classes ::: the Divine Mother, the Mother, Mother of the Worlds, God, Names of God, mantra, names, Sanskrit,
children :::
branches ::: Aditi

bookmarks: Instances - Definitions - Quotes - Chapters - Wordnet - Webgen


object:Aditi
class:the Divine Mother
class:the Mother
class:Mother of the Worlds
class:God
class:Names of God
class:mantra
class:names
language class:Sanskrit

Mother, in your symbol the twelve petals signify the twelve inner planes, don't they?

It signifies anything one wants, you see. Twelve: that's the number of Aditi, of Mahashakti. So it
applies to everything; all her action has twelve aspects. There are also her twelve virtues, her twelve powers, her
twelve aspects, and then her twelve planes of manifestation and many other things that are twelve; and the symbol,
the number twelve is in itself a symbol. It is the symbol of manifestation, double perfection, in essence and in
manifestation, in the creation.

What are the twelve aspects, Sweet Mother?

Ah, my child, I have described this somewhere, but I don't remember now. For it is always a choice, you see;
according to what one wants to say, one can choose these twelve aspects or twelve others, or give them different
names. The same aspect can be named in different ways. This does not have the fixity of a mental theory. (Silence)
According to the angle from which one sees the creation, one day I may describe twelve aspects to you; and
then another day, because I have shifted my centre of observation, I may describe twelve others, and they will be
equally true.
(To Vishwanath) Is it the wind that's producing this storm? It is very good for a dramatic stage-effect....
The traitor is approaching in the night... yes? We are waiting for some terrible deed....
~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954, 395





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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Big_Mind,_Big_Heart
Concentration_(book)
DND_DM_Guide_5E
Enchiridion_text
Faust
Full_Circle
General_Principles_of_Kabbalah
Heart_of_Matter
Hymn_of_the_Universe
Labyrinths
Letters_On_Yoga
Letters_On_Yoga_I
Liber_157_-_The_Tao_Teh_King
Modern_Man_in_Search_of_a_Soul
My_Burning_Heart
Plotinus_-_Complete_Works_Vol_01
Process_and_Reality
Questions_And_Answers_1950-1951
The_Book_of_Light
The_Divine_Milieu
The_Essential_Songs_of_Milarepa
The_Integral_Yoga
The_Republic
The_Seals_of_Wisdom
The_Secret_Doctrine
The_Synthesis_Of_Yoga
The_Use_and_Abuse_of_History
The_Way_of_Perfection
The_Wit_and_Wisdom_of_Alfred_North_Whitehead
The_Yoga_Sutras
Three_Books_on_Occult_Philosophy
Toward_the_Future
Twilight_of_the_Idols

IN CHAPTERS TITLE
1951-03-17_-_The_universe-_eternally_new,_same_-_Pralaya_Traditions_-_Light_and_thought_-_new_consciousness,_forces_-_The_expanding_universe_-_inexpressible_experiences_-_Ashram_surcharged_with_Light_-_new_force_-_vibrating_atmospheres
1.ww_-_The_Force_Of_Prayer,_Or,_The_Founding_Of_Bolton,_A_Tradition

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
0.00_-_INTRODUCTION
0.00_-_The_Book_of_Lies_Text
0.00_-_THE_GOSPEL_PREFACE
0.00_-_The_Wellspring_of_Reality
0.01_-_I_-_Sri_Aurobindos_personality,_his_outer_retirement_-_outside_contacts_after_1910_-_spiritual_personalities-_Vibhutis_and_Avatars_-__transformtion_of_human_personality
0.01_-_Life_and_Yoga
0.02_-_The_Three_Steps_of_Nature
0.04_-_The_Systems_of_Yoga
0.06_-_INTRODUCTION
0.08_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Captain
01.09_-_William_Blake:_The_Marriage_of_Heaven_and_Hell
0.10_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Captain
0.11_-_Letters_to_a_Sadhak
0_1955-04-04
0_1956-05-02
0_1958-05-11_-_the_ship_that_said_OM
0_1958-07-06
0_1958-11-04_-_Myths_are_True_and_Gods_exist_-_mental_formation_and_occult_faculties_-_exteriorization_-_work_in_dreams
0_1958-11-15
0_1958-12-28
0_1959-04-21
0_1959-06-07
0_1960-09-20
0_1960-10-22
0_1960-10-25
0_1960-10-30
0_1960-11-08
0_1961-01-24
0_1961-01-27
0_1961-02-04
0_1961-02-18
0_1961-03-07
0_1961-03-11
0_1961-04-07
0_1961-04-08
0_1961-06-20
0_1961-07-18
0_1961-07-28
0_1961-08-02
0_1961-08-08
0_1961-10-30
0_1961-11-05
0_1962-01-12_-_supramental_ship
0_1962-01-27
0_1962-02-03
0_1962-02-24
0_1962-09-22
0_1962-09-26
0_1962-10-30
0_1963-01-14
0_1963-05-11
0_1963-05-25
0_1963-08-28
0_1963-10-05
0_1963-10-16
0_1963-11-13
0_1964-01-04
0_1964-08-26
0_1964-09-23
0_1965-01-12
0_1965-02-04
0_1965-03-20
0_1965-05-11
0_1966-09-30
0_1966-10-08
0_1967-05-10
0_1967-06-07
0_1967-08-19
0_1967-09-30
0_1967-11-15
0_1968-01-12
0_1968-02-14
0_1968-03-16
0_1968-11-02
0_1969-02-22
0_1969-06-04
0_1970-07-11
0_1971-10-16
0_1972-03-29a
02.02_-_Lines_of_the_Descent_of_Consciousness
02.04_-_The_Kingdoms_of_the_Little_Life
02.08_-_Jules_Supervielle
02.10_-_The_Kingdoms_and_Godheads_of_the_Little_Mind
03.01_-_Humanism_and_Humanism
03.02_-_The_Philosopher_as_an_Artist_and_Philosophy_as_an_Art
03.04_-_The_Other_Aspect_of_European_Culture
03.06_-_Divine_Humanism
03.08_-_The_Standpoint_of_Indian_Art
03.09_-_Buddhism_and_Hinduism
03.10_-_The_Mission_of_Buddhism
03.11_-_Modernist_Poetry
04.01_-_The_Divine_Man
04.01_-_The_March_of_Civilisation
04.02_-_A_Chapter_of_Human_Evolution
04.03_-_The_Eternal_East_and_West
04.04_-_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Consciousness
04.05_-_The_Immortal_Nation
04.06_-_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Consciousness
04.09_-_Values_Higher_and_Lower
05.02_-_Gods_Labour
05.05_-_Man_the_Prototype
05.07_-_The_Observer_and_the_Observed
05.09_-_Varieties_of_Religious_Experience
05.12_-_The_Soul_and_its_Journey
06.05_-_The_Story_of_Creation
06.25_-_Individual_and_Collective_Soul
07.03_-_The_Entry_into_the_Inner_Countries
07.08_-_The_Divine_Truth_Its_Name_and_Form
07.11_-_The_Problem_of_Evil
07.31_-_Images_of_Gods_and_Goddesses
08.12_-_Thought_the_Creator
08.14_-_Poetry_and_Poetic_Inspiration
09.17_-_Health_in_the_Ashram
10.02_-_Beyond_Vedanta
10.04_-_Lord_of_Time
10.04_-_Transfiguration
1.00b_-_INTRODUCTION
1.00_-_PREFACE_-_DESCENSUS_AD_INFERNOS
10.11_-_Savitri
1.012_-_Sublimation_-_A_Way_to_Reshuffle_Thought
1.01_-_About_the_Elements
1.01_-_Adam_Kadmon_and_the_Evolution
1.01_-_An_Accomplished_Westerner
1.01_-_A_NOTE_ON_PROGRESS
1.01_-_Archetypes_of_the_Collective_Unconscious
1.01_-_BOOK_THE_FIRST
1.01_-_Foreward
1.01_-_Fundamental_Considerations
1.01_-_Historical_Survey
1.01_-_Maitreya_inquires_of_his_teacher_(Parashara)
1.01_-_MAPS_OF_EXPERIENCE_-_OBJECT_AND_MEANING
1.01_-_MAXIMS_AND_MISSILES
1.01_-_Newtonian_and_Bergsonian_Time
1.01_-_Our_Demand_and_Need_from_the_Gita
1.01_-_Principles_of_Practical_Psycho_therapy
1.01_-_Tara_the_Divine
1.01_-_THAT_ARE_THOU
1.01_-_the_Call_to_Adventure
1.01_-_The_Cycle_of_Society
1.01_-_The_Four_Aids
1.01_-_The_Highest_Meaning_of_the_Holy_Truths
1.01_-_The_King_of_the_Wood
1.01_-_What_is_Magick?
1.020_-_The_World_and_Our_World
1.02_-_In_the_Beginning
1.02_-_MAPS_OF_MEANING_-_THREE_LEVELS_OF_ANALYSIS
1.02_-_Meditating_on_Tara
1.02_-_On_the_Knowledge_of_God.
1.02_-_Priestly_Kings
1.02_-_SOCIAL_HEREDITY_AND_PROGRESS
1.02_-_Taras_Tantra
1.02_-_The_Age_of_Individualism_and_Reason
1.02_-_The_Development_of_Sri_Aurobindos_Thought
1.02_-_The_Divine_Teacher
1.02_-_The_Doctrine_of_the_Mystics
1.02_-_The_Eternal_Law
1.02_-_THE_NATURE_OF_THE_GROUND
1.02_-_The_Pit
1.02_-_The_Refusal_of_the_Call
1.02_-_The_Stages_of_Initiation
1.02_-_The_Three_European_Worlds
1.02_-_Where_I_Lived,_and_What_I_Lived_For
1.031_-_Intense_Aspiration
1.032_-_Our_Concept_of_God
10.35_-_The_Moral_and_the_Spiritual
1.035_-_The_Recitation_of_Mantra
1.03_-_APPRENTICESHIP_AND_ENCULTURATION_-_ADOPTION_OF_A_SHARED_MAP
1.03_-_Concerning_the_Archetypes,_with_Special_Reference_to_the_Anima_Concept
1.03_-_Hymns_of_Gritsamada
1.03_-_Invocation_of_Tara
1.03_-_Meeting_the_Master_-_Meeting_with_others
1.03_-_On_Knowledge_of_the_World.
1.03_-_Sympathetic_Magic
1.03_-_The_End_of_the_Intellect
1.03_-_The_House_Of_The_Lord
1.03_-_The_Human_Disciple
1.03_-_THE_ORPHAN,_THE_WIDOW,_AND_THE_MOON
1.03_-_The_Sephiros
1.03_-_To_Layman_Ishii
1.040_-_Re-Educating_the_Mind
1.04_-_ALCHEMY_AND_MANICHAEISM
1.04_-_GOD_IN_THE_WORLD
1.04_-_Narayana_appearance,_in_the_beginning_of_the_Kalpa,_as_the_Varaha_(boar)
1.04_-_On_Knowledge_of_the_Future_World.
1.04_-_Religion_and_Occultism
1.04_-_THE_APPEARANCE_OF_ANOMALY_-_CHALLENGE_TO_THE_SHARED_MAP
1.04_-_The_Crossing_of_the_First_Threshold
1.04_-_The_Divine_Mother_-_This_Is_She
1.04_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda
1.04_-_The_Origin_and_Development_of_Poetry.
1.04_-_The_Paths
1.04_-_The_Praise
1.04_-_The_Self
1.04_-_The_Silent_Mind
1.04_-_What_Arjuna_Saw_-_the_Dark_Side_of_the_Force
1.05_-_2010_and_1956_-_Doomsday?
1.05_-_Adam_Kadmon
1.05_-_Buddhism_and_Women
1.05_-_CHARITY
1.05_-_Christ,_A_Symbol_of_the_Self
1.05_-_Consciousness
1.05_-_Hsueh_Feng's_Grain_of_Rice
1.05_-_On_the_Love_of_God.
1.05_-_Ritam
1.05_-_The_Ascent_of_the_Sacrifice_-_The_Psychic_Being
1.05_-_The_Belly_of_the_Whale
1.05_-_THE_HOSTILE_BROTHERS_-_ARCHETYPES_OF_RESPONSE_TO_THE_UNKNOWN
1.05_-_THE_MASTER_AND_KESHAB
1.06_-_Agni_and_the_Truth
1.06_-_A_Summary_of_my_Phenomenological_View_of_the_World
1.06_-_Being_Human_and_the_Copernican_Principle
1.06_-_Iconography
1.06_-_Magicians_as_Kings
1.06_-_MORTIFICATION,_NON-ATTACHMENT,_RIGHT_LIVELIHOOD
1.06_-_Psycho_therapy_and_a_Philosophy_of_Life
1.06_-_Quieting_the_Vital
1.06_-_THE_FOUR_GREAT_ERRORS
1.06_-_The_Sign_of_the_Fishes
1.06_-_The_Three_Schools_of_Magick_1
1.07_-_A_Song_of_Longing_for_Tara,_the_Infallible
1.07_-_BOOK_THE_SEVENTH
1.07_-_Bridge_across_the_Afterlife
1.07_-_Hui_Ch'ao_Asks_about_Buddha
1.07_-_Medicine_and_Psycho_therapy
1.07_-_Note_on_the_word_Go
1.07_-_On_Our_Knowledge_of_General_Principles
1.07_-_Production_of_the_mind-born_sons_of_Brahma
1.07_-_Samadhi
1.07_-_Standards_of_Conduct_and_Spiritual_Freedom
1.07_-_The_Farther_Reaches_of_Human_Nature
1.07_-_The_Literal_Qabalah_(continued)
1.07_-_The_Process_of_Evolution
1.07_-_The_Prophecies_of_Nostradamus
1.07_-_The_Psychic_Center
1.07_-_The_Three_Schools_of_Magick_2
1.083_-_Choosing_an_Object_for_Concentration
1.08a_-_The_Ladder
1.08_-_Attendants
1.08_-_Departmental_Kings_of_Nature
1.08_-_Origin_of_Rudra:_his_becoming_eight_Rudras
1.08_-_Psycho_therapy_Today
1.08_-_RELIGION_AND_TEMPERAMENT
1.08_-_The_Change_of_Vision
1.08_-_The_Depths_of_the_Divine
1.08_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.08_-_The_Historical_Significance_of_the_Fish
1.08_-_The_Supreme_Discovery
1.08_-_The_Synthesis_of_Movement
1.098_-_The_Transformation_from_Human_to_Divine
1.09_-_Fundamental_Questions_of_Psycho_therapy
1.09_-_Saraswati_and_Her_Consorts
1.09_-_SELF-KNOWLEDGE
1.09_-_SKIRMISHES_IN_A_WAY_WITH_THE_AGE
1.09_-_Sleep_and_Death
1.09_-_Sri_Aurobindo_and_the_Big_Bang
1.09_-_The_Ambivalence_of_the_Fish_Symbol
1.1.01_-_The_Divine_and_Its_Aspects
11.01_-_The_Opening_Scene_of_Savitri
11.02_-_The_Golden_Life-line
1.1.04_-_Philosophy
1.10_-_BOOK_THE_TENTH
1.10_-_GRACE_AND_FREE_WILL
1.10_-_The_descendants_of_the_daughters_of_Daksa_married_to_the_Rsis
1.10_-_THE_FORMATION_OF_THE_NOOSPHERE
1.10_-_The_Image_of_the_Oceans_and_the_Rivers
1.10_-_THE_MASTER_WITH_THE_BRAHMO_DEVOTEES_(II)
1.10_-_Theodicy_-_Nature_Makes_No_Mistakes
1.10_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.10_-_THINGS_I_OWE_TO_THE_ANCIENTS
1.11_-_GOOD_AND_EVIL
1.11_-_The_Kalki_Avatar
1.11_-_The_Reason_as_Governor_of_Life
1.11_-_The_Seven_Rivers
1.11_-_WITH_THE_DEVOTEES_AT_DAKSHINEWAR
1.1.2_-_Commentary
1.12_-_The_Divine_Work
1.12_-_The_Herds_of_the_Dawn
1.12_-_The_Significance_of_Sacrifice
1.12_-_The_Superconscient
1.12_-_TIME_AND_ETERNITY
1.13_-_Dawn_and_the_Truth
1.13_-_Gnostic_Symbols_of_the_Self
1.13_-_SALVATION,_DELIVERANCE,_ENLIGHTENMENT
1.13_-_THE_HUMAN_REBOUND_OF_EVOLUTION_AND_ITS_CONSEQUENCES
1.13_-_The_Kings_of_Rome_and_Alba
1.13_-_The_Pentacle,_Lamen_or_Seal
1.14_-_IMMORTALITY_AND_SURVIVAL
1.14_-_(Plot_continued.)_The_tragic_emotions_of_pity_and_fear_should_spring_out_of_the_Plot_itself.
1.14_-_The_Book_of_Magic_Formulae
1.14_-_The_Secret
1.14_-_The_Structure_and_Dynamics_of_the_Self
1.14_-_The_Succesion_to_the_Kingdom_in_Ancient_Latium
1.15_-_Conclusion
1.15_-_Index
1.15_-_The_Value_of_Philosophy
1.15_-_The_world_overrun_with_trees;_they_are_destroyed_by_the_Pracetasas
1.16_-_Man,_A_Transitional_Being
1.16_-_PRAYER
1.16_-_The_Suprarational_Ultimate_of_Life
1.17_-_The_Seven-Headed_Thought,_Swar_and_the_Dashagwas
1.17_-_The_Transformation
1.18_-_THE_HEART_OF_THE_PROBLEM
1.18_-_The_Human_Fathers
1.18_-_The_Infrarational_Age_of_the_Cycle
1.19_-_The_Curve_of_the_Rational_Age
1.19_-_The_Victory_of_the_Fathers
1.200-1.224_Talks
1.2.01_-_The_Call_and_the_Capacity
1.2.03_-_The_Interpretation_of_Scripture
1.2.08_-_Faith
1.20_-_Tabooed_Persons
1.20_-_The_Hound_of_Heaven
1.21_-_Chih_Men's_Lotus_Flower,_Lotus_Leaves
1.21_-_WALPURGIS-NIGHT
1.22__-_Dominion_over_different_provinces_of_creation_assigned_to_different_beings
1.22_-_How_to_Learn_the_Practice_of_Astrology
1.22_-_Tabooed_Words
1.240_-_Talks_2
1.24_-_RITUAL,_SYMBOL,_SACRAMENT
1.24_-_The_Killing_of_the_Divine_King
1.25_-_Fascinations,_Invisibility,_Levitation,_Transmutations,_Kinks_in_Time
1.25_-_SPIRITUAL_EXERCISES
1.25_-_Temporary_Kings
1.26_-_Sacrifice_of_the_Kings_Son
1.28_-_The_Killing_of_the_Tree-Spirit
1.2_-_Katha_Upanishads
1.300_-_1.400_Talks
13.02_-_A_Review_of_Sri_Aurobindos_Life
1.31_-_Adonis_in_Cyprus
1.33_-_The_Gardens_of_Adonis
1.35_-_The_Tao_2
1.36_-_Human_Representatives_of_Attis
1.37_-_Oriential_Religions_in_the_West
1.38_-_The_Myth_of_Osiris
1.39_-_The_Ritual_of_Osiris
1.4.03_-_The_Guru
1.40_-_The_Nature_of_Osiris
1.41_-_Isis
1.43_-_Dionysus
1.44_-_Demeter_and_Persephone
1.45_-_The_Corn-Mother_and_the_Corn-Maiden_in_Northern_Europe
1.46_-_Selfishness
1.47_-_Lityerses
1.49_-_Ancient_Deities_of_Vegetation_as_Animals
1.49_-_Thelemic_Morality
1.50_-_Eating_the_God
1.52_-_Family_-_Public_Enemy_No._1
1.57_-_Beings_I_have_Seen_with_my_Physical_Eye
1.58_-_Human_Scapegoats_in_Classical_Antiquity
1.62_-_The_Fire-Festivals_of_Europe
1.64_-_The_Burning_of_Human_Beings_in_the_Fires
1.65_-_Balder_and_the_Mistletoe
1.65_-_Man
1.66_-_Vampires
1.67_-_The_External_Soul_in_Folk-Custom
1.68_-_The_God-Letters
1.68_-_The_Golden_Bough
17.01_-_Hymn_to_Dawn
17.11_-_A_Prayer
1.74_-_Obstacles_on_the_Path
1.75_-_The_AA_and_the_Planet
1.76_-_The_Gods_-_How_and_Why_they_Overlap
1.77_-_Work_Worthwhile_-_Why?
1.79_-_Progress
1.81_-_Method_of_Training
1929-04-21_-_Visions,_seeing_and_interpretation_-_Dreams_and_dreaml_and_-_Dreamless_sleep_-_Visions_and_formulation_-_Surrender,_passive_and_of_the_will_-_Meditation_and_progress_-_Entering_the_spiritual_life,_a_plunge_into_the_Divine
1929-06-09_-_Nature_of_religion_-_Religion_and_the_spiritual_life_-_Descent_of_Divine_Truth_and_Force_-_To_be_sure_of_your_religion,_country,_family-choose_your_own_-_Religion_and_numbers
1929-07-28_-_Art_and_Yoga_-_Art_and_life_-_Music,_dance_-_World_of_Harmony
1951-01-08_-_True_vision_and_understanding_of_the_world._Progress,_equilibrium._Inner_reality_-_the_psychic._Animals_and_the_psychic.
1951-03-08_-_Silencing_the_mind_-_changing_the_nature_-_Reincarnation-_choice_-_Psychic,_higher_beings_gods_incarnating_-_Incarnation_of_vital_beings_-_the_Lord_of_Falsehood_-_Hitler_-_Possession_and_madness
1951-03-17_-_The_universe-_eternally_new,_same_-_Pralaya_Traditions_-_Light_and_thought_-_new_consciousness,_forces_-_The_expanding_universe_-_inexpressible_experiences_-_Ashram_surcharged_with_Light_-_new_force_-_vibrating_atmospheres
1951-03-22_-_Relativity-_time_-_Consciousness_-_psychic_Witness_-_The_twelve_senses_-_water-divining_-_Instinct_in_animals_-_story_of_Mothers_cat
1951-03-24_-_Descent_of_Divine_Love,_of_Consciousness_-_Earth-_a_symbolic_formation_-_the_Divine_Presence_-_The_psychic_being_and_other_worlds_-_Divine_Love_and_Grace_-_Becoming_consaious_of_Divine_Love_-_Finding_ones_psychic_being_-_Responsibility
1951-03-29_-_The_Great_Vehicle_and_The_Little_Vehicle_-_Choosing_ones_family,_country_-_The_vital_being_distorted_-_atavism_-_Sincerity_-_changing_ones_character
1951-04-12_-_Japan,_its_art,_landscapes,_life,_etc_-_Fairy-lore_of_Japan_-_Culture-_its_spiral_movement_-_Indian_and_European-_the_spiritual_life_-_Art_and_Truth
1953-04-29
1953-05-27
1953-09-02
1953-10-14
1953-10-21
1953-10-28
1953-11-11
1953-11-25
1954-02-03_-_The_senses_and_super-sense_-_Children_can_be_moulded_-_Keeping_things_in_order_-_The_shadow
1954-04-07_-_Communication_without_words_-_Uneven_progress_-_Words_and_the_Word
1954-08-11_-_Division_and_creation_-_The_gods_and_human_formations_-_People_carry_their_desires_around_them
1954-11-10_-_Inner_experience,_the_basis_of_action_-_Keeping_open_to_the_Force_-_Faith_through_aspiration_-_The_Mothers_symbol_-_The_mind_and_vital_seize_experience_-_Degrees_of_sincerity_-Becoming_conscious_of_the_Divine_Force
1955-05-18_-_The_Problem_of_Woman_-_Men_and_women_-_The_Supreme_Mother,_the_new_creation_-_Gods_and_goddesses_-_A_story_of_Creation,_earth_-_Psychic_being_only_on_earth,_beings_everywhere_-_Going_to_other_worlds_by_occult_means
1955-06-15_-_Dynamic_realisation,_transformation_-_The_negative_and_positive_side_of_experience_-_The_image_of_the_dry_coconut_fruit_-_Purusha,_Prakriti,_the_Divine_Mother_-_The_Truth-Creation_-_Pralaya_-_We_are_in_a_transitional_period
1955-07-20_-_The_Impersonal_Divine_-_Surrender_to_the_Divine_brings_perfect_freedom_-_The_Divine_gives_Himself_-_The_principle_of_the_inner_dimensions_-_The_paths_of_aspiration_and_surrender_-_Linear_and_spherical_paths_and_realisations
1955-10-19_-_The_rhythms_of_time_-_The_lotus_of_knowledge_and_perfection_-_Potential_knowledge_-_The_teguments_of_the_soul_-_Shastra_and_the_Gurus_direct_teaching_-_He_who_chooses_the_Infinite...
1955-10-26_-_The_Divine_and_the_universal_Teacher_-_The_power_of_the_Word_-_The_Creative_Word,_the_mantra_-_Sound,_music_in_other_worlds_-_The_domains_of_pure_form,_colour_and_ideas
1956-01-11_-_Desire_and_self-deception_-_Giving_all_one_is_and_has_-_Sincerity,_more_powerful_than_will_-_Joy_of_progress_Definition_of_youth
1956-02-15_-_Nature_and_the_Master_of_Nature_-_Conscious_intelligence_-_Theory_of_the_Gita,_not_the_whole_truth_-_Surrender_to_the_Lord_-_Change_of_nature
1956-03-14_-_Dynamic_meditation_-_Do_all_as_an_offering_to_the_Divine_-_Significance_of_23.4.56._-_If_twelve_men_of_goodwill_call_the_Divine
1956-05-02_-_Threefold_union_-_Manifestation_of_the_Supramental_-_Profiting_from_the_Divine_-_Recognition_of_the_Supramental_Force_-_Ascent,_descent,_manifestation
1956-05-23_-_Yoga_and_religion_-_Story_of_two_clergymen_on_a_boat_-_The_Buddha_and_the_Supramental_-_Hieroglyphs_and_phonetic_alphabets_-_A_vision_of_ancient_Egypt_-_Memory_for_sounds
1956-10-24_-_Taking_a_new_body_-_Different_cases_of_incarnation_-_Departure_of_soul_from_body
1956-12-26_-_Defeated_victories_-_Change_of_consciousness_-_Experiences_that_indicate_the_road_to_take_-_Choice_and_preference_-_Diversity_of_the_manifestation
1957-01-09_-_God_is_essentially_Delight_-_God_and_Nature_play_at_hide-and-seek_-__Why,_and_when,_are_you_grave?
1957-04-17_-_Transformation_of_the_body
1957-06-19_-_Causes_of_illness_Fear_and_illness_-_Minds_working,_faith_and_illness
1957-08-28_-_Freedom_and_Divine_Will
1957-10-23_-_The_central_motive_of_terrestrial_existence_-_Evolution
1957-12-11_-_Appearance_of_the_first_men
1958-05-28_-_The_Avatar
1958-08-06_-_Collective_prayer_-_the_ideal_collectivity
1960_10_24
1961_03_11_-_58
1962_01_12
1965_01_12
1.ala_-_I_had_supposed_that,_having_passed_away
1f.lovecraft_-_At_the_Mountains_of_Madness
1f.lovecraft_-_Deaf,_Dumb,_and_Blind
1f.lovecraft_-_Discarded_Draft_of
1f.lovecraft_-_Facts_concerning_the_Late
1f.lovecraft_-_Herbert_West-Reanimator
1f.lovecraft_-_Medusas_Coil
1f.lovecraft_-_Pickmans_Model
1f.lovecraft_-_Polaris
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Beast_in_the_Cave
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Call_of_Cthulhu
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Case_of_Charles_Dexter_Ward
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Challenge_from_Beyond
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Descendant
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dream-Quest_of_Unknown_Kadath
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dreams_in_the_Witch_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dunwich_Horror
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Festival
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Haunter_of_the_Dark
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Horror_at_Red_Hook
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Horror_in_the_Museum
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Last_Test
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Lurking_Fear
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Mound
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Rats_in_the_Walls
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_out_of_Time
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_over_Innsmouth
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shunned_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Street
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Temple
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Terrible_Old_Man
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Tomb
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Unnamable
1f.lovecraft_-_Through_the_Gates_of_the_Silver_Key
1f.lovecraft_-_Under_the_Pyramids
1f.lovecraft_-_Winged_Death
1.hs_-_Bloom_Like_a_Rose
1.hs_-_O_Saghi,_pass_around_that_cup_of_wine,_then_bring_it_to_me
1.hs_-_The_Glow_of_Your_Presence
1.ia_-_He_Saw_The_Lightning_In_The_East
1.jk_-_Endymion_-_Book_II
1.jr_-_Two_Kinds_Of_Intelligence
1.mbn_-_Prayers_for_the_Protection_and_Opening_of_the_Heart
1.pbs_-_Oedipus_Tyrannus_or_Swellfoot_The_Tyrant
1.pbs_-_Queen_Mab_-_Part_II.
1.pbs_-_Rosalind_and_Helen_-_a_Modern_Eclogue
1.pbs_-_The_Revolt_Of_Islam_-_Canto_I-XII
1.rb_-_Fra_Lippo_Lippi
1.rb_-_Master_Hugues_Of_Saxe-Gotha
1.rb_-_Popularity
1.rb_-_The_Flight_Of_The_Duchess
1.rwe_-_The_Adirondacs
1.sig_-_Where_Will_I_Find_You
1.sig_-_Who_could_accomplish_what_youve_accomplished
1.sig_-_You_are_wise_(from_From_Kingdoms_Crown)
1.sk_-_Is_there_anyone_in_the_universe
1.wby_-_Coole_Park_1929
1.wby_-_Coole_Park_And_Ballylee,_1931
1.wby_-_Down_By_The_Salley_Gardens
1.whitman_-_Once_I_Passd_Through_A_Populous_City
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_The_Broad-Axe
1.whitman_-_Tests
1.whitman_-_Unnamed_Lands
1.ww_-_Artegal_And_Elidure
1.ww_-_Book_Eighth-_Retrospect--Love_Of_Nature_Leading_To_Love_Of_Man
1.ww_-_Book_Ninth_[Residence_in_France]
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_II-_Book_First-_The_Wanderer
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_V-_Book_Fouth-_Despondency_Corrected
1.ww_-_The_Force_Of_Prayer,_Or,_The_Founding_Of_Bolton,_A_Tradition
1.ww_-_The_Highland_Broach
2.01_-_AT_THE_STAR_THEATRE
2.01_-_Habit_1__Be_Proactive
2.01_-_Mandala_One
2.01_-_On_Books
2.01_-_On_the_Concept_of_the_Archetype
2.01_-_The_Object_of_Knowledge
2.01_-_The_Road_of_Trials
2.01_-_The_Yoga_and_Its_Objects
2.02_-_Habit_2__Begin_with_the_End_in_Mind
2.02_-_Meeting_With_the_Goddess
2.02_-_THE_SCINTILLA
2.03_-_Karmayogin__A_Commentary_on_the_Isha_Upanishad
2.03_-_On_Medicine
2.03_-_THE_ENIGMA_OF_BOLOGNA
2.04_-_Agni,_the_Illumined_Will
2.04_-_On_Art
2.05_-_Apotheosis
2.05_-_Habit_3__Put_First_Things_First
2.05_-_On_Poetry
2.05_-_Renunciation
2.05_-_The_Holy_Oil
2.06_-_Revelation_and_the_Christian_Phenomenon
2.07_-_On_Congress_and_Politics
2.07_-_The_Mother__Relations_with_Others
2.09_-_On_Sadhana
2.09_-_The_Release_from_the_Ego
2.0_-_THE_ANTICHRIST
2.1.02_-_Love_and_Death
2.12_-_On_Miracles
2.13_-_On_Psychology
2.14_-_The_Origin_and_Remedy_of_Falsehood,_Error,_Wrong_and_Evil
2.15_-_On_the_Gods_and_Asuras
2.15_-_The_Cosmic_Consciousness
2.16_-_Oneness
2.16_-_The_15th_of_August
2.17_-_December_1938
2.17_-_The_Progress_to_Knowledge_-_God,_Man_and_Nature
2.18_-_January_1939
2.18_-_The_Evolutionary_Process_-_Ascent_and_Integration
2.19_-_Feb-May_1939
2.19_-_The_Planes_of_Our_Existence
2.2.01_-_The_Problem_of_Consciousness
2.2.01_-_Work_and_Yoga
2.2.03_-_The_Psychic_Being
2.20_-_The_Philosophy_of_Rebirth
2.21_-_1940
2.21_-_The_Order_of_the_Worlds
2.22_-_1941-1943
2.22_-_THE_STILLEST_HOUR
2.2.3_-_Depression_and_Despondency
2.24_-_The_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Man
2.25_-_The_Triple_Transformation
2.28_-_Rajayoga
2.3.07_-_The_Vital_Being_and_Vital_Consciousness
2.3.08_-_The_Physical_Consciousness
2.3.10_-_The_Subconscient_and_the_Inconscient
2.4.02_-_Bhakti,_Devotion,_Worship
24.05_-_Vision_of_Dante
25.12_-_AGNI
27.02_-_The_Human_Touch_Divine
29.04_-_Mothers_Playground
2_-_Other_Hymns_to_Agni
3.00.2_-_Introduction
30.05_-_Rhythm_in_Poetry
30.09_-_Lines_of_Tantra_(Charyapada)
3.00_-_Introduction
3.00_-_The_Magical_Theory_of_the_Universe
30.14_-_Rabindranath_and_Modernism
30.16_-_Tagore_the_Unique
3.01_-_Hymn_to_Matter
3.01_-_THE_BIRTH_OF_THOUGHT
3.02_-_King_and_Queen
3.02_-_SOL
3.02_-_THE_DEPLOYMENT_OF_THE_NOOSPHERE
3.03_-_SULPHUR
3.03_-_The_Four_Foundational_Practices
3.03_-_THE_MODERN_EARTH
3.04_-_Immersion_in_the_Bath
3.04_-_LUNA
3.05_-_SAL
3.07_-_The_Ascent_of_the_Soul
3.09_-_Of_Silence_and_Secrecy
31.01_-_The_Heart_of_Bengal
3.1.02_-_Asceticism_and_the_Integral_Yoga
3.1.02_-_Spiritual_Evolution_and_the_Supramental
3.10_-_Of_the_Gestures
3.10_-_The_New_Birth
3.12_-_Of_the_Bloody_Sacrifice
3.13_-_Of_the_Banishings
3.16_-_THE_SEVEN_SEALS_OR_THE_YES_AND_AMEN_SONG
3.18_-_Of_Clairvoyance_and_the_Body_of_Light
3.2.01_-_The_Newness_of_the_Integral_Yoga
3.2.04_-_The_Conservative_Mind_and_Eastern_Progress
32.04_-_The_Human_Body
3.2.05_-_The_Yoga_of_the_Bhagavad_Gita
3.2.08_-_Bhakti_Yoga_and_Vaishnavism
3.20_-_Of_the_Eucharist
3.2.10_-_Christianity_and_Theosophy
3.2.3_-_Dreams
33.01_-_The_Initiation_of_Swadeshi
33.10_-_Pondicherry_I
33.11_-_Pondicherry_II
33.13_-_My_Professors
33.16_-_Soviet_Gymnasts
3.3.1_-_Illness_and_Health
34.02_-_Hymn_To_All-Gods
3.4.2_-_Guru_Yoga
3.5.01_-_Science
3-5_Full_Circle
3.6.01_-_Heraclitus
36.07_-_An_Introduction_To_The_Vedas
36.09_-_THE_SIT_SUKTA
3.7.2.03_-_Mind_Nature_and_Law_of_Karma
3.7.2.04_-_The_Higher_Lines_of_Karma
3.8.1.05_-_Occult_Knowledge_and_the_Hindu_Scriptures
3_-_Commentaries_and_Annotated_Translations
4.01_-_Introduction
4.02_-_GOLD_AND_SPIRIT
4.02_-_The_Psychology_of_the_Child_Archetype
4.03_-_Prayer_to_the_Ever-greater_Christ
4.03_-_The_Special_Phenomenology_of_the_Child_Archetype
4.03_-_THE_ULTIMATE_EARTH
4.04_-_THE_REGENERATION_OF_THE_KING
4.06_-_THE_KING_AS_ANTHROPOS
4.08_-_THE_RELIGIOUS_PROBLEM_OF_THE_KINGS_RENEWAL
4.1.2_-_The_Difficulties_of_Human_Nature
4.25_-_Towards_the_supramental_Time_Vision
4.3.2_-_Attacks_by_the_Hostile_Forces
5.01_-_ADAM_AS_THE_ARCANE_SUBSTANCE
5.01_-_EPILOGUE
5.01_-_On_the_Mysteries_of_the_Ascent_towards_God
5.02_-_THE_STATUE
5.03_-_ADAM_AS_THE_FIRST_ADEPT
5.03_-_The_Divine_Body
5.04_-_THE_POLARITY_OF_ADAM
5.06_-_THE_TRANSFORMATION
5.07_-_Beginnings_Of_Civilization
5.07_-_ROTUNDUM,_HEAD,_AND_BRAIN
5.08_-_ADAM_AS_TOTALITY
5.1.01.1_-_The_Book_of_the_Herald
5.1.01.2_-_The_Book_of_the_Statesman
5.1.02_-_The_Gods
5.1.03_-_The_Hostile_Forces_and_Hostile_Beings
5.4.01_-_Notes_on_Root-Sounds
6.01_-_THE_ALCHEMICAL_VIEW_OF_THE_UNION_OF_OPPOSITES
6.02_-_STAGES_OF_THE_CONJUNCTION
6.06_-_SELF-KNOWLEDGE
6.07_-_THE_MONOCOLUS
6.08_-_THE_CONTENT_AND_MEANING_OF_THE_FIRST_TWO_STAGES
6.0_-_Conscious,_Unconscious,_and_Individuation
6.10_-_THE_SELF_AND_THE_BOUNDS_OF_KNOWLEDGE
7.02_-_The_Mind
7_-_Yoga_of_Sri_Aurobindo
Aeneid
APPENDIX_I_-_Curriculum_of_A._A.
Averroes_Search
Big_Mind_(non-dual)
Big_Mind_(ten_perfections)
Blazing_P1_-_Preconventional_consciousness
Blazing_P2_-_Map_the_Stages_of_Conventional_Consciousness
Blazing_P3_-_Explore_the_Stages_of_Postconventional_Consciousness
BOOK_II._--_PART_I._ANTHROPOGENESIS.
BOOK_II._--_PART_III._ADDENDA._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_II._--_PART_II._THE_ARCHAIC_SYMBOLISM_OF_THE_WORLD-RELIGIONS
BOOK_I._--_PART_I._COSMIC_EVOLUTION
BOOK_I._--_PART_III._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_I._--_PART_II._THE_EVOLUTION_OF_SYMBOLISM_IN_ITS_APPROXIMATE_ORDER
BOOK_IV._-_That_empire_was_given_to_Rome_not_by_the_gods,_but_by_the_One_True_God
Book_of_Genesis
Book_of_Imaginary_Beings_(text)
BOOK_VII._-_Of_the_select_gods_of_the_civil_theology,_and_that_eternal_life_is_not_obtained_by_worshipping_them
BOOK_XVIII._-_A_parallel_history_of_the_earthly_and_heavenly_cities_from_the_time_of_Abraham_to_the_end_of_the_world
BOOK_XVI._-_The_history_of_the_city_of_God_from_Noah_to_the_time_of_the_kings_of_Israel
BOOK_XXII._-_Of_the_eternal_happiness_of_the_saints,_the_resurrection_of_the_body,_and_the_miracles_of_the_early_Church
BS_1_-_Introduction_to_the_Idea_of_God
Conversations_with_Sri_Aurobindo
COSA_-_BOOK_III
Cratylus
Diamond_Sutra_1
DS2
DS3
ENNEAD_02.09_-_Against_the_Gnostics;_or,_That_the_Creator_and_the_World_are_Not_Evil.
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_and_Identical_Being_is_Everywhere_Present_In_Its_Entirety.345
ENNEAD_06.09_-_Of_the_Good_and_the_One.
For_a_Breath_I_Tarry
Gods_Script
Gorgias
Kafka_and_His_Precursors
Liber_46_-_The_Key_of_the_Mysteries
Liber_71_-_The_Voice_of_the_Silence_-_The_Two_Paths_-_The_Seven_Portals
LUX.01_-_GNOSIS
LUX.02_-_EVOCATION
LUX.05_-_AUGOEIDES
Meno
MMM.02_-_MAGIC
Phaedo
r1914_07_21
r1916_03_13
r1927_02_01
Sayings_of_Sri_Ramakrishna_(text)
Sophist
Story_of_the_Warrior_and_the_Captive
Symposium_translated_by_B_Jowett
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_1
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_2
The_Act_of_Creation_text
Theaetetus
The_Anapanasati_Sutta__A_Practical_Guide_to_Mindfullness_of_Breathing_and_Tranquil_Wisdom_Meditation
The_Book_of_Certitude_-_P1
The_Book_of_Certitude_-_P2
The_Divine_Names_Text_(Dionysis)
The_Dwellings_of_the_Philosophers
the_Eternal_Wisdom
The_First_Epistle_of_Paul_to_the_Corinthians
The_Gospel_According_to_John
The_Gospel_According_to_Luke
The_Gospel_According_to_Mark
The_Gospel_According_to_Matthew
The_Gospel_of_Thomas
The_Logomachy_of_Zos
The_Lottery_in_Babylon
The_Riddle_of_this_World
The_Shadow_Out_Of_Time
The_Wall_and_the_BOoks
Thus_Spoke_Zarathustra_text
Timaeus

PRIMARY CLASS

God
mantra
Mother_of_the_Worlds
names
Names_of_God
the_Divine_Mother
the_Mother
SIMILAR TITLES
Aditi

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH

aditi. ::: boundless; infinite; in the

ADITI. ::: Infinite Consciousness; Mother of the worlds.

Aditi ::: (database, project) The Aditi Deductive Database System. A multi-user deductive database system from the Machine Intelligence Project at the in the sense of relational databases) and derived relations defined by rules that specify how to compute new information from old information.Both base relations and the rules defining derived relations are stored on disk and are accessed as required during query evaluation. The rules defining derived relations are expressed in a Prolog-like language, which is also used for expressing queries.Aditi supports the full structured data capability of Prolog. Base relations can store arbitrarily nested terms, for example arbitrary length lists, and rules can directly manipulate such terms. Base relations can be indexed with B-trees or multi-level signature files.Users can access the system through a Motif-based query and database administration tool, or through a command line interface. There is also in interface that allows NU-Prolog programs to access Aditi in a transparent manner. Proper transaction processing is not supported in this release.The beta release runs on SPARC/SunOS4.1.2 and MIPS/Irix4.0.E-mail: . (1992-12-17)

Aditi "database, project" The Aditi Deductive Database System. A multi-user {deductive database} system from the Machine Intelligence Project at the {University of Melbourne}. It supports base {relations} defined by {facts} (relations in the sense of {relational databases}) and {derived relations} defined by {rules} that specify how to compute new information from old information. Both base relations and the rules defining derived relations are stored on disk and are accessed as required during query evaluation. The rules defining derived relations are expressed in a {Prolog}-like language, which is also used for expressing queries. Aditi supports the full structured data capability of Prolog. Base relations can store arbitrarily nested terms, for example arbitrary length lists, and rules can directly manipulate such terms. Base relations can be indexed with {B-trees} or multi-level signature files. Users can access the system through a {Motif}-based query and database administration tool, or through a command line interface. There is also in interface that allows {NU-Prolog} programs to access Aditi in a transparent manner. Proper {transaction processing} is not supported in this release. The beta release runs on {SPARC}/{SunOS4}.1.2 and {MIPS}/{Irix}4.0. E-mail: "aditi@cs.mu.oz.au". (1992-12-17)

Aditi devatamayi ::: Aditi full of the gods. [cf. Katha 2.1.7]

Aditi has correspondences in many ancient religions: the highest Sephirah in the Zohar; the Gnostic Sophia-Achamoth; Rhea, mother of the Greek Olympians; Bythos or the great Deep; Amba; Surarani; Chaos; Waters of Space; Primordial Light; and the source of the Egyptian seven heavens. Sometimes she is linked with the Greek Gaia, goddess of earth, to denote dual nature or the mother of both the spiritual and physical: Aditi, cosmic expanse or space being the mother of all things; and Gaia, mother of earth and, on the larger scale, of all objective nature (cf SD 2:65, 269).

Aditi-prakriti (Sanskrit) Aditi-prakṛti [from aditi unbounded + prakṛti nature from pra forth + the verbal root kṛ to do, make] Spiritual-physical nature; Father-Mother within before it appeared in space, the universal matrix of kosmos personified in the dual character of the universe or of man. Aditi signifies infinity personified as a goddess; prakriti, nature considered as the evolver or producer in its original condition.

Aditi (Sanskrit) Aditi [from a not + diti bound from the verbal root da to bind] Unbounded, free; as a noun, infinite and shoreless expanse. In the Vedas, Aditi is devamatri (mother of the gods) as from and in her cosmic matrix all the heavenly bodies were born. As the celestial virgin and mother of every existing form and being, the synthesis of all things, she is highest akasa. Aditi is identified in the Rig-Veda with Vach (mystic speech) and also with the mulaprakriti of the Vedanta. As the womb of space, she is a feminized form of Brahma. The line in the Rig-Veda: “Daksha sprang from Aditi and Aditi from Daksha” has reference to “the eternal cyclic re-birth of the same divine Essence” (SD 2:247n). In one of its most mystic aspects Aditi is divine wisdom.

Aditi ::: the indivisible conscious-force and ananda of the Supreme; the Mother; the infinite Mother of the gods; supreme Nature or infinite Consciousness.

Aditi: The name (Sanskrit for boundlessness) of a Vedic goddess, mother of the gods known as Adityas; she is identified at times with the earth, at times with the sky, and at other times is hailed as a cow.

Aditi ::: the Vedic goddess of infinite being, the mother of the gods, manifested here as the earth-goddess (Pr.thivi2); the adya-sakti, the indivisible consciousness (cit), force (tapas) and bliss (ananda) of the Supreme.

Aditi-Vach (Sanskrit) Aditi-Vāc [from aditi unbounded + vāc speech, voice from the verbal root vac to speak, utter] The cosmic Logos considered in its feminine aspect as the veil surrounding the evolving cosmic monad. “These feminine Logoi are all correlations, in their noumenal aspect, of Lights, and Sound, and Ether . . . ” (SD 1:431).


TERMS ANYWHERE

1. A critical study of the method or methods of the sciences, of the nature of scientific symbols and of the logical structure of scientific symbolic svstems. Presumably such a study should include both the empirical and the rational sciences. Whether it should also include the methods of the valuational studies (e.g., ethics, esthetics) and of the historical studies, will depend upon the working definition or science accepted by the investigator. Valuational studies are frequently characterized as "normative" or "axiological" sciences. Many of the recognized sciences (e.g., anthropology, geology) contain important historical aspects, hence there is some justification for the inclusion of the historical method in this aspect of the philosophy of science. As a study of method, the philosophy of science includes much of the traditional logic and theory of knowledge. The attempt is made to define and further clarify such terms as induction, deduction, hypothesis, data, discovery and verification. In addition, the more detailed and specialized methods of science (e.g., experimentation, measurement, classification and idealization) (q.v.) are subjected to examination. Since science is a symbolic system, the general theory of signs plays an important role in the philosophy of science.

(2) From 200 to circa 450: With the catechetic school of Alexandria and in particular with Clement and Origen, the work of reconciliation between Hellenistic philosophy and the Christian religion formally begins. This period is characterized by the formulation of Christian truths in the terminology and frame work of Greek thought. It ends with the gigantic synthesis of Augustine (354-430), whose fusion of Neo-Platonic thought and Christian truth molded society and furnished the tradition, culture and mental background for Christian Europe up to the end of the 14th century.

(2) In ethics: in the narrower traditional sense, intuitionism is the view that certain actions or kinds of action may be known to be right or wrong by a direct intuition of their rightness or wrongness, without any consideration of the value of their consequences. In this sense intuitionism is opposed to utilitarian and teleological ethics, and is most recently represented by the neo-intuitionists at Oxford, H. A. Prichard, E. F. Carritt, W. D. Ross. It is sometimes said to involve the view that the organ of ethical insight is non-rational and even unique. It takes, according to Sidgwick, three forms. Perceptual intuitionism holds that only judgments relating to the rightness or wrongness of particular acts are intuitive. Dogmatic intuitionism holds that some general material propositions relating to the rightness or wrongness of kinds of acts may also be intuited, e.g. that promises ought to be kept. Philosophical intuitionism holds that it is only certain general propositions about what is right or wrong that are intuitive, and that these are few and purely formal. In the wider more recent sense, intuitionism includes all views in which ethics is made to rest on intuitions, particular or general, as to the rightness, obligatoriness, goodness, oi value of actions or objects. Taken in this sense, intuitionism is the dominant point of view in recent British ethics, and is represented in Europe by the phenomenological ethics of M. Scheler and N. Hartmann, having also proponents in America. That is, it covers not only the deontological intuitionism to be found at Oxford, but also the axiological and even teleological or utilitarian intuitionism to be found in J. Martineau, H. Sidgwick, H. Rashdall, G. E. Moore, J. Laird. Among earlier British moralists it is represented by tho Cambridge Platonists, the Moral Sense School, Clarke, Cumberland, Butler, Price, Reid, Whewell, etc.By saying that the basic propositions of ethics (i.e. of the theory of obligation, of the theory of value, or of both) are intuitive, the intuitionists mean at least that they are ultimate and underivative, primitive and uninferable, as well as synthetic, and sometimes also that they are self-evident and a priori. This implies that one or more of the basic notions of ethics (rightness, goodness, etc.) are indefinable, i.e. simple or unanalysable and unique; and that ethics is autonomous. Intuitionists also hold that rightness and goodness are objective and non-natural. Hence their view is sometimes called objectivism or non-naturalism. The views of Moore and Laird are also sometimes referred to as realistic. See Deontological ethics, Axiological ethics, Teleological ethics, Utilitarianism, Objectivism, Realism, Autonomy of ethics, Non-naturalistic ethics. -- W.K.F.

4. OPPOSITION, IMMEDIATE INFERENCE. The four traditional kinds of categorical propositions -- all S is P, no S is P, some S is P, some S is not P -- customarily designated by the letters A, E, I, O respectively -- may conveniently be represented in the functional calculus of first order (§ 3) by the four forms S(x) ⊃x P(x), S(x) ⊃x ∼P(x), S(xr) ∧x P(x), S(x) ∧x ∼P(x), S and P being taken as functional constants. (For brevity, we shall use the notations S, P, S(x) ⊃x P(x), etc., alike for certain formulas and for the propositional functions or propositions expressed by these formulas.)

Abhayagiri (Sanskrit) Abhayagiri [from a not + bhaya fear + giri mountain, hill] Mount Fearless; a mountain in Sri Lanka. According to Fa-hien, the Chinese traveler, in 400 AD. Abhayagiri had an ancient Buddhist vihara (monastery) of some 5,000 priests and ascetics, whose studies comprised both the Mahayana and Hinayana systems, as well as Triyana (three paths), “the three successive degrees of Yoga. . . . Tradition says that owing to bigoted intolerance and persecution, they left Ceylon and passed beyond the Himalayas, where they have remained ever since” (TG 2-3).

Abraham (Hebrew) ’Abrāhām Traditionally the founder of the Hebrew and South-Arabian peoples, whose original name was Abram. “Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for a father of many nations have I made thee” (Genesis 17:5). Blavatsky holds that Abraham “belongs to the universal mythology. Most likely he is but one of the numerous aliases of Zeruan (Saturn), the king of the golden age, who is also called the old man (emblem of time)” (IU 2:216). Such figures are described in various ways: as historical characters, as mythoi, and as rulers of sidereal and terrestrial powers to be interpreted astronomically and cosmically.

aditi. ::: boundless; infinite; in the

ADITI. ::: Infinite Consciousness; Mother of the worlds.

Adityah (Adityas) ::: Solar gods, children of Infinity (sons of Aditi). [Ved.] ::: Adityasah [vocative], O Sons of the infinite Mother. [RV 7.52.1]

Adityas: A group of Vedic gods, sons of the goddess Aditi. Their number is variously given as six or eight, in later times also as twelve.

Adityas (Sanskrit) Āditya-s [belonging to, issuing from aditi unbounded expanse] Sons of Aditi, space; in the Vedas a name for the sun; also referred to variously as five, seven, eight, and twelve in number. The eighth aditya (Marttanda) was rejected by Aditi, leaving seven son-suns, each manifesting a particular solar energy (cf RV 10, 72, 8-9). “ ‘The Seven allow the mortals to see their dwellings, but show themselves only to the Arhats,’ says an old proverb, ‘their dwellings’ standing here for planets” (SD 1:100).

Aeolians [from Latin Aeolis, Aeolia an ancient country in Asia Minor from Greek Aiolis] A people who in early prehistoric times were settled in Thessaly and Boeotia, occupied some parts of the Peloponnesus before the Achaeans, and colonized Lesbos and the adjacent coast of Asia Minor. One of the connecting tribal links between a remnant of Atlantis and the early Aryans (BCW 5:215-19). Traditions represent them sailing through the Pillars of Hercules and settling in parts of northern Greece, adding that, though from the last islands of Atlantis, they were not Atlanteans but Aryan settlers of abandoned Atlantean islands who had acquired Atlantean affinities.

Aesthetics: (Gr. aesthetikos, perceptive) Traditionally, the branch of philosophy dealing with beauty or the beautiful, especially in art, and with taste and standards of value in judging art. Also, a theory or consistent attitude on such matters. The word aesthetics was first used by Baumgarten about 1750, to imply the science of sensuous knowledge, whose aim is beauty, as contrasted with logic, whose aim is truth. Kant used the term transcendental aesthetic in another sense, to imply the a priori principles of sensible experience. Hegel, in the 1820's, established the word in its present sense by his writings on art under the title of Aesthetik.

Affirmative proposition: In traditional logic, propositions A, I were called affirmative, and E, O, negative (see logic, formal, § 4). It is doubtful whether this distinction can be satisfactorily extended to propositions (or even to sentences) generally. -- A.C.

Agama (Sanskrit) Āgama [from ā toward, near + the verbal root gam to come, go] Coming near, approaching. As a masculine noun, approach, appearance; studying, reading, acquisition of knowledge, science. In philosophy, traditional teaching handed down; likewise a collection of sacred doctrines such as the Brahmanas.

Agama: (Skr.) One of a number of Indian treatises composed since the 1st cent. A.D. which are outside the Vedic (q.v.) tradition, but are regarded authoritative by the followers of Vishnuism, Shivaism, and Shaktism. Amid mythology, epic and ritualistic matter they contain much that is philosophical. -- K.F.L.

ainsi n"est il pas assez rouge pour vous [French] ::: isn"t it red enough for you like this? (British possessions were traditionally coloured red or pink on world maps.)

Aithihya (Sanskrit) Aitihya [from iti thus, in this manner + ha emphatic particle] Thus indeed it was; traditional instructions, tradition. Closely similar to itihasa, a name applied to semi-legendary and epic accounts; also to the Mahabharata and Ramayana. As the instructors of certain schools in handing on teaching (especially oral teaching delivered with “mouth to ear”) invariably commenced an installment with the phrase “iti maya srutam” or “iti ha maya srutam” (truly thus have I heard), such instruction came to be called aitihya or aitiha. The adjectival form aitihasika also means what is communicated or derived from tradition, ancient legend, or heroic history.

alcoranist ::: n. --> One who adheres to the letter of the Koran, rejecting all traditions.

Al Farabi: Died 950, introduced Aristotelian logic into the world of Islam. He was known to posterity as the "second Aristotle". He continued the encyclopedic tradition inaugurated by Al Kindi. His metaphysical speculation influenced Avicenna who found in the works of his predecessor the fundamental notion of a distinction between existence and essence, the latter not implying necessarily in a contingent being the former which therefore has to be given by God. He also emphasizes the Aristotelian notion of the "first mover". The concretization of the universal nature in particular things points to a creative power which has endowed being with such a nature. Al Farabi's philosophy is dependent in certain parts on Neo-Platonism. Creation is emanation. There is an anima mundi the images of which become corporeal beings. Logic is considered as the preamble to all science. Physics comprises all factual knowledge, including psychology; metaphysics and ethics are the other parts of philosophy. Cl. Baeumker, Alfarabi, Ueber den Vrsprung der Wissensehaften, Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1916. Vol. XIX. M. Horten, Das Buch der Ringsteine Farabis. ibid. 1906. Vol. V. -- R.A. Al

Allen, Ethan: (1737-1789) Leader of the Green Mountain Boys and of their famous exploits during the American Revolution. He is less known but nonetheless significant as the earliest American deist. His Reason, the Only Oracle of Man (1784), expressed his opposition to the traditional Calvinism and its doctrine of original sin. He rejected prophecy and revelation but believed in immortality on moral grounds. He likewise believed in free will. -- L.E.D.

Amal: “Along with the word ‘cross’ in the next line, this phrase suggests Jesus Christ who is traditionally called thus. But Sri Aurobindo’s context is wider than Christianity’s—as becomes clear with the slightly later line: ‘I am Prometheus under the vulture’s beak’.”

Anarchism: This doctrine advocates the abolition of political control within society: the State, it contends, is man's greatest enemy -- eliminate it and the evils of human life will disappear. Positively, anarchism envisages a homely life devoted to unsophisticated activity and filled with simple pleasures. Thus it belongs in the "primitive tradition" of Western culture and springs from the philosophical concept of the inherent and radical goodness of human nature. Modern anarchism probably owes not a little, in an indirect way, to the influence of the primitivistic strain in the thought of Jean Jacques Rousseau. In a popular sense the word "anarchy" is often used to denote a state of social chaos, but it is obvious that the word can be used in this sense only by one who denies the validity of anarchism. -- M.B.M.

ana-samadhi (vijnana-samadhi; vijnana samadhi) ::: samadhi transformed by the action of vijñana; a higher counterpart of the traditional savicara samadhi, replacing intellectual judgment and perception by their supra-intellectual equivalents. vij ñanasarathyupeta anasarathyupeta rathi rathi vidv vidvan

Anglo-Catholic Philosophy: Anglo-Catholicism is the name frequently used to describe the Church of England and her sister communions, including the Episcopal Church in America. As a religious system, it may be described as the maintenance of the traditional credal, ethical and sacramental position of Catholic Christianity, with insistence on the incorporation into that general position of the new truth of philosophy, science and other fields of study and experience. Historically, the Anglo-Catholic divines (as in Hooker and the Caroline writers) took over the general Platonic-Aristotelian philosophy of the schools; their stress, however, was more on the Platonic than the Aristotelian side: "Platonism", Dr. Inge has said, "is the loving mother-nurse of Anglicanism." Statements of this position, modified by a significant agnosticism concerning areas into which reason (it is said) cannot penetrate, may be found collected in Anglicanism (edited by More and Cross). A certain empiricism has always marked Anglo-Catholic theological and philosophical speculation; this is brought out in recent writing by Taylor (Faith of a Moralist), the writers in Lux Mundi (edited by Gore) and its modern successor Essays Catholic and Critical.

Ankh: The Egyptian cross, shaped like a capital T with an oval loop on the top, symbol of life in occult tradition.

Aparavidya (Sanskrit) Aparāvidyā [from a not + parā supreme + vidyā knowledge from the verbal root vid to see, know, percieve] Nonsupreme knowledge; in Vedanta philosophy the lower wisdom of Brahman, relative knowledge acquired by the intellect and through the performance of ritual worship and duties, in contradistinction to paravidya (supreme wisdom), the transcendental knowledge of Brahman attainable by him who has achieved moksha (liberation) during life. This distinction between the exoteric and esoteric tradition and doctrine is found in practically all cultures.

Apologetics: (Gr. apologetikos, fit for a defence) The discipline which deals with a defence of a position or body of doctrines. Traditional Christian theology gave over to Christian Apologetics (or, simply Apologetics) the task of defending the faith. As such the discipline was also called "Evidences of the Christian Religion." Each particular faith, however, developed its own particular type of apologetics. -- V.F.

April Fool's Joke "humour, event" (AFJ) Elaborate April Fool's hoaxes are a long-established tradition on {Usenet} and {Internet}; see {kremvax} for an example. In fact, April Fool's Day is the *only* seasonal holiday marked by customary observances on the hacker networks. (1995-01-25)

aptavakyam ::: authority (the recorded opinions of men who had viveka, or traditions and customs founded on an ancient enlightenment).

Architectonic: (Kant) (Gr. architektonikos; Ger. Architektonik) The formal scheme, structural design, or method of elucidation of a system. The architectonic of Kant's system rests throughout the basic distinctions of the traditional logic. -- O.F.K.

Argeak, Argenk A mythologic giant who, according to Persian traditions, built a gallery in the mountains of Kaf, in which there are statues called Sulimans (Solomon) or the “wise kings” of the East. These statues are said to depict ancient men in all their forms.

Aristotle's Dictum (or the Dictum de Omni et Nullo): The maxim that whatever may be predicated (i.e. affirmed or denied) of a whole may be predicated of any part of that whole; traditionally attributed to Aristotle, though perhaps on insufficient grounds. See Joseph, Introduction to Logic, p. 296, note. See also Dictum de Omni et Nullo. -- G.R.M.

Ariya Atthangika Magga (Pali) Ariya Aṭṭhaṅgika Magga [from ariya noble + aṭṭhaṅgika eight-limbed, eightfold from aṭṭha eight + aṇga limb, division + magga way, road from the verbal root mṛg to track, trace, investigate] Noble eightfold path; the fourth of the Four Noble Truths (chattari ariyasachchani) traditionally held to constitute the initial discourse of Gautama Buddha, comprising: 1) right insight (sammaditthi); 2) right resolve (sammasamkappa); 3) right speech (sammavacha); 4) right action (sammakammanta); 5) right living (sammajiva); 6) right effort (sammavayama); 7) right mindfulness, right recollection (sammasati); 8) right concentration (sammasamadhi). See also ARYASHTANGAMARGA (for Sanskrit equivalents).

Artificial Life "algorithm, application" (a-life) The study of synthetic systems which behave like natural living systems in some way. Artificial Life complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to create lifelike behaviours within computers and other artificial media. Artificial Life can contribute to theoretical biology by modelling forms of life other than those which exist in nature. It has applications in environmental and financial modelling and network communications. There are some interesting implementations of artificial life using strangely shaped blocks. A video, probably by the company Artificial Creatures who build insect-like robots in Cambridge, MA (USA), has several mechanical implementations of artificial life forms. See also {evolutionary computing}, {Life}. [Christopher G. Langton (Ed.), "Artificial Life", Proceedings Volume VI, Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity. Addison-Wesley, 1989]. {Yahoo! (http://yahoo.com/Science/Artificial_Life/)}. {Santa Fe Institute (http://alife.santafe.edu/)}. {The Avida Group (http://krl.caltech.edu/avida/Avida.html)}. (1995-02-21)

AS/400 "computer" An {IBM} {minicomputer} for small business and departmental users, released in 1988 and still in production in October 1998. Features include a menu-driven interface, {multi-user} support, terminals that are (in the grand {IBM} tradition) incompatible with anything else including the {IBM 3270} series, and an extensive library-based {operating system}. The machine survives because its {API} layer allows the {operating system} and {application programs} to take advantage of advances in hardware without recompilation and which means that a complete system that costs $9000 runs the exact same operating system and software as a $2 million system. There is a 64-bit {RISC} processor operating system implementation. Programming languages include {RPG}, {assembly language}, {C}, {COBOL}, {SQL}, {BASIC}, and {REXX}. Several {CASE} tools are available: {Synon}, {AS/SET}, {Lansa}. {(http://as400.ibm.com/)}. (1999-07-26)

As a school of Greek and Latin philosophers, Plotinism lasted until the fifth century. Porphyry, Apuleius, Jamblichus, Julian the Apostate, Themistius, Simplicius, Macrobius and Proclus are the most important representatives. Through St. Augustine, Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite, John Scotus Eriugena, and the Greek Fathers, Plotinian thought has been partly incorporated into Christian intellectualism. Nearly all prominent Arabian philosophers before Averroes are influenced by Plotinus, this is particularly true of Avicenna and Algazel. In the Jewish tradition Avicebron's Fons Vitae is built on the frame of the emanation theory. Master Eckhart and Nicholas of Cusa continue the movement. It is spiritually related to some modern anti-intellectualistic and mystical currents of thought. Plotin, Enneades, (Greek text and French transl.) by E. Brehier, (Bude), 6 vol., Paris, 1930-40. Mackenna, S., The Enneads of Plotinus, London, 1917-1919. Heinemann, F., Plotin, Leipzig, 1921. Brehier, E., La philosophie de Plotin, Paris, 1928. Inge, W. R., The Philosophy of Plotinus, 2 vol., 2rd ed., London and N. Y., 1929.

  "As for Vishnu being the creator, all the three gods are often spoken of as creating the universe — even Shiva who is by tradition the Destroyer.” Letters on Yoga

“As for Vishnu being the creator, all the three gods are often spoken of as creating the universe—even Shiva who is by tradition the Destroyer.” Letters on Yoga

Asmodeus (Hebrew) ’Ashmĕdai Covetous; an evil demon in later Jewish tradition, son of Naamah (sister of Tubal-cain) and Shamdon. The spirit of lust and anger, he is king of demons, with Lilith as queen, and is sometimes associated with Beelzebub, Azrael (Angel of Death), and Abbadon. In the Talmud he is connected with the legends of Solomon, where he is the destroyer of matrimonial happiness and is forced to help in building the temple. But his description in the apocryphal book of Tobit (3:8), where he is rendered harmless by Tobias and captured by the angel Raphael, is most likely the basis for modern writers (cf IU 2:482). Possibly taken from Zend aeshma-daeva with daeva meaning ethereal being, cosmic spirit.

"A spiritual knowledge, moved to arrive at the true Self in us, must reject, as the traditional way of knowledge rejects, all misleading appearances. It must discover that the body is not our self, our foundation of existence; it is a sensible form of the Infinite.” The Synthesis of Yoga

“A spiritual knowledge, moved to arrive at the true Self in us, must reject, as the traditional way of knowledge rejects, all misleading appearances. It must discover that the body is not our self, our foundation of existence; it is a sensible form of the Infinite.” The Synthesis of Yoga

“As there are Powers of Knowledge or Forces of the Light, so there are Powers of Ignorance and tenebrous Forces of the Darkness whose work is to prolong the reign of Ignorance and Inconscience. As there are Forces of Truth, so there are Forces that live by the Falsehood and support it and work for its victory; as there are powers whose life is intimately bound up with the existence, the idea and the impulse of Good, so there are Forces whose life is bound up with the existence and the idea and the impulse of Evil. It is this truth of the cosmic Invisible that was symbolised in the ancient belief of a struggle between the powers of Light and Darkness, Good and Evil for the possession of the world and the government of the life of man;—this was the significance of the contest between the Vedic Gods and their opponents, sons of Darkness and Division, figured in a later tradition as Titan and Giant and Demon, Asura, Rakshasa, Pisacha; the same tradition is found in the Zoroastrian Double Principle and the later Semitic opposition of God and his Angels on the one side and Satan and his hosts on the other,—invisible Personalities and Powers that draw man to the divine Light and Truth and Good or lure him into subjection to the undivine principle of Darkness and Falsehood and Evil.” The Life Divine

As universal space, it is also known as Aditi, in which lies inherent the eternal and continuously active ideation of the universe producing its ever-changing aspects on the planes of matter and objectivity; and from this ideation radiates the First Logos. This is why the Puranas state that akasa has but one attribute, namely sound, for sound is but the translated symbol of logos (speech) in its mystic sense. Akasa as primordial spatial substance is thus the upadhi (vehicle) of divine thought. Further, it is the playground of all the intelligent and semi-intelligent forces in nature, the fountainhead of all terrestrial life, and the abode of the gods.

“Asuramaya is said to have lived (see the tradition of Jhana-bhaskara) in Romaka-pura in the West: because the name is an allusion to the land and cradle of the ‘Sweat-born’ of the Third Race. That land or continent had disappeared ages before Asuramaya lived, since he was an Atlantean; but he was a direct descendant of the Wise Race, the Race that never dies. Many are the legends concerning this hero, the pupil of Surya (the Sun-God) himself, as the Indian accounts allege” (SD 2:67).

ASURA. ::: Titan; a being of ignorant egoism as opposed to the Deva or god, who is a being of Light; sons of Darkness and Division.
Asuras are really the dark side of the mental, or more strictly, of the vital mind plane. This mind is the very field of the Asuras. Their main characteristic is egoistic strength and struggle, which refuse the higher law. The Asura has self-control, tapas, and intelligence, but all that for the sake of his ego.
There are no Asuras on the higher planes where the Truth prevails, except in the Vedic sense -“ the Divine in its strength “. The mental and vital Asuras are only a deviation of that power.
There are two kinds of Asuras - one kind were divine in their origin but have fallen from their divinity by self-will and opposition to the intention of the Divine; they are spoken in the Hindu scriptures as the former or earlier gods; these can be converted and their conversion is indeed necessary for the ultimate purpose of the universe. But the ordinary Asura is not of this character, is not an evolutionary but a typal being and represents a fixed principle of the creation which does not evolve or change and is not intended to do so. These Asuras, as also the other hostile beings, Rakshasas, Pishachas and others resemble the devils of the Christian tradition and oppose the divine intention and the evolutionary purpose in the human being; they don’t change the purpose in them for which they exist which is evil, but have to be destroyed like the evil. The Asura has no soul, no psychic being which has to evolve to a higher state; he has only an ego and usually a very powerful ego; he has a mind, sometimes even a highly intellectual mind; but the basis of his thinking and feeling is vital and not mental, at the service of his desire and not truth. He is a formation assumed by the life-principle for a particular kind of work and not a divine formation or soul.
Some kinds of Asuras are very religious, very fanatical about their religion, very strict about rules of ethical conduct. There are others who use spiritual ideas without believing in them to give them a perverted twist and delude the sadhaka.


A surprising number of very ancient traditions besides those of Greece support the Atlantean hypothesis. Some of the widespread deluge stories, certainly those surviving during the Classic period in the nations surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, relate only to Plato’s relatively small island, Poseidonis, more or less the size of modern Ireland, if we follow Plato’s statements of size; but in addition to these there have been many deluges noticed in the traditions of other peoples scattered over the face of the globe. The chief great flood referred to the principal collapse of Atlantis, the main sinking occurring during the Miocene period several million years ago. Other island-continents sank later, e.g., Daitya and Ruta (Sanskrit name for one of the last great islands of the Atlantean system in the Pacific Ocean) which went down during the Pliocene times — in Geikie’s Nomenclature, about 850,000 years ago. (SD 2:314).

(a) The mental act of asserting (affirming or denying) an assertible content. Traditionally a judgment is said to affirm or to deny a predicate of a subject. As generalized by modern logicians this becomes affirmation or denial of a relation (not necessarily that of predication) among certain terms (not necessarily two). One classification of judgments lists them as problematic, assertoric, or apodeictic, depending on whether they are asserted as probable (or improbable or possible), true (or false), or necessary (or impossible). Since a judgment in this sense always involves a truth claim it is either correct or erroneous.

