics are far more awe-inspiring, as well as infinitely more liberating, than the claims of any religion. ~ Christopher Hitchens,
638:A page from a journal of modern experimental physics will be as mysterious to the uninitiated as a Tibetan mandala. Both are records of enquiries into the nature of the universe. ~ Fritjof Capra,
639:Being around him was like remembering how she’d once studied a little quantum physics – she’d recall that she spent time out of her life on him and just have to ask herself…why? ~ Suzanne Wright,
640:If you were running a solar company you may be okay - you may be able to keep growing. The question for physics is: Can you grow fast enough to begin to catch up with the damage? ~ Bill McKibben,
641:In physics the truth is rarely perfectly clear, and that is certainly universally the case in human affairs. Hence, what is not surrounded by uncertainty cannot be the truth. ~ Richard P Feynman,
642:No one knows who wrote the laws of physics or where they come from. Science is based on testable, reproducible evidence, and so far we cannot test the universe before the Big Bang. ~ Michio Kaku,
643:As I was marginally less proficient on a bicycle than I was at particle physics, this involved a lot of swearing and swerving on my part, and a lot of exasperated shouting on his. As ~ Jojo Moyes,
644:I claim that relativity and the rest of modern physics is not complicated. It can be explained very simply. It is only unusual or, put another way, it is contrary to common sense. ~ Edward Teller,
645:I like physics. I think it is the best science out of all three of them, because generally it's more useful. You learn about speed and velocity and time, and that's all clever stuff. ~ Tom Felton,
646:I try to show the public that chemistry, biology, physics, astrophysics is life. It is not some separate subject that you have to be pulled into a corner to be taught about. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
647:That is the physics that all fearless types discover at some point—an appropriate ratcheting up of self-belief and energy when facing negative or even impossible circumstances. Fearless ~ 50 Cent,
648:The people who actually make the advances in theoretical physics don't think in these categories that the philosophers and the historians of science subsequently invent for them ~ Stephen Hawking,
649:Everything that can happen, does. That's quantum mechanics. But this does not mean everything happens. The rest of physics is about describing what can happen and what can't. ~ Antony Garrett Lisi,
650:Physics is often stranger than science fiction, and I think science fiction takes its cues from physics: higher dimensions, wormholes, the warping of space and time, stuff like that. ~ Michio Kaku,
651:This is what happens when the Narrative takes over. Things quit making sense. The laws of physics take a coffee break. People stop thinking logically and start thinking dramatically. ~ John Scalzi,
652:It is tribute to how far we have come in theoretical physics that it now takes enormous machines and a great deal of money to perform experiments whose results we can not predict. ~ Stephen Hawking,
653:So those who ask science to provide the ultimate answers or to explain the fundamentals of existence are looking in the wrong place—it’s like asking particle physics to evaluate art. ~ Robert Lanza,
654:The information in DNA could no more be reduced to the chemical than could the ideas in a book be reduced to the ink and paper: something beyond physics and chemistry encoded DNA. ~ Michael Polanyi,
655:Physics is very muddled again at the moment; it is much too hard for me anyway, and I wish I were a movie comedian or something like that and had never heard anything about physics! ~ Wolfgang Pauli,
656:Science should have no less lofty a goal. My ambition is to live to see all of physics reduced to a formula so elegant and simple that it will fit easily on the front of a T-shirt. ~ Leon M Lederman,
657:That attitude does not exist so much today, but in those days there was a very sharp distinction between basic physics and applied physics. Columbia did not deal with applied physics. ~ Gordon Gould,
658:Theoretically, I learned in physics that the universe is expanding at a rate of, like, forty-five miles a second, but it sure as shit doesn’t feel that way when you’re standing still. ~ Gayle Forman,
659:It is perhaps just dawning on five or six minds that physics, too, is only an interpretation and exegesis of the world (to suit us, if I may say so!) and not a world-explanation. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
660:The strength of the electromagnetic interaction, for example, is fixed by a number called the “fine-structure constant,” a famous quantity in physics that is numerically close to 1/137. ~ Sean Carroll,
661:Trillian punched up the figures. They showed two-to-the-power-of-Infinity-minus-one to one against (an irrational number that only has a conventional meaning in Improbability Physics). ~ Douglas Adams,
662:When modern physics exerts itself to establish the world's formula, what occurs thereby is this: the being of entities has resolved itself into the method of the totally calculable. ~ Martin Heidegger,
663:Biology is the study of complicated things that give the appearance of having been designed for a purpose. Physics is the study of simple things that do not tempt us to invoke design. ~ Richard Dawkins,
664:Evolution has just been dealt its death blow. After reading Origins of Life with my background in chemistry and physics, it is clear that biological evolution could not have occurred. ~ Richard Smalley,
665:In 1948 I entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, undecided between studies of chemistry and physics, but my first year convinced me that physics was more interesting to me. ~ Burton Richter,
666:The prediction of nuclear winter is drawn not, of course, from any direct experience with the consequences of global nuclear war, but rather from an investigation of the governing physics. ~ Carl Sagan,
667:Upon learning of the young man’s interest in a physics book, Lindemann, a number theorist, abruptly ended the interview, saying, “In that case you are completely lost to mathematics. ~ Leonard Mlodinow,
668:When I come back to reality and glance at him, he's staring right back at me. 'Oh, hey. You're back. Did you come up with some pressing physics problem you had to work out or something? ~ Jasmine Warga,
669:Monday does what it does best- it arrives quicker than any other day. Joshua is sure the physics behind that is something neither Albert Einstein nor Stephen Hawking could get a handle on. ~ Paul Cleave,
670:My students know I have a life, they know I've written about my life. They know some detail, probably more than they know about their physics teacher, but I would've told them anyway! ~ Marya Hornbacher,
671:the challenge for physics is deriving the consensus reality from the external reality, and the challenge for cognitive science is to derive the internal reality from the consensus reality. ~ Max Tegmark,
672:Everything is energy. It's physics. So I find the science of it all interesting; how 90% of stuff that's in our universe is made of stuff that we can't even measure. I find that fascinating. ~ Erin Davie,
673:If you're teaching, say, physics, there's no point in persuading a student that you're right. You want to encourage them to find out what the truth is, which is probably that you're wrong. ~ Noam Chomsky,
674:It wasn't by accident that the Gettysburg adress was so short. The laws of prose writing are immutable as those of flight, of mathematics, of physics. Fr letter to Maxwell Perkins 1945 ~ Ernest Hemingway,
675:The fundamental principle of human action, the law, that is to political economy what the law of gravitation is to physics is that men seek to gratify their desires with the least exertion ~ Henry George,
676:The nerds are my favourite sort of boys - any guy with a passion - whether it be physics or film or writing or poetry even, I think it's super sweet and it's very attractive for a female. ~ Teresa Palmer,
677:The proving power of the intellect or the senses was questioned by the skeptics more than two thousand years ago; but they were browbeaten into confusion by the glory of Newtonian physics. ~ Imre Lakatos,
678:There is only one thing which is more unreasonable than the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in physics, and this is the unreasonable ineffectiveness of mathematics in biology. ~ Israel Gelfand,
679:after all, our purpose in theoretical physics is not just to describe the world as we find it, but to explain — in terms of a few fundamental principles — why the world is the way it is. ~ Steven Weinberg,
680:I spent eighteen months as a graduate student in physics at Columbia University, waiting unhappily for an opportunity to work in a laboratory and wondering if I should continue in physics. ~ Sidney Altman,
681:It has been explained in chapter 1 that the laws of physics, as we know them, are statistical laws.2 They have a lot to do with the natural tendency of things to go over into disorder. ~ Erwin Schr dinger,
682:love, for instance. Everybody experiences it, craves it, requires it for his or her very existence, knows it’s there. But no one can explain it, break it down into physics and chemistry. ~ Rupert Isaacson,
683:What physics tells us is that everything comes down to geometry and the interactions of elementary particles. And things can happen only if these interactions are perfectly balanced. ~ Antony Garrett Lisi,
684:Anyone who believes that the laws of physics are mere social conventions is invited to try transgressing those conventions from the windows of my apartment. (I live on the twenty-first floor). ~ Alan Sokal,
685:It's time you'll never get back, Marianne adds. I mean, the time is real. The money is also real. Well, but the time is more real. Time consists of physics, money is just a social construct. ~ Sally Rooney,
686:Let us remain childlike and not childish in our 20-20 vision, borrowing such telescopes, rockets, or magic carpets as may be needed to hurry us along to miracles of physics as well as dream. ~ Ray Bradbury,
687:One of the keys to being extraordinary is knowing what rules to follow and what rules to break. Outside the rules of physics and the rules of law, all other rules are open to questioning. ~ Vishen Lakhiani,
688:our brains are a bunch of particles obeying the laws of physics, and there’s no physical law precluding particles from being arranged in ways that can perform even-more-advanced computations. ~ Max Tegmark,
689:(Physics had never been Irene's strong point. In fact, it was on her list of weak points, along with visual art, human anatomy, and the ability to maintain a convincing American accent.) ~ Genevieve Cogman,
690:The behaviour of physical, nonbiological objects is so simple that it is feasible to use existing mathematical language to describe it, which is why physics books are full of mathematics. ~ Richard Dawkins,
691:The difference between physics and metaphysics is not that the practitioners of one are smarter than the practitioners of the other. The difference is that the metaphysicist has no laboratory. ~ Carl Sagan,
692:This is why magic is worse even than quantum physics. Because, while both spit in the eye of common sense, I've never yet had a Higgs bosun turn up and try to have a conversation with me. ~ Ben Aaronovitch,
693:Bowling is all physics and energy distribution. It's F = ma. So it is actually one of the most science-y sports, because it literally is just a ball and a surface and objects to knock down. ~ Chris Hardwick,
694:Consequently he who wishes to attain to human perfection, must therefore first study Logic, next the various branches of Mathematics in their proper order, then Physics, and lastly Metaphysics. ~ Maimonides,
695:Physics was the first of the natural sciences to become fully modern and highly mathematical.Chemistry followed in the wake of physics, but biology, the retarded child, lagged far behind. ~ Michael Crichton,
696:In fact a favourite problem of Tyndall is-Given the molecular forces in a mutton chop, deduce Hamlet or Faust therefrom. He is confident that the Physics of the Future will solve this easily. ~ Thomas Huxley,
