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object:Howard Gardner
class:author
subject class:Psychology
subject:Psychology


--- WIKI
Howard Earl Gardner (born July 11, 1943) is an American developmental psychologist and the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Research Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education at Harvard University. He is currently the senior director of Harvard Project Zero, and since 1995, he has been the co-director of The Good Project. Gardner has written hundreds of research articles and thirty books that have been translated into more than thirty languages. He is best known for his theory of multiple intelligences, as outlined in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Gardner retired from teaching in 2019.

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OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

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lines_of_development
lines_of_development
Theory_of_Multiple_Intelligences
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Infinite_Library

IN CHAPTERS TITLE

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
1.07_-_The_Farther_Reaches_of_Human_Nature

PRIMARY CLASS

author
SIMILAR TITLES
Howard Gardner

DEFINITIONS



QUOTES [32 / 32 - 164 / 164]


KEYS (10k)

   31 Howard Gardner
   1 Tom Butler-Bowdon

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

  121 Howard Gardner
   31 Howard Gardner
   4 Daniel Goleman
   2 Carol S Dweck

1:Education is at a turning point ~ Howard Gardner,
2:All excellence involves discipline and tenacity of purpose.
   ~ Howard Gardner,
3:Individuals should be enabled to achieve the best that is in them.
   ~ Howard Gardner,
4:The biggest communities in which young people now reside are online communities. ~ Howard Gardner,
5:Much of the material presented in schools strikes students as alien, if not pointless. ~ Howard Gardner,
6:You learn at your best when you have something you care about and can get pleasure in being engaged in. ~ Howard Gardner,
7:Discover your difference-the asynchrony with which you have been blessed or cursed-and make the most of it. ~ Howard Gardner,
8:Teachers must be encouraged - I almost said 'freed', to pursue an education that strives for depth of understanding. ~ Howard Gardner,
9:There is no single truth, but each of the scholarly disciplines has methods which lead one ever closer to the truth. ~ Howard Gardner,
10:Part of the maturity of the sciences is an appreciation of which questions are best left to other disciplinary approaches. ~ Howard Gardner,
11:When an institution, organization, or nation loses its capacity to inspire high individual performance, its great days are over.
   ~ Howard Gardner,
12:No academic ever expects to be taken seriously by more than three other people, because really, we write for three people in our field. ~ Howard Gardner,
13:If you are not prepared to resign or be fired for what you believe in, then you are not a worker, let alone a professional. You are a slave. ~ Howard Gardner,
14:Extraordinary individuals stand out in the extent to which they reflect-often explicitly-on the events of their lives, large as well as small. ~ Howard Gardner,
15:All human beings have all of the intelligences. But we differ, for both genetic and experiential reasons, in our profile of intelligences at any moment. ~ Howard Gardner,
16:One must exploit the asynchronies that have befallen one, link them to a promising issue or domain, reframe frustrations as opportunities, and, above all, persevere. ~ Howard Gardner,
17:If we were to abandon concern for what is true, what is false, and what remains indeterminate, the world would be totally chaotic. Even those who deny the importance of truth, on the one hand, are quick to jump on anyone who is caught lying. ~ Howard Gardner,
18:What we want... is for students to get more interested in things, more involved in them, more engaged in wanting to know; to have projects that they can get excited about and work on over long periods of time, to be stimulated to find things out on their own. ~ Howard Gardner,
19:When Einstein had thought through a problem, he always found it necessary to formulate this subject in as many different ways as possible and to present it so that it would be comprehensible to people accustomed to different modes of thought and with different educational preparations. ~ Howard Gardner,
20:Now intelligence seemed quantifiable. You could measure someone's actual or potential height, and now, it seemed, you could also measure someone's actual or potential intelligence. We had one dimension of mental ability along which we could array everyone... The whole concept has to be challenged; in fact, it has to be replaced. ~ Howard Gardner,
21:In roughly the last century, important experiments have been launched by such charismatic educators as Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Shinichi Suzuki, John Dewey, and A. S. Neil. These approaches have enjoyed considerable success[...] Yet they have had relatively little impact on the mainstream of education throughout the contemporary world. ~ Howard Gardner,
22:If you enjoy reading, writing, learning, and sharing what you have learned, don't hesitate to look for a life where you can continue to do those things. It could be as a scientist, an educator, an editor, a journalist, the founder of an organization. You only live once, and it is a tragedy if you deny yourself these options without trying to pursue them. ~ Howard Gardner,
23:But once we realize that people have very different kinds of minds, different kinds of strengths -- some people are good in thinking spatially, some in thinking language, others are very logical, other people need to be hands on and explore actively and try things out -- then education, which treats everybody the same way, is actually the most unfair education. ~ Howard Gardner,
24:When speaking to parents, I encourage them to take their child(ren) to a children's museum and watch carefully what the child does, how she/she does it, what he/she returns to, where there is definite growth. Teachers could do the same or could set up 'play areas' which provide 'nutrition' for different intelligences... and watch carefully what happens and what does not happen with each child. ~ Howard Gardner,
25:If Confucius can serve as the Patron Saint of Chinese education, let me propose Socrates as his equivalent in a Western educational context - a Socrates who is never content with the initial superficial response, but is always probing for finer distinctions, clearer examples, a more profound form of knowing. Our concept of knowledge has changed since classical times, but Socrates has provided us with a timeless educational goal - ever deeper understanding. ~ Howard Gardner,
26:In mathematics, students are at the mercy of rigidly applied algorithms. They learn to use certain formalisms in certain ways, often effectively, if provided with a pre-arranged signal that a particular formalism is wanted.

In social studies and the humanities, the enemies of understanding are scripts and stereotypes. Students readily believe that events occur in typical ways, and they evoke these scripts even inappropriately. For example, they regard struggles between two parties in a dispute as a "good guy versus bad guy" movie script. ~ Howard Gardner,
27:Freud's convictions about the importance of infantile developments also colored his view of creative activity. Freud was impressed by the parallels between the child at play, the adult daydreamer, and the creative artist. As he once phrased it:

