classes ::: programming, media,
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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
bigindex
dir_KEYS
dir_KEYS
dir_lib
keys_(database)
Library
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SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS

IN CHAPTERS TITLE

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT

PRIMARY CLASS

media
programming
SIMILAR TITLES
databases

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH


TERMS ANYWHERE

Adaplex "language, database" An extension of {Ada} for {functional databases}. ["Adaplex: Rationale and Reference Manual 2nd ed", J.M. Smith et al, Computer Corp America, Cambridge MA, 1983]. (1995-02-14)

Adaplex ::: (language, database) An extension of Ada for functional databases.[Adaplex: Rationale and Reference Manual 2nd ed, J.M. Smith et al, Computer Corp America, Cambridge MA, 1983]. (1995-02-14)

Aditi ::: (database, project) The Aditi Deductive Database System. A multi-user deductive database system from the Machine Intelligence Project at the in the sense of relational databases) and derived relations defined by rules that specify how to compute new information from old information.Both base relations and the rules defining derived relations are stored on disk and are accessed as required during query evaluation. The rules defining derived relations are expressed in a Prolog-like language, which is also used for expressing queries.Aditi supports the full structured data capability of Prolog. Base relations can store arbitrarily nested terms, for example arbitrary length lists, and rules can directly manipulate such terms. Base relations can be indexed with B-trees or multi-level signature files.Users can access the system through a Motif-based query and database administration tool, or through a command line interface. There is also in interface that allows NU-Prolog programs to access Aditi in a transparent manner. Proper transaction processing is not supported in this release.The beta release runs on SPARC/SunOS4.1.2 and MIPS/Irix4.0.E-mail: . (1992-12-17)

Aditi "database, project" The Aditi Deductive Database System. A multi-user {deductive database} system from the Machine Intelligence Project at the {University of Melbourne}. It supports base {relations} defined by {facts} (relations in the sense of {relational databases}) and {derived relations} defined by {rules} that specify how to compute new information from old information. Both base relations and the rules defining derived relations are stored on disk and are accessed as required during query evaluation. The rules defining derived relations are expressed in a {Prolog}-like language, which is also used for expressing queries. Aditi supports the full structured data capability of Prolog. Base relations can store arbitrarily nested terms, for example arbitrary length lists, and rules can directly manipulate such terms. Base relations can be indexed with {B-trees} or multi-level signature files. Users can access the system through a {Motif}-based query and database administration tool, or through a command line interface. There is also in interface that allows {NU-Prolog} programs to access Aditi in a transparent manner. Proper {transaction processing} is not supported in this release. The beta release runs on {SPARC}/{SunOS4}.1.2 and {MIPS}/{Irix}4.0. E-mail: "aditi@cs.mu.oz.au". (1992-12-17)

AIDX ::: (abuse, operating system) /aydkz/ A derogatory term for IBM's perverted version of Unix, AIX, especially for the AIX 3.? used in the IBM RS/6000 series many users are logged on, the load average jumps quickly over 20 due to silly implementation of the user databases.For a quite similar disease, compare HP-SUX. Also, compare Macintrash Nominal Semidestructor, Open DeathTrap, ScumOS, sun-stools.[Jargon File] (1995-04-13)

AIDX "abuse, operating system" /aydkz/ A derogatory term for {IBM}'s perverted version of {Unix}, {AIX}, especially for the AIX 3.? used in the {IBM RS/6000} series (some hackers think it is funnier just to pronounce "AIX" as "aches"). A victim of the dreaded "hybridism" disease, this attempt to combine the two main currents of the Unix stream ({BSD} and {USG Unix}) became a monstrosity to haunt system administrators' dreams. For example, if new accounts are created while many users are logged on, the load average jumps quickly over 20 due to silly implementation of the user databases. For a quite similar disease, compare {HP-SUX}. Also, compare {Macintrash} {Nominal Semidestructor}, {Open DeathTrap}, {ScumOS}, {sun-stools}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-04-13)

ANSI Z39.50 ::: (networking, standard) Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications, officially known as ANSI/NISO an OSI application layer service to allow an application on one computer to query a database on another.Z39.50 is used in libraries and for searching some databases on the Internet. The US is the official maintanence agency for Z39.50.Index Data, a Danish company, have released a lot of Z39.50 code. Their website explains the relevant ISO standards and how they are amicably converging in Z39.50 version 4.0. . . (1996-07-22)

ANSI Z39.50 "networking, standard" Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications, officially known as ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1992, and ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1995. This {standard}, used by {WAIS}, specifies an {OSI} {application layer} service to allow an application on one computer to query a {database} on another. Z39.50 is used in libraries and for searching some databases on the {Internet}. The US {Library of Congress (http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/agency/)} is the official maintanence agency for Z39.50. {Index Data}, a Danish company, have released a lot of Z39.50 code. Their {website} explains the relevant {ISO} {standards} and how they are amicably converging in Z39.50 version 4.0. {Overview (http://nlc-bnc.ca/ifla/VI/5/op/udtop3.htm)}. {Z39.50 resources (http://lamp.cs.utas.edu.au/net.html

Apache "web, project" A {open source} {HTTP} server for {Unix}, {Windows NT}, and other {platforms}. Apache was developed in early 1995, based on code and ideas found in the most popular HTTP server of the time, {NCSA httpd} 1.3. It has since evolved to rival (and probably surpass) almost any other {Unix} based HTTP server in terms of functionality, and speed. Since April 1996 Apache has been the most popular HTTP server on the {Internet}, in May 1999 it was running on 57% of all web servers. It features highly configurable error messages, {DBM}-based {authentication} {databases}, and {content negotiation}. {(http://apache.org/httpd.html)}. {FAQ (http://apache.org/docs/misc/FAQ.html)}. (1999-10-27)

Apache ::: (World-Wide Web, project) A open source HTTP server for Unix, Windows NT, and other platforms. Apache was developed in early 1995, based on code and ideas popular HTTP server on the Internet, in May 1999 it was running on 57% of all web servers.It features highly configurable error messages, DBM-based authentication databases, and content negotiation.Latest version: 1.3.9, as of 1999-10-27. . . (1999-10-27)

application server 1. "software" A {designer}'s or {developer}'s suite of {software} that helps {programmers} isolate the {business logic} in their {programs} from the {platform}-related code. {Application} {servers} can handle all of the {application} {logic} and {connectivity} found in {client-server} {applications}. Many {application} {servers} also offer features such as {transaction management}, {clustering} and {failover}, and {load balancing}; nearly all offer {ODBC} support. {Application} {servers} range from small {footprint}, web-based {processors} for intelligent appliances or remote {embedded} devices, to complete environments for assembling, deploying, and maintaining {scalable} {multi-tier} applications across an {enterprise}. 2. "software" Production {programs} run on a mid-sized computer that handle all {application} operations between {browser}-based computers and an organisation's back-end business {applications} or {databases}. The {application} {server} works as a translator, allowing, for example, a customer with a {browser} to search an online retailer's {database} for pricing information. 3. "hardware" The device on which {application} {server} {software} runs. {Application Service Providers} offer commercial access to such devices. {Citrix Application Serving White Paper (http://citrix.com/press/corpinfo/application_serving_wp_0700.pdf)}. {Application Server Sites, a list maintained by Vayda & Herzum (http://componentfactory.org/links/appl.htm)}. {The Application Server Zone at DevX, (http://appserver-zone.com/default.asp)}. {TechMetrix Research's Application Server Directory, (http://techmetrix.com/trendmarkers/techmetrixasd.php3)}. (2001-03-30)

Big Gray Wall "jargon" What faces a {VMS} user searching for documentation. A full VMS kit comes on a pallet, the documentation taking up around 15 feet of shelf space before the addition of layered products such as {compilers}, {databases}, multi-vendor networking, and programming tools. Recent (since VMS version 5) DEC documentation comes with grey binders; under VMS version 4 the binders were orange and under version 3 they were blue. Often contracted to "Gray Wall". [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-07)

Borland Software Corporation ::: (company) A company that sells a variety of PC software development and database systems. Borland was founded in 1983 and initially became famous for their low-cost software, particularly Turbo Pascal, Turbo C, and Turbo Prolog.Current and past products include the Borland C++ C++ and C developement environment, the Paradox and dBASE databases, Delphi, JBuilder, and InterBase.Borland has approximately 1000 employees worldwide and has operations in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.Borland sold Quattro Pro to Novell in 1994 for $100M. Novell later sold the product to Corel Corporation, who also bought Paradox. dBASE was sold in March(?) 1999 to dBase Inc.In Febuary 1998 Borland bought Visigenic Software, Inc..The company changed its name to Inprise Corporation on 1998-04-29 and then on 2000-11-14 they announced they were changing it back to Borland from the first quarter of 2001.Quarterly sales $69M, profits $61M (Aug 1994). $56M, $6.4M (July 2001) .Headquarters: 100 Borland Way, Scotts Valley, CA, 95066, USA. Telephone: +1 (408) 431 1000.(2002-03-16)

Borland Software Corporation "company" A company that sells a variety of {PC} software development and {database} systems. Borland was founded in 1983 and initially became famous for their low-cost software, particularly {Turbo Pascal}, {Turbo C}, and {Turbo Prolog}. Current and past products include the {Borland C++} C++ and C developement environment, the {Paradox} and {dBASE} {databases}, {Delphi}, {JBuilder}, and {InterBase}. Borland has approximately 1000 employees worldwide and has operations in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Borland sold {Quattro} Pro to {Novell} in 1994 for $100M. Novell later sold the product to {Corel Corporation}, who also bought {Paradox}. dBASE was sold in March(?) 1999 to {dBase Inc.} In Febuary 1998 Borland bought {Visigenic Software, Inc.}. The company changed its name to Inprise Corporation on 1998-04-29 and then on 2000-11-14 they announced they were changing it back to Borland from the first quarter of 2001. Quarterly sales $69M, profits $61M (Aug 1994). $56M, $6.4M (July 2001) {(http://borland.com/)}. Headquarters: 100 Borland Way, Scotts Valley, CA, 95066, USA. Telephone: +1 (408) 431 1000. (2002-03-16)

Call-Level Interface ::: (database, standard) (SQL/CLI) A programming interface designed to support SQL access to databases from shrink-wrapped application programs.CLI was originally created by a subcommittee of the SQL Access Group (SAG). The SAG/CLI specification was published as the Microsoft Open DataBase Connectivity (ODBC) specification in 1992. In 1993, SAG submitted the CLI to the ANSI and ISO SQL committees.SQL/CLI provides an international standard implementation-independent CLI to access SQL databases. Client-server tools can easily access databases through dynamic link libraries. It supports and encourages a rich set of client-server tools.SQL/CLI is an addendum to 1992 SQL standard (SQL-92). It was completed as ISO standard ISO/IEC 9075-3:1995 Information technology -- Database languages -- SQL -- Part 3: Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI). The current SQL/CLI effort is adding support for SQL3. . (1996-10-27)