697:In my teenage years I was put off the idea of a career in flying, because I'd convinced myself that you had to be a boffin with degrees in maths and physics, which were my weakest subjects. ~ Bruce Dickinson,
698:The new formula in physics describes humans as paradoxical beings who have two complementary aspects: They can show properties of Newtonian objects and also infinite fields of consciousness. ~ Stanislav Grof,
699:The power and beauty of physical laws is that they apply everywhere, whether or not you choose to believe in them. In other words, after the laws of physics, everything else is opinion. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
700:At the moment I'm doing this space movie, so I'm obsessed with physics and space travel. I know three months down the line it's gone. Then I'll be able to superficially say stuff about space. ~ Cillian Murphy,
701:Everything is energy and that's all there is. Match the frequency of the reality you want and you cannot help but get that reality. It can be no other way. This is not philosophy. This is physics. ~ Anonymous,
702:I think science and spirituality are one and the same, I don't think they're really different. The film makes pretty clear that quantum physics is validating all kinds of spiritual teachings. ~ Jennifer Beals,
703:Soon I knew the craft of experimental physics was beyond me - it was the sublime quality of patience - patience in accumulating data, patience with recalcitrant equipment - which I sadly lacked. ~ Abdus Salam,
704:And the actual achievements of biology are explanations in terms of mechanisms founded on physics and chemistry, which is not the same thing as explanations in terms of physics and chemistry. ~ Michael Polanyi,
705:Creativity is essential to particle physics, cosmology, and to mathematics, and to other fields of science, just as it is to its more widely acknowledged beneficiaries - the arts and humanities. ~ Lisa Randall,
706:We all know that we are material creatures, subject to the laws of physiology and physics, and not even the power of all our feelings combined can defeat those laws. All we can do is detest them. ~ John N Gray,
707:When you think about it, a lot of fundamental physics is the solemn statement of the absurdly obvious. Any drunk who has tried to put his car where a lamppost stands is a self-educated physicist. ~ Dean Koontz,
708:without being tiresome. They lacked that all-important dimension of physics: torque. Too much time ahead, too little behind, like a man trying to carry a horizontal ladder with a grip at one end. ~ Nancy Kress,
709:When I was a student, the laws of physics were regarded as completely off limits. The job of the scientist, we were told, is to discover the laws and apply them, not inquire into their provenance. ~ Paul Davies,
710:When you begin to actively participate in the creation of your life, there is never an end, even in death, for physics tells us that nothing is ever created nor destroyed, merely transformed. ~ Stephen Richards,
711:Early in the twentieth century, the physicist Lord Rutherford, best known for his landmark discovery of the atomic nucleus, famously pronounced, “All science is either physics or stamp collecting. ~ Lisa Randall,
712:The emphasis on mathematical methods seems to be shifted more towards combinatorics and set theory - and away from the algorithm of differential equations which dominates mathematical physics. ~ John von Neumann,
713:The power and beauty of physical laws is that they apply everywhere, whether or not you choose to believe in them.
In other words, after the laws of physics, everything else is opinion. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
714:This is absolutely correct and forms part of the larger concept that top-down causation is a key factor not just in the way the brain works but in broader contexts in biology and even physics. ~ George F R Ellis,
715:Every problem in quantum physics had to be first “solved” using classical physics, and then be reworked by the judicious insertion of quantum numbers more by inspired guesswork than cool reasoning. ~ John Gribbin,
716:In the twentieth century nothing can better cure the anthropocentrism that is the author of all our ills than to cast ourselves into the physics of the infinitely large (or the infinitely small). ~ Julio Cort zar,
717:The story goes that in the dimly lit old halls of Kracow University, an austere professor of physics came out of his study waving around Einstein's article, screaming, "The new Archimedes is born! ~ Carlo Rovelli,
718:This book is about physics and its about physics and its relationship with mathematics and how they seem to be intimately related and to what extent can you explore this relationship and trust it. ~ Roger Penrose,
719:What is surely impossible is that a theoretical physicist, given unlimited computing power, should deduce from the laws of physics that a certain complex structure is aware of its own existence. ~ Steven Weinberg,
720:Both the old and new physics were dealing with shadow-symbols, but the new physics was forced to be aware of that fact - forced to be aware that it was dealing with shadows and illusions, not reality. ~ Ken Wilber,
721:Physical changes take place continuously, while chemical changes take place discontinuously. Physics deals chiefly with continuous varying quantities, while chemistry deals chiefly with whole numbers. ~ Max Planck,
722:The influence of modern physics goes beyond technology. It extends to the realm of thought and culture where it has led to a deep revision in man's conception of the universe and his relation to it ~ Fritjof Capra,
723:While there is such a thing as correctness in ethics, in interpretation, in mathematics, the way to understand that is not by trying to model it on the ways in which we get things right in physics. ~ Hilary Putnam,
724:I don't know what laws of physics are involved, but if you fill a gym with teenagersand tell them to stare at one object, heat is actually produced. I half expected tospontaneously combust.Katrina ~ Suzanne Selfors,
725:In classical physics, science started from the belief – or should one say, from the illusion? – that we could describe the world, or least parts of the world, without any reference to ourselves. ~ Werner Heisenberg,
726:The powerful notion of entropy, which comes from a very special branch of physics … is certainly useful in the study of communication and quite helpful when applied in the theory of language. ~ J Robert Oppenheimer,
727:There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract quantum description. It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about nature. ~ Bruce Rosenblum,
728:And Einstein stood out among natural scientists in his abiding curiosity about children's minds. He had once declared that we know all the physics that we will ever need to know by the age of three. ~ Howard Gardner,
729:Certainly we do not need quantum mechanics for macroscopic objects, which are well described by classical physics - this is the reason why quantum mechanics seems so foreign to our everyday existence. ~ Alain Aspect,
730:Darwinism doesn't explain where gravity comes from. It doesn't explain where thermodynamics comes from. It doesn't explain where the laws of physics come from. It doesn't explain where matter comes from. ~ Ben Stein,
731:I entered the Physics Department in 1950, receiving a Master's degree in 1953 and a Ph.D. in 1956. It is difficult to convey the sense of excitement that pervaded the Department at that time. ~ Jerome Isaac Friedman,
732:Science seems to be at war with itself.... Naive realism leads to physics, and physics, if true, shows naive realism to be false. Therefore naive realism, if true, is false; therefore it is false. ~ Bertrand Russell,
733:The opinions of men should not be the object of any government. Our civil rights are no more dependent on our religious beliefs than they are dependent upon our thoughts about geometry or physics! ~ Thomas Jefferson,
734:Chaitin proved that physical laws alone, for example, could not explain chemistry or biology, because the laws of physics contain drastically less information than do chemical or biological phenomena. ~ George Gilder,
735:Everything is energy and that's all there is to it. Match the frequency of the reality you want and you cannot help but get that reality. It can be no other way. This is not philosophy. This is physics. ~ Darryl Anka,
736:Feynman was adamant in avoiding administrative duties because he knew they would only decrease his ability to do the one thing that mattered most in his professional life: “to do real good physics work. ~ Cal Newport,
737:There were many stages to the Atlantean civilization. During the later stages, scientists became involved with advanced particle physics. In particular they were interested in reverse gravity fields. ~ Frederick Lenz,
738:This change in the conception of reality is the most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton. Refering to James Clerk Maxwell's contributions to physics. ~ Albert Einstein,
739:All this careful conservatism, these shackled environments that barely edged beyond the laws of physics—they only guarded against the Inner Heckler, not these unwelcome sensations intruding from outside. ~ Peter Watts,
740:Anyone being flown to a distant city for heart-bypass surgery has conceded, tacitly at least, that we have learned a few things about physics, geography, engineering, and medicine since the time of Moses. ~ Sam Harris,
741:Every force field is simultaneously a field of information because even physics now acknowledges that an atom is not only a hierarchy of different states of energy, or different states of force fields. ~ Deepak Chopra,
742:I do believe it is the first time in history that fire has ever melted steel. I do believe that it defies physics for the World Trade Center Tower Seven, building seven, which collapsed in on itself. ~ Rosie O Donnell,
743:If we had about 100 years, that sort of slow cultural conversion would be exactly the thing to do. But physics is calling the tune here. We've got to respond to a timetable that physics has set for us. ~ Bill McKibben,
744:In the progressive growth of astronomy, physics or mechanical science was developed, and when this had been, to a certain degree, successfully cultivated, it gave birth to the science of chemistry. ~ Justus von Liebig,
745:My background educationally is physics and economics, and I grew up in sort of an engineering environment - my father is an electromechanical engineer. And so there were lots of engineery things around me. ~ Elon Musk,
746:Ask a physics teacher: Why do elementary particles exist? Is it impossible for them not to exist? (Be prepared for the possibility that your physics teacher doesn’t want to have this conversation.) ~ William Lane Craig,
747:Berners-Lee was supremely lucky in the work environment he had settled into, the Swiss particle physics lab CERN. It took him ten years to nurture his slow hunch about a hypertext information platform. ~ Steven Johnson,
748:I was a terrible high school student outside of the fact that I did well in physics, but there's a big difference between being good at physics and being a physicist, so I jettisoned that very quickly. ~ Timothy Simons,
749:Okay, he thinks, perhaps it’s time for everybody to move on; nothing lasts forever, it’s part of the physics of friendships, alliances, whatever it might be they perpetrated for a while among themselves. ~ Paul Russell,
750:When the conventional wisdom of physics seemed to conflict with an elegant theory of his, Einstein was inclined to question that wisdom rather than his theory, often to have his stubbornness rewarded. ~ Walter Isaacson,
751:You won't see me writing about particle physics, or even planetary geology, or chemistry. I practically failed chemistry, and if I had to write a book in any of those areas, I don't think it would go well. ~ Mary Roach,
752:Every period of racial progress in this country is followed by a period of retrenchment. That’s what the election was about. It’s like in physics—every action has an equal and opposite reaction. ~ Hillary Rodham Clinton,
753:How can the events in space and time which take place within the spatial boundary of a living organism be accounted for by physics and chemistry? ~ Erwin Schrödinger, What Is Life? The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell,
