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see also ::: epochs, evil, meaning, power, progress, purpose, Reality, the_Future, the_Past, timeline

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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks










A Brief History of Everything
A History of Western Philosophy
The Metahistory Canon
The Most Influential Books in History
The Philosophy of History
The Use and Abuse of History



History and Practice of Magic I, 296.] In Parsi

History and Practice of Magic I, 317; II, 475; see

History and Practice of Magic, The. See Christian.

History and Principal Rites ; see Ashmedai.]

History ::: External events that take place during a research study that are not part of the study but have an effect on the outcome

History. Inasmuch as pure or basic Materialism has been an infrequent doctrine among major thinkers, the history of philosophy broadly understood, is largely the history of Idealism.

History of Ireland. Victor appears to St. Patrick and

History of Jewish Mysticism.] In the Babylonian

History of Jewish Mysticism. See Muller.

History of Jewish Mysticism.]

History of Magic and Experimental Science, The. See

History of Magic, The. See Levi.

History of Ten Martyrs. In Jellinek’s Beth ha-Midrasch.

History of the Life of Adam and Eve. See Apocalypse of

History of the Possession and Conversion of a Penitent

History of Witchcraft and Demonology, The. See Summers.

History of Witchcraft I, 17.]

History, Philosophy of: History investigates the theories concerning the development of man as a social being within the limits of psychophysical causality. Owing to this double puipose the philosophy of history has to study the principles of historiography, and, first of all, their background, their causes and underlying laws, their meaning and motivation. This can be called the metaphysics of history. Secondly, it concerns itself with the cognitive part, i.e. with historic understanding, and then it is called the logic of history. While in earlier times the philosophy of history was predominantly metaphysics, it has turned more and more to the methodology or logic of history. A complete philosophy of history, however, ought to consider the metaphysical as well as the logical problems involved.

history 1. "history" {Virginia Tech history of computing (}. {IT Rentals computing timeline (}. 2. "operating system" A record of previous user inputs (e.g. to a {command interpreter}) which can be re-entered without re-typing them. The major improvement of the {C shell} (csh) over the {Bourne shell} (sh) was the addition of a command history. This was still inferior to the history mechanism on {VMS} which allowed you to recall previous commands as the current input line. You could then edit the command using cursor motion, insert and delete. These sort of history editing facilities are available under {tcsh} and {GNU Emacs}. 3. The history of the world was once discussed in {Usenet} newsgroups {news:soc.history} and {news:alt.history}. (2013-08-04)

history ::: 1. (operating system) A record of previous user inputs (e.g. to a command interpreter) which can be re-entered without re-typing them. The major then edit the command using cursor motion, insert and delete. These sort of history editing facilities are available under tcsh and GNU Emacs.2. (history) .3. See Usenet newsgroups soc.history and alt.history for discussion of the history of the world. (1995-04-05)

history :::History teaches us nothing; it is a confused torrent of events and personalities or a kaleidoscope of changing institutions. We do not seize the real sense of all this change and this continual streaming forward of human life in the channels of Time. What we do seize are current or recurrent phenomena, facile generalisations, partial ideas. We talk of democracy, aristocracy and autocracy, collectivism and individualism, imperialism and nationalism, the State and the commune, capitalism and labour; we advance hasty generalisations and make absolute systems which are positively announced today only to be abandoned perforce tomorrow; we espouse causes and ardent enthusiasms whose triumph turns to an early disillusionment and then forsake them for others, perhaps for those that we have taken so much trouble to destroy. For a whole century mankind thirsts and battles after liberty and earns it with a bitter expense of toil, tears and blood; the century that enjoys without having fought for it turns away as from a puerile illusion and is ready to renounce the depreciated gain as the price of some new good. And all this happens because our whole thought and action with regard to our collective life is shallow and empirical; it does not seek for, it does not base itself on a firm, profound and complete knowledge. The moral is not the vanity of human life, of its ardours and enthusiasms and of the ideals it pursues, but the necessity of a wiser, larger, more patient search after its true law and aim.” The Human Cycle etc.

history ::: n. --> A learning or knowing by inquiry; the knowledge of facts and events, so obtained; hence, a formal statement of such information; a narrative; a description; a written record; as, the history of a patient&



100BaseVG "networking" A 100 {MBps} {Ethernet} standard specified to run over four pairs of {category 3} {UTP} wires (known as voice grade, hence the "VG"). It is also called 100VG-AnyLAN because it was defined to carry both {Ethernet} and {token ring} {frame} types. 100BaseVG was originally proposed by {Hewlett-Packard}, ratified by the {ISO} in 1995 and practically extinct by 1998. 100BaseVG started in the IEEE 802.3u committee as {Fast Ethernet}. One faction wanted to keep {CSMA/CD} in order to keep it pure Ethernet, even though the {collision domain} problem limited the distances to one tenth that of {10baseT}. Another faction wanted to change to a polling architecture from the hub (they called it "demand priority") in order to maintain the 10baseT distances, and also to make it a {deterministic} {protocol}. The CSMA/CD crowd said, "This is 802.3 -- the Ethernet committee. If you guys want to make a different protocol, form your own committee". The IEEE 802.12 committee was thus formed and standardised 100BaseVG. The rest is history. (1998-06-30)

1. Pragmatics. Theory of the relations between signs and those who produce or receive and understand them. This theory comprehends psychology, sociology, and history of the use of signs, especially of languages.

9PAC "tool" 709 PACkage. A {report generator} for the {IBM 7090}, developed in 1959. [Sammet 1969, p.314. "IBM 7090 Prog Sys, SHARE 7090 9PAC Part I: Intro and Gen Princs", IBM J28-6166, White Plains, 1961]. (1995-02-07):-) {emoticon}; {semicolon}" {less than}"g" "chat" grin. An alternative to {smiley}. [{Jargon File}] (1998-01-18)"gr&d" "chat" Grinning, running and ducking. See {emoticon}. (1995-03-17)= {equals}" {greater than}? {question mark}?? "programming" A {Perl} quote-like {operator} used to delimit a {regular expression} (RE) like "?FOO?" that matches FOO at most once. The normal "/FOO/" form of regular expression will match FOO any number of times. The "??" operator will match again after a call to the "reset" operator. The operator is usually referred to as "??" but, taken literally, an empty RE like this (or "//") actually means to re-use the last successfully matched regular expression or, if there was none, empty string (which will always match). {Unix manual page}: perlop(1). (2009-05-28)@ {commercial at}@-party "event, history" /at'par-tee/ (Or "@-sign party") An antiquated term for a gathering of {hackers} at a science-fiction convention (especially the annual Worldcon) to which only people who had an {electronic mail address} were admitted. The term refers to the {commercial at} symbol, "@", in an e-mail address and dates back to the era when having an e-mail address was a distinguishing characteristic of the select few who worked with computers. Compare {boink}. [{Jargon File}] (2012-11-17)@Begin "text" The {Scribe} equivalent of {\begin}. [{Jargon File}] (2014-11-06)@stake "security, software" A computer security development group and consultancy dedicated to researching and documenting security flaws that exist in {operating systems}, {network} {protocols}, or software. @stake publishes information about security flaws through advisories, research reports, and tools. They release the information and tools to help system administrators, users, and software and hardware vendors better secure their systems. L0pht merged with @stake in January 2000. {@stake home (}. (2003-06-12)@XX "programming" 1. Part of the syntax of a {decorated name}, as used internally by {Microsoft}'s {Visual C} or {Visual C++} {compilers}. 2. The name of an example {instance variable} in the {Ruby} {programming language}. (2018-08-24)[incr Tcl] "language" An extension of {Tcl} that adds {classes} and {inheritence}. The name is a pun on {C++} - an {object-oriented} extension of {C} - [incr variable] is the Tcl {syntax} for adding one to a variable. [Origin? Availability?] (1998-11-27)\ {backslash}\begin "text, chat" The {LaTeX} command used with \end to delimit an environment within which the text is formatted in a certain way. E.g. \begin{table}...\end{table}. Used humorously in writing to indicate a context or to remark on the surrounded text. For example: \begin{flame} Predicate logic is the only good programming language. Anyone who would use anything else is an idiot. Also, all computers should be tredecimal instead of binary. \end{flame} {Scribe} users at {CMU} and elsewhere used to use @Begin/@End in an identical way (LaTeX was built to resemble Scribe). On {Usenet}, this construct would more frequently be rendered as ""FLAME ON"" and ""FLAME OFF"" (a la {HTML}), or "

A History of Jewish Literature, Vols. I, II, Chapters on Jewish Philosophy, New York, 1930, 1933;

abridge ::: v. t. --> To make shorter; to shorten in duration; to lessen; to diminish; to curtail; as, to abridge labor; to abridge power or rights.
To shorten or contract by using fewer words, yet retaining the sense; to epitomize; to condense; as, to abridge a history or dictionary.
To deprive; to cut off; -- followed by of, and formerly by from; as, to abridge one of his rights.

Acorn Computers Ltd. "company" A UK computer manufacturer, part of the {Acorn Computer Group} plc. Acorn was founded on 1978-12-05, on a kitchen table in a back room. Their first creation was an electronic slot machine. After the {Acorn System 1}, 2 and 3, Acorn launched the first commercial {microcomputer} - the {ATOM} in March 1980. In April 1981, Acorn won a contract from the {BBC} to provide the {PROTON}. In January 1982 Acorn launched the {BBC Microcomputer} System. At one time, 70% of microcomputers bought for UK schools were BBC Micros. The Acorn Computer Group went public on the Unlisted Securities Market in September 1983. In April 1984 Acorn won the Queen's Award for Technology for the BBC Micro and in September 1985 {Olivetti} took a controlling interest in Acorn. The {Master} 128 Series computers were launched in January 1986 and the BBC {Domesday} System in November 1986. In 1983 Acorn began to design the Acorn RISC Machine (ARM), the first low-cost, high volume {RISC} processor chip (later renamed the {Advanced RISC Machine}). In June 1987 they launched the {Archimedes} range - the first 32-bit {RISC} based {microcomputers} - which sold for under UKP 1000. In February 1989 the R140 was launched. This was the first {Unix} {workstation} under UKP 4000. In May 1989 the A3000 (the new {BBC Microcomputer}) was launched. In 1990 Acorn formed {Advanced RISC Machines} Ltd. (ARM) in partnership with {Apple Computer, Inc.} and {VLSI} to develop the ARM processor. Acorn has continued to develop {RISC} based products. With 1992 revenues of 48.2 million pounds, Acorn Computers was the premier supplier of {Information Technology} products to UK education and had been the leading provider of 32-bit RISC based {personal computers} since 1987. Acorn finally folded in the late 1990s. Their operating system, {RISC OS} was further developed by a consortium of suppliers. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:comp.sys.acorn}, {news:comp.sys.acorn.announce}, {}, {news:comp.binaries.acorn}, {news:comp.sources.acorn}, {news:comp.sys.acorn.advocacy}, {}. {Acorn's FTP server (}. {HENSA software archive (}. {Richard Birkby's Acorn page (}. {RiscMan's Acorn page (}. {Acorn On The Net (}. {"The Jungle" by Simon Truss (}. [Recent history?] (2000-09-26)

Acorn Online Media "company" A company formed in August 1994 by {Acorn Computer Group} plc to exploit the {ARM} RISC in television {set-top box} decoders. They planned to woo {British Telecommunications} plc to use the box in some of its {video on demand} trials. The "STB1" box was based on an {ARM8} core with additional circuits to enable {MPEG} to be decoded in software - possibly dedicated instructions for interpolation, inverse {DCT} or {Huffman} table extraction. A prototype featured audio {MPEG} chips, Acorn's {RISC OS} {operating system} and supported {Oracle Media Objects} and {Microword}. Online planned to reduce component count by transferring functions from boards into the single RISC chip. The company was origianlly wholly owned by Acorn but was expected to bring in external investment. [Article by cross-posted from, 1994-07-07]. In 1996 they releasd the imaginatively titled "Set Top Box 2" (STB20M) with a 32 MHz {ARM 7500} and 2 to 32 MB {RAM}. There was also a "Set Top Box 22". {(

age ::: n. **1. A great period or stage of the history of the Earth. 2. Hist. Any great period or portion of human history distinguished by certain characters real or mythical, as the Golden Age, the Patriarchal Age, the Bronze Age, the Age of the Reformation, the Middle Ages, the Prehistoric Age. 3. A generation or a series of generations. 4. Advanced years; old age. age"s, ages, ages". v. 5.** To grow old; to become aged.

Agner Krarup Erlang "person" (1878-1929) A Danish mathematician. {Erlang} the language and unit were named after him. Interested in the theory of {probability}, in 1908 Erlang joined the Copenhagen Telephone Company where he studied the problem of waiting times for telephone calls. He worked out how to calculate the fraction of callers who must wait due to all the lines of an exchange being in use. His formula for loss and waiting time was published in 1917. It is now known as the "Erlang formula" and is still in use today. {Biography (}, {Biography (}. (2005-02-26)

Alcuin: (c. 730-804) Was born in Northumbria and studied at the School of York under Egbert. In 781 he was called to head the Palatine School of Charlemagne. He died at St. Martin of Tours. It is his general influence on the revival of Christian learning that is significant in the history of philosophy. His psychology is a form of simplified Augustinianism. His treatise, De animae ratione ad Eulaliam Virginem, is extant (PL 101). -- V.J.B.

allegorize ::: v. t. --> To form or turn into allegory; as, to allegorize the history of a people.
To treat as allegorical; to understand in an allegorical sense; as, when a passage in a writer may understood literally or figuratively, he who gives it a figurative sense is said to allegorize it.
To use allegory.

Altair 8800 "computer" An {Intel 8080}-based machine made by {MITS}. The Altair was the first popular {microcomputer} kit. It appeared on the cover of the January 1975 "Popular Electronics" magazine with an article (probably) by Leslie Solomon. Leslie Solomon was an editor at Popular Electronics who had a knack for spotting kits that would interest people and make them buy the magazine. The Altair 8800 was one such. The MITS guys took the prototype Altair to New York to show Solomon, but couldn't get it to work after the flight. Nonetheless, he liked it, and it appeared on the cover as "The first minicomputer in a kit." Solomon's blessing was important enough that some MITS competitors named their product the "SOL" to gain his favour. Some wags suggested {SOL} was actually an abbreviation for the condition in which kit purchasers would find themselves. {Bill Gates} and Paul Allen saw the article on the Altair 8800 in Popular Electronics. They realised that the Altair, which was programmed via its binary front panel needed a {high level language}. Legend has it that they called MITS with the claim that they had a {BASIC} {interpreter} for the Altair. When MITS asked them to demo it in Albuquerque, they wrote one on the plane. On arrival, they entered the machine code via the front panel and demonstrated and sold their "product." Thus was born "Altair BASIC." The original Altair BASIC ran in less than 4K of RAM because a "loaded" Altair had 4K memory. Since there was no {operating system} on the Altair, Altair BASIC included what we now think of as {BIOS}. It was distributed on {paper tape} that could be read on a {Teletype}. Later versions supported the 8K Altair and the 16K {diskette}-based Altair (demonstrating that, even in the 1970s, {Microsoft} was committed to {software bloat}). Altair BASIC was ported to the {Motorola 6800} for the Altair 680 machine, and to other 8080-based microcomputers produced by MITS' competitors. { Altair 8800 page (}. [Forrest M. Mimms, article in "Computers and Electronics", (formerly "Popular Electronics"), Jan 1985(?)]. [Was there ever an "Altair 9000" microcomputer?] (2002-06-17)

Amal: “I believe the reference is to the intrusion into human affairs by forces that now and again cause sudden changes in human history—changes to which the secret key is often missing.”

amphibiology ::: n. --> A treatise on amphibious animals; the department of natural history which treats of the Amphibia.

Analytical Engine "history" A design for a general-purpose digital computer proposed by {Charles Babbage} in 1837 as a successor to his earlier special-purpose {Difference Engine}. The Analytical Engine was to be built from brass gears powered by steam with input given on {punched cards}. Babbage could never secure enough funding to build it, and so it was, and never has been, constructed. {(}. (1998-10-19)

ancient ::: 1. Of or in time long past or early in the world"s history. 2. Dating from a remote period; of great age; of early origin. 3. Being old in wisdom and experience; venerable. Ancient.

ancient ::: a. --> Old; that happened or existed in former times, usually at a great distance of time; belonging to times long past; specifically applied to the times before the fall of the Roman empire; -- opposed to modern; as, ancient authors, literature, history; ancient days.
Old; that has been of long duration; of long standing; of great age; as, an ancient forest; an ancient castle.
Known for a long time, or from early times; -- opposed to recent or new; as, the ancient continent.

Andrei Markov "person" 1856-1922. The Russian mathematician, after who {Markov chains} were named. {Biography (}. [Other contributions?] (1995-10-06)

Andrew Fluegelman "person" A successful attorney, editor of {PC World Magazine}, and author of the {MS-DOS} communications program {PC-TALK III}, written in 1982. He once owned the trademark "{freeware}" but it wasn't enforced after his disappearance. In 1985, Fluegelman was diagnosed with cancer. He was last seen a week later, on 1985-07-06, when he left his Marin County home to go to his office in Tiburon. He called his wife later that day and has not been heard from since. His car was found at Vista Point on the north end of the Golden Gate Bridge. [San Francisco Examiner Sunday Magazine, October 1985]. {Shareware history (}. {NEWSBYTES article (}. {(}. (2003-07-25)

annals ::: n. pl. --> A relation of events in chronological order, each event being recorded under the year in which it happened.
Historical records; chronicles; history.
The record of a single event or item.
A periodic publication, containing records of discoveries, transactions of societies, etc.; as "Annals of Science."

anthropology ::: n. --> The science of the structure and functions of the human body.
The science of man; -- sometimes used in a limited sense to mean the study of man as an object of natural history, or as an animal.
That manner of expression by which the inspired writers attribute human parts and passions to God.

Applied Hegel's idealism to literary criticism. Gave a new interpretation to poets' sentiments and ideals, and linked them to the civil history of Italy. New Italian idealism of about 1900 was based on his thought. -- L.V.

Arabic Philosophy: The contact of the Arabs with Greek civilization and philosophy took place partly in Syria, where Christian Arabic philosophy developed, partly in other countries, Asia Minor, Persia, Egypt and Spain. The effect of this contact was not a simple reception of Greek philosophy, but the gradual growth of an original mode of thought, determined chiefly by the religious and philosophical tendencies alive in the Arab world. Eastern influences had produced a mystical trend, not unlike Neo-Platonism; the already existing "metaphysics of light", noticeable in the religious conception of the Qoran, also helped to assimilate Plotinlan ideas. On the other hand, Aristotelian philosophy became important, although more, at least in the beginning, as logic and methodology. The interest in science and medicine contributed to the spread of Aristotelian philosophy. The history of philosophy in the Arab world is determined by the increasing opposition of Orthodoxy against a more liberal theology and philosophy. Arab thought became influential in the Western world partly through European scholars who went to Spain and elsewhere for study, mostly however through the Latin translations which became more and more numerous at the end of the 12th and during the 13th centuries. Among the Christian Arabs Costa ben Luca (864-923) has to be mentioned whose De Differentia spiritus et animae was translated by Johannes Hispanus (12th century). The first period of Islamic philosophy is occupied mainly with translation of Greek texts, some of which were translated later into Latin. The Liber de causis (mentioned first by Alanus ab Insulis) is such a translation of an Arab text; it was believed to be by Aristotle, but is in truth, as Aquinas recognized, a version of the Stoicheiosis theologike by Proclus. The so-called Theologia Aristotelis is an excerpt of Plotinus Enn. IV-VI, written 840 by a Syrian. The fundamental trends of Arab philosophy are indeed Neo-Platonic, and the Aristotelian texts were mostly interpreted in this spirit. Furthermore, there is also a tendency to reconcile the Greek philosophers with theological notions, at least so long as the orthodox theologians could find no reason for opposition. In spite of this, some of the philosophers did not escape persecution. The Peripatetic element is more pronounced in the writings of later times when the technique of paraphrasis and commentary on Aristotelian texts had developed. Beside the philosophy dependent more or less on Greek, and partially even Christian influences, there is a mystical theology and philosophy whose sources are the Qoran, Indian and, most of all, Persian systems. The knowledge of the "Hermetic" writings too was of some importance.

araucarian ::: a. --> Relating to, or of the nature of, the Araucaria. The earliest conifers in geological history were mostly Araucarian.

archaean ::: a. --> Ancient; pertaining to the earliest period in geological history. ::: n. --> The earliest period in geological period, extending up to the Lower Silurian. It includes an Azoic age, previous to the appearance of life, and an Eozoic age, including the earliest forms of

A”Remembrancer” is a Bard of the Shshi (termite) people. In the Shshi language the word is”thu’dal’zei|”—literally, one who thinks about the past, thus the keeper of the oral history and myth of this people. When Prf. Kaitrin Oliva deciphered the Shshi language, she translated the term as”Remembrancer.”

Atheism: (Gr. a, no; theos, god) Two uses of the term: The belief that there is no God. Some philosophers have been called "atheistic" because they have not held to a belief in a personal God. Atheism in this sense means "not theistic." The former meaning of the term is a literal rendering. The latter meaning is a less rigorous use of the term although widely current in the history of thought. -- V.F.

Attribute: Commonly, what is proper to a thing (Latm, ad-tribuere, to assign, to ascribe, to bestow). Loosely assimilated to a quality, a property, a characteristic, a peculiarity, a circumstance, a state, a category, a mode or an accident, though there are differences among all these terms. For example, a quality is an inherent property (the qualities of matter), while an attribute refers to the actual properties of a thing only indirectly known (the attributes of God). Another difference between attribute and quality is that the former refers to the characteristics of an infinite being, while the latter is used for the characteristics of a finite being. In metaphysics, an attribute is what is indispensable to a spiritual or material substance; or that which expresses the nature of a thing; or that without which a thing is unthinkable. As such, it implies necessarily a relation to some substance of which it is an aspect or conception. But it cannot be a substance, as it does not exist by itself. The transcendental attributes are those which belong to a being because it is a being: there are three of them, the one, the true and the good, each adding something positive to the idea of being. The word attribute has been and still is used more readily, with various implications, by substantialist systems. In the 17th century, for example, it denoted the actual manifestations of substance. [Thus, Descartes regarded extension and thought as the two ultimate, simple and original attributes of reality, all else being modifications of them. With Spinoza, extension and thought became the only known attributes of Deity, each expressing in a definite manner, though not exclusively, the infinite essence of God as the only substance. The change in the meaning of substance after Hume and Kant is best illustrated by this quotation from Whitehead: "We diverge from Descartes by holding that what he has described as primary attributes of physical bodies, are really the forms of internal relationships between actual occasions and within actual occasions" (Process and Reality, p. 471).] The use of the notion of attribute, however, is still favoured by contemporary thinkers. Thus, John Boodin speaks of the five attributes of reality, namely: Energy (source of activity), Space (extension), Time (change), Consciousness (active awareness), and Form (organization, structure). In theodicy, the term attribute is used for the essential characteristics of God. The divine attributes are the various aspects under which God is viewed, each being treated as a separate perfection. As God is free from composition, we know him only in a mediate and synthetic way thrgugh his attributes. In logic, an attribute is that which is predicated or anything, that which Is affirmed or denied of the subject of a proposition. More specifically, an attribute may be either a category or a predicable; but it cannot be an individual materially. Attributes may be essential or accidental, necessary or contingent. In grammar, an attribute is an adjective, or an adjectival clause, or an equivalent adjunct expressing a characteristic referred to a subject through a verb. Because of this reference, an attribute may also be a substantive, as a class-name, but not a proper name as a rule. An attribute is never a verb, thus differing from a predicate which may consist of a verb often having some object or qualifying words. In natural history, what is permanent and essential in a species, an individual or in its parts. In psychology, it denotes the way (such as intensity, duration or quality) in which sensations, feelings or images can differ from one another. In art, an attribute is a material or a conventional symbol, distinction or decoration.

Aufklärung: In general, this German word and its English equivalent Enlightenment denote the self-emancipation of man from mere authority, prejudice, convention and tradition, with an insistence on freer thinking about problems uncritically referred to these other agencies. According to Kant's famous definition "Enlightenment is the liberation of man from his self-caused state of minority, which is the incapacity of using one's understanding without the direction of another. This state of minority is caused when its source lies not in the lack of understanding, but in the lack of determination and courage to use it without the assistance of another" (Was ist Aufklärung? 1784). In its historical perspective, the Aufklärung refers to the cultural atmosphere and contrlbutions of the 18th century, especially in Germany, France and England [which affected also American thought with B. Franklin, T. Paine and the leaders of the Revolution]. It crystallized tendencies emphasized by the Renaissance, and quickened by modern scepticism and empiricism, and by the great scientific discoveries of the 17th century. This movement, which was represented by men of varying tendencies, gave an impetus to general learning, a more popular philosophy, empirical science, scriptural criticism, social and political thought. More especially, the word Aufklärung is applied to the German contributions to 18th century culture. In philosophy, its principal representatives are G. E. Lessing (1729-81) who believed in free speech and in a methodical criticism of religion, without being a free-thinker; H. S. Reimarus (1694-1768) who expounded a naturalistic philosophy and denied the supernatural origin of Christianity; Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86) who endeavoured to mitigate prejudices and developed a popular common-sense philosophy; Chr. Wolff (1679-1754), J. A. Eberhard (1739-1809) who followed the Leibnizian rationalism and criticized unsuccessfully Kant and Fichte; and J. G. Herder (1744-1803) who was best as an interpreter of others, but whose intuitional suggestions have borne fruit in the organic correlation of the sciences, and in questions of language in relation to human nature and to national character. The works of Kant and Goethe mark the culmination of the German Enlightenment. Cf. J. G. Hibben, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1910. --T.G. Augustinianism: The thought of St. Augustine of Hippo, and of his followers. Born in 354 at Tagaste in N. Africa, A. studied rhetoric in Carthage, taught that subject there and in Rome and Milan. Attracted successively to Manicheanism, Scepticism, and Neo-Platontsm, A. eventually found intellectual and moral peace with his conversion to Christianity in his thirty-fourth year. Returning to Africa, he established numerous monasteries, became a priest in 391, Bishop of Hippo in 395. Augustine wrote much: On Free Choice, Confessions, Literal Commentary on Genesis, On the Trinity, and City of God, are his most noted works. He died in 430.   St. Augustine's characteristic method, an inward empiricism which has little in common with later variants, starts from things without, proceeds within to the self, and moves upwards to God. These three poles of the Augustinian dialectic are polarized by his doctrine of moderate illuminism. An ontological illumination is required to explain the metaphysical structure of things. The truth of judgment demands a noetic illumination. A moral illumination is necessary in the order of willing; and so, too, an lllumination of art in the aesthetic order. Other illuminations which transcend the natural order do not come within the scope of philosophy; they provide the wisdoms of theology and mysticism. Every being is illuminated ontologically by number, form, unity and its derivatives, and order. A thing is what it is, in so far as it is more or less flooded by the light of these ontological constituents.   Sensation is necessary in order to know material substances. There is certainly an action of the external object on the body and a corresponding passion of the body, but, as the soul is superior to the body and can suffer nothing from its inferior, sensation must be an action, not a passion, of the soul. Sensation takes place only when the observing soul, dynamically on guard throughout the body, is vitally attentive to the changes suffered by the body. However, an adequate basis for the knowledge of intellectual truth is not found in sensation alone. In order to know, for example, that a body is multiple, the idea of unity must be present already, otherwise its multiplicity could not be recognized. If numbers are not drawn in by the bodily senses which perceive only the contingent and passing, is the mind the source of the unchanging and necessary truth of numbers? The mind of man is also contingent and mutable, and cannot give what it does not possess. As ideas are not innate, nor remembered from a previous existence of the soul, they can be accounted for only by an immutable source higher than the soul. In so far as man is endowed with an intellect, he is a being naturally illuminated by God, Who may be compared to an intelligible sun. The human intellect does not create the laws of thought; it finds them and submits to them. The immediate intuition of these normative rules does not carry any content, thus any trace of ontologism is avoided.   Things have forms because they have numbers, and they have being in so far as they possess form. The sufficient explanation of all formable, and hence changeable, things is an immutable and eternal form which is unrestricted in time and space. The forms or ideas of all things actually existing in the world are in the things themselves (as rationes seminales) and in the Divine Mind (as rationes aeternae). Nothing could exist without unity, for to be is no other than to be one. There is a unity proper to each level of being, a unity of the material individual and species, of the soul, and of that union of souls in the love of the same good, which union constitutes the city. Order, also, is ontologically imbibed by all beings. To tend to being is to tend to order; order secures being, disorder leads to non-being. Order is the distribution which allots things equal and unequal each to its own place and integrates an ensemble of parts in accordance with an end. Hence, peace is defined as the tranquillity of order. Just as things have their being from their forms, the order of parts, and their numerical relations, so too their beauty is not something superadded, but the shining out of all their intelligible co-ingredients.   S. Aurelii Augustini, Opera Omnia, Migne, PL 32-47; (a critical edition of some works will be found in the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna). Gilson, E., Introd. a l'etude de s. Augustin, (Paris, 1931) contains very good bibliography up to 1927, pp. 309-331. Pope, H., St. Augustine of Hippo, (London, 1937). Chapman, E., St. Augustine's Philos. of Beauty, (N. Y., 1939). Figgis, J. N., The Political Aspects of St. Augustine's "City of God", (London, 1921). --E.C. Authenticity: In a general sense, genuineness, truth according to its title. It involves sometimes a direct and personal characteristic (Whitehead speaks of "authentic feelings").   This word also refers to problems of fundamental criticism involving title, tradition, authorship and evidence. These problems are vital in theology, and basic in scholarship with regard to the interpretation of texts and doctrines. --T.G. Authoritarianism: That theory of knowledge which maintains that the truth of any proposition is determined by the fact of its having been asserted by a certain esteemed individual or group of individuals. Cf. H. Newman, Grammar of Assent; C. S. Peirce, "Fixation of Belief," in Chance, Love and Logic, ed. M. R. Cohen. --A.C.B. Autistic thinking: Absorption in fanciful or wishful thinking without proper control by objective or factual material; day dreaming; undisciplined imagination. --A.C.B. Automaton Theory: Theory that a living organism may be considered a mere machine. See Automatism. Automatism: (Gr. automatos, self-moving) (a) In metaphysics: Theory that animal and human organisms are automata, that is to say, are machines governed by the laws of physics and mechanics. Automatism, as propounded by Descartes, considered the lower animals to be pure automata (Letter to Henry More, 1649) and man a machine controlled by a rational soul (Treatise on Man). Pure automatism for man as well as animals is advocated by La Mettrie (Man, a Machine, 1748). During the Nineteenth century, automatism, combined with epiphenomenalism, was advanced by Hodgson, Huxley and Clifford. (Cf. W. James, The Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, ch. V.) Behaviorism, of the extreme sort, is the most recent version of automatism (See Behaviorism).   (b) In psychology: Psychological automatism is the performance of apparently purposeful actions, like automatic writing without the superintendence of the conscious mind. L. C. Rosenfield, From Beast Machine to Man Machine, N. Y., 1941. --L.W. Automatism, Conscious: The automatism of Hodgson, Huxley, and Clifford which considers man a machine to which mind or consciousness is superadded; the mind of man is, however, causally ineffectual. See Automatism; Epiphenomenalism. --L.W. Autonomy: (Gr. autonomia, independence) Freedom consisting in self-determination and independence of all external constraint. See Freedom. Kant defines autonomy of the will as subjection of the will to its own law, the categorical imperative, in contrast to heteronomy, its subjection to a law or end outside the rational will. (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, § 2.) --L.W. Autonomy of ethics: A doctrine, usually propounded by intuitionists, that ethics is not a part of, and cannot be derived from, either metaphysics or any of the natural or social sciences. See Intuitionism, Metaphysical ethics, Naturalistic ethics. --W.K.F. Autonomy of the will: (in Kant's ethics) The freedom of the rational will to legislate to itself, which constitutes the basis for the autonomy of the moral law. --P.A.S. Autonymy: In the terminology introduced by Carnap, a word (phrase, symbol, expression) is autonymous if it is used as a name for itself --for the geometric shape, sound, etc. which it exemplifies, or for the word as a historical and grammatical unit. Autonymy is thus the same as the Scholastic suppositio matertalis (q. v.), although the viewpoint is different. --A.C. Autotelic: (from Gr. autos, self, and telos, end) Said of any absorbing activity engaged in for its own sake (cf. German Selbstzweck), such as higher mathematics, chess, etc. In aesthetics, applied to creative art and play which lack any conscious reference to the accomplishment of something useful. In the view of some, it may constitute something beneficent in itself of which the person following his art impulse (q.v.) or playing is unaware, thus approaching a heterotelic (q.v.) conception. --K.F.L. Avenarius, Richard: (1843-1896) German philosopher who expressed his thought in an elaborate and novel terminology in the hope of constructing a symbolic language for philosophy, like that of mathematics --the consequence of his Spinoza studies. As the most influential apostle of pure experience, the posltivistic motive reaches in him an extreme position. Insisting on the biologic and economic function of thought, he thought the true method of science is to cure speculative excesses by a return to pure experience devoid of all assumptions. Philosophy is the scientific effort to exclude from knowledge all ideas not included in the given. Its task is to expel all extraneous elements in the given. His uncritical use of the category of the given and the nominalistic view that logical relations are created rather than discovered by thought, leads him to banish not only animism but also all of the categories, substance, causality, etc., as inventions of the mind. Explaining the evolution and devolution of the problematization and deproblematization of numerous ideas, and aiming to give the natural history of problems, Avenarius sought to show physiologically, psychologically and historically under what conditions they emerge, are challenged and are solved. He hypothesized a System C, a bodily and central nervous system upon which consciousness depends. R-values are the stimuli received from the world of objects. E-values are the statements of experience. The brain changes that continually oscillate about an ideal point of balance are termed Vitalerhaltungsmaximum. The E-values are differentiated into elements, to which the sense-perceptions or the content of experience belong, and characters, to which belongs everything which psychology describes as feelings and attitudes. Avenarius describes in symbolic form a series of states from balance to balance, termed vital series, all describing a series of changes in System C. Inequalities in the vital balance give rise to vital differences. According to his theory there are two vital series. It assumes a series of brain changes because parallel series of conscious states can be observed. The independent vital series are physical, and the dependent vital series are psychological. The two together are practically covariants. In the case of a process as a dependent vital series three stages can be noted: first, the appearance of the problem, expressed as strain, restlessness, desire, fear, doubt, pain, repentance, delusion; the second, the continued effort and struggle to solve the problem; and finally, the appearance of the solution, characterized by abating anxiety, a feeling of triumph and enjoyment.   Corresponding to these three stages of the dependent series are three stages of the independent series: the appearance of the vital difference and a departure from balance in the System C, the continuance with an approximate vital difference, and lastly, the reduction of the vital difference to zero, the return to stability. By making room for dependent and independent experiences, he showed that physics regards experience as independent of the experiencing indlvidual, and psychology views experience as dependent upon the individual. He greatly influenced Mach and James (q.v.). See Avenarius, Empirio-criticism, Experience, pure. Main works: Kritik der reinen Erfahrung; Der menschliche Weltbegriff. --H.H. Averroes: (Mohammed ibn Roshd) Known to the Scholastics as The Commentator, and mentioned as the author of il gran commento by Dante (Inf. IV. 68) he was born 1126 at Cordova (Spain), studied theology, law, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, became after having been judge in Sevilla and Cordova, physician to the khalifah Jaqub Jusuf, and charged with writing a commentary on the works of Aristotle. Al-mansur, Jusuf's successor, deprived him of his place because of accusations of unorthodoxy. He died 1198 in Morocco. Averroes is not so much an original philosopher as the author of a minute commentary on the whole works of Aristotle. His procedure was imitated later by Aquinas. In his interpretation of Aristotelian metaphysics Averroes teaches the coeternity of a universe created ex nihilo. This doctrine formed together with the notion of a numerical unity of the active intellect became one of the controversial points in the discussions between the followers of Albert-Thomas and the Latin Averroists. Averroes assumed that man possesses only a disposition for receiving the intellect coming from without; he identifies this disposition with the possible intellect which thus is not truly intellectual by nature. The notion of one intellect common to all men does away with the doctrine of personal immortality. Another doctrine which probably was emphasized more by the Latin Averroists (and by the adversaries among Averroes' contemporaries) is the famous statement about "two-fold truth", viz. that a proposition may be theologically true and philosophically false and vice versa. Averroes taught that religion expresses the (higher) philosophical truth by means of religious imagery; the "two-truth notion" came apparently into the Latin text through a misinterpretation on the part of the translators. The works of Averroes were one of the main sources of medieval Aristotelianlsm, before and even after the original texts had been translated. The interpretation the Latin Averroists found in their texts of the "Commentator" spread in spite of opposition and condemnation. See Averroism, Latin. Averroes, Opera, Venetiis, 1553. M. Horten, Die Metaphysik des Averroes, 1912. P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin, 2d ed., Louvain, 1911. --R.A. Averroism, Latin: The commentaries on Aristotle written by Averroes (Ibn Roshd) in the 12th century became known to the Western scholars in translations by Michael Scottus, Hermannus Alemannus, and others at the beginning of the 13th century. Many works of Aristotle were also known first by such translations from Arabian texts, though there existed translations from the Greek originals at the same time (Grabmann). The Averroistic interpretation of Aristotle was held to be the true one by many; but already Albert the Great pointed out several notions which he felt to be incompatible with the principles of Christian philosophy, although he relied for the rest on the "Commentator" and apparently hardly used any other text. Aquinas, basing his studies mostly on a translation from the Greek texts, procured for him by William of Moerbecke, criticized the Averroistic interpretation in many points. But the teachings of the Commentator became the foundation for a whole school of philosophers, represented first by the Faculty of Arts at Paris. The most prominent of these scholars was Siger of Brabant. The philosophy of these men was condemned on March 7th, 1277 by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, after a first condemnation of Aristotelianism in 1210 had gradually come to be neglected. The 219 theses condemned in 1277, however, contain also some of Aquinas which later were generally recognized an orthodox. The Averroistic propositions which aroused the criticism of the ecclesiastic authorities and which had been opposed with great energy by Albert and Thomas refer mostly to the following points: The co-eternity of the created word; the numerical identity of the intellect in all men, the so-called two-fold-truth theory stating that a proposition may be philosophically true although theologically false. Regarding the first point Thomas argued that there is no philosophical proof, either for the co-eternity or against it; creation is an article of faith. The unity of intellect was rejected as incompatible with the true notion of person and with personal immortality. It is doubtful whether Averroes himself held the two-truths theory; it was, however, taught by the Latin Averroists who, notwithstanding the opposition of the Church and the Thomistic philosophers, gained a great influence and soon dominated many universities, especially in Italy. Thomas and his followers were convinced that they interpreted Aristotle correctly and that the Averroists were wrong; one has, however, to admit that certain passages in Aristotle allow for the Averroistic interpretation, especially in regard to the theory of intellect.   Lit.: P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin au XIIIe Siecle, 2d. ed. Louvain, 1911; M. Grabmann, Forschungen über die lateinischen Aristotelesübersetzungen des XIII. Jahrhunderts, Münster 1916 (Beitr. z. Gesch. Phil. d. MA. Vol. 17, H. 5-6). --R.A. Avesta: See Zendavesta. Avicehron: (or Avencebrol, Salomon ibn Gabirol) The first Jewish philosopher in Spain, born in Malaga 1020, died about 1070, poet, philosopher, and moralist. His main work, Fons vitae, became influential and was much quoted by the Scholastics. It has been preserved only in the Latin translation by Gundissalinus. His doctrine of a spiritual substance individualizing also the pure spirits or separate forms was opposed by Aquinas already in his first treatise De ente, but found favor with the medieval Augustinians also later in the 13th century. He also teaches the necessity of a mediator between God and the created world; such a mediator he finds in the Divine Will proceeding from God and creating, conserving, and moving the world. His cosmogony shows a definitely Neo-Platonic shade and assumes a series of emanations. Cl. Baeumker, Avencebrolis Fons vitae. Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1892-1895, Vol. I. Joh. Wittman, Die Stellung des hl. Thomas von Aquino zu Avencebrol, ibid. 1900. Vol. III. --R.A. Avicenna: (Abu Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina) Born 980 in the country of Bocchara, began to write in young years, left more than 100 works, taught in Ispahan, was physician to several Persian princes, and died at Hamadan in 1037. His fame as physician survived his influence as philosopher in the Occident. His medical works were printed still in the 17th century. His philosophy is contained in 18 vols. of a comprehensive encyclopedia, following the tradition of Al Kindi and Al Farabi. Logic, Physics, Mathematics and Metaphysics form the parts of this work. His philosophy is Aristotelian with noticeable Neo-Platonic influences. His doctrine of the universal existing ante res in God, in rebus as the universal nature of the particulars, and post res in the human mind by way of abstraction became a fundamental thesis of medieval Aristotelianism. He sharply distinguished between the logical and the ontological universal, denying to the latter the true nature of form in the composite. The principle of individuation is matter, eternally existent. Latin translations attributed to Avicenna the notion that existence is an accident to essence (see e.g. Guilelmus Parisiensis, De Universo). The process adopted by Avicenna was one of paraphrasis of the Aristotelian texts with many original thoughts interspersed. His works were translated into Latin by Dominicus Gundissalinus (Gondisalvi) with the assistance of Avendeath ibn Daud. This translation started, when it became more generally known, the "revival of Aristotle" at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Albert the Great and Aquinas professed, notwithstanding their critical attitude, a great admiration for Avicenna whom the Arabs used to call the "third Aristotle". But in the Orient, Avicenna's influence declined soon, overcome by the opposition of the orthodox theologians. Avicenna, Opera, Venetiis, 1495; l508; 1546. M. Horten, Das Buch der Genesung der Seele, eine philosophische Enzyklopaedie Avicenna's; XIII. Teil: Die Metaphysik. Halle a. S. 1907-1909. R. de Vaux, Notes et textes sur l'Avicennisme Latin, Bibl. Thomiste XX, Paris, 1934. --R.A. Avidya: (Skr.) Nescience; ignorance; the state of mind unaware of true reality; an equivalent of maya (q.v.); also a condition of pure awareness prior to the universal process of evolution through gradual differentiation into the elements and factors of knowledge. --K.F.L. Avyakta: (Skr.) "Unmanifest", descriptive of or standing for brahman (q.v.) in one of its or "his" aspects, symbolizing the superabundance of the creative principle, or designating the condition of the universe not yet become phenomenal (aja, unborn). --K.F.L. Awareness: Consciousness considered in its aspect of act; an act of attentive awareness such as the sensing of a color patch or the feeling of pain is distinguished from the content attended to, the sensed color patch, the felt pain. The psychologlcal theory of intentional act was advanced by F. Brentano (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte) and received its epistemological development by Meinong, Husserl, Moore, Laird and Broad. See Intentionalism. --L.W. Axiological: (Ger. axiologisch) In Husserl: Of or pertaining to value or theory of value (the latter term understood as including disvalue and value-indifference). --D.C. Axiological ethics: Any ethics which makes the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, by making the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on a consideration of the value or goodness of something, e.g. the action itself, its motive, or its consequences, actual or probable. Opposed to deontological ethics. See also teleological ethics. --W.K.F. Axiologic Realism: In metaphysics, theory that value as well as logic, qualities as well as relations, have their being and exist external to the mind and independently of it. Applicable to the philosophy of many though not all realists in the history of philosophy, from Plato to G. E. Moore, A. N. Whitehead, and N, Hartmann. --J.K.F. Axiology: (Gr. axios, of like value, worthy, and logos, account, reason, theory). Modern term for theory of value (the desired, preferred, good), investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. Had its rise in Plato's theory of Forms or Ideas (Idea of the Good); was developed in Aristotle's Organon, Ethics, Poetics, and Metaphysics (Book Lambda). Stoics and Epicureans investigated the summum bonum. Christian philosophy (St. Thomas) built on Aristotle's identification of highest value with final cause in God as "a living being, eternal, most good."   In modern thought, apart from scholasticism and the system of Spinoza (Ethica, 1677), in which values are metaphysically grounded, the various values were investigated in separate sciences, until Kant's Critiques, in which the relations of knowledge to moral, aesthetic, and religious values were examined. In Hegel's idealism, morality, art, religion, and philosophy were made the capstone of his dialectic. R. H. Lotze "sought in that which should be the ground of that which is" (Metaphysik, 1879). Nineteenth century evolutionary theory, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and economics subjected value experience to empirical analysis, and stress was again laid on the diversity and relativity of value phenomena rather than on their unity and metaphysical nature. F. Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883-1885) and Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887) aroused new interest in the nature of value. F. Brentano, Vom Ursprung sittlicher Erkenntnis (1889), identified value with love.   In the twentieth century the term axiology was apparently first applied by Paul Lapie (Logique de la volonte, 1902) and E. von Hartmann (Grundriss der Axiologie, 1908). Stimulated by Ehrenfels (System der Werttheorie, 1897), Meinong (Psychologisch-ethische Untersuchungen zur Werttheorie, 1894-1899), and Simmel (Philosophie des Geldes, 1900). W. M. Urban wrote the first systematic treatment of axiology in English (Valuation, 1909), phenomenological in method under J. M. Baldwin's influence. Meanwhile H. Münsterberg wrote a neo-Fichtean system of values (The Eternal Values, 1909).   Among important recent contributions are: B. Bosanquet, The Principle of Individuality and Value (1912), a free reinterpretation of Hegelianism; W. R. Sorley, Moral Values and the Idea of God (1918, 1921), defending a metaphysical theism; S. Alexander, Space, Time, and Deity (1920), realistic and naturalistic; N. Hartmann, Ethik (1926), detailed analysis of types and laws of value; R. B. Perry's magnum opus, General Theory of Value (1926), "its meaning and basic principles construed in terms of interest"; and J. Laird, The Idea of Value (1929), noteworthy for historical exposition. A naturalistic theory has been developed by J. Dewey (Theory of Valuation, 1939), for which "not only is science itself a value . . . but it is the supreme means of the valid determination of all valuations." A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic (1936) expounds the view of logical positivism that value is "nonsense." J. Hessen, Wertphilosophie (1937), provides an account of recent German axiology from a neo-scholastic standpoint.   The problems of axiology fall into four main groups, namely, those concerning (1) the nature of value, (2) the types of value, (3) the criterion of value, and (4) the metaphysical status of value.   (1) The nature of value experience. Is valuation fulfillment of desire (voluntarism: Spinoza, Ehrenfels), pleasure (hedonism: Epicurus, Bentham, Meinong), interest (Perry), preference (Martineau), pure rational will (formalism: Stoics, Kant, Royce), apprehension of tertiary qualities (Santayana), synoptic experience of the unity of personality (personalism: T. H. Green, Bowne), any experience that contributes to enhanced life (evolutionism: Nietzsche), or "the relation of things as means to the end or consequence actually reached" (pragmatism, instrumentalism: Dewey).   (2) The types of value. Most axiologists distinguish between intrinsic (consummatory) values (ends), prized for their own sake, and instrumental (contributory) values (means), which are causes (whether as economic goods or as natural events) of intrinsic values. Most intrinsic values are also instrumental to further value experience; some instrumental values are neutral or even disvaluable intrinsically. Commonly recognized as intrinsic values are the (morally) good, the true, the beautiful, and the holy. Values of play, of work, of association, and of bodily well-being are also acknowledged. Some (with Montague) question whether the true is properly to be regarded as a value, since some truth is disvaluable, some neutral; but love of truth, regardless of consequences, seems to establish the value of truth. There is disagreement about whether the holy (religious value) is a unique type (Schleiermacher, Otto), or an attitude toward other values (Kant, Höffding), or a combination of the two (Hocking). There is also disagreement about whether the variety of values is irreducible (pluralism) or whether all values are rationally related in a hierarchy or system (Plato, Hegel, Sorley), in which values interpenetrate or coalesce into a total experience.   (3) The criterion of value. The standard for testing values is influenced by both psychological and logical theory. Hedonists find the standard in the quantity of pleasure derived by the individual (Aristippus) or society (Bentham). Intuitionists appeal to an ultimate insight into preference (Martineau, Brentano). Some idealists recognize an objective system of rational norms or ideals as criterion (Plato, Windelband), while others lay more stress on rational wholeness and coherence (Hegel, Bosanquet, Paton) or inclusiveness (T. H. Green). Naturalists find biological survival or adjustment (Dewey) to be the standard. Despite differences, there is much in common in the results of the application of these criteria.   (4) The metaphysical status of value. What is the relation of values to the facts investigated by natural science (Koehler), of Sein to Sollen (Lotze, Rickert), of human experience of value to reality independent of man (Hegel, Pringle-Pattlson, Spaulding)? There are three main answers:   subjectivism (value is entirely dependent on and relative to human experience of it: so most hedonists, naturalists, positivists);   logical objectivism (values are logical essences or subsistences, independent of their being known, yet with no existential status or action in reality);   metaphysical objectivism (values   --or norms or ideals   --are integral, objective, and active constituents of the metaphysically real: so theists, absolutists, and certain realists and naturalists like S. Alexander and Wieman). --E.S.B. Axiom: See Mathematics. Axiomatic method: That method of constructing a deductive system consisting of deducing by specified rules all statements of the system save a given few from those given few, which are regarded as axioms or postulates of the system. See Mathematics. --C.A.B. Ayam atma brahma: (Skr.) "This self is brahman", famous quotation from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.5.19, one of many alluding to the central theme of the Upanishads, i.e., the identity of the human and divine or cosmic. --K.F.L.

Automated Retroactive Minimal Moderation "messaging" (ARMM) A {Usenet} robot created by Dick Depew of Munroe Falls, Ohio. ARMM was intended to automatically cancel posts from anonymous-posting sites. Unfortunately, the robot's recogniser for anonymous postings triggered on its own automatically-generated control messages! Transformed by this stroke of programming ineptitude into a monster of Frankensteinian proportions, it broke loose on the night of 1993-03-31 and proceeded to {spam} {news:news.admin.policy} with a recursive explosion of over 200 messages. Reactions varied from amusement to outrage. The pathological messages crashed at least one mail system, and upset people paying line charges for their {Usenet} feeds. One poster described the ARMM debacle as "instant {Usenet} history" (also establishing the term {despew}), and it has since been widely cited as a cautionary example of the havoc the combination of good intentions and incompetence can wreak on a network. Compare {Great Worm}; {sorcerer's apprentice mode}. See also {software laser}, {network meltdown}. (1996-01-08)

A. V. Vasihev, Space, Time, Motion, translated by H. M. Lucas and C. P. Sanger, with an introduction by Bertrand Russell, London. 1924, and New York, 1924. Religion, Philosophy of: The methodic or systematic investigation of the elements of religious consciousness, the theories it has evolved and their development and historic relationships in the cultural complex. It takes account of religious practices only as illustrations of the vitality of beliefs and the inseparableness of the psychological from thought reality in faith. It is distinct from theology in that it recognizes the priority of reason over faith and the acceptance of creed, subjecting the latter to a logical analysis. As such, the history of the Philosophy of Religion is coextensive with the free enquiry into religious reality, particularly the conceptions of God, soul, immortality, sin, salvaition, the sacred (Rudolf Otto), etc., and may be said to have its roots in any society above the pre-logical, mythological, or custom-controlled level, first observed in Egypt, China, India, and Greece. Its scientific treatment is a subsidiary philosophic discipline dates from about Kant's Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der reinen Vernunft and Hegel's Philosophie der Religion, while in the history of thought based on Indian and Greek speculation, sporadic sallies were made by all great philosophers, especially those professing an idealism, and by most theologians.

B 1. {byte}. 2. "language" A systems language written by {Ken Thompson} in 1970 mostly for his own use under {Unix} on the {PDP-11}. B was later improved by Kerninghan(?) and Ritchie to produce {C}. B was used as the systems language on {Honeywell}'s {GCOS-3}. B was, according to Ken, greatly influenced by {BCPL}, but the name B had nothing to do with BCPL. B was in fact a revision of an earlier language, {bon}, named after Ken Thompson's wife, Bonnie. ["The Programming Language B", S.C. Johnson & B.W. Kernighan, CS TR 8, Bell Labs (Jan 1973)]. [Features? Differences from C?] (1997-02-02) 3. "language" A simple {interactive} {programming language} designed by {Lambert Meertens} and {Steven Pemberton}. B was the predecessor of {ABC}. B was the first published (and implemented) language to use indentation for block structure. {(}. ["Draft Proposal for the B Language", Lambert Meertens, CWI, Amsterdam, 1981]. [{(}]. 4. "language, specification" A specification language by Jean-Raymond Abrial of {B Core UK}, Magdalen Centre, Oxford Science Park, Oxford OX4 4GA. B is related to {Z} and supports development of {C} code from specifications. B has been used in major {safety-critical system} specifications in Europe, and is currently attracting increasing interest in industry. It has robust, commercially available tool support for specification, design, proof and code generation. E-mail: "". (1995-04-24)

Bacon's theory of poetry also deserves consideration. Whereas reason adapts the mind to the nature of things, and science conquers nature by obeying her, poetry submits the shows of things to the desires of the mind and overcomes nature by allowing us in our imagination to escape from her. Out of present experience and the record of history, poetry builds its narrative and dramatic fancies. But it may also, in allegory and parable, picture symbolically scientific and philosophic truths and religious mysteries -- in which case it creates mythologies. Fr. Bacon, Works, 7 vols., 1857, ed. Spedding and Ellis. -- B.A.G.F.

B. Croce, Estetica, 1902; Logica, 1905-1909; Filosofia della prattica (1909) ; Teoria e storia della storiografia, 1917; What is Living and What is Dead of Hegel (tr. 1915); Historical Materialism and Econ. of K. Marx (tr. 1922); History as the Story of Liberty (tr. 1941).

Berdyayev, Nikolai Alexandrovitch: (1874-1948) Is a contemporary Russian teacher and writer on the philosophy of religion. He was born in Kiev, exiled to Vologda when twenty-five; threatened with expulsion from the Russian Orthodox Church in 1917, he became professor of philosophy at the University of Moscow. In 1922, he was expelled from the Soviet Union and he went to Berlin, where he established his Academy of Religious Philosophy. He moved his school to Paris and established a Russian review called Putj (The Way). His thought resembles that of the Christian Gnostics (see Gnosticism), and it owes a good deal to German idealism and mysticism (Boehme). He is a trenchant critic of systems as diverse as Communism and Thomistic Scholasticism. His most noted works are: Smyisl Istorii (The Meaning of History), Berlin, 1923; Novoye Srednevyekovye (transl. as The End of Our Time, N.Y., 1933), Berlin, 1924; Freedom and the Spirit, N. Y., 1935. V. J. Bourke, "The Gnosticism of N. Berdyaev", Thought, XI (1936), 409-22. -- VJ.B.

History ::: External events that take place during a research study that are not part of the study but have an effect on the outcome

History. Inasmuch as pure or basic Materialism has been an infrequent doctrine among major thinkers, the history of philosophy broadly understood, is largely the history of Idealism.

History, Philosophy of: History investigates the theories concerning the development of man as a social being within the limits of psychophysical causality. Owing to this double puipose the philosophy of history has to study the principles of historiography, and, first of all, their background, their causes and underlying laws, their meaning and motivation. This can be called the metaphysics of history. Secondly, it concerns itself with the cognitive part, i.e. with historic understanding, and then it is called the logic of history. While in earlier times the philosophy of history was predominantly metaphysics, it has turned more and more to the methodology or logic of history. A complete philosophy of history, however, ought to consider the metaphysical as well as the logical problems involved.

bibliographical ::: a. --> Pertaining to bibliography, or the history of books.

bibliography ::: n. --> A history or description of books and manuscripts, with notices of the different editions, the times when they were printed, etc.

biographer ::: n. --> One who writes an account or history of the life of a particular person; a writer of lives, as Plutarch.

biographize ::: v. t. --> To write a history of the life of.

biography ::: n. --> The written history of a person&

bitmap display "hardware" A computer {output device} where each {pixel} displayed on the {monitor} screen corresponds directly to one or more {bits} in the computer's {video memory}. Such a display can be updated extremely rapidly since changing a pixel involves only a single processor write to memory compared with a {terminal} or {VDU} connected via a serial line where the speed of the serial line limits the speed at which the display can be changed. Most modern {personal computers} and {workstations} have bitmap displays, allowing the efficient use of {graphical user interfaces}, interactive graphics and a choice of on-screen {fonts}. Some more expensive systems still delegate graphics operations to dedicated hardware such as {graphics accelerators}. The bitmap display might be traced back to the earliest days of computing when the Manchester University Mark I(?) computer, developed by F.C. Williams and T. Kilburn shortly after the Second World War. This used a {storage tube} as its {working memory}. Phosphor dots were used to store single bits of data which could be read by the user and interpreted as binary numbers. [Is this history correct? Was it ever used to display "graphics"? What was the resolution?] (2002-05-15)

Bletchley Park "body, history" A country house and grounds some 50 miles North of London, England, where highly secret work deciphering intercepted German military radio messages was carried out during World War Two. Thousands of people were working there at the end of the war, including a number of early computer pioneers such as {Alan Turing}. The nature and scale of the work has only emerged recently, with total secrecy having been observed by all the people involved. Throughout the war, Bletchley Park produced highly important strategic and tactical intelligence used by the Allies, (Churchill's "golden eggs"), and it has been claimed that the war in Europe was probably shortened by two years as a result. An exhibition of wartime code-breaking memorabilia, including an entire working {Colossus}, restored by Tony Sale, can be seen at Bletchley Park on alternate weekends. The {Computer Conservation Society} (CCS), a specialist group of the {British Computer Society} runs a museum on the site that includes a working {Elliot} {mainframe} computer and many early {minicomputers} and {microcomputers}. The CCS hope to have substantial facilities for storage and restoration of old artifacts, as well as archive, library and research facilities. Telephone: Bletchley Park Trust office +44 (908) 640 404 (office hours and open weekends). (1998-12-18)

Brain: According to Aristotle, it is a cooling organ of the body. Early in the history of philosophy, it was regarded as closely connected with consciousness and with activities of the soul. Descartes contended that mind-body relations are centered in the pineal gland located between the two hemispheres of the brain. Cabanis, a sensualistic materialist, believed that the brain produces consciousness in a manner similar to that in which the liver produces the bile. Many have sought to identify it with the seat of the soul. Today consciousness is recognized to be a much more complex phenomenon controlled by the entire nervous system, rather than by any part of the brain, and influenced by the bodily metabolism in general. -- R.B.W.

Bruno, Giordano: (1548-1600) A Dominican monk, eventually burned at the stake because of his opinions, he was converted from Christianity to a naturalistic and mystical pantheism by the Renaissance and particularly by the new Copernican astronomy. For him God and the universe were two names for one and the same Reality considered now as the creative essence of all things, now as the manifold of realized possibilities in which that essence manifests itself. As God, natura naturans, the Real is the whole, the one transcendent and ineffable. As the Real is the infinity of worlds and objects and events into which the whole divides itself and in which the one displays the infinite potentialities latent within it. The world-process is an ever-lasting going forth from itself and return into itself of the divine nature. The culmination of the outgoing creative activity is reached in the human mind, whose rational, philosophic search for the one in the many, simplicity in variety, and the changeless and eternal in the changing and temporal, marks also the reverse movement of the divine nature re-entering itself and regaining its primordial unity, homogeneity, and changelessness. The human soul, being as it were a kind of boomerang partaking of the ingrowing as well as the outgrowing process, may hope at death, not to be dissolved with the body, which is borne wholly upon the outgoing stream, but to return to God whence it came and to be reabsorbed in him. Cf. Rand, Modern Classical Philosophers, selection from Bruno's On Cause, The Principle and the One. G. Bruno: De l'infinito, universo e mundo, 1584; Spaccio della bestia trionfante, 1584; La cena delta ceneri, 1584; Deglieroici furori, 1585; De Monade, 1591. Cf. R. Honigswald, Giordano Bruno; G. Gentile, Bruno nella storia della cultura, 1907. -- B.A.G.F. Brunschvicg, Leon: (1869-) Professor of Philosophy at the Ecole Normale in Paris. Dismissed by the Nazis (1941). His philosophy is an idealistic synthesis of Spinoza, Kant and Schelling with special stress on the creative role of thought in cultural history as well as in sciences. Main works: Les etapes de la philosophie mathematique, 1913; L'experience humaine et la causalite physique, 1921; De la connaissance de soi, 1931. Buddhism: The multifarious forms, philosophic, religious, ethical and sociological, which the teachings of Gautama Buddha (q.v.) have produced. They centre around the main doctrine of the catvari arya-satyani(q.v.), the four noble truths, the last of which enables one in eight stages to reach nirvana (q.v.): Right views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. In the absence of contemporary records of Buddha and Buddhistic teachings, much value was formerly attached to the palm leaf manuscripts in Pali, a Sanskrit dialect; but recently a good deal of weight has been given also the Buddhist tradition in Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Chinese. Buddhism split into Mahayanism and Hinayanism (q.v.), each of which, but particularly the former, blossomed into a variety of teachings and practices. The main philosophic schools are the Madhyamaka or Sunyavada, Yogacara, Sautrantika, and Vaibhasika (q.v.). The basic assumptions in philosophy are a causal nexus in nature and man, of which the law of karma (q.v.) is but a specific application; the impermanence of things, and the illusory notion of substance and soul. Man is viewed realistically as a conglomeration of bodily forms (rupa), sensations (vedana), ideas (sanjna), latent karma (sanskaras), and consciousness (vijnana). The basic assumptions in ethics are the universality of suffering and the belief in a remedy. There is no god; each one may become a Buddha, an enlightened one. Also in art and esthetics Buddhism has contributed much throughout the Far East. -- K.F.L.

bucky bits /buh'kee bits/ 1. Obsolete. The bits produced by the CONTROL and META shift keys on a SAIL keyboard ({octal} 200 and 400 respectively), resulting in a 9-bit keyboard character set. The MIT AI TV (Knight) keyboards extended this with TOP and separate left and right CONTROL and META keys, resulting in a 12-bit character set; later, LISP Machines added such keys as SUPER, HYPER, and GREEK (see {space-cadet keyboard}). 2. By extension, bits associated with "extra" shift keys on any keyboard, e.g. the ALT on an IBM PC or command and option keys on a Macintosh. It has long been rumored that "bucky bits" were named after Buckminster Fuller during a period when he was consulting at Stanford. Actually, bucky bits were invented by Niklaus Wirth when *he* was at Stanford in 1964--65; he first suggested the idea of an EDIT key to set the 8th bit of an otherwise 7 bit ASCII character. It seems that, unknown to Wirth, certain Stanford hackers had privately nicknamed him "Bucky" after a prominent portion of his dental anatomy, and this nickname transferred to the bit. Bucky-bit commands were used in a number of editors written at Stanford, including most notably TV-EDIT and NLS. The term spread to MIT and CMU early and is now in general use. Ironically, Wirth himself remained unaware of its derivation for nearly 30 years, until {GLS} dug up this history in early 1993! See {double bucky}, {quadruple bucky}. (2001-06-22)

bug "programming" An unwanted and unintended property of a {program} or piece of {hardware}, especially one that causes it to malfunction. Antonym of {feature}. E.g. "There's a bug in the editor: it writes things out backward." The identification and removal of bugs in a program is called "{debugging}". Admiral {Grace Hopper} (an early computing pioneer better known for inventing {COBOL}) liked to tell a story in which a technician solved a {glitch} in the {Harvard Mark II machine} by pulling an actual insect out from between the contacts of one of its relays, and she subsequently promulgated {bug} in its hackish sense as a joke about the incident (though, as she was careful to admit, she was not there when it happened). For many years the logbook associated with the incident and the actual bug in question (a moth) sat in a display case at the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC). The entire story, with a picture of the logbook and the moth taped into it, is recorded in the "Annals of the History of Computing", Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 1981), pp. 285--286. The text of the log entry (from September 9, 1947), reads "1545 Relay

byte "unit" /bi:t/ (B) A component in the machine {data hierarchy} larger than a {bit} and usually smaller than a {word}; now nearly always eight bits and the smallest addressable unit of storage. A byte typically holds one {character}. A byte may be 9 bits on 36-bit computers. Some older architectures used "byte" for quantities of 6 or 7 bits, and the PDP-10 and IBM 7030 supported "bytes" that were actually {bit-fields} of 1 to 36 (or 64) bits! These usages are now obsolete, and even 9-bit bytes have become rare in the general trend toward power-of-2 word sizes. The term was coined by Werner Buchholz in 1956 during the early design phase for the {IBM} {Stretch} computer. It was a mutation of the word "bite" intended to avoid confusion with "bit". In 1962 he described it as "a group of bits used to encode a character, or the number of bits transmitted in parallel to and from input-output units". The move to an 8-bit byte happened in late 1956, and this size was later adopted and promulgated as a standard by the {System/360} {operating system} (announced April 1964). James S. Jones "" adds: I am sure I read in a mid-1970's brochure by IBM that outlined the history of computers that BYTE was an acronym that stood for "Bit asYnchronous Transmission E..?" which related to width of the bus between the Stretch CPU and its CRT-memory (prior to Core). Terry Carr "" says: In the early days IBM taught that a series of bits transferred together (like so many yoked oxen) formed a Binary Yoked Transfer Element (BYTE). [True origin? First 8-bit byte architecture?] See also {nibble}, {octet}. [{Jargon File}] (2003-09-21)

By way of connoting different types of society, many contemporary Marxists, especially in the U.S.S.R., building upon Marx's analysis of the two phases of "communist society" ("Gotha Program") designate the first or lower phase by the term socialism, the second or higher by the term communism (q.v.). The general features of socialist society (identified by Soviet thinkers with the present phase of development of the U.S.S.R.) are conceived as follows: Economic collective ownership of the means of production, such as factories, industrial equipment, the land, and of the basic apparatus of distribution and exchange, including the banking system; the consequent abolition of classes, private profit, exploitation, surplus value, (q.v.) private hiring and firing and involuntary unemployment; an integrated economy based on long time planning in terms of needs and use. It is held that only under these economic conditions is it possible to apply the formula, "from each according to ability, to each according to work performed", the first part of which implies continuous employment, and the second part, the absence of private profit. Political: a state based upon the dictatorship of the proletariat (q.v.) Cultural the extension of all educational and cultural facilities through state planning; the emancipation of women through unrestricted economic opportunities, the abolition of race discrimination through state enforcement, a struggle against all cultural and social institutions which oppose the socialist society and attempt to obstruct its realization. Marx and Engels held that socialism becomes the inevitable outgrowth of capitalism because the evolution of the latter type of society generates problems which can only be solved by a transition to socialism. These problems are traced primarily to the fact that the economic relations under capitalism, such as individual ownership of productive technics, private hiring and firing in the light of profits and production for a money market, all of which originally released powerful new productive potentialities, come to operate, in the course of time, to prevent full utilization of productive technics, and to cause periodic crises, unemployment, economic insecurity and consequent suffering for masses of people. Marx and Engels regarded their doctrine of the transformation of capitalist into socialist society as based upon a scientific examination of the laws of development of capitalism and a realistic appreciation of the role of the proletariat. (q.v.) Unlike the Utopian socialism (q.v.) of St. Simon, Fourier, Owen (q.v.) and others, their socialism asserted the necessity of mass political organization of the working classes for the purpose of gaining political power in order to effect the transition from capitalism, and also foresaw the probability of a contest of force in which, they held, the working class majority would ultimately be victorious. The view taken is that Marx was the first to explain scientifically the nature of capitalist exploitation as based upon surplus value and to predict its necessary consequences. "These two great discoveries, the materialist conception of history and the revelation of the secret of capitalist production by means of surplus value we owe to Marx. With these discoveries socialism became a science . . ." (Engels: Anti-Dühring, pp. 33-34.) See Historical materialism. -- J.M.S.

canonical (Historically, "according to religious law") 1. "mathematics" A standard way of writing a formula. Two formulas such as 9 + x and x + 9 are said to be equivalent because they mean the same thing, but the second one is in "canonical form" because it is written in the usual way, with the highest power of x first. Usually there are fixed rules you can use to decide whether something is in canonical form. Things in canonical form are easier to compare. 2. "jargon" The usual or standard state or manner of something. The term acquired this meaning in computer-science culture largely through its prominence in {Alonzo Church}'s work in computation theory and {mathematical logic} (see {Knights of the Lambda-Calculus}). Compare {vanilla}. This word has an interesting history. Non-technical academics do not use the adjective "canonical" in any of the senses defined above with any regularity; they do however use the nouns "canon" and "canonicity" (not "canonicalness"* or "canonicality"*). The "canon" of a given author is the complete body of authentic works by that author (this usage is familiar to Sherlock Holmes fans as well as to literary scholars). "The canon" is the body of works in a given field (e.g. works of literature, or of art, or of music) deemed worthwhile for students to study and for scholars to investigate. The word "canon" derives ultimately from the Greek "kanon" (akin to the English "cane") referring to a reed. Reeds were used for measurement, and in Latin and later Greek the word "canon" meant a rule or a standard. The establishment of a canon of scriptures within Christianity was meant to define a standard or a rule for the religion. The above non-technical academic usages stem from this instance of a defined and accepted body of work. Alongside this usage was the promulgation of "canons" ("rules") for the government of the Catholic Church. The usages relating to religious law derive from this use of the Latin "canon". It may also be related to arabic "qanun" (law). Hackers invest this term with a playfulness that makes an ironic contrast with its historical meaning. A true story: One Bob Sjoberg, new at the {MIT AI Lab}, expressed some annoyance at the incessant use of jargon. Over his loud objections, {GLS} and {RMS} made a point of using as much of it as possible in his presence, and eventually it began to sink in. Finally, in one conversation, he used the word "canonical" in jargon-like fashion without thinking. Steele: "Aha! We've finally got you talking jargon too!" Stallman: "What did he say?" Steele: "Bob just used "canonical" in the canonical way." Of course, canonicality depends on context, but it is implicitly defined as the way *hackers* normally expect things to be. Thus, a hacker may claim with a straight face that "according to religious law" is *not* the canonical meaning of "canonical". (2002-02-06)

card 1. "hardware" A circuit board. 2. "storage" {SD card}. 3. "history" A {punched card}. 4. "hypertext" An alternative term for a {node} in a system (e.g. {HyperCard}, {Notecards}) in which the node size is limited.

Cassirer, Ernst: (1874-) Has been chiefly interested in developing the position of the neo-Kantian Philosophy of the Marburg School as it relates to scientific knowledge. Looking at the history of modern philosophy as a progressive formulation of this position, he has sought to extend it by detailed analyses of contemporary scientific developments. Of note are Cassirer's investigations in mathematics, his early consideration of chemical knowledge, and his treatment of Einstein's relativity theory. Main works: Das Erkenntntsprobleme, 3 vols. (1906); Substanz-u-Funktionsbegriff, 1910 (tr. Substance and Function); Philosophie der Symbolischen Forme (1923); Phanom. der Erkenntnis, 1929; Descartes; Leibniz. -- C.K.D.

Cause: (Lat. causa) Anything responsible for change, motion or action. In the history of philosophy numerous interpretations were given to the term. Aristotle distinguished among the material cause, or that out of which something arises, the formal cause, that is, the pattern or essence determining the creation of a thing, the efficient cause, or the force or agent producing an effect; and the final cause, or purpose. Many thinkers spoke also of the first cause, usually conceived as God. During the Renaissance, with the development of scientific interest in nature, cause was usually conceived as an object. Today, it is generally interpteted as energy or action, whether or not connected with matter. According to Newton, "to the same natural effects we must, as far as possible, assign the same causes." But J. S. Mill contended, in his doctrine of the plurality of causes, that an effect, or a kind of effect (e.g. heat or death) may be produced by various causes. The first clear formulation of the principle was given by Leukippus "Nothing happens without a ground but everything through a cause and of necessity." -- R.B.W.

CCS 1. "networking" {Common Communication Services}. 2. "language, parallel" {Calculus of Communicating Systems}. 3. "history" {Computer Conservation Society}. 4. "storage, standard" {Common Command Set}. 5. "communications" {centum call second}.

cetology ::: n. --> The description or natural history of cetaceous animals.

Cf. "Study of the Renaissance Philosophies," P. O. Kristeller and J. H. Randall, Jr. in Jour. History of Ideas, II, 4 (Oct. 1941).

China. The traditional basic concepts of Chinese metaphysics are ideal. Heaven (T'ien), the spiritual and moral power of cosmic and social order, that distributes to each thing and person its alloted sphere of action, is theistically and personalistically conceived in the Shu Ching (Book of History) and the Shih Ching (Book of Poetry). It was probably also interpreted thus by Confucius and Mencius, assuredly so by Motze. Later it became identified with Fate or impersonal, immaterial cosmic power. Shang Ti (Lord on High) has remained through Chinese history a theistic concept. Tao, as cosmic principle, is an impersonal, immaterial World Ground. Mahayana Buddhism introduced into China an idealistic influence. Pure metaphysical idealism was taught by the Buddhist monk Hsuan Ch'uang. Important Buddhist and Taoist influences appear in Sung Confucianism (Ju Chia). a distinctly idealistic movement. Chou Tun I taught that matter, life and mind emerge from Wu Chi (Pure Being). Shao Yung espoused an essential objective idealism: the world is the content of an Universal Consciousness. The Brothers Ch'eng Hsao and Ch'eng I, together with Chu Hsi, distinguished two primordial principles, an active, moral, aesthetic, and rational Law (Li), and a passive ether stuff (Ch'i). Their emphasis upon Li is idealistic. Lu Chiu Yuan (Lu Hsiang Shan), their opponent, is interpreted both as a subjective idealist and as a realist with a stiong idealistic emphasis. Similarly interpreted is Wang Yang Ming of the Ming Dynasty, who stressed the splritual and moral principle (Li) behind nature and man.

christocentric ::: a. --> Making Christ the center, about whom all things are grouped, as in religion or history; tending toward Christ, as the central object of thought or emotion.

chronicle ::: n. --> An historical register or account of facts or events disposed in the order of time.
A narrative of events; a history; a record.
The two canonical books of the Old Testament in which immediately follow 2 Kings. ::: v. t.

chronography ::: n. --> A description or record of past time; history.

Classical Terms from Mythology, History, etc.

