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object:Jean Piaget
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subject class:Psychology
subject:Psychology


--- WIKI
Jean Piaget (,, ; 9 August 1896 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist known for his work on child development. Piaget's theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in 1934 that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual." His theory of child development is studied in pre-service education programs. Educators continue to incorporate constructivist-based strategies. Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva in 1955 while on the faculty of the University of Geneva and directed the Center until his death in 1980. The number of collaborations that its founding made possible, and their impact, ultimately led to the Center being referred to in the scholarly literature as "Piaget's factory". According to Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget was "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing." However, his ideas did not become widely popularized until the 1960s. This then led to the emergence of the study of development as a major sub-discipline in psychology. By the end of the 20th century, Piaget was second only to B. F. Skinner as the most cited psychologist of that era.

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OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Blazing_the_Trail_from_Infancy_to_Enlightenment
Infinite_Library

IN CHAPTERS TITLE

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
1.02_-_MAPS_OF_MEANING_-_THREE_LEVELS_OF_ANALYSIS
1.05_-_THE_HOSTILE_BROTHERS_-_ARCHETYPES_OF_RESPONSE_TO_THE_UNKNOWN
3-5_Full_Circle
Blazing_P1_-_Preconventional_consciousness
Blazing_P2_-_Map_the_Stages_of_Conventional_Consciousness
Blazing_P3_-_Explore_the_Stages_of_Postconventional_Consciousness
BS_1_-_Introduction_to_the_Idea_of_God
MoM_References

PRIMARY CLASS

author
SIMILAR TITLES
Jean Piaget

DEFINITIONS



QUOTES [7 / 7 - 121 / 121]


KEYS (10k)

   5 Jean Piaget
   1 Tom Butler-Bowdon
   1 S. I. Hayakawa

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

  109 Jean Piaget
   6 Jean Piaget

1:Accommodation of mental structures to reality implies the existence of assimilatory schemata apart from which any structure would be impossible. ~ Jean Piaget,
2:Are we forming children who are only capable of learning what is already known? Or should we try to develop creative and innovative minds, capable of discovery from the preschool age on, throughout life? ~ Jean Piaget,
3:The more the schemata are differentiated, the smaller the gap between the new and the familiar becomes, so that novelty, instead of constituting an annoyance avoided by the subject, becomes a problem and invites searching. ~ Jean Piaget,
4:But these structures, forming different levels, are to be regarded as succeeding one another according to a law of development, such that each one brings about a more inclusive and stable equilibrium for the processes that emerge from the preceding level. ~ Jean Piaget,
5:Little by little there has to be a constant equilibrium established between the parts of the subject's knowledge and the totality of his knowledge at any given moment. There is a constant differentiation of the totality of knowledge into the parts and an integration of the parts back into the whole.
   ~ Jean Piaget, 1977, p. 839,
6:My deepest debt in this book is to the General Semantics ('non-Aristotelian system') of Alfred Korzybski. I have also drawn heavily upon the works of other contributors to semantic thought: especially C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards, Thorstein Veblen, Edward Sapir, Leonard Bloomfield, Karl R. Popper, Thurman Arnold, Jerome Frank, Jean Piaget, Charles Morris, Wendell Johnson, Irving J. Lee, Ernst Cassirer, Anatol Rapoport, Stuart Chase. I am also deeply indebted to the writings of numerous psychologists and psychiatrists with one or another of the dynamic points of view inspired by Sigmund Freud: Karl Menninger, Trigant Burrow, Carl Rogers, Kurt Lewin, N. R. F. Maier, Jurgen Ruesch, Gregory Bateson, Rudolf Dreikurs, Milton Rokeach. I have also found extremely helpful the writings of cultural anthropologists, especially those of Benjamin Lee Whorf, Ruth Benedict, Clyde Kluckhohn, Leslie A. White, Margaret Mead, Weston La Barre. ~ S. I. Hayakawa,
7:reading :::
   50 Psychology Classics: List of Books Covered:
   Alfred Adler - Understanding Human Nature (1927)
   Gordon Allport - The Nature of Prejudice (1954)
   Albert Bandura - Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (1997)
   Gavin Becker - The Gift of Fear (1997)
   Eric Berne - Games People Play (1964)
   Isabel Briggs Myers - Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type (1980)
   Louann Brizendine - The Female Brain (2006)
   David D Burns - Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (1980)
   Susan Cain - Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking (2012)
   Robert Cialdini - Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (1984)
   Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - Creativity (1997)
   Carol Dweck - Mindset: The New Psychology of Success (2006)
   Albert Ellis & Robert Harper - (1961) A Guide To Rational Living(1961)
   Milton Erickson - My Voice Will Go With You (1982) by Sidney Rosen
   Eric Erikson - Young Man Luther (1958)
   Hans Eysenck - Dimensions of Personality (1947)
   Viktor Frankl - The Will to Meaning (1969)
   Anna Freud - The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936)
   Sigmund Freud - The Interpretation of Dreams (1901)
   Howard Gardner - Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983)
   Daniel Gilbert - Stumbling on Happiness (2006)
   Malcolm Gladwell - Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (2005)
   Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence at Work (1998)
   John M Gottman - The Seven Principles For Making Marriage Work (1999)
   Temple Grandin - The Autistic Brain: Helping Different Kinds of Minds Succeed (2013)
   Harry Harlow - The Nature of Love (1958)
   Thomas A Harris - I'm OK - You're OK (1967)
   Eric Hoffer - The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements (1951)
   Karen Horney - Our Inner Conflicts (1945)
   William James - Principles of Psychology (1890)
   Carl Jung - The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1953)
   Daniel Kahneman - Thinking, Fast and Slow (2011)
   Alfred Kinsey - Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)
   RD Laing - The Divided Self (1959)
   Abraham Maslow - The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (1970)
   Stanley Milgram - Obedience To Authority (1974)
   Walter Mischel - The Marshmallow Test (2014)
   Leonard Mlodinow - Subliminal: How Your Unconscious Mind Rules Your Behavior (2012)
   IP Pavlov - Conditioned Reflexes (1927)
   Fritz Perls - Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality (1951)
   Jean Piaget - The Language and Thought of the Child (1966)
   Steven Pinker - The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002)
   VS Ramachandran - Phantoms in the Brain (1998)
   Carl Rogers - On Becoming a Person (1961)
   Oliver Sacks - The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (1970)
   Barry Schwartz - The Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less (2004)
   Martin Seligman - Authentic Happiness (2002)
   BF Skinner - Beyond Freedom & Dignity (1953)
   Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton & Sheila Heen - Difficult Conversations (2000)
   William Styron - Darkness Visible (1990)
   ~ Tom Butler-Bowdon, 50 Psychology Classics,