754:I myself believe that there will one day be time travel because when we find that something isn't forbidden by the over-arching laws of physics we usually eventually find a technological way of doing it. ~ David Deutsch,
755:Indubitably, magic is one of the subtlest and most difficult of the sciences and arts. There is more opportunity for errors of comprehension, judgment and practice than in any other branch of physics. ~ Aleister Crowley,
756:Thanks to my fortunate idea of introducing the relativity principle into physics, you (and others) now enormously overrate my scientific abilities, to the point where this makes me quite uncomfortable. ~ Albert Einstein,
757:We’re cognizant, curious beings, capable of philosophical thought, nuclear physics, repeating Nerf weapons, global consciousness, Glade air fresheners, and sentient automobiles. But we’re assholes first. ~ Nick Offerman,
758:Even when I was studying mathematics, physics, and computer science, it always seemed that the problem of consciousness was about the most interesting problem out there for science to come to grips with. ~ David Chalmers,
759:In fact a favourite problem of [John Tyndall] is—Given the molecular forces in a mutton chop, deduce Hamlet or Faust therefrom. He is confident that the Physics of the Future will solve this easily. ~ Thomas Henry Huxley,
760:Natural science physics contains in itself synthetical judgments a priori, as principles. ... Space then is a necessary representation a priori, which serves for the foundation of all external intuitions. ~ Immanuel Kant,
761:Recent publications about Pauli, who died in 1958, indicate that he was working toward a theory of the overlap of quantum physics and psychology and that this overlap was revealed to him by dream images. ~ Fred Alan Wolf,
762:Before the discovery of quantum mechanics, the framework of physics was this: If you tell me how things are now, I can then use the laws of physics to calculate, and hence predict, how things will be later. ~ Brian Greene,
763:Henry Stapp. “The replacement of the ideas of classical physics by the ideas of quantum physics completely changes the complexion of the mind-brain dichotomy, of the connection between mind and brain. ~ Jeffrey M Schwartz,
764:It surprises me how disinterested we are today about things like physics, space, the universe and philosophy of our existence, our purpose, our final destination. Its a crazy world out there. Be curious. ~ Stephen Hawking,
765:Without renouncing the support of physics, it is possible for the physiology of the senses, not only to pursue its own course of development, but also to afford to physical science itself powerful assistance. ~ Ernst Mach,
766:Failure is rarely a conscious decision and it’s often out of our control, determined by things like physics and circumstance and other people. What we can always control, however, is our reaction to failure. ~ Kevin Hearne,
767:I forget if it was the Mathematician of Alexandria who said that geometry is beauty laid bare or the Father of Relativity who made the claim for physics,” Darger said. “She is, in either case, ravishing. ~ Michael Swanwick,
768:It is impossible, and it has always been impossible, to grasp the meaning of what we nowadays call physics independently of its mathematical form. ~ Jacob Klein, Greek Mathematical Thought and the Origin of Algebra (1968).,
769:Quantum physics is teaching us that particles themselves don't create particles. It's what Jesus said 2,000 years ago, that it's the Spirit that gives life and that you don't get particles from more particles. ~ Wayne Dyer,
770:Quantum physics really begins to point to this discovery. It says that you can't have a Universe without mind entering into it, and that the mind is actually shaping the very thing that is being perceived. ~ Fred Alan Wolf,
771:Good find,” Ethan said. “Yeah,” Jeff agreed. “It’s pretty awesome. Like finding the Higgs boson.” Silence. “Aw, no physics fans here? Learn things you must,” Jeff said in his best Yoda voice. I rolled my eyes. ~ Chloe Neill,
772:I've never been in a single accident - basic precognition takes care of that - and the cops all know my car well enough to leave me alone when I'm bending the laws of physics and traffic to get somewhere. ~ Lilith Saintcrow,
773:Quantum physics really begins to point to this discovery. It says that you can’t have a Universe without mind entering into it, and that the mind is actually shaping the very thing that is being perceived. If ~ Rhonda Byrne,
774:distance, a holistic concept if ever there was one. (Incidentally, there is an excellent book on the new physics—Heinz Pagels’s The Cosmic Code21—which is the only book I can unreservedly recommend on the topic. ~ Ken Wilber,
775:If you were standing in the path of the beam, you would obviously die pretty quickly. You wouldn't really die of anything, in the traditional sense. You would just stop being biology and start being physics. ~ Randall Munroe,
776:In physics, thought the snake, even the electron has a dual character. Sometimes appearing as a particle, at other times as a wave. The great Swami Vivekananda wittily called it “wavicle”, he remembered. ~ Shailendra Gulhati,
777:The one thing we can't really train for is weightlessness, real weightlessness. It's a ton of fun. It's pure Newtonian physics. You push in one direction, you go in the opposite direction with an equal force. ~ Julie Payette,
778:Therefore psychologically we must keep all the theories in our heads, and every theoretical physicist who is any good knows six or seven different theoretical representations for exactly the same physics. ~ Richard P Feynman,
779:Being late was a special kind of modern suffering, with blended elements of rising tension, self-blame, self-pity, misanthropy, and a yearning for what could not be had outside theoretical physics: time reversal. ~ Ian McEwan,
780:Ernest Rutherford, a New Zealand–born experimental physicist who was as responsible as anyone for discovering the structure of the atom, once remarked that “all of science is either physics or stamp collecting. ~ Sean Carroll,
781:Fourier's theorem is not only one of the most beautiful results of modern analysis, but it may be said to furnish an indispensable instrument in the treatment of nearly every recondite question in modern physics. ~ Lord Kelvin,
782:It is hardly to be believed how spiritual reflections when mixed with a little physics can hold people's attention and give them a livelier idea of God than do the often ill-applied examples of his wrath. ~ Georg C Lichtenberg,
783:It is unnecessary to understand electromagnetic theory before wiring a lamp or to study physics in order to repair a pump. We count on our fingers and give no heed to the proliferating implications of the act. ~ James R Newman,
784:Nothing in physics seems so hopeful to as the idea that it is possible for a theory to have a high degree of symmetry was hidden from us in everyday life. The physicist's task is to find this deeper symmetry. ~ Steven Weinberg,
785:These aren't physics notes. This is art. Seriously, you didn't have to do this."
"Seriously, I wanted to," I say.
"Well, thank you. Seriously," she says.
More banter, which may be my new favorite word. ~ Julie Buxbaum,
786:You can’t get enough of your favorite meal until, in the next moment, you find you are so stuffed as to nearly require the attention of a surgeon—and yet, by some quirk of physics, you still have room for dessert. ~ Sam Harris,
787:Good applied science in medicine, as in physics, requires a high degree of certainty about the basic facts at hand, and especially about their meaning, and we have not yet reached this point for most of medicine. ~ Lewis Thomas,
788:If one looks at the different problems of the integral calculus which arise naturally when one wishes to go deep into the different parts of physics, it is impossible not to be struck by the analogies existing. ~ Henri Poincare,
789:Quantum physics fluctuates all the time. But now the fluctuations are not just particles coming into and out of existence, which happens all the time. It's whole universes coming into and out of existence. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
790:The only object of theoretical physics is to calculate results that can be compared with experiment... it is quite unnecessary that any satisfactory description of the whole course of the phenomena should be given. ~ Paul Dirac,
791:To me music is the sound of nature in process, either the full cacophony, one thread of it, or a deliberate composition. It's both expressive and causal and can organize reality atmosphere like a law of physics. ~ Warren Jeffs,
792:we still have a long way to go in terms of creating a rock-solid science that could match the certainty of, say, physics and biology. In the meantime, we all need a personal theory of what makes people tick. ~ Tom Butler Bowdon,
793:When was the last time that someone was criticized for not "respecting" another person's unfounded beliefs about physics or history? The same rules should apply to ethical, spiritual, and religious beliefs as well. ~ Sam Harris,
794:It was one of those dreams that invade the space between seconds, proving sleep has its own physics- where time shrinks and swells, lifetimes unspool in a blink, and cities burn to ash in a mere flutter of lashes. ~ Laini Taylor,
795:Often times in physics we want to talk about empty space as a first step toward nothingness, but nothingness is far more profound than empty space. Nothingness is the absence of everything including space itself. ~ Rivka Galchen,
796:The way Elon talks about this is that you always need to start with the first principles of a problem. What are the physics of it? How much time will it take? How much will it cost? How much cheaper can I make it? ~ Ashlee Vance,
797:You will certainly not doubt the necessity of studying astronomy and physics, if you are desirous of comprehending the relation between the world and Providence as it is in reality, and not according to imagination. ~ Maimonides,
798:But in due course it became evident that not only a physical situation qua physics, but the meaning of that situation to people, was sometimes a factor, through the behavior of people, in the start of a fire. ~ Benjamin Lee Whorf,
799:I abandoned chemistry to concentrate on mathematics and physics. In 1942, I travelled to Cambridge to take the scholarship examination at Trinity College, received an award and entered the university in October 1943. ~ John Pople,
800:I have always believed that astrophysics should be the extrapolation of laboratory physics, that we must begin from the present universe and work our way backward to progressively more remote and uncertain epochs. ~ Hannes Alfven,
801:It is odd, but on the infrequent occasions when I have been called upon in a formal place to play the bongo drums, the introducer never seems to find it necessary to mention that I also do theoretical physics. ~ Richard P Feynman,
802:Manifesting. Same way you made the elephant, and this beach. It's simple quantum physics. Consciousness brings matter into being where there was once merely energy. Not nearly as difficult as people choose to think. ~ Alyson Noel,
803:My recollection of the higher school certificate, which involved a practical exam in physics, was being confronted with an experiment involving a sort of barometer arrangement, wondering why I couldn't make it work. ~ Peter Higgs,
804:Physics says: go to sleep. Of course you're tired. Every atom in you has been dancing the shimmy in silver shoes nonstop from mitosis to now. Quit tapping your feet. They'll dance inside themselves without you. ~ Albert Goldbarth,
805:Without a movement pressing for change, there's little hope. We've got to work the political system to make this happen fast. The physics and chemistry are daunting. The resources on the other side are very large. ~ Bill McKibben,
806:As far as I know, this steak question originally came up in a lengthy 4chan thread, which quickly disintegrated into poorly informed physics tirades intermixed with homophobic slurs. There was no clear conclusion. ~ Randall Munroe,
807:I don't know what laws of physics are involved, but if you fill a gym with teenagers
and tell them to stare at one object, heat is actually produced. I half expected to
spontaneously combust.