Might we not say that every child at play behaves like a creative writer, in that he creates a world of his own, or, rather, rearranges the things of his world in a new way which pleases him?....The creative writer does the same as the child at play. He creates a world of phantasy which he takes very seriously-that is, which he invests with large amounts of emotion-while separating it sharply from reality. ~ Howard Gardner,
28:Einstein's breakthrough was classic in that it sought to unify the elements of a physical analysis, and it placed the older examples and principles within a broader framework. But it was revolutionary in that, ever afterward, we have thought differently about space and time, matter and energy. Space and time-no more absolute-have become forms of intuition that cannot be divorced from perspective or consciousness, anymore than can the colors of the world or the length of a shadow. As the philosopher Ernst Cassirer commented, in relativity, the conception of constancy and absoluteness of the elements is abandoned to give permanence and necessity to the laws instead. ~ Howard Gardner,
29:Einstein was remarkable for his powers of concentration; he could work uninterruptedly for hours and even days on the same problem. Some of the topics that interested him remained on his mind for decades. For relaxation he turned to music and to sailing, but often his work would continue during these moments as well; he usually had a notebook in his pocket so that he could jot down any idea that came to him. Once, after the theory of relativity had been put forth, he confessed to his colleague Wolfgang Pauli, "For the rest of my life I want to reflect on what light is." It is perhaps not entirely an accident that a focus on light is also the first visual act of the newborn child. ~ Howard Gardner,
30:During an individual's immersion in a domain, the locus of flow experiences shifts: what was once too challenging becomes attainable and even pleasurable, while what has long since become attainable no longer proves engaging. Thus, the journeyman musical performer gains flow from the accurate performance of familiar pieces in the repertoire; the youthful master wishes to tackle the most challenging pieces, ones most difficult to execute in a technical sense; the seasoned master may develop highly personal interpretations of familiar pieces, or, alternatively, return to those deceptively simple pieces that may actually prove difficult to execute convincingly and powerfully. Such an analysis helps explain why creative individuals continue to engage in the area of their expertise despite its frustrations, and why so many of them continue to raise the ante, posing ever-greater challenges for themselves, even at the risk of sacrificing the customary rewards. ~ Howard Gardner,
31:Embracing a different vocabulary, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi has described a highly sought-after affective state called the flow state or flow experience. In such intrinsically motivating experiences, which can occur in any domain of activity, people report themselves as fully engaged with and absorbed by the object of their attention. In one sense, those "in flow" are not conscious of the experience at the moment; on reflection, however, such people feel that they have been fully alive, totally realized, and involved in a "peak experience." Individuals who regularly engage in creative activities often report that they seek such states; the prospect of such "periods of flow" can be so intense that individuals will exert considerable practice and effort, and even tolerate physical or psychological pain, in pursuit thereof. Committed writers may claim that they hate the time spent chained to their desks, but the thought that they would not have the opportunity to attain occasional periods of flow while writing proves devastating. ~ Howard Gardner,
32:reading :::
   50 Psychology Classics: List of Books Covered:
   Alfred Adler - Understanding Human Nature (1927)
   Gordon Allport - The Nature of Prejudice (1954)
   Albert Bandura - Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (1997)
   Gavin Becker - The Gift of Fear (1997)
   Eric Berne - Games People Play (1964)
   Isabel Briggs Myers - Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type (1980)
   Louann Brizendine - The Female Brain (2006)
   David D Burns - Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (1980)
   Susan Cain - Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking (2012)
   Robert Cialdini - Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (1984)
   Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - Creativity (1997)
   Carol Dweck - Mindset: The New Psychology of Success (2006)
   Albert Ellis & Robert Harper - (1961) A Guide To Rational Living(1961)
   Milton Erickson - My Voice Will Go With You (1982) by Sidney Rosen
   Eric Erikson - Young Man Luther (1958)
   Hans Eysenck - Dimensions of Personality (1947)
   Viktor Frankl - The Will to Meaning (1969)
   Anna Freud - The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936)
   Sigmund Freud - The Interpretation of Dreams (1901)
   Howard Gardner - Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983)
   Daniel Gilbert - Stumbling on Happiness (2006)
   Malcolm Gladwell - Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (2005)
   Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence at Work (1998)
   John M Gottman - The Seven Principles For Making Marriage Work (1999)
   Temple Grandin - The Autistic Brain: Helping Different Kinds of Minds Succeed (2013)
   Harry Harlow - The Nature of Love (1958)
   Thomas A Harris - I'm OK - You're OK (1967)
   Eric Hoffer - The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements (1951)
   Karen Horney - Our Inner Conflicts (1945)
   William James - Principles of Psychology (1890)
   Carl Jung - The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1953)
   Daniel Kahneman - Thinking, Fast and Slow (2011)
   Alfred Kinsey - Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)
   RD Laing - The Divided Self (1959)
   Abraham Maslow - The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (1970)
   Stanley Milgram - Obedience To Authority (1974)
   Walter Mischel - The Marshmallow Test (2014)
   Leonard Mlodinow - Subliminal: How Your Unconscious Mind Rules Your Behavior (2012)
   IP Pavlov - Conditioned Reflexes (1927)
   Fritz Perls - Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality (1951)
   Jean Piaget - The Language and Thought of the Child (1966)
   Steven Pinker - The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002)
   VS Ramachandran - Phantoms in the Brain (1998)
   Carl Rogers - On Becoming a Person (1961)
   Oliver Sacks - The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (1970)
   Barry Schwartz - The Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less (2004)
   Martin Seligman - Authentic Happiness (2002)
   BF Skinner - Beyond Freedom & Dignity (1953)
   Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton & Sheila Heen - Difficult Conversations (2000)
   William Styron - Darkness Visible (1990)
   ~ Tom Butler-Bowdon, 50 Psychology Classics,