Call-Level Interface "database, standard" (SQL/CLI) A programming interface designed to support {SQL} access to {databases} from shrink-wrapped {application programs}. CLI was originally created by a subcommittee of the {SQL Access Group} (SAG). The SAG/CLI specification was published as the {Microsoft} {Open DataBase Connectivity} (ODBC) specification in 1992. In 1993, SAG submitted the CLI to the {ANSI} and {ISO} SQL committees. SQL/CLI provides an international standard implementation-independent CLI to access SQL databases. {Client-server} tools can easily access databases through {dynamic link libraries}. It supports and encourages a rich set of client-server tools. SQL/CLI is an addendum to 1992 SQL standard (SQL-92). It was completed as ISO standard ISO/IEC 9075-3:1995 Information technology -- Database languages -- SQL -- Part 3: Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI). The current SQL/CLI effort is adding support for {SQL3}. {(http://jcc.com/sql_cli.html)}. (1996-10-27)

Campus Wide Information System (CWIS) Information and services made publicly available at university sites via {kiosks} running interactive computing systems, possibly via campus networks. Services routinely include directory information, calendars, {bulletin boards} and {databases}. (1994-11-09)

Campus Wide Information System ::: (CWIS) Information and services made publicly available at university sites via kiosks running interactive computing systems, possibly via campus networks. Services routinely include directory information, calendars, bulletin boards and databases. (1994-11-09)

child record "database" A {record} lower in the hierarchical tree than a parent record; it is also directly liked to the parent and hierarchical {databases}. (1995-04-13)

child record ::: (database) A record lower in the hierarchical tree than a parent record; it is also directly liked to the parent and hierarchical databases. (1995-04-13)

ColdFusion "web, database, tool" {Allaire Corporation}'s commercial {database} application development tool that allows {databases} to have a {web interface}, so a database can be queried and updated using a {web browser}. The ColdFusion Server application runs on the {web server} and has access to a {database}. ColdFusion files on the web server are {HTML} pages with additional ColdFusion commands to {query} or {update} the database, written in {CFML}. When the page is requested by the user, the {web server} passes the page to the Cold Fusion application, which executes the {CFML} commands, places the results of the {CFML} commands in the {HTML} file, and returns the page to the {web server}. The page returned to the {web server} is now an ordinary {HTML} file, and it is sent to the user. Examples of ColdFusion applications include order entry, event registration, catalogue search, directories, calendars, and interactive training. ColdFusion applications are robust because all database interactions are encapsulated in a single industrial-strength {CGI} script. The formatting and presentation can be modified and revised at any time (as opposed to having to edit and recompile {source code}). ColdFusion Server can connect with any database that supports {ODBC} or {OLE DB} or one that has a native database driver. Native database drivers are available for {Oracle} and {Sybase} databases. ColdFusion is available for {Windows}, {Solaris}, and {HP-UX}. A {development environment} for creating ColdFusion files, called ColdFusion Studio, is also available for {Windows}. The {filename extension} for ColdFusion files is .cfm {(http://coldfusion.com/)}. (2003-07-27)

ColdFusion ::: (World-Wide Web, database, tool) Allaire Corporation's commercial database application development tool that allows databases to have a World-Wide Web interface, so a database can be queried and updated using a web browser.The ColdFusion Server application runs on the web server and has access to a database. ColdFusion files on the web server are HTML pages with additional returned to the web server is now an ordinary HTML file, and it is sent to the user.Examples of ColdFusion applications include order entry, event registration, catalogue search, directories, calendars, and interactive training. ColdFusion modified and revised at any time (as opposed to having to edit and recompile source code).ColdFusion Server can connect with any database that supports ODBC or OLE DB or one that has a native database driver. Native database drivers are available for Oracle and Sybase databases.ColdFusion is available for Windows, Solaris, and HP-UX. A development environment for creating ColdFusion files, called ColdFusion Studio, is also available for Windows.Current version: MX(6), as of 2003-07-11.The filename extension for ColdFusion files is .cfm .(2003-07-27)

Compact Disc Read-Only Memory "storage" (CD-ROM) A {non-volatile} optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio {compact discs}, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. CD-ROM is popular for distribution of large databases, software and especially {multimedia} {applications}. The maximum capacity is about 600 megabytes. A CD can store around 640 {megabytes} of data - about 12 billion bytes per pound weight. CD-ROM drives are rated with a speed factor relative to music CDs (1x or 1-speed which gives a data transfer rate of 150 {kilobytes} per second). 12x drives were common in April 1997. Above 12x speed, there are problems with vibration and heat. {Constant angular velocity} (CAV) drives give speeds up to 20x but due to the nature of CAV the actual throughput increase over 12x is less than 20/12. 20x was thought to be the maximum speed due to mechanical constraints but on 1998-02-24, {Samsung Electronics} introduced the SCR-3230, a 32x CD-ROM drive which uses a ball bearing system to balance the spinning CD-ROM in the drive to reduce noise. CD-ROM drives may connect to an {IDE} interface, a {SCSI} interface or a propritary interface, of which there are three - Sony, Panasonic, and Mitsumi. Most CD-ROM drives can also play audio CDs. There are several formats used for CD-ROM data, including {Green Book CD-ROM}, {White Book CD-ROM} and {Yellow Book CD-ROM}. {ISO 9660} defines a standard {file system}, later extended by {Joliet}. See also {Compact Disc Recordable}, {Digital Versatile Disc}. {Byte, February 1997 (http://byte.com/art/9702/sec17/art5.htm)}. (2006-09-25)

Compact Disc Read-Only Memory ::: (storage) (CD-ROM) A non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive.CD-ROM is popular for distribution of large databases, software and especially multimedia applications. The maximum capacity is about 600 megabytes. A CD can store around 640 megabytes of data - about 12 billion bytes per pound weight.CD-ROM drives are rated with a speed factor relative to music CDs (1x or 1-speed which gives a data transfer rate of 150 kilobytes per second). 12x drives were heat. Constant angular velocity (CAV) drives give speeds up to 20x but due to the nature of CAV the actual throughput increase over 12x is less than 20/12.20x was thought to be the maximum speed due to mechanical constraints but on 1998-02-24, Samsung Electronics introduced the SCR-3230, a 32x CD-ROM drive which uses a ball bearing system to balance the spinning CD-ROM in the drive to reduce noise.CD-ROM drives may connect to an IDE interface, a SCSI interface or a propritary interface, of which there are three - Sony, Panasonic, and Mitsumi. Most CD-ROM drives can also play audio CDs.There are several formats used for CD-ROM data, including Green Book CD-ROM, White Book CD-ROM and Yellow Book CD-ROM. ISO 9660 defines a standard file system, later extended by Joliet.See also Compact Disc Recordable, Digital Versatile Disc. .(2006-09-25)

Computer Telephone Integration "communications" (CTI or "- Telephony -") Enabling computers to know about and control telephony functions such as making and receiving voice, {fax} and data calls, telephone directory services and {caller identification}. CTI is used in call centres to link incoming calls to computer software functions such as database look-up of the caller's number, supported by services such as {Automatic Number Identification} and {Dialled Number Identification Service}. Application software ({middleware}) can link {personal computers} and servers with telephones and/or a {PBX}. Telephony and {software} vendors such as {AT&T}, {British Telecom}, {IBM}, {Novell}, {Microsoft} and {Intel} have developed CTI services. The main {CTI} functions are integrating {messaging} with {databases}, {word processors} etc.; controlling voice, {fax}, and {e-mail} messaging systems from a single {application program}; graphical call control - using a {graphical user interface} to perform functions such as making and receiving calls, forwarding and conferencing; call and {data} association - provision of information about the caller from databases or other applications automatically before the call is answered or transferred; {speech synthesis} and {speech recognition}; automatic logging of call related information for invoicing purposes or callback. CTI can improve customer service, increase productivity, reduce costs and enhance workflow automation. IBM were one of the first with workable CTI, now sold as "CallPath". {Callware}'s {Phonetastic} is another {middleware} product. CTI came out of the 1980s call centre boom, where it linked central servers and {IVRs} with {PBX}es to provide call transfer and {screen popping}. In the 1990s, efforts were made by several vendors, such as IBM, Novell {TSAPI} and Microsoft {TAPI}, to provide a version for {desktop computers} that would allow control of a desktop telephone and assist in {hot desking}. See also {Telephony Application Programming Interface}. (2012-11-18)

Computer Telephone Integration ::: (communications) (CTI or - Telephony -) Enabling computers to know about and control telephony functions such as making and receiving voice, fax, integration of telephone and computer systems and is a major development in the evolution of the automated office.CTI is not a new concept - such links have been used in the past in large telephone networks - but only dedicated call centres could justify the costs of Novell, Microsoft and Intel are developing better telephony services and capabilities which should eventually enable low cost CTI.The main CTI functions are integrating messaging with databases, word processors etc.; controlling voice, fax, and e-mail messaging systems from a single answered or transferred; speech synthesis and speech recognition; automatic logging of call related information for invoicing purposes or callback.Typical productivity benefits are improved customer service; increased productivity; reduced costs; enhanced workflow automation; protected investment in computers and telephony; computerised telephony intelligence.IBM were one of the first with workable CTI, now sold as CallPath. Callware's Phonetastic is typical of the new breed of middleware.CTI came out of the 1980s call centre boom, where it linked central servers and IVRs with PBXes to provide call transfer and screen popping. In the 1990s, TAPI, to provide a desktop version that would allow control of a desktop telephone and assist in hot desking.Desktop CTI was made obsolete by the mobile phone revolution, e-mail and, above all, VoIP, and CTI has never advanced outside the call centre.See also Telephony Application Programming Interface.(2003-12-04)

Conference On DAta SYstems Languages "body, data processing" (CODASYL) A consortium that developed {database models} and standard {database} extensions for {COBOL}. CODASYL was formed in 1959 to guide the development of a {standard} {programming language} that could be used on many computers. Members came from industry and government {data processing} departments. Its goal was to promote more effective data {systems analysis}, design and implementation. It published specifications for various languages over the years, handing these over to official standards bodies ({ISO}, {ANSI} or their predecessors) for formal standardisation. The 1965 List Processing Task Force worked on the {IDS/I} database extension. It later renamed itself to the Data Base Task Group (DBTG) and publishing the Codasyl Data Model, the first to allow one-to-many {relations}. This work also introduced {data definition languages} (DDLs) to define the {database schema} and a {data manipulation language} (DML) to be embedded in COBOL programs to request and update data in the database. Interest in CODASYL declined with the rise of {relational databases} beginning in the early 1980s. (2013-12-29)

conflation "database" Combining or blending of two or more versions of a text; confusion or mixing up. Conflation {algorithms} are used in {databases}. [Any specific technical meaning?] (1996-04-14)

conflation ::: (database) Combining or blending of two or more versions of a text; confusion or mixing up. Conflation algorithms are used in databases.[Any specific technical meaning?] (1996-04-14)

database administrator ::: (job) A person responsible for the design and management of one or more databases and for the evaluation, selection and implementation of database administrator would implement the database software that meets the requirements outlined by the organisation's data administrator and systems analysts.Tasks might include controling an organisation's data resources, using data dictionary software to ensure data integrity and security, recovering corrupted data and eliminating data redundancy and uses tuning tools to improve database performance.(2004-03-11)

database administrator "job" A person responsible for the design and management of one or more {databases} and for the evaluation, selection and implementation of {database management systems}. In smaller organisations, the data administrator and database administrator are often one in the same; however, when they are different, the database administrator's function is more technical. The database administrator would implement the database software that meets the requirements outlined by the organisation's data administrator and {systems analysts}. Tasks might include controling an organisation's data resources, using {data dictionary} software to ensure {data integrity} and security, recovering corrupted data and eliminating data redundancy and uses tuning tools to improve database performance. (2004-03-11)