Katrina ~ Suzanne Selfors,
808:The beauty of physics lies in the extent which seemingly complex and unrelated phenomena can be explained and correlated through a high level of abstraction by a set of laws which are amazing in their simplicity. ~ Melvin Schwartz,
809:Ultimately what we call physis and the physical is but the reflection of the world of the Soul; there is no pure physics, but always the physics of some definite psychic activity. ~ Henry Corbin, Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth,
810:The fact that natural selection and evolution crafted essentially carbon and water into a mechanism that can think and be conscious means there's nothing in physics that says you cannot do that to a greater degree. ~ Neill Blomkamp,
811:A popular feel for scientific endeavors should, if possible, be restored given the needs of the twenty-first century. This does not mean that every literature major should take a watered-down physics course or that ~ Walter Isaacson,
812:If our brain is understanding some parts of the universe and not understanding other parts, and those understandings are about the laws of physics that our brains are built on top of, then it's kind of a loop, right? ~ Edward Boyden,
813:I thought physics could be done to the glory of God, till I saw there wasn’t any God at all and that physics was more interesting anyway. The Christian religion is a very powerful and convincing mistake, that’s all. ~ Philip Pullman,
814:Physics is an organized body of knowledge about nature, and a student of it says that he is learning physics, not nature. Art, like nature, has to be distinguished from the systematic study of it, which is criticism. ~ Northrop Frye,
815:Revolutionary art anticipates visionary physics. When the vision of the revolutionary artist, rooted in the Dionysian right hemisphere, combines with precognition, art will prophesy the future conception of reality. ~ Leonard Shlain,
816:As we look out into the Universe and identify the many accidents of physics and astronomy that have worked together to our benefit, it almost seems as if the Universe must in some sense have known that we were coming. ~ Freeman Dyson,
817:In the matter of physics, the first lessons should contain nothing but what is experimental and interesting to see. A pretty experiment is in itself often more valuable than twenty formulae extracted from our minds. ~ Albert Einstein,
818:It seems like, if you really knew the God who understands the physics of our existence, you would operate a little more cautiously, a little more compassionately, a little less like you are the center of the universe. ~ Donald Miller,
819:Now we see evolutionary trends in a variety of areas ranging from atomic and molecular physics through fluid mechanics, chemistry and biology to large scale systems of relevance in environmental and economic sciences ~ Ilya Prigogine,
820:Sometimes it was entirely right and proper to be awed. And recognising the physics in these formations, the hand of time and matter and the nuclear forces underpinning all things, did not lessen that feeling. What ~ Alastair Reynolds,
821:Sooner or later nuclear physics and the psychology of the unconscious will draw closely together as both of them independently of one another and from opposite directions, push forward into transcendental territory. ~ Carl Jung, Aion,
822:The only reason psychology students don't have to do more and harder mathematics than physics students is because the mathematicians haven't yet discovered ways of dealing with problems as hard as those in psychology. ~ John G Kemeny,
823:So now,” the Dalai Lama concluded, “in quantum physics, they also have a similar view. Any objective thing does not really exist. There is nothing ultimately we can find. This is similar to analytical meditation.” The ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
824:But I still don’t get it,” I interrupted. “Okay, so you messed around with physics or whatever, that’s nothing new. You made it rain slimes for crying out loud. I guess I can accept that. But why did they bring me here? Why ~ M C Steve,
825:Given that the `common sense' of many contemporary philosophers is shaped and supplemented by ideas from classical physics, the locus of most metaphysical discussions is an image of the world that sits unhappily between ~ James Ladyman,
826:It also predicted that the electron should have a partner: an antielectron, or positron. The discovery of the positron in 1932 confirmed Dirac’s theory and led to his being awarded the Nobel prize for physics in 1933. ~ Stephen Hawking,
827:Why do cats sleep so much? Perhaps they've been trusted with some major cosmic task, an essential law of physics - such as: if there are less than five million cats sleeping at any one time the world will stop spinning. ~ Kate Atkinson,
828:Everyday words are inherently imprecise. They work well enough in everyday life that you don’t notice. Words seem to work, just as Newtonian physics seems to. But you can always make them break if you push them far enough. ~ Paul Graham,
829:After Montesquieu, the next great addition to Sociology (which is the term I may be allowed to invent to designate Social Physics) was made by Condorcet, proceeding on the views suggested by his illustrious friend Turgot. ~ Auguste Comte,
830:Many applications of the coincidence method will therefore be found in the large field of nuclear physics, and we can say without exaggeration that the method is one of the essential tools of the modern nuclear physicist. ~ Walther Bothe,
831:Sometimes he wonders if she ever slows down, if she’s moving so fast through her own life that she cannot even realize the physics of the trajectory she’s taken: Bend the curve of time, and even yesterday looks unfamiliar. ~ Jodi Picoult,
832:The heat of black holes is like the Rosetta stone of physics, written in a combination of three languages- quantum, gravitational, and thermodynamic- still awaiting decipherment in order to reveal the true nature of time. ~ Carlo Rovelli,
833:The study of geometry is a petty and idle exercise of the mind, if it is applied to no larger system than the starry one. Mathematics should be mixed not only with physics but with ethics; that is mixed mathematics. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
834:All great discoveries in experimental physics have been due to the intuition of men who made free use of models, which were for them not products of the imagination but representatives of real things.
Max Born (1953) ~ Victor J Stenger,
835:If I were not a writer, I would spend more time doing the things that I am already doing, which include doing research in physics, teaching, and running a nonprofit organization with a mission to empower women in Cambodia. ~ Alan Lightman,
836:Matter is regarded as being constituted by a region of space in which the field is extremely intense . . . . . . There is no place in this new kind of Physics both for the field and matter, for the field is the only reality. ~ Paul Davies,
837:Programmed by quanta, physics gave rise first to chemistry and then to life; programmed by mutations and recombination, life gave rise to Shakespeare; programmed by experience and imagination, Shakespeare gave rise to Hamlet. ~ Seth Lloyd,
838:(The cosmological constant is, essentially, the density of empty space. Anticipating a little, let me just mention that a big puzzle in modern physics is why empty space weighs so little even though there's so much to it.) ~ Frank Wilczek,
839:The verbal interpretation, on the other hand, i.e. the metaphysics of quantum physics, is on far less solid ground. In fact, in more than forty years physicists have not been able to provide a clear metaphysical model. ~ Erwin Schrodinger,
840:This was the missing piece in the puzzle. The secret of wood that bound matter together was the Yang-Mills filed, not the geometry of Einstein. It appeared as though this, and not geometry, was the central lesson of physics. ~ Michio Kaku,
841:Mapping the trajectory of a spacecraft is a relatively straightforward business, bounded only by the laws of physics. Mapping the trajectory of an idea through a political system, on the other hand, can be a dicey business. ~ Robert Zubrin,
842:People will tell you that you have to know math to be a scientist, or physics or chemistry. They're wrong. ... What comes first is a question, and you're already there. It's not nearly as involved as people make it out to be. ~ Hope Jahren,
843:Physics does not change the nature of the world it studies, and no science of behavior can change the essential nature of man, even though both sciences yield technologies with a vast power to manipulate the subject matters. ~ Pope Paul VI,
844:Physics is the science of all the tremendously powerful invisibilities - of magnetism, electricity, gravity, light, sound, cosmic rays. Physics is the science of the mysteries of the universe. How could anyone think it dull? ~ Dick Francis,
845:During the war years I worked on the development of radar and other radio systems for the R.A.F. and, though gaining much in engineering experience and in understanding people, rapidly forgot most of the physics I had learned. ~ Martin Ryle,
846:Fine Structure Constant: Fundamental numerical constant of atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics, defined as the square of the charge of the electron divided by the product of Planck's constant and the speed of light. ~ Steven Weinberg,
847:He was not very big, mostly because he was not a very big human, and the basic principles of conservation of mass still applied whether supernatural or not. Werewolves had to obey the laws of physics just like everyone else. ~ Gail Carriger,
848:In a lot of scientists, the ratio of wonder to skepticism declines in time. That may be connected with the fact that in some fields-mathematics, physics, some others-the great discoveries are almost entirely made by youngsters. ~ Carl Sagan,
849:My undergraduate degree was in history, and I wish I had been smart enough to really excel at maths, physics, chemistry or biology because... the voyagers and adventurers and real contributors - that's where they come from. ~ Michael Moritz,
850:This is a rather unusual situation in physics. We perform approximate calculations which are valid only in some regime and this gives us the exact answer. This is a theorist's heaven- exact results with approximate methods. ~ Nathan Seiberg,
851:Chapter 2: How could an infinite space get created in a finite time? It sounds impossible. But as I mentioned, inflation is like a magic show where seemingly impossible tricks happen through creative use of the laws of physics. ~ Max Tegmark,
852:I hope we once again have reminded people that man is not free unless government is limited. There's a clear cause and effect here that is as neat and predictable as a law of physics: As government expands, liberty contracts. ~ Ronald Reagan,
853:In the old physics, three times two equals six and two times three equals 6 are reversible propositions. Not in quantum physics. Three times two and two times three are two different matters, distinct and separate propositions. ~ Paul Auster,
854:[When asked by a student if he believes in any gods]

