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Boethius: (470-525) An influential commentator on Aristotle and Cicero, who, in his own thinking, reflected a strong influence of Neo-Platonism and Augustinianism. De Consolatione Philosophiae (Migne PL, 63-4, 69-70). -- R.B.W.


(3) From 450 to the 18th century: During this period there is a general decline until the Carlovingian renaissance. Great names are not lacking, such as those of Pseudo-Denis the Areopagite, John Damascene, Boethius and Isidore of Seville. however, the originality and spiritual elevation of an Augustine are not to be found. The period is generally characterized by the elaboration and systematization of truths already formulated. Platonic and Neo-Platonic influences predominate, though Aristotle's logic holds an honored place throughout this pre-Scholastic era. Cf. Migne's Patrologiae Latinae -- H.Gu.

Aristotle, medieval: Contrary to the esteem in which the Fathers held Platonic and especially Neo-Platonic philosophy, Aristotle plays hardly any role in early Patristic and Scholastic writings. Augustine seems not to have known much about him and admired him more as logician whereas he held Plato to be the much greater philosopher. The Middle Ages knew, until the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century, only the logical texts, mostly in the translations made by Boethius of the texts and of the introduction by Porphyrius (Isagoge). During the latter third of the 12th, mostly however at the beginning of the 13th century appeared translations partly from Arabian texts and commentaries, partly from the Greek originals. Finally, Aquinas had William of Moerbeke translate the whole work of Aristotle, who soon came to be known as the Philosopher. Scholastic Aristotelianism is, however, not a simple revival of the Peripatetic views; Thomas is said to have "Christianized" the Philosopher as Augustine had done with Plato. Aristotle was differently interpreted by Aquinas and by the Latin Averroists (q.v. Averroism), especially in regard to the "unity of intellect" and the eternity of the created world. -- R.A.

Boethius: (470-525) An influential commentator on Aristotle and Cicero, who, in his own thinking, reflected a strong influence of Neo-Platonism and Augustinianism. De Consolatione Philosophiae (Migne PL, 63-4, 69-70). -- R.B.W.

(b) In logic: Disparate terms have been variously defined by logicians: Boethius defined disparate terms as those which are diverse yet not contradictory. See Prantl, Geschichte der Logik, I, 686. Leibniz considered two concepts disparate "if neither of the terms contains the other" that is to say if they are not in the relation of genus and species. (Couturat, Letbntz, Inedits, pp. 53, 62.) --L.W. Disparity: See Disparate. Disputatio: (Scholastic) Out of the quaestiones disputatae developed gradually a rigid form of scholastic disputation. The defensor theseos proposed his thesis and explained or proved it in syllogistic form. The opponentes argued against the thesis and its demonstration by repeating first the proposition and the syllogism proving it, then either by denying the validity of one or the other premises (nego maiorem, minorem) or by making distinctions restricting the proposition (distinguo maiorem, minorem). In the disputations of students under the direction of a magister the latter used to summarize the disputation and to "determine the question". -- R.A.

Determination: (Lat. determinare, to limit) The limitation of a reality or thought to a narrower field than its original one. In a monistic philosophy the original, single principle must be considered as narrowed down to various genera and species, and eventually to individual existence if such be admitted, in order to introduce that differentiation of reality which is required in a multiple world. In Platonism, the Forms or Ideas are one for each type of thing but are "determined" to multiple existence by the addition of matter (Timaeus). Neo-Platonism is even more interested in real determination, since the One is the logical antecedent of the Many. Here determination is effected by the introduction of negations, or privations, into successive emanations of the One. With Boethius, mediaeval philosophy became concerned with the determination of being-in-general to an actual manifold of things. In Boethianism there is a fusion of the question of real determination with that of logical limitation of concepts. In modern thought, the problem is acute in Spinozism: universal substance (substantia, natura, Deus) must be reduced to an apparent manifold through attributes, modes to the individual. Determination is said to be by way of negation, according to Spinoza (Epist. 50), and this means that universal substance is in its perfect form indeterminate, but is thought to become determinate by a sort of logical loss of absolute perfection. The theory is brought to an almost absurd simplicity in the Ontology of Chr. Wolff, where being is pictured as successively determined to genera, species and individual. Determination is also an important factor in the developmental theories of Hegel and Bergson. -- V.J.B.

Form, logical: See Logic, formal. Forma: Latin noun meaning shape, figure, appearance, image; also plan, pattern, stamp, mould. As a philosophic term used by Cicero and Augustine in the sense of species, and similarly by Scotus Eriugena. Boethius and fhe mediaeval writers employed it in the Aristotelian sense of a constituent of being, synonymous with causa formalis. Generally speaking it is an intrinsic, determining, perfective principle of existence of any determinate essence. More strictly it is a forma substantialis, or that constitutive element of a substance which is the principle or source of its activity, and which determines it to a definite species, or class, and differentiates it from any other substance. It is distinguished from a forma accidentalis which confers a sort of secondary being on a substance already constituted in its proper species and determines it to one or other accidental mode, thus a man may become a musician. A forma corporeitatis is one by which a being is a body, on which its corporeal nature and essence depend and which is its principle of life. A forma non-subsistens or materialis is one whose existence depends on matter without which it cannot exist and be active. It is distinguished from a forma subsistens or immaterialis which can exist and act separately from matter. An immaterial form may be an incomplete substance, like the human soul, which is created to be united with a body to complete its own species, or a complete substance, a pure spirit, which is not destined to be united with matter to which it cannot communicate its being, hence it is also called a forma separata. -- J.J.R.

Hence in its widest sense Scholasticism embraces all the intellectual activities, artistic, philosophical and theological, carried on in the medieval schools. Any attempt to define its narrower meaning in the field of philosophy raises serious difficulties, for in this case, though the term's comprehension is lessened, it still has to cover many centuries of many-faced thought. However, it is still possible to list several characteristics sufficient to differentiate Scholastic from non-Scholastic philosophy. While ancient philosophy was the philosophy of a people and modern thought that of individuals, Scholasticism was the philosophy of a Christian society which transcended the characteristics of individuals, nations and peoples. It was the corporate product of social thought, and as such its reasoning respected authority in the forms of tradition and revealed religion. Tradition consisted primarily in the systems of Plato and Aristotle as sifted, adapted and absorbed through many centuries. It was natural that religion, which played a paramount role in the culture of the middle ages, should bring influence to bear on the medieval, rational view of life. Revelation was held to be at once a norm and an aid to reason. Since the philosophers of the period were primarily scientific theologians, their rational interests were dominated by religious preoccupations. Hence, while in general they preserved the formal distinctions between reason and faith, and maintained the relatively autonomous character of philosophy, the choice of problems and the resources of science were controlled by theology. The most constant characteristic of Scholasticism was its method. This was formed naturally by a series of historical circumstances,   The need of a medium of communication, of a consistent body of technical language tooled to convey the recently revealed meanings of religion, God, man and the material universe led the early Christian thinkers to adopt the means most viable, most widely extant, and nearest at hand, viz. Greek scientific terminology. This, at first purely utilitarian, employment of Greek thought soon developed under Justin, Clement of Alexandria, Origin, and St. Augustine into the "Egyptian-spoils" theory; Greek thought and secular learning were held to be propaedeutic to Christianity on the principle: "Whatever things were rightly said among all men are the property of us Christians." (Justin, Second Apology, ch. XIII). Thus was established the first characteristic of the Scholastic method: philosophy is directly and immediately subordinate to theology.   Because of this subordinate position of philosophy and because of the sacred, exclusive and total nature of revealed wisdom, the interest of early Christian thinkers was focused much more on the form of Greek thought than on its content and, it might be added, much less of this content was absorbed by early Christian thought than is generally supposed. As practical consequences of this specialized interest there followed two important factors in the formation of Scholastic philosophy:     Greek logic en bloc was taken over by Christians;     from the beginning of the Christian era to the end of the XII century, no provision was made in Catholic centers of learning for the formal teaching of philosophy. There was a faculty to teach logic as part of the trivium and a faculty of theology.   For these two reasons, what philosophy there was during this long period of twelve centuries, was dominated first, as has been seen, by theology and, second, by logic. In this latter point is found rooted the second characteristic of the Scholastic method: its preoccupation with logic, deduction, system, and its literary form of syllogistic argumentation.   The third characteristic of the Scholastic method follows directly from the previous elements already indicated. It adds, however, a property of its own gained from the fact that philosophy during the medieval period became an important instrument of pedogogy. It existed in and for the schools. This new element coupled with the domination of logic, the tradition-mindedness and social-consciousness of the medieval Christians, produced opposition of authorities for or against a given problem and, finally, disputation, where a given doctrine is syllogistically defended against the adversaries' objections. This third element of the Scholastic method is its most original characteristic and accounts more than any other single factor for the forms of the works left us from this period. These are to be found as commentaries on single or collected texts; summae, where the method is dialectical or disputational in character.   The main sources of Greek thought are relatively few in number: all that was known of Plato was the Timaeus in the translation and commentary of Chalcidius. Augustine, the pseudo-Areopagite, and the Liber de Causis were the principal fonts of Neoplatonic literature. Parts of Aristotle's logical works (Categoriae and de Interpre.) and the Isagoge of Porphyry were known through the translations of Boethius. Not until 1128 did the Scholastics come to know the rest of Aristotle's logical works. The golden age of Scholasticism was heralded in the late XIIth century by the translations of the rest of his works (Physics, Ethics, Metaphysics, De Anima, etc.) from the Arabic by Gerard of Cremona, John of Spain, Gundisalvi, Michael Scot, and Hermann the German, from the Greek by Robert Grosseteste, William of Moerbeke, and Henry of Brabant. At the same time the Judae-Arabian speculation of Alkindi, Alfarabi, Avencebrol, Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides together with the Neoplatonic works of Proclus were made available in translation. At this same period the Scholastic attention to logic was turned to metaphysics, even psychological and ethical problems and the long-discussed question of the universals were approached from this new angle. Philosophy at last achieved a certain degree of autonomy and slowly forced the recently founded universities to accord it a separate faculty.