Aufklärung: In general, this German word and its English equivalent Enlightenment denote the self-emancipation of man from mere authority, prejudice, convention and tradition, with an insistence on freer thinking about problems uncritically referred to these other agencies. According to Kant's famous definition "Enlightenment is the liberation of man from his self-caused state of minority, which is the incapacity of using one's understanding without the direction of another. This state of minority is caused when its source lies not in the lack of understanding, but in the lack of determination and courage to use it without the assistance of another" (Was ist Aufklärung? 1784). In its historical perspective, the Aufklärung refers to the cultural atmosphere and contrlbutions of the 18th century, especially in Germany, France and England [which affected also American thought with B. Franklin, T. Paine and the leaders of the Revolution]. It crystallized tendencies emphasized by the Renaissance, and quickened by modern scepticism and empiricism, and by the great scientific discoveries of the 17th century. This movement, which was represented by men of varying tendencies, gave an impetus to general learning, a more popular philosophy, empirical science, scriptural criticism, social and political thought. More especially, the word Aufklärung is applied to the German contributions to 18th century culture. In philosophy, its principal representatives are G. E. Lessing (1729-81) who believed in free speech and in a methodical criticism of religion, without being a free-thinker; H. S. Reimarus (1694-1768) who expounded a naturalistic philosophy and denied the supernatural origin of Christianity; Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86) who endeavoured to mitigate prejudices and developed a popular common-sense philosophy; Chr. Wolff (1679-1754), J. A. Eberhard (1739-1809) who followed the Leibnizian rationalism and criticized unsuccessfully Kant and Fichte; and J. G. Herder (1744-1803) who was best as an interpreter of others, but whose intuitional suggestions have borne fruit in the organic correlation of the sciences, and in questions of language in relation to human nature and to national character. The works of Kant and Goethe mark the culmination of the German Enlightenment. Cf. J. G. Hibben, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1910. --T.G. Augustinianism: The thought of St. Augustine of Hippo, and of his followers. Born in 354 at Tagaste in N. Africa, A. studied rhetoric in Carthage, taught that subject there and in Rome and Milan. Attracted successively to Manicheanism, Scepticism, and Neo-Platontsm, A. eventually found intellectual and moral peace with his conversion to Christianity in his thirty-fourth year. Returning to Africa, he established numerous monasteries, became a priest in 391, Bishop of Hippo in 395. Augustine wrote much: On Free Choice, Confessions, Literal Commentary on Genesis, On the Trinity, and City of God, are his most noted works. He died in 430.   St. Augustine's characteristic method, an inward empiricism which has little in common with later variants, starts from things without, proceeds within to the self, and moves upwards to God. These three poles of the Augustinian dialectic are polarized by his doctrine of moderate illuminism. An ontological illumination is required to explain the metaphysical structure of things. The truth of judgment demands a noetic illumination. A moral illumination is necessary in the order of willing; and so, too, an lllumination of art in the aesthetic order. Other illuminations which transcend the natural order do not come within the scope of philosophy; they provide the wisdoms of theology and mysticism. Every being is illuminated ontologically by number, form, unity and its derivatives, and order. A thing is what it is, in so far as it is more or less flooded by the light of these ontological constituents.   Sensation is necessary in order to know material substances. There is certainly an action of the external object on the body and a corresponding passion of the body, but, as the soul is superior to the body and can suffer nothing from its inferior, sensation must be an action, not a passion, of the soul. Sensation takes place only when the observing soul, dynamically on guard throughout the body, is vitally attentive to the changes suffered by the body. However, an adequate basis for the knowledge of intellectual truth is not found in sensation alone. In order to know, for example, that a body is multiple, the idea of unity must be present already, otherwise its multiplicity could not be recognized. If numbers are not drawn in by the bodily senses which perceive only the contingent and passing, is the mind the source of the unchanging and necessary truth of numbers? The mind of man is also contingent and mutable, and cannot give what it does not possess. As ideas are not innate, nor remembered from a previous existence of the soul, they can be accounted for only by an immutable source higher than the soul. In so far as man is endowed with an intellect, he is a being naturally illuminated by God, Who may be compared to an intelligible sun. The human intellect does not create the laws of thought; it finds them and submits to them. The immediate intuition of these normative rules does not carry any content, thus any trace of ontologism is avoided.   Things have forms because they have numbers, and they have being in so far as they possess form. The sufficient explanation of all formable, and hence changeable, things is an immutable and eternal form which is unrestricted in time and space. The forms or ideas of all things actually existing in the world are in the things themselves (as rationes seminales) and in the Divine Mind (as rationes aeternae). Nothing could exist without unity, for to be is no other than to be one. There is a unity proper to each level of being, a unity of the material individual and species, of the soul, and of that union of souls in the love of the same good, which union constitutes the city. Order, also, is ontologically imbibed by all beings. To tend to being is to tend to order; order secures being, disorder leads to non-being. Order is the distribution which allots things equal and unequal each to its own place and integrates an ensemble of parts in accordance with an end. Hence, peace is defined as the tranquillity of order. Just as things have their being from their forms, the order of parts, and their numerical relations, so too their beauty is not something superadded, but the shining out of all their intelligible co-ingredients.   S. Aurelii Augustini, Opera Omnia, Migne, PL 32-47; (a critical edition of some works will be found in the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna). Gilson, E., Introd. a l'etude de s. Augustin, (Paris, 1931) contains very good bibliography up to 1927, pp. 309-331. Pope, H., St. Augustine of Hippo, (London, 1937). Chapman, E., St. Augustine's Philos. of Beauty, (N. Y., 1939). Figgis, J. N., The Political Aspects of St. Augustine's "City of God", (London, 1921). --E.C. Authenticity: In a general sense, genuineness, truth according to its title. It involves sometimes a direct and personal characteristic (Whitehead speaks of "authentic feelings").   This word also refers to problems of fundamental criticism involving title, tradition, authorship and evidence. These problems are vital in theology, and basic in scholarship with regard to the interpretation of texts and doctrines. --T.G. Authoritarianism: That theory of knowledge which maintains that the truth of any proposition is determined by the fact of its having been asserted by a certain esteemed individual or group of individuals. Cf. H. Newman, Grammar of Assent; C. S. Peirce, "Fixation of Belief," in Chance, Love and Logic, ed. M. R. Cohen. --A.C.B. Autistic thinking: Absorption in fanciful or wishful thinking without proper control by objective or factual material; day dreaming; undisciplined imagination. --A.C.B. Automaton Theory: Theory that a living organism may be considered a mere machine. See Automatism. Automatism: (Gr. automatos, self-moving) (a) In metaphysics: Theory that animal and human organisms are automata, that is to say, are machines governed by the laws of physics and mechanics. Automatism, as propounded by Descartes, considered the lower animals to be pure automata (Letter to Henry More, 1649) and man a machine controlled by a rational soul (Treatise on Man). Pure automatism for man as well as animals is advocated by La Mettrie (Man, a Machine, 1748). During the Nineteenth century, automatism, combined with epiphenomenalism, was advanced by Hodgson, Huxley and Clifford. (Cf. W. James, The Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, ch. V.) Behaviorism, of the extreme sort, is the most recent version of automatism (See Behaviorism).   (b) In psychology: Psychological automatism is the performance of apparently purposeful actions, like automatic writing without the superintendence of the conscious mind. L. C. Rosenfield, From Beast Machine to Man Machine, N. Y., 1941. --L.W. Automatism, Conscious: The automatism of Hodgson, Huxley, and Clifford which considers man a machine to which mind or consciousness is superadded; the mind of man is, however, causally ineffectual. See Automatism; Epiphenomenalism. --L.W. Autonomy: (Gr. autonomia, independence) Freedom consisting in self-determination and independence of all external constraint. See Freedom. Kant defines autonomy of the will as subjection of the will to its own law, the categorical imperative, in contrast to heteronomy, its subjection to a law or end outside the rational will. (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, § 2.) --L.W. Autonomy of ethics: A doctrine, usually propounded by intuitionists, that ethics is not a part of, and cannot be derived from, either metaphysics or any of the natural or social sciences. See Intuitionism, Metaphysical ethics, Naturalistic ethics. --W.K.F. Autonomy of the will: (in Kant's ethics) The freedom of the rational will to legislate to itself, which constitutes the basis for the autonomy of the moral law. --P.A.S. Autonymy: In the terminology introduced by Carnap, a word (phrase, symbol, expression) is autonymous if it is used as a name for itself --for the geometric shape, sound, etc. which it exemplifies, or for the word as a historical and grammatical unit. Autonymy is thus the same as the Scholastic suppositio matertalis (q. v.), although the viewpoint is different. --A.C. Autotelic: (from Gr. autos, self, and telos, end) Said of any absorbing activity engaged in for its own sake (cf. German Selbstzweck), such as higher mathematics, chess, etc. In aesthetics, applied to creative art and play which lack any conscious reference to the accomplishment of something useful. In the view of some, it may constitute something beneficent in itself of which the person following his art impulse (q.v.) or playing is unaware, thus approaching a heterotelic (q.v.) conception. --K.F.L. Avenarius, Richard: (1843-1896) German philosopher who expressed his thought in an elaborate and novel terminology in the hope of constructing a symbolic language for philosophy, like that of mathematics --the consequence of his Spinoza studies. As the most influential apostle of pure experience, the posltivistic motive reaches in him an extreme position. Insisting on the biologic and economic function of thought, he thought the true method of science is to cure speculative excesses by a return to pure experience devoid of all assumptions. Philosophy is the scientific effort to exclude from knowledge all ideas not included in the given. Its task is to expel all extraneous elements in the given. His uncritical use of the category of the given and the nominalistic view that logical relations are created rather than discovered by thought, leads him to banish not only animism but also all of the categories, substance, causality, etc., as inventions of the mind. Explaining the evolution and devolution of the problematization and deproblematization of numerous ideas, and aiming to give the natural history of problems, Avenarius sought to show physiologically, psychologically and historically under what conditions they emerge, are challenged and are solved. He hypothesized a System C, a bodily and central nervous system upon which consciousness depends. R-values are the stimuli received from the world of objects. E-values are the statements of experience. The brain changes that continually oscillate about an ideal point of balance are termed Vitalerhaltungsmaximum. The E-values are differentiated into elements, to which the sense-perceptions or the content of experience belong, and characters, to which belongs everything which psychology describes as feelings and attitudes. Avenarius describes in symbolic form a series of states from balance to balance, termed vital series, all describing a series of changes in System C. Inequalities in the vital balance give rise to vital differences. According to his theory there are two vital series. It assumes a series of brain changes because parallel series of conscious states can be observed. The independent vital series are physical, and the dependent vital series are psychological. The two together are practically covariants. In the case of a process as a dependent vital series three stages can be noted: first, the appearance of the problem, expressed as strain, restlessness, desire, fear, doubt, pain, repentance, delusion; the second, the continued effort and struggle to solve the problem; and finally, the appearance of the solution, characterized by abating anxiety, a feeling of triumph and enjoyment.   Corresponding to these three stages of the dependent series are three stages of the independent series: the appearance of the vital difference and a departure from balance in the System C, the continuance with an approximate vital difference, and lastly, the reduction of the vital difference to zero, the return to stability. By making room for dependent and independent experiences, he showed that physics regards experience as independent of the experiencing indlvidual, and psychology views experience as dependent upon the individual. He greatly influenced Mach and James (q.v.). See Avenarius, Empirio-criticism, Experience, pure. Main works: Kritik der reinen Erfahrung; Der menschliche Weltbegriff. --H.H. Averroes: (Mohammed ibn Roshd) Known to the Scholastics as The Commentator, and mentioned as the author of il gran commento by Dante (Inf. IV. 68) he was born 1126 at Cordova (Spain), studied theology, law, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, became after having been judge in Sevilla and Cordova, physician to the khalifah Jaqub Jusuf, and charged with writing a commentary on the works of Aristotle. Al-mansur, Jusuf's successor, deprived him of his place because of accusations of unorthodoxy. He died 1198 in Morocco. Averroes is not so much an original philosopher as the author of a minute commentary on the whole works of Aristotle. His procedure was imitated later by Aquinas. In his interpretation of Aristotelian metaphysics Averroes teaches the coeternity of a universe created ex nihilo. This doctrine formed together with the notion of a numerical unity of the active intellect became one of the controversial points in the discussions between the followers of Albert-Thomas and the Latin Averroists. Averroes assumed that man possesses only a disposition for receiving the intellect coming from without; he identifies this disposition with the possible intellect which thus is not truly intellectual by nature. The notion of one intellect common to all men does away with the doctrine of personal immortality. Another doctrine which probably was emphasized more by the Latin Averroists (and by the adversaries among Averroes' contemporaries) is the famous statement about "two-fold truth", viz. that a proposition may be theologically true and philosophically false and vice versa. Averroes taught that religion expresses the (higher) philosophical truth by means of religious imagery; the "two-truth notion" came apparently into the Latin text through a misinterpretation on the part of the translators. The works of Averroes were one of the main sources of medieval Aristotelianlsm, before and even after the original texts had been translated. The interpretation the Latin Averroists found in their texts of the "Commentator" spread in spite of opposition and condemnation. See Averroism, Latin. Averroes, Opera, Venetiis, 1553. M. Horten, Die Metaphysik des Averroes, 1912. P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin, 2d ed., Louvain, 1911. --R.A. Averroism, Latin: The commentaries on Aristotle written by Averroes (Ibn Roshd) in the 12th century became known to the Western scholars in translations by Michael Scottus, Hermannus Alemannus, and others at the beginning of the 13th century. Many works of Aristotle were also known first by such translations from Arabian texts, though there existed translations from the Greek originals at the same time (Grabmann). The Averroistic interpretation of Aristotle was held to be the true one by many; but already Albert the Great pointed out several notions which he felt to be incompatible with the principles of Christian philosophy, although he relied for the rest on the "Commentator" and apparently hardly used any other text. Aquinas, basing his studies mostly on a translation from the Greek texts, procured for him by William of Moerbecke, criticized the Averroistic interpretation in many points. But the teachings of the Commentator became the foundation for a whole school of philosophers, represented first by the Faculty of Arts at Paris. The most prominent of these scholars was Siger of Brabant. The philosophy of these men was condemned on March 7th, 1277 by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, after a first condemnation of Aristotelianism in 1210 had gradually come to be neglected. The 219 theses condemned in 1277, however, contain also some of Aquinas which later were generally recognized an orthodox. The Averroistic propositions which aroused the criticism of the ecclesiastic authorities and which had been opposed with great energy by Albert and Thomas refer mostly to the following points: The co-eternity of the created word; the numerical identity of the intellect in all men, the so-called two-fold-truth theory stating that a proposition may be philosophically true although theologically false. Regarding the first point Thomas argued that there is no philosophical proof, either for the co-eternity or against it; creation is an article of faith. The unity of intellect was rejected as incompatible with the true notion of person and with personal immortality. It is doubtful whether Averroes himself held the two-truths theory; it was, however, taught by the Latin Averroists who, notwithstanding the opposition of the Church and the Thomistic philosophers, gained a great influence and soon dominated many universities, especially in Italy. Thomas and his followers were convinced that they interpreted Aristotle correctly and that the Averroists were wrong; one has, however, to admit that certain passages in Aristotle allow for the Averroistic interpretation, especially in regard to the theory of intellect.   Lit.: P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin au XIIIe Siecle, 2d. ed. Louvain, 1911; M. Grabmann, Forschungen über die lateinischen Aristotelesübersetzungen des XIII. Jahrhunderts, Münster 1916 (Beitr. z. Gesch. Phil. d. MA. Vol. 17, H. 5-6). --R.A. Avesta: See Zendavesta. Avicehron: (or Avencebrol, Salomon ibn Gabirol) The first Jewish philosopher in Spain, born in Malaga 1020, died about 1070, poet, philosopher, and moralist. His main work, Fons vitae, became influential and was much quoted by the Scholastics. It has been preserved only in the Latin translation by Gundissalinus. His doctrine of a spiritual substance individualizing also the pure spirits or separate forms was opposed by Aquinas already in his first treatise De ente, but found favor with the medieval Augustinians also later in the 13th century. He also teaches the necessity of a mediator between God and the created world; such a mediator he finds in the Divine Will proceeding from God and creating, conserving, and moving the world. His cosmogony shows a definitely Neo-Platonic shade and assumes a series of emanations. Cl. Baeumker, Avencebrolis Fons vitae. Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1892-1895, Vol. I. Joh. Wittman, Die Stellung des hl. Thomas von Aquino zu Avencebrol, ibid. 1900. Vol. III. --R.A. Avicenna: (Abu Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina) Born 980 in the country of Bocchara, began to write in young years, left more than 100 works, taught in Ispahan, was physician to several Persian princes, and died at Hamadan in 1037. His fame as physician survived his influence as philosopher in the Occident. His medical works were printed still in the 17th century. His philosophy is contained in 18 vols. of a comprehensive encyclopedia, following the tradition of Al Kindi and Al Farabi. Logic, Physics, Mathematics and Metaphysics form the parts of this work. His philosophy is Aristotelian with noticeable Neo-Platonic influences. His doctrine of the universal existing ante res in God, in rebus as the universal nature of the particulars, and post res in the human mind by way of abstraction became a fundamental thesis of medieval Aristotelianism. He sharply distinguished between the logical and the ontological universal, denying to the latter the true nature of form in the composite. The principle of individuation is matter, eternally existent. Latin translations attributed to Avicenna the notion that existence is an accident to essence (see e.g. Guilelmus Parisiensis, De Universo). The process adopted by Avicenna was one of paraphrasis of the Aristotelian texts with many original thoughts interspersed. His works were translated into Latin by Dominicus Gundissalinus (Gondisalvi) with the assistance of Avendeath ibn Daud. This translation started, when it became more generally known, the "revival of Aristotle" at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Albert the Great and Aquinas professed, notwithstanding their critical attitude, a great admiration for Avicenna whom the Arabs used to call the "third Aristotle". But in the Orient, Avicenna's influence declined soon, overcome by the opposition of the orthodox theologians. Avicenna, Opera, Venetiis, 1495; l508; 1546. M. Horten, Das Buch der Genesung der Seele, eine philosophische Enzyklopaedie Avicenna's; XIII. Teil: Die Metaphysik. Halle a. S. 1907-1909. R. de Vaux, Notes et textes sur l'Avicennisme Latin, Bibl. Thomiste XX, Paris, 1934. --R.A. Avidya: (Skr.) Nescience; ignorance; the state of mind unaware of true reality; an equivalent of maya (q.v.); also a condition of pure awareness prior to the universal process of evolution through gradual differentiation into the elements and factors of knowledge. --K.F.L. Avyakta: (Skr.) "Unmanifest", descriptive of or standing for brahman (q.v.) in one of its or "his" aspects, symbolizing the superabundance of the creative principle, or designating the condition of the universe not yet become phenomenal (aja, unborn). --K.F.L. Awareness: Consciousness considered in its aspect of act; an act of attentive awareness such as the sensing of a color patch or the feeling of pain is distinguished from the content attended to, the sensed color patch, the felt pain. The psychologlcal theory of intentional act was advanced by F. Brentano (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte) and received its epistemological development by Meinong, Husserl, Moore, Laird and Broad. See Intentionalism. --L.W. Axiological: (Ger. axiologisch) In Husserl: Of or pertaining to value or theory of value (the latter term understood as including disvalue and value-indifference). --D.C. Axiological ethics: Any ethics which makes the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, by making the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on a consideration of the value or goodness of something, e.g. the action itself, its motive, or its consequences, actual or probable. Opposed to deontological ethics. See also teleological ethics. --W.K.F. Axiologic Realism: In metaphysics, theory that value as well as logic, qualities as well as relations, have their being and exist external to the mind and independently of it. Applicable to the philosophy of many though not all realists in the history of philosophy, from Plato to G. E. Moore, A. N. Whitehead, and N, Hartmann. --J.K.F. Axiology: (Gr. axios, of like value, worthy, and logos, account, reason, theory). Modern term for theory of value (the desired, preferred, good), investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. Had its rise in Plato's theory of Forms or Ideas (Idea of the Good); was developed in Aristotle's Organon, Ethics, Poetics, and Metaphysics (Book Lambda). Stoics and Epicureans investigated the summum bonum. Christian philosophy (St. Thomas) built on Aristotle's identification of highest value with final cause in God as "a living being, eternal, most good."   In modern thought, apart from scholasticism and the system of Spinoza (Ethica, 1677), in which values are metaphysically grounded, the various values were investigated in separate sciences, until Kant's Critiques, in which the relations of knowledge to moral, aesthetic, and religious values were examined. In Hegel's idealism, morality, art, religion, and philosophy were made the capstone of his dialectic. R. H. Lotze "sought in that which should be the ground of that which is" (Metaphysik, 1879). Nineteenth century evolutionary theory, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and economics subjected value experience to empirical analysis, and stress was again laid on the diversity and relativity of value phenomena rather than on their unity and metaphysical nature. F. Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883-1885) and Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887) aroused new interest in the nature of value. F. Brentano, Vom Ursprung sittlicher Erkenntnis (1889), identified value with love.   In the twentieth century the term axiology was apparently first applied by Paul Lapie (Logique de la volonte, 1902) and E. von Hartmann (Grundriss der Axiologie, 1908). Stimulated by Ehrenfels (System der Werttheorie, 1897), Meinong (Psychologisch-ethische Untersuchungen zur Werttheorie, 1894-1899), and Simmel (Philosophie des Geldes, 1900). W. M. Urban wrote the first systematic treatment of axiology in English (Valuation, 1909), phenomenological in method under J. M. Baldwin's influence. Meanwhile H. Münsterberg wrote a neo-Fichtean system of values (The Eternal Values, 1909).   Among important recent contributions are: B. Bosanquet, The Principle of Individuality and Value (1912), a free reinterpretation of Hegelianism; W. R. Sorley, Moral Values and the Idea of God (1918, 1921), defending a metaphysical theism; S. Alexander, Space, Time, and Deity (1920), realistic and naturalistic; N. Hartmann, Ethik (1926), detailed analysis of types and laws of value; R. B. Perry's magnum opus, General Theory of Value (1926), "its meaning and basic principles construed in terms of interest"; and J. Laird, The Idea of Value (1929), noteworthy for historical exposition. A naturalistic theory has been developed by J. Dewey (Theory of Valuation, 1939), for which "not only is science itself a value . . . but it is the supreme means of the valid determination of all valuations." A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic (1936) expounds the view of logical positivism that value is "nonsense." J. Hessen, Wertphilosophie (1937), provides an account of recent German axiology from a neo-scholastic standpoint.   The problems of axiology fall into four main groups, namely, those concerning (1) the nature of value, (2) the types of value, (3) the criterion of value, and (4) the metaphysical status of value.   (1) The nature of value experience. Is valuation fulfillment of desire (voluntarism: Spinoza, Ehrenfels), pleasure (hedonism: Epicurus, Bentham, Meinong), interest (Perry), preference (Martineau), pure rational will (formalism: Stoics, Kant, Royce), apprehension of tertiary qualities (Santayana), synoptic experience of the unity of personality (personalism: T. H. Green, Bowne), any experience that contributes to enhanced life (evolutionism: Nietzsche), or "the relation of things as means to the end or consequence actually reached" (pragmatism, instrumentalism: Dewey).   (2) The types of value. Most axiologists distinguish between intrinsic (consummatory) values (ends), prized for their own sake, and instrumental (contributory) values (means), which are causes (whether as economic goods or as natural events) of intrinsic values. Most intrinsic values are also instrumental to further value experience; some instrumental values are neutral or even disvaluable intrinsically. Commonly recognized as intrinsic values are the (morally) good, the true, the beautiful, and the holy. Values of play, of work, of association, and of bodily well-being are also acknowledged. Some (with Montague) question whether the true is properly to be regarded as a value, since some truth is disvaluable, some neutral; but love of truth, regardless of consequences, seems to establish the value of truth. There is disagreement about whether the holy (religious value) is a unique type (Schleiermacher, Otto), or an attitude toward other values (Kant, Höffding), or a combination of the two (Hocking). There is also disagreement about whether the variety of values is irreducible (pluralism) or whether all values are rationally related in a hierarchy or system (Plato, Hegel, Sorley), in which values interpenetrate or coalesce into a total experience.   (3) The criterion of value. The standard for testing values is influenced by both psychological and logical theory. Hedonists find the standard in the quantity of pleasure derived by the individual (Aristippus) or society (Bentham). Intuitionists appeal to an ultimate insight into preference (Martineau, Brentano). Some idealists recognize an objective system of rational norms or ideals as criterion (Plato, Windelband), while others lay more stress on rational wholeness and coherence (Hegel, Bosanquet, Paton) or inclusiveness (T. H. Green). Naturalists find biological survival or adjustment (Dewey) to be the standard. Despite differences, there is much in common in the results of the application of these criteria.   (4) The metaphysical status of value. What is the relation of values to the facts investigated by natural science (Koehler), of Sein to Sollen (Lotze, Rickert), of human experience of value to reality independent of man (Hegel, Pringle-Pattlson, Spaulding)? There are three main answers:   subjectivism (value is entirely dependent on and relative to human experience of it: so most hedonists, naturalists, positivists);   logical objectivism (values are logical essences or subsistences, independent of their being known, yet with no existential status or action in reality);   metaphysical objectivism (values   --or norms or ideals   --are integral, objective, and active constituents of the metaphysically real: so theists, absolutists, and certain realists and naturalists like S. Alexander and Wieman). --E.S.B. Axiom: See Mathematics. Axiomatic method: That method of constructing a deductive system consisting of deducing by specified rules all statements of the system save a given few from those given few, which are regarded as axioms or postulates of the system. See Mathematics. --C.A.B. Ayam atma brahma: (Skr.) "This self is brahman", famous quotation from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.5.19, one of many alluding to the central theme of the Upanishads, i.e., the identity of the human and divine or cosmic. --K.F.L.

Aureole [diminutive of Latin aureus golden] Either a special spiritual radiance adorning the heads of saints and martyrs, or a golden halo surrounding the head or whole body of a holy man. The matter is clearly explained in The Mahatma Letters as: “a counterpart of what the astronomers call the red flames in the ‘corona’ may be seen in Reichenbach’s crystals or in any other strongly magnetic body. The head of a man — in a strong ecstatic condition, when all the electricity of his system is centered around the brain, will represent — especially in darkness — a perfect simile of the Sun during such periods [eclipses]. The first artist who drew the aureoles about the heads of his Gods and Saints, was not inspired, but represented it on the authority of temple pictures and traditions of the sanctuary and the chambers of initiation where such phenomena took place” (p. 162).

avatara (avatar) ::: divine incarnation; the "descent into form" of the avatara Godhead (deva, isvara, purus.ottama), "when the divine Consciousness and Power, taking upon itself the human form and the human mode of action, possesses it not only by powers and magnitudes, by degrees and outward faces of itself but out of its eternal self-knowledge" in order "to exemplify the possibility of the Divine manifest in the human being" and "to leave the influence of that manifestation vibrating in the earth-nature and the soul of that manifestation presiding over its upward endeavour"; any of the ten incarnations of Vis.n.u described in the Hindu tradition, regarded by Sri Aurobindo as "a parable of evolution".

Avesta (Avest, Pers) Apstak, Avestak (Pahlavi) Law or the basic foundation, the sacred scriptures of the Mazdeans. The language of the ancient Aryans was the language of the Vedic hymns and also of the Gathic chants of Zoroaster, these being so close that a mere phonetic change often suffices to translate a passage from one into the other. Because of this connection “the Mazdean Scriptures of the Zend-Avesta, the Vendidad and others correct and expose the later cunning shuffling of the gods in the Hindu Pantheon, and restore through Ahura the Asuras to their legitimate place in theogony” (SD 2:60-1). Zend, on the other hand, traditionally designates the Pahlavi commentary on the Avesta. The Yasnas are the principal writings of the Zoroastrians; and in their oldest portion, the Gathas, the original philosophy of Mazdeism is expressed in a spirited poetic language. The Vispered (Pahlavi) or Visperataro (Avestan) [from vispe all + ratavo warriors, spiritual teachers] is an appendix to the later Yasnas which deals with the ritualistic aspects of the Mazdean faith.

Azerekhsh (Pahlavi) The most celebrated of the ancient fire-temples of the Magi, situated in Shiz, the capital of Atropatene (the Persian Gazn). Tradition ascribes the temple of Azerekhsh to Zartusht (Zoroaster).

Background: (Ger. Hintergrund) In Husserl: The nexus of objects and objective sense explicitly posited along with any object; the objective horizon. The perceptual background is part of the entire background in this broad sense. See Horizon. -- D.C . Bacon, Francis: (1561-1626) Inspired by the Renaissance, and in revolt against Aristotelianism and Scholastic Logic, proposed an inductive method of discovering truth, founded upon empirical observation, analysis of observed data, inference resulting in hypotheses, and verification of hypotheses through continued observation and experiment. The impediments to the use of this method are preconceptions and prejudices, grouped by Bacon under four headings, or Idols: The Idols of the Tribe, or racially "wishful," anthropocentric ways of thinking, e.g. explanation by final causes The Idols of the Cave or personal prejudices The Idols of the Market Place, or failure to define terms The Idol of the Theatre, or blind acceptance of tradition and authority. The use of the inductive method prescribes the extraction of the essential from the non-essential and the discovery of the underlying structure or form of the phenomena under investigation, through (a) comparison of instances, (b) study of concomitant variations, and (c) exclusion of negative instances.

Aditi "database, project" The Aditi Deductive Database System. A multi-user {deductive database} system from the Machine Intelligence Project at the {University of Melbourne}. It supports base {relations} defined by {facts} (relations in the sense of {relational databases}) and {derived relations} defined by {rules} that specify how to compute new information from old information. Both base relations and the rules defining derived relations are stored on disk and are accessed as required during query evaluation. The rules defining derived relations are expressed in a {Prolog}-like language, which is also used for expressing queries. Aditi supports the full structured data capability of Prolog. Base relations can store arbitrarily nested terms, for example arbitrary length lists, and rules can directly manipulate such terms. Base relations can be indexed with {B-trees} or multi-level signature files. Users can access the system through a {Motif}-based query and database administration tool, or through a command line interface. There is also in interface that allows {NU-Prolog} programs to access Aditi in a transparent manner. Proper {transaction processing} is not supported in this release. The beta release runs on {SPARC}/{SunOS4}.1.2 and {MIPS}/{Irix}4.0. E-mail: "aditi@cs.mu.oz.au". (1992-12-17)

Aditi devatamayi ::: Aditi full of the gods. [cf. Katha 2.1.7]

Aditi has correspondences in many ancient religions: the highest Sephirah in the Zohar; the Gnostic Sophia-Achamoth; Rhea, mother of the Greek Olympians; Bythos or the great Deep; Amba; Surarani; Chaos; Waters of Space; Primordial Light; and the source of the Egyptian seven heavens. Sometimes she is linked with the Greek Gaia, goddess of earth, to denote dual nature or the mother of both the spiritual and physical: Aditi, cosmic expanse or space being the mother of all things; and Gaia, mother of earth and, on the larger scale, of all objective nature (cf SD 2:65, 269).

Aditi-prakriti (Sanskrit) Aditi-prakṛti [from aditi unbounded + prakṛti nature from pra forth + the verbal root kṛ to do, make] Spiritual-physical nature; Father-Mother within before it appeared in space, the universal matrix of kosmos personified in the dual character of the universe or of man. Aditi signifies infinity personified as a goddess; prakriti, nature considered as the evolver or producer in its original condition.

Aditi (Sanskrit) Aditi [from a not + diti bound from the verbal root da to bind] Unbounded, free; as a noun, infinite and shoreless expanse. In the Vedas, Aditi is devamatri (mother of the gods) as from and in her cosmic matrix all the heavenly bodies were born. As the celestial virgin and mother of every existing form and being, the synthesis of all things, she is highest akasa. Aditi is identified in the Rig-Veda with Vach (mystic speech) and also with the mulaprakriti of the Vedanta. As the womb of space, she is a feminized form of Brahma. The line in the Rig-Veda: “Daksha sprang from Aditi and Aditi from Daksha” has reference to “the eternal cyclic re-birth of the same divine Essence” (SD 2:247n). In one of its most mystic aspects Aditi is divine wisdom.

Aditi ::: the indivisible conscious-force and ananda of the Supreme; the Mother; the infinite Mother of the gods; supreme Nature or infinite Consciousness.

Aditi, the infinite Consciousness, Mother of the worlds.” The Secret of the Veda

Aditi: The name (Sanskrit for boundlessness) of a Vedic goddess, mother of the gods known as Adityas; she is identified at times with the earth, at times with the sky, and at other times is hailed as a cow.

Aditi ::: the Vedic goddess of infinite being, the mother of the gods, manifested here as the earth-goddess (Pr.thivi2); the adya-sakti, the indivisible consciousness (cit), force (tapas) and bliss (ananda) of the Supreme.

Aditi-Vach (Sanskrit) Aditi-Vāc [from aditi unbounded + vāc speech, voice from the verbal root vac to speak, utter] The cosmic Logos considered in its feminine aspect as the veil surrounding the evolving cosmic monad. “These feminine Logoi are all correlations, in their noumenal aspect, of Lights, and Sound, and Ether . . . ” (SD 1:431).

BC An {arbitrary precision} numeric processing language with {C}-like {syntax}. Traditionally implemented as a front-end to {DC}. There is a {GNU} version called {GNU BC}. {Unix manual page}: bc(1).

(b) Deism is a term referring collectively and somewhat loosely to a group of religious thinkers of the 17th (and 18th) century in England and France who in attempting to justify religion, particularly Christianity, began by establishing the harmony of reason and revelation and developed what, in their time, was regarded as extreme views: assaults upon traditional supernaturalism, external revelation and dogmas implying mysteries, and concluding that revelation is superfluous, that reason is the touchstone to religious validity, that religion and ethics are natural phenomena, that the traditional God need hardly be appealed to since man finds in nature the necessary guides for moral and religious living. Not all deists, so called, went toward the more extreme expressions. Among the more important English deists were Toland, Collins, Tindal, Chubb and Morgan. Voltaire (1694-1778) influenced by English thought is the notable example of deism in France. On the whole the term represents a tendency rather than a school. -- V.F.

(b) Despite the fact that traditional logic embraced many topics which would now be considered epistemological, the demarcation between logic and epistemology is now fairly clear-cut: logic is the formal science of the principles governing valid reasoning; epistemology is the philosophical science of the nature of knowledge and truth. For example, though the decision as to whether a given process of reasoning is valid or not is a logical question, the inquiry into the nature of validity is epistemological.

Because the difference between phenomenological pure psychology and transcendental phenomenology depends on a difference in attitude towards "the same" subject matter, their contents are widely analogous. Husserl maintained, however, that genuine philosophy is possible only as transcendental phenomenology, because it alone is knowledge of that non-worldly nucleus of subjectivity in which everything intendable as immanent or as transcendent is constituted (produced, generated) as an essentially intentional object. As envisaged in the Ideen and later works, phenomenological analysis is chiefly "transcendental-constitutional" analysis of the subjective structures in which the concrete individual world is built up as an intersubjectively valid transcendent sense for transcendental subjectivity. In the course of such analysis, every legitimate philosophical problem must find its definitive solution. From the transcendental-phenomenological standpoint, however, one traditional problem, namely the relation between what are essentially objects of consciousness and "things-in-themselves" that are not essentially objects of consciousness, is seen to be spurious. On the one hand, it is evidently false that all directly presented objects of consciousness are immanent in the mind, on the other hand, the concept of an entity that is not an intentionally constituted object of transcendental consciousness is evidently self-contradictory. This is the central thesis of what Husserl called his "transcendental-phenomenological idealism."

Beneke, Friedrich Eduard: (1798-1854) A German thinker of Kantian tradition modified by empiricism; his doctrines exerted considerable influence upon the psychology and educational theory of the 19th century. Main works: Erfahrungseelenlehre, 1820; Physik d. Sitten, 1822; Metaphysik, 1822; Logik als Kunstlehre des Denkens, 1832; Lehrbuch d. Psych. als Naturwiss., 1833; Erziehungslehre, 1833; Pragmatische Psychol., 1850. -- R.B.W.

Bennett and Baylis, Formal Logic, New York, 1939. 5. CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM is the name given to certain forms of valid inference (of the functional calculus of first order) which involve as premisses two (formulas representing) categorical propositions, having a term in common -- the middle term. Using S, M, P as minor term, middle term, and major term, respectively, we give the traditional classification into figures and moods. In each case we give the major premiss first, the minor premiss immediately after it, and the conclusion last; in some cases we give a third (existential) premiss which is suppressed in the traditional account. Because of the admission of singular propositions under the heads A, E, two different forms of valid inference appear in some cases under the same figure and mood -- these singular forms are separately listed.

Berosus (3rd century BC) A Chaldaean priest of Belus living in Babylon at the time of Alexander the Great, who translated the primeval traditions of the human race down nearly to his own times. Fragments of this work have been preserved by the historians and mythographers Apollodorus and Polyhistor, and also Josephus, of the 1st and 2nd centuries BC. His cosmogony shows that the Biblical stories of creation and deluge were derived from older sources, as since has been confirmed by Babylonian archaeology.

Blondel, Maurice: (1861-1939) A philosopher in the French "spiritualistic" tradition of Maine de Biran and Boutroux, who in his essays L'action (1893), and Le Proces de l'Intelligence (1922), defended an activistic psychology and metaphysics. "The Philosophy of Action" is a voluntaristic and idealistic philosophy which, as regards the relation of thought to action, seeks to compromise between the extremes of intellectualism and pragmatism. In his more recent book La Pensee (1934), Blondel retains his earlier activistic philosophy combined with a stronger theological emphasis. -- L.W.

(b) More recently understood, especially in England, as the view that the right act is the act which will actually or probably produce at least as much intrinsic good, directly or indirectly, as any other action open to the agent in question. On this interpretation, traditional utilitarianism is one species of utilitarianism -- that which regards pleasure as the good. Ideal utilitarianism, on the other hand, holds that other things besides pleasure are good (see G.E. Moore, H. Rashdall, J. Laird) In America utilitarianism is chiefly associated with voluntaristic or "interest" theories of value, e.g. in the pragmatic ethics of James and Dewev, and in R. B. Perry. See intuitionism, deontological ethics, teleological ethics. -- W.K.F.

Boaz: in Kabalistic and Masonic tradition, the white pillar of bronze cast for Solomon’s temple; the symbol of Divine Wisdom (Hokhmah, the second of the Sephiroth—q.v.).

Bolzano, Bernard: (1781-1848) Austrian philosopher and mathematician. Professor of the philosophy of religion at Prague, 1805-1820, he was compelled to resign in the latter year because of his rationalistic tendencies in theology and afterwards held no academic position. His Wissenschaftslehre of 1837, while it is to be classed as a work on traditional logic, contains significant anticipations of many ideas which have since become important in symbolic logic and mathematics. In his posthumously published Paradoxien des Unendlitchen (1851) he appears as a forerunner in some respects of Cantor's theory of transfinite numbers. -- A.C.

bonk/oif /bonk/, /oyf/ In the {MUD} community, it has become traditional to express pique or censure by "bonking" the offending person. Convention holds that one should acknowledge a bonk by saying "oif!" and there is a myth to the effect that failing to do so upsets the cosmic bonk/oif balance, causing much trouble in the universe. Some MUDs have implemented special commands for bonking and oifing. [{Jargon File}] (1998-01-18)

book titles "publication" There is a tradition in hackerdom of informally tagging important textbooks and standards documents with the dominant colour of their covers or with some other conspicuous feature of the cover. Many of these are described in {this dictionary} under their own entries. See {Aluminum Book}, {Blue Book}, {Cinderella Book}, {Devil Book}, {Dragon Book}, {Green Book}, {Orange Book}, {Pink-Shirt Book}, {Purple Book}, {Red Book}, {Silver Book}, {White Book}, {Wizard Book}, {Yellow Book}, {bible}, {rainbow series}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-12-03)

Bradley, Francis Herbert: (1846-1924) Dialectician extraordinary of British philosophy, Bradley sought to purge contemporary thought of the extremely sensationalistic and utilitarian elements embodied in the tradition of empiricism. Though owing much to Hegel, he early repudiated the Hegelian system as such, and his own variety of Absolute Idealism bases itself upon no scheme of categories. His brilliant attack upon the inadequate assumptions of hedonistic ethics (Ethical Studies, 1877) was followed in 1883 by The Principles of Logic in which his dialectic analysis was applied to the problems of inference and judgment. It was, however, his Appearance and Reality (1893) with its famous theory of "the degrees of truth" which first disturbed the somnambulism of modern metaphysics, and led Caird to remark upon "the greatest thing since Kant". In later years Bradley's growing realization of ultimate difficulties in his version of the coherence theory led him to modify his doctrines in the direction of a Platonic mysticism. See Essays on Truth and Reality, the second edition of the Logic Collected Essays, etc. -- W.S.W.

Brentano (Psychologie, 1874) takes an existential proposition (Existentialsatz) to be one that directly affirms or denies existence, and shows that each of the four traditional kinds of categorical propositions is reducible (i.e., equivalent) to an existential proposition in this sense; thus, e.g., "all men are mortal" becomes "immortal men do not exist." This definition of an existential proposition and the reduction of categorical propositions to existential appears also in Keynes's Formal Logic, 4th edn. (1906). -- A.C.

Bruno, Giordano: (1548-1600) A Dominican monk, eventually burned at the stake because of his opinions, he was converted from Christianity to a naturalistic and mystical pantheism by the Renaissance and particularly by the new Copernican astronomy. For him God and the universe were two names for one and the same Reality considered now as the creative essence of all things, now as the manifold of realized possibilities in which that essence manifests itself. As God, natura naturans, the Real is the whole, the one transcendent and ineffable. As the Real is the infinity of worlds and objects and events into which the whole divides itself and in which the one displays the infinite potentialities latent within it. The world-process is an ever-lasting going forth from itself and return into itself of the divine nature. The culmination of the outgoing creative activity is reached in the human mind, whose rational, philosophic search for the one in the many, simplicity in variety, and the changeless and eternal in the changing and temporal, marks also the reverse movement of the divine nature re-entering itself and regaining its primordial unity, homogeneity, and changelessness. The human soul, being as it were a kind of boomerang partaking of the ingrowing as well as the outgrowing process, may hope at death, not to be dissolved with the body, which is borne wholly upon the outgoing stream, but to return to God whence it came and to be reabsorbed in him. Cf. Rand, Modern Classical Philosophers, selection from Bruno's On Cause, The Principle and the One. G. Bruno: De l'infinito, universo e mundo, 1584; Spaccio della bestia trionfante, 1584; La cena delta ceneri, 1584; Deglieroici furori, 1585; De Monade, 1591. Cf. R. Honigswald, Giordano Bruno; G. Gentile, Bruno nella storia della cultura, 1907. -- B.A.G.F. Brunschvicg, Leon: (1869-) Professor of Philosophy at the Ecole Normale in Paris. Dismissed by the Nazis (1941). His philosophy is an idealistic synthesis of Spinoza, Kant and Schelling with special stress on the creative role of thought in cultural history as well as in sciences. Main works: Les etapes de la philosophie mathematique, 1913; L'experience humaine et la causalite physique, 1921; De la connaissance de soi, 1931. Buddhism: The multifarious forms, philosophic, religious, ethical and sociological, which the teachings of Gautama Buddha (q.v.) have produced. They centre around the main doctrine of the catvari arya-satyani(q.v.), the four noble truths, the last of which enables one in eight stages to reach nirvana (q.v.): Right views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. In the absence of contemporary records of Buddha and Buddhistic teachings, much value was formerly attached to the palm leaf manuscripts in Pali, a Sanskrit dialect; but recently a good deal of weight has been given also the Buddhist tradition in Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Chinese. Buddhism split into Mahayanism and Hinayanism (q.v.), each of which, but particularly the former, blossomed into a variety of teachings and practices. The main philosophic schools are the Madhyamaka or Sunyavada, Yogacara, Sautrantika, and Vaibhasika (q.v.). The basic assumptions in philosophy are a causal nexus in nature and man, of which the law of karma (q.v.) is but a specific application; the impermanence of things, and the illusory notion of substance and soul. Man is viewed realistically as a conglomeration of bodily forms (rupa), sensations (vedana), ideas (sanjna), latent karma (sanskaras), and consciousness (vijnana). The basic assumptions in ethics are the universality of suffering and the belief in a remedy. There is no god; each one may become a Buddha, an enlightened one. Also in art and esthetics Buddhism has contributed much throughout the Far East. -- K.F.L.

bulletin board system "communications, application" (BBS, bboard /bee'bord/, message board, forum; plural: BBSes) A computer and associated software which typically provides an electronic message database where people can log in and leave messages. Messages are typically split into {topic groups} similar to the {newsgroups} on {Usenet} (which is like a distributed BBS). Any user may submit or read any message in these public areas. The term comes from physical pieces of board on which people can pin messages written on paper for general consumption - a "physical bulletin board". {Ward Christensen}, the programmer and operator of the first BBS (on-line 1978-02-16) called it a CBBS for "computer bulletin board system". Since the rise of the {World-Wide Web}, the term has become antiquated, though the concept is more popular than ever, with many {websites} featuring discussion areas where users can post messages for public consumption. Apart from public message areas, some BBSes provided archives of files, personal {electronic mail} and other services of interest to the system operator ({sysop}). Thousands of BBSes around the world were run from amateurs' homes on {MS-DOS} boxes with a single {modem} line each. Although BBSes were traditionally the domain of hobbyists, many connected directly to the {Internet} (accessed via {telnet}), others were operated by government, educational, and research institutions. Fans of {Usenet} or the big commercial {time-sharing} bboards such as {CompuServe}, {CIX} and {GEnie} tended to consider local BBSes the low-rent district of the hacker culture, but they helped connect hackers and users in the personal-{micro} and let them exchange code. Use of this term for a {Usenet} newsgroup generally marks one either as a {newbie} fresh in from the BBS world or as a real old-timer predating {Usenet}. (2005-09-20)

bullet-proof hosting "networking, legal" A {hosting} company that guarantees not to shut down its {servers} even when requested to do so by law enforcement agencies. These hosting companies are often located off-shore or in nations where computer crime laws are lax or non-existent and where extradition requests will not be honoured. (2019-05-25)

cabala ::: n. --> A kind of occult theosophy or traditional interpretation of the Scriptures among Jewish rabbis and certain mediaeval Christians, which treats of the nature of god and the mystery of human existence. It assumes that every letter, word, number, and accent of Scripture contains a hidden sense; and it teaches the methods of interpretation for ascertaining these occult meanings. The cabalists pretend even to foretell events by this means.
Secret science in general; mystic art; mystery.


cabalist ::: n. --> One versed in the cabala, or the mysteries of Jewish traditions.

cabal ::: n. --> Tradition; occult doctrine. See Cabala
A secret.
A number of persons united in some close design, usually to promote their private views and interests in church or state by intrigue; a secret association composed of a few designing persons; a junto.
The secret artifices or machinations of a few persons united in a close design; intrigue.


can't happen "programming" The traditional program comment for code executed under a condition that should never be true, for example a file size computed as negative. Often, such a condition being true indicates data corruption or a faulty {algorithm}; it is almost always handled by emitting a fatal error message and terminating or crashing, since there is little else that can be done. Some case variant of "can't happen" is also often the text emitted if the "impossible" error actually happens. Although "can't happen" events are genuinely infrequent in production code, programmers wise enough to check for them habitually are often surprised at how frequently they are triggered during development and how many headaches checking for them turns out to head off. See also {firewall code}, {professional programming}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-05-10)

Categorematic: In traditional 1ogic, denoting or capable of denoting a term, or of standing for a subject or predicate- -- said of words. Opposite of syncategorematic (q.v.). -- A.C.

Cazing on a dame or a bright spot b the traditional means used by yogins for concentration or for awakening of the inner consciousness and vision.

China. The traditional basic concepts of Chinese metaphysics are ideal. Heaven (T'ien), the spiritual and moral power of cosmic and social order, that distributes to each thing and person its alloted sphere of action, is theistically and personalistically conceived in the Shu Ching (Book of History) and the Shih Ching (Book of Poetry). It was probably also interpreted thus by Confucius and Mencius, assuredly so by Motze. Later it became identified with Fate or impersonal, immaterial cosmic power. Shang Ti (Lord on High) has remained through Chinese history a theistic concept. Tao, as cosmic principle, is an impersonal, immaterial World Ground. Mahayana Buddhism introduced into China an idealistic influence. Pure metaphysical idealism was taught by the Buddhist monk Hsuan Ch'uang. Important Buddhist and Taoist influences appear in Sung Confucianism (Ju Chia). a distinctly idealistic movement. Chou Tun I taught that matter, life and mind emerge from Wu Chi (Pure Being). Shao Yung espoused an essential objective idealism: the world is the content of an Universal Consciousness. The Brothers Ch'eng Hsao and Ch'eng I, together with Chu Hsi, distinguished two primordial principles, an active, moral, aesthetic, and rational Law (Li), and a passive ether stuff (Ch'i). Their emphasis upon Li is idealistic. Lu Chiu Yuan (Lu Hsiang Shan), their opponent, is interpreted both as a subjective idealist and as a realist with a stiong idealistic emphasis. Similarly interpreted is Wang Yang Ming of the Ming Dynasty, who stressed the splritual and moral principle (Li) behind nature and man.

Church has proved that the decision problem of the pure functional calculus of first order is unsolvable. Solutions exist, however, for several important special cases. In particular a decision procedure is known for the case of formulas containing only monadic function variables (this would seem to cover substantially everything considered in traditional formal logic prior to the introduction of the modern logic of relations).

C+- "language, humour" (C More or Less) A subject-oriented language (SOL). Each C+- {class} instance, known as a subject, holds hidden {members}, known as prejudices, agendas or undeclared preferences, which are impervious to outside messages; as well as public members, known as boasts or claims. The following {C} {operators} are overridden as shown: "  better than "  worse than "" way better than "" forget it !  not on your life == comparable, other things being equal !== get a life, guy! C+- is {strongly typed}, based on stereotyping and self-righteous logic. The {Boolean} {variables} TRUE and FALSE (known as constants in other, less realistic languages) are supplemented with CREDIBLE and DUBIOUS, which are fuzzier than Zadeh's traditional {fuzzy logic} categories. All Booleans can be declared with the modifiers strong and weak. Weak implication is said to "preserve deniability" and was added at the request of the DoD to ensure compatibility with future versions of {Ada}. Well-formed falsehoods (WFFs) are {assignment}-compatible with all Booleans. What-if and why-not interactions are aided by the special conditional EVENIFNOT X THEN Y. C+- supports {information hiding} and, among {friend classes} only, rumor sharing. Borrowing from the {Eiffel} lexicon, non-friend classes can be killed by arranging contracts. Note that friendships are {intransitive}, {volatile} and non-{Abelian}. {Operator precedence} rules can be suspended with the dwim {pragma}, known as the "{Do what I mean}". {ANSIfication} will be firmly resisted. C+-'s slogan is "Be Your Own Standard." [{Jargon File}] (1999-06-15)

clannish ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to a clan; closely united, like a clan; disposed to associate only with one&

Cohen, Hermann: (1842-1918) and Paul Natorp (1854-1924) were the chief leaders of the "Marburg School" which formed a definite branch of the Neo-Kantian movement. Whereas the original founders of this movement, O. Liebmann and Fr. A. Lange, had reacted to scientific empiricism by again calling attention to the a priori elements of cognition, the Marburg school contended that all cognition was exclusively a priori. They definitely rejected not only the notion of "things-in-themselves" but even that of anything immediately "given" in experience. There is no other reality than one posited by thought and this holds good equally for the object, the subject and God. Nor is thought in its effort to "determine the object = x" limited by any empirical data but solely by the laws of thought. Since in Ethics Kant himself had already endeavored to eliminate all empirical elements, the Marburg school was perhaps closer to him in this field than in epistemology. The sole goal of conduct is fulfillment of duty, i.e., the achievement of a society organized according to moral principles and satisfying the postulates of personal dignity. The Marburg school was probably the most influential philosophic trend in Germany in the last 25 years before the First World War. The most outstanding present-day champion of their tradition is Ernst Cassirer (born 1874). Cohen and Natorp tried to re-interpret Plato as well as Kant. Following up a suggestion first made by Lotze they contended that the Ideas ought to be understood as laws or methods of thought and that the current view ascribing any kind of existence to them was based on a misunderstanding of Aristotle's. -- H.G.

command line option "software" (Or "option", "flag", "switch", "option switch") An argument to a command that modifies its function rather than providing data. Options generally start with "-" in {Unix} or "/" in {MS-DOS}. This is usually followed by a single letter or occasionally a digit. More recently, {GNU} software adopted the --longoptionname style, usually in addition to traditional, single-character, -x style equivalents. Some commands require each option to be a separate argument, introduced by a new "-" or "/", others allow multiple option letters to be concatenated into a single argument with a single "-" or "/", e.g. "ls -al". A few Unix commands (e.g. {ar}, {tar}) allow the "-" to be omitted. Some options may or must be followed by a value, e.g. "cc prog.c -o prog", sometimes with and sometimes without an intervening space. {getopt} and {getopts} are commands for parsing command line options. There is also a {C} library routine called getopt for the same purpose. (2007-02-18)

Comte, Auguste: (1798-1857) Was born and lived during a period when political and social conditions in France were highly unstable. In reflecting the spirit of his age, he rose against the tendency prevalent among his predecessors to propound philosophic doctrines in disregard of the facts of nature and society. His revolt was directed particularly against traditional metaphysics with its endless speculations, countless assumptions, and futile controversies. To his views he gave the name of positivism. According to him, the history of humanity should be described in terms of three stages. The first of these was the theological stage when people's interpretation of reality was dominated by superstitions and prejudicesj the second stage was metaphysical when people attempted to comprehend, and reason about, reality, but were unable to support their contentions by facts; and the third and final stage was positive, when dogmatic assumptions began to be replaced by factual knowledge. Accordingly, the history of thought was characterized by a certain succession of sciences, expressing the turning of scholarly interest toward the earthly and human affairs, namely; mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and sociology. These doctrines were discussed in Comte's main work, Cours de philosophic positive. -- R.B.W.

Consequence: (Ger. Konsequenz) In Husserl: The relation of formal-analytic inclusion which obtains between certain noematic senses. Consequence: See Valid. Consequence-logic: (Ger. Konsequenzlogik) Consistency-logic (Logik der Widerspruchslosigkeit); pure apophantic analytics (in a strict sense); a level of pure formal logic in which the only thematic concepts of validity are consequence, inconsequence, and compatibility. Consequence-logic includes the essential content of traditional syllogistics and the disciplines making up formal-mathematical analysis. -- D.C.

Continuant: ''That which continues to exist while its states or relations may be changing" (Johnson, Logic I, p. 199). The continuant is in Johnson's metaphysics a revised and somewhat more precise form of the traditional conception of substance; it includes, according to him, that residuum from the traditional conception of substance which is both philosophically justifiable and indispensable.

Contradiction, law of, is given by traditional logicians as "A is B and A is not B cannot both be true." It is usually taken to be the theorem of the propositional calculus, ∼[p∼p]. In use, however, the name often seems to refer to the syntactical principle or precept which may be formulated as follows: A logical discipline containing (an applied) propositional calculus, or a set of hypotheses or postulates to be added to such a discipline, shall not lead to two theorems or consequences of the forms A and ∼A. The law is explicitly stated in a syntactical form, e.g. by Ledger Wood in his The Analysis of Knowledge (1940). -- A.C.

Contraposition: The recommended use of this word is that according to which the contrapositive of S(s) ⊃x P(x) is ∼P(x) ⊃x ∼S(x). This is, however, not quite strictly in accordance with traditional terminology; see Logic, formal, § 4. -- A.C.

conventional ::: a. --> Formed by agreement or compact; stipulated.
Growing out of, or depending on, custom or tacit agreement; sanctioned by general concurrence or usage; formal.
Based upon tradition, whether religious and historical or of artistic rules.
Abstracted; removed from close representation of nature by the deliberate selection of what is to be represented and what is to be rejected; as, a conventional flower; a conventional


conventionalism ::: n. --> That which is received or established by convention or arbitrary agreement; that which is in accordance with the fashion, tradition, or usage.
The principles or practice of conventionalizing. See Conventionalize, v. t.


conventionalizw ::: v. t. --> To make conventional; to bring under the influence of, or cause to conform to, conventional rules; to establish by usage.
To represent by selecting the important features and those which are expressible in the medium employed, and omitting the others.
To represent according to an established principle, whether religious or traditional, or based upon certain


Copula: The traditional analysis of a proposition into subject and predicate involves a third part, the copula (is, are, is not, are not), binding the subject and predicate together into an assertion either of affirmation or of denial. It is now, however, commonly held that several wholly different meanings of the verb to be should be distinguished in this connection, including at least the following: predication of a monadic propositional function of its argument (the sun is hot, 7 is a prime number, mankind is numerous); formal implication (gold is heavy, a horse is a quadruped, mankind is sinful); identity (China is Cathay, that is the sun, I am the State); formal equivalence (lightning is an electric discharge between parts of a cloud and the earth). -- A.C.

Courage: In ethical discussions courage is usually regarded as a virtue (it is one of the traditional cardinal virtues), and either enjoined as a duty or praised as an excellence. When thus regarded as a virtue, courage is generally said to be a disposition, not merely instinctive, to exhibit a certain firmness, stopping short of rashness, in the face of danger, threat, temptation, pain, public opinion, etc. (thus including "moral" as well as physical courage, and passive courage or "fortitude" as well as active courage); which disposition, if it is to be a virtue, must, it is thought, be exhibited in the course of what the bearer knows or believes to be his duty, or at least in the support of some cause to which one is seriously committed or which is generally regarded as worthwhile. -- W.K.F.

C preprocessor "tool, programming" (cpp) The standard {Unix} {macro}-expansion utility run as the first phase of the {C} compiler, {cc}. Cpp interprets lines beginning with "

(c) The traditional problem of the origin of knowledge, viz. By what faculty or faculties of mind is knowledge attainable? It gave rise to the principal cleavage in modern epistemology between rationalism and empiricism (q.v.) though both occur in any thinker. The rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz) rely primarily -- though not exclusively -- on reason as the source of genuine knowledge, and the empiricists (Locke, Berkeley and Hume) rely mainly on experience. A broadly conceived empiricism such as Locke's which acknowledges the authenticity of knowledge derived both from the inner sense (see Reflection; Introspection), and the outer senses, contrasts with that type of sensationalism (q.v.) which is empiricism restricted to the outer senses. Various attempts, the most notable of which is the critical philosophy of Kant, have been made to reconcile rationalism and empiricism by assigning to reason and experience their respective roles in the constitution of knowledge. Few historical or contemporary epistemologists would subscribe either to a rationalism or an empiricism of an exclusive and extreme sort.

cultural anthropology ::: Traditionally refers to the study of cultural similarities and differences. In Integral Theory, it is exemplified in the study of worldviews and their patterns and regularities, as conducted by researchers as diverse as Jean Gebser and Michel Foucault. A third-person approach to first-person plural realities. An outside view of the interior of a collective (i.e., the outside view of a holon in the Lower-Left quadrant). Exemplary of a zone-

Culture hero: A historical person whose teachings, doings or accomplishments live on, usually in an idealized version, in the myths, legends and traditions of his tribe, race or people. Culture heroes are usually raised by posterity to a divine or semi-divine status or regarded to have been incarnations of high-ranking gods.

custom ::: 1. A habitual practice of a person or a group. 2. A common tradition or usage so long established that it has the force or validity of law. custom"s.

cycle crunch "jargon" A situation wherein the number of people trying to use a computer simultaneously has reached the point where no one can get enough {cycles} because they are spread too thin and the system has probably begun to {thrash}. This scenario is an inevitable result of Parkinson's Law applied to {time-sharing}. Usually the only solution is to buy more computer. Happily, this has rapidly become easier since the mid-1980s, so much so that the very term "cycle crunch" now has a faintly archaic flavour; most hackers now use {workstations} or {personal computers} as opposed to traditional {time-sharing} systems. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-29)

daitya ::: an enemy of the gods (devas), the "opposing or too violently forward-striving Titan"; any of the sons of Diti, meaning "the division, the separative consciousness", who is the mother of the Titans as Aditi is the mother of the gods.

dakshina. ::: a monetary gift traditionally given to a Guru by a disciple

Darsana: (Skr. view) Philosophy, philosophical position, philosophical system. Six systems (saddarsana) are recognized as orthodox in Indian philosophy because they fall in line with Vedic tradition (cf. Indian Philosophy). -- K.F.L.

database manager The part of the database management system (DBMS) that handles the organisation, storage and retrieval of the data. A database manager may work with traditional programming languages, such as COBOL and BASIC, or may work only with its proprietary programming language. The terms database manager and database management system are used interchangeably. A database manager links two or more files together and is the foundation for developing routine business systems. Contrast with file manager, which works with only one file at a time and is typically used interactively on a personal computer for managing personal, independent files, such as name and address lists.

data mart "database" A type of {data warehouse} designed primarily to address a specific function or department's needs, as opposed to a data warehouse which is traditionally meant to address the needs of the organisation from an enterprise perspective. In addition, a data mart often uses {aggregation} or summarisation of the data to enhance query performance. However, it is important to maintain the ability to access the underlying base data to enable {drill-down analysis} as necessary. (1998-04-24)

delta 1. A quantitative change, especially a small or incremental one (this use is general in physics and engineering). "I just doubled the speed of my program!" "What was the delta on program size?" "About 30 percent." (He doubled the speed of his program, but increased its size by only 30 percent.) 2. [Unix] A {diff}, especially a {diff} stored under the set of version-control tools called SCCS (Source Code Control System) or RCS (Revision Control System). See {change management}. 3. A small quantity, but not as small as {epsilon}. The jargon usage of {delta} and {epsilon} stems from the traditional use of these letters in mathematics for very small numerical quantities, particularly in "epsilon-delta" proofs in limit theory (as in the differential calculus). The term {delta} is often used, once {epsilon} has been mentioned, to mean a quantity that is slightly bigger than {epsilon} but still very small. "The cost isn't epsilon, but it's delta" means that the cost isn't totally negligible, but it is nevertheless very small. Common constructions include "within delta of ---", "within epsilon of ---": that is, "close to" and "even closer to". [{Jargon File}] (2000-08-02)

demo /de'moh/ 1. A demonstration of a product, often of an early version or prototype. A demo is a far more effective way of inducing bugs to manifest themselves than any number of {test} runs, especially when important people are watching. 2. {demo version}. 3. A program written to demonstrate the programmer's coding ability and/or the power of the computer it runs on. Such demos are nearly always written in {machine code} and traditionally feature scrolling text about the author, his friends, his code and anything else he fancies and animated graphics. [{Jargon File}] (1994-11-04)

dhoti. ::: a long piece of material worn around the waist by traditionally-dressed men in India, rather like a long skirt

Dictum de omni et nullo: The leading principles of the syllogisms in Barbara and Celarent, variously formulated, and attributed to Aristotle. "Whatever is affirmed (denied) of an entire class or kind may be affirmed (denied) of any part." The four moods of the first figure were held to be directly validated by this dictum, and this was given as the motive for the traditional reductions of the last three syllogistic figures to the first. See also Aristotle's dictum. -- A.C.

Digital Equipment Corporation "company, hardware" (DEC) A computer manufacturer and software vendor. Before the {killer micro} revolution of the late 1980s, hackerdom was closely symbiotic with DEC's pioneering {time-sharing} machines. The first of the group of hacker cultures nucleated around the {PDP-1} (see {TMRC}). Subsequently, the {PDP-6}, {PDP-10}, {PDP-20}, {PDP-11} and {VAX} were all foci of large and important hackerdoms and DEC machines long dominated the {ARPANET} and {Internet} machine population. The first PC from DEC was a {CP/M} computer called {Rainbow}, announced in 1981-82. DEC was the technological leader of the minicomputer era (roughly 1967 to 1987), but its failure to embrace {microcomputers} and {Unix} early cost it heavily in profits and prestige after {silicon} got cheap. However, the {microprocessor} design tradition owes a heavy debt to the {PDP-11} {instruction set}, and every one of the major general-purpose microcomputer {operating systems} so far (CP/M, {MS-DOS}, {Unix}, {OS/2}) were either genetically descended from a DEC OS, or incubated on DEC {hardware} or both. Accordingly, DEC is still regarded with a certain wry affection even among many hackers too young to have grown up on DEC machines. The contrast with {IBM} is instructive. Quarterly sales $3923M, profits -$1746M (Aug 1994). DEC was taken over by {Compaq Computer Corporation} in 1998. In 2002 Compaq was in turn acquired by {Hewlett-Packard} who sold off parts of Digital Equipment Corporation to {Intel} and absorbed the rest. The Digital logo is no longer used. (2012-07-29)

Digital Versatile Disk Random Access Memory "storage" (DVD-RAM) Rewritable {DVD} media that is recordable on both sides, giving up to 9.6{GB} of storage. A drive can record to disk and read from it at the same time, so the term {full duplex} is often used. There are two general types of media: traditional discrete disk in DVD or Jewel case, and one in a permanent case like a large floppy; the disk remains in the case, and the case goes into the drive. The former can sometimes be read by regular DVD drives; the latter obviously cannot. {Technical details, somewhat dated, at burnworld.com (http://burnworld.com/dvd/primer/dvdram.htm)}. (2005-01-26)

Dilemma: See Proof by cases, and Logic, formal, § 2. Dilettantism: Opposite of professionalism. If contributed to art appreciation because it opposed the too intellectual rules of traditional taste, particularly in Rome, 2nd century; in France and England, 18th century. -- L.V.

dinosaur pen A traditional {mainframe} computer room complete with raised flooring, special power, its own ultra-heavy-duty air conditioning, and a side order of Halon fire extinguishers. See {boa}. (1995-11-17)

directory "file system" A node in a hierarchical {file system} which contains zero or more other nodes - generally, {files} or other directories. The term "folder" is sometimes used in systems such as the {Macintosh} or {Microsoft Windows} in which directories are traditionally depicted as folders (like small briefcases). (2007-02-21)

discrete cosine transform "mathematics" (DCT) A technique for expressing a waveform as a weighted sum of cosines. The DCT is central to many kinds of {signal processing}, especially video {compression}. Given data A(i), where i is an integer in the range 0 to N-1, the forward DCT (which would be used e.g. by an encoder) is: B(k) =  sum  A(i) cos((pi k/N) (2 i + 1)/2)     i=0 to N-1 B(k) is defined for all values of the frequency-space variable k, but we only care about integer k in the range 0 to N-1. The inverse DCT (which would be used e.g. by a decoder) is: AA(i)=  sum  B(k) (2-delta(k-0)) cos((pi k/N)(2 i + 1)/2)     k=0 to N-1 where delta(k) is the {Kronecker delta}. The main difference between this and a {discrete Fourier transform} (DFT) is that the DFT traditionally assumes that the data A(i) is periodically continued with a period of N, whereas the DCT assumes that the data is continued with its mirror image, then periodically continued with a period of 2N. Mathematically, this transform pair is exact, i.e. AA(i) == A(i), resulting in {lossless coding}; only when some of the coefficients are approximated does compression occur. There exist fast DCT {algorithms} in analogy to the {Fast Fourier Transform}. (1997-03-10)

Distribution (of terms): In the four traditional Aristotelian propositional forms, the subjects of universal propositions and the predicates of negative propositions are distributed, the other terms are undistributed. -- C.A.B.

dragon ::: a mythical monster traditionally represented as a gigantic reptile having a lion"s claws, the tail of a serpent, wings, and a scaly skin. (Also employed by Sri Aurobindo as an adjective.)

druid ::: n. --> One of an order of priests which in ancient times existed among certain branches of the Celtic race, especially among the Gauls and Britons.

A member of a social and benevolent order, founded in London in 1781, and professedly based on the traditions of the ancient Druids. Lodges or groves of the society are established in other countries.


dynamic random-access memory "storage" (DRAM) A type of {semiconductor} memory in which the information is stored in {capacitors} on a {MOS} {integrated circuit}. Typically each {bit} is stored as an amount of electrical charge in a storage cell consisting of a capacitor and a {transistor}. Due to leakage the capacitor discharges gradually and the memory cell loses the information. Therefore, to preserve the information, the memory has to be refreshed periodically. Despite this inconvenience, the DRAM is a very popular memory technology because of its high density and consequent low price. The first commercially available DRAM chip was the {Intel 1103}, introduced in 1970. Early DRAM chips, containing up to a 16k x 1 (16384 locations of one bit each), needed 3 supply voltages (+5V, -5V and +12V). Beginning with the 64 kilobit chips, {charge pumps} were included on-chip to create the necessary supply voltages out of a single +5V supply. This was necessary to fit the device into a 16-pin {DIL} package, which was the preferred package at the time, and also made them easier to use. To reduce the pin count, thereby helping miniaturisation, DRAMs generally had a single data line which meant that a computer with an N bit wide {data bus} needed a "bank" of (at least) N DRAM chips. In a bank, the address and control signals of all chips were common and the data line of each chip was connected to one of the data bus lines. Beginning with the 256 kilobit DRAM, a tendency toward {surface mount} packaging arose and DRAMs with more than one data line appeared (e.g. 64k x 4), reducing the number of chips per bank. This trend has continued and DRAM chips with up to 36 data lines are available today. Furthermore, together with surface mount packages, memory manufacturers began to offer memory modules, where a bank of memory chips was preassembled on a little {printed circuit} board (SIP = Single Inline Pin Module, SIMM = Single Inline Memory Module, DIMM = Dual Inline Memory Module). Today, this is the preferred way to buy memory for {workstations} and {personal computers}. DRAM bit cells are arranged on a chip in a grid of rows and columns where the number of rows and columns are usually a power of two. Often, but not always, the number of rows and columns is the same. A one megabit device would then have 1024 x 1024 memory cells. A single memory cell can be selected by a 10-bit row address and a 10-bit column address. To access a memory cell, one entire row of cells is selected and its contents are transferred into an on-chip buffer. This discharges the storage capacitors in the bit cells. The desired bits are then read or written in the buffer. The (possibly altered) information is finally written back into the selected row, thereby refreshing all bits (recharging the capacitors) in the row. To prevent data loss, all bit cells in the memory need to be refreshed periodically. This can be done by reading all rows in regular intervals. Most DRAMs since 1970 have been specified such that one of the rows needs to be refreshed at least every 15.625 microseconds. For a device with 1024 rows, a complete refresh of all rows would then take up to 16 ms; in other words, each cell is guaranteed to hold the data for 16 ms without refresh. Devices with more rows have accordingly longer retention times. Many varieties of DRAM exist today. They differ in the way they are interfaced to the system - the structure of the memory cell itself is essentially the same. "Traditional" DRAMs have multiplexed address lines and separate data inputs and outputs. There are three control signals: RAS\ (row address strobe), CAS\ (column address strobe), and WE\ (write enable) (the backslash indicates an {active low} signal). Memory access procedes as follows: 1. The control signals initially all being inactive (high), a memory cycle is started with the row address applied to the address inputs and a falling edge of RAS\ . This latches the row address and "opens" the row, transferring the data in the row to the buffer. The row address can then be removed from the address inputs since it is latched on-chip. 2. With RAS\ still active, the column address is applied to the address pins and CAS\ is made active as well. This selects the desired bit or bits in the row which subsequently appear at the data output(s). By additionally activating WE\ the data applied to the data inputs can be written into the selected location in the buffer. 3. Deactivating CAS\ disables the data input and output again. 4. Deactivating RAS\ causes the data in the buffer to be written back into the memory array. Certain timing rules must be obeyed to guarantee reliable operation. 1. RAS\ must remain inactivate for a while before the next memory cycle is started to provide sufficient time for the storage capacitors to charge (Precharge Time). 2. It takes some time from the falling edge of the RAS\ or CAS\ signals until the data appears at the data output. This is specified as the Row Access Time and the Column Access Time. Current DRAM's have Row Access Times of 50-100 ns and Column Access Times of 15-40 ns. Speed grades usually refer to the former, more important figure. Note that the Memory Cycle Time, which is the minimum time from the beginning of one access to the beginning of the next, is longer than the Row Access Time (because of the Precharge Time). Multiplexing the address pins saves pins on the chip, but usually requires additional logic in the system to properly generate the address and control signals, not to mention further logic for refresh. Therefore, DRAM chips are usually preferred when (because of the required memory size) the additional cost for the control logic is outweighed by the lower price. Based on these principles, chip designers have developed many varieties to improve performance or ease system integration of DRAMs: PSRAMs (Pseudo Static Random Access Memory) are essentially DRAMs with a built-in address {multiplexor} and refresh controller. This saves some system logic and makes the device look like a normal {SRAM}. This has been popular as a lower cost alternative for SRAM in {embedded systems}. It is not a complete SRAM substitute because it is sometimes busy when doing self-refresh, which can be tedious. {Nibble Mode DRAM} can supply four successive bits on one data line by clocking the CAS\ line. {Page Mode DRAM} is a standard DRAM where any number of accesses to the currently open row can be made while the RAS signal is kept active. Static Column DRAM is similar to Page Mode DRAM, but to access different bits in the open row, only the column address needs to be changed while the CAS\ signal stays active. The row buffer essentially behaves like SRAM. {Extended Data Out DRAM} (EDO DRAM) can continue to output data from one address while setting up a new address, for use in {pipelined} systems. DRAM used for Video RAM ({VRAM}) has an additional long shift register that can be loaded from the row buffer. The shift register can be regarded as a second interface to the memory that can be operated in parallel to the normal interface. This is especially useful in {frame buffers} for {CRT} displays. These frame buffers generate a serial data stream that is sent to the CRT to modulate the electron beam. By using the shift register in the VRAM to generate this stream, the memory is available to the computer through the normal interface most of the time for updating the display data, thereby speeding up display data manipulations. SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) adds a separate clock signal to the control signals. It allows more complex {state machines} on the chip and high speed "burst" accesses that clock a series of successive bits out (similar to the nibble mode). CDRAM (Cached DRAM) adds a separate static RAM array used for caching. It essentially combines main memory and {cache} memory in a single chip. The cache memory controller needs to be added externally. RDRAM (Rambus DRAM) changes the system interface of DRAM completely. A byte-wide bus is used for address, data and command transfers. The bus operates at very high speed: 500 million transfers per second. The chip operates synchronously with a 250MHz clock. Data is transferred at both rising and falling edges of the clock. A system with signals at such frequencies must be very carefully designed, and the signals on the Rambus Channel use nonstandard signal levels, making it incompatible with standard system logic. These disadvantages are compensated by a very fast data transfer, especially for burst accesses to a block of successive locations. A number of different refresh modes can be included in some of the above device varieties: RAS\ only refresh: a row is refreshed by an ordinary read access without asserting CAS\. The data output remains disabled. CAS\ before RAS\ refresh: the device has a built-in counter for the refresh row address. By activating CAS\ before activating RAS\, this counter is selected to supply the row address instead of the address inputs. Self-Refresh: The device is able to generate refresh cycles internally. No external control signal transitions other than those for bringing the device into self-refresh mode are needed to maintain data integrity. (1996-07-11)

Edwards, Jonathan: (1703-1758) American theologian. He is looked upon by many as one of the first theologians that the New World has produced. Despite the formalistic nature of his system, there is a noteworthy aesthetic foundation in his emphasis on "divine and supernatural light" as the basis for illumination and the searchlight to an exposition of such topics as freedom and original sin. Despite the aura of tradition about his pastorates at Northampton and Stockbridge, his missionary services among the Indians and his short lived presidency of Princeton University, then the College of New Jersey, he remains significant in the fields of theology, metaphysics, epistemology, aesthetics and ethics. See Life and Works of Jonathan Edwards, 10 vol. (1830) ed. S. E. Dvsight. -- L.E.D.

elvish "character" 1. The Tengwar of Feanor, a table of letterforms resembling the beautiful Celtic half-uncial hand of the "Book of Kells". Invented and described by J.R.R. Tolkien in "The Lord of The Rings" as an orthography for his fictional "elvish" languages, this system (which is both visually and phonetically {elegant}) has long fascinated hackers (who tend to be intrigued by artificial languages in general). It is traditional for graphics printers, plotters, window systems, and the like to support a Feanorian typeface as one of their demo items. By extension, the term might be used for any odd or unreadable typeface produced by a graphics device. 2. The typeface mundanely called "B"ocklin", an art-decoish {display font}. [Why?] [{Jargon File}] (1998-04-28)

epic ::: adj. 1. An extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero. 2. Resembling or suggesting such poetry. 3. Heroic; majestic; impressively great. 4. Of unusually great size or extent. n. 5. An epic poem. 6. Any composition resembling an epic. epics.

epistemology ::: Traditionally, the study of knowledge and its validity. In Integral Post-Metaphysics, epistemology is not a separate discipline or activity but that aspect of the AQAL matrix that is experienced as knowingness; the study of that aspect is epistemology. The term “epistemology” is sometimes used in this sense given the lack of alternatives.