Class struggle: Fundamental in Marxian social thought, this term signifies the conflict between classes (q.v.) which, according to the theory of historical materialism (see the entry, Dialectical materialism) may and usually does take place in all aspects of social life, and which has existed ever since the passing of primitive communism (q.v.). The class struggle is considered basic to the dynamics of history in the sense that a widespread change in technics, or a fuller utilization of them, which necessitates changes in economic relations and, in turn, in the social superstructure, is championed and carried through by classes which stand to gain from the change. The economic aspects of the class struggle under capitalism manifest themselves most directly, Marx held, in disputes over amount of wages, rate of profits, rate of interest, amount of rent, length of working day, conditions of work and like matters. The Marxist position is that the class struggle enters into philosophy, politics, law, morals, art, religion and other cultural institutions and fields in various ways, either directly or indirectly, and, in respect to the people involved, consciously or unconsciously, willingly or unwillingly. In any case the specific content of any such field or institution at a given time it held to have a certain effect upon a given class in its conflicts with other classes, weakening or aiding it. Marxists believe that certain kinds of literature or art may inspire people with a lively sense of the need and possibility of a radical change in social relations, or, on the contrary, with a sense of lethargy or complacency, and that various moral, religious or philosophical doctrines may operate to persuade a given class that it should accept its lot without complaint or its privileges without qualms, or may operate to persuade it of the contrary. The Marxist view is that every field or institution has a history, an evolution, and that this evolution is the result of the play of conflicting forces entering into the field, which forces are connected, in one way or another, with class conflicts. While it is thus held that the class struggle involves all cultural fields, it is not held that any cultural production or phenomenon, selected or delimited at random, can be correlated in a one-to-one fashion with an equally delimited class interest. -- J.M.S.

clio ::: n. --> The Muse who presided over history.

collector ::: n. --> One who collects things which are separate; esp., one who makes a business or practice of collecting works of art, objects in natural history, etc.; as, a collector of coins.
A compiler of books; one who collects scattered passages and puts them together in one book.
An officer appointed and commissioned to collect and receive customs, duties, taxes, or toll.
One authorized to collect debts.

commercial at "character" "@". {ASCII} code 64. Common names: at sign, at, strudel. Rare: each, vortex, whorl, {INTERCAL}: whirlpool, cyclone, snail, ape, cat, rose, cabbage, amphora. {ITU-T}: commercial at. The @ sign is used in an {electronic mail address} to separate the local part from the {hostname}. This dates back to July 1972 when {Ray Tomlinson} was designing the first[?] {e-mail} program. It is ironic that @ has become a trendy mark of Internet awareness since it is a very old symbol, derived from the latin preposition "ad" (at). Giorgio Stabile, a professor of history in Rome, has traced the symbol back to the Italian Renaissance in a Roman mercantile document signed by Francesco Lapi on 1536-05-04. In Dutch it is called "apestaartje" (little ape-tail), in German "affenschwanz" (ape tail). The French name is "arobase". In Spain and Portugal it denotes a weight of about 25 pounds, the weight and the symbol are called "arroba". Italians call it "chiocciola" (snail). See {@-party}. (2003-04-28)

computer literacy "education" Basic skill in use of computers, from the perspective of such skill being a necessary societal skill. The term was coined by Andrew Molnar, while director of the Office of Computing Activities at the {National Science Foundation}. "We started computer literacy in '72 [...] We coined that phrase. It's sort of ironic. Nobody knows what computer literacy is. Nobody can define it. And the reason we selected [it] was because nobody could define it, and [...] it was a broad enough term that you could get all of these programs together under one roof" (cited in Aspray, W., (September 25, 1991) "Interview with Andrew Molnar," OH 234. Center for the History of Information Processing, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota). The term, as a coinage, is similar to earlier coinages, such as "visual literacy", which {Merriam-Webster (} dates to 1971, and the more recent "media literacy". A more useful definition from {(} is: Computer literacy is an understanding of the concepts, terminology and operations that relate to general computer use. It is the essential knowledge needed to function independently with a computer. This functionality includes being able to solve and avoid problems, adapt to new situations, keep information organized and communicate effectively with other computer literate people. (2007-03-23)

Comte, Auguste: (1798-1857) Was born and lived during a period when political and social conditions in France were highly unstable. In reflecting the spirit of his age, he rose against the tendency prevalent among his predecessors to propound philosophic doctrines in disregard of the facts of nature and society. His revolt was directed particularly against traditional metaphysics with its endless speculations, countless assumptions, and futile controversies. To his views he gave the name of positivism. According to him, the history of humanity should be described in terms of three stages. The first of these was the theological stage when people's interpretation of reality was dominated by superstitions and prejudicesj the second stage was metaphysical when people attempted to comprehend, and reason about, reality, but were unable to support their contentions by facts; and the third and final stage was positive, when dogmatic assumptions began to be replaced by factual knowledge. Accordingly, the history of thought was characterized by a certain succession of sciences, expressing the turning of scholarly interest toward the earthly and human affairs, namely; mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and sociology. These doctrines were discussed in Comte's main work, Cours de philosophic positive. -- R.B.W.

Concurrent Versions System "programming" (CVS) A {cross-platform} {code management system} originally based on {RCS}. CVS tracks all revisions to a file in an associated file with the same name as the original file but with the string ",v" (for version) appended to the filename. These files are stored in a (possibly centralised) repository. Changes are checked in or "committed" along with a comment (which appears in the the "commit log"). CVS has the notions of projects, {branches}, file locking and many others needed to provide a full-functioned repository. It is commonly accessed over over its own "anonCVS" {protocol} for read-only access (many {open source} projects are available by anonymous CVS) and over the {SSH} protocol by those with commit privileges ("committers"). CVS has been rewritten several times and does not depend on RCS. However, files are still largely compatible; one can easily migrate a project from RCS to CVS by copying the history files into a CVS repository. A sub-project of the {OpenBSD} project is building a complete new implementation of CVS, to be called OpenCVS. {CVS Home (}. {OpenCVS (}. (2005-01-17)

Considers all human experience an historical experience, philosophy being the methodology of history.

console 1. "hardware, operating system, history" The {operator}'s station of a {mainframe} as opposed to an ordinary user's {terminal}. In times past, the console was a privileged location that conveyed godlike powers to anyone with fingers on its keys. Under {Unix} and other modern {time-sharing} {operating systems}, such privileges are guarded by {passwords} instead, and the console is just the {tty} the system was booted from. On Unix the device is called /dev/console. On a {microcomputer} {Unix} box, the console is the main screen and keyboard. Other, character-only, terminals may be connected to {serial ports}. Typically only the console can do real {graphics} or run {X}. See also {CTY}. 2. "games" A self-contained {microcomputer} optimised for gaming, with powerful graphical output designed to be displayed on a television; equipped with one or more {joystick} controllers for input and an {optical drive} to load software. Later generations also feature {Internet} connection via {wireless} or wired {Ethernet} for downloading games and multiplayer networked play. Typically such devices have no keyboard so text must be input using the controller to operate an on-screen keyboard, e.g. to enter player names. The most successful recent examples are the {Sony Playstation} and {Microsoft Xbox} families. [{Jargon File}] (2014-07-01)

continuous wave "communications, history" (CW) A term from early {radio} history for a {transmitter} using an {electron tube} (valve) {oscillator} to constantly add energy to a {tuned circuit} connected to an {antenna}. The term is used in contrast with the use of a {spark gap} to initiate a damped {sinusoidal wave} in a tuned circuit consisting of an {inductor} and {capacitor}. The energy in this circuit constantly changes between the capacitor's {electrostatic field} and the inductor's {magnetic field}. The energy is then coupled to the radiating antenna, loosely (so as not to dampen the wave too quickly). Some radio amateurs understand "CW" to mean transmission by means a single frequency signal which is either on or off (e.g. {Morse code}), as opposed to a carrier which varies continuously in amplitude, frequency or phase. Some would even call the former "unmodulated" even though turning on and off is actually the most extreme form of amplitude modulation. (2009-11-24)

conventional memory "storage, history" The first 640 {kilobytes} of an {IBM PC}'s memory. Prior to {EMS}, {XMS}, and {HMA}, {real mode} application could use only this part of the memory. (1996-01-10)

Coordinated Universal Time "time, standard" (UTC, World Time) The standard time common to every place in the world. UTC is derived from {International Atomic Time} (TAI) by the addition of a whole number of "leap seconds" to synchronise it with {Universal Time} 1 (UT1), thus allowing for the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit, the rotational axis tilt (23.5 degrees), but still showing the Earth's irregular rotation, on which UT1 is based. Coordinated Universal Time is expressed using a 24-hour clock and uses the {Gregorian calendar}. It is used in aeroplane and ship navigation, where it also sometimes known by the military name, "Zulu time". "Zulu" in the phonetic alphabet stands for "Z" which stands for longitude zero. UTC was defined by the International Radio Consultative Committee ({CCIR}), a predecessor of the {ITU-T}. CCIR Recommendation 460-4, or ITU-T Recommendation X.680 (7/94), contains the full definition. The language-independent international abbreviation, UTC, is neither English nor French. It means both "Coordinated Universal Time" and "Temps Universel Coordonné". {BIPM (}. {The Royal Observatory Greenwich (}. {History of UTC and GMT (}. {U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology (}. {UK National Physical Laboratory (}. {US Naval Observatory (}. {International Telecommunications Union (}. {Earth's irregular rotation (/pub/misc/earth_rotation)}. (2001-08-30)

cormogeny ::: n. --> The embryological history of groups or families of individuals.

C shell "operating system" (csh) The {Unix} {command-line interpreter} {shell} and {script language} by {William Joy}, originating from {Berkeley} {Unix}. {Unix} systems up to around {Unix Version 7} only had one shell - the {Bourne shell}, sh. Csh had better {interactive} features, notably command input {history}, allowing earlier commands to be recalled and edited (though it was still not as good as the {VMS} equivalent of the time). Presumably, csh's {C}-like {syntax} was intended to endear it to programmers but sadly it lacks some {sh} features which are useful for writing {shell scripts} so you need to know two different syntaxes for every shell construct. A plethora of different shells followed csh, e.g. {tcsh}, {ksh}, {bash}, {rc}, but sh and csh are the only ones which are provided with most versions of Unix. (1998-04-04)

current ::: a. --> Running or moving rapidly.
Now passing, as time; as, the current month.
Passing from person to person, or from hand to hand; circulating through the community; generally received; common; as, a current coin; a current report; current history.
Commonly estimated or acknowledged.
Fitted for general acceptance or circulation; authentic; passable.

dactyliography ::: n. --> The art of writing or engraving upon gems.
In general, the literature or history of the art.

database management system "database" (DBMS) A suite of programs which typically manage large structured sets of persistent data, offering ad hoc query facilities to many users. They are widely used in business applications. A database management system (DBMS) can be an extremely complex set of software programs that controls the organisation, storage and retrieval of data (fields, records and files) in a database. It also controls the security and integrity of the database. The DBMS accepts requests for data from the application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organisation's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system. Data security prevents unauthorised users from viewing or updating the database. Using passwords, users are allowed access to the entire database or subsets of the database, called subschemas (pronounced "sub-skeema"). For example, an employee database can contain all the data about an individual employee, but one group of users may be authorised to view only payroll data, while others are allowed access to only work history and medical data. The DBMS can maintain the integrity of the database by not allowing more than one user to update the same record at the same time. The DBMS can keep duplicate records out of the database; for example, no two customers with the same customer numbers (key fields) can be entered into the database. {Query languages} and {report writers} allow users to interactively interrogate the database and analyse its data. If the DBMS provides a way to interactively enter and update the database, as well as interrogate it, this capability allows for managing personal databases. However, it may not leave an audit trail of actions or provide the kinds of controls necessary in a multi-user organisation. These controls are only available when a set of application programs are customised for each data entry and updating function. A business information system is made up of subjects (customers, employees, vendors, etc.) and activities (orders, payments, purchases, etc.). Database design is the process of deciding how to organize this data into record types and how the record types will relate to each other. The DBMS should mirror the organisation's data structure and process transactions efficiently. Organisations may use one kind of DBMS for daily transaction processing and then move the detail onto another computer that uses another DBMS better suited for random inquiries and analysis. Overall systems design decisions are performed by data administrators and systems analysts. Detailed database design is performed by database administrators. The three most common organisations are the {hierarchical database}, {network database} and {relational database}. A database management system may provide one, two or all three methods. Inverted lists and other methods are also used. The most suitable structure depends on the application and on the transaction rate and the number of inquiries that will be made. Database machines are specially designed computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Connected to one or more mainframes via a high-speed channel, database machines are used in large volume transaction processing environments. Database machines have a large number of DBMS functions built into the hardware and also provide special techniques for accessing the disks containing the databases, such as using multiple processors concurrently for high-speed searches. The world of information is made up of data, text, pictures and voice. Many DBMSs manage text as well as data, but very few manage both with equal proficiency. Throughout the 1990s, as storage capacities continue to increase, DBMSs will begin to integrate all forms of information. Eventually, it will be common for a database to handle data, text, graphics, voice and video with the same ease as today's systems handle data. See also: {intelligent database}. (1998-10-07)

DDT 1. Generic term for a program that assists in debugging other programs by showing individual {machine instructions} in a readable symbolic form and letting the user change them. In this sense the term DDT is now archaic, having been widely displaced by "debugger" or names of individual programs like "{adb}", "{sdb}", "{dbx}", or "{gdb}". 2. Under {MIT}'s fabled {ITS} {operating system}, DDT (running under the alias HACTRN) was also used as the {shell} or top level command language used to execute other programs. 3. Any one of several specific debuggers supported on early {DEC} hardware. The {DEC} {PDP-10} Reference Handbook (1969) contained a footnote on the first page of the documentation for DDT that illuminates the origin of the term: Historical footnote: DDT was developed at {MIT} for the {PDP-1} computer in 1961. At that time DDT stood for "DEC Debugging Tape". Since then, the idea of an on-line debugging program has propagated throughout the computer industry. DDT programs are now available for all DEC computers. Since media other than tape are now frequently used, the more descriptive name "Dynamic Debugging Technique" has been adopted, retaining the DDT abbreviation. Confusion between DDT-10 and another well known pesticide, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (C14-H9-Cl5) should be minimal since each attacks a different, and apparently mutually exclusive, class of bugs. (The "tape" referred to was, incidentally, not magnetic but paper.) Sadly, this quotation was removed from later editions of the handbook after the {suits} took over and DEC became much more "businesslike". The history above is known to many old-time hackers. But there's more: Peter Samson, compiler of the original {TMRC} lexicon, reports that he named "DDT" after a similar tool on the {TX-0} computer, the direct ancestor of the PDP-1 built at {MIT}'s Lincoln Lab in 1957. The debugger on that ground-breaking machine (the first transistorised computer) rejoiced in the name FLIT (FLexowriter Interrogation Tape). [{Jargon File}]

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency "body" (DARPA, ARPA) An agency of the US Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. DARPA was established in 1958 in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik, with the mission of keeping the US's military technology ahead of its enemies. DARPA is independent from other more conventional military R&D and reports directly to senior DoD management. DARPA has around 240 personnel (about 140 technical) directly managing a $2 billion budget. These figures are "on average" since DARPA focusses on short (two to four-year) projects run by small, purpose-built teams. ARPA was its original name, then it was renamed DARPA (for Defense) in 1972, then back to ARPA [When?], and then, incredibly, back to DARPA again on 1996-03-11! ARPA was responsible for funding development of {ARPANET} (which grew into the {Internet}), as well as the {Berkeley} version of {Unix} and {TCP/IP}. {(}. {History (/pub/misc/darpa)}. (1999-07-17)

dendrologist ::: n. --> One versed in the natural history of trees.

dendrology ::: n. --> A discourse or treatise on trees; the natural history of trees.

Desktop Management Interface "standard, operating system" (DMI) A {specification} from the {Desktop Management Task Force} (DMTF) that establishes a standard {framework} for managing networked computers. DMI covers {hardware} and {software}, {desktop} systems and {servers}, and defines a model for filtering events and describing {interfaces}. DMI provides a common path for technical support, IT managers, and individual users to access information about all aspects of a computer - including {processor} type, installation date, attached {printers} and other {peripherals}, power sources, and maintenance history. It provides a common format for describing products to aid vendors, systems integrators, and end users in enterprise desktop management. DMI is not tied to any specific hardware, operating system, or management protocols. It is easy for vendors to adopt, mappable to existing management protocols such as {Simple Network Management Protocol} (SNMP), and can be used on non-network computers. DMI's four components are: Management Information Format (MIF) - a text file containing information about the hardware and software on a computer. Manufacturers can create their own MIFs specific to a component. Service layer - an OS add-on that connects the management interface and the component interface and allows management and component software to access MIF files. The service layer also includes a common interface called the local agent, which is used to manage individual components. Component interface (CI) - an {application program interface} (API) that sends status information to the appropriate MIF file via the service layer. Commands include Get, Set, and Event. Management interface (MI) - the management software's interface to the service layer. Commands are Get, Set, and List. CI, MI, and service layer drivers are available on the Internet. {Intel}'s {LANDesk Client Manager} (LDCM) is based on DMI. Version: 2.0s (as of 2000-01-19). {(}. {Sun overview (}. (2000-01-19)

Determinism: (Lat. de + terminus, end) The doctrine that every fact in the universe is guided entirely by law. Contained as a theory in the atomism of Democritus of Abdera (q.v.), who reflected upon the impenetrability, translation and impact of matter, and thus allowed only for mechanical causation. The term was applied by Sir William Hamilton (1788-1856) to the doctrine of Hobbes, to distinguish it from an older doctrine of fatalism. The doctrine that all the facts in the physical universe, and hence also in human history, are absolutely dependent upon and conditioned by their causes. In psychology: the doctrine that the will is not free but determined by psychical or physical conditions. Syn. with fatalism, necessitarianism, destiny. -- J.K.F.

diegesis ::: n. --> A narrative or history; a recital or relation.

Difference Engine "computer, history" {Charles Babbage}'s design for the first automatic mechanical calculator. The Difference Engine was a special purpose device intended for the production of mathematical tables. Babbage started work on the Difference Engine in 1823 with funding from the British Government. Only one-seventh of the complete engine, about 2000 parts, was built in 1832 by Babbage's engineer, Joseph Clement. This was demonstrated successfully by Babbage and still works perfectly. The engine was never completed and most of the 12,000 parts manufactured were later melted for scrap. It was left to Georg and Edvard Schuetz to construct the first working devices to the same design which were successful in limited applications. The Difference Engine No. 2 was finally completed in 1991 at the Science Museum, London, UK and is on display there. The engine used gears to compute cumulative sums in a series of {registers}: r[i] := r[i] + r[i+1]. However, the addition had the {side effect} of zeroing r[i+1]. Babbage overcame this by simultaneously copying r[i+1] to a temporary register during the addition and then copying it back to r[i+1] at the end of each cycle (each turn of a handle). {Difference Engine at the Science Museum (

Dilthey, Wilhelm: (1833-1911) A devoted student of biography, he constructed a new methodology and a new interpretation of the study of society and culture. He formulated the doctrine of Verstehungs-psychologie, which is basic to the study of social ends and values. He was the founder of Lebensphilosophie. Being the first humanistic philosopher historian of his age, he led in the comprehensive research in the history of intellectual development. Main works: Einlettung in die Geisteswessenschaften, 1883; Der Erlebnis und die Dtchtung, 1905; Das Wesen der Philosophie, 1907, Der Aufbau der geschichtlichen Welt in der Geisteswissenschaften, 1910, Die Typen der Weltanschauung, 1911; Gesammelte Schriften, 9 vols., 1922-35. --H.H. Dimension: (scientific) 1. Any linear series or order of elements. 2. Any quantity of a given kind, capable of increase or decrease over a certain range, a variable. 3. In the physical system: mass, length and time. -- A.C.B.

Dogma: The Greek term signified a public ordinance of decree, also an opinion. A present meaning: an established, or generally admitted, philosophic opinion explicitly formulated, in a depreciative sense; one accepted on authority without the support of demonstration or experience. Kant calls a directly synthetical proposition grounded on concepts a dogma which he distinguishes from a mathema, which is a similar proposition effected by a construction of concepts. In the history of Christianity dogmas have come to mean definition of revealed truths proposed by the supreme authority of the Church as articles of faith which must be accepted by all its members. -- J.J.R.

ecclesiastical ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the church; relating to the organization or government of the church; not secular; as, ecclesiastical affairs or history; ecclesiastical courts.

Economic determinism: The theory that the economic base of society determines other social doctrines often designated as economic determinism on the ground that they are too narrow and assert only a one-way causal influence (from economic base to other institutions), whereas causal influence, they hold, proceeds both ways. They refer to their own theory as historical materialism or the materialist conception of history. See Marxism. -- J.M.S.

E. G. Boring, History of Experimental Psychology, 1929.

E. G. Boring, History of Experimental Psychology;

Electronic Discrete Sequential Automatic Computer "computer, history" (EDSAC, often "Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer") Based upon the {EDVAC} (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) designed in 1945, the EDSAC was completed in 1949 at the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory in England. The EDSAC performed its first calculation on 1949-05-06. EDSAC was considered to be the first computer to store programs. It ceased to exist in about 1951. [What happened to it?] (2010-01-07)

Enlightenment: When Kant, carried by the cultural enthusiasm of his time, explained "enlightenment" as man's coming of age from the state of infancy which rendered him incapable of using his reason without the aid of others, he gave only the subjective meaning of the term. Objectively, enlightenment is a cultural period distinguished by the fervent efforts of leading personalities to make reason the absolute ruler of human life, and to shed the light of knowledge upon the mind and conscience of any individual. Such attempts are not confined to a particular time, or nation, as history teaches; but the term is generally applied to the European enlightenment stretching from the early 17th to the beginning of the 19th century, especially fostered by English, Dutch, French, and German philosophers. It took its start in England from the empiricism of F. Bacon, Th. Hobbes, J. Locke, it found a religious version in the naturalism of Edw. H. Cherbury, J. Toland, M. Tindal, H. Bolingbroke, and the host of "freethinkers", while the Earl of Shaftesbury imparted to it a moral on the "light of reason". Not so constructive but radical in their sarcastic criticism of the past were the French enlighteners, showing that their philosophy got its momentum from the moral corruption at the royal court and abuse of kinglv power in France. Descartes' doctrine of the "clear and perspicuous ideas," Spinoza's critical attitude towards religion, and Leibniz-Wolff's "reasonable thinking" prepared the philosophy of P. Bayle, Ch. Montesquieu, F. M. Voltaire, and J. J. Rousseau. The French positive contribution to the subject was the "Encyclopedie ou Dictionaire raisonne des sciences, arts et metiers", 1751-72, in 28 volumes, edited by Diderot, D'Alembert, Helvetius, Holbach, J. L. Lagrane, etc. What, in England and France, remained on the stage of mere ideas and utopic dreams became reality in the new commonwealth of the U.S.A. The "fathers of the constitution" were enlightened, outstanding among them B. Franklin, Th. Jefferson, J. Adams, A. Hamilton, and Th. Paine their foremost literary propagandist.

epidemiography ::: n. --> A treatise upon, or history of, epidemic diseases.

epoch ::: n. --> A fixed point of time, established in history by the occurrence of some grand or remarkable event; a point of time marked by an event of great subsequent influence; as, the epoch of the creation; the birth of Christ was the epoch which gave rise to the Christian era.
A period of time, longer or shorter, remarkable for events of great subsequent influence; a memorable period; as, the epoch of maritime discovery, or of the Reformation.
A division of time characterized by the prevalence of

era ::: n. --> A fixed point of time, usually an epoch, from which a series of years is reckoned.
A period of time reckoned from some particular date or epoch; a succession of years dating from some important event; as, the era of Alexander; the era of Christ, or the Christian era (see under Christian).
A period of time in which a new order of things prevails; a signal stage of history; an epoch.

(e) The problem of the A PRIORI, though the especial concern of the rationalist, confronts the empiricist also since few epistemologists are prepared to exclude the a priori entirely from their accounts of knowledge. The problem is that of isolating the a priori or non-empirical elements in knowledge and accounting for them in terms of the human reason. Three principal theories of the a priori have been advanced: the theory of the intrinsic A PRIORI which asserts that the basic principles of logic, mathematics, natural sciences and philosophy are self-evident truths recognizable by such intrinsic traits as clarity and distinctness of ideas. The intrinsic theory received its definitive modern expression in the theory of "innate ideas" (q.v.) of Herbert of Cherbury, Descartes, and 17th century rationalism. The presuppositional theory of the a priori which validates a priori truths by demonstrating that they are presupposed either by their attempted denial (Leibniz) or by the very possibility of experience (Kant). The postulational theory of the A PRIORI elaborated under the influence of recent postulational techniques in mathematics, interprets a priori principles as rules or postulates arbitrarily posited in the construction of formal deductive systems. See Postulate; Posit. (f) The problem of differentiating the principal kinds of knowledge is an essential task especially for an empirical epistemology. Perhaps the most elementary epistemological distinction is between non-inferential apprehension of objects by perception, memory, etc. (see Knowledge by Acquaintance), and inferential knowledge of things with which the knowing subject has no direct apprehension. See Knowledge by Description. Acquaintance in turn assumes two principal forms: perception or acquaintance with external objects (see Perception), and introspection or the subject's acquaintance with the "self" and its cognitive, volitional and affective states. See Introspection; Reflection. Inferential knowledge includes knowledge of other selves (this is not to deny that knowledge of other minds may at times be immediate and non-inferential), historical knowledge, including not only history in the narrower sense but also astronomical, biological, anthropological and archaeological and even cosmological reconstructions of the past and finally scientific knowledge in so far as it involves inference and construction from observational data.

etymology ::: n. --> That branch of philological science which treats of the history of words, tracing out their origin, primitive significance, and changes of form and meaning.
That part of grammar which relates to the changes in the form of the words in a language; inflection.

Eusebius of Caesarea: (265-340) Is one of the first great historians of the Christian Church. He was born at Caesarea, in Palestine, studied at the school of Pamphilus, became Bishop of Caesarea in 313. His works are in Greek and include a Chronicle, Ecclesiastical History, and a treatise On Theophanies (PG 19-24). His philosophical views are those of a Christian Platonist and he contributed to the development of the allegorical method of Scriptural exegesis. -- V.J. B.

evangelical ::: a. --> Contained in, or relating to, the four Gospels; as, the evangelical history.
Belonging to, agreeable or consonant to, or contained in, the gospel, or the truth taught in the New Testament; as, evangelical religion.
Earnest for the truth taught in the gospel; strict in interpreting Christian doctrine; preeminetly orthodox; -- technically applied to that party in the Church of England, and in the Protestant

eventful ::: a. --> Full of, or rich in, events or incidents; as, an eventful journey; an eventful period of history; an eventful period of life.

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code "character, standard" /eb's*-dik/, /eb'see`dik/, /eb'k*-dik/, /ee`bik'dik`/, /*-bik'dik`/ (EBCDIC) A proprietary 8-bit {character set} used on {IBM} {dinosaurs}, the {AS/400}, and {e-Server}. EBCDIC is an extension to 8 bits of BCDIC (Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code), an earlier 6-bit character set used on IBM computers. EBCDIC was [first?] used on the successful {System/360}, anounced on 1964-04-07, and survived for many years despite the almost universal adoption of {ASCII} elsewhere. Was this concern for {backward compatibility} or, as many believe, a marketing strategy to lock in IBM customers? IBM created 57 national EBCDIC character sets and an International Reference Version (IRV) based on {ISO 646} (and hence ASCII compatible). Documentation on these was not easily accessible making international exchange of data even between IBM mainframes a tricky task. US EBCDIC uses more or less the same characters as {ASCII}, but different {code points}. It has non-contiguous letter sequences, some ASCII characters do not exist in EBCDIC (e.g. {square brackets}), and EBCDIC has some ({cent sign}, {not sign}) not in ASCII. As a consequence, the translation between ASCII and EBCDIC was never officially completely defined. Users defined one translation which resulted in a so-called de-facto EBCDIC containing all the characters of ASCII, that all ASCII-related programs use. Some printers, telex machines, and even electronic cash registers can speak EBCDIC, but only so they can converse with IBM mainframes. For an in-depth discussion of character code sets, and full translation tables, see {Guidelines on 8-bit character codes (}. {A history of character codes (}. (2002-03-03)

Fechner, Gustav Theodor: (1801-1887) Philosophizing during the ascendency of modern science and the wane of metaphysical speculation, Fechner though as physicist believing in induction, analogy, history and pragmatic procedure, expounded a pure, objective idealism of Berkeley's type. With Oken and Schelling as spiritual guides, he held that everything is in consciousness, there are no substances, no things-in-themselves, everything, including animals, plants, earth, and heavens, shares the life of the soul (alles ist beseelt). In a consequent psycho-physicalism he interpreted soul (which is no substance, but the simplifying power in contrast to the diversifying physical) as appearance to oneself, and matter as appearance to others, both representing the same reality differentiated only in point of view. He applied the law of threshold to consciousness, explaining thus its relative discontinuity on one level while postulating its continuity on another, either higher or lower level. In God, as the highest rung of existence, there is infinite consciousness without an objective world. Evil arises inexplicably from darker levels of consciousness. With poetic imagination Fechner defended the "day-view" of the world in which phenomena are the real content of consciousness, against the "night-view" of science which professes knowledge of the not-sensation-conditioned colorless, soundless world.

FidoNet "messaging, networking, history" A worldwide hobbyist {network} of {personal computers} which exchanged {e-mail}, discussion groups, and files. Founded in 1984 and originally consisting only of {IBM PCs} and compatibles, FidoNet grew to include such diverse machines as {Apple IIs}, {Ataris}, {Amigas} and {Unix} systems. Though much younger than {Usenet}, by early 1991 FidoNet had reached a significant fraction of {Usenet}'s size at some 8000 systems. [{Jargon File}] (2014-11-08)

Fidonews "messaging, history" The weekly official on-line newsletter of {FidoNet}, also known as "'Snooz". As the editorial policy of Fidonews was "anything that arrives, we print", there were often large articles completely unrelated to FidoNet, which in turn tend to elicit {flamage} in subsequent issues. [{Jargon File}] (2014-11-08)

file "file system" An element of data storage in a {file system}. The history of computing is rich in varied kinds of files and {file systems}, whether ornate like the {Macintosh file system} or deficient like many simple pre-1980s file systems that didn't have {directories}. However, a typical file has these characteristics: * It is a single sequence of bytes (but consider {Macintosh} {resource forks}). * It has a finite length, unlike, e.g., a {Unix} {device}. * It is stored in a {non-volatile storage} medium (but see {ramdrive}). * It exists (nominally) in a {directory}. * It has a name that it can be referred to by in file operations, possibly in combination with its {path}. Additionally, a file system may support other {file attributes}, such as {permissions}; timestamps for creation, last modification, and last access and revision numbers (a` la {VMS}). Compare: {document}. (2007-01-04)

Fischer, Kuno: (1824-1907) Is one of the series of eminent German historians of philosophy, inspired by the impetus which Hegel gave to the study of history. He personally joined in the revival of Kantianism in opposition to rationalistic, speculative metaphysics and the progress of materialism.

Florian Cajori, A History of Mathematics, 2nd edn., New York and London, 1922. A History of Elementary Mathematics, revised edn., New York and London, 1917. A History of Mathematical Notations, 2 vols., Chicago, 1928-1929.

foo "jargon" /foo/ A sample name for absolutely anything, especially programs and files (especially {scratch files}). First on the standard list of {metasyntactic variables} used in {syntax} examples. See also {bar}, {baz}, {qux}, quux, {corge}, {grault}, {garply}, {waldo}, {fred}, {plugh}, {xyzzy}, {thud}. The etymology of "foo" is obscure. When used in connection with "bar" it is generally traced to the WWII-era Army slang acronym {FUBAR}, later bowdlerised to {foobar}. However, the use of the word "foo" itself has more complicated antecedents, including a long history in comic strips and cartoons. "FOO" often appeared in the "Smokey Stover" comic strip by Bill Holman. This surrealist strip about a fireman appeared in various American comics including "Everybody's" between about 1930 and 1952. FOO was often included on licence plates of cars and in nonsense sayings in the background of some frames such as "He who foos last foos best" or "Many smoke but foo men chew". Allegedly, "FOO" and "BAR" also occurred in Walt Kelly's "Pogo" strips. In the 1938 cartoon "The Daffy Doc", a very early version of Daffy Duck holds up a sign saying "SILENCE IS FOO!". Oddly, this seems to refer to some approving or positive affirmative use of foo. It has been suggested that this might be related to the Chinese word "fu" (sometimes transliterated "foo"), which can mean "happiness" when spoken with the proper tone (the lion-dog guardians flanking the steps of many Chinese restaurants are properly called "fu dogs"). Earlier versions of this entry suggested the possibility that hacker usage actually sprang from "FOO, Lampoons and Parody", the title of a comic book first issued in September 1958, a joint project of Charles and Robert Crumb. Though Robert Crumb (then in his mid-teens) later became one of the most important and influential artists in underground comics, this venture was hardly a success; indeed, the brothers later burned most of the existing copies in disgust. The title FOO was featured in large letters on the front cover. However, very few copies of this comic actually circulated, and students of Crumb's "oeuvre" have established that this title was a reference to the earlier Smokey Stover comics. An old-time member reports that in the 1959 "Dictionary of the TMRC Language", compiled at {TMRC} there was an entry that went something like this: FOO: The first syllable of the sacred chant phrase "FOO MANE PADME HUM." Our first obligation is to keep the foo counters turning. For more about the legendary foo counters, see {TMRC}. Almost the entire staff of what became the {MIT} {AI LAB} was involved with TMRC, and probably picked the word up there. Another correspondant cites the nautical construction "foo-foo" (or "poo-poo"), used to refer to something effeminate or some technical thing whose name has been forgotten, e.g. "foo-foo box", "foo-foo valve". This was common on ships by the early nineteenth century. Very probably, hackish "foo" had no single origin and derives through all these channels from Yiddish "feh" and/or English "fooey". [{Jargon File}] (1998-04-16)

For the opposing, more empirical approach and criticisms of the idealistic, organismic philosophies of history, see M. Mandelbaum, The Problem of Historical Knowledge, 1939; F. J. E. Teggart, The Method of History; Ph. P. Wiener, "Methodology in the Phtlos. of Hist.", Jour. of Philos. (June 5, 1941).

Free On-line Dictionary of Computing "introduction" FOLDOC is a searchable dictionary of acronyms, jargon, programming languages, tools, architecture, operating systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards, mathematics, telecoms, electronics, institutions, companies, projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with computing. Copyright 1985 by Denis Howe Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, Front- or Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "{GNU Free Documentation License}". Please refer to the dictionary as "The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing,, Editor Denis Howe" or similar. Please make the URL both text (for humans) and a hyperlink (for Google). You can search the latest version of the dictionary at URL Where {LaTeX} commands for certain non-{ASCII} symbols are mentioned, they are described in their own entries. "\" is also used to represent the Greek lower-case lambda used in {lambda-calculus}. See {Pronunciation} for how to interpret the pronunciation given for some entries. Cross-references to other entries look {like this}. Note that not all cross-references actually lead anywhere yet, but if you find one that leads to something inappropriate, please let me know. Dates after entries indicate when that entry was last updated. {More about FOLDOC (about.html)}. (2018-05-22)

Fung Yu-lan, A History of Chinese Philosophy (ancient period), tr. by D. Bodde, Henri Vetch, Peiping, 1937;

GE Information Services "networking, company" One of the leading on-line services, started on 1st October 1985, providing subscribers with hundreds of special interest areas, computer hardware and software support, award-winning multi-player games, the most software files in the industry (over 200 000), worldwide news, sports updates, business news, investment strategies, and {Internet} {electronic mail} and fax (GE Mail). Interactive conversations (Chat Lines) and {bulletin boards} (Round Tables) with associated software archives are also provided. GEnie databases (through the ARTIST gateway) allow users to search the full text of thousands of publications, including Dun & Bradstreet Company Profiles; a GEnie NewsStand with more than 900 newspapers, magazines, and newsletters; a Reference Center with information ranging from Agriculture to World History; the latest in medical information from MEDLINE; and patent and trademark registrations. {(}. {Shopping 2000 (}. Telephone: +1 (800) 638 9636. TDD: +1 (800) 238 9172. E-mail: "". [Connection with: GE Information Services, Inc., a division of General Electric Company, Headquarters: Rockville, Maryland, USA?] (1995-04-13)

Gemara: ( Heb. completion) Is the larger and latter part of the Talmud (q.v.) discussing the Mishnah, and incorporating also vast materials not closely related to the Mishnah topics. The 1812 authorities of the gemara are known as Amoraim (speakers). Its contents bears on Halaeha (law) and Aggadah (tale), i.e. non-legal material like legends, history, science, ethics, philosophy, biography, etc. There are two gemaras better known as Talmuds: the Jerusalem (i.e. Palestinian) Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud. -- H.L.G.

genealogize ::: v. i. --> To investigate, or relate the history of, descents.

genealogy ::: n. --> An account or history of the descent of a person or family from an ancestor; enumeration of ancestors and their children in the natural order of succession; a pedigree.
Regular descent of a person or family from a progenitor; pedigree; lineage.

genesis ::: n. --> The act of producing, or giving birth or origin to anything; the process or mode of originating; production; formation; origination.
The first book of the Old Testament; -- so called by the Greek translators, from its containing the history of the creation of the world and of the human race.
Same as Generation.

genius ::: n. --> A good or evil spirit, or demon, supposed by the ancients to preside over a man&

Gentile, Giovanni: Born in Castelvetrano (Sicily) 1875. Professor of Philosophy and History of Philosophy at universities in Palermo, Pisa, and Rome. Minister of Public Education 1922-1924. Senator since 1922. Reformed the school system of Italy.

geology ::: n. --> The science which treats: (a) Of the structure and mineral constitution of the globe; structural geology. (b) Of its history as regards rocks, minerals, rivers, valleys, mountains, climates, life, etc.; historical geology. (c) Of the causes and methods by which its structure, features, changes, and conditions have been produced; dynamical geology. See Chart of The Geological Series.
A treatise on the science.

Global System for Mobile Communications "communications" (GSM) One of the major {standards} for digital {mobile} communications. In 1982, the Groupe Speciale Mobile was formed by the {Confederation of European Posts and Telecommunications} (CEPT) to design a pan-European mobile technology. GSM was named after the "Groupe de travail Spéciale pour les services Mobiles" group of {CEPT} that wrote the first GSM specifications. By 2011, GSM was in use in over 60 countries and serving over six billion subscribers. The GSM standard uses the 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1900 MHz bands. {GPRS} allows {packet switched} data communications over GSM, and is widely used for {web} and {electronic mail} access from mobile devices. {GSM History (}. (2017-01-03)

GMD "company, history" A former German research centre. Full name: "GMD - Forschungszentrum Informationstechnik GmbH" (German National Research Center for Information Technology). Before April 1995, GMD stood for "Gesellschaft für Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung" - National Research Center for Computer Science, it is retained for historical reasons. In 2000-2001 GMD was integrated into the {FhG} (Fraunhofer Society for the Advancement of Applied Research). The website says (in German): "GMD (Forschungszentrum Informationstechnik GmbH, before March 1995: Gesellschaft für Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung mbH) no longer exists!" Address: PO Box 1316, D-53731 Sankt Augustin 1, Germany (1995-04-10)

GNU Free Documentation License "legal" (GFDL) The {Free Software Foundation}'s license designed to ensure the same freedoms for {documentation} that the {GPL} gives to {software}. This dictionary is distributed under the GFDL, see the copyright notice in the {Free On-line Dictionary of Computing} section (at the start of the source file). The full text follows. Version 1.1, March 2000 Copyright 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. 0. PREAMBLE The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. 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TERMINATION You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See {here (}. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. End of full text of GFDL. (2002-03-09)

Gnuplot "tool" A command-driven interactive graphing program. Gnuplot can plot two-dimensional functions and data points in many different styles (points, lines, error bars); and three-dimensional data points and surfaces in many different styles (contour plot, mesh). It supports {complex} arithmetic and user-defined functions and can label title, axes, and data points. It can output to several different graphics file formats and devices. Command line editing and history are supported and there is extensive on-line help. Gnuplot is {copyright}ed, but freely distributable. It was written by Thomas Williams, Colin Kelley, Russell Lang, Dave Kotz, John Campbell, Gershon Elber, Alexander Woo and many others. Despite its name, gnuplot is not related to the {GNU} project or the {FSF} in any but the most peripheral sense. It was designed completely independently and is not covered by the {General Public License}. However, the {FSF} has decided to distribute gnuplot as part of the {GNU} system, because it is useful, redistributable software. Gnuplot is available for: {Unix} ({X11} and {NEXTSTEP}), {VAX}/{VMS}, {OS/2}, {MS-DOS}, {Amiga}, {MS-Windows}, {OS-9}/68k, {Atari ST} and {Macintosh}. E-mail: "". {FAQ} - {Germany (}, {UK (}, {USA (}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {}. (1995-05-04)

God: In metaphysical thinking a name for the highest, ultimate being, assumed by theology on the basis of authority, revelation, or the evidence of faith as absolutely necessary, but demonstrated as such by a number of philosophical systems, notably idealistic, monistic and dualistic ones. Proofs of the existence of God fall apart into those that are based on facts of experience (desire or need for perfection, dependence, love, salvation, etc.), facts of religious history (consensus gentium, etc.)), postulates of morality (belief in ultimate justice, instinct for an absolute good, conscience, the categorical imperative, sense of duty, need of an objective foundation of morality, etc.)), postulates of reason (cosmological, physico-theological, teleological, and ontological arguments), and the inconceivableness of the opposite. As to the nature of God, the great variety of opinions are best characterized by their several conceptions of the attributes of God which are either of a non-personal (pantheistic, etc.) or personal (theistic, etc.) kind, representing concepts known from experience raised to a superlative degree ("omniscient", "eternal", etc.). The reality, God, may be conceived as absolute or as relative to human values, as being an all-inclusive one, a duality, or a plurality. Concepts of God calling for unquestioning faith, belief in miracles, and worship or representing biographical and descriptive sketches of God and his creation, are rather theological than metaphysical, philosophers, on the whole, utilizing the idea of God or its linguistic equivalents in other languages, despite popular and church implications, in order not to lose the feeling-contact with the rather abstract world-ground. See Religion, Philosophy of. -- K.F.L.

Gottlob Frege "person, history, philosophy, mathematics, logic, theory" (1848-1925) A mathematician who put mathematics on a new and more solid foundation. He purged mathematics of mistaken, sloppy reasoning and the influence of {Pythagoras}. Mathematics was shown to be a subdivision of {formal logic}. [Where?] (1997-07-14)

Great Renaming "history" The {flag day} in 1986 on which all of the non-local groups on the {Usenet} had their names changed from the net.- format to the current multiple-hierarchies scheme. Used especially in discussing the history of newsgroup names. "The oldest sources group is comp.sources.misc; before the Great Renaming, it was net.sources." {FAQ (}. [{Jargon File}] (2000-07-14)

grecian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Greece; Greek. ::: n. --> A native or naturalized inhabitant of Greece; a Greek.
A jew who spoke Greek; a Hellenist.
One well versed in the Greek language, literature, or history.

Green Book 1. "publication" Informal name for one of the four standard references on {PostScript}. The other three official guides are known as the {Blue Book}, the {Red Book}, and the {White Book}. ["PostScript Language Program Design", Adobe Systems, Addison-Wesley, 1988 (ISBN 0-201-14396-8)]. 2. "publication" Informal name for one of the three standard references on {SmallTalk}. Also associated with blue and red books. ["Smalltalk-80: Bits of History, Words of Advice", by Glenn Krasner (Addison-Wesley, 1983; QA76.8.S635S58; ISBN 0-201-11669-3)]. 3. "publication" The "X/Open Compatibility Guide", which defines an international standard {Unix} environment that is a proper superset of {POSIX}/SVID. It also includes descriptions of a standard utility toolkit, systems administrations features, and the like. This grimoire is taken with particular seriousness in Europe. See {Purple Book}. 4. "publication" The {IEEE} 1003.1 {POSIX} Operating Systems Interface standard has been dubbed "The Ugly Green Book". 5. "publication" Any of the 1992 standards issued by the {ITU-T}'s tenth plenary assembly. These include, among other things, the dreadful {X.400} {electronic mail} standard and the Group 1 through 4 fax standards. 6. {Green Book CD-ROM}. See also {book titles}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-12-03)

Grotius, Hugo: (1583-1645) Dutch jurist. In his celebrated De jure belli et pacis (1625) he presents a theory of natural rights, based largely upon Stoicism and Roman legal principles. A sharp distinction is made between inviolable natural law and the ever changing positive or civil law. His work has been basic in the history of international law.

guru "job" An expert, especially in "{Unix} guru". Implies not only {wizard} skill but also a history of being a knowledge resource for others. Less often, used (with a qualifier) for other experts on other systems, as in "VMS guru". See {source of all good bits}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-06-01)

hagiology ::: n. --> The history or description of the sacred writings or of sacred persons; a narrative of the lives of the saints; a catalogue of saints.

Harivamsa (Harivansha) ::: [a poem supplementary to the Mahabharata dealing with the history and adventures of Krsna and his family].

Harvard Mark II Machine "computer, history" A {relay}-based computer designed and built by {Howard Aiken}, with support from {IBM}, for the United States Navy's Naval Proving Ground, between 1942 - 1947. The Harvard Mark II was the second in a series of four {electro-mechanical} computers that were forerunners of the {ENIAC}. {Harvard machines (}. (2003-09-13)

Haskell Curry "person" Haskell Brooks Curry (1900-09-12 - 1982-09-01). The logician who re-invented and developed {combinatory logic}. The {functional programming} language {Haskell} was named after him. {Biography (}. (1999-01-08)

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich: Born at Stuttgart in 1770 and died at Berlin in 1831. He studied theology, philosophy and the classics at Tübingen, 1788-93, occupied the conventional position of tutor in Switzerland and Frankfort on the Main, 1794-1800, and went to Jena as Privatdocent in philosophy in 1801. He was promoted to a professorship at Jena in 1805, but was driven from the city the next year by the incursion of the French under Napoleon. He then went to Bamberg, where he remained two years as editor of a newspaper. The next eight years he spent as director of the Gymnasium at Nürnberg. In 1816 he accepted a professorship of philosophy at Heidelberg, from which position he was called two years later to succeed Fichte at the University of Berlin. While at Jena, he co-operated with Schelling in editing the Kritisches Journal der Philosophie, to which he contributed many articles. His more important volumes were published as follows: Phänomenologie des Geistes, 1807; Wissenschaft der Logik, 1812-16; Encyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse, 1817; Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts, 1820. Shortly after his death his lectures on the philosophy of religion, the history of philosophy, the philosophy of history, and aesthetics were published from the collated lecture-notes of his students. His collected works in nineteen volumes were published 1832-40 by a group of his students. -- G.W.C.

He lived in the time when the moral and cultural traditions of Chou were in rapid decline. Attempting to uphold the Chou culture, he taught poetry, history, ceremonies and music to 3,000 pupils, becoming the first Chinese educator to offer education to any who cared to come with or without tuition. He taught literature, human conduct, being one's true self and honesty in social relationships. He wrote the chronicles called Spring and Autumn. His tacit judgments on social and political events were such that "unruly ministers and villainous sons were afraid" to repeat their evil deeds.

helminthology ::: n. --> The natural history, or study, of worms, esp. parasitic worms.

heracleonite ::: n. --> A follower of Heracleon of Alexandria, a Judaizing Gnostic, in the early history of the Christian church.

Herder, Johann Gottfried: (1744-1803) A founder of modern religious humanism, he explained human history as a consequence of the nature of man and of man's physical environment. Held implicitly to the view that society is basically an organic whole. Accounted for the differences in culture and institutions of different peoples as being due to geographical conditions. Although history is a process of the education of the human species, it has no definite goal of perfection and development. The vehicle of living culture is a distinct Volk or Nation with its distinct language and traditions. As a child of the Enlightenment, Herder had a blind faith in nature, in man and in the ultimate development of reason and justice.

herpetologist ::: n. --> One versed in herpetology, or the natural history of reptiles.

herpetology ::: n. --> The natural history of reptiles; that branch of zoology which relates to reptiles, including their structure, classification, and habits.

He was the first to recognize a fundamental critical difference between the philosopher and the scientist. He found those genuine ideals in the pre-Socratic period of Greek culture which he regarded as essential standards for the deepening of individuality and real culture in the deepest sense, towards which the special and natural sciences, and professional or academic philosophers failed to contribute. Nietzsche wanted the philosopher to be prophetic, originally forward-looking in the clarification of the problem of existence. Based on a comprehensive critique of the history of Western civilization, that the highest values in religion, morals and philosophy have begun to lose their power, his philosophy gradually assumed the will to power, self-aggrandizement, as the all-embracing principle in inorganic and organic nature, in the development of the mind, in the individual and in society. More interested in developing a philosophy of life than a system of academic philosophy, his view is that only that life is worth living which develops the strength and integrity to withstand the unavoidable sufferings and misfortunes of existence without flying into an imaginary world.

hexahemeron ::: n. --> A term of six days.
The history of the six day&

Hindu Ethics: See Indian Ethics. Hindu Aesthetics: See Indian Aesthetics. Hindu Philosophy: See Indian Philosophy. Historical materialism: The social philosophy of dialectical materialism. The application of the general principles of dialectical materialism to the specific field of human history, the development of human society. One of the chief problems Marx dealt with was that of the basic causal agent in the movement of human history. He states his thesis as follows:

His aesthetics defines art as an expression of sentiment, as a language. His logic emphasizes the distinction of categories, reducing opposition to a derivative of distinction. According to his ethics, economics is an autonomous and absolute moment of spirit. His theory of history regards all history as contemporaneous. His philosophy is one of the greatest attempts at elaboration of pure concepts entirely appropriate to historical experience.

histogenesis ::: n. --> The formation and development of organic tissues; histogeny; -- the opposite of histolysis.
Germ history of cells, and of the tissues composed of cells.

histophyly ::: n. --> The tribal history of cells, a division of morphophyly.

historian ::: n. --> A writer of history; a chronicler; an annalist.
One versed or well informed in history.

historical ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to history, or the record of past events; as, an historical poem; the historic page.

historically ::: adv. --> In the manner of, or in accordance with, history.

Historicism: The view that the history of anything is a sufficient explanation of it, that the values of anything can be accounted for through the discovery of its origins, that the nature of anything is entirely comprehended in its development, as for example, that the properties of the oak tree are entirely accounted for by an exhaustive description of its development from the acorn. The doctrine which discounts the fallaciousness of the historical fallacy. Applied by some critics to the philosophy of Hegel and Karl Marx. -- J.K.F.

historicize ::: v. t. --> To record or narrate in the manner of a history; to chronicle.

historied ::: a. --> Related in history.

Histories of Ethics: H. Sidgwick, Outlines of the History of Ethics, Rev. Ed. 1931. Gives titles of the classical works in ethics in passing. C. D. Broad, Five Types of Ethical Theory, 1930.

histories ::: pl. --> of History

historiographer ::: n. --> An historian; a writer of history; especially, one appointed or designated to write a history; also, a title bestowed by some governments upon historians of distinction.

Historiography: (Gr. histor + graphein, to write) The art of recording history (q.v.). History: (Gr. histor, learned) Ambiguously used to denote either (a) events or (b) records of the past. The term historiography (q.v.) is used for (b). Also ambiguous in denoting natural as well as human events, or records of either. History of Art: Vasari (16th century) began the history of the artists. Winckelmann (18th century) began the history of art, that is of the development of the clements comprised in works of art. The history of art today is directed towards a synthesis of the personalities of the artists and of their reaction to tradition and environment. -- L.V.

historiology ::: n. --> A discourse on history.

historionomer ::: n. --> One versed in the phenomena of history and the laws controlling them.

histority ::: v. t. --> To record in or as history.

historize ::: v. t. --> To relate as history; to chronicle; to historicize.

history 1. "history" {Virginia Tech history of computing (}. {IT Rentals computing timeline (}. 2. "operating system" A record of previous user inputs (e.g. to a {command interpreter}) which can be re-entered without re-typing them. The major improvement of the {C shell} (csh) over the {Bourne shell} (sh) was the addition of a command history. This was still inferior to the history mechanism on {VMS} which allowed you to recall previous commands as the current input line. You could then edit the command using cursor motion, insert and delete. These sort of history editing facilities are available under {tcsh} and {GNU Emacs}. 3. The history of the world was once discussed in {Usenet} newsgroups {news:soc.history} and {news:alt.history}. (2013-08-04)

history :::History teaches us nothing; it is a confused torrent of events and personalities or a kaleidoscope of changing institutions. We do not seize the real sense of all this change and this continual streaming forward of human life in the channels of Time. What we do seize are current or recurrent phenomena, facile generalisations, partial ideas. We talk of democracy, aristocracy and autocracy, collectivism and individualism, imperialism and nationalism, the State and the commune, capitalism and labour; we advance hasty generalisations and make absolute systems which are positively announced today only to be abandoned perforce tomorrow; we espouse causes and ardent enthusiasms whose triumph turns to an early disillusionment and then forsake them for others, perhaps for those that we have taken so much trouble to destroy. For a whole century mankind thirsts and battles after liberty and earns it with a bitter expense of toil, tears and blood; the century that enjoys without having fought for it turns away as from a puerile illusion and is ready to renounce the depreciated gain as the price of some new good. And all this happens because our whole thought and action with regard to our collective life is shallow and empirical; it does not seek for, it does not base itself on a firm, profound and complete knowledge. The moral is not the vanity of human life, of its ardours and enthusiasms and of the ideals it pursues, but the necessity of a wiser, larger, more patient search after its true law and aim.” The Human Cycle etc.

history ::: n. --> A learning or knowing by inquiry; the knowledge of facts and events, so obtained; hence, a formal statement of such information; a narrative; a description; a written record; as, the history of a patient&


Höffding, Harald: (1843-1931) Danish philosopher at the University of Copenhagen and brilliant author of texts in psychology, history of philosophy and the philosophy of religion. He held that the world of reality as a whole is unknowable although we may believe that conscious experience and its unity afford the best keys to unlock the metaphysical riddle. His svstem of thought is classified on the positive side as a cautious idealistic monism (his own term is "critical monism").

Honeywell "company" A US company known for its {mainframes} and {operating systems}. The company's history is long and tortuous, with many mergers, acquisitions and name changes. A company formed on 1886-04-23 to make furnace regulators eventually merged in 1927 with another company formed in 1904 by a young plumbing and heating engineer named Mark Honeywell who was perfecting the heat generator. A 1955 joint venture with {Raytheon Corp.}, called {Datamatic Corporation}, marked Honeywell's entry into the computer business. Their first computer was the {D-1000}. In 1960 Honeywell bought out Raytheon's interest and the name changed to {Electronic Data Processing} (EDP) then in 1963 it was officially renamed Honeywell Inc. In 1970 Honeywell merged its computer business with {General Electric}'s to form Honeywell Information Systems. In 1986 a joint venture with the french company {Bull} and japanese {NEC Corporation} created Honeywell Bull. By 1991 Honeywell had withdrawn from the computer business, focussing more on aeropspace. {CII Honeywell} was an important department. Honeywell operating systems included {GCOS} and {Multics}. See also: {brain-damaged}. {History (}. (2009-01-14)

However, it is more than a mere commentary on the old testament, but a veritable storehouse of ancient Jewish philosophy, theology, history, ethics, sciences, folklore, etc., that accumulated during those eventful 8 centuries. The Talmud consists of an older layer, the Mishnah (q.v.) compiled in Palestine (200 A.D.) and younger layer -- the Gemara (q.v.) as commentary on the former. The Gemara produced in Palestine together with the Mishnah is known as the Jerusalem Talmud (q.v.) and the Gemara produced in Babylon together with the same Mishnah is known as the Babylonian Talmud.

HTTP proxy server "web" A {proxy server} for {HTTP} requests. Typically an HTTP proxy or "web proxy" accepts HTTP requests containing {URLs} with a special prefix. The proxy removes the prefix and looks for the resulting URL in its local {cache} (if it is a caching proxy). If found, it returns the document immediately, otherwise it fetches it from the remote server, saves a copy in its cache and returns it to the requester. The cache will usually have an expiry {algorithm} which flushes documents according to their age, size and access history. The purpose is to reduce the amount of data flowing over the proxy's Internet connection and to speed up clients' access to frequently requested pages, e.g. at an {ISP} or on a large company's {firewall}. The proxy may also reject requests where the URL or content matches certain conditions. The {Apache} HTTP server can be configured to act as a proxy server. Another popular software proxy is {Squid}. (2008-07-01)

Hume, David: Born 1711, Edinburgh; died at Edinburgh, 1776. Author of A Treatise of Human Nature, Enquiry Concerning the Human Understanding, Enquiry Concerning the Passions, Enquiry Concerning Morals, Natural History of Religion, Dialogues on Natural Religion, History of England, and many essays on letters, economics, etc. Hume's intellectual heritage is divided between the Cartesian Occasionalists and Locke and Berkeley. From the former, he obtained some of his arguments against the alleged discernment or demonstrability of causal connections, and from the latter his psychological opinions. Hume finds the source of cognition in impressions of sensation and reflection. All simple ideas are derived from and are copies of simple impressions. Complex ideas may be copies of complex impressions or may result from the imaginative combination of simple ideas. Knowledge results from the comparison of ideas, and consists solely of the intrinsic resemblance between ideas. As resemblance is nothing over and above the resembling ideas, there are no abstract general ideas: the generality of ideas is determined by their habitual use as representatives of all ideas and impressions similar to the representative ideas. As knowledge consists of relations of ideas in virtue of resemblance, and as the only relation which involves the connection of different existences and the inference of one existent from another is that of cause and effect, and as there is no resemblance necessary between cause and effect, causal inference is in no case experientially or formally certifiable. As the succession and spatio-temporal contiguity of cause and effect suggests no necessary connection and as the constancy of this relation, being mere repetition, adds no new idea (which follows from Hume's nominalistic view), the necessity of causal connection must be explained psychologically. Thus the impression of reflection, i.e., the felt force of association, subsequent to frequent repetitions of conjoined impressions is the source of the idea of necessity. Habit or custom sufficently accounts for the feeling that everything which begins must have a cause and that similar causes must have similar effects. The arguments which Hume adduced to show that no logically necessary connection between distinct existences can be intuited or demonstrated are among his most signal contributions to philosophy, and were of great importance in influencing the speculation of Kant. Hume explained belief in external existence (bodies) in terms of the propensity to feign the independent and continued existence of perceptual complexes during the interruptions of perception. This propensity is determined by the constancy and coherence which some perceptual complexes exhibit and by the transitive power of the imagination to go beyond the limits afforded by knowledge and ordinary causal belief. The sceptical principles of his epistemology were carried over into his views on ethics and religion. Because there are no logically compelling arguments for moral and religious propositions, the principles of morality and religion must be explained naturalistically in terms of human mental habits and social customs. Morality thus depends on such fundamental aspects of human nature as self-interest and altruistic sympathy. Hume's views on religion are difficult to determine from his Dialogues, but a reasonable opinion is that he is totally sceptical concerning the possibility of proving the existence or the nature of deity. It is certain that he found no connection between the nature of deity and the rules of morality. -- J.R.W.

Hunt the Wumpus "games, history" (Or "Wumpus") /wuhm'p*s/ A famous fantasy computer game, created by {Gregory Yob} in about 1973. Hunt the Wumpus appeared in Creative Computing, Vol 1, No 5, Sep - Oct 1975, where Yob says he had come up with the game two years previously, after seeing the grid-based games Hurkle, Snark and Mugwump at {People's Computing Company} (PCC). He later delivered Wumpus to PCC who published it in their newsletter. ESR says he saw a version including termites running on the {Dartmouth Time-Sharing System} in 1972-3. Magnus Olsson, in his 1992-07-07 {USENET} article "", posted the {BASIC} {source code} of what he believed was pretty much the version that was published in 1973 in David Ahl's "101 Basic Computer Games", by {Digital Equipment Corporation}. The wumpus lived somewhere in a cave with the topology of an dodecahedron's edge/vertex graph (later versions supported other topologies, including an icosahedron and M"obius strip). The player started somewhere at random in the cave with five "crooked arrows"; these could be shot through up to three connected rooms, and would kill the wumpus on a hit (later versions introduced the wounded wumpus, which got very angry). Unfortunately for players, the movement necessary to map the maze was made hazardous not merely by the wumpus (which would eat you if you stepped on him) but also by bottomless pits and colonies of super bats that would pick you up and drop you at a random location (later versions added "anaerobic termites" that ate arrows, bat migrations and earthquakes that randomly changed pit locations). This game appears to have been the first to use a non-random graph-structured map (as opposed to a rectangular grid like the even older Star Trek games). In this respect, as in the dungeon-like setting and its terse, amusing messages, it prefigured {ADVENT} and {Zork} and was directly ancestral to both (Zork acknowledged this heritage by including a super-bat colony). There have been many {ports} including one distributed with {SunOS}, a {freeware} one for the {Macintosh} and a {C} emulation by {ESR}. [Does "101 Basic Computer Games" give any history?] (2004-10-04)

hydrognosy ::: n. --> A treatise upon, or a history and description of, the water of the earth.

IBM 701 "computer" ("Defense Calculator") The first of the {IBM 700 series} of computers. The IBM 701 was annouced internally on 1952-04-29 as "the most advanced, most flexible high-speed computer in the world". Known as the Defense Calculator while in development at {IBM Poughkeepsie Laboratory}, it went public on 1953-04-07 as the "IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machines" (plural because it consisted of eleven connected units). The 701 was the first IBM large-scale electronic computer manufactured in quantity and their first commercial {scientific computer}. It was the first IBM machine in which programs were stored in an internal, addressable, electronic memory. It was developed and produced in less than two years from "first pencil on paper" to installation. It was key to IBM's transition from {punched card} machines to electronic computers. It consisted of four {magnetic tape drives}, a {magnetic drum} memory unit, a {cathode-ray tube storage unit}, an L-shaped {arithmetic and control unit} with an operator's panel, a {punched card {reader}, a printer, a card punch and three power units. It performed more than 16,000 additions or subtractions per second, read 12,500 digits a second from tape, print 180 letters or numbers a second and output 400 digits a second from punched-cards. The IBM 701 ran the following languages and systems: {BACAIC}, {BAP}, {DOUGLAS}, {DUAL-607}, {FLOP}, {GEPURS}, {JCS-13}, {KOMPILER}, {LT-2}, {PACT I}, {QUEASY}, {QUICK}, {SEESAW}, {SHACO}, {SO 2}, {Speedcoding}, {SPEEDEX}. {IBM History (}. (2005-06-20)

ichthyology ::: n. --> The natural history of fishes; that branch of zoology which relates to fishes, including their structure, classification, and habits.

icon "graphics" A small picture intended to represent something (a file, directory, or action) in a {graphical user interface}. When an icon is clicked on, some action is performed such as opening a directory or aborting a file transfer. Icons are usually stored as {bitmap} images. {Microsoft Windows} uses a special bitmap format with file name extension ".ico" as well as embedding icons in executable (".exe") and {Dynamically Linked Library} (DLL) files. The term originates from {Alan Kay}'s theory for designing interfaces which was primarily based on the work of Jerome Bruner. Bruner's second developmental stage, iconic, uses a system of representation that depends on visual or other sensory organization and upon the use of summarising images. {IEEE publication (}. [What MS tool can create .ico files?] (2003-08-01)

Iconology: Studies in history of art concerned with the interpretation of the matter or subject treated by artists without consideration of their personalities. -- L.V.

Idealists regard such an equalization of physical laws and psychological, historical laws as untenable. The "tvpical case" with which physics or chemistry analyzes is a result of logical abstraction; the object of history, however, is not a unit with universal traits but something individual, in a singular space and at a particular time, never repeatable under the same circumstances. Therefore no physical laws can be formed about it. What makes it a fact worthy of historical interest, is iust the fullness of live activity in it; it is a "value", not a "thing". Granted that historical events are exposed to influences from biological, geological, racial and traditional sources, they aie always carried by a human being whose singularity of character has assimilated the forces of his environment and surmounted them There is a reciprocal action between man and society, but it is always personal initiative and free productivity of the individual which account for history. Denying, therefore, the logical primacy of physical laws in history, does not mean lawlessness, and that is the standpoint of the logic of history in more recent times. Windelband and H. Rickert established another kind of historical order of laws. On their view, to understand history one must see the facts in their relation to a universally applicable and transcendental system of values. Values "are" not, they "hold"; they are not facts but realities of our reason, they are not developed but discovered. According to Max Weber historical facts form an ideally typical, transcendental whole which, although seen, can never be fully explained. G, Simmel went further into metaphysics: "life" is declared an historical category, it is the indefinable, last reality ascending to central values which shaped cultural epochs, such as the medieval idea of God, or the Renaissance-idea of Nature, only to be tragically disappointed, whereupon other values rise up, as humanity, liberty, technique, evolution and others.

Identity-philosophy: In general the term has been applied to any theory which failed to distinguish between spirit and matter, subject and object, regarding them as an undifferentiated unity; hence such a philosophy is a species of monism. In the history of philosophy it usually signifies the system which has been called Identitätsphilosophie by Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling who held that spirit and nature are fundamentally the same, namely, the Absolute. Neither the ego nor the non-ego are the ultimate principles of being; they are both relative concepts which are contained in something absolute. This is the supreme principle of Absolute Identity of the ideal and the real. Reasoning does not lead us to the Absolute which can only be attained by immediate intellectual intuition. In it we find the eternal concepts of things and from it we can derive everything else. We are obliged to conceive the Absolute Identity as the indifference of the ideal and the real. Of course, this is God in Whom all opposites are united. He is the unity of thought and being, the subjective and the objective, form and essence, the general and infinite, and the particular and finite. This teaching is similar to that of Spinoza. -- J.J.R.

I. Husik, A History of Jewish Philosophy, New York, 1918;

II. Metaphysics of History: The metaphysical interpretations of the meaning of history are either supra-mundane or intra-mundane (secular). The oldest extra-mundane, or theological, interpretation has been given by St. Augustine (Civitas Dei), Dante (Divma Commedia) and J. Milton (Paradise Lost and Regained). All historic events are seen as having a bearing upon the redemption of mankind through Christ which will find its completion at the end of this world. Owing to the secularistic tendencies of modern times the Enlightenment Period considered the final end of human history as the achievement of public welfare through the power of reason. Even the ideal of "humanity" of the classic humanists, advocated by Schiller, Goethe, Fichte, Rousseau, Lord Byron, is only a variety of the philosophy of the Enlightenment, and in the same line of thought we find A. Comte, H. Spencer ("human moral"), Engels and K. Marx. The German Idealism of Kant and Hegel saw in history the materialization of the "moral reign of freedom" which achieves its perfection in the "objective spirit of the State". As in the earlier systems of historical logic man lost his individuality before the forces of natural laws, so, according to Hegel, he is nothing but an instrument of the "idea" which develops itself through the three dialectic stages of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. (Example. Absolutism, Democracy, Constitutional Monarchy.) Even the great historian L. v. Ranke could not break the captivating power of the Hegelian mechanism. Ranke places every historical epoch into a relation to God and attributes to it a purpose and end for itself. Lotze and Troeltsch followed in his footsteps. Lately, the evolutionistic interpretation of H. Bergson is much discussed and disputed. His "vital impetus" accounts for the progressiveness of life, but fails to interpret the obvious setbacks and decadent civilizations. According to Kierkegaard and Spranger, merely human ideals prove to be too narrow a basis for the tendencies, accomplishments, norms, and defeats of historic life. It all points to a supra-mundane intelligence which unfolds itself in history. That does not make superfluous a natural interpretation, both views can be combined to understand history as an endless struggle between God's will and human will, or non-willing, for that matter. -- S.V.F.

illustrate ::: v. t. --> To make clear, bright, or luminous.
To set in a clear light; to exhibit distinctly or conspicuously.
To make clear, intelligible, or apprehensible; to elucidate, explain, or exemplify, as by means of figures, comparisons, and examples.
To adorn with pictures, as a book or a subject; to elucidate with pictures, as a history or a romance.

I. Logic of History The historical objects under observation (man, life, society, biological and geological conditions) are so diverse that even slight mistakes in evaluation of items and of the historical whole may lead to false results. This can be seen from the modern logic of history. In the 18th century, G. B. Vico contended, under the deep impression of the lawfulness prevailing in natural sciences, that historical events also follow each other according to unswerving natural laws. He assumed three stages of development, that of fantasy, of will, and of science. The encyclopedists and Saint-Simon shared his view. The individual is immersed, and driven on, by the current of social tendencies, so that Comte used to speak of an "histoire sans noms". His three stages of development were the theological, metaphysical, and scientific stage. H. Spencer and A. Fouillee regard social life as an organism unfolding itself according to immanent laws, either of racial individuality (Gobineau, Vocher de Lapauge) or of a combination of social, physical, and personal forces (Taine). The spirit of a people and of an age outweigh completely the power of an individual personality which can work only along socially conditioned tendencies. The development of a nation always follows the same laws, it may vary as to time and whereabouts but never as to the form (Burkhardt, Lamprecht). To this group of historians belong also O. Spengler and K. Marx; "Fate" rules the civilization of peoples and pushes them on to their final destination.

Important names in the history of the subject are those of Boole (q.v.), De Morgan (q.v.), W. S. Jevons, Peirce (q.v.), Robert Grassmann, John Venn, Hugh MacColl, Schröder (q.v.), P. S. Poretsky -- A.C.

Indian Aesthetics: Art in India is one of the most diversified subjects. Sanskrit silpa included all crafts, fine art, architecture and ornament, dancing, acting, music and even coquetry. Behind all these endeavors is a deeprooted sense of absolute values derived from Indian philosophy (q.v.) which teaches the incarnation of the divine (Krsna, Shiva, Buddha), the transitoriness of life (cf. samsara), the symbolism and conditional nature of the phenomenal (cf. maya). Love of splendour and exaggerated greatness, dating back to Vedic (q.v.) times mingled with a grand simplicity in the conception of ultimate being and a keen perception and nature observation. The latter is illustrated in examples of verisimilous execution in sculpture and painting, the detailed description in a wealth of drama and story material, and the universal love of simile. With an urge for expression associated itself the metaphysical in its practical and seemingly other-worldly aspects and, aided perhaps by the exigencies of climate, yielded the grotesque as illustrated by the cave temples of Ellora and Elephanta, the apparent barbarism of female ornament covering up all organic beauty, the exaggerated, symbol-laden representations of divine and thereanthropic beings, a music with minute subdivisions of scale, and the like. As Indian philosophy is dominated by a monistic, Vedantic (q.v.) outlook, so in Indian esthetics we can notice the prevalence of an introvert unitary, soul-centric, self-integrating tendency that treats the empirical suggestively and by way of simile, trying to stylize the natural in form, behavior, and expression. The popular belief in the immanence as well as transcendence of the Absolute precludes thus the possibility of a complete naturalism or imitation. The whole range of Indian art therefore demands a sharing and re-creation of absolute values glimpsed by the artist and professedly communicated imperfectly. Rules and discussions of the various aspects of art may be found in the Silpa-sastras, while theoretical treatments are available in such works as the Dasarupa in dramatics, the Nrtya-sastras in dancing, the Sukranitisara in the relation of art to state craft, etc. Periods and influences of Indian art, such as the Buddhist, Kushan, Gupta, etc., may be consulted in any history of Indian art. -- K.F.L.

indirect jump "programming" A {jump} via an {indirect address}, i.e. the jump {instruction} contains the address of a memory location that contains the address of the next instruction to execute. The location containing the address to jump to is sometimes called a {vector}. Indirect jumps make normal code hard to understand because the jump target is a run-time property of the program that depends on the execution history. They are useful for, e.g. allowing user code to replace operating system code or setting up {event handlers}. (2010-01-01)

INTERCAL "language, humour" /in't*r-kal/ (Said by the authors to stand for "Compiler Language With No Pronounceable Acronym"). Possibly the most elaborate and long-lived joke in the history of programming languages. It was designed on 1972-05-26 by Don Woods and Jim Lyons at Princeton University. INTERCAL is purposely different from all other computer languages in all ways but one; it is purely a written language, being totally unspeakable. The INTERCAL Reference Manual, describing features of horrifying uniqueness, became an underground classic. An excerpt will make the style of the language clear: It is a well-known and oft-demonstrated fact that a person whose work is incomprehensible is held in high esteem. For example, if one were to state that the simplest way to store a value of 65536 in a 32-bit INTERCAL variable is:   DO :1 "-

Internet Worm "networking, security" The November 1988 {worm} perpetrated by {Robert T. Morris}. The worm was a program which took advantage of bugs in the {Sun} {Unix} {sendmail} program, {Vax} programs, and other security loopholes to distribute itself to over 6000 computers on the {Internet}. The worm itself had a bug which made it create many copies of itself on machines it infected, which quickly used up all available processor time on those systems. Some call it "The Great Worm" in a play on Tolkien (compare {elvish}, {elder days}). In the fantasy history of his Middle Earth books, there were dragons powerful enough to lay waste to entire regions; two of these (Scatha and Glaurung) were known as "the Great Worms". This usage expresses the connotation that the RTM hack was a sort of devastating watershed event in hackish history; certainly it did more to make non-hackers nervous about the Internet than anything before or since. (1995-01-12)

intuitionistic logic "logic, mathematics" Brouwer's foundational theory of mathematics which says that you should not count a proof of (There exists x such that P(x)) valid unless the proof actually gives a method of constructing such an x. Similarly, a proof of (A or B) is valid only if it actually exhibits either a proof of A or a proof of B. In intuitionism, you cannot in general assert the statement (A or not-A) (the principle of the {excluded middle}); (A or not-A) is not proven unless you have a proof of A or a proof of not-A. If A happens to be {undecidable} in your system (some things certainly will be), then there will be no proof of (A or not-A). This is pretty annoying; some kinds of perfectly healthy-looking examples of {proof by contradiction} just stop working. Of course, excluded middle is a theorem of {classical logic} (i.e. non-intuitionistic logic). {History (,5716,118173+14+109826,00.html)}. (2001-03-18)

:::   "I regard the spiritual history of mankind and especially of India as a constant development of a divine purpose, not a book that is closed, the lines of which have to be constantly repeated.” Letters on Yoga

“I regard the spiritual history of mankind and especially of India as a constant development of a divine purpose, not a book that is closed, the lines of which have to be constantly repeated.” Letters on Yoga

Iron Age "history" In the history of computing, 1961-1971 - the formative era of commercial {mainframe} technology, when {ferrite core memory} {dinosaurs} ruled the earth. The Iron Age began, ironically enough, with the delivery of the first {minicomputer} (the {PDP-1}) and ended with the introduction of the first commercial {microprocessor} (the {Intel 4004}) in 1971. See also {Stone Age}; compare {elder days}. [{Jargon File}] (2003-09-27)

Israel. In the period of the written prophets Jewish thought moved to a personalistic and realistic theism, reaching maturity in Jeremiah and Genesis I. The cosmic "I Am" is a personal and righteous World Ground who fashions and controls both Nature and human history.

IT 1. "business, jargon" {Information Technology}. 2. "language, mathematics, history" {Internal Translator}. (2000-10-02)

itihasa ::: history; narrative. itihasa ...J

Jacquard loom "history" /zhah-kar'/ A mechanical loom, invented by {Joseph-Marie Jacquard} in 1801, which used the holes punched in pasteboard {punch cards} (which see) to control the weaving of patterns in fabric. It was the first machine to use punch cards, although it did no computation based on them. {(}. (1998-10-19)

Jargon File "jargon, publication, humour" The on-line hacker Jargon File maintained by {Eric S. Raymond}. A large collection of definitions of computing terms, including much wit, wisdom, and history. {Many definitions (/contents/jargon.html)} in {this dictionary} are from v3.0.0 of 1993-07-27. {Jargon File Home (}. See also {Yellow Book, Jargon}. (2014-08-14)

jarl ::: n. --> A chief; an earl; in English history, one of the leaders in the Danish and Norse invasions.