In scholasticism: The classic definition is given by Boethius: person is an individual substance of rational nature. As individual it is material, since matter supplies the principle of individuation. The soul is not person, only the composite is. Man alone is among the material beings person, he alone having a rational nature. He is the highest of the material beings, endowed with particular dignity and rights. -- R.A.

I. Period of Preparation (9-12 cent.). Though he does not belong in time to this period, the most dominant figure in Christian thought was St. Augustine (+430), who constructed the general framework within which all subsequent Scholastic speculation operated. Another influential figure was Boethius (+525) whose opuscula sacra established the Scholastic method and who furnished many of the classical definitions and axioms. The first great figure of this period was John Scottus Erigena (+c. 877) who introduced to Latin thought the works of Denis the Pseudo-Areopagite, broadened the Scholastic method by his glossary on Boethius' opuscule sacra and made an unfruitful attempt to interest his contemporaries in natural philosophy by his semi-pantheistic De Divisione Naturae. Other figures of note: Gerbert (+1003) important in the realm of mathematics and natural philosophy; Fulbert of Chartres (+1028) influential in the movement to apply dialectics to theology; Berengar of Tours (+1088) Fulbert's disciple, who, together with Anselm the Peripatetic, was a leader in the movement to rationalize theology. Peter Damiani (+1072), preached strongly against this rationalistic spirit. More moderate and more efficacious in his reaction to the dialectical spirit of his age was Lawfranc (+1089), who strove to define the true boundaries of faith and reason.

Nominalism: (Lat. nominalis, belonging to a name) In scholastic philosophy, the theory that abstract or general terms, or universals, represent no objective real existents, but are mere words or names, mere vocal utterances, "flatus vocis". Reality is admitted only to actual physical particulars. Universals exist only post res. Opposite of Realism (q.v.) which maintains that universals exist ante res. First suggested by Boethius in his 6th century Latin translation of the Introduction to the Categories (of Aristotle) by Porphyry (A.D. 233-304). Porphyry had raised the question of how Aristotle was to be interpreted on this score, and had decided the question in favor of what was later called nominalism. The doctrine did not receive any prominence until applied to the Sacrament of the Eucharist by Berengar in the 11th century. Berengar was the first scholastic to insist upon the evidence of his senses when examining the nature of the Eucharist. Shortly after, Roscellinus, who had broadened the doctrine to the denial of the reality of all universals and the assertion of the sole reality of physical particulars, was forced by the Council of Soissons to recant. Thereafter, despite Abelard's unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the doctrine with realism by finding a half-way position between the two, nominalism was not again explicitly held until William of Occam (1280-1349) revived it and attempted to defend it within the limits allowed by Church dogma. In the first frankly nominalistic system Occam distinguished between the real and the grammatical meanings of terms or universal. He assigned a real status to universals in the mind, and thus was the first to see that nominalism can have a subjective as well as an objective aspect. He maintained that to our intellects, however, everything real must be some particular individual thing. After Occam, nominalism as an explicitly held doctrine disappeared until recently, when it has been restated in certain branches of Logical Positivism. -- J.K.F.

Porphyry: (c. 232-304 B.C.) A disciple of Plotinus, who adapted Aristotelian logic to Neo-Platonic philosophy. His method of classification by means of dichotomy is known as the "Tree of Porphyry" (q.v.). Cf. Isagoge (tr. by Boethius, q.v.). -- R.B.W.

Quadrivium (Latin) [from quattuor four + via path] A place where four roads meet and cross; used by Boethius and medieval scholars to denote the higher division of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy; the lower division, or trivium, consists of grammar, logic, and rhetoric.

St. Thomas was a teacher and a writer for some twenty years (1254-1273). Among his works are: Scriptum in IV Libros Sententiarum (1254-1256), Summa Contra Gentiles (c. 1260), Summa Theologica (1265-1272); commentaries on Boethius. (De Trinitate, c. 1257-1258), on Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite (De Divinis Nominibus, c. 1261), on the anonymous and important Liber de Causis (1268), and especially on Aristotle's works (1261-1272), Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, On the Soul, Posterior Analytics, On Interpretation, On the Heavens, On Generation and Corruption; Quaestiones Disputatae, which includes questions on such large subjects as De Veritate (1256-1259); De Potentia (1259-1263); De Malo (1263-1268); De Spiritualibus Creaturis, De Anima (1269-1270); small treatises or Opuscula, among which especially noteworthy are the De Ente et Essentia (1256); De Aeternitate Mundi (1270), De Unitate Intellecus (1270), De Substantiis Separatis (1272). While it is extremely difficult to grasp in its entirety the personality behind this complex theological and philosophical activity, some points are quite clear and beyond dispute. During the first five years of his activity as a thinker and a teacher, St. Thomas seems to have formulated his most fundamental ideas in their definite form, to have clarified his historical conceptions of Greek and Arabian philosophers, and to have made more precise and even corrected his doctrinal positions, (cf., e.g., the change on the question of creation between In II Sent., d.l, q.l, a.3, and the later De Potentia, q. III, a.4). This is natural enough, though we cannot pretend to explain why he should have come to think as he did. The more he grew, and that very rapidly, towards maturity, the more his thought became inextricably involved in the defense of Aristotle (beginning with c. 1260), his texts and his ideas, against the Averroists, who were then beginning to become prominent in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris; against the traditional Augustinianism of a man like St. Bonaventure; as well as against that more subtle Augustinianism which could breathe some of the spirit of Augustine, speak the language of Aristotle, but expound, with increasing faithfulness and therefore more imminent disaster, Christian ideas through the Neoplatonic techniques of Avicenna. This last group includes such different thinkers as St. Albert the Great, Henry of Ghent, the many disciples of St. Bonaventure, including, some think, Duns Scotus himself, and Meister Eckhart of Hochheim.

To Boethius (475-525) it was given to furnish the philosophy and definition of the person that held for the Middle Ages: "A person is the individual substance of a rational nature."

QUOTES [6 / 6 - 69 / 69]

KEYS (10k)