Euhemerism: The view that explains religious myths as traditional and partially distorted accounts of historical events and personages; from Euhemerus, Cyrenaic philosopher (c. 300 B.C.), who advanced the theory that the gods of mythology were deified heroes. -- G.R.M.

Excluded middle, law of, or tertium non datur, is given by traditional logicians as "A is B or A is not B." This is usually identified with the theorem of the propositional calculus, p ∨ ∼p to which the same name is given. The general validity of the law is denied by the school of mathematical intuitiontsm (q. v.). -- A.C.

Existential proposition: Traditionally, a proposition which directly asserts the existence of its subject, as, e.g., Descartes's "ergo sum" or the Christian's "Good exists." Expressed in symbolic notation, such a proposition has a form like (Ex)M.

extraditable ::: a. --> Subject, or liable, to extradition, as a fugitive from justice.

Making liable to extradition; as, extraditable offenses.


extradite ::: v. t. --> To deliver up by one government to another, as a fugitive from justice. See Extradition.

extraditing ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Extradite

extradition ::: n. --> The surrender or delivery of an alleged criminal by one State or sovereignty to another having jurisdiction to try charge.

Fallacy is any unsound step or process of reasoning, especially one which has a deceptive appearance of soundness or is falsely accepted as sound. The unsoundness may consist either in a mistake of formal logic, or in the suppression of a premiss whose unacceptability might have been recognized if it had been stated, or in a lack of genuine adaptation of the reasoning to its purpose. Of the traditional names which purport to describe particular kinds of fallacies, not all have a sufficiently definite or generally accepted meaning to justify notice. See, however, the following:

Fideism: A doctrine of Abbe Bautain which attempted to justify the teachings of Christianity by the theory that all knowledge rested upon premises accepted by faith. The premises of religion are to be found in the tradition of the Synagogue and Church. This tradition needs no rational criticism because it is self-critical. The doctrine was condemned in 1840 by Gregory XVI. -- G.B.

fill-out form "programming" A type of {user interface} used, for example, on the {web}, to organise a set of questions or options for the user so that it resembles a traditional paper form that is filled out. Typical query types are: fill-in-the-blank (text), menu of options, select zero or more, or select exactly one ("{radio buttons}"). Most {web browsers} support fill-out forms. {Overview (http://ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Software/Mosaic/Docs/fill-out-forms/overview.html)}. (1998-03-24)

Finally the period ends with the great John Duns Scotus (+1308), whose thought is characterized by great acuteness and a fine critical sense. In opposition to that of St. Thomas, his synthesis lays greater stress on the traditional Augustinian theses.

Florentine Academy: It was a loose and informal circle of scholars and educated persons which gathered in Florence around the Platonic philosopher Marsilio Ficino. Its activities consisted in regular lectures on Platonic philosophy as well as in informal discussions and parties. "Platonic" love or friendship was considered as the spiritual link between the members of the group which was organized and named after the model of Plato's Academy. The main documents describing it are Ficino's correspondence and a number of dialogues like Ficino's commentary on Plato's Symposion, Landino's Disputationes Camaldulenses , and Benedetto Colucci's Declamationes. Outstanding members or associates of the Academy were Cosimo, Piero, and Lorenzo de'Medici, Angelo Poliziano, and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola. The Academy which was first founded in 1462, dissolved after the revolution in Florence (1494) and after Ficino's death (1499), but the tradition of Platonic philosophy was continued in other private circles as well as at the universities of Florence and Pisa throughout the sixteenth century. -- P.O.K.

Folklore: The surviving beliefs, legends, myths and traditions of a people, usually transmitted by word of mouth.

Folkways: (AS folc) Customs. Conventions. Mores. Traditional group behavior patterns. Cf. Sumner, Folkways. -- A.J.B.

Formal: 1. In the traditional use: valid independently of the specific subject-mattei; having a merely logical meaning (see Meaning. Kinds of, 3). 2. Narrower sense, in modern logic: independent of, without reference to meaning (compare Semiotic, 3). -- R.C.

Formal Cause: See Form; Aristotelianism. Formalism: (a) In ethics: the term is sometimes used as equivalent to intuitionism in the traditional sense. See Intuitionism. Also used to designate any ethical theory, such as Kant's, in which the basic principles for determining our duties are purely formal. See Ethics, formal. -- W.K.F.

For the use of this word in traditional logic, see Predicate.

forward engineering "process" The traditional process of moving from high-level abstractions and logical, implementation-independent designs to the physical implementation of a system. Contrast {reverse engineering}. (1996-10-02)

From the principle of the antilogism, together with obversion, simple conversion of E and I, and the fact that in the pairs, A and O, E and I, each proposition of the pair is equivalent to the negation of the other, all of the traditional valid moods of the syllogism may be derived except those which require a third (existential) premiss (see logic, formal, §§4, 5). With the further aid of subalternation the remaining valid moods may be derived.

From this point the notion of Ich in the German idealistic tradition passes into voluntaristic channels, with emphasis on the dynamic will, as in Schopenhiuer, Eduard von Hartmann and Nietzsche; the pragmatic-psychologic interpretation, typified by Lotze and other post-idealists; and such reconstructions of the transcendental I as are to be found in the school of Husserl and related groups.

FUD "jargon" /fuhd/ An acronym invented by {Gene Amdahl} after he left {IBM} to found his own company: "FUD is the fear, uncertainty, and doubt that {IBM} sales people instill in the minds of potential customers who might be considering [Amdahl] products." The idea, of course, was to persuade them to go with safe IBM gear rather than with competitors' equipment. This implicit coercion was traditionally accomplished by promising that Good Things would happen to people who stuck with IBM, but Dark Shadows loomed over the future of competitors' equipment or software. [{Jargon File}] (1995-05-23)

gan.a ::: group; (in the Indian tradition) a group of attendants, especially the demigods attending on Śiva; (in the Record of Yoga) devatas acting as agents of the isvara.

gandharva (gandharva; gundharva) ::: a kind of supernatural being, traditionally a celestial musician, belonging to a world of beauty and enjoyment; in the evolutionary scale, a sub-type of the deva type, imparting grace and refinement to lower types with which it is combined. gandharva-pasu

Generally in The Secret Doctrine it is the fifth kosmic element from below, a link between kosmic mind or mahat and the lower manifested world, the vehicle of the former and the parent of the latter. Looking at aether in a more general kosmic way, it is the field of activity of the kosmic Third Logos, Brahma-prakriti, and therefore the great womb of manifested being, the treasure house of all kosmic types, forth from which they flow at the opening of manifestation and back into which they will again be ingathered at the beginning of kosmic pralaya. It is in consequence the great mother-substance out of which all the hierarchies are built. It interpenetrates everything, lasting from the beginning of the universal manvantara to its end, and indeed, may be said to continue, in its most spiritualized form throughout kosmic pralaya as the seed-house or storehouse from which everything will flow into manifestation again when the new period of kosmic activity arrives. Considered as the cosmic mother of all things, aether in its highest feminine aspect is the same as the Vedic Aditi or the Hera or Juno of Greece and Rome. Thus in one sense it is also mulaprakriti, the generator or producer of the seeds of beginnings and things. The Old Testament refers to aether as the kosmic waters. In its highest parts it is mystically alaya (the kosmic spirit-soul) or what in Northern Buddhism is called svabhavat, more mystically adi-buddhi. See also ACTIO IN DISTANS; AKASA

generic programming "programming" A programming technique which aims to make programs more adaptable by making them more general. Generic programs often embody non-traditional kinds of {polymorphism}; ordinary programs are obtained from them by suitably instantiating their parameters. In contrast with normal programs, the parameters of a generic programs are often quite rich in structure. For example they may be other programs, {types} or {type constructors} or even programming {paradigms}. (1997-11-22)

Godwin's Law "humour" "As a {Usenet} discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches one." There is a tradition in many groups that, once this occurs, that {thread} is over, and whoever mentioned the Nazis has automatically lost whatever argument was in progress. Godwin's Law thus practically guarantees the existence of an {upper bound} on thread length in those groups. However there is also a widely recognised codicil that any intentional triggering of Godwin's Law in order to invoke its thread-ending effects will be unsuccessful. [{Jargon}]. (2003-10-06)

Great Chain of Being ::: Traditionally refers to the central claim of premodern wisdom traditions: that reality consists of a great hierarchy of knowing and being which can be summarized as matter to body to mind to soul to spirit, and at which any level human beings can operate. In Integral Theory, the Great Chain is not accepted as pregiven, but is considered the product of evolutionary unfolding.

Greece. Homeric thought centered in Moira (Fate), an impersonal, immaterial power that distributes to gods and men their respective stations. While the main stream of pre-Socratic thought was naturalistic, it was not materialistic. The primordial Being of things, the Physis, is both extended and spiritual (hylozoism). Soul and Mind are invariably identified with Physis. Empedocles' distinction between inertia and force (Love and Hate) was followed by Anaxagoras' introduction of Mind (Nous) as the first cause of order and the principle of spontaneity or life in things. Socrates emphasized the ideological principle and introduced the category of Value as primary both in Nature and Man. He challenged the completeness of the mechanical explanation of natural events. Plato's theory of Ideas (as traditionally interpreted by historians) is at once a metaphysics, epistemology, and axiology. Ideas, forming a hierarchy and systematically united in the Good, are timeless essences comprising the realm of true Being. They are archetypes and causes of things in the realm of Non-Being (Space). Aristotle, while moving in the direction of common-sense realism, was also idealistic. Forms or species are secondary substances, and collectively form the dynamic and rational structure of the World. Active reason (Nous Poietikos), possessed by all rational creatures, is immaterial and eternal. Mind is the final cause of all motion. God is pure Mind, self-contained, self-centered, and metaphysically remote from the spatial World. The Stoics united idealism and hylozoistic naturalism in their doctrine of dynamic rational cosmic law (Logos), World Soul, Pneuma, and Providence (Pronoia).

Grotesque: (It. grottesca, from grotta, grotto) The idealized ugly. In aesthetics, the beauty of fantastic exaggeration, traditionally achieved by combining foliate and animal or human figures, as for example those found in the classic Roman and Pompeiian palaces and reproduced by Raphael in the Vatican. -- J.K.F.

guru purnima. ::: annual festival traditionally celebrated by hindus and buddhists &

Hacking X for Y [ITS] Ritual phrasing of part of the information which ITS made publicly available about each user. This information (the INQUIR record) was a sort of form in which the user could fill out various fields. On display, two of these fields were always combined into a project description of the form "Hacking X for Y" (e.g. ""Hacking perceptrons for Minsky""). This form of description became traditional and has since been carried over to other systems with more general facilities for self-advertisement (such as Unix {plan files}). [{Jargon File}]

hadith :::   tradition; saying attributed to, or anecdote regarding Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), according to traditional eyewitness accounts

halacha ::: n. --> The general term for the Hebrew oral or traditional law; one of two branches of exposition in the Midrash. See Midrash.

halo ::: a geometric shape, usually in the form of a disk, circle, ring or rayed structure, traditionally representing a radiant light around or above the head of a divine or sacred personage. haloed.

Hamann, Johann Georg: (1730-1788) Kant's extreme pietist friend, and, like him, a native of Königsberg, he saw in the critical philosophy of Kant an unsuccessful attempt to make reason independent of all tradition, belief and experience. -- H.H.

hardwarily /hard-weir'*-lee/ In a way pertaining to hardware. "The system is hardwarily unreliable." The adjective "hardwary" is *not* traditionally used, though it has recently been reported from the U.K. See {softwarily}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-23)

Heidegger, Martin: (1889-) Trained in Husserl's radical structural analysis of pure consciousness, Heidegger shares with phenomenology the effort to methodically analyze and describe the conceptual meanings of single phenomena. He aimed at a phenomenological analysis of human existence in respect to its temporal and historical character. Concentrating on the Greek tradition, and endeavoring to open a totally different approach from that of the Greek thinkers to the problem of being, he seeks to find his way back to an inner independence of philosophy from the special sciences. Before a start can be made in the radical analysis of human existence, the road has to be cleared of the objections of philosophical tradition, science, logic and common sense. As the moderns have forgotten the truths the great thinkers discovered, have lost the ability to penetrate to the real origins, the recovery of the hard-won, original, uncorrupted insights of man into metaphysical reality, is only possible through a "destructive" analysis of the traditional philosophies. By this recovery of the hidden sources, Heidegger aims to revive the genuine philosophizing which, not withstanding appearances, has vanished from us in the Western world because of autonomous science serious disputing of the position of philosophy. As human reality is so structured that it discloses itself immediately, he writes really an idealistic philosophy of homo faber. But instead of being a rationalistic idealist reading reason into the structure of the really real, he takes a more avowedly emotional phenomenon as the center of a new solution of the Seinsfrage.

He is one of many symbols of the mystic Christ, the God made man. Though the son of Father and Mother, he is identical with the Father. Adonis is identified with both Osiris and Horus; with the Semitic Thammuz in Ezekiel, Athamaz, Tamaz, and ’Adam Qadmon (SD 2:43-4); with the Indian Aditi; and the Hebrew Adon or ’Adonai. Adonis is spoken of as both a lunar and solar god, since what is solar from one point of view may be lunar from another — for instance, he may represent the sun in a lunar system. Adonis is connected with the solar year, as shown in the allegory of his six-months alternation.

He lived in the time when the moral and cultural traditions of Chou were in rapid decline. Attempting to uphold the Chou culture, he taught poetry, history, ceremonies and music to 3,000 pupils, becoming the first Chinese educator to offer education to any who cared to come with or without tuition. He taught literature, human conduct, being one's true self and honesty in social relationships. He wrote the chronicles called Spring and Autumn. His tacit judgments on social and political events were such that "unruly ministers and villainous sons were afraid" to repeat their evil deeds.

hello, sailor! "jargon" Occasional West Coast equivalent of {hello, world}; seems to have originated at SAIL, later associated with the game {Zork} (which also included "hello, aviator" and "hello, implementor"). Originally from the traditional hooker's greeting to a swabbie fresh off the boat, of course. [{Jargon File}] (2007-10-30)

hello, world "programming" The canonical, minimal, first program that a programmer writes in a new {programming language} or {development environment}. The program just prints "hello, world" to {standard output} in order to verify that the programmer can successfully edit, compile and run a simple program before embarking on anything more challenging. Hello, world is the first example program in the {C} programming book, {K&R}, and the tradition has spread from there to pretty much every other language and many of their textbooks. Environments that generate an unreasonably large executable for this trivial test or which require a {hairy} compiler-linker invocation to generate it are considered bad. {Hello, World in over 400 programming languages (http://www.roesler-ac.de/wolfram/hello.htm)}. (2013-10-27)

Hence in its widest sense Scholasticism embraces all the intellectual activities, artistic, philosophical and theological, carried on in the medieval schools. Any attempt to define its narrower meaning in the field of philosophy raises serious difficulties, for in this case, though the term's comprehension is lessened, it still has to cover many centuries of many-faced thought. However, it is still possible to list several characteristics sufficient to differentiate Scholastic from non-Scholastic philosophy. While ancient philosophy was the philosophy of a people and modern thought that of individuals, Scholasticism was the philosophy of a Christian society which transcended the characteristics of individuals, nations and peoples. It was the corporate product of social thought, and as such its reasoning respected authority in the forms of tradition and revealed religion. Tradition consisted primarily in the systems of Plato and Aristotle as sifted, adapted and absorbed through many centuries. It was natural that religion, which played a paramount role in the culture of the middle ages, should bring influence to bear on the medieval, rational view of life. Revelation was held to be at once a norm and an aid to reason. Since the philosophers of the period were primarily scientific theologians, their rational interests were dominated by religious preoccupations. Hence, while in general they preserved the formal distinctions between reason and faith, and maintained the relatively autonomous character of philosophy, the choice of problems and the resources of science were controlled by theology. The most constant characteristic of Scholasticism was its method. This was formed naturally by a series of historical circumstances,   The need of a medium of communication, of a consistent body of technical language tooled to convey the recently revealed meanings of religion, God, man and the material universe led the early Christian thinkers to adopt the means most viable, most widely extant, and nearest at hand, viz. Greek scientific terminology. This, at first purely utilitarian, employment of Greek thought soon developed under Justin, Clement of Alexandria, Origin, and St. Augustine into the "Egyptian-spoils" theory; Greek thought and secular learning were held to be propaedeutic to Christianity on the principle: "Whatever things were rightly said among all men are the property of us Christians." (Justin, Second Apology, ch. XIII). Thus was established the first characteristic of the Scholastic method: philosophy is directly and immediately subordinate to theology.   Because of this subordinate position of philosophy and because of the sacred, exclusive and total nature of revealed wisdom, the interest of early Christian thinkers was focused much more on the form of Greek thought than on its content and, it might be added, much less of this content was absorbed by early Christian thought than is generally supposed. As practical consequences of this specialized interest there followed two important factors in the formation of Scholastic philosophy:     Greek logic en bloc was taken over by Christians;     from the beginning of the Christian era to the end of the XII century, no provision was made in Catholic centers of learning for the formal teaching of philosophy. There was a faculty to teach logic as part of the trivium and a faculty of theology.   For these two reasons, what philosophy there was during this long period of twelve centuries, was dominated first, as has been seen, by theology and, second, by logic. In this latter point is found rooted the second characteristic of the Scholastic method: its preoccupation with logic, deduction, system, and its literary form of syllogistic argumentation.   The third characteristic of the Scholastic method follows directly from the previous elements already indicated. It adds, however, a property of its own gained from the fact that philosophy during the medieval period became an important instrument of pedogogy. It existed in and for the schools. This new element coupled with the domination of logic, the tradition-mindedness and social-consciousness of the medieval Christians, produced opposition of authorities for or against a given problem and, finally, disputation, where a given doctrine is syllogistically defended against the adversaries' objections. This third element of the Scholastic method is its most original characteristic and accounts more than any other single factor for the forms of the works left us from this period. These are to be found as commentaries on single or collected texts; summae, where the method is dialectical or disputational in character.   The main sources of Greek thought are relatively few in number: all that was known of Plato was the Timaeus in the translation and commentary of Chalcidius. Augustine, the pseudo-Areopagite, and the Liber de Causis were the principal fonts of Neoplatonic literature. Parts of Aristotle's logical works (Categoriae and de Interpre.) and the Isagoge of Porphyry were known through the translations of Boethius. Not until 1128 did the Scholastics come to know the rest of Aristotle's logical works. The golden age of Scholasticism was heralded in the late XIIth century by the translations of the rest of his works (Physics, Ethics, Metaphysics, De Anima, etc.) from the Arabic by Gerard of Cremona, John of Spain, Gundisalvi, Michael Scot, and Hermann the German, from the Greek by Robert Grosseteste, William of Moerbeke, and Henry of Brabant. At the same time the Judae-Arabian speculation of Alkindi, Alfarabi, Avencebrol, Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides together with the Neoplatonic works of Proclus were made available in translation. At this same period the Scholastic attention to logic was turned to metaphysics, even psychological and ethical problems and the long-discussed question of the universals were approached from this new angle. Philosophy at last achieved a certain degree of autonomy and slowly forced the recently founded universities to accord it a separate faculty.

Herder, Johann Gottfried: (1744-1803) A founder of modern religious humanism, he explained human history as a consequence of the nature of man and of man's physical environment. Held implicitly to the view that society is basically an organic whole. Accounted for the differences in culture and institutions of different peoples as being due to geographical conditions. Although history is a process of the education of the human species, it has no definite goal of perfection and development. The vehicle of living culture is a distinct Volk or Nation with its distinct language and traditions. As a child of the Enlightenment, Herder had a blind faith in nature, in man and in the ultimate development of reason and justice.

hermeneutics ::: Traditionally refers to the study of interpretation. In Integral Theory, it is the study of interpretation within the interior of a “We,” as exemplified by Hans-Georg Gadamer. A first-person approach to first-person plural realities. The inside view of the interior of a collective (i.e., the inside view of a holon in the Lower-Left quadrant). Exemplary of a zone-

Hermetic Chain ::: Among the ancient Greeks there existed a mystical tradition of a chain of living beings, one end of whichincluded the divinities in their various grades or stages of divine authority and activities, and the otherend of which ran downwards through inferior gods and heroes and sages to ordinary men, and to thebeings below man. Each link of this living chain of beings inspired and instructed the chain below itself,thus transmitting and communicating from link to link to the end of the marvelous living chain, love andwisdom and knowledge concerning the secrets of the universe, eventuating in mankind as the arts and thesciences necessary for human life and civilization. This was mystically called the Hermetic Chain or theGolden Chain.In the ancient Mysteries the teaching of the existence and nature of the Hermetic Chain was fullyexplained; it is a true teaching because it represents distinctly and clearly and faithfully true and actualoperations of nature. More or less faint and distorted copies of the teaching of this Hermetic Chain orGolden Chain or succession of teachers were taken over by various later formal and exoteric sects, suchas the Christian Church, wherein the doctrine was called the Apostolic Succession. In all the greatMystery schools of antiquity there was this succession of teacher following teacher, each one passing onthe light to his successor as he himself had received it from his predecessor; and as long as thistransmission of light was a reality, it worked enormous spiritual benefit among men. Therefore all suchmovements lived, flourished, and did great good in the world. These teachers were the messengers tomen from the Great Lodge of the Masters of Wisdom and Compassion. (See also Guru-parampara)

High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line "communications, protocol" (HDSL) A form of {Digital Subscriber Line}, providing {T1} or {E1} connections over two or three {twisted-pair} copper lines, respectively. Unlike most other forms of DSL HDSL is not a typical consumer service, it's used mostly to replace traditional T1/E1 connections, such as connecting {PBXes} to {telco} offices. The advantage of HDSL over the {Alternate Mark Inversion} line coding scheme traditionally used on T1/E1 lines is that it requires about an order of magnitude lower bandwidth to carry the same traffic. (1998-05-18)

Hilbert and Ackermann, Grundzuge der theoretischen Logik, 2nd edn., Berlin, 1938. Logic, traditional: the name given to those parts and that method of treatment of formal logic which have come down substantially unchanged from classical and medieval times. Traditional logic emphasizes the analysis of propositions into subject and predicate and the associated classification into the four forms, A, E, I, O; and it is concerned chiefly with topics immediately related to these, including opposition, immediate inference, and the syllogism (see logic, formal). Associated with traditional logic are also the three so-called laws of thought -- the laws of identity (q. v.), contradiction (q. v.) -- and excluded middle (q. v.) -- and the doctrine that these laws are in a special sense fundamental presuppositions of reasoning, or even (by some) that all other principles of logic can be derived from them or are mere elaborations of them. Induction (q. v.) has been added in comparatively modern times (dating from Bacon's Novum Organum) to the subject matter of traditional logic. -- A. C.

Hilbert and Bernays, Grundlagen der Mathematik, vol. 1, Berlin, 1934; also Supplement III to vol. 2. Berlin. 1939. 2. HYPOTHETICAL SYLLOGISM, DISJUNCTIVE SYLLOGISM, DILEMMA are names traditionally given to certain, forms of inference, which may be identified as follows with certain particular forms of valid inference of the propositional calculus (see § 1).

Hinduism: A broad term designating the traditional religious and philosophic systems of India, past and present. (Cf. Vedic Hinduism; Brahmanic Hinduism.)

Historiography: (Gr. histor + graphein, to write) The art of recording history (q.v.). History: (Gr. histor, learned) Ambiguously used to denote either (a) events or (b) records of the past. The term historiography (q.v.) is used for (b). Also ambiguous in denoting natural as well as human events, or records of either. History of Art: Vasari (16th century) began the history of the artists. Winckelmann (18th century) began the history of art, that is of the development of the clements comprised in works of art. The history of art today is directed towards a synthesis of the personalities of the artists and of their reaction to tradition and environment. -- L.V.

hostname 1. (Or "sitename"). The unique name by which a computer is known on a {network}, used to identify it in {electronic mail}, {Usenet} {news}, or other forms of electronic information interchange. On the {Internet} the hostname is an {ASCII} string, e.g. "foldoc.doc.ic.ac.uk" which, consists of a local part (foldoc) and a {domain} name (doc.ic.ac.uk). The hostname is translated into an {Internet address} either via the {hosts file}, {NIS} or by the {Domain Name System} (DNS) or {resolver}. It is possible for one computer to have several hostnames (aliases) though one is designated as its {canonical} name. It is often possible to guess a hostname for a particular institution. This is useful if you want to know if they operate network services like {anonymous FTP}, {World-Wide Web} or {finger}. First try the institution's name or obvious abbreviations thereof, with the appropriate {domain} appended, e.g. "mit.edu". If this fails, prepend "ftp." or "www." as appropriate, e.g. "www.data-io.com". You can use the {ping} command as a quick way to test whether a hostname is valid. The folklore interest of hostnames stems from the creativity and humour they often display. Interpreting a sitename is not unlike interpreting a vanity licence plate; one has to mentally unpack it, allowing for mono-case and length restrictions and the lack of whitespace. Hacker tradition deprecates dull, institutional-sounding names in favour of punchy, humorous, and clever coinages (except that it is considered appropriate for the official public gateway machine of an organisation to bear the organisation's name or acronym). Mythological references, cartoon characters, animal names, and allusions to SF or fantasy literature are probably the most popular sources for sitenames (in roughly descending order). The obligatory comment is Harris's Lament: "All the good ones are taken!" See also {network address}. 2. {Berkeley} {Unix} command to set and get the application level name used by the host. {Unix manual page}: hostname(1). (1995-02-16)

Huai-nan Tzu: (Liu An, Prince of Huai-nan, d. 122 B.C) Grandson of the founder of the Han dynasty, was a man of Confucian traditions with Taoist inclinations. Thousands of scholars, experts and Taoist magician-priests gathered around him. When his rebellion failed, he committed suicide, leaving Huai-nan Hung-lieh (partial Eng. tr. by E. Morgan: Tao the Great Luminant) and other works now extinct. -- W.T.C.

ICBM address "networking, humour" (Or "missile address") The form used to register a site with the {Usenet} mapping project includes a space for longitude and latitude, preferably to seconds-of-arc accuracy. This is actually used for generating geographically-correct maps of {Usenet} links on a plotter; however, it has become traditional to refer to this as one's "ICBM address" or "missile address", and many people include it in their {sig block} with that name. (A real missile address would include target altitude.) [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-15)

Ich: (Ger. I, myself, me, the ego (q.v.)) In the German idealistic movement from Kant through Schopenhauer, the Ich, the final, ultimate conscious subject, plays a central and dynamic role. Kant discredited the traditional Cartesian conception of a simple, undecomposable, substantial I, intuitively known. On his view, the Ich is not a substance, but the functional, dynamic unity of consciousness -- a necessary condition of all experience and the ultimate subject for which all else is object. This "transcendental unity of apperception," bare consciousness as such, is by its very nature empty, it is neither a thing nor a concept. For the pute transcendental I, my empirical self is but one experience among others in the realm of phenomena, and one of which Kant does not seek an adequate definition. The stress on the pure I as opposed to the empirical self is carried over into his practical philosophy, where the moral agent becomes, not the concrete personality, but a pure rational will, i.e., a will seeking to act in accordance with an absolute universal law of duty, the categorical imperative (q.v.).

Idealists regard such an equalization of physical laws and psychological, historical laws as untenable. The "tvpical case" with which physics or chemistry analyzes is a result of logical abstraction; the object of history, however, is not a unit with universal traits but something individual, in a singular space and at a particular time, never repeatable under the same circumstances. Therefore no physical laws can be formed about it. What makes it a fact worthy of historical interest, is iust the fullness of live activity in it; it is a "value", not a "thing". Granted that historical events are exposed to influences from biological, geological, racial and traditional sources, they aie always carried by a human being whose singularity of character has assimilated the forces of his environment and surmounted them There is a reciprocal action between man and society, but it is always personal initiative and free productivity of the individual which account for history. Denying, therefore, the logical primacy of physical laws in history, does not mean lawlessness, and that is the standpoint of the logic of history in more recent times. Windelband and H. Rickert established another kind of historical order of laws. On their view, to understand history one must see the facts in their relation to a universally applicable and transcendental system of values. Values "are" not, they "hold"; they are not facts but realities of our reason, they are not developed but discovered. According to Max Weber historical facts form an ideally typical, transcendental whole which, although seen, can never be fully explained. G, Simmel went further into metaphysics: "life" is declared an historical category, it is the indefinable, last reality ascending to central values which shaped cultural epochs, such as the medieval idea of God, or the Renaissance-idea of Nature, only to be tragically disappointed, whereupon other values rise up, as humanity, liberty, technique, evolution and others.

Ideal of Reason: (Ger. Ideal der Vernunft) Kant: The idea of an all-comprehending reality, God, containing the determination of all finite existence. In the Cr. of Pure Reason Kant shows how and why the mind hypostatizes this Ideal, the source of "transcendental illusion" (q.v.). He concluded that while the traditional proofs of God's existence were all fallacious, the idea of God had a regulative use for reason, and was a necessary postulate for practical reason (q.v.). See Kantianism. -- O.F.K.

Identity, law of: Given by traditional logicians as "A is A." Because of the various possible meanings of the copula (q.v.) and the uncertainty as to the range of the variable A, this formulation is ambiguous. The traditional law is perhaps best identified with the theorem x = x, either of the functional calculus of first order with equality, or in the theory of types (with equality defined), or in the algebra of classes, etc. It has been, or may be, also identified with either of the theorems of the propositional calculus, p ⊃ p, p ≡ p, or with the theorem of the functional calculus of first order, F(x) ⊃x F(x). Many writers understand, however, by the law of identity a semantical principle -- that a word or other symbol may (or must) have a fixed referent in its various occurrences in a given context (so, e.g., Ledger Wood in his The Analysis of Knowledge). Some, it would seem, confuse such a semantical principle with a proposition of formal logic. -- A.C.

Immediate inference: See Logic, formal, § 4. Immoralism: Monl indifference, in general the combating of traditional morality. (Nietzsche.) -- H.H.

immemorial ::: a. --> Extending beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition; indefinitely ancient; as, existing from time immemorial.

In contributing some elements of a "universal calculus" he may be said to have been the first serious student of symbolic logic. He devised a symbolism for such concepts and relations as "and", "or", implication between concepts, class inclusion, class and conceptual equivalence, etc. One of his sets of symbolic representations for the four standard propositions of traditional logic coincides with the usage of modern logic He anticipated in the principles of his calculus many of the important rules of modern symbolic systems. His treatment, since it was primarily intensional, neglected important extensional features of recent developments, but, on the other hand, called attention to certain intensional distinctions now commonly neglected.

In Dewey (q.v.), intelligence is the basic instrument, to be contrasted with fixed habit, traditional customs, and the sheer force of political or bureaucratic power as means of settling social issues. -- L.W.

(in Kant) Any of twelve forms or relating principles of the understanding, constituting necessary conditions of experience. Kant sought to deriv e an exhaustive list of pure forms of the understanding from the forms of judgment in the traditional logic. His list of categories comprises three each of quantity, quality, relation, and modality. See Kantianism. -- O.F.K.

In later traditions, a son of the sun (Helios) and Demeter who supplied the titans with drink when they were fighting against Zeus, and was therefore transformed into a river of the underworld. These rivers have reference to the circulations of the universe, and in this connection the ancient Greeks and Romans had certain mystical rites relating to the “deification” of souls after death and their passage into other spheres.

In modern thought, two general types of usage are discernible. In the empirical tradition. the notion of thing and properties continues the meaning of independence as expressed in first substance. Under the impact of physical science, the notion of thing and its properties tends to dissolve. Substance becomes substratum as that in which properties and qualities inhere. The critique of Berkeley expressed the resultant dilemma: either sub-stratum is property-less and quality-less, and so is nothing at all, or else it signifies the systematic and specific coherence of properties and qualities, and so substance or sub-stratum is merely the thing of common sense. Within science 'first substance' persists as the ultimate discrete particle with respect to which spatial and temporal coordinates are assigned. Within empirical philosophical thought the element of meaning described as 'independence' tends to be resolved into the order and coherence of experience.

In relation to the individual the Supreme is our own true and highest self, that which ultimately we are in our essence, that of which we are in our manifested nature. A spiritual knowledge, moved to arrive at the true Self in us, must reject, as the traditional way of knowledge rejects, all misleading appearances. It must discover that the body is not our self, our foundation of existence; it is a sensible form of the Infinite.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 294


"In relation to the individual the Supreme is our own true and highest self, that which ultimately we are in our essence, that of which we are in our manifested nature. A spiritual knowledge, moved to arrive at the true Self in us, must reject, as the traditional way of knowledge rejects, all misleading appearances. It must discover that the body is not our self, our foundation of existence; it is a sensible form of the Infinite.” The Synthesis of Yoga

“In relation to the individual the Supreme is our own true and highest self, that which ultimately we are in our essence, that of which we are in our manifested nature. A spiritual knowledge, moved to arrive at the true Self in us, must reject, as the traditional way of knowledge rejects, all misleading appearances. It must discover that the body is not our self, our foundation of existence; it is a sensible form of the Infinite.” The Synthesis of Yoga

In Tamil literature, Agastya is traditionally held to have brought literature and science to Southern India and to have instructed the Dravidians in medicine, astrology, and magic arts.

INTEGRAL YOGA ::: This yoga accepts the value of cosmic existence and holds it to be a reality; its object is to enter into a higher Truth-Consciousness or Divine Supramental Consciousness in which action and creation are the expression not of ignorance and imperfection, but of the Truth, the Light, the Divine Ānanda. But for that, the surrender of the mortal mind, life and body to the Higher Consciousnessis indispensable, since it is too difficult for the mortal human being to pass by its own effort beyond mind to a Supramental Consciousness in which the dynamism is no longer mental but of quite another power. Only those who can accept the call to such a change should enter into this yoga.

Aim of the Integral Yoga ::: It is not merely to rise out of the ordinary ignorant world-consciousness into the divine consciousness, but to bring the supramental power of that divine consciousness down into the ignorance of mind, life and body, to transform them, to manifest the Divine here and create a divine life in Matter.

Conditions of the Integral Yoga ::: This yoga can only be done to the end by those who are in total earnest about it and ready to abolish their little human ego and its demands in order to find themselves in the Divine. It cannot be done in a spirit of levity or laxity; the work is too high and difficult, the adverse powers in the lower Nature too ready to take advantage of the least sanction or the smallest opening, the aspiration and tapasyā needed too constant and intense.

Method in the Integral Yoga ::: To concentrate, preferably in the heart and call the presence and power of the Mother to take up the being and by the workings of her force transform the consciousness. One can concentrate also in the head or between the eye-brows, but for many this is a too difficult opening. When the mind falls quiet and the concentration becomes strong and the aspiration intense, then there is the beginning of experience. The more the faith, the more rapid the result is likely to be. For the rest one must not depend on one’s own efforts only, but succeed in establishing a contact with the Divine and a receptivity to the Mother’s Power and Presence.

Integral method ::: The method we have to pursue is to put our whole conscious being into relation and contact with the Divine and to call Him in to transform Our entire being into His, so that in a sense God Himself, the real Person in us, becomes the sādhaka of the sādhana* as well as the Master of the Yoga by whom the lower personality is used as the centre of a divine transfiguration and the instrument of its own perfection. In effect, the pressure of the Tapas, the force of consciousness in us dwelling in the Idea of the divine Nature upon that which we are in our entirety, produces its own realisation. The divine and all-knowing and all-effecting descends upon the limited and obscure, progressively illumines and energises the whole lower nature and substitutes its own action for all the terms of the inferior human light and mortal activity.

In psychological fact this method translates itself into the progressive surrender of the ego with its whole field and all its apparatus to the Beyond-ego with its vast and incalculable but always inevitable workings. Certainly, this is no short cut or easy sādhana. It requires a colossal faith, an absolute courage and above all an unflinching patience. For it implies three stages of which only the last can be wholly blissful or rapid, - the attempt of the ego to enter into contact with the Divine, the wide, full and therefore laborious preparation of the whole lower Nature by the divine working to receive and become the higher Nature, and the eventual transformation. In fact, however, the divine strength, often unobserved and behind the veil, substitutes itself for the weakness and supports us through all our failings of faith, courage and patience. It” makes the blind to see and the lame to stride over the hills.” The intellect becomes aware of a Law that beneficently insists and a Succour that upholds; the heart speaks of a Master of all things and Friend of man or a universal Mother who upholds through all stumblings. Therefore this path is at once the most difficult imaginable and yet in comparison with the magnitude of its effort and object, the most easy and sure of all.

There are three outstanding features of this action of the higher when it works integrally on the lower nature. In the first place, it does not act according to a fixed system and succession as in the specialised methods of Yoga, but with a sort of free, scattered and yet gradually intensive and purposeful working determined by the temperament of the individual in whom it operates, the helpful materials which his nature offers and the obstacles which it presents to purification and perfection. In a sense, therefore, each man in this path has his own method of Yoga. Yet are there certain broad lines of working common to all which enable us to construct not indeed a routine system, but yet some kind of Shastra or scientific method of the synthetic Yoga.

Secondly, the process, being integral, accepts our nature such as it stands organised by our past evolution and without rejecting anything essential compels all to undergo a divine change. Everything in us is seized by the hands of a mighty Artificer and transformed into a clear image of that which it now seeks confusedly to present. In that ever-progressive experience we begin to perceive how this lower manifestation is constituted and that everything in it, however seemingly deformed or petty or vile, is the more or less distorted or imperfect figure of some elements or action in the harmony of the divine Nature. We begin to understand what the Vedic Rishis meant when they spoke of the human forefathers fashioning the gods as a smith forges the crude material in his smithy.

Thirdly, the divine Power in us uses all life as the means of this integral Yoga. Every experience and outer contact with our world-environment, however trifling or however disastrous, is used for the work, and every inner experience, even to the most repellent suffering or the most humiliating fall, becomes a step on the path to perfection. And we recognise in ourselves with opened eyes the method of God in the world, His purpose of light in the obscure, of might in the weak and fallen, of delight in what is grievous and miserable. We see the divine method to be the same in the lower and in the higher working; only in the one it is pursued tardily and obscurely through the subconscious in Nature, in the other it becomes swift and selfconscious and the instrument confesses the hand of the Master. All life is a Yoga of Nature seeking to manifest God within itself. Yoga marks the stage at which this effort becomes capable of self-awareness and therefore of right completion in the individual. It is a gathering up and concentration of the movements dispersed and loosely combined in the lower evolution.

Key-methods ::: The way to devotion and surrender. It is the psychic movement that brings the constant and pure devotion and the removal of the ego that makes it possible to surrender.

The way to knowledge. Meditation in the head by which there comes the opening above, the quietude or silence of the mind and the descent of peace etc. of the higher consciousness generally till it envelops the being and fills the body and begins to take up all the movements.
Yoga by works ::: Separation of the Purusha from the Prakriti, the inner silent being from the outer active one, so that one has two consciousnesses or a double consciousness, one behind watching and observing and finally controlling and changing the other which is active in front. The other way of beginning the yoga of works is by doing them for the Divine, for the Mother, and not for oneself, consecrating and dedicating them till one concretely feels the Divine Force taking up the activities and doing them for one.

Object of the Integral Yoga is to enter into and be possessed by the Divine Presence and Consciousness, to love the Divine for the Divine’s sake alone, to be tuned in our nature into the nature of the Divine, and in our will and works and life to be the instrument of the Divine.

Principle of the Integral Yoga ::: The whole principle of Integral Yoga is to give oneself entirely to the Divine alone and to nobody else, and to bring down into ourselves by union with the Divine Mother all the transcendent light, power, wideness, peace, purity, truth-consciousness and Ānanda of the Supramental Divine.

Central purpose of the Integral Yoga ::: Transformation of our superficial, narrow and fragmentary human way of thinking, seeing, feeling and being into a deep and wide spiritual consciousness and an integrated inner and outer existence and of our ordinary human living into the divine way of life.

Fundamental realisations of the Integral Yoga ::: The psychic change so that a complete devotion can be the main motive of the heart and the ruler of thought, life and action in constant union with the Mother and in her Presence. The descent of the Peace, Power, Light etc. of the Higher Consciousness through the head and heart into the whole being, occupying the very cells of the body. The perception of the One and Divine infinitely everywhere, the Mother everywhere and living in that infinite consciousness.

Results ::: First, an integral realisation of Divine Being; not only a realisation of the One in its indistinguishable unity, but also in its multitude of aspects which are also necessary to the complete knowledge of it by the relative consciousness; not only realisation of unity in the Self, but of unity in the infinite diversity of activities, worlds and creatures.

Therefore, also, an integral liberation. Not only the freedom born of unbroken contact of the individual being in all its parts with the Divine, sāyujya mukti, by which it becomes free even in its separation, even in the duality; not only the sālokya mukti by which the whole conscious existence dwells in the same status of being as the Divine, in the state of Sachchidananda ; but also the acquisition of the divine nature by the transformation of this lower being into the human image of the divine, sādharmya mukti, and the complete and final release of all, the liberation of the consciousness from the transitory mould of the ego and its unification with the One Being, universal both in the world and the individual and transcendentally one both in the world and beyond all universe.

By this integral realisation and liberation, the perfect harmony of the results of Knowledge, Love and Works. For there is attained the complete release from ego and identification in being with the One in all and beyond all. But since the attaining consciousness is not limited by its attainment, we win also the unity in Beatitude and the harmonised diversity in Love, so that all relations of the play remain possible to us even while we retain on the heights of our being the eternal oneness with the Beloved. And by a similar wideness, being capable of a freedom in spirit that embraces life and does not depend upon withdrawal from life, we are able to become without egoism, bondage or reaction the channel in our mind and body for a divine action poured out freely upon the world.

The divine existence is of the nature not only of freedom, but of purity, beatitude and perfection. In integral purity which shall enable on the one hand the perfect reflection of the divine Being in ourselves and on the other the perfect outpouring of its Truth and Law in us in the terms of life and through the right functioning of the complex instrument we are in our outer parts, is the condition of an integral liberty. Its result is an integral beatitude, in which there becomes possible at once the Ānanda of all that is in the world seen as symbols of the Divine and the Ānanda of that which is not-world. And it prepares the integral perfection of our humanity as a type of the Divine in the conditions of the human manifestation, a perfection founded on a certain free universality of being, of love and joy, of play of knowledge and of play of will in power and will in unegoistic action. This integrality also can be attained by the integral Yoga.

Sādhanā of the Integral Yoga does not proceed through any set mental teaching or prescribed forms of meditation, mantras or others, but by aspiration, by a self-concentration inwards or upwards, by a self-opening to an Influence, to the Divine Power above us and its workings, to the Divine Presence in the heart and by the rejection of all that is foreign to these things. It is only by faith, aspiration and surrender that this self-opening can come.

The yoga does not proceed by upadeśa but by inner influence.

Integral Yoga and Gita ::: The Gita’s Yoga consists in the offering of one’s work as a sacrifice to the Divine, the conquest of desire, egoless and desireless action, bhakti for the Divine, an entering into the cosmic consciousness, the sense of unity with all creatures, oneness with the Divine. This yoga adds the bringing down of the supramental Light and Force (its ultimate aim) and the transformation of the nature.

Our yoga is not identical with the yoga of the Gita although it contains all that is essential in the Gita’s yoga. In our yoga we begin with the idea, the will, the aspiration of the complete surrender; but at the same time we have to reject the lower nature, deliver our consciousness from it, deliver the self involved in the lower nature by the self rising to freedom in the higher nature. If we do not do this double movement, we are in danger of making a tamasic and therefore unreal surrender, making no effort, no tapas and therefore no progress ; or else we make a rajasic surrender not to the Divine but to some self-made false idea or image of the Divine which masks our rajasic ego or something still worse.

Integral Yoga, Gita and Tantra ::: The Gita follows the Vedantic tradition which leans entirely on the Ishvara aspect of the Divine and speaks little of the Divine Mother because its object is to draw back from world-nature and arrive at the supreme realisation beyond it.

The Tantric tradition leans on the Shakti or Ishvari aspect and makes all depend on the Divine Mother because its object is to possess and dominate the world-nature and arrive at the supreme realisation through it.

This yoga insists on both the aspects; the surrender to the Divine Mother is essential, for without it there is no fulfilment of the object of the yoga.

Integral Yoga and Hatha-Raja Yogas ::: For an integral yoga the special methods of Rajayoga and Hathayoga may be useful at times in certain stages of the progress, but are not indispensable. Their principal aims must be included in the integrality of the yoga; but they can be brought about by other means. For the methods of the integral yoga must be mainly spiritual, and dependence on physical methods or fixed psychic or psychophysical processes on a large scale would be the substitution of a lower for a higher action. Integral Yoga and Kundalini Yoga: There is a feeling of waves surging up, mounting to the head, which brings an outer unconsciousness and an inner waking. It is the ascending of the lower consciousness in the ādhāra to meet the greater consciousness above. It is a movement analogous to that on which so much stress is laid in the Tantric process, the awakening of the Kundalini, the Energy coiled up and latent in the body and its mounting through the spinal cord and the centres (cakras) and the Brahmarandhra to meet the Divine above. In our yoga it is not a specialised process, but a spontaneous upnish of the whole lower consciousness sometimes in currents or waves, sometimes in a less concrete motion, and on the other side a descent of the Divine Consciousness and its Force into the body.

Integral Yoga and other Yogas ::: The old yogas reach Sachchidananda through the spiritualised mind and depart into the eternally static oneness of Sachchidananda or rather pure Sat (Existence), absolute and eternal or else a pure Non-exist- ence, absolute and eternal. Ours having realised Sachchidananda in the spiritualised mind plane proceeds to realise it in the Supramcntal plane.

The suprcfhe supra-cosmic Sachchidananda is above all. Supermind may be described as its power of self-awareness and W’orld- awareness, the world being known as within itself and not out- side. So to live consciously in the supreme Sachchidananda one must pass through the Supermind.

Distinction ::: The realisation of Self and of the Cosmic being (without which the realisation of the Self is incomplete) are essential steps in our yoga ; it is the end of other yogas, but it is, as it were, the beginning of outs, that is to say, the point where its own characteristic realisation can commence.

It is new as compared with the old yogas (1) Because it aims not at a departure out of world and life into Heaven and Nir- vana, but at a change of life and existence, not as something subordinate or incidental, but as a distinct and central object.

If there is a descent in other yogas, yet it is only an incident on the way or resulting from the ascent — the ascent is the real thing. Here the ascent is the first step, but it is a means for the descent. It is the descent of the new coosdousness attain- ed by the ascent that is the stamp and seal of the sadhana. Even the Tantra and Vaishnavism end in the release from life ; here the object is the divine fulfilment of life.

(2) Because the object sought after is not an individual achievement of divine realisation for the sake of the individual, but something to be gained for the earth-consciousness here, a cosmic, not solely a supra-cosmic acbievement. The thing to be gained also is the bringing of a Power of consciousness (the Supramental) not yet organised or active directly in earth-nature, even in the spiritual life, but yet to be organised and made directly active.

(3) Because a method has been preconized for achieving this purpose which is as total and integral as the aim set before it, viz., the total and integral change of the consciousness and nature, taking up old methods, but only as a part action and present aid to others that are distinctive.

Integral Yoga and Patanjali Yoga ::: Cilia is the stuff of mixed mental-vital-physical consciousness out of which arise the movements of thought, emotion, sensation, impulse etc.

It is these that in the Patanjali system have to be stilled altogether so that the consciousness may be immobile and go into Samadhi.

Our yoga has a different function. The movements of the ordinary consciousness have to be quieted and into the quietude there has to be brought down a higher consciousness and its powers which will transform the nature.


intelligent database "database" A {database management system} which performs data validation and processing traditionally done by {application programs}. Most DBMSs provide some data validation, e.g. rejecting invalid dates or alphabetic data entered into money fields, but often most processing is done by application programs. There is however no limit to the amount of processing that can be done by an intelligent database as long as the process is a standard function for that data. Examples of techniques used to implement intelligent databases are {constraints}, {triggers} and {stored procedures}. Moving processing to the database aids {data integrity} because it is guaranteed to be consistent across all uses of the data. {Mainframe} databases have increasingly become more intelligent and personal computer database systems are rapidly following. (1998-10-07)

In the field of the philosophy of religion, Platonism becomes obscure. There is little doubt that Plato paid only lip-service to the anthropomorphic polytheism of Athenian religion. Many of the attributes of the Idea of the Good are those of an eternal God. The Republic (Book II) pictures the Supreme Being as perfect, unchangeable and the author of truth. Similar rationalizations are found throughout the Laws. Another current of religious thought is to be found m the Timaeus, Politicus and Sophist. The story of the making of the universe and man by the Demiurgus is mythic and yet it is in many points a logical development of his theory of Ideas. The World-Maker does not create things from nothing, he fashions the world out of a pre-existing chaos of matter by introducing patterns taken from the sphere of Forms. This process of formation is also explained, in the Timaeus (54 ff), in terms of various mathematical figures. In an early period of the universe, God (Chronos) exercised a sort of Providential care over things in this world (Politicus, 269-275), but eventually man was left to his own devices. The tale of Er, at the end of the Republic, describes a judgment of souls after death, their separation into the good and the bad, and the assignment of various rewards and punishments. H. Stephanus et J. Serranus (ed.), Platonis Opera (Paris, 1578), has provided the standard pagination, now used in referring to the text of Plato, it is not a critical edition. J. Burnet (ed.), Platonis Opera, 5 vol. (Oxford, 1899-1907). Platon, Oeuvres completes, texte et trad., Collect. G. Bude (Paris, 1920 ff.). The Dialogues of Plato, transl. B. Jowett, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 1920). W. Pater, Plato and Platonism (London, 1909). A. E. Taylor, Plato, the Man and his Work (N. Y., 1927). P. Shorey, What Plato Said (Chicago, 1933). A. Dies, Autour de Platon, 2 vol. (Paris, 1927). U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorf, Platon, 2 vol. (Berlin, 1919). John Burnet, Platonism (Berkeley, 1928). Paul Elmer More, Platonism (Oxford, 1931). Constantm Ritter, Essence of Plato's Philosophy (London, 1933). Leon Robin, Platon (Paris, 1935). Paul Shorey, Platonism, Ancient and Modern (Berkeley, 1938). A. E. Taylor, Platontsm and Its Influence (London, 1924). F. J. E. Woodbridge, The Son of Apollo (Boston, 1929). C. Bigg, The Christian Platomsts of Alexandria (Oxford, 1913). T. Whittaker, The Neo-Platonists (Cambridge, 1918, 2nd ed ). John H. Muirhead, The Platonic Tradition in Angle-Saxon Philosophy (New York, 1931). F. J. Powicke, The Cambridge Platonists (Boston, 1927). -- V.J.B.

In Theology: Unless otherwise defined, the term refers to the Christian denomination which emphasizes the universal fatherhood of God and the final redemption and salvation of all. The doctrine is that of optimism in attaining an ultimate, ordered harmony and stands in opposition to traditional pessimism, to theories of damnation and election. Universalists look back to 1770 as an organized body, the date of the coming to America of John Murray. Unitarian thought (see Unitarianism) was early expressed by Hosea Ballou (1771-1852), one of the founders of Universalism. -- V.F.

In the rationalistic tradition, Descartes introduces a distinction between finite and infinite substance. To conceive of substance is to conceive an existing thing which requires nothing but itself in order to exist. Strictly speaking, God alone is substance. Created or finite substances are independent in the sense that they need only the concurrence of God in order to exist. 'Everything in which there resides immediately, as in a subject, or by means of which there exists anything that we perceive, i.e., any property, quality, or attribute, of which we have a real idea, is called a Substance." (Reply to Obj. II, Phil. Works, trans, by Haldane and Ross, vol. II, p. 53, see Prin. of Phil. Pt. I, 51, 52). Substance is that which can exist by itself without the aid of any other substance. Reciprocal exclusion of one another belongs to the nature of substance. (Reply to Obj. IV). Spinoza brings together medieval Aristotelian meanings and the Cartesian usage, but rejects utterly the notion of finite substance, leaving only the infinite. The former is, in effect, a contradiction in terms, according to him. Spinoza further replaces the Aristotelian distinction between substance and accident with that between substance and mode. (See Wolfson, The Phil. of Spinoza, vol. I, ch. 3). "By substance, I understand that which is in itself and is conceived through itself; in other words that, the conception of which does not need the conception of another thing from which it must be formed." (Ethics, I, Def. III). Substance is thus ultimate being, self-caused or from itself (a se), and so absolutely independent being, owing its being to itself, and eternally self-sustaining. It is in itself (in se), and all things are within it. Substance is one and there can be but one substance; God is this substance. For Descartes, every substance has a principal attribute, an unchangeable essential nature, without which it can neither be nor be understood. The attribute is thus constitutive of substance, and the latter is accessible to mind only through the former. By virtue of having different constitutive essences or attributes, substances are opposed to one another. Spinoza, rejecting the idea of finite substance, necessarily rejects the possibility of a plurality of substances. The attributes of the one substance are plural and are constitutive. But the plurality of attributes implies that substance as such cannot be understood by way of any one attribute or by way of several. Accordingly, Spinoza declares that substance is also per se, i.e., conceived through itself. The infinite mode of an attribute, the all pervasive inner character which defines an attribute in distinction from another, is Spinoza's adaptation of the Cartesian constitutive essence.

In the second half of the XVII cent, a group of Scholastics attempted to modify the traditional system by adopting some of the modern theses particularly from Cartesianism. This tendency, together with the conservative reaction which accompanied it, brought about the second decline of Scholasticism. Two leaders in this movement were Emmanuel Maignau (+1676) and Honoratus Fabri (+1688).

In The Secret Doctrine Amba is a term of mystical reverence applied to Aditi and akasa, “the celestial Virgin-Mother of the visible universe” (1:460).

IP Telephony "communications" (IPT, Internet Telephony) Use of {IP} data connections to exchange {voice} and {fax} data that have traditionally been carried over the {public switched telephone network}. During the late 1990s, an increasing number of telephone calls have been routed over the {Internet}. Calls made in this way avoid PSTN charges. Unlike traditional telephony, IP telephony is relatively unregulated. Companies providing these services are known as {Internet Telephony Service Providers} (ITSPs). They include telephone companies, cable TV companies and {Internet Service Providers} (ISPs). There are still many problems with voice quality, {latency}, {compression} {algorithms}, and {quality of service}. {Voice over IP} is an organised effort to standardise IP telephony. See also {Computer Telephone Integration}. {Internet Telephony Overview (http://fokus.gmd.de/research/cc/glone/projects/ipt/)}. (1999-03-17)

ironbound ::: a. --> Bound as with iron; rugged; as, an ironbound coast.
Rigid; unyielding; as, ironbound traditions.


I see no X here. "games" Hackers (and the interactive computer games they write) traditionally favour this slightly marked usage over other possible equivalents such as "There's no X here!" or "X is missing." or "Where's the X?". This goes back to the original PDP-10 {ADVENT}, which would respond in this wise if you asked it to do something involving an object not present at your location in the game. [{Jargon File}]

isvara (ishwara) ::: the isvara in his four personalities, usually referred to in the Record of Yoga as Mahavira, Balarama, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, to whom correspond the four aspects of his sakti and the four psychological types of the caturvarn.ya; each of these personalities is not a separate deity, but an aspect of the isvara or Kr.s.n.a, "Four who are One, One who is Four", often combined with one or more of the other three aspects. Sri Aurobindo adapted the Vaishnava tradition of the caturvyūha (fourfold manifestation of the purus.ottama) in giving to the four aspects names associated with Kr.s.n.a as an avatara.Mahavira ("the great hero") designates Śrikr.s.n.a himself, Balarama was his elder brother, Pradyumna his son and Aniruddha his grandson; they figure together in the legend of Us.a and Aniruddha told in the Bhagavata Puran.a. Other names that are sometimes used in the Record of Yoga for these aspects of the isvara are Mahesvara or Śiva for the first aspect (Mahavira), Rudra2 for the second (Balarama) and Vis.n.u for the third (Pradyumna). full dras drasta

itihasa ::: historical tradition, a historico-mythic epic narrative; ancient historical or legendary tradition turned to creative use as a significant mythus or tale expressive of some spiritual or religious or ethical or ideal meaning.

It is customary to distinguish between the nature of truth and the tests for truth. There are three traditional theories as to the nature of truth, each finding virious expression in the works of different exponents. According to the correspondence theory, a proposition (or meaning) is true if there is a fact to which it corresponds. if it expresses what is the case. For example, "It is raining here now" is true if it is the case that it is raining here now; otherwise it is false. The nature of the relation of correspondence between fact and true proposition is variously described by different writers, or left largely undescribed. Russell in The Problems of Philosophy speaks of the correspondence as consisting of an identity of the constituents of the fact and of the proposition. According to the coherence theory (see H. H. Joachim: The Nature of Truth), truth is systematic coherence. This is more than logical consistency. A proposition is true insofar is it is a necessary constituent of a systematically coherent whole. According to some (e.g., Brand Blanshard, The Nature of Truth), this whole must be such that every element in it necessitates, indeed entails, every other element. Strictly, on this view, truth, in its fullness, is a characteristic of only the one systematic coherent whole, which is the absolute. It attaches to propositions as we know them and to wholes as we know them only to a degree. A proposition has a degree of truth proportionate to the completeness of the systematic coherence of the system of entities to which it belongs. According to the pragmatic theory of truth, a proposition is true insofar as it works or satisfies, working or satisfying being described variously by different exponents of the view. Some writers insist that truth chiracterizes only those propositions (ideas) whose satisfactory working has actually verified them; others state that only verifiability through such consequences is necessary. In either case, writers differ as to the precise nature of the verifying experiences required. See Pragmatism. --C.A.B. Truth, semantical: Closely connected with the name relation (q.v.) is the property of a propositional formula (sentence) that it expresses a true proposition (or if it has free variables, that it expresses a true proposition for all values of these variables). As in the case of the name relation, a notation for the concept of truth in this sense often cannot be added, with its natural properties, to an (interpreted) logistic system without producing contradiction. A particular system may, however, be made the beginning of a hierarchy of systems each containing the truth concept appropriate to the preceding one.

It is here, when this foundation has been secured, that the practice of Asana and Pranayama come in and can then bear their perfect fruits. By itself the control of the mind and moral being only puts our normal consciousness into the right preliminary condition; it cannot bring about that evolution or manifestation of the higher psychic being which is necessary for the greater aims of Yoga. In order to bring about this manifestation the present nodus of the vital and physical body with the mental being has to be loosened and the way made clear for the ascent through the greater psychic being to the union with the superconscient Purusha. This can be done by Pranayama. Asana is used by the Rajayoga only in its easiest and most natural position, that naturally taken by the body when seated and gathered together, but with the back and head strictly erect and in a straight line, so that there may be no deflection of the spinal cord. The object of the latter rule is obviously connected with the theory of the six chakras and the circulation of the vital energy between the muladhara and the brahmarandhra. The Rajayogic Pranayama purifies and clears the nervous system; it enables us to circulate the vital energy equally through the body and direct it also where we will according to need, and thus maintain a perfect health and soundness of the body and the vital being; it gives us control of all the five habitual operations of the vital energy in the system and at the same time breaks down the habitual divisions by which only the ordinary mechanical processes of the vitality are possible to the normal life. It opens entirely the six centres of the psycho-physical system and brings into the waking consciousness the power of the awakened Shakti and the light of the unveiled Purusha on each of the ascending planes. Coupled with the use of the mantra it brings the divine energy into the body and prepares for and facilitates that concentration in Samadhi which is the crown of the Rajayogic method. Rajayogic concentration is divided into four stages; it commences with the drawing both of the mind and senses from outward things, proceeds to the holding of the one object of concentration to the exclusion of all other ideas and mental activities, then to the prolonged absorption of the mind in this object, finally, to the complete ingoing of the consciousness by which it is lost to all outward mental activity in the oneness of Samadhi. The real object of this mental discipline is to draw away the mind from the outward and the mental world into union with the divine Being. Th
   refore in the first three stages use has to be made of some mental means or support by which the mind, accustomed to run about from object to object, shall fix on one alone, and that one must be something which represents the idea of the Divine. It is usually a name or a form or a mantra by which the thought can be fixed in the sole knowledge or adoration of the Lord. By this concentration on the idea the mind enters from the idea into its reality, into which it sinks silent, absorbed, unified. This is the traditional method. There are, however, others which are equally of a Rajayogic character, since they use the mental and psychical being as key. Some of them are directed rather to the quiescence of the mind than to its immediate absorption, as the discipline by which the mind is simply watched and allowed to exhaust its habit of vagrant thought in a purposeless running from which it feels all sanction, purpose and interest withdrawn, and that, more strenuous and rapidly effective, by which all outward-going thought is excluded and the mind forced to sink into itself where in its absolute quietude it can only
   reflect the pure Being or pass away into its superconscient existence. The method differs, the object and the result are the same. Here, it might be supposed, the whole action and aim of Rajayoga must end. For its action is the stilling of the waves of consciousness, its manifold activities, cittavrtti, first, through a habitual replacing of the turbid rajasic activities by the quiet and luminous sattwic, then, by the stilling of all activities; and its object is to enter into silent communion of soul and unity with the Divine. As a matter of fact we find that the system of Rajayoga includes other objects,—such as the practice and use of occult powers,—some of which seem to be unconnected with and even inconsistent with its main purpose. These powers or siddhis are indeed frequently condemned as dangers and distractions which draw away the Yogin from his sole legitimate aim of divine union. On the way, th
   refore, it would naturally seem as if they ought to be avoided; and once the goal is reached, it would seem that they are then frivolous and superfluous. But Rajayoga is a psychic science and it includes the attainment of all the higher states of consciousness and their powers by which the mental being rises towards the superconscient as well as its ultimate and supreme possibility of union with the Highest. Moreover, the Yogin, while in the body, is not always mentally inactive and sunk in Samadhi, and an account of the powers and states which are possible to him on the higher planes of his being is necessary to the completeness of the science. These powers and experiences belong, first, to the vital and mental planes above this physical in which we live, and are natural to the soul in the subtle body; as the dependence on the physical body decreases, these abnormal activities become possible and even manifest themselves without being sought for. They can be acquired and fixed by processes which the science gives, and their use then becomes subject to the will; or they can be allowed to develop of themselves and used only when they come, or when the Divine within moves us to use them; or else, even though thus naturally developing and acting, they may be rejected in a single-minded devotion to the one supreme goal of the Yoga. Secondly, there are fuller, greater powers belonging to the supramental planes which are the very powers of the Divine in his spiritual and supramentally ideative being. These cannot be acquired at all securely or integrally by personal effort, but can only come from above, or else can become natural to the man if and when he ascends beyond mind and lives in the spiritual being, power, consciousness and ideation. They then become, not abnormal and laboriously acquired siddhis, but simply the very nature and method of his action, if he still continues to be active in the world-existence.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 539-40-41-42


IV. First Decline. (14-16 cent.) St. Thomas' position in many points had been so radical a departure from the traditional thought of Christendom that many masters in the late XIII and early XIV centuries were led to reexamine philosophy in the light of Aristotle's works. This gave rise to a critical and independent spirit which multiplied systems and prepared for the individualism of the Renaissance. Noteworthy in this movement are James of Metz, Durand de St. Pourcain (+1334), Peter Aureoli (+1322) and Henry of Harclay (+1317). The greatest figure, however, is William of Occam (+1349), founder of modern thought, who renewed the Nominalism of the XI and XII cent., restricted the realm of reason but made it quite independent in its field. In reaction to this critical and independent movement, many thinkers gathered about the two great minds of the past century. Thomas and Duns Scotus, contenting themselves with merely reproducing their masters' positions. Thus Scholasticism broke up into three camps: Thomism, Scotism and Nominalism or Terminism; the first two stagnant, the third free-lance.

Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich: (1743-1819) German philosopher of "feeling" who opposed the Kantian tradition. He held that the system of absolute subjective idealism, to which he reduced Kant, could not grasp ultimate reality. He was equally opposed to a dogmatic rationalism such as the Spinozistic. He based his view upon feeling, belief or faith by which he purported to find truth as immediately revealed in consciousness. Main works: Ueber die Lehre des Spinoza in Briefen an Moses Mendelsohn, 1785; David Hume über den Glauben, 1787; Sendschreiben an Fichte, 1799. -- L.E.D.

James believed that ridical empiricism differed from ordinary or traditional empiricism primarily through the above "statement of fact" (No. 2). By this statement he wished explicitly and thoroughly to reject a common assumption about experience which he found both in the British empiricism and in Kantian and Hegelian idealism, namelv, that experience as given is either a collection of disparate impressions or, as Kant would have preferred to say, a manifold of completely unsynthesized representations, and that hence, in order to constitute a world, the material of experience must first be worked over and connective relations established within it either through the principles of the association of ideas (British empiricism) or through a set of trans-empirical categories imposed by the unity of consciousness (Kantian and Hegelian idealism). -- F.L.W.

James, William: (1842-1910) Unquestionably one of the most influential of American thinkers, William James began his career as a teacher shortly after graduation (MD, 1870) from Harvard University. He became widely known as a brilliant and original lecturer, and his already considerable reputation was greatly enhanced in 1890 when his Principles of Psychology made its appearance. Had James written no other work, his position in American philosophy and psychology would be secure; the vividness and clarity of his style no less than the keenness of his analysis roused the imagination of a public in this country which had long been apathetic to the more abstract problems of technical philosophy. Nor did James allow this rising interest to flag. Turning to religious and moral problems, and later to metaphysics, he produced a large number of writings which gave ample evidence of his amazing ability to cut through the cumbersome terminology of traditional statement and to lay bare the essential character of the matter in hand. In this sense, James was able to revivify philosophical issues long buried from any save the classical scholars. Such oversimplifications as exist, for example, in his own "pragmatism" and "radical empiricism" must be weighed against his great accomplishment in clearing such problems as that of the One and the Many from the dry rot of centuries, and in rendering such problems immediately relevant to practical and personal difficulties. -- W.S.W.

Ju Chiao: Chinese for Teaching of the Learned. The teachings of the Confucian school, based on the Confucian classics with the chief emphasis on ethics and polity. Since the establishment of Confucianism as the state cult in the second century A.D., the term has also been used to designate the traditional system of worship of Shang Ti, ancestors, etc., which the Confucians followed.

Ju chiao: The teachings of the Confucian school, which are based on the Confucian classics with the chief emphasis on ethics and polity. Since the establishment of Confucianism as the state cult in the second century A.D., the term has also been used to designate the traditional system of worship of Shang Ti, ancestors, etc., which the Confucians followed. -- W.T.C.

judas-colored ::: a. --> Red; -- from a tradition that Judas Iscariot had red hair and beard.

Judgment of Taste: The assertion that an object is beautiful, or aesthetically pleasing. Such propositions are traditionally classified as judgments of value, as distinguished from judgments of fact, and are regarded as making assertions about the subjective reaction and interest that the object has aroused, and not about any intrinsic property of the object. Hence, generally interpreted as having no claim to universality. Kant, and others, have sought to establish their universality on the ground that they assert a necessary subjective reaction. -- I.J.

Kailasa (Kailas) ::: the mountain on whose summit Śiva is said to dwell, according to a popular tradition which translated inner truths "into terms familiar to our physical and objective experience, . . . turned the rarer heights of subtle substance into material heights and placed the abodes of the gods on the summits of physical mountains". kaivaly kaivalyananda

Kali ::: (literally "the black") the "dark Mother", a name given in the Kali Hindu tradition to the "supreme Energy . . . beneficent even in the mask of destruction", represented "with her garland of skulls trampling naked in battle", symbolic of "the Nature Force [prakr.ti] in the ignorance surrounded by difficulties, wresting and breaking everything in a blind struggle to get through till she finds herself standing

Kalki ::: the final avatara of Vis.n.u according to the Hindu tradition, expected to come mounted symbolically on a white horse "bringing the Kingdom of the Divine upon earth, destroying the opposing Asura forces".

Kapila ::: [an ancient sage, the traditional founder of the samkhya system of philosophy].

kluge "jargon" /klooj/, /kluhj/ (From German "klug" /kloog/ - clever and Scottish "{kludge}") 1. A Rube Goldberg (or Heath Robinson) device, whether in {hardware} or {software}. The spelling "kluge" (as opposed to "kludge") was used in connection with computers as far back as the mid-1950s and, at that time, was used exclusively of *hardware* kluges. 2. "programming" A clever programming trick intended to solve a particular nasty case in an expedient, if not clear, manner. Often used to repair bugs. Often involves {ad-hockery} and verges on being a {crock}. In fact, the TMRC Dictionary defined "kludge" as "a crock that works". 3. Something that works for the wrong reason. 4. ({WPI}) A {feature} that is implemented in a {rude} manner. In 1947, the "New York Folklore Quarterly" reported a classic shaggy-dog story "Murgatroyd the Kluge Maker" then current in the Armed Forces, in which a "kluge" was a complex and puzzling artifact with a trivial function. Other sources report that "kluge" was common Navy slang in the WWII era for any piece of electronics that worked well on shore but consistently failed at sea. However, there is reason to believe this slang use may be a decade older. Several respondents have connected it to the brand name of a device called a "Kluge paper feeder" dating back at least to 1935, an adjunct to mechanical printing presses. The Kluge feeder was designed before small, cheap electric motors and control electronics; it relied on a fiendishly complex assortment of cams, belts, and linkages to both power and synchronise all its operations from one motive driveshaft. It was accordingly tempermental, subject to frequent breakdowns, and devilishly difficult to repair - but oh, so clever! One traditional folk etymology of "klugen" makes it the name of a design engineer; in fact, "Kluge" is a surname in German, and the designer of the Kluge feeder may well have been the man behind this myth. {TMRC} and the MIT hacker culture of the early 1960s seems to have developed in a milieu that remembered and still used some WWII military slang (see also {foobar}). It seems likely that "kluge" came to MIT via alumni of the many military electronics projects run in Cambridge during the war (many in MIT's venerable Building 20, which housed {TMRC} until the building was demolished in 1999). [{Jargon File}] (2002-10-02)

Korn, Alejandro: Born in San Vicente, Buenos Aires in 1860. Died in Buenos Aires, 1936. Psychiatrist in charge of Melchor Romero Hospital for the Insane and Professor of Anatomy at the National College of La Plata. Professor of Ethics and Metaphysics in the Universities of Buenos Aires and La Plata, from 1906-1930, and one time Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of Buenos Aires. Director of his own review, Valoraciones, and patriarch of the modern philosophical tradition of Argentine. The following may be considered his most important works: Influencias Filosoficas en la Evolucion Nacional, 1919; La Libertad Creadora, 1922; Esquema Gnoseologico, 1924; El Concepto de Ciencia, 1926; Axiologia, 1930; Apuntes Filosoficos, 1935.

krishna. :::dark; dark-blue; symbol for infinite space; supreme being; the consciousness without form, rules and regulations; central figure of hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita; a historical individual who participated in the events of the Mahabharata

Kr.s.n.a (Krishna) ::: the eighth avatara of Vis.n.u in the Hindu tradition, regarded by Sri Aurobindo as an embodiment of "the complete divine manhood" and as the avatara who opened the possibility of overmind in the evolution of consciousness on earth; a name of the universal Deity (deva) and supreme Being (purus.ottama) who is the fourfold isvara and also "the Destroyer, Preserver, Creator in one" (Rudra2,Vis.n.u, Brahma), manifesting "through the Vishnu aspect as his frontal appearance"; "the Ishwara taking delight in the world" (anandamaya isvara or lilamaya purus.a), realisation of oneness with whom is the first part of the karma catus.t.aya, seen in all things and beings in the several intensities and degrees of Kr.s.n.adarsana.

lambda lifting A program transformation to remove free variables. An expression containing a free variable is replaced by a function applied to that variable. E.g. f x = g 3 where g y = y + x x is a free variable of g so it is added as an extra argument: f x = g 3 x where g y x = y + x Functions like this with no free variables are known as supercombinators and are traditionally given upper-case names beginning with "$". This transformation tends to produce many supercombinators of the form f x = g x which can be eliminated by {eta reduction} and substitution. Changing the order of the parameters may also allow more optimisations. References to global (top-level) constants and functions are not transformed to function parameters though they are technically free variables. A closely related technique is closure conversion. See also Full laziness.

languages of choice {C} and {Lisp}. Nearly every hacker knows one of these, and most good ones are fluent in both. Smalltalk and Prolog are also popular in small but influential communities. There is also a rapidly dwindling category of older hackers with Fortran, or even assembler, as their language of choice. They often prefer to be known as {Real Programmers}, and other hackers consider them a bit odd (see "{The Story of Mel}"). Assembler is generally no longer considered interesting or appropriate for anything but {HLL} implementation, {glue}, and a few time-critical and hardware-specific uses in systems programs. Fortran occupies a shrinking niche in scientific programming. Most hackers tend to frown on languages like {Pascal} and {Ada}, which don't give them the near-total freedom considered necessary for hacking (see {bondage-and-discipline language}), and to regard everything even remotely connected with {COBOL} or other traditional {card walloper} languages as a total and unmitigated {loss}. [{Jargon File}]

Laws of thought: See Logic, traditional. Leading principle: The general statement of the validity of some particular form of valid inference (see Logic, formal) may be called its leading principle.

