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Yuanwu Keqin (Japanese: Engo Kokugon) (10631135) was a Han Chinese Chan monk who compiled the Blue Cliff Record.
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Yuanwu Keqin

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Yuanwu Keqin. (J. Engo Kokugon; K. Wono Kŭkkŭn 圜悟克勤) (1062-1135). Chinese CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG; also known as Wuzhuo and Foguo. Yuanwu was a native of Chongning, Pengzhou prefecture, in present-day Sichuan province (northwest of the city of Chengdu). Little is known about his early career, but Yuanwu eventually became a disciple of the Chan master WUZU FAYAN. According to legend, Yuanwu became ill after leaving Wuzu's side, and returned as Wuzu had predicted. Yuanwu then inherited Wuzu's Linji lineage. While traveling in the south, Yuanwu befriended the statesman ZHANG SHANGYING (1043-1122) and also won the support of other powerful local figures, such as the governor of Chengdu. At their request, Yuanwu served as abbot of several monasteries, including Jiashansi and Daolinsi, where he lectured on the Xuedou gonggu by XUEDOU CHONGXUAN. These lectures were later edited together as the BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record"), an influential collection of Chan cases (GONG'AN). Yuanwu was honored with several titles: Emperor Huizong (r. 1100-1125) gave him the title Chan master Foguo (Buddha Fruition) and Gaozong the title Chan master Yuanwu (Consummate Awakening). The title Chan master Zhenjue (True Enlightenment) was also bestowed upon him. Among his hundred or so disciples, DAHUI ZONGGAO, the systematizer of the KANHUA CHAN method of meditation, is most famous. Yuanwu's teachings are recorded in the Yuanwu Foguo chanshi yulu and Yuanwu chanshi xinyao.

Yuanwu Keqin


TERMS ANYWHERE

Baozhi. (J. Hoshi; K. Poji 保誌/寶誌) (418-514). Chinese monk and well-known thaumaturge who comes to be especially revered by the CHAN school. The earliest sources referring to Baozhi are his epitaph written by Lu Chui (470-526) and his hagiography in the GAOSENG ZHUAN. According to these two texts, Baozhi's secular surname was Zhu, and he was a native of Jinling (in present-day Jiansu); he is therefore sometimes known as Jinling Baozhi, using this toponym. Baozhi became a monk at a young age and around 466 suddenly turned eccentric: he would go for days without food, showing no sign of hunger, let his hair grow several inches long, and wander around the streets barefoot with a pair of scissors, a mirror, and a few strips of silk dangling from a long staff that he carried over his shoulder. Portraits of Baozhi often picture him carrying his staff with its various accoutrements, all symbols of his prescience. He also would work miracles, giving predictions and appearing in many places simultaneously. By the middle of the Tang dynasty, he was believed to be an incarnation of AVALOKITEsVARA and was widely worshipped. Baozhi was especially venerated by Emperor Wu of the Liang dynasty (r. 502-549) and appears in the famous GONG'AN that relates Emperor Wu's encounter with the Chan founder BODHIDHARMA; there, Baozhi played the role of a clairvoyant witness who revealed to the emperor Bodhidharma's true identity as an incarnation of Avalokitesvara; YUANWU KEQIN's (1063-1135) commentary to this gong'an in the BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record") refers briefly to the notion that Bodhidharma and Baozhi were both incarnations of Avalokitesvara. A few verses attributed to Baozhi are included in such Chan writings as HUANGBO XIYUN's CHUANXIN FAYAO, GUIFENG ZONGMI's commentary to the YUANJUE JING (Yuanjue xiuduoluo liaoyi jing lüeshu), and YONGMING YANSHOU's ZONGJING LU; these refer, for example, to the metaphor of wheat flour and flour products, and the nonduality between ordinary activities and the functioning of the buddha-nature (BUDDHADHATU; FOXING). These verses, however, are retrospective attributions, since they contain Chan ideas that postdate Baozhi and include terminology and ideology similar to later HONGZHOU ZONG texts, which could not have derived from Baozhi.