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Education is at a turning point ~ Howard Gardner
2:Education is at a turning point ~ Howard Gardner,
3:While we may continue to use the words ~ Howard Gardner
4:All excellence involves discipline and tenacity of purpose.
   ~ Howard Gardner,
5:The Goal of Education is to Help People Use Their Minds Better ~ Howard Gardner
6:By nature, I am not an optimist, though I try to act as if I am. ~ Howard Gardner
7:Stories are the single most powerful tool in a leader's toolkit. ~ Howard Gardner
8:Stories are the single most powerful weapon in a leader’s arsenal ~ Howard Gardner
9:Beauty reveals itself in the course of an experience with an object. ~ Howard Gardner
10:Individuals should be enabled to achieve the best that is in them.
   ~ Howard Gardner,
11:If you think education is expensive, try estimating the cost of ignorance. ~ Howard Gardner
12:In the United States these days, 'diversity' is a big word and a buzzword. ~ Howard Gardner
13:Creativity begins with an affinity for something. It's like falling in love. ~ Howard Gardner
14:Creativity begins with an affinity for something. It’s like falling in love. ~ Howard Gardner
15:I think that any important educational goal can be realized via several routes. ~ Howard Gardner
16:The biggest communities in which young people now reside are online communities. ~ Howard Gardner
17:It's not how smart you are that matters, what really counts is how you are smart. ~ Howard Gardner
18:The biggest communities in which young people now reside are online communities. ~ Howard Gardner,
19:In his book Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership, Harvard professor Howard Gardner ~ Jay Abraham
20:In order for me to 'endorse' an intelligence, I need to carry out lots of research. ~ Howard Gardner
21:Much of the material presented in schools strikes students as alien, if not pointless. ~ Howard Gardner
22:Much of the material presented in schools strikes students as alien, if not pointless. ~ Howard Gardner,
23:To ask "Where in your brain is intelligence?" is like asking "Where is the voice in the radio?" ~ Howard Gardner
24:You learn at your best when you have something you care about and can get pleasure in being engaged in. ~ Howard Gardner
25:You learn at your best when you have something you care about and can get pleasure in being engaged in. ~ Howard Gardner,
26:Intelligence is the ability to find and solve problems and create products of value in one's own culture. ~ Howard Gardner
27:The ability to solve problems or to create products that are valued within one or more cultural settings. ~ Howard Gardner
28:Discover your difference—the asynchrony with which you have been blessed or cursed—and make the most of it. ~ Howard Gardner
29:Discover your difference-the asynchrony with which you have been blessed or cursed-and make the most of it. ~ Howard Gardner,
30:We need to focus on the kind of human beings we want to have and the kind of society in which we want to live. ~ Howard Gardner
31:every individual will develop relations to other persons, to domains of accomplishment, and to his or her self. ~ Howard Gardner
32:We can enhance our intelligences, but I am never going to become Yo-Yo Ma, Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, or Pele. ~ Howard Gardner
33:Teachers must be encouraged - I almost said 'freed', to pursue an education that strives for depth of understanding. ~ Howard Gardner
34:There is no single truth, but each of the scholarly disciplines has methods which lead one ever closer to the truth. ~ Howard Gardner
35:While I’ve worked on many topics and written many books, I have not abandoned my interest in multiple intelligences. ~ Howard Gardner
36:Teachers must be encouraged - I almost said 'freed', to pursue an education that strives for depth of understanding. ~ Howard Gardner,
37:There is no single truth, but each of the scholarly disciplines has methods which lead one ever closer to the truth. ~ Howard Gardner,
38:'Til 1983, I wrote primarily for other psychologists and expected that they would be the principal audience for my book. ~ Howard Gardner
39:Part of the maturity of the sciences is an appreciation of which questions are best left to other disciplinary approaches. ~ Howard Gardner
40:Part of the maturity of the sciences is an appreciation of which questions are best left to other disciplinary approaches. ~ Howard Gardner,
41:We are natural mind changing entities until we are 10 or so. But as we get older...then it is very hard to change our minds ~ Howard Gardner
42:I reject the notion that human beings have a single intelligence, which can be drawn on for the full range of problem solving. ~ Howard Gardner
43:Hitler didn't travel. Stalin didn't travel. Saddam Hussein never traveled. They didn't want to have their orthodoxy challenged. ~ Howard Gardner
44:Our way of managing and leading, rewarding and judging people is totally out of tune with the fact that we are all individuals. ~ Howard Gardner
45:When an institution, organization, or nation loses its capacity to inspire high individual performance, its great days are over.
   ~ Howard Gardner,
46:I want to understand how best to create and preserve a form of higher education that we value but that is in jeopardy for many reasons. ~ Howard Gardner
47:No academic ever expects to be taken seriously by more than three other people, because really, we write for three people in our field. ~ Howard Gardner
48:Anything that is worth teaching can be presented in many different ways. These multiple ways can make use of our multiple intelligences. ~ Howard Gardner
49:If I know you're very good in music, I can predict with just about zero accuracy whether you're going to be good or bad in other things. ~ Howard Gardner
50:No academic ever expects to be taken seriously by more than three other people, because really, we write for three people in our field. ~ Howard Gardner,
51:Teaching which ignores the realities of children will be rejected as surely as any graft which attempts to ignore the body's immune system. ~ Howard Gardner
52:If you are not prepared to resign or be fired for what you believe in, then you are not a worker, let alone a professional. You are a slave. ~ Howard Gardner
53:If you are not prepared to resign or be fired for what you believe in, then you are not a worker, let alone a professional. You are a slave. ~ Howard Gardner,
54:Extraordinary individuals stand out in the extent to which they reflect—often explicitly—on the events of their lives, large as well as small. ~ Howard Gardner
55:I think that I am strongest in linguistic and musical intelligence, and I continue to work on my interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. ~ Howard Gardner
56:Extraordinary individuals stand out in the extent to which they reflect-often explicitly-on the events of their lives, large as well as small. ~ Howard Gardner,
57:I’d rather see the United States as a beacon of Good Work and Good Citizenship, rather than as #1 on some international educational measurement. ~ Howard Gardner
58:Fundamentalism is a kind of decision not to change your mind about something...Many of us are fundamentalists...because it worked pretty well for us. ~ Howard Gardner
59:An individual understands a concept, skill, theory, or domain of knowledge to the extent that he or she can apply it appropriately in a new situation. ~ Howard Gardner
60:All human beings have all of the intelligences. But we differ, for both genetic and experiential reasons, in our profile of intelligences at any moment. ~ Howard Gardner
61:All human beings have all of the intelligences. But we differ, for both genetic and experiential reasons, in our profile of intelligences at any moment. ~ Howard Gardner,
62:Extraordinary individuals are distinguished less by their impressive “raw powers” than by their ability to identify their strengths and then to exploit them. ~ Howard Gardner
63:I don't think that it is necessary to rethink curricular goals. But it is certainly worth thinking about whether these goals can be reached in multiple ways. ~ Howard Gardner
64:While truth is ultimately convergent, beauty is ultimately divergent. No one can and no one should tell anyone else what that person should consider beautiful. ~ Howard Gardner
65:Howard Gardner, in his book Extraordinary Minds, concluded that exceptional individuals have “a special talent for identifying their own strengths and weaknesses. ~ Carol S Dweck
66:One must exploit the asynchronies that have befallen one, link them to a promising issue or domain, reframe frustrations as opportunities, and, above all, persevere. ~ Howard Gardner
67:One must exploit the asynchronies that have befallen one, link them to a promising issue or domain, reframe frustrations as opportunities, and, above all, persevere. ~ Howard Gardner,
68:I think that physicists are the Peter Pans of the human race. They never grow up and they keep their curiosity. Once you are sophisticated, you know too much-far too much. ~ Howard Gardner
69:I am knowledgeable enough about the world of prizes to realize that there is a large degree of luck - both for the recognitions that you receive and those that you did not. ~ Howard Gardner
70:Well, if storytelling is important, then your narrative ability, or your ability to put into words or use what someone else has put into words effectively, is important too. ~ Howard Gardner
71:Being creative means first of all doing something unusual... On the other hand, however unusual it may be, the idea also has to be reasonable for people to take it seriously. ~ Howard Gardner
72:A continuing conversation with other persons, with cultural products, and with oneself, is a large part of what it means to be a human being, in our time and perhaps in all time. ~ Howard Gardner
73:Kids go to school and college and get through, but they don't seem to really care about using their minds. School doesn't have the kind of long term positive impact that it should. ~ Howard Gardner
74:An intelligence is the biological and psychological potential to analyze information in specific ways, in order to solve problems or to create products that are valued in a culture. ~ Howard Gardner
75:Twenty-five years ago, the notion was you could create a general problem-solver software that could solve problems in many different domains. That just turned out to be totally wrong. ~ Howard Gardner
76:Extraordinary individuals fail often and sometimes dramatically. Rather than giving up, however, they are challenged to learn from their setbacks and to convert defeats into opportunities. ~ Howard Gardner
77:We have so much to cover and so little time to cover it. Howard Gardner refers to curriculum coverage as the single greatest enemy of understanding. Think instead about ideas to be discovered. ~ Alfie Kohn
78:My belief in why America has been doing so well up to now is that we have been propelled by our immigrants and our encouragement of technical innovation and, indeed, creativity across the board. ~ Howard Gardner