Legal Philosophy: Deals with the philosophic principles of law and justice. The origin is to be found in ancient philosophy. The Greek Sophists criticized existing laws and customs by questioning their validity: All human rules are artificial, created by enactment or convention, as opposed to natural law, based on nature. The theory of a law of nature was further developed by Aristotle and the Stoics. According to the Stoics the natural law is based upon the eternal law of the universe; this itself is an outgrowth of universal reason, as man's mind is an offshoot of the latter. The idea of a law of nature as being innate in man was particularly stressed and popularized by Cicero who identified it with "right reason" and already contrasted it with written law that might be unjust or even tyrannical. Through Saint Augustine these ideas were transmitted to medieval philosophy and by Thomas Aquinas built into his philosophical system. Thomas considers the eternal law the reason existing in the divine mind and controlling the universe. Natural law, innate in man participates in that eternal law. A new impetus was given to Legal Philosophy by the Renaissance. Natural Jurisprudence, properly so-called, originated in the XVII. century. Hugo Grotius, Thomas Hobbes, Benedictus Spinoza, John Locke, Samuel Pufendorf were the most important representatives of that line of thought. Grotius, continuing the Scholastic tradition, particularly stressed the absoluteness of natural hw (it would exist even if God did not exist) and, following Jean Bodin, the sovereignty of the people. The idea of the social contract traced all political bodies back to a voluntary compact by which every individual gave up his right to self-government, or rather transferred it to the government, abandoning a state of nature which according to Hobbes must have been a state of perpetual war. The theory of the social compact more and more accepts the character of a "fiction" or of a regulative idea (Kant). In this sense the theory means that we ought to judge acts of government by their correspondence to the general will (Rousseau) and to the interests of the individuals who by transferring their rights to the commonwealth intended to establish their real liberty. Natural law by putting the emphasis on natural rights, takes on a revolutionary character. It played a part in shaping the bills of rights, the constitutions of the American colonies and of the Union, as well as of the French declaration of the rights of men and of citizens. Natural jurisprudence in the teachings of Christian Wolff and Thomasius undergoes a kind of petrification in the vain attempt to outline an elaborate system of natural law not only in the field of international or public law, but also in the detailed regulations of the law of property, of contract, etc. This sort of dogmatic approach towards the problems of law evoked the opposition of the Historic School (Gustav Hugo and Savigny) which stressed the natural growth of laws ind customs, originating from the mysterious "spirit of the people". On the other hand Immanuel Kant tried to overcome the old natural law by the idea of a "law of reason", meaning an a priori element in all existing or positive law. In his definition of law ("the ensemble of conditions according to which everyone's will may coexist with the will of every other in accordance with a general rule of liberty"), however, as in his legal philosophy in general, he still shares the attitude of the natural law doctrine, confusing positive law with the idea of just law. This is also true of Hegel whose panlogism seemed to lead in this very direction. Under the influence of epistemological positivism (Comte, Mill) in the later half of the nineteenth century, legal philosophy, especially in Germany, confined itself to a "general theory of law". Similarily John Austin in England considered philosophy of law concerned only with positive law, "as it necessarily is", not as it ought to be. Its main task was to analyze certain notions which pervade the science of law (Analytical Jurisprudence). In recent times the same tendency to reduce legal philosophy to logical or at least methodological tasks was further developed in attempting a pure science of law (Kelsen, Roguin). Owing to the influence of Darwinism and natural science in general the evolutionist and biological viewpoint was accepted in legal philosophy: comparative jurisprudence, sociology of law, the Freirecht movement in Germany, the study of the living law, "Realism" in American legal philosophy, all represent a tendency against rationalism. On the other hand there is a revival of older tendencies: Hegelianism, natural law -- especially in Catholic philosophy -- and Kantianism (beginning with Rudolf Stammler). From here other trends arose: the critical attitude leads to relativism (f.i. Gustav Radbruch); the antimetaphysical tendency towards positivism -- though different from epistemological positivism -- and to a pure theory of law. Different schools of recent philosophy have found their applications or repercussions in legal philosophy: Phenomenology, for example, tried to intuit the essences of legal institutions, thus coming back to a formalist position, not too far from the real meaning of analytical jurisprudence. Neo-positivism, though so far not yet explicitly applied to legal philosophy, seems to lead in the same direction. -- W.E.

Legend: Traditions of slow growth, embodying popular feeling and consisting of mixtures of fact and fancy which are presented as historical.

lib "operating system" Library. In {Unix}, the directories /lib and /usr/lib traditionally contain files with {filename extension} ".lib" that are special {archives} containing modules of standard {object code}. In modern Unixes the same directories contain ".so" (shared object) files, which are similar except that the object code they contain is designed to be loaded once and shared by all application code that needs it, thus saving memory. (2008-11-25)

lore ::: 1. The body of knowledge, esp. of a traditional, anecdotal, or popular nature, on a particular subject. 2. Knowledge acquired through education or experience.

Lynx: The living winged globe of Chaldean magic tradition, symbolizing the universal spirit.

Madhav: “Aswapathy: Life is symbolised by Horse, aswa in the old tradition of the Vedas. The Book of the Divine Mother

Madhav: “When Aswapathy lifts the curtain of the flesh i.e. when he gets through the barrier of his physical existence, he comes to the threshold of another domain, subtle and occult. He sees a serpent watching, guarding the entrance. In all traditions, especially the ancient, at the doors of every subtle kingdom there is a sentinel and that sentinel is imaged as a serpent. In spiritual symbolism the serpent stands for Energy. Depending on the colour of the serpent, it is physical energy or vital energy, mental energy, spiritual energy. Unless this serpent allows one to pass one cannot enter. The serpent, in this context, is the guard whose consent is necessary before one can pass. The Book of the Divine Mother

mahamaya ::: the vast power of "comprehending, measuring, formmahamaya ing Knowledge [maya] . . . in the undivided being" of Aditi; "the Consciousness-Puissance of the Eternal [brahman], timeless and illimitable beyond the universe, but spread out here under a mask of bright and dark opposites for the miracle of the slow manifestation of the Divine in Mind and Life and Matter".

mainframe "computer" A term originally referring to the cabinet containing the central processor unit or "main frame" of a room-filling {Stone Age} batch machine. After the emergence of smaller "{minicomputer}" designs in the early 1970s, the traditional {big iron} machines were described as "mainframe computers" and eventually just as mainframes. The term carries the connotation of a machine designed for batch rather than interactive use, though possibly with an interactive {time-sharing} operating system retrofitted onto it; it is especially used of machines built by {IBM}, {Unisys} and the other great {dinosaurs} surviving from computing's {Stone Age}. It has been common wisdom among hackers since the late 1980s that the mainframe architectural tradition is essentially dead (outside of the tiny market for {number crunching} {supercomputers} (see {Cray})), having been swamped by the recent huge advances in {integrated circuit} technology and low-cost personal computing. As of 1993, corporate America is just beginning to figure this out - the wave of failures, takeovers, and mergers among traditional mainframe makers have certainly provided sufficient omens (see {dinosaurs mating}). Supporters claim that mainframes still house 90% of the data major businesses rely on for mission-critical applications, attributing this to their superior performance, reliability, scalability, and security compared to microprocessors. [{Jargon File}] (1996-07-22)

Main works: Exposition more geometrico of Descartes' Principles, 1663; Tract. Theol.-Politicus, 1670 (only two books published during Spinoza's lifetime); Ethics, demonstrated in geometrical order, 1677; Political Treatise, 1677; De intellectus. emendatione, 1677 (On the Improvement of the Human Mind). Cf. Vloten and Land, 2 vol. edition of Spinoza's works. Spir, African: (1837-1890) A native of Russia, whose philosophy was influenced by Spinoristic and Kantian traditions. The main thesis of his philosophy is that sensory experience and reasoning are basically contradictory, insofar as the former informs us of constant change, whereas the latter is characterized by the a priori principle of identity. -- R.B.W.

Main works: Le fondemcnt de l'induction, 187; Psychologie et metaphysique, 1885; Etudes sur le syllogisme, 1907; Note sur le pari de Pascal. --L.W. Lamaism: (from Tibetan b La-ma, honorable title of a monk) The religious beliefs and institutions of Tibet, derived from Mahayana Buddhism (q.v.) which was first introduced in the 7th century by the chieftain Sron-tsan-gampo, superimposed on the native Shamaistic Bon religion, resuscitated and mixed with Tantric (q.v.) elements by the mythic Hindu Padmasambhava, and reformed by the Bengalese Atisa in the 11th and Tsong-kha-pa at the turn of the 14th century. The strong admixture of elements of the exorcismal, highly magically charged and priest-ridden original Bon, has given Buddhism a turn away from its philosophic orientation and produced in Lamaism a form that places great emphasis on mantras (q.v.) -- the most famous one being om mani padme hum) -- elaborate ritual, and the worship of subsidiary tutelary deities, high dignitaries, and living incarnations of the Buddha. This worship is institutionalized, with a semblance of the papacy, in the double incarnation of the Bodhisattva (q.v.) in the Dalai-Lama who resides with political powers at the capital Lhasa, and the more spiritual head Tashi-Lama who rules at Tashi-Ihum-po. Contacts with Indian and Chinese traditions have been maintained for centuries and the two canons of Lamaism, the Kan-jur of 108 books and the Tan-jur of 225 books represent many translations as well as original works, some of great philosophical value. -- K.F.L.

major release "programming" A {release} of a piece of software which is not merely a {revision} or a {bug fix release} but which contains substantial changes (e.g., an overhaul of the {interface}, change in compatibility). Traditionally, major releases are numbered as X.0; for example, WordPerfect 6.0 is a major release, significantly different from any previous version; whereas WordPerfect 6.1 has only minor changes, and is, thus, only a {revision}. See also {major delivery}. (1996-08-04)

Mandelbrot set "mathematics, graphics" (After its discoverer, {Benoit Mandelbrot}) The set of all {complex numbers} c such that | z[N] | " 2 for arbitrarily large values of N, where z[0] = 0 z[n+1] = z[n]^2 + c The Mandelbrot set is usually displayed as an {Argand diagram}, giving each point a colour which depends on the largest N for which | z[N] | " 2, up to some maximum N which is used for the points in the set (for which N is infinite). These points are traditionally coloured black. The Mandelbrot set is the best known example of a {fractal} - it includes smaller versions of itself which can be explored to arbitrary levels of detail. {The Fractal Microscope (http://ncsa.uiuc.edu/Edu/Fractal/Fractal_Home.html/)}. (1995-02-08)

Mathematics: The traditional definition of mathematics as "the science of quantity" or "the science of discrete and continuous magnitude" is today inadequate, in that modern mathematics, while clearly in some sense a single connected whole, includes many branches which do not come under this head. Contemporary accounts of the nature of mathematics tend to characterize it rather by its method than by its subject matter.

mati. ::: thought; view; opinion; faith; religion; doctrine; tradition; conviction

Mead, George Herbert: (1863-1931) Professor of Philosophy at Chicago University. One of the leading figures in the Deweyan tradition. He contributed an important article to the volume, Creative Intelligence. He emphasized the relationship between the individual and his formulation and testing of hypotheses, on the one hand, as against the organic relationship of the individual with the society which is responsible for him. -- L.E.D.

memory dump "programming, operating system, jargon" (Or "core dump") A {file} on {hard disk} (traditionally called "core") containing a copy of the contents of a {process}'s memory, produced when a process is aborted by certain kinds of internal error or {signal}. {Debuggers} like {adb} and {gdb} can load the dump file and display the information it contains about the state of the running program. This can be related to the program code, both {object code} and, in a {source-level debugger}, the {source code}. Information includes the contents of {registers}, the {call stack} and all other program data. (2007-05-09)

Meru: In Buddhist mythology and occult tradition, the mountain situated at the center of the earth; it is regarded as the spiritual center of the universe. (Also called Maru.)

message In {object-oriented programming} sending a message to an {object} (to invoke a {method}) is equivalent to calling a {procedure} in traditional programming languages, except that the actual code executed may only be selected at run time depending on the {class} of the object. Thus, in response to the message "drawSelf", the method code invoked would be different if the target object were a circle or a square. (1995-02-16)

metaphysics ::: Traditionally, metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of ontology (what is being or reality?) and epistemology (how do we know it?). In Integral Theory, any assertion without injunctions is considered metaphysics, or a meaningless assertion (i.e., postulating a referent for which there is no means of verification). The term is also used in its traditional sense given the lack of alternatives.

militarism ::: n. --> A military state or condition; reliance on military force in administering government; a military system.
The spirit and traditions of military life.


Mishnah, authorities of: The authorities cited in the Mishnah as rings in "golden chain" of the Jewish masorah (tradition) are: Sopherim (scribes) known also as Anshe Keneseth Hagedolah (men of the great synod), beginning with Ezra of the Bible and terminating with Simeon the Just. Five Zugoth (duumviri) the last pair being the noted Hillel and Shamai. The former was according to E. Renan's hypothesis, a teacher of Jesus, Tannaim (repeaters) --They numbered 277 and are divided into 5 generations. In the first generation were men who still held office in the temple of Jerusalem and witnessed its destruction (70 A.D.). The second generation counts the celebrated Nasi Rabban Gamaliel II and R. Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, excommunicated for opposing the rule of the majority, R. Ishmael who was held hostage in Rome, and R. Akiba, supporter of Bar Koheba who suffered a martyr's death by the Romans, Elisha b, Abuiah, the heretic.

Mishnah: (Heb., repetition) Older part of the Talmud (q.v.) containing traditions from the close of the Old Testament till the end of the second century A.D. when it was compiled (in several revisions) by R. Judah Hanasi (the prince, known also as Rabbi (my master) and Rabbenu Nakkadosh (our saintly master) who sedarim (orders), 63 massektot (tractates) and died between 193-215 A.D. It is divided in 6 524 perakim (chapters).

Mishnah: Hebrew for repetition; the name of the older part of the Talmud (q.v.), containing Jewish laws and traditions from the close of the Old Testament till the end of the second century A.D., when it was compiled.

mishna ::: n. --> A collection or digest of Jewish traditions and explanations of Scripture, forming the text of the Talmud.

mistradition ::: n. --> A wrong tradition.

Moods of the syllogism: See figure (syllogistic), and logic, formal, § 5. Moore, George Edward: (1873-) One of the leading English realists. Professor of Mental Philosophy and Logic at Cambridge. Editor of "Mind." He has been a vigorous opponent of the idealistic tradition in metaphysics, epistemology and in ethics. His best known works are: Principia Ethica, and Philosophical Studies. Belief in external things having the properties they are normally experienced to have. Founder of neo-realistic theory of epistemological monism. See Neo-Realism. -- L.E.D.

Moreover, it is a serious wide-spread error of interpretation to consider Bergson as an anti-intellectualist. His alleged anti-intellectualism should be considered as a protest against taking the static materialism and spatialization of Newton's conception of nature is being anything but a high abstraction, as a rejection of the extreme claims of mechanistic and materialistic science, as an effort of reason to transcend itself in harmony with the greatest idealistic thinkers, as an effort of thinkers to stress the dynamic nature of reality, and as a persistent criticism of reason, a continuation of the Kantian tradition. His much misread conception of intuition may be viewed as akin to Spinoza's intuitio, to wit: a completion rather than a rejection of reason. -- H.H.

More, Paul Elmer: An American literary critic and philosopher (1864-1937), who after teaching at Bryn Mawr and other colleges, edited The Nation for several years before retiring to lecture at Princeton University and write The Greek Tradition, a series of books in which he argues for orthodox Christianity on the basis of the Platonic dualism of mind-body, matter-spirit, God-man. In The Sceptical Approach to Religion he gave his final position, as ethical theism grounded on man's sense of the good and consciousness of purpose, and validated by the Incarnation of God in Christ. -- W.N.P.

Mores: (Lat. mos, usage) Customs, Folkways, Conventions, Traditions. -- A.J.B.

mother of the worlds ::: Sri Aurobindo: "Aditi, the infinite Consciousness, Mother of the worlds.” *The Secret of the Veda

" She is the first Radiance, Aditi, the infinite Consciousness of the infinite conscious Being which is the mother of the worlds.” The Secret of the Veda*


Multi-User Dimension "games" (MUD) (Or Multi-User Domain, originally "Multi-User Dungeon") A class of multi-player interactive game, accessible via the {Internet} or a {modem}. A MUD is like a real-time {chat} forum with structure; it has multiple "locations" like an {adventure} game and may include combat, traps, puzzles, magic and a simple economic system. A MUD where characters can build more structure onto the database that represents the existing world is sometimes known as a "{MUSH}". Most MUDs allow you to log in as a guest to look around before you create your own character. Historically, MUDs (and their more recent progeny with names of MU- form) derive from a hack by Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw on the University of Essex's {DEC-10} in 1979. It was a game similar to the classic {Colossal Cave} adventure, except that it allowed multiple people to play at the same time and interact with each other. Descendants of that game still exist today and are sometimes generically called BartleMUDs. There is a widespread myth that the name MUD was trademarked to the commercial MUD run by Bartle on {British Telecom} (the motto: "You haven't *lived* 'til you've *died* on MUD!"); however, this is false - Richard Bartle explicitly placed "MUD" in the {PD} in 1985. BT was upset at this, as they had already printed trademark claims on some maps and posters, which were released and created the myth. Students on the European academic networks quickly improved on the MUD concept, spawning several new MUDs ({VAXMUD}, {AberMUD}, {LPMUD}). Many of these had associated {bulletin-board systems} for social interaction. Because these had an image as "research" they often survived administrative hostility to {BBSs} in general. This, together with the fact that {Usenet} feeds have been spotty and difficult to get in the UK, made the MUDs major foci of hackish social interaction there. AberMUD and other variants crossed the Atlantic around 1988 and quickly gained popularity in the US; they became nuclei for large hacker communities with only loose ties to traditional hackerdom (some observers see parallels with the growth of {Usenet} in the early 1980s). The second wave of MUDs (TinyMUD and variants) tended to emphasise social interaction, puzzles, and cooperative world-building as opposed to combat and competition. In 1991, over 50% of MUD sites are of a third major variety, LPMUD, which synthesises the combat/puzzle aspects of AberMUD and older systems with the extensibility of TinyMud. The trend toward greater programmability and flexibility will doubtless continue. The state of the art in MUD design is still moving very rapidly, with new simulation designs appearing (seemingly) every month. There is now a move afoot to deprecate the term {MUD} itself, as newer designs exhibit an exploding variety of names corresponding to the different simulation styles being explored. {UMN MUD Gopher page (gopher://spinaltap.micro.umn.edu/11/fun/Games/MUDs/Links)}. {U Pennsylvania MUD Web page (http://cis.upenn.edu/~lwl/mudinfo.html)}. See also {bonk/oif}, {FOD}, {link-dead}, {mudhead}, {MOO}, {MUCK}, {MUG}, {MUSE}, {chat}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:rec.games.mud.announce}, {news:rec.games.mud.admin}, {news:rec.games.mud.diku}, {news:rec.games.mud.lp}, {news:rec.games.mud.misc}, {news:rec.games.mud.tiny}. (1994-08-10)

myth ::: a traditional or legendary story, without a determinable basis of fact or natural explanation, esp. one that is concerned with deities or demigods and explains some practice, rite, or phenomenon of nature. myths.

Myth: A traditional story or legend of religious import, especially an account of the activities of supernatural entities. A presentation of cosmology, employing the affective method of symbolic representation in order to escape from the limitations of literal meaning.

Myth: (Gr. mythes, legend) The truth, symbolically, or affectively, presented. Originally, the legends of the Gods concerning cosmogonical or cosmological questions. Later, a fiction presented as historically true but lacking factual basis; a popular and traditional falsehood. A presentation of cosmology, employing the affective method of symbolic representation in order to escape from the limitations of literal meaning. -- J.K.F.

Mythology: The organized body of the myths of peoples or races having a common tradition and inheritance. Also, the study of myths, their origin and nature.

natural deduction "logic" A set of rules expressing how valid {proofs} may be constructed in {predicate logic}. In the traditional notation, a horizontal line separates {premises} (above) from {conclusions} (below). Vertical ellipsis (dots) stand for a series of applications of the rules. "T" is the constant "true" and "F" is the constant "false" (sometimes written with a {LaTeX} {\perp}). "^" is the AND ({conjunction}) operator, "v" is the inclusive OR ({disjunction}) operator and "/" is NOT (negation or {complement}, normally written with a {LaTeX} {\neg}). P, Q, P1, P2, etc. stand for {propositions} such as "Socrates was a man". P[x] is a proposition possibly containing instances of the variable x, e.g. "x can fly". A proof (a sequence of applications of the rules) may be enclosed in a box. A boxed proof produces conclusions that are only valid given the assumptions made inside the box, however, the proof demonstrates certain relationships which are valid outside the box. For example, the box below labelled "Implication introduction" starts by assuming P, which need not be a true {proposition} so long as it can be used to derive Q. Truth introduction: - T (Truth is free). Binary AND introduction: ----------- | . | . | | . | . | | Q1 | Q2 | -----------  Q1 ^ Q2 (If we can derive both Q1 and Q2 then Q1^Q2 is true). N-ary AND introduction: ---------------- | . | .. | . | | . | .. | . | | Q1 | .. | Qn | ---------------- Q1^..^Qi^..^Qn Other n-ary rules follow the binary versions similarly. Quantified AND introduction: --------- | x . | |  . | | Q[x] | --------- For all x . Q[x] (If we can prove Q for arbitrary x then Q is true for all x). Falsity elimination: F - Q (Falsity opens the floodgates). OR elimination:  P1 v P2 ----------- | P1 | P2 | | . | . | | . | . | | Q | Q | -----------   Q (Given P1 v P2, if Q follows from both then Q is true). Exists elimination: Exists x . P[x] ----------- | x P[x] | |   . | |   . | |   Q | -----------    Q (If Q follows from P[x] for arbitrary x and such an x exists then Q is true). OR introduction 1:   P1 ------- P1 v P2 (If P1 is true then P1 OR anything is true). OR introduction 2:   P2 ------- P1 v P2 (If P2 is true then anything OR P2 is true). Similar symmetries apply to ^ rules. Exists introduction:   P[a] ------------- Exists x.P[x] (If P is true for "a" then it is true for all x). AND elimination 1: P1 ^ P2 -------   P1 (If P1 and P2 are true then P1 is true). For all elimination: For all x . P[x] ----------------    P[a] (If P is true for all x then it is true for "a"). For all implication introduction: ----------- | x P[x] | |   . | |   . | |  Q[x] | ----------- For all x . P[x] -" Q[x] (If Q follows from P for arbitrary x then Q follows from P for all x). Implication introduction: ----- | P | | . | | . | | Q | ----- P -" Q (If Q follows from P then P implies Q). NOT introduction: ----- | P | | . | | . | | F | ----- / P (If falsity follows from P then P is false). NOT-NOT: //P --- P (If it is not the case that P is not true then P is true). For all implies exists: P[a] For all x . P[x] -" Q[x] -------------------------------    Q[a] (If P is true for given "a" and P implies Q for all x then Q is true for a). Implication elimination, modus ponens: P P -" Q ----------   Q (If P and P implies Q then Q). NOT elimination, contradiction: P /P ------  F (If P is true and P is not true then false is true). (1995-01-16)

Naturalistic interpretations of duty tend to discredit such an intuitionistic basis and seek instead to account for duty and conscience as outgrowths of training, tradition and social custom. -- O.F.K.

Natural Theology: In general, natural theology is a term used to distinguish any theology based upon the fundamental premise of the ability of man to construct his theory of God and of the world out of the framework of his own reason and of reasonable probability from the so-called "revealed theology" which presupposes that God and divine purposes are not open to unaided human understanding but rest upon a supernatural and not wholly understandable basis. See Deism; Renaissance. During the 17th and 18th centuries there were attempts to set up a "natural religion" to which men might easily give their assent and to offset the extravagant claims of the supernaturalists and their harsh charges against doubters. The classical attempt to make out a case for the sweet reasonableness of a divine purpose at work in the world of nature was given by Paley in his Natural Theology (1802). Traditional Catholicism, especially that of the late middle Ages developed a kind of natural theology based upon the metaphysics of Aristotle. Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz developed a more definite type of natural theology in their several constructions of what now may well be called philosophical theology wherein reason is made the guide. Natural theology has raised its head in recent times in attempts to combat the extravagant declarations of theologians of human pessimism. The term, however, is unfortunate because it is being widely acknowledged that so-called "revealed theology" is natural (recent psychological and social studies) and that natural theology need not deny to reason its possible character as the bearer of an immanent divine revelation. -- V.F.

Nature and kept within the narrow bounds of her normal ope- rations. Id the ancient tradition of Hatha Yoga it has always been supposed that this conquest could be pushed so far even as to conquer to a great extent the force of gravitation. By various subsidiary but elaborate processes the Hatha Yogin next contrives to keep the body free from all impurities and the ner- vous system unclogged for those exercises of respiration which are his most important instruments. These are called prana- yama, the control of the breath or vital power ; for breathing is the chief physical functioning of the vital forces. Prdnayaina, for the Hatha Yogin, serves a double purpose. First, it completes the perfection of the body. The vitality is liberated from many of the ordinary necessities of physical Nature ; robust health, prolonged youth, often an extraordinary longevity arc attained.

Neology: Literally, the introduction of new words or new meanings. In theology the neologist is the heretic who introduces a new doctrine. In the latter sense, the rationalist was called a neologist by the traditional theologian. -- V.F.

Neo-Pythagoreanism: A school of thought initiated in Alexandria, according to Cicero, by Nigidius Figulus, a Roman philosopher who died in 45 B.C. It was compounded of traditional Pythagorean teachings, various Platonic, Aristotelian and Stoic doctrines, including some mystical and theosophical elements. -- J.J.R.

Ningma: The ancient, unreformed form of Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism); called the Red Sect, rich in esoteric teachings and traditions.

NISO National Information Standards Organisation (USA). NISO Standards cover many aspects of library science, publishing, and information services, and address the application of both traditional and new technologies to information services.

nityakarma ::: (in traditional Hinduism) daily ritual, "the Vedic rule, the routine of ceremonial sacrifice, daily conduct and social duty"; the routine of daily activities, a routine that "is ritam & necessary for karma, only it must be ritam of the brihat, part of the infinite, not narrow & rigid, a flexible instrument, not a stiff & unpliant bondage".

NLX "hardware, standard" A low-profile, low {TCO} {motherboard} design created jointly by {Intel Corp.}, {IBM}, {DEC} and other PC vendors. In contrast to the traditional single-board design, NLX uses a {riser} card to carry {PCI}, {ISA} and {AGP} {bus} data (despite {Intel}'s stated intent to rid PC motherboards of the {ISA} {bus} by 2000). Version 1.2 of NLX is the final specification, and was frozen in March 1997. Minor modifications appear in the form of "Engineering Change Requests". {(http://teleport.com/~nlx/)}. {Intel (http://intel.com/design/motherboard/nlx.htm)}. ["NLX Motherboard Specification", various, pub. Intel Corp. 1997] (1998-09-21)

Of the dilemma four kinds are distinguished. The simple constructive dilemma has two major premisses A ⊃ C and B ⊃ C, minor premiss A ∨ B, conclusion C. The simple destructive dilemma has two major premisses A ⊃ B and A ⊃ C, minor premiss ∼B ∨ ∼C, conclusion ∼A. The complex constructive dilemma has two major premisses A ⊃ B and C ⊃ D, minor premiss A ∨ C, conclusion B ∨ D. The complex destructive dilemma has two major premisses A ⊃ B and C ⊃ D, minor premiss ∼B ∨ ∼D, conclusion ∼A ∨ ∼C. (Since the conclusion of a complex dilemma must involve inclusive disjunction, it seems that the traditional account is best rendered by employing inclusive disjunction throughout.)

ogg "games" /og/ ({CMU}) 1. In the multi-player space combat game {Netrek}, to execute kamikaze attacks against enemy ships which are carrying armies or occupying strategic positions. Named during a game in which one of the players repeatedly used the tactic while playing Orion ship G, showing up in the player list as "Og". This trick has been roundly denounced by those who would return to the good old days when the tactic of dogfighting was dominant, but as Sun Tzu wrote, "What is of supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy's strategy." However, the traditional answer to the newbie question "What does ogg mean?" is just "Pick up some armies and I'll show you." 2. In other games, to forcefully attack an opponent with the expectation that the resources expended will be renewed faster than the opponent will be able to regain his previous advantage. Taken more seriously as a tactic since it has gained a simple name. 3. To do anything forcefully, possibly without consideration of the drain on future resources. "I guess I'd better go ogg the problem set that's due tomorrow." "Whoops! I looked down at the map for a sec and almost ogged that oncoming car." (1995-01-31)

.OM ::: in the Vedic tradition, the sacred "initiating syllable", regarded as "the one universal formulation of the energy of sound and speech" and "the foundation of all the potent creative sounds of the revealed word"; the "Word of Manifestation", the mantra or "expressive sound-symbol of the Brahman Consciousness in its four domains" (see AUM).

One of the two attributes (q.v.) of God which, according to Spinoza, are accessible to the human intellect (Ethics, II, passim). While the attribution of thought (cogitatio, q.v.) to God was a medieval commonplace, the attribution of extension to God was, in the tradition, highly heretical. Spinoza, however, was at great pains to show (Ibid, I, 14-18) that unless such attribution was made, all theories of God's causality were rendered either nonsensical or explicitly contradictory. -- W.S.W.

ontology ::: Traditionally, the study of being, reality, existence, as well as the given structure of anything, often viewed as unchanging. In Integral Post-Metaphysics, ontology is not a separate discipline or activity but that aspect of the AQAL matrix of any occasion that is experienced as enduring structure; the study of that aspect is ontology. The term “ontology” is sometimes used in this sense given the lack of alternatives.

Opal 1. A {DSP} language. ["OPAL: A High Level Language and Environment for DSP boards on PC", J.P. Schwartz et al, Proc ICASSP-89, 1989]. 2. The language of the {object-oriented database} {GemStone}. ["Making Smalltalk a Database System", G. Copeland et al, Proc SIGMOD'84, ACM 1984, pp.316- 325]. 3. A {simulation} language with provision for {stochastic variables}. An extension of {Autostat}. ["C-E-I-R OPAL", D. Pilling, Internal Report, C.E.I.R. Ltd. (1963)]. 4. A language for compiler testing said to be used internally by {DEC}. 5. A {functional programming} language designed at the {Technische Universitaet Berlin} as a testbed for the development of {functional programs}. OPAL integrates concepts from Algebraic Specification and Functional Programming, which favour the (formal) development of (large) production-quality software written in a {purely functional} style. The core of OPAL is a {strongly typed}, {higher-order}, {strict} applicative language which belongs to the tradition of {Hope} and {ML}. The algebraic flavour of OPAL is visible in the syntactical appearance and in the preference of {parameterisation} to {polymorphism}. OPAL supports: {information hiding} - each language unit is divided into an interface (signature) and an implementation part; selective import; {parameterised modules}; free constructor {views} on {sorts}, which allow pattern-based function definitions despite quite different implementations; full {overloading} of names; puristic scheme language with no {built-in} data types (except {Booleans} and denotations). OPAL and its predecessor OPAL-0 have been used for some time at the Technische Universitaet Berlin in CS courses and for research into optimising compilers for applicative languages. The OPAL compiler itself is writte entirely in OPAL. An overview is given in "OPAL: Design And Implementation of an Algebraic Programming Language". {(http://cs.tu-berlin.de/~opal/)}. {(ftp://ftp.cs.tu-berlin.de/pub/local/uebb/papers/DesignImplOpal.ps.gz)}. (1995-02-16)

oral ::: a. --> Uttered by the mouth, or in words; spoken, not written; verbal; as, oral traditions; oral testimony; oral law.

Of or pertaining to the mouth; surrounding or lining the mouth; as, oral cilia or cirri.


Or, as in traditional logic, modality may refer to a classification of propositions according to the kind of assertion which is contained rather than have the character of a truth-value. From this point of view propositions are classed as assertoric. (In which something is asserted as true), problematic (in which something is asserted as possible), and apodeictic (in which something is asserted as necessary). -- A.C.

Ordinary life and yoga ::: In the ordinary life a personal, social or traditional constructed rule, standard or ideal is the guide ; once the spiritual journey has begun, this must be replac- ed by an inner and outer rule or way of living necessary for our self-discipline, liberation and perfection, a way of living proper to the path we follow or enjoined by the spiritual guide and master, the Guru or else dictated by a Guide within us.

Paracelsus, Theophrastus Bombast: (1493-1541) Of Hohenheim, was a physician who endeavored to use philosophy as one of the "pillars" of medical science. His philosophy is a weird combination of Neo-Platonism, experimentalism, and superstitious magic. He rejected much of the traditional theory of Galen and the Arab physicians. His works (Labyrinthus, Opus paramirum, Die grosse Wundarznei, De natura rerum) were written in Swiss-German, translated into Latin by his followers, recent investigators make no attempt to distinguish his personal thought from that of his school. Thorndyke, L., Hist. of Magic and Experimental Science (N. Y., 1941), V, 615-651. -- V.J.B.

parampara. ::: tradition; one following another; lineage; uninterrupted succession

Particular proposition: In traditional logic, propositions A, E (excepting singular forms, according to some) were called universal and I, O, particular. See Logic, formal, § 4. -- A.C.

Parva Naturalia: The name traditionally given to a series of short treatises by Aristotle on psychological and biological topics: viz. De Sensu et Sensibili, De Memoria et Reminiscentia, De Somno, De Somniis, De Divinatione per Somnium, De Longitudine et Brevitate Vitae, De Vita et Morte, De Respiratione. -- G.R.M.

PDP-11 Programmed Data Processor model 11. A series of {minicomputers} based on an {instruction set} designed by C. Gordon Bell at {DEC} in the early 1970s (late 60s?). The PDP-11 family, which came after, but was not derived from, the {PDP-10}, was the most successful computer of its time until it was itself succeeded by the {VAX}. Models included the 11/23 and 11/24 (based on the F11 chipset); 11/44, 11/04, 11/34, 11/05, 11/10, 11/15, 11/20, 11/35, 11/40, 11/45, 11/70, 11/60 ({MSI} and {SSI}); LSI-11/2 and LSI-11 (LSI-11 chipset). In addition there were the 11/8x (J11 chipset) and SBC-11/21 (T11 chip) and then there was compatibility mode in the early {VAX} processors. The {B} and {C} languages were both used initially to implement {Unix} on the PDP-11. The {microprocessor} design tradition owes a heavy debt to the PDP-11 {instruction set}. See also {SEX}. (1994-12-21)

Pharisaism: The most characteristic type of Palestinian Judaism at the time of Christ. This group is to be thought of as the remnant of the traditional culture of the ancient Hebrews. Scorched by the memory of the long struggle between their fathers' and other cultures which resulted in the unhappy Captivity, these descendants took on a more militant nationalism and a more rigid loyalty to traditional customs, teaching their children in schools of their own (the Synagogue) the religion of the ancient sacred covenant. Since their ways separated sharply from their brethren in the dispersion and from the less nationalistic minded at home they acquired the party name (from the second century B.C.) "Pharisees." Their leaders were devout students of the written and oral traditions which they regarded as the Divine Will (Torah). To this tradition they added detailed codes of rigorous religious living. Popular among the masses they were comparatively few in number although powerful in influence. Pharisaism was a book-centered religion, strongly monotheistic, intensely legalistic, teaching a national and social gospel of redemption by an expectant supernatural visitation. The term "Pharisaic" unfortunately has acquired a sinister meaning, probably due to certain N.T. statements linking Pharisees with hypocrites. R. T. Herford in his Pharisaism (1912) and The Pharisees (1924) has shown thit this religious party was preeminently spiritually minded even though legalistic and not sufficiently understood by Christian traditionalists. -- V.F.

pharisee ::: n. --> One of a sect or party among the Jews, noted for a strict and formal observance of rites and ceremonies and of the traditions of the elders, and whose pretensions to superior sanctity led them to separate themselves from the other Jews.

phase of the moon Used humorously as a random parameter on which something is said to depend. Sometimes implies unreliability of whatever is dependent, or that reliability seems to be dependent on conditions nobody has been able to determine. "This feature depends on having the channel open in mumble mode, having the foo switch set, and on the phase of the moon." See also {heisenbug}. True story: Once upon a time there was a {bug} that really did depend on the phase of the moon. There was a little subroutine that had traditionally been used in various programs at {MIT} to calculate an approximation to the moon's true phase. {GLS} incorporated this routine into a {Lisp} program that, when it wrote out a file, would print a timestamp line almost 80 characters long. Very occasionally the first line of the message would be too long and would overflow onto the next line, and when the file was later read back in the program would {barf}. The length of the first line depended on both the precise date and time and the length of the phase specification when the timestamp was printed, and so the bug literally depended on the phase of the moon! The first paper edition of the {Jargon File} (Steele-1983) included an example of one of the timestamp lines that exhibited this bug, but the typesetter "corrected" it. This has since been described as the phase-of-the-moon-bug bug. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-22)

Picture Quality Scale "graphics" (PQS) A system for rating image quality based upon features of images that affect their perception by the human eye, rather than the traditional {signal-to-noise ratio} which examines differences for every single {pixel}. [Details?] (1995-01-12)

Plain Old Telephone Service "communications" (POTS) The traditional voice service provided by phone companies, especially when opposed to data services. Note that the acronym POTS is sometimes expanded as "Plain Old Telephone System" in which sense it is synonymous to {Public Switched Telephone Network} but used somewhat derogatively. (1998-05-18)

point 1. "unit, text" (Sometimes abbreviated "pt") The unit of length used in {typography} to specify text character height, {rule} width, and other small measurements. There are six slightly different definitions: {Truchet point}, {Didot point}, {ATA point}, {TeX point}, {Postscript point}, and {IN point}. In Europe, the most commonly used is Didot and in the US, the formerly standard ATA point has essentially been replaced by the PostScript point due to the demise of traditional typesetting systems and rise of desktop computer based systems running software such as {QuarkXPress}, {Adobe InDesign} and {Adobe Pagemaker}. There are 20 {twips} in a point and 12 points in a {pica} (known as a "Cicero" in the Didot system). {Different point systems (http://vakcer.com/oberon/dtp/fonts/point.htm)}. (2004-12-23) 2. "hardware" To move a {pointing device} so that the on-screen pointer is positioned over a certain object on the screen such as a {button} in a {graphical user interface}. In most {window systems} it is then necessary to {click} a (physical) button on the pointing device to activate or select the object. In some systems, just pointing to an object is known as "mouse-over" {event} which may cause some help text (called a "tool tip" in {Windows}) to be displayed. (2001-05-21)

Pompanazzi, Pietro or Pereto: (1462-1524) Was born in Mantua, in Italy, and studied medicine and philosophy at Padua. He taught philosophy at Padua, Ferrara and Bologna. He is best known for his Tractatus de immortalitate animae (ed. C. G. Bardili, Tübingen, 1791) in which he denied that Aristotle taught the personal immortality of the human soul. His interpretation of Aristotle follows that of the Greek commentntor, Alexander of Aphrodisias (3rd c. A.D.) and is also closelv related to the Averroistic tradition. -- V.J.B.

Port Royal Logic: See Logic, traditional. Port Royalists: Name applied to a group of thinkers, writers, and educators, more or less closely connected with the celebrated Cistercian Abbey of Port Royal near Paris, which during the seventeenth century became the most active center of Jansenism and, to a certain extent, of Cartesianism in France. The Port Royalists were distinguished by the severity and austerity of their moral code and by their new educational methods which greatly promoted the advance of pedagogy. The most noted among them were Jean Duvergier de Hauranne, abbot of Saint Cyran (1581-1643), Antoine-le grand Arnauld (1612-1694), and Pierre Nicole (1625-1695). Cf. Sainte-Beuve, Port-Royal. -- J.J.R.

postaki, post :::   sheepskin used as the seat of the shaykh in the traditional Sufi zikr ceremony

Post, Telephone and Telegraph administration "communications, company" (PTT) One of the many national bodies responsible for providing communications services in a particular country. Traditionally, PTTs had monopolies in their respective countries. This monopoly was first broken in the USA, with the UK joining somewhat later. Currently the markets are being deregulated in Europe as well as other parts of the world. Well-known PTTs include {MCI}, {AT&T}, and {British Telecom}. Compare: {telco}. (1998-05-18)

Practice: (Lat. practice, business) The deliberate application of a theory. Formerly, an established custom; the pursuance of some traditional action. Now, the organization of actuality according to some general principle. Sometimes, opposed to, sometimes correlative with, theory (q.v.). -- J.K.F.

Predicate: The four traditional kinds of categorical propositions (see Logic, formal, § 4) are: all S is P, no S is P, some S is P, some S is not P. In each of these the concept denoted by S is the subject and that denoted by P is the predicate.

prime time (From TV programming) Normal high-usage hours on a {time-sharing} system; the day shift. Avoidance of prime time was traditionally given as a major reason for {night mode} hacking. The rise of the personal workstation has rendered this term, along with {time-sharing} itself, almost obsolete. The hackish tendency to late-night {hacking runs} has changed not a bit. [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-18)

Prince of the Torah: In Jewish mysticism, “the angel who represents the Torah [the Holy Scriptures] in Heaven. The elements, the forces of nature, and the nations, which according to Jewish tradition, are seventy in number, are represented by their respective princes, who are either angels or demons.” (M. Buber.)

Principles of Man ::: The seven principles of man are a likeness or rather copy of the seven cosmic principles. They areactually the offspring or reflection of the seven cosmic principles, limited in their action in us by theworkings of the law of karma, but running in their origin back into THAT which is beyond: into THATwhich is the essence of the universe or the universal -- above, beyond, within, to the unmanifest, to theunmanifestable, to that first principle which H. P. Blavatsky enunciates as the leading thought of thewisdom-philosophy of The Secret Doctrine.These principles of man are reckoned as seven in the philosophy by which the human spiritual andpsychical economy has been publicly explained to us in the present age. In other ages these principles orparts of man were differently reckoned -- the Christian reckoned them as body, soul, and spirit,generalizing the seven under these three heads.Some of the Indian thinkers divided man into a basic fourfold entity, others into a fivefold. The Jewishphilosophy, as found in the Qabbalah which is the esoteric tradition of the Jews, teaches that man isdivided into four parts: neshamah, ruah, nefesh, and guf.Theosophists for convenience often employ in their current literature a manner of viewing man'scomposite constitution which is the dividing of his nature into a trichotomy, meaning a division intothree, being spirit, soul, and body, which in this respect is identical with the generalized Christianizedtheosophical division. Following this trichotomy, man's three parts, therefore, are: first and highest, thedivine spirit or the divine monad of him, which is rooted in the universe, which spirit is linked with theAll, being in a highly mystical sense a ray of the All; second, the intermediate part, or the spiritualmonad, which in its higher and lower aspects is the spiritual and human souls; then, third, the lowest partof man's composite constitution, the vital-astral-physical part of him, which is composed of material orquasi-material life-atoms. (See also Atman, Buddhi, Manas, Kama, Prana, Linga-sarira, Sthula-sarira)

Prolog "programming" Programming in Logic or (French) Programmation en Logique. The first of the huge family of {logic programming} languages. Prolog was invented by Alain Colmerauer and Phillipe Roussel at the University of Aix-Marseille in 1971. It was first implemented 1972 in {ALGOL-W}. It was designed originally for {natural-language processing} but has become one of the most widely used languages for {artificial intelligence}. It is based on {LUSH} (or {SLD}) {resolution} {theorem proving} and {unification}. The first versions had no user-defined functions and no control structure other than the built-in {depth-first search} with {backtracking}. Early collaboration between Marseille and Robert Kowalski at {University of Edinburgh} continued until about 1975. Early implementations included {C-Prolog}, {ESLPDPRO}, {Frolic}, {LM-Prolog}, {Open Prolog}, {SB-Prolog}, {UPMAIL Tricia Prolog}. In 1998, the most common Prologs in use are {Quintus Prolog}, {SICSTUS Prolog}, {LPA Prolog}, {SWI Prolog}, {AMZI Prolog}, {SNI Prolog}. {ISO} draft standard at {Darmstadt, Germany (ftp://ftp.th-darmstadt.de/pub/programming/languages/prolog/standard/)}. or {UGA, USA (ftp://ai.uga.edu/ai.prolog.standard)}. See also {negation by failure}, {Kamin's interpreters}, {Paradigms of AI Programming}, {Aditi}. A Prolog {interpreter} in {Scheme}. {(ftp://cpsc.ucalgary.ca/pub/prolog1.1)}. {A Prolog package (ftp://cpsc.ucalgary.ca/pub/prolog1.1/prolog11.tar.Z)} from the {University of Calgary} features {delayed goals} and {interval arithmetic}. It requires {Scheme} with {continuations}. ["Programming in Prolog", W.F. Clocksin & C.S. Mellish, Springer, 1985]. (2001-04-01)

Proof by cases: Represented in its simplest form by the valid inference of the propositional calculus, from A ⊃ C and B ⊃ C and A ∨ B to C. More complex forms involve multiple disjunctions, e.g., the inference from A ⊃ D and B ⊃ D and C⊃ D and [A ∨ B] ∨ C to D. The simplest form of proof by cases is thus the same as the simple constructive dilemma (see Logic, formal, § 2), the former term deriving from mathematical usage and the latter from traditional logic. For the more complex forms of proof by cases, and like generalizations of the other kinds of dilemma to the case of more than two major premisses, logicians have devised the names trilemma, tetralemma, polylemma -- but these are not much found in actual use. -- A.C.

propeller head "jargon" Used by hackers, this is synonym with {computer geek}. Non-hackers sometimes use it to describe all techies. Probably derives from SF fandom's tradition (originally invented by old-time fan Ray Faraday Nelson) of propeller beanies as fannish insignia (though nobody actually wears them except as a joke). [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-18)

Propitiation: The attempt by act or intent of gaining the favor of a god, removing one's guilt and the divine displeasure. Such acts have taken on innumerable forms: sacrifice of precious possessions, even of human life, of animals, by pilgrimages, tithing, self-imposed asceticism of one kind or another, fastings, rituals, tortures, contrition, etc. The substitution of some one else as an act of voluntary propitiation has found classic expression in Christian tradition in the estimation of Jesus' life and death as the supreme Ransom, Substitute and Mediator. -- V.F.

Puritanism: A term referring, in general, to a purification of existing religious forms and practices. More specifically, Puritanism refers to that group of earnest English Protestants who broke with the Roman system more completely in objection to traditional ceremonies formalities and organizations. This moral earnestness at reformation led to the emphasis upon such commendable virtues as self-reliance, thrift, industry and initiative but it led also to unnatural self-denials and overly austere discipline. In this last respect Puritanism has come to mean an ascetic mode of living, an over-sensitive conscience and an undue repression of normal human enjoyments. Milton was Puritanism at its best. New England Puritanism in its most extreme expressions of Spartan discipline and its censorious interference with the behavior of others was Puritanism at its worst. -- V.F.

puritan ::: n. --> One who, in the time of Queen Elizabeth and the first two Stuarts, opposed traditional and formal usages, and advocated simpler forms of faith and worship than those established by law; -- originally, a term of reproach. The Puritans formed the bulk of the early population of New England.

One who is scrupulous and strict in his religious life; -- often used reproachfully or in contempt; one who has overstrict notions.


Purusartha: (Skr.) Object (artha) of man's (purusa) pursuits, enumerated as four: kama (desire), artha (wealth), dharma (duty), moksa (liberation). Also, a statement of aims with which Indian philosophers traditionally preface their works. -- K.F.L.

Qabbalah(More frequently spelled Kabala or Kabbala.) ::: The Hebrew word for what the Jewish theosophicalinitiates called "the Tradition," or "the Secret Doctrine" -- meaning something which is handed down orpassed down from man to man by tradition; from a Hebrew word meaning "to receive" or "to take over."Unquestionably the Jewish Qabbalah existed as a traditional system of doctrine long before the presentmanuscripts of it were written, for these are of comparatively late production and probably date from theEuropean Middle Ages; and one proof of this statement is found in the fact that in the earliest centuriesof the Christian era several of the Church Fathers of the new Christian religion used language whichcould have been taken only from the Hebrew theosophy, that is, the Hebrew Qabbalah. The expressionshere are in some cases identic, and the thought is in all cases the same.The Zohar may be called the original and main book of the Qabbalah.The basis of the Jewish Qabbalah was the archaic Chaldean secret doctrine which was a system of occultor esoteric philosophy handed down in part by oral, and in part by written, transmission -- and mostly byoral reception, wholly so in the case of the deeper mysteries of the Qabbalah. The Jewish Qabbalah, suchas it exists today, has been disfigured and distorted by the interpolations and mutilations of manyWestern occultists, especially by mystics of strong Christian bias. The Qabbalah, therefore, is essentiallythe theosophy of the Jews, or rather the form which the universal theosophy of the archaic ages took inits transmission through the Jewish mind.

Quality: The four traditional kinds of categorical propositions (see logic, formal, § 4) were distinguished according to quality as affirmative or negative, and according to quantity as particular, singular, or universal. See the articles Affirmative Proposition and Particular Proposition. -- A.C.

rabbinism ::: n. --> A rabbinic expression or phraseology; a peculiarity of the language of the rabbins.
The teachings and traditions of the rabbins.


rabbinist ::: n. --> One among the Jews who adhered to the Talmud and the traditions of the rabbins, in opposition to the Karaites, who rejected the traditions.

Ramanuja: A renowned Indian thinker and theologian of the 11th cent A.D. who restated within the tradition of Vishnuism (q.v.) the doctrines of the Vedanta (q.v.) in that he assumed world and soul to be a transformation of God variously articulated. -- K.F.L.

rc 1. "filename extension" {run commands}. 2. A {shell} from {AT&T}'s {Plan 9}, by Tom Duff. rc offers much the same capabilities as a traditional {Bourne shell}, but with a much cleaner {syntax}. An open source reimplementation was made by Byron Rakitzis, and is now maintained by Tim Goodwin "tjg@star.le.ac.uk". {(http://star.le.ac.uk/~tjg/rc)}. (2000-06-17)

rdb A roll-your-own {database}, created in the {Unix} toolkit philosophy. It appears to be written in the {awk} language, and is very compatible with awk. It uses awk's syntax and can be combined with awk commands. The definitive introduction is "Unix Relational Database Management: Application Development in the Unix Environment", by Rod Manis, Evan Schaeffer, and Robert Jorgensen, published by Prentice Hall. The book tells how to use rdb to create database/spreadsheets in the awk tradition, only easier. It's a good way to get into programming for novices. It's also a good way to learn DB theory and construction quite painlessly.

README file "convention, documentation" A {text file} traditionally included in the top-level {directory} of a {software} distribution, containing pointers to {documentation}, credits, revision history, notes, etc. Originally found in {Unix} source distributions, the convention has spread to many other products. The file may be named README, READ.ME, ReadMe or readme.txt or some other variant. In the {Macintosh} and {IBM PC} worlds, software is not usually distributed in source form, and the README is more likely to contain user-oriented material like last-minute documentation changes, error workarounds, and restrictions. The README convention probably follows the famous scene in Lewis Carroll's "Alice's Adventures In Wonderland" in which Alice confronts magic munchies labeled "Eat Me" and "Drink Me". [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-28)

Realistic Idealism recognizes the reality of non-ideal types of being, but relegates them to a subordinate status with respect either to quantity of being or power. This view is either atheistic or theistic. Realistic theism admits the existence of one or more kinds of non-mental being considered as independently co-eternal with God, eternally dependent upon Deity, or as a divine creation. Platonic Idealism, as traditionally interpreted, identifies absolute being with timeless Ideas or disembodied essences. Thtse, organically united in the Good, are the archetypes and the dynamic causes of existent, material things. The Ideas are also archetypes of rational thought, and the goal of fine art and morality. Axiological Idealism, a modern development of Platonism and Kantianism, maintains that the category of Value is logically and metaphysically prior to that of Being.

receive ::: v. t. --> To take, as something that is offered, given, committed, sent, paid, or the like; to accept; as, to receive money offered in payment of a debt; to receive a gift, a message, or a letter.
Hence: To gain the knowledge of; to take into the mind by assent to; to give admission to; to accept, as an opinion, notion, etc.; to embrace.
To allow, as a custom, tradition, or the like; to give


recursive acronym "convention" A hackish (and especially {MIT}) tradition is to choose acronyms and abbreviations that refer humorously to themselves or to other acronyms or abbreviations. The classic examples were two MIT editors called {EINE} ("EINE Is Not {Emacs}") and {ZWEI} ("ZWEI Was EINE Initially"). More recently, there is a {Scheme} compiler called {LIAR} (Liar Imitates Apply Recursively), and {GNU} stands for "GNU's Not Unix!" - and a company with the name {CYGNUS}, which expands to "Cygnus, Your GNU Support". See also {mung}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-04-28)

Reformation: The Protestant Reformation may be dated from 1517, the year Martin Luther (1483-1546), Augustinian monk and University professor in Wittenberg, publicly attacked the sale of indulgences by the itinerant Tetzel, Dominican ambassador of the Roman Church. The break came first in the personality of the monk who could not find in his own religious and moral endeavors to win divine favor the peace demanded by a sensitive conscience; and when it came he found to his surprise that he had already parted company with a whole tradition. The ideology which found a response in his inner experience was set forth by Augustine, a troubled soul who had surrendered himself completely to divine grace and mercy. The philosophers who legitimized man's endeavor to get on in the world, the church which demanded unquestioned loyalty to its codes and commands, he eschewed as thoroughly inconsonant with his own inner life. Man is wholly dependent upon the merits of Christ, the miracle of faith alone justifies before God. Man's conscience, his reason, and the Scriptures together became his only norm and authority. He could have added a fourth: patriotism, since Luther became the spokesman of a rising tide of German nationalism already suspect of the powers of distant Rome. The humanist Erasmus (see Renaissance) supported Luther by his silence, then broke with him upon the reformer's extreme utterances concerning man's predestination. This break with the humanists shows clearly the direction which the Protestant Reformation was taking: it was an enfranchised religion only to a degree. For while Erasmus pleaded for tolerance and enlightenment the new religious movement called for decision and faith binding men's consciences to a new loyalty. At first the Scriptures were taken as conscience permitted, then conscience became bound by the Scuptures. Luther lacked a systematic theology for the simple reason that he himself was full of inconsistencies. A reformer is often not a systematic thinker. Lutheran princes promoted the reconstruction of institutions and forms suggested by the reformer and his learned ally, Melanchthon, and by one stroke whole provinces became Protestant. The original reformers were reformed by new reformers. Two of such early reformers were Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) in Switzerland and John Calvin (1509-1564) who set up a rigid system and rule of God in Geneva. Calvinism crossed the channel under the leadership of John Knox in Scotland. The English (Anglican) Reformation rested on political rather than strictly religious considerations. The Reformation brought about a Counter-Reformation within the Roman Church in which abuses were set right and lines against the Protestants more tightly drawn (Council of Trent, 1545-1563). -- V.F.

Reid, Thomas: (1710-1796) Scotch philosopher. In his An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense, he opposed the tradition of Berkeley and Hume and emphasized the common consciousness of mankind as basic. These ideas on the importance of self-evidence were further elaborated in "Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man" and "Essays on the Active Powers of Man." He was founder of the so-called Common Sense School, employing that term as here indicated and not in its present acceptation. -- L.E.D.

Religion ::: An operation of the human spiritual mind in its endeavor to understand not only the how and the why ofthings, but comprising in addition a yearning and striving towards self-conscious union with the divineAll and an endlessly growing self-conscious identification with the cosmic divine-spiritual realities. Onephase of a triform method of understanding the nature of nature, of universal nature, and its multiformand multifold workings; and this phase cannot be separated from the other two phases (science andphilosophy) if we wish to gain a true picture of things as they are in themselves.Human religion is the expression of that aspect of man's consciousness which is intuitional, aspirational,and mystical, and which is often deformed and distorted in its lower forms by the emotional in man.It is usual among modern Europeans to derive the word religion from the Latin verb meaning "to bindback" -- religare. But there is another derivation, which is the one that Cicero chooses, and of course hewas a Roman himself and had great skill and deep knowledge in the use of his own native tongue. Thisother derivation comes from a Latin root meaning "to select," "to choose," from which, likewise, we havethe word lex, "law," i.e., the course of conduct or rule of action which is chosen as the best, and istherefore followed; in other words, that which is the best of its kind, as ascertained by selection, by trial,and by proof.Thus then, the meaning of the word religion from the Latin religio, means a careful selection offundamental beliefs and motives by the higher or spiritual intellect, a faculty of intuitional judgment andunderstanding, and a consequent abiding by that selection, resulting in a course of life and conduct in allrespects following the convictions that have been arrived at. This is the religious spirit.To this the theosophist would add the following very important idea: behind all the various religions andphilosophies of ancient times there is a secret or esoteric wisdom given out by the greatest men who haveever lived, the founders and builders of the various world religions and world philosophies; and thissublime system in fundamentals has been the same everywhere over the face of the globe.This system has passed under various names, e.g., the esoteric philosophy, the ancient wisdom, the secretdoctrine, the traditional teaching, theosophy, etc. (See also Science, Philosophy)

Renaissance: (Lat. re + nasci, to be born) Is a term used by historians to characterize various periods of intellectual revival, and especially that which took place in Italy and Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. The term was coined by Michelet and developed into a historical concept by J. Burckhardt (1860) who considered individualism, the revival of classical antiquity, the "discovery" of the world and of man as the main characters of that period as opposed to the Middle Ages. The meaning, the temporal limits, and even the usefulness of the concept have been disputed ever since. For the emphasis placed by various historians on the different fields of culture and on the contribution of different countries must lead to different interpretations of the whole period, and attempts to express a complicated historical phenomenon in a simple, abstract definition are apt to fail. Historians are now inclined to admit a very considerable continuity between the "Renaissance" and the Middle Ages. Yet a sweeping rejection of the whole concept is excluded, for it expresses the view of the writers of the period itself, who considered their century a revival of ancient civilization after a penod of decay. While Burckhardt had paid no attention to philosophy, others began to speak of a "philosophy of the renaissance," regarding thought of those centuries not as an accidental accompaniment of renaissance culture, but as its characteristic philosophical manifestation. As yet this view has served as a fruitful guiding principle rather than as a verified hypothesis. Renaissance thought can be defined in a negative way as the period of transition from the medieval, theological to the modern, scientific interpretation of reality. It also displays a few common features, such as an emphasis on man and on his place in the universe, the rejection of certain medieval standards and methods of science, the increased influence of some newly discovered ancient sources, and a new style and literary form in the presentation of philosophical ideas. More obvious are the differences between the various schools and traditions which cannot easily be brought to a common denominator Humimsm, Platonism, Aristotelianism, scepticism and natural philosophy, to which may be added the group of the founders of modern science (Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo). -- P.O.K.

Request For Comments "standard" (RFC) One of a series, begun in 1969, of numbered {Internet} informational documents and {standards} widely followed by commercial software and {freeware} in the {Internet} and {Unix} communities. Few RFCs are standards but all Internet standards are recorded in RFCs. Perhaps the single most influential RFC has been {RFC 822}, the Internet {electronic mail} format standard. The RFCs are unusual in that they are floated by technical experts acting on their own initiative and reviewed by the Internet at large, rather than formally promulgated through an institution such as {ANSI}. For this reason, they remain known as RFCs even once adopted as standards. The RFC tradition of pragmatic, experience-driven, after-the-fact standard writing done by individuals or small working groups has important advantages over the more formal, committee-driven process typical of {ANSI} or {ISO}. Emblematic of some of these advantages is the existence of a flourishing tradition of "joke" RFCs; usually at least one a year is published, usually on April 1st. Well-known joke RFCs have included 527 ("ARPAWOCKY", R. Merryman, UCSD; 22 June 1973), 748 ("Telnet Randomly-Lose Option", Mark R. Crispin; 1 April 1978), and 1149 ("A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams on Avian Carriers", D. Waitzman, BBN STC; 1 April 1990). The first was a Lewis Carroll pastiche; the second a parody of the {TCP/IP} documentation style, and the third a deadpan skewering of standards-document legalese, describing protocols for transmitting Internet data packets by carrier pigeon. The RFCs are most remarkable for how well they work - they manage to have neither the ambiguities that are usually rife in informal specifications, nor the committee-perpetrated {misfeatures} that often haunt formal standards, and they define a network that has grown to truly worldwide proportions. {rfc.net (http://rfc.net/)}. {W3 (http://w3.org/hypertext/DataSources/Archives/RFC_sites.html)}. {JANET UK FTP (ftp://nic.ja.net/pub/newsfiles/JIPS/rfc)}. {Imperial College, UK FTP (ftp://src.doc.ic.ac.uk/rfc/)}. {Nexor UK (http://nexor.com/public/rfc/index/rfc.html)}. {Ohio State U (http://cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/top.html)}. See also {For Your Information}, {STD}. (1997-11-10)

requisition ::: n. --> The act of requiring, as of right; a demand or application made as by authority.
A formal demand made by one state or government upon another for the surrender or extradition of a fugitive from justice.
A notarial demand of a debt.
A demand by the invader upon the people of an invaded country for supplies, as of provision, forage, transportation, etc.
A formal application by one officer to another for


reuse Using code developed for one {application program} in another application. Traditionally achieved using program libraries. {Object-oriented programming} offers reusability of code via its techniques of {inheritance} and {genericity}. {Class} libraries with {intelligent browsers} and {application generators} are under development to help in this process. {Polymorphic} {functional languages} also support reusability while retaining the benefits of {strong typing}. See also {DRAGOON}, {National Software Reuse Directory}, {RLF}.

Revelation: The communication to man of the Divine Will. This communication has taken, in the history of religions, almost every conceivable form, e.g., the results of lot casting, oracular declarations, dreams, visions, ecstatic experiences (induced by whatever means, such as intoxicants), books, prophets, unusual characters, revered traditional practices, storms, pestilence, etc. The general conception of revelation has been that the divine communication comes in ways unusual, by means not open to the ordinary channels of investigation.

Revelation: The communication to man of the Divine Will. This communication has taken, in the history of religions, almost every conceivable form, e.g., the results of lot casting, oracular declarations, dreams, visions, ecstatic experiences (induced by whatever means, such as intoxicants), books, prophets, unusual characters, revered traditional practices, storms, pestilence, etc. The general conception of revelation has been that the divine communication comes in ways unusual, by means not open to the ordinary channels of investigation. This, however, is not a necessary corollary, revelation of the Divine Will may well come through ordinary channels, the give-and-take of everyday experience, through reason and reflection and intuitive insight. -- V.F.

right ::: n. 1. Something that is due to a person or governmental body by law, tradition, or nature. 2. That which is morally, legally, or ethically proper. 3. A moral, ethical, or legal principle considered as an underlying cause of truth, justice, morality, or ethics. 4. That which is in accord with fact, reason, propriety, the correct way of thinking, etc. 5. A just or legal claim or title. 6. The side that is normally opposite to that where the heart is; the direction towards that side. 7. in (one"s, it"s) own right. By reason of one"s own ability, ownership, etc.; in or of oneself, as independent of others. Right, right"s. *adj. *8. In accordance with what is good, proper, or just.

Ritual: A prescribed series or set of ceremonies, rites, acts, words, gestures, etc., determined by considerations of tradition and symbolism.

Root race: “Life as cultural complex is charted by the great continents or root races through which the human life stream establishes itself on the globe.... The great ages of mankind are the progressive epochs of dominant and cultural complexes. They are centered geographically in the continental areas where the streaming divine sparks converge into a particular aspect of experience and thereupon constitute a root race. There are seven of such primary aggregations according to the esoteric tradition ... namely the Polarian [or Adamic], the Hyperborean, the Lemurian, the Atlantean, the Aryan, and two still to come.” (Marc Edmund Jones.)

Rosicrucian Order (Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis—A.M.O.R.C.): Defined by the Rosicrucian Order itself as “a world-wide fraternal organization, established and operating on a lodge system. It expounds a system of metaphysical and physical philosophy intended to awaken the dormant, latent faculties of the individual whereby he may utilize to a better advantage his natural talents and lead a happier and more useful life. It accomplishes this by a method of personal instruction and guidance.” The word Rosicrucian is derived from the Latin Rosae Crucis, meaning of the Rosy Cross; the traditional symbol of the order is a cross with a single red rose in the center. The Order has its traditional origin in the Great White Brotherhood of Egypt (15th century B.C.).

round tape "storage, jargon" Industry-standard 1/2-inch {magnetic tape} (7- or 9-track) on traditional circular reels. See {macrotape}, opposite: {square tape}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-02-03)

RTFM "jargon" /R T F M/ Read The Fucking Manual (always abbreviated, sometimes bowdlerised to "Fine" or "Friendly") An (unhelpful) {guru}'s traditional response when someone asks a question in a {newsgroup} or {mailing list} which he could have easily answered for himself had he bothered to RTFM. The term may also be used to indicate that you couldn't find the answer in the manual. E.g. "How do I interface Unix to my toaster? And yes, I did RTFM but the {FM} didn't help and I can't {RTFS}." Other derived forms include {RTFAQ}, {RTFB}, {RTM}, {RYFM} and, more recently, {STFW}. Compare: {UTSL}. A web site in the same vein is {(lmgtfy.com)}. [Earliest use?] [{Jargon File}] (2003-06-07)

Sadducee-ism: Both a party and a belief so named after the Zadokites, sons of Zadok, the family and temple hierarchy, advocates of the written Torah (teaching) in Judaism, the partv and attitude opposite to the Pharisees and scribes, who prized oral and developing thought as well as the Torah. In general, Sadducee-ism, holding the Law (Pentateuch) to be explicit and its language straight-forward, rejected the Messianic doctrine as regards the House of David, but not as regards a priestly source, and also that of resurrection of the body, but not that of the soul. On the whole, however, Jesus and Paul both proved to be the enemies of Pharisee-ism and in effect sided with the Sadduccees against traditional law. -- F.K.

sadr latifa :::   place in chest area equivalent to the heart chakra of Indian tradition

saga ::: n. --> A Scandinavian legend, or heroic or mythic tradition, among the Norsemen and kindred people; a northern European popular historical or religious tale of olden time. ::: pl. --> of Sagum

sampradaya. ::: tradition; school; doctrine; handed-down instruction

sanatana dharma ::: the eternal religion; the Indian religious and spiritual tradition.

Science of Science: The analysis and description of science from various points of view, including logic, methodology, sociology, and history of science. One of the chief tasks of the science of science is the ana1ysis of the language of science (see Semiotic). Scientific empiricism (q.v.) emphasizes the role of the science of science, and tries to clarify the different aspects. Some empiricists believe that the chief task of philosophy is the development of the logic and methodology of science, and that most of the problems of traditional philosophy, as far as they have cognitive meaning (see Meaning, Kinds of, 1, 5), may be construed as problems of the science of science. -- R.C.

scribe ::: n. --> One who writes; a draughtsman; a writer for another; especially, an offical or public writer; an amanuensis or secretary; a notary; a copyist.
A writer and doctor of the law; one skilled in the law and traditions; one who read and explained the law to the people. ::: v. t.


seannachie ::: n. --> A bard among the Highlanders of Scotland, who preserved and repeated the traditions of the tribes; also, a genealogist.

Seraphim ::: “Hybrid celestial beings [including Cherubim] with human, animal, or birdlike characteristics that are depicted in Jewish, Christian and Islamic literature. They act as throne bearers or throne guardians of the deity. In later theology Cherubim is an angel of the second order, and Seraphim of the first. They correspond, according to Sri Aurobindo, to the Gandharvas and Venas of India tradition. (Enc. Br). Glossary and Index of Proper Names in Sri Aurobindo’s Works

seraphim ::: "Hybrid celestial beings [including Cherubim] with human, animal, or birdlike characteristics that are depicted in Jewish, Christian and Islamic literature. They act as throne bearers or throne guardians of the deity. In later theology Cherubim is an angel of the second order, and Seraphim of the first. They correspond, according to Sri Aurobindo, to the Gandharvas and Venas of India tradition. (Enc. Br.)” Glossary and Index of Proper Names in Sri Aurobindo"s Works

Set Priority Level (SPL) The way traditional {Unix} {kernels} implement {mutual exclusion} by running code at high {interrupt priority levels} and thus blocking lower level interrupts. (1994-11-23)

"shadows", and ru ::: means "He who disperses them"&

Shambalah: The sacred island of esoteric tradition, believed to have been situated in the present Gobi desert in Asia. According to the teachings of several occult schools, including the theosophists, Shambalah is a place or town in the Himalayas.

“ She is the first Radiance, Aditi, the infinite Consciousness of the infinite conscious Being which is the mother of the worlds.” The Secret of the Veda

shiah ::: n. --> Same as Shiite.
A member of that branch of the Mohammedans to which the Persians belong. They reject the first three caliphs, and consider Ali as being the first and only rightful successor of Mohammed. They do not acknowledge the Sunna, or body of traditions respecting Mohammed, as any part of the law, and on these accounts are treated as heretics by the Sunnites, or orthodox Mohammedans.


Shiva ::: “The ‘auspicious one’; a name of the third deity of the Hindu Trinity; . . . represented mostly as ‘the pure and white, the ascetic, the still, contemplative Yogin’. The name Shiva is not found in the Vedas; however, the name Rudra occurs both in the singular and the plural. This Rudra of the Vedas developed in the course of time into Shiva, considered in the Puranic tradition mainly as the destroying or dissolving Power. He has a third eye in the middle of the forehead, a fiery glance from which once reduced Kamadeva to ashes. In his creative aspect he is represented as a Linga (phallus), symbolising the male procreative energy in nature. It is under the form of the Linga that Shiva is mostly worshipped. His abode is on Mt. Kailash, Parvati is his spouse and the Trisula (the trident) his weapon.” Glossary and Index of Proper Names in Sri Aurobindo’s Works

shiva ::: "The ‘auspicious one"; a name of the third deity of the Hindu Trinity; . . . represented mostly as ‘the pure and white, the ascetic, the still, contemplative Yogin". The name Shiva is not found in the Vedas; however, the name Rudra occurs both in the singular and the plural. This Rudra of the Vedas developed in the course of time into Shiva, considered in the Puranic tradition mainly as the destroying or dissolving Power. He has a third eye in the middle of the forehead, a fiery glance from which once reduced Kamadeva to ashes. In his creative aspect he is represented as a Linga (phallus), symbolising the male procreative energy in nature. It is under the form of the Linga that Shiva is mostly worshipped. His abode is on Mt. Kailash, Parvati is his spouse and the Trisula (the trident) his weapon.” *Glossary and Index of Proper Names in Sri Aurobindo"s Works

Shofar: The horn (ram’s horn) which is sounded in the Jewish houses of worship, especially on the Hebrew New Year. According to Jewish mystic tradition, a blast on the shofar will herald in the coming of the Messiah.

siddhanta. ::: the doctrine; the final statement; the tradition; the goal; the conclusion

Sign-Language: A system of signs established either traditionally (primitive tribes) or technically (deaf-mutes) for the purpose of communicating concepts or sentences, rather than letters or sounds or words as in signalling The question of the priority of vocal and gesture speech is much debated, but there is no doubt that primitive peoples used signs for communicating intentions and expressing their needs, especially when dealing with tribes with a different tongue. This is almost a psychological reflex, as it may be noted in the elementary improvised mimic of travellers among people they do not understand, and also in the vivid gestures accompanying the utterances of even civilized people like those of the Mediternnean shores. Sign-languages have a psychological, sociological and ethnological importance, as they may reveal the fundamental trains of thought, the sociological status, the race peculiarities, the geographical segregation, and even the beliefs and rituals of those who use them. Their study would also give material for various syntactical, semantical and logical problems.

single-page web application "web, application" A {web site} that behaves more like an {application program} in that, instead of clicking a {link} causing the {web browser} to load a whole new {web page}, changes of state are performed by {JavaScript} running in the {web browser} fetching new content or data from the {web server} and using it to update (parts of) the existing page. This is often done via a {protocol} like {AJAX}. This way of working allows the browser to maintain the user's {session state} more easily and minimise the amount of data that needs to be {downloaded} and {rendered} thus largely eliminating the delay incurred when moving from page to page in a traditional web site. {Gmail} is a well-known example of a single-page web application. (2014-11-27)

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smrti (Smriti) ::: 1. remembrance; the faculty by which true knowledge hidden in the mind reveals itself to the judgment and is recognised at once as the truth. ::: 2. [(a code of) traditional or man-made laws, as distinguished from sruti or revealed laws].