Biyan lu. (J. Hekiganroku; K. Pyogam nok 碧巖録). In Chinese, "Emerald Grotto Record" or, as it is popularly known in the West, the "Blue Cliff Record"; compiled by CHAN master YUANWU KEQIN; also known by its full title of Foguo Yuanwu chanshi biyan lu ("Emerald Grotto Record of Chan Master Foguo Yuanwu"). The Biyan lu is one of the two most famous and widely used collection of Chan cases (GONG'AN), along with the WUMEN GUAN ("The Gateless Checkpoint"). The anthology is built around XUEDOU CHONGXIAN's Xuedou heshang baice songgu, an earlier independent collection of one hundred old Chan cases (GUCE) with verse commentary; Xuedou's text is embedded within the Biyan lu and Yuanwu's comments are interspersed throughout. Each of the one hundred cases, with a few exceptions, is introduced by a pointer (CHUISHI), a short introductory paragraph composed by Yuanwu. Following the pointer, the term "raised" (ju) is used to formally mark the actual case. Each case is followed by interlinear notes known as annotations or capping phrases (ZHUOYU; J. JAKUGO) and prose commentary (PINGCHANG), both composed by Yuanwu. The phrase "the verse says" (song yue) subsequently introduces Xuedou's verse, which is also accompanied by its own capping phrases and prose commentary, both added by Yuanwu. The cases, comments, and capping phrases found in the Biyan lu were widely used and read among both the clergy and laity in China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam as an contemplative tool in Chan meditation practice and, in some contexts, as a token of social or institutional status. A famous (or perhaps infamous) story tells of the Chan master DAHUI ZONGGAO, the major disciple of Yuanwu, burning his teacher's Biyan lu for fear that his students would become attached to the words of Xuedou and Yuanwu. The Biyan lu shares many cases with the Wumen guan, and the two texts continue to function as the foundation of training in the Japanese RINZAI Zen school.

bokuseki. (墨蹟). In Japanese, "ink traces"; generally referring to any sort of calligraphy executed by an ink brush on paper or silk. The Japanese monk Murata Juko (1422-1502) is said to have hung in his tea room the calligraphy of the Song-dynasty CHAN master YUANWU KEQIN, which he had received from his teacher IKKYu SoJUN, a practice that seems to have had no precedent in Japan. Following his lead, monks largely from the GOZAN lineage began to collect the calligraphy of eminent Song-dynasty Chan masters such as DAHUI ZONGGAO and XUTANG ZHIYU to display in their private quarters and tea rooms. From the time of the Zen and tea master Sen no Rikyu (Soeki Rikyu; 1521-1591), the calligraphy of Japanese Zen monks such as MYoAN EISAI, DoGEN KIGEN, and MUSo SoSEKI began to be seen as valuable commodities. The calligraphy of Zen masters belonging to the DAITOKUJI lineage such as SoHo MYoCHo, Ikkyu Sojun, and TAKUAN SoHo also came to be highly prized. Beginning with Sen no Rikyu, the practice of collecting relatively simple calligraphy, comprised largely of a single, horizontally executed line, came to be favored over those containing longer poems or sermons written in vertical lines.

Yuanwu Keqin. (J. Engo Kokugon; K. Wono Kŭkkŭn 圜悟克勤) (1062-1135). Chinese CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG; also known as Wuzhuo and Foguo. Yuanwu was a native of Chongning, Pengzhou prefecture, in present-day Sichuan province (northwest of the city of Chengdu). Little is known about his early career, but Yuanwu eventually became a disciple of the Chan master WUZU FAYAN. According to legend, Yuanwu became ill after leaving Wuzu's side, and returned as Wuzu had predicted. Yuanwu then inherited Wuzu's Linji lineage. While traveling in the south, Yuanwu befriended the statesman ZHANG SHANGYING (1043-1122) and also won the support of other powerful local figures, such as the governor of Chengdu. At their request, Yuanwu served as abbot of several monasteries, including Jiashansi and Daolinsi, where he lectured on the Xuedou gonggu by XUEDOU CHONGXUAN. These lectures were later edited together as the BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record"), an influential collection of Chan cases (GONG'AN). Yuanwu was honored with several titles: Emperor Huizong (r. 1100-1125) gave him the title Chan master Foguo (Buddha Fruition) and Gaozong the title Chan master Yuanwu (Consummate Awakening). The title Chan master Zhenjue (True Enlightenment) was also bestowed upon him. Among his hundred or so disciples, DAHUI ZONGGAO, the systematizer of the KANHUA CHAN method of meditation, is most famous. Yuanwu's teachings are recorded in the Yuanwu Foguo chanshi yulu and Yuanwu chanshi xinyao.