   3 Boethius
   1 Tom Butler-Bowdon
   1 Aquinas
   1 Saint Thomas Aquinas


   50 Boethius
   2 Umberto Eco
   2 Nigel Warburton
   2 John Kennedy Toole
   2 Anonymous

1:Who would give a law to lovers? Love is unto itself a higher law. ~ Boethius,
2:It is well known... that beside the extent of the heavens, the circumference of the earth has the size of a point; that is to say, compared with the magnitude of the celestial sphere, it may be thought as having no extent at all. ~ Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy II.7,
3:Everything proceeding from the profound nature of things shows the influence of the law of number... From this are derived the four elements, the succession of the seasons, the movement of the stars, and the course of the heavens. ~ Boethius, De arithmeticae artis libri duo,
4:Sacred Scripture does not present divine things to us under sensible images so that our intellect may stop with them, but that it may rise from them to immaterial things ~ Saint Thomas Aquinas, (On Boethius' De Trinitate, q. 6, a. 2 ad 1).,
5:To know God as unknown is said to be the pinnacle of knowledge... the mind is found to be most perfectly in possession of knowledge of God when it is recognized that God's essence is above everything that the mind is capable of apprehending. ~ Aquinas, On Boethius's De Trinitate,
6:reading :::
   Self-Help Reading List:
   James Allen As a Man Thinketh (1904)
   Marcus Aurelius Meditations (2nd Century)
   The Bhagavad-Gita
   The Bible
   Robert Bly Iron John (1990)
   Boethius The Consolation of Philosophy (6thC)
   Alain de Botton How Proust Can Change Your Life (1997)
   William Bridges Transitions: Making Sense of Life's Changes (1980)
   David Brooks The Road to Character (2015)
   Brené Brown Daring Greatly (2012)
   David D Burns The New Mood Therapy (1980)
   Joseph Campbell (with Bill Moyers) The Power of Myth (1988)
   Richard Carlson Don't Sweat The Small Stuff (1997)
   Dale Carnegie How to Win Friends and Influence People (1936)
   Deepak Chopra The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (1994)
   Clayton Christensen How Will You Measure Your Life? (2012)
   Paulo Coelho The Alchemist (1988)
   Stephen Covey The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People (1989)
   Mihaly Cziksentmihalyi Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (1991)
   The Dalai Lama & Howard Cutler The Art of Happiness (1999)
   The Dhammapada (Buddha's teachings)
   Charles Duhigg The Power of Habit (2011)
   Wayne Dyer Real Magic (1992)
   Ralph Waldo Emerson Self-Reliance (1841)
   Clarissa Pinkola Estes Women Who Run With The Wolves (1996)
   Viktor Frankl Man's Search For Meaning (1959)
   Benjamin Franklin Autobiography (1790)
   Shakti Gawain Creative Visualization (1982)
   Daniel Goleman Emotional Intelligence (1995)
   John Gray Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus (1992)
   Louise Hay You Can Heal Your Life (1984)
   James Hillman The Soul's Code: In Search of Character and Calling (1996)
   Susan Jeffers Feel The Fear And Do It Anyway (1987)
   Richard Koch The 80/20 Principle (1998)
   Marie Kondo The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up (2014)
   Ellen Langer Mindfulness: Choice and Control in Everyday Life (1989)
   Lao-Tzu Tao-te Ching (The Way of Power)
   Maxwell Maltz Psycho-Cybernetics (1960)
   Abraham Maslow Motivation and Personality (1954)
   Thomas Moore Care of the Soul (1992)
   Joseph Murphy The Power of Your Subconscious Mind (1963)
   Norman Vincent Peale The Power of Positive Thinking (1952)
   M Scott Peck The Road Less Traveled (1990)
   Anthony Robbins Awaken The Giant Within (1991)
   Florence Scovell-Shinn The Game of Life and How To Play It (1923)
   Martin Seligman Learned Optimism (1991)
   Samuel Smiles Self-Help (1859)
   Pierre Teilhard de Chardin The Phenomenon of Man (1955)
   Henry David Thoreau Walden (1854)
   Marianne Williamson A Return To Love (1993)
   ~ Tom Butler-Bowdon, 50 Self-Help,


*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:And no renown can render you well-known: ~ Boethius,
2:As far as possible, join faith to reason. ~ Boethius,
3:Give me Thy light, and fix my eyes on Thee! ~ Boethius,
4:Nothing is miserable unless you think it so. ~ Boethius,
5:The good is the end toward which all things tend. ~ Boethius,
6:The completely simultaneous and perfect possession of ~ Boethius,
7:A person is an individual substance of a rational nature. ~ Boethius,
8:A man content to go to heaven alone will never go to heaven. ~ Boethius,
9:No man can ever be secure until he has been forsaken by Fortune. ~ Boethius,
10:Who would give a law to lovers? Love is unto itself a higher law. ~ Boethius,
11:Music is part of us, and either ennobles or degrades our behavior. ~ Boethius,
12:Every man must be content with that glory which he may have at home. ~ Boethius,
13:I scarcely know the meaning of your question; much less can I answer it. ~ Boethius,
14:For in all adversity of fortune the worst sort of misery is to have been happy. ~ Boethius,
15:He who has calmly reconciled his life to fate ... can look fortune in the face. ~ Boethius,
16:Man is so constituted that he then only excels other things when he knows himself. ~ Boethius,
17:He who is virtuous is wise; and he who is wise is good; and he who is good is happy. ~ Boethius,
18:In other living creatures the ignorance of themselves is nature, but in men it is a vice. ~ Boethius,
19:If there is a God, whence proceed so many evils? If there is no God, whence cometh any good? ~ Boethius,
20:Music is so naturally united with us that we cannot be free from it - even if we so desired. ~ Boethius,
21:One's virtue is all that one truly has, because it is not imperiled by the vicissitudes of fortune. ~ Boethius,
22:If there is anything good about nobility it is that it enforces the necessity of avoiding degeneracy. ~ Boethius,
23:Whose happiness is so firmly established that he has no quarrel from any side with his estate of life? ~ Boethius,
24:Contemplate the extent and stability of the heavens, and then at last cease to admire worthless things. ~ Boethius,
25:For in every ill-turn of fortune the most unhappy sort of unfortunate man is the one who has been happy ~ Boethius,
26:In every kind of adversity, the bitterest part of a man's affliction is to remember that he once was happy. ~ Boethius,
27:...Whose souls, albeit in a cloudy memory, yet seek back their good, but, like drunk men, know not the road home. ~ Boethius,
28:Nothing is miserable but what is thought so, and contrariwise, every estate is happy if he that bears it be content. ~ Boethius,
29:All fortune is good fortune; for it either rewards, disciplines, amends, or punishes, and so is either useful or just. ~ Boethius,
30:Love has three kinds of origin, namely: suffering, friendship and love. A human love has a corporal and intellectual origin. ~ Boethius,
31:Nothing is miserable unless you think it so; and on the other hand, nothing brings happiness unless you are content with it. ~ Boethius,
32:Nunc fluens facit tempus,nunc stans facit aeternitatum.(The now that passes produces time, the now that remains produces eternity.) ~ Boethius,
33:So nothing is ever good or bad unless you think it so, and vice versa. All luck is good luck to the man who bears it with equanimity. ~ Boethius,
34:Boethius might have been styled happy, if that precarious epithet could be safely applied before the last term of the life of man. ~ Edward Gibbon,
35:Boethius says, nothing is more fleeting than external form, which withers and alters like the flowers of the field at the appearance of autumn; ~ Umberto Eco,
36:In omni adversitate fortunæ, infelicissimum genus est infortunii fuisse felicem In every adversity of fortune, to have been happy is the most unhappy kind of misfortune. ~ Boethius,
37:He who has calmly reconciled his life to fate, and set proud death beneath his feet, can look fortune in the face, unbending both to good and bad; his countenance unconquered. ~ Boethius,
38:Inconsistency is my very essence; it is the game I never cease to play as I turn my wheel in its ever changing circle, filled with joy as I bring the top to the bottom and the bottom to the top ~ Boethius,
39:Good men seek it by the natural means of the virtues; evil men, however, try to achieve the same goal by a variety of concupiscences, and that is surely an unnatural way of seeking the good. Don't you agree? ~ Boethius,
40:Love binds people too, in matrimony's sacred bonds where chaste lovers are met, and friends cement their trust and friendship. How happy is mankind, if the love that orders the stars above rules, too, in your hearts. ~ Boethius,
41:When you read Boethius and some of the Renaissance philosophers, they talk a lot about the other spheres. There's a music of the spheres. There's a music that's actually in the universe, they believed, that's out there in different dimensions. ~ Frederick Lenz,
42:You know when you have found your prince because you not only have a smile on your face but in your heart as well. Love puts the fun in together, the sad in apart, and the joy in a heart. Who would give a law to lovers? Love is unto itself a higher law. ~ Boethius,
43:To you this tale refers, Who seek to lead your mind Into the upper day, For he who overcomes should Turn back his gaze Toward the Tartarean cave, Whatever excellence he takes with him He loses when he looks below. —Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy ~ Anonymous,
44:The science of numbers ought to be preferred as an acquisition before all others, because of its necessity and because of the great secrets and other mysteries which there are in the properties of numbers. All sciences partake of it, and it has need of none. ~ Boethius,
45:And she draws Boethius’s imagination far up into the heavens so that he can look down on the Earth and see it as a tiny speck on which even tinier people play out their comical and ultimately insignificant ambitions. She gets him to admit that riches and fame bring anxiety and avarice, not peace and happiness. ~ Jonathan Haidt,
46:Balance out the good things and the bad that have happened in your life and you will have to acknowledge that you are still way ahead. You are unhappy because you have lost those things in which you took pleasure? But you can also take comfort in the likelihood that what is now making you miserable will also pass away. ~ Boethius,
47:How come God has to make it so tough for you?” “We must not question His ways,” Ignatius said. “Maybe not, but I still don’t get it.” “The writings of Boethius may give you some insight.” “I read Father Keller and Billy Graham in the paper every single day.” “Oh, my God!” Ignatius spluttered. “No wonder you are so lost. ~ John Kennedy Toole,
48:Wretched men cringe before tyrants who have no power, the victims of their trivial hopes and fears. They do not realise that anger is hopeless, fear is pointless and desire all a delusion. He whose heart is fickle is not his own master, has thrown away his shield, deserted his post, and he forges the links of the chain that holds him. ~ Boethius,
49:It's my belief that history is a wheel. 'Inconstancy is my very essence,'? says the wheel. Rise up on my spokes if you like but don't complain when you're cast back down into the depths. Good times pass away, but then so do the bad. Mutability is our tragedy, but it's also our hope. The worst of times, like the best, are always passing away. ~ Boethius,
50:So it follows that those who have reason have freedom to will or not to will, although this freedom is not equal in all of them. [...] human souls are more free when they persevere in the contemplation of the mind of God, less free when they descend to the corporeal, and even less free when they are entirely imprisoned in earthly flesh and blood. ~ Boethius,
51:The message is that riches, power and honour are worthless since they can come and go. No one should base their happiness on such fragile foundations. Happiness has to come from something that is more solid, something that can't be taken away. As Boethius believed that he would continue to live after death, seeking happiness in trivial worldly things was a mistake. ~ Nigel Warburton,
52:I who once wrote songs with keen delight am now by sorrow driven to take up melancholy measures. Wounded Muses tell me what I must write, and elegiac verses bathe my face with real tears. Not even terror could drive from me these faithful companions of my long journey. Poetry, which was once the glory of my happy and flourishing youth, is still my comfort in this misery of my old age. ~ Boethius,
53:Then the gloom of night was scattered, Sight returned unto mine eyes. So, when haply rainy Caurus Rolls the storm-clouds through the skies, Hidden is the sun; all heaven Is obscured in starless night. But if, in wild onset sweeping, Boreas frees day's prisoned light, All suddenly the radiant god outstreams, And strikes our dazzled eyesight with his beams.