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:To understand is to invent. ~ Jean Piaget
2:Play is the work of childhood. ~ Jean Piaget
3:Experience precedes understanding. ~ Jean Piaget
4:I could not think without writing. ~ Jean Piaget
5:We learn more when we are compelled to invent. ~ Jean Piaget
6:Play is the answer to how anything new comes about. ~ Jean Piaget
7:Punishment renders autonomy of conscience impossible. ~ Jean Piaget
8:The most developed science remains a continual becoming ~ Jean Piaget
9:Intelligence is what you use when you don't know what to do. ~ Jean Piaget
10:Equilibrium is the profoundest tendency of all human activity. ~ Jean Piaget
11:Children require long, uniterrupted periods of play and exploration ~ Jean Piaget
12:What we see changes what we know. What we know changes what we see. ~ Jean Piaget
13:Teaching means creating situations where structures can be discovered. ~ Jean Piaget
14:Everytime we teach a child something, we prevent him from inventing it ~ Jean Piaget
15:Logic and mathematics are nothing but specialised linguistic structures. ~ Jean Piaget
16:How much more precious is a little humanity than all the rules in the world. ~ Jean Piaget
17:If mutual respect does derive from unilateral respect, it does so by opposition. ~ Jean Piaget
18:Scientific thought, then, is not momentary; it is not a static instance; it is a process. ~ Jean Piaget
19:Reflective abstraction, however, is based not on individual actions but on coordinated actions. ~ Jean Piaget
20:So we must start from this dual nature of intelligence as something both biological and logical. ~ Jean Piaget
21:When you teach a child something you take away forever his chance of discovering it for himself. ~ Jean Piaget
22:Scientific knowledge is in perpetual evolution; it finds itself changed from one day to the next. ~ Jean Piaget
23:To express the same idea in still another way, I think that human knowledge is essentially active. ~ Jean Piaget
24:In genetic epistemology, as in developmental psychology, too, there is never an absolute beginning. ~ Jean Piaget
25:Only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual. ~ Jean Piaget
26:This means that no single logic is strong enough to support the total construction of human knowledge. ~ Jean Piaget
27:I have always detested any departure from reality, an attitude which I relate to my mother's poor mental health. ~ Jean Piaget
28:Moral autonomy appears when the mind regards as necessary an ideal that is independent of all external pressures. ~ Jean Piaget
29:Knowing reality means constructing systems of transformations that correspond, more or less adequately, to reality. ~ Jean Piaget
30:During the earliest stages of thought, accommodation remains on the surface of physical as well as social experience. ~ Jean Piaget
31:If logic itself is created rather than being inborn, it follows that the first task of education is to form reasoning. ~ Jean Piaget
32:Every acquisition of accommodation becomes material for assimilation, but assimilation always resists new accommodations. ~ Jean Piaget
33:How can we, with our adult minds, know what will be interesting? If you follow the child...you can find out something new. ~ Jean Piaget
34:As you know, Bergson pointed out that there is no such thing as disorder but rather two sorts of order, geometric and living. ~ Jean Piaget
35:Nel, after throwing a stone onto a sloping bank watching the stone rolling said, 'Look at the stone. It's afraid of the grass ~ Jean Piaget
36:Accommodation of mental structures to reality implies the existence of assimilatory schemata apart from which any structure would be impossible. ~ Jean Piaget
37:The essential functions of the mind consist in understanding and in inventing, in other words, in building up structures by structuring reality. ~ Jean Piaget
38:Accommodation of mental structures to reality implies the existence of assimilatory schemata apart from which any structure would be impossible. ~ Jean Piaget,
39:During the earliest stages the child perceives things like a solipsist who is unaware of himself as subject and is familiar only with his own actions. ~ Jean Piaget
40:The more we try to improve our schools, the heavier the teaching task becomes; and the better our teaching methods the more difficult they are to apply. ~ Jean Piaget
41:Knowledge is not predetermined by heredity; it is not predetermined in the things around us - in knowing things around him the subject always adds to them. ~ Jean Piaget
42:It is with children that we have the best chance of studying the development of logical knowledge, mathematical knowledge, physical knowledge, and so forth. ~ Jean Piaget
43:Logic is the mirror of thought, and not vice versa;in classes, relations et nombres; essai sur les groupements de logistique et la réversibilitié de lq pensée ~ Jean Piaget
44:Every psychological explanation comes sooner or later to lean either on biology or on logic (or on sociology, but this in turn leads to the same alternatives). ~ Jean Piaget
45:intelligence, the most plastic and at the same time the most durable structural equilibrium of behaviour, is essentially a system of living and acting operations. ~ Jean Piaget
46:Piaget’s work shows that our concepts of logic, space, time, number, quantity, etc., are not given readymade as Kant thought, but undergo a process of development. ~ Jean Piaget
47:to avoid the difficulties of teleological language, adaptation must be described as an equilibrium between the action of the organism on the environment and vice versa. ~ Jean Piaget
48:Every response, whether it be an act directed towards the outside world or an act internalized as thought, takes the form of an adaptation or, better, of a re-adaptation. ~ Jean Piaget
49:The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done. ~ Jean Piaget
50:The current state of knowledge is a moment in history, changing just as rapidly as the state of knowledge in the past has ever changed and, in many instances, more rapidly. ~ Jean Piaget
51:Children have real understanding only of that which they invent themselves, and each time that we try to teach them too quickly, we keep them from reinventing it themselves. ~ Jean Piaget
52:Each time one prematurely teaches a child something he could have discovered himself, that child is kept from inventing it and consequently from understanding it completely. ~ Jean Piaget
53:True interest appears when the self identifies itself with ideas or objects, when it finds in them a means of expression and they become a necessary form of fuel for its activity. ~ Jean Piaget
54:Every structure is to be thought of as a particular form of equilibrium, more or less stable within its restricted field and losing its stability on reaching the limits of the field. ~ Jean Piaget
55:In other words, knowledge of the external world begins with an immediate utilisation of things, whereas knowledge of self is stopped by this purely practical and utilitarian contact. ~ Jean Piaget
56:Logical positivists have never taken psychology into account in their epistemology, but they affirm that logical beings and mathematical beings are nothing but linguistic structures. ~ Jean Piaget