Sorites: A chain of (categorical) svllogisms, the conclusion of each forming a premiss of the next -- traditionally restricted to a chain of syllogisms in the first figure (all of which, with the possible exception of the first and last, must then be syllogisms in Barbara).

Spark: According to Jewish mystic tradition, before the creation of our world, the divine light-substance burst into sparks which fell into the lower depths and filled the “shells” of the creatures of the world; the vital essence.

Speculation in Jewry rose again in the ninth century in the lands of the East, particularly in Babylonia, when Judaism once more met Greek philosophy, this time dressed in Arabic garb. The philosophic tradition of the ancients transmitted through the Syrians, to the young Arabic nation created a disturbance in the minds of the devotees of the Koran who, testing its principles by the light of the newly acquired wisdom, found them often wanting. As a result, various currents of thought were set in motion. Of these, the leading was the Kalamitic or the Mutazilite philosophy, (q.v.) of several shades, the general aim ot which was both to defend doctrines of religion against heresies and also to reconcile them with the principles of reason.

srauta. ::: a vedic tradition that places more emphasis on the performance of rituals

Sri Aurobindo: "As there are Powers of Knowledge or Forces of the Light, so there are Powers of Ignorance and tenebrous Forces of the Darkness whose work is to prolong the reign of Ignorance and Inconscience. As there are Forces of Truth, so there are Forces that live by the Falsehood and support it and work for its victory; as there are powers whose life is intimately bound up with the existence, the idea and the impulse of Good, so there are Forces whose life is bound up with the existence and the idea and the impulse of Evil. It is this truth of the cosmic Invisible that was symbolised in the ancient belief of a struggle between the powers of Light and Darkness, Good and Evil for the possession of the world and the government of the life of man; — this was the significance of the contest between the Vedic Gods and their opponents, sons of Darkness and Division, figured in a later tradition as Titan and Giant and Demon, Asura, Rakshasa, Pisacha; the same tradition is found in the Zoroastrian Double Principle and the later Semitic opposition of God and his Angels on the one side and Satan and his hosts on the other, — invisible Personalities and Powers that draw man to the divine Light and Truth and Good or lure him into subjection to the undivine principle of Darkness and Falsehood and Evil.” The Life Divine

Standard Generalized Markup Language "language, text" (SGML) A generic {markup} language for representing documents. SGML is an International Standard that describes the relationship between a document's content and its structure. SGML allows document-based information to be shared and re-used across applications and computer {platforms} in an open, vendor-neutral format. SGML is sometimes compared to {SQL}, in that it enables companies to structure information in documents in an open fashion, so that it can be accessed or re-used by any SGML-aware application across multiple platforms. SGML is defined in "ISO 8879:1986 Information processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)", an {ISO} standard produced by {JTC} 1/SC 18 and amended by "Amendment 1:1988". Unlike other common document file formats that represent both content and presentation, SGML represents a document's content {data} and structure (interrelationships among the data). Removing the presentation from content establishes a neutral format. SGML documents and the information in them can easily be re-used by publishing and non-publishing {applications}. SGML identifies document elements such as titles, paragraphs, tables, and chapters as distinct objects, allowing users to define the relationships between the objects for structuring data in documents. The relationships between document elements are defined in a {Document Type Definition} (DTD). This is roughly analogous to a collection of {field} definitions in a {database}. Once a document is converted into SGML and the information has been 'tagged', it becomes a database-like document. It can be searched, printed or even programmatically manipulated by SGML-aware applications. Companies are moving their documents into SGML for several reasons: Reuse - separation of content from presentation facilitates multiple delivery formats like {CD-ROM} and {electronic publishing}. Portability - SGML is an international, platform-independent, standard based on {ASCII} text, so companies can safely store their documents in SGML without being tied to any one vendor. Interchange - SGML is a core data standard that enables SGML-aware applications to inter-operate and share data seamlessly. A central SGML document store can feed multiple processes in a company, so managing and updating information is greatly simplified. For example, when an aeroplane is delivered to a customer, it comes with thousands of pages of documentation. Distributing these on paper is expensive, so companies are investigating publishing on CD-ROM. If a maintenance person needs a guide for adjusting a plane's flight surfaces, a viewing tool automatically assembles the relevant information from the document {repository} as a complete document. SGML can be used to define attributes to information stored in documents such as security levels. There are few clear leaders in the SGML industry which, in 1993, was estimated to be worth US $520 million and is projected to grow to over US $1.46 billion by 1998. A wide variety tools can be used to create SGML systems. The SGML industry can be separated into the following categories: Mainstream Authoring consists of the key {word processing} vendors like {Lotus}, {WordPerfect} and {Microsoft}. SGML Editing and Publishing includes traditional SGML authoring tools like {ArborText}, {Interleaf}, {FrameBuilder} and {SoftQuad Author}/Editor. SGML Conversions is one of the largest sectors in the market today because many companies are converting legacy data from mainframes, or documents created with mainstream word processors, into SGML. Electronic Delivery is widely regarded as the most compelling reason companies are moving to SGML. Electronic delivery enables users to retrieve information on-line using an intelligent document viewer. Document Management may one day drive a major part of the overall SGML industry. SGML Document Repositories is one of the cornerstone technologies that will affect the progress of SGML as a data standard. Since 1998, almost all development in SGML has been focussed on {XML} - a simple (and therefore easier to understand and implement) subset of SGML. {"ISO 8879:1986//ENTITIES Added Latin 1//EN" (http://ucc.ie/info/net/isolat1.html)} defines some characters. [How are these related to {ISO 8859}-1?]. {ISO catalogue entry (http://iso.ch/cate/d16387.html)}. SGML parsers are available from {VU, NL (ftp://star.cs.vu.nl/Sgml)}, {FSU (ftp://mailer.cc.fsu.edu/pub/sgml)}, {UIO, Norway (ftp://ifi.uio.no/pub/SGML/SGMLS)}. See also {sgmls}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.text.sgml}. ["The SGML Handbook", Charles F. Goldfarb, Clarendon Press, 1991, ISBN 0198537379. (Full text of the ISO standard plus extensive commentary and cross-referencing. Somewhat cheaper than the ISO document)]. ["SGML - The User's Guide to ISO 8879", J.M. Smith et al, Ellis Harwood, 1988]. [Example of some SGML?] (2000-05-31)

Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory "body, education" (SAIL) /sayl/, not /S-A-I-L/ An important site in the early development of {LISP}; with the {MIT AI Lab}, {BBN}, {CMU}, {XEROX PARC}, and the {Unix} community, one of the major wellsprings of technical innovation and hacker-culture traditions (see the {WAITS} entry for details). The SAIL machines were shut down in late May 1990, scant weeks after the MIT AI Lab's ITS cluster was officially decommissioned. [{Jargon File}] (2001-06-22)

stateless A stateless {server} is one which treats each request as an independent transaction, unrelated to any previous request. This simplifies the server design because it does not need to allocate storage to deal with conversations in progress or worry about freeing it if a client dies in mid-transaction. A disadvantage is that it may be necessary to include more information in each request and this extra information will need to be interpreted by the server each time. An example of a stateless server is a {web} server. These take in requests ({URLs}) which completely specify the required document and do not require any context or memory of previous requests. Contrast this with a traditional {FTP} server which conducts an interactive session with the user. A request to the server for a file can assume that the user has been authenticated and that the current directory and transfer mode have been set.

stone knives and bearskins (From the Star Trek Classic episode "The City on the Edge of Forever") A term traditionally used to describe (and deprecate) computing environments that are grotesquely primitive in light of what is known about good ways to design things. As in "Don't get too used to the facilities here. Once you leave SAIL it's stone knives and bearskins as far as the eye can see". Compare {steam-powered}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-01-24)

structuralism ::: Traditionally refers to the study of the structures of the mind that underlie human behavior. In Integral Theory, structuralism typically refers to the objective study of interior realities over time in search of regularities and patterns. It is most often used as a third-person approach to first-person singular realities. The outside view of the interior of an individual (i.e., the outside view of a holon in the Upper-Left quadrant). Exemplary of a zone-

St. Thomas was a teacher and a writer for some twenty years (1254-1273). Among his works are: Scriptum in IV Libros Sententiarum (1254-1256), Summa Contra Gentiles (c. 1260), Summa Theologica (1265-1272); commentaries on Boethius. (De Trinitate, c. 1257-1258), on Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite (De Divinis Nominibus, c. 1261), on the anonymous and important Liber de Causis (1268), and especially on Aristotle's works (1261-1272), Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, On the Soul, Posterior Analytics, On Interpretation, On the Heavens, On Generation and Corruption; Quaestiones Disputatae, which includes questions on such large subjects as De Veritate (1256-1259); De Potentia (1259-1263); De Malo (1263-1268); De Spiritualibus Creaturis, De Anima (1269-1270); small treatises or Opuscula, among which especially noteworthy are the De Ente et Essentia (1256); De Aeternitate Mundi (1270), De Unitate Intellecus (1270), De Substantiis Separatis (1272). While it is extremely difficult to grasp in its entirety the personality behind this complex theological and philosophical activity, some points are quite clear and beyond dispute. During the first five years of his activity as a thinker and a teacher, St. Thomas seems to have formulated his most fundamental ideas in their definite form, to have clarified his historical conceptions of Greek and Arabian philosophers, and to have made more precise and even corrected his doctrinal positions, (cf., e.g., the change on the question of creation between In II Sent., d.l, q.l, a.3, and the later De Potentia, q. III, a.4). This is natural enough, though we cannot pretend to explain why he should have come to think as he did. The more he grew, and that very rapidly, towards maturity, the more his thought became inextricably involved in the defense of Aristotle (beginning with c. 1260), his texts and his ideas, against the Averroists, who were then beginning to become prominent in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris; against the traditional Augustinianism of a man like St. Bonaventure; as well as against that more subtle Augustinianism which could breathe some of the spirit of Augustine, speak the language of Aristotle, but expound, with increasing faithfulness and therefore more imminent disaster, Christian ideas through the Neoplatonic techniques of Avicenna. This last group includes such different thinkers as St. Albert the Great, Henry of Ghent, the many disciples of St. Bonaventure, including, some think, Duns Scotus himself, and Meister Eckhart of Hochheim.

Sunnites: Denotes the orthodox, traditionalist, by far the larger numbered Islamic sect which denies the Shiite claim that Ali and his descendants are alone entitled to the caliphate. -- H.H.

superpipelined 1. Traditional {pipelined} architectures have a single pipeline stage for each of: instruction fetch, instruction decode, memory read, {ALU} operation and memory write. A superpipelined {processor} has a {pipeline} where each of these logical steps may be subdivided into multiple {pipeline} stages. 2. Marketese for {pipelined}.

Ta Ku: Major cause. See: ku. Talmud: (Learning) An encyclopedic work in Hebrew-Aramaic produced during 800 years (300 B.C.-500 A.D.) in Palestine and Babylon. Its six sedarim (orders) subdivided in 63 massektot (tractates) represent the oral tradition of Judaism expounding and developing the religious ideas and civil laws of the written special hermeneutic middot (measures) of law (i.e., the Hebrew Bible) by means of Rabbi Hillel, 13 of R. Ishmael and 32 of R. Eliezer of Galilee.

Talmud: An encyclopedic work in Hebrew-Aramaic produced during 800 years (300 B.C.-500 A.D.) in Palestine and Babylon. Its six Orders (sedarim), subdivided in sixty-three tractates (mas-sektoth), sum up the oral traditions of Jewry, expounding, developing and commenting on the civil and religious laws of Judaism. It is a veritable treasure-house of ancient Jewish philosophy, ethics, theology, folklore, sciences, etc. accumulated during those eight centuries. The Talmud consists of an older part, the Mishnah (q.v.), and the later part, Gemarah (q.v.), a commentary on the former.

Taste: The faculty of judging art without rules, through sensation and experience. The ensemble of preferences shown by an artist in his choice of elements from nature and tradition, for his works of art.

Tehmi: “The superhuman Rider is Kalki. The tradition of the Kalki Avatar is that he will come riding on a white horse.”

Term: In common English usage the word "term"' is syntactical or semantical in character, and means simply a word (or phrase), or a word associated with its meaning. The phrase "undefined term" as used in mathematical postulate theory (see mathematics) is perhips best referred to this common meaning of "term " In traditional logic, a term is a concept appearing as subject or predicate (q.v.). of a categorical proposition; also, a word or phrase denoting such a concept. The word "term" has also been employed in a syntactical sense in various special developments of logistic systems (q.v.), usually in a way suggested by the traditional usage.

The addition to the functional calculus of first order of individual constants (denoting particular individuals) is not often made -- unless symbols for functions from individuals to individuals (so-called "mathematical" or "descriptive" functions) are to be added at the same time. Such an addition is, however, employed in the two following sections as a means of representing certain forms of inference of traditional logic. The addition is really non-essential, and requires only minor changes in the definition of a formula and the list of primitive formulas (allowing the alternative of individual constants at certain places where the above given formulation calls for free individual variables).

The anagnidagdhas are the more spiritual and intellectual classes of pitris who provided nascent humanity with its spiritual, intellectual, and higher psychic principles. Blavatsky writes: “The first or primordial Pitris, the ‘Seven Sons of Fire’ or of the Flame, are distinguished or divided into seven classes . . . [VP 3:14; Manu 3:199] three of which classes are Arupa, formless, ‘composed of intellectual not elementary substance,’ and four are corporeal. The first are pure Agni (fire) or Sapta-jiva (‘seven lives,’ now become Sapta-jihva, seven-tongued, as Agni is represented with seven tongues and seven winds as the wheels of his car). As a formless, purely spiritual essence, in the first degree of evolution, they could not create that, the prototypical form of which was not in their minds, as this is the first requisite. They could only give birth to ‘mind-born’ beings, their ‘Sons,’ the second class of Pitris (or Prajapati, or Rishis, etc.), one degree more material; these, to the third — the last of the Arupa class. It is only this last class that was enabled with the help of the Fourth principle of the Universal Soul (Aditi, Akasha) to produce beings that became objective and having a form. But when these came to existence, they were found to possess such a small proportion of the divine immortal Soul or Fire in them, that they were considered failures. . . . The three orders of Beings, the Pitri-Rishis, the Sons of Flame, had to merge and blend together their three higher principles with the Fourth (the Circle), and the Fifth (the microcosmic) principle before the necessary union could be obtained and result therefrom achieved” (BCW 6:191-3).

The arani (dual) represent the father and mother elements in nature, the creative, generative energy producing the offspring from the receiver, the mother. While the male/female metaphor has application physiologically, it may be interpreted cosmically: “this idea of the creative power of fire is explained at once by the ancient assimilation of the human soul to a celestial spark” (M. G. Dech 261); again “The ‘female Arani,’ the mistress of the race, is Aditi, the mother of the gods, or Shekinah, eternal light — in the world of Spirit, the ‘Great Deep’ and Chaos; or primordial Substance in its first remove from the Unknown, in the manifested Kosmos” (SD 2:527).

The Brahmanas and Puranas generally reckon twelve adityas. In a preceding manvantara they were called tushitas, but when the end of the cycle was near they entered the “womb of Aditi, that we may be born in the next Manwantara; for, thereby, we shall again enjoy the rank of gods.” Hence in the present seventh manvantara, they are known as adityas (VP 1:15). When the pralaya (dissolution) of the world comes, twelve suns will appear (MB 3:3, 26; Dict Hind 3). The twelve adityas are the twelve great gods of the Hindu pantheon; also, the twelve signs of the zodiac or twelve months of the year.

The ethical teachings of the Bhagavad Gita (q.v.). of the various religio-philosophical groups, of the Buddhists and Jainas of Greater India, are high; but if such ideals have not been attained generally in practice, or even if repulsive and cruel rituals and linga worship are prevalent, such phenomena are understandable if we consider the 340 millions of teeming humanity within the fold of Hinduism, from aborigines to a Gandhi, Tagore, and Sir Raman. Treatises dealing with practical morality are very numerous. They may be classed into those of a purely religious leaning among which we might count all religio-philosophical literature of the Vedic and non-Vedic tradition, including drama and epic literature, and those that deal specifically with practices of the nature of self-culture (cf. Yoga), religious observances (sacrifice, priest-craft, rites, ceremonies, etc.), household affairs and duties (Grhyasutras), and the science of polity and government (Arthasastras). -- K.F.L..

The five moods of the fourth figure are sometimes characterized instead as indirect moods of the first figure, the two premisses (major and minor) being interchanged, and the names being then given respectively as Baralipton, Celantes, Dabitis, Fapesmo, Frisesomorum. (Some add the five "weakened" moods, Barbari, Celaront, Cesaro, Camestros, Calemos, to be obtained respectively from Barbara, Celarent, Cesare, Camestres, Calemes, by subalternation of the conclusion.) Other variations in the names of the moods are also found. These names have a mnemonic significance, the first three vowels indicating whether the major premiss, minor premiss, and conclusion, in order, are A, E, I, or O; and some of the consonants indicating the traditional reductions of the other moods to the four direct moods of the first figure. The Port-Royal Logic, translated by T. S. Baynes, 2nd edn., London, 1851.

The later Atlanteans were noted for their magic powers, wickedness, and defiance of the gods, and this tradition is preserved in many legends, such as the Biblical Tower of Babel, which derived from still older Chaldean scriptures. The legendary stories of wicked antediluvian giants warring against heaven are common in every mythology. The defeat of the giants, in some at least of these legends, results in the confusion of tongues — the break-up and dispersal of a great racial division of mankind.

The Panchen Lama has been traditionally regarded as the tulku of Amitabha, and the Dalai Lama as the tulku of Avalokitesvara (Tibetan Chenrezi).

The Port-Royal Logic defines a proposition to be the same as a judgment but elsewhere speaks of propositions as denoting judgments. Traditional logicians generally have defined a proposition as a judgment expressed in words, or as a sentence expressing a judgment, but some say or seem to hold in actual usage that synonymous or intertranslatable sentences represent the same proposition. Recent writers in many cases adopt or tend towards (b).

The real object of this mental discipline is to draw away the mind from ic outward and the mental world into union with the divine Being. Therefore in the first three stages use has to be made of some mental means or support by which the mind accustomed to run about from object to object, shall fix on one alone, and that one must be something which represents the idea of the Divine. It is usually a name or a form or a mantra by which the thought can be feed io the sole knowledge or adora- tion of the Lord. By this concentration on the idea (he mind enters from the idea into its reality, into which h sinks silent, absorbed, unified. This is the traditional method. There are,

The Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of the Greek Zeus,[5] and in Latin literature and Roman art, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto. Each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, and the underworld. The Italic Diespiter was also a sky god who manifested himself in the daylight, usually but not always identified with Jupiter.[6] Tinia is usually regarded as his Etruscan counterpart.[7] Wikipedia

The structural problem stated in terms of the antithesis between subjective and objective is rather too vague for the purposes of epistemology and a more precise analysis of the knowledge-situation and statement of the issues involved is required. The perceptual situation -- and this analysis may presumably be extended with appropriate modifications to memory, imagination and other modes of cognition -- consists of a subject (the self, or pure act of perceiving), the content (sense data) and the object (the physical thing perceived). In terms of this analysis, two issues may be formulated Are content and object identical (epistemological monism), or are they numerically distinct (epistemological dualism)? and Does the object exist independently of the knowing subject (epistemological idealism) or is it dependent upon the subject (epistemological realism)? (h) The problem of truth is perhaps the culmination of epistemological enquiry -- in any case it is the problem which brings the enquiry to the threshold of metaphysics. The traditional theories of the nature of truth are: the correspondence theory which conceives truth as a relation between an "idea" or a proposition and its object --the relation has commonly been regarded as one of resemblance but it need not be so considered (see Correspondence theory of truth); the Coherence theory which adopts as the criterion of truth, the logical consistency of a proposition with a wider system of propositions (see Coherence theory of truth), and the intrinsic theory which views truth as an intrinsic property of the true proposition. See Intrinsic theory of truth. --L-W. Bibliography:

The universe is depicted as an ash tree, Yggdrasil, within which every lesser being is an ash tree in its own right. A Tree of Life is part of the traditions in every part of the world. “The Norse Ask, the Hesiodic Ash-tree, whence issued the men of the generation of bronze, the Third Root-Race, and the Tzite tree of the Popol-Vuh, out of which the Mexican third race of men was created, are all one” (SD 2:97).

The vast traditions not included in the official Mishnah are known as Baraitha (extraneous). These Baraithas were ultimately collected in separate works.

The vital center of his doctrine is duration rather than intuition. Duration is the original thing in itself, the "substance" of philosophic tradition, except that to Bergson it is a specific experience, revealed to the individual in immediate experience. All things, consciousness, matter, time, evolution, motion and the absolute are so many specialized tensional forms of duration. The phrase elan vital sums up his vitalistic doctrine that there is an original life force, that it has passed from one generation of living beings to another by way of developed individual organisms, these being the connecting links between the generations. Bergson regards as pseudo-evolutionary the effort to arrange all living beings into a grand uni-linear series. True or creative evolution is pluri-dimensional, i.e., the life force is conserved in every line of evolution of living beings, causing all of the numerous varieties of living forms, creating all new species, and dividing itself more and more as it advances. As the vital impetus is not moving towards any fixed, predetermined and final end, an immanent teleology is within the life force itself.

This extension of the traditional reductions of the syllogistic moods is due to Christine Ladd Franklin. She, however, stated the matter within the algebra of classes (see logic, formal, § 7), taking the three terms of the syllogism as classes. From this point of view the three propositions of an antilogism appear as follows: m ∩ −p = Λ, s ∩ −p ≠ Λ. -- A.C.

This representation does not reproduce faithfully all particulars of the traditional account. The fact is that the traditional doctrine, having grown up from various sources and under an inadequate formal analysis, is not altogether what seems to be the best representation, and simply note the four following points of divergence: We have defined the connectives ⊃x and ∧x in terms of universal and existential quantification, whereas the traditional account might be thought to be more closely reproduced if they were taken as primitive notations. (It would, however, not be difficult to reformulate the functional calculus of first order so that these connectives would be primitive and the usual quantifiers defined in terms of them.) The traditional account associates the negation in E and O with the copula (q. v.), whereas the negation symbol is here prefixed to the sub-formula P(x). (Notice that this sub-formula represents ambiguously a proposition and that, in fact, the notation of the functional calculus of first order provides for applying negation only to propositions.) The traditional account includes under A and E respectively, also (propositions denoted by) P(A) and ∼P(A), where A is an individual constant. These singular propositions are ignored in our account of opposition and immediate inference, but will appear in § 5 as giving variant forms of certain syllogisms. Some aspects of the traditional account require that A and E be represented as we have here, others that they be represented by     [(Ex)S(x)][S(x) ⊃x P(x)]   and   [(Ex)S(x)][S(x) ⊃x ∼P(x)]     respectively. The question concerning the choice between these two interpretations is known as the problem of existential import of propositions. We prefer to introduce (Ex)S(x) as a separate premiss at those places where it is required. Given a fixed subject S and a fixed predicate P, we have, according to the square of opposition, that A and O are contradictory, E and I are contradictory, A and E are contrary, I and O are subcontrary, A and I are subaltern, E and O are subaltern. The two propositions in a contradictory pair cannot be both true and cannot be both false (one is the exact negation of the other). The two propositions in a subaltern pair are so related that the first one, together with the premiss (Ex)S(x), implies the second (subalternation). Under the premiss (Ex)S(x), the contrary pair, A, E, cannot be both true, and the subcontrary pair, I, O, cannot be both false.

. thivi (Prithivi) ::: the earth-goddess, a manifestation of Aditi in the lower hemisphere of existence (aparardha).

Three senses of "Ockhamism" may be distinguished: Logical, indicating usage of the terminology and technique of logical analysis developed by Ockham in his Summa totius logicae; in particular, use of the concept of supposition (suppositio) in the significative analysis of terms. Epistemological, indicating the thesis that universality is attributable only to terms and propositions, and not to things as existing apart from discourse. Theological, indicating the thesis that no tneological doctrines, such as those of God's existence or of the immortality of the soul, are evident or demonstrable philosophically, so that religious doctrine rests solely on faith, without metaphysical or scientific support. It is in this sense that Luther is often called an Ockhamist.   Bibliography:   B. Geyer,   Ueberwegs Grundriss d. Gesch. d. Phil., Bd. II (11th ed., Berlin 1928), pp. 571-612 and 781-786; N. Abbagnano,   Guglielmo di Ockham (Lanciano, Italy, 1931); E. A. Moody,   The Logic of William of Ockham (N. Y. & London, 1935); F. Ehrle,   Peter von Candia (Muenster, 1925); G. Ritter,   Studien zur Spaetscholastik, I-II (Heidelberg, 1921-1922).     --E.A.M. Om, aum: (Skr.) Mystic, holy syllable as a symbol for the indefinable Absolute. See Aksara, Vac, Sabda. --K.F.L. Omniscience: In philosophy and theology it means the complete and perfect knowledge of God, of Himself and of all other beings, past, present, and future, or merely possible, as well as all their activities, real or possible, including the future free actions of human beings. --J.J.R. One: Philosophically, not a number but equivalent to unit, unity, individuality, in contradistinction from multiplicity and the mani-foldness of sensory experience. In metaphysics, the Supreme Idea (Plato), the absolute first principle (Neo-platonism), the universe (Parmenides), Being as such and divine in nature (Plotinus), God (Nicolaus Cusanus), the soul (Lotze). Religious philosophy and mysticism, beginning with Indian philosophy (s.v.), has favored the designation of the One for the metaphysical world-ground, the ultimate icility, the world-soul, the principle of the world conceived as reason, nous, or more personally. The One may be conceived as an independent whole or as a sum, as analytic or synthetic, as principle or ontologically. Except by mysticism, it is rarely declared a fact of sensory experience, while its transcendent or transcendental, abstract nature is stressed, e.g., in epistemology where the "I" or self is considered the unitary background of personal experience, the identity of self-consciousness, or the unity of consciousness in the synthesis of the manifoldness of ideas (Kant). --K.F.L. One-one: A relation R is one-many if for every y in the converse domain there is a unique x such that xRy. A relation R is many-one if for every x in the domain there is a unique y such that xRy. (See the article relation.) A relation is one-one, or one-to-one, if it is at the same time one-many and many-one. A one-one relation is said to be, or to determine, a one-to-one correspondence between its domain and its converse domain. --A.C. On-handedness: (Ger. Vorhandenheit) Things exist in the mode of thereness, lying- passively in a neutral space. A "deficient" form of a more basic relationship, termed at-handedness (Zuhandenheit). (Heidegger.) --H.H. Ontological argument: Name by which later authors, especially Kant, designate the alleged proof for God's existence devised by Anselm of Canterbury. Under the name of God, so the argument runs, everyone understands that greater than which nothing can be thought. Since anything being the greatest and lacking existence is less then the greatest having also existence, the former is not really the greater. The greatest, therefore, has to exist. Anselm has been reproached, already by his contemporary Gaunilo, for unduly passing from the field of logical to the field of ontological or existential reasoning. This criticism has been repeated by many authors, among them Aquinas. The argument has, however, been used, if in a somewhat modified form, by Duns Scotus, Descartes, and Leibniz. --R.A. Ontological Object: (Gr. onta, existing things + logos, science) The real or existing object of an act of knowledge as distinguished from the epistemological object. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ontologism: (Gr. on, being) In contrast to psychologism, is called any speculative system which starts philosophizing by positing absolute being, or deriving the existence of entities independently of experience merely on the basis of their being thought, or assuming that we have immediate and certain knowledge of the ground of being or God. Generally speaking any rationalistic, a priori metaphysical doctrine, specifically the philosophies of Rosmini-Serbati and Vincenzo Gioberti. As a philosophic method censored by skeptics and criticists alike, as a scholastic doctrine formerly strongly supported, revived in Italy and Belgium in the 19th century, but no longer countenanced. --K.F.L. Ontology: (Gr. on, being + logos, logic) The theory of being qua being. For Aristotle, the First Philosophy, the science of the essence of things. Introduced as a term into philosophy by Wolff. The science of fundamental principles, the doctrine of the categories. Ultimate philosophy; rational cosmology. Syn. with metaphysics. See Cosmology, First Principles, Metaphysics, Theology. --J.K.F. Operation: "(Lit. operari, to work) Any act, mental or physical, constituting a phase of the reflective process, and performed with a view to acquiring1 knowledge or information about a certain subject-nntter. --A.C.B.   In logic, see Operationism.   In philosophy of science, see Pragmatism, Scientific Empiricism. Operationism: The doctrine that the meaning of a concept is given by a set of operations.   1. The operational meaning of a term (word or symbol) is given by a semantical rule relating the term to some concrete process, object or event, or to a class of such processes, objectj or events.   2. Sentences formed by combining operationally defined terms into propositions are operationally meaningful when the assertions are testable by means of performable operations. Thus, under operational rules, terms have semantical significance, propositions have empirical significance.   Operationism makes explicit the distinction between formal (q.v.) and empirical sentences. Formal propositions are signs arranged according to syntactical rules but lacking operational reference. Such propositions, common in mathematics, logic and syntax, derive their sanction from convention, whereas an empirical proposition is acceptable (1) when its structure obeys syntactical rules and (2) when there exists a concrete procedure (a set of operations) for determining its truth or falsity (cf. Verification). Propositions purporting to be empirical are sometimes amenable to no operational test because they contain terms obeying no definite semantical rules. These sentences are sometimes called pseudo-propositions and are said to be operationally meaningless. They may, however, be 'meaningful" in other ways, e.g. emotionally or aesthetically (cf. Meaning).   Unlike a formal statement, the "truth" of an empirical sentence is never absolute and its operational confirmation serves only to increase the degree of its validity. Similarly, the semantical rule comprising the operational definition of a term has never absolute precision. Ordinarily a term denotes a class of operations and the precision of its definition depends upon how definite are the rules governing inclusion in the class.   The difference between Operationism and Logical Positivism (q.v.) is one of emphasis. Operationism's stress of empirical matters derives from the fact that it was first employed to purge physics of such concepts as absolute space and absolute time, when the theory of relativity had forced upon physicists the view that space and time are most profitably defined in terms of the operations by which they are measured. Although different methods of measuring length at first give rise to different concepts of length, wherever the equivalence of certain of these measures can be established by other operations, the concepts may legitimately be combined.   In psychology the operational criterion of meaningfulness is commonly associated with a behavioristic point of view. See Behaviorism. Since only those propositions which are testable by public and repeatable operations are admissible in science, the definition of such concepti as mind and sensation must rest upon observable aspects of the organism or its behavior. Operational psychology deals with experience only as it is indicated by the operation of differential behavior, including verbal report. Discriminations, or the concrete differential reactions of organisms to internal or external environmental states, are by some authors regarded as the most basic of all operations.   For a discussion of the role of operational definition in phvsics. see P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics, (New York, 1928) and The Nature of Physical Theory (Princeton, 1936). "The extension of operationism to psychology is discussed by C. C. Pratt in The Logic of Modem Psychology (New York. 1939.)   For a discussion and annotated bibliography relating to Operationism and Logical Positivism, see S. S. Stevens, Psychology and the Science of Science, Psychol. Bull., 36, 1939, 221-263. --S.S.S. Ophelimity: Noun derived from the Greek, ophelimos useful, employed by Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) in economics as the equivalent of utility, or the capacity to provide satisfaction. --J.J.R. Opinion: (Lat. opinio, from opinor, to think) An hypothesis or proposition entertained on rational grounds but concerning which doubt can reasonably exist. A belief. See Hypothesis, Certainty, Knowledge. --J.K.F- Opposition: (Lat. oppositus, pp. of oppono, to oppose) Positive actual contradiction. One of Aristotle's Post-predicaments. In logic any contrariety or contradiction, illustrated by the "Square of Opposition". Syn. with: conflict. See Logic, formal, § 4. --J.K.F. Optimism: (Lat. optimus, the best) The view inspired by wishful thinking, success, faith, or philosophic reflection, that the world as it exists is not so bad or even the best possible, life is good, and man's destiny is bright. Philosophically most persuasively propounded by Leibniz in his Theodicee, according to which God in his wisdom would have created a better world had he known or willed such a one to exist. Not even he could remove moral wrong and evil unless he destroyed the power of self-determination and hence the basis of morality. All systems of ethics that recognize a supreme good (Plato and many idealists), subscribe to the doctrines of progressivism (Turgot, Herder, Comte, and others), regard evil as a fragmentary view (Josiah Royce et al.) or illusory, or believe in indemnification (Henry David Thoreau) or melioration (Emerson), are inclined optimistically. Practically all theologies advocating a plan of creation and salvation, are optimistic though they make the good or the better dependent on moral effort, right thinking, or belief, promising it in a future existence. Metaphysical speculation is optimistic if it provides for perfection, evolution to something higher, more valuable, or makes room for harmonies or a teleology. See Pessimism. --K.F.L. Order: A class is said to be partially ordered by a dyadic relation R if it coincides with the field of R, and R is transitive and reflexive, and xRy and yRx never both hold when x and y are different. If in addition R is connected, the class is said to be ordered (or simply ordered) by R, and R is called an ordering relation.   Whitehcid and Russell apply the term serial relation to relations which are transitive, irreflexive, and connected (and, in consequence, also asymmetric). However, the use of serial relations in this sense, instead ordering relations as just defined, is awkward in connection with the notion of order for unit classes.   Examples: The relation not greater than among leal numbers is an ordering relation. The relation less than among real numbers is a serial relation. The real numbers are simply ordered by the former relation. In the algebra of classes (logic formal, § 7), the classes are partially ordered by the relation of class inclusion.   For explanation of the terminology used in making the above definitions, see the articles connexity, reflexivity, relation, symmetry, transitivity. --A.C. Order type: See relation-number. Ordinal number: A class b is well-ordered by a dyadic relation R if it is ordered by R (see order) and, for every class a such that a ⊂ b, there is a member x of a, such that xRy holds for every member y of a; and R is then called a well-ordering relation. The ordinal number of a class b well-ordered by a relation R, or of a well-ordering relation R, is defined to be the relation-number (q. v.) of R.   The ordinal numbers of finite classes (well-ordered by appropriate relations) are called finite ordinal numbers. These are 0, 1, 2, ... (to be distinguished, of course, from the finite cardinal numbers 0, 1, 2, . . .).   The first non-finite (transfinite or infinite) ordinal number is the ordinal number of the class of finite ordinal numbers, well-ordered in their natural order, 0, 1, 2, . . .; it is usually denoted by the small Greek letter omega. --A.C.   G. Cantor, Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Numbers, translated and with an introduction by P. E. B. Jourdain, Chicago and London, 1915. (new ed. 1941); Whitehead and Russell, Princtpia Mathematica. vol. 3. Orexis: (Gr. orexis) Striving; desire; the conative aspect of mind, as distinguished from the cognitive and emotional (Aristotle). --G.R.M.. Organicism: A theory of biology that life consists in the organization or dynamic system of the organism. Opposed to mechanism and vitalism. --J.K.F. Organism: An individual animal or plant, biologically interpreted. A. N. Whitehead uses the term to include also physical bodies and to signify anything material spreading through space and enduring in time. --R.B.W. Organismic Psychology: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, an instrument) A system of theoretical psychology which construes the structure of the mind in organic rather than atomistic terms. See Gestalt Psychology; Psychological Atomism. --L.W. Organization: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, work) A structured whole. The systematic unity of parts in a purposive whole. A dynamic system. Order in something actual. --J.K.F. Organon: (Gr. organon) The title traditionally given to the body of Aristotle's logical treatises. The designation appears to have originated among the Peripatetics after Aristotle's time, and expresses their view that logic is not a part of philosophy (as the Stoics maintained) but rather the instrument (organon) of philosophical inquiry. See Aristotelianism. --G.R.M.   In Kant. A system of principles by which pure knowledge may be acquired and established.   Cf. Fr. Bacon's Novum Organum. --O.F.K. Oriental Philosophy: A general designation used loosely to cover philosophic tradition exclusive of that grown on Greek soil and including the beginnings of philosophical speculation in Egypt, Arabia, Iran, India, and China, the elaborate systems of India, Greater India, China, and Japan, and sometimes also the religion-bound thought of all these countries with that of the complex cultures of Asia Minor, extending far into antiquity. Oriental philosophy, though by no means presenting a homogeneous picture, nevertheless shares one characteristic, i.e., the practical outlook on life (ethics linked with metaphysics) and the absence of clear-cut distinctions between pure speculation and religious motivation, and on lower levels between folklore, folk-etymology, practical wisdom, pre-scientiiic speculation, even magic, and flashes of philosophic insight. Bonds with Western, particularly Greek philosophy have no doubt existed even in ancient times. Mutual influences have often been conjectured on the basis of striking similarities, but their scientific establishment is often difficult or even impossible. Comparative philosophy (see especially the work of Masson-Oursel) provides a useful method. Yet a thorough treatment of Oriental Philosophy is possible only when the many languages in which it is deposited have been more thoroughly studied, the psychological and historical elements involved in the various cultures better investigated, and translations of the relevant documents prepared not merely from a philological point of view or out of missionary zeal, but by competent philosophers who also have some linguistic training. Much has been accomplished in this direction in Indian and Chinese Philosophy (q.v.). A great deal remains to be done however before a definitive history of Oriental Philosophy may be written. See also Arabian, and Persian Philosophy. --K.F.L. Origen: (185-254) The principal founder of Christian theology who tried to enrich the ecclesiastic thought of his day by reconciling it with the treasures of Greek philosophy. Cf. Migne PL. --R.B.W. Ormazd: (New Persian) Same as Ahura Mazdah (q.v.), the good principle in Zoroastrianism, and opposed to Ahriman (q.v.). --K.F.L. Orphic Literature: The mystic writings, extant only in fragments, of a Greek religious-philosophical movement of the 6th century B.C., allegedly started by the mythical Orpheus. In their mysteries, in which mythology and rational thinking mingled, the Orphics concerned themselves with cosmogony, theogony, man's original creation and his destiny after death which they sought to influence to the better by pure living and austerity. They taught a symbolism in which, e.g., the relationship of the One to the many was clearly enunciated, and believed in the soul as involved in reincarnation. Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Plato were influenced by them. --K.F.L. Ortega y Gasset, Jose: Born in Madrid, May 9, 1883. At present in Buenos Aires, Argentine. Son of Ortega y Munillo, the famous Spanish journalist. Studied at the College of Jesuits in Miraflores and at the Central University of Madrid. In the latter he presented his Doctor's dissertation, El Milenario, in 1904, thereby obtaining his Ph.D. degree. After studies in Leipzig, Berlin, Marburg, under the special influence of Hermann Cohen, the great exponent of Kant, who taught him the love for the scientific method and awoke in him the interest in educational philosophy, Ortega came to Spain where, after the death of Nicolas Salmeron, he occupied the professorship of metaphysics at the Central University of Madrid. The following may be considered the most important works of Ortega y Gasset:     Meditaciones del Quijote, 1914;   El Espectador, I-VIII, 1916-1935;   El Tema de Nuestro Tiempo, 1921;   España Invertebrada, 1922;   Kant, 1924;   La Deshumanizacion del Arte, 1925;   Espiritu de la Letra, 1927;   La Rebelion de las Masas, 1929;   Goethe desde Adentio, 1934;   Estudios sobre el Amor, 1939;   Ensimismamiento y Alteracion, 1939;   El Libro de las Misiones, 1940;   Ideas y Creencias, 1940;     and others.   Although brought up in the Marburg school of thought, Ortega is not exactly a neo-Kantian. At the basis of his Weltanschauung one finds a denial of the fundamental presuppositions which characterized European Rationalism. It is life and not thought which is primary. Things have a sense and a value which must be affirmed independently. Things, however, are to be conceived as the totality of situations which constitute the circumstances of a man's life. Hence, Ortega's first philosophical principle: "I am myself plus my circumstances". Life as a problem, however, is but one of the poles of his formula. Reason is the other. The two together function, not by dialectical opposition, but by necessary coexistence. Life, according to Ortega, does not consist in being, but rather, in coming to be, and as such it is of the nature of direction, program building, purpose to be achieved, value to be realized. In this sense the future as a time dimension acquires new dignity, and even the present and the past become articulate and meaning-full only in relation to the future. Even History demands a new point of departure and becomes militant with new visions. --J.A.F. Orthodoxy: Beliefs which are declared by a group to be true and normative. Heresy is a departure from and relative to a given orthodoxy. --V.S. Orthos Logos: See Right Reason. Ostensible Object: (Lat. ostendere, to show) The object envisaged by cognitive act irrespective of its actual existence. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ostensive: (Lat. ostendere, to show) Property of a concept or predicate by virtue of which it refers to and is clarified by reference to its instances. --A.C.B. Ostwald, Wilhelm: (1853-1932) German chemist. Winner of the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1909. In Die Uberwindung des wissenschaftlichen Materialistmus and in Naturphilosophie, his two best known works in the field of philosophy, he advocates a dynamic theory in opposition to materialism and mechanism. All properties of matter, and the psychic as well, are special forms of energy. --L.E.D. Oupnekhat: Anquetil Duperron's Latin translation of the Persian translation of 50 Upanishads (q.v.), a work praised by Schopenhauer as giving him complete consolation. --K.F.L. Outness: A term employed by Berkeley to express the experience of externality, that is the ideas of space and things placed at a distance. Hume used it in the sense of distance Hamilton understood it as the state of being outside of consciousness in a really existing world of material things. --J.J.R. Overindividual: Term used by H. Münsterberg to translate the German überindividuell. The term is applied to any cognitive or value object which transcends the individual subject. --L.W. P

tractarian ::: n. --> One of the writers of the Oxford tracts, called "Tracts for the Times," issued during the period 1833-1841, in which series of papers the sacramental system and authority of the Church, and the value of tradition, were brought into prominence. Also, a member of the High Church party, holding generally the principles of the Tractarian writers; a Puseyite. ::: a.

traditional ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to tradition; derived from tradition; communicated from ancestors to descendants by word only; transmitted from age to age without writing; as, traditional opinions; traditional customs; traditional expositions of the Scriptures.
Observant of tradition; attached to old customs; old-fashioned.


Traditionalism: In French philosophy of the early nineteenth century, the doctrine that the truth -- particularly religious truth -- is never discovered by an individual but is only to be found in "tradition". It was revealed in potentia at a single moment by God and has been developing steadily through history. Since truth is an attribute of ideas, the traditionalist holds that ideas are super-individual. They are the property of society and are found embedded in language which was revealed to primitive man bv God at the creation. The main traditionalists were Joseph de Maistre, the Vicomte de Bonald, and Bonetty. -- G.B.

traditionalist ::: n. --> An advocate of, or believer in, traditionalism; a traditionist.

traditionally ::: adv. --> In a traditional manner.

Traditionally given by the oracular phrase: "The science of being as such." To be distinguished from the study of being under some particular aspect; hence opposed to such sciences as are concerned with ens mobile, ens quantum, etc. The term, "science", is here used in its classic sense of "knowledge by causes", where "knowledge" is contrasted with "opinion" and the term cause has the full signification of the Greek aitia. The "causes" which are the objects of metaphysical cognition are said to be "first" in the natural order (first principles), as being founded in no higher or more complete generalizations available to the human intellect by means of its own natural powers.

traditional ::: of or pertaining to tradition; conventional, customary.

traditionaries ::: pl. --> of Traditionary

traditionarily ::: adv. --> By tradition.

traditionary ::: a. --> Traditional. ::: n. --> One, among the Jews, who acknowledges the authority of traditions, and explains the Scriptures by them.

traditioner ::: n. --> Alt. of Traditionist

traditionist ::: n. --> One who adheres to tradition.

traditionlism ::: n. --> A system of faith founded on tradition; esp., the doctrine that all religious faith is to be based solely upon what is delivered from competent authority, exclusive of rational processes.

tradition ::: n. --> The act of delivering into the hands of another; delivery.
The unwritten or oral delivery of information, opinions, doctrines, practices, rites, and customs, from father to son, or from ancestors to posterity; the transmission of any knowledge, opinions, or practice, from forefathers to descendants by oral communication, without written memorials.
Hence, that which is transmitted orally from father to


tradition ("s) ::: a long-established or inherited way of thinking or acting.

Tradition: The total body of accepted group beliefs; the non-material content of the cultural heritage of a nation, race or other group transmitted continuously from generation to generation.

traditive ::: a. --> Transmitted or transmissible from father to son, or from age, by oral communication; traditional.

Transaction Processing Facility "operating system" (TPF) A {real-time} {mainframe} {operating system} released by {IBM} around 1976. TPF is particularly suited to organisations dealing in very high I/O message switching and large global networks. Current users include British Airways (reservations), VISA International (authorisations), Holiday Inn, and Quantas. TPF was traditionally a {370/Assembler} environment although the latest, release 4.1, contains {C}. Formerly known as ACP (Airline Control Program), it was renamed "TPF" to suggests its greater scope. It is common for TPF sites to use IBM's {MVS} and {VM} operating systems for {off-line} processing. (1996-08-27)

tree of cosmos ::: the tree with its roots above (in the heavens) and its branches spread downward. A common metaphor in many spiritual traditions.

Trita Aptya ::: the Third or Triple, apparently the purusa of the mental plane; in the tradition he is a rsi, in the Veda he seems rather to be a god.

Triton "processor" {Intel}'s {Pentium} {core} logic {chip set}. In addition to the traditional features, this chip set supports: {EDO DRAM} to increase the {bandwidth} of the {DRAM} interface; "{pipelined} {burst SRAM}" for a cheaper, faster {second level cache}; "{bus master} {IDE}" control logic to reduce processor load; a plug and play port for easy implementation of functions such as audio. The Triton I chipset (official name 82430FX) consists of 4 chips: one 82437FX TSC (Triton Sysetm Controller), two 82438FX TDP (Triton Data Path), and one 82371FB PIIX (PCI IDE Xcellerator). It supports {PB Cache}, {EDO DRAM}, and a maximum {PCI} and memory burst data transfer rate of 100 {megabytes} per second. There are also {Moble Triton} (82430MX), {Triton II} (82430HX), and the {Triton VX} (82430VX) chip sets. {Introduction (http://asus.com.tw/Products/TB/triton-intro.html)}. (1996-04-03)

turban ::: a traditionally Muslim headdress consisting of a long scarf of linen, cotton, or silk that is wound around a small cap or directly around the head.

University of Durham "body, education" A busy research and teaching community in the historic cathedral city of Durham, UK (population 61000). Its work covers key branches of science and technology and traditional areas of scholarship. Durham graduates are in great demand among employers and the University helps to attract investment into the region. It provides training, short courses, and expertise for industry. Through its cultural events, conferences, tourist business and as a major employer, the University contributes in a wide social and economic sense to the community. Founded in 1832, the University developed in Durham and Newcastle until 1963 when the independent University of Newcastle upon Tyne came into being. Durham is a collegiate body, with 14 Colleges or Societies which are a social and domestic focus for students. In 1992, the Universities of Durham and Teesside launched University College, Stockton-on-Tees, which has 190 students in the first year. {(http://dur.ac.uk/)}. (1995-03-17)

Unix manual page "operating system" (Or "man page") A part of {Unix}'s extensive on-line documentation. To read a manual page from the Unix command line, type: man [-s"section"] "page" e.g. "man ftp" (the section number can usually be omitted). Pages are traditionally referred to using the notation "page(section)", e.g. ftp(1). Under {SunOS} (which is fairly typical), Section 1 covers commands, 2 {system calls}, 3 C library routines, 4 devices and networks, 5 file formats, 6 games and {demos}, 7 miscellaneous, 8 system administration. Each section has an introduction which can be obtained with, e.g., "man 2 intro". Manual pages are stored as {nroff} source files. Formatted versions are also usually cached. Man pages for most versions of Unix are available on-line in {HTML}. {Unix manual page}: man(1). {Linux man pages (http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/)}. {Solaris man pages (http://docs.sun.com/app/docs/coll/40.10)}. (2010-01-19)

Utilitarianism: (a) Traditionally understood as the view that the right act is the act which, of all those open to the agent, will actually or probably produce the greatest amount of pleasure or happiness in the world at large (this is the so called Principle of Utility). This view has been opposed to intuitionism in the traditional sense in a long and well-known controversy. It received its classical form in Bentham and the two Mills. Earlier it took a theological form in Gay and Paley, later an evolutionistic form in Spencer, and an intuitionistic form (in the wider sense) in Sidgwick.

"Vamana, the Dwarf, in Hindu mythology, one of the ten incarnations of Vishnu, born as a son of Kashyapa and Aditi. The titan King Bali had by his austerities acquired dominion of all the three worlds. To remedy this, Vishnu came to him in the form of a dwarf and begged of him as much land as he could step over in three paces. Bali complied. In two strides the dwarf covered heaven and earth, and with the third step, on Bali"s head, pushed him down to Patala, the infernal regions.” Glossary and Index of Proper Names in Sri Aurobindo"s Works

“Vamana, the Dwarf, in Hindu mythology, one of the ten incarnations of Vishnu, born as a son of Kashyapa and Aditi. The titan King Bali had by his austerities acquired dominion of all the three worlds. To remedy this, Vishnu came to him in the form of a dwarf and begged of him as much land as he could step over in three paces. Bali complied. In two strides the dwarf covered heaven and earth, and with the third step, on Bali’s head, pushed him down to Patala, the infernal regions.” Glossary and Index of Proper Names in Sri Aurobindo’s Works

Vaṁsa (Ch. Vsa) ::: lunar dynasty (the line of ancient Indian kings traditionally regarded as descendants of Candra2, the moongod).

varna&

Veda: The generic name for the most ancient sacred literature of the Hindus, consisting of the four collections called (1) Rig Veda, hymns to gods, (2) Sama Veda, priests’ chants, (3) Yajur Veda, sacrificial formulae in prose, and (4) Atharva Veda, magical chants; each Veda is divided into two broad divisions, viz. (1) Mantra, hymns, and (2) Brahmana, precepts, which include (a) Aranyakas, theology, and (b) Upanishads, philosophy; the Vedas are classified as revealed literature; they contain the first philosophical insights and are regarded as the final authority; tradition makes Vyasa the compiler and arranger of the Vedas in their present form; the Vedic period is conservatively estimated to have begun about 1500 to 1000 B.C.

"Veda, then, is the creation of an age anterior to our intellectual philosophies. In that original epoch thought proceeded by other methods than those of our logical reasoning and speech accepted modes of expression which in our modern habits would be inadmissible. The wisest then depended on inner experience and the suggestions of the intuitive mind for all knowledge that ranged beyond mankind"s ordinary perceptions and daily activities. Their aim was illumination, not logical conviction, their ideal the inspired seer, not the accurate reasoner. Indian tradition has faithfully preserved this account of the origin of the Vedas. The Rishi was not the individual composer of the hymn, but the seer (drashtâ ) of an eternal truth and an impersonal knowledge. The language of Veda itself is shruti, a rhythm not composed by the intellect but heard, a divine Word that came vibrating out of the Infinite to the inner audience of the man who had previously made himself fit for the impersonal knowledge.” The Secret of the Veda

“Veda, then, is the creation of an age anterior to our intellectual philosophies. In that original epoch thought proceeded by other methods than those of our logical reasoning and speech accepted modes of expression which in our modern habits would be inadmissible. The wisest then depended on inner experience and the suggestions of the intuitive mind for all knowledge that ranged beyond mankind’s ordinary perceptions and daily activities. Their aim was illumination, not logical conviction, their ideal the inspired seer, not the accurate reasoner. Indian tradition has faithfully preserved this account of the origin of the Vedas. The Rishi was not the individual composer of the hymn, but the seer (drashtâ ) of an eternal truth and an impersonal knowledge. The language of Veda itself is shruti, a rhythm not composed by the intellect but heard, a divine Word that came vibrating out of the Infinite to the inner audience of the man who had previously made himself fit for the impersonal knowledge.” The Secret of the Veda

ViewPoints "programming" A framework for distributed and {concurrent} software engineering which provides an alternative approach to traditional centralised software development environments. Decentralised process models are used to drive consistency checking and conflict resolution. The process models use pattern matching on local development histories to determine the particular state of the development process, and employ rules to trigger situation-dependent assistance to the user. Communication between such process models facilitates the decentralised management of explicitly defined consistency constraints. [Ulf Leonhardt] (1995-03-27)

VI. Second Decline (18-19 cent.). This group and its tendencies were continued by Du Hamel (+1706), Tolomei (+1726), Fortunatus a Brixia (+1754), Steinmeyer (+1797) and Reuss (+1798). Among the conservatives: Louis de Lossada (+1748). In 1773 the Society of Jesus was suppressed. This disaster completed the downfall of Scholasticism. Not until its restoration in 1814 did the Church's traditional philosophy revive. Prominent in preparing for this second renaissance was the Jesuit-trained Vincent Bruzzetti (+1824). Others: Taparelli (+1862), Liberatore (+1872), Sanseverino (+1865), Kleutgen (+1883), Zigliara (+1893) and Gonzalez (+1895). For the first time in the modern period, history began to play an important part in Scholasticism. Karl Werner (+1888) and Al. Stoeckl (1895) were the first figures in this movement.

Volkelt, Johannes: (1848-1930) Waa influenced by the traditions of German idealism since Kant. His most imported work consisted in the analysis of knowledge which, he contended, had a double source; for it requires, first of all, empirical data, insofar as there can be no real knowledge of the external world apart from consciousness, and also logical thinking, insofar as it elaborates the crude material of perception. Consequently, knowledge may be described as the product of rational operations on the material of pure experience. Thus he arrived at the conclusion that reality is "trans-subjective", that is to say, it consists neither of mere objects nor of mere data of consciousness, but is rather a synthesis of both elements of existence. -- R.B.W.

water MIPS "jargon" Large, water-cooled computers of either today's {ECL}-{supercomputer} flavour or yesterday's traditional {mainframe} type. See {MIPS} [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-25)

wavelet "mathematics" A waveform that is bounded in both {frequency} and duration. Wavelet tranforms provide an alternative to more traditional {Fourier transforms} used for analysing waveforms, e.g. sound. The {Fourier transform} converts a signal into a continuous series of {sine waves}, each of which is of constant frequency and {amplitude} and of infinite duration. In contrast, most real-world signals (such as music or images) have a finite duration and abrupt changes in frequency. Wavelet transforms convert a signal into a series of wavelets. In theory, signals processed by the wavelet transform can be stored more efficiently than ones processed by Fourier transform. Wavelets can also be constructed with rough edges, to better approximate real-world signals. For example, the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation found that Fourier transforms proved inefficient for approximating the whorls of fingerprints but a wavelet transform resulted in crisper reconstructed images. {SBG Austria (http://mat.sbg.ac.at/~uhl/wav.html)}. ["Ten Lectures on Wavelets", Ingrid Daubechies]. (1994-11-09)

weblint "hypertext, tool" (After {lint}) A {syntax} checker and style checker for {HTML}. Weblint is a {Perl} script which does for HTML pages what the traditional {lint} picks does for {C} programs. Version: 1.020 (1997-12-07). {(http://cre.canon.co.uk/~neilb/weblint/)}. (1997-12-07)

Well-ordered: See Ordinal number. Weltanschauung: (Ger.) The compound term means world-view, perspective of life, conception of things. Wen: (a) Culture evidences of the Confucian Moral Law (tao), such as propriety, music, social institutions, governmental systems, education, etc., the tradition of the Chou dynasty which Confucius attempted to preserve. (b) Appearance polish, superficiality. (c) Letters: literature, one of the four things Confucius taught (ssu chiao). -- W.T.C.

While not abandoning its interest in beauty, artistic value, and other normative concepts, recent aesthetics has tended to lay increasing emphasis on a descriptive, factual approach to the phenomena of art and aesthetic experience. It differs from art history, archeology, and cultural history in stressing a theoretical organization of materials in terms of recurrent types and tendencies, rather than a chronological or genetic one. It differs from general psychology in focusing upon certain selected phases in psycho-physical activity, and on their application to certain types of objects and situations, especially those of art. It investigates the forms and characteristics of art, which psychology does not do. It differs from art criticism in seeking a more general, theoretical understanding of the arts than is usual in that subject, and in attempting a more consistently objective, impersonal attitude. It maintains a philosophic breadth, in comparing examples of all the arts, and in assembling data and hypotheses from many sources, including philosophy, psychology, cultural history, and the social sciences. But it is departing from traditional conceptions of philosophy in that writing labelled "aesthetics" now often includes much detailed, empirical study of particular phenomena, instead of restricting itself as formerly to abstract discussion of the meaning of beauty, the sublime, and other categories, their objective or subjective nature, their relation to pleasure and moral goodness, the purpose of art, the nature of aesthetic value, etc. There has been controversy over whether such empirical studies deserve to be called "aesthetics", or whether that name should be reserved for the traditional, dialectic or speculative approach; but usage favors the extension in cases where the inquiry aims at fairly broad generalizations.

wig ::: n. --> A covering for the head, consisting of hair interwoven or united by a kind of network, either in imitation of the natural growth, or in abundant and flowing curls, worn to supply a deficiency of natural hair, or for ornament, or according to traditional usage, as a part of an official or professional dress, the latter especially in England by judges and barristers.
An old seal; -- so called by fishermen.
A kind of raised seedcake.


Windelband, Wilhelm: Wmdelband (1848-1915) was preeminently an outstanding historian of philosophy. He has nowhere given a systematic presentation of his own views, but has expressed them only in unconnected essays and discourses. But in these he made some suggestions of great import on account of which he has been termed the founder and head of the "South-Western German School." He felt that he belonged to the tradition of German Idealism without definitely styling himself a Neo-Kantian, Neo-Fichtean or Neo-Hegelian. His fundamental position is that whereas it is for science to determine facts, it is for philosophy to determine values. Facts may be gathered from experience, but values, i.e., what "ought" to be thought, felt and done, cannot and hence must in some sense be a priori. Of particular significance was his effort -- later worked out by H. Rickert -- to point out a fundamental distinction between natural and historical science: the former aims at establishing general laws and considers particular facts only insofar as they are like others. In contrast to this "nomothetic" type of science, history is "idiographic", i.e., it is interested in the particular as such, but, of course, not equally in all particulars, but in such only as have some significance from the point of view of value. -- H.G.

Wine of life: The wine which according to Jewish mystic tradition has been kept in Paradise for the pious since the creation of the world.

wireless local area network "networking" (WLAN /W-lan/, or "LAWN" /lorn/, sometimes "WiLAN" /wi-lan/) A communication system that transmits and receives data using modulated electromagnetic waves, implemented as an extension to, or as an alternative for, a {wired} {LAN}. WLANs are typically found within a small {client} {node}-dense locale (e.g. a campus or office building), or anywhere a traditional network cannot be deployed for logistical reasons. Benefits include user mobility in the coverage area, speed and simplicity of physical setup, and {scalability}. Being a military spin-off, WLANs also provide security features such as {encryption}, {frequency hopping}, and {firewalls}. Some of these are intrinsic to the {protocol}, making WLANs at least as secure as wired networks, and usually more so. The drawbacks are high initial cost (mostly {hardware}), limited range, possibility of mutual interference, amd the need to security-enable clients. The established protocols are covered by {IEEE 802.11 (http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/)}. Recent developments include the {Bluetooth} project and other WPAN, or {Personal Area Network} initiatives, accessible through {IEEE 802.15 working group (http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/15/)}. {Wireless Lan Association (http://wlana.org/)}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:comp.dcom.lans.misc}, {news:comp.std.wireless}. (2003-09-23)

With regard to the elohim bringing man forth “in their own image” (tselem), Blavatsky says: “The sexless Race was their first production, a modification of and from themselves, the pure spiritual existences; and this as Adam solus. Thence came the second Race: Adam-Eve or Jod-Heva, inactive androgynes; and finally the Third, or the ‘Separating Hermaphrodite,’ Cain and Abel, who produce the Fourth, Seth-Enos, etc.” (SD 2:134). Again, “finally, even the four ‘Adams’ (symbolizing under other names the four preceding races) were forgotten; and passing from one generation in to another, each loaded with some additional myths, got at last drowned in that ocean of popular symbolism called the Pantheons. Yet they exist to this day in the oldest Jewish traditions, as the Tzelem, ‘the Shadow-Adam’ (the Chhayas of our doctrine); the ‘model’ Adam, the copy of the first, and the ‘male and female’ of the exoteric genesis (chap. i); the third, the ‘earthly Adam’ before the Fall, an androgyne; and the Fourth — the Adam after his fall, i.e. separated into sexes, or the pure Atlantean. The Adam of the garden of Eden, or the forefather of our race — the fifth — is an ingenious compound of the above four” (SD 2:503). See also ‘OLAM; SEPHIRAH

XFree86 Project, Inc. "operating system, graphics" A non-profit organisation that produces XFree86, a freely redistributable implementation of the {X Window System} that runs on {Unix} and Unix-like operating systems and {OS/2}. The XFree86 Project has traditionally focused on {Intel x86} based {platforms} (hence the "86"), but the current release supports other platforms. {(http://xfree86.org/)}. (1999-04-02)

Yakin: In Kabalistic and Masonic tradition, the red pillar of bronze cast for Solomon’s temple; the symbol of Intelligence (Binah, the third of the Sephiroth—q.v.).

Yale Haskell "language" A fully integrated {Haskell} programming environment. It provides tightly coupled interactive editing, {incremental compilation} and dynamic execution of Haskell programs. Two major modes of compilation, correspond to {Lisp}'s traditional "interpreted" and "compiled" modes. Compiled and interpreted modules may be freely mixed in any combination. Yale Haskell is run using either a command-line interface or as an {inferior process} running under the {Emacs} editor. Using the Emacs interface, simple two-keystroke commands evaluate expressions, run dialogues, compile {modules}, turn specific compiler diagnostics on and off and enable and disable various {optimisers}. Commands may be queued up arbitrarily, thus allowing, for example, a compilation to be running in the background as the editing of a source file continues in Emacs in the foreground. A "scratch pad" may be automatically created for any module. Such a pad is a logical extension of the module, in which additional function and value definitions may be added, but whose evaluation does not result in recompilation of the module. A tutorial on Haskell is also provided in the Emacs environment. A {Macintosh} version of Yale Haskell includes its own integrated programming environment, complete with an Emacs-like editor and {pull-down menus}. Yale Haskell is a complete implementation of the Haskell language, but also contains a number of extensions, including: (1) Instead of stream based I/O, a {monadic I/O} system is used. Although similar to what will be part of the new {Haskell 1.3} report, the I/O system will change yet again when 1.3 becomes official. (2) Haskell programs can call both {Lisp} and {C} functions using a flexible foreign function interface. (3) Yale Haskell includes a {dynamic typing} system. Dynamic typing has been used to implement {derived instances} in a user extensible manner. (4) A number of small Haskell 1.3 changes have been added, including {polymorphic recursion} and the use of @_@ in an expression to denote {bottom}. Although the 1.3 report is not yet complete, these changes will almost certainly be part of the new report. (5) A complete Haskell level {X Window System} interface, based on {CLX}. (6) A number of {annotations} are available for controlling the optimiser, including those for specifying both function and data constructor {strict}ness properties, "{inlining}" functions, and specialising {over-loaded} functions. Many standard {prelude} functions have been specialised for better performance using these annotations. (7) {Separate compilation} (including {mutually recursive} {modules}) is supported using a notion of a UNIT file, which is a kind of localised {makefile} that tells the compiler about compiler options and logical dependencies amongst program files. (8) Yale Haskell supports both standard and "{literate}" Haskell syntax. Performance of Yale Haskell's compiled code has been improved considerably over previous releases. Although still not as good as the Glasgow ({GHC}) and Chalmers ({HBC}) compilers, the flexibility afforded by the features described earlier makes Yale Haskell a good choice for large systems development. For some idea of performance, Hartel's latest "Nuc" benchmark runs at about the same speed under both Yale Haskell and hbc. (Our experiments suggest, however, that Yale Haskell's compiled code is on average about 3 times slower than hbc.) Binaries are provided for {Sun}/{SPARC} and {Macintosh}, but it is possible to build the system on virtually any system that runs one of a number of {Common Lisp} implementations: {CMU Common Lisp}, {Lucid Common Lisp}, {Allegro Common Lisp} or {Harlequin LispWorks}. {akcl}, {gcl} and {CLisp} do not have adaquate performance for our compiler. The current version is 2.1. {Yale (ftp://nebula.cs.yale.edu/pub/haskell/yale)}. (128.36.13.1). {UK (ftp://ftp.dcs.glasgow.ac.uk/pub/haskell/yale/)}. {Sweden (ftp://ftp.cs.chalmers.se/pub/haskell/yale/)}. E-mail: "haskell-request@cs.yale.edu", "haskell-request@dcs.glasgow.ac.uk". (1993-07-14)

You aren't gonna need it "programming" (YAGNI) A motto of {extreme programming} expressing the principle that functionality should not be implemented until it is needed. The traditional {waterfall model} makes it difficult to add features after the specification has been signed off, tempting the specifier to add features that may never be used but which take time to program, debug, test and document. (2014-03-27)

zohar ::: n. --> A Jewish cabalistic book attributed by tradition to Rabbi Simon ben Yochi, who lived about the end of the 1st century, a. d. Modern critics believe it to be a compilation of the 13th century.



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   1 Thich Nhat Hanh
   1 Saint Justin Martyr
   1 Far Eastern Saying. From: "The Essential Rene Guenon: Metaphysics
   1 Arthur Lovejoy

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1: 11. O Divine Fire, thou art Aditi, the indivisible Mother to the giver of the sacrifice; thou art Bharati, voice of the offering, and thou growest by the word. Thou art Ila of the hundred winters wise to discern; O Master of the Treasure, thou art Saraswati who slays the python adversary. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, 1.03 - Hymns_of_Gritsamada,
2:   There are also female energies; for the Deva is both Male and Female and the gods also are either activising souls or passively executive and methodising energies. Aditi, infinite Mother of the Gods, comes first; and there are besides five powers of the Truthconsciousness, - Mahi or Bharati, the vast Word that brings us all things out of the divine source; Ila, the strong primal word of the Truth who gives us its active vision; Saraswati, its streaming current and the word of its inspiration; Sarama, the Intuition, hound of heaven who descends into the cavern of the subconscient and finds there the concealed illuminations; Dakshina, whose function is to discern rightly, dispose the action and the offering and distri bute in the sacrifice to each godhead its portion. Each god, too, has his female energy. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, 1.02 - The Doctrine of the Mystics,
3:
   Mother, in your symbol the twelve petals signify the twelve inner planes, don't they?

It signifies anything one wants, you see. Twelve: that's the number of Aditi, of Mahashakti. So it applies to everything; all her action has twelve aspects. There are also her twelve virtues, her twelve powers, her twelve aspects, and then her twelve planes of manifestation and many other things that are twelve; and the symbol, the number twelve is in itself a symbol. It is the symbol of manifestation, double perfection, in essence and in manifestation, in the creation.

   What are the twelve aspects, Sweet Mother?

Ah, my child, I have described this somewhere, but I don't remember now. For it is always a choice, you see; according to what one wants to say, one can choose these twelve aspects or twelve others, or give them different names. The same aspect can be named in different ways. This does not have the fixity of a mental theory. (Silence)
   According to the angle from which one sees the creation, one day I may describe twelve aspects to you; and then another day, because I have shifted my centre of observation, I may describe twelve others, and they will be equally true.
   (To Vishwanath) Is it the wind that's producing this storm? It is very good for a dramatic stage-effect.... The traitor is approaching in the night... yes? We are waiting for some terrible deed....
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954, 395,
4:To what gods shall the sacrifice be offered? Who shall be invoked to manifest and protect in the human being this increasing godhead?

Agni first, for without him the sacrificial flame cannot burn on the altar of the soul. That flame of Agni is the seven-tongued power of the Will, a Force of God instinct with Knowledge. This conscious and forceful will is the immortal guest in our mortality, a pure priest and a divine worker, the mediator between earth and heaven. It carries what we offer to the higher Powers and brings back in return their force and light and joy into our humanity.

Indra, the Puissant next, who is the power of pure Existence self-manifested as the Divine Mind. As Agni is one pole of Force instinct with knowledge that sends its current upward from earth to heaven, so Indra is the other pole of Light instinct with force which descends from heaven to earth. He comes down into our world as the Hero with the shining horses and slays darkness and division with his lightnings, pours down the life-giving heavenly waters, finds in the trace of the hound, Intuition, the lost or hidden illuminations, makes the Sun of Truth mount high in the heaven of our mentality.

Surya, the Sun, is the master of that supreme Truth, - truth of being, truth of knowledge, truth of process and act and movement and functioning. He is therefore the creator or rather the manifester of all things - for creation is out-bringing, expression by the Truth and Will - and the father, fosterer, enlightener of our souls. The illuminations we seek are the herds of this Sun who comes to us in the track of the divine Dawn and releases and reveals in us night-hidden world after world up to the highest Beatitude.

Of that beatitude Soma is the representative deity. The wine of his ecstasy is concealed in the growths of earth, in the waters of existence; even here in our physical being are his immortalising juices and they have to be pressed out and offered to all the gods; for in that strength these shall increase and conquer.

Each of these primary deities has others associated with him who fulfil functions that arise from his own. For if the truth of Surya is to be established firmly in our mortal nature, there are previous conditions that are indispensable; a vast purity and clear wideness destructive of all sin and crooked falsehood, - and this is Varuna; a luminous power of love and comprehension leading and forming into harmony all our thoughts, acts and impulses, - this is Mitra; an immortal puissance of clear-discerning aspiration and endeavour, - this is Aryaman; a happy spontaneity of the right enjoyment of all things dispelling the evil dream of sin and error and suffering, - this is Bhaga. These four are powers of the Truth of Surya. For the whole bliss of Soma to be established perfectly in our nature a happy and enlightened and unmaimed condition of mind, vitality and body are necessary. This condition is given to us by the twin Ashwins; wedded to the daughter of Light, drinkers of honey, bringers of perfect satisfactions, healers of maim and malady they occupy our parts of knowledge and parts of action and prepare our mental, vital and physical being for an easy and victorious ascension.

Indra, the Divine Mind, as the shaper of mental forms has for his assistants, his artisans, the Ribhus, human powers who by the work of sacrifice and their brilliant ascension to the high dwelling-place of the Sun have attained to immortality and help mankind to repeat their achievement. They shape by the mind Indra's horses, the chariot of the Ashwins, the weapons of the Gods, all the means of the journey and the battle. But as giver of the Light of Truth and as Vritra-slayer Indra is aided by the Maruts, who are powers of will and nervous or vital Force that have attained to the light of thought and the voice of self-expression. They are behind all thought and speech as its impellers and they battle towards the Light, Truth and Bliss of the supreme Consciousness.

There are also female energies; for the Deva is both Male and Female and the gods also are either activising souls or passively executive and methodising energies. Aditi, infinite Mother of the Gods, comes first; and there are besides five powers of the Truthconsciousness, - Mahi or Bharati, the vast Word that brings us all things out of the divine source; Ila, the strong primal word of the Truth who gives us its active vision; Saraswati, its streaming current and the word of its inspiration; Sarama, the Intuition, hound of heaven who descends into the cavern of the subconscient and finds there the concealed illuminations; Dakshina, whose function is to discern rightly, dispose the action and the offering and distribute in the sacrifice to each godhead its portion. Each god, too, has his female energy.

All this action and struggle and ascension is supported by Heaven our Father and Earth our Mother Parents of the Gods, who sustain respectively the purely mental and psychic and the physical consciousness. Their large and free scope is the condition of our achievement. Vayu, master of life, links them together by the mid-air, the region of vital force. And there are other deities, - Parjanya, giver of the rain of heaven; Dadhikravan, the divine war-horse, a power of Agni; the mystic Dragon of the Foundations; Trita Aptya who on the third plane of existence consummates our triple being; and more besides.