~ Boethius, The Mists Dispelled
54:as Boethius says, nothing is more fleeting than external form, which withers and alters like the flowers of the field at the appearance of autumn; and what would be the point of saying today that the abbot Abo had a stern eye and pale cheeks, when by now he and those around him are dust and their bodies have the mortal grayness of dust (only their souls, God grant, shining with a light that will never be extinguished)? ~ Umberto Eco,
55:Boethius, dunyada adaletin yokmus gibi gorunmesine hayiflanir. Cogu kez iyiler ve erdemliler aci cekerken kotuler gonenir. Felsefe, iyiyi arayislariyla nihai amaca, sahici mutluluga ulasma gucune sahip olduklari icin aslinda erdemlilerin odullendirildigini iddia eder. Kotuler yalnizca goneniyormus gibi gorunur:
Aslinda akillarini terk etmekle insanliktan cikarlar ve onlara ceza vermek yerine acimak ve tedavi etmek gerekir. ~ Nigel Warburton,
56:Alfred, however, went a step farther than Charlemagne. He encouraged the development of literature in the language of the people. He “wondered extremely that the good and wise men who were formerly all over England, and had learned perfectly all the books, did not wish to translate them into their own language.” So he himself translated into Anglo-Saxon Orosius’ History, Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy, and Pope Gregory Pastoral Charge. The Anglo- Saxon Chronicle is the oldest historical work written in a modern language, if we may regard Anglo-Saxon as the first stage of the English language. ~ Lynn Thorndike,
57:The Romans were too practical-minded to appreciate Euclid; the first of them to mention him is Cicero, in whose time there was probably no Latin translation; indeed there is no record of any Latin translation before Boethius (ca. A.D. 480). The Arabs were more appreciative: a copy was given to the caliph by the Byzantine emperor about A.D. 760, and a translation into Arabic was made under Harun al Rashid, about A.D. 800. The first still extant Latin translation was made from the Arabic by Adelard of Bath in A.D. 1120. From that time on, the study of geometry gradually revived in the West; but it was not until the late Renaissance that important advances were made. ~ Anonymous,
58:Considering the tenor of the whole of Theodoric’s previous life, it is most improbable that he had any such wild scheme of intolerance in hand. But he had certainly grown gloomy, suspicious, and hard in his declining days, and it was well for his own fame, as well as for his subjects, that he was carried off by dysentery not long after the death of Pope John. It would have been still better, both for king and people, had the end come three years earlier, before his first harsh dealings with Boethius. His unpopularity at the moment of his death is shown by the survival of several curious legends, which tell how holy hermits saw his soul dragged down to hell by the injured ghosts of John and Symmachus, or carried off by the fiend himself. ~ Charles William Chadwick Oman,
59:I suspect that beneath your offensively and vulgarly effeminate façade there may be a soul of sorts. Have you read widely in Boethius?"
"Who? Oh, heavens no. I never even read newspapers."
"Then you must begin a reading program immediately so that you may understand the crises of our age," Ignatius said solemnly. "Begin with the late Romans, including Boethius, of course. Then you should dip rather extensively into early Medieval. You may skip the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. That is mostly dangerous propaganda. Now that I think of it, you had better skip the Romantics and the Victorians, too. For the contemporary period, you should study some selected comic books."
"You're fantastic."
"I recommend Batman especially, for he tends to transcend the abysmal society in which he's found himself. His morality is rather rigid, also. I rather respect Batman. ~ John Kennedy Toole,
60:The term persona comes to us from the Roman and Etruscan theater, where it denoted the mask worn by the actor and therefore the character whom the actor portrayed. The term was borrowed by Roman law to describe any entity that has judiciable rights and duties, including corporate entities and other more abstract constructions. It was borrowed again by early Christian theologians in order to explain the doctrine of the Trinity, by distinguishing the three persons of God. Discussions of the Trinity led to the view that personhood belongs to the essence of whatever possesses it, and the sixth-century philosopher Boethius took this as his cue in defining the essential nature of the human being. For Boethius the human person is “an individual substance of a rational nature.”19 That definition was adopted by Aquinas and remained in place until the Enlightenment, when two great philosophers—Locke and Kant—saw fit to reexamine the whole idea and untangle its many strands. According to Boethius’s ~ Roger Scruton,
61:In the Middle Ages, this conflict between the Platonic and Aristotelian views of the relationship between mathematics and the world began to re-emerge after the sleep of centuries. The question became intricately entwined with the labyrinthine syntheses of Aristotelian and Platonic ideas within early Christian theology. Influential thinkers like Augustine and Boethius implicitly supported the Platonic emphasis upon the primary character of mathematics. Both of them pointed to the fact that things were created in the beginning 'according to measure, number, and weight' or 'according to the pattern of numbers'. This they took to exhibit an intrinsic feature of the mind of God and thus mathematics took its place as an essential part of the medieval quadrivum without which the search for all knowledge was impaired. Yet Boethius later veered towards the Aristotelian viewpoint that some act of mental abstraction occurs en route from physics to mathematics which renders these two subjects qualitatively distinct. ~ John D Barrow,
62:On the other hand, the elimination of the qualitative aspects in favour of a tighter and tighter mathematical definition of atomic structure must necessarily reach a limit, beyond which precision gives way to the indeterminate. This is exactly what is happening with modern atomist science, in which mathematical reflection is being more and more replaced by statistics and calculations of probability, and in which the very laws of causality seem to be facing bankruptcy.

If the 'forms' of things are 'lights', as Boethius said, the reduction of the qualitative to the quantitative can be compared to the action of a man who puts out all the lights the better to scrutinize the nature of darkness. Modern science can never reach that matter that is at the basis of this world. But between the qualitiatively differentiated world and undifferentiated matter lies something like an intermediate zoneand this is chaos. The sinister dangers of atomic fission are but one signpost indicating the frontier of chaos and dissolution. ~ Titus Burckhardt,
63:Why are Nature's changes bound To a fixed and ordered round? What to leagud peace hath bent Every warring element? Wherefore doth the rosy morn Rise on Phbus' car upborne? Why should Phbe rule the night, Led by Hesper's guiding light? What the power that doth restrain In his place the restless main, That within fixed bounds he keeps, Nor o'er earth in deluge sweeps? Love it is that holds the chains, Love o'er sea and earth that reigns; Lovewhom else but sovereign Love? Love, high lord in heaven above! Yet should he his care remit, All that now so close is knit In sweet love and holy peace, Would no more from conflict cease, But with strife's rude shock and jar All the world's fair fabric mar. Tribes and nations Love unites By just treaty's sacred rites; Wedlock's bonds he sanctifies By affection's softest ties. Love appointeth, as is due, Faithful laws to comrades true Love, all-sovereign Love!oh, then, Ye are blest, ye sons of men, If the love that rules the sky In your hearts is throned on high!

~ Boethius, Love is Lord of All
64:Wings are mine; above the pole Far aloft I soar. Clothed with these, my nimble soul Scorns earth's hated shore, Cleaves the skies upon the wind, Sees the clouds left far behind. Soon the glowing point she nears, Where the heavens rotate, Follows through the starry spheres Phbus' course, or straight Takes for comrade 'mid the stars Saturn cold or glittering Mars; Thus each circling orb explores Through Night's stole that peers; Then, when all are numbered, soars Far beyond the spheres, Mounting heaven's supremest height To the very Fount of light. There the Sovereign of the world His calm sway maintains; As the globe is onward whirled Guides the chariot reins, And in splendour glittering Reigns the universal King. Hither if thy wandering feet Find at last a way, Here thy long-lost home thou'lt greet: 'Dear lost land,' thou'lt say, 'Though from thee I've wandered wide, Hence I came, here will abide.' Yet if ever thou art fain Visitant to be Of earth's gloomy night again, Surely thou wilt see Tyrants whom the nations fear Dwell in hapless exile here.