Jaspers, Karl: (1883-) Inspired by Nietzsche's and Kierkegaard's psychology, but aiming at a strictly scientific method, the "existentialist" Jaspers analyzes the possible attitudes of man towards the world; the decisions which the individual must make in inescapable situations like death, struggle, change, guilt; and the various ways in which man meets these situations. Motivated by the boundless desire for clarity and precision, Jaspers earnestly presents as his main objective to awaken the desire for a fuller, more genuine philosophy, these three methods of philosophizing which have existed from te earliest times to the present: Philosophical world orientation consisting in an analysis of the limitations, incompleteness and relativity of the researches, methods, world pictures of all the sciences; elucidation of existence consisting of a cognitive penetration into reality on the basis of the deepest inner decisions experienced by the individual, and striving to satisfy the deepest demands of human nature; the way of metaphysics, the never-satisfied and unending search for truth in the world of knowledge, conduct of life and in the seeking for the one being, dimly seen through antithetic thoughts, deep existential conflicts and differently conceived metaphysical symbols of the past. Realizing the decisive problematic relation between philosophy and religion in the Middle Ages, Jaspers elevates psychology and history to a more important place in the future of philosophy.

Jean E. Sammet "person" Author of several surveys of early programming languages, refererred to in many entries in this dictionary. E-mail: Relevant publications include: [Sammet, Jean E., "Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals", P-H 1969. QA76.5 .S213]. The definitive work on early computer language development. [Sammet, Jean E., "Programming Languages: History and Future", CACM 15(7):601-610, Jul 1972]. [Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages" Computers & Automation 16(6):80-82, June 1967; Computers & Automation 17(6):120-123, June 1968; Computers & Automation 18(7):153-158, June 1969; Computers & Automation 19(6B):6-11, 30 Nov 1970; Computers & Automation 20(6B):6-13, 30 Jun, 1971; Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972; Computing Reviews 15(4): 147-160, April 1974; CACM 19(12):655-669, Dec 1976; SIGPLAN Notices 13(11):56, Nov 1978]. (1998-10-03)

Jefferson, Thomas: (1743-1826) Third president of the United States. He was the author of the Declaration of Independence, which remains as one of the monuments to his firm faith in democratic principles. His opposition to Hamiltonian centralization of power placed him at one extreme of the arc described by the pendulum of political theory that has swayed through the history of this country. He had firm faith in free speech and education and his life long efforts stand uppermost among those who struggled for tolerance and religious freedom. In addition to politics, he was keenly interested in the science and mathematics of his day. Cf. Writings of T. J., 10 vols. (N. Y. 1892-9), ed. P. L. Ford. -- L.E.D.

J. L. Coolidge, A History of Geometrical Methods, New York, 1940. Mathesis universalis: Universal mathematics. One major part of Leibniz's program for logic was the development of a universal mathematics or universal calculus for manipulating, i.e. performing deductions in, the universal language (characteristica universalis). This universal language, he thought, could be constructed on the basis of a relatively few simple terms and, when constructed, would be of immense value to scientists and philosophers in reasoning as well as in communication. Leibniz's studies on the subject of a universal mathematics are the starting point in modern philosophy of the development of symbolic, mathematical logic. -- F.L.W.

Jodl, Friedrich: (1848-1914) His central interest was research in the field of ethics; engaged in developing a humanistic and naturalistic ethic. Made his most notable contribution in the history of ethical theories. Following the positivists Feuerbach, Comte and Mill, he projected a new religion of national culture. Main works: Gesch. der Ethik, 1906; Wissensch u. Religion, 1909; Der Monismus u.d. Kulturprobleme, 1911. -- H.H.

John Tukey "person" The eminent statistician credited with coining the term "{bit}" in 1949. {(}. (2003-02-28)

John von Neumann "person" /jon von noy'mahn/ Born 1903-12-28, died 1957-02-08. A Hungarian-born mathematician who did pioneering work in quantum physics, game theory, and {computer science}. He contributed to the USA's Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bomb. von Neumann was invited to Princeton University in 1930, and was a mathematics professor at the {Institute for Advanced Studies} from its formation in 1933 until his death. From 1936 to 1938 {Alan Turing} was a visitor at the Institute and completed a Ph.D. dissertation under von Neumann's supervision. This visit occurred shortly after Turing's publication of his 1934 paper "On Computable Numbers with an Application to the Entscheidungs-problem" which involved the concepts of logical design and the universal machine. von Neumann must have known of Turing's ideas but it is not clear whether he applied them to the design of the IAS Machine ten years later. While serving on the BRL Scientific Advisory Committee, von Neumann joined the developers of {ENIAC} and made some critical contributions. In 1947, while working on the design for the successor machine, {EDVAC}, von Neumann realized that ENIAC's lack of a centralized control unit could be overcome to obtain a rudimentary stored program computer. He also proposed the {fetch-execute cycle}. His ideas led to what is now often called the {von Neumann architecture}. {(}. {(}. {(}. (2004-01-14)

J. Presper Eckert "person" One of the developers of {ENIAC}. {Biography (}. [Summary?] (1995-11-14)

Kant-Laplace hypothesis: Theory of the origin of the solar system, formulated first by Kant (Natural History and Theory of the Heavens, 1755) and later by Laplace (Exposition of the System of the World, 1796). According to this theory the solar system evolved from a rotating mass of incandescent gas which by cooling and shrinking, and thus increasing its rate of spin, gradually flattened at its poles and threw off rings from its equator. These rings became the planets, which by the operation of the same laws developed their own satellites. While Laplace supposed the rotating nebula to have been the primordial stuff, Kant maintained that this was itself formed and put into rotation by gravitational action on the original atoms which through their impact with one another generated heat. -- A.C.B.

kludge "jargon" /kluhj/ (From the old Scots "kludgie" meaning an outside toilet) A Scottish engineering term for anything added in an ad hoc (and possibly unhygenic!) manner. At some point during the Second World War, Scottish engineers met Americans and the meaning, spelling and pronunciation of kludge became confused with that of "{kluge}". The spelling "kludge" was apparently popularised by the "Datamation" cited below which defined it as "An ill-assorted collection of poorly matching parts, forming a distressing whole." The result of this tangled history is a mess; in 1993, many (perhaps even most) hackers pronounce the word /klooj/ but spell it "kludge" (compare the pronunciation drift of {mung}). Some observers consider this appropriate in view of its meaning. ["How to Design a Kludge", Jackson Granholme, Datamation, February 1962, pp. 30-31]. [{Jargon File}] (1998-12-09)

Konrad Zuse "person" The designer of the first programming language, {Plankalkül}, and the first fully functional program-controlled electromechanical {digital computer} in the world, the {Z3}. He died on 1995-12-18 in Huenfeld, Germany. {Biography (}. ["Konrad Zuse: Mein Leben" (My Life), published 1956]. ["Konrad Zuse: The Computer my Life, Springer, 1993]. (1999-02-18)

labor ::: n. --> Physical toil or bodily exertion, especially when fatiguing, irksome, or unavoidable, in distinction from sportive exercise; hard, muscular effort directed to some useful end, as agriculture, manufactures, and like; servile toil; exertion; work.
Intellectual exertion; mental effort; as, the labor of compiling a history.
That which requires hard work for its accomplishment; that which demands effort.

Leibniz is best known in the history of philosophy as the author of the Monadology and the theory of the Pre-established Harmony both of which see.

Levy-Bruhl, Lucien: (1857-1939) Professor of Philosophy at the Sorbonne 1899-1939, represents a sociological and anthropological approach to philosophy; his chief contribution is an anthropological study of primitive religion which emphasizes the "prelogical" or mystical character of the thinking of primitive peoples. La Mentalite primitive (1922), Eng. trans., 1923; L'Ame Primitive (1927). His other writings include: History of Modern Philosophy in France (Eng. trans., 1899); The Philosophy of Auguste Comte (1900, Eng. trans., 1903). -- L.W.

lichenography ::: n. --> A description of lichens; the science which illustrates the natural history of lichens.

Lions Book "publication" "Source Code and Commentary on Unix level 6", by John Lions. The two parts of this book contained the entire source listing of the {Unix} Version 6 {kernel}, and a commentary on the source discussing the {algorithms}. These were circulated internally at the {University of New South Wales} beginning 1976-77, and were, for years after, the *only* detailed kernel documentation available to anyone outside {Bell Labs}. Because {Western Electric} wished to maintain trade secret status on the kernel, the Lions book was never formally published and was only supposed to be distributed to affiliates of source licensees (it is still possible to get a Bell Labs reprint of the book by sending a copy of a V6 {source licence} to the right person at {Bellcore}, but *real* insiders have the UNSW edition). In spite of this, it soon spread by {samizdat} to a good many of the early Unix hackers. {(}. In 1996 it was reprinted as a "classic": [John Lions, "Lions' Comentary on UNIX 6th Edition with Source Code", Computer Classics Revisited Series, Peer-to-Peer Communications, 1996, ISBN 1-57398-013-7]. [{Jargon File}] (1997-06-25)

literary ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to letters or literature; pertaining to learning or learned men; as, literary fame; a literary history; literary conversation.
Versed in, or acquainted with, literature; occupied with literature as a profession; connected with literature or with men of letters; as, a literary man.

liturgics ::: n. --> The science of worship; history, doctrine, and interpretation of liturgies.

logographer ::: n. --> A chronicler; one who writes history in a condensed manner with short simple sentences.
One skilled in logography.

long ::: superl. --> Drawn out in a line, or in the direction of length; protracted; extended; as, a long line; -- opposed to short, and distinguished from broad or wide.
Drawn out or extended in time; continued through a considerable tine, or to a great length; as, a long series of events; a long debate; a long drama; a long history; a long book.
Slow in passing; causing weariness by length or duration; lingering; as, long hours of watching.

lurking "messaging, jargon" The activity of one of the "silent majority" in a electronic forum such as {Usenet}; posting occasionally or not at all but reading the group's postings regularly. This term is not pejorative and indeed is casually used reflexively: "Oh, I'm just lurking". Often used in "the lurkers", the hypothetical audience for the group's {flamage}-emitting regulars. Lurking and reading the {FAQ} are recommended {netiquette} for beginners who need to learn the history and practises of the group before posting. (1997-06-14)

magnetostrictive delay line "storage, history" An early storage device that used tensioned wires of nickel alloy carrying longitudinal waves produced and detected electromagnetically. They had better storage behaviour than {mercury delay lines}. [H. Epstein and O.B. Stram, "A High Performance Magnetostriction-Sonic Delay Line," Transactions, Institute of Radio Engineers, Professional Group on Ultrasonic Engineering, 1957, pp. 1-24]. (2002-11-08)

mahabharatam ::: n. --> A celebrated epic poem of the Hindoos. It is of great length, and is chiefly devoted to the history of a civil war between two dynasties of ancient India.

Main works: Geschichte u. Naturwissenschaft, 1894; Präludien, 1924 (9th ed. ); History of Modem Philosophy (Eng. tr.).

Main works: Histoire naturelle de l'ame, 1745; L'homme-machine, 1747; L'homme-plante, 1748; Discours sur le bonheur, 1748; Le systeme d' Epicure, 1750. --R.B.W. Lange, Friedrich Albert: (1828-1875) Celebrated for his History of Materialism, based upon a qualified Kantian point of view, he demonstrated the philosophical limitations of metaphysical materialism, and his appreciation of the value of materialism as a stimulus to critical thinking. He worked for a greater understanding of Kant's work and anticipated fictionalism. -- H.H.

Main works: Method of Ethics 1875; Outlines of the History of Ethics (5th ed. 1902); Scope and Method of Economic Science, 1885; Lect. on Philosophy of Kant, 1905. Sign: (Lat. signum, sign) Logic has been called the science of signs. In psychology that which represents anything to the cognitive faculty. That which signifies or has significance, a symbol. Semasiology or sematology is the science of signs. See Logic, symbolic; Symbolism.

Main works: Philosophy of Religion, 1901; Kierkegaard; Rousseau; History of Modern Phtlosophy. -- V.F.

Manchester Autocode "language, history" The predecessor of {Mercury Autocode}. ["The Programming Strategy Used with the Manchester University Mark I Computer", R.A. Brooker, Proc IEE 103B Suppl:151-157, 1956]. (2000-10-02)

march ::: n. --> The third month of the year, containing thirty-one days.
A territorial border or frontier; a region adjacent to a boundary line; a confine; -- used chiefly in the plural, and in English history applied especially to the border land on the frontiers between England and Scotland, and England and Wales.
The act of marching; a movement of soldiers from one stopping place to another; military progress; advance of troops.
Hence: Measured and regular advance or movement, like that

martyrology ::: n. --> A history or account of martyrs; a register of martyrs.

mastology ::: n. --> The natural history of Mammalia.

Materialism: A proposition about the existent or the real: that only matter (q.v.) is existent or real; that matter is the primordial or fundamental constituent of the universe; atomism; that only sensible entities, processes, or content are existent or real; that the universe is not governed by intelligence, purpose, or final causes; that everything is strictly caused by material (inanimate, non-mental, or having certain elementary physical powers) processes or entities (mechanism); that mental entities, processes, or events (though existent) are caused solely by material entities, processes, or events and themselves have no causal effect (epiphenomenalism); that nothing supernatural exists (naturalism); that nothing mental exists; a proposition about explanation of the existent or the real: that everything is explainable in terms of matter in motion or matter and energy or simply matter (depending upon conception of matter entertained); that all qualitative differences are reducible to quantitative differences; that the only objects science can investigate are the physical or material (that is, public, manipulable, non-mental, natural, or sensible); a proposition about values: that wealth, bodily satisfactions, sensuous pleasures, or the like are either the only or the greatest values man can seek or attain; a proposition about explanation of human history: that human actions and cultural change are determined solely or largely by economic factors (economic determinism or its approximation); an attitude, postulate, hypothesis, assertion, assumption, or tendency favoring any of the above propositions; a state of being limited by the physical environment or the material elements of culture and incapable of overcoming, transcending, or adjusting properly to them; preoccupation with or enslavement to lower or bodily (non-mental or non-spiritual) values. Confusion of epiphenomenalism or mechanism with other conceptions of materialism has caused considerable misunderstanding. -- M.T.K.

Mathematical Analyzer, Numerical Integrator and Computer "computer, history" (MANIAC, Or "Mathematical Analyzer, Numerator, Integrator, and Computer") An early computer, built for the {Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory}. MANIAC began operation in March 1952. Typical of early computers, it ran its own propriatery language. It was succeeded by {MANIAC II} in 1957. A {MANIAC III} was built at the University of Chicago in 1964. Contrary to legend, MANIAC did not run {MAD} ({Michigan Algorithm Decoder}), which was not invented until 1959. (2013-05-05)

mediaevalist ::: n. --> One who has a taste for, or is versed in, the history of the Middle Ages; one in sympathy with the spirit or forms of the Middle Ages.

Mei "library" A set of {class libraries} by Atsushi Aoki "" and others for {Objectworks Smalltalk} Release 4.1. Mei includes: Grapher Library for drawing diagrams; Meta Grapher Library (grapher to develop grapher); Drawing tools and painting tools (structured diagram editors and drawing editors); {GUI builder}; {Lisp} {interpreter}; {Prolog} interpreter; Pluggable gauges; Extended browser; (package, history, recover, etc.) Mei is available under {General Public License} and requires Objectworks Smalltalk Release 4.1. {Home (}. E-mail: Watanabe Katsuhiro "" (1999-12-08)

memoirs ::: n. --> A memorial account; a history composed from personal experience and memory; an account of transactions or events (usually written in familiar style) as they are remembered by the writer. See History, 2.
A memorial of any individual; a biography; often, a biography written without special regard to method and completeness.
An account of something deemed noteworthy; an essay; a record of investigations of any subject; the journals and proceedings

Mencius: (Meng Tzu, Meng K'o, 371-289 B.C.) A native of Tsao (in present Shantung), studied under pupils of Tzu Ssu, grandson of Confucius, became the greatest Confucian in Chinese history. He vigorously attacked the "pervasive teachings" of Yang Chu and Mo Tzu. Like Confucius, he travelled for many years, to many states, trying to persuade kings and princes to practice benevolent government instead of government by force, but failed. He retired to teach and write. (Meng Tzu, Eng. tr. by James Legge: i.) -- W.T.C.

mercury delay line "storage, history" An archaic {first-in first-out} fixed time period data storage device using {acoustic transducers} to transmit data as waves in a trough or tube of mercury. EDSAC (Cambridge) and UNIVAC I used delay lines. (2002-06-12)

Microsoft Disk Operating System "operating system" /M S doss/ (Or "MS-DOS", "PC-DOS", "{MS-DOG}", "{mess-dos}") {Microsoft Corporation}'s {clone} of the {CP/M} {disk operating system} for the {8088} {crufted} together in 6 weeks by {hacker} {Tim Paterson}, who is said to have regretted it ever since. MS-DOS is a single user {operating system} that runs one program at a time and is limited to working with one megabyte of memory, 640 kilobytes of which is usable for the {application program}. Special add-on {EMS} memory boards allow EMS-compliant software to exceed the 1 MB limit. Add-ons to DOS, such as {Microsoft Windows} and {DESQview}, take advantage of EMS and allow the user to have multiple applications loaded at once and switch between them. Numerous features, including vaguely {Unix}-like but rather broken support for subdirectories, {I/O redirection} and {pipelines}, were hacked into MS-DOS 2.0 and subsequent versions; as a result, there are two or more incompatible versions of many system calls, and MS-DOS programmers can never agree on basic things like what character to use as an option switch ("-" or "/"). The resulting mess became the highest-unit-volume {operating system} in history. It was used on many {Intel} 16 and 32 bit {microprocessors} and {IBM PC} compatibles. Many of the original DOS functions were calls to {BASIC} (in {ROM} on the original {IBM PC}), e.g. Format and Mode. People with non-IBM PCs had to buy {MS-Basic} (later called {GWBasic}). Most version of DOS came with some version of BASIC. Also know as PC-DOS or simply DOS, ignoring the fact that there were many other OSes with that name, starting in the mid-1960s with {IBM}'s first disk operating system for the {IBM 360}. [{Jargon File}] (2007-05-21)

Microsoft Excel "tool" A {spreadsheet} program from {Microsoft}, part of their {Microsoft Office} suite of productivity tools for {Microsoft Windows} and {Macintosh}. Excel is probably the most widely used spreadsheet in the world. {(}. [Feature summary? History?] (1997-01-14)

Mill, James: (1773-1836) Father of John Stuart Mill and close associate of Jeremy Bentham as a member of the Utilitarian School of Philosophy. His chief original contributions were in the field of psychology where he advanced an associational view and he is likewise remembered for his History of India. See Utilitarianism.

Moore's Law "architecture" /morz law/ The observation, made in 1965 by {Intel} co-founder {Gordon Moore} while preparing a speech, that each new memory {integrated circuit} contained roughly twice as much capacity as its predecessor, and each chip was released within 18-24 months of the previous chip. If this trend continued, he reasoned, computing power would rise exponentially with time. Moore's observation still holds in 1997 and is the basis for many performance forecasts. In 24 years the number of {transistors} on processor chips has increased by a factor of almost 2400, from 2300 on the {Intel 4004} in 1971 to 5.5 million on the {Pentium Pro} in 1995 (doubling roughly every two years). Date   Chip   Transistors MIPS clock/MHz ----------------------------------------------- Nov 1971 4004   2300 0.06 0.108 Apr 1974 8080   6000 0.64 2 Jun 1978 8086   29000 0.75 10 Feb 1982 80286   134000 2.66 12 Oct 1985 386DX   275000 5 16 Apr 1989 80486   1200000 20 25 Mar 1993 Pentium   3100000 112 66 Nov 1995 Pentium Pro 5500000 428  200 ----------------------------------------------- Moore's Law has been (mis)interpreted to mean many things over the years. In particular, {microprocessor} performance has increased faster than the number of transistors per chip. The number of {MIPS} has, on average, doubled every 1.8 years for the past 25 years, or every 1.6 years for the last 10 years. While more recent processors have had wider {data paths}, which would correspond to an increase in transistor count, their performance has also increased due to increased {clock rates}. Chip density in transistors per unit area has increased less quickly - a factor of only 146 between the 4004 (12 mm^2) and the Pentium Pro (196 mm^2) (doubling every 3.3 years). {Feature size} has decreased from 10 to 0.35 microns which would give over 800 times as many transistors per unit. However, the automatic layout required to cope with the increased complexity is less efficient than the hand layout used for early processors. {(}. {Intel Microprocessor Quick Reference Guide (}. {"Birth of a Chip", Linley Gwennap, Byte, Dec 1996 (}. See also March 1997 "inbox". {Chronology of Events in the History of Microcomputers (}, Ken Polsson. See also {Parkinson's Law of Data}. [{Jargon File}] (1997-03-04)

More recently the term has been extended to mean also (a) the All or totality of the real, however understood, and (b) the World Ground, whether conceived idealistically or materialistically, whether pantheistically, theistically, or dualistically. It thus stands for a variety of metaphysical conceptions that have appeared widely and under various names in the history of philosophy.

morphogeny ::: n. --> History of the evolution of forms; that part of ontogeny that deals with the germ history of forms; -- distinguished from physiogeny.

morphophyly ::: n. --> The tribal history of forms; that part of phylogeny which treats of the tribal history of forms, in distinction from the tribal history of functions.

“My researches first convinced me that words, like plants, like animals, are in no sense artificial products, but growths,—living growths of sound with certain seed-sounds as their basis. Out of these seed-sounds develop a small number of primitive root-words with an immense progeny which have their successive generations and arrange themselves in tribes, clans, families, selective groups each having a common stock and a common psychological history. For the factor which presided over the development of language was the association, by the nervous mind of primitive man, of certain general significances or rather of certain general utilities and sense-values with articulate sounds. The process of this association was also in no sense artificial but natural, governed by simple and definite psychological laws.” The Secret of the Veda

mystic ::: a. --> Alt. of Mystical ::: n. --> One given to mysticism; one who holds mystical views, interpretations, etc.; especially, in ecclesiastical history, one who professed mysticism. See Mysticism.

narration ::: n. --> The act of telling or relating the particulars of an event; rehearsal; recital.

That which is related; the relation in words or writing of the particulars of any transaction or event, or of any series of transactions or events; story; history.

That part of a discourse which recites the time, manner, or consequences of an action, or simply states the facts connected with the subject.

naturalist ::: n. --> One versed in natural science; a student of natural history, esp. of the natural history of animals.
One who holds or maintains the doctrine of naturalism in religion.

neocosmic ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the universe in its present state; specifically, pertaining to the races of men known to history.

Neo-Idealism: Primarily a name given unofficially to the Italian school of neo-Hegelianism headed by Benedetto Croce and Giovanni Gentile, founded on a basic distinction that it proposes between two kinds of "concrete universals" (s.v.). In addition to the Hegelian concrete universal, conceived as a dialectical synthesis of two abstract opposltes, is posited a second type in which the component elements are "concretes" rather than dialectical abstracts, i.e. possess relative mutual independence and lack the characteristic of logical opposition. The living forms of Mind, both theoretical and practical, are universal in this latter sense. This implies that fine art, utility, and ethics do not comprise a dialectical series with philosophy at their head, i.e. they are not inferior forms of metaphysics. Thus neo-Idealism rejects Hegel's panlogism. It also repudiates his doctrine of the relative independence of Nature, the timeless transcendence of the Absolute with respect to the historical process, and the view that at any point of history a logically final embodiment of the Absolute Idea is achieved. -- W.L.

Nihilism, ethical: The denial of the validity of all distinctions of moral value. As this position involves in effect the denial of possibility of all ethical philosophy, it has seldom been taken by philosophers. In the history of thought, however, a less pure ethical nihilism sometimes appears as an intermediate stage in a philosophy which wishes to deny the validity of all previous systems of value as a preliminary to substituting a new one in their places. -- F.L.W.

noah ::: n. --> A patriarch of Biblical history, in the time of the Deluge.

nobiliary ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the nobility. ::: n. --> A history of noble families.

No doubt, the Supermind has also acted in the history of the world but always through the Overmind. It is the direct descent of the Supramental Consciousness and Power that alone can utterly re-create life in terms of the Spirit. For, in the Overmind there is already the play of possibilities which marks the beginning of this lower triple world of Mind, Life and Matter in which we have our existence. And whenever there is this play and not the spontaneous and infallible working of the innate Truth of the Spirit, there is the seed of distortion and ignorance. Not that the Overmind is a field of ignorance; but it is the border-line between the Higher and the Lower, for, the play of possibilities, of separate even if not yet divided choice, is likely to lead to deviation from the Truth of things.

Nothing has he learnt from time and its history;

numismatology ::: n. --> The science which treats of coins and medals, in their relation to history; numismatics.

Nuñez Regüeiro, Manuel: Born in Uruguay, March 21, 1883. Professor of Philosophy at the National University of the Litoral in Argentine. Author of about twenty-five books, among which the following are the most important from a philosophical point of view: Fundamentos de la Anterosofia, 1925; Anterosofia Racional, 1926; De Nuevo Hablo Jesus, 1928; Filosofia Integral, 1932; Del Conocimiento y Progreso de Si Mismo, 1934; Tratado de Metalogica, o Fundamentos de Una Nueva Metodologia, 1936; Suma Contra Una Nueva Edad Media, 1938; Metafisica y Ciencia, 1941; La Honda Inquietud, 1915; Conocimiento y Creencia, 1916. Three fundamental questions and a tenacious effort to answer them run throughout the entire thought of Nuñez Regüeiro, namely the three questions of Kant: What can I know? What must I do? What can I expect? Science as auch does not write finis to anything. We experience in science the same realm of contradictions and inconsistencies which we experience elsewhere. Fundamentally, this chaos is of the nature of dysteleology. At the root of the conflict lies a crisis of values. The problem of doing is above all a problem of valuing. From a point of view of values, life ennobles itself, man lifts himself above the trammels of matter, and the world becomes meaning-full. Is there a possibility for the realization of this ideal? Has this plan ever been tried out? History offers us a living example: The Fact of Jesus. He is the only possible expectation. In him and through him we come to fruition and fulfilment. Nuñez Regüeiro's philosophy is fundamentally religious. -- J.A.F.

onomatologist ::: n. --> One versed in the history of names.

ontogeny ::: n. --> The history of the individual development of an organism; the history of the evolution of the germ; the development of an individual organism, -- in distinction from phylogeny, or evolution of the tribe. Called also henogenesis, henogeny.

ophiologist ::: n. --> One versed in the natural history of serpents.

ophiology ::: n. --> That part of natural history which treats of the ophidians, or serpents.

organogenesis ::: n. --> The origin and development of organs in animals and plants.
The germ history of the organs and systems of organs, -- a branch of morphogeny.

organophyly ::: n. --> The tribal history of organs, -- a branch of morphophyly.

orientalism ::: n. --> Any system, doctrine, custom, expression, etc., peculiar to Oriental people.
Knowledge or use of Oriental languages, history, literature, etc.

orismology ::: n. --> That departament of natural history which treats of technical terms.

ornithology ::: n. --> That branch of zoology which treats of the natural history of birds and their classification.
A treatise or book on this science.

Overmind ::: Above the mind there are several levels of conscious of the Truth. But in between is what he has distinguished as the Overmind, the world of the cosmic Gods. Now it is this Overmind that has up to the present governed our world: it is the highest that man has been able to attain in illumined consciousness. It has been taken for the Supreme Divine and all those who have reached it have never for a moment doubted that they have touched the true Spirit. For, its splendours are so great to the ordinary human consciousness that it is absolutely dazzled into believing that here at last is the crowning reality. And yet the fact is that the Overmind is far below the true Divine. It is not the authentic home of the Truth. It is only the domain of the formateurs , all those creative powers and deities to whom men have bowed down since the beginning of history. And the reason why the true Divine has not manifested and transformed the earth-nature is precisely that the Overmind has been mistaken for the Supermind.being, among which the really divine world is what Sri Aurobindo has called the Supermind, the world. The cosmic Gods do not wholly live in the Truth-Consciousness: they are only in touch with it and represent, each of them, an aspect of its glories.

ovology ::: n. --> That branch of natural history which treats of the origin and functions of eggs.

Palingenesis: (Gr palm, again, genesis, birth) Literally, a new birth or regeneration A rebirth of ideas and events (in a philosophy of history), a new birth of individuals (in theology). -- V.F.

paper tape "hardware, history" Punched paper tape. An early {input/output} and storage medium borrowed from {telegraph} and {teletype} systems. Data entered at the keyboard of the teletype could be directed to a perforator or punch which punched a pattern of holes across the width of a paper tape to represent the characters typed. The paper tape could be read by a tape reader feeding the computer. Computer output could be similarly punched onto tape and printed off-line. As well as storage of the program and data, use of paper tape enabled {batch processing}. The first units had five data hole positions plus a sprocket hole (for the driving wheel) across the width of the tape. These used commercial telegraph code ({ITA2} also known as {Murray}), {Baudot code} or proprietary codes such as {Elliott} which were more programmer-friendly. Later systems had eight data holes and used {ASCII} coding. (2003-12-02)

patriarch ::: n. --> The father and ruler of a family; one who governs his family or descendants by paternal right; -- usually applied to heads of families in ancient history, especially in Biblical and Jewish history to those who lived before the time of Moses.
A dignitary superior to the order of archbishops; as, the patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of Antioch.
A venerable old man; an elder. Also used figuratively.

Patristic Philosophy: The advent of Christian revelation introduced a profound change in the history of philosophy. New facts about God, the world and man were juxtaposed to the conclusions of pagan philosophy, while reason was at once presented with the problem of reconciling these facts with the pagan position and the task of constructing them into a new science called theology.

PEARL 1. "language, mathematics" A language for {constructive mathematics} developed by Constable at {Cornell University} in the 1980s. 2. "language, real-time" {Process and Experiment Automation Real-Time Language}. 3. "language, education" One of five pedagogical languages based on {Markov} {algorithms}, used in "Nonpareil, a Machine Level Machine Independent Language for the Study of Semantics", B. Higman, ULICS Intl Report No ICSI 170, U London (1968). Compare {Brilliant}, {Diamond}, {Nonpareil}, {Ruby}. 4. "language" A multilevel language developed by Brian Randell ca 1970 and mentioned in "Machine Oriented Higher Level Languages", W. van der Poel, N-H 1974. 5. "language, tool, history" An obsolete term for {Larry Wall}'s {PERL} programming language, which never fell into common usage other than in typographical errors. The missing 'a' remains as an atrophied remnant in the expansion "Practical Extraction and Report Language". ["Programming Perl", Larry Wall and Randal L. Schwartz, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. Sebastopol, CA. ISBN 0-93715-64-1]. (2000-08-16)

people ::: n. 2. The entire body of persons who constitute a community, tribe, nation, or other group by virtue of a common culture, history, religion, or the like. 3. Living beings. poet. 4. Pl. nations, races . v. 5. To fill or occupy with or as if with people; inhabit. peoples, peopled, peopling.

perfect programmer syndrome Arrogance; the egotistical conviction that one is above normal human error. Most frequently found among programmers of some native ability but relatively little experience (especially new graduates; their perceptions may be distorted by a history of excellent performance at solving {toy problems}). "Of course my program is correct, there is no need to test it." "Yes, I can see there may be a problem here, but *I'll* never type "rm -r /" while in {root mode}." [{Jargon File}]

periodic group "database" (PE) Groups of logically related fields which occur multiple times within a group. Periodic groups are a non-{relational} technique. An example of a PE would be for storing the history of a person's name changes, where name was kept in logically related fields such as surname, first name and middle name - with the person having changed their name more than once. [Clarification?] (1995-10-30)

Periods of despondency and inactivity or even degenency and depravity in India have kept pice with disastrous political developments. But a joy in life's pursuits is evident from the earliest Vedic period and is to be traced in the multifariousness of Indian culture and the colorful Indian history itself which has left the Hindus one of the ancient races still virile among nations and capable of assimilation without itself becoming extinct. Happiness may be enjoyed even in the severest penance and asceticism for which India is noted, while a certain concomitant heroism seems undeniable.

periods ::: rather large intervals of time that are meaningful in the life of a person, in history, etc., because of its particular characteristics.

phenomenology ::: n. --> A description, history, or explanation of phenomena.

phylogenetic ::: a. --> Relating to phylogenesis, or the race history of a type of organism.

phylogeny ::: n. --> The history of genealogical development; the race history of an animal or vegetable type; the historic exolution of the phylon or tribe, in distinction from ontogeny, or the development of the individual organism, and from biogenesis, or life development generally.

physiogeny ::: n. --> The germ history of the functions, or the history of the development of vital activities, in the individual, being one of the branches of ontogeny. See Morphogeny.

physiophyly ::: n. --> The tribal history of the functions, or the history of the paleontological development of vital activities, -- being a branch of phylogeny. See Morphophyly.

PKZIP "tool" A file {compression} and archiver utility for {MS-DOS} and {Microsoft Windows} from {PKWARE, Inc.}. PKZIP uses a variation on the {sliding window} compression {algorithm}. It comes with {pkunzip} and {pklite} and is available as {shareware} from most {FTP archives} in a self-expanding {MS-DOS} executable. Current versions as of 1999-10-07: PKZIP 2.60 GUI for {Microsoft Windows 3.1}x, {Windows 9x}, {Windows NT}; PKZIP 2.50 Command Line for Windows 9x NT; PKZIP 2.04g for {MS-DOS}; PKZIP 2.51 for {Unix}, ({Linux}, {SPARC} {Solaris}, {Digital}, {HP-UX}, {IBM AIX} and {SCO} Unix); PKZIP 2.50 for {OS/2}; PKZIP for {Open VMS}/{VAX}. {WINZIP} is a version with a {GUI} for {Microsoft Windows}. A distribution in about 1995-06-22 claiming to be "PKZIP 3" was actually a {Trojan horse} which attempted to reformat the hard disk and delete all files on it. {(}. [Status, history of WINZIP, PKLITE?] (1999-01-16)

Plankalkül "language, history" (Or "Plankalkuel" if you don't have umlauts). The first programming language, designed by {Konrad Zuse}, ca. 1945. Zuse wrote "Rechenplan allgemeiner Struktur" in 1944 which developed into Plankalkül. Plankalkül included {arrays} and {records} and used a style of {assignment} in which the new value appears on the right. Zuse wrote Plankalkül for his {Z3} computer (finished before 1945) and implemented it on there as well. Much of his work may have been either lost or confiscated in the aftermath of World War II. {ESR Plankalkül (}. ["The Plankalkül of Konrad Zuse", F.L. Bauer et al, CACM 15(7):678-685, Jul 1972]. (2002-05-28)

Plekhanov, George Valentinovich: (1856-1918) Was a Russian Marxist who became the philosophical leader of the Menshevik faction of the pre-Revolutionary Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party, opposing Lenin, the leader of the Bolshevik wing. In spite of what are regarded as his political errors, such as his support of the war of 1914-1918 and his negative attitude to the Revolution of October, 1917, contemporary Soviet thinkers regard Plekhanov's works as containing valuable expositions of Marxist philosophy. Among his writings in this field are, Our Disputes (1885), On the Problem of the Development of the Monistic View of History (1895), Essays on the History of Materilism (1896), On the Materialist Conception of History (1897), On the Problem of the Role of the Individual in History (1898).

polemics ::: n. --> The art or practice of disputation or controversy, especially on religious subjects; that branch of theological science which pertains to the history or conduct of ecclesiastical controversy.

portable computer "computer" (Commonly, "laptop") A portable {personal computer} you can carry with one hand. Some laptops run so hot that it would be quite uncomforable to actually use them on your lap for long. The term "notebook" is often used to describe these, though it also implies a low weight (less than 2kg). A "{luggable}" is one you could carry in one hand but is so heavy you wouldn't want to. One that can by easily operated while held in one hand is a "{palmtop}". The computer considered by most historians to be the first true portable computer was the {Osborne 1} but see the link below for other contenders. {History of laptop computers (}. (2007-05-21)

prehistoric ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to a period before written history begins; as, the prehistoric ages; prehistoric man.

Prehistory: That part of history of which we have no written records, documents or oral accounts, but which is reconstructed from material remains by archeologists and anthropologists. Premiss: A proposition, or one of several propositions, from which an inference is drawn, or the sentence expressing such a proposition. Following C. S. Peirce, we here prefer the spelling premiss, to distinguish from the word premise in other senses (in particular to distinguish the plural from the legal term premises). -- A.C.

premosaic ::: a. --> Relating to the time before Moses; as, premosaic history.

Primitivism: A modern term for a complex of ideas running back in classical thought to Hesiod. Two species of primitivism are found, (1) chronological primitivism, a belief that the best period of history was the earliest; (2) cultural primitivism, a belief that the acquisitions of civilization are evil. Each of these species is found in two forms, hard and soft. The hard primitivist believes the best state of mankind to approach the ascetic life; man's power of endurance is eulogized. The soft primitivist, while frequently emphasizing the simplicity of what he imagines to be primitive life, nevertheless accentuates its gentleness. The Noble Savage is a fair example of a hard primitive; the Golden Race of Hesiod of a soft. -- G.B.

programming language "language" A {formal language} in which {computer programs} are written. The definition of a particular language consists of both {syntax} (how the various symbols of the language may be combined) and {semantics} (the meaning of the language constructs). Languages are classified as low level if they are close to {machine code} and high level if each language statement corresponds to many machine code instructions (though this could also apply to a low level language with extensive use of {macros}, in which case it would be debatable whether it still counted as low level). A roughly parallel classification is the description as {first generation language} through to {fifth generation language}. The other major classification of languages distinguishes between {imperative languages}, {procedural language} and {declarative languages}. {Programming languages in this dictionary (/contents/language.html)}. {Programming languages time-line/family tree (}. (2004-05-17)

Programming Language/Systems "language" (PL/S) An {IBM} machine-oriented language derived from {PL/I}, in the late 1960s, for the {IBM 360} and {IBM 370}. PL/S permitted {inline} {assembly language} and control over {register} usage. Previous IBM 360 operating systems such as {OS/MFT} and {OS/MVT} had been written entirely in {assembly language}. The first IBM OS that had any significant portion written in PL/S was {MVS}, followed by {OS/VS1}, {OS/VS2} and {OS/SVS}. PL/S was part of IBM's {OCO (} (object code only) effort, started in 1983. PL/S was used internally and never released to the public. It is documented in various IBM internal ZZ-? publications. Versions: PLS1, PLSII. ["PL/S, Programming Language/Systems", W.R. Brittenham, Proc GUIDE Intl, GUIDE 34, May 14, 1972, pp. 540-556]. (2012-01-20)

prophecy ::: n. --> A declaration of something to come; a foretelling; a prediction; esp., an inspired foretelling.
A book of prophecies; a history; as, the prophecy of Ahijah.
Public interpretation of Scripture; preaching; exhortation or instruction.

Psychology: (Gr. psyche, mind or soul + logos, law) The science of the mind, its functions, structure and behavioral effects. In Aristotle, the science of mind, (De Anima), emphasizes mental functionsl; the Scholastics employed a faculty psychology. In Hume and the Mills, study of the data of conscious experience, termed association psychology. In Freud, the study of the unconscious (depth psychology). In behaviorism, the physiological study of physical and chemical responses. In Gestalt psychology, the study of organized psychic activity, .revealing the mind's tendency toward the completion of patterns. Since Kant, psychology has been able to establish itself as an empirical, natural science without a priori metaphysical or theological commitments. The German romanticists (q.v.) and Hegel, who had developed a metaphysical psychology, had turned to cultural history to illustrate their theories of how the mind, conceived as an absolute, must manifest itself. Empirically they have suggested a possible field of exploration for the psychologist, namely, the study of mind in its cultural effects, viz. works of art, science, religion, social organization, etc. which are customarily studied by anthropologists in the case of "primitive" peoples. But it would be as difficult to separate anthropology from social psychology as to sharply distinguish so-called "primitive" peoples from "civilized" ones.

punched card "storage, history" (Or "punch card") The signature medium of computing's Stone Age, now long obsolete outside of a few {legacy systems}. The punched card actually predates computers considerably, originating in 1801 as a control device for {Jacquard looms}. {Charles Babbage} used them as a data and program storage medium for his {Analytical Engine}: "To those who are acquainted with the principles of the Jacquard loom, and who are also familiar with analytical formulæ, a general idea of the means by which the Engine executes its operations may be obtained without much difficulty. In the Exhibition of 1862 there were many splendid examples of such looms. [...] These patterns are then sent to a peculiar artist, who, by means of a certain machine, punches holes in a set of pasteboard cards in such a manner that when those cards are placed in a Jacquard loom, it will then weave upon its produce the exact pattern designed by the artist. [...] The analogy of the Analytical Engine with this well-known process is nearly perfect. There are therefore two sets of cards, the first to direct the nature of the operations to be performed -- these are called operation cards: the other to direct the particular variables on which those cards are required to operate -- these latter are called variable cards. Now the symbol of each variable or constant, is placed at the top of a column capable of containing any required number of digits." -- from Chapter 8 of Charles Babbage's "Passages from the Life of a Philosopher", 1864. The version patented by {Herman Hollerith} and used with mechanical tabulating machines in the 1890 US Census was a piece of cardboard about 90 mm by 215 mm. There is a widespread myth that it was designed to fit in the currency trays used for that era's larger dollar bills, but recent investigations have falsified this. {IBM} (which originated as a tabulating-machine manufacturer) married the punched card to computers, encoding binary information as patterns of small rectangular holes; one character per column, 80 columns per card. Other coding schemes, sizes of card, and hole shapes were tried at various times. The 80-column width of most character terminals is a legacy of the IBM punched card; so is the size of the quick-reference cards distributed with many varieties of computers even today. See {chad}, {chad box}, {eighty-column mind}, {green card}, {dusty deck}, {lace card}, {card walloper}. [{Jargon File}] (1998-10-19)

quill ::: n. --> One of the large feathers of a bird&

race ::: 1. The human race or family; humankind; mankind. 2. A group of people united or classified together on the basis of common history, nationality, or geographic distribution.

RCA 1802 "processor" An extremely simple {microprocessor} fabricated in {CMOS}, running at 6.4 MHz at 10V (very fast for 1974). It could be suspended with the clock stopped. It was an 8-bit processor, with 16-bit addressing. Simplicity was the primary design goal, and in that sense it was one of the first {RISC} chips. It had sixteen 16-bit {registers}, which could be accessed as thirty-two 8-bit registers, and an {accumulator} D used for arithmetic and memory access - memory to D, then D to registers and vice versa, using one 16-bit register as an address. This led to one person describing the 1802 as having 32 bytes of {RAM} and 65535 I/O ports. A 4-bit control register P selected any one general register as the {program counter}, while control registers X and N selected registers for I/O Index and the operand for the current instruction. All instructions were 8 bits - a 4-bit {op code} (total of 16 operations) and 4-bit {operand register} stored in N. There was no real {conditional branching}, no {subroutine} support and no actual {stack} but these could be implemented by clever use of registers, e.g. changing P to another register allowed jump to a subroutine. Similarly, on an interrupt P and X were saved, then R1 and R2 were selected for P and X until an {RTI} restored them. The {RCA 1805} was an enhanced version. The 1802 was used in the {COSMAC} (VIP?) {microcomputer} kit, some video games from {RCA} and {Radio Shack}, and the {ETI-660} computer. It was chosen for the Voyager, Viking and Galileo space probes as it was also fabricated in {Silicon on Sapphire}, giving radiation and static resistance, ideal for space operation. {More history (}. (2002-04-09)

README file "convention, documentation" A {text file} traditionally included in the top-level {directory} of a {software} distribution, containing pointers to {documentation}, credits, revision history, notes, etc. Originally found in {Unix} source distributions, the convention has spread to many other products. The file may be named README, READ.ME, ReadMe or readme.txt or some other variant. In the {Macintosh} and {IBM PC} worlds, software is not usually distributed in source form, and the README is more likely to contain user-oriented material like last-minute documentation changes, error workarounds, and restrictions. The README convention probably follows the famous scene in Lewis Carroll's "Alice's Adventures In Wonderland" in which Alice confronts magic munchies labeled "Eat Me" and "Drink Me". [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-28)

recusant ::: a. --> Obstinate in refusal; specifically, in English history, refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in the churc, or to conform to the established rites of the church; as, a recusant lord. ::: n. --> One who is obstinate in refusal; one standing out stubbornly against general practice or opinion.

Revelation: The communication to man of the Divine Will. This communication has taken, in the history of religions, almost every conceivable form, e.g., the results of lot casting, oracular declarations, dreams, visions, ecstatic experiences (induced by whatever means, such as intoxicants), books, prophets, unusual characters, revered traditional practices, storms, pestilence, etc. The general conception of revelation has been that the divine communication comes in ways unusual, by means not open to the ordinary channels of investigation. This, however, is not a necessary corollary, revelation of the Divine Will may well come through ordinary channels, the give-and-take of everyday experience, through reason and reflection and intuitive insight. -- V.F.

Richard Hamming "person" Professor Richard Wesley Hamming (1915-02-11 - 1998-01-07). An American mathematician known for his work in {information theory} (notably {error detection and correction}), having invented the concepts of {Hamming code}, {Hamming distance}, and {Hamming window}. Richard Hamming received his B.S. from the University of Chicago in 1937, his M.A. from the University of Nebraska in 1939, and his Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1942. In 1945 Hamming joined the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos. In 1946, after World War II, Hamming joined the {Bell Telephone Laboratories} where he worked with both {Shannon} and {John Tukey}. He worked there until 1976 when he accepted a chair of computer science at the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California. Hamming's fundamental paper on error-detecting and error-correcting codes ("{Hamming codes}") appeared in 1950. His work on the {IBM 650} leading to the development in 1956 of the {L2} programming language. This never displaced the workhorse language {L1} devised by Michael V Wolontis. By 1958 the 650 had been elbowed aside by the 704. Although best known for error-correcting codes, Hamming was primarily a numerical analyst, working on integrating {differential equations} and the {Hamming spectral window} used for smoothing data before {Fourier analysis}. He wrote textbooks, propounded aphorisms ("the purpose of computing is insight, not numbers"), and was a founder of the {ACM} and a proponent of {open-shop} computing ("better to solve the right problem the wrong way than the wrong problem the right way."). In 1968 he was made a fellow of the {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers} and awarded the {Turing Prize} from the {Association for Computing Machinery}. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers awarded Hamming the Emanuel R Piore Award in 1979 and a medal in 1988. {(}. {(}. {(}. [Richard Hamming. Coding and Information Theory. Prentice-Hall, 1980. ISBN 0-13-139139-9]. (2003-06-07)

Rickert, Heinrich: (1863-1936) Believing that only in system philosophy achieves its ends, Rickert established under the influence of Fichte a transcendental idealism upon an epistemology which has nothing to do with searching for connections between thought and existence, but admits being only as a being in consciousness, and knowledge as an affirming or negating, approving or disapproving of judgments. Hence, philosophy is one of norms in which the concept of reality dissolves into a concept of value, while consciousness ceases to be an individual phenomenon and becomes impersonal and general. Value exists not as a physical thing but in assent and our acknowledging its validity. In this we are guided by meaning and obligated by the ought. Method distinguishes history as the discipline of the particular from science which must advance beyond fact-gathering to the discovery of general laws, and from philosophy which seeks absolute cultural values through explanation, understanding, and interpretation.

Romero, Francisco: Born in 1891. Professor of Philosophy at the Universities of Buenos Aires, La Plata, and the National Institute for Teachers. Director of the Philosophical Library of the Losada Publishing House, and distinguished staff member of various cultural magazines and reviews in Latin America. Francisco Romero is one of the most important figures in the philosophical movement of South America. He is the immediate successor of Korn, and as such he follows on the footsteps of his master, doing pioneer work, not only striving towards an Argentinian philosophy, but also campaigning for philosophy in the nations of Latin America through a program of cultural diffusion. Among his most important writings, the following may be mentioned: Vteja y Nueva Concepcion de la Realidad, 1932; Los Problemas de la Filosofia de la Cultura, 1936; Filosofia de la Persona, 1938; Logica (In collaboration with Pucciarelli), 1936; Programa de una Filosofia, 1940; Un Filosofo de la Problematicidad, 1934; Descartes y Husserl, 1938; Contribucion al Estudio de las Relaciones de Comparacion, 1938; Teoria y Practica de la Verdad, 1939. Three characteristic notes may be observed in the philosophy of Romero Aporetics or Problematics, Philosophy of Weltanschauungen, Philosophy of the Person. The first has to do with his criterion of knowledge. Justice to all the facts of experience, over against mere system building, seems to be the watchword. The desirability and gradual imposition of Structuralism as the modern Weltanschauung, over against outworn world conceptions such as Evolution, Mechanism, Rationalism, etc., is the emphasis of the second principle of his philosophy. Personality as a mere function of transcendence, with all that transcendence implies in the realm of value and history, carries the main theme of his thought. See Latin American Philosophy. -- J.A.F.

Saadia, ben Joseph: (Arabic Sa'id Al-Fayyumi) (892-942) Born and educated in Egypt, he left his native country in 915 and settled in Babylonia where he was appointed in 928 Gaon of the Academy of Sura. He translated the Bible into Arabic and wrote numerous works, both in Hebrew and Arabic, in the fields of philology, exegesis, Talmudics, polemics, Jewish history, and philosophy. His chief philosophical work is the Kitab Al-Amanat wa'l-Itikadat, better known by its Hebrew title, Emunot we-Deott, i.e., Doctrines and Religious Beliefs. Its purpose is to prove the compatibility of the principles of Judaism with reason and to interpret them in such a way that their rationality be evident The first nine sections establish philosophically the ten fundamental articles of faith, and the tenth deals with ethics. Philosophically, Saadia was influenced by the teachings of the Mutazilia. See Jewish Philosophy. -- Q.V.

sacred ::: a. --> Set apart by solemn religious ceremony; especially, in a good sense, made holy; set apart to religious use; consecrated; not profane or common; as, a sacred place; a sacred day; sacred service.
Relating to religion, or to the services of religion; not secular; religious; as, sacred history.
Designated or exalted by a divine sanction; possessing the highest title to obedience, honor, reverence, or veneration; entitled to extreme reverence; venerable.

samsara. ::: repetitive history; worldly bondage; earthly suffering; the continuous round of birth and death to which the individual is subjected until it attains liberation; earthly suffering

San cheng: The Three Rectifications, also called san t'ung, which means that in the scheme of macrocosmos -- microcosmos relationship between man and the universe, the vital force (ch'i) underlying the correspondence should be so directed and controlled that, first of all, the germination of things, its symbolic color, black, and all governmental and social functions corresponding to it; secondly, the sprouting of things together with its symbolic color, white, and social and political correspondences; and, thirdly, the movement of things and its color, red, and correspondence in human affairs -- all become correct. Applied to the interpretation of history, this theory means that the Hsia dynasty (2207-1766 B.C.?) was the reign of Man, the Shang dynasty (1765-1122 B.C.?) that of Earth, and the Chou dynasty (1122?-249 BC ) that of Heaven. (Tung Chung-shu, 177-104 B.C.) -- W.T.C.

Sanctis, Francesco: Born at Morra Irpina (Avellino), March 28, 1817. Died at Naples, December 19, 1883. Imprisoned and exiled because liberal, 1848. Professor in Zurich and later in Naples. Minister of Public Education. His History of Italian Literature (1870) is still considered fundamental.

sanskrit ::: n. --> The ancient language of the Hindoos, long since obsolete in vernacular use, but preserved to the present day as the literary and sacred dialect of India. It is nearly allied to the Persian, and to the principal languages of Europe, classical and modern, and by its more perfect preservation of the roots and forms of the primitive language from which they are all descended, is a most important assistance in determining their history and relations. Cf. Prakrit, and Veda.

SCALLOP "language, history" A medium-level language for {CDC} computers, used to {bootstrap} the first {Pascal} {compiler}. (1994-11-01)

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von (1775-1854) Founder of the philosophy of identity which holds that subject and object coincide in the Absolute, a state to be realized in intellectual intuition. Deeply involved in romanticism, Schelling's philosophy of nature culminates in a transcendental idealism where nature and spirit are linked in a series of developments by unfolding powers or potencies, together forming one great organism in which nature is dynamic visible spirit and spirit invisible nature. Freedom and necessity are different refractions of the same reality. Supplementing science -- which deals with matter as extinguished spirit and endeavors to rise from nature to intelligence -- philosophy investigates the development of spirit, theoretically practically, and artistically, converts the subjective into the objective, and shows how the world soul or living principle animates the whole. Schelling's monism recognizes nature and spirit as real and ideal poles respectively, the latter being the positive one. It is pantheistic and aesthetic in that it allows the world process to create with free necessity unconsciously at first in the manner of an artist. Art is perfect union of freedom and necessity, beauty reflects the infinite in the finite. History is the progressive revelation of the Absolute. The ultimate thinking of Schelling headed toward mysticism in which man, his personality expanded into the infinite, becomes absorbed into the absolute self, free from necessity, contingency, consciousness, and personality. Sämmtliche Werke, 14 vols. (1856, re-edited 1927). Cf. Kuno Fischer, Schellings Leben, Werke und Lehre; E. Brehier, Schelling, 1912; V. Jankelevitch, L'Odysee de la conscience dans la derniere philosophie de Schelling, 1933. -- K.F.L.

Science of Science: The analysis and description of science from various points of view, including logic, methodology, sociology, and history of science. One of the chief tasks of the science of science is the ana1ysis of the language of science (see Semiotic). Scientific empiricism (q.v.) emphasizes the role of the science of science, and tries to clarify the different aspects. Some empiricists believe that the chief task of philosophy is the development of the logic and methodology of science, and that most of the problems of traditional philosophy, as far as they have cognitive meaning (see Meaning, Kinds of, 1, 5), may be construed as problems of the science of science. -- R.C.

seed-sounds ::: Sri Aurobindo: "My researches first convinced me that words, like plants, like animals, are in no sense artificial products, but growths, — living growths of sound with certain seed-sounds as their basis. Out of these seed-sounds develop a small number of primitive root-words with an immense progeny which have their successive generations and arrange themselves in tribes, clans, families, selective groups each having a common stock and a common psychological history. For the factor which presided over the development of language was the association, by the nervous mind of primitive man, of certain general significances or rather of certain general utilities and sense-values with articulate sounds. The process of this association was also in no sense artificial but natural, governed by simple and definite psychological laws.” *The Secret of the Veda

sequel ::: n. --> That which follows; a succeeding part; continuation; as, the sequel of a man&

Sequent "company" A computer manufacturer. Quarterly sales $109M, profits $7M (Aug 1994). Sequent computers was acquired by {IBM} in 1999. [History?] (2003-10-21)

set theory "mathematics" A mathematical formalisation of the theory of "sets" (aggregates or collections) of objects ("elements" or "members"). Many mathematicians use set theory as the basis for all other mathematics. Mathematicians began to realise toward the end of the 19th century that just doing "the obvious thing" with sets led to embarrassing {paradox}es, the most famous being {Russell's Paradox}. As a result, they acknowledged the need for a suitable {axiomatisation} for talking about sets. Numerous such axiomatisations exist; the most popular among ordinary mathematicians is {Zermelo Fränkel set theory}. {The beginnings of set theory (}. (1995-05-10)

Sextus Empiricus: A physician who lived about 200 A.D. His writings contain numerous arguments of a sceptical empiricistic variety drawn from Pyrrho (q.v.) and directed against dogmatic claims to absolute truth, especially in the sciences and ethics. His Adversus Mathematicos (Against the Mathematicians) is an important source for the history of the sciences of astronomy, geometry, and grammar as well is of the Stoic theology of the period. -- M.F.

shrine ::: n. --> A case, box, or receptacle, especially one in which are deposited sacred relics, as the bones of a saint.
Any sacred place, as an altar, tromb, or the like.
A place or object hallowed from its history or associations; as, a shrine of art. ::: v. t.

silva ::: n. --> The forest trees of a region or country, considered collectively.
A description or history of the forest trees of a country.

SIMULA I "language" SIMUlation LAnguage. An extension to {ALGOL 60} for the {Univac 1107} designed in 1962 by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl and implemented in 1964. SIMULA I was designed for {discrete simulation}. It introduced the {record} {class}, leading the way to {data abstraction} and {object-oriented programming} languages like {Smalltalk}. It also featured {coroutines}. SIMULA's philosophy was the result of addressing the problems of describing complex systems for the purpose of simulating them. This philosophy proved to be applicable for describing complex systems generally (not just for simulation) and so SIMULA is a general-purpose object-oriented application programming language which also has very good discrete event simulation capability. Virtually all OOP products are derived in some manner from SIMULA. For a description of the evolution of SIMULA and therefore the fundamental concepts of OOP, see Dahl and Nygaard in ["History of Programming Languages". Ed. R. W. Wexelblat. Addison-Wesley, 1981]. (1995-03-29)

Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line "operating system, history" (SPOOL) Accessing {peripheral} devices with the help of an {off-line} {tape drive}. The term was derived by {IBM} for use with the {IBM 360} {operating systems}. In the early days of computing (early 1960s), before {multitasking} was invented, computers (e.g. {IBM 704}) could run only one job at a time. As peripheral devices such as {printers} or {card readers} were much slower than the {CPU}, devoting the computer (the only computer in many cases) to controlling such devices was impractical. To free the CPU for useful work, the output was sent to a {magnetic tape} drive, which was much faster than a printer and much cheaper than a computer. After the job was finished the tape was removed from the tape drive attached to the computer and mounted on a tape drive connected to a printer (such as the {IBM 1403}). The printer could then print the data without holding up the computer. Similarly, instead of inputting the program from the card reader it was first copied to a tape and the tape was read by the computer. (1999-01-12)

sinologue ::: n. --> A student of Chinese; one versed in the Chinese language, literature, and history.

S. Lovejoy, Arthur O.: (1873-) Emeritus Professor of Philosophy of Johns Hopkins University. He was one of the contributors to "Critical Realism." He wrote the famous article on the thirteen pragmatisms (Jour. Philos. Jan. 16, 1908). Also critical of the behavioristic approach. His best known works are The Revolt against Dualism and his recent, The Great Chain of Being, 1936. The latter exemplified L's method of tracing the history of a "unit-idea." A. O. L. is the first editor of the Journal of the History of Ideas (1940-). He is an authority on Primitivism (q.v.) and Romanticism (q.v.). -- L.E.D.

source code management "software" The use of software systems to help program developers keep track of version history of {source code} {modules} as well as {releases}, parallel versions ({code branches}), etc. The free {CVS} was an early example, mostly replaced by {Subversion} and {git}. {Perforce} is a powerful commercial product. {SCCS} was once popular on {Unix} and {VSS} is {Microsoft}'s offering. (2011-12-16)

space-cadet keyboard "hardware, history" A now-legendary device used on {MIT} {Lisp} machines, which inspired several still-current jargon terms and influenced the design of {Emacs}. It was equipped with no fewer than *seven* shift keys: four keys for {bucky bits} ("control", "meta", "hyper", and "super") and three like regular shift keys, called "shift", "top", and "front". Many keys had three symbols on them: a letter and a symbol on the top, and a Greek letter on the front. For example, the "L" key had an "L" and a two-way arrow on the top, and the Greek letter lambda on the front. By pressing this key with the right hand while playing an appropriate "chord" with the left hand on the shift keys, you could get the following results: L lowercase l shift-L uppercase L front-L lowercase lambda front-shift-L uppercase lambda top-L two-way arrow (front and shift are ignored) And of course each of these might also be typed with any combination of the control, meta, hyper, and super keys. On this keyboard, you could type over 8000 different characters! This allowed the user to type very complicated mathematical text, and also to have thousands of single-character commands at his disposal. Many hackers were actually willing to memorise the command meanings of that many characters if it reduced typing time (this attitude obviously shaped the interface of {Emacs}). Other hackers, however, thought that many {bucky bits} was overkill, and objected that such a keyboard can require three or four hands to operate. See {cokebottle}, {double bucky}, {meta bit}, {quadruple bucky}. Note: early versions of this entry incorrectly identified the space-cadet keyboard with the "Knight keyboard". Though both were designed by Tom Knight, the latter term was properly applied only to a keyboard used for {ITS} on the {PDP-10} and modelled on the Stanford keyboard (as described under {bucky bits}). The true space-cadet keyboard evolved from the Knight keyboard. [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-05)

sphragistics ::: n. --> The science of seals, their history, age, distinctions, etc., esp. as verifying the age and genuiness of documents.

SPIRTTUAI- EVOLUTION- A life is only one brief episode in a long history of spiritual evolution in which the soul follows the curve of the line set for the earth passing through many lives to complete it. It is an evolution out of the material inconscience to consciousness and towards the Divine Consciousness, from

Sri Aurobindo: "History teaches us nothing; it is a confused torrent of events and personalities or a kaleidoscope of changing institutions. We do not seize the real sense of all this change and this continual streaming forward of human life in the channels of Time. What we do seize are current or recurrent phenomena, facile generalisations, partial ideas. We talk of democracy, aristocracy and autocracy, collectivism and individualism, imperialism and nationalism, the State and the commune, capitalism and labour; we advance hasty generalisations and make absolute systems which are positively announced today only to be abandoned perforce tomorrow; we espouse causes and ardent enthusiasms whose triumph turns to an early disillusionment and then forsake them for others, perhaps for those that we have taken so much trouble to destroy. For a whole century mankind thirsts and battles after liberty and earns it with a bitter expense of toil, tears and blood; the century that enjoys without having fought for it turns away as from a puerile illusion and is ready to renounce the depreciated gain as the price of some new good. And all this happens because our whole thought and action with regard to our collective life is shallow and empirical; it does not seek for, it does not base itself on a firm, profound and complete knowledge. The moral is not the vanity of human life, of its ardours and enthusiasms and of the ideals it pursues, but the necessity of a wiser, larger, more patient search after its true law and aim.” *The Human Cycle etc.

stale pointer bug "programming" (Or "aliasing bug") A class of subtle programming errors that can arise in code that does {dynamic allocation}, especially via {malloc} or equivalent. If several {pointers} address (are "aliases for") a given hunk of storage, it may happen that the storage is freed or reallocated (and thus moved) through one alias and then referenced through another, which may lead to subtle (and possibly intermittent) lossage depending on the state and the allocation history of the malloc {arena}. This bug can be avoided by never creating aliases for allocated memory, or by use of a {higher-level language}, such as {Lisp}, which employs a {garbage collector}. The term "aliasing bug" is nowadays associated with {C} programming, it was already in use in a very similar sense in the {ALGOL 60} and {Fortran} communities in the 1960s. See also {smash the stack}, {fandango on core}, {memory leak}, {memory smash}, {spam}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-05-09)

Stephen Kleene "person" Professor Stephen Cole Kleene (1909-01-05 - 1994-01-26) /steev'n (kohl) klay'nee/ An American mathematician whose work at the {University of Wisconsin-Madison} helped lay the foundations for modern computer science. Kleene was best known for founding the branch of {mathematical logic} known as {recursion theory} and for inventing {regular expressions}. The {Kleene star} and {Ascending Kleene Chain} are named after him. Kleene was born in Hartford, Conneticut, USA. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Amherst College in 1930. From 1930 to 1935, he was a graduate student and research assistant at {Princeton University} where he received his doctorate in mathematics in 1934. In 1935, he joined UW-Madison mathematics department as an instructor. He became an assistant professor in 1937. From 1939 to 1940, he was a visiting scholar at Princeton's {Institute for Advanced Study} where he laid the foundation for recursive function theory, an area that would be his lifelong research interest. In 1941 he returned to Amherst as an associate professor of mathematics. During World War II Kleene was a lieutenant commander in the United States Navy. He was an instructor of navigation at the U.S. Naval Reserve's Midshipmen's School in New York, and then a project director at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. In 1946, he returned to Wisconsin, eventually becoming a full professor. He was chair of mathematics, and computer sciences in 1962 and 1963 and dean of the College of Letters and Science from 1969 to 1974. In 1964 he was named the Cyrus C. MacDuffee professor of mathematics. An avid mountain climber, Kleene had a strong interest in nature and the environment and was active in many conservation causes. He led several professional organisations, serving as president of the {Association of Symbolic Logic} from 1956 to 1958. In 1961, he served as president of the International Union of the History and the Philosophy of Science. Kleene pronounced his last name /klay'nee/. /klee'nee/ and /kleen/ are extremely common mispronunciations. His first name is /steev'n/, not /stef'n/. His son, Ken Kleene "", wrote: "As far as I am aware this pronunciation is incorrect in all known languages. I believe that this novel pronunciation was invented by my father." {(gopher://}. (1999-03-03)

Stirner, Max: Pen name of Johann Caspar Schmidt (1806-1856) Most extreme and thoroughgoing individualist in the history of philosophy. In his classic, The Ego and his Own, he regards everything except the individual as minor; family, state and society all disappear before the individual, the ego, as the primary power for life and living. -- L.E.D.

storied ::: a. --> Told in a story.
Having a history; interesting from the stories which pertain to it; venerable from the associations of the past.
Having (such or so many) stories; -- chiefly in composition; as, a two-storied house. ::: imp. & p. p.

Strauss, David Friedrich: (1808-1874) German philosopher who received wide popularity and condemnation for his Life of Jesus. He held that the unity of God and man is not realized in Christ but in mankind itself and in its history. This relation, he believed, was immanent and not transcendent. His numerous writings displayed many currents from Hegelianism and Darwinism to a pantheism that approaches atheism and then back to a naturalism that clings devoutly to an inward religious experience. Main works: Das Leben Jesu, 1835; Die Christliche Dogmatik, 1840; Der alte u. d. neue Glaube, 1872. -- L.E.D.

stromatology ::: n. --> The history of the formation of stratified rocks.

Summum Bonum: (Lat. the supreme good) A term applied to an ultimate end of human conduct the worth of which is intrinsically and substantively good. It is some end that is not subordinate to anything else. Happiness, pleasure, virtue, self-realization, power, obedience to the voice of duty, to conscience, to the will of God, good will, perfection have been claimed as ultimate aims of human conduct in the history of ethical theory. Those who interpret all ethical problems in terms of a conception of good they hold to be the highest ignore all complexities of conduct, focus attention wholly upon goals towards which deeds are directed, restrict their study by constructing every good in one single pattern, center all goodness in one model and thus reduce all other types of good to their model. -- H.H.

supercompilation A function program transformation technique invented by Turchin. A program is evaluated symbolically in order to observe the possible history of computation states called configurations. Based on this Turchin's REFAL compiler would try to construct a better program.

System/370 "hardware, IBM" (S/370) An {IBM} {mainframe} {computer} introduced in 1970 as a successor to the {IBM 360}. Enhancements included the ability to support {virtual memory} and improved main storage. Two models were available initially: 165 and 155, with {cycle times} of 80 and 115 nanoseconds. {Press Release (}. (2004-06-06)

tale ::: n. --> See Tael. ::: v. i. --> That which is told; an oral relation or recital; any rehearsal of what has occured; narrative; discourse; statement; history; story.
A number told or counted off; a reckoning by count; an

tcsh "Unix, operating system" A {Unix} {shell} by Christos Zoulas "", based on {csh}. tcsh adds {WYSIWYG} command line editing, command name {completion}, input {history} and various other features. Version 6.04 runs under many versions of {Unix} and under {OpenVMS}. tcsh has been largely replaced by {bash}. {(}. (2014-09-14)

Tehmi: “Kali dancing on Shiva’s breast is a common image. If Shiva had not supported Kali’s dance it would have shattered the world. Shiva offered His breast as only He could support Her dance. This is Puranic history.”

telegraphy "communications, history" A historical term for communication, either wired or wireless, using {Morse code}. The term is used in contrast with {telephony} meaning voice transmission. Telegraphy is sometimes (somewhat incorrectly) referred to as "{continuous wave}" or CW transmission. (2009-11-24)

"The gospel of true supermanhood gives us a generous ideal for the progressive human race and should not be turned into an arrogant claim for a class or individuals. It is a call to man to do what no species has yet done or aspired to do in terrestrial history, evolve itself consciously into the next superior type already half foreseen by the continual cyclic development of the world-idea in Nature"s fruitful musings . . . .” The Supramental Manifestation*

“The gospel of true supermanhood gives us a generous ideal for the progressive human race and should not be turned into an arrogant claim for a class or individuals. It is a call to man to do what no species has yet done or aspired to do in terrestrial history, evolve itself consciously into the next superior type already half foreseen by the continual cyclic development of the world-idea in Nature’s fruitful musings ….” The Supramental Manifestation

The history of rationalism begins with the Eleitics (q.v.). Pythagoreans and Plato (q.v.) whose theory of the self-sufficiency of reason became the leitmotif of neo-Platonism and idealism (q.v.).

The scientific study of primitive leligions, with such well known names as E. B. Tylor, F. B. Jevons, W. H. R. Rivers, J. G. Frazer, R. H. Codrington, Spencer and Gillen, E. Westermarck, E. Durkheim, L. Levy-Bruhl; the numerous outlines of the development of religion since Hume's Natural History of Religion and E. Caird's Evolution of Religion; the prolific literature dealing with individual religions of a higher type, the science of comparative religion with such namea as that of L. H. Jordan, the many excellent treitises on the psychology of religion including Wm. James' Varieties of Religious Experience; the sacred literature of all peoples in various editions together with a voluminous theological exegesis, Church history and, finally, the history of dogma, especially the monumental work of von Harnack, -- all are contributing illustrative material to the Philosophy of Religion which became stimulated to scientific efforts through the positivism of Spencer, Huxley, Lewes, Tyndall, and others, and is still largely oriented by the progress in science, as may be seen, e.g., by the work of Emile Boutroux, S. Alexander (Space, Time and Deity), and A. N. Whitehead.

The social theory, termed historical materialism, represents the application of the general principles of materialist dialectics to human society, by which they were first suggested. The fundamental changes and stages which society has passed through in the course of its complex evolution are traced primarily to the influence of changes taking place in its economic base. This base has two aspects: material forces of production (technics, instrumentalities) and economic relations (prevailing system of ownership, exchange, distribution). Growing out of this base is a social superstructure of laws, governments, arts, sciences, religions, philosophies and the like. The view taken is that society evolved as it did primarily because fundamental changes in the economic base resulting from conflicts of of interest in respect to productive forces, and involving radical changes in economic relations, have compelled accommodating changes in the social superstructure. Causal action is traced both ways between base and superstructure, but when any "higher" institution threatens the position of those who hold controlling economic power at the base, the test of their power is victory in the ensuing contest. The role of the individual in history is acknowledged, but is seen in relation to the movement of underlying forces. Cf. Plekhanov, Role of the Individual m History.

This opposition of natural sciences (Naturwissenschaften) and cultural or socio-historical sciences (Geistestvtssenschaften) is characteristic of idealistic philosophies of history, especially of the modern German variety. See Max Weber, Gesamm. Aufrätze z. Sozio u. Sozialpolitik, 1922; W. Windelband, Geschichte u. Naturwissenschaft, 1894; H. Rickert, Die Grenzen d. Naturwiss. Begriffsbildung, eine logische Einleitung i. d. histor. Wissenschaften, 1899; Dilthey (q.v.); E. Troeltsch, Der Histortsmus u. s. Probleme, 1922; E. Spranger, Die Grundlagen d. Geschichteswissensch., 1905.

Though the roots of Scholasticism are to be found in the preoccupation of the Patristical (vide) period, its proper history does not begin until the Carolingian renaissance in the ninth century. From that date to the present day, its history may be divided into seven divisions.