79:I believe that the brain has evolved over millions of years to be responsive to different kinds of content in the world. Language content, musical content, spatial content, numerical content, etc. ~ Howard Gardner
80:And Einstein stood out among natural scientists in his abiding curiosity about children's minds. He had once declared that we know all the physics that we will ever need to know by the age of three. ~ Howard Gardner
81:Kids make their mark in life by doing what they can do, not what they can't... School is important, but life is more important. Being happy is using your skills productively, no matter what they are. ~ Howard Gardner
82:I want my children to understand the world, but not just because the world is fascinating and the human mind is curious. I want them to understand it so that they will be positioned to make it a better place ~ Howard Gardner
83:The biggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all students as if they were variants of the same individual and thus to feel justified in teaching them all the same subjects the same way. ~ Howard Gardner
84:Most people (by the time they have become adults ) can't change their minds because their neural pathways have become set... the longer neural pathways have been running one way the harder it is to rewire them. ~ Howard Gardner
85:It may well be easier to remember a list if one sings it (or dances to it). However, these uses of the 'materials' of an intelligence are essentially trivial. What is not trivial is the capacity to think musically. ~ Howard Gardner
86:I align myself with almost all researchers in assuming that anything we do is a composite of whatever genetic limitations were given to us by our parents and whatever kinds of environmental opportunities are available. ~ Howard Gardner
87:We've got to do fewer things in school. The greatest enemy of understanding is coverage... You've got to take enough time to get kids deeply involved in something so they can think about it in lots of different ways and apply it. ~ Howard Gardner
88:It is important for leaders to know their stories; to get them straight; to communicate them effectively, particularly to those who are in the thrall of rival stories; and, above all, to embody in their lives the stories that they tell. ~ Howard Gardner
89:If we were to abandon concern for what is true, what is false, and what remains indeterminate, the world would be totally chaotic. Even those who deny the importance of truth, on the one hand, are quick to jump on anyone who is caught lying. ~ Howard Gardner
90:Howard Gardner, in his book "Extraordinary Minds", concluded that exceptional individuals have "a special talent for identifying their own strengths and weaknesses." It's interesting that those with the growth mindset seem to have that talent. ~ Carol S Dweck
91:If we were to abandon concern for what is true, what is false, and what remains indeterminate, the world would be totally chaotic. Even those who deny the importance of truth, on the one hand, are quick to jump on anyone who is caught lying. ~ Howard Gardner,
92:The countries who do the best in international comparisons, whether it's Finland or Japan, Denmark or Singapore, do well because they have professional teachers who are respected, and they also have family and community which support learning. ~ Howard Gardner
93:Young children possess the ability to cut across the customary categories; to appreciate usually undiscerned links among realms, to respond effectively in a parallel manner to events which are usually categorized differently, and to capture these ori ~ Howard Gardner
94:As a planet, we are at risk of destruction (for example, gradually by the warming of the planet; or rapidly, by nuclear war or a pathogen that gets out of control). And these threats require us to work together, and not just to announce our diversity. ~ Howard Gardner
95:Research by Harvard’s Howard Gardner, Stanford’s William Damon, and Claremont’s Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi zeroed in on what they call “good work,” a potent mix of what people are excellent at, what engages them, and their ethics—what they believe matters.18 ~ Daniel Goleman
96:We should spend less time ranking children and more time helping them to identify their natural competencies and gifts and cultivate these. There are hundreds and hundreds of ways to succeed and many, many different abilities that will help you get there. ~ Howard Gardner
97:I need to add that my work on multiple intelligences received a huge boost in 1995 when Daniel Goleman published his book on emotional intelligence. I am often confused with Dan. Initially, though Dan and I are longtime friends, this confusion irritated me. ~ Howard Gardner
98:What we want... is for students to get more interested in things, more involved in them, more engaged in wanting to know; to have projects that they can get excited about and work on over long periods of time, to be stimulated to find things out on their own. ~ Howard Gardner
99:What we want... is for students to get more interested in things, more involved in them, more engaged in wanting to know; to have projects that they can get excited about and work on over long periods of time, to be stimulated to find things out on their own. ~ Howard Gardner,
100:A lot of knowledge in any kind of an organization is what we call task knowledge. These are things that people who have been there a long time understand are important, but they may not know how to talk about them. It's often called the culture of the organization. ~ Howard Gardner
101:What is usually called 'intelligence' refers to the linguistic and logical capacities that are valued in certain kinds of school and for certain school-like tasks. It leaves little if any room for spatial intelligence, personal intelligences, musical intelligence, etc. ~ Howard Gardner
102:If one develops good habits and routines, it is possible to be a responsible educator most of the time; and to marshal the special energies and reflection for those times, when the correct course of action is not clear, or when one is weighing one wrong against another wrong. ~ Howard Gardner
103:Knowledge is not the same as morality, but we need to understand if we are to avoid past mistakes and move in productive directions. An important part of that understanding is knowing who we are and what we can do... Ultimately, we must synthesize our understandings for ourselves. ~ Howard Gardner
104:Emile Zola was a poor student at his school at Aix. We are all so different largely because we all have different combinations of intelligences. If we recognize this, I think we will have at least a better chance of dealing appropriately with many problems that we face in the world. ~ Howard Gardner
105:When Einstein had thought through a problem, he always found it necessary to formulate this subject in as many different ways as possible and to present it so that it would be comprehensible to people accustomed to different modes of thought and with different educational preparations. ~ Howard Gardner
106:When Einstein had thought through a problem, he always found it necessary to formulate this subject in as many different ways as possible and to present it so that it would be comprehensible to people accustomed to different modes of thought and with different educational preparations. ~ Howard Gardner,
107:When a child is thriving, there is no reason to spend time assessing intelligences. But when a child is NOT thriving - in school or at home - that is the time to apply the lens of multiple intelligences and see whether one can find ways to help the child thrive in different environments. ~ Howard Gardner
108:The less a person understands his own feelings, the more he will fall prey to them. The less a person understands the feelings, the responses, and the behavior of others, the more likely he will interact inappropriately with them and therefore fail to secure his proper place in the world. ~ Howard Gardner
109:Any good teacher should become acquainted with relevant technologies. But the technologies should not dictate an education goal. Rather, the teacher (or parent or student or policy maker) should ask: can technology help to achieve this goal, and which technologies are most likely to be helpful? ~ Howard Gardner
110:Una investigación realizada por Howard Gardner, de Stanford, William Damon, de Harvard, y Csikszentmihalyi, de Claremont, se centró en lo que ellos llamaban un “buen trabajo”, una combinación entre la ética (es decir, lo que uno cree que le gusta) y aquello en lo que destaca (es decir, lo que realmente le gusta). ~ Daniel Goleman
111:In the United States, if you ask teachers, "Are there children whom we should call 'gifted?'", many if not most will say 'No.' That's the politically correct answer. But if you then ask the teacher to rank order students in terms of how well they paint or write or dance, they'll have little difficulty in doing so. ~ Howard Gardner
112:Now intelligence seemed quantifiable. You could measure someone's actual or potential height, and now, it seemed, you could also measure someone's actual or potential intelligence. We had one dimension of mental ability along which we could array everyone... The whole concept has to be challenged; in fact, it has to be replaced. ~ Howard Gardner
113:Now intelligence seemed quantifiable. You could measure someone's actual or potential height, and now, it seemed, you could also measure someone's actual or potential intelligence. We had one dimension of mental ability along which we could array everyone... The whole concept has to be challenged; in fact, it has to be replaced. ~ Howard Gardner,
114:The wonderful thing about the theater is that it can emphasize BOTH our diversity AND our common humanity. In many ways, the world of Shakespeare (or Aeschylus or Racine) is totally different from our world; and yet any human being can look through the differences in dress and mores and discover our common problems, passions, and potentials. ~ Howard Gardner
115:In roughly the last century, important experiments have been launched by such charismatic educators as Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Shinichi Suzuki, John Dewey, and A. S. Neil. These approaches have enjoyed considerable success[...] Yet they have had relatively little impact on the mainstream of education throughout the contemporary world. ~ Howard Gardner
116:In roughly the last century, important experiments have been launched by such charismatic educators as Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Shinichi Suzuki, John Dewey, and A. S. Neil. These approaches have enjoyed considerable success[...] Yet they have had relatively little impact on the mainstream of education throughout the contemporary world. ~ Howard Gardner,
117:Intelligences are enhanced when a person is engaged in activities that involve the exercise of that intelligence. It helps to have good teachers, ample resources, and personal motivation. Anyone can improve any intelligence; but it is easier to improve the intelligence if those factors are available and if you have high potential in that intelligence. ~ Howard Gardner