database management system "database" (DBMS) A suite of programs which typically manage large structured sets of persistent data, offering ad hoc query facilities to many users. They are widely used in business applications. A database management system (DBMS) can be an extremely complex set of software programs that controls the organisation, storage and retrieval of data (fields, records and files) in a database. It also controls the security and integrity of the database. The DBMS accepts requests for data from the application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organisation's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system. Data security prevents unauthorised users from viewing or updating the database. Using passwords, users are allowed access to the entire database or subsets of the database, called subschemas (pronounced "sub-skeema"). For example, an employee database can contain all the data about an individual employee, but one group of users may be authorised to view only payroll data, while others are allowed access to only work history and medical data. The DBMS can maintain the integrity of the database by not allowing more than one user to update the same record at the same time. The DBMS can keep duplicate records out of the database; for example, no two customers with the same customer numbers (key fields) can be entered into the database. {Query languages} and {report writers} allow users to interactively interrogate the database and analyse its data. If the DBMS provides a way to interactively enter and update the database, as well as interrogate it, this capability allows for managing personal databases. However, it may not leave an audit trail of actions or provide the kinds of controls necessary in a multi-user organisation. These controls are only available when a set of application programs are customised for each data entry and updating function. A business information system is made up of subjects (customers, employees, vendors, etc.) and activities (orders, payments, purchases, etc.). Database design is the process of deciding how to organize this data into record types and how the record types will relate to each other. The DBMS should mirror the organisation's data structure and process transactions efficiently. Organisations may use one kind of DBMS for daily transaction processing and then move the detail onto another computer that uses another DBMS better suited for random inquiries and analysis. Overall systems design decisions are performed by data administrators and systems analysts. Detailed database design is performed by database administrators. The three most common organisations are the {hierarchical database}, {network database} and {relational database}. A database management system may provide one, two or all three methods. Inverted lists and other methods are also used. The most suitable structure depends on the application and on the transaction rate and the number of inquiries that will be made. Database machines are specially designed computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Connected to one or more mainframes via a high-speed channel, database machines are used in large volume transaction processing environments. Database machines have a large number of DBMS functions built into the hardware and also provide special techniques for accessing the disks containing the databases, such as using multiple processors concurrently for high-speed searches. The world of information is made up of data, text, pictures and voice. Many DBMSs manage text as well as data, but very few manage both with equal proficiency. Throughout the 1990s, as storage capacities continue to increase, DBMSs will begin to integrate all forms of information. Eventually, it will be common for a database to handle data, text, graphics, voice and video with the same ease as today's systems handle data. See also: {intelligent database}. (1998-10-07)

database management system ::: (database) (DBMS) A suite of programs which typically manage large structured sets of persistent data, offering ad hoc query facilities to many users. They are widely used in business applications.A database management system (DBMS) can be an extremely complex set of software programs that controls the organisation, storage and retrieval of data (fields, the database. The DBMS accepts requests for data from the application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data.When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organisation's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system.Data security prevents unauthorised users from viewing or updating the database. Using passwords, users are allowed access to the entire database or subsets of group of users may be authorised to view only payroll data, while others are allowed access to only work history and medical data.The DBMS can maintain the integrity of the database by not allowing more than one user to update the same record at the same time. The DBMS can keep duplicate records out of the database; for example, no two customers with the same customer numbers (key fields) can be entered into the database.Query languages and report writers allow users to interactively interrogate the database and analyse its data.If the DBMS provides a way to interactively enter and update the database, as well as interrogate it, this capability allows for managing personal databases. available when a set of application programs are customised for each data entry and updating function.A business information system is made up of subjects (customers, employees, vendors, etc.) and activities (orders, payments, purchases, etc.). Database and how the record types will relate to each other. The DBMS should mirror the organisation's data structure and process transactions efficiently.Organisations may use one kind of DBMS for daily transaction processing and then move the detail onto another computer that uses another DBMS better suited for data administrators and systems analysts. Detailed database design is performed by database administrators.The three most common organisations are the hierarchical database, network database and relational database. A database management system may provide one, most suitable structure depends on the application and on the transaction rate and the number of inquiries that will be made.Database machines are specially designed computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Connected to one or more accessing the disks containing the databases, such as using multiple processors concurrently for high-speed searches.The world of information is made up of data, text, pictures and voice. Many DBMSs manage text as well as data, but very few manage both with equal common for a database to handle data, text, graphics, voice and video with the same ease as today's systems handle data.See also: intelligent database. (1998-10-07)

database normalisation ::: (database) A series of steps followed to obtain a database design that allows for efficient access and storage of data in a relational database. These steps reduce data redundancy and the chances of data becoming inconsistent.A table in a relational database is said to be in normal form if it satisfies certain constraints. Codd's original work defined three such forms but there are is called First Normal Form (1NF), the output of the second step is Second Normal Form (2NF), etc.First Normal Form eliminates repeating groups by putting each value of a multi-valued attribute into a new row.Second Normal Form eliminates functional dependencies on a partial key by putting the fields in a separate table from those that are dependent on the whole key.Third Normal Form eliminates functional dependencies on non-key fields by putting them in a separate table. At this stage, all non-key fields are dependent on the key, the whole key and nothing but the key.Fourth Normal Form separates independent multi-valued facts stored in one table into separate tables.Fifth Normal Form breaks out data redundancy that is not covered by any of the previous normal forms. .[What about non-relational databases?](2005-07-28)

database normalisation "database" A series of steps followed to obtain a {database} design that allows for efficient access and {storage} of data in a {relational database}. These steps reduce data redundancy and the chances of data becoming inconsistent. A {table} in a {relational database} is said to be in normal form if it satisfies certain {constraints}. {Codd}'s original work defined three such forms but there are now five generally accepted steps of normalisation. The output of the first step is called First Normal Form (1NF), the output of the second step is Second Normal Form (2NF), etc. First Normal Form eliminates {repeating groups} by putting each value of a multi-valued attribute into a new row. Second Normal Form eliminates {functional dependencies} on a {partial key} by putting the fields in a separate table from those that are dependent on the whole {key}. Third Normal Form eliminates functional dependencies on non-key fields by putting them in a separate table. At this stage, all non-key fields are dependent on the key, the whole key and nothing but the key. Fourth Normal Form separates independent multi-valued facts stored in one table into separate tables. Fifth Normal Form breaks out data redundancy that is not covered by any of the previous normal forms. {(http://bkent.net/Doc/simple5.htm)}. [What about non-relational databases?] (2005-07-28)

Data definition language "language, database" (DDL) 1. A language enabling the structure and instances of a {database} to be defined in a human-, and machine-readable form. {SQL} contains DDL commands that can be used either interactively, or within programming language {source code}, to define databases and their components, e.g. CREATE and DROP. See also {Data manipulation language} (DML). 2. A specification language for databases, based on the {entity-relationship model}. It is used in the {Eli} {compiler-compiler} to manage type definitions. ["DDL Reference Manual", ECE Dept U Colorado, 1991]. (1999-04-26)

Data definition language ::: (language, database) (DDL)1. A language enabling the structure and instances of a database to be defined in a human-, and machine-readable form.SQL contains DDL commands that can be used either interactively, or within programming language source code, to define databases and their components, e.g. CREATE and DROP.See also Data manipulation language (DML).2. A specification language for databases, based on the entity-relationship model. It is used in the Eli compiler-compiler to manage type definitions.[DDL Reference Manual, ECE Dept U Colorado, 1991]. (1999-04-26)

data integration ::: The process of combining data residing in different sources and providing users with a unified view of them.[133] This process becomes significant in a variety of situations, which include both commercial (such as when two similar companies need to merge their databases) and scientific (combining research results from different bioinformatics repositories, for example) domains. Data integration appears with increasing frequency as the volume (that is, big data) and the need to share existing data explodes.[134] It has become the focus of extensive theoretical work, and numerous open problems remain unsolved.

Datalog ::: A declarative logic programming language that syntactically is a subset of Prolog. It is often used as a query language for deductive databases. In recent years, Datalog has found new application in data integration, information extraction, networking, program analysis, security, and cloud computing.[140]

data striping ::: (storage) Segmentation of logically sequential data, such as a single file, so that segments can be written to multiple physical devices (usually disk accept it. While data is being transferred from the first disk, the second disk can locate the next segment.Data striping is used in some modern databases, such as Sybase, and in certain RAID devices under hardware control, such as IBM's RAMAC array subsystem (9304/9395).Data striping is different from, and may be used in conjunction with, mirroring. (1996-10-17)

data striping "storage" Segmentation of logically {sequential} data, such as a single file, so that segments can be written to multiple physical devices (usually {disk drives}) in a {round-robin} fashion. This technique is useful if the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it. While data is being transferred from the first disk, the second disk can locate the next segment. Data striping is used in some modern {databases}, such as {Sybase}, and in certain {RAID} devices under hardware control, such as {IBM}'s {RAMAC} array subsystem (9304/9395). Data striping is different from, and may be used in conjunction with, {mirroring}. (1996-10-17)

DB2 catalog "database" An {IBM} {DB2} {system table} listing all objects in a database installation including hosts, servers, databases, tables and many more. Commands are provided to manage the catalog, e.g. db2 catalog database mydatabase on /databases/mydatabase to add a database reference. {Catalog documentation (http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/SSEPGG_9.7.0/com.ibm.db2.luw.sql.ref.doc/doc/r0011297.html)}. (2014-08-16)

decision support database ::: A database from which data is extracted and analysed statistically (but not modified) in order to inform business or other decisions. This is in contrast to an operational database which is being continuously updated.For example, a decision support database might provide data to determine the average salary of different types of workers, whereas an operational database containing the same data would be used to calculate pay check amounts.Often, decision support data is extracted from operation databases. (1995-02-14)

decision support database A {database} from which data is extracted and analysed statistically (but not modified) in order to inform business or other decisions. This is in contrast to an {operational database} which is being continuously updated. For example, a decision support database might provide data to determine the average salary of different types of workers, whereas an operational database containing the same data would be used to calculate pay check amounts. Often, decision support data is extracted from operation databases. (1995-02-14)

demon ::: 1. (operating system) (Often used equivalently to daemon, especially in the Unix world, where the latter spelling and pronunciation is considered mildly archaic). A program or part of a program which is not invoked explicitly, but that lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur.At MIT they use demon for part of a program and daemon for an operating system process.Demons (parts of programs) are particularly common in AI programs. For example, a knowledge-manipulation program might implement inference rules as demons. could continue with whatever its primary task was. This is similar to the triggers used in relational databases.The use of this term may derive from Maxwell's Demons - minute beings which can reverse the normal flow of heat from a hot body to a cold body by only and it is only in the absence of such a supply that heat must necessarily flow from hot to cold.Walt Bunch believes the term comes from the demons in Oliver Selfridge's paper Pandemonium, MIT 1958, which was named after the capital of Hell in Milton's Paradise Lost. Selfridge likened neural cells firing in response to input patterns to the chaos of millions of demons shrieking in Pandemonium.2. (company) Demon Internet Ltd.3. A program generator for differential equation problems.[N.W. Bennett, Australian AEC Research Establishment, AAEC/E142, Aug 1965].[Jargon File] (1998-09-04)

demon 1. "operating system" (Often used equivalently to {daemon}, especially in the {Unix} world, where the latter spelling and pronunciation is considered mildly archaic). A program or part of a program which is not invoked explicitly, but that lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur. At {MIT} they use "demon" for part of a program and "daemon" for an {operating system} process. Demons (parts of programs) are particularly common in {AI} programs. For example, a {knowledge}-manipulation program might implement {inference rules} as demons. Whenever a new piece of knowledge was added, various demons would activate (which demons depends on the particular piece of data) and would create additional pieces of knowledge by applying their respective inference rules to the original piece. These new pieces could in turn activate more demons as the inferences filtered down through chains of logic. Meanwhile, the main program could continue with whatever its primary task was. This is similar to the {triggers} used in {relational databases}. The use of this term may derive from "Maxwell's Demons" - minute beings which can reverse the normal flow of heat from a hot body to a cold body by only allowing fast moving molecules to go from the cold body to the hot one and slow molecules from hot to cold. The solution to this apparent thermodynamic paradox is that the demons would require an external supply of energy to do their work and it is only in the absence of such a supply that heat must necessarily flow from hot to cold. Walt Bunch believes the term comes from the demons in Oliver Selfridge's paper "Pandemonium", MIT 1958, which was named after the capital of Hell in Milton's "Paradise Lost". Selfridge likened neural cells firing in response to input patterns to the chaos of millions of demons shrieking in Pandemonium. 2. "company" {Demon Internet} Ltd. 3. A {program generator} for {differential equation} problems. [N.W. Bennett, Australian AEC Research Establishment, AAEC/E142, Aug 1965]. [{Jargon File}] (1998-09-04)