Three senses of "Ockhamism" may be distinguished: Logical, indicating usage of the terminology and technique of logical analysis developed by Ockham in his Summa totius logicae; in particular, use of the concept of supposition (suppositio) in the significative analysis of terms. Epistemological, indicating the thesis that universality is attributable only to terms and propositions, and not to things as existing apart from discourse. Theological, indicating the thesis that no tneological doctrines, such as those of God's existence or of the immortality of the soul, are evident or demonstrable philosophically, so that religious doctrine rests solely on faith, without metaphysical or scientific support. It is in this sense that Luther is often called an Ockhamist.   Bibliography:   B. Geyer,   Ueberwegs Grundriss d. Gesch. d. Phil., Bd. II (11th ed., Berlin 1928), pp. 571-612 and 781-786; N. Abbagnano,   Guglielmo di Ockham (Lanciano, Italy, 1931); E. A. Moody,   The Logic of William of Ockham (N. Y. & London, 1935); F. Ehrle,   Peter von Candia (Muenster, 1925); G. Ritter,   Studien zur Spaetscholastik, I-II (Heidelberg, 1921-1922).     --E.A.M. Om, aum: (Skr.) Mystic, holy syllable as a symbol for the indefinable Absolute. See Aksara, Vac, Sabda. --K.F.L. Omniscience: In philosophy and theology it means the complete and perfect knowledge of God, of Himself and of all other beings, past, present, and future, or merely possible, as well as all their activities, real or possible, including the future free actions of human beings. --J.J.R. One: Philosophically, not a number but equivalent to unit, unity, individuality, in contradistinction from multiplicity and the mani-foldness of sensory experience. In metaphysics, the Supreme Idea (Plato), the absolute first principle (Neo-platonism), the universe (Parmenides), Being as such and divine in nature (Plotinus), God (Nicolaus Cusanus), the soul (Lotze). Religious philosophy and mysticism, beginning with Indian philosophy (s.v.), has favored the designation of the One for the metaphysical world-ground, the ultimate icility, the world-soul, the principle of the world conceived as reason, nous, or more personally. The One may be conceived as an independent whole or as a sum, as analytic or synthetic, as principle or ontologically. Except by mysticism, it is rarely declared a fact of sensory experience, while its transcendent or transcendental, abstract nature is stressed, e.g., in epistemology where the "I" or self is considered the unitary background of personal experience, the identity of self-consciousness, or the unity of consciousness in the synthesis of the manifoldness of ideas (Kant). --K.F.L. One-one: A relation R is one-many if for every y in the converse domain there is a unique x such that xRy. A relation R is many-one if for every x in the domain there is a unique y such that xRy. (See the article relation.) A relation is one-one, or one-to-one, if it is at the same time one-many and many-one. A one-one relation is said to be, or to determine, a one-to-one correspondence between its domain and its converse domain. --A.C. On-handedness: (Ger. Vorhandenheit) Things exist in the mode of thereness, lying- passively in a neutral space. A "deficient" form of a more basic relationship, termed at-handedness (Zuhandenheit). (Heidegger.) --H.H. Ontological argument: Name by which later authors, especially Kant, designate the alleged proof for God's existence devised by Anselm of Canterbury. Under the name of God, so the argument runs, everyone understands that greater than which nothing can be thought. Since anything being the greatest and lacking existence is less then the greatest having also existence, the former is not really the greater. The greatest, therefore, has to exist. Anselm has been reproached, already by his contemporary Gaunilo, for unduly passing from the field of logical to the field of ontological or existential reasoning. This criticism has been repeated by many authors, among them Aquinas. The argument has, however, been used, if in a somewhat modified form, by Duns Scotus, Descartes, and Leibniz. --R.A. Ontological Object: (Gr. onta, existing things + logos, science) The real or existing object of an act of knowledge as distinguished from the epistemological object. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ontologism: (Gr. on, being) In contrast to psychologism, is called any speculative system which starts philosophizing by positing absolute being, or deriving the existence of entities independently of experience merely on the basis of their being thought, or assuming that we have immediate and certain knowledge of the ground of being or God. Generally speaking any rationalistic, a priori metaphysical doctrine, specifically the philosophies of Rosmini-Serbati and Vincenzo Gioberti. As a philosophic method censored by skeptics and criticists alike, as a scholastic doctrine formerly strongly supported, revived in Italy and Belgium in the 19th century, but no longer countenanced. --K.F.L. Ontology: (Gr. on, being + logos, logic) The theory of being qua being. For Aristotle, the First Philosophy, the science of the essence of things. Introduced as a term into philosophy by Wolff. The science of fundamental principles, the doctrine of the categories. Ultimate philosophy; rational cosmology. Syn. with metaphysics. See Cosmology, First Principles, Metaphysics, Theology. --J.K.F. Operation: "(Lit. operari, to work) Any act, mental or physical, constituting a phase of the reflective process, and performed with a view to acquiring1 knowledge or information about a certain subject-nntter. --A.C.B.   In logic, see Operationism.   In philosophy of science, see Pragmatism, Scientific Empiricism. Operationism: The doctrine that the meaning of a concept is given by a set of operations.   1. The operational meaning of a term (word or symbol) is given by a semantical rule relating the term to some concrete process, object or event, or to a class of such processes, objectj or events.   2. Sentences formed by combining operationally defined terms into propositions are operationally meaningful when the assertions are testable by means of performable operations. Thus, under operational rules, terms have semantical significance, propositions have empirical significance.   Operationism makes explicit the distinction between formal (q.v.) and empirical sentences. Formal propositions are signs arranged according to syntactical rules but lacking operational reference. Such propositions, common in mathematics, logic and syntax, derive their sanction from convention, whereas an empirical proposition is acceptable (1) when its structure obeys syntactical rules and (2) when there exists a concrete procedure (a set of operations) for determining its truth or falsity (cf. Verification). Propositions purporting to be empirical are sometimes amenable to no operational test because they contain terms obeying no definite semantical rules. These sentences are sometimes called pseudo-propositions and are said to be operationally meaningless. They may, however, be 'meaningful" in other ways, e.g. emotionally or aesthetically (cf. Meaning).   Unlike a formal statement, the "truth" of an empirical sentence is never absolute and its operational confirmation serves only to increase the degree of its validity. Similarly, the semantical rule comprising the operational definition of a term has never absolute precision. Ordinarily a term denotes a class of operations and the precision of its definition depends upon how definite are the rules governing inclusion in the class.   The difference between Operationism and Logical Positivism (q.v.) is one of emphasis. Operationism's stress of empirical matters derives from the fact that it was first employed to purge physics of such concepts as absolute space and absolute time, when the theory of relativity had forced upon physicists the view that space and time are most profitably defined in terms of the operations by which they are measured. Although different methods of measuring length at first give rise to different concepts of length, wherever the equivalence of certain of these measures can be established by other operations, the concepts may legitimately be combined.   In psychology the operational criterion of meaningfulness is commonly associated with a behavioristic point of view. See Behaviorism. Since only those propositions which are testable by public and repeatable operations are admissible in science, the definition of such concepti as mind and sensation must rest upon observable aspects of the organism or its behavior. Operational psychology deals with experience only as it is indicated by the operation of differential behavior, including verbal report. Discriminations, or the concrete differential reactions of organisms to internal or external environmental states, are by some authors regarded as the most basic of all operations.   For a discussion of the role of operational definition in phvsics. see P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics, (New York, 1928) and The Nature of Physical Theory (Princeton, 1936). "The extension of operationism to psychology is discussed by C. C. Pratt in The Logic of Modem Psychology (New York. 1939.)   For a discussion and annotated bibliography relating to Operationism and Logical Positivism, see S. S. Stevens, Psychology and the Science of Science, Psychol. Bull., 36, 1939, 221-263. --S.S.S. Ophelimity: Noun derived from the Greek, ophelimos useful, employed by Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) in economics as the equivalent of utility, or the capacity to provide satisfaction. --J.J.R. Opinion: (Lat. opinio, from opinor, to think) An hypothesis or proposition entertained on rational grounds but concerning which doubt can reasonably exist. A belief. See Hypothesis, Certainty, Knowledge. --J.K.F- Opposition: (Lat. oppositus, pp. of oppono, to oppose) Positive actual contradiction. One of Aristotle's Post-predicaments. In logic any contrariety or contradiction, illustrated by the "Square of Opposition". Syn. with: conflict. See Logic, formal, § 4. --J.K.F. Optimism: (Lat. optimus, the best) The view inspired by wishful thinking, success, faith, or philosophic reflection, that the world as it exists is not so bad or even the best possible, life is good, and man's destiny is bright. Philosophically most persuasively propounded by Leibniz in his Theodicee, according to which God in his wisdom would have created a better world had he known or willed such a one to exist. Not even he could remove moral wrong and evil unless he destroyed the power of self-determination and hence the basis of morality. All systems of ethics that recognize a supreme good (Plato and many idealists), subscribe to the doctrines of progressivism (Turgot, Herder, Comte, and others), regard evil as a fragmentary view (Josiah Royce et al.) or illusory, or believe in indemnification (Henry David Thoreau) or melioration (Emerson), are inclined optimistically. Practically all theologies advocating a plan of creation and salvation, are optimistic though they make the good or the better dependent on moral effort, right thinking, or belief, promising it in a future existence. Metaphysical speculation is optimistic if it provides for perfection, evolution to something higher, more valuable, or makes room for harmonies or a teleology. See Pessimism. --K.F.L. Order: A class is said to be partially ordered by a dyadic relation R if it coincides with the field of R, and R is transitive and reflexive, and xRy and yRx never both hold when x and y are different. If in addition R is connected, the class is said to be ordered (or simply ordered) by R, and R is called an ordering relation.   Whitehcid and Russell apply the term serial relation to relations which are transitive, irreflexive, and connected (and, in consequence, also asymmetric). However, the use of serial relations in this sense, instead ordering relations as just defined, is awkward in connection with the notion of order for unit classes.   Examples: The relation not greater than among leal numbers is an ordering relation. The relation less than among real numbers is a serial relation. The real numbers are simply ordered by the former relation. In the algebra of classes (logic formal, § 7), the classes are partially ordered by the relation of class inclusion.   For explanation of the terminology used in making the above definitions, see the articles connexity, reflexivity, relation, symmetry, transitivity. --A.C. Order type: See relation-number. Ordinal number: A class b is well-ordered by a dyadic relation R if it is ordered by R (see order) and, for every class a such that a ⊂ b, there is a member x of a, such that xRy holds for every member y of a; and R is then called a well-ordering relation. The ordinal number of a class b well-ordered by a relation R, or of a well-ordering relation R, is defined to be the relation-number (q. v.) of R.   The ordinal numbers of finite classes (well-ordered by appropriate relations) are called finite ordinal numbers. These are 0, 1, 2, ... (to be distinguished, of course, from the finite cardinal numbers 0, 1, 2, . . .).   The first non-finite (transfinite or infinite) ordinal number is the ordinal number of the class of finite ordinal numbers, well-ordered in their natural order, 0, 1, 2, . . .; it is usually denoted by the small Greek letter omega. --A.C.   G. Cantor, Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Numbers, translated and with an introduction by P. E. B. Jourdain, Chicago and London, 1915. (new ed. 1941); Whitehead and Russell, Princtpia Mathematica. vol. 3. Orexis: (Gr. orexis) Striving; desire; the conative aspect of mind, as distinguished from the cognitive and emotional (Aristotle). --G.R.M.. Organicism: A theory of biology that life consists in the organization or dynamic system of the organism. Opposed to mechanism and vitalism. --J.K.F. Organism: An individual animal or plant, biologically interpreted. A. N. Whitehead uses the term to include also physical bodies and to signify anything material spreading through space and enduring in time. --R.B.W. Organismic Psychology: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, an instrument) A system of theoretical psychology which construes the structure of the mind in organic rather than atomistic terms. See Gestalt Psychology; Psychological Atomism. --L.W. Organization: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, work) A structured whole. The systematic unity of parts in a purposive whole. A dynamic system. Order in something actual. --J.K.F. Organon: (Gr. organon) The title traditionally given to the body of Aristotle's logical treatises. The designation appears to have originated among the Peripatetics after Aristotle's time, and expresses their view that logic is not a part of philosophy (as the Stoics maintained) but rather the instrument (organon) of philosophical inquiry. See Aristotelianism. --G.R.M.   In Kant. A system of principles by which pure knowledge may be acquired and established.   Cf. Fr. Bacon's Novum Organum. --O.F.K. Oriental Philosophy: A general designation used loosely to cover philosophic tradition exclusive of that grown on Greek soil and including the beginnings of philosophical speculation in Egypt, Arabia, Iran, India, and China, the elaborate systems of India, Greater India, China, and Japan, and sometimes also the religion-bound thought of all these countries with that of the complex cultures of Asia Minor, extending far into antiquity. Oriental philosophy, though by no means presenting a homogeneous picture, nevertheless shares one characteristic, i.e., the practical outlook on life (ethics linked with metaphysics) and the absence of clear-cut distinctions between pure speculation and religious motivation, and on lower levels between folklore, folk-etymology, practical wisdom, pre-scientiiic speculation, even magic, and flashes of philosophic insight. Bonds with Western, particularly Greek philosophy have no doubt existed even in ancient times. Mutual influences have often been conjectured on the basis of striking similarities, but their scientific establishment is often difficult or even impossible. Comparative philosophy (see especially the work of Masson-Oursel) provides a useful method. Yet a thorough treatment of Oriental Philosophy is possible only when the many languages in which it is deposited have been more thoroughly studied, the psychological and historical elements involved in the various cultures better investigated, and translations of the relevant documents prepared not merely from a philological point of view or out of missionary zeal, but by competent philosophers who also have some linguistic training. Much has been accomplished in this direction in Indian and Chinese Philosophy (q.v.). A great deal remains to be done however before a definitive history of Oriental Philosophy may be written. See also Arabian, and Persian Philosophy. --K.F.L. Origen: (185-254) The principal founder of Christian theology who tried to enrich the ecclesiastic thought of his day by reconciling it with the treasures of Greek philosophy. Cf. Migne PL. --R.B.W. Ormazd: (New Persian) Same as Ahura Mazdah (q.v.), the good principle in Zoroastrianism, and opposed to Ahriman (q.v.). --K.F.L. Orphic Literature: The mystic writings, extant only in fragments, of a Greek religious-philosophical movement of the 6th century B.C., allegedly started by the mythical Orpheus. In their mysteries, in which mythology and rational thinking mingled, the Orphics concerned themselves with cosmogony, theogony, man's original creation and his destiny after death which they sought to influence to the better by pure living and austerity. They taught a symbolism in which, e.g., the relationship of the One to the many was clearly enunciated, and believed in the soul as involved in reincarnation. Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Plato were influenced by them. --K.F.L. Ortega y Gasset, Jose: Born in Madrid, May 9, 1883. At present in Buenos Aires, Argentine. Son of Ortega y Munillo, the famous Spanish journalist. Studied at the College of Jesuits in Miraflores and at the Central University of Madrid. In the latter he presented his Doctor's dissertation, El Milenario, in 1904, thereby obtaining his Ph.D. degree. After studies in Leipzig, Berlin, Marburg, under the special influence of Hermann Cohen, the great exponent of Kant, who taught him the love for the scientific method and awoke in him the interest in educational philosophy, Ortega came to Spain where, after the death of Nicolas Salmeron, he occupied the professorship of metaphysics at the Central University of Madrid. The following may be considered the most important works of Ortega y Gasset:     Meditaciones del Quijote, 1914;   El Espectador, I-VIII, 1916-1935;   El Tema de Nuestro Tiempo, 1921;   España Invertebrada, 1922;   Kant, 1924;   La Deshumanizacion del Arte, 1925;   Espiritu de la Letra, 1927;   La Rebelion de las Masas, 1929;   Goethe desde Adentio, 1934;   Estudios sobre el Amor, 1939;   Ensimismamiento y Alteracion, 1939;   El Libro de las Misiones, 1940;   Ideas y Creencias, 1940;     and others.   Although brought up in the Marburg school of thought, Ortega is not exactly a neo-Kantian. At the basis of his Weltanschauung one finds a denial of the fundamental presuppositions which characterized European Rationalism. It is life and not thought which is primary. Things have a sense and a value which must be affirmed independently. Things, however, are to be conceived as the totality of situations which constitute the circumstances of a man's life. Hence, Ortega's first philosophical principle: "I am myself plus my circumstances". Life as a problem, however, is but one of the poles of his formula. Reason is the other. The two together function, not by dialectical opposition, but by necessary coexistence. Life, according to Ortega, does not consist in being, but rather, in coming to be, and as such it is of the nature of direction, program building, purpose to be achieved, value to be realized. In this sense the future as a time dimension acquires new dignity, and even the present and the past become articulate and meaning-full only in relation to the future. Even History demands a new point of departure and becomes militant with new visions. --J.A.F. Orthodoxy: Beliefs which are declared by a group to be true and normative. Heresy is a departure from and relative to a given orthodoxy. --V.S. Orthos Logos: See Right Reason. Ostensible Object: (Lat. ostendere, to show) The object envisaged by cognitive act irrespective of its actual existence. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ostensive: (Lat. ostendere, to show) Property of a concept or predicate by virtue of which it refers to and is clarified by reference to its instances. --A.C.B. Ostwald, Wilhelm: (1853-1932) German chemist. Winner of the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1909. In Die Uberwindung des wissenschaftlichen Materialistmus and in Naturphilosophie, his two best known works in the field of philosophy, he advocates a dynamic theory in opposition to materialism and mechanism. All properties of matter, and the psychic as well, are special forms of energy. --L.E.D. Oupnekhat: Anquetil Duperron's Latin translation of the Persian translation of 50 Upanishads (q.v.), a work praised by Schopenhauer as giving him complete consolation. --K.F.L. Outness: A term employed by Berkeley to express the experience of externality, that is the ideas of space and things placed at a distance. Hume used it in the sense of distance Hamilton understood it as the state of being outside of consciousness in a really existing world of material things. --J.J.R. Overindividual: Term used by H. Münsterberg to translate the German überindividuell. The term is applied to any cognitive or value object which transcends the individual subject. --L.W. P

time ::: 1. Duration regarded as belonging to the present life as distinct from the life to come or from eternity; finite duration. 2. A nonspatial continuum in which events occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future. 3. A period in the existence or history of the world; an age, an era. Time, time-born, time-bound, time-constructed, time-driven, time-field, time-flakes, time-inn, time-loop, time-made, time-plan, time-vexed, time-walk, world-time, World-Time"s.

T. L. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics, 2 vols., Oxford, 1921.

T. L Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics, vol. I (1921).

trace ::: n. 1. A surviving mark, sign, or evidence of the former existence, influence, or action of some agent or event; vestige. 2. Evidence or an indication of the former presence or existence of something non-material; a vestige. 3. A barely discernable indication or evidence of some quality, quality, characteristic, expression, etc. v. 4. To make one"s way over, through, or along (something). Also fig. 5. To follow a course, trail, etc.; make one"s way. 6. To follow, make out, or determine the course or line of, especially by going backward from the latest evidence, nearest existence, etc. 7. To locate or discover by searching or researching evidence; follow the history of. 8. To draw an outline of something. Also fig. 9. To decorate with tracery. 10. To copy (a design, map, etc.) by drawing over the lines visible through a superimposed sheet of transparent paper or other material. 11. To draw or delineate a plan or diagram of. traced, tracing.

Traditionalism: In French philosophy of the early nineteenth century, the doctrine that the truth -- particularly religious truth -- is never discovered by an individual but is only to be found in "tradition". It was revealed in potentia at a single moment by God and has been developing steadily through history. Since truth is an attribute of ideas, the traditionalist holds that ideas are super-individual. They are the property of society and are found embedded in language which was revealed to primitive man bv God at the creation. The main traditionalists were Joseph de Maistre, the Vicomte de Bonald, and Bonetty. -- G.B.

trap 1. A program interrupt, usually an interrupt caused by some exceptional situation in the user program. In most cases, the OS performs some action, then returns control to the program. 2. To cause a trap. "These instructions trap to the monitor." Also used transitively to indicate the cause of the trap. "The monitor traps all input/output instructions." This term is associated with assembler programming ("interrupt" or "exception" is more common among {HLL} programmers) and appears to be fading into history among programmers as the role of assembler continues to shrink. However, it is still important to computer architects and systems hackers (see {system}, sense 1), who use it to distinguish {deterministic}ally repeatable exceptions from timing-dependent ones (such as I/O interrupts). [{Jargon File}]

true ::: n. --> Conformable to fact; in accordance with the actual state of things; correct; not false, erroneous, inaccurate, or the like; as, a true relation or narration; a true history; a declaration is true when it states the facts.
Right to precision; conformable to a rule or pattern; exact; accurate; as, a true copy; a true likeness of the original.
Steady in adhering to friends, to promises, to a prince, or the like; unwavering; faithful; loyal; not false, fickle, or

TYMNET "networking, history" A United States-wide commercial computer network, created by {Tymshare, Inc.} some time before 1970, and used for {remote login} and file transfer. The network public went live in November 1971. In its original implementation, it consisted of fairly simple circuit-oriented {nodes}, whose circuits were created by central network supervisors writing into the appropriate nodes' "permuter tables". The supervisors also performed login validations as well as circuit management. Circuits were character oriented and the network was oriented toward interactive character-by-character {full-duplex} communications circuits. The network had more than one supervisor running, but only one was active, the others being put to sleep with "sleeping pill" messages. If the active supervisor went down, all the others would wake up and battle for control of the network. After the battle, the supervisor with the highest pre-set priority would dominate, and the network would then again be controlled by only one supervisor. (During the takeover battle, the net consisted of subsets of itself across which new circuits could not be built). Existing circuits were not affected by supervisor switches. There was a clever scheme to switch the echoing function between the local node and the host based on whether or not a special character had been typed by the user. Data transfers were also possible via "auxiliary circuits". The Tymshare hosts (which ran customer code) were {SDS 940}, {DEC} {PDP-10}, and eventually {IBM 370} computers. {Xerox} {XDS 940} might have been used if Xerox, who bought the design for the SDS 940 from Scientific Data Systems, had ever built any. The switches were originally {Varian Data Machines} 620i. The {Interdata 8/32} was never used because the performance was disappointing. The TYMNET Engine, based loosely on the Interdata 7/32, was developed instead to replace the Varian 620i. In the early 1990s, newer "Turbo" nodes based on the {Motorola 68000} began to replace the 7/32s. These were later replaced with {SPARCs}. PDP-10s supported (and still do in 1999) cross-platform development and billing. {Tymshare, Inc.} originally wrote and implemented TYMNET to provide nationwide access for their {time-sharing} customers. La Roy Tymes booted up the public TYMNET in November of 1971 and, as of March 2002, it had been running ever since without a single system crash. TYMNET was the largest commercial network in the United States in its heyday, with nodes in every major US city and a few overseas as well. Tymshare acquired a French subsidiary, {SLIGOS}, and had TYMNET nodes in Paris, France. Tymshare sold the TYMNET network software to {TRW}, who created their own private network (which was not called TYMNET). In about 1979, TYMNET Inc. was spun off from Tymshare, Inc. to continue administration and development of the network. TYMNET outlived its parent company Tymshare and was acquired by {MCI}. As of May 1994 they still ran three {DEC KL-10s} under {TYMCOM-X}, although they planned to decommission them soon. The original creators of TYMNET included: Ann Hardy, Norm Hardy, Bill Frantz. La Roy Tymes (who always insisted that his name was NOT the source of the name) wrote the first supervisor which ran on the 940. Joe Rinde made many significant technical and marketing contributions. La Roy wrote most of the code of the network proper. Several others wrote code in support of development and administration. Just recently (1999) La Roy, on contract, wrote a version of the supervisor to run on {SPARC} hardware. The name TYMNET was suggested by Vigril Swearingen in a weekly meeting between Tymshare technical and marketing staff in about 1970. {(}. [E-mail from La Roy Tymes] (2002-11-26)

Ueberweg, Friedrich: (1826 1871) Is mainly known for his exhaustive studies in the history of philosophy. -- R.B.W.

Unamuno y Jugo, Miguel de: Spanish Professor and writer. Born at Bilbao, Spain, September 29, 1864. Died 1936. First and secondary education in Bilbao. Philosophical studies and higher learning at the Central University of Madrid since 1880. Private instructor in Bilbao, 1884-1891. Professor of Greek language and literature at the University of Salamanca since 1891. President of the University of Salamanca and at the same time Professor of the History of the Spanish Language, in 1901. Madariaga considers him "The most important literary figure of Spain". If he does not embody, at least it may be asserted that Unamuno very well symbolizes the character of Spain. His conflict between faith and reason, life and thought, culture and civilization, depicts for us a clear picture of the Spanish cultural crisis.

Under Kierkegaard's influence, he pursues an "existential" analysis of human existence in order to discuss the original philosophical question of being in a new way. He explores many hitherto unexplored phenomena which ontology disregarded. Sorge (concern), being par excellence the structure of consciousness, is elevated to the ultimate. Concern has a wholly special horizon of being. Dread (Angst), the feeling of being on the verge of nothing, represents an eminently transcendental instrument of knowledge. Heidegger gives dread a content directed upon the objective world. He unfolds the essence of dread to be Sorge (concern). As concern tends to become obscured to itself by the distracted losing of one's selfhood in the cares of daily life, its remedy is in the consideration of such experiences as conscience, forboding of death and the existential consciousness of time. By elevating Sorge to the basis of all being, he raised something universally human to the fundamental principle of the world. It is only after an elementary analysis of the basic constitution of human existence that Heidegger approaches his ultimate problem of Being and Time, in which more complicated structures such as the existential significance of death, conscience, and the power of resolute choice explain the phenomena of man's position in daily life and history.

Undernet "networking" An {Internet Relay Chat} network dating from the 1990s, when it broke away from the main (still larger) IRC network, {EFNet}. {(}. {The History of the Undernet (}. (1995-11-09)

uniformism ::: n. --> The doctrine of uniformity in the geological history of the earth; -- in part equivalent to uniformitarianism, but also used, more broadly, as opposed to catastrophism.

Unix "operating system" /yoo'niks/ (Or "UNIX", in the authors' words, "A weak pun on Multics") Plural "Unices". An interactive {time-sharing} {operating system} invented in 1969 by {Ken Thompson} after {Bell Labs} left the {Multics} project, originally so he could play games on his scavenged {PDP-7}. {Dennis Ritchie}, the inventor of {C}, is considered a co-author of the system. The turning point in Unix's history came when it was reimplemented almost entirely in C during 1972 - 1974, making it the first {source-portable} OS. Unix subsequently underwent mutations and expansions at the hands of many different people, resulting in a uniquely flexible and {developer}-friendly environment. By 1991, Unix had become the most widely used {multi-user} general-purpose operating system in the world. Many people consider this the most important victory yet of hackerdom over industry opposition (but see {Unix weenie} and {Unix conspiracy} for an opposing point of view). Unix is now offered by many manufacturers and is the subject of an international standardisation effort [called?]. Unix-like operating systems include {AIX}, {A/UX}, {BSD}, {Debian}, {FreeBSD}, {GNU}, {HP-UX}, {Linux}, {NetBSD}, {NEXTSTEP}, {OpenBSD}, {OPENSTEP}, {OSF}, {POSIX}, {RISCiX}, {Solaris}, {SunOS}, {System V}, {Ultrix}, {USG Unix}, {Version 7}, {Xenix}. "Unix" or "UNIX"? Both seem roughly equally popular, perhaps with a historical bias toward the latter. "UNIX" is a registered trademark of {The Open Group}, however, since it is a name and not an acronym, "Unix" has been adopted in this dictionary except where a larger name includes it in upper case. Since the OS is {case-sensitive} and exists in many different versions, it is fitting that its name should reflect this. {The UNIX Reference Desk (}. {Spanish fire extinguisher (}. [{Jargon File}] (2001-05-14)

uredo ::: n. --> One of the stages in the life history of certain rusts (Uredinales), regarded at one time as a distinct genus. It is a summer stage preceding the teleutospore, or winter stage. See Uredinales, in the Supplement.
Nettle rash. See Urticaria.

variant ::: a. --> Varying in from, character, or the like; variable; different; diverse.
Changeable; changing; fickle. ::: n. --> Something which differs in form from another thing, though really the same; as, a variant from a type in natural history; a

VAX "computer" /vaks/ (Virtual Address eXtension) The most successful {minicomputer} design in industry history, possibly excepting its immediate ancestor, the {PDP-11}. Between its release in 1978 and its eclipse by {killer micros} after about 1986, the VAX was probably the {hacker}'s favourite machine, especially after the 1982 release of {4.2BSD} {Unix}. Especially noted for its large, {assembly code}-programmer-friendly {instruction set} - an asset that became a liability after the {RISC} revolution. VAX is also a British brand of {carpet cleaner (} whose advertising slogan, "Nothing sucks like a VAX!" became a battle-cry of RISC partisans. It is even sometimes claimed that DEC actually entered a licencing deal that allowed them to market VAX computers in the UK in return for not challenging the carpet cleaner trademark in the US. The slogan originated in the late 1960s as "Nothing sucks like Electrolux", Electrolux AB being a rival Swedish company. It became a classic textbook example of the perils of not knowing the local idiom, which is ironic because, according to the Electrolux press manager in 1996, the double entendre was intentional. VAX copied the slogan in their promotions in 1986-1987, and it surfaced in New Zealand TV ads as recently as 1992! [{Jargon File}] (2000-09-28)

vertical enlightenment ::: Becoming one with all available structure-stages at any given time in history.

VII. Leonine Restoration (1879). The Encyclical Aeterni Patris of Leo XIII gave this new movement a conscious direction. Since Leo XIII's time to the present day, Catholic Scholars have been active both in the fields of speculation and history. Numerous reviews have been founded and Scholasticism has raised its voice even in the non-sectarian Universities of America. -- W.G.

Vincennes LISP "language" (VLISP) A dialect of {Lisp} resulting from development, starting in 1971, of {Lisp} {interpreters} and {compilers} at the {University of Paris VIII - Vincennes}. VLISP interpreters and compilers were designed to run on small computers. {Documentation (}. {History of Lisp (

Virtual Machine "operating system" (VM) An {IBM} pseudo-{operating system} {hypervisor} running on {IBM 370}, {ESA} and {IBM 390} architecture computers. VM comprises CP ({Control Program}) and CMS ({Conversational Monitor System}) providing Hypervisor and personal computing environments respectively. VM became most used in the early 1980s as a Hypervisor for multiple {DOS/VS} and {DOS/VSE} systems and as IBM's internal operating system of choice. It declined rapidly following widespread adoption of the {IBM PC} and hardware partitioning in {microcode} on IBM {mainframes} after the {IBM 3090}. VM has been known as VM/SP (System Product, the successor to {CP/67}), VM/XA, and currently as VM/ESA (Enterprise Systems Architecture). VM/ESA is still in used in 1999, featuring a {web} interface, {Java}, and {DB2}. It is still a major IBM operating system. {(}. ["History of VM"(?), Melinda Varian, Princeton University]. (1999-10-31)

VI. Second Decline (18-19 cent.). This group and its tendencies were continued by Du Hamel (+1706), Tolomei (+1726), Fortunatus a Brixia (+1754), Steinmeyer (+1797) and Reuss (+1798). Among the conservatives: Louis de Lossada (+1748). In 1773 the Society of Jesus was suppressed. This disaster completed the downfall of Scholasticism. Not until its restoration in 1814 did the Church's traditional philosophy revive. Prominent in preparing for this second renaissance was the Jesuit-trained Vincent Bruzzetti (+1824). Others: Taparelli (+1862), Liberatore (+1872), Sanseverino (+1865), Kleutgen (+1883), Zigliara (+1893) and Gonzalez (+1895). For the first time in the modern period, history began to play an important part in Scholasticism. Karl Werner (+1888) and Al. Stoeckl (1895) were the first figures in this movement.

VisiCalc "application, tool, business, history" /vi'zi-calk/ The first {spreadsheet} program, conceived in 1978 by {Dan Bricklin}, while he was an MBA student at Harvard Business School. Inspired by a demonstration given by {Douglas Engelbart} of a {point-and-click} {user interface}, Bricklin set out to design an {application} that would combine the intuitiveness of pencil and paper calculations with the power of a {programmable pocket calculator}. Bricklin's design was based on the (paper) financial spreadsheet, a kind of document already used in business planning. (Some of Bricklin's notes for VisiCalc were scribbled on the back of a spreadsheet pad.) VisiCalc was probably not the first application to use a spreadsheet model, but it did have a number of original features, all of which continue to be fundamental to spreadsheet software. These include {point-and-type} editing, {range} {replication} and formulas that update automatically with changes to other {cells}. VisiCalc is widely credited with creating the sudden demand for desktop computers that helped fuel the {microcomputer} boom of the early 1980s. Thousands of business people with little or no technical expertise found that they could use VisiCalc to create sophisticated financial programs. This makes VisiCalc one of the first {killer apps}. {Dan Bricklin's Site (}. (2003-07-05)

Visual BASIC "language" (VB) A popular {event-driven} {visual programming} system from {Microsoft Corporation} for {Microsoft Windows}. VB is good for developing Windows interfaces, it invokes fragments of {BASIC} code when the user performs certain operations on graphical objects on-screen. It is widely used for in-house {application program} development and for prototyping. It can also be used to create {ActiveX} and {COM} components. Version 1 was released in 1991 [by Microsoft?]. {(}. {History (}. {Strollo Software (}. {Books (}. (1999-11-26)

volcanist ::: n. --> One versed in the history and phenomena of volcanoes.
One who believes in the igneous, as opposed to the aqueous, origin of the rocks of the earth&

wasteland ::: something, as a period of history, phase of existence, or locality, that is spiritually or intellectually barren.

Wesen: (Ger. being, essence, nature) Designates essential being without which a thing has no reality. It has been conceived variously in the history of philosophy, as Ousia or constant being by Aristotle; as essenitia, real or nominal, or species, by the Schoolmen; as principle of all that which belongs to the possibility of a thing, by Kant; generally as that which is unconditionally necessary in the concept of a thing or is not dependent on external, causal, temporal or special circumstances. Its contrast is that which is unwesentlich (defined by Schuppe as that which has relation to or for something else), accidental, contingent. -- K.F.L.

While not abandoning its interest in beauty, artistic value, and other normative concepts, recent aesthetics has tended to lay increasing emphasis on a descriptive, factual approach to the phenomena of art and aesthetic experience. It differs from art history, archeology, and cultural history in stressing a theoretical organization of materials in terms of recurrent types and tendencies, rather than a chronological or genetic one. It differs from general psychology in focusing upon certain selected phases in psycho-physical activity, and on their application to certain types of objects and situations, especially those of art. It investigates the forms and characteristics of art, which psychology does not do. It differs from art criticism in seeking a more general, theoretical understanding of the arts than is usual in that subject, and in attempting a more consistently objective, impersonal attitude. It maintains a philosophic breadth, in comparing examples of all the arts, and in assembling data and hypotheses from many sources, including philosophy, psychology, cultural history, and the social sciences. But it is departing from traditional conceptions of philosophy in that writing labelled "aesthetics" now often includes much detailed, empirical study of particular phenomena, instead of restricting itself as formerly to abstract discussion of the meaning of beauty, the sublime, and other categories, their objective or subjective nature, their relation to pleasure and moral goodness, the purpose of art, the nature of aesthetic value, etc. There has been controversy over whether such empirical studies deserve to be called "aesthetics", or whether that name should be reserved for the traditional, dialectic or speculative approach; but usage favors the extension in cases where the inquiry aims at fairly broad generalizations.

William Hamilton "person" A mathematician who posed {Hamilton's problem}. {Biography (

Windelband, Wilhelm: Wmdelband (1848-1915) was preeminently an outstanding historian of philosophy. He has nowhere given a systematic presentation of his own views, but has expressed them only in unconnected essays and discourses. But in these he made some suggestions of great import on account of which he has been termed the founder and head of the "South-Western German School." He felt that he belonged to the tradition of German Idealism without definitely styling himself a Neo-Kantian, Neo-Fichtean or Neo-Hegelian. His fundamental position is that whereas it is for science to determine facts, it is for philosophy to determine values. Facts may be gathered from experience, but values, i.e., what "ought" to be thought, felt and done, cannot and hence must in some sense be a priori. Of particular significance was his effort -- later worked out by H. Rickert -- to point out a fundamental distinction between natural and historical science: the former aims at establishing general laws and considers particular facts only insofar as they are like others. In contrast to this "nomothetic" type of science, history is "idiographic", i.e., it is interested in the particular as such, but, of course, not equally in all particulars, but in such only as have some significance from the point of view of value. -- H.G.

With reference to the approach to the central reality of religion, God, and man's relation to it, types of the Philosophy of Religion may be distinguished, leaving out of account negative (atheism), skeptical and cynical (Xenophanes, Socrates, Voltaire), and agnostic views, although insertions by them are not to be separated from the history of religious consciousness. Fundamentalism, mainly a theological and often a Church phenomenon of a revivalist nature, philosophizes on the basis of unquestioning faith, seeking to buttress it by logical argument, usually taking the form of proofs of the existence of God (see God). Here belong all historic religions, Christianity in its two principal forms, Catholicism with its Scholastic philosophy and Protestantism with its greatly diversified philosophies, the numerous religions of Hinduism, such as Brahmanism, Shivaism and Vishnuism, the religion of Judaism, and Mohammedanism. Mysticism, tolerated by Church and philosophy, is less concerned with proof than with description and personal experience, revealing much of the psychological factors involved in belief and speculation. Indian philosophy is saturated with mysticism since its inception, Sufism is the outstanding form of Arab mysticism, while the greatest mystics in the West are Plotinus, Meister Eckhart, Tauler, Ruysbroek, Thomas a Kempis, and Jacob Bohme. Metaphysics incorporates religious concepts as thought necessities. Few philosophers have been able to avoid the concept of God in their ontology, or any reference to the relation of God to man in their ethics. So, e.g., Plato, Spinoza, Leibniz, Schelling, and especially Hegel who made the investigation of the process of the Absolute the essence of the Philosophy of Religion.

Wu shih: The Five Origins of Order in the medievil Confucian interpretation of history, namely, the beginning of Heaven is rectified by the depth of the Prime; the government of the empire is rectified by the beginning of Heaven; the position of the princes is rectified by the government of the empire; and the order of the state is rectified by the position of the princes. (Tung Chung shu, 177-104 B.C.). -- W.T.C.

zoophytology ::: n. --> The natural history zoophytes.

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   1 Jack Kerouac
   1 G. W. F. Hegel
   1 Giordano Bruno
   1 Étienne Gilson
   1 Emilia Fox
   1 Eliphas Levi
   1 C S Lewis
   1 Carl Jung
   1 Buckminster Fuller
   1 Bill Hicks
   1 Augustus De Morgan
   1 Attack On Titan
   1 Anthony Robbins
   1 Allen Ginsberg
   1 Albert Camus
   1 Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj
   1 Rudolf Steiner
   1 Confucius
   1 A E van Vogt


   31 Hourly History
   17 Anonymous
   15 Voltaire
   15 Ralph Waldo Emerson
   14 Will Durant
   13 Thomas Carlyle
   13 Karl Marx
   9 George W Bush
   8 Oscar Wilde
   8 Napoleon Bonaparte
   7 Adolf Hitler
   6 Terence McKenna
   6 Napol on Bonaparte
   6 Leo Tolstoy
   6 James Joyce
   5 Toba Beta
   5 Susan Sontag
   5 Stephen King
   5 Novalis
   5 Mark Twain

1:For most of history, Anonymous was a woman. ~ Virginia Woolf,
2:Live out of your imagination, not your history. ~ Stephen Covey,
3:The one duty we owe to history is to rewrite it.
   ~ Oscar Wilde,
4:History of the world is but the biography of great men.
   ~ Thomas Carlyle,
5:I like the dreams of the future better than the history of the past. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
6:Human history can be viewed as a slowly dawning awareness that we are members of a larger group. ~ Carl Sagan,
7:Yesterday is history, tomorrow is mystery, today is God's gift, that why we call it the present." ~ Joan Rivers,
8:Mikasa Ackerman. A master of all subjects and widely considered one of the best in our history.
   ~ Attack On Titan,
9:The history of the world is none other than the progress of the consciousness of freedom.
   ~ Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
10:Wherever the poetry of myth is interpreted as biography, history, or science, it is killed. ~ Joseph Campbell, The Hero with A Thousand Faces,
11:We humans appear on the cosmic calendar so recently that our recorded history occupies only the last few seconds of the last minute of December 31st. ~ Carl Sagan,
12:It is the soul within us that decides, that makes our history, that determines Fate. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Bande Mataram - II, The 7th of August,
13:As the essence of Matter is Gravity, so, on the other hand, we may affirm that the substance, the essence of Spirit is Freedom
   ~ Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, The Philosophy of History,
14:Constituting does not mean producing in the sense of making and fabricating; it means letting the entity be seen in its objectivity. ~ Martin Heidegger, History of the Concept of Time, 76,
15:Philosophy is free thought applied to the conditions of possibility of politics and history, as we have known it since Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Ethics and Politics. ~ Paul Ricoeur,
16:Now, if you don't like that, Berrigan, that's the history of my family. They don't take no shit from nobody. In due time I ain't going to take no shit from nobody. You can record that. ~ Jack Kerouac,
17:The history of the cycles of man is a progress towards the unveiling of the Godhead in the soul and life of humanity. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Essays on the Gita, The Theory of the Vibhuti,
18:Philosophy properly speaking begins in the ninth century with John Scottus Erigena. ~ G. W. F. Hegel, Lectures on the History of Philosophy: The Lectures of 1825-1826. Volume III: Medieval and Modern Philosophy,
19:It is certain that whoever could write the history of his own life from its very ground, would have thereby grasped in a brief conspectus the entire history of the universe. ~ Schelling, Ages of the World (1811),
20:Since the beginning of earth history, Sri Aurobindo has always presided over the great earthly transformations, under one form or another, one name or another.
   ~ The Mother, Words Of The Mother I,
21:If someone wants to study the deeds of our ancestors and imitate the best of them, he can find a single psalm that contains the whole of their history, a complete treasury of past memories in just one short reading. ~ Saint Ambrose,
22:Remember two inevitable tendencies in history: one, that no system, however perfect, however glorious, however far reaching, can go on for 2000 years (or 200 for that matter) without enormous changes being made in it simply by time;
23:The history of the living world can be summarised as the elaboration of ever more perfect eyes within a cosmos in which there is always something more to be seen. ~ Pierre Teilhard de Chardin,
24:The superior man does not set his mind either for or against anything." ~ Confucius, (551-479) a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history, Wikipedia.,
25:It is simply wrong to say without further ado that metaphysics is essentially limited to the knowledge of being and that it must go beyond that to reach being. Philosophy invents itself; the history of philosophy informs." ~ Étienne Gilson,
26:Psychotherapy is what God has been secretly doing for centuries by other names; that is, he searches through our personal history and heals what needs to be healed - the wounds of childhood or our own self-inflicted wounds. ~ Thomas Keating,
27:I never feel lonely if Ive got a book - theyre like old friends. Even if youre not reading them over and over again, you know they are there. And theyre part of your history. They sort of tell a story about your journey through life
   ~ Emilia Fox,
28:Always go too far because that is where you will find the truth." ~ Albert Camus, (1913 - 1960) French philosopher, author, and journalist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature at the age of 44 in 1957, the second youngest recipient in history, Wikipedia.,
29:And out of that hopeless attempt has come nearly all that we call human history-money, poverty, ambition, war, prostitution, classes, empires, slavery-the long terrible story of man trying to find something other than God which will make him happy.
   ~ C S Lewis,
30:Einstein's use of the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass to derive his principle of equivalence, and eventually all of general relativity, amounts to a relentless march of logical reasoning unmatched in the history of human thought. ~ Stephen Hawkings,
31:God is the Being in Whom being anything means being everything." ~ Parmenides, (late sixth or early fifth century BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek, considered the founder of metaphysics or ontology and has influenced the whole history of Western philosophy, Wikipedia.,
32:To live is to suffer, to survive is to find some meaning in the suffering." ~ Friedrich Nietzsche, (1844 - 1900) German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history, Wikipedia.,
33:To be prepared against surprise is to be trained. To be prepared for surprise is to be educated." ~ James P. Carse, Professor Emeritus of history and literature of religion at New York University. His book "Finite and Infinite Games", (1986), was widely influential, Wikipedia,
34:Someday, after mastering the winds, the waves, the tides and gravity, we shall harness for God the energies of love, and then, for a second time in the history of the world, man will have discovered fire.
   ~ Pierre Teilhard de Chardin,
35:When a Nietzsche, a Dostoyevsky, a Kierkegaard uncovers a human universe for us, when the material universe displays [before us] the depths of the history of the earth or spaces between the stars, theological thought is obliged to broaden itself to their measure. ~ Jean Danielou,
36:And so all that the Son of God did and taught for the world's reconciliation is not for us simply a matter of past history. Here and now we experience his power at work among us. Born of a virgin mother by the action of the Holy Spirit, Christ keeps his Church spotless. ~ Saint Leo,
37:History instructs us, the law teaches, prophecy foretells, correction punishes, morality persuades; but the book of psalms goes further. It is medicine for our spiritual health. Whoever reads it will find in it a medicine to cure the wounds caused by his own passions. ~ Saint Ambrose,
38:I believe that imagination is stronger than knowledge. That myth is more potent than history. That dreams are more powerful than facts. That hope always triumphs over experience. That laughter is the only cure for grief. And I believe that love is stronger than death. ~ Robert Fulghum,
39:In the region of politics faith is the result of imagination working in the light of history; it takes its stand on reason and experience and aspires into the future from the firm ground of the past. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Bande Mataram - I, The Leverage of Faith,
40:The essence of slavery is to imagine yourself to be a process, to have past and future, to have history. In fact, we have no history, we are not a process, we do not develop, nor decay; also see all as a dream and stay out of it. ~ Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj,
41:Sri Aurobindo does not belong to the past nor to history.
   Sri Aurobindo is the Future advancing towards its realisation.
   Thus we must shelter the eternal youth required for a speedy advance, in order not to become laggards on the way. 2 April 1967
   ~ The Mother, On Education, 210,
42:The cosmic calendar compresses the local history of the universe into a single year. If the universe began on January 1st it was not until May that the Milky Way formed. Other planetary systems may have appeared in June, July and August, but our Sun and Earth not until mid-September. Life arose soon after. ~ Carl Sagan,
43:Is it necessary to write out the geography and history lessons? I can study them by reading.
   One learns things better if one writes them.
   My hand often gets tired while writing.
   You can simply rest a minute or two and then continue.
   18 October 1936 ~ The Mother, More Answers From The Mother,
44:Those who pursue attentively their contemplation have no sorrow to fear, nor can any vicissitude of Fate affect them . They contemplate this history written in ourselves to guide us in the execution of the divine laws which, equally, are engraved in our hearts. ~ Giordano Bruno, the Eternal Wisdom
45:In ancient times, anterior to our history, the temples of the spirit were also outwardly visible; today, because our life has become so unspiritual, they are not to be found in the world visible to external sight; yet they are present spiritually everywhere, and all who seek may find them. ~ Rudolf Steiner,
46:There is, however, one form of miracle which certainly happens, the influence of the genius. There is no known analogy in Nature. One cannot even think of a super-dog transforming the world of dogs, whereas in the history of mankind this happens with regularity and frequency.
   ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA,
47:The remainder of the long story of Kamar al-Zaman is a history of the slow yet wonderful operation of a destiny that has been summoned into life. Not everyone has a destiny: only the hero who has plunged to touch it, and has come up again-with a ring. ~ Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, The Crossing of the Return Threshold,
48:The complete attempt to deal with the term is would go to the form and matter of every thing in existence, at least, if not to the possible form and matter of all that does not exist, but might. As far as it could be done, it would give the grand Cyclopaedia, and its yearly supplement would be the history of the human race for the time. (354) ~ Augustus De Morgan,
49:The sky calls to us. If we do not destroy ourselves, we will one day venture to the stars.
   Here we face a critical branch point in history, what we do with our world, right now, will propagate down through the centuries and powerfully affect the destiny of our descendants.
   In the vastness of the Cosmos there must be other civilizations far older and more advanced than ours. ~ Carl Sagan,
50:The crisis we are experiencing is unique in history. It is a world which must burst out of a crucible in which so many different energies are working. Let us thank God that He makes us live among the present problems... it is no longer permitted to anyone to be mediocre. All men have the imperative duty to remember that they have a mission to fulfill, that of doing the impossible. ~ Pope Pius XII,
51:History does not record anywhere at any time a religion that has any rational basis. Religion is a crutch for people not strong enough to stand up to the unknown without help. But, like dandruff, most people do have a religion and spend time and money on it and seem to derive considerable pleasure from fiddling with it.
   ~ Robert Heinlein, Notebooks of Lazarus Long, from Time Enough for Love (1973).,
52:God made Himself totally a man but a man to the point of infamy, a man to the point of reprobation and the abyss. To save us, He could have chosen *any* of the destinies which make up the complex web of history; He could have been Alexander or Pythagoras or Rurik or Jesus; He chose the vilest destiny of all: He was Judas.~ Jorge Luis Borges, Labyrinths, Selected Stories and Other Writings,
53:It is from numberless diverse acts of courage and belief that human history is shaped. Each time a man stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope, and crossing each other from a million different centers of energy and daring those ripples build a current which can sweep down the mightiest walls of oppression and resistance. ~ Robert F. Kennedy,
54:The primordial image, or archetype, is a figure--be it a daemon, a human being, or a process--that constantly recurs in the course of history and appears wherever creative fantasy is freely expressed. Essentially, therefore, it is a mythological figure. In each of these images there is a little piece of human psychology and human fate, a remnant of the joys and sorrows that have been repeated countless times in our ancestral history. ~ Carl Jung,
55:You assume far too readily that man is a paragon of justice, forgetting, apparently, that he has a long and savage history. He has killed other animals not only for meat but for pleasure; he has enslaved his neighbors, murdered his opponents, and obtained the most unholy sadistical joy from the agony of others. It is not impossible that we shall, in the course of our travels, meet other intelligent creatures far more worthy than man to rule the universe. ~ A E van Vogt,
56:Paul Brunton in his book A Search in Secret Egypt repeatedly speaks of Atlantis. I always thought that belief in Atlantis was only an imagination of the Theosophists. Is there any truth in the belief?

Atlantis is not an imagination. Plato heard of this submerged continent from Egyptian sources and geologists are also agreed that such a submersion was one of the great facts of earth history. 22 June 1936 ~ Sri Aurobindo, Letters On Poetry And Art,
57:Why does an apple fall when it is ripe? Is it brought down by the force of gravity? Is it because its stalk withers? Because it is dried by the sun, because it grows too heavy, or because the boy standing under the tree wants to eat it? None of these is the cause.... Every action of theirs, that seems to them an act of their own freewill is in the historical sense not free at all but is bound up with the whole course of history and preordained from all eternity.
   ~ Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace,
58:Though collecting quotations could be considered as merely an ironic mimetism -- victimless collecting, as it were... in a world that is well on its way to becoming one vast quarry, the collector becomes someone engaged in a pious work of salvage. The course of modern history having already sapped the traditions and shattered the living wholes in which precious objects once found their place, the collector may now in good conscience go about excavating the choicer, more emblematic fragments. ~ Susan Sontag,
59:The most preposterous notion that H. Sapiens has ever dreamed up is that the Lord God of Creation, Shaper and Ruler of all the Universes, wants the saccharine adoration of His creatures, can be swayed by their prayers, and becomes petulant if He does not receive this flattery. Yet this absurd fantasy, without a shred of evidence to bolster it, pays all the expenses of the oldest, largest, and least productive industry in all of history.
   ~ Robert Heinlein, Notebooks Of Lazarus Long, from Time Enough for Love (1973).,
60:So the call of the Nondual traditions is: Abide as Emptiness, embrace all Form. The liberation is in the Emptiness, never in the Form, but Emptiness embraces all forms as a mirror all its objects. So the Forms continue to arise, and, as the sound of one hand clapping, you are all those Forms. You are the display. You and the universe are One Taste. Your Original Face is the purest Emptiness, and therefore every time you look in the mirror, you see only the entire Kosmos. ~ Ken Wilber, A Brief History of Everything, p. 240,
61:I AM NOW CLOSE TO 88 and I am confident that the only thing important about me is that I am an average healthy human. I am also a living case history of a thoroughly documented, half-century, search-and-research project designed to discover what, if anything, an unknown, moneyless individual, with a dependent wife and newborn child, might be able to do effectively on behalf of all humanity that could not be accomplished by great nations, great religions or private enterprise, no matter how rich or powerfully armed. ~ Buckminster Fuller, 1983,
62:What is history? What is its significance for humanity? Dr. J. H. Robinson gives us a precise answer: "Man's abject dependence on the past gives rise to the continuity of history. Our convictions, opinions, prejudices, intellectual tastes; our knowledge, our methods of learning and of applying for information we owe, with slight exceptions, to the past-often to the remote past. History is an expansion of memory, and like memory it alone can explain the present and in this lies its most unmistakable value. ~ Alfred Korzybski, Manhood of Humanity,
63:Tennyson said that if we could understand a single flower we would know who we are and what the world is. Perhaps he meant that there is no deed, however so humble, which does not implicate universal history and the infinite concatenation of causes and effects. Perhaps he meant that the visible world is implicit, in its entirety, in each manifestation, just as, in the same way, will, according to Schopenhauer, is implicit, in its entirety, in each individual.~ Jorge Luis Borges, Labyrinths, Selected Stories and Other Writings,
64:I was told when I grew up I could be anything I wanted: a fireman, a policeman, a doctor - even President, it seemed. And for the first time in the history of mankind, something new, called an astronaut. But like so many kids brought up on a steady diet of Westerns, I always wanted to be the avenging cowboy hero - that lone voice in the wilderness, fighting corruption and evil wherever I found it, and standing for freedom, truth and justice. And in my heart of hearts I still track the remnants of that dream wherever I go, in my endless ride into the setting sun. ~ Bill Hicks,
65:Today's news consists of aggregates of fragments. Anyone who has taken part in any event that has subsequently appeared in the news is aware of the gross disparity between the actual and the reported events. We also learn frequently of prefabricated and prevaricated evens of a complex nature purportedly undertaken for the purposes wither of suppressing or rigging the news, which in turn perverts humanity's tactical information resources. All history becomes suspect. Probably our most polluted resource is the tactical information to which humanity spontaneously reflexes. ~ R Buckminster Fuller,
66:There in the Heart, where the couple finally unite, the entire game is undone, the nightmare of evolution, and you are exactly where you were prior to the beginning of the whole show. With a sudden shock of the entirely obvious, you recognize your own Original Face, the face you had prior to the Big Bang, the face of utter Emptiness that smiles as all creation and sings as the entire Kosmos - and it is all undone in that primal glance, and all that is left is the smile, and the reflection of the moon on a quiet pond, late on a crystal clear night. ~ Ken Wilber, A Brief History of Everything, p. 43,
67:Man came silently into the world. As a matter of fact he trod so softly that, when we first catch sight of him as revealed by those indestructible stone instruments, we find him sprawling all over the old world from the Cape of Good Hope to Peking. Without doubt he already speaks and lives in groups ; he already makes fire. After all, this is surely what we ought to expect. As we know, each time a new living form rises up before us out of the depths of history, it is always complete and already legion. ~ Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, The Phenomenon Of Man, The Birth of Thought, 186,
68:This light of history is pitiless; it has a strange and divine quality that, luminous as it is, and precisely because it is luminous, often casts a shadow just where we saw a radiance; out of the same man it makes two different phantoms, and the one attacks and punishes the other, the darkness of the despot struggles with the splendor of the captain. Hence a truer measure in the final judgment of the nations. Babylon violated diminishes Alexander; Rome enslaved diminishes Caesar; massacred Jerusalem diminishes Titus. Tyranny follows the tyrant. Woe to the man who leaves behind a shadow that bears his form. ~ Vicktor Hugo,
69:Creative artists … are mankind's wakeners to recollection: summoners of our outward mind to conscious contact with ourselves, not as participants in this or that morsel of history, but as spirit, in the consciousness of being. Their task, therefore, is to communicate directly from one inward world to another, in such a way that an actual shock of experience will have been rendered: not a mere statement for the information or persuasion of a brain, but an effective communication across the void of space and time from one center of consciousness to another. ~ Joseph Campbell, The Masks of God, Volume IV: Creative Mythology,
70:The other day I happened to be reading a careful, interesting account of the state of British higher education. The government is a kind of market-oriented government and they came out with an official paper, a 'White Paper' saying that it is not the responsibility of the state to support any institution that can't survive in the market. So, if Oxford is teaching philosophy, the arts, Greek history, medieval history, and so on, and they can't sell it on the market, why should they be supported? Because life consists only of what you can sell in the market and get back, nothing else. That is a real pathology. ~ Noam Chomsky,
71:The science of government it is my duty to study, more than all other sciences; the arts of legislation and administration and negotiation ought to take the place of, indeed exclude, in a manner, all other arts. I must study politics and war, that our sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy. Our sons ought to study mathematics and philosophy, geography, natural history and naval architecture, navigation, commerce and agriculture in order to give their children a right to study painting, poetry, music, architecture, statuary, tapestry and porcelain. ~ John Adams, Letters of John Adams, Addressed to His Wife,
72:For, as I take it, Universal History, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the great Men who have worked here. They were the leaders of men, these great ones; the modellers, patterns, and in a wide sense creators, of whatsoever the general mass of men contrived to do or attain; all things that we see standing accomplished in the world are properly the outer material result, the practical realisation and embodiment, of Thoughts that dwelt in the great Men sent into the world: the soul of the world's history, it may justly be considered, were the history of these.
   ~ Thomas Carlyle, 1966, p. 1,
73:Magic never in its wildest dreams thought that it would be trumped by mythic. And the mythic gods and goddesses never imagined that reason could and would destroy them. And here we sit, in our rational worldview, all smug and confident that nothing higher will sweep out of the heavens and completely explode our solid perceptions, undoing our very foundations. And yet surely, the transrational lies in wait. It is just around the corner, this new dawn. Every stage transcends and includes, and thus inescapably, unavoidably it seems, the sun will rise on a world tomorrow that in many ways transcends reason. ~ Ken Wilber, A Brief History of Everything,
74:Drugs have a long history of use in magic in various cultures, and usually in the context of either ecstatic communal rituals or in personal vision quests. However compared to people in simple pastoral tribal situations most people in developed countries now live in a perpetual state of mental hyperactivity with overactive imaginations anyway, so throwing drugs in on top of this usually just leads to confusion and a further loss of focus. Plus as the real Shamans say, if you really do succeed in opening a door with a drug it will thereafter open at will and most such substances give all they will ever give on the first attempt.
   ~ Peter J Carroll, The Octavo,
75:Jordan Peterson's Book List
1. Brave New World - Aldous Huxley
2. 1984 - George Orwell
3. Road To Wigan Pier - George Orwell
4. Crime And Punishment - Fyodor Dostoevsky
5. Demons - Fyodor Dostoevsky
6. Beyond Good And Evil - Friedrich Nietzsche
7. Ordinary Men - Christopher Browning
8. The Painted Bird - Jerzy Kosinski
9. The Rape of Nanking - Iris Chang
10. Gulag Archipelago (Vol. 1, Vol. 2, & Vol. 3) - Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
11. Man's Search for Meaning - Viktor Frankl
12. Modern Man in Search of A Soul - Carl Jung
13. Maps Of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief - Jordan B. Peterson
14. A History of Religious Ideas (Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3) - Mircea Eliade
15. Affective Neuroscience - Jaak Panksepp ~ Jordan Peterson,
76:Certainly we have had our Napoleons and our Hitlers, but we have also had Jesus and Buddha. We have had tyrants, but also great humanitarians. We have had corrupt politicians, but also noble rulers. Even in the most selfish of times, the world has brought forth idealists, philanthropists, great artists, musicians, and poets. If we have inherited ages of feuding and intolerance, we have also inherited the magnificence of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. For each tyrant who has profaned the pages of history, there have been thousands, even millions, of gentle people who have lived unhonored and unknown, keeping principles and living convictions under the most difficult situations. To see this good, and to know it, is to find a new courage and a new faith. ~ Manly P Hall, PRS Journal Summer 1961, p.7,
77:Maybe the evolutionary sequence really is from matter to body to mind to soul to spirit, each transcending and including, each with a greater depth and greater consciousness and wider embrace. And in the highest reaches of evolution, maybe, just maybe, an individual's consciousness does indeed touch infinity - a total embrace of the entire Kosmos - a Kosmic consciousness that is Spirit awakened to its own true nature. It is at least plausible. And tell me: is that story, sung by mystics and sages the world over, any crazier than the scientific materialism story, which is that the entire sequence is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing? Listen very carefully: just which of those two stories actually sounds totally insane? ~ Ken Wilber, A Brief History of Everything, p. 38-39,
78:From this distant vantage point, the Earth might not seem of particular interest. But for us, it's different. Consider again that dot. That's here, that's home, that's us. On it everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives. The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies, and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every mother and father, hopeful child, inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every superstar, every supreme leader, every saint and sinner in the history of our species lived there - on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam. ~ Carl Sagan,
79:Finally, in terms of overall spiritual intelligence-which we have been briefly tracking-on the other side of the leading edge of evolution we have 3 or 4 higher, at this point mostly potential, levels of development, including levels of spiritual intelligence. Individually, their basic strcture-rungs are referred to as para-mind, meta-mind, overmind, and supermind; collectively, they are called 3rd tier. What all 3rd-tier structures have in common is some degree of direct transpersonal identity and experience. Further, each 3rd-tier structure of consciousness is integrated, in some fashion, with a particular state of consciousness (often, para-mental with the gross, meta-mental with subtle, overmind with causal/Witnessing, and supermind with nondual, although this varies with each individual's actual history).
   ~ Ken Wilber?,
   The White Magician uses none of the powers of the animal world in his work, but rather seeks to transmute the poles of the beast within himself into higher and finer qualities. The White Magician labors entirely with the finer forces of the elemental planes. He is a builder--not a destroyer--and seeks to liberate rather than to dominate his fellow creatures. The White Magician has dedicated his soul to the immortal light, while the Black Magician has sold his for mortal glory. The Grimores of the Middle Ages are filled with chants and charms for the invoking of spirits. History is filled with stories of Black Magicians but the true student of occult science must have nothing to do with these things other than to protect himself against them. ~ Manly P Hall, Magic: A Treatise on Natural Occultism, 28,
81:The hero of a David Lodge novel says that you don't know, when you make love for the last time, that you are making love for the last time. Voting is like that. Some of the Germans who voted for the Nazi Party in 1932 no doubt understood that this might be the last meaningfully free election for some time, but most did not. Some of the Czechs and Slovaks who voted for the Czechoslovak Communist Party in 1946 probably realized that they were voting for the end of democracy, but most assumed they would have another chance. No doubt the Russians who voted in 1990 did not think that this would be the last free and fair election in their country's history, which (thus far) it has been. Any election can be the last, or at least the last in the lifetime of the person casting the vote. ~ Timothy Snyder, On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century,
82:There are periods in the history of the world when the unseen Power that guides its destinies seems to be filled with a consuming passion for change and a strong impatience of the old. The Great Mother, the Adya Shakti, has resolved to take the nations into Her hand and shape them anew. These are periods of rapid destruction and energetic creation, filled with the sound of cannon and the trampling of armies, the crash of great downfalls, and the turmoil of swift and violent revolutions; the world is thrown into the smelting pot and comes out in a new shape and with new features. They are periods when the wisdom of the wise is confounded and the prudence of the prudent turned into a laughing-stock.... ~ Sri Aurobindo, in a statement of 16 April 1907, as published in India's Rebirth : A Selection from Sri Aurobindo's Writings, Talks and Speeches 3rd Edition (2000)
83:From these two incontrovertible premises he deduced that the Library is total and that its shelves register all the possible combinations of the twenty-odd orthographical symbols (a number which, though extremely vast, is not infinite): in other words, all that it is given to express, in all languages. Everything: the minutely detailed history of the future, the archangels' autobiographies, the faithful catalogue of the Library, thousands and thousands of false catalogues, the demonstration of the fallacy of those catalogues, the demonstration of the fallacy of the true catalogue, the Gnostic gospel of Basilides, the commentary on that gospel, the commentary on the commentary on that gospel, the true story of your death, the translation of every book in all languages, the interpolations of every book in all books. ~ Jorge Luis Borges, The Library of Babel,
84:He told me that in 1886 he had invented an original system of numbering and that in a very few days he had gone beyond the twenty-four-thousand mark. He had not written it down, since anything he thought of once would never be lost to him. His first stimulus was, I think, his discomfort at the fact that the famous thirty-three gauchos of Uruguayan history should require two signs and two words, in place of a single word and a single sign. He then applied this absurd principle to the other numbers. In place of seven thousand thirteen he would say (for example) Maximo Pérez; in place of seven thousand fourteen, The Railroad; other numbers were Luis Melian Lafinur, Olimar, sulphur, the reins, the whale, the gas, the caldron, Napoleon, Agustin de Vedia. In place of five hundred, he would say nine. Each word had a particular sign, a kind of mark; the last in the series were very complicated...~ Jorge Luis Borges, Labyrinths, Selected Stories and Other Writings,
85:Those worlds in space are as countless as all the grains of sand on all the beaches of the earth. Each of those worlds is as real as ours and every one of them is a succession of incidents, events, occurrences which influence its future. Countless worlds, numberless moments, an immensity of space and time. And our small planet at this moment, here we face a critical branch point in history, what we do with our world, right now, will propagate down through the centuries and powerfully affect the destiny of our descendants, it is well within our power to destroy our civilization and perhaps our species as well. If we capitulate to superstition or greed or stupidity we could plunge our world into a time of darkness deeper than the time between the collapse of classical civilisation and the Italian Renaissance. But we are also capable of using our compassion and our intelligence, our technology and our wealth to make an abundant and meaningful life for every inhabitant of this planet. ~ Carl Sagan,
86:Oi, Pampaw," Diogo said as the door to the public hall slid open. "You hear that Eros started talking?"
Miller lifted himself to one elbow.
"Sí," Diogo said. "Whatever that shit is, it started broadcasting. There's even words and shit. I've got a feed. You want a listen?"
No, Miller thought. No, I have seen those corridors. What's happened to those people almost happened to me. I don't want anything to do with that abomination.
"Sure," he said.
Diogo scooped up his own hand terminal and keyed in something. Miller's terminal chimed that it had received the new feed route. "Chica perdída in ops been mixing a bunch of it to bhangra," Diogo said, making a shifting dance move with his hips. "Hard-core, eh?"
Diogo and the other OPA irregulars had breached a high-value research station, faced down one of the most powerful and evil corporations in a history of power and evil. And now they were making music from the screams of the dying. Of the dead. They were dancing to it in the low-rent clubs. What it must be like, Miller thought, to be young and soulless. ~ James S A Corey, Leviathan Wakes,
87:The key one and threefold, even as universal science. The division of the work is sevenfold, and through these sections are distributed the seven degrees of initiation into is transcendental philosophy.

The text is a mystical commentary on the oracles of Solomon, ^ and the work ends with a series of synoptic schedules which are the synthesis of Magic and the occult Kabalah so far as concerns that which can be made public in writing. The rest, being the esoteric and inexpressible part of the science, is formulated in magnificent pantacles carefully designed and engraved. These are nine in number, as follows

(1) The dogma of Hermes;
(2) Magical realisation;
(3) The path of wisdom and the initial procedure in the work
(4) The Gate of the Sanctuary enlightened by seven mystic rays;
(5) A Rose of Light, in the centre of which a human figure is extending its arms in the form of a cross;
(6) The magical laboratory of Khunrath, demonstrating the necessary union of prayer and work
(7) The absolute synthesis of science;
(8) Universal equilibrium ;
(9) A summary of Khunrath's personal embodying an energetic protest against all his detractors. ~ Eliphas Levi, The History Of Magic,
88:Raise Your Standards
Any time you sincerely want to make a change, the first thing you must do is to raise your standards. When people ask me what really changed my life eight years ago, I tell them that absolutely the most important thing was changing what I demanded of myself. I wrote down all the things I would no longer accept in my life, all the things I would no longer tolerate, and all the things that I aspired to becoming.
Think of the far-reaching consequences set in motion by men and women who raised their standards and acted in accordance with them, deciding they would tolerate no less. History chronicles the inspiring examples of people like Leonardo da Vinci, Abraham Lincoln, Helen Keller, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Rosa Parks, Albeit Einstein, Cesar Chavez, Soichiro Honda, and many others who took the magnificently powerful step of raising their standards. The same power that was available to them is available to you, if you have the courage to claim it. Changing an organization, acompany, a country-or a world-begins with the simple step of changing yourself.


Change Your Limiting Beliefs ~ Anthony Robbins, How to take Immediate Control of Your Mental Emotional Physical and Financial Destiny,
89:The third operation in any magical ceremony is the oath or proclamation. The Magician, armed and ready, stands in the centre of the Circle, and strikes once upon the bell as if to call the attention of the Universe. He then declares who he is, reciting his magical history by the proclamation of the grades which he has attained, giving the signs and words of those grades. He then states the purpose of the ceremony, and proves that it is necessary to perform it and to succeed in its performance. He then takes an oath before the Lord of the Universe (not before the particular Lord whom he is invoking) as if to call Him to witness the act. He swears solemnly that he will perform it-that nothing shall prevent him from performing it-that he will not leave the operation until it is successfully performed-and once again he strikes upon the bell. Yet, having demonstrated himself in that position at once infinitely lofty and infinitely unimportant, the instrument of destiny, he balances this by the Confession, in which there is again an infinite exaltation harmonised with an infinite humility. He admits himself to be a weak human being humbly aspiring to something higher; a creature of circumstance utterly dependent-even for the breath of life-upon a series of fortunate accidents.
   ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA,
90:Part 1 - Departure
1. The Call to Adventure ::: This first stage of the mythological journey-which we have designated the "call to adventure"-signifies that destiny has summoned the hero and transferred his spiritual center of grav­ ity from within the pale of his society to a zone unknown. This fateful region of both treasure and danger may be variously represented: as a distant land, a forest, a kingdom underground, beneath the waves, or above the sky, a secret island, lofty mountaintop, or profound dream state; but it is always a place of strangely fluid and polymorphous beings, unimaginable torments, superhuman deeds, and impossible delight. The hero can go forth of his own volition to accomplish the adventure, as did Theseus when he arrived in his father's city, Athens, and heard the horrible history of the Minotaur; or he may be carried or sent abroad by some benign or malignant agent, as was Odysseus, driven about the Mediterranean by the winds of the angered god, Poseidon. The adventure may begin as a mere blunder, as did that of the princess of the fairy tale; or still again, one may be only casually strolling, when some passing phenomenon catches the wandering eye and lures one away from the frequented paths of man. Examples might be multiplied, ad infinitum, from every corner of the world. ~ Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces,
91:38 - Strange! The Germans have disproved the existence of Christ; yet his crucifixion remains still a greater historic fact than the death of Caesar. - Sri Aurobindo.

To what plane of consciousness did Christ belong?

In the Essays on the Gita Sri Aurobindo mentions the names of three Avatars, and Christ is one of them. An Avatar is an emanation of the Supreme Lord who assumes a human body on earth.

I heard Sri Aurobindo himself say that Christ was an emanation of the Lord's aspect of love.

The death of Caesar marked a decisive change in the history of Rome and the countries dependent on her. It was therefore an important event in the history of Europe.

But the death of Christ was the starting-point of a new stage in the evolution of human civilisation. This is why Sri Aurobindo tells us that the death of Christ was of greater historical significance, that is to say, it has had greater historical consequences than the death of Caesar. The story of Christ, as it has been told, is the concrete and dramatic enactment of the divine sacrifice: the Supreme Lord, who is All-Light, All-Knowledge, All-Power, All-Beauty, All-Love, All-Bliss, accepting to assume human ignorance and suffering in matter, in order to help men to emerge from the falsehood in which they live and because of which they die.

16 June 1960 ~ The Mother, On Thoughts And Aphorisms, volume-10, page no.61-62),
92:The great men of the past have given us glimpses of what is possible in the way of personality, of intellectual understanding, of spiritual achievement, of artistic creation. But these are scarcely more than Pisgah glimpses. We need to explore and map the whole realm of human possibility, as the realm of physical geography has been explored and mapped. How to create new possibilities for ordinary living? What can be done to bring out the latent capacities of the ordinary man and woman for understanding and enjoyment; to teach people the techniques of achieving spiritual experience (after all, one can acquire the technique of dancing or tennis, so why not of mystical ecstasy or spiritual peace?)...
   The zestful but scientific exploration of possibilities and of the techniques for realizing them will make our hopes rational, and will set our ideals within the framework of reality, by showing how much of them are indeed realizable. Already, we can justifiably hold the belief that these lands of possibility exist, and that the present limitations and miserable frustrations of our existence could be in large measure surmounted. We are already justified in the conviction that human life as we know it in history is a wretched makeshift, rooted in ignorance; and that it could be transcended by a state of existence based on the illumination of knowledge and comprehension, just as our modern control of physical nature based on science transcends the tentative fumblings of our ancestors, that were rooted in superstition and professional secrecy. ~ Julian Huxley, Transhumanism,
93:Supermind, on the other hand, as a basic structure-rung (conjoined with nondual Suchness) can only be experienced once all the previous junior levels have emerged and developed, and as in all structure development, stages cannot be skipped. Therefore, unlike Big Mind, supermind can only be experienced after all 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-tier junior stages have been passed through. While, as Genpo Roshi has abundantly demonstrated, Big Mind state experience is available to virtually anybody at almost any age (and will be interpreted according to the View of their current stage), supermind is an extremely rare recognition. Supermind, as the highest structure-rung to date, has access to all previous structures, all the way back to Archaic-and the Archaic itself, of course, has transcended and included, and now embraces, every major structural evolution going all the way back to the Big Bang. (A human being literally enfolds and embraces all the major transformative unfoldings of the entire Kosmic history-strings to quarks to subatomic particles to atoms to molecules to cells, all the way through the Tree of Life up to its latest evolutionary emergent, the triune brain, the most complex structure in the known natural world.) Supermind, in any given individual, is experienced as a type of omniscience-the supermind, since it transcends and includes all of the previous structure-rungs, and inherently is conjoined with the highest nondual Suchness state, has a full and complete knowledge of all of the potentials in that person. It literally knows all, at least for the individual.
   ~ Ken Wilber?,
94:The whole history of mankind and especially the present condition of the world unite in showing that far from being merely hypothetical, the case supposed has always been actual and is actual to-day on a vaster scale than ever before. My contention is that while progress in some of the great matters of human concern has been long proceeding in accordance with the law of a rapidly increasing geometric progression, progress in the other matters of no less importance has advanced only at the rate of an arithmetical progression or at best at the rate of some geometric progression of relatively slow growth. To see it and to understand it we have to pay the small price of a little observation and a little meditation.
   Some technological invention is made, like that of a steam engine or a printing press, for example; or some discovery of scientific method, like that of analytical geometry or the infinitesimal calculus; or some discovery of natural law, like that of falling bodies or the Newtonian law of gravitation. What happens? What is the effect upon the progress of knowledge and invention? The effect is stimulation. Each invention leads to new inventions and each discovery to new discoveries; invention breeds invention, science begets science, the children of knowledge produce their kind in larger and larger families; the process goes on from decade to decade, from generation to generation, and the spectacle we behold is that of advancement in scientific knowledge and technological power according to the law and rate of a rapidly increasing geometric progression or logarithmic function. ~ Alfred Korzybski, Manhood of Humanity,
95:39 - Sometimes one is led to think that only those things really matter which have never happened; for beside them most historic achievements seem almost pale and ineffective. - Sri Aurobindo

I would like to have an explanation of this aphorism.

Sri Aurobindo, who had made a thorough study of history, knew how uncertain are the data which have been used to write it. Most often the accuracy of the documents is doubtful, and the information they supply is poor, incomplete, trivial and frequently distorted. As a whole, the official version of human history is nothing but a long, almost unbroken record of violent aggressions: wars, revolutions, murders or colonisations. True, some of these aggressions and massacres have been adorned with flattering terms and epithets; they have been called religious wars, holy wars, civilising campaigns; but they nonetheless remain acts of greed or vengeance.

Rarely in history do we find the description of a cultural, artistic or philosophical outflowering.

That is why, as Sri Aurobindo says, all this makes a rather dismal picture without any deep significance. On the other hand, in the legendary accounts of things which may never have existed on earth, of events which have not been declared authentic by "official" knowledge, of wonderful individuals whose existence is doubted by the scholars in their dried-up wisdom, we find the crystallisation of all the hopes and aspirations of man, his love of the marvellous, the heroic and the sublime, the description of everything he would like to be and strives to become.

That, more or less, is what Sri Aurobindo means in his aphorism.
22 June 1960 ~ The Mother, On Thoughts And Aphorisms, volume-10, page no.62),
96:The capacity for visions, when it is sincere and spontaneous, can put you in touch with events which you are not capable of knowing in your outer consciousness.... There is a very interesting fact, it is that somewhere in the terrestrial mind, somewhere in the terrestrial vital, somewhere in the subtle physical, one can find an exact, perfect, automatic recording of everything that happens. It is the most formidable memory one could imagine, which misses nothing, forgets nothing, records all. And if you are able to enter into it, you can go backward, you can go forward, and in all directions, and you will have the "memory" of all things - not only of things of the past, but of things to come. For everything is recorded there.

   In the mental world, for instance, there is a domain of the physical mind which is related to physical things and keeps the memory of physical happenings upon earth. It is as though you were entering into innumerable vaults, one following another indefinitely, and these vaults are filled with small pigeon-holes, one above another, one above another, with tiny doors. Then if you want to know something and if you are conscious, you look, and you see something like a small point - a shining point; you find that this is what you wish to know and you have only to concentrate there and it opens; and when it opens, there is a sort of an unrolling of something like extremely subtle manuscripts, but if your concentration is sufficiently strong you begin to read as though from a book. And you have the whole story in all its details. There are thousands of these little holes, you know; when you go for a walk there, it is as though you were walking in infinity. And in this way you can find the exact facts about whatever you want to know. But I must tell you that what you find is never what has been reported in history - histories are always planned out; I have never come across a single "historical" fact which is like history.
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1950-1951, 109 [T7],
97:There is one point in particular I would like to single out and stress, namely, the notion of evolution. It is common to assume that one of the doctrines of the perennial philosophy... is the idea of involution-evolution. That is, the manifest world was created as a "fall" or "breaking away" from the Absolute (involution), but that all things are now returning to the Absolute (via evolution). In fact, the doctrine of progressive temporal return to Source (evolution) does not appear anywhere, according to scholars as Joseph Campbell, until the axial period (i.e. a mere two thousand years ago). And even then, the idea was somewhat convoluted and backwards. The doctrine of the yugas, for example, sees the world as proceeding through various stages of development, but the direction is backward: yesterday was the Golden Age, and time ever since has been a devolutionary slide downhill, resulting in the present-day Kali-Yuga. Indeed, this notion of a historical fall from Eden was ubiquitous during the axial period; the idea that we are, at this moment, actually evolving toward Spirit was simply not conceived in any sort of influential fashion.