Yuanwu Keqin

Chanlin sengbao zhuan. (J. Zenrin soboden; K. Sollim sŭngbo chon 禪林僧寶傳). In Chinese, "Chronicles of the SAMGHA Jewel in the Forests of CHAN"; compiled in the twelfth century by the "lettered Chan" (WENZI CHAN) monk JUEFAN HUIHONG (1071-1128). Huihong intended for this chronicle to serve as a supplement to his own "Biographies of Eminent Monks" (GAOSENG ZHUAN), which is no longer extant. Huihong collected the biographies of over a hundred eminent Chan masters who were active in the lettered Chan movement between the late Tang and early Song dynasties, appending his own comments to each biography. Huihong's collection is said to have been pared down to eighty-one biographies by the Chan master DAHUI ZONGGAO. Later, Dahui's disciple Jinglao (d.u.) of Tanfeng added a biography of WUZU FAYAN, the teacher of Dahui's own master YUANWU KEQIN, and two other masters to the conclusion of Huihong's text, giving a total of eighty-four biographies in the extant collection. A postscript by XUTANG ZHIYU appears at the end of the compilation. Unlike Chan "lamplight histories" (CHUANDENG LU), which are typically arranged according to principal and collateral lineages, the monks treated in this compilation are listed according to their significance in the origin and development of the "lettered Chan" movement; Huihong's treatment undermines the neat charts of master-disciple connections deriving from the lamplight histories, which have become so well known in the literature. In Japan, a copy of the Chanlin sengbao zhuan was published as early as 1295 and again in 1644.

Dahui Pujue chanshi zongmen wuku. (J. Daie Fukaku zenji shumon muko; K. Taehye Pogak sonsa chongmun mugo 大慧普覺禪師宗門武庫). In Chinese, "CHAN Master Dahui Pujue's Arsenal of the Tradition," edited in one roll by the monk Daoqian (d.u.); also known by the abbreviated titles Dahui wuku and Zongmen wuku. The preface to the text is dated 1186. Daoqian edited together over a hundred of his teacher DAHUI ZONGGAO's stories, anecdotes, inscriptions, and poems. The wide range of material that appears in the Dahui Pujue chanshi zongmen wuku serves as an important source for the study of the lives and thoughts of eminent monks and laymen, some of whom would otherwise no longer be known to us. Most of the stories, however, concern the deeds and words of Dahui's teachers YUANWU KEQIN and Dantang Wenzhun (1061-1115), Yuanwu's teacher WUZU FAYAN, and Dantang's teacher ZHENJING KEWEN.

Dahui Zonggao. (J. Daie Soko; K. Taehye Chonggo 大慧宗杲) (1089-1163). Influential Song-dynasty Chinese CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG; also known as Miaoxi, Yunmen, Tanhui, or more typically just Dahui (J. Daie; K. Taehye). Dahui was a native of Ningguo in Xuanzhou (present-day Anhui province). After studying at LUSHAN and Mt. Dong, Dahui became the student of the Chan master DANTANG WENZHUN; in 1115, aware of his impending death, Dantang encouraged Dahui to continue his studies under YUANWU KEQIN. Before approaching Yuanwu, Dahui visited the Chan master JUEFAN HUIHONG, at which time he also met the powerful statesman and layman ZHANG SHANGYING. In 1124, while Yuanwu was serving under imperial orders as abbot of the monastery of Tianningsi in Dongjing, Dahui became his disciple and later inherited his Linji lineage. At the recommendation of the current grand councilor, Dahui was given the title Fori Dashi (Great Master Buddha Sun). After Yuanwu returned to his home province of Sichuan, Dahui moved to the hermitage of Yunmen'an in Haihun (present-day Jiangxi province) to avoid the invading forces of the Jin dynasty. In 1134, Dahui moved again to the hermitage of Yangyuan in Fujian province, where he launched a harsh critique against the practice of "silent-illumination Chan" (MOZHAO CHAN), championing instead the "investigation of the meditative topic" (KANHUA CHAN) method of meditation. Dahui later served as abbot of the powerful monastery Nengren Chanyuan on Mt. Jing (see WANSHOUSI) and revitalized the teachings of the Chan master LINJI YIXUAN. While a truce with the rival Jin dynasty was being negotiated, Dahui was accused of collaborating with Jin forces, for which he was exiled to Hengzhou in present-day Hunan province. During this period, Dahui composed his magnum opus, ZHENGFAYANZANG. After he was absolved of his alleged crime of treason, Dahui began his residence on Mt. Ayuwang and befriended the CAODONG ZONG Chan master HONGZHI ZHENGJUE, who was the preemiment advocate of the "silent-illumination" technique that Dahui so harshly criticized, suggesting that this professional disagreement did not affect their personal ties. Dahui later returned to his post at Nengren Chanyuan and became the teacher of Emperor Xiaozong (r. 1162-1189), who gave him the title Chan Master Dahui (Great Wisdom). He was also given the posthumous title Chan Master Pujue (Universal Enlightenment), the name typically used in his publications. Dahui's teachings are recorded in his Dahui chanshi yulu, DAHUI PUJUE CHANSHI SHU, and DAHUI PUJUE CHANSHI ZONGMEN WUKU.