~ Boethius, The Souls Flight
65:Dante’s notions of sin are shaped largely by the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas. In his famous Summa Theologiae, Aquinas argues that any evil action or sin is a form of self-destruction. He assumes that human beings have a nature that is supposed to be rational and good. Aquinas conceives of this nature, that of the rational animal, as being created by God specifically to pursue goodness, more specifically, the virtues. When a human being departs from this natural purpose, she injures herself, for she does what she was not intended to do. She wars against herself and her nature. Why does Aquinas hold this peculiar view of sin? One reason is because he accepts Boethius’ assertion that goodness and being are convertible. In other words, anything that exists has some goodness in it because God made it. And no matter how marred or broken or sinful that being is, it still maintains some goodness so long as it exists. According to this view, no one, not even Lucifer encased in ice at the bottom of Dante’s Inferno, is wholly evil. Evil can only feed off of goodness like a parasite; if all the goodness of a creature were eliminated, the creature in question would no longer exist. ~ Sylvain Reynard,
66:How the might of Nature sways All the world in ordered ways, How resistless laws control Each least portion of the whole Fain would I in sounding verse On my pliant strings rehearse. Lo, the lion captive ta'en Meekly wears his gilded chain; Yet though he by hand be fed, Though a master's whip he dread, If but once the taste of gore Whet his cruel lips once more, Straight his slumbering fierceness wakes, With one roar his bonds he breaks, And first wreaks his vengeful force On his trainer's mangled corse. And the woodland songster, pent In forlorn imprisonment, Though a mistress' lavish care Store of honeyed sweets prepare; Yet, if in his narrow cage, As he hops from bar to bar, He should spy the woods afar, Cool with sheltering foliage, All these dainties he will spurn, To the woods his heart will turn; Only for the woods he longs, Pipes the woods in all his songs. To rude force the sapling bends, While the hand its pressure lends; If the hand its pressure slack, Straight the supple wood springs back. Phbus in the western main Sinks; but swift his car again By a secret path is borne To the wonted gates of morn. Thus are all things seen to yearn In due time for due return; And no order fixed may stay, Save which in th' appointed way Joins the end to the beginning In a steady cycle spinning.

~ Boethius, The Bent of Nature
67:People often seem surprised that I choose to write science fiction and fantasy—I think they expect a history professor to write historical fiction, or literary fiction, associating academia with the kinds of novels that academic lit critics prefer. But I feel that speculative fiction, especially science fiction and fantasy, is a lot more like the pre-modern literature I spend most of my time studying than most modern literature is. Ursula Le Guin has described speculative fiction authors as “realists of a larger reality” because we imagine other ways of being, alternatives to how people live now, different worlds, and raise questions about hope and change and possibilities that different worlds contain.


Writing for a more distant audience, authors tended to be speculative, using exotic perspectives, fantastic creatures, imaginary lands, allegories, prophecies, stories within stories, techniques which, like science fiction and fantasy, use alternatives rather than one reality in order to ask questions, not about the way things are, but about plural ways things have been and could be. Such works have an empathy across time, expecting and welcoming an audience as alien as the other worlds that they describe. When I read Voltaire responding to Francis Bacon, responding to Petrarch, responding to Boethius, responding to Seneca, responding to Plutarch, I want to respond to them too, to pass it on. So it makes sense to me to answer in the genre people have been using for this conversation since antiquity: speculation. It’s the genre of many worlds, the many worlds that Earth has been, and will be. ~ Ada Palmer,
68:Maker of earth and sky, from age to age Who rul'st the world by reason; at whose word Time issues from Eternity's abyss: To all that moves the source of movement, fixed Thyself and moveless. Thee no cause impelled Extrinsic this proportioned frame to shape From shapeless matter; but, deep-set within Thy inmost being, the form of perfect good, From envy free; and Thou didst mould the whole To that supernal pattern. Beauteous The world in Thee thus imaged, being Thyself Most beautiful. So Thou the work didst fashion In that fair likeness, bidding it put on Perfection through the exquisite perfectness Of every part's contrivance. Thou dost bind The elements in balanced harmony, So that the hot and cold, the moist and dry, Contend not; nor the pure fire leaping up Escape, or weight of waters whelm the earth. Thou joinest and diffusest through the whole, Linking accordantly its several parts, A soul of threefold nature, moving all. This, cleft in twain, and in two circles gathered, Speeds in a path that on itself returns, Encompassing mind's limits, and conforms The heavens to her true semblance. Lesser souls And lesser lives by a like ordinance Thou sendest forth, each to its starry car Affixing, and dost strew them far and wide O'er earth and heaven. These by a law benign Thou biddest turn again, and render back To thee their fires. Oh, grant, almighty Father, Grant us on reason's wing to soar aloft To heaven's exalted height; grant us to see The fount of good; grant us, the true light found, To fix our steadfast eyes in vision clear On Thee. Disperse the heavy mists of earth, And shine in Thine own splendour. For Thou art The true serenity and perfect rest Of every pious soulto see Thy face, The end and the beginningOne the guide, The traveller, the pathway, and the goal.

~ Boethius, Invocation
69:reading :::
   Self-Help Reading List:
   James Allen As a Man Thinketh (1904)
   Marcus Aurelius Meditations (2nd Century)
   The Bhagavad-Gita
   The Bible
   Robert Bly Iron John (1990)
   Boethius The Consolation of Philosophy (6thC)
   Alain de Botton How Proust Can Change Your Life (1997)
   William Bridges Transitions: Making Sense of Life's Changes (1980)
   David Brooks The Road to Character (2015)
   Brené Brown Daring Greatly (2012)
   David D Burns The New Mood Therapy (1980)
   Joseph Campbell (with Bill Moyers) The Power of Myth (1988)
   Richard Carlson Don't Sweat The Small Stuff (1997)
   Dale Carnegie How to Win Friends and Influence People (1936)
   Deepak Chopra The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success (1994)
   Clayton Christensen How Will You Measure Your Life? (2012)
   Paulo Coelho The Alchemist (1988)
   Stephen Covey The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People (1989)
   Mihaly Cziksentmihalyi Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (1991)
   The Dalai Lama & Howard Cutler The Art of Happiness (1999)
   The Dhammapada (Buddha's teachings)
   Charles Duhigg The Power of Habit (2011)
   Wayne Dyer Real Magic (1992)
   Ralph Waldo Emerson Self-Reliance (1841)
   Clarissa Pinkola Estes Women Who Run With The Wolves (1996)
   Viktor Frankl Man's Search For Meaning (1959)
   Benjamin Franklin Autobiography (1790)
   Shakti Gawain Creative Visualization (1982)
   Daniel Goleman Emotional Intelligence (1995)
   John Gray Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus (1992)
   Louise Hay You Can Heal Your Life (1984)
   James Hillman The Soul's Code: In Search of Character and Calling (1996)
   Susan Jeffers Feel The Fear And Do It Anyway (1987)
   Richard Koch The 80/20 Principle (1998)
   Marie Kondo The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up (2014)
   Ellen Langer Mindfulness: Choice and Control in Everyday Life (1989)
   Lao-Tzu Tao-te Ching (The Way of Power)
   Maxwell Maltz Psycho-Cybernetics (1960)
   Abraham Maslow Motivation and Personality (1954)
   Thomas Moore Care of the Soul (1992)
   Joseph Murphy The Power of Your Subconscious Mind (1963)
   Norman Vincent Peale The Power of Positive Thinking (1952)
   M Scott Peck The Road Less Traveled (1990)
   Anthony Robbins Awaken The Giant Within (1991)
   Florence Scovell-Shinn The Game of Life and How To Play It (1923)
   Martin Seligman Learned Optimism (1991)
   Samuel Smiles Self-Help (1859)
   Pierre Teilhard de Chardin The Phenomenon of Man (1955)
   Henry David Thoreau Walden (1854)
   Marianne Williamson A Return To Love (1993)
   ~ Tom Butler-Bowdon, 50 Self-Help,


   3 Philosophy
   1 Fiction
   1 Christianity

1.12 - TIME AND ETERNITY, #The Perennial Philosophy, #Aldous Huxley, #Philosophy
  THE universe is an everlasting succession of events; but its ground, according to the Perennial Philosophy, is the timeless now of the divine Spirit. A classical statement of the relationship between time and eternity may be found in the later chapters of the Consolations of Philosophy, where Boethius summarizes the conceptions of his predecessors, notably of Plotinus.
  It is one thing to be carried through an endless life, another thing to embrace the whole presence of an endless life together, which is manifestly proper to the divine Mind.
  From Hobbes onwards, the enemies of the Perennial Philosophy have denied the existence of an eternal now. According to these thinkers, time and change are fundamental; there is no other reality. Moreover, future events are completely indeterminate, and even God can have no knowledge of them. Consequently God cannot be described as Alpha and Omegamerely as Alpha and Lambda, or whatever other intermediate letter of the temporal alphabet is now in process of being spelled out. But the anecdotal evidence collected by the Society for Psychical Research and the statistical evidence accumulated during many thousands of laboratory tests for extra-sensory perception point inescapably to the conclusion that even human minds are capable of foreknowledge. And if a finite consciousness can know what card is going to be turned up three seconds from now, or what shipwreck is going to take place next week, then there is nothing impossible or even intrinsically improbable in the idea of an infinite consciousness that can know now events indefinitely remote in what, for us, is future time. The specious present in which human beings live may be, and perhaps always is, something more than a brief section of transition from known past to unknown future, regarded, because of the vividness of memory, as the instant we call now; it may and perhaps always does contain a portion of the immediate and even of the relatively distant future. For the Godhead, the specious present may be precisely that interminabilis vitae tota simul et perpetua possessio, of which Boethius speaks.
  The existence of the eternal now is sometimes denied on the ground that a temporal order cannot co-exist with another order which is non-temporal; and that it is impossible for a changing substance to be united with a changeless substance. This objection, it is obvious, would be valid if the non-temporal order were of a mechanical nature, or if the changeless substance were possessed of spatial and material qualities. But according to the Perennial Philosophy, the eternal now is a consciousness; the divine Ground is spirit; the being of Brahman is chit, or knowledge. That a temporal world should be known and, in being known, sustained and perpetually created by an eternal consciousness is an idea which contains nothing self-contradictory.