57:The self thus becomes aware of itself, at least in its practical action, and discovers itself as a cause among other causes and as an object subject to the same laws as other objects. ~ Jean Piaget
58:The child is a realist in every domain of thought, and it is therefore natural that in the moral sphere he should lay more stress on the external, tangible element than on the hidden motive. ~ Jean Piaget
59:What is desired is that the teacher ceased being a lecturer, satisfied with transmitting ready-made solutions. His role should rather be that of a mentor stimulating initiative and research. ~ Jean Piaget
60:Formal logic, or logistics, is simply the axiomatics of states of equilibrium of thought, and the positive science corresponding to this axiomatics is none other than the psychology of thought. ~ Jean Piaget
61:We shall simply say then that every action involves an energetic or affective aspect and a structural or cognitive aspect, which, in fact, unites the different points of view already mentioned. ~ Jean Piaget
62:Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself. On the other hand, that which we allow him to discover for himself will remain with him visible for the rest of his life. ~ Jean Piaget
63:Are we forming children who are only capable of learning what is already known? Or should we try to develop creative and innovative minds, capable of discovery from the preschool age on, throughout life? ~ Jean Piaget
64:What the genetic epistemology proposes is discovering the roots of the different varieties of knowledge, since its elementary forms, following to the next levels, including also the scientific knowledge. ~ Jean Piaget
65:Are we forming children who are only capable of learning what is already known? Or should we try to develop creative and innovative minds, capable of discovery from the preschool age on, throughout life? ~ Jean Piaget,
66:Chance... in the accommodation peculiar to sensorimotor intelligence, plays the same role as in scientific discovery. It is only useful to the genius and its revelations remain meaningless to the unskilled. ~ Jean Piaget
67:We shall adopt an analogous formula, with the reservation that feelings and cognitive configurations do not depend solely on the existing "field," but also on the whole previous history of the acting subject. ~ Jean Piaget
68:Our problem, from the point of view of psychology and from the point of view of genetic epistemology, is to explain how the transition is made from a lower level of knowledge to a level that is judged to be higher. ~ Jean Piaget
69:The more the schemata are differentiated, the smaller the gap between the new and the familiar becomes, so that novelty, instead of constituting an annoyance avoided by the subject, becomes a problem and invites searching. ~ Jean Piaget
70:The more the schemata are differentiated, the smaller the gap between the new and the familiar becomes, so that novelty, instead of constituting an annoyance avoided by the subject, becomes a problem and invites searching. ~ Jean Piaget,
71:A fact is first an answer to a question. If Sartre had consulted psychologists before judging them in the light of his own genius, he would have learned that they do not wait on the accident but begin by setting themselves problems. ~ Jean Piaget
72:The individual acts only if he experiences a need, i.e., if the equilibrium between the environment and the organism is momentarily upset, and action tends to re-establish the equilibrium, i.e., to re-adapt the organism (Claparède). ~ Jean Piaget
73:Education, for most people, means trying to lead the child to resemble the typical adult of his society . . . but for me and no one else, education means making creators. . . . You have to make inventors, innovators...not conformists ~ Jean Piaget
74:To expect a fact, is by definition to expect the isolated, it is for positivism, to prefer the ‘accident’ to the essential, the contingent to the necessary, disorder to order; it is in principle to reject the essential in the future: ~ Jean Piaget
75:According to Claparède, feelings appoint a goal for behaviour, while intelligence merely provides the means (the "technique"). But there exists an awareness of ends as well as of means, and this continually modifies the goals of action. ~ Jean Piaget
76:theory or have remained unaffected by them. It is true that a fact can sometimes appear to resemble an “accident,” as in the case of the apple that fell near Newton, but the accident only became a “fact” because Newton asked certain questions. ~ Jean Piaget
77:But these structures, forming different levels, are to be regarded as succeeding one another according to a law of development, such that each one brings about a more inclusive and stable equilibrium for the processes that emerge from the preceding level. ~ Jean Piaget
78:But these structures, forming different levels, are to be regarded as succeeding one another according to a law of development, such that each one brings about a more inclusive and stable equilibrium for the processes that emerge from the preceding level. ~ Jean Piaget,
79:I am convinced that there is no sort of boundary between the living and the mental or between the biological and the psychological. From the moment an organism takes account of a previous experience and adapts to a new situation, that very much resembles psychology. ~ Jean Piaget
80:The student will take his activity more to heart if his work supplies and, above all, the result of his efforts belong to him. ~ Jean Piaget, "The Right to Education in the Modern World" (1948), tr. George-Anne Roberts in To Understand Is To Invent: The Future of Education (1973), p. 60–61
81:Thus arises the solution proposed by the so-called Gestalt psychology: behaviour involves a "total field" embracing subject and objects, and the dynamics of this field constitutes feeling (Lewin), while its structure depends on perception, effector-functions, and intelligence. ~ Jean Piaget
82:But if all behaviour, without exception, thus implies an energetics or an "economy", forming its affective aspect, the interaction with the environment which it instigates likewise requires a form or structure to determine the various possible circuits between subject and object. ~ Jean Piaget
83:The child who defines a lie as being a "naughty word" knows perfectly well that lying consists in not speaking the truth. He is not, therefore, mistaking one thing for another, he is simply identifying them one with another by what seems to us a quaint extension of the word "lie". ~ Jean Piaget
84:As far as the game of marbles is concerned, there is therefore no contradiction between the egocentric practice of games and the mystical respect entertained for rules. This respect is the mark of a mentality fashioned, not by free cooperation between equals, but by adult constraint. ~ Jean Piaget
85:if one accepts Jean Piaget’s famous definition of mature intelligence as the ability to coordinate between multiple perspectives (or possible perspectives) one can see, here, precisely how bureaucratic power, at the moment it turns to violence, becomes literally a form of infantile stupidity. ~ David Graeber