Design System language ::: J. Gaffney, Evans & Sutherland 1976. Interpretive FORTH-like language for 3d graphics databases. Earliest forerunner of both Interpress and PostScript. Mentioned in PostScript Language Reference Manual, Adobe Systems, A-W 1985.

Design System language J. Gaffney, Evans & Sutherland 1976. Interpretive FORTH-like language for 3d graphics databases. Earliest forerunner of both Interpress and PostScript. Mentioned in PostScript Language Reference Manual, Adobe Systems, A-W 1985.

distributed database ::: A collection of several different databases that looks like a single database to the user. An example is the Internet Domain Name System (DNS). (1994-12-07)

distributed database A collection of several different {databases} that looks like a single {database} to the user. An example is the {Internet} {Domain Name System} (DNS). (1994-12-07)

dynamic database management system "database" (dynamic DBMS) A {database} with "value-based" relationships where typically the relationship is specified at retrieval time and the locations of related records are discovered during retrieval. Both {Independent Logical File} (ILF) databases and {relational databases} are value-based. The opposite is a {static database management system}. (1998-10-07)

dynamic database management system ::: (database) (dynamic DBMS) A database with value-based relationships where typically the relationship is specified at retrieval time and the locations of related records are discovered during retrieval. Both Independent Logical File (ILF) databases and relational databases are value-based.The opposite is a static database management system. (1998-10-07)

Dynix Automated Library Systems ::: (company) The world's largest supplier of library automation systems with European offices in France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK.Dynix sell two library management systems - Horizon (client/server) and, Dynix (host-based). Both have GUI or terminal interfaces. Dynix also sell other products and services for database enrichment, interconnectivity, and on-line and CD-ROM databases. . (1995-04-28)

Dynix Automated Library Systems "company" The world's largest supplier of library automation systems with European offices in France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. Dynix sell two library management systems - Horizon ({client/server}) and, Dynix ({host-based}). Both have {GUI} or {terminal interfaces}. Dynix also sell other products and services for {database} enrichment, interconnectivity, and on-line and {CD-ROM} databases. {(http://uk.dynix.com/dynix.html)}. (1995-04-28)

E. F. Codd "person" The inventor of the {relational data model} of {databases}. [Name? More?] (1995-11-29)

E. F. Codd ::: (person) The inventor of the relational data model of databases.[Name? More?] (1995-11-29)

egosurfing "jargon" Scanning the {web}, databases, print media or research papers looking for the mention of your name. (1997-04-17)

egosurfing ::: (jargon) Scanning the World-Wide Web, databases, print media or research papers looking for the mention of your name. (1997-04-17)

Enterprise Application Integration "software" (EAI) The use of {middleware} to integrate the {application programs}, {databases}, and {legacy systems} involved in an organisation's critical business processes. [Example?] (1999-09-28)

Enterprise Application Integration ::: (software) (EAI) The use of middleware to integrate the application programs, databases, and legacy systems involved in an organisation's critical business processes.[Example?] (1999-09-28)

functional database "database, language" A {database} which uses a {functional language} as its {query language}. Databases would seem to be an inappropriate application for functional languages since, a {purely functional language} would have to return a new copy of the entire database every time (part of) it was updated. To be practically {scalable}, the update mechanism must clearly be {destructive} rather than functional; however it is quite feasible for the {query language} to be purely functional so long as the database is considered as an argument. One approach to the update problem would use a {monad} to encapsulate database access and ensure it was {single threaded}. Alternative approaches have been suggested by Trinder, who suggests non-destructive updating with shared data structures, and Sutton who uses a variant of a Phil Wadler's {linear type} system. There are two main classes of functional database languages. The first is based upon {Backus}' {FP} language, of which {FQL} is probably the best known example. {Adaplan} is a more recent language which falls into this category. More recently, people have been working on languages which are syntactically very similar to modern {functional programming languages}, but which also provide all of the features of a database language, e.g. bulk data structures which can be incrementally updated, type systems which can be incrementally updated, and all data persisting in a database. Examples are {PFL} [Poulovassilis&Small, VLDB-91], and {Machiavelli} [Ohori et al, ACM SIGMOD Conference, 1998]. {Query optimisation} is very important for database languages in general and the {referential transparency} of functional languages allows optimisations which would be harder to verify in presence of {side-effects}. [Trinder, P., "Referentially transparent database languages", 1989 Glasgow Workshop on Functional programming] [Breazu-Tannen et al., DBPL-91]. [Poulovassilis, VLDB-94]. (1995-05-09)

functional database ::: (database, language) A database which uses a functional language as its query language.Databases would seem to be an inappropriate application for functional languages since, a purely functional language would have to return a new copy of the it is quite feasible for the query language to be purely functional so long as the database is considered as an argument.One approach to the update problem would use a monad to encapsulate database access and ensure it was single threaded. Alternative approaches have been suggested by Trinder, who suggests non-destructive updating with shared data structures, and Sutton who uses a variant of a Phil Wadler's linear type system.There are two main classes of functional database languages. The first is based upon Backus' FP language, of which FQL is probably the best known example. Adaplan is a more recent language which falls into this category.More recently, people have been working on languages which are syntactically very similar to modern functional programming languages, but which also provide all data persisting in a database. Examples are PFL [Poulovassilis&Small, VLDB-91], and Machiavelli [Ohori et al, ACM SIGMOD Conference, 1998].Query optimisation is very important for database languages in general and the referential transparency of functional languages allows optimisations which would be harder to verify in presence of side-effects.[Trinder, P., Referentially transparent database languages, 1989 Glasgow Workshop on Functional programming][Breazu-Tannen et al., DBPL-91].[Poulovassilis, VLDB-94]. (1995-05-09)

GADS ::: Picture retrieval language. Integrated Geographical Databases: The GADS Experience, P.E. Mantey et al, in Database Techniques for Pictorial Applications, A. Blaser ed, pp.193-198.

GADS Picture retrieval language. "Integrated Geographical Databases: The GADS Experience", P.E. Mantey et al, in Database Techniques for Pictorial Applications, A. Blaser ed, pp.193-198.

GCOS "operating system" /jee'kohs/ An {operating system} developed by {General Electric} from 1962; originally called GECOS (the General Electric Comprehensive Operating System). The GECOS-II operating system was developed by {General Electric} for the 36-bit {GE-635} in 1962-1964. Contrary to rumour, GECOS was not cloned from {System/360} [{DOS/360}?] - the GE-635 architecture was very different from the {IBM 360} and GECOS was more ambitious than DOS/360. GE Information Service Divsion developed a large special multi-computer system that was not publicised because they did not wish {time sharing} customers to challenge their bills. Although GE ISD was marketing {DTSS} - the first commercial time sharing system - GE Computer Division had no license from Dartmouth and GE-ISD to market it to external customers, so they designed a time-sharing system to sell as a standard part of GECOS-III, which replaced GECOS-II in 1967. GECOS TSS was more general purpose than DTSS, it was more a programmer's tool (program editing, e-mail on a single system) than a BASIC TSS. The {GE-645}, a modified 635 built by the same people, was selected by {MIT} and {Bell} for the {Multics} project. Multics' infancy was as painful as any infancy. Bell pulled out in 1969 and later produced {Unix}. After the buy-out of GE's computer division by {Honeywell}, GECOS-III was renamed GCOS-3 (General Comprehensive Operating System). Other OS groups at Honeywell began referring to it as "God's Chosen Operating System", allegedly in reaction to the GCOS crowd's uninformed and snotty attitude about the superiority of their product. [Can anyone confirm this?] GCOS won and this led in the orphaning and eventual death of Honeywell {Multics}. Honeywell also decided to launch a new product line called Level64, and later DPS-7. It was decided to mainatin, at least temporarily, the 36-bit machine as top of the line, because GCOS-3 was so successfull in the 1970s. The plan in 1972-1973 was that GCOS-3 and Multics should converge. This plan was killed by Honeywell management in 1973 for lack of resources and the inability of Multics, lacking {databases} and {transaction processing}, to act as a business operating system without a substantial reinvestment. The name "GCOS" was extended to all Honeywell-marketed product lines and GCOS-64, a completely different 32-bit operating system, significanctly inspired by Multics, was designed in France and Boston. GCOS-62, another different 32-bit low-end DOS level was designed in Italy. GCOS-61 represented a new version of a small system made in France and the new {DPS-6} 16-bit {minicomputer} line got GCOS-6. When the intended merge between GCOS-3 and Multics failed, the Phoenix designers had in mind a big upgrade of the architecture to introduce {segmentation} and {capabilities}. GCOS-3 was renamed GCOS-8, well before it started to use the new features which were introduced in next generation hardware. The GCOS licenses were sold to the Japanese companies {NEC} and {Toshiba} who developed the Honeywell products, including GCOS, much further, surpassing the {IBM 3090} and {IBM 390}. When Honeywell decided in 1984 to get its top of the range machines from NEC, they considered running Multics on them but the Multics market was considered too small. Due to the difficulty of porting the ancient Multics code they considered modifying the NEC hardware to support the Multics compilers. GCOS3 featured a good {Codasyl} {database} called IDS (Integrated Data Store) that was the model for the more successful {IDMS}. Several versions of transaction processing were designed for GCOS-3 and GCOS-8. An early attempt at TP for GCOS-3, not taken up in Europe, assumed that, as in {Unix}, a new process should be started to handle each transaction. IBM customers required a more efficient model where multiplexed {threads} wait for messages and can share resources. Those features were implemented as subsystems. GCOS-3 soon acquired a proper {TP monitor} called Transaction Driven System (TDS). TDS was essentially a Honeywell development. It later evolved into TP8 on GCOS-8. TDS and its developments were commercially successful and predated IBM {CICS}, which had a very similar architecture. GCOS-6 and GCOS-4 (ex-GCOS-62) were superseded by {Motorola 68000}-based {minicomputers} running {Unix} and the product lines were discontinued. In the late 1980s Bull took over Honeywell and Bull's management chose Unix, probably with the intent to move out of hardware into {middleware}. Bull killed the Boston proposal to port Multics to a platform derived from DPS-6. Very few customers rushed to convert from GCOS to Unix and new machines (of CMOS technology) were still to be introduced in 1997 with GCOS-8. GCOS played a major role in keeping Honeywell a dismal also-ran in the {mainframe} market. Some early Unix systems at {Bell Labs} used GCOS machines for print spooling and various other services. The field added to "/etc/passwd" to carry GCOS ID information was called the "{GECOS field}" and survives today as the "pw_gecos" member used for the user's full name and other human-ID information. [{Jargon File}] (1998-04-23)