Engo Kokugon 圜悟克勤. See YUANWU KEQIN

genjo koan. (C. xiancheng gong'an; K. hyonsong kongan 現[見]成公案). In Japanese, lit. "presently manifest case," or "actualized case," deriving from a term in Chinese law for an "open and shut case," or someone "caught dead to rights." The term is sometimes used in the CHAN school to refer to the universality of buddhahood in all aspects of the mundane world and, for this reason, is occasionally interpreted (rather too freely) as the "koan of everyday life." Genjo koan is one of the seminal terms in the writings of DoGEN KIGEN (1200-1253), the putative founder of the SoToSHu of Japanese ZEN, and is the title of a treatise written in 1233 that was later anthologized as the first roll of the sixty- and the seventy-five-roll recensions of his magnum opus, the SHoBoGENZo ("Treasury of the True Dharma Eye"). The term seems to have first been used by the Tang Chan master Muzhou Daoming (780-877), and more often later by such Song Chan masters as HONGZHI ZHENGJUE (1091-1157) and YUANWU KEQIN (1063-1135). Dogen deploys the term to criticize the RINZAI (LINJI) usage of koan (C. GONG'AN) as a means of catalyzing a breakthrough into awakening, thus making genjo koan a polemical device for distinguishing his presentation of Zen thought and practice from rival schools. Although Dogen never directly defines it, in his usage, genjo koan indicates the way in which all things are constantly manifesting their inherent buddhahood in the here and now; thus, Buddhist cultivation entails simply performing a single practice, such as seated meditation (J. ZAZEN), so completely that the enlightenment inherent in that practice becomes "an open and shut case."

kanhua Chan. (J. kannazen/kanwazen; K. kanhwa Son 看話禪). In Chinese, "Chan of investigating the topic of inquiry," or, more freely, "questioning meditation." The systematization of this meditative practice is commonly traced back to the writings of the Song-dynasty CHAN master DAHUI ZONGGAO. The kanhua Chan technique grew out of the growing interest in the study of "public cases" (GONG'AN), viz., old stories and anecdotes of Chan masters, which flourished during the Song dynasty. Dahui's teacher YUANWU KEQIN is also known to have lectured on numerous public cases, and his anthology of gong'an, along with his analysis of them, was recorded in the famous collection the BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Records"). Dahui further elaborated upon Yuanwu's investigation of public cases and applied this process to the practice of Chan meditation. In his lectures and letters (DAHUI PUJUE CHANSHI SHU), Dahui urged his students (many of whom were educated literati) to use the gong'an as a "topic of meditative inquiry" (HUATOU, K. hwadu), rather than interpret it from purely intellectual or conceptual perspectives. Perhaps the most famous huatou is the topic "no" (WU) attributed to the Chan master ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN: A monk asked Zhaozhou, "Does a dog have buddha-nature (FOXING), or not?" to which Zhaozhou replied "WU" ("no"; lit. "it does not have it"). (See WU GONG'AN; GOUZI WU FOXING.) (Because of the popularity of this one-word meditative topic, kanhua Chan is often interpreted to mean the investigation of the "critical phrase" or "keyword," in which the "keyword" "wu" is presumed to have been extracted from the longer gong'an exchange.) The investigation of this huatou starts by "investigating the meaning" (C. canyi; K. ch'amŭi) of the huatou: what could Zhaozhou have meant by answering "no" to this question, when the right answer should be "yes"? The mainstream of East Asian Buddhist doctrine insists that all sentient beings, including dogs, are inherently enlightened and thus do in fact possess the buddha-nature, so this question promotes inquiry. Examining what Zhaozhou might have meant by saying "no" has what Dahui termed "taste" (C. wei, K. mi), meaning intellectual interest. As one's intellectual inquiry into this question continues, however, the student is ultimately left with "doubt" (YIQING), viz., the inability of the (unenlightened) mind to understand Zhaozhou's motive in giving this response to the student's question. Doubt, Dahui says, renders the mind "puzzled, frustrated, and tasteless" (viz., lacking intellectual interest), just as if you were gnawing on an iron rod." Once doubt arises, there is no longer any conceptual support for the meditation, and the student moves on to "investigating the word" (C. canju; K. ch'amgu), viz., just sitting with the huatou wu and no longer trying to understand Zhaozhou's motive in offering this response. At this point, the huatou becomes a "live word" (C. huoju; K. hwalgu) that helps to free the mind from conceptualization and to lead the meditator forward toward liberation. As the sense of doubt becomes more and more intense, it finally "explodes" (C. po; K. p'a), bringing an end to the deluded processes of thought and removing the limiting point of view that is the self. Once the distinctions between self and other disintegrate, the meditator experiences the interconnection between himself or herself and all the phenomena in the universe (SHISHI WU'AI). Kanhua Chan, therefore, employs the inevitable doubt that a benighted person would have about the sayings of the enlightened Chan masters of old to create a powerful sense of inquiry that leads the meditator toward the experience of nonconceptualization and finally enlightenment. ¶ Dahui's system of kanhua Chan was first taught in Korea by POJO CHINUL, where it is known as kanhwa Son, and popularized by Chinul's successor, CHIN'GAK HYESIM. Kanhwa Son continues to be the most common contemplative technique practiced in Korean Son halls. Korean Son monks typically work on one hwadu-often Zhaozhou's "no"-for much of their career, continually deepening their experience of that topic. In China, after the Ming dynasty, kanhua Chan merged with the recitation of the buddha AMITĀBHA's name (NIANFO), so that Chan meditators would turn the recitation into a huatou by reflecting on the topic "Who is reciting the Buddha's name?" In Japanese Zen, due in large part to the efforts of HAKUIN EKAKU and his disciples, kannazen became widespread within the RINZAI ZEN tradition, where it was incorporated into an elaborate system of koan training, involving the systematic investigation of many different koans.