86:The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done; men and women who are creative, inventive and discoverers, who can be critical and verify, and not accept, everything they are offered. ~ Jean Piaget
87:The majority of parents are poor psychologists and give their children the most questionable moral trainings. It is perhaps in this domain that one realized most how keenly how immoral it can be to believe too much in morality, and how much more precious is a little humanity than all the rules in the world. ~ Jean Piaget
88:Before games are played in common, no rules in the proper sense can come into existence. Regularities and ritualized schemas are already there, but these rites, being the work of the individual, cannot call forth that submission to something superior to the self which characterizes the appearance of any rule. ~ Jean Piaget
89:The principal goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things, not simply of repeating what other generations have done-men who are creative, inventive, and discovers. The second goal of education is to form minds which can be critical, can verify, and not accept everything they are offered. ~ Jean Piaget
90:Little by little there has to be a constant equilibrium established between the parts of the subject's knowledge and the totality of his knowledge at any given moment. There is a constant differentiation of the totality of knowledge into the parts and an integration of the parts back into the whole.
   ~ Jean Piaget, 1977, p. 839,
91:for example, to see whether in the developing subject, i.e. the child, integers are directly constructed starting from class logic by biunivocal correspondence and the construction of a “class of equivalent classes” as Frege and B. Russell thought, or whether the construction is more complex and presupposes the concept of order. ~ Jean Piaget
92:In fact, objects are known only through the subject, while the subject can know himself or her- self only by acting on objects materially and mentally. Indeed, if objects are innumerable and science indefinitely diverse, all knowledge of the subject brings us back to psychology, the science of the subject and the subject's actions. ~ Jean Piaget
93:It was while teaching philosophy that I saw how easily one can say ... what one wants to say. ... In fact, I became particularly aware if the dangers of speculation ... It's so much easier than digging out the facts. You sit in your office and build a system. But with my training in biology, I felt this kind of undertaking precarious. ~ Jean Piaget
94:It is as his own mind comes into contact with others that truth will begin to acquire value in the child's eyes and will consequently become a moral demand that can be made upon him. As long as the child remains egocentric, truth as such will fail to interest him and he will see no harm in transposing facts in accordance with his desires. ~ Jean Piaget
95:For someone who constantly comes across this problem in the course of his professional activities, the question whether philosophy has the status of a “wisdom” or of a form of “knowledge” peculiar to itself is no longer an unnecessary or simply a theoretical problem; it is a vital question, since it affects the success or failure of thousands of scholars. ~ Jean Piaget
96:Psychology, in fact, repre-
sents the juncture of two opposite directions of are still insufficient. In the science of human be- scientific thought that are dialectically comple-
mentary. It follows that the system of sciences
cannot be arranged in a linear order, as many
people beginning with Auguste Comte have at-
tempted to arrange them. ~ Jean Piaget
97:For some writers mental phenomena become intelligible only when related to the organism. This view is of course inescapable when we study the elementary functions (perception, motor functions, etc.) in which intelligence originates. But we can hardly see neurology explaining why 2 and 2 make 4, or why the laws of deduction are forced on the mind of necessity. ~ Jean Piaget
98:If a baby really has no awareness of himself and is totally thing-directed and at the same time all his states of mind are projected onto things, our second paradox makes sense: on the one hand, thought in babies can be viewed as pure accommodation or exploratory movements, but on the other this very same thought is only one, long, completely autistic waking dream. ~ Jean Piaget
99:At one time, many philosophers held that faultless "laws of thought" were somehow inherent, a priori, in the very nature of mind. This belief was twice shaken in the past century; first when Russell and his successors showed how the logic men employ can be defective, and later when Freud and Piaget started to reveal the tortuous ways in which our minds actually develop. ~ Jean Piaget
100:The need to speak the truth and even to seek it for oneself is only conceivable in so far as the individual thinks and acts as one of a society, and not of any society (for it is just the constraining relations between superior and inferior that often drive the latter to prevarication) but of a society founded on reciprocity and mutual respect, and therefore on cooperation. ~ Jean Piaget
101:There is little mysticism without an element of transcendence, and conversely, there is no transcendence without a certain degree of egocentrism. It may be that the genesis of these experiences is to be sought in the unique situation of the very young child in relation to adults. The theory of the filial origin of the religious sense seems to us singularly convincing in this connection. ~ Jean Piaget
102:Thus arises the second tendency, which consists in regarding logical and mathematical relations as irreducible, and in making an analysis of the higher intellectual functions depend on an analysis of them. But it is questionable whether logic, regarded as something eluding the attempts of experimental psychology to explain it, can in its turn legitimately explain anything in psychological experience. ~ Jean Piaget
103:This new philosophical psychology can in this respect be traced back to Maine de Biran, for even if in his time scientific psychology was unaware of its autonomy, and even if Biranian psychology was only critical of that of the empiricists, Biran believed in the Kantian distinction of noumena and phenomena and took care to limit his inquiry to the latter alone, which did not prevent him from extending it in the form of idealist speculations. ~ Jean Piaget
104:In certain circumstances where he experiments in new types of conduct by cooperating with his equals, the child is already an adult. There is an adult in every child and a child in every adult. ... There exist in the child certain attitudes and beliefs which intellectual development will more and more tend to eliminate: there are others which will acquire more and more importance. The later are not derived from the former but are partly antagonistic to them. ~ Jean Piaget