1f.lovecraft - Ibid, #Lovecraft - Poems, #unset, #Integral Yoga
   produceof whom one might well say what Gibbon said of Boethius, that
   he was the last whom Cato or Tully could have acknowledged for their
   countryman. He was, like Boethius and nearly all the eminent men of
   his age, of the great Anician family, and traced his genealogy with

ENNEAD 06.05 - The One and Identical Being is Everywhere Present In Its Entirety.345, #Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 04, #Plotinus, #Christianity
  Thomas Aquinas also was much indebted to Plotinos; and after him came Boethius, Fnlon, Bossnet and Leibnitz (all quoted in Bouillet's work).
  We have frequently pointed out that Plotinos' "bastard reasoning" process of reaching the intelligible was practically paraphrased by Kant's dialectical path to the "thing-in-itself." This dialetic, of course, was capitalized by Hegel.

Timaeus, #unset, #Anonymous, #Various
  There is a similarity between the Timaeus and the fragments of Philolaus, which by some has been thought to be so great as to create a suspicion that they are derived from it. Philolaus is known to us from the Phaedo of Plato as a Pythagorean philosopher residing at Thebes in the latter half of the fifth century B.C., after the dispersion of the original Pythagorean society. He was the teacher of Simmias and Cebes, who became disciples of Socrates. We have hardly any other information about him. The story that Plato had purchased three books of his writings from a relation is not worth repeating; it is only a fanciful way in which an ancient biographer dresses up the fact that there was supposed to be a resemblance between the two writers. Similar gossiping stories are told about the sources of the Republic and the Phaedo. That there really existed in antiquity a work passing under the name of Philolaus there can be no doubt. Fragments of this work are preserved to us, chiefly in Stobaeus, a few in Boethius and other writers. They remind us of the Timaeus, as well as of the Phaedrus and Philebus. When the writer says (Stob. Eclog.) that all things are either finite (definite) or infinite (indefinite), or a union of the two, and that this antithesis and synthesis pervades all art and nature, we are reminded of the Philebus. When he calls the centre of the world (Greek), we have a parallel to the Phaedrus. His distinction between the world of order, to which the sun and moon and the stars belong, and the world of disorder, which lies in the region between the moon and the earth, approximates to Plato's sphere of the Same and of the Other. Like Plato (Tim.), he denied the above and below in space, and said that all things were the same in relation to a centre. He speaks also of the world as one and indestructible: 'for neither from within nor from without does it admit of destruction' (Tim). He mentions ten heavenly bodies, including the sun and moon, the earth and the counter-earth (Greek), and in the midst of them all he places the central fire, around which they are movingthis is hidden from the earth by the counter-earth. Of neither is there any trace in Plato, who makes the earth the centre of his system. Philolaus magnifies the virtues of particular numbers, especially of the number 10 (Stob. Eclog.), and descants upon odd and even numbers, after the manner of the later Pythagoreans. It is worthy of remark that these mystical fancies are nowhere to be found in the writings of Plato, although the importance of number as a form and also an instrument of thought is ever present to his mind. Both Philolaus and Plato agree in making the world move in certain numerical ratios according to a musical scale: though Bockh is of opinion that the two scales, of Philolaus and of the Timaeus, do not correspond...We appear not to be sufficiently acquainted with the early Pythagoreans to know how far the statements contained in these fragments corresponded with their doctrines; and we therefore cannot pronounce, either in favour of the genuineness of the fragments, with Bockh and Zeller, or, with Valentine Rose and Schaarschmidt, against them. But it is clear that they throw but little light upon the Timaeus, and that their resemblance to it has been exaggerated.
  That there is a degree of confusion and indistinctness in Plato's account both of man and of the universe has been already acknowledged. We cannot tell (nor could Plato himself have told) where the figure or myth ends and the philosophical truth begins; we cannot explain (nor could Plato himself have explained to us) the relation of the ideas to appearance, of which one is the copy of the other, and yet of all things in the world they are the most opposed and unlike. This opposition is presented to us in many forms, as the antithesis of the one and many, of the finite and infinite, of the intelligible and sensible, of the unchangeable and the changing, of the indivisible and the divisible, of the fixed stars and the planets, of the creative mind and the primeval chaos. These pairs of opposites are so many aspects of the great opposition between ideas and phenomenathey easily pass into one another; and sometimes the two members of the relation differ in kind, sometimes only in degree. As in Aristotle's matter and form the connexion between them is really inseparable; for if we attempt to separate them they become devoid of content and therefore indistinguishable; there is no difference between the idea of which nothing can be predicated, and the chaos or matter which has no perceptible qualitiesbetween Being in the abstract and Nothing. Yet we are frequently told that the one class of them is the reality and the other appearance; and one is often spoken of as the double or reflection of the other. For Plato never clearly saw that both elements had an equal place in mind and in nature; and hence, especially when we argue from isolated passages in his writings, or attempt to draw what appear to us to be the natural inferences from them, we are full of perplexity. There is a similar confusion about necessity and free-will, and about the state of the soul after death. Also he sometimes supposes that God is immanent in the world, sometimes that he is transcendent. And having no distinction of objective and subjective, he passes imperceptibly from one to the other; from intelligence to soul, from eternity to time. These contradictions may be softened or concealed by a judicious use of language, but they cannot be wholly got rid of. That an age of intellectual transition must also be one of inconsistency; that the creative is opposed to the critical or defining habit of mind or time, has been often repeated by us. But, as Plato would say, 'there is no harm in repeating twice or thrice' (Laws) what is important for the understanding of a great author.


--- Overview of noun boethius

The noun boethius has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts)
1. Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius ::: (a Roman who was an early Christian philosopher and statesman who was executed for treason; Boethius had a decisive influence on medieval logic (circa 480-524))

--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun boethius

1 sense of boethius                          

Sense 1
Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius
   INSTANCE OF=> philosopher
     => scholar, scholarly person, bookman, student
       => intellectual, intellect
         => person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
           => organism, being
             => living thing, animate thing
               => whole, unit
                 => object, physical object
                   => physical entity
                     => entity
           => causal agent, cause, causal agency
             => physical entity
               => entity
   INSTANCE OF=> statesman, solon, national leader
     => politician, politico, pol, political leader
       => leader
         => person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
           => organism, being
             => living thing, animate thing
               => whole, unit
                 => object, physical object
                   => physical entity
                     => entity
           => causal agent, cause, causal agency
             => physical entity
               => entity

--- Hyponyms of noun boethius

--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun boethius

1 sense of boethius                          

Sense 1
Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius
   INSTANCE OF=> philosopher
   INSTANCE OF=> statesman, solon, national leader