But sometime during the modern era-it is almost impossible to pinpoint exactly-the idea of history as devolution (or a fall from God) was slowly replaced by the idea of history as evolution (or a growth towards God). We see it explicitly in Schelling (1775-1854); Hegel (1770-1831) propounded the doctrine with a genius rarely equaled; Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) made evolution a universal law, and his friend Charles Darwin (1809-1882) applied it to biology. We find it next appearing in Aurobindo (1872-1950), who gave perhaps its most accurate and profound spiritual context, and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) who made it famous in the West.

But here is my point: we might say that the idea of evolution as return-to-Spirit is part of the perennial philosophy, but the idea itself, in any adequate form, is no more than a few hundred years old. It might be 'ancient' as timeless, but it is certainly not ancient as "old."...

This fundamental shift in the sense or form of the perennial philosophy-as represented in, say, Aurobindo, Hegel, Adi Da, Schelling, Teilhard de Chardin, Radhakrishnan, to name a few-I should like to call the "neoperennial philosophy." ~ Ken Wilber, The Eye Of Spirit,
98:The last sentence: " the Truth-Creation the law is that of a constant unfolding without any Pralaya." What is this constant unfolding?

The Truth-Creation... it is the last line? (Mother consults the book) I think we have already spoken about this several times. It has been said that in the process of creation, there is the movement of creation followed by a movement of preservation and ending in a movement of disintegration or destruction; and even it has been repeated very often: "All that begins must end", etc., etc.

In fact in the history of our universe there have been six consecutive periods which began by a creation, were prolonged by a force of preservation and ended by a disintegration, a destruction, a return to the Origin, which is called Pralaya; and that is why this tradition is there. But it has been said that the seventh creation would be a progressive creation, that is, after the starting-point of the creation, instead of its being simply followed by a preservation, it would be followed by a progressive manifestation which would express the Divine more and more completely, so that no disintegration and return to the Origin would be necessary. And it has been announced that the period we are in is precisely the seventh, that is, it would not end by a Pralaya, a return to the Origin, a destruction, a disappearance, but that it would be replaced by a constant progress, because it would be a more and more perfect unfolding of the divine Origin in its creation.

And this is what Sri Aurobindo says. He speaks of a constant unfolding, that is, the Divine manifests more and more completely; more and more perfectly, in a progressive creation. It is the nature of this progression which makes the return to the Origin, the destruction no longer necessary. All that does not progress disappears, and that is why physical bodies die, it's because they are not progressive; they are progressive up to a certain moment, then there they stop and most often they remain stable for a certain time, and then they begin to decline, and then disappear. It's because the physical body, physical matter as it is at present is not plastic enough to be able to progress constantly. But it is not impossible to make it sufficiently plastic for the perfecting of the physical body to be such that it no longer needs disintegration, that is, death.

Only, this cannot be realised except by the descent of the Supermind which is a force higher than all those which have so far manifested and which will give the body a plasticity that will allow it to progress constantly, that is, to follow the divine movement in its unfolding. ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1955, 207-209,
99:The madman.-
   Have you not heard of that madman who lit a lantern in the bright morning hours, ran to the market place. and cried incessantly: "I seek God! I seek God!" -As many of those who did not believe in God were standing around just then, he provoked much laughter. Has he got lost? asked one. Did he lose his way like a child? asked another. Or is he hiding? Is he afraid of us? Has he gone on a voyage? emigrated? -Thus they yelled and laughed.
   The madman jumped into their midst and pierced them with his eyes. "Whither is God?" he cried; "I will tell you. We have killed him-you and I. All of us are his murderers. But how did we do this? How could we drink up the sea? Who gave us the sponge to wipe away the entire horizon? What were we doing when we unchained this earth from its sun? Whither is it moving now? Whither are we moving? Away from all suns? Are we not plunging continually? Backward, sideward. forward. in all directions? be there still any up or down? Are we not straying as through an infinite nothing? Do we not feel the breath of empty space? Has it not become colder? Is not night continually closing in on us? Do we not need to light lanterns in the morning? Do we hear nothing as yet of the noise of the gravediggers who are burying God? Do we smell nothing as yet of the divine decomposition? Gods, too. decompose. God is dead. God remains dead. And we have killed him.
   "How shall we comfort ourselves, the murderers of all murderers? What was holiest and mightiest of all that the world has yet owned has bled to death under our knives: who will wipe this blood off us? What water is there for us to clean ourselves? What festivals of atonement, what sacred games shall we have to invent? Is not the greatness of this deed too great for us? Must we ourselves not become gods simply to appear worthy of it? There has never been a greater deed; and whoever is born after us-for the sake of this deed he will belong to a higher history than all history hitherto."
   Here the madman fell silent and looked again at his listeners; and they, too, were silent and stared at him in astonishment. At last he threw his lantern on the ground, and it broke into pieces and went out. "I have come too early," he said then: "my time is not yet. This tremendous event is still on its way, still wandering; it has not yet reached the ears of men. Lightning and thunder require time; the light of the stars requires time; deeds, though done, still require time to be seen and heard. This deed is still more distant from them than the most distant stars-and yet they have done it themselves... It has been related further that on the same day the madman forced his way into several churches and there struck up his reqttiem aeternam deo. Led out and called to account, he is said always to have replied nothing but: "What after all are these churches now if they are not the tombs and sepulchers of God? ~ Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science, trans. Kaufmann,
100:Reading list (1972 edition)[edit]
1. Homer - Iliad, Odyssey
2. The Old Testament
3. Aeschylus - Tragedies
4. Sophocles - Tragedies
5. Herodotus - Histories
6. Euripides - Tragedies
7. Thucydides - History of the Peloponnesian War
8. Hippocrates - Medical Writings
9. Aristophanes - Comedies
10. Plato - Dialogues
11. Aristotle - Works
12. Epicurus - Letter to Herodotus; Letter to Menoecus
13. Euclid - Elements
14.Archimedes - Works
15. Apollonius of Perga - Conic Sections
16. Cicero - Works
17. Lucretius - On the Nature of Things
18. Virgil - Works
19. Horace - Works
20. Livy - History of Rome
21. Ovid - Works
22. Plutarch - Parallel Lives; Moralia
23. Tacitus - Histories; Annals; Agricola Germania
24. Nicomachus of Gerasa - Introduction to Arithmetic
25. Epictetus - Discourses; Encheiridion
26. Ptolemy - Almagest
27. Lucian - Works
28. Marcus Aurelius - Meditations
29. Galen - On the Natural Faculties
30. The New Testament
31. Plotinus - The Enneads
32. St. Augustine - On the Teacher; Confessions; City of God; On Christian Doctrine
33. The Song of Roland
34. The Nibelungenlied
35. The Saga of Burnt Njal
36. St. Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica
37. Dante Alighieri - The Divine Comedy;The New Life; On Monarchy
38. Geoffrey Chaucer - Troilus and Criseyde; The Canterbury Tales
39. Leonardo da Vinci - Notebooks
40. Niccolò Machiavelli - The Prince; Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy
41. Desiderius Erasmus - The Praise of Folly
42. Nicolaus Copernicus - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
43. Thomas More - Utopia
44. Martin Luther - Table Talk; Three Treatises
45. François Rabelais - Gargantua and Pantagruel
46. John Calvin - Institutes of the Christian Religion
47. Michel de Montaigne - Essays
48. William Gilbert - On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies
49. Miguel de Cervantes - Don Quixote
50. Edmund Spenser - Prothalamion; The Faerie Queene
51. Francis Bacon - Essays; Advancement of Learning; Novum Organum, New Atlantis
52. William Shakespeare - Poetry and Plays
53. Galileo Galilei - Starry Messenger; Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
54. Johannes Kepler - Epitome of Copernican Astronomy; Concerning the Harmonies of the World
55. William Harvey - On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals; On the Circulation of the Blood; On the Generation of Animals
56. Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan
57. René Descartes - Rules for the Direction of the Mind; Discourse on the Method; Geometry; Meditations on First Philosophy
58. John Milton - Works
59. Molière - Comedies
60. Blaise Pascal - The Provincial Letters; Pensees; Scientific Treatises
61. Christiaan Huygens - Treatise on Light
62. Benedict de Spinoza - Ethics
63. John Locke - Letter Concerning Toleration; Of Civil Government; Essay Concerning Human Understanding;Thoughts Concerning Education
64. Jean Baptiste Racine - Tragedies
65. Isaac Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; Optics
66. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Discourse on Metaphysics; New Essays Concerning Human Understanding;Monadology
67.Daniel Defoe - Robinson Crusoe
68. Jonathan Swift - A Tale of a Tub; Journal to Stella; Gulliver's Travels; A Modest Proposal
69. William Congreve - The Way of the World
70. George Berkeley - Principles of Human Knowledge
71. Alexander Pope - Essay on Criticism; Rape of the Lock; Essay on Man
72. Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu - Persian Letters; Spirit of Laws
73. Voltaire - Letters on the English; Candide; Philosophical Dictionary
74. Henry Fielding - Joseph Andrews; Tom Jones
75. Samuel Johnson - The Vanity of Human Wishes; Dictionary; Rasselas; The Lives of the Poets
   ~ Mortimer J Adler,

PRATYAHARA is the first process in the mental part of our task. The previous practices, Asana, Pranayama, Yama, and Niyama, are all acts of the body, while mantra is connected with speech: Pratyahara is purely mental.

   And what is Pratyahara? This word is used by different authors in different senses. The same word is employed to designate both the practice and the result. It means for our present purpose a process rather strategical than practical; it is introspection, a sort of general examination of the contents of the mind which we wish to control: Asana having been mastered, all immediate exciting causes have been removed, and we are free to think what we are thinking about.

   A very similar experience to that of Asana is in store for us. At first we shall very likely flatter ourselves that our minds are pretty calm; this is a defect of observation. Just as the European standing for the first time on the edge of the desert will see nothing there, while his Arab can tell him the family history of each of the fifty persons in view, because he has learnt how to look, so with practice the thoughts will become more numerous and more insistent.

   As soon as the body was accurately observed it was found to be terribly restless and painful; now that we observe the mind it is seen to be more restless and painful still. (See diagram opposite.)

   A similar curve might be plotted for the real and apparent painfulness of Asana. Conscious of this fact, we begin to try to control it: "Not quite so many thoughts, please!" "Don't think quite so fast, please!" "No more of that kind of thought, please!" It is only then that we discover that what we thought was a school of playful porpoises is really the convolutions of the sea-serpent. The attempt to repress has the effect of exciting.

   When the unsuspecting pupil first approaches his holy but wily Guru, and demands magical powers, that Wise One replies that he will confer them, points out with much caution and secrecy some particular spot on the pupil's body which has never previously attracted his attention, and says: "In order to obtain this magical power which you seek, all that is necessary is to wash seven times in the Ganges during seven days, being particularly careful to avoid thinking of that one spot." Of course the unhappy youth spends a disgusted week in thinking of little else.

   It is positively amazing with what persistence a thought, even a whole train of thoughts, returns again and again to the charge. It becomes a positive nightmare. It is intensely annoying, too, to find that one does not become conscious that one has got on to the forbidden subject until one has gone right through with it. However, one continues day after day investigating thoughts and trying to check them; and sooner or later one proceeds to the next stage, Dharana, the attempt to restrain the mind to a single object.

   Before we go on to this, however, we must consider what is meant by success in Pratyahara. This is a very extensive subject, and different authors take widely divergent views. One writer means an analysis so acute that every thought is resolved into a number of elements (see "The Psychology of Hashish," Section V, in Equinox II).

   Others take the view that success in the practice is something like the experience which Sir Humphrey Davy had as a result of taking nitrous oxide, in which he exclaimed: "The universe is composed exclusively of ideas."

   Others say that it gives Hamlet's feeling: "There's nothing good or bad but thinking makes it so," interpreted as literally as was done by Mrs. Eddy.

   However, the main point is to acquire some sort of inhibitory power over the thoughts. Fortunately there is an unfailing method of acquiring this power. It is given in Liber III. If Sections 1 and 2 are practised (if necessary with the assistance of another person to aid your vigilance) you will soon be able to master the final section. ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA,
102:Coded Language

Whereas, breakbeats have been the missing link connecting the diasporic community to its drum woven past

Whereas the quantised drum has allowed the whirling mathematicians to calculate the ever changing distance between rock and stardom.

Whereas the velocity of the spinning vinyl, cross-faded, spun backwards, and re-released at the same given moment of recorded history , yet at a different moment in time's continuum has allowed history to catch up with the present.

We do hereby declare reality unkempt by the changing standards of dialogue.

Statements, such as, "keep it real", especially when punctuating or anticipating modes of ultra-violence inflicted psychologically or physically or depicting an unchanging rule of events will hence forth be seen as retro-active and not representative of the individually determined is.

Furthermore, as determined by the collective consciousness of this state of being and the lessened distance between thought patterns and their secular manifestations, the role of men as listening receptacles is to be increased by a number no less than 70 percent of the current enlisted as vocal aggressors.

Motherfuckers better realize, now is the time to self-actualize

We have found evidence that hip hops standard 85 rpm when increased by a number as least half the rate of it's standard or decreased at ¾ of it's speed may be a determining factor in heightening consciousness.

Studies show that when a given norm is changed in the face of the unchanging, the remaining contradictions will parallel the truth.

Equate rhyme with reason, Sun with season

Our cyclical relationship to phenomenon has encouraged scholars to erase the centers of periods, thus symbolizing the non-linear character of cause and effect

Reject mediocrity!

Your current frequencies of understanding outweigh that which as been given for you to understand.

The current standard is the equivalent of an adolescent restricted to the diet of an infant.

The rapidly changing body would acquire dysfunctional and deformative symptoms and could not properly mature on a diet of apple sauce and crushed pears

Light years are interchangeable with years of living in darkness.

The role of darkness is not to be seen as, or equated with, Ignorance, but with the unknown, and the mysteries of the unseen.

Thus, in the name of:


We claim the present as the pre-sent, as the hereafter.

We are unraveling our navels so that we may ingest the sun.

We are not afraid of the darkness, we trust that the moon shall guide us.

We are determining the future at this very moment.

We now know that the heart is the philosophers' stone

Our music is our alchemy

We stand as the manifested equivalent of 3 buckets of water and a hand full of minerals, thus realizing that those very buckets turned upside down supply the percussion factor of forever.

If you must count to keep the beat then count.

Find you mantra and awaken your subconscious.

Curve you circles counterclockwise

Use your cipher to decipher, Coded Language, man made laws.

Climb waterfalls and trees, commune with nature, snakes and bees.

Let your children name themselves and claim themselves as the new day for today we are determined to be the channelers of these changing frequencies into songs, paintings, writings, dance, drama, photography, carpentry, crafts, love, and love.

We enlist every instrument: Acoustic, electronic.

Every so-called race, gender, and sexual preference.

Every per-son as beings of sound to acknowledge their responsibility to uplift the consciousness of the entire fucking World.

Any utterance will be un-aimed, will be disclaimed - two rappers slain

Any utterance will be un-aimed, will be disclaimed - two rappers slain
~ Saul Williams,
   The magicians most important invocation is that of his Genius, Daemon, True Will, or Augoeides. This operation is traditionally known as attaining the Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel. It is sometimes known as the Magnum Opus or Great Work.
   The Augoeides may be defined as the most perfect vehicle of Kia on the plane of duality. As the avatar of Kia on earth, the Augoeides represents the true will, the raison detre of the magician, his purpose in existing. The discovery of ones true will or real nature may be difficult and fraught with danger, since a false identification leads to obsession and madness. The operation of obtaining the knowledge and conversation is usually a lengthy one. The magician is attempting a progressive metamorphosis, a complete overhaul of his entire existence. Yet he has to seek the blueprint for his reborn self as he goes along. Life is less the meaningless accident it seems. Kia has incarnated in these particular conditions of duality for some purpose. The inertia of previous existences propels Kia into new forms of manifestation. Each incarnation represents a task, or a puzzle to be solved, on the way to some greater form of completion.
   The key to this puzzle is in the phenomena of the plane of duality in which we find ourselves. We are, as it were, trapped in a labyrinth or maze. The only thing to do is move about and keep a close watch on the way the walls turn. In a completely chaotic universe such as this one, there are no accidents. Everything is signifcant. Move a single grain of sand on a distant shore and the entire future history of the world will eventually be changed. A person doing his true will is assisted by the momentum of the universe and seems possessed of amazing good luck. In beginning the great work of obtaining the knowledge and conversation, the magician vows to interpret every manifestation of existence as a direct message from the infinite Chaos to himself personally.
   To do this is to enter the magical world view in its totality. He takes complete responsibility for his present incarnation and must consider every experience, thing, or piece of information which assails him from any source, as a reflection of the way he is conducting his existence. The idea that things happen to one that may or may not be related to the way one acts is an illusion created by our shallow awareness.
   Keeping a close eye on the walls of the labyrinth, the conditions of his existence, the magician may then begin his invocation. The genius is not something added to oneself. Rather it is a stripping away of excess to reveal the god within.
   Directly on awakening, preferably at dawn, the initiate goes to the place of invocation. Figuring to himself as he goes that being born anew each day brings with it the chance of greater rebirth, first he banishes the temple of his mind by ritual or by some magical trance. Then he unveils some token or symbol or sigil which represents to him the Holy Guardian Angel. This symbol he will likely have to change during the great work as the inspiration begins to move him. Next he invokes an image of the Angel into his minds eye. It may be considered as a luminous duplicate of ones own form standing in front of or behind one, or simply as a ball of brilliant light above ones head. Then he formulates his aspirations in what manner he will, humbling himself in prayer or exalting himself in loud proclamation as his need be. The best form of this invocation is spoken spontaneously from the heart, and if halting at first, will prove itself in time. He is aiming to establish a set of ideas and images which correspond to the nature of his genius, and at the same time receive inspiration from that source. As the magician begins to manifest more of his true will, the Augoeides will reveal images, names, and spiritual principles by which it can be drawn into greater manifestation. Having communicated with the invoked form, the magician should draw it into himself and go forth to live in the way he hath willed.
   The ritual may be concluded with an aspiration to the wisdom of silence by a brief concentration on the sigil of the Augoeides, but never by banishing. Periodically more elaborate forms of ritual, using more powerful forms of gnosis, may be employed. At the end of the day, there should be an accounting and fresh resolution made. Though every day be a catalog of failure, there should be no sense of sin or guilt. Magic is the raising of the whole individual in perfect balance to the power of Infinity, and such feelings are symptomatic of imbalance. If any unnecessary or imbalanced scraps of ego become identified with the genius by mistake, then disaster awaits. The life force flows directly into these complexes and bloats them into grotesque monsters variously known as the demon Choronzon. Some magicians attempting to go too fast with this invocation have failed to banish this demon, and have gone spectacularly insane as a result.
   ~ Peter J Carroll, Liber Null,
104:Death & Fame

When I die

I don't care what happens to my body throw ashes in the air, scatter 'em in East River bury an urn in Elizabeth New Jersey, B'nai Israel Cemetery

But I want a big funeral St. Patrick's Cathedral, St. Mark's Church, the largest synagogue in Manhattan

First, there's family, brother, nephews, spry aged Edith stepmother 96, Aunt Honey from old Newark,

Doctor Joel, cousin Mindy, brother Gene one eyed one ear'd, sister-in-law blonde Connie, five nephews, stepbrothers & sisters their grandchildren, companion Peter Orlovsky, caretakers Rosenthal & Hale, Bill Morgan--

Next, teacher Trungpa Vajracharya's ghost mind, Gelek Rinpoche, there Sakyong Mipham, Dalai Lama alert, chance visiting America, Satchitananda Swami Shivananda, Dehorahava Baba, Karmapa XVI, Dudjom Rinpoche, Katagiri & Suzuki Roshi's phantoms Baker, Whalen, Daido Loorie, Qwong, Frail White-haired Kapleau Roshis, Lama Tarchen --

Then, most important, lovers over half-century Dozens, a hundred, more, older fellows bald & rich young boys met naked recently in bed, crowds surprised to see each other, innumerable, intimate, exchanging memories

"He taught me to meditate, now I'm an old veteran of the thousandday retreat --"

"I played music on subway platforms, I'm straight but loved him he loved me"

"I felt more love from him at 19 than ever from anyone"

"We'd lie under covers gossip, read my poetry, hug & kiss belly to belly arms round each other"

"I'd always get into his bed with underwear on & by morning my skivvies would be on the floor"

"Japanese, always wanted take it up my bum with a master"

"We'd talk all night about Kerouac & Cassady sit Buddhalike then sleep in his captain's bed."

"He seemed to need so much affection, a shame not to make him happy"

"I was lonely never in bed nude with anyone before, he was so gentle my stomach shuddered when he traced his finger along my abdomen nipple to hips-- "

"All I did was lay back eyes closed, he'd bring me to come with mouth & fingers along my waist"

"He gave great head"

So there be gossip from loves of 1948, ghost of Neal Cassady commin-gling with flesh and youthful blood of 1997 and surprise -- "You too? But I thought you were straight!"

"I am but Ginsberg an exception, for some reason he pleased me."

"I forgot whether I was straight gay queer or funny, was myself, tender and affectionate to be kissed on the top of my head, my forehead throat heart & solar plexus, mid-belly. on my prick, tickled with his tongue my behind"

"I loved the way he'd recite 'But at my back allways hear/ time's winged chariot hurrying near,' heads together, eye to eye, on a pillow --"

Among lovers one handsome youth straggling the rear

"I studied his poetry class, 17 year-old kid, ran some errands to his walk-up flat, seduced me didn't want to, made me come, went home, never saw him again never wanted to... "

"He couldn't get it up but loved me," "A clean old man." "He made sure I came first"

This the crowd most surprised proud at ceremonial place of honor--

Then poets & musicians -- college boys' grunge bands -- age-old rock star Beatles, faithful guitar accompanists, gay classical con-ductors, unknown high Jazz music composers, funky trum-peters, bowed bass & french horn black geniuses, folksinger fiddlers with dobro tamborine harmonica mandolin auto-harp pennywhistles & kazoos

Next, artist Italian romantic realists schooled in mystic 60's India, Late fauve Tuscan painter-poets, Classic draftsman Massa-chusets surreal jackanapes with continental wives, poverty sketchbook gesso oil watercolor masters from American provinces

Then highschool teachers, lonely Irish librarians, delicate biblio-philes, sex liberation troops nay armies, ladies of either sex

"I met him dozens of times he never remembered my name I loved him anyway, true artist"

"Nervous breakdown after menopause, his poetry humor saved me from suicide hospitals"

"Charmant, genius with modest manners, washed sink, dishes my studio guest a week in Budapest"

Thousands of readers, "Howl changed my life in Libertyville Illinois"

"I saw him read Montclair State Teachers College decided be a poet-- "

"He turned me on, I started with garage rock sang my songs in Kansas City"

"Kaddish made me weep for myself & father alive in Nevada City"

"Father Death comforted me when my sister died Boston l982"

"I read what he said in a newsmagazine, blew my mind, realized others like me out there"

Deaf & Dumb bards with hand signing quick brilliant gestures

Then Journalists, editors's secretaries, agents, portraitists & photo-graphy aficionados, rock critics, cultured laborors, cultural historians come to witness the historic funeral Super-fans, poetasters, aging Beatnicks & Deadheads, autograph-hunters, distinguished paparazzi, intelligent gawkers

Everyone knew they were part of 'History" except the deceased who never knew exactly what was happening even when I was alive
February 22, 1997
~ Allen Ginsberg,
105:SECTION 1. Books for Serious Study
   Liber CCXX. (Liber AL vel Legis.) The Book of the Law. This book is the foundation of the New Æon, and thus of the whole of our work.
   The Equinox. The standard Work of Reference in all occult matters. The Encyclopaedia of Initiation.
   Liber ABA (Book 4). A general account in elementary terms of magical and mystical powers. In four parts: (1) Mysticism (2) Magical (Elementary Theory) (3) Magick in Theory and Practice (this book) (4) The Law.
   Liber II. The Message of the Master Therion. Explains the essence of the new Law in a very simple manner.
   Liber DCCCXXXVIII. The Law of Liberty. A further explanation of The Book of the Law in reference to certain ethical problems.
   Collected Works of A. Crowley. These works contain many mystical and magical secrets, both stated clearly in prose, and woven into the Robe of sublimest poesy.
   The Yi King. (S. B. E. Series [vol. XVI], Oxford University Press.) The "Classic of Changes"; give the initiated Chinese system of Magick.
   The Tao Teh King. (S. B. E. Series [vol. XXXIX].) Gives the initiated Chinese system of Mysticism.
   Tannhäuser, by A. Crowley. An allegorical drama concerning the Progress of the Soul; the Tannhäuser story slightly remodelled.
   The Upanishads. (S. B. E. Series [vols. I & XV.) The Classical Basis of Vedantism, the best-known form of Hindu Mysticism.
   The Bhagavad-gita. A dialogue in which Krishna, the Hindu "Christ", expounds a system of Attainment.
   The Voice of the Silence, by H.P. Blavatsky, with an elaborate commentary by Frater O.M. Frater O.M., 7°=48, is the most learned of all the Brethren of the Order; he has given eighteen years to the study of this masterpiece.
   Raja-Yoga, by Swami Vivekananda. An excellent elementary study of Hindu mysticism. His Bhakti-Yoga is also good.
   The Shiva Samhita. An account of various physical means of assisting the discipline of initiation. A famous Hindu treatise on certain physical practices.
   The Hathayoga Pradipika. Similar to the Shiva Samhita.
   The Aphorisms of Patanjali. A valuable collection of precepts pertaining to mystical attainment.
   The Sword of Song. A study of Christian theology and ethics, with a statement and solution of the deepest philosophical problems. Also contains the best account extant of Buddhism, compared with modern science.
   The Book of the Dead. A collection of Egyptian magical rituals.
   Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie, by Eliphas Levi. The best general textbook of magical theory and practice for beginners. Written in an easy popular style.
   The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage. The best exoteric account of the Great Work, with careful instructions in procedure. This Book influenced and helped the Master Therion more than any other.
   The Goetia. The most intelligible of all the mediæval rituals of Evocation. Contains also the favourite Invocation of the Master Therion.
   Erdmann's History of Philosophy. A compendious account of philosophy from the earliest times. Most valuable as a general education of the mind.
   The Spiritual Guide of [Miguel de] Molinos. A simple manual of Christian Mysticism.
   The Star in the West. (Captain Fuller). An introduction to the study of the Works of Aleister Crowley.
   The Dhammapada. (S. B. E. Series [vol. X], Oxford University Press). The best of the Buddhist classics.
   The Questions of King Milinda. (S. B. E. Series [vols. XXXV & XXXVI].) Technical points of Buddhist dogma, illustrated bydialogues.
   Liber 777 vel Prolegomena Symbolica Ad Systemam Sceptico-Mysticæ Viæ Explicandæ, Fundamentum Hieroglyphicam Sanctissimorum Scientiæ Summæ. A complete Dictionary of the Correspondences of all magical elements, reprinted with extensive additions, making it the only standard comprehensive book of reference ever published. It is to the language of Occultism what Webster or Murray is to the English language.
   Varieties of Religious Experience (William James). Valuable as showing the uniformity of mystical attainment.
   Kabbala Denudata, von Rosenroth: also The Kabbalah Unveiled, by S.L. Mathers. The text of the Qabalah, with commentary. A good elementary introduction to the subject.
   Konx Om Pax [by Aleister Crowley]. Four invaluable treatises and a preface on Mysticism and Magick.
   The Pistis Sophia [translated by G.R.S. Mead or Violet McDermot]. An admirable introduction to the study of Gnosticism.
   The Oracles of Zoroaster [Chaldæan Oracles]. An invaluable collection of precepts mystical and magical.
   The Dream of Scipio, by Cicero. Excellent for its Vision and its Philosophy.
   The Golden Verses of Pythagoras, by Fabre d'Olivet. An interesting study of the exoteric doctrines of this Master.
   The Divine Pymander, by Hermes Trismegistus. Invaluable as bearing on the Gnostic Philosophy.
   The Secret Symbols of the Rosicrucians, reprint of Franz Hartmann. An invaluable compendium.
   Scrutinium Chymicum [Atalanta Fugiens]¸ by Michael Maier. One of the best treatises on alchemy.
   Science and the Infinite, by Sidney Klein. One of the best essays written in recent years.
   Two Essays on the Worship of Priapus [A Discourse on the Worship of Priapus &c. &c. &c.], by Richard Payne Knight [and Thomas Wright]. Invaluable to all students.
   The Golden Bough, by J.G. Frazer. The textbook of Folk Lore. Invaluable to all students.
   The Age of Reason, by Thomas Paine. Excellent, though elementary, as a corrective to superstition.
   Rivers of Life, by General Forlong. An invaluable textbook of old systems of initiation.
   Three Dialogues, by Bishop Berkeley. The Classic of Subjective Idealism.
   Essays of David Hume. The Classic of Academic Scepticism.
   First Principles by Herbert Spencer. The Classic of Agnosticism.
   Prolegomena [to any future Metaphysics], by Immanuel Kant. The best introduction to Metaphysics.
   The Canon [by William Stirling]. The best textbook of Applied Qabalah.
   The Fourth Dimension, by [Charles] H. Hinton. The best essay on the subject.
   The Essays of Thomas Henry Huxley. Masterpieces of philosophy, as of prose.
   ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA, Appendix I: Literature Recommended to Aspirants
106:Chapter 18 - Trapped in a Dream

(A guy is playing a pinball machine, seemingly the same guy who rode with him in the back of the boat car. This part is played by Richard Linklater, aka, the director.)

Hey, man.


Weren't you in a boat car? You know, the guy, the guy with the hat? He gave me a ride in his car, or boat thing, and you were in the back seat with me?

I mean, I'm not saying that you don't know what you're talking about, but I don't know what you're talking about.

No, you see, you guys let me off at this really specific spot that you gave him directions to let me off at, I get out, and end up getting hit by a car, but then, I just woke up because I was dreaming, and later than that, I found out that I was still dreaming, dreaming that I'd woken up.

Oh yeah, those are called false awakenings. I used to have those all the time.

Yeah, but I'm still in it now. I, I can't get out of it. It's been going on forever, I keep waking up, but, but I'm just waking up into another dream. I'm starting to get creeped out, too. Like I'm talking to dead people. This woman on TV's telling me about how death is this dreamtime that exists outside of life. I mean, (desperate sigh) I'm starting to think that I'm dead.

I'm gonna tell you about a dream I once had. I know that's, when someone says that, then usually you're in for a very boring next few minutes, and you might be, but it sounds like, you know, what else are you going to do, right? Anyway, I read this essay by Philip K. Dick.

What, you read it in your dream?

No, no. I read it before the dream. It was the preamble to the dream. It was about that book, um Flow My Tears the Policeman Said. You know that one?

Uh, yeah yeah, he won an award for that one.

Right, right. That's the one he wrote really fast. It just like flowed right out of him. He felt he was sort of channeling it, or something. But anyway, about four years after it was published, he was at this party, and he met this woman who had the same name as the woman character in the book. And she had a boyfriend with the same name as the boyfriend character in the book, and she was having an affair with this guy, the chief of police, and he had the same name as the chief of police in his book. So she's telling him all of this stuff from her life, and everything she's saying is right out of his book. So that's totally freaking him out, but, what can he do?

And then shortly after that, he was going to mail a letter, and he saw this kind of, um, you know, dangerous, shady looking guy standing by his car, but instead of avoiding him, which he says he would have usually done, he just walked right up to him and said, "Can I help you?" And the guy said, "Yeah. I, I ran out of gas." So he pulls out his wallet, and he hands him some money, which he says he never would have done, and then he gets home and thinks, wait a second, this guy, you know, he can't get to a gas station, he's out of gas. So he gets back in his car, he goes and finds the guy, takes him to the gas station, and as he's pulling up at the gas station, he realizes, "Hey, this is in my book too. This exact station, this exact guy. Everything."

So this whole episode is kind of creepy, right? And he's telling his priest about it, you know, describing how he wrote this book, and then four years later all these things happened to him. And as he's telling it to him, the priest says, "That's the Book of Acts. You're describing the Book of Acts." And he's like, "I've never read the Book of Acts." So he, you know, goes home and reads the Book of Acts, and it's like uncanny. Even the characters' names are the same as in the Bible. And the Book of Acts takes place in 50 A.D., when it was written, supposedly. So Philip K. Dick had this theory that time was an illusion and that we were all actually in 50 A.D., and the reason he had written this book was that he had somehow momentarily punctured through this illusion, this veil of time, and what he had seen there was what was going on in the Book of Acts.

And he was really into Gnosticism, and this idea that this demiurge, or demon, had created this illusion of time to make us forget that Christ was about to return, and the kingdom of God was about to arrive. And that we're all in 50 A.D., and there's someone trying to make us forget that God is imminent. And that's what time is. That's what all of history is. It's just this kind of continuous, you know, daydream, or distraction.

And so I read that, and I was like, well that's weird. And than that night I had a dream and there was this guy in the dream who was supposed to be a psychic. But I was skeptical. I was like, you know, he's not really a psychic, you know I'm thinking to myself. And then suddenly I start floating, like levitating, up to the ceiling. And as I almost go through the roof, I'm like, "Okay, Mr. Psychic. I believe you. You're a psychic. Put me down please." And I float down, and as my feet touch the ground, the psychic turns into this woman in a green dress. And this woman is Lady Gregory.

Now Lady Gregory was Yeats' patron, this, you know, Irish person. And though I'd never seen her image, I was just sure that this was the face of Lady Gregory. So we're walking along, and Lady Gregory turns to me and says, "Let me explain to you the nature of the universe. Now Philip K. Dick is right about time, but he's wrong that it's 50 A.D. Actually, there's only one instant, and it's right now, and it's eternity. And it's an instant in which God is posing a question, and that question is basically, 'Do you want to, you know, be one with eternity? Do you want to be in heaven?' And we're all saying, 'No thank you. Not just yet.' And so time is actually just this constant saying 'No' to God's invitation. I mean that's what time is. I mean, and it's no more 50 A.D. than it's two thousand and one. And there's just this one instant, and that's what we're always in."

And then she tells me that actually this is the narrative of everyone's life. That, you know, behind the phenomenal difference, there is but one story, and that's the story of moving from the "no" to the "yes." All of life is like, "No thank you. No thank you. No thank you." then ultimately it's, "Yes, I give in. Yes, I accept. Yes, I embrace." I mean, that's the journey. I mean, everyone gets to the "yes" in the end, right?


So we continue walking, and my dog runs over to me. And so I'm petting him, really happy to see him, you know, he's been dead for years. So I'm petting him and I realize there's this kind of gross oozing stuff coming out of his stomach. And I look over at Lady Gregory, and she sort of coughs. She's like [cough] [cough] "Oh, excuse me." And there's vomit, like dribbling down her chin, and it smells really bad. And I think, "Well, wait a second, that's not just the smell of vomit," which is, doesn't smell very good, "that's the smell of like dead person vomit." You know, so it's like doubly foul. And then I realize I'm actually in the land of the dead, and everyone around me is dead. My dog had been dead for over ten years, Lady Gregory had been dead a lot longer than that. When I finally woke up, I was like, whoa, that wasn't a dream, that was a visitation to this real place, the land of the dead.

So what happened? I mean how did you finally get out of it?

Oh man. It was just like one of those like life altering experiences. I mean I could never really look at the world the same way again, after that.

Yeah, but I mean like how did you, how did you finally get out of the dream? See, that's my problem. I'm like trapped. I keep, I keep thinking that I'm waking up, but I'm still in a dream. It seems like it's going on forever. I can't get out of it, and I want to wake up for real. How do you really wake up?

I don't know, I don't know. I'm not very good at that anymore. But, um, if that's what you're thinking, I mean you, you probably should. I mean, you know if you can wake up, you should, because you know someday, you know, you won't be able to. So just, um ... But it's easy. You know. Just, just wake up. ~ Waking Life,
107:It does not matter if you do not understand it - Savitri, read it always. You will see that every time you read it, something new will be revealed to you. Each time you will get a new glimpse, each time a new experience; things which were not there, things you did not understand arise and suddenly become clear. Always an unexpected vision comes up through the words and lines. Every time you try to read and understand, you will see that something is added, something which was hidden behind is revealed clearly and vividly. I tell you the very verses you have read once before, will appear to you in a different light each time you re-read them. This is what happens invariably. Always your experience is enriched, it is a revelation at each step.

But you must not read it as you read other books or newspapers. You must read with an empty head, a blank and vacant mind, without there being any other thought; you must concentrate much, remain empty, calm and open; then the words, rhythms, vibrations will penetrate directly to this white page, will put their stamp upon the brain, will explain themselves without your making any effort.

Savitri alone is sufficient to make you climb to the highest peaks. If truly one knows how to meditate on Savitri, one will receive all the help one needs. For him who wishes to follow this path, it is a concrete help as though the Lord himself were taking you by the hand and leading you to the destined goal. And then, every question, however personal it may be, has its answer here, every difficulty finds its solution herein; indeed there is everything that is necessary for doing the Yoga.

*He has crammed the whole universe in a single book.* It is a marvellous work, magnificent and of an incomparable perfection.

You know, before writing Savitri Sri Aurobindo said to me, *I am impelled to launch on a new adventure; I was hesitant in the beginning, but now I am decided. Still, I do not know how far I shall succeed. I pray for help.* And you know what it was? It was - before beginning, I warn you in advance - it was His way of speaking, so full of divine humility and modesty. He never... *asserted Himself*. And the day He actually began it, He told me: *I have launched myself in a rudderless boat upon the vastness of the Infinite.* And once having started, He wrote page after page without intermission, as though it were a thing already complete up there and He had only to transcribe it in ink down here on these pages.

In truth, the entire form of Savitri has descended "en masse" from the highest region and Sri Aurobindo with His genius only arranged the lines - in a superb and magnificent style. Sometimes entire lines were revealed and He has left them intact; He worked hard, untiringly, so that the inspiration could come from the highest possible summit. And what a work He has created! Yes, it is a true creation in itself. It is an unequalled work. Everything is there, and it is put in such a simple, such a clear form; verses perfectly harmonious, limpid and eternally true. My child, I have read so many things, but I have never come across anything which could be compared with Savitri. I have studied the best works in Greek, Latin, English and of course French literature, also in German and all the great creations of the West and the East, including the great epics; but I repeat it, I have not found anywhere anything comparable with Savitri. All these literary works seems to me empty, flat, hollow, without any deep reality - apart from a few rare exceptions, and these too represent only a small fraction of what Savitri is. What grandeur, what amplitude, what reality: it is something immortal and eternal He has created. I tell you once again there is nothing like in it the whole world. Even if one puts aside the vision of the reality, that is, the essential substance which is the heart of the inspiration, and considers only the lines in themselves, one will find them unique, of the highest classical kind. What He has created is something man cannot imagine. For, everything is there, everything.

It may then be said that Savitri is a revelation, it is a meditation, it is a quest of the Infinite, the Eternal. If it is read with this aspiration for Immortality, the reading itself will serve as a guide to Immortality. To read Savitri is indeed to practice Yoga, spiritual concentration; one can find there all that is needed to realise the Divine. Each step of Yoga is noted here, including the secret of all other Yogas. Surely, if one sincerely follows what is revealed here in each line one will reach finally the transformation of the Supramental Yoga. It is truly the infallible guide who never abandons you; its support is always there for him who wants to follow the path. Each verse of Savitri is like a revealed Mantra which surpasses all that man possessed by way of knowledge, and I repeat this, the words are expressed and arranged in such a way that the sonority of the rhythm leads you to the origin of sound, which is OM.

My child, yes, everything is there: mysticism, occultism, philosophy, the history of evolution, the history of man, of the gods, of creation, of Nature. How the universe was created, why, for what purpose, what destiny - all is there. You can find all the answers to all your questions there. Everything is explained, even the future of man and of the evolution, all that nobody yet knows. He has described it all in beautiful and clear words so that spiritual adventurers who wish to solve the mysteries of the world may understand it more easily. But this mystery is well hidden behind the words and lines and one must rise to the required level of true consciousness to discover it. All prophesies, all that is going to come is presented with the precise and wonderful clarity. Sri Aurobindo gives you here the key to find the Truth, to discover the Consciousness, to solve the problem of what the universe is. He has also indicated how to open the door of the Inconscience so that the light may penetrate there and transform it. He has shown the path, the way to liberate oneself from the ignorance and climb up to the superconscience; each stage, each plane of consciousness, how they can be scaled, how one can cross even the barrier of death and attain immortality. You will find the whole journey in detail, and as you go forward you can discover things altogether unknown to man. That is Savitri and much more yet. It is a real experience - reading Savitri. All the secrets that man possessed, He has revealed, - as well as all that awaits him in the future; all this is found in the depth of Savitri. But one must have the knowledge to discover it all, the experience of the planes of consciousness, the experience of the Supermind, even the experience of the conquest of Death. He has noted all the stages, marked each step in order to advance integrally in the integral Yoga.

All this is His own experience, and what is most surprising is that it is my own experience also. It is my sadhana which He has worked out. Each object, each event, each realisation, all the descriptions, even the colours are exactly what I saw and the words, phrases are also exactly what I heard. And all this before having read the book. I read Savitri many times afterwards, but earlier, when He was writing He used to read it to me. Every morning I used to hear Him read Savitri. During the night He would write and in the morning read it to me. And I observed something curious, that day after day the experiences He read out to me in the morning were those I had had the previous night, word by word. Yes, all the descriptions, the colours, the pictures I had seen, the words I had heard, all, all, I heard it all, put by Him into poetry, into miraculous poetry. Yes, they were exactly my experiences of the previous night which He read out to me the following morning. And it was not just one day by chance, but for days and days together. And every time I used to compare what He said with my previous experiences and they were always the same. I repeat, it was not that I had told Him my experiences and that He had noted them down afterwards, no, He knew already what I had seen. It is my experiences He has presented at length and they were His experiences also. It is, moreover, the picture of Our joint adventure into the unknown or rather into the Supermind.

These are experiences lived by Him, realities, supracosmic truths. He experienced all these as one experiences joy or sorrow, physically. He walked in the darkness of inconscience, even in the neighborhood of death, endured the sufferings of perdition, and emerged from the mud, the world-misery to breathe the sovereign plenitude and enter the supreme Ananda. He crossed all these realms, went through the consequences, suffered and endured physically what one cannot imagine. Nobody till today has suffered like Him. He accepted suffering to transform suffering into the joy of union with the Supreme. It is something unique and incomparable in the history of the world. It is something that has never happened before, He is the first to have traced the path in the Unknown, so that we may be able to walk with certitude towards the Supermind. He has made the work easy for us. Savitri is His whole Yoga of transformation, and this Yoga appears now for the first time in the earth-consciousness.

And I think that man is not yet ready to receive it. It is too high and too vast for him. He cannot understand it, grasp it, for it is not by the mind that one can understand Savitri. One needs spiritual experiences in order to understand and assimilate it. The farther one advances on the path of Yoga, the more does one assimilate and the better. No, it is something which will be appreciated only in the future, it is the poetry of tomorrow of which He has spoken in The Future Poetry. It is too subtle, too refined, - it is not in the mind or through the mind, it is in meditation that Savitri is revealed.

And men have the audacity to compare it with the work of Virgil or Homer and to find it inferior. They do not understand, they cannot understand. What do they know? Nothing at all. And it is useless to try to make them understand. Men will know what it is, but in a distant future. It is only the new race with a new consciousness which will be able to understand. I assure you there is nothing under the blue sky to compare with Savitri. It is the mystery of mysteries. It is a *super-epic,* it is super-literature, super-poetry, super-vision, it is a super-work even if one considers the number of lines He has written. No, these human words are not adequate to describe Savitri. Yes, one needs superlatives, hyperboles to describe it. It is a hyper-epic. No, words express nothing of what Savitri is, at least I do not find them. It is of immense value - spiritual value and all other values; it is eternal in its subject, and infinite in its appeal, miraculous in its mode and power of execution; it is a unique thing, the more you come into contact with it, the higher will you be uplifted. Ah, truly it is something! It is the most beautiful thing He has left for man, the highest possible. What is it? When will man know it? When is he going to lead a life of truth? When is he going to accept this in his life? This yet remains to be seen.

My child, every day you are going to read Savitri; read properly, with the right attitude, concentrating a little before opening the pages and trying to keep the mind as empty as possible, absolutely without a thought. The direct road is through the heart. I tell you, if you try to really concentrate with this aspiration you can light the flame, the psychic flame, the flame of purification in a very short time, perhaps in a few days. What you cannot do normally, you can do with the help of Savitri. Try and you will see how very different it is, how new, if you read with this attitude, with this something at the back of your consciousness; as though it were an offering to Sri Aurobindo. You know it is charged, fully charged with consciousness; as if Savitri were a being, a real guide. I tell you, whoever, wanting to practice Yoga, tries sincerely and feels the necessity for it, will be able to climb with the help of Savitri to the highest rung of the ladder of Yoga, will be able to find the secret that Savitri represents. And this without the help of a Guru. And he will be able to practice it anywhere. For him Savitri alone will be the guide, for all that he needs he will find Savitri. If he remains very quiet when before a difficulty, or when he does not know where to turn to go forward and how to overcome obstacles, for all these hesitations and incertitudes which overwhelm us at every moment, he will have the necessary indications, and the necessary concrete help. If he remains very calm, open, if he aspires sincerely, always he will be as if lead by the hand. If he has faith, the will to give himself and essential sincerity he will reach the final goal.

Indeed, Savitri is something concrete, living, it is all replete, packed with consciousness, it is the supreme knowledge above all human philosophies and religions. It is the spiritual path, it is Yoga, Tapasya, Sadhana, in its single body. Savitri has an extraordinary power, it gives out vibrations for him who can receive them, the true vibrations of each stage of consciousness. It is incomparable, it is truth in its plenitude, the Truth Sri Aurobindo brought down on the earth. My child, one must try to find the secret that Savitri represents, the prophetic message Sri Aurobindo reveals there for us. This is the work before you, it is hard but it is worth the trouble. - 5 November 1967

~ The Mother, Sweet Mother, The Mother to Mona Sarkar, [T0],
108:One little picture in this book, the Magic Locket, was drawn by 'Miss Alice Havers.' I did not state this on the title-page, since it seemed only due, to the artist of all these (to my mind) wonderful pictures, that his name should stand there alone.
The descriptions, of Sunday as spent by children of the last generation, are quoted verbatim from a speech made to me by a child-friend and a letter written to me by a lady-friend.
The Chapters, headed 'Fairy Sylvie' and 'Bruno's Revenge,' are a reprint, with a few alterations, of a little fairy-tale which I wrote in the year 1867, at the request of the late Mrs. Gatty, for 'Aunt Judy's Magazine,' which she was then editing.
It was in 1874, I believe, that the idea first occurred to me of making it the nucleus of a longer story.
As the years went on, I jotted down, at odd moments, all sorts of odd ideas, and fragments of dialogue, that occurred to me--who knows how?--with a transitory suddenness that left me no choice but either to record them then and there, or to abandon them to oblivion. Sometimes one could trace to their source these random flashes of thought--as being suggested by the book one was reading, or struck out from the 'flint' of one's own mind by the 'steel' of a friend's chance remark but they had also a way of their own, of occurring, a propos of nothing --specimens of that hopelessly illogical phenomenon, 'an effect without a cause.' Such, for example, was the last line of 'The Hunting of the Snark,' which came into my head (as I have already related in 'The Theatre' for April, 1887) quite suddenly, during a solitary walk: and such, again, have been passages which occurred in dreams, and which I cannot trace to any antecedent cause whatever. There are at least two instances of such dream-suggestions in this book--one, my Lady's remark, 'it often runs in families, just as a love for pastry does', the other, Eric Lindon's badinage about having been in domestic service.

And thus it came to pass that I found myself at last in possession of a huge unwieldy mass of litterature--if the reader will kindly excuse the spelling --which only needed stringing together, upon the thread of a consecutive story, to constitute the book I hoped to write. Only! The task, at first, seemed absolutely hopeless, and gave me a far clearer idea, than I ever had before, of the meaning of the word 'chaos': and I think it must have been ten years, or more, before I had succeeded in classifying these odds-and-ends sufficiently to see what sort of a story they indicated: for the story had to grow out of the incidents, not the incidents out of the story I am telling all this, in no spirit of egoism, but because I really believe that some of my readers will be interested in these details of the 'genesis' of a book, which looks so simple and straight-forward a matter, when completed, that they might suppose it to have been written straight off, page by page, as one would write a letter, beginning at the beginning; and ending at the end.

It is, no doubt, possible to write a story in that way: and, if it be not vanity to say so, I believe that I could, myself,--if I were in the unfortunate position (for I do hold it to be a real misfortune) of being obliged to produce a given amount of fiction in a given time,--that I could 'fulfil my task,' and produce my 'tale of bricks,' as other slaves have done. One thing, at any rate, I could guarantee as to the story so produced--that it should be utterly commonplace, should contain no new ideas whatever, and should be very very weary reading!
This species of literature has received the very appropriate name of 'padding' which might fitly be defined as 'that which all can write and none can read.' That the present volume contains no such writing I dare not avow: sometimes, in order to bring a picture into its proper place, it has been necessary to eke out a page with two or three extra lines : but I can honestly say I have put in no more than I was absolutely compelled to do.
My readers may perhaps like to amuse themselves by trying to detect, in a given passage, the one piece of 'padding' it contains. While arranging the 'slips' into pages, I found that the passage was 3 lines too short. I supplied the deficiency, not by interpolating a word here and a word there, but by writing in 3 consecutive lines. Now can my readers guess which they are?

A harder puzzle if a harder be desired would be to determine, as to the Gardener's Song, in which cases (if any) the stanza was adapted to the surrounding text, and in which (if any) the text was adapted to the stanza.
Perhaps the hardest thing in all literature--at least I have found it so: by no voluntary effort can I accomplish it: I have to take it as it come's is to write anything original. And perhaps the easiest is, when once an original line has been struck out, to follow it up, and to write any amount more to the same tune. I do not know if 'Alice in Wonderland' was an original story--I was, at least, no conscious imitator in writing it--but I do know that, since it came out, something like a dozen storybooks have appeared, on identically the same pattern. The path I timidly explored believing myself to be 'the first that ever burst into that silent sea'--is now a beaten high-road: all the way-side flowers have long ago been trampled into the dust: and it would be courting disaster for me to attempt that style again.

Hence it is that, in 'Sylvie and Bruno,' I have striven with I know not what success to strike out yet another new path: be it bad or good, it is the best I can do. It is written, not for money, and not for fame, but in the hope of supplying, for the children whom I love, some thoughts that may suit those hours of innocent merriment which are the very life of Childhood; and also in the hope of suggesting, to them and to others, some thoughts that may prove, I would fain hope, not wholly out of harmony with the graver cadences of Life.
If I have not already exhausted the patience of my readers, I would like to seize this opportunity perhaps the last I shall have of addressing so many friends at once of putting on record some ideas that have occurred to me, as to books desirable to be written--which I should much like to attempt, but may not ever have the time or power to carry through--in the hope that, if I should fail (and the years are gliding away very fast) to finish the task I have set myself, other hands may take it up.
First, a Child's Bible. The only real essentials of this would be, carefully selected passages, suitable for a child's reading, and pictures. One principle of selection, which I would adopt, would be that Religion should be put before a child as a revelation of love--no need to pain and puzzle the young mind with the history of crime and punishment. (On such a principle I should, for example, omit the history of the Flood.) The supplying of the pictures would involve no great difficulty: no new ones would be needed : hundreds of excellent pictures already exist, the copyright of which has long ago expired, and which simply need photo-zincography, or some similar process, for their successful reproduction. The book should be handy in size with a pretty attractive looking cover--in a clear legible type--and, above all, with abundance of pictures, pictures, pictures!
Secondly, a book of pieces selected from the Bible--not single texts, but passages of from 10 to 20 verses each--to be committed to memory. Such passages would be found useful, to repeat to one's self and to ponder over, on many occasions when reading is difficult, if not impossible: for instance, when lying awake at night--on a railway-journey --when taking a solitary walk-in old age, when eyesight is failing or wholly lost--and, best of all, when illness, while incapacitating us for reading or any other occupation, condemns us to lie awake through many weary silent hours: at such a time how keenly one may realise the truth of David's rapturous cry "O how sweet are thy words unto my throat: yea, sweeter than honey unto my mouth!"
I have said 'passages,' rather than single texts, because we have no means of recalling single texts: memory needs links, and here are none: one may have a hundred texts stored in the memory, and not be able to recall, at will, more than half-a-dozen--and those by mere chance: whereas, once get hold of any portion of a chapter that has been committed to memory, and the whole can be recovered: all hangs together.
Thirdly, a collection of passages, both prose and verse, from books other than the Bible. There is not perhaps much, in what is called 'un-inspired' literature (a misnomer, I hold: if Shakespeare was not inspired, one may well doubt if any man ever was), that will bear the process of being pondered over, a hundred times: still there are such passages--enough, I think, to make a goodly store for the memory.
These two books of sacred, and secular, passages for memory--will serve other good purposes besides merely occupying vacant hours: they will help to keep at bay many anxious thoughts, worrying thoughts, uncharitable thoughts, unholy thoughts. Let me say this, in better words than my own, by copying a passage from that most interesting book, Robertson's Lectures on the Epistles to the Corinthians, Lecture XLIX. "If a man finds himself haunted by evil desires and unholy images, which will generally be at periodical hours, let him commit to memory passages of Scripture, or passages from the best writers in verse or prose. Let him store his mind with these, as safeguards to repeat when he lies awake in some restless night, or when despairing imaginations, or gloomy, suicidal thoughts, beset him. Let these be to him the sword, turning everywhere to keep the way of the Garden of Life from the intrusion of profaner footsteps."
Fourthly, a "Shakespeare" for girls: that is, an edition in which everything, not suitable for the perusal of girls of (say) from 10 to 17, should be omitted. Few children under 10 would be likely to understand or enjoy the greatest of poets: and those, who have passed out of girlhood, may safely be left to read Shakespeare, in any edition, 'expurgated' or not, that they may prefer: but it seems a pity that so many children, in the intermediate stage, should be debarred from a great pleasure for want of an edition suitable to them. Neither Bowdler's, Chambers's, Brandram's, nor Cundell's 'Boudoir' Shakespeare, seems to me to meet the want: they are not sufficiently 'expurgated.' Bowdler's is the most extraordinary of all: looking through it, I am filled with a deep sense of wonder, considering what he has left in, that he should have cut anything out! Besides relentlessly erasing all that is unsuitable on the score of reverence or decency, I should be inclined to omit also all that seems too difficult, or not likely to interest young readers. The resulting book might be slightly fragmentary: but it would be a real treasure to all British maidens who have any taste for poetry.
If it be needful to apologize to any one for the new departure I have taken in this story--by introducing, along with what will, I hope, prove to be acceptable nonsense for children, some of the graver thoughts of human life--it must be to one who has learned the Art of keeping such thoughts wholly at a distance in hours of mirth and careless ease. To him such a mixture will seem, no doubt, ill-judged and repulsive. And that such an Art exists I do not dispute: with youth, good health, and sufficient money, it seems quite possible to lead, for years together, a life of unmixed gaiety--with the exception of one solemn fact, with which we are liable to be confronted at any moment, even in the midst of the most brilliant company or the most sparkling entertainment. A man may fix his own times for admitting serious thought, for attending public worship, for prayer, for reading the Bible: all such matters he can defer to that 'convenient season', which is so apt never to occur at all: but he cannot defer, for one single moment, the necessity of attending to a message, which may come before he has finished reading this page,' this night shalt thy soul be required of thee.'
The ever-present sense of this grim possibility has been, in all ages, 1 an incubus that men have striven to shake off. Few more interesting subjects of enquiry could be found, by a student of history, than the various weapons that have been used against this shadowy foe. Saddest of all must have been the thoughts of those who saw indeed an existence beyond the grave, but an existence far more terrible than annihilation--an existence as filmy, impalpable, all but invisible spectres, drifting about, through endless ages, in a world of shadows, with nothing to do, nothing to hope for, nothing to love! In the midst of the gay verses of that genial 'bon vivant' Horace, there stands one dreary word whose utter sadness goes to one's heart. It is the word 'exilium' in the well-known passage

Omnes eodem cogimur, omnium
Versatur urna serius ocius
Sors exitura et nos in aeternum
Exilium impositura cymbae.

Yes, to him this present life--spite of all its weariness and all its sorrow--was the only life worth having: all else was 'exile'! Does it not seem almost incredible that one, holding such a creed, should ever have smiled?
And many in this day, I fear, even though believing in an existence beyond the grave far more real than Horace ever dreamed of, yet regard it as a sort of 'exile' from all the joys of life, and so adopt Horace's theory, and say 'let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die.'
We go to entertainments, such as the theatre--I say 'we', for I also go to the play, whenever I get a chance of seeing a really good one and keep at arm's length, if possible, the thought that we may not return alive. Yet how do you know--dear friend, whose patience has carried you through this garrulous preface that it may not be your lot, when mirth is fastest and most furious, to feel the sharp pang, or the deadly faintness, which heralds the final crisis--to see, with vague wonder, anxious friends bending over you to hear their troubled whispers perhaps yourself to shape the question, with trembling lips, "Is it serious?", and to be told "Yes: the end is near" (and oh, how different all Life will look when those words are said!)--how do you know, I say, that all this may not happen to you, this night?
And dare you, knowing this, say to yourself "Well, perhaps it is an immoral play: perhaps the situations are a little too 'risky', the dialogue a little too strong, the 'business' a little too suggestive.
I don't say that conscience is quite easy: but the piece is so clever, I must see it this once! I'll begin a stricter life to-morrow." To-morrow, and to-morrow, and tomorrow!

"Who sins in hope, who, sinning, says,
'Sorrow for sin God's judgement stays!'
Against God's Spirit he lies; quite stops Mercy with insult; dares, and drops,
Like a scorch'd fly, that spins in vain
Upon the axis of its pain,
Then takes its doom, to limp and crawl,
Blind and forgot, from fall to fall."

Let me pause for a moment to say that I believe this thought, of the possibility of death--if calmly realised, and steadily faced would be one of the best possible tests as to our going to any scene of amusement being right or wrong. If the thought of sudden death acquires, for you, a special horror when imagined as happening in a theatre, then be very sure the theatre is harmful for you, however harmless it may be for others; and that you are incurring a deadly peril in going. Be sure the safest rule is that we should not dare to live in any scene in which we dare not die.
But, once realise what the true object is in life--that it is not pleasure, not knowledge, not even fame itself, 'that last infirmity of noble minds'--but that it is the development of character, the rising to a higher, nobler, purer standard, the building-up of the perfect Man--and then, so long as we feel that this is going on, and will (we trust) go on for evermore, death has for us no terror; it is not a shadow, but a light; not an end, but a beginning!
One other matter may perhaps seem to call for apology--that I should have treated with such entire want of sympathy the British passion for 'Sport', which no doubt has been in by-gone days, and is still, in some forms of it, an excellent school for hardihood and for coolness in moments of danger.
But I am not entirely without sympathy for genuine 'Sport': I can heartily admire the courage of the man who, with severe bodily toil, and at the risk of his life, hunts down some 'man-eating' tiger: and I can heartily sympathize with him when he exults in the glorious excitement of the chase and the hand-to-hand struggle with the monster brought to bay. But I can but look with deep wonder and sorrow on the hunter who, at his ease and in safety, can find pleasure in what involves, for some defenceless creature, wild terror and a death of agony: deeper, if the hunter be one who has pledged himself to preach to men the Religion of universal Love: deepest of all, if it be one of those 'tender and delicate' beings, whose very name serves as a symbol of Love--'thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women'--whose mission here is surely to help and comfort all that are in pain or sorrow!

'Farewell, farewell! but this I tell
To thee, thou Wedding-Guest!
He prayeth well, who loveth well
Both man and bird and beast.
He prayeth best, who loveth best
All things both great and small;
For the dear God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all.' ~ Lewis Carroll, Sylvie and Bruno,