105:Mixture of assimilation to earlier schemas and adaptation to the actual conditions of the situation is what defines motor intelligence. But and this is where rules come into existence as soon as a balance is established between adaptation and assimilation, the course of conduct adopted becomes crystallized and ritualized. New schemas are even established which the child looks for and retains with care, as though they were obligatory or charged with efficacy. ~ Jean Piaget
106:The relations between parents and children are certainly not only those of constraint. There is spontaneous mutual affection, which from the first prompts the child to acts of generosity and even of self-sacrifice, to very touching demonstrations which are in no way prescribed. And here no doubt is the starting point for that morality of good which we shall see developing alongside of the morality of right or duty, and which in some persons completely replaces it. ~ Jean Piaget
107:A response is thus a particular case of interaction between the external world and the subject, but unlike physiological interactions, which are of a material nature and involve an internal change in the bodies which are present, the responses studied by psychology are of a functional nature and are achieved at greater and greater distances in space (perception, etc.) and in time (memory, etc.) besides following more and more complex paths (reversals, detours, etc.). ~ Jean Piaget
108:Children should be able to do their own experimenting and their own research. Teachers, of course, can guide them by providing appropriate materials, but the essential thing is that in order for a child to understand something, he must construct it himself, he must re-invent it. Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself. On the other hand that which we allow him to discover by himself will remain with him visibly for the rest of his life. ~ Jean Piaget
109:Much research in psychology has been more concerned with how large groups of people behave than about the particular ways in which each individual person thinks... too statistical. I find this disappointing because, in my view of the history of psychology, far more was learned, for example, when Jean Piaget spent several years observing the ways that three children developed, or when Sigmund Freud took several years to examine the thinking of a rather small number of patients. ~ Jean Piaget
110:The discussion of the game of marbles seems to have led us into rather deep waters. But in the eyes of children the history of the game of marbles has quite as much importance as the history of religion or of forms of government. It Is a history, moreover, that is magnificently spontaneous; and it was therefore perhaps not entirely useless to seek to throw light on the child's judgment of moral value by a preliminary study of the social behaviour of children amongst themselves. ~ Jean Piaget
111:Children should be able to do their own experimenting and their own research. Teachers, of course, can guide them by providing appropriate materials, but the essential thing is that in order for a child to understand something, he must construct it himself, he must re-invent it. Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself. On the other hand that which we allow him to discover by himself will remain with him visibly [...] for all the rest of his life. ~ Jean Piaget
112:For the fundamental fact of human psychology is that society, instead of remaining almost entirely inside the individual organism as in the case of animals prompted by their instincts, becomes crystallized almost entirely outside the individuals. In other words, social rules, as Durkheim has so powerfully shown, whether they be linguistic, moral, religious, or legal, etc., cannot be constituted, transmitted or preserved by means of an internal biological heredity, but only through the external pressure exercised by individuals upon each other. ~ Jean Piaget
113:The child psychologist Jean Piaget saw conflict as a critical part of mental development. Through battles with peers and then parents, children learn to adapt to the world and develop strategies for dealing with problems. Those children who seek to avoid conflict at all cost, or those who have overprotective parents, end up handicapped socially and mentally. The same is true of adults: it is through your battles with others that you learn what works, what doesn’t, and how to protect yourself. Instead of shrinking from the idea of having enemies, then, embrace it. Conflict is therapeutic. ~ Robert Greene
114:I know some very intelligent philosophers, not at all dogmatic, who believe that “science” cannot introduce the concept of finality in the analysis and explanation of vital processes, but that “philosophy” equally cannot arrive at an adequate concept of organic life without introducing finality. It is not a question here of moral or other values, but rather of a concept peculiar to philosophical biology as opposed to biology. Indeed, one such philosopher concluded, drawing inspiration from Merleau-Ponty, that science can “never” give an adequate explanation of the concept of the “whole structure” of the organism. ~ Jean Piaget
115:Piaget is also concerned with attempts of Maine de Biran, Bergson, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty to construct a philosophical psychology as opposed to a scientific empirical psychology. He believes that the difference between philosophical psychology and scientific psychology lies neither in the fact that the former concerns itself with “essences” (Husserl), with “irrationality” (Sartre), nor in its use of introspection. He sees the difference as being one rather of method: philosophical psychology neglects objective verification and grounds itself in subjectivity, although claiming to arrive at objective knowledge through intuition. ~ Jean Piaget
116:According to Claparède, feelings appoint a goal for behaviour, while intelligence merely provides the means (the "technique"). But there exists an awareness of ends as well as of means, and this continually modifies the goals of action. In so far as feeling directs behaviour by attributing a value to its ends, we must confine ourselves to saying that it supplies the energy necessary for action, while knowledge impresses a structure on it. Thus arises the solution proposed by the so-called Gestalt psychology: behaviour involves a "total field" embracing subject and objects, and the dynamics of this field constitutes feeling (Lewin), while its structure depends on perception, effector-functions, and intelligence. ~ Jean Piaget
117:A century ago, we had essentially no way to start to explain how thinking works. Then psychologists like Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget produced their theories about child development. Somewhat later, on the mechanical side, mathematicians like Kurt Gödel and Alan Turing began to reveal the hitherto unknown range of what machines could be made to do. These two streams of thought began to merge only in the 1940s, when Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts began to show how machines might be made to see, reason, and remember. Research in the modern science of Artificial Intelligence started only in the 1950's, stimulated by the invention of modern computers. This inspired a flood of new ideas about how machines could do what only minds had done previously. ~ Marvin Minsky, The Society of Mind (1988)