--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun boethius

1 sense of boethius                          

Sense 1
Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius
  -> philosopher
   => nativist
   => Cynic
   => eclectic, eclecticist
   => empiricist
   => epistemologist
   => esthetician, aesthetician
   => ethicist, ethician
   => existentialist, existentialist philosopher, existential philosopher
   => gymnosophist
   => libertarian
   => mechanist
   => moralist
   => naturalist
   => necessitarian
   => nominalist
   => pluralist
   => pre-Socratic
   => realist
   => Scholastic
   => Sophist
   => Stoic
   => transcendentalist
   => yogi
   HAS INSTANCE=> Abelard, Peter Abelard, Pierre Abelard
   HAS INSTANCE=> Anaxagoras
   HAS INSTANCE=> Anaximander
   HAS INSTANCE=> Anaximenes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Arendt, Hannah Arendt
   HAS INSTANCE=> Aristotle
   HAS INSTANCE=> Averroes, ibn-Roshd, Abul-Walid Mohammed ibn-Ahmad Ibn-Mohammed ibn-Roshd
   HAS INSTANCE=> Avicenna, ibn-Sina, Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bacon, Francis Bacon, Sir Francis Bacon, Baron Verulam, 1st Baron Verulam, Viscount St. Albans
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bentham, Jeremy Bentham
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bergson, Henri Bergson, Henri Louis Bergson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Berkeley, Bishop Berkeley, George Berkeley
   HAS INSTANCE=> Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bruno, Giordano Bruno
   HAS INSTANCE=> Buber, Martin Buber
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cassirer, Ernst Cassirer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cleanthes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Comte, Auguste Comte, Isidore Auguste Marie Francois Comte
   HAS INSTANCE=> Condorcet, Marquis de Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat
   HAS INSTANCE=> Confucius, Kongfuze, K'ung Futzu, Kong the Master
   HAS INSTANCE=> Democritus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Derrida, Jacques Derrida
   HAS INSTANCE=> Descartes, Rene Descartes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Dewey, John Dewey
   HAS INSTANCE=> Diderot, Denis Diderot
   HAS INSTANCE=> Diogenes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Empedocles
   HAS INSTANCE=> Epictetus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Epicurus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Haeckel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hartley, David Hartley
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Heraclitus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Herbart, Johann Friedrich Herbart
   HAS INSTANCE=> Herder, Johann Gottfried von Herder
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hobbes, Thomas Hobbes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hume, David Hume
   HAS INSTANCE=> Husserl, Edmund Husserl
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hypatia
   HAS INSTANCE=> James, William James
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kant, Immanuel Kant
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kierkegaard, Soren Kierkegaard, Soren Aabye Kierkegaard
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lao-tzu, Lao-tse, Lao-zi
   HAS INSTANCE=> Leibniz, Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz
   HAS INSTANCE=> Locke, John Locke
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lucretius, Titus Lucretius Carus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lully, Raymond Lully, Ramon Lully
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mach, Ernst Mach
   HAS INSTANCE=> Machiavelli, Niccolo Machiavelli
   HAS INSTANCE=> Maimonides, Moses Maimonides, Rabbi Moses Ben Maimon
   HAS INSTANCE=> Malebranche, Nicolas de Malebranche
   HAS INSTANCE=> Marcuse, Herbert Marcuse
   HAS INSTANCE=> Marx, Karl Marx
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mead, George Herbert Mead
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mill, John Mill, John Stuart Mill
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mill, James Mill
   HAS INSTANCE=> Montesquieu, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat
   HAS INSTANCE=> Moore, G. E. Moore, George Edward Moore
   HAS INSTANCE=> Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
   HAS INSTANCE=> Occam, William of Occam, Ockham, William of Ockham
   HAS INSTANCE=> Origen
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ortega y Gasset, Jose Ortega y Gasset
   HAS INSTANCE=> Parmenides
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pascal, Blaise Pascal
   HAS INSTANCE=> Peirce, Charles Peirce, Charles Sanders Peirce
   HAS INSTANCE=> Perry, Ralph Barton Perry
   HAS INSTANCE=> Plotinus
   => Popper, Karl Popper, Sir Karl Raimund Popper
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pythagoras
   HAS INSTANCE=> Quine, W. V. Quine, Willard Van Orman Quine
   HAS INSTANCE=> Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
   HAS INSTANCE=> Reid, Thomas Reid
   HAS INSTANCE=> Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
   HAS INSTANCE=> Russell, Bertrand Russell, Bertrand Arthur William Russell, Earl Russell
   HAS INSTANCE=> Schopenhauer, Arthur Schopenhauer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Schweitzer, Albert Schweitzer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Seneca, Lucius Annaeus Seneca
   HAS INSTANCE=> Socrates
   HAS INSTANCE=> Spencer, Herbert Spencer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Spengler, Oswald Spengler
   HAS INSTANCE=> Spinoza, de Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza
   HAS INSTANCE=> Steiner, Rudolf Steiner
   HAS INSTANCE=> Stewart, Dugald Stewart
   HAS INSTANCE=> Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Sir Rabindranath Tagore
   HAS INSTANCE=> Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Thales, Thales of Miletus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Theophrastus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Weil, Simone Weil
   HAS INSTANCE=> Whitehead, Alfred North Whitehead
   HAS INSTANCE=> Williams, Sir Bernard Williams, Bernard Arthur Owen Williams
   HAS INSTANCE=> Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johan Wittgenstein
   HAS INSTANCE=> Xenophanes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Zeno, Zeno of Citium
   HAS INSTANCE=> Zeno, Zeno of Elea
  -> statesman, solon, national leader
   => elder statesman
   => Founding Father
   => stateswoman
   HAS INSTANCE=> Acheson, Dean Acheson, Dean Gooderham Acheson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Adenauer, Konrad Adenauer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
   HAS INSTANCE=> Alcibiades
   HAS INSTANCE=> Arafat, Yasser Arafat
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ataturk, Kemal Ataturk, Kemal Pasha, Mustafa Kemal
   HAS INSTANCE=> Attlee, Clement Attlee, Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee
   HAS INSTANCE=> Augustus, Gaius Octavianus, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Octavian
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bacon, Francis Bacon, Sir Francis Bacon, Baron Verulam, 1st Baron Verulam, Viscount St. Albans
   HAS INSTANCE=> Baldwin, Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley
   HAS INSTANCE=> Balfour, Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour
   HAS INSTANCE=> Baruch, Bernard Baruch, Bernard Mannes Baruch
   HAS INSTANCE=> Begin, Menachem Begin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ben Gurion, David Ben Gurion, David Grun
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bevin, Ernest Bevin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bismarck, von Bismarck, Otto von Bismarck, Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prince Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, Iron Chancellor
   HAS INSTANCE=> Blair, Tony Blair, Anthony Charles Lynton Blair
   HAS INSTANCE=> Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bolivar, Simon Bolivar, El Libertador
   HAS INSTANCE=> Brandt, Willy Brandt
   HAS INSTANCE=> Brezhnev, Leonid Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev
   HAS INSTANCE=> Brutus, Marcus Junius Brutus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Burke, Edmund Burke
   HAS INSTANCE=> Caesar, Julius Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cassius, Cassius Longinus, Gaius Cassius Longinus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Chamberlain, Neville Chamberlain, Arthur Neville Chamberlain
   HAS INSTANCE=> Chateaubriand, Francois Rene Chateaubriand, Vicomte de Chateaubriand
   HAS INSTANCE=> Chesterfield, Fourth Earl of Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope
   HAS INSTANCE=> Chiang Kai-shek, Chiang Chung-cheng
   HAS INSTANCE=> Churchill, Winston Churchill, Winston S. Churchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spenser Churchill
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cicero, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Tully
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cincinnatus, Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Clemenceau, Georges Clemenceau, Georges Eugene Benjamin Clemenceau
   HAS INSTANCE=> Clive, Robert Clive, Baron Clive, Baron Clive of Plassey
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cosimo de Medici, Cosimo the Elder
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cromwell, Oliver Cromwell, Ironsides
   HAS INSTANCE=> Davis, Jefferson Davis
   HAS INSTANCE=> Dayan, Moshe Dayan
   HAS INSTANCE=> de Gaulle, General de Gaulle, Charles de Gaulle, General Charles de Gaulle, Charles Andre Joseph Marie de Gaulle
   HAS INSTANCE=> Demosthenes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Deng Xiaoping, Teng Hsiao-ping, Teng Hsiaoping
   HAS INSTANCE=> de Valera, Eamon de Valera
   HAS INSTANCE=> Disraeli, Benjamin Disraeli, First Earl of Beaconsfield
   HAS INSTANCE=> Flaminius, Gaius Flaminius
   HAS INSTANCE=> Fox, Charles James Fox
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Indira Nehru Gandhi, Mrs. Gandhi
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gladstone, William Gladstone, William Ewart Gladstone
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gorbachev, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
   HAS INSTANCE=> Grey, Charles Grey, Second Earl Grey
   HAS INSTANCE=> Haldane, Richard Haldane, Richard Burdon Haldane, First Viscount Haldane of Cloan
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hamilton, Alexander Hamilton
   HAS INSTANCE=> Havel, Vaclav Havel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hindenburg, Paul von Hindenburg, Paul Ludwig von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ho Chi Minh, Nguyen Tat Thanh
   HAS INSTANCE=> Jinnah, Muhammad Ali Jinnah
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kalinin, Mikhail Kalinin, Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kaunda, Kenneth Kaunda, Kenneth David Kaunda
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kenyata, Jomo Kenyata
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kerensky, Aleksandr Feodorovich Kerensky
   HAS INSTANCE=> Khama, Sir Seretse Khama
   HAS INSTANCE=> Khrushchev, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev
   HAS INSTANCE=> Konoe, Fumimaro Konoe, Prince Fumimaro Konoe, Konoye, Fumimaro Konoye, Prince Fumimaro Konoye
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kruger, Oom Paul Kruger, Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lorenzo de'Medici, Lorenzo the Magnificent
   HAS INSTANCE=> Machiavelli, Niccolo Machiavelli
   HAS INSTANCE=> Major, John Major, John R. Major, John Roy Major
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mandela, Nelson Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
   HAS INSTANCE=> Marshall, George Marshall, George Catlett Marshall
   HAS INSTANCE=> Meir, Golda Meir
   HAS INSTANCE=> Metternich, Klemens Metternich, Prince Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar von Metternich
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mitterrand, Francois Mitterrand, Francois Maurice Marie Mitterrand
   HAS INSTANCE=> Molotov, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov
   HAS INSTANCE=> More, Thomas More, Sir Thomas More
   HAS INSTANCE=> Morris, Gouverneur Morris
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mubarak, Hosni Mubarak
   HAS INSTANCE=> Nansen, Fridtjof Nansen
   HAS INSTANCE=> Nasser, Gamal Abdel Nasser
   HAS INSTANCE=> Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru
   HAS INSTANCE=> North, Frederick North, Second Earl of Guilford
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ortega, Daniel Ortega, Daniel Ortega Saavedra
   HAS INSTANCE=> Paderewski, Ignace Paderewski, Ignace Jan Paderewski
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pericles
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pitt, William Pitt, First Earl of Chatham, Pitt the Elder
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pitt, William Pitt, Second Earl of Chatham, Pitt the Younger
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pompey, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Pompey the Great
   HAS INSTANCE=> Powell, Colin Powell, Colin luther Powell
   HAS INSTANCE=> Putin, Vladimir Putin, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
   HAS INSTANCE=> Richelieu, Duc de Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu
   HAS INSTANCE=> Rockingham, Second Marquis of Rockingham, Charles Watson-Wentworth
   HAS INSTANCE=> Sadat, Anwar Sadat, Anwar el-Sadat
   HAS INSTANCE=> Schmidt, Helmut Schmidt, Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt
   HAS INSTANCE=> Seneca, Lucius Annaeus Seneca
   HAS INSTANCE=> Smith, Ian Smith, Ian Douglas Smith
   HAS INSTANCE=> Smuts, Jan Christian Smuts
   HAS INSTANCE=> Suharto
   HAS INSTANCE=> Sukarno, Achmad Sukarno
   HAS INSTANCE=> Sully, Duc de Sully, Maxmilien de Bethune
   HAS INSTANCE=> Sun Yat-sen, Sun Yixian
   HAS INSTANCE=> Talleyrand, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
   HAS INSTANCE=> Themistocles
   HAS INSTANCE=> Tito, Marshal Tito, Josip Broz
   HAS INSTANCE=> Vargas, Getulio Dornelles Vargas
   HAS INSTANCE=> Verwoerd, Hendrik Verwoerd, Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd
   HAS INSTANCE=> Waldheim, Kurt Waldheim
   HAS INSTANCE=> Walesa, Lech Walesa
   HAS INSTANCE=> Walpole, Robert Walpole, Sir Robert Walpole, First Earl of Orford
   HAS INSTANCE=> Warwick, Earl of Warwick, Richard Neville, Kingmaker
   HAS INSTANCE=> Weizmann, Chaim Weizmann, Chaim Azriel Weizmann
   HAS INSTANCE=> Wellington, Duke of Wellington, First Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Iron Duke
   HAS INSTANCE=> Wykeham, William of Wykeham