Oh, no. Absolutely not... The biggest advantage to believing in God is you don't have to understand anything, no physics, no biology. I wanted to understand. ~ James D Watson,
855:Physics opens windows through which we see far into the distance. What we see does not cease to astound us. We realize that we are full of prejudices and that our intuitive image of the world is partial, parochial, inadequate ~ Carlo Rovelli,
856:The Engineer is one who, in the world of physics and applied sciences, begets new things, or adapts old things to new and better uses; above all, one who, in that field, attains new results in the best way and at lowest cost. ~ Henry R Towne,
857:This is not what I thought physics was about when I started out: I learned that the idea is to explain nature in terms of clearly understood mathematical laws; but perhaps comparisons are the best we can hope for. ~ Hans Christian von Baeyer,
858:Chemistry, until my childhood, not that long ago, was regarded as a calculating device. Because you couldn't reduce to physics. So it's just some way of calculating the result of experiments. The Bohr atom was treated that way. ~ Noam Chomsky,
859:Could some similar paradox be responsible for the crisis in modern physics - some unconscious blockage which prevents us from seeing the 'obvious', and compels us to persist in our own version of wavemechanical double-think? ~ Arthur Koestler,
860:Every action of giving creates an opposite action of receiving and what you receive is always equal to what you've given. Whatever you give out in life, must return to you. It is the physics and the mathematics of the universe. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
861:If you believe that the atoms that are inside your brain and your body act differently because they are in a living person than if they were in a rock or a crystal, then what you're saying is that the laws of physics are wrong. ~ Sean Carroll,
862:space has. If the Mathematical Universe Hypothesis is correct, then our Universe is a mathematical structure, and from its description, an infinitely intelligent mathematician should be able to derive all these physics theories. ~ Max Tegmark,
863:Things happen. Things that physics and math and crap that gets measured in a lab can't explain. People aren't just laws and rules, Claire. They're... sparks. Sparks of something beautiful and huge. And some sparks glow brighter ~ Rachel Caine,
864:At his "World of Physics" Web site, Eric W. Weisstein notes that the fine structure constant continues to fascinate numerologists, who have claimed that connections exist between alpha, the Cheops pyramid, and Stonehenge! ~ Clifford A Pickover,
865:But curriculum-wise, I was drawn to the sciences and specifically to physics, and I really enjoyed it and I think for a little while there, I was really thinking my schooling would be in physics, that that was something I loved. ~ Brian Henson,
866:The non-physicist finds it hard to believe that really the ordinary laws of physics, which he regards as the prototype of inviolable precision, should be based on the statistical tendency of matter to go over into disorder. ~ Erwin Schr dinger,
867:Body and soul are not two different things, but only two different ways of perceiving the same thing. Similarly, physics and psychology are only different attempts to link our experiences together by way of systematic thought. ~ Albert Einstein,
868:Every atom in your body came from a star that exploded. And the atoms in your left hand probably came from a different star than your right hand. It really is the most poetic thing I know about physics: you are all stardust. ~ Lawrence M Krauss,
869:I knew about viscosity, but I’d heard about it in a course in physical chemistry, not in physics. Step by step, the questions I asked led me into the world of mechanical engineering. A reductionist path, yes, but a different one. ~ Steven Vogel,
870:physics too is an interpretation of the world and an arrangement of the world, and not an explanation of the world,” and that “we have measured the value of the world with categories that refer to a purely fabricated world. ~ Karl Ove Knausg rd,
871:every atom in your body came from a star that exploded. and, the atoms in your left hand probably came from a different star than your right hand. it really is the most poetic thing i know about physics: you are all stardust. ~ Lawrence M Krauss,
872:good piano tuner must have knowledge not only of his instrument but of “Physics, Philosophy, and Poetics,” so that Edgar, although he never attended university, reached his twentieth birthday with more education than many who had. ~ Daniel Mason,
873:It is the facts that matter, not the proofs. Physics can progress without the proofs, but we can't go on without the facts ... if the facts are right, then the proofs are a matter of playing around with the algebra correctly. ~ Richard P Feynman,
874:I went to the University of Washington as a physics and astronomy major. My other interest, of course, was aviation. I always wanted to be a pilot. And if you're going to fly airplanes, the best place to be is the Air Force. ~ Michael P Anderson,
875:New Age thinkers usually enter the ditch on the other side of the road: They idealize altered states of consciousness and draw specious connections between subjective experience and the spookier theories at the frontiers of physics. ~ Sam Harris,
876:Now he has departed from this strange world a little ahead of me. That means nothing. People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion. ~ Albert Einstein,
877:Those interested in celestial navigation are advised to first obtain a rudimentary knowledge of integral calculus, phlebotomy, astral physics and related subjects. The use of liquor is strictly forbidden on interplanetary flights. ~ Henry Miller,
878:Those sages of the ancient world, unbound by dogma of any kind, thought as we do in terms of physics, or rather, physiology, as applied to the whole universe: they envisaged the end of man and the dying out of this sphere. ~ Marguerite Yourcenar,
879:Unless the structure of the nucleus has a surprise in store for us, the conclusion seems plain — there is nothing in the whole system of laws of physics that cannot be deduced unambiguously from epistemological considerations. ~ Arthur Eddington,
880:For more than 200 years, materialists have promised that science will eventually explain everything in terms of physics and chemistry. Believers are sustained by the faith that scientific discoveries will justify their beliefs. ~ Rupert Sheldrake,
881:I cannot seriously believe in it [quantum theory] because the theory cannot be reconciled with the idea that physics should represent a reality in time and space, free from spooky actions at a distance [spukhafte Fernwirkungen]. ~ Albert Einstein,
882:Culture makes lies plausible through exposure to time. It makes prejudice seem like physics intergenerationally. It is therefore the most dangerous opponent of philosophy, because it feels the most credible to the average person. ~ Stefan Molyneux,
883:First, some physicists insist that quantum mechanics cannot be formulated without taking into account the minds of observers. They argue that minds cannot be reduced to physics because physics presupposes the minds of physicists ~ Rupert Sheldrake,
884:It is less than five hundred years since an entire half of the world was discovered. It is less than two hundred years since the discovery of the last continent. The sciences of chemistry and physics go back scarcely one century. ~ Jeff VanderMeer,
885:It is wrong,” he told his colleagues repeatedly, “to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is”—which is the territory classical physics had claimed for itself. “Physics concerns what we can say about nature.”290 ~ Richard Rhodes,
886:Studies have shown that games outperform textbooks in helping students learn fact-based subjects such as geography, history, physics, and anatomy, while also improving visual coordination, cognitive speed, and manual dexterity. ~ Peter H Diamandis,
887:Even before string theory, especially as physics developed in the 20th century, it turned out that the equations that really work in describing nature with the most generality and the greatest simplicity are very elegant and subtle. ~ Edward Witten,
888:If we always thought like that, why would we study physics, why would we think of cosmology, why would we do any kind of research? Because we know already so much that there is no one person who can contain all that information. ~ Esa Pekka Salonen,
889:The responsibility of any science, any pure pursuit, is ultimately to itself, and on this point physics, philosophy, and poetry unite with Satan in their determination not to serve. Any end is higher than utility, when ends are up. ~ William H Gass,
890:The world of finance is a mysterious world in which, incredible as the fact may appear, evaporation precedes liquidation. First the capital evaporates, and then the company goes into liquidation. These are very unnatural physics ... ~ Joseph Conrad,
891:Experimental high energy physics research is a group effort. I have been very fortunate to have had outstanding students and colleagues who have made invaluable contributions to the research with which I have been associated. ~ Jerome Isaac Friedman,
892:God plays dice with the universe,” is Ford’s answer to Einstein’s famous question. “But they’re loaded dice. And the main objective of physics now is to find out by what rules were they loaded and how can we use them for our own ends. ~ James Gleick,
893:I began to realize something - to understand the future you have to understand physics. Physics of the last century gave us television, radio, microwaves, gave us the Internet, lasers, transistors, computers - all of that from physics. ~ Michio Kaku,
894:If any particle we haven’t yet found lasted long enough and interacted with ordinary matter with sufficient strength that it could possibly affect the physics of everyday goings-on, we would have produced it in experiments by now. One ~ Sean Carroll,
895:If there is such a simple argument for physicalism, how come everybody hasn't always been a physicalist? That's a good question, and there is a good answer. The 'causal completeness of physics' wasn't widely accepted until recently. ~ David Papineau,
896:In quitting this strange world he has once again preceded me by a little. That doesn't mean anything. For those of us who believe in physics, this separation between past, present, and future is only an illusion, however tenacious. ~ Albert Einstein,
897:Michele has left this strange world a little before me. This means nothing. People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction made between past, present and future is nothing more than a persistent, stubborn illusion. ~ Carlo Rovelli,
898:Biology is now bigger than physics, as measured by the size of budgets, by the size of the workforce, or by the output of major discoveries; and biology is likely to remain the biggest part of science through the twenty-first century. ~ Freeman Dyson,
899:Fall?” he repeated. “Say more like flying, as if someone threw you. What  .  .  . was that?”