GCOS ::: (operating system) /jee'kohs/ An operating system developed by General Electric from 1962; originally called GECOS (the General Electric Comprehensive Operating System).The GECOS-II operating system was developed by General Electric for the 36-bit GE-635 in 1962-1964. Contrary to rumour, GECOS was not cloned from System/360 [DOS/360?] - the GE-635 architecture was very different from the IBM 360 and GECOS was more ambitious than DOS/360.GE Information Service Divsion developed a large special multi-computer system that was not publicised because they did not wish time sharing customers to GECOS TSS was more general purpose than DTSS, it was more a programmer's tool (program editing, e-mail on a single system) than a BASIC TSS.The GE-645, a modified 635 built by the same people, was selected by MIT and Bell for the Multics project. Multics' infancy was as painful as any infancy. Bell pulled out in 1969 and later produced Unix.After the buy-out of GE's computer division by Honeywell, GECOS-III was renamed GCOS-3 (General Comprehensive Operating System). Other OS groups at Honeywell their product. [Can anyone confirm this?] GCOS won and this led in the orphaning and eventual death of Honeywell Multics.Honeywell also decided to launch a new product line called Level64, and later DPS-7. It was decided to mainatin, at least temporarily, the 36-bit machine as lacking databases and transaction processing, to act as a business operating system without a substantial reinvestment.The name GCOS was extended to all Honeywell-marketed product lines and GCOS-64, a completely different 32-bit operating system, significanctly inspired small system made in France and the new DPS-6 16-bit minicomputer line got GCOS-6.When the intended merge between GCOS-3 and Multics failed, the Phoenix designers had in mind a big upgrade of the architecture to introduce segmentation and capabilities. GCOS-3 was renamed GCOS-8, well before it started to use the new features which were introduced in next generation hardware.The GCOS licenses were sold to the Japanese companies NEC and Toshiba who developed the Honeywell products, including GCOS, much further, surpassing the IBM 3090 and IBM 390.When Honeywell decided in 1984 to get its top of the range machines from NEC, they considered running Multics on them but the Multics market was considered too small. Due to the difficulty of porting the ancient Multics code they considered modifying the NEC hardware to support the Multics compilers.GCOS3 featured a good Codasyl database called IDS (Integrated Data Store) that was the model for the more successful IDMS.Several versions of transaction processing were designed for GCOS-3 and GCOS-8. An early attempt at TP for GCOS-3, not taken up in Europe, assumed that, as in required a more efficient model where multiplexed threads wait for messages and can share resources. Those features were implemented as subsystems.GCOS-3 soon acquired a proper TP monitor called Transaction Driven System (TDS). TDS was essentially a Honeywell development. It later evolved into TP8 on GCOS-8. TDS and its developments were commercially successful and predated IBM CICS, which had a very similar architecture.GCOS-6 and GCOS-4 (ex-GCOS-62) were superseded by Motorola 68000-based minicomputers running Unix and the product lines were discontinued.In the late 1980s Bull took over Honeywell and Bull's management choose Unix, probably with the intent to move out of hardware into middleware. Bull killed technology) are still to be introduced in 1997 with GCOS-8. GCOS played a major role in keeping Honeywell a dismal also-ran in the mainframe market.Some early Unix systems at Bell Labs used GCOS machines for print spooling and various other services. The field added to /etc/passwd to carry GCOS ID information was called the GECOS field and survives today as the pw_gecos member used for the user's full name and other human-ID information.[Jargon File] (1998-04-23)

GE Information Services "networking, company" One of the leading on-line services, started on 1st October 1985, providing subscribers with hundreds of special interest areas, computer hardware and software support, award-winning multi-player games, the most software files in the industry (over 200 000), worldwide news, sports updates, business news, investment strategies, and {Internet} {electronic mail} and fax (GE Mail). Interactive conversations (Chat Lines) and {bulletin boards} (Round Tables) with associated software archives are also provided. GEnie databases (through the ARTIST gateway) allow users to search the full text of thousands of publications, including Dun & Bradstreet Company Profiles; a GEnie NewsStand with more than 900 newspapers, magazines, and newsletters; a Reference Center with information ranging from Agriculture to World History; the latest in medical information from MEDLINE; and patent and trademark registrations. {(http://genie.com/)}. {Shopping 2000 (http://shopping2000.com/shopping2000/genie/)}. Telephone: +1 (800) 638 9636. TDD: +1 (800) 238 9172. E-mail: "info@genie.geis.com". [Connection with: GE Information Services, Inc., a division of General Electric Company, Headquarters: Rockville, Maryland, USA?] (1995-04-13)

GE Information Services ::: (networking, company) One of the leading on-line services, started on 1st October 1985, providing subscribers with hundreds of special interest areas, fax (GE Mail). Interactive conversations (Chat Lines) and bulletin boards (Round Tables) with associated software archives are also provided.GEnie databases (through the ARTIST gateway) allow users to search the full text of thousands of publications, including Dun & Bradstreet Company Profiles; a latest in medical information from MEDLINE; and patent and trademark registrations. .Telephone: +1 (800) 638 9636.TDD: +1 (800) 238 9172.E-mail: .[Connection with: GE Information Services, Inc., a division of General Electric Company, Headquarters: Rockville, Maryland, USA?] (1995-04-13)

graph database (GDB) ::: A database that uses graph structures for semantic queries with nodes, edges, and properties to represent and store data. A key concept of the system is the graph (or edge or relationship), which directly relates data items in the store a collection of nodes of data and edges representing the relationships between the nodes. The relationships allow data in the store to be linked together directly, and in many cases retrieved with one operation. Graph databases hold the relationships between data as a priority. Querying relationships within a graph database is fast because they are perpetually stored within the database itself. Relationships can be intuitively visualized using graph databases, making it useful for heavily inter-connected data.[188][189]

group identifier "operating system" (gid) A unique number, between 0 an 32767, identifying a set of {users} under {Unix}. Gids are found in the /etc/{passwd} and /etc/group databases (or their {NIS} equivalents) and one is also associated with each file, indicating the group to which its group {permissions} apply. (1996-12-01)

group identifier ::: (operating system) (gid) A unique number, between 0 an 32767, identifying a set of users under Unix. Gids are found in the /etc/passwd and /etc/group databases (or their NIS equivalents) and one is also associated with each file, indicating the group to which its group permissions apply. (1996-12-01)

ICI ::: (language) An extensible, interpretated language by Tim Long with syntax similar to C. ICI adds high-level garbage-collected associative data structures, exception handling, sets, regular expressions, and dynamic arrays.Libraries provide additional types and functions to support common needs such as I/O, simple databases, character based screen handling, direct access to system calls, safe pointers, and floating-point.ICI runs on Microsoft Windows, MS-DOS, Unix, and Linux and in embedded environments. . .E-mail: Andy Newman .Mailing list: (1999-12-07)

ICI "language" An extensible, interpretated language by Tim Long with {syntax} similar to {C}. ICI adds high-level garbage-collected {associative} data structures, {exception} handling, sets, {regular expressions}, and {dynamic arrays}. Libraries provide additional types and functions to support common needs such as I/O, simple {databases}, character based screen handling, direct access to {system calls}, {safe pointers}, and {floating-point}. ICI runs on {Microsoft Windows}, {MS-DOS}, {Unix}, and {Linux} and in {embedded} environments. {(http://zeta.org.au/~atrn/ici/)}. {(ftp://ftp.research.canon.com.au/pub/misc/ici)}. E-mail: Andy Newman "andy@research.canon.com.au". Mailing list: ici@research.canon.com.au. (1999-12-07)

Independent Logical File "database" (ILF) One kind of {dynamic database management system}. Examples of ILF databases are {INQUIRE}, {ADABAS}, {NOMAD}, {FOCUS} and {DATACOM}. [More details?] (1998-10-07)

Independent Logical File ::: (database) (ILF) One kind of dynamic database management system.Examples of ILF databases are INQUIRE, ADABAS, NOMAD, FOCUS and DATACOM.[More details?] (1998-10-07)

Indexed Sequential Access Method "database" (ISAM) An {IBM} file management system allowing records to be accessed either sequentially (in the order they were entered) or via an index. Each index orders the records on a different key. ISAM was followed by VSAM ({Virtual Storage Access Method}) and pre-dated {relational databases}. (2003-07-13)

Indexed Sequential Access Method ::: (database) (ISAM) An IBM file management system allowing records to be accessed either sequentially (in the order they were entered) or via an index. Each index orders the records on a different key.ISAM was followed by VSAM (Virtual Storage Access Method) and pre-dated relational databases.(2003-07-13)

Information Innovation A group of companies with offices in Amsterdam and New York which acts as an information filter for the {web}. They analyse what happens in the Web community and organise the Web's information so that it is accessible and efficient to use. Information Innovation provides: "The Management Guide" - a guide for managers in the information age. The Guide consists of 22 parts, each concentrating on a particular technology or issue facing managers. Topics range from {Artificial Intelligence} and Telecommunications to Finance and Marketing. Each part contains references to additional valuable information, including {CD ROMs}, conferences, magazines, articles and books. "The Hypergraphic Matrix" - a "hypergraphic" matrix of 250 graphics discussing the interrelationships between technology, change, business functions and specific industries. "Dictionary" - the largest Internet dictionary on management and technology. "The Delphi Oracle" - a comprehensive guide to the latest management ideas and issues. Over 500 articles and books have been read, analysed, rated and catalogued. "Management Software" - a guide to software which is useful to managers. Both Web software, Internet software and commecial products are included in this guide. "The Web Word" - an information service about the Web. It includes a regular newsletter and databases about Web resources, news, interviews with Web personalities and, of course, the most comprehensive guide to sites. "Web Bibliography" - a guide to the latest Web information printed. Over 150 articles, magazines, market research reports and books are catalogued. "The Power Launch Pad" - our own list of useful sites on the Web. Also includes links to our own lists of special subjects such as Finance, Telecommunications, Manufacturing, Technology and so forth. {(http://euro.net/innovation/WelcomeHP.html)}. E-mail: "innovation@euronet.nl". (1994-10-27)