118:Both science and history are moving targets. Scholars in the twenty-first century are much more aware than those of earlier generations that scientists operate under the influence of powerful metaphors (science as exploration, discovery, documentation, thrust and counterthrust), and that both the scope and the tools of history undergo continual changes. ~ Howard Gardner
119:If you enjoy reading, writing, learning, and sharing what you have learned, don't hesitate to look for a life where you can continue to do those things. It could be as a scientist, an educator, an editor, a journalist, the founder of an organization. You only live once, and it is a tragedy if you deny yourself these options without trying to pursue them. ~ Howard Gardner
120:If you enjoy reading, writing, learning, and sharing what you have learned, don't hesitate to look for a life where you can continue to do those things. It could be as a scientist, an educator, an editor, a journalist, the founder of an organization. You only live once, and it is a tragedy if you deny yourself these options without trying to pursue them. ~ Howard Gardner,
121:But once we realize that people have very different kinds of minds, different kinds of strengths -- some people are good in thinking spatially, some in thinking language, others are very logical, other people need to be hands on and explore actively and try things out -- then education, which treats everybody the same way, is actually the most unfair education. ~ Howard Gardner
122:But once we realize that people have very different kinds of minds, different kinds of strengths -- some people are good in thinking spatially, some in thinking language, others are very logical, other people need to be hands on and explore actively and try things out -- then education, which treats everybody the same way, is actually the most unfair education. ~ Howard Gardner,
123:In every part of the world with which I am familiar, young people are completely immersed in the digital world - so much so, that it is inconceivable to them that they can, for long, be separated from their devices. Indeed, many of us who are not young, who are 'digital immigrants' rather than 'digital natives,' are also wedded to, if not dependent on, our digital devices. ~ Howard Gardner
124:Best of all, persons can sometimes be app-transcendent: making dramatic progress or discoveries, without any dependence on any app. In this context, I like to mention Steve Jobs. While he had as much to do as anyone with the invention and development of apps, he NEVER was limited by the current technology - indeed, he typically transcended it and relied on his own considerable wits. ~ Howard Gardner
125:Nearly all cultures have evolved specific ideas about education, although only in modern times does education prove to be virtually coterminous with formal schooling. Ultimately, the natural paths and forms of development place many children in a difficult bind, as students begin to address the quite different agenda of the schoolroom and the particular structure of the scholastic domains. ~ Howard Gardner
126:When speaking to parents, I encourage them to take their child(ren) to a children's museum and watch carefully what the child does, how she/she does it, what he/she returns to, where there is definite growth. Teachers could do the same or could set up 'play areas' which provide 'nutrition' for different intelligences... and watch carefully what happens and what does not happen with each child. ~ Howard Gardner
127:When speaking to parents, I encourage them to take their child(ren) to a children's museum and watch carefully what the child does, how she/she does it, what he/she returns to, where there is definite growth. Teachers could do the same or could set up 'play areas' which provide 'nutrition' for different intelligences... and watch carefully what happens and what does not happen with each child. ~ Howard Gardner,
128:No individual can be in full control of his fate-our strengths come significantly from our history, our experiences largely from the vagaries of chance. But by seizing the opportunity to leverage and frame these experiences, we gain agency over them. And this heightened agency, in turn, places us in a stronger position to deal with future experiences, even as it may alter our own sense of strengths and possibilities. ~ Howard Gardner
129:Gruber speaks of an "evolving systems" approach to the study of creativity: that is, one monitors simultaneously the organization of knowledge in a domain, the purpose(s) pursued by the creator, and the affective experiences he or she undergoes. While these systems are only "loosely coupled," their interaction over time helps one understand the ebb and flow of creative activity over the course of a productive human life. ~ Howard Gardner
130:Research by Harvard’s Howard Gardner, Stanford’s William Damon, and Claremont’s Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi zeroed in on what they call “good work,” a potent mix of what people are excellent at, what engages them, and their ethics—what they believe matters.18 Those are more likely to be high-absorption callings: people love what they are doing. Full absorption in what we do feels good, and pleasure is the emotional marker for flow. ~ Daniel Goleman
131:Perhaps, indeed, there are no truly universal ethics: or to put it more precisely, the ways in which ethical principles are interpreted will inevitably differ across cultures and eras. Yet, these differences arise chiefly at the margins. All known societies embrace the virtues of truthfulness, integrity, loyalty, fairness; none explicitly endorse falsehood, dishonesty, disloyalty, gross inequity. (Five Minds for the Future, p136) ~ Howard Gardner
132:If Confucius can serve as the Patron Saint of Chinese education, let me propose Socrates as his equivalent in a Western educational context - a Socrates who is never content with the initial superficial response, but is always probing for finer distinctions, clearer examples, a more profound form of knowing. Our concept of knowledge has changed since classical times, but Socrates has provided us with a timeless educational goal - ever deeper understanding. ~ Howard Gardner
133:If Confucius can serve as the Patron Saint of Chinese education, let me propose Socrates as his equivalent in a Western educational context - a Socrates who is never content with the initial superficial response, but is always probing for finer distinctions, clearer examples, a more profound form of knowing. Our concept of knowledge has changed since classical times, but Socrates has provided us with a timeless educational goal - ever deeper understanding. ~ Howard Gardner,
134:A person who is app-dependent is always searching for the best app; and as soon as its routine has been executed, the person searches for the next app. A person who is app-enabled also uses apps frequently. But he or she is never limited by the current array of apps; apps will free the person to do what he or she wants to do, or needs to do, irrespective of the next application of the app. An app-enabled person can also put devices away, without feeling bereft. ~ Howard Gardner
135:Don't assume that the way that one searches and researches is the same from one era to another - it isn't. In the 19th century, most research was done by amateurs: either individuals who were rich or individuals who had a day job. In the 20th century, most researchers worked at universities or think tanks and received money from the government or from foundations to pursue their work. In our time, the sources of support and the locations for research may be quite different. ~ Howard Gardner
136:I am relieved that, in my own teaching, I don't have to moderate between high stake teaching and education for the virtues. If I did, I would give students the tools to take the tests but not spend an inordinate amount of time on test prep nor on 'teaching to the test.' If the students, or their parents, want drill in testing, they'd have to go elsewhere. As a professional, my most important obligation is to teach the topic, skills, and methods in ways that I feel are intellectually legitimate. ~ Howard Gardner
137:While we may continue to use the words
smart and stupid, and while IQ tests may
persist for certain purposes, the monopoly
of those who believe in a single general
intelligence has come to an end. Brain
scientists and geneticists are documenting
the incredible differentiation of human capacities, computer programmers are creating systems that are intelligent in different ways, and educators are freshly acknowledging that their students have distinctive strengths and weaknesses. ~ Howard Gardner
138:A good person is one who follows the Ten Commandments and the golden rule. There is plenty of precedent in history to guide us and we probably evolved to be sensitive to Bible-Golden Rule situations. But the dilemmas faced by a worker - a journalist, an architect, an auditor - or by a citizen (what position to take on stem cell research, whether to run for office, what is the proper balance between taxation and social nets) - are not questions that can be answered by traditional texts or precedents. ~ Howard Gardner
139:Distinguish between the work and the job title. When I was leaving school in the early 1970s, many people wanted to be journalists, carrying out investigative reporting for print newspapers. Print newspapers may not exist in twenty years. But good thinking and good writing about issues that need to be reported and investigated will always be needed; but where this happens, what it is called, and who pays for it may be quite different than could have been envisioned by the great journalists of the past. ~ Howard Gardner
140:There are clear differences between child and adult artistic activity. While the child may be aware that he is doing things differently from others, he does not fully appreciate the rules and conventions of symbolic realms; his adventurousness holds little significance. In contrast, the adult artist is fully cognizant of the norms embraced by others; his willingness, his compulsion, to reject convention is purchased, at the very least, with full knowledge of what he is doing and often at considerable psychic cost to himself. ~ Howard Gardner
141:I think that every educator, indeed every human being, is concerned with what is true and what is not; what experiences to cherish and which ones to avoid; and how best to relate to other human beings. We differ in how conscious we are of these questions; how reflective we are about our own stances; whether we are aware of how these human virtues are threatened by critiques (philosophical, cultural) and by technologies (chiefly the digital media). A good educator should help us all to navigate our way in this tangled web of virtues. ~ Howard Gardner
142:In mathematics, students are at the mercy of rigidly applied algorithms. They learn to use certain formalisms in certain ways, often effectively, if provided with a pre-arranged signal that a particular formalism is wanted.