I chewed on my words before I let them out. “I  .  .  . sometimes have little disagreements with  .  .  . um, with reality. And physics. ~ Kat Richardson,
900:If a handful of people look at the making of the film and realize, "Oh, my god!" It was so complicated. It was like doing quantum physics calculations every day while you're telling a joke. It was so insane! So, they can feel my pain. ~ Rob Letterman,
901:A universe with a God would look quite different from a universe without one. A physics, a biology where there is a God is bound to look different. So the most basic claims of religion are scientific. Religion is a scientific theory. ~ Richard Dawkins,
902:Clara lived in a universe of her own invention, protected from life’s inclement weather, where the prosaic truth of material objects mingled with the tumultuous reality of dreams and the laws of physics and logic did not always apply. ~ Isabel Allende,
903:The laws of history are as absolute as the laws of physics, and if the probabilities of error are greater, it is only because history does not deal with as many humans as physics does atoms, so that individual variations count for more. ~ Isaac Asimov,
904:In physics, your solution should convince a reasonable person. In math, you have to convince a person who's trying to make trouble. Ultimately, in physics, you're hoping to convince Nature. And I've found Nature to be pretty reasonable. ~ Frank Wilczek,
905:Quantum mechanics brought an unexpected fuzziness into physics because of quantum uncertainty, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. String theory does so again because a point particle is replaced by a string, which is more spread out. ~ Edward Witten,
906:What we mean when speaking of "myth" in general is story, the ability of story to explain ourselves to ourselves in ways that physics, philosophy, mathematics, chemistry—all very highly useful and informative in their own right—can't. ~ Thomas C Foster,
907:A lot of the films I like are more than fantasies - they're movies fascinated by the technology of space exploration, and they try to honor the laws of physics. I watched the Gregory Peck movie 'Marooned' over and over when I was a kid. ~ Alfonso Cuaron,
908:If you assume continuity, you can open the well-stocked mathematical toolkit of continuous functions and differential equations, the saws and hammers of engineering and physics for the past two centuries (and the foreseeable future). ~ Benoit Mandelbrot,
909:It is all about love. It is all about caring. We are all in this game together, we are all connected. You may not be able to see it with your eyes but if you go to the Quantum Universe, some of the physics of nature, we are all connected. ~ John Assaraf,
910:Ordinary language is totally unsuited for expressing what physics really asserts, since the words of everyday life are not sufficiently abstract. Only mathematics and mathematical logic can say as little as the physicist means to say. ~ Bertrand Russell,
911:To believe in an invisible order, a divine or implicate order, as quantum physics calls it, or the order beneath the disorder that chaos theory describes, is a healthier, more interesting choice than seeing no meaning in life whatsoever. ~ Caroline Myss,
912:We all need to learn a new language for love - a language that speaks not in socks, pancakes, and paychecks, but in shared fascination with physics or poetry, delight in each other's uniqueness, and mutual practical and emotional support. ~ Barbara Sher,
913:By the year 2070 we cannot say, or it would be imbecile to do so, that any man alive could understand Shakespearean experience better than Shakespeare, whereas any decent eighteen-year-old student of physics will know more physics than Newton. ~ C P Snow,
914:Liz paced and talked like it was just another test. Another challenge. She was looking at it like an exercise in probability - cause and effect. It's the physics of human nature, and to truly understand it, one has to be objective and cool. ~ Ally Carter,
915:Physics and philosophy are at most a few thousand years old, but probably have lives of thousands of millions of years stretching away in front of them. They are only just beginning to get under way. ~ James Jeans, Physics and Philosophy, p. 217.,(1942).,
916:since I know for a fact that her class had been in the physics labs when Mr. Fibs got attacked by the bees he thought he’d genetically modified to obey commands from a whistle. (Turns out they only respond to the voice of James Earl Jones.) ~ Ally Carter,
917:The cultural enterprise is an effort to turn ourselves inside out: we want to put the body into the imagination and we want the imagination to replace the laws of physics. With these technologies we can probably do that. ~ Terence McKenna, Evolving Times,
918:The problem of physics is how the actual phenomena, as observed with the help of our sense organs aided by instruments, can be reduced to simple notions which are suited for precise measurement and used of the formulation of quantitative laws. ~ Max Born,
919:The usual derivation of the word Metaphysics is not to be sustainedthe science is supposed to take its name from its superiority to physics. The truth is, that Aristotle's treatise on Morals is next in succession to his Book of Physics. ~ Edgar Allan Poe,
920:Though we feel we can choose what we do, our understanding of the molecular basis of biology shows that biological processes are governed by the laws of physics and chemistry and therefore are as determined as the orbits of the planets. ~ Stephen Hawking,
921:In our work, we are always between Scylla and Charybdis; we may fail to abstract enough, and miss important physics, or we may abstract too much and end up with fictitious objects in our models turning into real monsters that devour us. ~ Murray Gell Mann,
922:The grounding in natural sciences which I obtained in the course of my medical studies, including preliminary examinations in botany, zoology, physics, and chemistry, was to become decisive in determining the trend of my literary work. ~ Johannes V Jensen,
923:What it really takes to find particles these days is money and lots of it. There is a curious inverse relationship in modern physics between the tininess of the thing being sought and the scale of the facilities required to do the searching. ~ Bill Bryson,
924:brought together not of their own volition or by simple coincidence, but by some curious perversion of physics—as if relationships between people were susceptible to the same laws that governed the relationships between atoms and molecules. ~ Douglas Adams,
925:I enjoyed Old Man's War immensely. A space war story with fast action, vivid characters, moral complexity and cool speculative physics, set in a future you almost want to live into, and a universe you sincerely hope you don't live in already. ~ Ken MacLeod,
926:Since the beginning of physics, symmetry considerations have provided us with an extremely powerful and useful tool in our effort to understand nature. Gradually they have become the backbone of our theoretical formulation of physical laws. ~ Tsung Dao Lee,
927:I'm very moved by chaos theory, and that sense of energy. That quantum physics. We don't really, in Hindu tradition, have a father figure of a God. It's about cosmic energy, a little spark of which is inside every individual as the soul. ~ Bharati Mukherjee,
928:In science, “fact” can only mean “confirmed to such a degree that it would be perverse to withhold provisional assent.” I suppose that apples might start to rise tomorrow, but the possibility does not merit equal time in physics classrooms. ~ G K Chesterton,
929:Atoms have substantial, chewy centers made of protons and neutrons stuck together by the most powerful force in the universe, which, in the great poetic tradition of physics, is officially called the strong force.

from The Sun's Heartbeat ~ Bob Berman,
930:Is this your idea of a joke?” she whispered as Mr. Jenkins stood to begin that day’s lesson. I pulled out my notebook and shook my head. “No joke. My plan is to win you back one physics problem at a time.” Connor laughed. “Does this make me Jacob? ~ R S Grey,
931:Of course, I didn’t choose to fail. Failure is rarely a conscious decision and it’s often out of our control, determined by things like physics and circumstance and other people. What we can always control, however, is our reaction to failure. ~ Kevin Hearne,
932:On the walls hung black-and-white portraits of men—it was only in the physics department that you could find the single female face in the whole school, Madame Maria Skłodowska Curie’s, the sole indication of the equality of the sexes. These ~ Olga Tokarczuk,
933:Tapestries are made by many artisans working together. The contributions of separate workers cannot be discerned in the completed work, and the loose and false threads have been covered over. So it is in our picture of particle physics. ~ Sheldon Lee Glashow,
934:To those who say climate change is not caused by human activity or that addressing it will harm the economy, let's encourage them to go to college, too, and to study physics and to study economics, but for the rest of us, let's get to work. ~ Martin O Malley,
935:The question what presuppositions underlie the 'physics' or natural science of a certain people at a certain time is a purely historical question as what kind of clothes they wear. And this is the question that metaphysicians have to answer. ~ R G Collingwood,
936:been brought together not of their own volition or by simple coincidence, but by some curious perversion of physics—as if relationships between people were susceptible to the same laws that governed the relationships between atoms and molecules ~ Douglas Adams,
937:For me, science is already fantastical enough. Unlocking the secrets of nature with fundamental physics or cosmology or astrobiology leads you into a wonderland compared with which beliefs in things like alien abductions pale into insignificance. ~ Paul Davies,
938:In science, "fact" can only mean "confirmed to such a degree that it would be perverse to withhold provisional assent." I suppose that apples might start to rise tomorrow, but the possibility does not merit equal time in physics classrooms. ~ Stephen Jay Gould,
939:In science, 'fact' can only mean 'confirmed to such a degree that it would be perverse to withhold provisional assent.' I suppose that apples might start to rise tomorrow, but the possibility does not merit equal time in physics classrooms. ~ Stephen Jay Gould,
940:Most people have no concept of how an automatic transmission works, yet they know how to drive a car. You don't have to study physics to understand the laws of motion to drive a car. You don't have to understand any of this stuff to use Macintosh. ~ Steve Jobs,
941:Newtonian physics runs into problems at the subatomic level. Down there--in the land of hadrons, quarks, and Schrödinger's cat--things gent freaky. The cool rationality of Isaac Newton gives way to the bizarre unpredictability of Lewis Carroll. ~ Daniel H Pink,
942:Rather than being handed down from above, like the Ten Commandments, they [the laws of physics] look exactly as they should look if they were not handed down from anywhere...they follow from the very lack of structure at the earliest moment. ~ Victor J Stenger,
943:The force of inertia acts in the domain of psychics as well as physics; any idea pushed into the popular mind with considerable force will keep on going until some opposing force--or the slow resistance of friction--stops it at last. ~ Charlotte Perkins Gilman,
944:In other words, there is no single underlying reality that is independent of our observations. “It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is,” Bohr declared. “Physics concerns what we can say about nature.”62 This ~ Walter Isaacson,
945:My latter schooldays and my university days were during the war, when science - physics, in particular - was a very important and glamorous subject. A lot of us felt that if we couldn't get into science, we might try engineering or medicine. ~ John Henry Carver,