Information Innovation ::: A group of companies with offices in Amsterdam and New York which acts as an information filter for the World-Wide Web. They analyse what happens in the Web community and organise the Web's information so that it is accessible and efficient to use.Information Innovation provides:The Management Guide - a guide for managers in the information age. The Guide consists of 22 parts, each concentrating on a particular technology or issue additional valuable information, including CD ROMs, conferences, magazines, articles and books.The Hypergraphic Matrix - a hypergraphic matrix of 250 graphics discussing the interrelationships between technology, change, business functions and specific industries.Dictionary - the largest Internet dictionary on management and technology.The Delphi Oracle - a comprehensive guide to the latest management ideas and issues. Over 500 articles and books have been read, analysed, rated and catalogued.Management Software - a guide to software which is useful to managers. Both Web software, Internet software and commecial products are included in this guide.The Web Word - an information service about the Web. It includes a regular newsletter and databases about Web resources, news, interviews with Web personalities and, of course, the most comprehensive guide to sites.Web Bibliography - a guide to the latest Web information printed. Over 150 articles, magazines, market research reports and books are catalogued.The Power Launch Pad - our own list of useful sites on the Web. Also includes links to our own lists of special subjects such as Finance, Telecommunications, Manufacturing, Technology and so forth. . E-mail: . (1994-10-27)

intelligent database ::: (database) A database management system which performs data validation and processing traditionally done by application programs. Most DBMSs provide intelligent database as long as the process is a standard function for that data.Examples of techniques used to implement intelligent databases are constraints, triggers and stored procedures.Moving processing to the database aids data integrity because it is guaranteed to be consistent across all uses of the data. Mainframe databases have increasingly become more intelligent and personal computer database systems are rapidly following. (1998-10-07)

intelligent database "database" A {database management system} which performs data validation and processing traditionally done by {application programs}. Most DBMSs provide some data validation, e.g. rejecting invalid dates or alphabetic data entered into money fields, but often most processing is done by application programs. There is however no limit to the amount of processing that can be done by an intelligent database as long as the process is a standard function for that data. Examples of techniques used to implement intelligent databases are {constraints}, {triggers} and {stored procedures}. Moving processing to the database aids {data integrity} because it is guaranteed to be consistent across all uses of the data. {Mainframe} databases have increasingly become more intelligent and personal computer database systems are rapidly following. (1998-10-07)

interoperable database ::: A database front-end which communicates with multiple heterogenous databases and makes them appear as a single homogenous entity with semantic calls.See ODBC. (1995-02-06)

interoperable database A {database} {front-end} which communicates with multiple heterogenous databases and makes them appear as a single homogenous entity with {semantic calls}. See {ODBC}. (1995-02-06)

inverted index "database, information science" A sequence of ({key}, pointer) pairs where each pointer points to a {record} in a {database} which contains the key value in some particular field. The index is sorted on the key values to allow rapid searching for a particular key value, using e.g. {binary search}. The index is "inverted" in the sense that the key value is used to find the record rather than the other way round. For databases in which the records may be searched based on more than one field, multiple indices may be created that are sorted on those keys. An index may contain gaps to allow for new entries to be added in the correct sort order without always requiring the following entries to be shifted out of the way. (1995-02-08)

IRDS ::: Information Resource Dictionary System. A set of ISO standards for CASE repositories. It governs the definition of data dictionaries to be implemented on top of relational databases (see repository, data dictionary).

IRDS Information Resource Dictionary System. A set of ISO standards for CASE repositories. It governs the definition of data dictionaries to be implemented on top of relational databases (see repository, data dictionary).

ITHACA "project" An {Esprit} project to put a {4th generation} {object-oriented} system to practical use in an industrial environment. The ITHACA environment offered an application support system incorporating advanced technologies in the fields of object-oriented programming, programming languages, {databases}, user interfaces and software development tools. (2009-04-27)

Java Database Connectivity "database, programming" (JDBC) Part of the {Java Development Kit} which defines an {application programming interface} for {Java} for standard {SQL} access to {databases} from Java {programs}. {Home (http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.1/docs/guide/jdbc/index.html)}. {FAQ (http://yoyoweb.com/Javanese/JDBC/FAQ.html)}. See also {Open Database Connectivity}. (1997-09-04)

Java Database Connectivity ::: (database, programming) (JDBC) Part of the Java Development Kit which defines an application programming interface for Java for standard SQL access to databases from Java programs. . .See also Open Database Connectivity. (1997-09-04)

knowledge extraction ::: The creation of knowledge from structured (relational databases, XML) and unstructured (text, documents, images) sources. The resulting knowledge needs to be in a machine-readable and machine-interpretable format and must represent knowledge in a manner that facilitates inferencing. Although it is methodically similar to information extraction (NLP) and ETL (data warehouse), the main criteria is that the extraction result goes beyond the creation of structured information or the transformation into a relational schema. It requires either the reuse of existing formal knowledge (reusing identifiers or ontologies) or the generation of a schema based on the source data.

Lout Lout is a batch text formatting system and an embedded language by Jeffrey H. Kingston "jeff@cs.su.oz.au". The language is procedural, with {Scribe}-like {syntax}. Lout features equation formatting, tables, diagrams, rotation and scaling, sorted indexes, bibliographic databases, running headers and odd-even pages and automatic cross-referencing. Lout is easily extended with definitions which are very much easier to write than {troff} of {TeX} {macros} because Lout is a {high-level language}, the outcome of an eight-year research project that went back to the beginning. Version 2.05 includes a translator from Lout to {PostScript} and documentation. and runs under {Unix} and on the {Amiga}. {Author's site (ftp://ftp.cs.su.oz.au/jeff/lout.2.03.tar.Z)}, {(ftp://ftp.uu.net/tmp/lout.tar.Z)}. {Amiga (ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/pub/aminet/text/dtp/loutBin203.lha)}. (1993-07-30)

Lout ::: Lout is a batch text formatting system and an embedded language by Jeffrey H. Kingston . The language is procedural, with Scribe-like syntax.Lout features equation formatting, tables, diagrams, rotation and scaling, sorted indexes, bibliographic databases, running headers and odd-even pages and language, the outcome of an eight-year research project that went back to the beginning.Version 2.05 includes a translator from Lout to PostScript and documentation. and runs under Unix and on the Amiga. , . (1993-07-30)

Microsoft Access ::: 1. (database) A relational database running under Microsoft Windows. Data is stored as a number of tables, e.g. Stock. Each table consists of a number of records (e.g. for different items) and each record contains a number of fields, e.g. Product code, Supplier, Quantity in stock.Access allows the user to create forms and reports. A form shows one record in a user-designed format and allows the user to step through records one at a grouped into sections with different kinds of total (including sum, minimum, maximum, average).There are also facilities to use links (joins) between tables which share a common field and to filter records according to certain criteria or search for particular field values.Version: 2 (date?).Usenet newsgroup: comp.databases.ms-access.2. (communications) A communications program from Microsoft, meant to compete with ProComm and other programs. It sucked and was dropped. Years later they reused the name for their database.[Date?] (1997-07-20)

Microsoft Access 1. "database" A {relational database} running under {Microsoft Windows}. Data is stored as a number of "{tables}", e.g. "Stock". Each table consists of a number of "{records}" (e.g. for different items) and each record contains a number of "{fields}", e.g. "Product code", "Supplier", "Quantity in stock". Access allows the user to create "{forms}" and "reports". A form shows one record in a user-designed format and allows the user to step through records one at a time. A report shows selected records in a user-designed format, possibly grouped into sections with different kinds of total (including sum, minimum, maximum, average). There are also facilities to use links ("{joins}") between tables which share a common field and to filter records according to certain criteria or search for particular field values. Version: 2 (date?). {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.databases.ms-access}. 2. "communications" A communications program from Microsoft, meant to compete with {ProComm} and other programs. It sucked and was dropped. Years later they reused the name for their database. [Date?] (1997-07-20)

Microsoft Certified Database Administrator "educational" (MCDBA) {Microsoft}'s certification of ability to design, implement and manage {SQL Server 2000} {databases}. The qualification was retired on 2012-09-30. {(http://www.microsoft.com/learning/en/us/mcdba-certification.aspx)}. (2013-06-15)

Microsoft SQL Server "database" A {relational database management system} (RDBMS) which is part of {Microsoft}'s {BackOffice} family of {servers}. SQL Server was designed for {client/server} use and is accessed by applications using {SQL}. It runs on {Windows NT} version 3.5 or higher and is compliant with the {ANSI} {SQL-92} and {FIPS} 127-2 {SQL} {standards}. SQL Server supports {symmetric multiprocessing} hardware; {SNMP}, {ODBC}, and major {open standard} communications {protocols}. It has {Internet} integration, data {replication}, and {data warehousing} features. Microsoft SQL Server was originally developed by {Sybase Corporation} but the cooperation was broken sometime [when?] before version 6.0. {(http://microsoft.com/sql)}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.databases.ms-sqlserver}. (2001-04-27)

Microsoft SQL Server ::: (database) A relational database management system (RDBMS) which is part of Microsoft's BackOffice family of servers. SQL Server was designed for NT version 3.5 or higher and is compliant with the ANSI SQL-92 and FIPS 127-2 SQL standards.SQL Server supports symmetric multiprocessing hardware; SNMP, ODBC, and major open standard communications protocols. It has Internet integration, data replication, and data warehousing features.Microsoft SQL Server was originally developed by Sybase Corporation but the cooperation was broken sometime [when?] before version 6.0.Latest version: 7.0. [Or is it 2000?] .Usenet newsgroup: comp.databases.ms-sqlserver.(2001-04-27)

multiple value "database" (MU) A one-to-many relationship between entries in a database, for example a person may have an address field which spanned multiple records (with different indexes). Multiple values are a non-{relational} technique. MUs have recently been made available in {DB2}, despite the product being so heavily influenced by {Codd's Laws} of {relational databases}. [Confirm, clarify?] (1995-10-30)

multiple value ::: (database) (MU) A one-to-many relationship between entries in a database, for example a person may have an address field which spanned multiple records (with different indexes). Multiple values are a non-relational technique.MUs have recently been made available in DB2, despite the product being so heavily influenced by Codd's Laws of relational databases.[Confirm, clarify?] (1995-10-30)

MUMPS "language" (Or "M") Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System. A programming language with extensive tools for the support of {database management systems}. MUMPS was originally used for medical records and is now widely used where multiple users access the same databases simultaneously, e.g. banks, stock exchanges, travel agencies, hospitals. Early MUMPS implementations for {PDP-11} and {IBM PC} were complete {operating systems}, as well as programming languages, but current-day implementations usually run under a normal host {operating system}. A MUMPS program hardly ever explicitly performs low-level operations such as opening a file - there are programming constructs in the language that will do so implicitly, and most MUMPS programmers are not even aware of the {operating system} activity that MUMPS performs. Syntactically MUMPS has only one data-type: strings. Semantically, the language has many data-types: text strings, {binary strings}, {floating point} values, {integer} values, {Boolean} values. Interpretation of strings is done inside functions, or implicitly while applying mathematical {operators}. Since many operations involve only moving data from one location to another, it is faster to just move uninterpreted strings. Of course, when a value is used multiple times in the context of arithmetical operations, optimised implementations will typically save the numerical value of the string. MUMPS was designed for portability. Currently, it is possible to share the same MUMPS database between radically different architectures, because all values are stored as text strings. The worst an implementation may have to do is swap pairs of bytes. Such multi-CPU databases are actually in use, some offices share databases between {VAX}, {DEC Alpha}, {SUN}, {IBM PC} and {HP} {workstations}. Versions of MUMPS are available on practically all {hardware}, from the smallest ({IBM PC}, {Apple Macintosh}, {Acorn} {Archimedes}), to the largest {mainframe}. MSM ({Micronetics Standard MUMPS}) runs on {IBM PC RT} and {R6000}; DSM (Digital Standard Mumps) on the {PDP-11}, {VAX}, {DEC Alpha}, and {Windows-NT}; {Datatree MUMPS} from {InterSystems} runs on {IBM PC}; and {MGlobal MUMPS} on the {Macintosh}. Multi-{platform} versions include {M/SQL}, available from {InterSystems}, {PFCS} "mumps@pfcs.com" and {MSM}. {Greystone Technologies}' GT/M runs on {VAX} and {DEC Alpha}. This is a compiler whereas the others are {interpreters}. {GT/SQL} is their {SQL} pre-processor. ISO standard 11756 (1991). ANSI standard: "MUMPS Language Standard", X11.1 (1977, 1984, 1990, 1995?). The MUMPS User's Group was the {M Technology Association}. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:comp.lang.mumps}. (2003-06-04)