118:My deepest debt in this book is to the General Semantics ('non-Aristotelian system') of Alfred Korzybski. I have also drawn heavily upon the works of other contributors to semantic thought: especially C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards, Thorstein Veblen, Edward Sapir, Leonard Bloomfield, Karl R. Popper, Thurman Arnold, Jerome Frank, Jean Piaget, Charles Morris, Wendell Johnson, Irving J. Lee, Ernst Cassirer, Anatol Rapoport, Stuart Chase. I am also deeply indebted to the writings of numerous psychologists and psychiatrists with one or another of the dynamic points of view inspired by Sigmund Freud: Karl Menninger, Trigant Burrow, Carl Rogers, Kurt Lewin, N. R. F. Maier, Jurgen Ruesch, Gregory Bateson, Rudolf Dreikurs, Milton Rokeach. I have also found extremely helpful the writings of cultural anthropologists, especially those of Benjamin Lee Whorf, Ruth Benedict, Clyde Kluckhohn, Leslie A. White, Margaret Mead, Weston La Barre. ~ S. I. Hayakawa,
119:In fact, objects are known only through the subject, while the subject can know himself or her- self only by acting on objects materially and men- tally. Indeed, if objects are innumerable and sci- ence indefinitely diverse, all knowledge of the sub- ject brings us back to psychology, the science of the subject and the subject's actions.
The fourth remark: People may say that I thus engage in philosophy or epistemology and no longer in scientific psychology. But, in the research that we pursue, it is impossible to dissociate psychology from epistemology. Indeed, if we study only one level of development (for example, that of the adult or adolescent), it is easy to distinguish the prob- lems: psychological experience, emotions, intelli- gence and its functions, etc., on the one hand, and the broad problems of knowledge (epistemology), etc., on the other. But if we want to study cogni- tive functions and pursue a developmental point of view in order to study the formation and trans- formations of human intelligence (and this is why I specialized in child psychology), then the prob-
lems must be formulated very differently: How is knowledge acquired, how does it increase, and how does it become organized or reorganized? These are the very questions that must be answered. ~ Jean Piaget
120:The fundamental problem with learning mathematics is that while the number sense may be genetic, exact calculation requires cultural tools—symbols and algorithms—that have been around for only a few thousand years and must therefore be absorbed by areas of the brain that evolved for other purposes. The process is made easier when what we are learning harmonizes with built-in circuitry. If we can’t change the architecture of our brains, we can at least adapt our teaching methods to the constraints it imposes. For nearly three decades, American educators have pushed “reform math,” in which children are encouraged to explore their own ways of solving problems. Before reform math, there was the “new math,” now widely thought to have been an educational disaster. (In France, it was called les maths modernes and is similarly despised.) The new math was grounded in the theories of the influential Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, who believed that children are born without any sense of number and only gradually build up the concept in a series of developmental stages. Piaget thought that children, until the age of four or five, cannot grasp the simple principle that moving objects around does not affect how many of them there are, and that there was therefore no point in trying to teach them arithmetic before the age of six or seven. ~ Jim Holt
121:reading :::
   50 Psychology Classics: List of Books Covered:
   Alfred Adler - Understanding Human Nature (1927)
   Gordon Allport - The Nature of Prejudice (1954)
   Albert Bandura - Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (1997)
   Gavin Becker - The Gift of Fear (1997)
   Eric Berne - Games People Play (1964)
   Isabel Briggs Myers - Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type (1980)
   Louann Brizendine - The Female Brain (2006)
   David D Burns - Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (1980)
   Susan Cain - Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking (2012)
   Robert Cialdini - Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (1984)
   Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - Creativity (1997)
   Carol Dweck - Mindset: The New Psychology of Success (2006)
   Albert Ellis & Robert Harper - (1961) A Guide To Rational Living(1961)
   Milton Erickson - My Voice Will Go With You (1982) by Sidney Rosen
   Eric Erikson - Young Man Luther (1958)
   Hans Eysenck - Dimensions of Personality (1947)
   Viktor Frankl - The Will to Meaning (1969)
   Anna Freud - The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936)
   Sigmund Freud - The Interpretation of Dreams (1901)
   Howard Gardner - Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983)
   Daniel Gilbert - Stumbling on Happiness (2006)
   Malcolm Gladwell - Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (2005)
   Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence at Work (1998)
   John M Gottman - The Seven Principles For Making Marriage Work (1999)
   Temple Grandin - The Autistic Brain: Helping Different Kinds of Minds Succeed (2013)
   Harry Harlow - The Nature of Love (1958)
   Thomas A Harris - I'm OK - You're OK (1967)
   Eric Hoffer - The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements (1951)
   Karen Horney - Our Inner Conflicts (1945)
   William James - Principles of Psychology (1890)
   Carl Jung - The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1953)
   Daniel Kahneman - Thinking, Fast and Slow (2011)
   Alfred Kinsey - Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)
   RD Laing - The Divided Self (1959)
   Abraham Maslow - The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (1970)
   Stanley Milgram - Obedience To Authority (1974)
   Walter Mischel - The Marshmallow Test (2014)
   Leonard Mlodinow - Subliminal: How Your Unconscious Mind Rules Your Behavior (2012)
   IP Pavlov - Conditioned Reflexes (1927)
   Fritz Perls - Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality (1951)
   Jean Piaget - The Language and Thought of the Child (1966)
   Steven Pinker - The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002)
   VS Ramachandran - Phantoms in the Brain (1998)
   Carl Rogers - On Becoming a Person (1961)
   Oliver Sacks - The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (1970)
   Barry Schwartz - The Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less (2004)
   Martin Seligman - Authentic Happiness (2002)
   BF Skinner - Beyond Freedom & Dignity (1953)
   Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton & Sheila Heen - Difficult Conversations (2000)
   William Styron - Darkness Visible (1990)
   ~ Tom Butler-Bowdon, 50 Psychology Classics,