946:The whole is always more, is more capable of a much greater variety of wave states, than the combination of its parts. ... In this very radical sense, quantum physics supports the doctrine that the whole is more than the combination of its parts. ~ Hermann Weyl,
947:And a new philosophy emerged called quantum physics, which suggest that the individual’s function is to inform and be informed. You really exist only when you’re in a field sharing and exchanging information. You create the realities you inhabit. ~ Timothy Leary,
948:In its efforts to learn as much as possible about nature, modern physics has found that certain things can never be "known" with certainty. Much of our knowledge must always remain uncertain. The most we can know is in terms of probabilities. ~ Richard P Feynman,
949:Planck time and Planck length,” I said. “I don’t remember exactly—something about combining the three fundamental constants of physics—gravity, Planck’s constant, and the speed of light. I remember it gave some tiny little units of length and time. ~ Dan Simmons,
950:First I’ll tell you about the picture of the universe painted by modern physics: the geometry of the universe is not physical.” “Can you be a little less abstract?” “What if I put it this way: in the universe, apart from empty space, there is nothing. ~ Liu Cixin,
951:Nevertheless, if I have at times been able to make original contributions in the accelerator field, I cannot help feeling that to a certain extent my slightly amateur approach in physics, combined with much practical experience, was an asset. ~ Simon van der Meer,
952:People have been talking about multiverses as a philosophical idea for a long time. But the current incarnations in physics, I think, are more indicative of problems with some things going on at the frontier of physics than ideas that are gonna last. ~ Adam Frank,
953:Put another way, social physics is about how human behavior is driven by the exchange of ideas—how people cooperate to discover, select, and learn strategies and coordinate their actions—rather than how markets are driven by the exchange of money. ~ Alex Pentland,
954:The more science I studied, the more I saw that physics becomes metaphysics and numbers become imaginary numbers. The farther you go into science, the mushier the ground gets. You start to say, 'Oh, there is an order and a spiritual aspect to science. ~ Dan Brown,
955:In 1875, when young Max Planck announced his interest in physics, the chairman of his physics department suggested he study something more exciting. Physics, he said, was just about complete: “All the important discoveries have already been made. ~ Bruce Rosenblum,
956:In a world described by quantum physics, an insistence on causal closure of the physical world amounts to a quasi-religious faith in the absolute powers of matter, a belief that is no more than a commitment to brute, and outmoded, materialism. ~ Jeffrey M Schwartz,
957:I think that modern physics has definitely decided in favor of Plato. In fact the smallest units of matter are not physical objects in the ordinary sense; they are forms, ideas which can be expressed unambiguously only in mathematical language. ~ Werner Heisenberg,
958:Schools of science and physics replacing each other at a faster and faster rate. Just the nature of our world is constant revision, constant...negation of previous beliefs, and so...the whole world is a twist ending. Every week is a twist ending. ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
959:Albert Einstein once said that black holes are where God divided by zero, and that created some strange physics. While the marginal costs of digital goods do not quite approach zero, they are close enough to create some pretty strange economics. ~ Erik Brynjolfsson,
960:It is funny that men who are supposed to be scientific cannot get themselves to realise the basic principle of physics, that action and reaction are equal and opposite, that when you persecute people you always rouse them to be strong and stronger. ~ Gertrude Stein,
961:No one can say, "Here is Biology, here Mathematics, here Philosophy." No one can point to Physics, or show us Chemistry. In reality no dotted lines divide History from Geography or Physics from Chemistry, or Philosophy from Linguistics, and so on. These ~ John Holt,
962:this chapter is different from the other chapters in this book, in that not only does science not (yet) know the answer, but at present we can barely conceive of how that answer might look in terms of the known laws of physics or biology or information. ~ Nick Lane,
963:As soon as this is over, I’m going to reacquaint you with every horizontal surface in my house.”
“Why limit yourself?”
“Laws of physics,” said Michael against his mouth.
“Oh, laws,” Tristan breathed. “It’s just no fun if you can’t break them. ~ Z A Maxfield,
964:Astronomy was born of superstition; eloquence of ambition, hatred, falsehood, and flattery; geometry of avarice; physics of an idle curiosity; and even moral philosophy of human pride. Thus the arts and sciences owe their birth to our vices. ~ Jean Baptiste Rousseau,
965:He downplayed the significance of technical knowledge in business. “I never felt the need of scientific knowledge, have never felt it. A young man who wants to succeed in business does not require chemistry or physics. He can always hire scientists.”32 ~ Ron Chernow,
966:Quantum physics is creeping into every field, causing confusion among scientists, dealing a deathblow to the Newtonian dream, all because it points directly back to God, “the old man,” who has ultimate control. I love it when his plans come together. ~ Caroline Leaf,
967:Sometimes it occurs to me that I think about you more than I ought to think about anything besides physics. Look at Nikola Tesla. Invented alternating current; died a virgin in his eighties. You should thank him every time you flip a light switch. If ~ Dexter Palmer,
968:Charting is a little like surfing. You dont have to know a lot about the physics of tides, resonance, and fluid dynamics in order to catch a good wave. You just have to be able to sense when its happening and then have the drive to act at the right time. ~ Ed Seykota,
969:I am not a global warming sceptic. I accept that rising human-caused CO2 from fossil sources could 'change the climate'. The basic physics is there to support this view. But where is the evidence that the putative change would be large or damaging? ~ Chris de Freitas,
970:I don't have the Big Idea. I don't have the arrogance to even want to have the Big Idea. But I believe the physics of resisting power is as old as the physics of accumulating power. That's what keeps the balance in the universe... the refusal to obey. ~ Arundhati Roy,
971:Quantum physics tells us that nothing that is observed is unaffected by the observer. That statement, from science, holds an enormous and powerful insight. It means that everyone sees a different truth because everyone is creating what they see. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
972:There is now a feeling that the pieces of physics are falling into place, not because of any single revolutionary idea or because of the efforts of any one physicist, but because of a flowering of many seeds of theory, most of them planted long ago. ~ Steven Weinberg,
973:As for the forces, electromagnetism and gravity we experience in everyday life. But the weak and strong forces are beyond our ordinary experience. So in physics, lots of the basic building blocks take 20th- or perhaps 21st-century equipment to explore. ~ Edward Witten,
974:a worldwide flood destroyed all life on earth about five thousand years ago requires denying an immense amount of generally accepted knowledge—from astronomy, physics, geology, paleontology, anthropology, archaeology, biology, cave paintings, and more. ~ Marcus J Borg,
975:I'm really not trying to do everything that comes to mind because that's when it can be dangerous. For instance, I believe as much as possible, how your camera moves and flies around should be limited to the physics of how you could do it in real life. ~ Taika Waititi,
976:Quantum physics tells us that nothing that is observed is unaffected by the observer. That statement, from science, holds an enormous and powerful insight. It means that everyone sees a different truth, because everyone is creating what they see. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
977:sometimes I don’t. It’s the great mystery.” Paul Jobs was then working at Spectra-Physics, a company in nearby Santa Clara that made lasers for electronics and medical products. As a machinist, he crafted the prototypes of products that the engineers ~ Walter Isaacson,
978:But define 'completely ridiculous shit,'" Duvall said. "Does space travel count? Contact with alien races? Does quantum physics count? Because I don't understand that crap at all. As far as I'm concerned, quantum physics could have been written by a hack. ~ John Scalzi,
979:Paul Jobs was then working at Spectra-Physics, a company in nearby Santa Clara that made lasers for electronics and medical products. As a machinist, he crafted the prototypes of products that the engineers were devising. His son was fascinated by the ~ Walter Isaacson,
980:Physics and those parts of other fields that grow out of physics - chemistry, the structure of big molecules - in those domains, there is a lot of progress. In many other domains, there is very little progress in developing real scientific understanding. ~ Noam Chomsky,
981:There are good reasons why we don't want everyone to learn nuclear physics, medicine or how financial markets work. Our entire modern project has been about delegating power over us to skilled people who want to do the work and be rewarded accordingly. ~ Evgeny Morozov,
982:The violent reaction on the recent development of modern physics can only be understood when one realises that here the foundations of physics have started moving; and that this motion has caused the feeling that the ground would be cut from science ~ Werner Heisenberg,
983:I think that physics is about escaping the prison of the received thoughts and searching for novel ways of thinking the world, about trying to clear a bit the misty lake of insubstantial dreams, which reflect reality like the lake reflects the mountains. ~ Carlo Rovelli,
984:My physics teacher, Thomas Miner was particularly gifted. To this day, I remember how he introduced the subject of physics. He told us we were going to learn how to deal with very simple questions such as how a body falls due to the acceleration of gravity. ~ Steven Chu,
985:Somewhere, within our brain, we have a potential for higher mathematics, complex physics, art, & amazing richness of thoughts, feelings & sensations Somewhere within our brain we have a potential to understand the Magic of Creative Thinking ~ Nata a Nuit Pantovi,
986:There are huge areas where the human mind is apparently incapable of forming sciences, or at least has not done so. There are other areas - so far, in fact, one area only [physics] - in which we have demonstrated the capacity for true scientific progress. ~ Noam Chomsky,
987:There are numerous daytime and night time photographs and videotapes of clearly non-human spacecraft from all over the world; these films and videotapes have been evaluated and deemed authentic by competent experts in optical physics and related fields. ~ Steven M Greer,
988:in the informal atmosphere of the Physics Department, appointments were viewed with a certain Heisenbergian skepticism, as though being in the right place at the right time would involve breaking a natural law and was therefore impossible to begin with. ~ Neal Stephenson,
989:It is this breathtaking image [of] success that motivates us and motivates kids to follow and understand rocket science: to understand the importance of physics and math and, in many ways, to have that awe at exploration of the frontiers of the unknown. ~ Steve Jurvetson,