Keqin. (C) (克勤). See YUANWU KEQIN.

Kokugon 克勤. See YUANWU KEQIN

Kŭkkŭn 克勤. See YUANWU KEQIN

Linji zong. (J. Rinzaishu; K. Imje chong 臨濟宗). In Chinese, the "Linji school"; one of the so-called Five Houses and Seven Schools (WU JIA QI ZONG) of the mature Chinese CHAN school. Chan genealogical records (see CHUANDENG LU) describe a lineage of monks that can be traced back to the eponymous Tang-dynasty Chan master LINJI YIXUAN. Linji's lineage came to dominate the Chan tradition in the southern regions of China, largely through the pioneering efforts of his Song-dynasty spiritual descendants Fengxue Yanzhao (896-973), Fenyang Shanshao (947-1024), and Shishuang Chuyuan (986-1040). Shishuang's two major disciples, HUANGLONG HUINAN (1002-1069) and YANGQI FANGHUI (992-1049), produced the two most successful collateral lines within the Linji lineage: the HUANGLONG PAI and YANGQI PAI. Few monks had as significant an impact on the Chan tradition as DAHUI ZONGGAO, a successor in the Yangqi branch of the Linji lineage. Dahui continued the efforts of his teacher YUANWU KEQIN, who is credited with compiling the influential BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record") and developed the use of Chan cases or precedents (GONG'AN) as subjects of meditation (see KANHUA CHAN). Dahui and his spiritual descendants continued to serve as abbots of the most powerful monasteries in China, such as WANSHOUSI (see GOZAN). During Dahui's time, the Linji lineage came into brief conflict with the resurgent CAODONG ZONG lineage over the issue of the latter's distinctive form of meditative practice, which Dahui pejoratively labeled "silent-illumination meditation" (MOZHAO CHAN). Other famous masters in the Linji lineage include WUZHUN SHIFAN, GAOFENG YUANMIAO, and ZHONGFENG MINGBEN. For the Korean and Japanese counterparts, see IMJE CHONG; RINZAISHu.