1:History is merely gossip. ~ oscar-wilde, @wisdomtrove
2:History is more or less bunk. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
3:History! Read it and weep! ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
4:Happy people have no history. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
5:History: gossip well told. ~ elbert-hubbard, @wisdomtrove
6:History is the new poetry. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
7:We cannot escape history. ~ abraham-lincoln, @wisdomtrove
8:History - the devil's scripture ~ lord-byron, @wisdomtrove
9:War is not women's history. ~ virginia-woolf, @wisdomtrove
10:History is not was, it is. ~ william-faulkner, @wisdomtrove
11:History is a great dust heap. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
12:Kings are the slaves of history. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
13:All history was at first oral. ~ samuel-johnson, @wisdomtrove
14:A turning point in modern history. ~ robert-frost, @wisdomtrove
15:History develops, art stands still. ~ e-m-forster, @wisdomtrove
16:History: A distillation of rumor. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
17:Well behaved women do not make history. ~ mae-west, @wisdomtrove
18:History: a collection of epitaphs. ~ elbert-hubbard, @wisdomtrove
19:History should be written as philosophy. ~ voltaire, @wisdomtrove
20:Biography is the only true history. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
21:History paints the human heart. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
22:Poetry is nearer to vital truth than history. ~ plato, @wisdomtrove
23:Biography is the best form of history. ~ josh-billings, @wisdomtrove
24:History after all is the true poetry. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
25:History is written by the victors. ~ winston-churchill, @wisdomtrove
26:Don't forget your history nor your destiny ~ bob-marley, @wisdomtrove
27:History is the distillation of rumour. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
28:History is written by the winners. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
29:Blood alone moves the wheels of history. ~ martin-luther, @wisdomtrove
30:History is a vast early warning system. ~ norman-cousins, @wisdomtrove
31:History is a pack of lies we play on the dead. ~ voltaire, @wisdomtrove
32:History's just one darn thing after another. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
33:History is a set of lies agreed upon. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
34:History takes time. History makes memory. ~ gertrude-stein, @wisdomtrove
35:In Jewish history there are no coincidences. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
36:Language is the archives of history.  ~ ralph-waldo-emerson, @wisdomtrove
37:All history . . . is an inarticulate Bible. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
38:History has its truth; and so has legend hers. ~ victor-hugo, @wisdomtrove
39:History is a story written by the finger of God. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
40:History is the invention of historians. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
41:What is history? The lie that everyone agrees on. ~ voltaire, @wisdomtrove
42:What is history but a fable agreed upon? ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
43:History as the slaughter-bench ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
44:History can be well written only in a free country. ~ voltaire, @wisdomtrove
45:History is philosophy teaching by experience. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
46:The Fed is the greatest hedge fund in history. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
47:History is just new people making old mistakes. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
48:Learn from your history, but don’t live in it. ~ steve-maraboli, @wisdomtrove
49:History is a myth that men agree to believe. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
50:the history of melancholia includes all of us. ~ charles-bukowski, @wisdomtrove
51:History is only the register of crimes and misfortunes. ~ voltaire, @wisdomtrove
52:The greatest man in history was the poorest. ~ ralph-waldo-emerson, @wisdomtrove
53:Don't let your history interfere with yourdestiny. ~ steve-maraboli, @wisdomtrove
54:History is the essence of innumerable biographies. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
55:History, with all her volumes vast, Hath but one page. ~ lord-byron, @wisdomtrove
56:The mystery of history is an insoluble problem. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
57:History will never accept difficulties as an excuse. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
58:The most important history is the history we make today. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
59:This is the lesson that history teaches: repetition. ~ gertrude-stein, @wisdomtrove
60:World history is a court of judgment. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
61:Does the business have a consistent operating history? ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
62:Each book has a secret history of ways and means. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
63:History would be a wonderful thing if it were only true. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
64:Those who don't know history are destined to repeat it. ~ edmund-burke, @wisdomtrove
65:History is nothing but assisted and recorded memory. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
66:History would be an excellent thing if only it were true. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
67:Knowledge and history are the enemies of religion. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
68:A woman's whole life is a history of the affections. ~ washington-irving, @wisdomtrove
69:History will be kind to me for I intend to write it. ~ winston-churchill, @wisdomtrove
70:Philosophy is the history of philosophy. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
71:Someone calls biography the home aspect of history. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
72:The subject of history is the life of peoples and mankind. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
73:Don't be misled by History, or any other unreliable source. ~ will-rogers, @wisdomtrove
74:Hold those things that tell your history and protect them. ~ maya-angelou, @wisdomtrove
75:Many falsehoods are passing into uncontradicted history. ~ samuel-johnson, @wisdomtrove
76:Every end in history necessarily contains a new beginning. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
77:Happy the People whose Annals are blank in History Books! ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
78:History is the discovering of the principles of human nature. ~ david-hume, @wisdomtrove
79:We are not makers of history. We are made by history. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
80:Your requests change history because your prayers change God! ~ max-lucado, @wisdomtrove
81:If we don't know our own history, we are deemed to live it. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
82:Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
83:The hare of history once more overtakes the tortoise of art. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
84:Assassination has never changed the history of the world. ~ benjamin-disraeli, @wisdomtrove
85:History is a constant race between invention and catastrophe. ~ frank-herbert, @wisdomtrove
86:In Him (God), history and prophecy are one and the same. ~ aiden-wilson-tozer, @wisdomtrove
87:The arc of history is long, but it bends toward justice. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
88:The history of art is a sequence of successful transgressions. ~ susan-sontag, @wisdomtrove
89:The history of the world is the history of the privileged few. ~ henry-miller, @wisdomtrove
90:The more you know of your history, the more liberated you are. ~ maya-angelou, @wisdomtrove
91:History has many cunning passages, contrived corridors and issues. ~ t-s-eliot, @wisdomtrove
92:The stop-watch of history is running. The race is on . . . ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
93:Trust the people - that is the crucial lesson of history. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
94:History casts its shadow far into the land of song. ~ henry-wadsworth-longfellow, @wisdomtrove
95:If we could read the secret history of our enemies. ~ henry-wadsworth-longfellow, @wisdomtrove
96:I think we may class the lawyer in the natural history of monsters. ~ john-keats, @wisdomtrove
97:Skepticism is a virtue in history as well as in philosophy. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
98:The entire history of science is a progression of exploded fallacies. ~ ayn-rand, @wisdomtrove
99:Your history of work is as important as the work you'll do tomorrow. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
100:History is a pact between the dead, the living, and the yet unborn. ~ edmund-burke, @wisdomtrove
101:History is the long, difficult and confused dream of Mankind. ~ arthur-schopenhauer, @wisdomtrove
102:If knowing history made you rich, librarians would be billionaires. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
103:It is the soothing thing about history that it does repeat itself. ~ gertrude-stein, @wisdomtrove
104:“Religion is a monumental chapter in the history of human egotism.” ~ william-james, @wisdomtrove
105:the history of the world records is the fact of-Christ's birth." ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
106:There are no happy endings in history, only crisis points that pass. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
107:What we learn from history is that people don't learn from history. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
108:History is too much about wars; biography too much about great men. ~ virginia-woolf, @wisdomtrove
109:Is the only lesson of history to be that mankind is unteachable? ~ winston-churchill, @wisdomtrove
110:Don't do business with anyone who has a history of suing people. ~ h-jackson-brown-jr, @wisdomtrove
111:Scared is the price brave people pay to enjoy lives that make history. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
112:This is my history; like all other histories, a narrative of misery. ~ samuel-johnson, @wisdomtrove
113:Those who would repeat the past must control the teaching of history. ~ frank-herbert, @wisdomtrove
114:We have had to learn that history is neither a God nor a redeemer. ~ reinhold-niebuhr, @wisdomtrove
115:Energy deregulation will be the largest transfer of wealth in history. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
116:Presidents come and go. History comes and goes, but principles endure. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
117:The very ink with which all history is written is merely fluid prejudice. ~ mark-twain, @wisdomtrove
118:Women with pasts interest men because they hope history will repeat itself. ~ mae-west, @wisdomtrove
119:History is the myth, the true myth, of man's fall made manifest in time. ~ henry-miller, @wisdomtrove
120:History teaches us that man learns nothing from history ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
121:If we want to know history, I would think there would be every reason to. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
122:I'm history! No, I'm mythology! Nah, I don't care what I am, I'm free! ~ robin-williams, @wisdomtrove
123:It is with a kind of fear that I begin to write the history of my life. ~ hellen-keller, @wisdomtrove
124:She was old too, when she went to school they didn't have history. ~ rodney-dangerfield, @wisdomtrove
125:Things have never been more like the way they are today in history. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
126:We learn from history that we do not learn from history ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
127:Forgiveness is the only way to reverse the irreversible flow of history. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
128:History has thrust something upon me from which I cannot turn away. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
129:History is always written wrong, and so always needs to be rewritten. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
130:We would like to live as we once lived, but history will not permit it. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
131:guilt is the cause of more marauders than history's most obscene disauders ~ e-e-cummings, @wisdomtrove
132:The one who does not remember history is bound to live through it again ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
133:They who live in history only seemed to walk the earth again. ~ henry-wadsworth-longfellow, @wisdomtrove
134:Many of the ugly pages of American history have been obscured and forgotten ~ martin-luther, @wisdomtrove
135:History has been written not by the most talented but by the most motivated. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
136:History is the product of vast, amorphous and indecipherable social movements. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
137:Read no history: nothing but biography, for that is life without theory. ~ benjamin-disraeli, @wisdomtrove
138:The history of mankind is the instant between two strides taken by a traveler. ~ franz-kafka, @wisdomtrove
139:You can hide memories, but you can’t erase the history that produced them. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
140:Don't hesitate to learn the most painful aspects of our history, understand it. ~ maya-angelou, @wisdomtrove
141:I did not say history was bunk. It was bunk to me . . I did not need it very bad. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
142:Records told the same tale, then the lie passed into history and became truth. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
143:We need to haunt the house of history and listen anew to the ancestors' wisdom. ~ maya-angelou, @wisdomtrove
144:History does not long entrust the care of freedom to the weak or the timid. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
145:History may never have all the facts, but history always has the last word. ~ ashleigh-brilliant, @wisdomtrove
146:It is part of my creed that the only poetry is history, could we tell it right. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
147:Mona Lisa is the only beauty who went through history and retained her reputation. ~ will-rogers, @wisdomtrove
148:Study history, study history. In history lies all the secrets of statecraft. ~ winston-churchill, @wisdomtrove
149:We've got to teach history based not on what's in fashion, but what's important. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
150:History is not a toboggan slide, but a road to be reconsidered and even retraced ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
151:History is not just the evolution of technology; it is the evolution of thought. ~ james-redfield, @wisdomtrove
152:History often resembles myth, because they are both ultimately of the same stuff. ~ j-r-r-tolkien, @wisdomtrove
153:History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
154:We are the most in-debt, obese, addicted and medicated adult cohort in U.S. history. ~ brene-brown, @wisdomtrove
155:So very difficult a matter is it to trace and find out the truth of anything by history. ~ plutarch, @wisdomtrove
156:The Bible: a history of wickedness that has served to corrupt and brutalise mankind. ~ thomas-paine, @wisdomtrove
157:He sailed through American history like a steel ship loaded with monoliths of granite. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
158:If you want to study the social and political history of modern nations, study hell. ~ thomas-merton, @wisdomtrove
159:Like many people who live in the South, I'm drawn to the history of the Civil War. ~ nicholas-sparks, @wisdomtrove
160:Maxwell's Equations have had a greater impact on human history than any ten presidents. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
161:The history of the world is the history of a few men who had faith in themselves ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
162:All History is current; all injustice continues on some level, somewhere in the world. ~ alice-walker, @wisdomtrove
163:The story [of the Sacrifice of Isaac ] is much more a part of theology than of history. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
164:We learn from history that man can never learn anything from history. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
165:Hiding from your history only shackles you to it. Instead, face it and free yourself. ~ steve-maraboli, @wisdomtrove
166:History may defeat the Christ but it nevertheless points to him as the law of life. ~ reinhold-niebuhr, @wisdomtrove
167:If past history was all there was to the game, the richest people would be librarians. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
168:The theater, for all its artifices, depicts life in a sense more truly than history. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
169:Time travel, by its very nature, was invented in all periods of history simultaneously. ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
170:What is history? An echo of the past in the future; a reflex from the future on the past. ~ victor-hugo, @wisdomtrove
171:History is merely a list of surprises. It can only prepare us to be surprised yet again. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
172:No great man lives in vain. The history of the world is but the biography of great men. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
173:I long for the time when all human history is taught as one history, because it really is. ~ maya-angelou, @wisdomtrove
174:I think so. 9/11 has been a turning point in American history, there's no doubt about that. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
175:Jesus was the most active resister known to history. His was nonviolence par excellence. ~ mahatma-gandhi, @wisdomtrove
176:There are more valid facts and details in works of art than there are in history books. ~ charlie-chaplan, @wisdomtrove
177:History teaches that war begins when governments believe the price of aggression is cheap. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
178:The history of free men is never really written by chance but by choice - their choice ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
179:The history of free men is never really written by chance but by choice; their choice! ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
180:We are the first nation in the history of the world to go to the poorhouse in an automobile. ~ will-rogers, @wisdomtrove
181:History is a record of the incessant struggle of humanity against ignorance and oppression. ~ hellen-keller, @wisdomtrove
182:I don't believe in accidents. There are only encounters in history. There are no accidents. ~ pablo-picasso, @wisdomtrove
183:I know so little about any history. How little do I know even about the history of myself. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
184:Those who do not forgive history are assigned to repeat it until compassion replaces judgment. ~ alan-cohen, @wisdomtrove
185:Your pretty empire took so long to build, now, with a snap of history's fingers, down it goes. ~ alan-moore, @wisdomtrove
186:From the totalitarian point of view, history is something to be created rather than learned. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
187:History is filled with brilliant people who wanted to fix things and just made them worse. ~ chuck-palahniuk, @wisdomtrove
188:I would a great deal rather be anything, say professor of history, than vice president. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
189:The very concept of objective truth is fading out of the world. Lies will pass into history. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
190:What want these outlaws conquerors should have but history's purchased page to call them great? ~ lord-byron, @wisdomtrove
191:A people without history Is not redeemed from time, for history is a pattern Of timeless moments. ~ t-s-eliot, @wisdomtrove
192:Human history can be viewed as a slowly dawning awareness that we are members of a larger group. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
193:I can't understand why I flunked American history. When I was a kid there was so little of it. ~ george-burns, @wisdomtrove
194:Like most passionate nations, Texas has its own history based on, but not limited by, facts. ~ john-steinbeck, @wisdomtrove
195:The child ever dwells in the mystery of ageless time,unobscured by the dust of history. ~ rabindranath-tagore, @wisdomtrove
196:There is no record in human history of a happy philosopher: they exist only in romantic legend. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
197:Africa has no history and did not contribute to anything that mankind enjoyed. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
198:History has to move in a certain direction, even if it has to be pushed that way by neurotics. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
199:History is a realm in which human freedom and natural necessity are curiously intermingled. ~ reinhold-niebuhr, @wisdomtrove
200:If history tells us anything, it is that human culture and knowledge are constantly evolving. ~ james-redfield, @wisdomtrove
201:George W. Bush has gathered around him upper-crust C-students who know no history or geography. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
202:History is a pack of lies about events that never happened told by people who weren't there. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
203:If history teaches anything, it teaches self-delusion in the face of unpleasant facts is folly. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
204:if we do not know our own history, we are doomed to live it as though it were our private fate. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
205:Never throughout history has a man who lived a life of ease left a name worth remembering. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
206:The greatest tragedy in mankind's entire history may be the hijacking of morality by religion. ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
207:If I could have dinner with anyone who lived in history, it would depend on the restaurant. ~ rodney-dangerfield, @wisdomtrove
208:No nation in history has ever survived a tax burden that reached a third of its national income. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
209:The study of history, while it does not endow with prophecy, may indicate lines of probability. ~ john-steinbeck, @wisdomtrove
210:All the true heroes of history will be forgotten and all the villains will be remembered as heroes. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
211:History has stopped. Nothing exists except an endless present in which the Party is always right. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
212:Long before history began we men have got together apart from the women and done things. We had time. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
213:Some women's faces are, in their brightness, a prophecy; and some, in their sadness, a history. ~ charles-dickens, @wisdomtrove
214:The history of what the law has been is necessary to the knowledge of what the law is. ~ oliver-wendell-holmes-jr, @wisdomtrove
215:To study history means submitting to chaos and nevertheless retaining faith in order and meaning. ~ hermann-hesse, @wisdomtrove
216:Madam, you're making history, in fact, you're making me, and I wish you'd keep my hands to yourself ~ groucho-marx, @wisdomtrove
217:A History of Western Philosophy. Book by Bertrand Russell, Book Three, Part I, Chapter 17. Hume, 1945. ~ david-hume, @wisdomtrove
218:If every man could act as he chose, the whole of history would be a tissue of disconnected accidents. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
219:I am not a victim. No matter what I have been through, I'm still here. I have a history of victory. ~ steve-maraboli, @wisdomtrove
220:If history teaches anything, it teaches that self-delusion in the face of unpleasant facts is folly. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
221:History is not the soil of happiness. The periods of happiness are blank pages in it. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
222:In my estimation, more misery has been created by reformers than by any other force in human history. ~ frank-herbert, @wisdomtrove
223:the late twentieth century will go down in history, i'm sure, as an era of pharmaceutical buffoonery. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
224:If all human beings understood history, they might cease making the same stupid mistakes over and over. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
225:The U.S. incarcerates more of its people than any nation in the world, or any nation in history. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
226:American history is not something dead and over. It is always alive,always growing, always unfinished. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
227:History doesn't mean dates and wars and textbooks to me; it means the unconquerable pioneer spirit of man. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
228:I almost never do anything for Black History Month, because I feel it's just another way to separate us. ~ alice-walker, @wisdomtrove
229:The first fact in the history of Christendom is a number of people who say they have seen the Resurrection. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
230:Successful people pay more attention to their visions and goals than to history and the opinions of others. ~ alan-cohen, @wisdomtrove
231:The Bible teaches that history began in the Middle East, and someday history will end in the Middle East. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
232:The history of our spiritual life is a continuing search for the unity between ourselves and the world. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
233:Through the history of our nation, Americans have always extended their hands in gestures of assistance. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
234:Worms have played a more important part in the history of the world than humans would at first suppose. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
235:America has never quite forgiven Europe for having been discovered somewhat earlier in history than itself. ~ oscar-wilde, @wisdomtrove
236:Every library should try to be complete on something, if it were only the history of pinheads. ~ oliver-wendell-holmes-sr, @wisdomtrove
237:He only deserves to be remembered by posterity who treasures up and preserves the history of his ancestors. ~ edmund-burke, @wisdomtrove
238:History, despite its wrenching pain, cannot be unlived, but if faced with courage, need not be lived again. ~ maya-angelou, @wisdomtrove
239:We have wasted History like a bunch of drunks shooting dice back in the men's crapper of the local bar. ~ charles-bukowski, @wisdomtrove
240:... what is peculiar to our own age is the abandonment of the idea that history could be told truthfully. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
241:It is an iron rule of history that what looks inevitable in hindsight was far from obvious at the time. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
242:No matter what your history has been, your destiny is what you create today. What are you going to create? ~ steve-maraboli, @wisdomtrove
243:The history of the world is none other than the progress of the , consciousness of freedom. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
244:This may be the most important proposition revealed by history: At the time, no one knew what was coming. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
245:History is little more than the story of man's sin, and the daily newspaper a running commentary on it. ~ aiden-wilson-tozer, @wisdomtrove
246:It is my ambition to be, as a private individual, abolished and voided from history, leaving it markless. ~ william-faulkner, @wisdomtrove
247:One of history’s few iron laws is that luxuries tend to become necessities and to spawn new obligations. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
248:The most effective way to destroy people is to deny and obliterate their own understanding of their history. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
249:The view of Jerusalem is the history of the world; it is more, it is the history of earth and of heaven. ~ benjamin-disraeli, @wisdomtrove
250:What history teaches us is that neither nations nor governments ever learn anything from it. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
251:Hegel was right when he said that we learn from history that man can never learn anything from history. ~ george-bernard-shaw, @wisdomtrove
252:Advances in medicine and agriculture have saved vastly more lives than have been lost in all the wars in history. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
253:Governments have never learned anything from history, or acted on principles deducted from it. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
254:History deals mainly with captains and kings, gods and prophets, exploiters and despoilers, not with useful men. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
255:History shows that the majority of people that have done anything great have passed their youth in seclusion. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
256:It may be that universal history is the history of the different intonations given a handful of metaphors. ~ jorge-luis-borges, @wisdomtrove
257:The character and history of each child may be a new and poetic experience to the parent, if he will let it. ~ margaret-fuller, @wisdomtrove
258:The history of most women is hidden either by silence, or by flourishes and ornaments that amount to silence. ~ virginia-woolf, @wisdomtrove
259:What keeps you from... living your life as a painful and lovely day in the history of a great pregnancy? ~ rainer-maria-rilke, @wisdomtrove
260:How many ideas have there been in the history of man which were unthinkable ten years before they appeared? ~ fyodor-dostoevsky, @wisdomtrove
261:If you study the history and records of the world you must admit that the source of justice was the fear of injustice. ~ horace, @wisdomtrove
262:The United States of America will sound as pompously in the world or in history as The Kingdom of Great Britain. ~ thomas-paine, @wisdomtrove
263:According to the history of human progress, it is disobedience to nature that has constituted that progress. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
264:India has created a special momentum in world history as a country to be searched for knowledge. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
265:Loves and Cupids took to flight afraid, and Martyrdom had no such torment in its painted history of suffering. ~ charles-dickens, @wisdomtrove
266:Not that which men do worthily, but that which they do successfully, is what history makes haste to record. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
267:That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons of history. ~ aldous-huxley, @wisdomtrove
268:There is no record in the history of a nation that ever gained anything valuable by being unable to defend itself. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
269:The resurrection is a fact better attested than any event recorded in any history, whether ancient or modern. ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
270:Witchcraft was hung, in History, But History and I Find all the Witchcraft that we need Around us, every Day - ~ emily-dickinson, @wisdomtrove
271:History and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. ~ george-washington, @wisdomtrove
272:In tragedy great men are more truly great than in history. We see them only in the crises which unfold them. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
273:Good women are no fun... The only good woman I can recall in history was Betsy Ross. And all she ever made was a flag. ~ mae-west, @wisdomtrove
274:History is a mighty dramos, enacted upon the theatre of times, with suns for lamps and eternity for a background. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
275:How lucky we are to live in this time / the first moment in human history / when we are in fact visiting other worlds ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
276:I think history is collective memories. In writing, I'm using my own memory, and I'm using my collective memory. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
277:Myth is much more important and true than history. History is just journalism and you know how reliable that is. ~ joseph-campbell, @wisdomtrove
278:The aim of art is almost divine: to bring to life again if it is writing history, to create if it is writing poetry. ~ victor-hugo, @wisdomtrove
279:We have the power to make this the best generation of mankind in the history of the world or to make it the last. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
280:Without words, without writing and without books there would be no history, there could be no concept of humanity. ~ hermann-hesse, @wisdomtrove
281:History is a child building a sand-castle by the sea, and that child is the whole majesty of man's power in the world. ~ heraclitus, @wisdomtrove
282:There certainly are moments in history when poets and painters connect so closely as to be one and the same person, ~ william-blake, @wisdomtrove
283:Before the end of Time will be the end of History. Before the end of History will be the end of Art. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
284:This awful catastrophe is not the end but the beginning. History does not end so. It is the way its chapters open. ~ saint-augustine, @wisdomtrove
285:A Lady with a Lamp shall stand In the great history of the land, A noble type of good, Heroic womanhood. ~ henry-wadsworth-longfellow, @wisdomtrove
286:A little library, growing every year, is an honorable part of a man's history. It is a man's duty to have books. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
287:A small body of determined spirits fired by an unquenchable faith in their mission can alter the course of history.  ~ mahatma-gandhi, @wisdomtrove
288:Poetry is finer and more philosophical than history; for poetry expresses the universal, and history only the particular. ~ aristotle, @wisdomtrove
289:Well, for us, in history where goodness is a rare pearl, he who was good almost takes precedence over he who was great. ~ victor-hugo, @wisdomtrove
290:An educated man is not one whose memory is trained to carry a few dates in history - he is one who can accomplish things. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
291:In human history a moral victory is always a disaster, for it debauches and degrades both the victor and the vanquished. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
292:The birth of Christ is the central event in the history of the earth&
293:In the whole history of the world there is but one thing that money cannot buy... to wit&
294:To grow, you must be willing to let your present and future be totally unlike your past. Your history is not your destiny. ~ alan-cohen, @wisdomtrove
295:To the end of history, social orders will probably destroy themselves in an effort to prove they are indestructible. ~ reinhold-niebuhr, @wisdomtrove
296:In all recorded history there has not been one economist who has had to worry about where the next meal would come from. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
297:The great revolution in the history of man, past, present and future, is the revolution of those determined to be free. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
298:This history of culture will explain to us the motives, the conditions of life, and the thought of the writer or reformer. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
299:History is the long and tragic story of the fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
300:Letting go means to come to the realization that some people are a part of your history, but not a part of your destiny. ~ steve-maraboli, @wisdomtrove
301:One little person, giving all of her time to peace, makes news. Many people, giving some of their time, can make history. ~ peace-pilgrim, @wisdomtrove
302:If history repeats itself, and the unexpected always happens, how incapable must Man be of learning from experience! ~ george-bernard-shaw, @wisdomtrove
303:Neither a wise nor a brave man lies down on the tracks of history to wait for the train of the future to run over him. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
304:The better we understand history, the faster history alters its course, and the faster our knowledge becomes outdated. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
305:The heroes of literary history have been no less remarkable for what they have suffered than for what they have achieved. ~ samuel-johnson, @wisdomtrove
306:And the little screaming fact that sounds through all history: repression works only to strengthen and knit the repressed. ~ john-steinbeck, @wisdomtrove
307:The history of mankind is little else than a narrative of designs which have failed and hopes that have been disappointed. ~ samuel-johnson, @wisdomtrove
308:We are in a strange period of history in which a revolutionary has to be a patriot and a patriot has to be a revolutionary. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
309:A broader reading of history shows that appeasement, no matter how it is labeled, never fulfills the hopes of the appeasers. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
310:iPerceptive is centred around the wisdom of history and the empowerment of consciousness through direct experience and mysticism. ~ plotinus, @wisdomtrove
311:It was like a page torn from a history book, from some historical novel about the captivity of babylon or Spanish Inquisition. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
312:We are living at an extraordinary time in human history. And for many of us things are great. Things are great for me. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
313:If history teaches us anything, it teaches that simple-minded appeasement or wishful thinking about our adversaries is folly. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
314:If you look throughout human history ... the central epiphany of every religious tradition always occurs in the wilderness. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
315:The whole history of pop music had rested on the first person singular, with occasional intrusions of the second person singular. ~ brian-eno, @wisdomtrove
317:All the great villainies of history, from the murder of Abel onward, have been perpetrated by sober men, chiefly by Teetotalers. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
318:Fire the committee. No great website in history has been conceived of by more than three people. Not one. This is a deal breaker. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
319:History is but a kind of Newgate calendar, a register of the crimes and miseries that man has inflicted on his fellow-man. ~ washington-irving, @wisdomtrove
320:It is the Soviet Union that runs against the tide of human history by denying human freedom and human dignity to its citizens. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
321:Neither a wise man nor a brave man lies down on the tracks of history to wait for the train of the future to run over him. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
322:All our experience with history should teach us, when we look back, how badly human wisdom is betrayed when it relies on itself ~ martin-luther, @wisdomtrove
323:As Michael (Chekhov)'s pupil, I learned more about acting. I learned psychology, history, and the good manners of art - taste. ~ marilyn-monroe, @wisdomtrove
324:If at times our actions seem to make life difficult for others, it is only because history has made life difficult for us all. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
325:In human history there has been a continuous and growing impulse toward the regeneration and transformation of humanity. ~ barbara-marx-hubbard, @wisdomtrove
326:I often say of George Washington that he was one of the few in the whole history of the world who was not carried away by power. ~ robert-frost, @wisdomtrove
327:No matter what he does, every person on earth plays a central role in the history of the world. And normally he doesn’t know it. ~ paulo-coelho, @wisdomtrove
328:Stern accuracy in inquiring, bold imagination in describing, these are the cogs on which history soars or flutters and wobbles. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
329:The history of men's opposition to women's emancipation is more interesting perhaps than the story of that emancipation itself. ~ virginia-woolf, @wisdomtrove
330:If you know your history, then you would know where you coming from, then you wouldn't have to ask me, who the heck do I think I am. ~ bob-marley, @wisdomtrove
331:You may write me down in history With your bitter, twisted lies. You may trod me in the very dirt, but still like dust, I'll rise. ~ maya-angelou, @wisdomtrove
332:Also, what mountains of dead ashes, wreck and burnt bones, does assiduous pedantry dig up from the past time and name it History. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
333:The history of the human race is the history of ordinary people who have overcome their fears and accomplished extraordinary things. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
334:Throughout our history, We Americans have been willing to meet great challenges and do what is right when our destiny demanded it. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
335:Great is the power of steady misrepresentation; but the history of science shows that fortunately this power does not long endure. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
336:History is a relentless master. It has no present, only the past rushing into the future. To try to hold fast is to be swept aside. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
337:The conviction that everything that happens on earth must be comprehensible to man can lead to interpreting history by commonplaces. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
338:The greatest crimes in modern history resulted not just from hatred and greed, but even more so from ignorance and indifference. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
339:The most important things to remember about back story are that (a) everyone has a history and (b) most of it isn’t very interesting. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
340:We don't want tradition. We want to live in the present and the only history that is worth a tinker's dam is the history we make today. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
341:A boy is a piece of existence quite separate from all things else, and deserves separate chapters in the natural history of men. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
342:History in general is therefore the development of Spirit in Time, as Nature is the development of the Idea is Space. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
343:I'm of the glamorous ladies At whose beckoning history shook. But you are a man, and see only my pan, So I stay at home with a book. ~ dorothy-parker, @wisdomtrove
344:One of the great liabilities of history is that all too many people fail to remain awake through great periods of social change. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
345:After 40 (old age for most of man's history), one should strive to be more or less packed and ready to go were the end call to come. ~ alain-de-botton, @wisdomtrove
346:Faith and force ... are corollaries: every period of history dominated by mysticism, was a period of statism, of dictatorship, of tyranny. ~ ayn-rand, @wisdomtrove
347:Man is the only living species that has the power to act as his own destroyer—and that is the way he has acted through most of his history. ~ ayn-rand, @wisdomtrove
348:The Teutons have been singing the swan song ever since they entered the ranks of history. They have always confounded truth with death. ~ henry-miller, @wisdomtrove
349:History is not the study of the past but the study of change. How people human societies and political systems and economies change. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
350:In the long history of humankind (and animal kind, too) those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
351:Man is the only living species that has the power to act as his own destroyer - and that is the way he has acted through most of his history. ~ ayn-rand, @wisdomtrove
352:On the stage on which we are observing it, — Universal History — Spirit displays itself in its most concrete reality. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
353:I know of no society in human history that ever suffered because its people became too desirous of evidence in support of their core beliefs. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
354:Men have discovered other philosophical and ethical systems, but they have not found another Jesus Christ. No one in history can match Him. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
355:The law is the witness and external deposit of our moral life. Its history is the history of the moral development of the race. ~ oliver-wendell-holmes-jr, @wisdomtrove
356:History is an account mostly false of events mostly unimportant which are brought about by rulers mostly knaves and soldiers mostly fools. ~ ambrose-bierce, @wisdomtrove
357:Never question the power of one! Throughout history it has been the actions of only one person who has in inspired the movement of change. ~ steve-maraboli, @wisdomtrove
358:The marvel of all history is the patience with which men and women submit to burdens unnecessarily laid upon them by their governments. ~ george-washington, @wisdomtrove
359:Universal history, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
360:History has to be rewritten because history is the selection of those threads of causes or antecedents that we are interested in. ~ oliver-wendell-holmes-jr, @wisdomtrove
361:Nothing which is true or beautiful or good makes complete sense in any immediate context of history; therefore we must be saved by faith. ~ reinhold-niebuhr, @wisdomtrove
362:The history of our era is the nauseating and repulsive history of the crucifixion of the procreative body for the glorification ofthe spirit. ~ d-h-lawrence, @wisdomtrove
363:The United States was the first country in the history of the world to be consciously created out of an idea - and the idea was liberty. ~ nathaniel-branden, @wisdomtrove
364:Yes, your family history has some sad chapters. But your history doesn't have to be your future. The generational garbage can stop here and now. ~ max-lucado, @wisdomtrove
365:People are usually afraid of change because they fear the unknown. But the single greatest constant of history is that everything changes. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
366:What would become of history, had we not a dependence on the veracity of the historian, according to the experience, what we have had of mankind? ~ david-hume, @wisdomtrove
367:History has repeatedly been changed by people who had the desire and the ability to transfer their convictions and emotions to their listeners. ~ dale-carnegie, @wisdomtrove
368:The advantages found in history seem to be of three kinds, as it amuses the fancy, as it improves the understanding, and as it strengthens virtue. ~ david-hume, @wisdomtrove
369:Art, at least, teaches us that man cannot be explained by history alone and that he also finds a reason for his existence in the order of nature. ~ albert-camus, @wisdomtrove
370:If the parents in each generation always or often knew what really goes on at their sons' schools, the history of education would be very different. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
371:Let us resolve to be masters, not the victims, of our history, controlling our own destiny without giving way to blind suspicions and emotions. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
372:Those who weep for the happy periods which they encounter in history acknowledge what they want; not the alleviation but the silencing of misery. ~ albert-camus, @wisdomtrove
373:If the only significant history of human thought were to be written, it would have to be the history of its successive regrets and its impotences. ~ albert-camus, @wisdomtrove
374:Man passes away; his name perishes from record and recollection; his history is as a tale that is told, and his very monument becomes a ruin. ~ washington-irving, @wisdomtrove
375:The good things in history are usually of very short duration, but afterward have a decisive influence on what happens over long periods of time. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
376:The most heinous and the most cruel crimes of which history has record have been committed under the cover of religion or equally noble motives. ~ mahatma-gandhi, @wisdomtrove
377:If you learn music, you'll learn history. If you learn music, you'll learn mathematics. If you learn music, you'll learn most all there is to learn. ~ edgar-cayce, @wisdomtrove
378:In history, a great volume is unrolled for our instruction, drawing the materials of future wisdom from the past errors and infirmities of mankind. ~ edmund-burke, @wisdomtrove
379:The human intellect has not been able to conceive of anything more noble and sublime in the history of the world than the teachings of the Upanishads. ~ sivananda, @wisdomtrove
380:We humans appear on the cosmic calendar so recently that our recorded history occupies only the last few seconds of the last minute of December 31st. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
381:While my interest in natural history has added very little to my sum of achievement, it has added immeasurably to my sum of enjoyment in life. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
382:At the bottom there is no perfect history; there is none such conceivable. All past centuries have rotted down, and gone confusedly dumb and quiet. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
383:Christ is the great central fact in the world's history. To Him everything looks forward or backward. All the lines of history converge upon Him. ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
384:Great men are the inspired texts of that divine Book of Revelations, whereof a chapter is completed from epoch to epoch, and by some named History. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
385:History is the depository of great actions, the witness of what is past, the example and instructor of the present, and monitor to the future. ~ miguel-de-cervantes, @wisdomtrove
386:Knowing how to deal with change effectively is a primary requirement for living successfully in perhaps the most exciting time in all of human history ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
387:In more than one respect, the exploring of the Solar System and homesteading other worlds constitutes the beginning, much more than the end, of history. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
388:Sometimes life takes hold of one, carries the body along, accomplishes one's history, and yet is not real, but leaves oneself as it were slurred over. ~ d-h-lawrence, @wisdomtrove
389:The writing of history is largely a process of diversion. Most historical accounts distract attention from the secret influences behind great events. ~ frank-herbert, @wisdomtrove
390:Because Fascism is a lie, it is condemned to literary sterility. And when it is past, it will have no history, except the bloody history of murder. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
391:Freedom has always been an expensive thing. History is fit testimony to the fact that freedom is rarely gained without sacrifice and self-denial. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
392:History isn’t a single narrative, but thousands of alternative narratives. Whenever we choose to tell one, we are also choosing to silence others. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
393:If we could read the secret history of our enemies we should find in each man's life sorrow and suffering enough to disarm all hostility. ~ henry-wadsworth-longfellow, @wisdomtrove
394:They did not know what we can now guess at, contemplating the course of history: that change begins in the soul before it appears in ordinary existence. ~ franz-kafka, @wisdomtrove
395:We're both [with Elie Wiesel] a long way from the position of the so-called Biblical minimalists. Some of them see no history in the Bible until Josiah. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
396:It would be wryly interesting if in human history the cultivation of marijuana led generally to the invention of agriculture, and thereby to civilization. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
397:As you know, I describe Shirat ha-Yam as part of an epic story that has qualities of history and which also has qualities of the mythological, of an epic. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
398:Religions, which condemn the pleasures of sense, drive men to seek the pleasures of power. Throughout history power has been the vice of the ascetic. ~ bertrand-russell, @wisdomtrove
399:The history of science is full of revolutionary advances that required small insights that anyone might have had, but that, in fact, only one person did. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
400:As a Christian I take it for granted that human history will some day end; and I am offering Omniscience no advice as to the best date for that consummation. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
401:Nonviolence is a powerful and just weapon. Indeed, it is a weapon unique in history, which cuts without wounding and ennobles the man who wields it. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
402:America is therefore the land of the future, where, in the ages that lie before us, the burden of the World's History shall reveal itself. ~ georg-wilhelm-friedrich-hegel, @wisdomtrove
403:As to the book called the bible, it is blasphemy to call it the Word of God. It is a book of lies and contradictions and a history of bad times and bad men. ~ thomas-paine, @wisdomtrove
404:Remember that all through history, there have been tyrants and murderers, and for a time, they seem invincible. But in the end, they always fall. Always.  ~ mahatma-gandhi, @wisdomtrove
405:If this capsule history of our progress teaches us anything, it is that man, in his quest for knowledge and progress, is determined and cannot be deterred. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
406:Marxism: The theory that all the important things in history are rooted in an economic motive, that history is a science, a science of the search for food. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
407:There is an awful lot of difference between reading something and actually seeing it, for you can never tell, till you see it, just how big a liar History is. ~ will-rogers, @wisdomtrove
408:You go to school, you study about the Germans and the French, but not about your own race. I hope the time will come when you study black history too. ~ booker-t-washington, @wisdomtrove
409:Books tap the wisdom of our species - the greatest minds, the best teachers - from all over the world and from all our history. And they're patient. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
410:Never, in the history of the world, has there been such abundant opportunity as there is now for the person who is willing to serve before trying to collect. ~ napoleon-hill, @wisdomtrove
411:Has it ever occurred to you,' he said, &
412:It may be doubted that there are many other animals which have played so important a part in the history of the world as have these lowly organized creatures. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
413:The history of my life is the history of the struggle between an overwhelming urge to write and a combination of circumstances bent on keeping me from it. ~ f-scott-fitzgerald, @wisdomtrove
414:All human history attests That happiness for man, - the hungry sinner! - Since Eve ate apples, much depends on dinner. ~Lord Byron, Don Juan, Canto XIII, stanza 99 ~ lord-byron, @wisdomtrove
415:For my part, I consider that it will be found much better by all parties to leave the past to history, especially as I propose to write that history myself. ~ winston-churchill, @wisdomtrove
416:All that is observable in a man-that is to say his actions and such of his spiritual existence as can be deduced from his actions-falls into the domain of history. ~ e-m-forster, @wisdomtrove
417:I have tried and I cannot find, either in scripture or in history, a strong-willed individual whom God used greatly until He allowed them to be hurt deeply. ~ charles-r-swindoll, @wisdomtrove
418:In the long run, the world is going to have the best, and any difference in race, religion, or previous history will not keep the world from what it wants. ~ booker-t-washington, @wisdomtrove
419:The history of our spiritual life is a continuing search for the unity between ourselves and the world. Religion, art, and science follow, one and all, this aim. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
420:From their experience or from the recorded experience of others (history), men learn only what their passions and their metaphysical prejudices allow them to learn. ~ aldous-huxley, @wisdomtrove
421:Prayer is the forerunner of mercy. Turn to sacred history, and you will find that scarecely ever did a great mercy come to this world unheralded by supplication. ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
422:Religion is a history of wickedness that has served to corrupt and brutalize humankind; and, for my part, I sincerely detest it as I detest everything that is cruel. ~ thomas-paine, @wisdomtrove
423:History, as it lies at the root of all science, is also the first distinct product of man's spiritual nature, his earliest expression of what may be called thought. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
424:Every major horror of history was committed in the name of an altruistic motive. Has any act of selfishness ever equalled the carnage perpetrated by disciples of altruism. ~ ayn-rand, @wisdomtrove
425:Of all the multitudes who throughout history have spoken for human dignity in times of great suffering and loss, no voice is more compelling than that of Anne Frank. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
426:You identify with your self. You have a personal history. You have commitments. There are things that you want to experience and other things that you want to avoid. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
427:And like no other sculpture in the history of art, the dead engine and dead airframe come to life at the touch of a human hand, and join their life with the pilot's own. ~ richard-bach, @wisdomtrove
428:The epitaph that I would write for history would say: I conceal nothing. It is not enough not to lie. One should strive not to lie in a negative sense by remaining silent. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
429:The only event in the history of our species that compares with this one is Genesis. And this is a new kind of Genesis, the Genesis of our species into conscious awareness. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
430:To write history one must be more than a man, since the author who holds the pen of this great justiciary must be free from all preoccupation of interest or vanity. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
431:After such knowledge, what forgiveness? Think now History has many cunning passages, contrived corridors And issues, deceives with whispering ambitions Guides us by vanities. ~ t-s-eliot, @wisdomtrove
432:History comes and history goes, but principles endure, and ensure future generations will defend liberty not as a gift from government but as a blessing from our Creator. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
433:I know this will come as a shock to you, Mr. Goldwyn, but in all history, which has held billions and billions of human beings, not a single one ever had a happy ending. ~ dorothy-parker, @wisdomtrove
434:It must be recognized that the real truths of history are hard to discover. Happily, for the most part, they are rather matters of curiosity than of real importance. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
435:Now I basically just read spy stories because they're about solving a puzzle within the constraints of history. It's the tick tock, the clockwork that I'm interested in. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
436:... one may say anything about the history of the world - anything that might enter the most disordered imagination. The only thing one can't say is that it's rational. ~ fyodor-dostoevsky, @wisdomtrove
437:[Shirat ha-Yam ] is one of the earliest, if not the earliest, pieces of Biblical literature that we possess. It is much closer to history than later traditions of the Exodus. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
438:In known history, nobody has had such capacity for altering the universe than the people of the United States of America. And nobody has gone about it in such an aggressive way. ~ alan-watts, @wisdomtrove
439:As people get more desperate, history suggests that they're not going to rise in a mighty proletarian tidal wave and wash away their oppressors. They're gonna turn on each other. ~ alan-moore, @wisdomtrove
440:Sooner I'd try to change history than turn political, than try convincing others to write letters or to vote or to march or to do something they didn't already feel like doing. ~ richard-bach, @wisdomtrove
441:The history of mankind is a perennial tragedy; for the highest ideals which the individual may project are ideals which he can never realize in social and collective terms. ~ reinhold-niebuhr, @wisdomtrove
442:The idea that any one of our religions represents the infallible word of the One True God requires an encyclopedic ignorance of history, mythology, and art even to be entertained. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
443:The liberality of sentiment toward each other, which marks every political and religious denomination of men in this country, stands unparalleled in the history of nations. ~ george-washington, @wisdomtrove
444:... It would be more consistent that we call [the Bible] the work of a demon than the word of God. It is a history of wickedness that has served to corrupt and brutalize mankind. ~ thomas-paine, @wisdomtrove
445:The Holocaust is the most documented tragedy in recorded history. And therefore, later on, if there will be a later on, anyone wishing to know will know where to go for knowledge. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
446:Virtually every major technological advance in the history of the human species - back to the invention of stone tools and the domestication of fire - has been ethically ambiguous. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
447:We are living through the most exciting, challenging and most critical time in human history. Never before has so much been possible; and never before has so much been at stake. ~ peter-russell, @wisdomtrove
448:The world's battlefields have been in the heart chiefly; more heroism has been displayed in the household and the closet, than on the most memorable battlefields in history. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
449:What is all Knowledge too but recorded Experience, and a product of History; of which, therefore, Reasoning and Belief, no less than Action and Passion, are essential materials? ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
450:Man, as man, has never realized himself. The greater part of him, his potential being, has always been submerged. What is history if not the endless story of his repeated failures? ~ henry-miller, @wisdomtrove
451:When the Sun shrinks to a dull red dwarf, it will not be dying. It will just be starting to live and everything that has gone before will merely be a prelude to its real history. ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
452:Who do you suppose invented computers? Speaking in terms relevant to you, in terms of earth history, let alone other worldly history, the computer, of course, came from Atlantis. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
453:For words are magical formulae. They leave finger marks be hind on the brain, which in the twinkling of an eye become the footprints of history. One ought to watch one' s every word. ~ franz-kafka, @wisdomtrove
454:History is in a manner a sacred thing, so far as it contains truth; for where truth is, the supreme Father of it may also be said to be, at least, inasmuch as concerns truth. ~ miguel-de-cervantes, @wisdomtrove
455:History is full of people who out of fear, or ignorance, or lust for power has destroyed knowledge of immeasurable value which truly belongs to us all. We must not let it happen again. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
456:At my age I'm exactly the kind of person who has lived through one of the most quickly changing periods known to history. Surely there could never be in seventy years so much change. ~ j-r-r-tolkien, @wisdomtrove
457:It all happened so fast. The ghetto. The deportation. The sealed cattle car. The fiery altar upon which the history of our people and the future of mankind were meant to be sacrificed. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
458:LSD reinforced my sense of what was important-creating great things instead of making money, putting things back into the stream of history and of human consciousness as much as I could. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
459:In terms of evolutionary history, it was only yesterday that men learned to walk around on two legs and get in trouble thinking complicated thoughts. So don't worry, you'll burn out. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
460:And some things that should not have been forgotten were lost. History became legend. Legend became myth. And for two and a half thousand years, the ringÔªø passed out of all knowledge. ~ j-r-r-tolkien, @wisdomtrove
461:History can be formed from permanent monuments and records; but lives can only be written from personal knowledge, which is growing every day less, and in a short time is lost forever. ~ samuel-johnson, @wisdomtrove
462:If we have learned one thing from the history of invention and discovery, it is that, in the long run-and often in the short one-the most daring prophecies seem laughably conservative. ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
463:One truth stands firm. All that happens in world history rests on something spiritual. If the spiritual is strong, it creates world history. If it is weak, it suffers world history. ~ albert-schweitzer, @wisdomtrove
464:Real solemn history, I cannot be interested in... . The quarrels of popes and kings, with wars and pestilences in every page; the men all so good for nothing, and hardly any women at all. ~ jane-austen, @wisdomtrove
465:We are at a crossroads in human history. Never before has there been a moment so simultaneously perilous and promising. We are the first species to have taken evolution into our own hands. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
466:I have scary eyes. I look like the guy in &
467:Many of the greatest tyrants on the records of history have begun their reigns in the fairest manner. But the truth is, this unnatural power corrupts both the heart and the understanding. ~ edmund-burke, @wisdomtrove
468:No cause is left but the most ancient of all, the one, in fact, that from the beginning of our history has determined the very existence of politics, the cause of freedom versus tyranny. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
469:Disneyland is often called a magic kingdom because it combines fantasy and history, adventure and learning, together with every variety of recreation and fun designed to appeal to everyone. ~ walt-disney, @wisdomtrove
470:For my part, I love to give myself up to the illusion of poetry. A hero of fiction that never existed is just as valuable to me as a hero of history that existed a thousand years ago. ~ washington-irving, @wisdomtrove
471:History will have to record that the greatest tragedy of this period of social transition was not the strident clamor of the bad people, but the appalling silence of the good people. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
472:And when you discover what you will be in your life, set out to do it as if God Almighty called you at this particular moment in history to do it. Don't just set out to do a good job. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
473:History may be servitude. History may be freedom. See, now they vanish. The faces and places, with the self which, as it could, loved them, to become renewed, transfigured, in another pattern. ~ t-s-eliot, @wisdomtrove
474:The entire sweep of human history from the dark ages into the unknown future was considerably less important at the moment than the question of a certain girl and her feelings toward him. ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
475:Now, when I hear that Christians are getting together in order to defend the people of Israel, of course it brings joy to my heart. And it simply says, look, people have learned from history. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
476:Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, we were here. Before the pen of Jefferson etched across the pages of history the majestic words of the Declaration of Independence, we were here. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
477:In times of danger large groups rise to the highest pitch of enthusiasm, courage and sacrifice . . . Mankind will be refashioned and history rewritten when this law is understood and obeyed. ~ hellen-keller, @wisdomtrove
478:Since we do not take a man on his past history, we do not refuse him because of his past history. I never met a man who was thoroughly bad. There is always some good in him if he gets a chance. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
479:The theatre, for all its artifices, depicts life in a sense more truly than history, because the medium has a kindred movement to that of real life, though an artificial setting and form. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
480:A man acquainted with history may, in some respect, be said to have lived from the beginning of the world, and to have been making continual additions to his stock of knowledge in every century. ~ david-hume, @wisdomtrove
481:Geography has made us neighbors. History has made us friends. Economics has made us partners, and necessity has made us allies. Those whom God has so joined together, let no man put asunder. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
482:Other men are known to posterity only through the medium of history, which is continually growing faint and obscure; but the intercourse between the author and his fellow-men is ever new, ~ washington-irving, @wisdomtrove
483:The struggle between Liberty and Authority is the most conspicuous feature in the portions of history with which we are earliest familiar; particularly in that of Greece, Rome, and England ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
484:All the ills of mankind, all the tragic misfortunes that fill the history books, all the political blunders, all the failures of the great leaders have arisen merely from a lack of skill at dancing. ~ moliere, @wisdomtrove
485:But all history has taught us the grim lesson that no nation has ever been successful in avoiding the terrors of war by refusing to defend its rights - by attempting to placate aggression. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
486:Do what experts since the dawn of recorded history have told you you must do: pay the price by becoming the person you want to become. It's not nearly as difficult as living unsuccessfully. ~ earl-nightingale, @wisdomtrove
487:In all history there is no war which was not hatched by the governments, the governments alone, independent of the interests of the people, to whom war is always pernicious even when successful. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
488:The heart of Christianity is a myth which is also a fact. The old myth of the Dying God, without ceasing to be a myth, comes down from the heaven of legend and imagination to the earth of history. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
489:and Mrs. Boffin sat staring at mid-air, and Mrs. Wilfer sat silently giving them to understand that every breath she drew required to be drawn with a self-denial rarely paralleled in history. ~ charles-dickens, @wisdomtrove
490:A woman's whole life is a history of the affections. The heart is her world: it is there her ambition strives for empire; it is there her avarice seeks for hidden treasures. She sends forth ~ washington-irving, @wisdomtrove
491:In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility - I welcome it. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
492:I try not to think about legacy because it is all folly. If you study history, even recent history, you'll find many people who were quite significant in their time but are completely forgotten. ~ steve-martin, @wisdomtrove
493:It will be one of the tragedies of Christian history if future historians record that at the height of the twentieth century the church was one of the greatest bulwarks of white supremacy. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
494:Go over to Greece with the Iliad and Odyssey. These have elements of history, and they have non-historical elements. It's very difficult to pull them apart. And I think there's not much reason to. ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
495:No amphibious attack in history has approached this one in size. Along miles of coastline there were hundreds of vessels and small boats afloat and ant-like files of advancing troops ashore. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
496:The history of the world, as it is written and handed down by word of mouth, often fails us completely; but man's intuitive capacity, though it often misleads, does lead, does not ever abandon one. ~ franz-kafka, @wisdomtrove
497:To a surprising extent the war-lords in shining armour, the apostles of martial virtues, tend not to die fighting when time comes. History is full of ignominious getaways by the great and famous. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
498:History, that is to say, the unconscious, universal life of humanity, in the aggregate, every moment profits by the life of kings for itself, as an instrument for the accomplishment of its own ends. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
499:We should consider the histories of Christ three manner of ways; first, as a history of acts or legends; second, as a gift or a present; thirdly, as an example, which we should believe and follow. ~ martin-luther, @wisdomtrove
500:Religion should be disentangled as much as possible from history and authority and metaphysics, and made to rest honestly on one's fine feelings, on one's indomitable optimism and trust in life. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:history of heredity ~ Carl Zimmer,
2:history. Henry Ford ~ Sean Patrick,
3:History is not hatred. ~ Malcolm X,
4:was a risky move, ~ Hourly History,
5:History is a needle ~ Leonard Cohen,
6:I am a fan of history. ~ Tom T Hall,
7:A people without history ~ T S Eliot,
8:History is His story. ~ James Packer,
9:History is Storytelling. ~ Yaa Gyasi,
10:History's a resource. ~ Laura Linney,
11:History – the new sex. ~ Jodi Taylor,
12:Desire has no history. ~ Susan Sontag,
13:History is only gossip. ~ Oscar Wilde,
14:No future without history ~ Anonymous,
15:Strip malls are history. ~ Jeff Bezos,
16:All history is a lie! ~ Robert Walpole,
17:Freedom has no history. ~ Andrew Cohen,
18:History is merely gossip ~ Oscar Wilde,
19:History is never tidy. ~ Antony Beevor,
20:History repeats itself. ~ George Eliot,
21:It's up to history to judge. ~ Pol Pot,
22:Men make their own history ~ Karl Marx,
23:Desire has no history... ~ Susan Sontag,
24:History is also a river. ~ Stephen King,
25:History teaches us hope. ~ Robert E Lee,
26:You can't buy history new. ~ N D Wilson,
27:A king is history's slave. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
28:History is story, too. ~ Thomas C Foster,
29:Not a stone but has its history. ~ Lucan,
30:The dignity of history. ~ Henry Fielding,
31:The history of the cosmos ~ D H Lawrence,
32:was needed. Businessmen ~ Hourly History,
33:History always mattered. ~ Erika Johansen,
34:History is fables agreed upon. ~ Voltaire,
35:History repeats herself. ~ Jennifer Stone,
36:It's history. It's poetry. ~ J D Salinger,
37:It’s history. It’s poetry. ~ J D Salinger,
38:I wish to work miracles. ~ Hourly History,
39:The victors rewrite history ~ Lauren Kate,
40:The Virgin of the Rocks, ~ Hourly History,
41:Yesterday is history ~ Justin Timberlake,
42:History is more or less bunk. ~ Henry Ford,
43:History! Read it and weep! ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
44:No history is ever unbiased. ~ Ann Aguirre,
45:Secret History of the Mongols: ~ Anonymous,
46:diluted the silver content ~ Hourly History,
47:DNA isn’t destiny—it’s history. ~ Anonymous,
48:Glimpses of World History, ~ Fareed Zakaria,
49:Happy people have no history. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
50:History doesn't have a curfew. ~ John Green,
51:History is a bath of blood. ~ William James,
52:History is a ghost story. ~ Cressida Cowell,
53:History is the new poetry. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
54:History is the third parent. ~ Nadeem Aslam,
55:History is written by winners. ~ Alex Haley,
56:Humans don't learn from history ~ Matt Haig,
57:It's all a matter of history. ~ Anne Sexton,
58:It wasn’t my history to tell. ~ Violet Duke,
59:Progress is hard on history. ~ Justina Chen,
60:We cannot escape history. ~ Abraham Lincoln,
61:a history teacher. I work, ~ Danielle Monsch,
62:History: gossip well told. ~ Elbert Hubbard,
63:History in live performance. ~ Arundhati Roy,
64:History is a quest for truth. ~ S L Bhyrappa,
65:History is coming for the empire. ~ Kem Nunn,
66:History is still happening ~ Godfried Bomans,
67:History - the devil's scripture ~ Lord Byron,
68:War is not women's history. ~ Virginia Woolf,
69:Well, everybody has a history. ~ Saul Bellow,
70:God cannot act in history—that ~ Benedict XVI,
71:History is a bucket of ashes. ~ Samuel Butler,
72:History is irony on the move. ~ Emil M Cioran,
73:History is not was, it is. ~ William Faulkner,
74:I'm not sure history has ended. ~ John Bolton,
75:My history defines who I am. ~ Simone Elkeles,
77:St. Jerome in the Wilderness ~ Hourly History,
78:Destiny and history are untidy. ~ Djuna Barnes,
79:History is a great dust heap. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
80:History is all about 'what ifs ~ Kate Atkinson,
81:History made when mindset changed. ~ Toba Beta,
82:History will treat me right. ~ Ralph Abernathy,
83:I'd prefer her story than history. ~ Toba Beta,
84:I'm a big stupid history nerd. ~ Emilie Autumn,
85:Kings are the slaves of history. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
86:only the victors wrote history. ~ Gina LaManna,
87:Work Hard, have fun, make history ~ Jeff Bezos,
88:A King should die on his feet. ~ Hourly History,
89:All history is biography. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
90:All history was at first oral. ~ Samuel Johnson,
91:Black history is black horror. ~ Tananarive Due,
92:History is a stern judge. ~ Svetlana Alliluyeva,
93:History seems to be so clumsy. ~ Robert Johnson,
94:Homo Deus: A Brief History of ~ Timothy Ferriss,
95:Read about the history of magic. ~ Andrew Mayne,
96:The first rough draft of history. ~ Ben Bradlee,
97:The process of history is combustion. ~ Novalis,
98:War makes rattling good history. ~ Thomas Hardy,
99:World history is tragic. ~ Friedrich Durrenmatt,
100:You can't outrun the history train ~ Paul Simon,
101:Grace can and does have a history. ~ Karl Rahner,
102:History always repeats itself ~ Gerald J Kubicki,
103:History is absolutely my thing. ~ Sharon Cameron,
104:History is a symptom of our disease ~ Mao Zedong,
105:History is filled with fictional people. ~ Robyn,
106:History is no criminal court ~ Leopold von Ranke,
107:history is the negation of nature. ~ John Zerzan,
108:I'm a golfer not a history major. ~ Bubba Watson,
109:Landscape is history made visible. ~ J B Jackson,
110:s past history and stand alone. ~ Marion Woodman,
111:The camera is the eye of history. ~ Mathew Brady,
112:There is no humorist like history. ~ Will Durant,
113:A turning point in modern history. ~ Robert Frost,
114:History belongs to the intercessors ~ Walter Wink,
115:History develops, art stands still. ~ E M Forster,
116:History is a relay of revolutions. ~ Saul Alinsky,
117:History is rooted in the future ~ Terence McKenna,
118:History is the memory of a nation ~ Thomas Sowell,
119:Human history is a Gaian dream. ~ Terence McKenna,
120:Politics is history in the making. ~ Adolf Hitler,
121:We are all citizens of history. ~ Clifton Fadiman,
122:America has always imported history. ~ Helmut Jahn,
123:History: A distillation of rumor. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
124:History is a madman's museum. ~ Jeanette Winterson,
125:History is as Old as My Grandfather ~ Adolf Hitler,
126:History is only a value of relation. ~ Henry Adams,
127:History is simply what's behind us. ~ Brad Meltzer,
128:History is the key to citizenship. ~ Taylor Branch,
129:History is the memory of States. ~ Henry Kissinger,
130:History is the seed bed of the future. ~ Leo Booth,
131:History is written by the winners ~ Daniel Handler,
132:History passes the final judgment ~ Sidney Poitier,
133:I have been all men known to history, ~ R S Thomas,
134:Im sick of making bloody history. ~ Patrick Rafter,
135:Institutions do live on their history. ~ Bob Hawke,
136:I think you can learn from history. ~ Chuck Norris,
137:I want to go down in history. ~ Haile Gebrselassie,
138:Learning never exhausts the mind. ~ Hourly History,
139:Our past has gone into history. ~ William McKinley,
140:Sometimes - history needs a push. ~ Vladimir Lenin,
141:There is no history, only histories. ~ Karl Popper,
142:When literacy died, so had history. ~ Walter Tevis,
143:Work hard, have fun and make history. ~ Jeff Bezos,
144:You can't just wipe away your history. ~ T J Klune,
145:Donna Tartt’s The Secret History. Annie ~ Greg Iles,
146:Each day is a drive through history. ~ Jim Morrison,
147:History: a collection of epitaphs. ~ Elbert Hubbard,
148:History has failed us, but no matter. ~ Min Jin Lee,
149:History is the lie commonly agreed upon. ~ Voltaire,
150:History is the lies of the victors. ~ Julian Barnes,
151:History is time that won't quit. ~ Suzan Lori Parks,
152:History should be written as philosophy. ~ Voltaire,
153:No generation can escape history. ~ George H W Bush,
154:Stand up and walk out of your history ~ Phil McGraw,
155:The Virgin and Child with St. Anne ~ Hourly History,
156:And thus did Storyville become history. ~ Gary Krist,
157:A revolution is not a bed of roses. ~ Hourly History,
158:Biography is the only true history. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
159:Fiction is the history of the obscure. ~ Jill Lepore,
160:History does not unfold: it piles up. ~ Robert Adams,
161:History is a lie commonly agreed upon. ~ Oscar Wilde,
162:History is cyclic, not repetitive. ~ Samuel R Delany,
163:History is happening here and now. ~ Paul Fleischman,
164:History is the memory of States. ~ Henry A Kissinger,
165:History is the study of the world's crime ~ Voltaire,
166:History is written by the victors. ~ Walter Benjamin,
167:History paints the human heart. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte,
168:Ideals are peaceful. History is violent. ~ Brad Pitt,
169:I did not come to NASA to make history. ~ Sally Ride,
170:I normally ignore the History Channel. ~ Diablo Cody,
171:Much more than memoir; it's history. ~ Russell Banks,
172:Patterns repeat themselves in history ~ Rick Riordan,
173:Throughout history, ideas need patrons. ~ Matt Kibbe,
174:Who writes history? I thought. I do. ~ Tara Westover,
175:4.2-kiloyear BP aridification event, ~ Hourly History,
176:History could make a stone weep. ~ Marilynne Robinson,
177:History is an accumulation of error. ~ Norman Cousins,
178:History isn't through with me yet. ~ Ferdinand Marcos,
179:HISTORY Sunday, November 13th, 2016 My ~ Adam Silvera,
180:History teaches, but has no pupils. ~ Antonio Gramsci,
181:I do not love fiction, I love history. ~ Duane Hanson,
182:instead of being in history he was in love ~ Mal Peet,
183:It feels good to be a part of history. ~ Kevin Durant,
184:It is history that teaches us to hope. ~ Robert E Lee,
185:Literature is the history of the soul. ~ Barry Hannah,
186:Longing on a large scale makes history. ~ Don DeLillo,
187:My inspiration is love and history. ~ Waris Ahluwalia,
188:People butcher history all the time, ~ Rebecca Skloot,
189:People who behave rarely make history. ~ Josh Linkner,
190:Poetry is nearer to vital truth than history. ~ Plato,
191:The best fiction is truer than history ~ Thomas Hardy,
192:the history; that was the glory of Miss ~ Jane Austen,
193:The longest suicide note in history. ~ Gerald Kaufman,
194:All history is contemporary history. ~ Benedetto Croce,
195:Art history is always changing too. ~ Aung San Suu Kyi,
196:But I regret not having liked history. ~ Eva Herzigova,
197:History after all is the true poetry. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
198:History and man made each other. ~ Mokokoma Mokhonoana,
199:History doesn't repeat itself; it rhymes. ~ Mark Twain,
200:History gets written by the winners. ~ Cassandra Clare,
201:History is riddled with blood and sin. ~ John Eldredge,
202:History is the best guide to the future. ~ Bill Dedman,
203:History is the teacher of life ~ Marcus Tullius Cicero,
204:History is written by the victor. ~ Guillermo del Toro,
205:History is written by the victors. ~ Winston Churchill,
206:History provides no precise guidelines. ~ Douglas Hurd,
207:history takes a long time to happen. ~ Gregory Maguire,
208:I loved psychology and I loved history. ~ Joely Fisher,
209:In France, history is paralyzing. ~ Jean Paul Gaultier,
210:I studied film history at Colombia ~ John Joseph Adams,
211:Journalism is the first draft of history ~ Phil Graham,
212:Live in the moment. Moments make history. ~ Nikki Sixx,
213:Patriotism ruins history. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
214:Politics is history in the present tense. ~ John Avlon,
215:The curves of your lips rewrite history. ~ Oscar Wilde,
216:There are no inevitabilities in history ~ Paul Johnson,
217:This is history written in lightning. ~ Woodrow Wilson,
218:Thomas Macaulay’s History of England ~ Michael Shelden,
219:Well-behaved women seldom make history. ~ Chris Colfer,
220:What man is, only his history tells. ~ Wilhelm Dilthey,
221:A lot of things in history change over time. ~ Jeb Bush,
222:An individual is no match for history. ~ Roberto Bola o,
223:As an actor, you have to have your history. ~ Nora Dunn,
224:Beneath every history, another history. ~ Hilary Mantel,
225:Blood alone moves the wheels of history ~ Martin Luther,
226:Don't forget your history nor your destiny ~ Bob Marley,
227:History always catches up with rebels. ~ Lucy R Lippard,
228:History can only hurt us if we let it. ~ Louise Douglas,
229:History has to live with what was here, ~ Robert Lowell,
230:History is a collection of agreed upon lies. ~ Voltaire,
231:History is a long time in the making. ~ Gregory Maguire,
232:History is a ship forever setting sail. ~ Tracy K Smith,
233:History is biology's dumping ground ~ Carlos Ruiz Zaf n,
234:History is clarified experience. ~ James Russell Lowell,
235:History is full of surprises. ~ Arthur M Schlesinger Jr,
236:History is one damn thing after another. ~ H A L Fisher,
237:History is Philosophy teaching by example. ~ Thucydides,
238:History is the distillation of rumour. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
239:History is written by the winners. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte,
240:History is written by the winners. ~ Napol on Bonaparte,
241:History remembers the darkest moments. ~ Scott Reintgen,
242:I try to put my own history in my work. ~ Molly Shannon,
243:Most of us get our history through story. ~ Yann Martel,
244:[News is] a first rough draft of history. ~ Phil Graham,
245:Our best history is still poetry. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
246:Revolutions are the locomotives of history. ~ Karl Marx,
247:The history of mankind is a history of war. ~ Mike Love,
248:Today is reality. Yesterday is history. ~ Prince Andrew,
249:What is history but a fable agreed upon? ~ Heidi Heilig,
250:World history is the world's court ~ Friedrich Schiller,
251:You make history when you do business. ~ Barbara Kruger,
252:Alternative history is a parlor game. ~ Richard A Clarke,
253:Blood alone moves the wheels of history. ~ Martin Luther,
254:Happy is the nation without a history. ~ Cesare Beccaria,
255:Her need to shape memory into history. ~ Charles Frazier,
256:History always catches up with rebels". ~ Lucy R Lippard,
257:History doesn't crawl; it leaps. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
258:History gets written by the winners... ~ Cassandra Clare,
259:history is a living thing that never dies. ~ Jon Meacham,
260:History is a set of lies agreed upon. ~ Jonathan Maberry,
261:History is a vast early warning system. ~ Norman Cousins,
262:History is littered with dead good men ~ Joe Abercrombie,
263:History is the science of people. ~ Jose Ortega y Gasset,
264:History is the siren song of the soul. ~ Terence McKenna,
265:History needs shepherds, not butchers. ~ Terry Pratchett,
266:History never repeats itself; man always does ~ Voltaire,
267:History works itself out in the living. ~ Louise Erdrich,
268:I am not a Virginian, I am an American. ~ Hourly History,
269:Ideas shape the course of history. ~ John Maynard Keynes,
270:I don't have a strong interest in history. ~ Larry Niven,
271:Memoirs are the backstairs of history. ~ George Meredith,
272:My motto is "more mystery, less history". ~ Adam Carolla,
273:Only the vanquished remember history. ~ Marshall McLuhan,
274:People make trouble, trouble makes history ~ John Graves,
275:Shuttles in the rocking loom of history, ~ Robert Hayden,
276:Something had changed. History resumed. ~ Stephen Baxter,
277:We are at an inflection point in history. ~ Joel Garreau,
278:We cannot change the history of the past. ~ Jimmy Carter,
279:False history gets made all day, any day, ~ Adrienne Rich,
280:History can be rewritten, but at what cost? ~ Lauren Kate,
281:History is a pack of lies we play on the dead. ~ Voltaire,
282:History is littered with dead good men. ~ Joe Abercrombie,
283:History is not a science, it's an art. ~ Ursula K Le Guin,
284:History is on the side of the regulators. ~ Ha Joon Chang,
285:History may not repeat, but it often rhymes. ~ Mark Twain,
286:History never repeats itself. Man always does. ~ Voltaire,
287:History's just one darn thing after another. ~ Henry Ford,
288:History, we know, is apt to repeat itself. ~ George Eliot,
289:Home is where we have a history. ~ Terry Tempest Williams,
290:Like mold on books, grow myths on history. ~ Laini Taylor,
291:My heart broke open and history fell in. ~ Salman Rushdie,
292:Never in history has distance meant less. ~ Alvin Toffler,
293:[...] no man is free of his own history. ~ Anita Brookner,
294:Novels arise out of the shortcoings of history. ~ Novalis,
295:Out of the huts of history's shame I rise. ~ Maya Angelou,
296:Patriotism corrupts history. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
297:That only made it worst. They had history. ~ Ellen Connor,
298:That's the thing about history: YOU make it. ~ John Green,
299:the history of a tough motherfucker he ~ Charles Bukowski,
300:Time was the greatest murderer in history. ~ Cameron Jace,
301:You want to hear my history? Ask the sea. ~ Derek Walcott,
302:All good human work remembers its history. ~ Wendell Berry,
303:History forgives the winner a lot of things. ~ Yoon Ha Lee,
304:History is a graveyard of aristocracies. ~ Vilfredo Pareto,
305:History is a set of lies agreed upon. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte,
306:History is a set of lies agreed upon. ~ Napol on Bonaparte,
307:History is filled with fictional people. ~ Robyn Schneider,
308:History is like a constantly changing tree. ~ David Irving,
309:History is rarely made by reasonable men. ~ Terry Goodkind,
310:history is what it is. it knows what it did. ~ Danez Smith,
311:History's greatest monster. ~ Christopher Michael Cillizza,
312:History takes time. History makes memory. ~ Gertrude Stein,
313:Human rights takes history out of justice. ~ Arundhati Roy,
314:If you believe people have no history ~ William Loren Katz,
315:I guess love laughs at history a little. ~ Sebastian Barry,
316:In Jewish history there are no coincidences. ~ Elie Wiesel,
317:I wanted to be a part of the Disney history. ~ Tia Carrere,
318:Kant is the most evil man in mankind's history. ~ Ayn Rand,
319:Language is the archives of history. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
320:My history's not very good, but did David win? ~ Andy Gray,
321:Neutrals and lukewarms do not make history. ~ Adolf Hitler,
322:Novels arise out of the shortcomings of history. ~ Novalis,
323:Shared history was the coin of the realm. ~ Chris Matthews,
324:the past is history, the future's a mystery ~ Stephen King,
325:There is no history; only biography. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
326:When history gives out, fiction takes over. ~ Edmund White,
327:Whoever won the war, would revise the history. ~ Toba Beta,
328:You have to be a little bad to make history. ~ Brent Weeks,
329:American history is parking lots. ~ William Least Heat Moon,
330:Free people will set the course of history. ~ George W Bush,
331:History - a vast Mississippi of falsehoods ~ Matthew Arnold,
332:History is a burden. Stories can make us fly. ~ Mark Gatiss,
333:History is a myth men want to believe. ~ Napol on Bonaparte,
334:History is at once freedom and necessity. ~ Antonio Gramsci,
335:History is nothing if not far-fetched. ~ Albert O Hirschman,
336:History is only a catalogue of the forgotten. ~ Henry Adams,
337:History is the angle at which realities meet. ~ Don DeLillo,
338:History marched to the drums of a clear idea... ~ W H Auden,
339:History remembers the velvet hearted. ~ Elizabeth McCracken,
340:Human history is littered with might-have-beens. ~ Zo Sharp,
341:I am the history of the rejection of who I am ~ June Jordan,
342:my one chance in all of history to be alive. ~ Allen Eskens,
343:Silence ensures that history repeats itself. ~ Erin Gruwell,
344:SILENCE. The most loaded sound in human history. ~ L J Shen,
345:The past is history, the future's a mystery. ~ James Toback,
346:They were lucky. They'd been given history. ~ Kate Atkinson,
347:Yes, world history is indeed such an onion! ~ Jared Diamond,
348:All history . . . is an inarticulate Bible. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
349:All history is the history of thought. ~ Robin G Collingwood,
350:All human history moves towards one great goal ~ James Joyce,
351:History has its truth; and so has legend hers. ~ Victor Hugo,
352:History is a record of many such irrationalities. ~ Suki Kim,
353:History is a story written by the finger of God. ~ C S Lewis,
354:History is but a confused heap of facts. ~ Lord Chesterfield,
355:History is seasonal, and winter is coming. ~ William Strauss,
356:History is the autobiography of a madman. ~ Alexander Herzen,
357:History is the invention of historians. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte,
358:History is the same thing over and over again. ~ Woody Allen,
359:History is the stories we tell about the past. ~ Thomas King,
360:History repeats itself and that's just how it goes. ~ J Cole,
361:History should be studied but not worshipped. ~ Magnus Flyte,
362:History, sir, will tell lies as usual. ~ George Bernard Shaw,
363:History!” writes Bokonon. “Read it and weep! ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
364:I am responsible only to God and history. ~ Francisco Franco,
365:It's a very good historical book about history. ~ Dan Quayle,
366:I write and film history; I don't make it. ~ Jean Luc Godard,
367:Men make history, not the other way around. ~ Harry S Truman,
368:Our history is an aggregate of last moments ~ Thomas Pynchon,
369:the history is there, but it’s not visible. ~ David Levithan,
370:There is a history in all men's lives. ~ William Shakespeare,
371:to come as lodestones for the history we have ~ Peter D Ward,
372:What if history was changed? slavery reversed ~ Fredro Starr,
373:What is history? The lie that everyone agrees on. ~ Voltaire,
374:Do we have the will to make poverty history? ~ Edward de Bono,
375:Harlem is filled with moments of history. ~ Cheo Hodari Coker,
376:History books are being re-written all the time ~ Andy Warhol,
377:History does not end; it runs in cycles. The ~ Garry Kasparov,
378:History happens one person at a time. ~ Patricia Stephens Due,
379:History is not just cruel. It is witty. ~ Charles Krauthammer,
380:History is the shank of the social sciences. ~ C Wright Mills,
381:History is the zoology of the human race. ~ Franz Grillparzer,
382:History is usually a random, messy affair’, ~ Richard Dawkins,
383:Human history is, in essence, a history of ideas. ~ H G Wells,
384:Idlers do not make history: they suffer it! ~ Peter Kropotkin,
385:I had a long history of calamitous mishaps. ~ Janet Evanovich,
386:I'm a big sports history buff. I love sports. ~ Kenny Chesney,
387:Imagine a history teacher making history. ~ Christa McAuliffe,
388:Indifference is the dead weight of history. ~ Antonio Gramsci,
389:Journalism is in fact history on the run. ~ Thomas B Griffith,
390:Learning never exhausts the mind.” —Leonardo ~ Hourly History,
391:That’s all history is, after all: scar tissue. ~ Stephen King,
392:the history of Denmark has much to teach us all. ~ Lois Lowry,
393:The lesson of history is that no one learns. ~ Steven Erikson,
394:The only new thing is history we don't know. ~ Harry S Truman,
395:There is more to Jewish history than Auschwitz. ~ Romain Gary,
396:The study of History is the beginning of wisdom. ~ Jean Bodin,
397:The white race is the cancer of human history. ~ Susan Sontag,
398:We are choked with News and starved of History. ~ Will Durant,
399:Weiner, T.: Legacy of Ashes (The history of CIA). ~ Anonymous,
400:What is history but a fable agreed upon? ~ Napoleon Bonaparte,
401:Whoever wins, that’s who decides the history. ~ Anthony Doerr,
402:A book brings its own history to the reader. ~ Alberto Manguel,
403:Advice to Persons About to Write History - Don't. ~ Lord Acton,
404:And I thought:History is like a horror story. ~ Roberto Bola o,
405:Can history disappear if it’s written in blood? ~ Ruta Sepetys,
406:Don’t believe that your history is your destiny. ~ Joyce Meyer,
407:Either our history shall with full mouth ~ William Shakespeare,
408:History as the slaughter-bench ~ Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
409:History begins in novel and ends in essay. ~ Thomas B Macaulay,
410:history could be a mighty weapon of reform. By ~ Joyce Appleby,
411:History does not repeat, but it does instruct ~ Timothy Snyder,
412:History doesn't repeat itself, but it does rhyme. ~ Mark Twain,
413:History is a light that illuminates the past, ~ Runoko Rashidi,
414:History is an excellent teacher with few pupils. ~ Will Durant,
415:History is change happening one person at a time. ~ Matt Damon,
416:History is one long processional of crazy ideas. ~ Phil Knight,
417:History is philosophy teaching by examples. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
418:History is philosophy teaching by experience. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
419:History is the memory of things said and done. ~ Carl L Becker,
420:History is the propaganda of the victors. ~ Louis de Berni res,
421:History's a bitch when you're in the middle of it. ~ Jay Asher,
422:I don't know anything about the history of music. ~ Sia Furler,
423:I feel like I'm part of television history. ~ Henry Ian Cusick,
424:In counterfactual history, nothing is certain. ~ Robert Dallek,
425:In the future history will be made only by us. ~ George W Bush,
426:Soap operas got nothing on my family history. ~ Kiersten White,
427:that's me. ancient history." [Poseidon to Paul] ~ Rick Riordan,
428:The man makes History, the woman is History. ~ Oswald Spengler,
429:The one duty we owe to history is to rewrite it. ~ Oscar Wilde,
430:tumultuous history of the lost kingdom of Bunyoro, ~ Anonymous,
431:What is history but a fable agreed upon ? ~ Napol on Bonaparte,
432:What is history? The lie that everyone agrees on... ~ Voltaire,
433:While we read history we make history. ~ George William Curtis,
434:Dead Max was the biggest oxymoron in history. ~ James Patterson,
435:for starving people to death by diverting food ~ Hourly History,
436:Give it enough time, brother, and gossip’s history. ~ Anonymous,
437:Going down in history is a dead end pursuit ~ Benny Bellamacina,
438:Harry, did you ever even open A History of Magic? ~ J K Rowling,
439:History does not repeat, but it does instruct. ~ Timothy Snyder,
440:History doesn't pass the dishes again. ~ Louis Ferdinand Celine,
441:History is, as we know, written by the winners. ~ Rachel Martin,
442:History is everything that has ever happened. ~ Stephen Ambrose,
443:History is just new people making old mistakes. ~ Sigmund Freud,
444:History is just one fucking thing after another. ~ Alan Bennett,
445:history is neither for excuses nor for revenge ~ Shashi Tharoor,
446:"History is the biography of the human race." ~ Jordan Peterson,
447:History is written by those who hang heroes. ~ Robert the Bruce,
448:History may not repeat itself, but it rhymes. ~ Anthony Robbins,
449:History remembers most what you did last. ~ Christopher Plummer,
450:It had to be the best bargain in Toyota history, ~ Sarah Dessen,
451:Learn from your history, but don’t live in it. ~ Steve Maraboli,
453:Let’s just hope history forgets the snafus. ~ Viet Thanh Nguyen,
454:Live out of your imagination, not your history. ~ Stephen Covey,
455:Making history was so much better than writing it. ~ Kate Quinn,
456:That’s all history is, after all: scar tissue. 3 ~ Stephen King,
457:The Fed is the greatest hedge fund in history. ~ Warren Buffett,
458:The hottest year in global [sic] history was 1934. ~ Glenn Beck,
459:The major force in world history is sheer dumbness. ~ Eric Wolf,
460:The midwife of history is violence. ~ Franz Joseph I of Austria,
461:The words of history are also the words of war. ~ Peter Hessler,
462:Things that change history tend to be organized. ~ David Brooks,
463:those who win wars are those who write history. ~ Susan Dennard,
464:We are the makers of history, not its victims. ~ John Heilemann,
465:What's hit's history: what's missed's mystery. ~ Arthur Ransome,
466:But doesn’t the new information change the history? ~ Penny Reid,
467:despite the anti-Semitic attitudes of Vienna at ~ Hourly History,
468:History at its best is a gritty, dirty business. ~ Sara Sheridan,
469:History is mostly guessing, the rest is prejudice. ~ Will Durant,
470:History is mostly guessing; the rest is prejudice. ~ Will Durant,
471:History is not history unless it is the truth. ~ Abraham Lincoln,
472:History -- its what those bitter old men write. ~ Jackie Kennedy,
473:History punishes those that come late to it. ~ Mikhail Gorbachev,
474:History's just been made for sale to an inside deal. ~ Ken Burns,
475:Holidays, if you enjoy them, have no history. ~ Rosamond Lehmann,
476:I did not live my life as history is written. ~ Ursula K Le Guin,
477:If you think you have it tough, read history books. ~ Bill Maher,
478:It is the winners who write history - their way. ~ Elaine Pagels,
479:Live out of your imagination, not your history. ~ Stephen Covey,
480:Morison’s The Oxford History of the American People, ~ Anonymous,
481:Movies are like writing history with lightning. ~ Woodrow Wilson,
482:Neuer is one of the best goalkeepers in history. ~ Pep Guardiola,
483:Newspapers are the second hand of history. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
484:The history of every individual man should be a Bible. ~ Novalis,
485:There is room in history for all of us. ~ Alexander McCall Smith,
486:War makes good history but peace is poor reading. ~ Thomas Hardy,
487:Well-behaved women seldom make history. ~ Laurel Thatcher Ulrich,
488:A child is never the author of his own history. ~ Sebastian Barry,
489:All history, of course, is the history of wars. ~ Penelope Lively,
490:Ancient history is oddly short on incorrect omens. ~ Stacy Schiff,
491:Can't disagree with the need for a grasp of history. ~ Gwen Ifill,
492:Difficulty is the excuse history never accepts. ~ Edward R Murrow,
493:have a history of reacting poorly when shouted at, ~ Mackenzi Lee,
494:History admires the wise, but elevates the brave. ~ Edmund Morris,
495:History has shown there are no invincible armies. ~ Joseph Stalin,
496:History is a myth that men agree to believe. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte,
497:History is a tragegy, not a morality tale. ~ Christopher Hitchens,
498:History is but the polemics of the victor. ~ William F Buckley Jr,
499:History is changed by martyrs who tell the truth. ~ Miguel Syjuco,
500:History is humankind trying to get a grip. ~ Kim Stanley Robinson,
501:History is never surprising after it happens. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
502:"History is the biography of the human race." ~ Jordan B Peterson,
503:History is the love that enters us through death. ~ Anne Michaels,
504:History is the science of what never happens twice. ~ Paul Val ry,
505:History knows no resting places and no plateaus ~ Henry Kissinger,
506:History may be accurate. But archaeology is precise. ~ Doug Scott,
507:history proves that anything can be proved by history. ~ Voltaire,
508:History repeats because we do not learn from it, ~ Meredith Duran,
509:History repeats, but science reverberates. ~ Siddhartha Mukherjee,
510:History was badly plotted and written by committee. ~ Eliot Peper,
511:I feel like I'm too busy writing history to read it. ~ Kanye West,
512:I grew up in Europe, where the history comes from. ~ Eddie Izzard,
513:I know I'm one of the biggest busts in NBA history... ~ Greg Oden,
514:I loved learning about the history of things ~ Michael Gates Gill,
515:In all history, art has been the food of the poor, ~ Cameron Jace,
516:I never thought my cotton gin would change history. ~ Eli Whitney,
517:I think fiction recues history from its confusions. ~ Don DeLillo,
518:I want to write for history, not for the moment. ~ David Maraniss,
519:Learn from history or you're doomed to repeat it. ~ Jesse Ventura,
520:Live out of your imagination, not your history. ~ Stephen R Covey,
521:Men make history. History does not make the man. ~ Harry S Truman,
522:Partitioning Iraq is inevitable, as shown by history. ~ Joe Biden,
523:People have different ways of interpreting history. ~ Nate Silver,
524:Scars are stories, history written on the body ~ Kathryn Harrison,
525:The facts of history have been too well rehearsed. ~ John Ashbery,
526:the history of melancholia includes all of us. ~ Charles Bukowski,
527:The horror of our history has purged me of opinions. ~ John Barth,
528:Their history, mine, yours... A story of... choises. ~ J J Abrams,
529:The motive force of history is truth and not lies. ~ Leon Trotsky,
530:The one duty we owe to history is to rewrite it.
   ~ Oscar Wilde,
531:The study of History is the best medicine for a sick mind. ~ Livy,
532:The world's history is the world's judgment. ~ Friedrich Schiller,
533:The Youngest World Heavyweight Champion in History! ~ Randy Orton,
534:We are exactly what our history made us to be. ~ Stephen Richards,
535:Who needs normal, anyway. Normal never makes history. ~ Amo Jones,
536:Who will dare to write a history of human goodness? ~ Will Durant,
537:… you were better making history than studying it. ~ Irvine Welsh,
538:Aesthetically, I love the whole history of the music. ~ Jon Gordon,
539:A man without any history is like a tree without roots ~ Malcolm X,
540:A nation writes its history in the image of its ideal. ~ Abba Eban,
541:Aren’t you two ever going to read Hogwarts: A History? ~ Anonymous,
542:But then history does not only consist of documents. ~ John Lukacs,
543:Cut, Cap and Balance is worst legislation in history. ~ Harry Reid,
544:Don't know much about history Don't know much biology. ~ Sam Cooke,
545:events are shaped by history rather than vice versa. ~ Matt Ridley,
546:Give that bully that is history a bleeding lip. ~ Kathy Hepinstall,
547:History depends on who is telling the story. ~ James O Shaughnessy,
548:History does not repeat, but it does instruct. As ~ Timothy Snyder,
549:History has not come to an end with Western rule. The ~ Ian Morris,
550:History is but the unrolled scroll of prophecy. ~ James A Garfield,
551:history is neither for excuses nor for revenge 1. ~ Shashi Tharoor,
552:History is no more than memories refreshed. ~ Peter Charles Newman,
553:History is only the register of crimes and misfortunes. ~ Voltaire,
554:History is still in large measure poetry to me. ~ Jacob Burckhardt,
555:History shows that there are no invincible armies. ~ Joseph Stalin,
556:History teaches us the mistakes we are going to make. ~ Jean Bodin,
557:History, with all her volumes vast, hath but one page ~ Lord Byron,
558:Honest history is the weapon of freedom. ~ Arthur M Schlesinger Jr,
559:If history repeats itself, I am so getting a dinosaur! ~ Anonymous,
560:Most history is guessing, and the rest is prejudice. ~ Will Durant,
561:People need history in order to know themselves, ~ Douglas Preston,
562:People regard art too highly, and history not enough ~ John Irving,
563:Study the history of the form you want to master. ~ James Altucher,
564:That started an exchange about the early history ~ Walter Isaacson,
565:The ages live in history through their anachronisms. ~ Oscar Wilde,
566:The greatest man in history was the poorest. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
567:The Holocaust marooned the Jewish people in history. ~ Steve Stern,
568:The mistakes of history bring relentless reprisals. ~ Pearl S Buck,
569:The only history that matters is the history we know. ~ Ezra Pound,
570:The poet writes the history of his own body. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
571:The supreme purpose of history is a better world. ~ Herbert Hoover,
572:what could be its biggest round of layoffs in history. ~ Anonymous,
573:You don't think history gets rewritten, sometimes? ~ Tamora Pierce,
574:Don’t we all make up history to suit the present? ~ L E Modesitt Jr,
575:Either you can have life or you can be remembered in history ~ Osho,
576:Few characters in history are indispensable. ~ Albert Bushnell Hart,
577:Gratitude belongs to history & not to politics, ~ Sonia Purnell,
578:Great writing can be done in biography, history, art. ~ V S Naipaul,
579:HISTORY IS A bath of blood,” wrote William James, ~ Edward O Wilson,
580:History is a better guide than good intentions. ~ Jeane Kirkpatrick,
581:History is a priori amoral; it has no conscience. ~ Arthur Koestler,
582:History is a record of human nature in action. ~ James Carlos Blake,
583:History is a series of lies on which we agree. ~ Napol on Bonaparte,
584:History is a set of skills rather than a narrative. ~ Hilary Mantel,
585:History is full of examples of slaughter and victory. ~ Bobby Adair,
586:History is the essence of innumerable biographies. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
587:History knows no resting places and no plateaus ~ Henry A Kissinger,
588:History only exists, in the final analysis, for God. ~ Albert Camus,
589:History, with all her volumes vast, Hath but one page. ~ Lord Byron,
590:Idealism often rewrites history to suit her narrative. ~ Amy Harmon,
591:I have a history of disregarding orders. - Mitch Rapp ~ Vince Flynn,
592:Images have an advanced religion; they bury history. ~ Alfredo Jaar,
593:Natural history is not about producing fables. ~ David Attenborough,
594:Rhetoric is what shapes history, if not truth. ~ Anna Deavere Smith,
595:The history of liberty is a history of resistance. ~ Woodrow Wilson,
596:There have been three pivotal events in human history. ~ A G Riddle,
597:The reign of imagagology begins where history ends. ~ Milan Kundera,
598:There is no history of how bad became better. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
599:There is properly no history, only biography. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
600:There is properly no history; only biography. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
601:The tears of God are the meaning of history ~ Nicholas Wolterstorff,
602:The transcendental promises a vacation from history. ~ Mason Cooley,
603:Those that don’t know history aren’t poisoned by it. ~ Scott Sigler,
604:What is history, indeed, but a record of change? ~ Jawaharlal Nehru,
605:Your birth may be common, But death must be history. ~ Adolf Hitler,
606:Your history doesn't need to dictate your destiny ~ Christine Caine,
607:Each time history repeats itself, the price goes up. ~ Ronald Wright,
608:Edinburgh has history the way cats have bad breath. ~ Charles Stross,
609:Every generation tailors history to its taste. ~ Ada Louise Huxtable,
610:Everyone has a place in history. Mine is clouds. ~ Richard Brautigan,
611:Fiction is history, human history, or it is nothing. ~ Joseph Conrad,
612:he can’t see past his own history to let us have ours. ~ Nicola Yoon,
613:Hiding from my history won't change who or what I am. ~ Brenda Novak,
614:History breaks down into images, not into stories. ~ Walter Benjamin,
615:History does not belong to us; we belong to it. ~ Hans Georg Gadamer,
616:History happens while you're making other plans, ~ John Joseph Adams,
617:History is a pathetic junkyard of broken treaties. ~ Richard M Nixon,
618:History is the footsteps of free men towards destiny. ~ Ernst J nger,
619:History is the preceptor of prudence, not principles. ~ Edmund Burke,
620:History is the same story with different costumes. ~ Stefan Molyneux,
621:History is written by the dreamers, not the doubters. ~ Donald Trump,
622:History teaches everything, even the future. ~ Alphonse de Lamartine,
623:History teaches that nations do not learn from history. ~ Bruce Fein,
624:History, that excitable and unreliable old lady. ~ Guy de Maupassant,
625:History was gathering itself to deliver another blow ~ Douglas Adams,
626:I love history, doesn't matter what era, I'm fascinated. ~ Tom Petty,
627:I'm aware enough, I guess, of American labor history. ~ Ani DiFranco,
628:I'm tired of reading about history, I want to make it. ~ Mario Savio,
629:It's true that history seems denser than it really is. ~ Tommy Lapid,
630:I want to write a book which is the history of comedy. ~ John Cleese,
631:Living in your genome is the history of our species. ~ Barry Schuler,
632:Louvre museum where the esteemed Mona Lisa resides. ~ Hourly History,
633:Muhammad is the greatest man that history ever knew ~ Gustave Le Bon,
634:Nature is actually the goal at the end of history. ~ Terence McKenna,
635:Nothing capable of being memorized is history. ~ Robin G Collingwood,
636:Politics is always related to the history and genealogy. ~ Toba Beta,
637:Read history, works of truth, not novels and romances ~ Robert E Lee,
638:The history of ideas is like a drama in many acts. ~ Jostein Gaarder,
639:The mystery of history is an insoluble problem. ~ Henry Ward Beecher,
640:There is no life that does not contribute to history. ~ Dorothy West,
641:The tears of God are the meaning of history. ~ Nicholas Wolterstorff,
642:This opens the door on another chapter of history. ~ Walter Cronkite,
643:Those who don't know history are doomed to repeat it. ~ Edmund Burke,
644:To be a successful soldier, you must know history. ~ George S Patton,
645:World history is a court of judgment ~ Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
646:Your history does not need to define your destiny. ~ Christine Caine,
647:And history becomes legend and legend becomes history. ~ Jean Cocteau,
648:A people denied history is a people deprived of dignity. ~ Ali Mazrui,
649:Blood alone literally moves the wheels of history. ~ Benito Mussolini,
650:Every time history repeats itself, the price goes up. ~ James Maxwell,
651:His history is redeemed not in minutes but in lifetimes. ~ Max Lucado,
652:History does not have sides, although historians do. ~ Jay Nordlinger,
653:History is a vision of God's creation on the move. ~ Arnold J Toynbee,
654:History is not written in the interests of morality. ~ Agnes Repplier,
655:History is that which is agreed upon by mutual consent. ~ M L Stedman,
656:History is the story of events, with praise or blame. ~ Cotton Mather,
657:History must stay open, it is all humanity. ~ William Carlos Williams,
658:History plays for keeps; individuals play for time. ~ Gregory Maguire,
659:History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce ~ Karl Marx,
660:History's lessons don't expire after a few decades. ~ Thomas F Madden,
661:History will never accept difficulties as an excuse. ~ John F Kennedy,
662:Holding an Olympic Games means evoking history. ~ Pierre de Coubertin,
663:I'm finishing my Ph.D. in Italian Renaissance history. ~ Peter Weller,
664:I'm not here to make money, I'm here to make history. ~ Lenny Dykstra,
665:In history as in nature, decay is the laboratory of life. ~ Karl Marx,
666:It is very difficult to hang onto the relics of history. ~ Iris Chang,
667:Let me repeat what history teaches. History teaches. ~ Gertrude Stein,
668:No great leader in history fought to prevent change. ~ John C Maxwell,
669:that's me. ancient history."