990:When I was young, I thought it is thunder that kills people. But when I learnt physics in the high school, I discovered that it is rather the lightning that does the killing. The voice of the thunder itself is just a noise. The lightning is the poise! ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
991:Smiley TV preachers might tell you that following Jesus is about being good so that God will bless you with cash and prizes, but really it’s much more gruesome and meaningful. It’s about spiritual physics. Something has to die for something new to live. ~ Nadia Bolz Weber,
992:Thanks to the high standing which science has for so long attain and to the impartiality of the Nobel Prize Committee, the Nobel Prize for Physics is rightly considered everywhere as the highest reward within the reach of workers in Natural Philosophy. ~ Guglielmo Marconi,
993:[...] Traditionally these are questions for philosophy, but philosophy is dead. Philosophy has not kept up with modern developments in science, particularly physics. Scientists have become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge. ~ Stephen Hawking,
994:Another way to frame the issue is that leaning in when you have significant caregiving responsibilities requires an intensive support structure at home and lots of flexibility at work. Think about simple physics. Imagine a tree leaning over the water ~ Anne Marie Slaughter,
995:I enjoyed mathematics from a very young age. At the beginning of college, I had this illusion, which was kind of silly in retrospect, that if I just understood math and physics and philosophy, I could figure out everything else from first principles. ~ Erez Lieberman Aiden,
996:I'm really into quantum physics. Some of my friends are into it, some of them aren't, so I'm trying to get them excited about discovering all these interesting things about thoughts and the power of thoughts. It gives me chills thinking about it. It's fun. ~ Carmen Electra,
997:It is a bizarre, but nevertheless psychologically exact, fact that the physics of the Greeks — being statics and not dynamics — neither knew the use nor felt the absence of the time-element, whereas we on the other hand work
in thousandths of a second. ~ Oswald Spengler,
998:Changi became my university instead of my prison. Among the inmates there were experts in all walks of life - the high and the low roads. I studied and absorbed everything I could from physics to counterfeiting, but most of all I learned the art of surviving. ~ James Clavell,
999:Children have a tendency to behave as poorly as the most poorly behaved kid in the room. The laws of physics dictate that if there is a kid screaming and running in the hallway of a hotel, all the other children will scream and run in the hallway of the hotel. ~ Jim Gaffigan,
1000:For all the clever jokes that could be made here involving "mind" and "matter" there is one sure and certain variation you can take with you to the grave: "In the grand scheme of things you don't matter very much, and the laws of physics don't mind at all. ~ Patrick E McLean,
1001:The development of physics in the twentieth century already has transformed the consciousness of those involved with it. The study (of modern physics) produces insights into the nature of reality very similar to those produced by the study of eastern philosophy. ~ Gary Zukav,
1002:You can have faith in writing itself. That's where to place your faith, in the same way that a pole vaulter places his faith in the laws of physics. He will go up in direct proportion to the strength with which he pushed off, and he will come down every time. ~ Nancy Pickard,
1003:At one point I wanted to work for NASA and be an astrophysicist, so I did physics, math, and chemistry before realizing I probably wasn't quite smart enough to do that. But I am still hugely interested in cosmology and astrophysics. That is my geeky subject area. ~ Gemma Chan,
1004:Black holes are very exotic objects. Technically, a black hole puts a huge amount of mass inside of zero volume. So our understanding of the center of black holes doesn't make sense, which is a big clue to physicists that we don't have our physics quite right. ~ Andrea M Ghez,
1005:I do not understand modern physics at all, but my colleagues who know a lot about the physics of very small things, like the particles in atoms, or very large things, like the universe, seem to be running into one queerness after another, from puzzle to puzzle. ~ Lewis Thomas,
1006:In some ways I'm a frustrated scientist or mathematician. The amount of times I've thought I'd go back to university and do theoretical physics because I like the big questions, but really I know now that that's not quite me. What's me is to do it in novels. ~ Scarlett Thomas,
1007:To understand that, we have to begin to imagine what a universe would be like if there wasn't anything in it called Mind. If that was the case, according to quantum physics now, then every possibility would also come into existence as every other possibility. ~ Fred Alan Wolf,
1008:Her love for him is not something that can be changed— it’s physics, not emotion: It’s the exact weight of radium. It is vast and it is exact. It is tender and finite and inexhaustible. Her love for him is a fact. Her love for him is a brutal fact about the world. ~ Charles Yu,
1009:if physics is much simpler to describe under the assumption that space is discrete, rather than continuous, is not this fact itself a strong argument for space being discrete? If so, then might space look, on some very small scale, something like Wilson's lattice. ~ Lee Smolin,
1010:In the 20th century philosophy of time for a great many theorists became part of science because it was time as is studied in physics that became the object of philosophical speculation. That's very different from the way time has normally been understood. ~ William Lane Craig,
1011:Of course the word chaos is used in rather a vague sense by a lot of writers, but in physics it means a particular phenomenon, namely that in a nonlinear system the outcome is often indefinitely, arbitrarily sensitive to tiny changes in the initial condition ~ Murray Gell Mann,
1012:Physics is becoming so unbelievably complex that it is taking longer and longer to train a physicist. It is taking so long, in fact, to train a physicist to the place where he understands the nature of physical problems that he is already too old to solve them. ~ Eugene Wigner,
1013:Physiology is the science which treats of the properties of organic bodies, animal and vegetable, of the phenomena they present, and of the laws which govern their actions. Inorganic substances are the objects of other sciences, - physics and chemistry. ~ Johannes Peter Muller,
1014:Such thinking is sheer speculation, but the laws of physics allow for the possibility of opening a hole in space by concentrating enough energy at a single point, until we access the space-time foam and wormholes emerge connecting our universe to a baby universe. ~ Michio Kaku,
1015:There's atoms, which is things that is too small to see, that's what we're all made of. And there's things that are smaller than atoms, and that's Particle Physics."

Bod nodded and decided that Scarlett's father was probably interested in imaginary things. ~ Neil Gaiman,
1016:While physics and mathematics may tell us how the universe began, they are not much use in predicting human behavior because there are far too many equations to solve. I'm no better than anyone else at understanding what makes people tick, particularly women. ~ Stephen Hawking,
1017:Fundamental physics is like an art more or less. It's completely non-practical, and you can't use it for anything. But it's about the universe and how the world came into being. It's very remote from your daily life and mine, and yet it defines us as human beings. ~ Yuri Milner,
1018:In theory the World War II atomic bomb project was a problem in nuclear physics. In reality the nuclear physics had been mostly solved before the project began, and the business that occupied the scientists assembled at Los Alamos was a problem in fluid dynamics. ~ James Gleick,
1019:it’s like the laws of physics—for every action, there is an opposite and equal reaction. If you go into darkness, the darkness goes into you. You then have to decide what to do with it. How to keep yourself safe from it. How to keep it from hollowing you out. ~ Michael Connelly,
1020:Old Newtonian physics claimed that things have an objective reality separate from our perception of them. Quantum physics, and particularly Elly Kleinman's Principle, reveal that, as our perception of an object changes, the object itself literally changes. ~ Marianne Williamson,
1021:She thought he might have said her name, but it was background radiation accompanying the hum in her ears and the symphony in her head—

—a song of quantum mechanics and trajectory calculations and astroscience physics and where to go, where to go, where to… ~ G S Jennsen,
1022:I barely made it through my relatively easy college class entitled “Physics for the Curious.” Our final was a multiple-choice test and the answers spelled out “Physics for the Curious.” I didn’t notice the pattern and got a C. Turns out I just wasn’t curious enough. ~ Amy Poehler,
1023:In the physics of fire, there is a chemical phenomenon known as a stoichiometric condition, in which a fire achieves the perfect burning ratio of oxygen to fuel—in other words, there is exactly enough air available for the fire to consume all of what it is burning. ~ Susan Orlean,
1024:Particle physicists are way ahead of cosmologists. Cosmology has produced one totally mysterious quantity: the energy of empty space, about which we understand virtually nothing. However, particle physics has not understood many more quantities for far longer! ~ Lawrence M Krauss,
1025:Physics admits of a lovely unification, not just at the level of fundamental forces, but when considering its extent and implications. Classifications like "optics" or "thermodynamics" are just straitjackets, preventing physicists from seeing countless intersections. ~ Ted Chiang,
1026:Physics explains everything, which we know because anything physics cannot explain does not exist, which we know because whatever exists must be explicable by physics, which we know because physics explains everything. There is something here of the mystical. ~ David Bentley Hart,
1027:physics explains everything, which we know because anything physics cannot explain does not exist, which we know because whatever exists must be explicable by physics, which we know because physics explains everything. There is something here of the mystical. ~ David Bentley Hart,
1028:The golden mean in ethics, as in physics, is the centre of the system and that about which all revolve, and though to a distant and plodding planet it be an uttermost extreme, yet one day, when that planet's year is completed, it will be found to be central. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
1029:I have led an extraordinary life on this planet, while at the same time travelling across the universe by using my mind and the laws of physics. I have been to the furthest reaches of our galaxy, travelled into a black hole and gone back to the beginning of time. ~ Stephen Hawking,
1030:It is generally recognised that women are better than men at languages, personal relations and multi-tasking, but less good at map-reading and spatial awareness. It is therefore not unreasonable to suppose that women might be less good at mathematics and physics. ~ Stephen Hawking,
1031:Physics is the ultimate intellectual adventure, the quest to understand the deepest mysteries of our Universe. Physics doesn’t take something fascinating and make it boring. Rather, it helps us see more clearly, adding to the beauty and wonder of the world around us. ~ Max Tegmark,