The development of all these godheads is necessary to our perfection. And that perfection must be attained on all our levels, - in the wideness of earth, our physical being and consciousness; in the full force of vital speed and action and enjoyment and nervous vibration, typified as the Horse which must be brought forward to upbear our endeavour; in the perfect gladness of the heart of emotion and a brilliant heat and clarity of the mind throughout our intellectual and psychical being; in the coming of the supramental Light, the Dawn and the Sun and the shining Mother of the herds, to transform all our existence; for so comes to us the possession of the Truth, by the Truth the admirable surge of the Bliss, in the Bliss infinite Consciousness of absolute being. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, The Doctrine of the Mystics,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

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1:We don’t necessarily believe in hell. Look at our necklaces! I’ve got a cross. I’ve got the Holy Ghost. I never did get what the Holy Ghost is, said Aditi. Well, said the white girl. It’s pretty complicated. It’s like this: Jesus, God and the Holy Ghost are the same thing. That is, not even our most knowledgeable thinkers and philosophers can understand it properly. ~ Adriana Lisboa,
2:is the “waters” of the celestial “ocean” which come to mind, in which Noah’s Ark now swims as a constellation. In the Indian version of this story the ark is a boat on which the Seven Rishis (better known to us as the Big Dipper, or Ursa Major), and the Vedic culture that they represent, are ferried to safety by a giant Fish (the constellation Pisces). Gazing on myth from this angle we can find in the skies many of the cast of characters of “The Greatness of Saturn.” Aditi [* FOOTNOTE: A well-thought-out cosmology which catalogues such extensions of ‘Earth’ into ‘Space’ is presented by Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend in Namlet’s Mill, and the interested reader will find a wealth of detail worth pondering in that book.] (‘The Unbroken, Unbounded One’; by extension, eternity) is the mother of the devas, the ‘shining celestials,’ and Diti (‘The Bound, Divided, Cut One’) is the mother of the asuras, the enemies of the devas. There is good reason to believe that Aditi represents the northern celestial hemisphere and the zodiac, which being the part of the heavens that is visible throughout the year ~ Robert E Svoboda,
3:in North India would have remained ‘unbrokenly’ visible to sky-watchers there. Diti was then the visible portion of the southern hemisphere of the heavens, a portion which changes (is ‘bound’ or ‘broken’) day by day as the Earth shifts her position in space. Diti and Aditi are the two wives of the Rishi Kashyapa (‘The Tortoise’), who is the tortoise-shaped firmament. Aditi, whom we met in “The Greatness of Saturn” in the chapter on the Sun, is the ‘mother’ (the home, the womb) of all the deities (stars, constellations, and planets). Prominent among Aditi’s s children are the twelve solar deities known as the Twelve Adityas (‘sons of Aditi’), each of which rules one month of the year (= one constellation of the zodiac). Each Adirya courses through the skies in his chariot drawn by seven green horses (the seven Vedic meters, which with the chariot represent all the Vedas and all there is to know, including infinite space). Aditi’s most famous child was Vamana, the incarnation of Vishnu who took birth that he might beg the universe back from Bali, king of the asuras (who reside in the southern celestial hemisphere). While Bali may represent some particular ~ Robert E Svoboda,
4:
   Mother, in your symbol the twelve petals signify the twelve inner planes, don't they?

It signifies anything one wants, you see. Twelve: that's the number of Aditi, of Mahashakti. So it applies to everything; all her action has twelve aspects. There are also her twelve virtues, her twelve powers, her twelve aspects, and then her twelve planes of manifestation and many other things that are twelve; and the symbol, the number twelve is in itself a symbol. It is the symbol of manifestation, double perfection, in essence and in manifestation, in the creation.

   What are the twelve aspects, Sweet Mother?

Ah, my child, I have described this somewhere, but I don't remember now. For it is always a choice, you see; according to what one wants to say, one can choose these twelve aspects or twelve others, or give them different names. The same aspect can be named in different ways. This does not have the fixity of a mental theory. (Silence)
   According to the angle from which one sees the creation, one day I may describe twelve aspects to you; and then another day, because I have shifted my centre of observation, I may describe twelve others, and they will be equally true.
   (To Vishwanath) Is it the wind that's producing this storm? It is very good for a dramatic stage-effect.... The traitor is approaching in the night... yes? We are waiting for some terrible deed....
   ~ The Mother, Questions And Answers 1954, 395,
5:To what gods shall the sacrifice be offered? Who shall be invoked to manifest and protect in the human being this increasing godhead?

Agni first, for without him the sacrificial flame cannot burn on the altar of the soul. That flame of Agni is the seven-tongued power of the Will, a Force of God instinct with Knowledge. This conscious and forceful will is the immortal guest in our mortality, a pure priest and a divine worker, the mediator between earth and heaven. It carries what we offer to the higher Powers and brings back in return their force and light and joy into our humanity.

Indra, the Puissant next, who is the power of pure Existence self-manifested as the Divine Mind. As Agni is one pole of Force instinct with knowledge that sends its current upward from earth to heaven, so Indra is the other pole of Light instinct with force which descends from heaven to earth. He comes down into our world as the Hero with the shining horses and slays darkness and division with his lightnings, pours down the life-giving heavenly waters, finds in the trace of the hound, Intuition, the lost or hidden illuminations, makes the Sun of Truth mount high in the heaven of our mentality.

Surya, the Sun, is the master of that supreme Truth, - truth of being, truth of knowledge, truth of process and act and movement and functioning. He is therefore the creator or rather the manifester of all things - for creation is out-bringing, expression by the Truth and Will - and the father, fosterer, enlightener of our souls. The illuminations we seek are the herds of this Sun who comes to us in the track of the divine Dawn and releases and reveals in us night-hidden world after world up to the highest Beatitude.

Of that beatitude Soma is the representative deity. The wine of his ecstasy is concealed in the growths of earth, in the waters of existence; even here in our physical being are his immortalising juices and they have to be pressed out and offered to all the gods; for in that strength these shall increase and conquer.

Each of these primary deities has others associated with him who fulfil functions that arise from his own. For if the truth of Surya is to be established firmly in our mortal nature, there are previous conditions that are indispensable; a vast purity and clear wideness destructive of all sin and crooked falsehood, - and this is Varuna; a luminous power of love and comprehension leading and forming into harmony all our thoughts, acts and impulses, - this is Mitra; an immortal puissance of clear-discerning aspiration and endeavour, - this is Aryaman; a happy spontaneity of the right enjoyment of all things dispelling the evil dream of sin and error and suffering, - this is Bhaga. These four are powers of the Truth of Surya. For the whole bliss of Soma to be established perfectly in our nature a happy and enlightened and unmaimed condition of mind, vitality and body are necessary. This condition is given to us by the twin Ashwins; wedded to the daughter of Light, drinkers of honey, bringers of perfect satisfactions, healers of maim and malady they occupy our parts of knowledge and parts of action and prepare our mental, vital and physical being for an easy and victorious ascension.

Indra, the Divine Mind, as the shaper of mental forms has for his assistants, his artisans, the Ribhus, human powers who by the work of sacrifice and their brilliant ascension to the high dwelling-place of the Sun have attained to immortality and help mankind to repeat their achievement. They shape by the mind Indra's horses, the chariot of the Ashwins, the weapons of the Gods, all the means of the journey and the battle. But as giver of the Light of Truth and as Vritra-slayer Indra is aided by the Maruts, who are powers of will and nervous or vital Force that have attained to the light of thought and the voice of self-expression. They are behind all thought and speech as its impellers and they battle towards the Light, Truth and Bliss of the supreme Consciousness.

There are also female energies; for the Deva is both Male and Female and the gods also are either activising souls or passively executive and methodising energies. Aditi, infinite Mother of the Gods, comes first; and there are besides five powers of the Truthconsciousness, - Mahi or Bharati, the vast Word that brings us all things out of the divine source; Ila, the strong primal word of the Truth who gives us its active vision; Saraswati, its streaming current and the word of its inspiration; Sarama, the Intuition, hound of heaven who descends into the cavern of the subconscient and finds there the concealed illuminations; Dakshina, whose function is to discern rightly, dispose the action and the offering and distribute in the sacrifice to each godhead its portion. Each god, too, has his female energy.

All this action and struggle and ascension is supported by Heaven our Father and Earth our Mother Parents of the Gods, who sustain respectively the purely mental and psychic and the physical consciousness. Their large and free scope is the condition of our achievement. Vayu, master of life, links them together by the mid-air, the region of vital force. And there are other deities, - Parjanya, giver of the rain of heaven; Dadhikravan, the divine war-horse, a power of Agni; the mystic Dragon of the Foundations; Trita Aptya who on the third plane of existence consummates our triple being; and more besides.

The development of all these godheads is necessary to our perfection. And that perfection must be attained on all our levels, - in the wideness of earth, our physical being and consciousness; in the full force of vital speed and action and enjoyment and nervous vibration, typified as the Horse which must be brought forward to upbear our endeavour; in the perfect gladness of the heart of emotion and a brilliant heat and clarity of the mind throughout our intellectual and psychical being; in the coming of the supramental Light, the Dawn and the Sun and the shining Mother of the herds, to transform all our existence; for so comes to us the possession of the Truth, by the Truth the admirable surge of the Bliss, in the Bliss infinite Consciousness of absolute being. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, The Doctrine of the Mystics,

IN CHAPTERS [37/37]



   18 Integral Yoga
   1 Hinduism


   18 Sri Aurobindo
   7 Nolini Kanta Gupta
   3 The Mother
   2 Satprem


   7 The Secret Of The Veda
   4 The Secret Doctrine
   4 Hymns to the Mystic Fire
   3 Vedic and Philological Studies
   2 Record of Yoga
   2 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 08
   2 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03


0 1961-10-30, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   All is reconciled. The Rishi is the son of two mothers: son of Aditi, the luminous cow, Mother of infinite Light, creatrix of the worlds; and son as well of Diti, the black cow, Mother of the tenebrous infinite and divided existence for when Diti at last reaches the end of her apparent Night, she gives us divine birth and the milk of heaven. All is fulfilled, The Rishi sets flowing in one movement human strengths and things divine (IX.70.3), he has realized the universal in the individual, become the Infinite in the finite: Then shall thy humanity become as if the workings of these gods; it is as if the visible heaven of light were founded in thee (V.66.2). Far from spurning the earth, he prays: O Godhead, guard for us the Infinite and lavish the finite(IV.2.11).
   The voyage draws to its close. Agni has recovered its solar totality, its two concealed extremities. The inviolable work is fulfilled. For Agni is the place where high meets lowand in truth, there is no longer high nor low, but a single Sun everywhere: O Flame, thou goest to the ocean of Heaven, towards the gods; thou makest to meet together the godheads of the planes, the waters that are in the realm of light above the sun and the waters that abide below (III.22.3). O Fire O universal Godhead, thou art the navel-knot of the earths and their inhabitants; all men born thou controllest and supportest like a pillar (I.59.1). O Flame, thou foundest the mortal in a supreme immortality thou createst divine bliss and human joy (I.31.7). For the worlds heart is Joy, Joy dwells in the depths of all things, the well of honey covered by the rock (II.24.4).

02.02 - Lines of the Descent of Consciousness, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   All the ancient legends about a principle and a personalityof Denial and Ignorance, of an Everlasting Nayrefer to this fact of a descending consciousness, a Fall. The Vedantic my, spoken of sometimes as the Dark Mother, seems to be the personification of the lower Overmind, Jehovah and Satan of the Hebrews, Olympians and Titans of the Greeks, Ahriman and Ahura Mazda of old Iran, the sons of Diti and Aditi the Indian Puranas speak of, are powers and personalities of consciousness when it has descended entirely into the mind and the vital where the division is complete. These lower reaches have completely lost the unitary consciousness; still there are beings even here that have succeeded in maintaining it as a memory or an aspiration, although in a general way the living reality of the oneness is absent. It is significant that the term asura which came to mean in classical and mythological ages a + sura, not-god, the Titan, had originally a different connotation and etymology, asu + ra, one having force or strength, and was used as a general attri bute of all the gods. The degradation in the sense of the word is a pointer to the spiritual Fall: Satan was once Lucifer, the bringer or bearer of light. We may mention in this connection that these beings of which we are speaking, dwelling in unseen worlds, are of two broad categories(1) beings that are native to each plane and immutably confined and bound to that plane, and (2) those that extend their existence through many or all planes and assume on each plane the norm and form appropriate to that plane. But this is a problem of individual destiny with which we are not concerned at present.
   We were speaking of the descent into the Vital, the domain of dynamism, desire and hunger. The Vital is also the field of some strong creative Powers who follow, or are in secret contact with the line of unitary consciousness, who are open to influences from a deeper or higher or subtler consciousness. Along with the demons there is also a line of daimona, guardian angels, in the hierarchy of vital beings. Much of what is known as aesthetic or artistic creation derives its spirit from this sphere. Many of the gods of beauty and delight are denizens of this heaven. Gandharvas and Kinnaras are here, Dionysus and even Apollo perhaps (at least in their mythological aspectin their occult reality they properly belong to the Overmind which is the own home of the gods), many of the angels, seraphs and cherubs dwell here. In fact, the mythological heaven for the most part can be located in this region.

06.05 - The Story of Creation, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The one indivisible Reality and its pure consciousness: that is the origin. This Supreme Consciousness chose to objectify himself, bring himself out of himself, witness himself in play the Upanishad says, the One wished to have a second, a companion to himself, sa dwityam aichhat. This power of self-objectification is a free-will given to the consciousness to move out of its original unified status and move abroad and away, as it liked. Thus the Supreme saw himself as his own power of self-manifestation, and that is the Mother Consciousness, Adya Shakti, Aditiconsciousness-power, who again in her forward creative urge expressed herself in the first four major Emanations (Maheshwari, Mahakali, Mahalakshmi and Mahasaraswati). But this free urge, free to separate itself and proceed in an independent movement of self-expression and evolution precipitated itself immediately, almost as a logical consequence of its career of free choice, into the Denial, the Negation that is inconscience. So, against the Supreme, the Divine Consciousness, there stood out the utter unconsciousness: the Light disappeared into absolute Darkness. It was the result of a self-choice in the consciousness: but the end was the very opposite of consciousness.
   It was a dead silence, more silent than Death and more dead than Silence itself. And it was utter helplessness and hopelessness. The Divine Consciousness Aditisaw the terrible line of destiny that freedom had taken and ended in: she could stand it no longer and a cry went out for succour, for help. And the answer came immediate, a ray shot down from the one Supreme Consciousness and entered into the womb of Inconscience. Lo, the miracle, Matter was born, the first creation, the first manifestation of the Supreme Grace. Matter holds in it the spark of consciousness that is to grow and unfold itself, shine more and more into the enveloping gloom of Inconscience, illumining it farther and farther, pushing its frontiers ever backward and away.
   The birth of Matter coincided with another descent of the Supreme Consciousness; it is a descent in graded stages linking up the highest to the lowest through intermediate formations: they are telescoped into Matter so that Matter might lodge and express them gradually through its inherent developing consciousness till the highest is revealed and embodied here as it is always self-revealed at the highest.

1.02 - The Doctrine of the Mystics, #Hymns to the Mystic Fire, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  There are also female energies; for the Deva is both Male and Female and the gods also are either activising souls or passively executive and methodising energies. Aditi, infinite Mother of the Gods, comes first; and there are besides five powers of the Truthconsciousness, - Mahi or Bharati, the vast Word that brings us all things out of the divine source; Ila, the strong primal word of the Truth who gives us its active vision; Saraswati, its streaming current and the word of its inspiration; Sarama, the Intuition, hound of heaven who descends into the cavern of the subconscient and finds there the concealed illuminations; Dakshina, whose function is to discern rightly, dispose the action and the offering and distribute in the sacrifice to each godhead its portion. Each god, too, has his female energy.
  All this action and struggle and ascension is supported by Heaven our Father and Earth our Mother Parents of the Gods, who sustain respectively the purely mental and psychic and the physical consciousness. Their large and free scope is the condition of our achievement. Vayu, master of life, links them together by the mid-air, the region of vital force. And there are other deities, - Parjanya, giver of the rain of heaven; Dadhikravan, the divine war-horse, a power of Agni; the mystic Dragon of the Foundations; Trita Aptya who on the third plane of existence consummates our triple being; and more besides.

10.35 - The Moral and the Spiritual, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 04, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The Indian consciousness did not consider anything essentially evil, anything irrevocably and eternally condemned to perdition. Even the Asura, the anti-Divine is viewed, in the last analysis of things, also as an aspect, a formation of the Divine himself. Diti and Aditi are sisters, twin aspects of the same Supreme Being. All the legends in narrating the life history of the Asura describe his end as a submission to the Divine Will and a merging in Him. An entire life of bitter hostility culminates in the same degree of love for the Divine. The process of enmity seems to have a deeper occult meaning conducive to the more perfect union with the Divine. We know in Savitri how Sri Aurobindo speaks of Death as only a mask of Immortality.
   In fact, evil, as we usually know it, as human mind construes it, is only a misplacement of a thing, a thing not in its placea thing need not be essentially wrong, it is wrong because it is not in its right place. Even things considered reprehensible by the moral sense are not so when they are viewed from another standpoint.

1.03 - Hymns of Gritsamada, #Hymns to the Mystic Fire, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
    11. O Divine Fire, thou art Aditi, the indivisible Mother to the giver of the sacrifice; thou art Bharati, voice of the offering, and thou growest by the word. Thou art Ila of the hundred winters wise to discern; O Master of the Treasure, thou art Saraswati who slays the python adversary.
    12. O Fire, when thou art well borne by us thou becomest the supreme growth and expansion of our being, all glory and beauty are in thy desirable hue and thy perfect vision. O Vastness, thou art the plenitude that carries us to the end of our way; thou art a multitude of riches spread out on every side.

1.04 - The Gods of the Veda, #Vedic and Philological Studies, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  It was this aspect of impure mahas, vijnanam working not in its own home, swe dame but in the house of a stranger, as a servant of an inferior faculty, reason as we call it, which led the Rishi Mahachamasya to include mahas among the vyahritis. But vijnana itself is an integral part of the supreme movement, it is divine thought in divine being,therefore not a vyahriti. The Veda uses to express this pure Truth &ideal knowledge another word, equivalent in meaning to mahat,the word brihat and couples with it two other significant expressions, satyam & ritam. This trinity of satyam ritam brihatSacchidananda objectivisedis the Mahan Atma. Satyam is Truth, the principle of infinite & divine Being, Sat objectivised to Knowledge as the Truth of things self-manifested; Ritam is Law, the motion of things thought out, the principle of divine self-aware energy, Chit-shakti objectivised to knowledge as the Truth of things selfarranged; Brihat is full content & fullness, satisfaction, Nature, the principle of divine Bliss objectivised to knowledge as the Truth of things contented with its own manifestation in law of being & law of action. For, as the Vedanta tells us, there is no lasting satisfaction in the little, in the unillumined or half-illumined things of mind & sense, satisfaction there is only in the large, the self-true & self-existent. Nalpe sukham asti bhumaiva sukham. Bhuma, brihat, mahat, that is God. It is Ananda therefore that insists on largeness & constitutes the mahat or brihat. Ananda is the soul of Nature, its essentiality, creative power & peace. The harmony of creative power & peace, pravritti & nivritti, jana & shama, is the divine state which we feelas Wordsworth felt itwhen we go back to the brihat, the wide & infinite which, containing & contented with its works, says of it Sukritam, What I have made, is good. Whoever enters this kingdom of Mahat, this Maho Arnas or great sea of ideal knowledge, comes into possession of his true being, true knowledge, true bliss. He attains the ideal powers of drishti, sruti, smritisees truth face to face, hears her unerring voice or knows her by immediate recognising memoryjust as we say of a friend This is he and need no reasoning of observation, comparison, induction or deduction to tell us who he is or to explain our knowledge to ourselvesthough we may, already knowing the truth, use a self-evident reasoning masterfully in order to convince others. The characteristic of ideal knowledge is first that it is direct in its approach, secondly, that it is self-evident in its revelation, swayamprakasha, thirdly, that it is unerring fact of being, sat, satyam in its substance. Moreover, it is always perfectly satisfied & divinely pleasurable; it is atmarati & atmastha, confines itself to itself & does not reach out beyond itself to grasp at error or grope within itself to stumble over ignorance. It is, too, perfectly effective whether for knowledge, speech or action, satyakarma, satyapratijna, satyavadi. The man who rising beyond the state of the manu, manishi or thinker which men are now, becomes the kavi or direct seer, containing what he sees,he who draws the manomaya purusha up into the vijnanamaya,is in all things true. Truth is his characteristic, his law of being, the stamp that God has put upon him. But even for the manishi ideal Truth has its bounties. For from thence come the intuitions of the poet, the thinker, the artist, scientist, man of action, merchant, craftsman, labourer each in his sphere, the seed of the great thoughts, discoveries, faiths that help the world and save our human works & destinies from decay & dissolution. But in utilising these messages from our higher selves for the world, in giving them a form or a practical tendency, we use our intellects, feelings or imaginations and alter to their moulds or colour with their pigments the Truth. That alloy seems to be needed to make this gold from the mines above run current among men. This then is Maho Arnas.The psychological conceptions of our remote forefa thers concerning it have so long been alien to our thought & experience that they may be a little difficult to follow & more difficult to accept mentally. But we must understand & grasp them in their fullness if we have any desire to know the meaning of the Veda. For they are the very centre & keystone of Vedic psychology. Maho Arnas, the Great Ocean, is the stream of our being which at once divides & connects the human in us from the divine, & to cross over from the human to the divine, from this small & divided finite to that one, great & infinite, from this death to that immortality, leaving Diti for Aditi, alpam for bhuma, martyam for amritam is the great preoccupation & final aim of Veda & Vedanta.
  We can now understand the intention of the Rishi in his last verse and the greatness of the climax to which he has been leading us. Saraswati is able to give impulsion to Truth and awaken to right thinking because she has access to the Maho Arnas, the great ocean. On that level of consciousness, we are usually it must be remembered asleep, sushupta. The chetana or waking consciousness has no access; it lies behind our active consciousness, is, as we might say, superconscious, for us, asleep. Saraswati brings it forward into active consciousness by means of the ketu or perceptive intelligence, that essential movement of mind which accepts & realises whatever is presented to it. To focus this ketu, this essential perception on the higher truth by drawing it away from the haphazard disorder of sensory data is the great aim of Yogic meditation. Saraswati by fixing essential perception on the satyam ritam brihat above makes ideal knowledge active and is able to inform it with all those plentiful movements of mind which she, dhiyavasu, vajebhir vajinivati, has prepared for the service of the Master of the sacrifice. She is able to govern all the movements of understanding without exception in their thousand diverse movements & give them the single impression of truth and right thinkingvisva dhiyo vi rajati. A governed & ordered activity of soul and mind, led by the Truth-illuminated intellect, is the aim of the sacrifice which Madhuchchhanda son of Viswamitra is offering to the Gods.

1.05 - Ritam, #Vedic and Philological Studies, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Varuna & Mitra, the two great Vedic Twins, meet us in their united activity in the first crucial passage of the Veda informed with the clear & unmistakable idea of the Ritam which so largely dominates the thinking of the Vedic sages. Varuna & Mitra again, but this time helped by their companion Aryaman, govern a second passage which we shall find of equal importance in forming our conceptions of the Truth towards which our ancestors lifted so strenuous an aspiration of prayer and sacrifice. It occurs in the forty-first hymn of the Mandala, a hymn of the Rishi Kanwa son of Ghora to the three children of Aditi, & covers six out of the nine slokas of the hymn. It is fortunately a sufficiently clear & easy hymn, except precisely in the three closing riks with which we are not now concerned; we have to pause only for a moment [at] the word avakhdah, over which Sayana gives himself very unnecessary trouble,for it means clearly a pitfall or an abrupt descent, and the sense of dhtaye, taken by Sayana in the ritualistic significance, for your eating, and by myself, following my hypothesis, in the psychological sense conceded by Sayana in a number of other passages; dhti means literally holding & usually holding in the mind, thinking; it expresses then the fixed action of dh, the thought faculty. Otherwise the only difficulty is in the word toka which the ritualistic commentators interpret invariably in the sense of son, putra.
    Yam rakshanti prachetaso Varuno Mitra Aryam
  --
  I translate, He whom Varuna, Mitra & Aryaman guard, they who see with the conscious mind, can that man at all be crushed? The mortal whom they like a multitude of arms fill with his desires and protect from his hurter, he unhurt grows to completeness in being (or prospers in all his being). In front of these the Kings smite apart their obstacles & smite apart their haters and lead them beyond all sin. Easy to travel & thornless is your path, O sons of Aditi, for him who travels to the Truth; here there is no pitfall in your way. That sacrifice which you lead, O strong sons of Aditi, (or O Purushas sons of Aditi,) by the straight path, that goes forward to its place in the thought. That mortal moves unoverthrown towards delightful being, yea & to all kind of creation by the self. The rest of the hymn is taken up by certain conditions necessary for the effectivity of the praise of the three great deities whose protection assures this safe & prosperous movement to their worshipper.
  We must consider first whether any valid objection can be offered to this translation; and, if not, what are the precise ideas conveyed by the words & expressions which they render. The word prachetas is one of the fixed recurrent terms of the Veda; & we have corresponding to it another term vichetas. Both terms are rendered by the commentators wise or intelligent. Is prachetas then merely an ornamental or otiose word in this verse? Is it only a partially dispensable & superfluous compliment to the gods of the hymn? Our hypothesis is that the Vedic Rishis were masters of a perfectly well managed literary style founded upon a tr Adition of sound economy in language & coherence in thought; all of every word in Veda is in its place & is justified by its value in the significance. If so, prachetasah gives the reason why the protection of these gods is so perfectly efficacious. I suppose,as my hypothesis entitles me to suppose,that the Vedic ideas of prachetas & vichetas correspond to the Vedantic idea of prajnana & vijnana to which as words they are exactly equivalent in composition & sense. Prajnana is that knowledge which is aware of, knows & works upon the objects placed before it. Vijnana is the knowledge which comprehends & knows thoroughly in itself all objects of knowledge. The one is the highest faculty of mind, the other is in mind the door to and beyond it the nature of the direct supra-intellectual knowledge, the Ritam & Brihat of the Veda. It is because Varuna, Mitra & Aryama protect the human being with the perfect knowledge of that through which he has to pass, his path, his dangers, his foes, that their protg , however fiercely & by whatever powers assailed, cannot be crushed. At once, it begins to become clear that the protection in that case must, in all probability, be a spiritual protection against spiritual dangers & spiritual foes.
  --
  The sense is completed & the spiritual character of the journey explicitly & unmistakably brought out in the next, the fourth rik of the Sukta. The traveller is one who is journeying towards the Truth, the ritam. We have already hazarded the conception of the Ritam as the principle of Mahas, the spontaneous, self-existent, self-efficient nature of the infinite & divine consciousness, satyam ritam brihat, to which right action, right emotion, right knowledge, right enjoyment belong inalienably & result naturally & without effort or stumble. In its moral aspect, that conception is now entirely justified. The path of Truth, ritasya panth sdhuy, is suga anrikshara; there are no pitfalls or precipices in that road; for it is the road of the Adityas, the children of Light & Infinity, sons of Aditi, the Infinite Nature, brothers of Surya to whom belongs the revealed knowledge & the divine illumination. It is as we shall see in the next line the straight road rijun path. Sugah panth anrikshara ditysa ritam yate. Ntrvakhdo asti vah.
  So far the image has been a double image of a journey & a battle,the goal of the ritam, the journey of the sin-afflicted human being towards the Truth of the divine nature; the thorns, the pitfall, the enemy ambushed in the path; the great divine helpers whose divine knowledge, for they are prachetasah, becomes active in the human mind and conducts us unerringly & unfalteringly on that sublime journey. In the next rik the image of the path is preserved, but another image is associated with it, the universal Vedic image of the sacrifice. We get here our first clear & compelling indication of the truth which is the very foundation of our hypothesis that the Vedic sacrifice is only a material symbol of a great psychological or spiritual process. The divine children of Infinity lead1 the sacrifice on the straight path to the goal of the ritam; under their guidance it progresses to their goal & reaches the gods in their home, pravah sa dhtaye nashat.What is sacrifice which is itself a traveller, which has a motion in a straight path, a goal in the highest seat of Truth, parasmin dhmann ritasya? If it is not the activities of the human being in us offered as a sacrifice to the higher & divine being so that human activities may be led up to the divine nature & be established in the divine consciousness, then there is either no meaning in human language or no sense or coherence in the Veda. The Vedic sacrificer is devayu,devakmah,one who desires the god or the godhead, the divine nature; or devayan, one who is in the process of divinising his human life & being; the sacrifice itself is essentially devavtih & devattih, manifestation of the divine & the extension of the divine in man. We see also the force of dhtaye. The havya or offering of human faculty, human having, human action, reaches its goal when it is taken up in the divine thought, the divine consciousness & there enjoyed by the gods.

1.08 - Attendants, #Twelve Years With Sri Aurobindo, #Nirodbaran, #Integral Yoga
  One day he conceived the idea of getting Sri Aurobindo's footprints; but how was he to do it without troubling him in any way or without informing him in advance? He had a brain-wave. He kept a white sheet of paper and pencil ready. As soon as Sri Aurobindo sat on the chair, he pushed the sheet of paper under his feet and asked, "May I draw your footprint?" Sri Aurobindo not only consented but later wrote "Love and Blessings" on the drawing. Let us not forget, by the way, that Champaklal is an artist. Whenever he saw Sri Aurobindo in what seemed to him statuesque poses his heart would go into rapture and he would call us to share his joy. He would exclaim, "Ah, if a photograph could be taken of this marvellous pose!" The Mother has said that he has "a natural talent already developed to an unusual degree". On one of his birthdays he painted two lotuses, white and red, and offered the pictures to the Mother. She was very pleased and said she would take them to Sri Aurobindo and ask him to write something. He wrote under the painting of the white lotus: Aditi, The Divine Mother. And the Mother wrote on the other: The Avatar. But she forbade Champaklal to show them to anyone, for people would not understand what they meant.
  Champaklal is the custodian of all their relics such as hair, nails and teeth. He has even stored up all the ashes of the burnt mosquito-coils. Here is a humorous incident in connection with the ashes. Once during our evening talks, the Mother came in with a telegram asking Sri Aurobindo to send "ashes" for someone's marriage. We were perplexed for we could not make out the meaning. Purani had an intuitive flash and said, "It may be the Indian word ss for benediction." "Oh, I see!" exclaimed Sri Aurobindo, "I was wondering how I was supposed to carry ashes with me, perhaps on my head! Of course I can give them some from Champaklal's mosquito-coils. If I had not given up smoking, I could have given some cigar-ash."

1.09 - Saraswati and Her Consorts, #The Secret Of The Veda, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Vedic system, as in most very ancient schools of thought. We find it recurring constantly, - the seven delights, sapta ratnani; the seven flames, tongues or rays of Agni, sapta arcis.ah., sapta jvalah.; the seven forms of the Thought-principle, sapta dhtayah.; the seven Rays or Cows, forms of the Cow unslayable, Aditi, mother of the gods, sapta gavah.; the seven rivers, the seven mothers or fostering cows, sapta matarah., sapta dhenavah., a term applied indifferently to the Rays and to the Rivers. All these sets of seven depend, it seems to me, upon the Vedic classification of the fundamental principles, the tattvas, of existence.
  The enquiry into the number of these tattvas greatly interested the speculative mind of the ancients and in Indian philosophy we find various answers ranging from the One upward and running into the twenties. In Vedic thought the basis chosen was the number of the psychological principles, because all existence was conceived by the Rishis as a movement of conscious being.

1.11 - The Seven Rivers, #The Secret Of The Veda, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  We see that these Waters are the same as those of Vamadeva's hymn, of Vasishtha's, closely connected with the clarity and the honey, - ghr.tasya yonau srava the madhunam, scotanti dhara madhuno ghr.tasya; they lead to the Truth, they are themselves the source of the Truth, they flow in the unobstructed and shoreless Vast as well as here upon the earth. They are figured as fostering cows (dhenavah.), mares (asvah.), they are called sapta van.h., the seven Words of the creative goddess Vak, - Speech, the expressive power of Aditi, of the supreme Prakriti who is spoken of as the Cow just as the Deva or Purusha is described in the Veda as Vrishabha or Vrishan, the Bull. They are therefore the seven strands of all being, the seven streams or currents or forms of movement of the one conscious existence.
  We shall find that in the light of the ideas which we have discovered from the very opening of the Veda in Madhuchchhandas' hymns and in the light of the symbolic interpretations which are now becoming clear to us, this passage apparently so figured, mysterious, enigmatical becomes perfectly straightforward and coherent, as indeed do all the passages of the Veda which seem now almost unintelligible when once their right clue is found. We have only to fix the psychological function of Agni, the priest, the fighter, the worker, the truth-finder, the winner of beatitude for man; and that has already been fixed for us in the first hymn of the Rig Veda by Madhuchchhandas' description of him, - "the Will in works of the Seer true and most rich in
  --
  The rest of the passage describes the ascent of this divine conscious-force, Agni, this Immortal in mortals who in the sacrifice takes the place of the ordinary will and knowledge of man, from the mortal and physical consciousness to the immortality of the Truth and the Beatitude. The Vedic Rishis speak of five births for man, five worlds of creatures where works are done, panca janah., panca kr.s.t.h. or ks.ith.. Dyaus and Prithivi represent the pure mental and the physical consciousness; between them is the Antariksha, the intermediate or connecting level of the vital or nervous consciousness. Dyaus and Prithivi are Rodasi, our two firmaments; but these have to be overpassed, for then we find admission to another heaven than that of the pure mind - to the wide, the Vast which is the basis, the foundation (budhna) of the infinite consciousness, Aditi. This Vast is the Truth which supports the supreme triple world, those highest steps or seats
  (padani, sadamsi) of Agni, of Vishnu, those supreme Names of the Mother, the cow, Aditi. The Vast or Truth is declared to be
  The Seven Rivers

1.12 - The Herds of the Dawn, #The Secret Of The Veda, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Gu (gavah.) and go (gavah.) bear throughout the Vedic hymns this double sense of cows and radiances. In the ancient Indian system of thought being and consciousness were aspects of each other, and Aditi, infinite existence from whom the gods are born, described as the Mother with her seven names and seven seats
  (dhamani), is also conceived as the infinite consciousness, the

1.13 - Dawn and the Truth, #The Secret Of The Veda, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Day, the splendour and clarity of the inner illumination. But we see in the Veda that Aditi, the Mother of the Gods, is described both as the Cow and as the general Mother; she is the Supreme
  Light and all radiances proceed from her. Psychologically, Aditi is the supreme or infinite Consciousness, mother of the gods, in opposition to Danu or Diti,1 the divided consciousness, mother of Vritra and the other Danavas - enemies of the gods and of man in his progress. In a more general aspect she is the source of all the cosmic forms of consciousness from the physical upwards; the seven cows, sapta gavah., are her forms and there are, we are told, seven names and seven seats of the Mother. Usha as the mother of the cows can only be a form or power of this supreme
  Light, of this supreme Consciousness, of Aditi. And in fact, we do find her so described in I.113.19, mata devanam aditer ankam, "Mother of the gods, form (or, power) of Aditi."
  But the illumining dawn of the higher or undivided Consciousness is always the dawn of the Truth; if Usha is that illumining dawn, then we are bound to find her advent frequently associated in the verses of the Rig Veda with the idea of the
  --
  Not that the word Aditi is etymologically the privative of Diti; the two words derive from entirely different roots, ad and di.
  132

1.14 - The Secret, #Sri Aurobindo or the Adventure of Consciousness, #Satprem, #Integral Yoga
  Shadow and Light, Good and Evil have all prepared a divine birth in Matter: "Day and Night both suckle the divine Child." 253 Nothing is accursed, nothing is in vain. Night and Day are "two sisters, immortal, with a common Lover (the Sun) . . . common they, though different their forms." (I.113.2.3) At the end of the "pilgrimage" of ascent and descent, the seeker is "a son of the two Mothers (III.55.7): the son of Aditi, the white Mother254 of the superconscious infinite, and the son of Diti, the earthly Mother of "the dark infinite." He possesses "the two births," human and divine, "eternal and in one nest . . . as the Enjoyer of his two wives" (I.62.7): "The contents of the pregnant hill255 (came forth) for the supreme birth . . . a god opened the human doors." (V.45) "Then indeed, they awoke and saw all behind and wide around them, then, indeed, they held the ecstasy that is enjoyed in heaven. In all gated houses256 were all the gods." (Rig Veda IV.1.18)
  Man's hope is fulfilled as well as the rishi's prayer: "May Heaven and Earth be equal and one."257 The great Balance is at last restored.

1.15 - The world overrun with trees; they are destroyed by the Pracetasas, #Vishnu Purana, #Vyasa, #Hinduism
  The daughters of Dakṣa who were married to Kaśyapa were Aditi, Diti, Danu, Aṛṣṭā, Surasā, Surabhi, Vinatā, Tāmrā, Krodhavaśā, Iḍā, Khasā, Kadru, and Muni[19]; whose progeny I will describe to you. There were twelve celebrated deities in a former Manvantara, called Tuṣitas[20], who, upon the approach of the present period, or in the reign of the last Manu, Cākṣuṣa, assembled, and said to one another, "Come, let us quickly enter into the womb of Aditī, that we may be born in the next Manvantara, for thereby we shall again enjoy the rank of gods:" and accordingly they were born the sons of Kaśyapa, the son of Marīci, by Aditī, the daughter of Dakṣa; thence named the twelve Ādityas; whose appellations were respectively, Viṣṇu, Śakra, Āryaman, Dhūtī, Tvāṣṭri, Pūṣan, Vivaswat, Savitri, Mitra, Varuṇa, Aṃśa, and Bhaga[21]. These, who in the Cākṣuṣa Manvantara were the gods called Tuṣitas, were called the twelve Ādityas in the Manvantara of Vaivaśvata.
  The twenty-seven daughters of the patriarch who became the virtuous wives of the moon were all known as the nymphs of the lunar constellations, which were called by their names, and had children who were brilliant through their great splendour[22]. The wives of Aṛṣṭanemi bore him sixteen children[23]. The daughters of Bahuputra were the four lightnings[24]. The excellent Pratya
  --
  [19]: There is some, though not much, variation in these names in different Purāṇas. The Bhāgavata has Saramā, Kaṣṭha, and Timi, the parents severally of canine animals, beasts with uncloven hoofs, and fishes, in place of Vinatā, Khasā, and Kadru; disposing of the first and last differently. The Vāyu has Pravā in place of Aṛṣṭā, and Anāyush or Danāyush for Surasā. The Padma P., second series, substitutes Kālā, Anāyush, Sinhikā, Piśācā, Vāch for Aṛṣṭa, Surasā, Surabhi, Tāmrā, and Muni; and omits Iḍā and Khasā. In the Uttara Khaṇḍa of the same, Kaśyapa's wives are said to be but four, Aditi, Diti, Kadru, and Vinatā.
  [20]: In the sixth reign, or that of Cākṣuṣa Manu, according to the text; but in book III. ch. 1. the Tuṣitas are the gods of the second or Svārociṣa Manvantara. The Vāyu has a much more complete legend than any other Pura on this subject. In the beginning of the Kalpa twelve gods, named Jayas, were created by Brahmā, as his deputies and assistants in the creation. They, lost in meditation, neglected his commands; on which he cursed them to be repeatedly born in each Manvantara till the seventh. They were accordingly, in the several successive Manvantaras, Ajitas, Tuṣitas, Satyas, Haris, Vaikunthas, Sādhyas, and Ādityas. Our authority and some others, as the Brāhma, have apparently intended to refer to this account, but have confused the order of the series.

1.18 - The Human Fathers, #The Secret Of The Veda, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Earth," sanema mitravarun.a sananto, bhavema dyavapr.thiv bhavantah.. This is evidently the sense that we are to possess and become the infinities or children of Aditi, the godheads,
  190

1.19 - The Victory of the Fathers, #The Secret Of The Veda, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  "they who entered into all things that bear right fruit formed a path towards the immortality; earth stood wide for them by the greatness and by the Great Ones, the mother Aditi with her sons came (or, manifested herself) for the upholding" (I.72.9).1 That
  A ye visva svapatyani tasthuh., kr.n.vanaso amr.tatvaya gatum; mahna mahadbhih. pr.thiv vi tasthe, mata putrair Aditir dhayase veh..
  200
  --
  Panis be the powers that prevent the Truth from emerging out of the subconscient condition and that constantly strive to steal its illuminations from man and throw him back into the Night, and Vritra must be the power that obstructs and prevents the free movement of the illumined rivers of the Truth, obstructs the impulsion of the Truth in us, r.tasya pres.a, the luminous impulsion, jyotis.matm is.am, which carries us beyond the Night to the immortality. And the gods, the sons of Aditi, must be on the contrary the luminous divine powers, born of the infinite consciousness Aditi, whose formation and activity in our human and mortal being are necessary for our growth into the godhead, into the being of the Deva (devatvam) which is the Immortality.
  Agni, the truth-conscious seer-will, is the principal godhead who enables us to effect the sacrifice; he leads it on the path of the
  --
   females of the herd knew that and they followed after it; the ruddy one was manifested by the victorious attainment (or, the splendour) of the cow of Light," te manvata prathamam nama dhenos, trih. sapta matuh. paraman.i vindan; taj janatr abhyanus.ata vra, avirbhuvad arun.r yasasa goh.. The Mother here is Aditi, the infinite consciousness, who is the Dhenu or fostering Cow with the seven rivers for her sevenfold streaming as well as Go the Cow of Light with the Dawns for her children; the Ruddy One is the divine Dawn and the herd or rays are her dawning illuminations. The first name of the Mother with her thrice seven supreme seats, that which the dawns or mental illuminations know and move towards, must be the name or deity of the supreme Deva, who is infinite being and infinite consciousness and infinite bliss, and the seats are the three divine worlds, called earlier in the hymn the three supreme births of
  Agni, Satya, Tapas and Jana of the Puranas, which correspond to these three infinities of the Deva and each fulfils in its own way the sevenfold principle of our existence: thus we get the series of thrice seven seats of Aditi manifested in all her glory by the opening out of the Dawn of Truth.3 Thus we see that the achievement of the Light and Truth by the human fathers is also an ascent to the Immortality of the supreme and divine status, to the first name of the all-creating infinite Mother, to her thrice seven supreme degrees of this ascending existence, to the highest levels of the eternal hill (sanu, adri).
  This immortality is the beatitude enjoyed by the gods of which Vamadeva has already spoken as the thing which Agni has to accomplish by the sacrifice, the supreme bliss with its thrice seven ecstasies (I.20.7). For he proceeds; "Vanished the darkness, shaken in its foundation; Heaven shone out (rocata dyauh., implying the manifestation of the three luminous worlds of Swar, divo rocanani); upward rose the light of the divine Dawn; the
  --
  In the second hymn of the fourth Mandala we get very clearly and suggestively the parallelism of the seven Rishis who are the divine Angirases and the human fathers. The passage is preceded by four verses, IV.2.11-14, which bring in the idea of the human seeking after the Truth and the Bliss. "May he the knower discern perfectly the Knowledge and the Ignorance, the wide levels and the crooked that shut in mortals; and, O God, for a bliss fruitful in offspring, lavish on us Diti and protect Aditi."
  This eleventh verse is very striking in its significance. We have the opposition of the Knowledge and the Ignorance familiar to
  --
   the thrice seven supreme seats of Aditi the Mother, the three supreme births of Agni within the Infinite, anante antah. (IV.1.7).
  The Ignorance on the other hand is identified with the crooked or uneven levels4 which shut in mortals and it is therefore the limited, divided mortal existence. Moreover it is evident that the Ignorance is the Diti of the next half-verse, ditim ca rasva Aditim urus.ya, and the Knowledge is Aditi. Diti, called also
  Danu, means division and the obstructing powers or Vritras are her children, Danus, Danavas, Daityas, while Aditi is existence in its infinity and the mother of the gods. The Rishi desires a bliss fruitful in offspring, that is in divine works and their results and this is to be effected through the conquest of all the riches held in itself by our divided mortal being but kept from us by the
  Vritras and Panis and through the holding of them in the infinite divine being. The latter is to be in us protected from the ordinary tendency of our human existence, from subjection to the sons of
  --
  Evidently, this is a repetition in other language of the double idea of possessing the riches of Diti, yet safeguarding Aditi. "We have done the work for thee, we have become perfect in works, the wide-shining Dawns have taken up their home in the Truth
  The Victory of the Fathers
  --
  Then in the ninth and tenth verses we have, expressed in various formulas, the idea of the united human and divine existence, Diti and Aditi, the latter founding, controlling and flooding with itself the former. "The Truth controlled by the
  Truth I desire (i.e. the human by the divine), together the unripe things of the Cow and her ripe and honeyed yield (again the imperfect human and the perfect and blissful divine fruits of the universal consciousness and existence); she (the cow) being black (the dark and divided existence, Diti) is nourished by the shining water of the foundation, the water of the companion streams (jamaryen.a payasa). By the Truth Agni the Bull, the

1.20 - The Hound of Heaven, #The Secret Of The Veda, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Then the Rishi speaks of the great and ancient example which men are called upon to repeat, the example of the Angirases, the achievement of Sarama. "Here the stone was set in motion whereby the Navagwas chanted the hymn for the ten months, Sarama going to the Truth found the cows, the Angiras made all things true. When in the dawning of this vast One (Usha representing the infinite Aditi, mata devanam aditer ankam) all the Angirases came together with the cows (or rather, perhaps by the illuminations represented in the symbol of the cows or Rays); there was the fountain of these (illuminations) in the supreme world; by the path of the Truth Sarama found the cows." Here we see that it is through the movement of Sarama going straight to the Truth by the path of the Truth, that the seven seers, representing the seven-headed or seven-rayed thought of Ayasya and Brihaspati, find all the concealed illuminations and by force of these illuminations they all come together, as we have been already told by Vasishtha, in the level wideness, samane urve, from which the Dawn has descended with the knowledge (urvad janat gat, v. 2) or, as it is here expressed, in the dawning of this vast One, that is to say, in the infinite consciousness. There, as Vasishtha has said, they, united, agree in knowledge and do not strive together, sangatasah. sam janate na yatante mithas te, that is to say, the seven become as one, as is indicated in another hymn; they become the one seven-mouthed Angiras, an image corresponding to that of the seven-headed thought, and it is this single unified Angiras who makes all things true as the result of Sarama's discovery (verse 7). The harmonised, united, perfected Seer-Will corrects all falsehood and crookedness and turns all thought, life, action into terms of the Truth. In this hymn also the action of Sarama is precisely that of the Intuition
  The Hound of Heaven
  --
  "like a ship guided by the thinkers" and the descent upon man of the waters of that ocean in response to their call. In those waters the sevenfold thought of the Angiras is established by the human seer. If we remember that the Sun represents the light of the superconscient or truth-conscious knowledge and the luminous ocean the realms of the superconscient with their thrice seven seats of the Mother Aditi, the sense of these symbolic expressions2 will not be difficult to understand. It is the highest attainment of the supreme goal which follows upon the complete achievement of the Angirases, their united ascent to the plane of the Truth, just as that achievement follows upon the discovery of the herds by Sarama.
  Another hymn of great importance in this connection is the thirty-first of the third Mandala, by Vishwamitra. "Agni (the
  --
  (the cow Aditi, the vast and blissful higher consciousness) bringing for him the sweet food, the honey mixed with the ghr.ta, yielded it as her milk. For this Father also (for Heaven) they fashioned the vast and shining abode; doers of perfect works, they had the entire vision of it. Wide-upholding by their support the Parents (Heaven and Earth) they sat in that high world and embraced all its ecstasy. When for the cleaving away (of evil and falsehood) the vast Thought holds him immediately increasing in his pervasion of earth and heaven, - then for Indra in whom are the equal and faultless words, there are all irresistible energies.
  He has found the great, manifold and blissful Field (the wide field of the cows, Swar); and he has sent forth together all the moving herd for his friends. Indra shining out by the human souls (the Angirases) has brought into being, together, the Sun, the Dawn, the Path and the Flame."
  --
  Calf (of the cow Aditi) existing everywhere; labouring, travelling to the Seat, holding the Thought they attained in the supreme seat to the shining (glory) of Agni. O Agni, when through the three years (three symbolic seasons or periods corresponding perhaps to the passage through the three mental heavens) they,
  The Hound of Heaven
  --
   pure, had served thee, the pure one, with the ghr.ta, they held the sacrificial names and set moving (to the supreme heaven) forms well born. They had knowledge of the vast heaven and earth and bore them forward, they the sons of Rudra, the lords of the sacrifice; the mortal awoke to vision and found Agni standing in the seat supreme. Knowing perfectly (or in harmony) they kneeled down to him; they with their wives (the female energies of the gods) bowed down to him who is worthy of obeisance; purifying themselves (or, perhaps, exceeding the limits of heaven and earth) they created their own (their proper or divine) forms, guarded in the gaze, each friend, of the Friend. In thee the gods of the sacrifice found the thrice seven secret seats hidden within; they, being of one heart, protect by them the immortality. Guard thou the herds that stand and that which moves. O Agni, having knowledge of all manifestations (or births) in the worlds (or, knowing all the knowledge of the peoples) establish thy forces, continuous, for life. Knowing, within, the paths of the journeying of the gods thou becamest their sleepless messenger and the bearer of the offerings. The seven mighty ones of heaven (the rivers) placing aright the thought, knowing the Truth, discerned the doors of the felicity; Sarama found the fastness, the wideness of the cows whereby now the human creature enjoys (the supreme riches). They who entered upon all things that bear right issue, made the path to Immortality; by the great ones and by the greatness earth stood wide; the mother Aditi with her sons came for the upholding. The Immortals planted in him the shining glory, when they made the two eyes of heaven (identical probably with the two vision-powers of the Sun, the two horses of Indra); rivers, as it were, flow down released; the shining ones
  (the cows) who were here below knew, O Agni."

1.2 - Katha Upanishads, #Kena and Other Upanishads, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  7. This is Aditi, the mother of the Gods, who was born through
  the Prana and by the mingling of the elements had her being;

17.01 - Hymn to Dawn, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 05, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   O Mother of the gods, the very Army of Aditi, the flaming
   knowledge of sacrifice, shine forth in thy vastness.
  --
   That may Mitra and Varuna, and Aditi, and the waters and Earth and Heaven protect for us. [20]
   ***

1954-11-10 - Inner experience, the basis of action - Keeping open to the Force - Faith through aspiration - The Mothers symbol - The mind and vital seize experience - Degrees of sincerity -Becoming conscious of the Divine Force, #Questions And Answers 1954, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  It signifies anything one wants, you see. Twelve: thats the number of Aditi, of Mahashakti. So it applies to everything; all her action has twelve aspects. There are also her twelve virtues, her twelve powers, her twelve aspects, and then her twelve planes of manifestation and many other things that are twelve; and the symbol, the number twelve is in itself a symbol. It is the symbol of manifestation, double perfection, in essence and in manifestation, in the creation.
  What are the twelve aspects, Sweet Mother?

1955-05-18 - The Problem of Woman - Men and women - The Supreme Mother, the new creation - Gods and goddesses - A story of Creation, earth - Psychic being only on earth, beings everywhere - Going to other worlds by occult means, #Questions And Answers 1955, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  But it is precisely it is part of the creation. What we call Aditi here, that is, the Creative Consciousness, well, the Creative Consciousness
  I am going to tell you about this in an absolutely childish way:

2.01 - Mandala One, #Vedic and Philological Studies, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  (13) Shunahshepa in fear of the Being wrathful and violent and bound against the Sun (? O son of Aditi) to the three pillars of the sacrifice, him may Varuna the King release, may the Knower unvanquished loose from him his bonds.
  (14) We deprecate thy disregard, O Varuna, by submissions and sacrifices and offerings; dwell thou in us, O strong God, be the awakener of our souls, and destroy from us the sins that have been done.
  --
  (12) The son of Aditi, the strong One who has all mightinesses set us on the good path, he carried our lives across safe to their goal.
  (13) Varuna weareth his golden robe and hath taken upon him a form and many clearnesses have taken their seats around.
  --
  (1) Indra and Mitra and Varuna and Agni and Aditi and the Marut host we call to increase us. O bountiful Vasus, carry us beyond out of all the evil like a chariot out of a difficult place.
  (2) O sons of the infinite Mother, come to us for an universality of creation. Gods, be makers of our bliss in our battle-breakings through the ranks of the Coverers. O bountiful Vasus, carry us beyond out of all the evil like a chariot out of a difficult place.

2.18 - January 1939, #Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo, #unset, #Zen
   Disciple: There is nothing in the Veda to justify their claim except one solitary Sukta called the Ambhrani Sukta. It is a Valkhilya. There Ambhrani speaks of herself as the creatrix of the Gods. Of course one can take Aditi, the infinite Divine Consciousness, as the root of the Tantra if one likes.
   Sri Aurobindo: The principle of Tantra may be as old as the Veda but the known Tantras are a later development.

25.12 - AGNI, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 06, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Vayu and Soma and Indra and Aditi -
   Aditi, the Mother, one and indivisible, and the Word inviolate.
   All is burnt, burnt, burnt to ashes!

2 - Other Hymns to Agni, #Hymns to the Mystic Fire, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  11. Come down to us, O Fire, high-kindled, in one chariot with Indra and swiftly journeying gods; let Aditi, mother of mighty sons, sit on the sacred grass, let the gods, the immortals, take rapture in svaha.
  SUKTA 5
  --
    3 Here the connection between Fire and Ray-Cow and Aditi comes out; so also the psychological nature of the clarified butter and its connection with the vision of the Sun. Who is this cow that "cannot be slain" if not the cow Aditi - the Infinite Mother - the supreme Divine Consciousness creative of the cosmos, of the gods and the demons, of men and of all that is?
    4 These three births of Fire are not, as usually explained, its three physical forms - which even if accepted shows the Vedic people far from the mere primitive barbarian - his birth is connected with Truth - his births are "within in the Infinite" - saccidananda. These are the three levels of the earthly evolution on each of which this Divine Fire takes his birth, parivtah., on the plane of matter and life and mind.
  --
  21 Diti and Aditi, the divided and the undivided Consciousness, the Mother of division
  and the Indivisible Mother.
  --
  with Indra and swiftly journeying gods; let Aditi, mother
  of mighty sons, sit on the sacred grass, let the gods, the
  --
  1. Already kindled thou art kindled again for the gods, O carrier of the offering, come along with the sons of Aditi and
  with the Rudras and with the Shining Ones, come to us for

34.02 - Hymn To All-Gods, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 08, #unset, #Zen
   With the ancient mantra we invoke them all - Bhaga and Mitra and Aditi and the unstumbling Daksha, Aryaman too, and Varuna and the twin Aswins. May Saraswati, Mother of bliss, create happiness for us.
   (4)

36.09 - THE SIT SUKTA, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 08, #unset, #Zen
   The theme of this sukta is to awaken the power of Indra with the help of his followers, the Maruts. Who are the Maruts? We find in the Puranas that Vayu (the Wind-God) in the womb of Diti(the consciousness of duality) had been divided into forty-nine parts by the Lord Indra. As a result, the Maruts, sub-divisions or various forms of Wind, came into existence. We also know that Vayu is the life-energy and Indra is the divine mental being. Ditiis the divided consciousness, the source of multiplicity. Aditimeans the undivided, indivisible and infinite consciousness. When the wave of life-energy rises into the mind and expresses itself as multiple thoughts, it turns into Maruts. In the Rigveda the God Marut has always been invoked and worshipped along with Indra. That is to say, without Indra, the mental being, the Maruts, the mental faculties, have no separate existence.
   The seat of pure mind is a chariot. The chariot signifies movement and it is the emblem of the spiritual progress. The spiritual adventure of the purified mind gradually rises up. The movement of the purified mind is at- once free and vast. Division and littleness are not to be found there. It is fully illumined by the light of knowledge. The purified mind is replete with thought-powers, in other words, the Maruts. And it is the Maruts who help the mind in its march towards the Goal.

3.8.1.05 - Occult Knowledge and the Hindu Scriptures, #Essays In Philosophy And Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Nature, - of Aditi full of the gods, Aditi devatamay; the spirit is really one in all bodies and is neither born nor dies. Nachiketas in the Katha Upanishad raises the question whether the man as we know and conceive him really survives death and this seems to be the sense of the answer that he receives.

3 - Commentaries and Annotated Translations, #Hymns to the Mystic Fire, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  of Aditi, the infinite existence in the paravat, parardha or higher
  being of man & the world.
  --
  sons of Diti who stand in the way of Aditi or infinite being &
  oppose the f\s referred to in the last verse.
  --
  20. Vishvesham Aditir yajniyanam, vishvesham atithir manushan.am;
  Agnir devanam ava avr.in.anah, sumr.il.ko bhavatu jatavedah.
  --
  Agni, who is the Aditir yajniyanam, that infinite from which they
  took their birth.
  --
  Raye cha nah swapatyaya deva, ditim cha raswa Aditim
  urushya.
  --
  (achittim) & in Aditi the infinite unbroken consciousness of the
  Vidya. Sayana is driven to ignore the fixed sense of aEdEt in the
  --
  reply to Aditi & Tura? Know & perfect the heavens in us, O
  world-Knower.

7.02 - The Mind, #Words Of The Mother II, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
  Beloved Aditi:
  At 8:15 a.m. today the mental words clearly came,

BOOK II. -- PART II. THE ARCHAIC SYMBOLISM OF THE WORLD-RELIGIONS, #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  returned from his expedition into India, for Venus and Bacchus are the post-types of Aditi and the
  Spirit. The later Priapus, one, however, with Agathodaemon, the Gnostic Saviour, and even with
  --
  The "female Arani," the mistress of the race, is Aditi, the mother of the gods, or Shekinah, eternal
  light -- in the world of Spirit, the "Great Deep" and CHAOS; or primordial Substance in its first
  --
  As Aditi is called Surarani (the matrix or "mother" of the sura gods), so Kunti, the mother of the
  Pandavas, is called in Mahabharata Pandavarani -- which term is already physiologized. But Devaki,
  the antetype of the Roman Catholic Madonna, is a later anthropomorphized form of Aditi. The latter is
  http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/sd/sd2-2-07.htm (8 von 10) [06.05.2003 03:36:47]
  --
  Vessel," are the epithets of the Virgin). "As Aditi, thou art the parent of the gods. . . . Thou art Jyotsna
  (the morning twilight)." The Virgin
  --
  and the Puranas, their mother, Diti -- the sister, or complement of, and a form of Aditi -- anxious to
  obtain a son who would destroy Indra, is told by Kasyapa the Sage, that "if, with thoughts wholly
  --
  Diti, being Aditi, unless the contrary is proven to us, Aditi, we say, or Akasa in her highest form, is the
  Egyptian seven-fold heaven. Every true Occultist will understand what this means. Diti, we repeat, is

BOOK I. -- PART I. COSMIC EVOLUTION, #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  "Mother of the Gods," Aditi, or Cosmic Space. In the Zohar, she is called Sephira the Mother of the
  Sephiroth, and Shekinah in her primordial form, in abscondito.
  --
  Sanskrit Scriptures. In the Rig Veda, Aditi, "The Boundless" or infinite Space, translated by Mr. Max
  Muller, "the visible infinite, visible by the naked eye (!!); the endless expanse beyond the Earth,
  --
  allegorically, in this wise: "Eight Sons were born from the body of Aditi; she approached the gods
  with seven, but cast away the eighth, Martanda," our sun. The seven sons called the Aditya are,
  --
  and of Aditi, because no distinction is made with reference to, or scope allowed for, the esoteric
  meaning. Thus he is depicted as drawn by seven horses, and by one horse with seven heads; the former
  --
  with the Prajapati. She is male and female ad libitum, as Eve is with Adam. And she is a form of Aditi - the principle higher than Ether -- in Akasa, the synthesis of all the forces in Nature; thus Vach and
  Kwan-Yin are both the magic potency of Occult sound in Nature and Ether -- which "Voice" calls
  --
  brothers, husbands of their mothers, and those mothers the daughters of their own sons, like Aditi and
  Daksha, for example -- differentiated as these elements were in the beginning, still, they were not the

BOOK I. -- PART III. SCIENCE AND THE SECRET DOCTRINE CONTRASTED, #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  whether Akasa is meant by the term, or its lower principle, Ether -- is septenary. Akasa is Aditi in the
  allegory, and the mother of Marttanda (the sun), the Deva-matri -- "Mother of the gods." In the solar
  --
  which his Mother, Aditi, relegated him -- his seven brothers, the planets; "he pursues them, turning
  slowly around himself . . . and follows them from afar, moving in the same direction that they do, on
  --
  the seven primitive sons of "Mother, Infinite Space," or Aditi, and the eighth son rejected by her.
  Many a strange coincidence may thus be found between "those intermediate links . . . named 'metaelements or elementoids and those whom occult science names their noumenoi,' the intelligent minds

BOOK I. -- PART II. THE EVOLUTION OF SYMBOLISM IN ITS APPROXIMATE ORDER, #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  physical Self, for this light is the permutation, in our manifested world, of Mulaprakriti, called Aditi in
  the Vedas. In its third aspect it becomes Vach,*** the daughter and the mother of the Logos, as Isis is
  --
  meaning attached to the Indian allegory, since Vach is a permutation of Aditi and Mulaprakriti
  (Chaos), and Brahma a permutation of Narayana, the Spirit of God entering into, and fructifying
  --
  As already stated, Aditi-Vach is the female Logos, or the "word," Verbum; and Sephira in the Kabala
  http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/sd/sd1-2-12.htm (7 von 20) [06.05.2003 03:32:46]
  --
  Again, as goddess of Speech and of Sound, and a permutation of Aditi -- she is Chaos, in one sense. At
  any rate, she is the "Mother of the gods," and it is from Brahma (Iswara, or the Logos) and Vach, as
  --
  the adepts in general are on firm ground. Whether as Aditi, or the divine Sophia of the Greek Gnostics,
  she is the mother of the seven sons: the "Angels of the Face," of the "Deep," or the "Great Green One"
  --
  astrolatry, it was the Sun, Marttanda -- the eighth son of Aditi, whom she rejects while preserving her
  Seven Sons, the planets. For the ancients have never regarded the Sun as a planet, but as a central and
  --
  Waters of space or Chaos, and also means "Mother," Amba, meaning Aditi and Akasa, the Celestial
  Virgin-Mother of the visible universe. Furthermore, the "Waters of the flood" are also called "the

r1914 07 21, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   The other godsup to the present Surya, Varuna, Usha, Bhaga, Aryaman, Mitra, Aranyani are manifest in their forms & activities. They have now been followed rapidly by the others; Prithivi revealing herself as Aditi, Rudra manifest in the chanda form of all the gods etc. But these manifestations are not so close or so dominant as those of Indra, Agni & Vayu. It is the Vedic gods who so manifest. The others were known before. The gods of other systems also reveal themselves in a grand general unity & diversity with the Vedic & Puranic deities. All are manifestations of the one Vishnu who is Krishna & as Krishna, Rudra & Brahm.
   ***

r1916 03 13, #Record of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
     ()   = Aditi,  
   A new brihattwa, deepening, intensifying and unification of Titiksha, Udasinata & Nati with each other and all three with unified rasa, bhoga & ananda.

WORDNET



--- Overview of noun aditi

The noun aditi has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts)
                    
1. Aditi ::: (a Hindu goddess who releases from sin or disease; mother of the Adityas)


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun aditi

1 sense of aditi                            

Sense 1
Aditi
   INSTANCE OF=> Hindu deity
     => deity, divinity, god, immortal
       => spiritual being, supernatural being
         => belief
           => content, cognitive content, mental object
             => cognition, knowledge, noesis
               => psychological feature
                 => abstraction, abstract entity
                   => entity


--- Hyponyms of noun aditi
                                    


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun aditi

1 sense of aditi                            

Sense 1
Aditi
   INSTANCE OF=> Hindu deity




--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun aditi

1 sense of aditi                            

Sense 1
Aditi
  -> Hindu deity
   HAS INSTANCE=> Aditi
   => Aditya
   HAS INSTANCE=> Agni
   HAS INSTANCE=> Asura
   => Ahura
   => Asvins
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bhaga
   HAS INSTANCE=> Brahma
   HAS INSTANCE=> Brihaspati
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bhumi Devi
   HAS INSTANCE=> Devi
   HAS INSTANCE=> Chandi
   => Dharma
   HAS INSTANCE=> Durga
   HAS INSTANCE=> Dyaus, Dyaus-pitar
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ganesh, Ganesa, Ganesha, Ganapati
   => Garuda
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gauri
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hanuman
   HAS INSTANCE=> Indra
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ka
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kali
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kama
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mara
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kartikeya, Karttikeya
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lakshmi
   => Marut
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mitra
   HAS INSTANCE=> Parjanya
   HAS INSTANCE=> Parvati, Anapurna, Annapurna
   HAS INSTANCE=> Prajapati
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pushan
   HAS INSTANCE=> Rahu
   => Ribhus, Rhibhus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Rudra
   HAS INSTANCE=> Sarasvati
   HAS INSTANCE=> Savitar
   HAS INSTANCE=> Shakti, Sakti
   HAS INSTANCE=> Siva, Shiva
   HAS INSTANCE=> Skanda
   => Soma
   HAS INSTANCE=> Surya
   HAS INSTANCE=> Uma
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ushas
   => Vajra
   HAS INSTANCE=> Varuna
   HAS INSTANCE=> Vayu
   HAS INSTANCE=> Vishnu
   HAS INSTANCE=> Yama
   => avatar