[Poseidon to Paul] ~ Rick Riordan,
670:The altar, as in pre-history, is anywhere you kneel. ~ Camille Paglia,
671:The biggest day in the history of Kentucky's program. ~ John Calipari,
672:The history of mankind is his character. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
673:the history of melancholia
includes all of us. ~ Charles Bukowski,
674:The history of my stupidity would fill many volumes. ~ Czes aw Mi osz,
675:The history of my stupidity would fill many volumes. ~ Czeslaw Milosz,
676:the main thing is to make history not to write it ~ Otto von Bismarck,
677:The most important history is the history we make today. ~ Henry Ford,
678:The Register of Knowledge of Fact is called History . ~ Thomas Hobbes,
679:There is history in what is dismissed as prehistory. ~ Gloria Steinem,
680:This is the lesson that history teaches: repetition. ~ Gertrude Stein,
681:To write good history is the noblest work of man. ~ John Dickson Carr,
682:To you, perceptive reader, I bequeath my history. ~ Elizabeth Kostova,
683:Was I changing history, or had I always been part of it? ~ Amy Harmon,
684:We are not makers of history. We are made by history. ~ DK Publishing,
685:Whenever you move, I think you lose your history. ~ Calista Flockhart,
686:World history is a court of judgment. ~ Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
687:Write about daily life as you would write history. ~ Gustave Flaubert,
688:Writing helps us clarify our thoughts and record history; ~ Sam Barry,
689:You either get tired fighting for peace, or you die. ~ Hourly History,
690:all of us have a place in history. mine is clouds. ~ Richard Brautigan,
691:and perhaps they too would one day be lost to history. ~ Susan Dennard,
692:Anybody can make history; only a great man can write it. ~ Oscar Wilde,
693:But I am the greatest sister in the history of the world. ~ Judy Blume,
694:By its very nature, history is always a one-sided account. ~ Dan Brown,
695:Catherine was formally crowned on September 22, 1762, ~ Hourly History,
696:Each book has a secret history of ways and means. ~ Henry Ward Beecher,
697:Each of us is born with a history already in place ~ Walter Dean Myers,
698:History is an omlette. THe eggs are already broken. ~ Orson Scott Card,
699:History is everywhere, all the fragments of the past… ~ Rebecca McNutt,
700:History is, indeed, an argument without end. ~ Arthur M Schlesinger Jr,
701:History is nothing but assisted and recorded memory ~ George Santayana,
702:History is really a study of the future, not the past. ~ Arundhati Roy,
703:History is the nothing people write about a nothing. ~ William Golding,
704:History is too important to be left to the historians. ~ Robert Harris,
705:History laughs at both the victim and the aggressor. ~ Mahmoud Darwish,
706:History shows that people are as changeable as rivers. ~ Andr s Neuman,
707:History - that little sewer where man loves to wallow. ~ Francis Ponge,
708:Human history is highly nonlinear and unpredictable. ~ Michael Shermer,
709:I'm a history major, baby. I know tons of useless facts ~ Elle Kennedy,
710:I think that America has an obsession with history, really. ~ JJ Feild,
711:Marilyn was history's most phenomenal love goddess. ~ Philippe Halsman,
712:Other than fiction and poetry I tend to read history. ~ Stephen Dobyns,
713:Salomé...possibly the least successful play in history. ~ Julie Powell,
714:Salvation history reveals sin as literally a broken home. ~ Scott Hahn,
715:[S]heer stupidity — that much underrated force in history. ~ Peter Gay,
716:Sometimes history takes things into its own hands. ~ Thurgood Marshall,
717:The great thing about history is that it is adaptable. ~ Peter Ustinov,
718:The history of a man is in his character. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
719:The history of discovery is full of creative serendipity. ~ Tom Kelley,
720:The history of empires is the history of human misery. ~ Edward Gibbon,
721:The history of the bow and arrow is the history of mankind ~ Fred Bear,
722:The history of Wall Street is inseparable from New York. ~ Ron Chernow,
723:The main thing is to make history, not to write it ~ Otto von Bismarck,
724:Those who don't know history are destined to repeat it. ~ Edmund Burke,
725:We can’t change history, but we can create the future. ~ Erwin McManus,
726:We learn from history that we don't learn from history! ~ Desmond Tutu,
727:Women often get dropped from memory, and then history. ~ Doris Lessing,
728:A beautiful body perishes, but a work of art does not. ~ Hourly History,
729:As history shows, dead metaphors make good idols. ~ Elizabeth A Johnson,
730:A thing of beauty is never perfect.” —Egyptian Proverb ~ Hourly History,
731:Barca is nothing but a small part of Real Madrid’s history ~ Marco Reus,
732:Condemn me, it does not matter: history will absolve me. ~ Fidel Castro,
733:Does the business have a consistent operating history? ~ Warren Buffett,
734:Each life contains as much meaning as all of history. ~ Catherine Chung,
735:First governor in Arkansas history to ever lower taxes. ~ Mike Huckabee,
736:history becomes fiction in the…act of being written down ~ Jack Kerouac,
737:History books that contain no lies are extremely dull. ~ Anatole France,
738:History can only teach its lesson if it is remembered. ~ Jason Reynolds,
739:History, gentlefriends, is not without a sense of irony. ~ Jay Kristoff,
740:History had its fascinations, but could be burdensome. ~ William Gibson,
741:History, in the end, becomes a form of irony. ~ Arthur M Schlesinger Jr,
742:History is not a fixed truth. It changes with the speaker. ~ Jenn Reese,
743:History is nothing but assisted and recorded memory. ~ George Santayana,
744:history itself arises out of the adjacent possible. ~ Stuart A Kauffman,
745:History never repeats itself; at best it sometimes rhymes. ~ Mark Twain,
746:History proves nothing because it contains everything. ~ Emile M Cioran,
747:History repeats itself. Historians repeat each other. ~ Philip Guedalla,
748:History should be about every generation's will to power. ~ Cody Wilson,
749:History would be an excellent thing if only it were true. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
750:If you don't remember history accurately, how can you learn? ~ Maya Lin,
751:I made more lousy pictures than any actor in history. ~ Humphrey Bogart,
752:I'm just the smallest dot in a big map of human history. ~ Ben Casnocha,
753:I really want to help write women back into history. ~ Anita Sarkeesian,
754:I study history because I am interested in the future. ~ Peter Rachleff,
755:It is not the neutrals or the lukewarm who make history. ~ Adolf Hitler,
756:It's great to be a part of the greatest jackoff in history. ~ Tom Wolfe,
757:It was the mantra of every dark operative in history. He ~ Abigail Roux,
758:Knowledge and history are the enemies of religion. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte,
759:law, in violation of his parole. And he had a history of ~ Lisa Jackson,
760:Learning from history helps us avoid repeating its mistakes. ~ T A Uner,
761:Most important pursuit in history: the search for meaning. ~ John Green,
762:Mrs. Friedman lived in a happy snow globe of AP History. ~ Harlan Coben,
763:The Bible is one of the most genocidal books in history. ~ Noam Chomsky,
764:The first lesson of history is that evil is good. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
765:...the history of all love is writ with one pen. ~ William Hope Hodgson,
766:The history of men is reflected in the history of sewers. ~ Victor Hugo,
767:The main thing is to make history, not to write it. ~ Otto von Bismarck,
768:The only figure in history who endures is Jesus. ~ Norman Vincent Peale,
769:The whole history of life is a record of cycles. ~ Ellsworth Huntington,
770:Things look different when history is seen as His-story. ~ Peter Kreeft,
771:To be deep in history is to cease to be Protestant. ~ John Henry Newman,
772:Very often history is a means of denying the past. ~ Jeanette Winterson,
773:You have to look at history as an evolution of society. ~ Jean Chretien,
774:A woman's whole life is a history of the affections. ~ Washington Irving,
775:Biography is history seen through the prism of a person. ~ Louis Fischer,
776:by Nikil Saval in “Cubed: A Secret History of the Workplace. ~ Anonymous,
777:(for most history is guessing, and the rest is prejudice), ~ Will Durant,
778:History is a blood-drenched enigma and the world an error. ~ Umberto Eco,
779:History is a myth shaped by the tongues of conquerors. ~ Roshani Chokshi,
780:History ... is a nightmare from which I am trying to wake. ~ James Joyce,
781:History is not what happened but what is written down ~ Kathleen McGowan,
782:History my god. An incurable diarrhea of dead immortals. ~ Robert Coover,
783:History repeats itself, the first as tragedy, then as farce. ~ Karl Marx,
784:History will be kind to me for I intend to write it. ~ Winston Churchill,
785:History would be a wonderful thing – if it were only true. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
786:I guess if I weren't an actor, I'd be a history professor ~ Tom Berenger,
787:Is your Christianity ancient history--or current events? ~ Sam Shoemaker,
788:It is upon the rubble of ancient history that today stands ~ Jan Ellison,
789:legends to surround it—giving history to what had just ~ Tracie Peterson,
790:Mourinho is the best coach in the history of football. ~ Mario Balotelli,
791:My administration will be the most transparent in history ~ Barack Obama,
792:No other single innovation had so much impact on history. ~ Rodney Stark,
793:No spoilers!” “It’s history!” “History that I don’t know. ~ Adam Silvera,
794:Official history is believing the murderers at their word. ~ Simone Weil,
795:Our ignorance of history makes us vilify our own age. ~ Gustave Flaubert,
796:Philosophy is the history of philosophy. ~ Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
797:Progress is man's indifference to the lessons of history. ~ Len Deighton,
798:Reducing military presence has never in history won a war. ~ John McCain,
799:Serious history was the West, and the West was white. ~ Ta Nehisi Coates,
800:She has to be written out of history and written into myth. ~ Hal Duncan,
801:Someone calls biography the home aspect of history. ~ Henry Ward Beecher,
802:The National Football league is on the wrong side of history. ~ Tom Cole,
803:The normal make a living. The deranged make history. ~ Christopher Titus,
804:The right to revolt has sources deep in our history. ~ Max Allan Collins,
805:The right to revolt has sources deep in our history. ~ William O Douglas,
806:The subject of history is the life of peoples and mankind. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
807:The system gives you two minutes to phrase a whole history. ~ Raoul Peck,
808:To be deep in history, is to cease to be Protestant. ~ John Henry Newman,
809:Wasn't history full of the destruction of precious things? ~ Henry James,
810:Web standards keep you out of the dustbin of history. ~ Joshua Greenberg,
811:We'll have a baby who stutters repeatedly We'll name him history ~ Jay Z,
812:When history is erased, people's moral values are also erased. ~ Ma Jian,
813:Wise men read books about history. Strong men write them. ~ Pierce Brown,
814:You can make history, or you will be vilified by it. ~ Leonardo DiCaprio,
815:You can't escape the influence of architectural history. ~ Richard Meier,
816:A/C was the greatest invention in the history of mankind ~ Mark Childress,
817:All the most powerful ideas in history go back to archetypes. ~ Carl Jung,
818:Be suspicious of history that is written by the conquerors. ~ Jack Gantos,
819:But man is not only made by history—history is made by man. ~ Erich Fromm,
820:Don't be shocked when your history book mentions me. ~ Lin Manuel Miranda,
821:Ghosts are both remnants of history and witnesses to it. ~ Katherine Howe,
822:He who doesn't understand history is doomed to repeat it. ~ Pittacus Lore,
823:History always happens to us and nothing ever stays the same. ~ Tony Judt,
824:History can be a weapon, and it can be used against you. ~ James W Loewen,
825:History doesn't repeat itself, but it rhymes. —Mark Twain ~ Peter Mallouk,
826:History is a conveyor belt of corpses because of Adam's sin. ~ John Piper,
827:History is that nightmare from which there is no awakening. ~ James Joyce,
828:History is written by those who win and those who dominate. ~ Edward Said,
829:History seemed meaningless here, or at least bewildered. ~ China Mi ville,
830:Hold those things that tell your history and protect them. ~ Maya Angelou,
831:If reason ruled the world would history even exist? ~ Ryszard Kapu ci ski,
832:if reason ruled the world would history even exist? ~ Ryszard Kapuscinski,
833:I love history, so I do a lot of movies about history. ~ Steven Spielberg,
834:James Lipton: The most pompous arrogant failure in history. ~ David Cross,
835:Many falsehoods are passing into uncontradicted history. ~ Samuel Johnson,
836:Music history has flowed under the bridges for many years. ~ Gavin Bryars,
837:My history is the history of things imagined and not-happened. ~ Sam Pink,
838:Oh, come on. You eye-hump him all through British History. ~ Cynthia Hand,
839:People need their history like they need air and food. ~ Randall Robinson,
840:poetry utters universal truths, history particular statements ~ Aristotle,
841:Surely every band wants to be a pivotal point in history. ~ Alex Kapranos,
842:The Holocaust was an obscene period in our nation's history. ~ Dan Quayle,
843:The most important time in history is - NOW - the present, ~ Talib Kweli,
844:There is no law of history any more than of a kaleidoscope. ~ John Ruskin,
845:This being understood, let us proceed with our history. ~ Alexandre Dumas,
846:Those who ignore history are doomed to get their nuts cut. ~ Carl Hiaasen,
847:To be deep in history is to cease to be a Protestant. ~ John Henry Newman,
848:To discover the various use of things is the work of history. ~ Karl Marx,
849:We cannot erase the past, but we can accept it as history. ~ Gary Chapman,
850:Well, the whole history of Star Trek is the market demand. ~ George Takei,
851:What if we are just a digression in someone else's history? ~ Nicola Yoon,
852:You can be a slave to current magazines or a slave to history ~ Mary Karr,
853:All history is the history of unintended consequences. ~ T J Jackson Lears,
854:Before the tears that tore us, when our history was before us. ~ Lang Leav,
855:Every end in history necessarily contains a new beginning. ~ Hannah Arendt,
856:Every pandemic in the history of the world has come from China. ~ Lisa See,
857:Happy the People whose Annals are blank in History Books! ~ Thomas Carlyle,
858:Happy the people whose annals are blank in history books. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
859:He [the Statist] is unmoved by reason, evidence, and history. ~ Mark Levin,
860:History does not so much repeat as echo, I suppose. ~ Lois McMaster Bujold,
861:History goes out of control almost as often as nature does. ~ Mason Cooley,
862:History has repeated itself many times througout the ages. ~ Billy Sheehan,
863:History is full of decapitations, and Iowa is no exception. ~ Andrew Smith,
864:History is remembered by its art, not its war machines. ~ James Rosenquist,
865:History is the discovering of the principles of human nature. ~ David Hume,
866:History will be kind to me for I intend to write it. ~ Winston S Churchill,
867:History will prove me right. This is an exercise in folly. ~ George W Bush,
868:History will remember this," she says. "I do not need to. ~ Michelle Moran,
869:History works itself out by an inevitable internal logic. ~ Terry Eagleton,
870:If you don't own Gold, you know neither history nor economics. ~ Ray Dalio,
871:I have a well-documented history of trouble with intimacy. ~ Matthew Perry,
872:I just couldn't move. History had me glued to the seat. ~ Claudette Colvin,
873:In the history of art, late works are the catastrophes. ~ Theodor W Adorno,
874:In war, morale and opinion are more than half the battle. ~ Hourly History,
875:Jesus Christ is the only God who has a date in history. ~ Dorothy L Sayers,
876:Much of what we call History is the success stories of madmen. ~ John Holt,
877:Part of history is tracing artifacts and looking at patterns. ~ A G Riddle,
878:Plot makes the character just as history makes the man. ~ Thomas Steinbeck,
879:Psychology has a long past, but only a short history. ~ Hermann Ebbinghaus,
880:[Read] anything but history,.. for history must be false. ~ Robert Walpole,
881:Reality ensures that the end of history will never come. ~ Milton Friedman,
882:takes a great deal of history to produce a little literature ~ Dan Simmons,
883:The dawn of history reveals a humanity already civilized. ~ G K Chesterton,
884:The history of the world is but a biography of great men. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
885:The laws of biology are the fundamental lessons of history. ~ Ariel Durant,
886:The Official History of the 23rd Headquarters Special Troops, ~ Rick Beyer,
887:The power of belief alone could change the course of history. ~ Ted Dekker,
888:There are many names in history, but none of them are ours ~ Richard Siken,
889:Trust the people -- that is the crucial lesson of history. ~ Ronald Reagan,
890:Under the same star... A history from love. i love the romances ~ Tim Lott,
891:Unprecedented amnesty in history of Georgia took place ~ Vano Merabishvili,
892:We are not just studying human history, we are shaping it. ~ Jason Russell,
893:We are pioneers and the history of pioneers is not that good. ~ Jeff Bezos,
894:While history never repeats itself, political patterns do. ~ Eric Alterman,
895:You can't escape yourself,' Nic says. 'Everyone has a history. ~ A M Homes,
896:Your requests change history because your prayers change God! ~ Max Lucado,
897:All eras of history are an equal distance from eternity. ~ Robertson Davies,
898:And on a difference of three minutes, all of history changes. ~ Brent Weeks,
900:Darwin has interested us in the history of nature's technology. ~ Karl Marx,
901:Either all of us are accidents of history or none of us are. ~ Dani Shapiro,
902:Focus on the play like it has a history and a life of its own. ~ Nick Saban,
903:Geography is history in place, history is geography in time ~ lis e Reclus,
904:History...a release from the troublesome promiscuous present. ~ Tod Wodicka,
905:History engineered if the facts couldn't be generally accepted. ~ Toba Beta,
906:History is an angel being blown backwards into the future ~ Laurie Anderson,
907:History is furious debate informed by evidence and reason. ~ James W Loewen,
908:History is only a tiresome repetition of one story. ~ William Graham Sumner,
909:history is the story of liberty becoming conscious of itself. ~ Clive James,
910:History might cough, but in a day or so, it will feel just fine. ~ J D Horn,
911:History of the world is but the biography of great men.
   ~ Thomas Carlyle,
912:History opens up new worlds to film-makers all the time. ~ Steven Spielberg,
913:History remains with the people who will appreciate it most. ~ Adam Silvera,
914:History shows you don't know what the future brings. ~ G Richard Wagoner Jr,
915:How ignorant a man can become on a diet of managed history. ~ Frank Herbert,
916:I don't have a long family history of good cooks in my family. ~ Bobby Flay,
917:If we don't know our own history, we are deemed to live it. ~ Hannah Arendt,
918:I have no special talents. I am only passionately curious. ~ Hourly History,
919:I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat. ~ Hourly History,
920:In history people dressed much better than we do today. ~ Vivienne Westwood,
921:is the most pitiful word in history, and it’s a lame excuse, ~ Cameron Jace,
922:It's History that's caused all the troubles in the past. ~ Michael Moorcock,
923:It’s not you. The stupidest line in the history of lines. ~ Kristan Higgins,
924:It's time to stop letting your history control your destiny. ~ Andy Andrews,
925:It was an era when history butted up against mythology, ~ Steven Pressfield,
926:I want history to jump on Canada's spine with sharp skates. ~ Leonard Cohen,
927:Just as all politics is local, all good history is personal. ~ Marcia Clark,
928:Keep people from their history, and they are easily controlled. ~ Karl Marx,
929:Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. ~ Charles Darwin,
930:Light will be thrown on the origin of men and his history. ~ Charles Darwin,
931:No one sees clearly during a war. History gives perspective ~ Joanne Harris,
932:One [has] to sense the trend of history and precede it. ~ Elsa Schiaparelli,
933:One of the worst Oscar nods in history, if you ask me.” I ~ Ellie Alexander,
934:p4- the history that now effects everyman is world history ~ C Wright Mills,
935:Reading history while you make history can teach you a lot. ~ George W Bush,
936:Shame, shame, shame—that is the history of the human! ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
937:Some of the most famous people in history never got a dinner! ~ Red Buttons,
938:Some people make headlines while others make history. ~ Philip Elmer DeWitt,
939:The 2000 election exposed some ugly history in our country. ~ Donna Brazile,
940:The easiest way of change history is to become a historian. ~ Jerry Falwell,
941:The hare of history once more overtakes the tortoise of art ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
942:The history of a soldier's wound beguiles the pain of it. ~ Laurence Sterne,
943:The history of life is written in terms of negative entropy. ~ James Gleick,
944:the main lesson of history is: humans don’t learn from history. ~ Matt Haig,
945:The trial of Ernst Zundel has gone down in Canadian history. ~ Ernst Zundel,
946:Voters, like history, are under no obligation to make sense. ~ Evan Mandery,
947:We're going to have to change our traditions, our history. ~ Michelle Obama,
948:What do you mean to do?'
'Make literary history, I guess. ~ Paula McLain,
949:When a history book contains no lies it is always tedious. ~ Anatole France,
950:Who are we to combat poisons older than history and mankind ~ H P Lovecraft,
951:Woe unto the defeated, whom history treads into the dust. ~ Arthur Koestler,
952:You cannot afford to rely on history, you have to make it. ~ Martin O Neill,
953:You have the best wild west rancher cowboy name in history ~ Kristen Ashley,
954:Almost the whole of history is but a sequence of horrors. ~ Nicolas Chamfort,
955:Among famous traitors of history one might mention the weather. ~ Ilka Chase,
956:A shared history does not entitle you to a future, my friend. ~ Ren e Ahdieh,
957:a storyteller’s tale may end, but history goes on always. ~ Jacqueline Carey,
958:Death decayed into history decayed into poolside anecdote. ~ Brooke Bolander,
959:Don't ever forget the history. It will make and change who we are. ~ Sukarno,
960:For feeling, not events, is to me the essence of history. ~ Christopher Pike,
961:History affords us many instances of the ruin of states, ~ Benjamin Franklin,
962:History and memory are very important to me. - Madame George ~ Richard Rubin,
963:History, as they say, is alive and well and living in London. ~ Helene Hanff,
964:History doesn't proceed in incremental little notches. ~ Frances Moore Lappe,
965:History honors the unique minority the majority cannot forget. ~ Suzy Kassem,
966:History is an alternating series of frying pans and fires. ~ P ter Esterh zy,
967:History is like a clock, it tells you your time of day. ~ John Henrik Clarke,
968:History isn’t a tale told once, it’s a series of revisions. ~ Victor LaValle,
969:History is the chronicle of divorces between creed and deed. ~ Louis Fischer,
970:History repeats itself because nobody listens the first time. ~ Erik Qualman,
971:History took hold of me and never let me go thereafter. ~ Simone de Beauvoir,
972:How many forgotten heroes sleep in history's great cemetery? ~ Laurent Binet,
973:I do not see why man should not be just as cruel as nature. ~ Hourly History,
974:If you are a black woman, you get two history months in a row. ~ Artie Lange,
975:I got a call to come in and meet Fox, and the rest is history. ~ Paula Abdul,
976:I shall do down in history as the man who opened a door! ~ Leonardo da Vinci,
977:I think all presidents should take the long view of history. ~ George W Bush,
978:I think literature reveals more about us than history does. ~ Susan Meissner,
979:[I want to build] the biggest apparel company in human history. ~ Kanye West,
980:Men, like planets, have both a visible and invisible history. ~ George Eliot,
981:My history is really playing live - not writing or recording. ~ Squarepusher,
982:No spoilers!” “It’s history!” “History that I don’t know. ~ Becky Albertalli,
984:Nothing has ever looked like that ever in all of human history. ~ John Green,
985:Nothing moves me more than the history of the United States. ~ Henry Rollins,
986:Nowhere is it ordained that history moves in a straight line. ~ Barack Obama,
987:Our family history was erased and rewritten a thousand times. ~ Lisa Kleypas,
988:Russia is tough. The history, the land, the people - brutal. ~ Henry Rollins,
989:That we have some history together that hasn’t happened yet. ~ Jennifer Egan,
990:The future of history belongs to the poor and exploited. ~ Gustavo Gutierrez,
991:The hare of history once more overtakes the tortoise of art. ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
992:The history of soccer is a sad voyage from beauty to duty. ~ Eduardo Galeano,
993:The men who make history have not time to write it. ~ Klemens von Metternich,
994:There is properly no history; only biography. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson, History,
995:the Southern soldier will go down in history dishonored. ~ James M McPherson,
996:The student is to read history actively not passively. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
997:To become a future-teller, one needs only to study history. ~ Marjorie M Liu,
998:To understand a science it is necessary to know its history. ~ Auguste Comte,
999:truth is the only merit that gives dignity and worth to history. ~ Anonymous,
1000:Walk the street with us into history. Get off the sidewalk. ~ Dolores Huerta,
1001:we can move past our history, but we can never truly erase it. ~ Susan Wiggs,
1002:We were the only band in history that was directed by an ass. ~ Scotty Moore,
1003:What is a history teacher? He's someone who teaches mistakes. ~ Graham Swift,
1004:What to do then, when the only history you have is collage? ~ Fatimah Asghar,
1005:Who are we to combat poisons older than history and mankind? ~ H P Lovecraft,
1006:Women have been sexual slaves for most of recorded history. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1007:Women love hairy men. Cavemen were the sexiest men in history. ~ Leslie Mann,
1008:Women's history is the primary tool for women's emancipation. ~ Gerda Lerner,
1009:You can't live in history. You've got to build for the future. ~ Ruud Gullit,
1010:You don't want to trash what you've done; that's your history. ~ Pat Benatar,
1011:Your family's history does not have to be your future legacy! ~ Jayce O Neal,
1012:A dream of tenderness
wrestles with all I know of history ~ Adrienne Rich,
1013:Art is the whisper of history, heard above the noise of time. ~ Julian Barnes,
1014:Assassination has never changed the history of the world. ~ Benjamin Disraeli,
1015:Equality under the law is the slow triumph of hope over history. ~ Jim Cooper,
1016:Even the great bad guys in cinema history, they're likable. ~ Balthazar Getty,
1017:Gilles was the fastest driver in the history of motor racing ~ Jody Scheckter,
1018:History does not usually make real sense until long afterward. ~ Bruce Catton,
1019:History has always existed, but not always in a historical form. ~ Guy Debord,
1020:History holds up one side of our lives and fiction the other. ~ Samantha Hunt,
1021:History is a constant race between invention and catastrophe. ~ Frank Herbert,
1022:History is the ship carrying living memories to the future. ~ Stephen Spender,
1023:History remains with the people who will appreciate it most. I ~ Adam Silvera,
1024:History remembered the villains even better than the saints. ~ Meredith Duran,
1025:History, writing, infect after a time a man's sense of himself... ~ A S Byatt,
1026:human memory is short, and history always repeats itself. ~ Devdutt Pattanaik,
1027:I am fascinated by history and particularly the Victorian era. ~ Annie Lennox,
1028:If you don't know history, it is as if you were born yesterday. ~ Howard Zinn,
1029:I love every period in design history. Even the ugly ones. ~ Catherine Martin,
1030:In literary history, generation follows generation in a rage. ~ Annie Dillard,
1031:In the history of the world, a whole story has never been told. ~ Meghan Daum,
1032:It's funny how the history of Jeb Bush is going to be rewritten. ~ Chuck Todd,
1033:Look at history. It's not the account of a species at peace. ~ Salman Rushdie,
1034:Luce recognized her from European history class. Amy Something. ~ Lauren Kate,
1035:Man is explicable by nothing less than all his history. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
1036:My favourite finds are often antique pieces with a history. ~ Alice Temperley,
1037:My major allegiance has been to storytelling, not to history. ~ Russell Banks,
1038:Mythology can be defined as the sacred history of humankind. ~ Gerald Hausman,
1039:No one in history had ever done less and yet been so wrong. ~ Maureen Johnson,
1040:People are trapped in history and history is trapped in them. ~ James Baldwin,
1041:People never mentioned in history books still made history. ~ Katherine Locke,
1042:Photography's history is bound to the mistake, to the accident. ~ Taryn Simon,
1043:Shall I go down in history as a death bringer or a privy cleaner? ~ Paul Dale,
1044:the artes liberales: music, mathematics, history, and so on. ~ Elizabeth Moon,
1045:[The Balkans] produce more history than they can consume. ~ Winston Churchill,
1046:The Beatles are the most credible band in the history of music. ~ Ryan Tedder,
1047:The history of art is a sequence of successful transgressions. ~ Susan Sontag,
1048:The history of the world is the history of the privileged few. ~ Henry Miller,
1049:...the main lesson of history is humans don't learn from history. ~ Matt Haig,
1050:The more you know of your history, the more liberated you are. ~ Maya Angelou,
1051:There are moments in history that people should be reminded of. ~ Jim Sanborn,
1052:There has not been a beautiful death in the history of mankind. ~ Dave Eggers,
1053:The whole history of baseball has the quality of mythology. ~ Bernard Malamud,
1054:To be deep in history is to cease to be Protestant. ~ Saint John Henry Newman,
1055:Truth is the only merit that gives dignity and worth to history. ~ Lord Acton,
1056:Unix is not so much an operating system as an oral history. ~ Neal Stephenson,
1057:We are not makers of history. We are made by history. ~ Martin Luther King Jr,
1058:We have history, you and I. You just don’t know it yet. ~ Sarah Addison Allen,
1059:With black people, there are 50 Hitlers over the course of history. ~ Chuck D,
1060:All history is but the lengthened shadow of a great man. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
1061:All the invasions of history have been determined by petticoats. ~ Victor Hugo,
1062:But I can't rewrite history. I can love only with what's left. ~ Suzanne Young,
1063:But I can't rewrite history. I can only live with what's left. ~ Suzanne Young,
1064:Does American history prove these truths, or does it belie them? ~ Jill Lepore,
1065:From the Battle of Clontarf to Stalingrad: history brought to life ~ Anonymous,
1066:have been impressed with the urgency of doing. Knowing is not ~ Hourly History,
1067:Histories themselves become history before they reach the shelves. ~ John Keay,
1068:History - a biography of a few stout and earnest persons ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
1069:History - an account, mostly false, of events, mostly unimportant ~ John Barth,
1070:History consists of a series of accumulated imaginative inventions. ~ Voltaire,
1071:History has many cunning passages, contrived corridors and issues. ~ T S Eliot,
1072:History, history! We fools, what do we know or care. ~ William Carlos Williams,
1073:History indulges strange whims in the way it dresses its women. ~ Michel Faber,
1074:History in the storyteller's hand was a potent force indeed,.... ~ Kate Morton,
1075:History is a hammock for swinging and a game for playing. ~ Jeanette Winterson,
1076:History is an endless repetition of the wrong way of living ~ Lawrence Durrell,
1077:History is anomalous, and there is no way to get used to it. ~ Terence McKenna,
1078:History is nothing but a pack of tricks that we play upon the dead. ~ Voltaire,
1079:History is nothing except monsters or victims. Or witnesses. ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
1080:History is scholarship. It is also art, and it is literature. ~ Stephen J Pyne,
1081:History is scraps of evidence joined by the glue of imagination. ~ Subhash Kak,
1082:History is what the evidence compels us to believe. ~ Michael Joseph Oakeshott,
1083:I am a part of history whether people want to take it seriously or not. ~ Cher,
1084:I think the materialist conception of history is valid. ~ Christopher Hitchens,
1085:I thought I was learning to live; I was only learning to die, ~ Hourly History,
1086:It takes a great deal of history to produce a little literature. ~ Henry James,
1087:I would love to see the Church on the right side of history. ~ Shane Claiborne,
1088:Jeff Bridges is one of my favorite actors in the history of ever. ~ Ben Barnes,
1089:Karachi has had an overdose of history, too much has happened. ~ Steve Inskeep,
1090:Man in a word has no nature; what he has... is history. ~ Jose Ortega y Gasset,
1091:Money plays the largest part in determining the course of history. ~ Karl Marx,
1092:Most civilizations had more fiction than they did real history. ~ Vernor Vinge,
1093:No life had ever been truly saved, not in the history of mankind. ~ Hugh Howey,
1094:Not everyone who reaches back into history can survive it. ~ Elizabeth Kostova,
1095:Nowhere in history has the white man been brotherly toward anyone. ~ Malcolm X,
1096:Obviously, the history of the franchise is a history of anomalies. ~ Peter Gay,
1097:Our ignorance of history causes us to slander our own times ~ Gustave Flaubert,
1098:The dirty secret about history is how much of it is conjecture. ~ Erika Swyler,
1099:The flag is the embodiment, not of sentiment, but of history. ~ Woodrow Wilson,
1100:The happiest women, like the happiest nations, have no history. ~ George Eliot,
1101:The history books which contain no lies are extremely tedious ~ Anatole France,
1102:The history of mankind is the history of money losing value. ~ Milton Friedman,
1103:The history of the world is the world's court of justice. ~ Friedrich Schiller,
1104:The only thing new in the world is the history you do not know. ~ Harry Truman,
1105:The only thing that's really new is the history you don't know. ~ Harry Truman,
1106:There is no better time in history to be an idiot than right now. ~ A J Jacobs,
1107:The sea is nothing but a library of all the tears in history. ~ Daniel Handler,
1108:The writing of history is often another way of defining chaos. ~ Peter Ackroyd,
1109:Throughout history, great leaders have known the power of humor. ~ Allen Klein,
1110:To be deep in history, is to cease to be Protestant. ~ Saint John Henry Newman,
1111:Tolstoy said, “History would be a very good thing if it were true. ~ Anonymous,
1112:Voltaire once said? ‘History is the lie commonly agreed upon. ~ Oliver P tzsch,
1113:want to change history?” Luke made a stab at humor. ~ Margaret Peterson Haddix,
1114:When history looks back, it will prove what I'll die knowing. ~ Jack Kevorkian,
1115:Yesterday's History. Tomorrow's a Mystery. So live for today. ~ Carroll Shelby,
1116:Zionism is the most stupendous fallacy in Jewish history ~ Henry Morgenthau Sr,
1117:A. RONCAGLIA The Wealth of Ideas: A History of Economic Thought ~ Ha Joon Chang,
1118:At least Satan fell; he has a history, and it's one of revenge. ~ Ian McDiarmid,
Never underestimate the power of a shared history. ~ Karin Slaughter,
1120:Bush, Sharon, Blair and Rice are names that history will damn. ~ George Clooney,
1121:Every new generation must rewrite history in its own way. ~ Robin G Collingwood,
1122:for evil to flourish, it only requires good men to do nothing. ~ Hourly History,
1123:Going from--toward; it is the history of every one of us. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
1124:history, as they say, will always be written by the victors. ~ Anthony Bourdain,
1125:History demonstrates that racism never goes away; it just adapts. ~ Jemar Tisby,
1126:History doesn't turn on a dime; it turns on a plugged nickel. ~ Jeff Greenfield,
1127:History, in general, only informs us what bad government is. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
1128:History is an endless repetition of the wrong way of living. ~ Lawrence Durrell,
1129:History sits on our shoulders, while reading opens our hearts. ~ Jerry Spinelli,
1130:History tends to change people who think they're changing it. ~ Terry Pratchett,
1131:... history - the lamp which illumines national character... ~ Lawrence Durrell,
1132:I believe that when you’re making a mix, you’re making history. ~ Rob Sheffield,
1133:If history is a record of survivors, Poetry shelters other voices. ~ Susan Howe,
1134:I half cherish the hope that the end of history will be Swissness. ~ Jan Morris,
1135:I have a history of saving animals. I started years ago with a cow. ~ Peter Max,
1136:I hope to make the most expensive movie in history at some point! ~ Dean Devlin,
1137:In life you have to rely on the past, and that's called history. ~ Donald Trump,
1138:It is not I who have been consigned to the bedroom of history. ~ Corazon Aquino,
1139:Losers don’t write history. They’re burned, buried, and forgotten. ~ A G Riddle,
1140:Men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please. ~ Karl Marx,
1141:My other bodily ailments have become mere matters of history. ~ William Banting,
1142:Never in the history of human credit has so much been owed. ~ Margaret Thatcher,
1143:No land was ever acquired honestly in the history of the earth. ~ Philipp Meyer,
1144:No time in history has the Church of Jesus Christ gone down! ~ Loren Cunningham,
1145:Our ignorance of history causes us to slander our own times. ~ Gustave Flaubert,
1146:People are trapped in history and history is trapped in them. ~ James A Baldwin,
1147:So study your rock history, son. That be the Bible of the Blues. ~ Steven Tyler,
1148:The history of American women is all about leaving home—crossing ~ Gail Collins,
1149:The only thing new in the world is the history you don't know. ~ Harry S Truman,
1150:The real history of consciousness starts with one's first lie. ~ Joseph Brodsky,
1151:There is no inevitability in history except as men make it. ~ Felix Frankfurter,
1152:This in no life for man or woman, insults and hatred and history. ~ James Joyce,
1153:To be deep in history is to cease to be a Protestant. ~ Saint John Henry Newman,
1154:Very few of us ever see the history of our own time happening. ~ G K Chesterton,
1155:Was never secret history but birds tell it in the bowers. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
1156:We learn from history that we learn nothing from history. ~ George Bernard Shaw,
1157:We must resist the temptation to romanticize history's losers. ~ Niall Ferguson,
1158:When the train of history hits a curve, the intellectuals fall off. ~ Karl Marx,
1159:A poet in history is divine, but a poet in the next room is a joke ~ Max Eastman,
1160:As the Chinese will tell you, history depends on your point of view. ~ Tim Allen,
1161:Cameras miniaturize experience, transform history into spectacle. ~ Susan Sontag,
1162:Crim has baggage: expectation, history, responsibility. ~ Lee Patrick Mastelotto,
1163:Democracy is but an experiment in the long history of the world. ~ Mark McKinnon,
1164:Dictators seem to learn from history much better than democrats ~ Garry Kasparov,
1165:Donald Trump will be a tragedy, a sad joke in American history. ~ Jonathan Chait,
1166:Dragons in History by Eleanor Lock (Border Press, London, 1999) ~ Matthew Reilly,
1167:Graphic designers should be literate in graphic design history. ~ Steven Heller,
1168:History casts its shadow far into the land of song. ~ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,
1169:History favors the underfoot and the oppressed, Your Majesty, ~ Victoria Aveyard,
1170:History is like a mirror, capable of showing what a man really is ~ Qiu Xiaolong,
1171:History is nothing if not an epic tale of missed opportunities. ~ Graydon Carter,
1172:History is the guess of old men, sometimes they get it wrong. ~ Steven J Carroll,
1173:History is the narrative of people searching for a place to go. ~ J R Moehringer,
1174:History’s lesson is that bullies ultimately defeat themselves. ~ Howard Jacobson,
1175:history teaches us that visions come most quickly to lone obsessives. ~ Alex Mar,
1176:History, well read, is simply humility well told, in many manners. ~ Adam Gopnik,
1177:Human history was the story of increasingly disoriented hunger. ~ Richard Powers,
1178:If we could read the secret history of our enemies. ~ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,
1179:I guess that anything we manage to save from history is a miracle. ~ Donna Tartt,
1180:I'm not keen on history being tampered with... to any extent. ~ Daniel Day Lewis,
1181:Inertia is the first law of history, as it is of physics. ~ Morris Raphael Cohen,
1182:In truth history does not belong to us but rather we to it. ~ Hans Georg Gadamer,
1183:I think we may class the lawyer in the natural history of monsters. ~ John Keats,
1184:Knowing your history can give you the tools to shape your future. ~ Gloria Feldt,
1185:Man's most intelligent age may have gotten lost in history. ~ John Henrik Clarke,
1186:No man in the history of baseball had as much power as . No man. ~ Mickey Mantle,
1187:No man in the history of ever has turned down a blowjob,” he gritted. ~ Amy Lane,
1188:Only give them history books. Men should read nothing else. ~ Napol on Bonaparte,
1189:Skepticism is a virtue in history as well as in philosophy. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte,
1190:Television and film are our libraries now. Our history books. ~ David Strathairn,
1191:That's the history of the world. His story is told, hers isn't. ~ Dolores Huerta,
1192:The elderly have so much to offer. They're our link with history. ~ John Cusack,
1193:The entire history of science is a progression of exploded fallacies. ~ Ayn Rand,
1194:The history of literature is the history of the human mind. ~ William H Prescott,
1195:The history of saints is mainly the history of insane people. ~ Benito Mussolini,
1196:The laws of animality govern almost the whole of history. ~ Henri Frederic Amiel,
1197:The memories of men are too frail a thread to hang history from. ~ Philip Sugden,
1198:The queens in history compare favorably with the kings. ~ Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
1199:The stop-watch of history is running. The race is on . . . ~ Dwight D Eisenhower,
1200:The student is to read history actively and not passively. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
1201:The World Has Divided into Rich and Poor as at No Time in History ~ Maude Barlow,
1202:Those who fail to learn from history are doomed to repeat it. ~ George Santayana,
1203:Women’s history is the
primary tool for women’s emancipation. ~ Gerda Lerner,
1204:You have no dominion greater or lesser than that over yourself. ~ Hourly History,
1205:A criminal is more vulnerable in his history than his future, ~ Michelle McNamara,
1206:A generation which ignores history has no past—and no future. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
1207:America is the greatest force for good in the history of the world. ~ John McCain,
1208:An artist should know art history. Shock value only lasts so long. ~ Robert Longo,
1209:And in the absence of facts, myth rushes in, the kudzu of history. ~ Stacy Schiff,
1210:A racist is a man who believes in history, genetics, and his eyes! ~ Tom Anderson,
1211:As a student of history, I also know civilization's debt to Islam. ~ Barack Obama,
1212:Does history record any case in which the majority was right? ~ Robert A Heinlein,
1213:For with but one generation, History and truth are lost forever. ~ Mary E Pearson,
1214:grab my (white) American History book and stuff it in my backpack. ~ Angie Thomas,
1215:He is the purest figure in history. About George Washington ~ William E Gladstone,
1216:History does not repeat itself. The historians repeat one another. ~ Max Beerbohm,
1217:History fancies itself linear - but yields to a cyclical temptation. ~ Criss Jami,
1218:History is a series of approximations of the final singularity. ~ Terence McKenna,
1219:History itself is only ever a story, told by the ones who survive it. ~ C J Tudor,
1220:...history lives in the gap between the information and the truth ~ Dexter Palmer,
1221:History never really says goodbye. History says, see you later. ~ Eduardo Galeano,
1222:History tends to be rather dry
but everyone enjoys a story ~ Patrick Rothfuss,
1223:Houses aren't refuges from history. They are where history ends up. ~ Bill Bryson,
1224:Houses aren’t refuges from history. They are where history ends up. ~ Bill Bryson,
1225:How do I define history? It's just one fucking thing after another ~ Alan Bennett,
1226:How do you build a history based on ceaseless self-slaughter? ~ Peter Pomerantsev,
1227:I am glad you appreciate the past. History helps make the present, ~ Karen Harper,
1228:I'd rather be making messes, and making history while I'm at it. ~ Sophia Amoruso,
1229:If you can't trust the Bible's history, how can you trust its morality? ~ Ken Ham,
1230:I'm excited we can be part of making the death penalty history. ~ Shane Claiborne,
1231:I'm headed towards greatness. I think I'm making history in hip-hop. ~ Soulja Boy,
1232:In the history of humanity, there's never been a country like America. ~ Ted Cruz,
1233:I shall be the first composer in history not to have a biography. ~ Pierre Boulez,
1234:I think that an obsession with art history gave rise to the work. ~ Kehinde Wiley,
1235:Love is the final end of the world's history, the Amen of the universe. ~ Novalis,
1236:Nowadays people think that history is what was on TV last night. ~ Michael Dibdin,
1237:One cannot take revenge upon history; history is its own revenge ~ Shashi Tharoor,
1238:[R]acial supremacy is merely a matter of dates in history. ~ James Weldon Johnson,
1239:Religion is a monumental chapter in the history of human egotism. ~ William James,
1240:Sharman Apt Russell, author of Hunger: An Unnatural History. ~ Daniel James Brown,
1241:Slavery is not African history. Slavery interrupted African history. ~ Mutabaruka,
1242:The accidents of history are everywhere. The carnage all around us. ~ Sari Wilson,
1243:The artist's job is to be a witness to his time in history. ~ Robert Rauschenberg,
1244:The audience cheered. I died a little inside. The rest is history. ~ Mark Kermode,
1245:The history of astronomy is a history of receding horizons. ~ Edwin Powell Hubble,
1246:The history of commerce is that of the communication of the people. ~ Montesquieu,
1247:The history of mathematics is a history of horrendously difficult ~ Freeman Dyson,
1248:The mists remain of the false glory that erupts from history. ~ Miguel de Unamuno,
1249:The most important events in every age never reach the history books. ~ C S Lewis,
1250:The past is history. The future is a mystery. The present is a gift. ~ Lisa Unger,
1251:There's only one spot in history for the first ever of anything. ~ Nathan Fillion,
1252:There, tonight. The eternity of that. Swan logic. Swan history. ~ Laura Kasischke,
1253:The trouble with history is that there are too many people involved ~ Nick Hornby,
1254:Time creates a collage with layers of history—family and events. ~ Patricia Sands,
1255:Today is a reality, tomorrow's a promise, and yesterday's history! ~ Billy Blanks,
1256:Under every roof, a story, just as behind every brow, a history ~ Gregory Maguire,
1257:We have this history of impossible solutions to insoluble problems. ~ Will Eisner,
1258:We see now that the abyss of history is deep enough to hold us all. ~ Paul Val ry,
1259:What I am is a thinking, feeling human being compelled by history. ~ Avery Brooks,
1260:What we learn from History is that no one learns from History ~ Otto von Bismarck,
1261:You cannot embrace your destiny if you do not let go of your history. ~ T D Jakes,
1262:Your history of work is as important as the work you'll do tomorrow. ~ Seth Godin,
1263:Ah, my darling. But there is no such thing [as a nice safe history]. ~ Kate Morton,
1264:A man’s worth is no greater than his ambitions.” —Marcus Aurelius ~ Hourly History,
1265:Before history is written down in books, it is written in courage. ~ George W Bush,
1266:Destiny can sometimes be history coming back to bite you in the arse. ~ Hal Duncan,
1267:Everyone has a moment in history which belongs particularly to him. ~ John Knowles,
1268:Every word I say, you can document it and put it in the history books. ~ Riff Raff,
1269:Golf is something I love. It's been a part of my family's history. ~ George W Bush,
1270:History does not merely touch on language, but takes place in it. ~ Theodor Adorno,
1271:History, in general, only informs us of what bad government is. ~ Thomas Jefferson,
1272:History is a capricious creature. It depends on who writes it. ~ Mikhail Gorbachev,
1273:History is always a grand fantasy... To reconstruct is to invent. ~ E a de Queir s,
1274:History is always repeating itself, but each time the price goes up. ~ Will Durant,
1275:History is a pact between the dead, the living, and the yet unborn. ~ Edmund Burke,
1276:history is like a mirror that helps you to see through yourself. ~ Yang Jwing Ming,
1277:History is much more the product of chaos than of conspiracy ~ Zbigniew Brzezi ski,
1278:History is nothing but good people dying for the wrong reasons. ~ Aleksandr Voinov,
1279:History is not what happened. History is what was written down. ~ Kathleen McGowan,
1280:History written in pencil is easily erased, but crayon is forever. ~ Emilie Autumn,
1281:Hopefully one day I can be up there with Peyton in terms of history. ~ Andrew Luck,
1282:how far history is distorted by the dubious benefit of hindsight. ~ Niall Ferguson,
1283:I have been looking all my life for history and have yet to find it. ~ Joan Didion,
1284:I'm going down in history with Star Trek. It's a great feeling. ~ Persis Khambatta,
1285:In terms of history and sports, I don't think people will forget. ~ Kristine Lilly,
1286:It is not heroes that make history, but history that makes heroes. ~ Joseph Stalin,
1287:It is sad but unfortunately true that man learns nothing from history. ~ Carl Jung,
1288:It's very important to know the history and region going into it. ~ Danny Burstein,
1289:It will be as if we never existed if our history cannot be read. ~ Minette Walters,
1290:Jews have been the most successful and productive nation in history. ~ H W Charles,
like history, is made;
like truth, is seen. ~ Octavio Paz,
1292:The arch of History is long, but it bends towards justice. ~ Martin Luther King Jr,
1293:The first female captain in the history of the Star Trek franchise, ~ Kate Mulgrew,
1294:The history of missions is the history of answered prayer. ~ Samuel Marinus Zwemer,
1295:The ifs and buts of history...form an insubstantial if intoxicating diet. ~ Vikram,
1296:The more history I learn, the more the world fills up with stories. ~ Sarah Vowell,
1297:There is no history of artthere is the history of artists. ~ Marianne von Werefkin,
1298:The very ink with which history is written is merely fluid prejudice. ~ Mark Twain,
1299:The victors' view of history rarely matches that of the vanquished. ~ Kevin Hearne,
1300:This is the trouble with history. You can't see what's not there. ~ Naomi Alderman,
1301:Those who do not know history will forever remain children ~ Marcus Tullius Cicero,
1302:To remain ignorant of history is to remain forever a child ~ Marcus Tullius Cicero,
1303:To try to expunge an individual's history is a terrible violation. ~ Helen Dunmore,
1304:We are caught in a secret history, in a forest of symbols. ~ Maurice Merleau Ponty,
1305:Whatever can be noted historically can be found within history. ~ Martin Heidegger,
1306:Writing history is like drinking an ocean and pissing a cupful. ~ Gustave Flaubert,
1307:Your genome knows much more about your medical history than you do. ~ Danny Hillis,
1308:A basic rule of history is that the inevitable eventually happens. ~ William S Lind,
1309:A generation which ignores history has no past — and no future. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
1310:All history is nothing but a continuous transformation of human nature. ~ Karl Marx,
1311:all, humans had a history of behaving badly in order to make a buck. ~ Stuart Gibbs,
1312:Arabic equals Sanskrit plus history, equals Greek minus tragedy ~ Abdal Hakim Murad,
1313:A single event can shape our lives or change the course of history. ~ Deepak Chopra,
1315:He used to pimp and pull shakedowns. Now he rode shotgun to History. ~ James Ellroy,
1316:History dressed up in the glow of love’s kiss turned grief into beauty. ~ Aberjhani,
1317:History has an author who fills time and eternity with His purpose. ~ George W Bush,
1318:History is always entirely different to what has happened. ~ Halld r Kiljan Laxness,
1319:History is entirely created by the person who tells the story. ~ Lin Manuel Miranda,
1320:History is littered with the wars everybody knew could never happen. ~ Enoch Powell,
1321:History is not a burden on the memory but an illumination of the soul. ~ Lord Acton,
1322:[History]... is nothing else but the rise and disappearance of races. ~ Arthur Kemp,
1323:History is not just about the past. It also reveals the present. ~ David Von Drehle,
1324:History is riddled with deaths. We’re all here because of ghosts. ~ Katherine Locke,
1325:History is the arbiter of controversy, the monarch of all she surveys. ~ Lord Acton,
1326:History is the key to everything: politics, religion, even fashion. ~ Eva Herzigova,
1327:History is the long, difficult and confused dream of Mankind. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
1328:History is written not only by posterity, but for posterity as well. ~ Stacy Schiff,
1329:History never repeats itself—but historical situations recur.” As ~ Arthur C Clarke,
1330:History repeats itself is another way of saying the past harmonizes. ~ Stephen King,
1331:History taught that the cover-up was always worse than the crime. ~ Lisa Scottoline,
1332:I like the dreams of the future better than the history of the past.... ~ Anonymous,
1333:Imagine if Congress were actually knowledgeable of American history. ~ Jim Harrison,
1334:In history, good intentions do not always make good consequences ~ Alija Izetbegovi,
1335:Is history to be considered the property of the participants only? ~ Salman Rushdie,
1336:It is the soothing thing about history that it does repeat itself. ~ Gertrude Stein,
1337:it strikes me there are parallel points in her history and yours— ~ Charlotte Bront,
1338:I was worried about being the nut that ruined 40 years of Bond history. ~ Rick Yune,
1339:Jason Witten will go down as one of the best tight ends in history. ~ Deion Sanders,
1340:Madness slunk in through a chink in History. It only took a moment. ~ Arundhati Roy,
1341:No back in the history of football was ever worth two fumbles a game. ~ Woody Hayes,
1342:One should never underestimate the role of stupidity in history ~ Ervand Abrahamian,
1343:Only a fraction of the history of literacy has been typographic. ~ Marshall McLuhan,
1344:Our citizenship is in eternity; history is our temporary residence. ~ Erwin McManus,
1345:Our own story is even more important for us to know than history. ~ Kristin Cashore,
1346:Prudence versus passion is a conflict that runs through history. ~ Bertrand Russell,
1347:Revolutions are the periods of history when individuals count most. ~ Norman Mailer,
1348:Slavery isn’t Black history,’ I point out. ‘It’s everyone’s history. ~ Jodi Picoult,
1349:Slavery isn’t Black history,” I point out. “It’s everyone’s history. ~ Jodi Picoult,
1350:The arc of history does not bend toward justice unless we bend it. ~ Adam Benforado,
1351:The city appeared to be an educational diorama: the History of Mess. ~ P J O Rourke,
1352:The "end of history" has been proclaimed many times, always falsely. ~ Noam Chomsky,
1353:The greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker. ~ Richard M Nixon,
1354:The highest of distinctions is service to others.” —King George VI ~ Hourly History,
1355:The man of genius in tune with nature will bend history to his will. ~ Adolf Hitler,
1356:The most ethical administration in the history of the Republic. ~ William J Clinton,
1357:The most revolutionary statement in history is "Love thine enemy ~ Eldridge Cleaver,
1358:The prophet is appointed to oppose the kind, and even more: history. ~ Martin Buber,
1359:There are no happy endings in history, only crisis points that pass. ~ Isaac Asimov,
1360:The total history of almost anyone would shock almost everyone. ~ Mignon McLaughlin,
1361:Those who know nothing about history are doomed forever to repeat it. ~ Will Durant,
1362:To become aware of our history is to become aware of our singularity. ~ Octavio Paz,
1363:To some extent the history of plagiarism is a history of notebooks. ~ Thomas Mallon,
1364:We are not history yet. We are happening now. How miraculous is that? ~ Joseph Fink,
1365:We human beings do real harm. History could make a stone weep. ~ Marilynne Robinson,
1366:Well, I’ve spoken to Dr. Schelling, and we reviewed your history. ~ Natasha S Brown,
1367:What we learn from history is that we do not learn from history ~ Benjamin Disraeli,
1368:What you do is your history. What you set in motion is your legacy. ~ Leonard Sweet,
1369:Will sex between humans ever lose its endlessly repeated history? ~ Samuel R Delany,
1370:women are the only group in history to be idealized into powerlessness ~ Erica Jong,
1371:Everyone has a moment in history which belongs particularly to him. ~ Jennifer Niven,
1372:George, this is history," Lacon protested weakly. "This is not today. ~ John le Carr,
1373:George W. Bush is the worst President
in all of American history. ~ Helen Thomas,
1374:History cannot be reduced to a set of statistics and probabilities. ~ Alan Greenspan,
1375:History has shown charm to be the final ambition of the leisure class. ~ Amor Towles,
1376:History has shown that the less people read, the more books they buy. ~ Albert Camus,
1377:History is bright and fiction dull with homely men who have charmed women. ~ O Henry,
1378:History isn’t something you study. It’s something you should just know. ~ Kiera Cass,
1379:History is too much about wars; biography too much about great men. ~ Virginia Woolf,
1380:history’s just old news, prophecy that’s well past its sell-by date. ~ Mark Lawrence,
1381:History, Stephen said, is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake. ~ James Joyce,
1382:history textbooks need to disabuse students of the flat-earth myth. ~ James W Loewen,
1383:History: the category of human phenomena which tends to catastrophe. ~ Jules Romains,
1384:I do love violets; they tell the history of woman's love. ~ Letitia Elizabeth Landon,
1385:I don't worry about long-term history. I won't be around to read it. ~ George W Bush,
1386:If cats could write history, their history would be mostly about cats. ~ Eugen Weber,
1387:If history in the making be a fluid thing, it swiftly crystallizes. ~ Agnes Repplier,
1388:If knowing history made you rich, librarians would be billionaires. ~ Warren Buffett,
1389:Indeed, history is nothing more than a tableau of crimes and misfortunes. ~ Voltaire,
1390:Indeed, no one should see too much of their own history or future. ~ Kristen Britain,
1391:I never see a forest that does not bear a mark or a sign of history. ~ Anselm Kiefer,
1392:In history, good intentions do not always make good consequences ~ Alija Izetbegovic,
1393:In the history of the world, no one has ever washed a rented car. ~ Lawrence Summers,
1394:In the last 3,421 years of recorded history only 268 have seen no war. ~ Will Durant,
1395:In the last 3,421 years of recorded history, only 268 have seen no war ~ Will Durant,
1396:Is the only lesson of history to be that mankind is unteachable? ~ Winston Churchill,
1397:It's not the sentiments of men which make history but their actions. ~ Norman Mailer,
1398:It takes an endless amount of history to make even a little tradition. ~ Henry James,
1399:[James Mattis] is a student of history. He's a strategic thinker. ~ Michele Flournoy,
1400:Jazz is an idea that is more powerful than the details of its history. ~ Pat Metheny,
1401:Majority doesn't rule. One person can change the history of the world. ~ Paul Mooney,
1402:Man seems to insist on ignoring the lessons available from history. ~ Norman Borlaug,
1403:maybe that’s all history was: a succession of bullies and thieves, each ~ Eric Flint,
1404:Official history is a matter of believing murderers on their own word. ~ Simone Weil,
1405:Of such things, petty annoyance and aimless thrusts, is history made. ~ Isaac Asimov,
1406:Once you get into this great stream of history, you can't get out. ~ Richard M Nixon,
1407:People tend to forget that the word "history" contains the word "story". ~ Ken Burns,
1408:So the first biological lesson of history is that life is competition. ~ Will Durant,
1409:STORY” is more than half of the word “HISTORY”. And that’s no accident. ~ Glenn Beck,
1410:The course of history shows that as a government grows, liberty decreases. ~ Various,
1411:The Declaration of Independence is a sacred part of American history. ~ Paul Gillmor,
1412:The greatest history book ever written is the one hidden in our DNA. ~ Spencer Wells,
1413:The greatest work of an artist is the history of a painting. ~ Leon Battista Alberti,
1414:The history of architecture is the history of the struggle for light. ~ Le Corbusier,
1415:The history of every country begins in the heart of a man or a woman. ~ Willa Cather,
1416:The history of ideas is the history of the grudges of solitary men. ~ Emile M Cioran,
1417:The history of literature is very far from being one of simple progress. ~ C S Lewis,
1418:The history of things that didn't happen has never been written. ~ Henry A Kissinger,
1419:The law of unintended consequences is the only real law of history. ~ Niall Ferguson,
1420:The lesson of history is rarely learned by the actors themselves. ~ James A Garfield,
1421:The most beautiful inciting incident in the history of inciting incidents ~ Zoe Sugg,
1422:There is nothing new in the world except the history you do not know. ~ Harry Truman,
1423:There's a lot of revisionist history that goes on these days about Iraq. ~ Joe Biden,
1424:The stability of species represented the bedrock of natural history. ~ David Quammen,
1425:The state is the soul of man enlarged under the microscope of history. ~ Will Durant,
1426:We study history in order to intervene in the course of history. ~ Adolf von Harnack,
1427:What was the point of living through history if you didn't record it? ~ Tatjana Soli,
1428:What we learn from history is that people don't learn from history. ~ Warren Buffett,
1429:When unique voices are united in a common cause, they make history. ~ Gloria Steinem,
1430:Writing history is a method of getting rid of the past. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
1431:And for what portion of human history had people even had desk jobs? ~ Rebecca Makkai,
1432:Books of natural history make the most cheerful winter reading. ~ Henry David Thoreau,
1433:Buddhism wasn’t responsible for the insane atrocities of human history ~ Jack Kerouac,
1434:By changing our history and our memory, they try to erase all our shame. ~ Ruth Ozeki,
1435:Comedy has had no history, because it was not at first treated seriously. ~ Aristotle,
1436:Concerning the Investigation of Super-History’ (Urgeschichte) (pp. 20–8) ~ Karl Barth,
1437:EMBRACING THE EXISTING Japanese perspective on urban history and context ~ Kengo Kuma,
1438:Europe was created by history. America was created by philosophy. ~ Margaret Thatcher,
1439:Even the bands I dig don't have a history of attaining mass consumption. ~ Evan Dando,
1440:Every weekend in history has worked for movies if the movie connects. ~ Todd Phillips,
1441:for evil to flourish, it only requires good men to do nothing.” More ~ Hourly History,
1442:ghosts. He had learned a little of the history of Halyn House ~ Marion Zimmer Bradley,
1443:Growing up, I got inspired by the history of the place,” Jobs said. ~ Walter Isaacson,
1444:Happy people don't make history. Happy people make children, then die. ~ Neil Hilborn,
1445:History employs evolution to structure biological events in time. ~ Stephen Jay Gould,
1446:History is a wheel. This sort of world can't go on for ever either. ~ Anthony Burgess,
1447:History is not a suicide note -- it is a record of our survival. ~ Jeanette Winterson,
1448:History isn't what happened, history is just what historians tell us. ~ Julian Barnes,
1449:History is the witness that testifies to the passing of time. ~ Marcus Tullius Cicero,
1450:History mattered. But it could not guarantee what might happen next. ~ Michelle Gable,
1451:History: the lies of the victors, the self-delusions of the defeated. ~ Julian Barnes,
1452:Human history is the sad result of each one looking out for himself. ~ Julio Cortazar,
1453:If you don't pay attention to history, you're destined to repeat it. ~ Clint Eastwood,
1454:I had come to Yugoslavia to see what history meant in flesh and blood. ~ Rebecca West,
1455:I loved history because to me, history was like watching a movie. ~ Quentin Tarantino,
1456:My mother took my picture to a model agency and the rest is history. ~ Angie Everhart,
1457:One’s own life seemed puny against the background of so much history. ~ Kate Atkinson,
1458:Pascal said, "All history is one immortal man who continually learns. ~ Philip K Dick,
1459:Please don't be mad at me for reliving it. History is all you left me. ~ Adam Silvera,
1460:Scared is the price brave people pay to enjoy lives that make history. ~ Robin Sharma,
1461:Shawn Michaels is quite simply the greatest performer in WWE history. ~ Chris Jericho,
1462:That's the problem with this generation; they don't know their history. ~ Paul Beatty,
1463:The hypothetical has its charm, but actual government is history. ~ Barbara W Tuchman,
1464:The laws of a nation form the most instructive portion of its history ~ Edward Gibbon,
1465:The only person in history who did not deserve to suffer, suffered most. ~ John Piper,
1466:The policy of appeasement is always fatal. Always. History teaches us. ~ Bodie Thoene,
1467:There was something so heavy about the burden of history, of the past. ~ Sarah Dessen,
1468:The unconscious is the unwritten history of mankind from time unrecorded. ~ Carl Jung,
1469:This is my history; like all other histories, a narrative of misery. ~ Samuel Johnson,
1470:Those who would repeat the past must control the teaching of history. ~ Frank Herbert,
1471:thousands of years of history under their feet, and definitely unaware ~ Rick Riordan,
1472:Truth and History. 21 Men. The Boy Bandit King - He Died As He Lived. ~ Billy the Kid,
1473:We have had to learn that history is neither a God nor a redeemer. ~ Reinhold Niebuhr,
1474:We tap into a lot of things from musical history when making the songs. ~ Chris Stein,
1475:Whatever we do or fail to do will influence the course of history. ~ Arthur Henderson,
1476:what knowledge haunts each body, what history, what phantom ache? ~ Natasha Trethewey,
1477:All empires eventually destroy themselves. That's the record of history. ~ Ralph Nader,
1478:Anger has a long history of bringing about positive change. ~ Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie,
1479:A people without a positive history is like a vehicle without an engine. ~ Steven Biko,
1480:as the human race is incapable of learning anything from history. ~ Louis de Berni res,
1481:Do not read history. Read biography for it is life without theory. ~ Benjamin Disraeli,
1482:For history is to the nation as memory is to the individual. ~ Arthur M Schlesinger Jr,
1483:Gentlemen, you are about to witness the most famous victory in history. ~ Adolf Hitler,
1484:greatest abundance assets in history: specialization and exchange. ~ Peter H Diamandis,
1485:He looked a lot like the drawings of Benjamin Franklin in my history book. ~ R L Stine,
1486:History has a habit of changing the people who think they are changing it. ~ Anonymous,
1487:History is man-made, like this pair of shoes, though it pinches more. ~ George Steiner,
1488:History offers examples of winning in diplomacy after losing in war. ~ Shigeru Yoshida,
1489:History repeats itself. That's one of the things wrong with history. ~ Clarence Darrow,
1490:History repeats the old conceits, the glib replies, the same defeats. ~ Elvis Costello,
1491:History shows that anything conducive to our national stability is good. ~ Jiang Zemin,
1492:--History, Stephen said, is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake. ~ James Joyce,
1493:If history teaches us one thing, than that history teaches us nothing. ~ Peter Ustinov,
1494:I had no idea that history was being made. I was just tired of giving up. ~ Rosa Parks,
1495:I long for the day that "Roe v. Wade" is sent to the ash heap of history. ~ Mike Pence,
1496:It is not observed in history that families improve with time. ~ George William Curtis,
1497:It is with a kind of fear that I begin to write the history of my life. ~ Helen Keller,
1498:Men make their own history but not in circumstances of their own choosing. ~ Karl Marx,
1499:No real change in history has ever been achieved by discussions. ~ Subhas Chandra Bose,
1500:Religion is the most inflammatory enemy-labelling device in history. ~ Richard Dawkins,

IN CHAPTERS [300/831]

  288 Integral Yoga
  101 Poetry
   86 Occultism
   72 Christianity
   53 Philosophy
   40 Psychology
   40 Fiction
   27 Science
   13 Yoga
   12 Mysticism
   12 Integral Theory
   9 Hinduism
   6 Education
   5 Philsophy
   5 Islam
   4 Mythology
   3 Theosophy
   2 Cybernetics
   2 Buddhism
   1 Sufism
   1 Alchemy

  141 The Mother
   94 Sri Aurobindo
   84 Satprem
   79 Nolini Kanta Gupta
   42 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
   41 Carl Jung
   36 H P Lovecraft
   33 Aleister Crowley
   26 William Wordsworth
   26 James George Frazer
   22 Saint Augustine of Hippo
   22 Jorge Luis Borges
   17 Aldous Huxley
   15 A B Purani
   12 Walt Whitman
   12 Friedrich Nietzsche
   10 Li Bai
   10 George Van Vrekhem
   8 William Butler Yeats
   7 Vyasa
   7 Sri Ramakrishna
   7 Plato
   6 Nirodbaran
   6 Jordan Peterson
   6 Henry David Thoreau
   5 Swami Krishnananda
   5 Ralph Waldo Emerson
   5 Muhammad
   5 Franz Bardon
   4 Rudolf Steiner
   4 Rabindranath Tagore
   4 Percy Bysshe Shelley
   3 Symeon the New Theologian
   3 Swami Vivekananda
   3 Robert Browning
   3 R Buckminster Fuller
   3 Plotinus
   3 Paul Richard
   3 Joseph Campbell
   3 John Keats
   3 Aristotle
   2 Saint John of Climacus
   2 Norbert Wiener
   2 Lewis Carroll
   2 Ken Wilber
   2 Jorge Luis Borges
   2 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
   2 Jean Gebser
   2 Edgar Allan Poe
   2 Bokar Rinpoche
   2 Alice Bailey

   36 Lovecraft - Poems
   26 Wordsworth - Poems
   26 The Golden Bough
   21 Magick Without Tears
   20 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01
   20 City of God
   18 Questions And Answers 1957-1958
   17 The Perennial Philosophy
   17 The Future of Man
   16 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 07
   15 Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo
   15 Essays In Philosophy And Yoga
   14 Liber ABA
   14 Labyrinths
   13 The Human Cycle
   12 Whitman - Poems
   12 The Practice of Psycho therapy
   12 The Phenomenon of Man
   12 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02
   11 Mysterium Coniunctionis
   11 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 04
   11 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03
   10 Preparing for the Miraculous
   10 Li Bai - Poems
   10 Let Me Explain
   10 Aion
   10 Agenda Vol 08
   9 Twilight of the Idols
   9 Letters On Yoga II
   9 Agenda Vol 02
   8 Yeats - Poems
   8 Words Of Long Ago
   8 The Life Divine
   8 The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious
   8 Sri Aurobindo or the Adventure of Consciousness
   7 Vishnu Purana
   7 On Thoughts And Aphorisms
   7 Borges - Poems
   7 Agenda Vol 10
   7 Agenda Vol 03
   6 Walden
   6 Twelve Years With Sri Aurobindo
   6 The Secret Doctrine
   6 Questions And Answers 1956
   6 Questions And Answers 1953
   6 Maps of Meaning
   6 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 08
   6 Agenda Vol 13
   6 Agenda Vol 05
   6 Agenda Vol 04
   5 The Study and Practice of Yoga
   5 The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna
   5 The Bible
   5 Savitri
   5 Quran
   5 Questions And Answers 1955
   5 Questions And Answers 1950-1951
   5 On Education
   5 Essays Divine And Human
   5 Emerson - Poems
   5 Agenda Vol 12
   5 Agenda Vol 09
   5 Agenda Vol 06
   5 Agenda Vol 01
   4 Words Of The Mother I
   4 Vedic and Philological Studies
   4 The Practice of Magical Evocation
   4 Tagore - Poems
   4 Shelley - Poems
   4 A Garden of Pomegranates - An Outline of the Qabalah
   3 Thus Spoke Zarathustra
   3 The Synthesis Of Yoga
   3 The Secret Of The Veda
   3 The Hero with a Thousand Faces
   3 Synergetics - Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking
   3 Some Answers From The Mother
   3 Record of Yoga
   3 Questions And Answers 1954
   3 Poetics
   3 Keats - Poems
   3 Hymn of the Universe
   3 Essays On The Gita
   3 Collected Poems
   3 Browning - Poems
   2 The Problems of Philosophy
   2 The Ladder of Divine Ascent
   2 The Ever-Present Origin
   2 The Confessions of Saint Augustine
   2 The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
   2 Tara - The Feminine Divine
   2 Sex Ecology Spirituality
   2 Selected Fictions
   2 Raja-Yoga
   2 Questions And Answers 1929-1931
   2 Letters On Yoga IV
   2 Letters On Yoga I
   2 Letters On Poetry And Art
   2 Knowledge of the Higher Worlds
   2 Isha Upanishad
   2 Hymns to the Mystic Fire
   2 Cybernetics
   2 A Treatise on Cosmic Fire
   2 Alice in Wonderland
   2 Agenda Vol 11
   2 Agenda Vol 07

00.01 - The Mother on Savitri, #Sweet Mother - Harmonies of Light, #unset, #Zen
  My child, yes, everything is there: mysticism, occultism, philosophy, the History of evolution, the History of man, of the gods, of creation, of Nature. How the universe was created, why, for what purpose, what destiny - all is there. You can find all the answers to all your questions there. Everything is explained, even the future of man and of the evolution, all that nobody yet knows. He has described it all in beautiful and clear words so that spiritual adventurers who wish to solve the mysteries of the world may understand it more easily. But this mystery is well hidden behind the words and lines and one must rise to the required level of true consciousness to discover it. All prophesies, all that is going to come is presented with the precise and wonderful clarity. Sri Aurobindo gives you here the key to find the Truth, to discover the Consciousness, to solve the problem of what the universe is. He has also indicated how to open the door of the Inconscience so that the light may penetrate there and transform it. He has shown the path, the way to liberate oneself from the ignorance and climb up to the superconscience; each stage, each plane of consciousness, how they can be scaled, how one can cross even the barrier of death and attain immortality. You will find the whole journey in detail, and as you go forward you can discover things altogether unknown to man. That is Savitri and much more yet. It is a real experience - reading Savitri. All the secrets that man possessed, He has revealed, - as well as all that awaits him in the future; all this is found in the depth of Savitri. But one must have the knowledge to discover it all, the experience of the planes of consciousness, the experience of the Supermind, even the experience of the conquest of Death. He has noted all the stages, marked each step in order to advance integrally in the integral Yoga.
  All this is His own experience, and what is most surprising is that it is my own experience also. It is my sadhana which He has worked out. Each object, each event, each realisation, all the descriptions, even the colours are exactly what I saw and the words, phrases are also exactly what I heard. And all this before having read the book. I read Savitri many times afterwards, but earlier, when He was writing He used to read it to me. Every morning I used to hear Him read Savitri. During the night He would write and in the morning read it to me. And I observed something curious, that day after day the experiences He read out to me in the morning were those I had had the previous night, word by word. Yes, all the descriptions, the colours, the pictures I had seen, the words I had heard, all, all, I heard it all, put by Him into poetry, into miraculous poetry. Yes, they were exactly my experiences of the previous night which He read out to me the following morning. And it was not just one day by chance, but for days and days together. And every time I used to compare what He said with my previous experiences and they were always the same. I repeat, it was not that I had told Him my experiences and that He had noted them down afterwards, no, He knew already what I had seen. It is my experiences He has presented at length and they were His experiences also. It is, moreover, the picture of Our joint adventure into the unknown or rather into the Supermind.
  These are experiences lived by Him, realities, supracosmic truths. He experienced all these as one experiences joy or sorrow, physically. He walked in the darkness of inconscience, even in the neighborhood of death, endured the sufferings of perdition, and emerged from the mud, the world-misery to brea the the sovereign plenitude and enter the supreme Ananda. He crossed all these realms, went through the consequences, suffered and endured physically what one cannot imagine. Nobody till today has suffered like Him. He accepted suffering to transform suffering into the joy of union with the Supreme. It is something unique and incomparable in the History of the world. It is something that has never happened before, He is the first to have traced the path in the Unknown, so that we may be able to walk with certitude towards the Supermind. He has made the work easy for us. Savitri is His whole Yoga of transformation, and this Yoga appears now for the first time in the earth-consciousness.
  And I think that man is not yet ready to receive it. It is too high and too vast for him. He cannot understand it, grasp it, for it is not by the mind that one can understand Savitri. One needs spiritual experiences in order to understand and assimilate it. The farther one advances on the path of Yoga, the more does one assimilate and the better. No, it is something which will be appreciated only in the future, it is the poetry of tomorrow of which He has spoken in The Future Poetry. It is too subtle, too refined, - it is not in the mind or through the mind, it is in meditation that Savitri is revealed.