MUMPS ::: (language) (Or M) Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System.A programming language with extensive tools for the support of database management systems. MUMPS was originally used for medical records and is now widely used where multiple users access the same databases simultaneously, e.g. banks, stock exchanges, travel agencies, hospitals.Early MUMPS implementations for PDP-11 and IBM PC were complete operating systems, as well as programming languages, but current-day implementations usually run under a normal host operating system.A MUMPS program hardly ever explicitly performs low-level operations such as opening a file - there are programming constructs in the language that will do so implicitly, and most MUMPS programmers are not even aware of the operating system activity that MUMPS performs.Syntactically MUMPS has only one data-type: strings. Semantically, the language has many data-types: text strings, binary strings, floating point values, times in the context of arithmetical operations, optimised implementations will typically save the numerical value of the string.MUMPS was designed for portability. Currently, it is possible to share the same MUMPS database between radically different architectures, because all values are of bytes. Such multi-CPU databases are actually in use, some offices share databases between VAX, DEC Alpha, SUN, IBM PC and HP workstations.Versions of MUMPS are available on practically all hardware, from the smallest (IBM PC, Apple Macintosh, Acorn Archimedes), to the largest mainframe. MSM versions include M/SQL, available from InterSystems, PFCS and MSM.Greystone Technologies' GT/M runs on VAX and DEC Alpha. This is a compiler whereas the others are interpreters. GT/SQL is their SQL pre-processor.ISO standard 11756 (1991). ANSI standard: MUMPS Language Standard, X11.1 (1977, 1984, 1990, 1995?).The MUMPS User's Group was the M Technology Association.Usenet newsgroups: comp.lang.mumps.(2003-06-04)

National Information Infrastructure "project" (NII, or "{information superhighway}") Future integrated communications in the USA. The NII will be based on a nationwide network of networks, and will supposedly allow all Americans to take advantage of the country's information, communication, and computing resources. The NII will include current and future public and private high-speed, interactive, {narrow-band} and {broadband} networks. It is the satellite, terrestrial, and wireless communications systems that deliver content to homes, businesses, and other public and private institutions. It is the information and content that flows over the infrastructure whether in the form of {databases}, the written word, a film, a piece of music, a sound recording, a picture, or computer software. It is the computers, televisions, telephones, radios, and other products that people will employ to access the infrastructure. It is the people who will provide, manage, and generate new information, and those that will help others do the same. And it is the individual Americans who will use and benefit from the NII. The NII is a term that encompasses all these components and captures the vision of a nationwide, invisible, seamless, dynamic web of transmission mechanisms, information appliances, content, and people. {(http://sunsite.unc.edu/nii/NII-Table-of-Contents.html)}. (1995-04-08)

NATURAL ::: An integrated 4GL from Software AG, Germany. The menu-driven version is SUPER/NATURAL.Natural 2 is a major upgrade to Natural 1.Version 2.1.7 in the MVS environment (June 1995, also available for Unix).Natural works with DB2 and various other databases, but Natural and Adabas normally go together. There are many products available in the Natural family, including SuperNatural, Natural for Windows, Entire Connection (enables up/downloading and interaction with Excel) and Esperant. (1995-11-14)

NATURAL An integrated {4GL} from {Software AG}, Germany. The menu-driven version is SUPER/NATURAL. Natural 2 is a major upgrade to Natural 1. Version 2.1.7 in the MVS environment (June 1995, also available for Unix). Natural works with {DB2} and various other {databases}, but Natural and {Adabas} normally go together. There are many products available in the "Natural" family, including SuperNatural, Natural for Windows, Entire Connection (enables up/downloading and interaction with {Excel}) and Esperant. (1995-11-14)

NEXTSTEP "operating system" The original {multitasking} {operating system} that {NeXT, Inc.} developed to run on its proprietary {NeXT} computers (informally known as "black boxes"). NEXTSTEP includes a specific {graphical user interface}, an interface builder, {object-oriented} application builder, and several "kits" of prebuilt software {objects} such as the Indexing Kit for {databases}. This software runs on top of NeXT's version of the {Mach} operating system on {NeXT}, {486}, {Pentium}, {HP-PA}, and {Sun} {SPARC} computers. The official spelling changed from "NeXTstep" to "NeXTStep" to "NeXTSTEP", and finally "NEXTSTEP". The last release of NEXTSTEP was 3.3, which NeXT then developed into "{OpenStep}". {TjL's Pages (http://peak.org/~luomat/)}. {Peanuts (http://peanuts.org/peanuts/NEXTSTEP/)}. See also: {GNUStep}. (2003-05-23)

Object Data Management Group ::: (body, database) (ODMG, previously .. Database ..) An independent consortium that specifies universal object storage standards.ODMG's members include object-oriented database management system (ODBMS) vendors and other interested parties. They aim to increase portability of customer software across products.On 1998-04-27 ODMG changed its name from the Object Database Management Group to reflect the expansion of its efforts beyond merely setting storage standards for object databases. .(2000-05-23)

Object Data Management Group "body, database" (ODMG, previously ".. Database ..") An independent consortium that specifies universal {object} storage {standards}. ODMG's members include {object-oriented database} management system (ODBMS) vendors and other interested parties. They aim to increase portability of customer software across products. On 1998-04-27 ODMG changed its name from the Object Database Management Group to reflect the expansion of its efforts beyond merely setting storage standards for object databases. {(http://odmg.org/)}. (2000-05-23)

object-oriented database "database" (OODB) A system offering {DBMS} facilities in an {object-oriented programming} environment. Data is stored as {objects} and can be interpreted only using the {methods} specified by its {class}. The relationship between similar objects is preserved ({inheritance}) as are references between objects. Queries can be faster because {joins} are often not needed (as in a {relational database}). This is because an object can be retrieved directly without a search, by following its object id. The same programming language can be used for both data definition and data manipulation. The full power of the database programming language's {type system} can be used to model {data structures} and the relationship between the different data items. {Multimedia} {applications} are facilitated because the {class} {methods} associated with the data are responsible for its correct interpretation. OODBs typically provide better support for {versioning}. An object can be viewed as the set of all its versions. Also, object versions can be treated as full fledged objects. OODBs also provide systematic support for {triggers} and {constraints} which are the basis of {active databases}. Most, if not all, object-oriented {application programs} that have database needs will benefit from using an OODB. {Ode} is an example of an OODB built on {C++}. (1997-12-07)

Ode ::: An Object-Oriented Database from AT&T which extends C++ and supports fast queries, complex application modelling and multimedia.Ode uses one integrated data model (C++ classes) for both database and general purpose manipulation. An Ode database is a collection of persistent objects. It persistent objects, querying the database and creating and manipulating versions.The Ode object database provides four object compatible mechanisms for manipulating and querying the database. As well as O++ there are OdeView - an X treated and manipulated like normal Unix files); and CQL++, a C++ variant of SQL for easing the transition from relational databases to OODBs such as Ode.Ode supports large objects (critical for multimedia applications). Ode tracks the relationship between versions of objects and provides facilities for deadlock. 'Hypothetical' transactions allow users to pose what-if scenarios (as with spreadsheets).EOS, the storage engine of Ode, is based on a client-server architecture. EOS supports concurrency based on multi-granularity two-version two-phase locking; mode for multiple users with concurrent access and a single user mode giving improved performance.Ode 3.0 is currently being used as the multimedia database engine for AT&T's Interactive TV project. Ode 2.0 has also been distributed to more than 80 sites available only for Sun SPARCstations running SunOS 4.1.3 and Solaris 2.3. Ode is being ported to Microsoft Windows NT, Windows 95 and SGI platforms.E-mail: Narain Gehani . (1994-08-18)

Ode An {Object-Oriented Database} from {AT&T} which extends {C++} and supports fast queries, complex application modelling and {multimedia}. Ode uses one integrated data model ({C++} {class}es) for both database and general purpose manipulation. An Ode database is a collection of {persistent} {objects}. It is defined, queried and manipulated using the language {O++}. O++ programs can be compiled with C++ programs, thus allowing the use of existing C++ code. O++ provides facilities for specifying transactions, creating and manipulating persistent objects, querying the database and creating and manipulating versions. The Ode object database provides four object compatible mechanisms for manipulating and querying the database. As well as O++ there are OdeView - an {X Window System} interface; OdeFS (a file system interface allowing objects to be treated and manipulated like normal Unix files); and CQL++, a {C++} variant of {SQL} for easing the transition from {relational databases} to OODBs such as Ode. Ode supports large objects (critical for {multimedia} applications). Ode tracks the relationship between versions of objects and provides facilities for accessing different versions. Transactions can be specified as read-only; such transactions are faster because they are not logged and they are less likely to {deadlock}. 'Hypothetical' transactions allow users to pose "what-if" scenarios (as with {spreadsheets}). EOS, the {storage engine} of Ode, is based on a client-server architecture. EOS supports {concurrency} based on {multi-granularity} two-version two-phase locking; it allows many readers and one writer to access the same item simultaneously. Standard two-phase locking is also available. Ode supports both a {client-server} mode for multiple users with concurrent access and a single user mode giving improved performance. Ode 3.0 is currently being used as the {multimedia} {database engine} for {AT&T}'s {Interactive TV} project. Ode 2.0 has also been distributed to more than 80 sites within AT&T and more than 340 universities. Ode is available free to universities under a non-disclosure agreement. The current version, 3.0, is available only for {Sun} {SPARCstations} running {SunOS} 4.1.3 and {Solaris} 2.3. Ode is being ported to {Microsoft} {Windows NT}, {Windows 95} and {SGI} {platforms}. E-mail: Narain Gehani "nhg@research.att.com". (1994-08-18)

On-Line Analytical Processing ::: (database) (OLAP) A category of database software which provides an interface such that users can transform or limit raw data according to user-defined or pre-defined functions, and quickly and interactively examine the results in various dimensions of the data.OLAP primarily involves aggregating large amounts of diverse data. OLAP can involve millions of data items with complex relationships. Its objective is to analyze these relationships and look for patterns, trends, and exceptions.The term was originally coined by Dr. Codd in 1993 with 12 rules. Since then, the OLAP Council, many vendors, and Dr. Codd himself have added new requirements and confusion.Richard Creeth and Nigel Pendse define OLAP as fast analysis of shared multidimensional information. Their definition requires the system to respond to consider include data duplication, RAM and disk space requirements, performance, and integration with data warehouses.Various bodies have attempted to come up with standards for OLAP, including The OLAP Council and the Analytical Solutions Forum (ASF), however, the Microsoft OLE DB for OLAP API is the most widely adopted and has become the de facto standard. .Usenet newsgroup: comp.databases.olap. .[What's a multidimensional conceptual view?] (1996-09-24)