--- Grep of noun aditi
aditi



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Wikipedia - Concepts in folk art -- Folk and traditional arts are rooted in and reflective of the cultural life of a community
Wikipedia - Connacht -- Traditional province in the west of Ireland
Wikipedia - Conservatism -- Political philosophy focused on retaining traditional social institutions
Wikipedia - Continental philosophy -- Set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe
Wikipedia - Coptic identity -- Ethnic identification of the traditional Christian community of Egypt.
Wikipedia - Coptology -- Study of the history and culture of the Copts, the Coptic language, Coptic literature, or Coptic Christian religious traditions
Wikipedia - Cornelliana -- Traditions of Cornell University
Wikipedia - Cornish mythology -- Folk tradition and mythology of the Cornish people in England
Wikipedia - Cosmic Tradition -- Books by Max and Alma Theon
Wikipedia - County Dublin -- One of the 32 traditional counties of Ireland
Wikipedia - Covenant of the Goddess -- A cross-traditional Wiccan group
Wikipedia - Cowboy -- Traditional ranch worker in North America
Wikipedia - Cozonac -- Sweet leavened bread, traditional to Romania and Bulgaria
Wikipedia - Crab claw sail -- Triangular sail with spars along upper and lower edges used by traditional Austronesians
Wikipedia - Crawfish Monica -- Louisiana food tradition
Wikipedia - Crema catalana -- Traditional Catalan dessert similar to creme brM-CM-;lee
Wikipedia - Cross-dressing -- Practice of dressing in a style or manner not traditionally associated with one's sex
Wikipedia - Crow and Pie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Csikos -- Traditional herder of horses in Hungary
Wikipedia - Cucumber soup -- A traditional Polish and Lithuanian soup made from sour, salted cucumbers and potato
Wikipedia - Cuisine of New Orleans -- Culinary traditions of New Orleans, Louisiana, US
Wikipedia - Cuisine of Quebec -- Traditional cuisine of Quebec
Wikipedia - Cuisine of the Maritimes -- Traditional cuisine of the Maritimes
Wikipedia - Cuisine -- Characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions
Wikipedia - Culture of Mexico -- Culture and traditions of the country of Mexico
Wikipedia - Culture of the Southern United States -- Culture and traditions in the southern United States
Wikipedia - Cunning folk traditions and the Latter Day Saint movement -- Early practices of the Latter Day Saints
Wikipedia - Cup-and-ball -- Traditional children's toy
Wikipedia - Curandero -- Traditional healer found in Latin America, the United States and Southern Europe
Wikipedia - Cutty Wren -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Daechwita -- Traditional Korean musical form
Wikipedia - Daina (Latvia) -- Traditional form of music from Latvia
Wikipedia - Dambe -- Hausa traditional sport
Wikipedia - Damsel in distress -- Theme in storytelling, stock character; a noble Lady in need of rescue, traditionally from dragons
Wikipedia - Dance in Uzbekistan -- overview of folk dance traditions in Uzbekistan
Wikipedia - Dangdut -- Genre of Indonesian folk and traditional popular music
Wikipedia - Dangke -- Indonesian traditional cheese
Wikipedia - Danmono -- Traditional Japanese style of instrumental music for the koto
Wikipedia - Darren Breslin -- Irish traditional musician
Wikipedia - Dartmouth College traditions -- Aspect of Dartmouth culture
Wikipedia - Daruma doll -- Traditional Japanese doll
Wikipedia - Dashanami Sampradaya -- Monastic tradition in Hinduism
Wikipedia - Day of the Little Candles -- Traditional holiday in Colombia
Wikipedia - D. Djajakusuma -- Indonesian film director and promoter of traditional art forms
Wikipedia - Debtera -- occultist and religious figure who performs magic in Ethiopian tradition
Wikipedia - Decimation (Roman army) -- Traditional military punishment
Wikipedia - Decoration Day (Appalachia and Liberia) -- A living tradition of group ancestor veneration observances focused on the maintenance and decoration of cemeteries and grave markers in Appalachia, Liberia, and other areas where Appalachian people migrated
Wikipedia - Decretum Gelasianum -- Roman Catholic ecclesiastical text traditionally attributed to Pope Gelasius I
Wikipedia - Delay of game (ice hockey) -- Ice hockey rule to prevent traditional longevity
Wikipedia - Deng Xi -- Chinese philosopher and rhetorician associated with the School of Names philosophical tradition (c.546 BC-501 BC)
Wikipedia - Deposit of faith -- The body of revealed truth in the Scriptures and Tradition proposed by the Roman Catholic Church
Wikipedia - Dhammakaya tradition -- Tradition in Thai Buddhism
Wikipedia - Dhoti -- Traditional men's garment of South Asia
Wikipedia - Dick o the Cow -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Didgeridoo -- Traditional Australian musical instrument
Wikipedia - Digor (sports) -- Traditional sport in Bhutan
Wikipedia - Dinetah -- Traditional homeland of the Navajo tribe of Native Americans
Wikipedia - Dinka religion -- Traditional religion the Dinka ethnic group of South Sudan
Wikipedia - Dirndl -- Traditional dress worn in Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria and South Tyrol
Wikipedia - Dives and Lazarus (ballad) -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Divine Liturgy -- Rite practiced in Eastern Christian traditions
Wikipedia - Docang -- Indonesian traditional dish
Wikipedia - Dog king -- Scandinavian tradition
Wikipedia - Donegal fiddle tradition -- Traditional fiddle-playing method from County Donegal, Ireland
Wikipedia - Donkey Riding -- Traditional work song or sea shanty
Wikipedia - Dortmund Christmas Market -- Annual tradition in Dortmund, Germany
Wikipedia - Down by Blackwaterside -- Traditional folk songs
Wikipedia - Down in Yon Forest -- Traditional English Christmas carol
Wikipedia - Down on Me (traditional song) -- Traditional freedom song
Wikipedia - Dozo -- Members of traditional hunting fraternities of West Africa
Wikipedia - Draft:Baju Sikap -- Malay traditional clothing
Wikipedia - Draft:Edidem Efik Eburutu -- Traditional ruler of the Efik people
Wikipedia - Draft:Ghazal Parti -- Malay traditional musical performance
Wikipedia - Draft:Igwe Oranu Chidume -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Draft:Media Jockey -- Name for person who does mix or create fusion of communication by collaborating and mixing different traditional communications methods or platform to reach an audience
Wikipedia - Draft:Modern Slavery in Nigeria -- Traditional slave trade in southeastern Nigeria
Wikipedia - Draft:Oranu Chris Chidume -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Draft:Terinai -- Malay traditional dance
Wikipedia - Dragon kiln -- Traditional Chinese form of long sloped kiln
Wikipedia - Dried persimmon -- Traditional dried fruit
Wikipedia - Duck blood and vermicelli soup -- Traditional delicacy of Nanjing, China
Wikipedia - Dugall Quin -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Dumdyam -- Traditional woman's costume of the Lepcha people
Wikipedia - Dumpra -- A traditional dress of Lepcha men
Wikipedia - Dzogchen Monastery -- major monastery of the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism
Wikipedia - Dzogchen -- tradition of teachings in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism
Wikipedia - Earl Brand -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Earl Crawford -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Earl Rothes -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Eastern Christianity -- Christian traditions originating from Greek- and Syriac-speaking populations
Wikipedia - East Midlands English -- Traditional form of the English language
Wikipedia - Ecstasy (philosophy) -- Term used in philosophy with different meanings in different traditions
Wikipedia - Edinburgh rock -- Traditional Scottish confection
Wikipedia - Edom o Gordon -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Edward (ballad) -- Traditional murder ballad
Wikipedia - Egg coffee -- Vietnamese drink which is traditionally prepared with egg yolks, sugar, condensed milk, and robusta coffee
Wikipedia - Eileen Donaghy -- Irish traditional singer
Wikipedia - Elephant Walk (Texas A&M) -- Tradition at Texas A&M University
Wikipedia - Emerging market -- Country's economy that was traditionally small, but is currently expanding rapidly
Wikipedia - Emma Dupree -- American herbalist and traditional healer
Wikipedia - Emmanuel Noi Omaboe -- Ghanaian economist and traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Empadao -- Portuguese traditional dish
Wikipedia - Empat perkataan -- Traditional Southeast Asian poetic form
Wikipedia - Emping -- Indonesian traditional chips made of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon)
Wikipedia - English folk music -- Tradition-based music originating in England
Wikipedia - Eppie Morrie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Erejuwa II -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Erlinton -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Error has no rights -- Traditional Catholic principle
Wikipedia - Escalivada -- Spanish traditional smoky grilled vegetable dish
Wikipedia - Escudella i carn d'olla -- Spanish Catalan traditional meat and vegetable stew
Wikipedia - Ethiopian cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Ethiopia
Wikipedia - Ethiopian suit -- Traditional formal wear of the men of Ethiopia and Eritrea
Wikipedia - Eton mess -- Traditional English dessert
Wikipedia - Evangelical Anglicanism -- Tradition within Anglicanism
Wikipedia - Ewuare II -- traditional ruler of Benin, crowned in 2016
Wikipedia - Experimental pop -- Pop music that cannot be categorized within traditional musical boundaries
Wikipedia - Extended vocal technique -- Unconventional, unorthodox, or non-traditional methods of singing
Wikipedia - Faggot (food) -- Traditional dish in the UK
Wikipedia - Fair Annie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Fair Janet -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Fair Margaret and Sweet William -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Fair Mary of Wallington -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Falles -- Traditional celebration in Valencia, Spain
Wikipedia - Faloodeh -- Traditional Iranian cold dessert
Wikipedia - Faluche -- Traditional cap worn by students in France
Wikipedia - Family Tradition (Hank Williams Jr. song) -- Single by Hank Williams, Jr.
Wikipedia - Fara (Rotuman festivity) -- Traditional Rotuman cultural and social event, occurring in the summertime
Wikipedia - Farewell to Nova Scotia -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Faroese cuisine -- Traditional food of the Faroe Islands
Wikipedia - Fatanyeros -- Traditional Hungarian mixed meat barbecue dish
Wikipedia - Fause Foodrage -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Feis -- Traditional Gaelic arts and culture festival
Wikipedia - Feri Tradition
Wikipedia - Fesikh -- Traditional Egyptian fish dish fermented in salt
Wikipedia - Fierljeppen -- Traditional sport
Wikipedia - Fijian traditions and ceremonies -- Fijian tradition and ceremony
Wikipedia - Fika Emirate -- Traditional state in Nigeria
Wikipedia - Filial piety in Buddhism -- Aspect of Buddhist ethics, story-telling traditions, apologetics and history
Wikipedia - Filmjolk -- Traditional Swedish fermented milk product
Wikipedia - Finnish cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Finland
Wikipedia - Firaq partug -- Traditional women's clothing in Afghanistan
Wikipedia - First Battle of St Albans -- 15th-century battle traditionally marking the beginning of the Wars of the Roses
Wikipedia - Fish and brewis -- A traditional Newfoundland meal consisting of cod and hard bread
Wikipedia - Flyssa -- Type of traditional long knife or sword of the Kabyles
Wikipedia - Folk healer -- Unlicensed person who practices the art of healing using traditional practices, herbal remedies and even the power of suggestion
Wikipedia - Folk metal -- fusion genre of heavy metal music and traditional folk music
Wikipedia - Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition -- Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition
Wikipedia - Four harmonious animals -- Story in Buddhist traditions, especially South Asian
Wikipedia - Fox spirit -- Any of several folk traditions in East Asia describing a fox-like apparition
Wikipedia - French mother sauces -- Sauce from which other sauces are derived within the French cooking tradition
Wikipedia - Frog Went a-Courting -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Fuchun Teahouse -- Historic traditional teahouse in Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China
Wikipedia - Fukusuke -- Traditional porcelain dolls associated with good luck in Japan
Wikipedia - Fuling jiabing -- Traditional snack food of Beijing
Wikipedia - Full breakfast -- Traditional English breakfast
Wikipedia - Fundoshi -- Traditional Japanese men's undergarment made from a length of cotton
Wikipedia - Funeral biscuit -- Type of biscuit traditionally served at funerals in England and North America
Wikipedia - Furoshiki -- Traditional Japanese wrapping cloth
Wikipedia - Furo -- Traditional Japanese bath
Wikipedia - Fustanella -- Traditional pleated skirt-like garment worn by men of the Balkans
Wikipedia - Futon -- Traditional Japanese bedding
Wikipedia - Gabbeh -- A traditional variety of Persian carpet.
Wikipedia - Gaelic handball -- Traditional sport played primarily in Ireland
Wikipedia - Galgo -- Traditional Korean drum
Wikipedia - Galician gaita -- Traditional bagpipe of Galicia and northern Portugal
Wikipedia - Galik alphabet -- Extension to the traditional Mongolian script
Wikipedia - Gamelan -- Traditional ensemble music of Indonesia
Wikipedia - Ganesh Baba -- Yogi and teacher in the tradition of Kriya Yoga
Wikipedia - Gaper Day -- Local tradition at North American ski resorts
Wikipedia - Gardnerian Wicca -- Tradition in Wiccan religion
Wikipedia - Gariba II -- Traditional ruler of the Kingdom of Dagbon in Ghana
Wikipedia - Gat (hat) -- Traditional men's hat of Korea
Wikipedia - Gaudiya Nritya -- Bengali classical dance tradition
Wikipedia - Gayatri Mantra -- Mantra of the Vedic tradition
Wikipedia - Gazelle ankles -- Traditional Maghrebi cookie
Wikipedia - Geisha -- Traditional Japanese female entertainer and hostess
Wikipedia - Gelbwurst -- Traditional sausage from Germany
Wikipedia - Gendang beleq -- Indonesian traditional musical instrument
Wikipedia - Genetic genealogy -- The use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods to infer relationships between individuals and find ancestors
Wikipedia - Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union -- Protected names and designations of agricultural products and foodstuffs
Wikipedia - George Spelvin -- Traditional pseudonym used in programs in American theater
Wikipedia - Georgie Porgie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - German cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Germany
Wikipedia - Geta (footwear) -- Traditional Japanese open-topped wooden shoes
Wikipedia - Get Up and Bar the Door -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Ghader Abdollahzadeh -- Kurdish traditional musician
Wikipedia - Ghagra choli -- A traditional clothing of women from Indian Subcontinent
Wikipedia - Gharara -- A traditional outfit similar to a flared skirt
Wikipedia - Ghost Festival -- Traditional Buddhist and Taoist festival
Wikipedia - Gil Brenton -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition
Wikipedia - Glasgerion -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Glasgow Peggie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Glass mosaic -- Traditional Burmese mosaic made with pieces of glass, used to embellish decorative art, structures, and furniture
Wikipedia - Glengarry -- Traditional Scots cap, worn by Highland regiments
Wikipedia - Glenlogie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Golden rule (law) -- Traditional rule of statutory interpretation in English law
Wikipedia - Gomme (food) -- Traditional Norwegian cheese preparation
Wikipedia - Great capes -- The three major capes of the traditional clipper route
Wikipedia - Great Officers of State -- Traditional ministers of the Crown in the United Kingdom
Wikipedia - Greek cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Greece
Wikipedia - Greek shipping -- Greek tradition of aquatic shipping
Wikipedia - Green Beer Day -- Traditional party at Miami University in Oxford, OH, USA
Wikipedia - Green Bushes -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Green Grow the Rushes, O -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Groundhog Day -- Traditional method of weather prediction
Wikipedia - Gude Wallace -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Guksi -- Traditional drinking cup
Wikipedia - Gulgula (doughnut) -- U.P. traditional sweet doughnut
Wikipedia - Gulyas (herdsman) -- Traditional mounted cattle-herdsman of Hungary
Wikipedia - Gurung shamanism -- The traditional shamanistic religion of the Gurung people of Nepal.
Wikipedia - Guru-shishya tradition
Wikipedia - Gwern -- Mythical character in Welsh tradition
Wikipedia - Hadith of Fatima tablet -- Tradition of Imam al-Sadiq
Wikipedia - Hadith studies -- Study of the sayings and traditions of Muhammad
Wikipedia - Hahoe Folk Village -- Traditional village
Wikipedia - Haida argillite carvings -- Indigenous art tradition of the Pacific Northwest
Wikipedia - Haik (garment) -- Traditional women's garment in Algeria
Wikipedia - Hail Mary -- Traditional Catholic prayer
Wikipedia - Hail Smiling Morn -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Hakama -- Type of traditional Japanese trousers/skirt
Wikipedia - Haka -- Traditional chanting dance or challenge of the Maori people of New Zealand
Wikipedia - Halling (dance) -- Traditional Norwegian dance
Wikipedia - Hanbok -- Traditional Korean clothing
Wikipedia - Handsel Monday -- Scotland traditional celebration
Wikipedia - Hanfu -- Traditional dress of the Han people
Wikipedia - Hangikjot -- Icelandic smoked meat dish traditional for Christmas
Wikipedia - Hans Cory -- British colonial officer of Austrian descent, with a special interest in traditional lifestyles of ethnic groups in former Tanganyika, now Tanzania
Wikipedia - Harana (elopement) -- Indian Hindu tradition
Wikipedia - Hardanger fiddle -- Traditional Norwegian stringed instrument
Wikipedia - Haredi Judaism -- Strict or traditionalist Orthodox Judaism
Wikipedia - Harem -- Women's quarters in the traditional house of a Muslim family
Wikipedia - Hariti -- Both a revered goddess and demon in some Buddhist traditions
Wikipedia - Heaven -- Divine abode in various religious traditions
Wikipedia - Hebrew Catholics -- Jews who converted to the Catholic Church and Catholics of non-Jewish origin who keep Mosaic traditions
Wikipedia - Hebrew Gospel hypothesis -- Group of theories for the synoptic problem, stating that a lost Hebrew or Aramaic gospel lies behind the canonical gospels; based upon a 2nd-century tradition from Papias of Hierapolis, that the apostle Matthew composed such a gospel
Wikipedia - Helek -- Time measurement in Jewish tradition
Wikipedia - Hellenistic Judaism -- A form of Judaism in classical antiquity that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture
Wikipedia - Heresy in Judaism -- Beliefs which contradict the traditional doctrines of Rabbinic Judaism
Wikipedia - Hermeticism -- Tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus
Wikipedia - Hey, Johnnie Cope, Are Ye Waking Yet? -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Highland dress -- Traditional dress of Scotland's highlands and isles
Wikipedia - High Tory -- Traditionalist conservatism, primarily in UK
Wikipedia - Hind Etin -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Hind Horn -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Hirairi -- Japanese traditional architectural structure
Wikipedia - Historical Monthly -- Traditional Chinese journal on humanities and history
Wikipedia - Historic counties of England -- Geographical designations for areas of England, based on historical traditions
Wikipedia - Hitaikakushi -- Traditional Japanese hat
Wikipedia - Hobie Noble -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Holy tradition
Wikipedia - Homa (ritual) -- Offering made into fire in Vedic tradition
Wikipedia - Homecoming -- Tradition of welcoming back alumni of a school
Wikipedia - Homosexuality and the Western Christian Tradition -- 1955 book by Derrick Sherwin Bailey
Wikipedia - Homowo -- Traditional festival in Ghana
Wikipedia - Honest Labourer -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Honyaki -- Traditional Japanese forging technique
Wikipedia - Hopewell tradition -- Common aspects of Native American culture that flourished in northeastern and midwestern North America
Wikipedia - Hot cross bun -- Spiced sweet bun made with currants or raisins and marked with a cross on the top, traditionally eaten on Good Friday
Wikipedia - Htanthi Mont -- Burmese traditional food
Wikipedia - Huaiyang cuisine -- Branch of Chinese traditional cuisine native to Jiangsu province
Wikipedia - Huarache (shoe) -- Traditional sandal of Mexico
Wikipedia - Hughie Graham -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Hunan cuisine -- Branch of Chinese traditional cuisine native to Hunan province
Wikipedia - Hundreds of Norfolk -- Traditional administrative subdivision of Norfolk, England
Wikipedia - Hungarian cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Hungary
Wikipedia - Hunkpapa -- Traditional tribal grouping within the Lakota people
Wikipedia - Hunting with eagles -- Traditional form of falconry practised by the Kazakhs and the Kyrgyz
Wikipedia - Hyam Maccoby -- British historian specialising in the study of the Jewish and Christian religious tradition (1924-2004)
Wikipedia - Iblis -- Devil-like figure in Quran and Islamic tradition
Wikipedia - Ibn Bashkuwal -- Andalusian traditionalist and biographer
Wikipedia - Ibrahim Usman Jibril -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Icknield Way Morris Men -- British traditional dance troupe
Wikipedia - Ida Red -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Igbo calendar -- Traditional calendar of the Igbo
Wikipedia - Ikebana -- Traditional Japanese flower arranging
Wikipedia - Ikenwoli Godfrey Emiko -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - I Know You Rider -- Traditional blues song
Wikipedia - I'll Tell Me Ma -- 1988 traditional song performed by Van Morrison
Wikipedia - Illusionistic ceiling painting -- Artistic tradition
Wikipedia - Illusionistic tradition -- Theatrical genre originated in Italy during the mid-2nd millennium
Wikipedia - Image editing -- Processes of altering images, digital or traditional photos and add/paste/and cut words
Wikipedia - Inai (dance) -- Malay traditional dance
Wikipedia - Indianapolis 500 traditions -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Indian cuisine -- Culinary traditions of India
Wikipedia - Indian philosophy -- Philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent
Wikipedia - Indian Red -- Traditional Mardi Gras Indians chant
Wikipedia - Infant oral mutilation -- Dangerous procedure in some traditional medicine systems
Wikipedia - Inkstick -- A type of solid ink (India ink) used traditionally in several East Asian cultures for [[calligraphy]] and brush painting
Wikipedia - Inner Traditions - Bear & Company -- American book publishing company
Wikipedia - Inner Traditions - Bear and Company
Wikipedia - Inro -- Traditional Japanese pillbox or case
Wikipedia - Insular Danish -- Traditional Danish dialects
Wikipedia - Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Philippines -- Traditions and living expressions that are passed down from generation to generation within a particular community
Wikipedia - Intangible Cultural Property (South Korea) -- Traditions and customs in Korea designated for official preservation
Wikipedia - International folk dance -- Variety of ethnic dance traditions
Wikipedia - International Traditional Karate Federation -- International governing body for Traditional Karate
Wikipedia - Intersession -- Short break or mini-term between the traditional, standard academic terms
Wikipedia - Invented tradition
Wikipedia - Irezumi -- Several forms of traditional Japanese tattooing
Wikipedia - Irish dance -- Group of traditional dance forms originating in Ireland
Wikipedia - Irish Folklore Commission -- Orhanization to study and collect information on the folklore and traditions of Ireland
Wikipedia - Irish stepdance -- Style of performance dance with its roots in traditional Irish dance
Wikipedia - Irish traditional music session -- Mostly informal gathering at which people play Irish traditional music
Wikipedia - Irish traditional music -- Genre of folk music that developed in Ireland
Wikipedia - Irish Travellers -- Traditionally nomadic people of ethnic Irish origin
Wikipedia - Isa Lei -- Traditional Fijian song.
Wikipedia - I Saw Three Ships -- Traditional and popular Christmas carol from England
Wikipedia - Islamic grammatical tradition
Wikipedia - Islamic neo-traditionalism
Wikipedia - Islamic philosophy -- Philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition
Wikipedia - Israeli Andalusian Orchestra -- Israeli traditional orchestra
Wikipedia - Itinerant groups in Europe -- Traditionally nomadic groups in Europe
Wikipedia - Jaapi -- Traditional conical hat of Assam, India
Wikipedia - Jack Be Nimble -- Nursery rhyme and traditional song
Wikipedia - Jack Hall (song) -- Traditional song about an English criminal
Wikipedia - Jalangkote -- Indonesian traditional dumpling of Makassarese cuisine
Wikipedia - Jamdani -- Traditional weaving art of Bengal
Wikipedia - James Hatley -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - James Smith & Sons -- Traditional umbrella shop
Wikipedia - Japanese clothing -- Japanese clothing, traditional and modern
Wikipedia - Japanese cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Japan
Wikipedia - Japanese folklore -- Folk traditions of Japan, expressed in oral traditions, customs, and material culture
Wikipedia - Japanese garden -- Type of traditional garden
Wikipedia - Japanese poetry -- Literary tradition of Japan
Wikipedia - Japanese sword -- Type of traditionally made sword from Japan
Wikipedia - Japanese tea ceremony -- Traditional Japanese ceremony
Wikipedia - Japanese traditional dance -- Traditional styles of Japanese dance
Wikipedia - Javanese doughnut -- Javanese traditional doughnut
Wikipedia - Jazz funeral -- Tradition developed in New Orleans
Wikipedia - Jebena -- Traditional Ethiopian coffee pot
Wikipedia - Jellabiya -- Traditional Egyptian garment
Wikipedia - Jellon Grame -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Jewish apple cake -- Cake made with apples traditional to Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine
Wikipedia - Jhatka -- Meat in the Sikh tradition
Wikipedia - Jiangsu cuisine -- Traditional cuisine of Jiangsu province, China
Wikipedia - Jika-tabi -- Traditional Japanese split-toe boots
Wikipedia - Jinbei -- Traditional Japanese clothing set, consisting of a top and trousers
Wikipedia - Jiu zixing -- Traditional printing press form
Wikipedia - Jnanaprasthana -- An Abhidharma text of the Sarvastivada tradition
Wikipedia - Jock o' the Side -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Jock the Leg and the Merry Merchant -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Joe Heaney -- Irish traditional singer
Wikipedia - Johad -- Traditional rainwater storage wetland in India
Wikipedia - Johannine literature -- New Testament works traditionally attributed to John the Apostle or to a Johannine Christian community
Wikipedia - John Carty (musician) -- Irish traditional musician
Wikipedia - Johnie Cock -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Johnie Scot -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - John of Hazelgreen -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - John Philip Sousa Baton -- traditional symbol of the authority of the directorate of the United States Marine Band "The President's Own"
Wikipedia - John the Revelator (song) -- 1930 traditional American folk song
Wikipedia - John van der Puije -- Gold Coast merchant, newspaper publisher, traditional ruler and politician
Wikipedia - Josephine Keegan -- piano accompanist, musician and traditional Irish composer
Wikipedia - Josephine Marsh -- Irish traditional composer and musician
Wikipedia - Jude the Apostle -- One of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus; traditionally identified with Jude the brother of Jesus
Wikipedia - Judogi -- Japanese name for the traditional uniform
Wikipedia - Jujube tea -- traditional Korean tea made from jujubes
Wikipedia - Julius La Rosa -- Italian-American traditional popular music singer
Wikipedia - Jultagi -- Traditional Korean tightrope-walking
Wikipedia - Jutti -- Traditional and ethnic North Indian footwear
Wikipedia - Kabasaran -- Indonesian traditional tribal war dance
Wikipedia - Kachabia -- Traditional man's garment of Algeria
Wikipedia - Kaftan -- Long, coatlike garment, traditionally fastened at the waist with a sash
Wikipedia - Kage-ryM-EM-+ (Aizu) -- Traditional school of Japanese swordsmanship
Wikipedia - Kagyu tradition
Wikipedia - Kaibauk -- Traditional headdress in East Timor
Wikipedia - Kaiseki -- Traditional multi-course Japanese dinner
Wikipedia - Kalachakra -- Nondualistic tantra tradition in Tibetan Buddhism
Wikipedia - Kalamkari -- Traditional textile decoration technique of Andhra Pradesh combining hand-painting and block-printing on mordanted fabric
Wikipedia - Kalampattu -- Traditional Hindu Performing Art in India
Wikipedia - Kalanta of the Theophany -- Greek traditional carol
Wikipedia - Kalari -- Traditional training space in South India
Wikipedia - Kamado -- Traditional Japanese cook stove
Wikipedia - Kamaiya and kamlari -- Traditional systems of bonded labour in Nepal
Wikipedia - KamifM-EM-+sen -- Traditional Japanese paper balloon
Wikipedia - Kampung Padang Balang -- Traditional village in Malaysia
Wikipedia - Kangilu -- Traditional Udupi and Karnataka folk dance from India
Wikipedia - Kanzashi -- Traditional Japanese hair ornaments
Wikipedia - Karpas -- One of the traditional rituals in the Passover Seder
Wikipedia - Kasa (hat) -- Traditional Japanese hat
Wikipedia - Kashmiri cuisine -- Traditional food dishes from India's Kashmir Valley
Wikipedia - Kastom -- Traditional culture, including religion, economics, art and magic in Melanesia
Wikipedia - Katharine Jaffray -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Kattumaram -- Traditional watercraft made from logs lashed together
Wikipedia - Kava culture -- Western Oceanic traditions surrounding kava
Wikipedia - Kebaya -- Indonesian traditional clothing
Wikipedia - Keev -- Name of Krishna from the Hindu tradition
Wikipedia - Kelaghayi -- Silk headscarf tradition of Azerbaijan and intangible cultural heritage
Wikipedia - Kemp Owyne -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Kempy Kay -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Kerikam -- Malay traditional clothing
Wikipedia - Kesme -- Traditional egg noodles found in various Turkic cuisines
Wikipedia - Kete (basket) -- A carrying basket traditionally woven by Maori from the leaves of New Zealand flax or other New Zealand native or endemic plants
Wikipedia - Khalasi -- Group of people traditionally employed at ports and dockyards in India
Wikipedia - Khao niao sangkhaya -- Traditional Thai dessert
Wikipedia - Khata -- Traditional ceremonial scarf in Tibetan Buddhism and tengrism
Wikipedia - Khet partug -- Traditional Afghan clothing
Wikipedia - Kho (costume) -- Traditional dress worn by Bhutia, ethnic Sikkimese people
Wikipedia - Khyber Pakhtunkhwa clothing -- Traditional clothing worn in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Wikipedia - Kimchi -- Traditional Korean side dish of salted and fermented vegetables
Wikipedia - Kimkhwab -- A traditional brocade from India
Wikipedia - Kimono -- Traditional Japanese garment
Wikipedia - Kindergarten -- Preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing
Wikipedia - King Arthur and King Cornwall -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Kingdom of Dagbon -- Traditional kingdom of the Dagomba people in Ghana
Wikipedia - King Edward the Fourth and a Tanner of Tamworth -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - King Estmere -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - King Henry Fifth's Conquest of France -- Traditional British ballad
Wikipedia - King John and the Bishop -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Kings of Shambhala -- Thirty-two kings in the Indo-Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhist tradition
Wikipedia - Kippah -- Skullcap traditionally worn by Jewish men to cover the head
Wikipedia - Kirtan -- Musically recited story in Indian traditions
Wikipedia - Klappertaart -- Indonesian traditional cake
Wikipedia - Kalua -- Traditional Hawaiian method of cooking
Wikipedia - Knocking on wood -- Apotropaic tradition believed to ward off evil
Wikipedia - Kogin-zashi -- Japanese traditional textile craft
Wikipedia - Kokoshnik -- Traditional Russian headdress worn by women
Wikipedia - Kombo -- Traditional kingdom of Gambia
Wikipedia - Kopi tiam -- Traditional coffee shop found in Southeast Asia
Wikipedia - Korean calligraphy -- Korean tradition of artistic writing
Wikipedia - Korean cuisine -- The customary cooking traditions and practices of Korea
Wikipedia - Korean tea ceremony -- Traditional form of tea ceremony practiced in Korea
Wikipedia - Koteka -- Traditional New Guinean penis sheath
Wikipedia - Kransekake -- Traditional Danish and Norwegian confection
Wikipedia - Krur -- Traditional African mancala game
Wikipedia - Ktav Ashuri -- Talmudic or traditional Hebrew name for the Hebrew alphabet
Wikipedia - Ktav Stam -- Specific Jewish traditional writing with which Torah scrolls (Sifrei Torah), phylacteries (Tefillin), Mezuzot and the Five Megillot are written
Wikipedia - Kuchi shM-EM-^Mga -- System of notation for traditional Japanese drums
Wikipedia - Kue bahulu -- Malaysian traditional snack
Wikipedia - Kue bingka -- Indonesian traditional cake
Wikipedia - Kue gapit -- Indonesian traditional snack
Wikipedia - Kue makmur -- Traditional Malay cake
Wikipedia - Kue pinyaram -- Minangkabau traditional cake
Wikipedia - Kue putu mangkok -- Indonesian traditional delicacy made from rice flour and filled with either ground peanut and sugar, or shredded coconut
Wikipedia - Kue putu -- Indonesian traditional cake
Wikipedia - Kue semprit -- Indonesian traditional cake
Wikipedia - Kue semprong -- Indonesian traditional cookies
Wikipedia - Kuluban -- Indonesian traditional salad dish
Wikipedia - Kumari (goddess) -- Manifestations of the divine female energy or devi in Hindu religious traditions
Wikipedia - Kumihimo -- Traditional Japanese artform of making cords and braids
Wikipedia - Kumis -- Fermented dairy product traditionally made of mare's milk
Wikipedia - Kung Jaadee -- British Columbian Haida traditionalist
Wikipedia - Kura (storehouse) -- Japanese traditional storehouse
Wikipedia - Kurta -- Various forms of loose and long shirts or tunics worn traditionally in South Asia
Wikipedia - Kutch Embroidery -- Handicraft and textile art tradition of Kutch, Gujarat, India
Wikipedia - Kutia -- Sweet grain pudding, traditionally served in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia
Wikipedia - Kvass -- Traditional Slavic and Baltic fermented drink
Wikipedia - Kwangali -- Traditional Kavango kingdom in modern-day Namibia
Wikipedia - KyM-EM-^Mgen -- Traditional Japanese comic theater
Wikipedia - Kyz kuu -- Turkic traditional sport
Wikipedia - Laba garlic -- A vinegar-preserved garlic of Chinese tradition.
Wikipedia - La Bamba (song) -- Traditional Mexican folk song and dance
Wikipedia - Labi-labi (dance) -- Malay traditional dance
Wikipedia - Lacemaking in Croatia -- Lacemaking tradition and intangible cultural heritage of Croatia
Wikipedia - Lady Diamond -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lady Elspat -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lady Isabel and the Elf Knight -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lady Isabel -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lady Maisry -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lake Miwok traditional narratives -- Histories preserved by the Lake Miwok people of Clear Lake, California, U.S.
Wikipedia - Laklak (food) -- A traditional Balinese pancake with grated coconut and melted palm sugar
Wikipedia - Lakshmikutty -- Traditional medicine practitioner
Wikipedia - Lamkin -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Land of Israel -- Traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant
Wikipedia - Langa voni -- A traditional South Indian dress
Wikipedia - Lang Johnny More -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Laoise Kelly -- Harpist, musician and traditional Irish composer
Wikipedia - Las Posadas -- Christmas tradition in the Spanish-speaking world
Wikipedia - Lathi khela -- Traditional Bengali martial art
Wikipedia - Latin rock -- Term to describe a music subgenre consisting in melting traditional sounds and elements of Latin American and Caribbean folk with rock music
Wikipedia - Lebanese cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Lebanon
Wikipedia - Leche frita -- Traditional Spanish dessert, Spanish sweet typical of northern Spain
Wikipedia - Lecithocera nomaditis -- Species of moth in the genus Lecithocera
Wikipedia - Lederhosen -- Traditional garments, leather trousers, with short or long legs, from Bavaria and Tyrol
Wikipedia - Leesome Brand -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lefkara lace -- Lacemaking tradition and intagible cultural heritage of Cyprus
Wikipedia - Lefse -- Traditional Norwegian flatbread
Wikipedia - Legend -- Traditional story of heroic humans.
Wikipedia - Lemang -- Indonesian traditional food
Wikipedia - Lenapehoking -- Lands traditionally inhabited by the Lenape people
Wikipedia - Let Erin Remember -- Traditional Irish song
Wikipedia - Liberal arts education -- Traditional academic program in Western higher education
Wikipedia - Libyan cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Libya
Wikipedia - Lidah -- Traditional Malaysian snack food
Wikipedia - Li Donghai -- Traditional Chinese medicine practitioner
Wikipedia - Lighvan cheese -- A brined curd sheep's milk cheese traditionally made in Iran
Wikipedia - Likok Pulo -- Indonesian traditional dance
Wikipedia - Lingayatism -- Shaivite religious tradition in India
Wikipedia - Lis-alis -- Type of traditional vessel from Madura
Wikipedia - List of astrological traditions, types, and systems -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Austrian intellectual traditions
Wikipedia - List of classical and art music traditions
Wikipedia - List of European folk music traditions -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of founders of religious traditions -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of legendary creatures from Japan -- Wikipedia list article of legendary creatures and entities in traditional Japanese mythology
Wikipedia - List of nontraditional bagpipe usage -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of purported relics of major figures of religious traditions -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of religions and spiritual traditions -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of TG4 Traditional Musician of the Year recipients -- List of award winning musicians
Wikipedia - List of TG4 Young Traditional Musician of the Year recipients -- List of award winning Musicians
Wikipedia - List of traditional children's games -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of traditional Chinese medicines -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of traditional festivals in Vietnam
Wikipedia - List of traditional Irish singers -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of traditional Japanese games -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of traditional musicians from County Clare -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of traditional settlements of Greece -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of traditional star names
Wikipedia - List of Vietnamese traditional games
Wikipedia - List of Wii games with traditional control schemes -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Little John a Begging -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Little Robin Redbreast -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lizie Lindsay -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lizie Wan -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - LM-CM-$skisoosi -- Traditional Finnish stew made with pork chops
Wikipedia - LM-EM-+M-JM-;au -- Traditional Hawaiian feast
Wikipedia - Lofoten -- Archipelago and traditional district in Nordland, Norway
Wikipedia - Long live our noble Duke -- Traditional Lancastrian alteration to the British royal anthem 'God Save the Queen'
Wikipedia - Lontara script -- Script traditionally used for the Bugis, Makassarese, and Mandar languages of Sulawesi in Indonesia
Wikipedia - Lord Lovel -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lord Maxwell's Last Goodnight -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lord Randall -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lord Saltoun and Auchanachie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lord Thomas and Fair Annet -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Lord Thomas and Lady Margaret -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Loren Bommelyn -- Tolowa traditionalist, language instructor, and basket weaver from California
Wikipedia - Lorne sausage -- Traditional Scottish food usually made from minced meat, rusk and spices
Wikipedia - Loteria -- Traditional Mexican game of chance
Wikipedia - Louis Althusser and the Traditions of French Marxism -- 2005 book by William S. Lewis
Wikipedia - Louisiana Voodoo -- Set of spiritual folkways that developed from the traditions of the African diaspora
Wikipedia - Lovely Joan -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Loving cup -- Shared drinking container traditionally used at weddings and banquets
Wikipedia - Low technology -- Simple technology, often of a traditional or non-mechanical kind, such as crafts and tools that pre-date the Industrial Revolution
Wikipedia - Lucius Junius Brutus -- semi-legendary founder of the Roman Republic, and traditionally one of its first consuls in 509 BC
Wikipedia - Luke the Evangelist -- One of the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical gospels
Wikipedia - Lutefisk -- A traditional Scandinavian dish made from dried fish fermented in lye
Wikipedia - Lyke-Wake Dirge -- Traditional Yorkshire-dialect English song
Wikipedia - Machiya -- Japanese traditional wooden townhouse
Wikipedia - Madhva tradition -- tradition in Hinduism linked to Dvaita Vedanta
Wikipedia - Maeve Donnelly -- Irish traditional fiddle player
Wikipedia - Maggie May (folk song) -- Traditional folk song from Liverpool, England
Wikipedia - Magnificat -- Scriptural hymn of Mary in the Christian tradition
Wikipedia - Maguro bM-EM-^MchM-EM-^M -- Traditional Japanese long knife for large fish
Wikipedia - Mahanam Sampraday -- Famous Religious tradition of Bengal
Wikipedia - Ma Htwe Lay -- traditional Burmese dance performer
Wikipedia - Maire Ni ChM-CM-)ileachair -- traditional Irish singer
Wikipedia - Malagan -- Traditional cultural events that take place in parts of New Ireland province in Papua New Guinea
Wikipedia - Malagasy cuisine -- Culinary traditions of the Indian Ocean island of Madagascar.
Wikipedia - Malaysian cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Malaysia
Wikipedia - Malidzano -- A traditional Macedonian spread made from purM-CM-)ed bell peppers, eggplant, oil and salt
Wikipedia - Malik ibn Anas -- Famous Islamic jurist, theologian and hadith traditionist
Wikipedia - Mallard Song -- Ancient tradition of All Souls College, Oxford
Wikipedia - Mamaliga -- Porridge made out of yellow maize flour, traditional in Romania
Wikipedia - Mamon -- Traditional Filipino chiffon or sponge cakes
Wikipedia - Mandolin playing traditions worldwide -- Global traditions of playing the mandolin
Wikipedia - Mangu -- Dominican traditional dish
Wikipedia - Man of Constant Sorrow -- Traditional American folk song first published by Dick Burnett
Wikipedia - Mantfombi Dlamini -- Swazi-South African traditional aristocrat, Great wife of King Goodwill Zwelithini
Wikipedia - Margaret Tafoya -- Santa Clara Pueblo traditional pottery artist
Wikipedia - Maria Clara gown -- A traditional gown worn by women in the Philippines
Wikipedia - Marian devotions -- External pious practices directed to the person of Mary by members of certain Christian traditions
Wikipedia - Mark the Evangelist -- Author of the Gospel of Mark and Christian saint; traditionally identified with John Mark
Wikipedia - Marriage in Pakistan -- Tradition in Pakistan
Wikipedia - Martenitsa -- Bulgarian tradition
Wikipedia - Martha Scanlan -- Old-time, traditional singer
Wikipedia - Martial arts -- Codified systems and traditions of combat
Wikipedia - Mary of Bethany -- Figure described in the Gospel of John; sister of Lazarus and Martha, living in the village of Bethany near Jerusalem; traditionally identified with Mary Magdalene
Wikipedia - Master Kilby -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Mastic (plant resin) -- A resin traditionally obtained from the mastic tree on the island of Chios
Wikipedia - Matagi -- Traditional winter hunters in Japan
Wikipedia - Mate (drink) -- Traditional South American caffeine-infused drink
Wikipedia - Matty Groves -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Maude Kegg -- Ojibwe traditionalist, bead artist, and author from Minnesota
Wikipedia - Mbege -- Traditional Chagga beverage made from fermented bananas
Wikipedia - Mbiwi -- Traditional instrument accompanied by song and dance
Wikipedia - M-CM-^Fbleskiver -- Danish traditional batter cakes
Wikipedia - M-CM-^@ la claire fontaine -- Traditional French song
Wikipedia - M-DM-^@dityas -- Offspring of the goddess Aditi and her husband the sage Kashyapa
Wikipedia - Media of Puerto Rico -- From traditional to social media
Wikipedia - Medicine man -- Native American traditional healer and spiritual leader
Wikipedia - Mediterranean cuisine -- Culinary traditions of the Mediterranean area
Wikipedia - Meg Davis -- American singer of traditional music
Wikipedia - Mekhela chador -- Traditional Assamese attire
Wikipedia - M-EM- akotis -- Traditional Polish-Lithuanian cake
Wikipedia - M-EM- ibenik cap -- Regional variant of a traditional red cap used in the Balkans that was developed in M-EM- ibenik, Croatia
Wikipedia - SramaM-aM-9M-^Ga -- Tradition in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism
Wikipedia - Menang -- Traditional dance of Cameroon
Wikipedia - Mercado Jamaica -- Traditional public market in Mexico City
Wikipedia - Mesoamerican architecture -- Building traditions of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
Wikipedia - Metochion -- Eccliastical embassy church of the Eastern Orthodox tradition
Wikipedia - Mexican cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Mexico
Wikipedia - Mexican music in Chile -- Music and musical traditions of Mexico expressed in Chile
Wikipedia - Meyboom -- Oldest tradition in Brussels (Belgium)
Wikipedia - M-HM-^Zuica -- Traditional Romanian spirit
Wikipedia - Midnight Special (song) -- 1923 traditional American folk song
Wikipedia - Mijwiz -- Traditional Middle Eastern single-reed musical instrument
Wikipedia - Milagro (votive) -- Religious folk charms that are traditionally used for healing purposes
Wikipedia - Miller of Dee -- 1763 traditional song
Wikipedia - Minahasan cuisine -- Cuisine tradition of the Minahasan people
Wikipedia - Mince pie -- English-originating sweet pie, traditionally eaten at Christmas
Wikipedia - Minhag -- An accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism
Wikipedia - Ministry of AYUSH -- Indian government ministry for traditional medicines
Wikipedia - Mino (straw cape) -- A traditional Japanese garment, a raincoat made out of straw
Wikipedia - Mischief rule -- Traditional rule of statutory interpretation in English law
Wikipedia - Mish -- Traditional egyptian cheese
Wikipedia - Miso -- traditional Japanese seasoning
Wikipedia - Mizuhiki -- Traditional Japanese paper artform using stiffened rice paper cord
Wikipedia - MahM-EM-+ -- Third gender in traditional Hawaiian, Kanaka and Maohi cultures
Wikipedia - Modern Scots -- Varieties of Scots traditionally spoken in Lowland Scotland, and parts of Ulster
Wikipedia - Mofongo -- Caribbean islands traditional dish
Wikipedia - Mohan Sundar Deb Goswami -- Odissi classical musician, Guru of traditional Odisha Rasa theatre, Indian film director
Wikipedia - Mohaori -- Traditional musical ensemble of Cambodia
Wikipedia - Mojari -- Traditional South Asian footwear
Wikipedia - Mojito -- Traditional Cuban highball cocktail
Wikipedia - Molecular ecology -- A field of evolutionary biology that applies molecular population genetics, molecular phylogenetics, and genomics to traditional ecological questions
Wikipedia - Mon Casteller Human Tower Museum of Catalonia -- Museum about the Catalan tradition of "Castells" (human towers and human pyramids)
Wikipedia - Monday's Child -- Traditional song or poem
Wikipedia - Mongolian cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Mongolia
Wikipedia - Morabaraba -- Traditional two-player strategy board game played Africa
Wikipedia - Mormonism -- Religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement
Wikipedia - Mos maiorum -- The customs and traditions of ancient Rome
Wikipedia - Moving Day (Quebec) -- Traditional beginning and end of leases in Quebec, Canada
Wikipedia - M'semen -- Traditional flatbread from North Africa
Wikipedia - Mud horse -- Traditional hand-built wooden sledge for fishing in Bridgwater Bay
Wikipedia - Mudiao -- Traditional Chinese wood-carving
Wikipedia - Mugham triads -- Azerbaijani music triad who play traditional tar, kamancheh and daf instruments
Wikipedia - MuiM-CM-1eira -- Galician traditional dance and musical genre
Wikipedia - Mujib coat -- Bangladesh traditional men's coat
Wikipedia - Mula Bandha -- Lock in traditional yoga
Wikipedia - Multiculturalism -- Existence of multiple cultural traditions within a single country
Wikipedia - Mundillo -- Handmade bobbin lace, tradition and cultural heritage of Puerto Rico and Panama
Wikipedia - Mundum Neriyathum -- Traditional clothing
Wikipedia - Mundu -- Traditional draped garment for the Lowe body, worn in South Asia and the Maldives
Wikipedia - Munster -- Traditional province in the southwest of Ireland
Wikipedia - Musciame -- Traditional Italian preserved meat made from the salted and sun-dried flesh of dolphins
Wikipedia - Muscogee -- Native American people traditionally from the southeastern US
Wikipedia - Music genre -- Category that identifies pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions
Wikipedia - Music of Africa -- Overview of musical traditions in Africa
Wikipedia - Music of Alabama -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Alabama
Wikipedia - Music of Argentina -- Music and musical traditions of Argentina
Wikipedia - Music of Australia -- Overview of music traditions in Australia
Wikipedia - Music of Bangladesh -- overview of music traditions in Bangladesh
Wikipedia - Music of Bolivia -- Music and musical traditions of Bolivia
Wikipedia - Music of Brazil -- Music and musical traditions of Brazil
Wikipedia - Music of California -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of California
Wikipedia - Music of Canada -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Canada
Wikipedia - Music of Chicago -- Overview of music traditions in Chicago, Illinois, United States
Wikipedia - Music of Chile -- Music and musical traditions of Chile
Wikipedia - Music of Colombia -- Music and musical traditions of Colombia
Wikipedia - Music of Colorado -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Colorado
Wikipedia - Music of Connecticut -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Connecticut
Wikipedia - Music of Costa Rica -- Music and musical traditions of Costa Rica
Wikipedia - Music of Cuba -- Music and musical traditions of Cuba
Wikipedia - Music of Delaware -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Delaware
Wikipedia - Music of Denver -- Overview of music traditions in Denver, Colorado, United States
Wikipedia - Music of Detroit -- Overview of music traditions in Detroit, Michigan, United States
Wikipedia - Music of Ecuador -- Music and musical traditions of Ecuador
Wikipedia - Music of El Salvador -- Music and musical traditions of El Salvador
Wikipedia - Music of Florida -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Florida
Wikipedia - Music of France -- Overview of music traditions in France
Wikipedia - Music of Germany -- Overview of music traditions in Germany
Wikipedia - Music of Greece -- Overview of music traditions in Greece
Wikipedia - Music of Guatemala -- Music and musical traditions of Guatemala
Wikipedia - Music of Honduras -- Music and musical traditions of Honduras
Wikipedia - Music of Illinois -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Illinois
Wikipedia - Music of Indiana -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Indiana
Wikipedia - Music of India -- Overview of musical traditions in India
Wikipedia - Music of Iraq -- Music and musical traditions of Iraq
Wikipedia - Music of Italy -- Overview of music traditions in Italy
Wikipedia - Music of Japan -- Overview of music traditions in Japan
Wikipedia - Music of Kentucky -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Kentucky
Wikipedia - Music of Korea -- Traditional music of the Korean peninsula
Wikipedia - Music of Los Angeles -- Overview of music traditions in Los Angeles, California, United States
Wikipedia - Music of Louisiana -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Louisiana
Wikipedia - Music of Malawi -- Music and musical traditions of Malawi
Wikipedia - Music of Mexico -- Music and musical traditions of Mexico
Wikipedia - Music of Monaco -- Overview of music traditions in Monaco
Wikipedia - Music of Nevada -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Nevada
Wikipedia - Music of New Hampshire -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of New Hampshire
Wikipedia - Music of New Jersey -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of New Jersey
Wikipedia - Music of New Mexico -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of New Mexico
Wikipedia - Music of New Orleans -- Overview of music traditions in New Orleans
Wikipedia - Music of New York (state) -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of New York
Wikipedia - Music of New Zealand -- Overview of music traditions in New Zealand
Wikipedia - Music of Nicaragua -- Music and musical traditions of Nicaragua
Wikipedia - Music of North Korea -- Music and musical traditions of North Korea
Wikipedia - Music of Pakistan -- Music and musical traditions of Pakistan
Wikipedia - Music of Panama -- Music and musical traditions of Panama
Wikipedia - Music of Paraguay -- Music and musical traditions of Paraguay
Wikipedia - Music of Pennsylvania -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania
Wikipedia - Music of Peru -- Music and musical traditions of Peru
Wikipedia - Music of Puerto Rico -- Music and musical traditions of Puerto Rico
Wikipedia - Music of Singapore -- Music and musical traditions of Singapore
Wikipedia - Music of South Africa -- Overview of music traditions in South Africa
Wikipedia - Music of Spain -- Music and musical traditions of Spain
Wikipedia - Music of Tajikistan -- Music and musical traditions of Tajikistan
Wikipedia - Music of Tennessee -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Tennessee
Wikipedia - Music of Texas -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Texas
Wikipedia - Music of the Dominican Republic -- Music and musical traditions of the Dominican Republic
Wikipedia - Music of the Philippines -- Overview of music traditions in the Philippines
Wikipedia - Music of the United States -- Overview of music traditions in the USA
Wikipedia - Music of Turkey -- Overview of music traditions in Turkey
Wikipedia - Music of Uruguay -- Music and musical traditions of Uruguay
Wikipedia - Music of Venezuela -- Music and musical traditions of Venezuela
Wikipedia - Music of Virginia -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Virginia
Wikipedia - Music of Wisconsin -- Overview of music traditions in the U.S. state of Wisconsin
Wikipedia - Music of Yugoslavia -- Overview of musical traditions in Yugoslavia
Wikipedia - Muti -- Traditional medicine
Wikipedia - Myanmar Traditional Lethwei Federation -- Martial arts organization
Wikipedia - My Bonny Boy -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - My Robin is to the Greenwood Gone -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Myth -- Type of traditional narrative
Wikipedia - Nahdlatul Ulama -- Traditionalist Sunni Islam movement in Indonesia
Wikipedia - Nambawi -- Traditional Korean winter hat worn during the Joseon dynasty
Wikipedia - Name day -- Tradition in Christianity
Wikipedia - Nameirakpam Ibemni Devi -- Indian singer of traditional music
Wikipedia - Nanai language -- Language spoken by the Nanai people, who have traditionally lived along Heilongjiang (Amur), Songhuajiang (Sunggari) and Ussuri rivers on the Middle Amur Basin.
Wikipedia - Nanay tatay -- A traditional Filipino children's game
Wikipedia - Nan Tom Teaimin de Burca -- Irish traditional Sean-nos singer
Wikipedia - Nasalo -- Tradition in Gilgit-Baltistan
Wikipedia - Nasi bakar -- Indonesian traditional steamed rice
Wikipedia - National Council for the Traditional Arts -- American not-for-profit arts organization
Wikipedia - National poet -- Poet traditionally held to represent a certain national culture
Wikipedia - NattM-EM-^M -- Traditional Japanese food made from fermented soybeans
Wikipedia - Navajo medicine -- Traditional healing practices
Wikipedia - Navajo weaving -- Production of traditional rugs and blankets of the Navajo people of the Four Corners region, United States
Wikipedia - Neapolitan cuisine -- traditional food of Naples, Italy
Wikipedia - Neotraditional country -- Style of country music emphasizing instrumental compositions and "traditional" vocal styles
Wikipedia - New England Folk Festival -- Annual traditional dance and music festival
Wikipedia - New Historians -- Israeli historians who have challenged traditional versions of Israeli history
Wikipedia - New Kadampa Tradition
Wikipedia - Ngangkari -- traditional healers of Anangu and Arrernte peoples of Australia
Wikipedia - Niamh de Burca -- Irish traditional and folk singer
Wikipedia - Nicene Christianity -- Set of Christian doctrinal traditions reflecting the Nicene Creed
Wikipedia - Nigerian cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Nigeria
Wikipedia - Nigerian traditional rulers -- Subnational monarchs in Nigeria
Wikipedia - Nihongami -- Traditional Japanese hairstyles
Wikipedia - Nine Lessons and Carols -- Traditional Christmas service of Christian worship
Wikipedia - Nishijin-ori -- Traditional textile produced in the Nishijin district of Kyoto
Wikipedia - Niyoga -- Hindu's tradition of conception by proxy fathers
Wikipedia - Naga -- Snake deities or mythological creatures in Asian traditions
Wikipedia - Nontraditional student -- Category of students at colleges and universities
Wikipedia - Northern Cape Department of Co-operative Governance, Human Settlements and Traditional Affairs -- Northern Cape Department of Co-operative Governance, Human Settlements and Traditional Affairs
Wikipedia - Northumberland Betrayed By Douglas -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Northwest Russia -- One of traditional regions of Russia
Wikipedia - Norton tradition -- Archaeological culture in Alaska, US
Wikipedia - Norwegian cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Norway
Wikipedia - Nottamun Town -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Oats Peas Beans and Barley Grow -- traditional British and American folk song
Wikipedia - Oba C. D. Akran -- Nigerian politician and traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Obi of Onitsha -- Traditional leader of Onitsha city, Nigeria
Wikipedia - Obi (sash) -- Belt worn with traditional Japanese clothing and Japanese martial arts uniforms
Wikipedia - Observance of Christmas by country -- Overview of Christmas traditions
Wikipedia - Octavia (play) -- Roman tragedy traditionally attributed to Seneca
Wikipedia - Oil in My Lamp -- Traditional Christian hymn
Wikipedia - Oina -- Romanian traditional sport
Wikipedia - Oishi Shinkage-ryM-EM-+ Kenjutsu -- Traditional school of Japanese swordsmanship
Wikipedia - Okobo -- Traditional Japanese platform clogs worn by girls, young women and some apprentice geisha
Wikipedia - Old Dan Tucker -- Traditional song performed by Virginia Minstrels
Wikipedia - Old Mother Hubbard -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Old Norse religion -- Historical religious tradition
Wikipedia - Old Robin of Portingale -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Ole Bull and Old Dan Tucker -- Traditional American minstrel song
Wikipedia - Olu Abejoye -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Akengboye -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Akengbuwa -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Akenjoye -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Atogbuwa -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Atorongboye -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Atuwatse II -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Atuwatse I -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Erejuwa I -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Esigie -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Ginuwa II -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Ginuwa -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Ijijen -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Irame -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Ojoluwa -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Omagboye (Miguel) -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Omoluyiri -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Olu Oyenakpagha (Olu Obanighenren) -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Om Ali -- Traditional Egyptian dessert
Wikipedia - Omophorion -- Bishop's scarflike vestment in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical traditions
Wikipedia - One for Sorrow (nursery rhyme) -- Traditional English divination nursery rhyme about magpies
Wikipedia - One Night as I Lay on My Bed -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - One, Two, Three, Four, Five -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Onjo of Baekje -- traditionally recognised founder of the Baekje kingdom in Korea (r. 18 BC-AD 28)
Wikipedia - OnmyM-EM-^MdM-EM-^M -- Traditional Japanese esoteric cosmology
Wikipedia - On Top of Old Smoky -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Opus sectile -- Traditional mosaic technique
Wikipedia - Opus tessellatum -- Traditional mosaic technique
Wikipedia - Oral Tradition (journal) -- Journal
Wikipedia - Oral tradition -- Culture preserved and transmitted through speech or song
Wikipedia - Oren Lyons -- Iroquois traditionalist, orator, artist, and athlete
Wikipedia - Organic compound -- Chemical compound that contains carbon (except for several compounds traditionally classified as inorganic compounds)
Wikipedia - Oriental folk dances -- Traditional folk and traditional dances of the Arab World
Wikipedia - Origami -- Traditional Japanese art of paper folding
Wikipedia - Orthodox Church of Greece (Holy Synod in Resistance) -- Traditionalist Greek Orthodox jurisdiction following the (Julian or Old) church calendar
Wikipedia - Orthodox Judaism -- Traditionalist branches of Judaism
Wikipedia - Oselvar -- Wooden rowing boat traditionally used in Norway
Wikipedia - Otak-otak -- Southeast Asian traditional fish cake
Wikipedia - Ottoman music -- Traditional music of the Ottoman Empire
Wikipedia - Ounhmangu -- Burmese traditional food
Wikipedia - Oversampled binary image sensor -- Image sensor with non-linear response capabilities reminiscent of traditional photographic film
Wikipedia - Over the Hills and Far Away (traditional song) -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Overthrow of the Roman monarchy -- Political revolution (traditionally 509 BC) which expelled the last king of Rome and established the Roman Republic
Wikipedia - Pa amb tomaquet -- Traditional food of Catalan, Valencian, Aragonese, Balearic and Murcian cuisines made of bread, tomato, olive oil, salt, and garlic
Wikipedia - Pacific Northwest cuisine -- Traditional cuisine of the Pacific Northwest
Wikipedia - Pacu jawi -- Traditional bull race in West Sumatra, Indonesia
Wikipedia - Padaek -- A traditional Lao condiment made from pickled or fermented fish that has been cured
Wikipedia - Paifang -- Traditional style of Chinese architectural arched gateway
Wikipedia - Pain briM-CM-) -- A traditional Normandy bread
Wikipedia - Palestinian costumes -- Traditional clothing of the Palestinians
Wikipedia - Palmerstown, Fingal -- Civil parish in Fingal (and the traditional County Dublin), Ireland
Wikipedia - Pamonha -- Traditional Brazilian food
Wikipedia - Panamanian cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Panama
Wikipedia - Pandoro -- Traditional Italian sweet bread
Wikipedia - Pannuru Sripathy -- Traditional painting artist from Andhra Pradesh, India
Wikipedia - Pantxineta -- Traditional Basque Country dessert
Wikipedia - Paomo -- Chinese traditional dish from Xi'an
Wikipedia - Papa rellena -- Traditional dish in South American cuisine
Wikipedia - Parabola (magazine) -- Quarterly magazine on the subjects of mythology and the world's religious and cultural traditions
Wikipedia - Pasambahan dance -- Indonesian traditional dance
Wikipedia - Pasta e fagioli -- Traditional Italian soup of pasta and beans
Wikipedia - Patadyong -- Traditional wrap skirt worn by indigenous women of the Philippines
Wikipedia - Pateh -- An Iranian traditional needlework folk art.
Wikipedia - Pathani suit -- A traditional costume
Wikipedia - Patikulamanasikara -- Type of traditional Buddhist meditation
Wikipedia - Patriarch of Antioch -- Traditional title held by the bishop of Antioch and all the East
Wikipedia - Paubha -- Traditional religious painting made by the Newar people of Nepal
Wikipedia - Paul Binnie -- Paul Binnie is a Scottish artist working in the Japanese tradition of woodblock printing.
Wikipedia - Pavlovo Posad shawl -- Traditional Russian shawl
Wikipedia - Payada -- South American tradition of improvised music and poetry
Wikipedia - Pena (musical instrument) -- Traditional musical instrument of Kangleipak
Wikipedia - Pepes -- Indonesian traditional banana leaf dish
Wikipedia - Peranakan beaded slippers -- Peranakan traditional beadwork
Wikipedia - Perennial philosophy -- 15th-century philosophical idea that views all religious traditions as sharing a single truth or origin
Wikipedia - Persecution of traditional African religion
Wikipedia - Persian mythology -- Traditional legends and stories etc. from the Persian culture
Wikipedia - Persian traditional music
Wikipedia - Phelonion -- Liturgical vestment worn by priests of the Eastern Christian tradition
Wikipedia - Pheran -- Kashmiri traditional dress
Wikipedia - Philosophical analysis -- Various techniques typically used by philosophers in the analytic tradition
Wikipedia - Pickled herring -- A traditional way of preserving herring
Wikipedia - Pinewoods Camp -- Traditional dance and music camp in Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States
Wikipedia - Pinnekjott -- Norse lamb dish traditional during Christmas
Wikipedia - Pinon hadi -- Chakma traditional dress for women
Wikipedia - Piring dance -- Indonesian traditional dance
Wikipedia - Plain meaning rule -- Traditional rule of statutory interpretation in English law
Wikipedia - Plain old telephone service -- Traditional analog voice land line telephone service
Wikipedia - Plum Village Tradition
Wikipedia - PM-CM-)-de-moleque -- Traditional candy made of peanuts and jaggery or molasses
Wikipedia - PM-EM-^Mha -- Traditional Maori bags made of kelp
Wikipedia - Poetic tradition -- Poet or author is evaluated in the context of the historical period in which they live and write
Wikipedia - Poffertjes -- A traditional Dutch batter treat
Wikipedia - Poitin -- Traditional Irish distilled beverage
Wikipedia - Polbo a feira -- Traditional Galician dish
Wikipedia - Polish cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Poland
Wikipedia - Polly Put the Kettle On -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Porkkanalaatikko -- Traditional Finnish dish
Wikipedia - Portal:Traditional African religions
Wikipedia - Portuguese cuisine -- Culinary tradition of Portugal
Wikipedia - Posting the Colours -- Traditional American ceremony
Wikipedia - Potiphar's wife -- Figure from Jewish and Muslim tradition; Potiphar's wife
Wikipedia - Powder Day -- Tradition in the Spanish village Tolox
Wikipedia - Power metal -- Subgenre of heavy metal combining characteristics of traditional metal with speed metal
Wikipedia - Powhatan -- Indigenous Algonquian people that are traditionally from eastern Virginia
Wikipedia - Practical Kabbalah -- Branch of the Jewish mystical tradition that concerns the use of magic
Wikipedia - Prayer beads -- String of beads used in various religious traditions
Wikipedia - Pre-Christian Alpine traditions
Wikipedia - Presentation of Colours -- Traditional British ceremony
Wikipedia - Pretty Polly (ballad) -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Prince Heathen -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Prince Robert -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Princess cake -- Traditional Swedish layer cake
Wikipedia - Principles of Islamic jurisprudence -- Traditional methodological principles used in Islamic jurisprudence for deriving rulings of Islamic law
Wikipedia - Progressive dispensationalism -- A variation of traditional dispensationalism.
Wikipedia - Protest songs in the United States -- Musical tradition
Wikipedia - Proud Lady Margaret -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Proverb -- Short traditional saying that expresses a perceived truth
Wikipedia - Provinces of Libya -- Traditional administrative divisions of Libya
Wikipedia - Pseudolaw -- Statements, beliefs or practices allegedly based on accepted law or jurisprudence, but which differ significantly from most traditional legal views
Wikipedia - Puletasi -- Traditional item of clothing worn by Samoan, Tongan, and Fijian women
Wikipedia - Pumpernickel -- A typically heavy, slightly sweet rye bread traditionally made with sourdough starter and coarsely ground rye
Wikipedia - Punch and Judy -- Traditional British puppet show
Wikipedia - Pungmul -- Korean folk music tradition
Wikipedia - Punjabi Tamba and Kurta -- A type of sarong and shirt, traditional costume in Punjab.
Wikipedia - Putchipu'u -- Traditional mediator in the Wayuu culture
Wikipedia - Pysanka -- Egg decorating tradition in Slavic countries
Wikipedia - Qisas -- "eye for an eye", or retributive justice, in traditional Islamic law
Wikipedia - Qi -- Vital force forming part of any living entity in traditional Chinese philosophy
Wikipedia - Quaker wedding -- Traditional ceremony of marriage within the Religious Society of Friends
Wikipedia - Queen Elanor's Confession -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Quentin Matsys -- Flemish painter in the Early Netherlandish tradition (1466-1530)
Wikipedia - Quilts of Gee's Bend -- Quilting tradition of Gee's Bend, Alabama
Wikipedia - Rababi -- Sikh music tradition
Wikipedia - Rakugo -- Traditional form of Japanese verbal entertainment
Wikipedia - Raku ware -- Type of Japanese pottery traditionally used in tea ceremonies
Wikipedia - Rangoli -- Traditional art form of India, in which coloured patterns are created on the ground
Wikipedia - Rast (mode) -- Musical modal system in traditional mugham music
Wikipedia - Rationalization (sociology) -- Replacement of traditions, values, and emotions as motivators for behaviour with rational, calculated ones
Wikipedia - Ravitoto -- Traditional Malagasy cuisine
Wikipedia - Real ale -- Traditionally made beer
Wikipedia - Redesdale and Wise William -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Red Horn -- Culture hero in Siouan oral traditions
Wikipedia - Red Sticks -- Traditionalist faction of Muscogee Creek people in the American Southeast in the early 19th century
Wikipedia - Reformed Church in America -- Reformed Protestant denomination in the Dutch tradition
Wikipedia - Reformed tradition
Wikipedia - Religious law -- Ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions
Wikipedia - Religious text -- Texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs
Wikipedia - Remonce -- Traditional Danish pastry filling
Wikipedia - Renju -- Traditional board game
Wikipedia - Resist dyeing -- Traditional method of dyeing textiles with patterns
Wikipedia - Reynardine -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Ribeirinhos -- Traditional river dwelling people
Wikipedia - Richie Story -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Riddles (Hebrew) -- Traditional form of word-play in Hebrew
Wikipedia - Riddles Wisely Expounded -- 1445 traditional song
Wikipedia - Riga Black Balsam -- Traditional Latvian herbal liqueur
Wikipedia - Rigatoni con la pajata -- Traditional Italian pasta dish
Wikipedia - Right-wing politics -- Political alignment favoring traditional politics
Wikipedia - Riji -- Pubic coverings made of pearl shells traditionally worn by Aboriginal men in the north-west part of Australia
Wikipedia - Ringerike (traditional district)
Wikipedia - Rioni of Rome -- Traditional administrative division of the city of Rome
Wikipedia - Robert Earl (singer) -- English traditional pop music singer, crooner
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and Queen Katherine -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and the Bishop of Hereford -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and the Bishop -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and the Butcher -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and the Golden Arrow -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and the Monk -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and the Pedlars -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and the Prince of Aragon -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and the Shepherd -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and the Tanner -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and the Tinker -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood and the Valiant Knight -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood Newly Revived -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood Rescuing Three Squires -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood Rescuing Will Stutly -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood's Chase -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood's Death -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood's Golden Prize -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robin Hood's Progress to Nottingham -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Robyn and Gandeleyn -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Rocket Festival -- Traditional festival of Laos and Thailand
Wikipedia - Rock Island Line -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Rocky Mountain cuisine -- Traditional Rocky Mountain cuisine
Wikipedia - Roisin Elsafty -- Folk and traditional Irish singer
Wikipedia - Roll, Alabama, Roll -- Traditional sea shanty
Wikipedia - Roman mythology -- Traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system
Wikipedia - Roman Polytheistic Reconstructionism -- Contemporary reconstructionist movement reviving traditional Roman religion
Wikipedia - Roman Traditional Movement -- Italian neopagan organisation
Wikipedia - Rongoa -- Traditional Maori medicinal practices
Wikipedia - Roof stomp -- US Air Force tradition for welcoming new high-ranking officer
Wikipedia - Rose the Red and White Lily -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Roti buaya -- Betawi traditional bread
Wikipedia - Roti gambang -- Javanese traditional bread
Wikipedia - Round and Round the Garden -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Rub-a-dub-dub -- Nursery rhyme and traditional song
Wikipedia - Rudat dance -- Traditional Indonesian dance
Wikipedia - Rudra Sampradaya -- Tradition of disciplic succession in Hinduism
Wikipedia - Rullepolse -- Traditional Danish spiced cold cut meat roll
Wikipedia - Rumah Gadang -- Traditional homes of the Minangkabau in Sumatra, Indonesia
Wikipedia - Rupa Goswami -- Indian guru, poet and philosopher of the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition (1489-1564)
Wikipedia - Russefeiring -- Traditional celebration for Norwegian high school students
Wikipedia - Russian cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Russia
Wikipedia - Russian Fascism: Traditions, Tendencies, Movements -- 2001 book
Wikipedia - RyM-EM-^Mtei -- Traditional Japanese restaurant
Wikipedia - Ryokan (inn) -- Traditional Japanese inn
Wikipedia - Sack (unit) -- Traditional unit of mass or volume
Wikipedia - Sacred Harp -- Tradition of sacred choral music, originating in New England in the 18th century and carried on in the Southern U.S., using tunebooks printed in shape notes
Wikipedia - Sacred Tradition
Wikipedia - Sacred tradition -- The foundation of the doctrinal and spiritual authority of the Christian Church and of the Bible in the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and Anglican traditions
Wikipedia - Sacrifice in the Post-Kantian Tradition -- 2014 book by Diego Bubbio
Wikipedia - Saint George in devotions, traditions and prayers
Wikipedia - Saint Stephen and Herod -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Sai (weapon) -- traditional Okinawan melee weapon used for stabbing
Wikipedia - Salakot -- Traditional wide-brimmed hat from the Philippines
Wikipedia - Salmon and peas -- Traditional July 4th dish in New England, USA
Wikipedia - Salvadoran cuisine -- Culinary traditions of El Salvador
Wikipedia - Salwar -- Traditional loose trousers of the Punjab region
Wikipedia - Sam Hall (song) -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Sami shamanism -- Traditional religion of the Sami people in the Nordic countries
Wikipedia - Samping -- Malay traditional clothing
Wikipedia - Sampradaya -- Tradition, spiritual lineage or a religious system
Wikipedia - Sanamahism -- Religious or philosophical tradition of Meetei origin
Wikipedia - Sancocho -- Traditional soup in several Latin American cuisines
Wikipedia - Sand drawing -- Artistic and ritual tradition and practice of Vanuatu
Wikipedia - Sand mandala -- Tibetan Buddhist tradition involving the creation and destruction of mandalas made from coloured sand
Wikipedia - Sapmi -- Cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sami people
Wikipedia - Sarah Ann O'Neill -- Irish traditional singer
Wikipedia - Sariel -- Archangel of Judaic tradition
Wikipedia - Sari Gelin -- Traditional song native to Transcaucasus and its surrounding
Wikipedia - Sarong -- Traditional garment of the Malay Archipelago and the Pacific Islands
Wikipedia - Sarpa Kavu -- Traditional natural sacred spaces in South India
Wikipedia - Sashiko -- Traditional Japanese embroidery technique
Wikipedia - Sbiten -- Russian traditional winter drink served hot
Wikipedia - Scarborough Fair (ballad) -- Traditional English song
Wikipedia - Scarlet Sails (tradition) -- Celebration in St. Petersburg, Russia
Wikipedia - Schrodinger (crater) -- A large lunar impact crater of the form traditionally called a walled plain
Wikipedia - Scots Trad Music Awards -- Awards for traditional Scottish music
Wikipedia - Scottish folk music -- Genre of traditional music from Scotland
Wikipedia - Scottish Lullaby -- Traditional Scottish melody
Wikipedia - Sean-nos dance -- Traditional solo Irish percussive dance
Wikipedia - Second line (parades) -- New Orleans brass band tradition
Wikipedia - Secret Santa -- Western Christmas tradition
Wikipedia - See Saw Margery Daw -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - See See Rider -- Traditional blues song
Wikipedia - Sekaten -- Javanese traditional ceremony, festival, fair and night market
Wikipedia - Semitic neopaganism -- Religions based on or attempting to reconstruct the old religious traditions of the Semitic peoples
Wikipedia - Serbian Christmas traditions
Wikipedia - Serb traditions
Wikipedia - Servants of the Holy Family -- an all-male traditional Catholic religious community located in Colorado Springs
Wikipedia - Sewamono -- Genre of contemporary setting plays in Japanese traditional theatre
Wikipedia - Shabana (Hejazi tradition) -- Celebration in western Saudi Arabia
Wikipedia - Shafoot -- Traditional Yemeni appetizer
Wikipedia - Shaivism -- One of the major traditions within Hinduism, and reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being
Wikipedia - Shalom aleichem -- Traditional Jewish Hebrew-language greeting
Wikipedia - Shandong cuisine -- Branch of Chinese traditional cuisine native to Shandong province
Wikipedia - Shankaracharya -- Title of heads of Hinduism in the Vedanta tradition
Wikipedia - Sheath and Knife -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Shetland pony -- Scottish breed of traditional pony
Wikipedia - Shinkage-ryM-EM-+ -- Traditional school of Japanese martial arts
Wikipedia - ShintM-EM-^M MusM-EM-^M-ryM-EM-+ -- Traditional school of jM-EM-^Mjutsu
Wikipedia - Shire -- A traditional term for a division of land, found in some English-speaking countries
Wikipedia - Shita-kiri Suzume -- Traditional Japanese fable
Wikipedia - ShM-EM-^Mdai ware -- Type of Japanese pottery traditionally from Arao, Kumamoto
Wikipedia - Shorgoghal -- Traditional Azerbaijani pastry
Wikipedia - Shota (dance) -- Albanian traditional dance
Wikipedia - Shrine of the Three Kings -- reliquary traditionally believed to contain the bones of the Biblical Magi
Wikipedia - Sian (band) -- Scottish traditional band
Wikipedia - Siddha medicine -- System of traditional medicine originating in South India
Wikipedia - Sidecar (cocktail) -- Cocktail traditionally made with cognac, orange liqueur and lemon
Wikipedia - Silver Dagger (song) -- Traditional song performed by Joan Baez
Wikipedia - Simsimiyya -- Traditional Egyptian string instrument
Wikipedia - Sindoor -- Traditional vermilion red or orange-red colored cosmetic powder from the Indian subcontinent
Wikipedia - Singaporean cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Singapore
Wikipedia - Singing the Traditional Songs of Her Kentucky Mountain Family -- 1952 studio album by Jean Ritchie
Wikipedia - Sinner Man -- African American traditional spiritual song
Wikipedia - Sir Aldingar -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Sir Cawline -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Sir Hugh -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Sir James the Rose -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Sir Orfeo -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Sir Patrick Spens -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Sisters of Charity Federation in the Vincentian-Setonian Tradition
Wikipedia - Six Dukes Went a-Fishing -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Sixteen Arhats -- A list of the Buddha's disciples in South and East Asian tradition
Wikipedia - S. K. B. Asante -- Ghanaian lawyer and traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Slavery in Nigeria -- Traditional slave trade in southeastern Nigeria
Wikipedia - Smarta Tradition
Wikipedia - Smarta tradition -- Tradition in Hinduism linked to Advaita Vedanta
Wikipedia - Smock-frock -- Traditional rural man's loose overgarment of coarse fabric
Wikipedia - S'more -- Traditional campfire treat
Wikipedia - Social conservatism in the United States -- Political ideology focused on the preservation of traditional values and beliefs in the US
Wikipedia - Socialist traditions
Wikipedia - Songkran (Thailand) -- Traditional Thai New Year's holiday
Wikipedia - Sonnet -- Poetic form, traditionally fourteen specifically-rhymed lines
Wikipedia - Sooraj Dooba Hain -- Song performed by Arijit Singh, Aditi Singh Sharma
Wikipedia - Sope -- Traditional Mexican dish
Wikipedia - Sori Choi -- Korean traditional percussionist
Wikipedia - Sosatie -- A traditional South African dish of meat cooked on skewers
Wikipedia - Soto (food) -- Traditional Indonesian soup
Wikipedia - Soto padang -- Traditional Indonesian soup
Wikipedia - South African National Congress of Traditional Authorities -- Political party in South Africa
Wikipedia - South Dublin -- County in Ireland, part of the traditional County Dublin
Wikipedia - Sovay -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Spanish heraldry -- Tradition and art of heraldry of Spain
Wikipedia - Spanish naming customs -- Historical traditions practiced in Spain for naming children
Wikipedia - Spanish omelette -- Traditional Spanish dish of egg and potato
Wikipedia - Sport in Greenland -- Sports traditions in Greenland
Wikipedia - Sport in India -- Overview of sports traditions in India
Wikipedia - Sport in Japan -- Overview of sports traditions in Japan
Wikipedia - Sport in Korea -- Korea has traditional sports
Wikipedia - Sport in New Zealand -- Sports traditions in New Zealand
Wikipedia - Sports in Baltimore -- Sports teams, events, and traditions in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
Wikipedia - Sri Lankan Forest Tradition
Wikipedia - Sri Lankan traditional medicine -- Alternative medicine
Wikipedia - Srimpi -- Traditional dance of Javanese people
Wikipedia - Stafford knot -- Three-looped overhand knot that is the traditional symbol of Staffordshire
Wikipedia - Stagger Lee -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Star Light, Star Bright -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Stephen Fritz -- South African indigenous and traditional leader
Wikipedia - Stockli -- Traditional agricultural building in Switzerland and Germany
Wikipedia - Stola -- Traditional garment of Ancient Roman women
Wikipedia - Strammer Max -- Traditional name applied to various sandwich dishes in German cuisine
Wikipedia - Succotash -- Traditional American food
Wikipedia - Suffix (name) -- Naming tradition, follows a person's full name and provides additional information about the person
Wikipedia - Sundubu-jjigae -- Korean traditional soft tofu stew
Wikipedia - Sunnah -- Literature discussing/prescribing traditional social/legal customs/practices of the Islamic community, often based on the record of teachings, deeds and sayings of Muhammad
Wikipedia - Supermarket -- Large form of the traditional grocery store
Wikipedia - Suranga -- Traditional water management system in Kerala and Karnataka, south India
Wikipedia - Surya Das -- American lama in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition
Wikipedia - Sweet Polly Oliver -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Sweet William's Ghost -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Swiss cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Switzerland
Wikipedia - Sylheti cuisine -- Sylheti cuisine is the food culture and traditions practices by the Sylhetis
Wikipedia - Syncretism -- Assimilation of two or more originally discrete religious traditions
Wikipedia - Taegeuk -- Traditional Korean symbol
Wikipedia - Taekkyeon -- Traditional Korean martial art
Wikipedia - Tai folk religion -- Animist religious beliefs traditionally and historically practiced by groups of ethnic Tai peoples
Wikipedia - Tajik cuisine -- Traditional cuisine of Tajikistan
Wikipedia - Takadai -- Loom used for weaving traditional Japanese braids
Wikipedia - Taktouka -- Traditional Moroccan salad dish
Wikipedia - Tall ship -- Large, traditionally-rigged sailing vessel
Wikipedia - Tamale -- Traditional Mesoamerican dish
Wikipedia - Tambouras -- Greek traditional string instrument
Wikipedia - Tamil units of measurement -- system of measurements traditionally used in ancient Tamil-speaking South India
Wikipedia - TanbM-EM-+ra (lyre) -- Traditional string instrument
Wikipedia - Tantra -- Esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism
Wikipedia - Tant sari -- Traditional Bengali sari
Wikipedia - Tapai -- Indonesian and Southeast Asian traditional fermented of rice
Wikipedia - Tapalapa bread -- Traditional African bread
Wikipedia - Tapestry -- Form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom
Wikipedia - Tapu (Polynesian culture) -- Polynesian traditional concept denoting something holy or sacred
Wikipedia - Tara Music -- Traditional Irish music recording companies
Wikipedia - Tatanua mask -- Traditional mask made by the natives in the province of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea
Wikipedia - Tauge goreng -- Indonesian traditional dish
Wikipedia - Tautua -- Word in Samoan that expresses the cultural tradition of service to the family
Wikipedia - Tea cosy -- Cover for a teapot, traditionally made of cloth
Wikipedia - Technology, Tradition, and the State in Africa
Wikipedia - Teddy bear toss -- Christmas tradition
Wikipedia - Teiken Boxing Gym -- Japan's traditional boxing club
Wikipedia - Telemark -- Traditional region and former county (fylke) of Norway
Wikipedia - Telemea -- A Romanian cheese traditionally made of sheepM-bM-^@M-^Ys milk
Wikipedia - Telling the bees -- Traditional European custom
Wikipedia - Terma (religion) -- Hidden teachings in various Buddhist traditions
Wikipedia - Texas Tech University traditions -- Aspect of Texas Tech University culture