In social studies and the humanities, the enemies of understanding are scripts and stereotypes. Students readily believe that events occur in typical ways, and they evoke these scripts even inappropriately. For example, they regard struggles between two parties in a dispute as a "good guy versus bad guy" movie script. ~ Howard Gardner,
143:In mathematics, students are at the mercy of rigidly applied algorithms. They learn to use certain formalisms in certain ways, often effectively, if provided with a pre-arranged signal that a particular formalism is wanted.

In social studies and the humanities, the enemies of understanding are scripts and stereotypes. Students readily believe that events occur in typical ways, and they evoke these scripts even inappropriately. For example, they regard struggles between two parties in a dispute as a "good guy versus bad guy" movie script. ~ Howard Gardner
144:Any profession should have norms around the issue you raise. And, in the words of the great economic thinker Albert Hirschman, we all owe a measure of loyalty to professional norms. But when the norms seem unhelpful or unproductive, one needs to speak up - to activate voice. And in the extreme, if the profession and one's colleagues seem estranged from a thoughtfully selected course of action, you need to consider the possibility of exit. Of course, if you knowingly violate norms or laws, you need to be prepared to face the consequences - or to lead a revolution! ~ Howard Gardner
145:Freud's convictions about the importance of infantile developments also colored his view of creative activity. Freud was impressed by the parallels between the child at play, the adult daydreamer, and the creative artist. As he once phrased it:

Might we not say that every child at play behaves like a creative writer, in that he creates a world of his own, or, rather, rearranges the things of his world in a new way which pleases him?....The creative writer does the same as the child at play. He creates a world of phantasy which he takes very seriously-that is, which he invests with large amounts of emotion-while separating it sharply from reality. ~ Howard Gardner
146:Freud's convictions about the importance of infantile developments also colored his view of creative activity. Freud was impressed by the parallels between the child at play, the adult daydreamer, and the creative artist. As he once phrased it:

Might we not say that every child at play behaves like a creative writer, in that he creates a world of his own, or, rather, rearranges the things of his world in a new way which pleases him?....The creative writer does the same as the child at play. He creates a world of phantasy which he takes very seriously-that is, which he invests with large amounts of emotion-while separating it sharply from reality. ~ Howard Gardner,
147:Einstein's breakthrough was classic in that it sought to unify the elements of a physical analysis, and it placed the older examples and principles within a broader framework. But it was revolutionary in that, ever afterward, we have thought differently about space and time, matter and energy. Space and time-no more absolute-have become forms of intuition that cannot be divorced from perspective or consciousness, anymore than can the colors of the world or the length of a shadow. As the philosopher Ernst Cassirer commented, in relativity, the conception of constancy and absoluteness of the elements is abandoned to give permanence and necessity to the laws instead. ~ Howard Gardner
148:Einstein's breakthrough was classic in that it sought to unify the elements of a physical analysis, and it placed the older examples and principles within a broader framework. But it was revolutionary in that, ever afterward, we have thought differently about space and time, matter and energy. Space and time-no more absolute-have become forms of intuition that cannot be divorced from perspective or consciousness, anymore than can the colors of the world or the length of a shadow. As the philosopher Ernst Cassirer commented, in relativity, the conception of constancy and absoluteness of the elements is abandoned to give permanence and necessity to the laws instead. ~ Howard Gardner,
149:Einstein was remarkable for his powers of concentration; he could work uninterruptedly for hours and even days on the same problem. Some of the topics that interested him remained on his mind for decades. For relaxation he turned to music and to sailing, but often his work would continue during these moments as well; he usually had a notebook in his pocket so that he could jot down any idea that came to him. Once, after the theory of relativity had been put forth, he confessed to his colleague Wolfgang Pauli, "For the rest of my life I want to reflect on what light is." It is perhaps not entirely an accident that a focus on light is also the first visual act of the newborn child. ~ Howard Gardner
150:Einstein was remarkable for his powers of concentration; he could work uninterruptedly for hours and even days on the same problem. Some of the topics that interested him remained on his mind for decades. For relaxation he turned to music and to sailing, but often his work would continue during these moments as well; he usually had a notebook in his pocket so that he could jot down any idea that came to him. Once, after the theory of relativity had been put forth, he confessed to his colleague Wolfgang Pauli, "For the rest of my life I want to reflect on what light is." It is perhaps not entirely an accident that a focus on light is also the first visual act of the newborn child. ~ Howard Gardner,
151:Some leaders seek power for its own sake; some leaders seek power in order to increase their own resources or those of family, friends, and close associates. Those are not the leaders whom I admire, nor are they the leaders that young people should emulate. As I make clear in the pages that follow, the key to effective leadership is amoral: The skills that I describe can be used for the ends of a Nelson Mandela, or for the ends of Osama bin Laden. But once we turn from description to prescription, it is clear that, as individuals and as members of broader communities, we should do all that we can to increase the incidence of good leaders—individuals who are engaged, excellent, and dedicated to the pursuit of ethical ends. ~ Howard Gardner
152:At such times, it is particularly important to return to fundamentals. Many assumptions about leadership in the political realm are superficial and unsubstantiated ; there is no need to guide one’s policies by the results of the latest poll or to force every complex idea into a sound bite. Here one can take inspiration from those individuals who have not accepted the conventional wisdom, who have risked defeat, rejection, obscurity, even their lives, in order to pursue ideas in which they (and perhaps a few followers) believe. To put it simply: Leaders can actually lead. One of the important roles that elders can provide in a society is to call attention to those figures from whom one may learn, and by whose lives one may be guided. ~ Howard Gardner
153:As Harvard developmental psychologist Howard Gardner reminds us, The young child is totally egocentric—meaning not that he thinks selfishly only about himself, but to the contrary, that he is incapable of thinking about himself. The egocentric child is unable to differentiate himself from the rest of the world; he has not separated himself out from others or from objects. Thus he feels that others share his pain or his pleasure, that his mumblings will inevitably be understood, that his perspective is shared by all persons, that even animals and plants partake of his consciousness. In playing hide-and-seek he will “hide” in broad view of other persons, because his egocentrism prevents him from recognizing that others are aware of his location. The whole course of human development can be viewed as a continuing decline in egocentrism.2 ~ Ken Wilber
154:The cause of this state of affair is undoubtedly complex. In my Truth, Beauty, and Goodness Reframed (2011), I argue that the challenge to truth comes from three complementary sources: (l) increased knowledge about the wide range of cultures around the globe, many of which hold apparently incompatible views about the world; (2) the postmodern critique of such traditional notions as truth, according to which claims to truth are seen as simple assertions of power; and (3) the human tendency, particularly during adolescence and early adulthood, to adopt relativistic stances (“you’ve got the right to your opinion, just like I have the right to my opinion”). Whatever the relative contributions of these and other factors, it seems clear that leadership becomes more difficult when everyone’s story is considered equally valid, independent of corroborating evidence. ~ Howard Gardner
155:common sense observations of human behavior support a similar dissociation in reasoning abilities which cuts in both directions. We all know persons who are exceedingly clever in their social navigation, who have an unerring sense of how to seek advantage for themselves and for their group, but who can be remarkably inept when trusted with a nonpersonal, nonsocial problem. The reverse condition is just as dramatic: We all know creative scientists and artists whose social sense is a disgrace, and who regularly harm themselves and others with their behavior. The absent-minded professor is the benign variety of the latter type. At work, in these different personality styles, are the presence or absence of what Howard Gardner has called “social intelligence,” or the presence or absence of one or the other of his multiple intelligences such as the “mathematical. ~ Ant nio R Dam sio
156:The guiding visionary behind Project Spectrum is Howard Gardner, a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education.7 “The time has come,” Gardner told me, “to broaden our notion of the spectrum of talents. The single most important contribution education can make to a child’s development is to help him toward a field where his talents best suit him, where he will be satisfied and competent. We’ve completely lost sight of that. Instead we subject everyone to an education where, if you succeed, you will be best suited to be a college professor. And we evaluate everyone along the way according to whether they meet that narrow standard of success. We should spend less time ranking children and more time helping them to identify their natural competencies and gifts, and cultivate those. There are hundreds and hundreds of ways to succeed, and many, many different abilities that will help you get there. ~ Daniel Goleman
157:During an individual's immersion in a domain, the locus of flow experiences shifts: what was once too challenging becomes attainable and even pleasurable, while what has long since become attainable no longer proves engaging. Thus, the journeyman musical performer gains flow from the accurate performance of familiar pieces in the repertoire; the youthful master wishes to tackle the most challenging pieces, ones most difficult to execute in a technical sense; the seasoned master may develop highly personal interpretations of familiar pieces, or, alternatively, return to those deceptively simple pieces that may actually prove difficult to execute convincingly and powerfully. Such an analysis helps explain why creative individuals continue to engage in the area of their expertise despite its frustrations, and why so many of them continue to raise the ante, posing ever-greater challenges for themselves, even at the risk of sacrificing the customary rewards. ~ Howard Gardner
158:During an individual's immersion in a domain, the locus of flow experiences shifts: what was once too challenging becomes attainable and even pleasurable, while what has long since become attainable no longer proves engaging. Thus, the journeyman musical performer gains flow from the accurate performance of familiar pieces in the repertoire; the youthful master wishes to tackle the most challenging pieces, ones most difficult to execute in a technical sense; the seasoned master may develop highly personal interpretations of familiar pieces, or, alternatively, return to those deceptively simple pieces that may actually prove difficult to execute convincingly and powerfully. Such an analysis helps explain why creative individuals continue to engage in the area of their expertise despite its frustrations, and why so many of them continue to raise the ante, posing ever-greater challenges for themselves, even at the risk of sacrificing the customary rewards. ~ Howard Gardner,
159:Embracing a different vocabulary, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi has described a highly sought-after affective state called the flow state or flow experience. In such intrinsically motivating experiences, which can occur in any domain of activity, people report themselves as fully engaged with and absorbed by the object of their attention. In one sense, those "in flow" are not conscious of the experience at the moment; on reflection, however, such people feel that they have been fully alive, totally realized, and involved in a "peak experience." Individuals who regularly engage in creative activities often report that they seek such states; the prospect of such "periods of flow" can be so intense that individuals will exert considerable practice and effort, and even tolerate physical or psychological pain, in pursuit thereof. Committed writers may claim that they hate the time spent chained to their desks, but the thought that they would not have the opportunity to attain occasional periods of flow while writing proves devastating. ~ Howard Gardner
160:Embracing a different vocabulary, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi has described a highly sought-after affective state called the flow state or flow experience. In such intrinsically motivating experiences, which can occur in any domain of activity, people report themselves as fully engaged with and absorbed by the object of their attention. In one sense, those "in flow" are not conscious of the experience at the moment; on reflection, however, such people feel that they have been fully alive, totally realized, and involved in a "peak experience." Individuals who regularly engage in creative activities often report that they seek such states; the prospect of such "periods of flow" can be so intense that individuals will exert considerable practice and effort, and even tolerate physical or psychological pain, in pursuit thereof. Committed writers may claim that they hate the time spent chained to their desks, but the thought that they would not have the opportunity to attain occasional periods of flow while writing proves devastating. ~ Howard Gardner,
161:Einstein felt that he did not have great mathematical gifts and deliberately chose not to take courses and to continue in that area.