Wono Kŭkkŭn 圜悟克勤. See YUANWU KEQIN

Wuzu Fayan. (J. Goso Hoen; K. Ojo Pobyon 五祖法演) (d. 1104). Chinese CHAN master in the LINJI ZONG. Wuzu was a native of Mianzhou prefecture in present-day Sichuan province. After being ordained at the age of thirty-four, Fayan studied YOGĀCĀRA doctrine in his home province, but later went south where he studied under Huilin Zongben (1020-1099), Fushan Fayuan (991-1067), and BAIYUN SHOUDUAN. Fayan eventually became Baiyun's disciple and inherited his Linji lineage. After staying at various monasteries in Anhui province, Fayan moved to Mt. Wuzu (also known as East Mountain) in Hubei province, where he acquired his toponym. The mountain itself received its name, Wuzu (fifth patriarch), from its most famous past resident, the fifth patriarch of Chan, HONGREN. Mt. Wuzu thus became an important center for the Linji lineage, and it was there that Fayan taught his famous disciples YUANWU KEQIN, Taiping Huiqin (1059-1117), and Foyan Qingyuan (1067-1120), known collectively as the "three Buddhas of East Mountain." Wuzu's teachings are recorded in the Wuzu Fayan chanshi yulu.

Xuedou Chongxian. (J. Setcho Juken; K. Soltu Chunghyon 雪竇重顯) (980-1052). Chinese CHAN master in the YUNMEN ZONG of the mature Chan tradition; also known as Yinzhi. Xuedou was a native of Sichuan province. After his ordination under Renxian (d.u.) of the cloister of Pu'anyuan, Xuedou received doctrinal training from Yuanying (d.u.) of Dacisi and Guyin Yuncong (965-1032) of Shimen. During his travels in the south, Xuedou visited the Yunmen master Zhimen Guangzuo (d.u.) in Hubei province and became his leading disciple. Xuedou later resided on Cuiwei peak near Tongting Lake and the monastery of Zishengsi on Mt. Xuedou in Zhejiang province, whence he acquired his toponym. During his residence in Zishengsi, Xuedou acquired more than seventy students and composed his famed collection of one hundred old cases (guce, viz., GONG'AN) known as the Xuedou songgu, which in turn formed the basis of Chan master YUANWU KEQIN's influential BIYAN LU. Xuedou also composed the Tongting yulu, Xuedou kaitang lu, Puquan ji, Zuying ji, and various other texts. Xuedou's successful career as a teacher is often considered a period of revitalization of the Yunmen tradition.

Yangqi pai. (J. Yogiha; K. Yanggi p'a 楊岐派). One of the two major branches of the LINJI ZONG of the CHAN school, which is listed among the five houses and seven schools (WU JIA QI ZONG) of the mature Chinese Chan tradition. The school is named after its founder, YANGQI FANGHUI (995-1049), who taught at Mt. Yangqi in what is now Yuanzhou province. Yangqi was a disciple of Shishuang Chuyuan (986-1039), a sixth-generation successor in the Linji school, who also taught HUANGLONG HUINAN (1002-1069), the founder of the HUANGLONG PAI sublineage of the Linji school. The Yangqi lineage flourished under its third-generation successors, Fojian Huiqin (1059-1117), Foyan Qingyuan (1067-1120), and YUANWU KEQIN (1063-1135), who promoted it among the literati, and it became one of the dominant schools of Song-dynasty Buddhism thanks to the decisive role played by Yuanwu's disciple DAHUI ZONGGAO (1089-1163). It was especially within this lineage that the meditative technique of the Chan of investigating the meditative topic or questioning meditation (KANHUA CHAN) flourished. The Yangqi masters took a different approach to GONG'AN (public case) training, criticizing "lettered Chan" (WENZI CHAN), a style of Chan developed by Yunmen and Huanglong masters, which gained popularity among the literati officials in the Northern Song period with its polished language and elegant verse explanations of the meaning of the gong'an. Dahui in particular presented the gong'an as a meditative tool for realizing one's innate enlightenment, not to demonstrate one's talent in clever repartee or one's literary prowess; at the same time, he critiqued the approaches of rival Chan schools, criticizing such Huanglong masters as JUEFAN HUIHONG (1071-1128) for clinging to intellectual and literary endeavors and such CAODONG ZONG masters as HONGZHI ZHENGJUE (1091-1157) for clinging to tranquillity and simply waiting for one's innate enlightenment to manifest itself. The school also produced many gong'an collections, including the BIYANLU ("Blue Cliff Record"), complied by Yuanwu Keqin, and the WUMEN GUAN ("Gateless Checkpoint"), compiled by the seventh-generation successor WUMEN HUIKAI (1183-1260). The Yangqi lineage was formally introduced to Korea by T'AEGO POU (1301-1382), who studied with the eleventh-generation Yangqi teacher Shiwu Qinggong (1272-1352); some modern Korean monks and scholars argue that the contemporary Korean Son tradition should be traced back to T'aego and his Yangqi lineage, rather than to POJO CHINUL (1158-1210). The Yangqi school reached Japan in the thirteenth century through pilgrim monks, including Shunjo (1166-1227), who studied with the Yangqi teacher Meng'an Yuancong (1126-1209), and NANPO JoMYo (1235-1309), better known by his imperially bestowed title Entsu Daio Kokushi ("state preceptor," see GUOSHI), who studied with the ninth-generation teacher XUTANG ZHIYU (1185-1269). All Linji lineages in contemporary Japan are affiliated with the Yangqi pai.