0.00a - Introduction, #A Garden of Pomegranates - An Outline of the Qabalah, #Israel Regardie, #Occultism
  It is ironic that a period of the most tremendous technological advancement known to recorded History should also be labeled the Age of Anxiety. Reams have been written about modern man's frenzied search for his soul-and, indeed, his doubt that he even has one at a time when, like castles built on sand, so many of his cherished theories, long mistaken for verities, are crumbling about his bewildered brain.
  The age-old advice, "Know thyself," is more imperative than ever. The tempo of science has accelerated to such a degree that today's discoveries frequently make yesterday's equations obsolescent almost before they can be chalked up on a blackboard. Small wonder, then that every other hospital bed is occupied by a mental patient. Man was not constructed to spend his life at a crossroads, one of which leads he knows not where, and the other to threatened annihilation of his species.
  A good many attri butions in other symbolic areas, I feel are subject to the same criticism. The Egyptian Gods have been used with a good deal of carelessness, and without sufficient explanation of motives in assigning them as I did. In a recent edition of Crowley's masterpiece Liber 777 (which au fond is less a reflection of Crowley's mind as a recent critic claimed than a tabulation of some of the material given piecemeal in the Golden Dawn knowledge lectures), he gives for the first time brief explanations of the motives for his attri butions. I too should have been far more explicit in the explanations I used in the case of some of the Gods whose names were used many times, most inadequately, where several paths were concerned. While it is true that the religious coloring of the Egyptian Gods differed from time to time during Egypt's turbulent History, nonetheless a word or two about just that one single point could have served a useful purpose.
  Some of the passages in the book force me today to emphasize that so far as the Qabalah is concerned, it could and should be employed without binding to it the partisan qualities of any one particular religious faith. This goes as much for Judaism as it does for Christianity. Neither has much intrinsic usefulness where this scientific scheme is concerned. If some students feel hurt by this statement, that cannot be helped. The day of most contemporary faiths is over; they have been more of a curse than a boon to mankind. Nothing that I say here, however, should reflect on the peoples concerned, those who accept these religions. They are merely unfortunate. The religion itself is worn out and indeed is dying.

000 - Humans in Universe, #Synergetics - Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking, #R Buckminster Fuller, #Science
  spherical Planet Earth's surface. All the great empires of written History before A.D.
  1500 lay well within that "known" flat world: it was and as yet remains the
  000.103 When the archaeologists' artifact-proven History of mathematics opens
  4,000 years ago in Babylon and Mesopotamia, it is already a very sophisticated
  first in History of which it could be said that the Sun never set.
  000.107 As professor of economics at the East India Company College in 1810

0.00 - INTRODUCTION, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
   When Ramkumar reprimanded Gadadhar for neglecting a "bread-winning education", the inner voice of the boy reminded him that the legacy of his ancestors — the legacy of Rama, Krishna, Buddha, Sankara, Ramanuja, Chaitanya — was not worldly security but the Knowledge of God. And these noble sages were the true representatives of Hindu society. Each of them was seated, as it were, on the crest of the wave that followed each successive trough in the tumultuous course of Indian national life. All demonstrated that the life current of India is spirituality. This truth was revealed to Gadadhar through that inner vision which scans past and future in one sweep, unobstructed by the barriers of time and space. But he was unaware of the History of the profound change that had taken place in the land of his birth during the previous one hundred years.
   Hindu society during the eighteenth century had been passing through a period of decadence. It was the twilight of the Mussalman rule. There were anarchy and confusion in all spheres. Superstitious practices dominated the religious life of the people. Rites and rituals passed for the essence of spirituality. Greedy priests became the custodians of heaven. True philosophy was supplanted by dogmatic opinions. The pundits took delight in vain polemics.
   Thus the insane priest was by verdict of the great scholars of the day proclaimed a Divine Incarnation. His visions were not the result of an over-heated brain; they had precedent in spiritual History. And how did the proclamation affect Sri Ramakrishna himself? He remained the simple child of the Mother that he had been since the first day of his life. Years later, when two of his householder disciples openly spoke of him as a Divine Incarnation and the matter was reported to him, he said with a touch of sarcasm: "Do they think they will enhance my glory that way? One of them is an actor on the stage and the other a physician. What do they know about Incarnations? Why, years ago pundits like Gauri and Vaishnavcharan declared me to be an Avatar. They were great scholars and knew what they said. But that did not make any change in my mind."
   Sri Ramakrishna was a learner all his life. He often used to quote a proverb to his disciples: "Friend, the more I live the more I learn." When the excitement created by the Brahmani's declaration was over, he set himself to the task of practising spiritual disciplines according to the traditional methods laid down in the Tantra and Vaishnava scriptures. Hitherto he had pursued his spiritual ideal according to the promptings of his own mind and heart. Now he accepted the Brahmani as his guru and set foot on the traditional highways.
   The Divine Mother asked Sri Ramakrishna not to be lost in the featureless Absolute but to remain, in bhavamukha, on the threshold of relative consciousness, the border line between the Absolute and the Relative. He was to keep himself at the "sixth centre" of Tantra, from which he could see not only the glory of the seventh, but also the divine manifestations of the Kundalini in the lower centres. He gently oscillated back and forth across the dividing line. Ecstatic devotion to the Divine Mother alternated with serene absorption in the Ocean of Absolute Unity. He thus bridged the gulf between the Personal and the Impersonal, the immanent and the transcendent aspects of Reality. This is a unique experience in the recorded spiritual History of the world.
   About spirituality in general the following were his conclusions: First, he was firmly convinced that all religions are true, that every doctrinal system represents a path to God. He had followed all the main paths and all had led him to the same goal. He was the first religious prophet recorded in History to preach the harmony of religions.
   Second, the three great systems of thought known as Dualism, Qualified Non-dualism, and Absolute Non-dualism — Dvaita, Visishtadvaita, and Advaita — he perceived to represent three stages in man's progress toward the Ultimate Reality. They were not contradictory but complementary and suited to different temperaments. For the ordinary man with strong attachment to the senses, a dualistic form of religion, prescribing a certain amount of material support, such as music and other symbols, is useful. A man of God-realization transcends the idea of worldly duties, but the ordinary mortal must perform his duties, striving to be unattached and to surrender the results to God. The mind can comprehend and describe the range of thought and experience up to the Visishtadvaita, and no further. The Advaita, the last word in spiritual experience, is something to be felt in samadhi. for it transcends mind and speech. From the highest standpoint, the Absolute and Its manifestation are equally real — the Lord's Name, His Abode, and the Lord Himself are of the same spiritual Essence. Everything is Spirit, the difference being only in form.
   Mahendranath Gupta, better known as "M.", arrived at Dakshineswar in March 1882. He belonged to the Brahmo Samaj and was headmaster of the Vidyasagar High School at Syambazar, Calcutta. At the very first sight the Master recognized him as one of his "marked" disciples. Mahendra recorded in his diary Sri Ramakrishna's conversations with his devotees. These are the first directly recorded words, in the spiritual History of the world, of a man recognized as belonging in the class of Buddha and Christ. The present volume is a translation of this diary. Mahendra was instrumental, through his personal contacts, in spreading the Master's message among many young and aspiring souls.
   Narendra was born in Calcutta on January 12, 1863, of an aristocratic kayastha family. His mother was steeped in the great Hindu epics, and his father, a distinguished attorney of the Calcutta High Court, was an agnostic about religion, a friend of the poor, and a mocker at social conventions. Even in his boyhood and youth Narendra possessed great physical courage and presence of mind, a vivid imagination, deep power of thought, keen intelligence, an extraordinary memory, a love of truth, a passion for purity, a spirit of independence, and a tender heart. An expert musician, he also acquired proficiency in physics, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, History, and literature. He grew up into an extremely handsome young man. Even as a child he practised meditation and showed great power of concentration. Though free and passionate in word and action, he took the vow of austere religious chastity and never allowed the fire of purity to be extinguished by the slightest defilement of body or soul.
   As he read in college the rationalistic Western philosophers of the nineteenth century, his boyhood faith in God and religion was unsettled. He would not accept religion on mere faith; he wanted demonstration of God. But very soon his passionate nature discovered that mere Universal Reason was cold and bloodless. His emotional nature, dissatisfied with a mere abstraction, required a concrete support to help him in the hours of temptation. He wanted an external power, a guru, who by embodying perfection in the flesh would still the commotion of his soul. Attracted by the magnetic personality of Keshab, he joined the Brahmo Samaj and became a singer in its choir. But in the Samaj he did not find the guru who could say that he had seen God.

0.00 - THE GOSPEL PREFACE, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  IN THE History of the arts, genius is a thing of very rare occurrence. Rarer still, however, are the competent reporters and recorders of that genius. The world has had many hundreds of admirable poets and philosophers; but of these hundreds only a very few have had the fortune to attract a Boswell or an Eckermann.
  When we leave the field of art for that of spiritual religion, the scarcity of competent reporters becomes even more strongly marked. Of the day-to-day life of the great theocentric saints and contemplatives we know, in the great majority of cases, nothing whatever. Many, it is true, have recorded their doctrines in writing, and a few, such as St. Augustine, Suso and St. Teresa, have left us autobiographies of the greatest value.
  May this translation of the first book of its kind in the religious History of the world, being the record of the direct words of a prophet, help stricken humanity to come nearer to the Eternal Verity of life and remove dissension and quarrel from among the different faiths!
  May it enable seekers of Truth to grasp the subtle laws of the supersensuous realm, and unfold before man's restricted vision the spiritual foundation of the universe, the unity of existence, and the divinity of the soul!
  Sri Mahendra Nath Gupta, familiary known to the readers of the Gospel by his pen name M., and to the devotees as Master Mahashay, was born on the 14th of July, 1854 as the son of Madhusudan Gupta, an officer of the Calcutta High Court, and his wife, Swarnamayi Devi. He had a brilliant scholastic career at Hare School and the Presidency College at Calcutta. The range of his studies included the best that both occidental and oriental learning had to offer. English literature, History, economics, western philosophy and law on the one hand, and Sanskrit literature and grammar, Darsanas, Puranas, Smritis, Jainism, Buddhism, astrology and Ayurveda on the other were the subjects in which he attained considerable proficiency.
  He was an educationist all his life both in a spiritual and in a secular sense. After he passed out of College, he took up work as headmaster in a number of schools in succession Narail High School, City School, Ripon College School, Metropolitan School, Aryan School, Oriental School, Oriental Seminary and Model School. The causes of his migration from school to school were that he could not get on with some of the managements on grounds of principles and that often his spiritual mood drew him away to places of pilgrimage for long periods. He worked with some of the most noted public men of the time like Iswar Chandra Vidysgar and Surendranath Banerjee. The latter appointed him as a professor in the City and Ripon Colleges where he taught subjects like English, philosophy, History and economics. In his later days he took over the Morton School, and he spent his time in the staircase room of the third floor of it, administering the school and preaching the message of the Master. He was much respected in educational circles where he was usually referred to as Rector Mahashay. A teacher who had worked under him writes thus in warm appreciation of his teaching methods: "Only when I worked with him in school could I appreciate what a great educationist he was. He would come down to the level of his students when teaching, though he himself was so learned, so talented. Ordinarily teachers confine their instruction to what is given in books without much thought as to whether the student can accept it or not. But M., would first of all gauge how much the student could take in and by what means. He would employ aids to teaching like maps, pictures and diagrams, so that his students could learn by seeing. Thirty years ago (from 1953) when the question of imparting education through the medium of the mother tongue was being discussed, M. had already employed Bengali as the medium of instruction in the Morton School." (M The Apostle and the Evangelist by Swami Nityatmananda Part I. P. 15.)
  Imparting secular education was, however, only his profession ; his main concern was with the spiritual regeneration of man a calling for which Destiny seems to have chosen him. From his childhood he was deeply pious, and he used to be moved very much by Sdhus, temples and Durga Puja celebrations. The piety and eloquence of the great Brahmo leader of the times, Keshab Chander Sen, elicited a powerful response from the impressionable mind of Mahendra Nath, as it did in the case of many an idealistic young man of Calcutta, and prepared him to receive the great Light that was to dawn on him with the coming of Sri Ramakrishna into his life.

0.00 - The Wellspring of Reality, #Synergetics - Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking, #R Buckminster Fuller, #Science
  Intellectually advantaged with no more than the child's facile, lucid eagerness to understand constructively and usefully the major transformational events of our own times, it probably is synergetically advantageous to review swiftly the most comprehensive inventory of the most powerful human environment transforming events of our totally known and reasonably extended History. This is especially useful in winnowing out and understanding the most significant of the metaphysical revolutions now recognized as swiftly tending to reconstitute History. By such a comprehensively schematic review, we might identify also the unprecedented and possibly heretofore overlooked pivotal revolutionary events not only of today but also of those trending to be central to tomorrow's most cataclysmic changes.
  It is synergetically reasonable to assume that relativistic evaluation of any of the separate drives of art, science, education, economics, and ideology, and their complexedly interacting trends within our own times, may be had only through the most comprehensive historical sweep of which we are capable.
  Today's news consists of aggregates of fragments. Anyone who has taken part in any event that has subsequently appeared in the news is aware of the gross disparity between the actual and the reported events. The insistence by reporters upon having advance "releases" of what, for instance, convocation speakers are supposedly going to say but in fact have not yet said, automatically discredits the value of the largely prefabricated news. We also learn frequently of prefabricated and prevaricated events of a complex nature purportedly undertaken for purposes either of suppressing or rigging the news, which in turn perverts humanity's tactical information resources. All History becomes suspect. Probably our most polluted resource is the tactical information to which humanity spontaneously reflexes.
  Furthermore, today's hyperspecialization in socioeconomic functioning has come to preclude important popular philosophic considerations of the synergetic significance of, for instance, such historically important events as the discovery within the general region of experimental inquiry known as virology that the as-yet popularly assumed validity of the concepts of animate and inanimate phenomena have been experimentally invalidated. Atoms and crystal complexes of atoms were held to be obviously inanimate; the protoplasmic cells of biological phenomena were held to be obviously animate. It was deemed to be common sense that warm- blooded, moist, and soft-skinned humans were clearly not to be confused with hard, cold granite or steel objects. A clear-cut threshold between animate and inanimate was therefore assumed to exist as a fundamental dichotomy of all physical phenomena. This seemingly placed life exclusively within the bounds of the physical.

0.01f - FOREWARD, #The Phenomenon of Man, #Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, #Christianity
  whole History of the struggles of the mind :
  A sense of spatial immensity, in greatness and smallness, dis-

0.01 - I - Sri Aurobindos personality, his outer retirement - outside contacts after 1910 - spiritual personalities- Vibhutis and Avatars - transformtion of human personality, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   This possibility of the human touching and manifesting the Divine has been realised during the course of human History whenever a great spiritual Light has appeared on earth. One of the purposes of this book is to show how Sri Aurobindo himself reflected the unlimited Beyond in his own self.
   Greatness is magnetic and in a sense contagious. Wherever manifested, greatness is claimed by humanity as something that reveals the possibility of the race. The highest utility of greatness is not merely to attract us but to inspire us to follow it and rise to our own highest spiritual stature. To the majority of men Truth remains abstract, impersonal and far unless it is seen and felt concretely in a human personality. A man never knows a truth actively except through a person and by embodying it in his own personality. Some glimpse of the Truth-Consciousness which Sri Aurobindo embodied may be caught in these Evening Talks.

0.01 - Letters from the Mother to Her Son, #Some Answers From The Mother, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  headed! The final collapse, the general bankruptcy seems obvious enough... unless... There is always an "unless" in the History
  of the earth; and always, when confusion and destruction seem

0.08 - Letters to a Young Captain, #Some Answers From The Mother, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  by yoga that one can do it. There have been, throughout the spiritual History of humanity, many methods of yoga - which Sri
  Aurobindo has described and explained for us in The Synthesis
  there is entirely inactive and hidden. The History of the earth
  begins with this inconscience.

01.02 - Sri Aurobindo - Ahana and Other Poems, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Whisper their History, and I knew the Word
   That forth was cast

01.03 - Mystic Poetry, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The philosophical trend in poetry has an interesting History with a significant role: it has acted as a force of purification, of sublimation, of katharsis. As man has risen from his exclusively or predominantly vital nature into an increasing mental poise, in the same way his creative activities too have taken this new turn and status. In the earlier stages of evolution the mental life is secondary, subordinate to the physico-vital life; it is only subsequently that the mental finds an independent and self-sufficient reality. A similar movement is reflected in poetic and artistic creation too: the thinker, the philosopher remains in the background at the outset, he looks out; peers through chinks and holes from time to time; later he comes to the forefront, assumes a major role in man's creative activity.
   Man's consciousness is further to rise from the mental to over-mental regions. Accordingly, his life and activities and along with that his artistic creations too will take on a new tone and rhythm, a new mould and constitution even. For this transition, the higher mentalwhich is normally the field of philosophical and idealistic activitiesserves as the Paraclete, the Intercessor; it takes up the lower functionings of the consciousness, which are intense in their own way, but narrow and turbid, and gives, by purifying and enlarging, a wider frame, a more luminous pattern, a more subtly articulated , form for the higher, vaster and deeper realities, truths and harmonies to express and manifest. In the old-world spiritual and mystic poets, this intervening medium was overlooked for evident reasons, for human reason or even intelligence is a double-edged instrument, it can make as well as mar, it has a light that most often and naturally shuts off other higher lights beyond it. So it was bypassed, some kind of direct and immediate contact was sought to be established between the normal and the transcendental. The result was, as I have pointed out, a pure spiritual poetry, on the one hand, as in the Upanishads, or, on the other, religious poetry of various grades and denominations that spoke of the spiritual but in the terms and in the manner of the mundane, at least very much coloured and dominated by the latter. Vyasa was the great legendary figure in India who, as is shown in his Mahabharata, seems to have been one of the pioneers, if not the pioneer, to forge and build the missing link of Thought Power. The exemplar of the manner is the Gita. Valmiki's represented a more ancient and primary inspiration, of a vast vital sensibility, something of the kind that was at the basis of Homer's genius. In Greece it was Socrates who initiated the movement of speculative philosophy and the emphasis of intellectual power slowly began to find expression in the later poets, Sophocles and Euripides. But all these were very simple beginnings. The moderns go in for something more radical and totalitarian. The rationalising element instead of being an additional or subordinate or contri buting factor, must itself give its norm and form, its own substance and manner to the creative activity. Such is the present-day demand.

01.04 - The Poetry in the Making, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The three or four major orders I speak of in reference to conscious artistry are exampled characteristically in the History of the evolution of Greek poetry. It must be remembered, however, at the very outset that the Greeks as a race were nothing if not rational and intellectual. It was an element of strong self-consciousness that they brought into human culture that was their special gift. Leaving out of account Homer who was, as I said, a primitive, their classical age began with Aeschylus who was the first and the most spontaneous and intuitive of the Great Three. Sophocles, who comes next, is more balanced and self-controlled and pregnant with a reasoned thought-content clothed in polished phrasing. We feel here that the artist knew what he was about and was exercising a conscious control over his instruments and materials, unlike his predecessor who seemed to be completely carried away by the onrush of the poetic enthousiasmos. Sophocles, in spite of his artistic perfection or perhaps because of it, appears to be just a little, one remove, away from the purity of the central inspiration there is a veil, although a thin transparent veil, yet a veil between which intervenes. With the third of the Brotherhood, Euripides, we slide lower downwe arrive at a predominantly mental transcription of an experience or inner conception; but something of the major breath continues, an aura, a rhythm that maintains the inner contact and thus saves the poetry. In a subsequent age, in Theocritus, for example, poetry became truly very much 'sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought', so much of virtuosity and precocity entered into it; in other words, the poet then was an excessively self-conscious artist. That seems to be the general trend of all literature.
   But should there be an inherent incompatibility between spontaneous creation and self-consciousness? As we have seen, a harmony and fusion can and do happen of the superconscious and the normally conscious in the Yogi. Likewise, an artist also can be wakeful and transparent enough so that he is conscious on both the levels simultaneouslyabove, he is conscious of the source and origin of his inspiration, and on the level plain he is conscious of the working of the instrument, how the vehicle transcribes and embodies what comes from elsewhere. The poet's consciousness becomes then divalent as it werethere is a sense of absolute passivity in respect of the receiving apparatus and coupled and immisced with it there is also the sense of dynamism, of conscious agency as in his secret being he is the master of his apparatus and one with the Inspirerin other words, the poet is both a seer (kavih) and a creator or doer (poits).
   Whether the original and true source of the poet's inspiration lies deep within or high above, all depends upon the mediating instrument the mind (in its most general sense) and speech for a successful transcription. Man's ever-growing consciousness demanded also a conscious development and remoulding of these two factors. A growth, a heightening and deepening of the consciousness meant inevitably a movement towards the spiritual element in things. And that means, we have said, a twofold change in the future poet's make-up. First as regards the substance. The revolutionary shift that we notice in modern poets towards a completely new domain of subject-matter is a signpost that more is meant than what is expressed. The superficialities and futilities that are dealt with do not in their outward form give the real trend of things. In and through all these major and constant preoccupation of our poets is "the pain of the present and the passion for the future": they are, as already stated, more prophets than poets, but prophets for the moment crying in the wildernessalthough some have chosen the path of denial and revolt. They are all looking ahead or beyond or deep down, always yearning for another truth and reality which will explain, justify and transmute the present calvary of human living. Such an acute tension of consciousness has necessitated an overhauling of the vehicle of expression too, the creation of a mode of expressing the inexpressible. For that is indeed what human consciousness and craft are aiming at in the present stage of man's evolution. For everything, almost everything that can be normally expressed has been expressed and in a variety of ways as much as is possible: that is the History of man's aesthetic creativity. Now the eye probes into the unexpressed world; for the artist too the Upanishadic problem has cropped up:
   By whom impelled does the mind fall to its target, what is the agent that is behind the eye and sees through the eyes, what is the hearing and what the speech that their respective sense organs do not and cannot convey and record adequately or at all?

01.05 - The Yoga of the King - The Yoga of the Spirits Freedom and Greatness, #Savitri, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  And the secret code of the History of the world
  And Nature's correspondence with the soul

01.10 - Principle and Personality, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   It is asked of us why do we preach a man and not purely and solely a principle. Our ideal being avowedly the establishment and reign of a new principle of world-order and not gathering recruits for the camp of a sectarian teacher, it seems all the more inconsistent, if not thoroughly ruinous for our cause, that we should lay stress upon a particular individual and incur the danger of overshadowing the universal truths upon which we seek to build human society. Now, it is not that we are unconscious or oblivious of the many evils attendant upon the system of preaching a man the History of the rise and decay of many sects and societies is there to give us sufficient warning; and yet if we cannot entirely give the go-by to personalities and stick to mere and bare principles, it is because we have clear reasons for it, because we are not unconscious or oblivious either of the evils that beset the system of preaching the principle alone.
   Religious bodies that are formed through the bhakti and puja for one man, social reconstructions forced by the will and power of a single individual, have already in the inception this grain of incapacity and disease and death that they are not an integrally self-conscious creation, they are not, as a whole, intelligent and wide awake and therefore constantly responsive to the truths and ideals and realities for which they exist, for which at least, their founder intended them to exist. The light at the apex is the only light and the entire structure is but the shadow of that light; the whole thing has the aspect of a dark mass galvanised into red-hot activity by the passing touch of a dynamo. Immediately however the solitary light fails and the dynamo stops, there is nothing but the original darkness and inertiatoma asit tamasa gudham agre.

01.11 - The Basis of Unity, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   History abounds in instances of racial and cultural immixture. Indeed, all major human groupings of today are invariably composite formations. Excepting, perhaps, some primitiveaboriginal tribes there are no pure races existent. The Briton, the Dane, the Anglo-Saxon, and the Norman have combined to form the British; a Frenchman has a Gaul, a Roman, a Frank in him; and a Spaniard's blood would show an Iberian, a Latin, a Gothic, a Moorish element in it. And much more than a people, a culture in modern times has been a veritable cockpit of multifarious and even incongruous elements. There are instances also in which a perfect fusion could not be accomplished, and one element had to be rejected or crushed out. The complete disappearance of the Aztecs and Mayas in South America, the decadence of the Red Indians in North America, of the Negroes in Africa as a result of a fierce clash with European peoples and European culture illustrate the point.
   Nature, on the whole, has solved the problem of blood fusion and mental fusion of different peoples, although on a smaller scale. India today presents the problem on a larger scale and on a higher or deeper level. The demand is for a spiritual fusion and unity. Strange to say, although the Spirit is the true bed-rock of unitysince, at bottom, it means identityit is on this plane that mankind has not yet been able to really meet and coalesce. India's genius has been precisely working in the line of a perfect solution of this supreme problem.

01.12 - Three Degrees of Social Organisation, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   It might be objected here however that actually in the History of humanity the conception of Duty has been no less pugnacious than that of Right. In certain ages and among certain peoples, for example, it was considered the imperative duty of the faithful to kill or convert by force or otherwise as many as possible belonging to other faiths: it was the mission of the good shepherd to burn the impious and the heretic. In recent times, it was a sense of high and solemn duty that perpetrated what has been termed "purges"brutalities undertaken, it appears, to purify and preserve the integrity of a particular ideological, social or racial aggregate. But the real name of such a spirit is not duty but fanaticism. And there is a considerable difference between the two. Fanaticism may be defined as duty running away with itself; but what we are concerned with here is not the aberration of duty, but duty proper self-poised.
   One might claim also on behalf of the doctrine of Right that the right kind of Right brings no harm, it is as already stated another name for liberty, for the privilege of living and it includes the obligation to let live. One can do what one likes provided one does not infringe on an equal right of others to do the same. The measure of one's liberty is equal to the measure of others' liberty.

01.13 - T. S. Eliot: Four Quartets, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   History may be freedom. See, now they vanish,
   The faces and places, with the self which, as it could, loved them,

01.14 - Nicholas Roerich, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The call that stirred a Western soul, made him a wanderer over the world in quest of the Holy Grail and finally lodged him in the Home of the Snows is symbolic of a more than individual destiny. It is representative of the secret History of a whole culture and civilisation that have been ruling humanity for some centuries, its inner want and need and hankering and fulfilment. The West shall come to the East and be reborn. That is the prophecy of occult seers and sages.
   I speak of Roerich as a Western soul, but more precisely perhaps he is a soul of the mid-region (as also in another sense we shall see subsequently) intermediary between the East and the West. His external make-up had all the characteristic elements of the Western culture, but his mind and temperament, his inner soul was oriental. And yet it was not the calm luminous staticancientsoul that an Indian or a Chinese sage is; it is a nomad soul, newly awakened, young and fresh and ardent, something primitive, pulsating with the unspoilt green sap of life something in the manner of Whitman. And that makes him all the more representative of the young and ardent West yearning for the light that was never on sea or land.

0.14 - Letters to a Sadhak, #Some Answers From The Mother, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  We are at a moment of transition in the History of the earth.
  It is merely a moment in eternal time, but this moment is long
  We are at a decisive hour in the History of the earth. It is preparing for the coming of the superman and because of this the old
  way of life is losing its value. We must strike out boldly on the

0 1958-10-17, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   7) But even in the event you have not made the irrevocable decision at the outset, should you have the good fortune to live during one of these unimaginable hours of universal History when the Grace is present, embodied upon earth, It will offer you, at certain exceptional moments, the renewed possibility of making a final choice that will lead you straight to the goal.
   That was the message of hope.

0 1958-11-15, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   The link between the two worlds has not yet been built, but it is in the process of being built; this was the meaning of the experience of February 3 1958, 1: to build a link between the two worlds. For both worlds are indeed therenot one above the other, but within each other, in two different dimensions. Only, there is no communication between them; they overlap, as it were, without being connected. In the experience of February 3, I saw certain people from here (and from elsewhere) who already belong to the supramental world in a part of their being, but there is no connection, no link. But now the hour has come in universal History for this link to be built.
   What is the relationship between this experience of February 3 and that of November 7 (the almighty spring)? Is what you found in the depths of the Inconscient this same Supramental?

0 1958-11-22, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   As soon as you had left, and since I was following you, I saw that nothing of the kind was going to happen, but rather something very superficial which would not be of much use. And when I received your letters and saw that you were in difficulty, I did something. There are places that are favorable for occult experiences. Benares is one of these places, the atmosphere there is filled with vibrations of occult forces, and if one has the slightest capacity, it spontaneously develops there, in the same way that a spiritual aspiration develops very strongly and spontaneously as soon as one lands in India. These are Graces. Graces, because it is the destiny of the country, it has been so throughout its History, and because India has always been turned much more towards the heights and the inner depths than towards the outer world. Now, it is in the process of losing all that and wallowing in the mud, but thats another story it was like that and it is still like that. And in fact, when you returned from Rameswaram with your robes, I saw with much satisfaction that there was still a GREAT dignity and a GREAT sincerity in this endeavor of the Sannyasis towards the higher life and in the self-giving of a certain number of people to realize this higher life. When you returned, it had become a very concrete and a very real thing that immediately commanded respect. Before, I had seen only a copy, an imitation, an hypocrisy, a pretentionnothing that was really lived. But then, I saw that it was true, that it was lived, that it was real and that it was still Indias great heritage. I dont believe it is very prevalent now, but in any case, it is still there, and as I told you, it commands respect. And then, as I felt you in difficulty and as the outer conditions were not only veiling but spoiling the inner, well, on that day I wrote you a short note I no longer recall when it was exactly, but I wrote you just a word or two, which I put in an envelope and sent you I concentrated very strongly upon those few words and sent you something. I didnt note the date, I dont remember when it was, but its likely that it happened as I wished when you were in Benares; and then you had this experience.
   But when you returned the second time, from the Himalayas, you didnt have the same flame as when you returned the first time. And I understood that this kind of difficult karma still clung to you, that it had not been dissolved. I had hoped that your contact with the mountains but in a true solitude (I dont mean that your body had to be all alone, but there should not have been all kinds of outer, superficial things) Anyway, it didnt happen. So it means that the time had not come.

0 1960-08-20, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   You alone have convinced me that the History of the way might be of some interest, so Im letting you do it Ive taken a very, very handsome file upstairs with all your notes in it.8 Its filling up; its going to be formidable! (Mother laughs) a frightful documentation.
   Not at all!

0 1960-12-17, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   To have the exact curve or the REAL History, wed have to note down everything at each minute, for its a CONSTANT work thats taking place. You see, the outer activities are becoming almost automatic, whereas this goes on behind Im speaking, yet at the same time this is going on behind.
   Its a sort of oscillationreally, its so interestingbetween two extremes, one of which is the all-powerfulness and capital or primordial importance of the Physical, and the other its utter unreality.

0 1961-02-18, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Oh, yesterday or the day before, I had the occasion to write a sentence about Sri Aurobindo. It was in English and went something like this: In the worlds History, what Sri Aurobindo represents is not a teaching nor even a revelation, but a decisive ACTION direct from the Supreme.

0 1961-02-28, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   And then the reply came to me very strongly; something took hold of me and I was, so to say, obliged to write: What Sri Aurobindo represents in the worlds History is not a teaching, not even a revelation; it is a decisive action direct from the Supreme.2
   Its not from me. It came from there (gesture upwards). But it pleased me.

0 1961-03-11, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   From an historical viewpoint (not psychological, but historical), based on my memories (only I cant prove it, nothing can be proved, and I dont believe any truly historical proof has come down to usor in any case, it hasnt been found yet), but according to my memories. (Mother shuts her eyes as if she were going off in search of her memories; she will speak all the rest of the time with eyes closed.) Certainly at one period of the earths History there was a kind of earthly paradise, in the sense that there was a perfectly harmonious and perfectly natural life: the manifestation of Mind was in accordwas STILL in complete accord and in total harmony with the ascending march of Nature, without perversion or deformation. This was the first stage of Minds manifestation in material forms.
   How long did it last? Its hard to say. But for man it was a life like a sort of flowering of animal life. My memory is of a life where the body was perfectly adapted to its natural surroundings. The climate was in harmony with the needs of the body, the body with the demands of the climate. Life was wholly spontaneous and natural, as a more luminous and conscious animal life would be, with absolutely none of the complications and deformations brought in later by the mind as it developed.

0 1961-04-29, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   I remember a good-hearted priest in Pau [Southern France] who was an artist and wanted to have his church decorateda tiny cathedral. He consulted a local anarchist (a great artist) about it. The anarchist was acquainted with Andrs father and me. He told the priest, I recommend these people to do the paintings they are true artists. He was doing the mural decorationsome eight panels in all, I believe. So I set to work on one of the panels. (The church was dedicated to San Juan de Compostello, a hero of Spanish History; he had appeared in a battle between the Christians and the Moors and his apparition vanquished the Moors. And he was magnificent! He appeared in golden light on a white horse, almost like Kalki.6) All the slaughtered and struggling Moors were depicted at the bottom of the painting, and it was I who painted them; it was too hard for me to climb high up on a ladder to paint, so I did the things at the bottom! But anyway, it all went quite well. Then, naturally, the priest received us and invited us to dinner with the anarchist. And he was so nicereally a kind-hearted man! I was already a vegetarian and didnt drink, so he scolded me very gently, saying, But its Our Lord who gives us all this, so why shouldnt you take it? I found him charming. And when he looked at the paintings, he tapped Morisset on the shoulder (Morisset was an unbeliever), and said, with the accent of Southern France, Say what you like, but you know Our Lord; otherwise you could never have painted like that!
   Bulletin of April 1961: 'What Sri Aurobindo represents in the world's History is not a teaching, not even a revelation; it is a decisive action direct from the Supreme.'
   Ganesh (or Ganapati): The first son of the Supreme Mother, represented with an elephant trunk and an ample belly. Ganesh is the god who presides over material realizations (over money in particular). He is also known as the scribe of divine knowledge.

0 1961-06-27, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Yes, reincarnate from now, so to speak, into a past epoch of History.
   This, too, is a manner of speaking.

0 1961-07-28, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Take the experience of Mind, for example: Mind, in the evolution of Nature, gradually emerging from its involution; well and this is a very concrete experience these initial mentalized forms, if we can call them that, were necessarily incomplete and imperfect, because Natures evolution is slow and hesitant and complicated. Thus these forms inevitably had an aspiration towards a sort of perfection and a truly perfect mental state, and this aspiration brought the descent of already fully conscious beings from the mental world who united with terrestrial formsthis is a very, very concrete experience. What emerges from the Inconscient in this way is an almost impersonal possibility (yes, an impersonal possibility, and perhaps not altogether universal, since its connected with the History of the earth); but anyway its a general possibility, not personal. And the Response from above is what makes it concrete, so to speak, bringing in a sort of perfection of the state and an individual mastery of the new creation. These beings in corresponding worlds (like the gods of the overmind,4 or the beings of higher regions) came upon earth as soon as the corresponding element began to evolve out of its involution. This accelerates the action, first of all, but also makes it more perfectmore perfect, more powerful, more conscious. It gives a sort of sanction to the realization. Sri Aurobindo writes of this in SavitriSavitri lives always on earth, with the soul of the earth, to make the whole earth progress as quickly as possible. Well, when the time comes and things on earth are ready, then the divine Mother incarnates with her full powerwhen things are ready. Then will come the perfection of the realization. A splendor of creation exceeding all logic! It brings in a fullness and a power completely beyond the petty shallow logic of human mentality.
   People cant understand! To put oneself at the level of the general public may be all very well5 (personally I have never found it so, although its probably inevitable), but to hope that they will ever understand the splendor of the Thing. They have to live it first!
   Yes. The earth is a representative and symbolic world, a kind of crystallization and concentration of the evolutionary labor giving it a more concrete reality. It has to be taken like this: the History of the earth is a symbolic History. And it is on earth that this Descent takes place (its not the History of the universal but of the terrestrial creation); the Descent occurs in the individual TERRESTRIAL being, in the individual terrestrial atmosphere.
   Lets take Savitri, which is very explicit on this: the universal Mother is universally present and at work in the universe, but the earth is where concrete form is given to all the work to be done to bring evolution to its perfection, its goal. Well, at first theres a sort of emanation representative of the universal Mother, which is always on earth to help it prepare itself; then, when the preparation is complete, the universal Mother herself will descend upon earth to finish her work. And this She does with SatyavanSatyavan is the soul of the earth. She lives in close union with the soul of the earth and together they do the work; She has chosen the soul of the earth for her work, saying, HERE is where I will do my work. Elsewhere (Mother indicates regions of higher Consciousness), its enough just to BE and things Simply ARE. Here on earth you have to work.

0 1961-10-30, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   When he first read the Vedastranslated by Western Sanskritists or Indian pandits they appeared to Sri Aurobindo as an important document of [Indian] History, but seemed of scant value or importance for the History of thought or for a living spiritual experience.2 Fifteen years later, however, Sri Aurobindo would reread the Vedas in the original Sanskrit and find there a constant vein of the richest gold of thought and spiritual experience.3 Meanwhile, Sri Aurobindo had had certain psychological experiences of my own for which I had found no sufficient explanation either in European psychology or in the teachings of Yoga or of Vedanta, and which the mantras of the Veda illuminated with a clear and exact light.4 And it was through these experiences of his own that Sri Aurobindo came to discover, from within, the true meaning of the Vedas (and especially the most ancient of the four, the Rig-veda, which he studied with special care). What the Vedas brought him was no more than a confirmation of what he had received directly. But didnt the Rishis themselves speak of Secret words, clairvoyant wisdoms, that reveal their inner meaning to the seer (Rig-veda IV, 3.16)?
   It is not surprising, therefore, that exegetes have seen the Vedas primarily as a collection of propitiatory rites centered around sacrificial fires and obscure incantations to Nature divinities (water, fire, dawn, the moon, the sun, etc.), for bringing rain and rich harvests to the tribes, male progeny, blessings upon their journeys or protection against the thieves of the sunas though these shepherds were barbarous enough to fear that one inauspicious day their sun might no longer rise, stolen away once and for all. Only here and there, in a few of the more modern hymns, was there the apparently inadvertent intrusion of a few luminous passages that might have justifiedjust barely the respect which the Upanishads, at the beginning of recorded History, accorded to the Veda. In Indian tradition, the Upanishads had become the real Veda, the Book of Knowledge, while the Veda, product of a still stammering humanity, was a Book of Worksacclaimed by everyone, to be sure, as the venerable Authority, but no longer listened to. With Sri Aurobindo we might ask why the Upanishads, whose depth of wisdom the whole world has acknowledged, could claim to take inspiration from the Veda if the latter contained no more than a tapestry of primitive rites; or how it happened that humanity could pass so abruptly from these so-called stammerings to the manifold richness of the Upanishadic Age; or how we in the West were able to evolve from the simplicity of Arcadian shepherds to the wisdom of Greek philosophers. We cannot assume that there was nothing between the early savage and Plato or the Upanishads.5

0 1961-11-05, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Theon knew something about it, and he called it the new world or the new creation on earth and the glorified body (I dont remember his exact terminology); but he knew of the Superminds existenceit had been revealed to him and he announced its coming. He said it would be reached THROUGH the discovery of the God within. And for him, as I told you the other day, this meant a greater densitywhich seems to be a correct experience. Well, on my side, I have made investigations and had innumerable visions concerning the earths History, and I spoke about it a good deal with Sri Aurobindo.

0 1961-12-20, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Here, just to give you an example: when I first began to work (not with Theon personally but with an acquaintance of his in France, a boy4 who was a friend of my brother), well, I had a series of visions (I knew nothing about India, mind you, nothing, just as most Europeans know nothing about it: a country full of people with certain customs and religions, a confused and hazy History, where a lot of extraordinary things are said to have happened. I knew nothing.) Well, in several of these visions I saw Sri Aurobindo just as he looked physically, but glorified; that is, the same man I would see on my first visit, almost thin, with that golden-bronze hue and rather sharp profile, an unruly beard and long hair, dressed in a dhoti with one end of it thrown over his shoulder, arms and chest bare, and bare feet. At the time I thought it was vision attire! I mean I really knew nothing about India; I had never seen Indians dressed in the Indian way.
   Well, I saw him. I experienced what were at once symbolic visions and spiritual FACTS: absolutely decisive spiritual experiences and facts of meeting and having a united perception of the Work to be accomplished. And in these visions I did something I had never done physically: I prostrated before him in the Hindu manner. All this without any comprehension in the little brain (I mean I really didnt know what I was doing or how I was doing itnothing at all). I did it, and at the same time the outer being was asking, What is all this?!

0 1962-01-09, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   And nothing, nothing imaginable in the eternal History of the universe can be compared to that shock: to have lived a perfect divine life as something completely natural and everyday, something OBVIOUS (it was never even in question), and then all of a sudden, physicallyyour base is snatched away. Well, to stay on after that! You just go, quite naturally: the base goes, you go.

0 1962-01-12 - supramental ship, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Had I kept it, oh I would have become one of those world-renowned phenomena, turning the course of the earths History upside down! A stupendous power! Stupendous, unheard-of. But it meant stopping there, accepting that experience as final I went on.
   Well. So now, what can I tell you thats interestingeverything Ive just said is a sort of miscellany, and three-fourths unusable.

0 1962-01-21, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Yes, on Earth; its the Earths History thats in question.

0 1962-06-27, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   You know, mon petit, I said one day that in the History of earth, wherever there was a possibility for the Consciousness to manifest, I was there1; this is a fact. Its like the story of Savitri: always there, always there, always there, in this one, that oneat certain times there were four emanations simultaneously! At the time of the Italian and French Renaissance. And again at the time of Christ, then too. Oh, you know, I have remembered so many, many things! It would take volumes to tell it all. And then, more often than not (not always, but more often than not), what took part in this or that life was a particular yogic formation of the vital beingin other words something immortal.2 And when I came this time, as soon as I took up the yoga, they came back again from all sides, they were waiting. Some were simply waiting, others were working (they led their own independent lives) and they all gathered together again. Thats how I got those memories. One after the other, those vital beings camea deluge! I had barely enough time to assimilate one, to see, situate and integrate it, and another would come. They are quite independent, of course, they do their own work, but they are very centralized all the same. And there are all kindsall kinds, anything you can imagine! Some of them have even been in men: they are not exclusively feminine.
   At first, I used to think they were fantasies.
   Before I met Sri Aurobindo they would come and come and come to me, night after night and sometimes during the daya mass of things! Afterwards I told Sri Aurobindo about it, and he explained to me that it was quite natural. And indeed, it is quite natural: with the present incarnation of the Mahashakti (as he described it in Savitri), whatever is more or less bound up with Her wants to take part, thats quite natural. And its particularly true for the vital: there has always been a preoccupation with organizing, centralizing, developing and unifying the vital forces, and controlling them. So theres a considerable number of vital beings, each with its own particular ability, who have played their role in History and now return.
   But this one [the tall white Being] is not of human origin; it was not formed in a human life: it is a being that had already incarnated, and is one of those who presided over the formation of this present being [Mother]. But, as I said, I saw it: it was sexless, neither male nor female, and as intrepid as the vital can be, with a calm but absolute power. Ah, I found a very good description of it in one of Sri Aurobindos plays, when he speaks of the goddess Athena (I think its in Perseus, but I am not sure); she has that kind of its an almighty calm, and with such authority! Yes, its in Perseuswhen she appears to the Sea-God and forces him to retreat to his own domain. Theres a description there that fits this Being quite well.3

0 1962-06-30, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   As a child, when I was around ten or twelve years old, I had some rather interesting experiences which I didnt understand at all. I had some History booksyou know, the textbooks they give you to learn History. Well, Id read and suddenly the book would seem to become transparent, or the printed words would become transparent, and Id see other words or even pictures. I hadnt the faintest idea what was happening to me! And it appeared so natural to me that I thought it was the same for everybody. But my brother and I were great chums (he was only a year and a half older), so I would tell him: They talk nonsense in History, you knowit is LIKE THIS; it isnt like that: it is LIKE THIS! And several times the corrections I got on one person or another turned out to be quite exact and detailed. And (I see it now I understood it later on) they were certainly memories. About some passages I would even say, How stupid! It was never that; THIS is what was said. It never happened like that; THIS is how it happened. And the book was simply open before me; I was just reading along like any other child and suddenly something would occur. It was something in me, of course, but I used to think it was in the book!
   I found out many, many things about Joan of Arcmany things. And with stunning precision, which made it extremely interesting. I wont repeat them because I dont remember with exactness, and these things have no value unless they are exact. And then, for the Italian Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa; and for the French Renaissance: Franois I, Marguerite de Valois,2 and so forth.
   But I have often sensed that there wasnt merely ONE embodiment, that the course of History may have crystallized around this or that person, but there were other embodiments less (how to put it?) less conspicuous, somewhere else.
   They are the different aspects of the Mother.
   Human experience, with this direct incarnation of the Supreme,9 is ultimately a UNIQUE experience, which has given a new orientation to universal History. Sri Aurobindo speaks of thishe speaks of the difference between the Vedic era, the Vedic way of relating to the Supreme, and the advent of Vedanta (I think its Vedanta): devotion, adoration, bhakti, the God within.10 Well, this aspect of rapport with the Supreme could exist ONLY WITH MAN, because man is a special being in universal History the divine Presence is in him. And several of those great gods have taken human bodies JUST TO HAVE THAT.11 But not many of themthey were so fully aware of their own perfect independence and their almightiness that they didnt NEED anything (unlike man, you see, struggling to escape his slavery): they were absolutely free.
   And thats why. How many times Durga came! She would always come, and I had my eye on her (!), because in her presence I could clearly sense that there wasnt that rapport with the Supreme (she just didnt need it, she didnt need anything). And it wasnt that something acted on her consciously, deliberately, to obtain that result: it has been a contagion. I remember how she used to come, and my aspiration would be so intense, my inner attitude so concentrated and one day there was such a sense of power, of immensity, of ineffable bliss in the contact with the Supreme (it was a day when Durga was there), and she seemed to be taken and absorbed in it. And through that bliss she made her surrender.

0 1962-10-12, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   All this is now ancient HistoryVERY old. Its not like that at all any more.
   Oh, we make things complicated for nothing!

0 1962-11-17, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   All the same, Satprem did keep this conversation, being unable to censor Mother's words or to delete them from History for where is the borderline between censorship and falsehood?
   Seven weeks after India's Independence and the creation of Pakistan, Pakistan invaded Kashmir.

0 1963-05-03, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Putting it differently, you must become the Supreme in order to help in His action, in the changing of the world; you must have the supreme Vibration in order to participate in that Movement, which I am now beginning to feel in the bodys cellsa Movement which is a sort of eternal Vibration, without beginning or end. It has no beginning (the earth has a beginning, so that makes it easy; with the earths beginning, we have the beginning of the earths History, but thats not the case here), it has no beginning, it is something existing from all eternity, for all eternity, and without any division of time: its only when it is projected onto a screen that it begins to assume the division of time. But you cant say a second, or an instant. Its hard to explain. No sooner do you begin to feel it than its gone: something boundless, without beginning or end, a Movement so totaltotal and constant, constant that it is perceived as total immobility.
   Absolutely indescribable. Yet it is the Origin and Support of the whole terrestrial evolution.

0 1963-10-16, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Every time a new truth has attempted to manifest upon earth, it has been immediately attacked, corrupted and diverted by pseudo-spiritual forceswhich did represent a certain spirituality at a given time, but precisely the one that the new truth wants to go beyond. To give but one example of those sad spiritual diversions which clutter History, Buddhism was largely corrupted in a sizable part of Asia by a whole Tantric and magic Buddhism. The falsity lies not in the old spirituality which the new truth seeks to go beyond, but in the eternal fact that the Past clings to its powers, its means and its rule. As Mother said in her simple language, Whats wrong is to remain stuck there. And Sri Aurobindo with his ever-present humor: The traditions of the past are very great in their own place, in the past. We could expect the phenomenon to recur today. In India, Tantrism represents a powerful discipline from the Past and it was inevitable that Mother should experience the better and the worse of that system in her attempt to transform all the means and elements of the old earththis Agenda has made abundant mention of a certain X, symbol of Tantrism. Now, as it happens, we are witnessing the same phenomenon of diversion, and today this same Tantrism is seeking to divert the new truth by convincing as many adepts as possible not to say Mothers Mantra, which is too advanced for ordinary mortals, and to say Tantric mantras in its stead. This is purely and simply an attempt to take Mothers place. One has to be quite ignorant of the mechanism of forces not to understand that saying a mantra of the old gods puts you under the influence and into the orbit of precisely that which resists the new truth. Mother had foreseen the phenomenon and forewarned me in the following conversation. Unfortunately, until recently, I always wanted to believe that Tantrism would be converted. Nothing of the sort. It is attempting to take Mothers place and lead astray those who are not sincere enough to want ONE SINGLE THING: the new world.

0 1963-10-19, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   No, concerning government, the issue is still undecided, and yet Only, there are so many things that tend, that draw near, and then they go off at a tangent thats the trouble, for when they go off at a tangent, then they go very far away (gesture showing the possibility coming very close to crossing History, then moving away along an immense circle backward, to return again) and they take a very long time to return.3
   Something is being attempted now: there are some people who are in contact with us and are conscious; they have a possibility of action and they are trying. They have caught an idea: to bring Russia and America together so that the two powers united will be the agents of peace on earth. Its an EXCELLENT idea. Well see whats going to happen.

0 1963-11-13, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (Regarding an old Playground Talk of January 8, 1951, in which Mother said: "The History of the earth seems to be a History of victories followed by defeats, and not of defeats followed by victories.... [ But ] in truth, the movements of Nature are like those of the tides: things go forward, then backward, then forward, then backward... which implies, in universal life, even in earthly life, a progressive advance though apparently broken with retreats. But those retreats are only an appearance, as when you take a run in order to jump. You seem to move back, but it's only to enable you to jump higher. You may tell me that this is all very well, but how do you give a child the certainty that truth will triumph? For when he learns History, he will see that things do not always end well.")
   (Mother remains pensive)
   The entire process of development, at least on the earth (I dont know how it is on other planets) is that way. And perhaps (I dont know very much about the History of astronomy) universes toodo they know if universes perish physically, if the physical History of the end of a universe has been recorded? Traditions tell us that a universe is created, then withdrawn into pralaya, and then a new one comes; and according to them, ours is the seventh universe, and being the seventh universe, it is the one that will not return to pralaya but will go on progressing, without retreat. This is why, in fact, there is in the human being that need for permanence and for an uninterrupted progressits because the time has come.
   (Mother remains in contemplation)

0 1963-11-23, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   He was one of the instruments for the establishment of peaceits a setback for the entire political History of the earth.
   But probably, it means basically that things werent ready: some parts would have been overlooked.

0 1963-12-07 - supramental ship, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   The way to get faith and all things else is to insist on having them and refuse to flag or despair or give up until one has themit is the way by which everything has been got since this difficult earth began to have thinking and aspiring creatures upon it. It is to open always, always to the Light and turn ones back on the Darkness. It is to refuse the voices that say persistently, You cannot, you shall not, you are incapable, you are the puppet of a dream,for these are the enemy voices, they cut one off from the result that was coming, by their strident clamour and then triumphantly point to the barrenness of the result as a proof of their thesis. The difficulty of the endeavour is a known thing, but the difficult is not the impossibleit is the difficult that has always been accomplished and the conquest of difficulties makes up all that is valuable in the earths History. In the spiritual endeavour also it shall be so.
   Sri Aurobindo

0 1964-01-18, #Agenda Vol 05, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Oh, no! The British (laughing) the only thing that rehabilitated them in the worlds History is that Sri Aurobindo went to study in their country! But he clearly said that during his studies there, his whole feeling of intimacy was with France, not England.
   Oh, the British No, the British haughtiness certainly isnt just a legend. What gave them that? Where does it come from? Because, basically, they are Normans, arent they.

0 1964-06-28, #Agenda Vol 05, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (The following note has a curious History. Satprem had gone off on a journey to see his brother and upon his return, reaching the coast of Brittany, he saw in the sky what Breton sailors call a wind foot, an immense white cloud shaped like an archangel with wings spread and no head. Satprem was so struck by that cloud, without knowing why, that he told his brother, Look at that victorious angel coming our way! Then they went inside. This letter from Mother was awaiting Satprem:)
   Take heart, my dear little child,

0 1964-09-16, #Agenda Vol 05, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   103Vivekananda, exalting Sannyasa,1 has said that in all Indian History there is only one Janaka.2 Not so, for Janaka is not the name of a single individual, but a dynasty of self-ruling kings and the triumph-cry of an ideal.
   104In all the lakhs of ochre-clad Sannyasins,3 how many are perfect? It is the few attainments and the many approximations that justify an ideal.

0 1964-10-17, #Agenda Vol 05, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   There is an entire part of the earths past History that, ultimately, is totally unknown to us. They have indeed made so-called discoveries, but all those stories, I dont know how much of them is true.
   Have they really discovered? I dont know. Do you?
   We probably know a little bit of History starting from a particular cataclysm. But how many cataclysms have there been?
   Yes, how many cataclysms have there been?
   Old for our History.
   Its not old. Obviously, there was no cinema and no newspapers! But newspapers and all paper things cant last very long. In America, they have made underground shelters for booksthey take all the best, then they store it under certain conditions. But what if the earth and the continents move! And anyway, who will be able to read? Even the Assyrian inscriptions, which arent old, are still a riddle. They dont really know: they imagine they know. The names we were taught when we were small and the names todays children are taught are totally different, because they hadnt found the phonetic notation.

0 1964-10-30, #Agenda Vol 05, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   And that wisdom! Its an almost cellular wisdom (its odd). For instance, I was looking at the relationship I had with all those great beings of the Overmind and higher, the perfectly objective and very familiar relationship I had with all those beings and the inner perception of being the eternal Motherall that is very well, but for me its almost ancient History! The me that exists now is HERE, its at ground level, in the body; its the body, its Matter; its at ground level; and to tell the truth, it doesnt care much about the intervention of all those beings who ultimately know nothing at all! They dont know the true problem: they live in a place where there are no problems. They dont know the true problem the true problem is here.
   Its an amused way of looking at religions and all the gods the way you would look at they are like theater performances. Theyre pastimes; but thats not what can teach you to know yourself, not at all, not at all! You must go right down to the bottom.

0 1964-12-02, #Agenda Vol 05, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Ah, thats just what I thought! There is in the Illustrated Weekly the History of those Eucharistic Congresses, and it seems a French lady was behind the origin of the first Congress (not so long ago, in the last century, I believe). And then (Mother smiles), theres a magnificent portrait of the Pope with a message he wrote specially for the Weeklys readers, in which he took great care not to use Christian words. He wishes them I dont know what, and (its written in English) a celestial grace. Then I saw (he tried to be as impersonal as possible), I saw that in spite of everything, the Christians greatest difficulty is that their happiness and fulfillment are in heaven.
   Instead of a celestial grace, they read to me, or I heard, a terrestrial grace! When I heard that, something in me started vibrating: What! But this man has been converted! Then I had it repeated and heard it wasnt that but really a celestial grace.

0 1965-04-07, #Agenda Vol 06, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   If I am given some prediction, its in a very symbolic form, or in a curious form: a form I could call analogous, meaning that I am shown analogous facts that occurred in the History of the earth (sometimes the History of the earth that isnt historical, thats prehistorical), and with a special coloration, a little more internal than the plain stark fact; there is along with it a vibration which is at the same time a mixture of thought, feeling and especially forcea force of action. It comes like that with a sort of power of projection into the future (Mother draws a trajectory going from the past event into the future), and in between the two, there is the curve resulting from the terrestrial progress. So, basically, it would be rather interesting provided there is nothing else to be done!
   But its clearly visible: for instance, a word or a sentence or a gesture or a thought or an impulse that has its vibratory point specifically somewhere [in the past], and then its whole line of consequences (same gesture of trajectory), its whole curve of consequences. The whole thing, seen at a glance (Mother depicts a screen on which a picture is suddenly frozen). The curve: such and such a thing goes brrt! over there. But the outcome (which would give a spectacular and high-sounding value producing a considerable effect) is never given to me. No, what would make a reputation of great prophet is never given to me (thats not what I am after, but its never given). Simply (same gesture of trajectory), such and such a thing will go this way, brrt! and then all this is going to happen, here, here (Mother marks various points along the trajectory); but as for the outcomesilence.

0 1965-08-07, #Agenda Vol 06, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   For what Sri Aurobindo represents in the worlds History is not a teaching, not even a revelation: it is an action.5 Sri Aurobindo is not a thinker or a sage, not a mystic or a dreamer. He is a force of the future that takes hold of the present and leads us towards,
   The miracle for which our life was made.6

0 1965-09-25, #Agenda Vol 06, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Yes, but it acts, only its an infinitesimal action. Thats why millions of years are nothing. This stagnation, for instance, exists only for our consciousness; its because the human consciousness, after all, measures everything on its own scale. For it, the History of the earth is an infiniteit isnt so in universal History, but for the human being, the impression is of an infinite (he knows very well that it isnt so, but thats theoretical knowledge), so then, on this scale, nothing changes but thats not true.
   Yes, but it should be done in the space of one lifetime.

0 1965-11-13, #Agenda Vol 06, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   It must be ancient History. Doesnt it seem dated?
   No, not at all!

0 1965-12-15, #Agenda Vol 06, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   But this king1 is a remarkable man. He has a remarkable History, but it would be too long to tell. I was in contact with him before (gesture of mental communication), and I had said, I wont speak and I didnt speak. When he came he looked at me, then suddenly (he was standing), he remained standing in meditation, he closed his eyes and remained motionless. And then he asked me his questions mentally I received them. And the answer came from up above, magnificent. An answer with a golden, superb force, and a power telling him that he had a great role to play and had to be strong and so on.
   A very, very intelligent man.

0 1966-01-31, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Just two days ago, I wrote to someone (someone who is a bit under the influence of ascetic ideas), and I told that person, Those thoughtsthose thoughts and that type of actionbelong, from the spiritual standpoint, to the ascetic belief, but it-is-no-longer-true. And I said it with terrible force: IT-IS-NO-LONGER-TRUE. And I saw that at one point in the History of the earth it was necessary to obtain a certain result, but now ITS NO LONGER TRUE. Voil. It has given way to a higher and more complete truth. From that point of view, your book can obviously be the expression of this new force.
   Its possible, its by no means impossible.

0 1966-12-17, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   A child from the School asked me, How can mathematics, History or sciences help me to find you?
   I found that quite amusing!

0 1967-02-15, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (As late as 1960, Mother intended to give a class on the History of religions, as the following letter in answer to a question from a teacher at the School bears witness.)
   And finally, what was the occult influence of this Judaism on human evolution? The more I think about it, the more the threads of it all appear to me so tied up and entangled together that only a knowledge in overview seems capable of helping to bring out the essential. Well, Mother, I leave it all to you. I hope you will be able to tell me the way in which we here should approach the question and to give me the few major elements on which I will be able to build my exposition.
   What I asked for was to give the students, as a preparation, a class on the History of religions, from the purely historical, external and intellectual standpoint. There is no question of dealing with the subject from the spiritual angle.
   At any rate, nothing useful can be done before carefully reading all that Sri Aurobindo has said on the subject (Synthesis of Yoga: in the Yoga of Knowledge he deals with religions; the first chapters of Essays on the Gita; Foundations of Indian Culture; Thoughts and Aphorisms, and many others too). Therefore start reading first.

0 1967-04-05, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Spiritual things! They teach History OR spiritual things, they teach Science OR spiritual things. Thats what is idiotic! In History, there is the Spirit; in Science, there is the Spirit the Truth is everywhere. And what is needed is to teach it not in an untruthful but in a true way.
   They cant get that into their heads.
   (Mothers answer in English to the School teachers when she was told that the new special afternoon classes at the library had chosen as a first research theme Indias Spiritual History.)
   No! It wont do. It is not to be done that way. You should begin with a big BANG!
   You were trying to show the continuity of History, with Sri Aurobindo as the outcome, the culminationit is false, entirely.
   Sri Aurobindo does not belong to History; he is outside and beyond History.
   Till the birth of Sri Aurobindo, religions and spiritualities were always centered on past figures, and they were showing as the goal the negation of life upon earth. So, you had a choice between two alternatives: either a life in this world with its round of petty pleasures and pains, joys and sufferings, threatened by hell if you were not behaving properly; or an escape into another world, heaven, nirvana, moksha [liberation].
   Then, when this is told, strongly, squarely, and there is no doubt about itand then onlyyou can go on and amuse them with the History of religions and religious or spiritual leaders.
   Then and then onlyyou will be able to show the seed of weakness and falsehood that they have harbored and proclaimed.
   Sri Aurobindo does not belong to the past nor to History.
   Sri Aurobindo is the future advancing towards its realization.

0 1967-05-10, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   And I know I was his mother; at that moment I knew who I was, because I know that Amenhotep is so and sos son (and also I looked it up in History books). Otherwise theres no connection: a blank.
   I always admire those mediums (they generally are very simple people) who have the exact memory of the sound and can tell you, This and that is what I said. That way we could have a phonetic notation. If I remembered the sounds I uttered we would have the notation, but I dont.
   I remember these questions: I suddenly thought, How interesting it would be to hear that language! And then, being curious, How did they rediscover the pronunciation? How? Besides, all the names of ancient History we were taught when we were very small have been changed now. They said they had rediscovered the sounds, or rather they claimed they did. But I dont know.
   Its the same thing with ancient Babylon: I have extremely precise and perfectly objective memories, but when I speak I dont remember the sounds I utter, there is only the mental transcription.

0 1967-05-24, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   And at the same time, when there was that look at the something which had to be defined, there was a great silence everywhere and a great aspiration (gesture like a rising flame), and all the forms that that aspiration has taken. It was very interesting. The History of the aspiration of the earth towards the marvellous Unknown we want to become.
   And each oneeach one who was destined to effect the junctionbelieves in his simplicity that the bridge he has walked is the only one. The result: religions, philosophies, dogmas, creedsbattle.
   I know it is the Russian explanation of the recent trend to spirituality and mysticism that it is a phenomenon of capitalist society in its decadence. But to read an economic cause, conscious or unconscious, into all phenomena of mans History is part of the Bolshevik gospel born of the fallacy of Karl Marx. Mans nature is not so simple and one-chorded as all thatit has many lines and each line produces a need of his life. The spiritual or mystic line is one of them and man tries to satisfy it in various ways, by superstitions of all kinds, by ignorant religionism, by spiritism, demonism and what not, in his more enlightened parts by spiritual philosophy, the higher occultism and the rest, at his highest by the union with the All, the Eternal or the Divine. The tendency towards the search of spirituality began in Europe with a recoil from the nineteenth centurys scientific materialism, a dissatisfaction with the pretended all-sufficiency of the reason and the intellect and a feeling out for something deeper. That was a pre-war [of 1914] phenomenon, and began when there was no menace of Communism and the capitalistic world was at its height of insolent success and triumph, and it came rather as a revolt against the materialistic bourgeois life and its ideals, not as an attempt to serve or sanctify it. It has been at once served and opposed by the post-war disillusionmentopposed because the post-war world has fallen back either on cynicism and the life of the senses or on movements like Fascism and Communism; served because with the deeper minds the dissatisfaction with the ideals of the past or the present, with all mental or vital or material solutions of the problem of life has increased and only the spiritual path is left. It is true that the European mind having little light on these things dallies with vital will-o-the-wisps like spiritism or theosophy or falls back upon the old religionism; but the deeper minds of which I speak either pass by them or pass through them in search of a greater Light. I have had contact with many and the above tendencies are very clear. They come from all countries and it was only a minority who hailed from England or America. Russia is differentunlike the others it has lingered in mediaeval religionism and not passed through any period of revoltso when the revolt came it was naturally anti-religious and atheistic. It is only when this phase is exhausted that Russian mysticism can revive and take not a narrow religious but the spiritual direction. It is true that mysticism revers, turned upside down, has made Bolshevism and its endeavour a creed rather than a political theme and a search for the paradisal secret millennium on earth rather than the building of a purely social structure. But for the most part Russia is trying to do on the communistic basis all that nineteenth-century idealism hoped to get atand failedin the midst of or against an industrial competitive environment. Whether it will really succeed any better is for the future to decide for at present it only keeps what it has got by a tension and violent control which is not over.
   Sri Aurobindo

0 1967-07-29, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   The experience lasted for half an hour, but everything, everything was differentdifferent not in its appearance, different in its deeper significance. Was the difference in my active consciousness? I dont know. I mean, did I make contact with a region of consciousness that was new to me? Possibly. But it seemed to me a wholly different vision of the earth and mans History.
   During the experience I remembered what Sri Aurobindo had written: Men love suffering, therefore Christ still hangs on the cross in Jerusalem.1 And that was like (smiling) a sort of froth of thought quite on the surface, all the way up, bathed in the light from above, and like the intellectual way of expressing what I was seeing (gesture from above downward), which came from above. From the point of view of light, it was a very interesting experience.
   And so the conclusion. Ive always heard it said (I dont know if its true) that men think in a certain way and women in another. On an external level, the difference is not visible, but the attitude the mental attitudeis perhaps different. The mental attitude on the Prakriti side is always action, always action; the mental attitude on the Purusha3 side is conception: conception, overall vision, and also observation, as though it observed what the Prakriti had done and saw how it was done. Now I understand that. Thats how it is. Naturally, no man (here on earth) is exclusively masculine and no woman is exclusively feminine, because it has all been mixed together again and again. Similarly, I dont think any one race is absolutely pure: all that is over, its been mingled together (it is another way to re-create Oneness). But there have been TENDENCIES; Its like that note about Israelites and Muslims, its just a manner of speaking; if I were told, This is what you said, I would reply, Yes, I said that, but I can also say something else and many other things! Its a way of selecting certain things and bringing them to the fore with an action in view (its always with an action in view). But for the moment, everything is like that, everywhere mixed and mingled together with a view to general unificationno one nationality is pure and separate from the others, that no longer exists. But to a certain vision, each thing has its essential role, its raison dtre, its place in universal History. Its like that very strong impression that the Chinese are lunar, that when the moon grew cold, some beings managed to come to the earth, and those beings are at the origin of the Chinese nation; but now there only remains a tracea trace which is the memory of that distinctiveness. And its everywhere the same thing: if you look at the individuals of every nation, you find in every nation that everything is there, but with the memory the memory of a specificness which has been its raison dtre in the great terrestrial unfolding.
   (Mother goes into contemplation)

0 1967-08-12, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   You know, it came to me as a discovery. The whole religion, instead of being seen like this (gesture from below), was seen like that (gesture from above). Here is what I mean: the ordinary idea of Christianity is that the son (to use their language), the son of God came to give his message (a message of love, unity, fraternity and charity) to the earth; and the earth, that is, those who govern, who werent ready, sacrificed him, and his Father, the supreme Lord, let him be sacrificed in order that his sacrifice would have the power to save the world. That is how they see Christianity, in its most comprehensive idea the vast majority of Christians dont understand anything whatsoever, but I mean that among them there may be (perhaps, its possible), among the cardinals for instance who have studied occultism and the deeper symbols of things, some who understand a little better anyway. But according to my vision (Mother points to her note on Christianity), what happened was that in the History of the evolution of the earth, when the human race, the human species, began to question and rebel against suffering, which was a necessity to emerge more consciously from inertia (its very clear in animals, it has become very clear already: suffering was the means to make them emerge from inertia), but man, on the other hand, went beyond that stage and began to rebel against suffering, naturally also to revolt against the Power that permits and perhaps uses (perhaps uses, to his mind) this suffering as a means of domination. So that is the place of Christianity. There was already before it a fairly long earth Historywe shouldnt forget that before Christianity, there was Hinduism, which accepted that everything, including destruction, suffering, death and all calamities, are part of the one Divine, the one God (its the image of the Gita, the God who swallows the world and its creatures). There is that, here in India. There was the Buddha, who on the other hand, was horrified by suffering in all its forms, decay in all its forms, and the impermanence of all things, and in trying to find a remedy, concluded that the only true remedy is the disappearance of the creation. Such was the terrestrial situation when Christianity arrived. So there had been a whole period before it, and a great number of people beginning to rebel against suffering and wanting to escape from it like that. Others deified it and thus bore it as an inescapable calamity. Then came the necessity to bring down on earth the concept of a deified, divine suffering, a divine suffering as the supreme means to make the whole human consciousness emerge from Unconsciousness and Ignorance and lead it towards its realization of divine beatitude, but notnot by refusing to collaborate with life, but IN life itself: accepting suffering (the crucifixion) in life itself as a means of transformation in order to lead human beings and the entire creation to its divine Origin.
   That gives a place to all religions in the development from the Inconscient to the divine Consciousness.
   Instead of looking at it from below, there was all of a sudden an overall vision from right above of how it was all organized with such a clear consciousness, such a clear will, each thing coming just when it was necessary so nothing would be overlooked and everything might come out, emerge from that Unconsciousness, and become increasingly conscious. And so, in this immense History, the earth History, Christianity finds its placeits legitimate place. That has a double advantage: for those who despise it its value is restored, and as for those who believe its the unique truth, they are made to see that its only one element among others in the whole. There.
   Thats why I found it interestingbecause it was the result of a vision, and that vision came because I started concerning myself with religions (started again, to tell the truth, because I was very familiar with that subject in the past). And when I was asked questions on the Israelites and the Muslims, I looked and said, Here is their place. Here is their place and their raison dtre. Then, one day I said to myself, Well, it is true! Seen in that way, its obvious: Christianity is like a rehabilitation of suffering as a means of development of the consciousness.

0 1967-08-19, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Afterwards, there was a slight flagging, because there came I cant say the memory (it wasnt a memory), but all the complaints: the same thing as at the balcony on the darshan day the human attitude towards the Supreme is only to complain and demand complain and demand and complain Thats all. It came back. Before, the whole vision was there like that (gesture from high to low), it was magnificent, magnificent: each and every thing, the entire human History, the entire History of intellectual and material evolution, everything, everything like that, everything in its place. It was really fine. And afterwards, there came that wave of complaints.
   It was as if the body were asking, What attitude (thats what provided the link), What attitude should I have? What should I do? Because there was the vision of life, death, of all occurences, everything was there. The full knowledge of everything. Oh, all the stories of death were very, very interesting, and how mankind has tried to understand, and how there have been all kinds of solutions (that is, partial attitudes), and all of it, all of it was part of the Whole.

0 1967-10-14, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   That was when I declared that I wanted to be Indian, to have dual nationality. The government of India told me it was a memorable day in Indias History. I wasnt aware of it!1
   (Mother studies the photo) Its amusing. When I look back at all those things, I have a very acute sensation of looking at my childhood, it all seems to me so childish! Still in the illusion of the world.

0 1967-10-25, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   World Union! They really did imagine they were going to make humanity progress! But when I tell people that the creation of a city like Auroville has more weight in the earths History than all the groups in the world, they dont believe me. They dont believe me, to them its totally unimportant, a fancy.
   Once I asked Sri Aurobindo (because we had talked about Auroville a great deal, there were lots of difficulties), I asked him (because it was an idea I hadnot an idea but a need that expressed itself some thirty years agomore than thirty, almost forty years ago), so I asked him, and he answered me this (I think I told you): It is the best chance men have to avoid a general conf