Wikipedia - Textile manufacturing by pre-industrial methods -- Traditional methods of textile production
Wikipedia - Thady Quill -- A popular traditional Irish song
Wikipedia - Thai Forest Tradition
Wikipedia - Thai units of measurement -- System of units traditionally used in Thailand
Wikipedia - Thanos Leivaditis -- Greek actor and screenwriter
Wikipedia - The Arkansas Traveler (song) -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Baffled Knight -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Ballad of Chevy Chase -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Beggar-Laddie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Bent Sae Brown -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Bitter Withy -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Bold Pedlar and Robin Hood -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond -- Traditional Scottish folk song
Wikipedia - The Bonnie House of Airlie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Bonny Hind -- 1771 traditional song
Wikipedia - The Bonny Lass of Anglesey -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Boy and the Mantle -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Braes o' Killiecrankie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Bramble Briar -- Traditional English folk murder ballad
Wikipedia - The Broomfield Hill -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Brown Girl -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Butcher and the Tailor's Wife -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The captain goes down with the ship -- Maritime tradition
Wikipedia - The Clerk's Twa Sons o Owsenford -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Crabfish -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Crafty Farmer -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Cruel Brother -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Cruel Mother -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Cuckoo (song) -- Traditional English folk song
Wikipedia - The Daemon Lover -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Death of Parcy Reed -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Death of Queen Jane -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Derby Ram -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Devil (Tarot card) -- Fifteenth Major Arcana card in most traditional Tarot decks
Wikipedia - The Ditchling Carol -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Duke of Athole's Nurse -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Duke of Gordon's Daughter -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Earl of Errol -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Earl of Mar's Daughter -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Elfin Knight -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The False Lover Won Back -- Traditional ballot in English
Wikipedia - The Famous Flower of Serving-Men -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Farmer in the Dell -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Farmer's Curst Wife -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Fause Knight Upon the Road -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Flag: A Story Inspired by the Tradition of Betsy Ross -- 1927 film
Wikipedia - The Friar in the Well -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Gay Goshawk -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The George Aloe and the Sweepstake -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Grey Cock -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Heir of Linne -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The History of the Gold Coast and Asante -- Preserved work of oral tradition
Wikipedia - The Holly and the Ivy -- Traditional British folk Christmas carol
Wikipedia - The Holy Ground -- Traditional Irish folk song
Wikipedia - The Jolly Beggar -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Jolly Waggoner -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Just War tradition
Wikipedia - The Keach i the Creel -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The King's Disguise, and Friendship with Robin Hood -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The King's Dochter Lady Jean -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Kitchie-Boy -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Knight and the Shepherd's Daughter -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Knight's Ghost -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Lads of Wamphray -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Laily Worm and the Machrel of the Sea -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Laird o Drum -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Laird o Logie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Lass of Roch Royal -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Leaving of Liverpool -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Lincolnshire Poacher -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Living Tradition -- Music magazine
Wikipedia - The Lochmaben Harper -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Lord of Lorn and the False Steward -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Maid and the Palmer -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Marriage of Sir Gawain -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Mermaid (ballad) -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Miao Flower Mountain Festival -- traditional occasion of the Miao, a Chinese ethnic group
Wikipedia - The Moorlough Shore -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Mother's Malison -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The New-Slain Knight -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The New Tradition -- American barbershop quartet from California
Wikipedia - The Noble Fisherman -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Primordial Tradition -- A school of religious philosophy which holds its origins in perennialism
Wikipedia - The Queen of Elfan's Nourice -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Queen of Scotland -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Raggle Taggle Gypsy -- Traditional folk song
Wikipedia - The Rambling Gambler -- Traditional folk song of the American West
Wikipedia - The Rantin Laddie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - There Was a Crooked Man -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Riddle Song -- Traditional song; English folk song; Roud Folk Song Index #330
Wikipedia - The Rose of England -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Saucy Arethusa -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Spinning-Woman by the Spring -- Traditional folk tale in Europe and Asia
Wikipedia - The Spotted Cow -- Traditional English folk song
Wikipedia - The Sprig of Thyme -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Suffolk Miracle -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Sweet Trinity -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Three Butchers -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Three Jovial Huntsmen -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Three Ravens -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Tradition (poetry collection) -- Poetry collection by Jericho Brown
Wikipedia - The Twa Brothers -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Twa Magicians -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Twa Sisters -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Unquiet Grave -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Wee Wee Man -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The West Country Damosel's Complaint -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The White Fisher -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Whummil Bore -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Wife of Usher's Well -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Wylie Wife of the Hie Toun Hie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - The Young Earl of Essex's Victory over the Emperor of Germany -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Thirteen desserts -- Traditional Christmas of Provence.
Wikipedia - Thomas o Yonderdale -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Three Blind Mice -- 1805 traditional song
Wikipedia - Three Jolly Rogues -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Three Treasures (traditional Chinese medicine)
Wikipedia - Tibetan mythology -- traditional and religious stories of Tibet
Wikipedia - Tiger-head shoes -- Traditional Chinese folk handicraft used as footwear for children
Wikipedia - Tinikling -- Traditional Filipino folk dance from Visayas
Wikipedia - Tinker, Tailor -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Tippit -- Traditional Welsh game
Wikipedia - TM-EM-^MrM-EM-^M -- Traditional Japanese lantern
Wikipedia - Toad in the hole -- Traditional English dish
Wikipedia - Tola (unit) -- Traditional Asian unit of mass
Wikipedia - Toledano tradition
Wikipedia - Tom Potts -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Tom, Tom, the Piper's Son -- Nursery rhyme and traditional song
Wikipedia - Tongyangxi -- Pre-modern Chinese tradition of arranged marriage
Wikipedia - Topeng dance -- Indonesian traditional dance
Wikipedia - Topor (headgear) -- Conical headgear traditionally worn by grooms as part of the Bengali Hindu wedding ceremony
Wikipedia - Top (sailing ship) -- Platform at the upper end of a mast on a traditional square rigged ship
Wikipedia - Torah reading -- A Jewish religious tradition that involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll
Wikipedia - Torah scroll (Yemenite) -- The Yemenite Jewish tradition of orthography in a Torah scroll
Wikipedia - Torr -- Traditional unit of pressure
Wikipedia - Traditional African masks -- Ritual and ceremonial mask of Sub-Saharan Africa
Wikipedia - Traditional African medicine -- traditional medical practices in Africa
Wikipedia - Traditional African religions -- Diverse traditional beliefs and practices of African people
Wikipedia - Traditional African religion
Wikipedia - Traditional Anglican Communion
Wikipedia - Traditional animation
Wikipedia - Traditional authority -- Form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to tradition or custom
Wikipedia - Traditional Berber religion
Wikipedia - Traditional birth attendant -- Person who provides maternity care informally
Wikipedia - Traditional black gospel
Wikipedia - Traditional Catholics
Wikipedia - Traditional Chinese characters
Wikipedia - Traditional Chinese law
Wikipedia - Traditional Chinese medicine -- Traditional medicine in China
Wikipedia - Traditional Chinese religion
Wikipedia - Traditional Chinese star names
Wikipedia - Traditional Chinese timekeeping -- Timekeeping before Shixian calander
Wikipedia - Traditional Chinese
Wikipedia - Traditional climbing -- Style of rock climbing
Wikipedia - Traditional colors of Japan
Wikipedia - Traditional conservatism
Wikipedia - Traditional dyes of the Scottish Highlands -- Traditional dyes of the Scottish Highlands
Wikipedia - Traditional ecological knowledge
Wikipedia - Traditional economy
Wikipedia - Traditional education
Wikipedia - Traditional engineering
Wikipedia - Traditional English pronunciation of Latin -- Basic pronunciation rules
Wikipedia - Traditional family
Wikipedia - Traditional games in the Philippines
Wikipedia - Traditional grammar
Wikipedia - Traditional healers of Southern Africa -- Practitioners of traditional African medicine in Southern Africa
Wikipedia - Traditionalism (Spain)
Wikipedia - Traditionalist Catholicism -- Movement of Catholics in favour of restoring many or all of the liturgy, practice, and beliefs of Catholics from before the Second Vatican Council
Wikipedia - Traditionalist Catholics
Wikipedia - Traditionalist Catholic
Wikipedia - Traditionalist conservatism in the United States
Wikipedia - Traditionalist conservatism -- Political ideology
Wikipedia - Traditionalist school
Wikipedia - Traditionalist School -- Perennial philosophy
Wikipedia - Traditionalist Theology (Islam)
Wikipedia - Traditionalist theology (Islam) -- Islamic sunni theologic branch
Wikipedia - Traditional knowledge -- Knowledge systems in the cultural traditions of communities
Wikipedia - Traditionally
Wikipedia - Traditional Malaysian musical instruments -- Malaysian musical instruments
Wikipedia - Traditional mathematics
Wikipedia - Traditional media
Wikipedia - Traditional medicine -- Medicine based on traditional beliefs
Wikipedia - Traditional Persian -- Breed of cat
Wikipedia - Traditional singer -- someone who has learned folk songs in their original context
Wikipedia - Traditional Sohbet meetings -- Turkish social practice of community conversations
Wikipedia - Traditional sub-Saharan African harmony -- Music theory of harmony
Wikipedia - Traditional Tibetan medicine
Wikipedia - Traditional Unionist Voice -- Political party
Wikipedia - Traditional Values Coalition -- Defunct American conservative Christian organization
Wikipedia - Traditional values
Wikipedia - Traditional Vietnamese dance
Wikipedia - Traditional Vietnamese medicine
Wikipedia - Traditional Vietnamese musical instruments
Wikipedia - Traditional
Wikipedia - Tradition criticism
Wikipedia - Tradition of removing shoes in the home and houses of worship
Wikipedia - Traditions and student activities at MIT -- Aspect of Massachusetts Institute of Technology culture
Wikipedia - Traditions of Italy
Wikipedia - Traditions of Pomona College -- Aspect of Pomona College culture
Wikipedia - Traditions of Romania
Wikipedia - Traditions of Texas A&M University -- Aspect of Texas A&M University culture
Wikipedia - Traditions of the Georgia Institute of Technology -- Aspect of Georgia Tech culture
Wikipedia - Traditions
Wikipedia - Tradition und Leben -- Monarchist organisation in Germany
Wikipedia - Tradition -- A long-existing custom or belief
Wikipedia - Tradwife -- Submissive, "traditional" wife
Wikipedia - Transvestism -- Dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally associated with the opposite sex
Wikipedia - Tree of life (Kabbalah) -- Diagram used in various mystical traditions
Wikipedia - Trews -- Traditional Celtic tightly-fit footed trousers, often of tartan; also trousers from Scottish Highland dress.
Wikipedia - Tro (instrument) -- Traditional bowed string instruments from Cambodia
Wikipedia - True Awakening Tradition
Wikipedia - Tsarouchi -- Shoe worn as part of the traditional uniform of the Greek guards known as Evzones
Wikipedia - Tsuitate -- Traditional Japanese single-panel portable partition
Wikipedia - Tsukubai -- Traditional Japanese ritual washbasin
Wikipedia - Tuba Skinny -- A traditional jazz band based in New Orleans
Wikipedia - Tubeteika -- Russian word for many varieties of traditional Central Asian caps
Wikipedia - Tujeon -- Traditional Korean playing cards
Wikipedia - Tulum cheese -- A traditional Turkish goat's milk cheese ripened in a goatskin casing
Wikipedia - Turco-Persian tradition -- Distinctive culture in Central Asia
Wikipedia - Turkish folk literature -- Oral tradition of Turkish people
Wikipedia - Turkish makam -- System of melodic modes used in traditional Turkic music
Wikipedia - Turkish salvar -- Traditional baggy trousers of Turkey
Wikipedia - Turkmen cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Turkmenistan
Wikipedia - Turlutte (music) -- Form of traditional popular song from Quebec, Canada
Wikipedia - Turul -- Mythological bird of prey in Hungarian tradition and a national symbol of Hungarians
Wikipedia - Tutedhara -- Traditional water taps in Nepal
Wikipedia - Ukrainian cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Ukraine
Wikipedia - Ulam (salad) -- Traditional Malay salad
Wikipedia - Ulster -- Traditional province in the north of Ireland
Wikipedia - Ultramarathon -- Any footrace longer than the traditional marathon length of 42.195 kilometres
Wikipedia - Ululudhvani -- Tradition in Bengal, Assam and Odisha, where women produce a sound called 'Ululu'
Wikipedia - Umaru bin Ali -- Nigerian traditional ruler
Wikipedia - Umaru Nagwamatse -- Sokoto caliphs prince and traditional state founder
Wikipedia - Upe -- Traditional Bougainvillean headdress
Wikipedia - Upstart (software) -- An event-based replacement for the traditional init daemon
Wikipedia - Uralic mythologies -- Traditional myths of Uralic-speaking cultures
Wikipedia - Vaisakhi -- Major spring time Sikh festival, harvest and traditional new year festival for many Hindus
Wikipedia - Vajrayana -- Various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread by Padmasambhava to Tibet, Bhutan, and East Asia
Wikipedia - Vardo (Romani wagon) -- Traditional horse-drawn wagon of British Romani people
Wikipedia - Venetian glass -- Glassmaking tradition from Venice, Italy
Wikipedia - Vernacular architecture -- Category of architecture based on local needs, construction materials and reflecting local traditions
Wikipedia - Vetkoek -- A traditional coloured fried dough bread
Wikipedia - Vinger -- Traditional district near Kongsvinger, Norway
Wikipedia - Virgin boy egg -- Traditional dish of Dongyang, Zhejiang, China
Wikipedia - Visoba Khechara -- Indian Marathi saint in the Varkari tradition
Wikipedia - Vusamazulu Credo Mutwa -- South African traditional healer
Wikipedia - Waldjinah -- Indonesian traditional singer
Wikipedia - Wallin Family -- American family of traditional ballad singers
Wikipedia - Wampum -- A traditional shell bead of the Eastern Woodlands tribes of American Indians
Wikipedia - Wappo traditional narratives -- Native Californian narratives
Wikipedia - Water puppetry -- Vietnamese puppetry tradition
Wikipedia - Waterzooi -- Traditional Belgian stew
Wikipedia - Way of the Gods according to the Confucian Tradition -- A Confucian congregational religious movement
Wikipedia - Welcome to Country -- Ritual performed to welcome non-Indigenous people to the traditional owners of the local area in Australia
Wikipedia - Welsh mythology -- Folk traditions developed in Wales and by the Celtic Britons elsewhere
Wikipedia - WerkM-CM-)n -- Traditional tribal leader in the Mapuche Culture of Southern South America
Wikipedia - Wesleyan theology -- Protestant Christian theological tradition
Wikipedia - Western canon -- Books, music and art traditionally accepted by Western scholars as the most important in shaping Western culture
Wikipedia - Western esoteric tradition
Wikipedia - Western Mystery Tradition
Wikipedia - Western mystery tradition
Wikipedia - Western Sufism -- A new religious movement with its origins in traditional Sufism
Wikipedia - What Are Little Boys Made Of? -- Nursery rhyme and traditional song
Wikipedia - White wedding -- Traditional formal or semi-formal wedding originating in Great Britain
Wikipedia - Willie and Earl Richard's Daughter -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Willie and Lady Maisry -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Willie o Douglas Dale -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Willie o Winsbury -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Willie's Lady -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Willie's Lyke-Wake -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Will Stewart and John -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Wiltshire Traditional Orchards Project -- Organisation that records, conserves and restores orchards
Wikipedia - Wind Horse -- Symbol of the human soul in East Asian and Central Asian traditions
Wikipedia - Wisdom tradition -- Idea that there is a mystic inner core to all religious or spiritual traditions
Wikipedia - Witches reel -- Traditional Scottish Ceilidh dance
Wikipedia - Wli Falls Festival -- Festival of Wli Traditional Area in Volta region
Wikipedia - Wolastoqiyik Lintuwakonawa -- Album of post-classical rearrangements of traditional First Nations music by Jeremy Dutcher
Wikipedia - Wooden toys of Hrvatsko Zagorje -- Traditional wooden toys made in the region of Hrvatsko Zagorje in Croatia
Wikipedia - World music -- Umbrella term for traditional or indigenous music not originating in Europe or North America
Wikipedia - Worried Man Blues -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - W. R. Case & Sons Cutlery Co. -- American manufacturer of traditional pocket knives, fixed blades/sporting knives, kitchen knives, limited edition commemoratives and collectibles
Wikipedia - Wufang Shangdi -- Traditional Chinese deity
Wikipedia - Xia dynasty -- First dynasty in traditional Chinese history
Wikipedia - Xiang embroidery -- Traditional embroidery style of Changsha, Hunan, China
Wikipedia - Yakuza -- Members of traditional transnational organized crime syndicates in Japan
Wikipedia - Yangdong Folk Village -- Traditional village
Wikipedia - Yaogu -- Traditional Chinese drum
Wikipedia - Yared -- Ethiopian composer, pioneer for traditional and religious musical notations
Wikipedia - Yemenite Hebrew -- Pronunciation system for Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews
Wikipedia - Yeshiva of Cape Town -- Jewish educational institution for the study of traditional religious texts and Jewish law
Wikipedia - YM-EM-^Mga -- Style of paintings by Japanese artists, made in accordance with Western (European) traditional conventions, techniques and materials
Wikipedia - Yobai -- Discreet unmarried sex in Japanese tradition.
Wikipedia - Yongfeng chili sauce -- Traditional fermented hot sauce from China
Wikipedia - Yorkshire pudding -- Traditional English side dish
Wikipedia - Yosegi -- Traditional Japanese decorative woodworking technique
Wikipedia - Young Andrew -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Young Beichan -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Young Benjie -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Young Hunting -- Traditional folk song
Wikipedia - Young Johnstone -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Young Peggy -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Young Ronald -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Young Waters -- Traditional song
Wikipedia - Youxuan -- Traditional food in Jinan, China
Wikipedia - Yule log (cake) -- Traditional Christmas dessert
Wikipedia - Yum cha -- Cantonese tradition of brunch involving Chinese tea and dim sum
Wikipedia - Yup'ik clothing -- Traditional clothing worn by the Yup'ik people of Alaska
Wikipedia - Yurok traditional narratives -- Myths, legends, tales, and oral histories from northwestern California
Wikipedia - Zambian cuisine -- Culinary traditions of Nigeria
Wikipedia - Zangbeto -- spirits in African tradition
Wikipedia - Zhiyi -- Founder of the Tiantai tradition of Buddhism in China
Wikipedia - Zimbabwe Sculpture: a Tradition in Stone -- Sculpture exhibition at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport
Wikipedia - Zuleikha (tradition)
Wikipedia - Zulu traditional religion
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https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/4416107.Tasos_Livaditis
https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/4847947.Aditi_Machado
https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/533538.Aditi_De
https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/6589327.Aditi_Singhal
https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/7312934.Aditi_Devi
Goodreads author - Aditi_Kaushiva
http://fr.religion.wikia.com/wiki/Nouvelle_Tradition_Kadampa
https://familypedia.wikia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._state_abbreviations#Traditional_abbreviations
https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Naval_tradition
https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Traditional_Chinese_characters
https://religion.wikia.org/de/wiki/Neue_Kadampa-Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/de/wiki/Traditionalismus_(Philosophie)
https://religion.wikia.org/nl/wiki/Jezus_(traditioneel-christelijk)
https://religion.wikia.org/nl/wiki/Traditionalisme_(filosofie)
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Abraham_in_History_and_Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Abraham#Traditional_dating
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Aditi
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/African_traditional_religion
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/African_traditional_religions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Alcohol_in_Christian_history_and_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Annunciation#Eastern_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Anointing#Non-Mosaic_Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Apophaticism#In_other_Eastern_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Apophaticism#In_the_Christian_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Apophaticism#In_the_Jewish_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Archangel_Michael_of_Panormitis#Folklore_and_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Archangel_Michael:_Roman_Catholic_traditions_and_views
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Ascetical_theology#Other_religious_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Atropa_belladonna#Traditional_and_alternative_medicine
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Ayahuasca#Traditional
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Bacab#Gulf_Coast_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Bacab#Yucatec_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Beliefs#Bible.2C_holy_tradition_and_the_patristic_consensus
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Biblical_Sabbath#Textual_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Buddhism#Schools_and_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Buddhist_chant#Traditional_chanting
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Canonization#Other_Christian_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:African_traditional_religions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Catholic_traditionalism
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Chinese_traditional_religion
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Christian_theology_by_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Christmas_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Easter_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Hindu_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Non-traditional_Buddhism
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Philosophers_by_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Philosophical_schools_and_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Philosophical_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Religious_faiths,_traditions,_and_movements
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category_talk:African_traditional_religions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category_talk:Traditionalism
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Traditionalism
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Traditional_meat_processing
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Category:Traditional_narratives
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Catholic_Church#Diverse_traditions_of_worship
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Cherub#Islamic_Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Christ#Esoteric_Christian_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Christian_liturgy#Methodist_or_Wesleyan_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Christian_mythology#In_non-canonical_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Christian_worship#Other_Liturgical_Traditions:_Non-Sacraments
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Christian_worship#Reformation_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Christian_worship#Sacramental_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Christ#The_esoteric_Christian_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Coming_of_age#Non-religious_coming_of_age_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Comparative_religion#Comparing_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Creator_deity#Chinese_traditional_cosmology
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Roman_Catholicism#Scripture_and_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Roman_Catholicism#Traditionalist_and_sedevacantist_Roman_Catholics
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_the_Catholic_Church#Scripture_and_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_the_Catholic_Church#Traditionalist_and_sedevacantist_Catholics
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Deacon#Other_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Dogs_in_religion#Chinese_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Early_Christianity#Oral_tradition_and_first_written_works
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Early_Christianity#Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Easter#Religious_and_secular_Easter_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Echinopsis_pachanoi#Traditional_medicine
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Elijah#Islamic_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Enlightenment_in_Western_secular_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Entheogenic_drugs_and_the_archaeological_record#Contemporary_indigenous_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Eshu#Best_Known_Exus_in_the_Brazilian_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Excommunication#Anabaptist_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Fall_of_Man#Other_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/File:Painted_19th_century_Tibetan_mandala_of_the_Naropa_tradition,_Vajrayogini_stands_in_the_center_of_two_crossed_red_triangles,_Rubin_Museum_of_Art.jpg
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/File:Traditional_lebanese_house_at_Byblos.jpg
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Funeral_(Buddhism)#Mahayana_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Funeral_(Buddhism)#Theravada_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Funeral_(Buddhism)#Tibetan_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Good_Friday#Churches_of_Byzantine_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Good_Friday#Other_Protestant_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Guru-shishya_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Haoma#In_tradition_and_folklore
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Harmal#Traditional_uses
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Hermitage_(religious_retreat)#Other_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Hermitage_(religious_retreat)#Western_Christian_Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Hermit#The_eremitic_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Eastern_Orthodox_Church#The_Eastern_Monastic_or_Ascetic_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Holy_Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Hosanna#Liturgical_use_in_different_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Inedia#Religious_traditions_of_inedia
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Jerusalem_in_Christianity#Medieval_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Julius_Evola#Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Justification_(theology)#Comparison_of_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Kalachakra#Kalachakra_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Kava#Toxicity_of_traditional_kava_beverage_preparations
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Kava#Traditional_preparation
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Lamia#Modern_folk_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Liturgical_Movement#Churches_of_the_Lutheran_Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mahamudra#Dagpo_Kagyu_.27Four_Syllables.27_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mahamudra#Drigung_Kagyu_.27Possessing_Five.27_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mahamudra#Drukpa_Kagyu_.27Six_Spheres_of_Equal_Taste.27_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mahamudra#Karma_Kagyu_.27Simultaneously_Arising_as_Merged.27_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mahamudra#Shangpa_Kagyu_Amulet_Box_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mahamudra#The_Gelug_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mahamudra#The_Kagyu_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mantra#Mantra_in_other_traditions_or_contexts
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mark_the_Evangelist#Biblical_and_traditional_information
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mishnah#Oral_Traditions_.28chanting_and_pronunciation_of_the_Mishnah.29
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mishnah#Oral_traditions_and_pronunciation
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mother_Nature#Western_tradition_history
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mudra#Other_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mysticism#Mystical_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Mysticism#Mysticism_and_traditional_religions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Negative_theology#In_the_Jewish_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Traditio
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Critical_views_of_the_NKT-IKBU
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Dorje_Shugden_controversy
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#External_links
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Favorable_views_of_the_NKT-IKBU
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Geshe_Kelsang_Gyatso
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Growth
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Internal_Rules
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#International_Buddhist_Festivals
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#International_Retreat_Centers
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Kadampa_Buddhism_and_Tibetan_Buddhism
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Kadampa_Meditation_Centers
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Lineage_of_teachers
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Meaning_of_the_word_Kadampa
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Mission_statement
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#New_Kadampa_Tradition_and_Gelugpa_Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Official_websites
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Ordination
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Organisation_and_development
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Other_teachers
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#References
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Religious_observances
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Religious_practices
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Reviews_of_the_NKT-IKBU
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Separation_from_contemporary_Tibetan_Buddhism
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Spiritual_activities
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Study_programs
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Successor_to_Geshe_Kelsang_Gyatso
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Teachers
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Teachings_and_books
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/New_Kadampa_Tradition#Temples_for_World_Peace.2C_World_Peace_Caf.C3.A9s.2C_and_Hotel_Kadampas
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Patikulamanasikara#Traditional_sources
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Patriarchal_Exarchate_for_Orthodox_Parishes_of_Russian_Tradition_in_Western_Europe
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Plane_(esotericism)#Conceptions_in_ancient_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Praxis_(Eastern_Orthodoxy)#Corresponding_terminology_in_western_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Pre-Christian_Alpine_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Reincarnation#Eastern_religions_and_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Reincarnation#Traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Reincarnation#Western_religions_and_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Relations_between_Catholicism_and_Judaism#Traditionalist_Catholics
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Religion_in_Africa#African_traditional_religion
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Religious_order#Anglican_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Religious_order#Buddhist_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Religious_order#Catholic_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Religious_order#Christian_Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Religious_order#Christian_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Religious_order#Christian_tradition_2
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Religious_order#Islamic_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Religious_order#Orthodox_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Religious_order#Other_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Religious_order#Protestant_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Sabbath_breaking#Christian_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Sabbath_breaking#Jewish_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Sacred_Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Saint_George:_Devotions,_traditions_and_prayers
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Saint_Thomas_Christian_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Satanism#Pagan_.26_Traditional_Satanism
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Second_Coming#Esoteric_Christian_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Serpent_(symbolism)#Serpents_in_other_religious_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Seven_rays#In_early_mystery_traditions_of_the_west_and_near_east
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Special:Search/Religious_faiths,_traditions,_and_movements
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Sufism#Traditional_and_non-traditional_Sufi_groups
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Sufism#Traditional_Islamic_thought_and_Sufism
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Tabernanthe_iboga#Traditional_use
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Talk:Buddhism/Revised#Main_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Talk:New_Kadampa_Tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Talk:Traditionalist_School
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Tantra#Relation_with_Vedic_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Template:Buddhist_traditions_timeline
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Therapeutae#Hebrew_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Torah#Traditional_attribution
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditional_Anglicanism.
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditional_Berber_religion
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditionalist_Catholic
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditionalist_School
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditionalist_School#Academic_reception
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditionalist_School#Books_and_resources
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditionalist_School#Criticism
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditionalist_School#Perennialism
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditionalist_School#Philosophia_Perennis
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditionalist_School#References
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditionalist_School#See_also
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditionalist_School#Traditionalism_and_religion
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditionalist_School#View_of_modernity
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Traditions(orthodox_church)
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Transfiguration_(religion)#Instances_in_other_religions_and_spiritual_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Transfiguration_(religion)#Instances_in_the_Judeo-Christian_scriptures_and_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Two_truths_doctrine#Therav.C4.81da_commentarial_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Union_for_Traditional_Judaism
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Vachellia_farnesiana#Traditional_medicine
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Vajrayana#Vajrayana_textual_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Virgin_birth_of_Jesus#Christianity_and_similar_traditions
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Virola#Traditional_medicine
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Wedding_ring#Traditional_customs
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Wisdom_tradition
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Yam_(god)#Speculative_similarities_in_other_traditions
https://wicca.wikia.org/wiki/Alexandrian_Tradition
https://wicca.wikia.org/wiki/Correllian-Nativist_Tradition
https://wicca.wikia.org/wiki/Initiatory_Mystery_Tradition
Kheper - Primordial_Tradition -- 47
Kheper - Traditionalism -- 51
http://malankazlev.com/kheper/topics/perennial_philosophy/traditionalism.html -- 0
Kheper - Traditionalism -- 42
Kheper - Tradition_1 -- 36
Kheper - Tradition_2 -- 34
Kheper - Tradition_3 -- 34
http://malankazlev.com/kheper/topics/Theon/Tradition_Cosmique_1.pdf -- 0
http://malankazlev.com/kheper/topics/Theon/Tradition_Cosmique_2.pdf -- 0
http://malankazlev.com/kheper/topics/Theon/Tradition_Cosmique_3.pdf -- 0
http://malankazlev.com/kheper/topics/Theon/Tradition_Cosmique_5.pdf -- 0
Kheper - Tradition -- 60
http://malankazlev.com/kheper/topics/Traditionalism/index.html -- 0
auromere - on-some-customs-and-traditions-of-hinduism
auromere - descent-experience
auromere - religious-traditions
Integral World - The Humanities As The Integral Tradition, Matthew Dallman
Integral World - Shamanic and Taoist Origins Of Chinese Traditions, Joseph Dillard
Integral World - Neopaganism and the Mystical Tradition
Integral World - The Nature and Tradition of Integral Spirituality, Zakariyya Ishaq
Integral World - The Great Wisdom Tradition's Divine Library, Brad Reynolds
The Beauty (and Baggage) of Traditionalism
selforum - immense potential of indian traditions
selforum - history of traditionalist movement
selforum - indian tradition is truly postmodern
selforum - original integral tradition
selforum - rekindle fire within vedic tradition
selforum - many scientists practice traditional
selforum - ucc is against all tradition will
https://thoughtsandvisions-searle88.blogspot.com/2012/10/western-mystery-tradition.html
https://thoughtsandvisions-searle88.blogspot.com/2012/12/psychic-tibetan-traditions.html
https://thoughtsandvisions-searle88.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-cosmic-tradition.html
dedroidify.blogspot - william-g-gray-inner-traditions-of
https://circumsolatious.blogspot.com/2015/03/escapist-spiritual-traditions-buddha.html
https://circumsolatious.blogspot.com/2016/03/a-centre-that-holds-commentary-on-aditi.html
https://circumsolatious.blogspot.com/2018/07/aditis-12-sons-thailand-cave-rescue.html
https://esotericotherworlds.blogspot.com/2012/11/huston-smith-and-primordial-tradition.html
https://esotericotherworlds.blogspot.com/2013/02/traditionalism.html
Dharmapedia - Traditional_Chinese_medicine
Dharmapedia - Traditionalist_School
Psychology Wiki - Category:Philosophical_schools_and_traditions
Psychology Wiki - Category:Religious_faiths,_traditions,_and_movements
Psychology Wiki - Guru-shishya_tradition
Psychology Wiki - Guru#The_.22guru-shishya.22_tradition
Psychology Wiki - Integral_thought#Integral_thought_-_the_Wilberian_tradition
Psychology Wiki - Traditional_Chinese_medicine
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - algebra-logic-tradition
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - emotion-Christian-tradition
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/AncientTradition
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/AppealToTradition
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/ArtisticLicenseTraditionalChristianity
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/KimonoIsTraditional
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/OralTradition
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/TraditionalHeavyMetal
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/TropesOfTradition
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/YourTraditionIsNotMine
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/TropeNamers/TraditionalGames
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Category:Traditionally_animated_films
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Category:Traditionally_animated_TV_shows
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/File:Sinhalese_Girl_Wearing_A_Traditional_Kandyan_Saree_(Osaria)-1.jpg
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Tradition
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Traditional
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Traditional_African_religions
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Traditionalism
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Traditionalist_theology_(Islam)
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Traditions
https://www.poetry-chaikhana.com/Poets/../Traditions/index.html
Max Headroom (1985 - 1987) - It was characterized by intelligent scripts, a quirky sense of humor, some serious speculation about the power and ethics of television, and a slightly satirical but intricately realized vision of the future with a gritty, "Brazil"-like, "retro-tech" style. It had frequent references to traditional...
WWE Raw (1993 - Current) - Beginning as WWF Monday Night Raw, the program first aired on January 11, 1993. It aired on the USA Network for one hour. The original Raw broke new ground in televised professional wrestling. Traditionally, wrestling shows were taped on sound stages with small audiences or at large arena shows. The...
Spectreman (1971 - 1972) - Bad, bad, bad 70s Japanese regular-guy-turns-into-giant-robot-esq show. The highlight (other than the great cheesy monsters) is the main villains. These are two guys in ape masks keeping traditional Japanese theatre alive through the over-use of hand gestures. Wonderfully campy, Spectreman makes...
Days of our Lives (1965 - Current) - A dramatic serial on NBC created by Ted Corday, Irna Phillips & Allan Chase, and written by William J. Bell. The Cordays and Bell combined the "hospital soap" idea with the tradition of centering a series on a family, by making the show about a family of doctors, including one who worked in a mental...
Cartoon Sushi (1997 - 1998) - Following the tradition of MTV's previous animation show Liquid Television, this was the show that followed a few years later was basically a collection of various animated shorts made a variety of different cartoonists.
Silver Surfer (1997 - 1998) - Based on the Marvel Comics character, this series adapted several of the original comics' most notable story arcs into animation. The series used a blend of traditional animation and quite effective cel shaded 3D CG animation. It was well received by fans, and had decent ratings, but was unable to...
Rock & Roll Jeopardy! (1998 - 2001) - It's exctly like traditional Jeopardy!, but all about rock & roll. Hosted by Jeff Probst and shown on VH1.
The Sooty Show (1955 - 2012) - The little yellow bear with the sooty ears and nose attached to the end of Harry Corbett's arm has been a British TV tradition since its TV debut on BBC TV Talent Night in 1952. Sooty was every child's hero - able to misbehave with impunity and torment the life of poor old Harry Corbett.
Faerie Tale Theatre (1982 - 1987) - Hosted by Shelley Duval, this program featured some of the best-known stars in Hollywood performing adaptations of traditional fairy tales.
Christmas in Rockefeller Center (1951 - Current) - Every year since 1931 the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree has been an American tradition for New Yorkers and Tourists alike. The first tree erected in 1931 stood just 20 feet tall and was decorated with "strings of cranberries, garlands of paper, and even a few tin cans". In 1933 the tree was lit...
The Kentucky Derby (1952 - Current) - The great American tradition, held at Churchill Downs in Louisville Kentucky every year on the first Saturday in May since 1875. NBC showed it on TV for the first time in 1949 but the event was nationally televised for the first time in 1952.
Senran Kagura: Ninja Flash (2013 - 2013) - The Hanzo Academy is a prestigious prep school with a secret known only to a select few. Behind its walls is a training course for shinobi; trained spies and assassins that centuries ago had served the shoguns for their political and military needs. Today the tradition continues with five young fema...
Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade (1948 - Current) - An American Thanksgiving Day tradition just as big and just as important as the turkey, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade has been held in Midtown Manhattan every year since 1924 and is America's oldest Thanksgiving Parade. Originally a one-time event to celebrate the heritage of American workers a...
Grotbags (1983 - 2012) - a children's television programme which ran for three series between 1991 and 1993 about a fictional witch named Grotbags, a spin-off of multiple earlier Rod Hull and Emu shows. Very much in the mould of the traditional pantomime villain, Grotbags was played by actress, singer and comedian Carol Lee...
Majokko Tickle (1978 - 1979) - Majokko Chikkuru), also known as Magical Girl Tickle or Magical Girl Chickle, is a 1970s magical girl manga and anime by Go Nagai. Unlike Nagai's earlier (and more popular) Cutie Honey, Majokko Tickle is closer to the more traditional mold of magical girl anime such as Mahoutsukai Sally, and unlike...
Galaxy Boy Troop (1963 - 1965) - was a children's TV series created by Osamu Tezuka that combined marionettes with traditional animation. It ran for two seasons from April 7, 1963 to April 1, 1965, for a total of 92 episodes. The series also aired in France as "Le Commando De La Voie Lactee".[1]In the first season, the eponymous Ga...
Archie's Weird Mysteries (1999 - 2012) - Archie's Weird Mysteries is a traditionally animated children's television program, based on the continuously successful Archie comics. The series premise revolves around a Riverdale High physics lab gone awry, making the town of Riverdale a "magnet" for B-movie style monsters. The series is meant t...
The Woodwright's Shop (1979 - Current) - The Woodwright's Shop is a traditional woodworking show hosted by Roy Underhill on PBS. It is one of the longest running "how to" shows on PBS, with 28 13-episode seasons filmed. Since its debut in 1979 the show has aired over 360 episodes. Initially only broadcast on public TV in North Carolina, th...
Soldier Soldier (1991 - 1997) - Soldier Soldier was a British television drama series. The title comes from a traditional song of the same name.
Friday Night Fights (1998 - 2015) - In 1998, ESPN premiered Friday Night Fights, a part of its coverage of boxing. The series traditionally featured bouts involving up-and-coming and semi-professional boxers, along with studio segments covering headlines and developments across the sport. As implied by its title, the program was prima...
The Iron Giant(1999) - The Iron Giant is a 1999 American animated science fiction film using both traditional animation and computer animation, produced by Warner Bros. Animation, and based on the 1968 novel The Iron Man by Ted Hughes. The film was directed by Brad Bird, scripted by Tim McCanlies, and stars Jennifer Anist...
Fiddler on the Roof(1971) - Hollywood proudly presents the film version of the Broadway stage musical, based on the stories of Sholom Aleichem. Tevye the Milkman is a Jewish peasant in pre-Revolutionary Russia, coping with the day-to-day problems of his life, his Jewish traditions, his wife, and his five daughters.
Flashback(1990) - A yuppie and a hippie are the offbeat pairing of this character comedy in the tradition of earlier mismatched buddy films such as Midnight Run (1988). Kiefer Sutherland is uptight, 26-year-old FBI agent John Buckner, who's been assigned to escort an aging counterculture radical named Huey Walker (De...
Howling IV: The Original Nightmare(1988) - Shot in South Africa, this direct-to-video installment of the werewolf series continues that franchise's tradition of generating sequels light-years distant from the quality of Joe Dante's witty and frightening original. The fourth chapter even attempts to rewrite the original film's premise, which...
Battle Arena Toshinden(1997) - While many American films inspire video games and other merchandise, this animated feature, like many from Japan, is based on the popular series of video games called Battle Arena Toshinden. Because the Toshinden video game is essentially a martial-arts fighting game in the tradition of Street Fight...
Killer Tomatoes Strike Back(1991) - This third entry in the dumbfoundingly silly "Killer Tomatoes" series continues the low-budget franchise's tradition of bombarding audiences with endless inane sight gags, horror movie in-jokes, and "nudge-nudge, wink-wink" comic asides. This installment finds flamboyant mad scientist Professor Gang...
Prom Night IV: Deliver Us from Evil(1992) - Carrying on the Prom Night tradition, this film begins back at Hamilton High School on Prom Night in 1957. As a young couple are enjoying a romantic moment together in the back seat of a car, they are interrupted by Father Jonas, a priest who slashes and immolates the lovers. Thirty years later, Jon...
The Fly 2(1989) - Seth Brundle has died, but his son Martin (Eric Stoltz) is carrying on in his dad's tradition...In more ways than one.
That's Dancing(1985) - In the tradition of the "That's Entertainment" movies, this documentary features footage of all sorts of dancing, from Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers to Gene Kelly and Cyd Charisse to Michael Jackson and Marine Jahan.
Soul Food(1997) - Traditional Sunday dinners at Mama Joe's (Irma P. Hall) turn sour when sisters Teri (Vanessa L. Williams), Bird (Nia Long) and Maxine (Vivica A. Fox) start bringing their problems to the dinner table in this ensemble comedy. When tragedy strikes, it's up to grandson Ahmad (Brandon Hammond) to pull t...
El Mariachi(1992) - El Mariachi just wants to play his guitar and carry on the family tradition. Unfortunately, the town he tries to find work in has another visitor...a killer who carries his guns in a guitar case. The drug lord and his henchmen mistake El Mariachi for the killer, Azul, and chase him around town tryin...
The Jazz Singer(1980) - A New York cantor(Neil Diamond) rebels against his traditional father(Laurence Oliver) by moving to Los Angeles and becoming a rock and roll singer.
kung fu rascals(1992) - In the tradition of Bruce Lee, Jackie Chan and the Three Stooges comes this wildly funny action comedy from director Steve Wang. When chased by mutated monsters, crafty ninjas and a 300 foot tall stone god, the bumbling heroes battle against the powers o
Chocolat(2000) - A mysterious woman(Juliette Binoche)and her daughter set up a chocolaterie in a small French village.The once traditional villagers soon becomes more passionate and free spirited much to the chagrin of the conservative town mayor(Alfred Molina).The film co stars Johnny Depp and Dame Judi Dench.
Zootopia(2016) - In a city inhabited by anthropomorphic animals who have abandoned traditional predator/prey roles in favor of civilized coexistence, uptight rabbit police officer Judy Hopps is forced to work with charismatic fox con artist Nick Wilde to crack a major case involving the mysterious disappearance of s...
Caillou's Holiday Movie(2003) - Caillou learns about winter holiday traditions from around the world. He and his entire family celebrate Christmas, sharing, giving and caring.
Screwballs II: Loose Screws(1985) - In the original tradition of "Screwballs," four horny teens try to get a shot at the sexy new French teacher.
The Iron Giant(1999) - The Iron Giant is a 1999 American animated science fiction film using both traditional animation and computer animation, produced by Warner Bros. Feature Animation and directed by Brad Bird in his directorial debut. It is based on the 1968 novel The Iron Man by Ted Hughes (which was published in the...
Mad, Mad, Mad Monsters(1972) - Mad, Mad, Mad Monsters is a 1972 traditional animated comedy film produced by Rankin/Bass Productions in the United States and Mushi Production in Japan. The special aired on September 23, 1972 as part of The ABC Saturday Superstar Movie. It is a "prequel of sorts" to the 1967 stop motion animated f...
John Denver And The Muppets: A Christmas Together(1979) - In this beloved holiday classic, Kermit the Frog, Miss Piggy and all the Muppets join the singer for a heart-warming Christmas celebration, with traditional carols as well as lesser-known holiday songs.
Cold Fever(1995) - A Japanese businessman travels to Iceland and has a series of misadventures while venturing to a remote area to perform a traditional burial ritual where his parents died several years back.
Brannigan(1975) - Jim Brannigan is sent to London to bring back an American mobster who is being held for extradition but when he arrives he has been kidnapped which was set up by his lawyer. Brannigan in his American Irish way brings American law to the people of Scotland Yard in order to recapture this mobster with...
Deck the Halls(2006) - Eye doctor Steve Finch is known as the "Mr. Christmas" in town and just wants his family to celebrate a traditional Christmas. All of that changes, however when the Hall Family moves in across the street and Buddy Hall, a used car salesman has just one goal: decorate his house with enough lights to...
The Wild Bunch(1969) - An aging group of outlaws look for one last big score as the "traditional" American West is disappearing around them.
Steam: The Turkish Bath(1997) - Francesco and Marta are husband and wife running a small design company in Rome. When Francesco's long forgotten Aunt Anita dies in Istanbul, he travels there to look after the sale of the hamam (one of a few traditional Turkish baths left) he inherited. There he meets the family running the hamam,...
Melody Time(1948) - In the grand tradition of Disney's greatest musical classics, such as FANTASIA, MELODY TIME features seven classic stories, each enhanced with high-spirited music and unforgettale characters...A feast for the eyes and ears [full of] wit and charm...a delightful Disney classic with something for ever...
Mona Lisa Smile(2003) - A free-thinking art professor teaches conservative 50's Wellesley girls to question their traditional societal roles.
Caillou's Holiday Movie(2003) - A boy (Annie Bovaird) learns about winter activities and holiday traditions from around the world while celebrating Christmas.
The Tattooist(2007) - A young artist unknowingly plays a role in releasing a deadly spirit as he attempts to learn tatau, the Samoan tradition of tattooing.
How to Train Your Dragon(2010) - In a mythical Viking world a young Viking teenager named Hiccup aspires to follow his tribe's tradition of becoming a dragon slayer. After finally capturing his first dragon, a Night Fury, and with his chance at last of gaining the tribe's acceptance, he finds that he no longer wants to kill the dra...
Ready or Not(2019) - Grace has just gotten married to Alex LeDomas and joined his familys gaming "dominion". On the night of their wedding, Alexs family has Grace join their tradition of playing a game. She draws a card for Hide and Seek, and she is told she must stay hidden until dawn. Grace soon learns that the fami...
Ice Age: The Great Egg-Scapade(2016) - When Sid takes a job as an egg nanny, he's unaware an old enemy has plans of his own. The shenanigans lead to the first egg hunt and creation of popular Easter traditions. This special is set between the 4th and 5th films and aired on Fox in 2016.
Almost Christmas(2016) - Walter Meyers is a retired automotive engineer who lost his wife Grace 10 months earlier. Now that the holiday season is here, he invites his four grown children and the rest of the family to his house for a traditional celebration. The family soon learns that they may not have everything in common...
Don't Open Till Christmas(1984) - Somebody with very little Christmas spirit is killing anyone in a Santa suit one London holiday season, and Scotland Yard has to stop him before he makes his exploits an annual tradition.
Leap Year(2010) - A real estate worker heads to Ireland to ask her boyfriend to accept her wedding proposal on leap day, when tradition supposedly holds that men cannot refuse a woman's proposal for marriage. Her plans are interrupted by a series of events and are further complicated when she hires an Irish innkeeper...
Pet Pals: Marco Polo's Code(2010) - A jump-up from traditional to CGI for Grupo Alcuni's TV series as Moby, Holly, Diva, Tophat, Pio and Nameless investigate and find Marco Polo's Code, while the villains (headlined by a CrowWitch), at least, attempt to drain the canals of Venice.
Chico & Rita (2010) ::: 7.2/10 -- Not Rated | 1h 34min | Animation, Crime, Drama | 19 November 2010 (UK) -- Chico is a young piano player with big dreams. Rita is a beautiful singer with an extraordinary voice. Music and romantic desire unites them, but their journey - in the tradition of the Latin ballad, the bolero - brings heartache and torment. Directors: Tono Errando, Javier Mariscal | 1 more credit Writers:
Christmas in Connecticut (1945) ::: 7.4/10 -- Not Rated | 1h 41min | Comedy, Romance | 11 August 1945 (USA) -- A food writer who has lied about being the perfect housewife must try to cover her deception when her boss and a returning war hero invite themselves to her home for a traditional family Christmas. Director: Peter Godfrey Writers:
Como agua para chocolate (1992) ::: 7.1/10 -- R | 1h 45min | Drama, Romance | 28 May 1993 (USA) -- When tradition prevents her from marrying the man she loves, a young woman discovers she has a unique talent for cooking. Director: Alfonso Arau Writers: Laura Esquivel (novel), Laura Esquivel
Hobson's Choice (1954) ::: 7.7/10 -- Not Rated | 1h 48min | Comedy, Drama, Romance | 19 April 1954 (Denmark) -- Henry Hobson (Charles Laughton) is a successful bootmaker, a widower and a tyrannical father of three daughters. The girls each want to leave their father by getting married, but Henry refuses because marriage traditions require him to pay out settlements. Director: David Lean Writers: Harold Brighouse (by), David Lean (screenplay) | 2 more credits
I Heart Huckabees (2004) ::: 6.6/10 -- R | 1h 47min | Comedy | 22 October 2004 (USA) -- A husband-and-wife team play detective, but not in the traditional sense. Instead, the happy duo helps others solve their existential issues, the kind that keep you up at night, wondering what it all means. Director: David O. Russell Writers:
Klaus (2019) ::: 8.2/10 -- PG | 1h 36min | Animation, Adventure, Comedy | 15 November 2019 (USA) -- A simple act of kindness always sparks another, even in a frozen, faraway place. When Smeerensburg's new postman, Jesper, befriends toymaker Klaus, their gifts melt an age-old feud and deliver a sleigh full of holiday traditions. Directors: Sergio Pablos, Carlos Martnez Lpez (co-director) Writers:
Leap Year (2010) ::: 6.5/10 -- PG | 1h 40min | Comedy, Romance | 8 January 2010 (USA) -- Anna Brady plans to travel to Dublin, Ireland to propose to her boyfriend Jeremy on February 29, leap day, because, according to Irish tradition, a man who receives a marriage proposal on a leap day must accept it. Director: Anand Tucker Writers:
Looking for Alibrandi (2000) ::: 7.0/10 -- PG | 1h 43min | Comedy, Drama, Romance | 4 May 2000 (Australia) -- Alibrandi ultimately concerns a senior high school girl embracing her Italian heritage, but moving toward the less traditional Australian way of life. A wonderful cast who play their roles ... S Director:
Looking for Alibrandi (2000) ::: 7.0/10 -- PG | 1h 43min | Comedy, Drama, Romance | 4 May 2000 (Australia) -- Alibrandi ultimately concerns a senior high school girl embracing her Italian heritage, but moving toward the less traditional Australian way of life. A wonderful cast who play their roles ... S Director: Kate Woods Writers: Melina Marchetta (screenplay), Melina Marchetta (novel) Stars:
Made in Heaven -- Not Rated | 50min | Drama, Romance | TV Series (2019 ) ::: It is the story of two wedding planners in Delhi, where tradition jostles with modern aspirations against the backdrop of big fat Indian weddings revealing many secrets and lies. Creators:
Mona Lisa Smile (2003) ::: 6.5/10 -- PG-13 | 1h 57min | Drama | 19 December 2003 (USA) -- A free-thinking art professor teaches conservative 1950s Wellesley girls to question their traditional social roles. Director: Mike Newell Writers: Lawrence Konner, Mark Rosenthal
My Wife and Kids ::: TV-PG | 30min | Comedy, Family | TV Series (20012005) -- Michael Kyle longs for a traditional life, but his day-trader wife Janet, gangsta rap-worshipping son Michael Jr., and brooding daughters Claire and Kady make his dream just that ... a dream. Creators:
Queen (2013) ::: 8.2/10 -- Not Rated | 2h 26min | Adventure, Comedy, Drama | 7 March 2014 (India) -- A Delhi girl from a traditional family sets out on a solo honeymoon after her marriage gets cancelled. Director: Vikas Bahl Writers: Vikas Bahl (story and screenplay), Chaitally Parmar (story and
Saving Face (2004) ::: 7.4/10 -- R | 1h 37min | Comedy, Drama, Romance | 24 June 2005 (USA) -- A Chinese-American lesbian and her traditionalist mother are reluctant to go public with secret loves that clash against cultural expectations. Director: Alice Wu Writer:
Somebody Feed Phil ::: TV-14 | 1h | Documentary | TV Series (2018 ) -- Phil travels around the world sampling food and tradition with friends and a sense of humor. Stars: Phil Rosenthal, Monica Horan, Judy Gold
The Chosen ::: TV-PG | 54min | Drama, History | TV Series (2017 ) -- A charismatic fisherman drowning in debt. A troubled woman wrestling with real demons. A young tax collector ostracized by society. A religious leader questioning his faith tradition. Creator:
The Jazz Singer (1927) ::: 6.5/10 -- Unrated | 1h 28min | Drama, Music, Musical | 4 February 1928 (USA) -- The son of a Jewish Cantor must defy the traditions of his religious father in order to pursue his dream of becoming a jazz singer. Director: Alan Crosland Writers: Samson Raphaelson (play), Alfred A. Cohn (adaptation) | 1 more credit
The Kids Are All Right (2010) ::: 7.0/10 -- R | 1h 46min | Comedy, Drama, Romance | 30 July 2010 (USA) -- Two children conceived by artificial insemination bring their biological father into their non-traditional family life. Director: Lisa Cholodenko Writers: Lisa Cholodenko, Stuart Blumberg
The Namesake (2006) ::: 7.5/10 -- PG-13 | 2h 2min | Drama | 6 April 2007 (USA) -- American-born Gogol, the son of Indian immigrants, wants to fit in among his fellow New Yorkers, despite his family's unwillingness to let go of their traditional ways. Director: Mira Nair Writers:
The Righteous Gemstones ::: TV-MA | 36min | Comedy, Drama | TV Series (2019 ) -- Follows a world-famous televangelist family with a long tradition of deviance, greed, and charitable work. Creator: Danny McBride
The Sleeping Dictionary (2003) ::: 6.6/10 -- R | 1h 49min | Drama, Romance | 31 January 2003 (Mexico) -- A young Englishman is sent to Malaysian Borneo in the 1930s to stay with a tribe as UK's colonial representative. A local woman (J.Alba) helps him understand local tradition and language. He falls in love with her etc. despite the taboo. Director: Guy Jenkin Writer:
The Sleeping Dictionary (2003) ::: 6.6/10 -- R | 1h 49min | Drama, Romance | 31 January 2003 (Mexico) -- A young Englishman is sent to Malaysian Borneo in the 1930s to stay with a tribe as UK's colonial representative. A local woman (J.Alba) helps him understand local tradition and language. He falls in love with her etc. despite the taboo. Director:
The Three Caballeros (1944) ::: 6.4/10 -- Approved | 1h 11min | Animation, Comedy, Family | 22 February 1945 -- The Three Caballeros Poster -- Donald receives his birthday gifts, which include traditional gifts and information about Brazil (hosted by Z Carioca) and Mexico (by Panchito, a Mexican Charro Rooster). Directors: Norman Ferguson, Clyde Geronimi | 3 more credits Writers:
The Wild Bunch (1969) ::: 7.9/10 -- R | 2h 15min | Action, Adventure, Western | 19 June 1969 (USA) -- An aging group of outlaws look for one last big score as the "traditional" American West is disappearing around them. Director: Sam Peckinpah Writers: Walon Green (screenplay), Sam Peckinpah (screenplay) | 2 more credits
The World (2004) ::: 7.1/10 -- Shijie (original title) -- The World Poster An exploration on the impact of urbanization and globalization on a traditional culture. Director: Zhangke Jia Writer: Zhangke Jia Stars:
Would I Lie to You? (1997) ::: 6.4/10 -- La vrit si je mens! (original title) -- Would I Lie to You? Poster -- The sentimental and comedic adventures of Eddie, a non-Jew trying to pass as Jewish though totally ignorant of Jewish traditions, as he works in a Jewish community. Director: Thomas Gilou Writers:
Z-O-M-B-I-E-S (2018) ::: 6.3/10 -- TV-G | 1h 34min | Family, Musical, Romance | TV Movie 16 February 2018 -- Featurette 2:08 | Featurette -- Students from Zombietown are transferred to a high school in a suburban town preoccupied with uniformity, traditions and pep rallies. Director: Paul Hoen Writers: David Light, Joseph Raso | 2 more credits
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3-gatsu no Lion -- -- Shaft -- 22 eps -- Manga -- Drama Game Seinen Slice of Life -- 3-gatsu no Lion 3-gatsu no Lion -- Having reached professional status in middle school, Rei Kiriyama is one of the few elite in the world of shogi. Due to this, he faces an enormous amount of pressure, both from the shogi community and his adoptive family. Seeking independence from his tense home life, he moves into an apartment in Tokyo. As a 17-year-old living on his own, Rei tends to take poor care of himself, and his reclusive personality ostracizes him from his peers in school and at the shogi hall. -- -- However, not long after his arrival in Tokyo, Rei meets Akari, Hinata, and Momo Kawamoto, a trio of sisters living with their grandfather who owns a traditional wagashi shop. Akari, the oldest of the three girls, is determined to combat Rei's loneliness and poorly sustained lifestyle with motherly hospitality. The Kawamoto sisters, coping with past tragedies, also share with Rei a unique familial bond that he has lacked for most of his life. As he struggles to maintain himself physically and mentally through his shogi career, Rei must learn how to interact with others and understand his own complex emotions. -- -- -- Licensor: -- Aniplex of America -- 492,391 8.42
Aachi wa Ssipak -- -- - -- 1 ep -- Original -- Action Comedy -- Aachi wa Ssipak Aachi wa Ssipak -- After the world ran out of all traditional energy sources, only one remained—human excrement. To encourage citizens to produce as much waste as possible, the government implants a chip in the anus at birth, which provides citizens with "juicybars" every time it detects defecation. Juicybars are highly addictive narcotics that sometimes transform their users into mutant blue dwarfs with extreme constipation. These mutant addicts make up the "Diaper Gang," those who live underground and are focused on trying to obtain juicybars. -- -- Aachi and Ssipak are two small-time crooks who steal and sell juicybars to make it on the streets. When they meet a beautiful woman who has the anal chips of every Diaper Gang member implanted in her, producing dozens of juicybars with every dump, Aachi and Ssipak strike it rich. However, with both the government and the Diaper Gang on their tails, the two struggle to protect their newfound riches. -- -- -- Licensor: -- Flatiron Film Company -- Movie - Jun 28, 2006 -- 8,637 6.66
Agitated Screams of Maggots -- -- - -- 1 ep -- Original -- Dementia Music Horror -- Agitated Screams of Maggots Agitated Screams of Maggots -- "Agitated Screams of Maggots" was directed by Keita Kurosaka and released in 2006 with the single, "Agitated Screams of Maggots", made by Japanese rock band, DIR EN GREY. ASOM has a traditional drawing design with erotic and grotesque aspects. The video had also received some attention from it's art style and was shown at the International Film Festival Rotterdam in 2007. -- Music - Nov ??, 2006 -- 5,659 4.19
Asu no Yoichi! -- -- AIC -- 12 eps -- Manga -- Harem Comedy Romance Ecchi Martial Arts Shounen -- Asu no Yoichi! Asu no Yoichi! -- Yoichi Karasuma has spent all of his life in the mountains, training in the Soaring Wind, Divine Wind swordsmanship style. Under his father’s guidance, he is able to master the technique at the age of 17. With nothing left to learn, Yoichi is sent to a new dojo located in the city so he can continue to train and gain an understanding of modern society. -- -- Unfortunately, Yoichi has no idea how to act or speak to anyone in the present day and acts like a samurai, complete with odd speech and traditional clothing. As he goes to live with the Ikaruga sisters at the dojo, Yoichi, clueless on how to interact with others, is constantly hurtled in hilarious misunderstandings. Asu no Yoichi! follows Yoichi as he stumbles through his new life and tries to learn how to live in the modern world with his new family. -- -- 178,864 6.77
Binzume Yousei -- -- Xebec -- 13 eps -- Original -- Comedy Fantasy Magic Slice of Life -- Binzume Yousei Binzume Yousei -- Set in the year 2004, Binzume Yousei is a slice-of-life fairy tale that revolves around four fairies, each represented by four unique colors as seen with their magical bottle jars. These fairies are the extremely peppy Kururu, the reserved and feminine Chiriri, the samurai-loving tomboy Sarara, and the quiet yet quirky Hororo. -- -- Fascinated by the human world, these fairies arrived from the fairy world in hopes of participating in the annual traditions and overall way of human life. However, they have a very limited understanding of the human world. Luckily, they are befriended and guided by two humans—"Sensei-san," a university student who they live with, and a first-grade girl they call "Tama-chan," who is sometimes as naive as the fairies themselves. -- -- Though these bottle fairies have strange ideas and sometimes have difficulty understanding this new world, they try to make the most of the human experience in their own cute little ways. -- -- -- Licensor: -- Geneon Entertainment USA -- TV - Oct 3, 2003 -- 16,654 6.44
Dagashi Kashi -- -- feel. -- 12 eps -- Manga -- Comedy Shounen Slice of Life -- Dagashi Kashi Dagashi Kashi -- Out in the countryside stands a sweet shop run by the Shikada family for nine generations: Shikada Dagashi, a small business selling traditional Japanese candy. However, despite his father's pleas, Kokonotsu Shikada, an aspiring manga artist, adamantly refuses to inherit the family business. -- -- However, this may start to change with the arrival of the eccentric Hotaru Shidare. Hotaru is in search of Kokonotsu's father, with the goal of bringing him back to work for her family's company, Shidare Corporation, a world famous sweets manufacturer. Although the senior Shikada initially refuses, he states that he will change his mind on one condition: if Hotaru can convince Kokonotsu to take over the family shop. And so begins Hotaru's mission to enlighten the boy on the true joy of delicious and nostalgic dagashi! -- -- 351,768 6.62
Dagashi Kashi -- -- feel. -- 12 eps -- Manga -- Comedy Shounen Slice of Life -- Dagashi Kashi Dagashi Kashi -- Out in the countryside stands a sweet shop run by the Shikada family for nine generations: Shikada Dagashi, a small business selling traditional Japanese candy. However, despite his father's pleas, Kokonotsu Shikada, an aspiring manga artist, adamantly refuses to inherit the family business. -- -- However, this may start to change with the arrival of the eccentric Hotaru Shidare. Hotaru is in search of Kokonotsu's father, with the goal of bringing him back to work for her family's company, Shidare Corporation, a world famous sweets manufacturer. Although the senior Shikada initially refuses, he states that he will change his mind on one condition: if Hotaru can convince Kokonotsu to take over the family shop. And so begins Hotaru's mission to enlighten the boy on the true joy of delicious and nostalgic dagashi! -- -- -- Licensor: -- Funimation -- 351,768 6.62
Dorohedoro: Ma no Omake -- -- MAPPA -- 6 eps -- Manga -- Action Comedy Horror Fantasy Seinen -- Dorohedoro: Ma no Omake Dorohedoro: Ma no Omake -- Dorohedoro: Ma no Omake further explores the world of sorcerers and the Hole, honing in on what the characters do in their spare time when they are not seeking out their enemies. -- -- Kamen Kakusa -- Fujita attends a mask conjuring ritual in hopes of a Devil bestowing him with an appropriate mask, like the ones his colleagues Noi and Shin possess. Hopefully his offering entices the mask-maker! -- -- Tenpo For You -- Nikaidou, lacking money and forced to sell gyoza on the streets of the Hole, stumbles upon a quaint shop selling tea and sweets. Its owner is the gentle and hospitable Syueron, but it seems the denizens of the Hole bear a grudge against him. -- -- Shitappa Seishun Graffiti -- Intrigued by the photographs hanging around the mansion, Ebisu approaches En hoping for a portrait of her own. However, she is disappointed to find that only members of the En Family can have their pictures taken. -- -- Anata no Shiranai Gyoza no Kai -- The Gyoza Fairy keeps the Hungry Bug in pristine condition, but his primary responsibility is ensuring the gyoza tastes good. So he becomes rather agitated when Nikaidou's customers do not properly enjoy their meals. -- -- Odoru Ma no Utage -- En is enthusiastic about his masquerade ball and is adamant on his family's participation. Per tradition, attendees must choose a partner and dance to appease the Devils. To their horror, they discover that failing to do so may incur nasty consequences! -- -- Yokaze ni Fukarete Ooba Kinenbi -- Nikaidou gives detailed instructions on preparing oba gyoza and Kaiman is eager to help! -- -- Special - Jun 17, 2020 -- 29,004 7.11
Eikoku Koi Monogatari Emma -- -- Studio Pierrot -- 12 eps -- Manga -- Slice of Life Historical Drama Romance Seinen -- Eikoku Koi Monogatari Emma Eikoku Koi Monogatari Emma -- Emma has been a maid for most of her life. Working for a retired governess—the strict but compassionate Kelly Stownar—Emma has grown to love her work and has long since accepted her place in society. Beautiful, hardworking, and exceptionally kind, Emma has captured the hearts of many of London's working men—but their feelings always remain unrequited. Emma is waiting for love, and she finds it in the most unlikely of places. -- -- William is the eldest son of the wealthy Jones household—a family that has only recently been accepted into the gentry, securing their position in high society. He is also the former ward of Mrs. Stownar, and on his first visit in years, he falls madly in love with her maid. His earnest attempts to win her affection, coupled with his good nature and warm personality, have captured Emma's heart. -- -- But the polite society of 19th century England does not take kindly to the rejection of tradition. As a result, Emma and William's relationship could not face more opposition. In a world where the class lines are as strongly defended as the borders of nations, does their love have the strength to survive? -- -- -- Licensor: -- Nozomi Entertainment -- 44,536 7.66
Flying Witch -- -- J.C.Staff -- 12 eps -- Manga -- Slice of Life Comedy Supernatural Magic Shounen -- Flying Witch Flying Witch -- In the witches' tradition, when a practitioner turns 15, they must become independent and leave their home to study witchcraft. Makoto Kowata is one such apprentice witch who leaves her parents' home in Yokohama in pursuit of knowledge and training. Along with her companion Chito, a black cat familiar, they embark on a journey to Aomori, a region favored by witches due to its abundance of nature and affinity with magic. They begin their new life by living with Makoto's second cousins, Kei Kuramoto and his little sister Chinatsu. -- -- While Makoto may seem to be attending high school like any other teenager, her whimsical and eccentric involvement with witchcraft sets her apart from others her age. From her encounter with an anthropomorphic dog fortune teller to the peculiar magic training she receives from her older sister Akane, Makoto's peaceful everyday life is filled with the idiosyncrasies of witchcraft that she shares with her friends and family. -- -- 217,847 7.53
Flying Witch -- -- J.C.Staff -- 12 eps -- Manga -- Slice of Life Comedy Supernatural Magic Shounen -- Flying Witch Flying Witch -- In the witches' tradition, when a practitioner turns 15, they must become independent and leave their home to study witchcraft. Makoto Kowata is one such apprentice witch who leaves her parents' home in Yokohama in pursuit of knowledge and training. Along with her companion Chito, a black cat familiar, they embark on a journey to Aomori, a region favored by witches due to its abundance of nature and affinity with magic. They begin their new life by living with Makoto's second cousins, Kei Kuramoto and his little sister Chinatsu. -- -- While Makoto may seem to be attending high school like any other teenager, her whimsical and eccentric involvement with witchcraft sets her apart from others her age. From her encounter with an anthropomorphic dog fortune teller to the peculiar magic training she receives from her older sister Akane, Makoto's peaceful everyday life is filled with the idiosyncrasies of witchcraft that she shares with her friends and family. -- -- -- Licensor: -- Sentai Filmworks -- 217,847 7.53
Furusato Saisei: Nippon no Mukashibanashi -- -- Tomason -- 258 eps -- Other -- Historical Kids Supernatural -- Furusato Saisei: Nippon no Mukashibanashi Furusato Saisei: Nippon no Mukashibanashi -- Like in any culture, Japanese kids grow up listening to the stories repeatedly told by their parents and grandparents. The boy born from a peach; the princess from the moon who is discovered inside a bamboo; the old man who can make a dead cherry tree blossom, etc. These short stories that teach kids to see both the dark and bright sides of life have passed traditional moral values from generation to generation. -- -- Each half-hour episode of Folktales from Japan consists of three self-contained stories, well-known and unknown, with a special focus on heartwarming stories that originate from Tohoku, the northern region heavily touched by the earthquake of 2011. May this program help cheer up earthquake victims and cast a light of hope for them? -- -- (Source: Crunchyroll) -- 9,749 6.98
Futon -- -- - -- 1 ep -- Original -- Music Dementia -- Futon Futon -- A futon, a traditional Japanese mattress, as seen by Yoriko Mizushiri, becomes the vehicle of dream fantasies combining the most pleasant sensations such as the morning coffee, the warmth of bedding and a soft rice carpet under one’s feet. Lazy stretching serves as a start of sensuous, sleepy gymnastics. With a fluid movement, the passive body will turn once again from the left to the right of the mattress to dive into the fantasies of even deeper unconsciousness a little while later. -- -- (Source: Krakow Film Festival) -- Movie - ??? ??, 2012 -- 708 5.18
Ginga Tetsudou Monogatari -- -- Planet -- 26 eps -- Original -- Action Adventure Drama Sci-Fi Space -- Ginga Tetsudou Monogatari Ginga Tetsudou Monogatari -- In the distant future, trains are no longer bound by their physical tracks. Instead, they take to the skies and travel across the universe on the Galaxy Railways, transporting mankind from planet to planet. However, the Galaxy Railways are no safer than traditional trains: criminals, terrorists, and vile aliens always find a way to stir up trouble. -- -- Manabu Yuuki, a rash and hot-headed man, is the latest addition to the Galaxy Railways' elite Space Defence Force (SDF). These brave men and women are responsible for protecting the railways and responding to any unprecedented danger, risking their lives to protect the innocent from evil. But as this drama unfolds and the SDF's greatest crisis draws nearer, Manabu must truly learn what it means to be a member of the SDF before it is too late. -- -- -- Licensor: -- Funimation -- TV - Oct 4, 2003 -- 9,901 7.15
Girls & Panzer -- -- Actas -- 12 eps -- Original -- Action Sports Military School -- Girls & Panzer Girls & Panzer -- "Senshadou" is a traditional sport using World War II era tanks in elimination-based matches. Widely practiced by women and girls alike, it's advertised as a form of art geared towards making ladies more prominent in culture and appealing to men. Becoming a worldwide phenomenon over time, the influence of senshadou leads to the creation of a world championship which will soon be held in Japan. -- -- Miho Nishizumi, who comes from a lineage of well-respected senshadou specialists, is at odds with the sport after a traumatic event led to her retirement and eventually a rift to form between her and her family. To steer clear of the practice as much as possible, she transfers to Ooarai Girls High School where the senshadou program has been abolished. However, with the news of the upcoming championships, the school revives their tankery program, and Miho is pushed into joining. -- -- Now, with the aid of some new friends, she must overcome her past and once again take command of a squadron of tanks in an effort to save her school from closure, all while proving to her family that the Nishizumi-style of senshadou is not solely about victory. -- -- -- Licensor: -- Sentai Filmworks -- 233,999 7.54
Go! Go! 575 -- -- C2C, Lay-duce -- 4 eps -- Game -- Slice of Life -- Go! Go! 575 Go! Go! 575 -- Go! Go! 575 adapts the Project 575 games for PlayStation Vita and iOS, which allow anyone to create songs using the traditional Japanese 5-7-5-syllable meter found in haiku and tanka poems. -- -- (Source: ANN) -- TV - Jan 10, 2014 -- 10,389 5.65
Gundam Evolve -- -- Sunrise -- 15 eps -- Original -- Action Military Space Mecha -- Gundam Evolve Gundam Evolve -- A series of short films packaged with certain model kits and aired at conventions, the Gundam Evolve series chronicles a number of side-stories, alternative scenes, and even bonus omake from all around the Gundam canon. Featuring a mix of animation media—from traditional cels to 3-D CG rendering to even cel-shaded 2-D animation—these often 3-5 minute shorts cover such events as Domon Kasshu's training (and a bit of a romantic tift with Rain Mikamura) from G Gundam, Amuro Ray battling Quess Paraya from Char's Counterattack, Kamille Bidan training in the Gundam Mk.II from Zeta Gundam, and Canard Pars dueling Prayer Reverie from the Gundam SEED X Astray manga. -- -- (Source: ANN) -- -- Licensor: -- Nozomi Entertainment -- OVA - ??? ??, 2001 -- 9,319 6.61
Heart no Kuni no Alice: Wonderful Wonder World -- -- Asahi Production -- 1 ep -- Visual novel -- Fantasy Harem Romance Shoujo -- Heart no Kuni no Alice: Wonderful Wonder World Heart no Kuni no Alice: Wonderful Wonder World -- The girly but bloody otome game re-imagining of Lewis Carroll's classic fantasy novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland with bishounen characters and added romance. -- -- A parody of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland where Alice is smart and non-doormatlike. -- -- In this story, Alice is not all what she seems. She is practical, strong, yet darkly cynical. Instead of the tradition story, Alice is kidnapped unwillingly by a mysterious (yet somewhat bishie-looking) man with bunny ears into a place call Heartland. Stuck in Heartland due to a trick by the mysterious bunny eared man, she meets the residents of this world. Along the way, Alice meets Blood, handsome mafia leader; Ace, the psycho yet charming knight and more... What should Alice do in such a world!? -- -- (Source: MU) -- Movie - Jul 30, 2011 -- 28,342 6.07
Heavy Object -- -- J.C.Staff, SANZIGEN -- 24 eps -- Light novel -- Action Military Sci-Fi Mecha -- Heavy Object Heavy Object -- In the distant future, the nature of war has changed. "Objects"—massive, spherical tanks impermeable to standard weaponry and armed with destructive firepower—rule the battlefield; their very deployment ensures victory, rendering traditional armies useless. However, this new method of warfare is about to be turned on its head. -- -- Qwenthur Barbotage, a student studying Object Design, and Havia Winchell, a radar analyst of noble birth, serve in the Legitimate Kingdom's 37th Mobile Maintenance Battalion, tasked with supporting the Baby Magnum, one of the nation's Objects. Unfortunately, a battle gone awry places the duo in a precarious situation: mere infantry stand face-to-face against the unfathomable might of an enemy Object. As they scramble to save themselves and their fellow soldiers, a glimmer of hope shines through, and the world's perception of Objects is changed forever. -- -- Heavy Object follows these two soldiers alongside Milinda Brantini, the Baby Magnum's pilot, and their commanding officer Frolaytia Capistrano as the unit treks all over the globe to fight