IN CHAPTERS



   2 Psychology


   2 Jordan Peterson


   2 Maps of Meaning


1.02 - MAPS OF MEANING - THREE LEVELS OF ANALYSIS, #Maps of Meaning, #Jordan Peterson, #Psychology
  explanations for or descriptions of its behavior.169 A child can be good, without being a moral
  philosopher. This idea echoes the developmental psychologist Jean Piagets notion, with regards to child
  development, that adaptation at the sensorimotor level occurs prior to and lays the groundwork for the
  --
  so to speak, in behavior) and appears unlikely to characterize very young children (or animals, for that
  matter). Jean Piaget solved the problem of the goal-like behavior in creatures not yet capable of abstract
  conceptualization by presuming that goals are initially embedded in sensorimotor reflex operations,

1.05 - THE HOSTILE BROTHERS - ARCHETYPES OF RESPONSE TO THE UNKNOWN, #Maps of Meaning, #Jordan Peterson, #Psychology
  (pp. 145-170). New York: Academic Press.
  Evans, P.I. (1973). Jean Piaget: The man and his ideas. New York: E.P. Dutton and Company.
  Eysenck, H.J. (1995). Creativity as a product of personality and intelligence. In D.H. Saklofske & M.

3-5 Full Circle, #unset, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Eysenck, H. J., The Biological Basis of Personality, Springfield, 111.: Charles C, Thomas, 1967.
  Flavell, J., The Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget, New York: Van Nostrand, 1963.
  Harlow, H. F., E. Harlow, Margaret K., "The mind of man," in Yearbook of Science and Technology, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962.