--- Grep of noun boethius
anicius manlius severinus boethius

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Integral World - Is God Real According to Ken Wilber?, Sergey Badaev
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selforum - one thing individualism implies is god
dedroidify.blogspot - alan-watts-is-god-for-10-minutes
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Arli$$ (1996 - 2002) - Arliss Michaels is not a sports agent, he is a sports super agent. To his team of associates, the athletes he represents and the world around them, he is God. He is like Jerry Maguire, but without a conscience.
Godzilla Vs. Gigan(1972) - Giant alien cockroaches try to conqure earth with there remote controlled monsters, Gigan and King Ghidorah. When the millitary fails to stop these collosle walking nightmares, our only hope is Godzilla king of the monsters, and his best buddy Anguirus, as well as a cartoonist a kung fu bimbo and a...
The Stand(1994) - A cinematographic adaptation of Stephen King's novel The Stand. 99.4% of the american population is killed by an epidemy developped by the US army. The survivor organized themselves behind Mother Abigael, a 108 years old black wowan who is God Messenger, or behind Randall Flagg, last expression of e...
Dungeon ni Deai wo Motomeru no wa Machigatteiru Darou ka II -- -- J.C.Staff -- 12 eps -- Light novel -- Action Adventure Comedy Romance Fantasy -- Dungeon ni Deai wo Motomeru no wa Machigatteiru Darou ka II Dungeon ni Deai wo Motomeru no wa Machigatteiru Darou ka II -- It is business as usual in the massive city of Orario, where legions of adventurers gather to explore the monster-infested "Dungeon." Among them is the easily flustered yet brave Bell Cranel, the sole member of the Hestia Familia. With the help of his demi-human supporter Liliruca Arde and competent blacksmith Welf Crozzo, Bell has earned the title of Little Rookie by becoming Orario's fastest-growing adventurer thanks to his endeavors within the deeper levels of the Dungeon. -- -- Dungeon ni Deai wo Motomeru no wa Machigatteiru Darou ka II continues Bell's adventures as he tries to bring glory to his goddess and protect those he cares about. However, various familias and gods across the city begin to take notice of his achievements and attempt to add him to their ranks. -- -- -- Licensor: -- Sentai Filmworks -- 537,542 7.23
God Eater -- -- ufotable -- 13 eps -- Game -- Action Fantasy Military Sci-Fi -- God Eater God Eater -- The year is 2071. Humanity has been pushed to the brink of extinction following the emergence of man-eating monsters called "Aragami" that boast an immunity to conventional weaponry. They ravaged the land, consuming almost everything in their path and leaving nothing in their wake. To combat them, an organization named Fenrir was formed as a last-ditch effort to save humanity through the use of "God Eaters"—special humans infused with Oracle cells, allowing them to wield the God Arc, the only known weapon capable of killing an Aragami. One such God Eater is Lenka Utsugi, a New-Type whose God Arc takes the form of both blade and gun. -- -- Now, as one of Fenrir's greatest weapons, Lenka must master his God Arc if he is to fulfill his desire of wiping out the Aragami once and for all. The monsters continue to be born en masse while the remnants of humanity struggle to survive the night. Only God Eaters stand between the Aragami and complete and total annihilation of the human race. -- -- -- Licensor: -- Aniplex of America -- 443,037 7.27
Godzilla 3: Hoshi wo Kuu Mono -- -- Polygon Pictures -- 1 ep -- Original -- Action Adventure Sci-Fi -- Godzilla 3: Hoshi wo Kuu Mono Godzilla 3: Hoshi wo Kuu Mono -- A door opens, and a golden seal shatters a star. -- -- It is the early 21st century. Mankind has lost the battle for planet Earth to Godzilla, and has taken to the stars in search of a new home. But the search ends in vain, forcing them and their alien allies back to Earth. But 20,000 years have passed in their absence, and the Earth is a wholly different place. -- -- The planet's flora and fauna now embody and serve Godzilla. Earth is a monster's planet, ruled by the largest Godzilla ever at 300 meters in height. Godzilla Earth. -- -- Human protagonist, Captain Haruo, yearns to defeat Godzilla and retake the planet for mankind. There, he meets aboriginal descendants of the human race, the Houtua tribe. The Houtua twin sisters, Maina and Miana, lead him to the skeletal remains of Mecha-Godzilla, an old anti-Godzilla weapon, which to everyone's surprise is still alive in the form of self-generating nanometal. Taken from the Mecha-Godzilla carcass, the nanometals have gradually been rebuilding a "Mecha-Godzilla City," a potential weapon capable of destroying Godzilla Earth. -- -- As the strategy develops, a rift forms between the humans and the Bilusaludo, one of several alien races that had joined the humans on their exodus from Earth. Their leader, Galu-gu, believes that the secret to defeating Godzilla lies in the use of superhuman powers – namely, the nanometal integration – but Haruo resists, fearing that in defeating monsters, they must not become monsters themselves. Haruo ultimately uses his means for defeating Godzilla Earth to destroy the Mecha-Godzilla city so as to prevent nanometal assimilation, killing Galu-gu. However, his childhood friend, Yuuko, has been absorbed by the nanometal integration and has fallen into a brain dead coma. -- -- The human race, once again, is lost. Metphies, commander of the priestly alien race, Exif, marvels at the miraculous survival of Haruo, he begins to attract a following. The Exif has secretly harbored this outcome as their "ultimate goal." Miana and Maina issue warnings against Metphies, while Haruo begins to question mankind's next move. -- -- With no means for defeating Godzilla Earth, mankind watches as King Ghidorah, clad in a golden light, descends on the planet. The earth shakes once again with as war moves to a higher dimension. -- -- What is Godzilla exactly? Does mankind stand a chance? Is there a future vision in Haruo's eyes? Find out in the finale. -- -- (Source: Official site) -- Movie - Nov 9, 2018 -- 23,950 6.26
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Boris Godunov (play)
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Denis Godefroy
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Mictocommosis godmani
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