yituan. (J. gidan; K. ŭidan 疑團). In Chinese, "ball of doubt"; also referred to as dayituan, or "great ball of doubt." Although the term appears in a verse recorded in the JINGDE CHUANDENG LU that is attributed to Luohan Guichen (867-928), the teacher of FAYAN WENYI, it was the CHAN master DAHUI ZONGGAO who systematized and popularized its use. Dahui probably inherited the notion of a ball of doubt from his teacher YUANWU KEQIN, whose teacher WUZU FAYAN also mentions a ball of doubt in his teachings. Dahui described the arousal of the sensation of doubt (YIQING) or the ball of doubt as an important tool in his meditative approach called KANHUA CHAN, or investigation of the meditative "topic" (HUATOU).

Yunmen zong. ( J. Unmonshu; K. Unmun chong 雲門宗). In Chinese, "Cloud Gate school"; one of the so-called five houses and seven schools (WU JIA QI ZONG) of the mature Chinese CHAN tradition. It is named after the mountain, located in Shaozhou (present-day Guangdong province), where its founder YUNMEN WENYAN (864-949) taught. Yunmen Wenyan was famous for his "one-word barriers" or "one-word checkpoints" (YIZI GUAN), in which he responded to his students' questions by using only a single word. The school became one of the dominant Chan traditions in the Five Dynasties (Wudai) and early Song dynasty, producing such prominent masters as DONGSHAN SHOUCHU (910-990), Dongshan Xiaocong (d. 1030), XUEDOU ZHONGXIAN (980-1052), and Tianyi Yihuai (992-1064). Yunmen masters played a major role in the development of classical Chan literature. Xuedou Zhongxian's earlier collection of one hundred old cases (guce, viz., GONG'AN), known as the Xuedou songgu, served as the basis for the famous BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record"), which added the extensive commentaries and annotations of the Linji master YUANWU KEQIN (1063-1135) to Zhongxian's original compilation. Several Yunmen masters were closely associated with the Song-dynasty intelligentsia. Dajue Huailian (1009-1090), for example, was as personal friend of the Song literocrat (shidafu) and poet Su Shi (1036-1101). Fori Qichong (1007-1072) asserted the fundamental harmony of Confucianism and Buddhism, explaining Confucian philosophical concepts using Buddhist terminology. CHANGLU ZONGZE (fl. c. late eleventh to early twelfth century) institutionalized the practice of reciting the name of the Buddha (NIANFO) into the routine of Chan monastic life and wrote an influential text on Chan monastic regulations or "rules of purity" (QINGGUI), the CHANYUAN QINGGUI ("Pure Rules for the Chan Grove"). The Yunmen school survived for about two centuries before it was eventually absorbed into the LINJI ZONG.

Zhang Shangying. (J. Cho Shoei; K. Chang Sangyong 張商英) (1043-1122). Influential Chinese Buddhist layman and statesman; also known as Tinajue and Wujin jushi (Layman Infinite). Born to a prominent literati family in Xinjin (present-day Sichuan province), Zhang Shangying began his illustrious career in 1065 after receiving his jinshi degree. He first made a name for himself through military expeditions against neighboring barbarian tribes in Yuzhou, after which he was given a high metropolitan post by the powerful grand councilor Wang Anshi (1021-1086). Zhang thus became a supporter of Wang's administrative and fiscal reform attempts known as the "new policies" (xinfa). Even after Wang's fall from power, Zhang maintained his support for reform, which eventually allowed him to become grand councilor himself in 1111. Due to political battles at court and his complaints regarding Emperor Huizong's (r. 1100-1125) support of the Daoists' anti-Buddhist polemics, Zhang's tenure at court was cut short, and he spent the rest of his life in retirement. During this period of retirement, Zhang Shangying devoted much of his time to Buddhism. Throughout his life, Zhang befriended and studied under the most respected CHAN masters of his day, such as Dantang Wenzhun (1061-1115), Doushuai Congyue (1044-1091), Huitang Zuxin (1025-1100), ZHENJING KEWEN, YUANWU KEQIN, DAHUI ZONGGAO, and JUEFAN HUIHONG, and exchanged correspondence with many of them, some of which are still extant. Zhang was particularly fond of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA and commentaries on the text composed by the famous Tang dynasty layman LI TONGXUAN; emulating Li, Zhang made a pilgrimage to WUTAISHAN. He also wrote a treatise entitled Hufa lun ("Arguments in Defense of the Dharma)" as a rebuttal to the growing anti-Buddhist polemics among the Daoists at court.