Blazing P1 - Preconventional consciousness, #unset, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  
  In Jean Piagets words
  
  --
  exist even when they are not within sight, touch, or hearing. 35
  In Jean Piagets words
  

Blazing P2 - Map the Stages of Conventional Consciousness, #unset, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  The Infrared Stage of Consciousness
  Cognition - Jean Piaget
  Sensorimotor.......................................................................................................................................... 14
  --
  The Magenta Stage of Consciousness
  Cognition - Jean Piaget
  Preoperational........................................................................................................................................ 25
  --
  The Red Stage of Consciousness
  Cognition - Jean Piaget
  Preoperational........................................................................................................................................ 38
  --
  The Amber Stage of Consciousness
  Cognition - Jean Piaget
  Concrete Operations ............................................................................................................................... 9
  --
  The Orange Stage of Consciousness
  Cognition - Jean Piaget, Michael Commons, Francis Richards
  Formal Operations ............................................................................................................................... 28
  --
  only think about objects but also can think about manipulating objects.1
  In Jean Piagets words
  
  --
  or may not represent the state of the concrete environment.22
  In Jean Piagets words
  

Blazing P3 - Explore the Stages of Postconventional Consciousness, #unset, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  The Infrared Stage of Consciousness
  Cognition - Jean Piaget
  Sensorimotor.......................................................................................................................................... 14
  --
  The Magenta Stage of Consciousness
  Cognition - Jean Piaget
  Preoperational........................................................................................................................................ 25
  --
  The Red Stage of Consciousness
  Cognition - Jean Piaget
  Preoperational........................................................................................................................................ 38
  --
  The Amber Stage of Consciousness
  Cognition - Jean Piaget
  Concrete Operations ............................................................................................................................... 9
  --
  The Orange Stage of Consciousness
  Cognition - Jean Piaget, Michael Commons, Francis Richards
  Formal Operations ............................................................................................................................... 28

BS 1 - Introduction to the Idea of God, #unset, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  TIMESTAMP
  I also spent a lot of time reading Carl Jung. It was through Jungand also Jean Piaget, a developmental psychologist that I started to understand that our articulated systems of thought are embedded in something like a dream. That dream is informed, in a complex way, by the way we act. We act out things we dont understand, all the time. If that wasnt the case, we wouldnt need psychology, or sociology, or anthropology, or any of that, because wed be completely transparent to ourselves, and were clearly not. Were much more complicated than we understand, which means that the way that we behave contains way more information than we know.
  

MoM References, #unset, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  
  Evans, P.I. (1973). Jean Piaget: The man and his ideas. New York: E.P. Dutton and Company.
  

WORDNET



--- Overview of noun jean_piaget

The noun jean piaget has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts)
                
1. Piaget, Jean Piaget ::: (Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children (1896-1980))




--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun jean_piaget

1 sense of jean piaget                        

Sense 1
Piaget, Jean Piaget
   INSTANCE OF=> psychologist
     => scientist
       => person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
         => organism, being
           => living thing, animate thing
             => whole, unit
               => object, physical object
                 => physical entity
                   => entity
         => causal agent, cause, causal agency
           => physical entity
             => entity




--- Hyponyms of noun jean_piaget
                                    




--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun jean_piaget

1 sense of jean piaget                        

Sense 1
Piaget, Jean Piaget
   INSTANCE OF=> psychologist










--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun jean_piaget

1 sense of jean piaget                        

Sense 1
Piaget, Jean Piaget
  -> psychologist
   => behaviorist, behaviourist
   => hypnotist, hypnotizer, hypnotiser, mesmerist, mesmerizer
   => parapsychologist
   => psycholinguist
   => psychophysicist
   HAS INSTANCE=> Binet, Alfred Binet
   HAS INSTANCE=> Burt, Cyril Burt, Cyril Lodowic Burt
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cattell, James McKeen Cattell
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cattell, Ray Cattell, R. B. Cattell, Raymond B. Cattell, Raymond Bernard Cattell
   HAS INSTANCE=> Clark, Kenneth Clark, Kenneth Bancroft Clark
   HAS INSTANCE=> Eysenck, Hans Eysenck, H. J. Eysenck, Hans Jurgen Eysenck
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gesell, Arnold Gesell, Arnold Lucius Gesell
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hall, G. Stanley Hall, Granville Stanley Hall
   HAS INSTANCE=> James, William James
   HAS INSTANCE=> Jung, Carl Jung, Carl Gustav Jung
   HAS INSTANCE=> Leary, Tim Leary, Timothy Leary, Timothy Francis Leary
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ogden, C. K. Ogden, Charles Kay Ogden
   HAS INSTANCE=> Piaget, Jean Piaget
   HAS INSTANCE=> Rogers, Carl Rogers
   HAS INSTANCE=> Simon, Herb Simon, Herbert A. Simon, Herbert Alexander Simon
   HAS INSTANCE=> Skinner, Fred Skinner, B. F. Skinner, Burrhus Frederic Skinner
   HAS INSTANCE=> Thorndike, Edward Lee Thorndike
   HAS INSTANCE=> Watson, John Broadus Watson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Yerkes, Robert M. Yerkes, Robert Mearns Yerkes










--- Grep of noun jean_piaget
jean piaget





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