The fact that I neglected mathematics to a certain extent had its causes not merely in my stronger interest in science than in mathematics but also in the following strange experience....I saw that mathematics was split up into numerous specialties, each of which could easily absorb the short lifetime granted to us....In physics, however, I soon learned to scent out that which was able to lead to fundamentals and to turn aside from everything else, from the multitude of things that clutter up the mind and divert it from the essential.

This capacity to pick out important issues dovetailed with Einstein's search for the most general possible conception. "In a man of my type," he declared, "the turning point of the development lies in the fact that gradually the major interest disengages itself to a far reaching degree from the momentary and the merely personal and turns toward the striving for a mental grasp of things. ~ Howard Gardner
162:Csikszentmihalyi teamed up with two other leading psychologists—Howard Gardner at Harvard, and William Damon at Stanford—to study these changes, and to see why some professions seemed healthy while others were growing sick. Picking the fields of genetics and journalism as case studies, they conducted dozens of interviews with people in each field. Their conclusion32 is as profound as it is simple: It’s a matter of alignment. When doing good (doing high-quality work that produces something of use to others) matches up with doing well (achieving wealth and professional advancement), a field is healthy. Genetics, for example, is a healthy field because all parties involved respect and reward the very best science. Even though pharmaceutical companies and market forces were beginning to inject vast amounts of money into university research labs in the 1990s, the scientists whom Csikszentmihalyi, Gardner, and Damon interviewed did not believe they were being asked to lower their standards, cheat, lie, or sell their souls. Geneticists believed that their field was in a golden age in which excellent work brought great benefits to the general public, the pharmaceutical companies, the universities, and the scientists themselves. ~ Jonathan Haidt
163:No less than human beings, human institutions exhibit constraints. Schools or factories or offices may be malleable, but they are not infinitely so. Economies of scale, vexations of human relations, bureaucratic histories, diverse and changing expectations, and pressures for accountability burden all significant human institutions. In the past, serving a smaller and less diverse clientele, schools faced certain problems; today, in a rapidly changing world, where the schools are expected to serve the multiple needs of every young individual, the limitations of this institution are sometimes overwhelming. If one wishes to bring about change in schools, it is important to understand their modes of operation no less than one understands the operations of individuals within them. Accordingly, following the investigation of constraints on human knowing, I consider some limits governing educational institutions, most especially schools. A focus on children and schools brings us face-to-face with a third dimension: the question of which knowledges and performances we value. If one considers school strictly as a place in which certain criteria are to be met (say, for the purpose of certification), it matters not what use one can subsequently make of the skills and knowledge acquired there. One could readily tolerate schools where understanding was considered irrelevant or even noxious. But if one wishes to argue that school should relate to a productive life in the community, or that certain kinds of understanding ought to be the desiderata of education, then the research results I have described are consequential. ~ Howard Gardner
164:reading :::
   50 Psychology Classics: List of Books Covered:
   Alfred Adler - Understanding Human Nature (1927)
   Gordon Allport - The Nature of Prejudice (1954)
   Albert Bandura - Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (1997)
   Gavin Becker - The Gift of Fear (1997)
   Eric Berne - Games People Play (1964)
   Isabel Briggs Myers - Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type (1980)
   Louann Brizendine - The Female Brain (2006)
   David D Burns - Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (1980)
   Susan Cain - Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking (2012)
   Robert Cialdini - Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (1984)
   Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - Creativity (1997)
   Carol Dweck - Mindset: The New Psychology of Success (2006)
   Albert Ellis & Robert Harper - (1961) A Guide To Rational Living(1961)
   Milton Erickson - My Voice Will Go With You (1982) by Sidney Rosen
   Eric Erikson - Young Man Luther (1958)
   Hans Eysenck - Dimensions of Personality (1947)
   Viktor Frankl - The Will to Meaning (1969)
   Anna Freud - The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936)
   Sigmund Freud - The Interpretation of Dreams (1901)
   Howard Gardner - Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983)
   Daniel Gilbert - Stumbling on Happiness (2006)
   Malcolm Gladwell - Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (2005)
   Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence at Work (1998)
   John M Gottman - The Seven Principles For Making Marriage Work (1999)
   Temple Grandin - The Autistic Brain: Helping Different Kinds of Minds Succeed (2013)
   Harry Harlow - The Nature of Love (1958)
   Thomas A Harris - I'm OK - You're OK (1967)
   Eric Hoffer - The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements (1951)
   Karen Horney - Our Inner Conflicts (1945)
   William James - Principles of Psychology (1890)
   Carl Jung - The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1953)
   Daniel Kahneman - Thinking, Fast and Slow (2011)
   Alfred Kinsey - Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)
   RD Laing - The Divided Self (1959)
   Abraham Maslow - The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (1970)
   Stanley Milgram - Obedience To Authority (1974)
   Walter Mischel - The Marshmallow Test (2014)
   Leonard Mlodinow - Subliminal: How Your Unconscious Mind Rules Your Behavior (2012)
   IP Pavlov - Conditioned Reflexes (1927)
   Fritz Perls - Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality (1951)
   Jean Piaget - The Language and Thought of the Child (1966)
   Steven Pinker - The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002)
   VS Ramachandran - Phantoms in the Brain (1998)
   Carl Rogers - On Becoming a Person (1961)
   Oliver Sacks - The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (1970)
   Barry Schwartz - The Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less (2004)
   Martin Seligman - Authentic Happiness (2002)
   BF Skinner - Beyond Freedom & Dignity (1953)
   Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton & Sheila Heen - Difficult Conversations (2000)
   William Styron - Darkness Visible (1990)
   ~ Tom Butler-Bowdon, 50 Psychology Classics,

IN CHAPTERS









1.07 - The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, #Sex Ecology Spirituality, #Ken Wilber, #Philosophy
  
  11:The more he can subjectively reflect on his self, the more he can transcend it-his subjectivity, his interiority, rids him of his egocentricity. Howard Gardner does a masterful job of summarizing development as being the two processes of decreasing egocentrism and increasing interiority. "The first is the decline of egocentrism. The young child is, in Piaget's terms, totally egocentric-meaning not that he thinks selfishly only about himself, but to the contrary, that he is incapable of thinking about himself. The egocentric child is unable to differentiate himself from the rest of the world; he has not separated himself out from others or from objects. Thus he feels that others share his pain or his pleasure, that his mumblings will inevitably be understood, that his perspective is shared by all persons, that even animals and plants partake of his consciousness. In playing hide-and-seek he will 'hide' in broad view of other persons, because his egocentrism prevents him from recognizing that others are aware of his location. The whole course of human development can be viewed as a continuing decline in egocentrism. . . ."3
  

WORDNET


































IN WEBGEN [10000/1]

A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton


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