Zhaozhou Congshen. (J. Joshu Jushin; K. Choju Chongsim 趙州從諗) (778-897). One of the most renowned Chinese CHAN teachers of the Tang dynasty; his toponym Zhaozhou derives from the Zhaozhou region in Hebei province, where he spent much of his later teaching career. Zhaozhou was ordained in his youth at Hutongyuan in his hometown of Caozhou (in present-day Shandong province). At the age of eighteen, he met NANQUAN PUYUAN (748-835), a successor of MAZU DAOYI (709-788), and studied under him for several decades until that teacher's death. Then in his fifties, Zhaozhou began to travel throughout China, visiting prominent Chan masters such as HUANGBO XIYUN (d. 850) and Daowu Yuanzhi (760-835). Having served as abbot of various monasteries on Mt. Huangbo, Baoshou, and Jia, Zhaozhou settled at the age of eighty in Guanyinyuan (AVALOKITEsVARA Cloister) in Zhaozhou, and taught a small group of monks there for the next forty years. Zhaozhou did not use the iconoclastic pedagogical techniques, such as shouting and beating (BANGHE), made famous by other teachers of his era, but used his words to challenge his students and lead them to self-realization. The Song-dynasty Chan master YUANWU KEQIN (1063-1135) described this characteristic of Zhaozhou's teachings when he said, "Zhaozhou's Chan lies on the lips." Zhaozhou is frequently cited in the collections of Chan GONG'AN (public cases), including five of the forty-eight gong'ans collected in the WUMEN GUAN ("Gateless Checkpoint") and twelve of the one hundred in the BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record"). The most influential gong'an associated with Zhaozhou is the first case collected in the Wumen guan, the so-called WU GONG'AN: "‛Does a dog have the buddha-nature (FOXING) or not?' 'No.'" Zhaozhou's "WU" (no; lit. "it does not have it"), became one of the most oft-cited statements in all of Chan, SoN, and ZEN literature. Due in large part to the efforts of Chan master DAHUI ZONGGAO and his followers, Zhaozhou's wu came to be used as one of the meditative topics (HUATOU) in the Chan meditation practice of "questioning meditation" (KANHUA CHAN). Although Zhaozhou had thirteen dharma heirs, his lineage soon died out. He posthumously received the title "Zhenji dashi" (Great Master Apex of Truth). The record of his teachings is contained in the three rolls of the Zhenji dashi yulu ("Discourse Record of Zhenji Dashi") and in his Zhaozhou lu.

Zuting qianchui lu. (J. Sotei kantsuiroku; K. Chojong kyomch'u nok 祖庭鉗鎚). In Chinese, "Record of Forceps and Hammers of the Patriarchs' Hall," edited by the CHAN master FEIYIN TONGRONG (1593-1661) of the LINJI ZONG during the late Ming dynasty. This collection includes over fifty anecdotes considered to be essential for the training of students. These anecdotes focus on the enlightenment stories of several renowned Tang- and Song-dynasty LINJI ZONG masters, such as LINJI YIXUAN, Shoushan Shengnian (926-993), Fenyang Shanzhao (947-1024), Shishuang Chuyuan (986-1039), YUANWU KEQIN, and DAHUI ZONGGAO, but also include a few stories concerning renowned masters in the YUNMEN ZONG and CAODONG ZONG. Most of these stories are excerpted from Chan texts published during the Song dynasty, especially Puji's (1179-1253) Wudeng huiyuan ("Collected Essentials of the Five Lamplight Histories"). Each story is accompanied by Feiyin's own short prose commentary (pingchang). Four additional exchanges between a certain master Wang Jing and the monk Fohui Faquan (d.u.) concerning the history of the Chan tradition are included as an appendix.



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