On-Line Analytical Processing "database" (OLAP) A category of {database} software which provides an interface such that users can transform or limit raw data according to user-defined or pre-defined functions, and quickly and interactively examine the results in various dimensions of the data. OLAP primarily involves aggregating large amounts of diverse data. OLAP can involve millions of data items with complex relationships. Its objective is to analyze these relationships and look for patterns, trends, and exceptions. The term was originally coined by {Dr. Codd} in 1993 with 12 "rules". Since then, the {OLAP Council}, many vendors, and Dr. Codd himself have added new requirements and confusion. Richard Creeth and Nigel Pendse define OLAP as fast analysis of shared multidimensional information. Their definition requires the system to respond to users within about five seconds. It should support logical and statistical processing of results without the user having to program in a {4GL}. It should implement all the security requirements for confidentiality and concurrent update locking. The system must provide a multidimensional conceptual view of the data, including full support for multiple hierarchies. Other aspects to consider include data duplication, {RAM} and disk space requirements, performance, and integration with {data warehouses}. Various bodies have attempted to come up with standards for OLAP, including The {OLAP Council} and the {Analytical Solutions Forum} (ASF), however, the {Microsoft OLE DB for OLAP API} is the most widely adopted and has become the {de facto standard}. {(http://access.digex.net/~grimes/olap/)}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.databases.olap}. {(http://arborsoft.com/papers/finkTOC.html)}. [What's a "multidimensional conceptual view"?] (1996-09-24)

Open DataBase Connectivity ::: (standard, database) (ODBC) A standard for accessing different database systems. There are interfaces for Visual Basic, Visual C++, SQL and the ODBC driver pack contains drivers for the Access, Paradox, dBase, Text, Excel and Btrieve databases.An application can submit statements to ODBC using the ODBC flavor of SQL. ODBC then translates these to whatever flavor the database understands.ODBC 1.0 was released in September 1992.ODBC is based on Call-Level Interface and was defined by the SQL Access Group. Microsoft was one member of the group and was the first company to release a commercial product based on its work (under Microsoft Windows) but ODBC is not a Microsoft standard (as many people believe).ODBC drivers and development tools are available now for Microsoft Windows, Unix, OS/2, and Macintosh.[On-line document?][Unix Review, Aug 1995]. (1996-05-27)

Open DataBase Connectivity "standard, database" (ODBC) A {standard} for accessing different {database} systems. There are interfaces for {Visual Basic}, {Visual C++}, {SQL} and the ODBC driver pack contains drivers for the {Access}, {Paradox}, {dBase}, Text, {Excel} and {Btrieve} databases. An application can submit statements to ODBC using the ODBC flavor of SQL. ODBC then translates these to whatever flavor the database understands. ODBC 1.0 was released in September 1992. ODBC is based on {Call-Level Interface} and was defined by the {SQL Access Group}. {Microsoft} was one member of the group and was the first company to release a commercial product based on its work (under {Microsoft Windows}) but ODBC is not a Microsoft standard (as many people believe). ODBC drivers and development tools are available now for {Microsoft Windows}, {Unix}, {OS/2}, and {Macintosh}. [On-line document?] ["Unix Review", Aug 1995]. (1996-05-27)

OpenDocument "file format, standard" (ODF, ISO/IEC 26300, OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications) An {XML} {file format} for {office} documents, such as {spreadsheets}, charts, presentations, databases and {word processing}. OpenDocument was developed by the Open Office XML technical committee of the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards ({OASIS}) consortium. It is based on the XML format originally created and implemented by the {OpenOffice.org} {office suite}. OpenDocument is an open standard, i.e. freely available and implementable. Compare {OOXML}. (2007-09-19)

Operational Data Store "database" (ODS) A group of integrated databases designed to support the monitoring of operations. Unlike function oriented databases, an ODS contains subject-oriented, dynamic, current enterprise-wide information that is continually updated to show the current state of operations. ["Data Warehousing Architecture and Implementation"]. (2010-02-28)

phage ::: A program that modifies other programs or databases in unauthorised ways; especially one that propagates a virus or Trojan horse. See also worm, mockingbird. The analogy, of course, is with phage viruses in biology.[Jargon File]

phage A program that modifies other programs or databases in unauthorised ways; especially one that propagates a {virus} or {Trojan horse}. See also {worm}, {mockingbird}. The analogy, of course, is with phage viruses in biology. [{Jargon File}]

PostgreSQL ::: (database) /'post-gres-kyu-el/ An enhancement of the POSTGRES database system.PostgreSQL is an advanced relational database management system with some object oriented approaches. PostgreSQL is developed and distributed as free software, and while retaining its freedom it remains technically and featurewise a worthy competitor to even the most advanced commercial alternatives.It was also one of the first databases to offer MVCC as opposed to row-level locking or table locking, thereby greatly improving multi-user performance.PostgreSQL implements an extended subset of ANSI SQL and runs on many platforms. It also has interfaces to many different programming languages and database protocols, like ODBC and JDBC. . (1999-09-18)

PostgreSQL "database" /'post-gres-kyu-el/ An enhancement of the {POSTGRES} {database} system. PostgreSQL is an advanced {relational database management system} with some {object oriented} approaches. PostgreSQL is developed and distributed as {free software}, and while retaining its freedom it remains technically and featurewise a worthy competitor to even the most advanced commercial alternatives. It was also one of the first databases to offer {MVCC} as opposed to {row-level locking} or {table locking}, thereby greatly improving multi-user performance. PostgreSQL implements an extended subset of {ANSI} {SQL} and runs on many {platforms}. It also has {interfaces} to many different {programming languages} and database {protocols}, like {ODBC} and {JDBC}. {(http://postgresql.org/)}. (1999-09-18)

query language ::: Query languages or data query languages (DQLs) are computer languages used to make queries in databases and information systems. Broadly, query languages can be classified according to whether they are database query languages or information retrieval query languages. The difference is that a database query language attempts to give factual answers to factual questions, while an information retrieval query language attempts to find documents containing information that is relevant to an area of inquiry.

RefLisp ::: (language) A small Lisp interpreter written in C++ by Bill Birch of Bull, UK. RefLisp has a built-in web server, Wiki, LISP server pages, SQL Databases, XML parser, MD5 hashing, regular expressions, reference counting and mark-sweep garbage collection.RefLisp has shallow-binding and dynamic scope with optional support for lexical scope, Common Lisp compatibility and for indefinite extent Scheme programs.RefLisp is distributed under the GPL.Current version: 5.0 Beta, as of 2005-01-19. .(2005-02-08)

RefLisp "language" A small {Lisp} {interpreter} written in {C++} by Bill Birch of {Bull}, UK. RefLisp has a built-in {web server}, {Wiki}, {LISP server pages}, {SQL Databases}, {XML parser}, {MD5} hashing, {regular expressions}, {reference counting} and {mark-sweep garbage collection}. RefLisp has {shallow-binding} and {dynamic scope} with optional support for {lexical scope}, {Common Lisp} compatibility and for {indefinite extent} {Scheme} programs. RefLisp is distributed under the {GPL}. {RefLisp Home (http://sourceforge.net/projects/reflisp/)}. (2005-02-08)

relational algebra ::: (database, theory) A family of algebra with a well-founded semantics used for modelling the data stored in relational databases, and defining queries on as union, intersection, and cartesian product), selection (keeping only some lines of a table) and the projection (keeping only some columns).The relational data model describes how the data is structured.Codd's reduction algorithm can convert from relational calculus to relational algebra. (1997-02-17)

relational algebra "database, theory" A family of {algebra} with a {well-founded} {semantics} used for modelling the data stored in {relational databases}, and defining queries on it. The main operations of the relational algebra are the {set} operations (such as {union}, {intersection}, and {cartesian product}), selection (keeping only some lines of a {table}) and the {projection} (keeping only some columns). The {relational data model} describes how the data is structured. {Codd's reduction algorithm} can convert from {relational calculus} to {relational algebra}. (1997-02-17)

relational database "database" (RDBMS - relational database management system) A {database} based on the {relational model} developed by {E.F. Codd}. A relational database allows the definition of data structures, storage and retrieval operations and {integrity constraints}. In such a database the data and relations between them are organised in {tables}. A table is a collection of rows or {records} and each row in a table contains the same {fields}. Certain fields may be designated as {keys}, which means that searches for specific values of that field will use indexing to speed them up. Where fields in two different tables take values from the same set, a {join} operation can be performed to select related records in the two tables by matching values in those fields. Often, but not always, the fields will have the same name in both tables. For example, an "orders" table might contain (customer_id, product_code) pairs and a "products" table might contain (product_code, price) pairs so to calculate a given customer's bill you would sum the prices of all products ordered by that customer by joining on the product-code fields of the two tables. This can be extended to joining multiple tables on multiple fields. Because these relationships are only specified at retreival time, relational databases are classed as {dynamic database management system}. The first commercial RDBMS was the {Multics Relational Data Store}, first sold in 1978. {INGRES}, {Oracle}, {Sybase, Inc.}, {Microsoft Access}, and {Microsoft SQL Server} are well-known database products and companies. Others include {PostgreSQL}, {SQL/DS}, and {RDB}. ["Managing Data Bases, Four Critical Factors" Michael M. Gorman, QED Information Sciences, Inc.]. ["An Introduction To Database Systems" (6th ed) C. J. Date, Addison Wesley (an excellent source of detailed info)]. ["An End-User's Guide to Data Base" James Martin, Prentice Hall (excellent place to begin learning about DBMS)]. (2002-06-10)

relational database ::: (database) (RDBMS - relational database management system) A database based on the relational model developed by E.F. Codd. A relational database which means that searches for specific values of that field will use indexing to speed them up.Where fields in two different tables take values from the same set, a join operation can be performed to select related records in the two tables by retreival time, relational databases are classed as dynamic database management system.The first commercial RDBMS was the Multics Relational Data Store, first sold in 1978.INGRES, Oracle, Sybase, Inc., Microsoft Access, and Microsoft SQL Server are well-known database products and companies. Others include PostgreSQL, SQL/DS, and RDB.[Managing Data Bases, Four Critical Factors Michael M. Gorman, QED Information Sciences, Inc.].[An Introduction To Database Systems (6th ed) C. J. Date, Addison Wesley (an excellent source of detailed info)].[An End-User's Guide to Data Base James Martin, Prentice Hall (excellent place to begin learning about DBMS)].(2002-06-10)

replication ::: (database, networking) Creating and maintaining a duplicate copy of a database or file system on a different computer, typically a server. The term usually implies the intelligent copying of parts of the source database which have changed since the last replication with the destination.Replication may be one-way or two-way. Two-way replication is much more complicated because of the possibility that a replicated object may have been updated differently in the two locations in which case some method is needed to reconcile the different versions.For example, Lotus Notes can automatically distribute document databases across telecommunications networks. Notes supports a wide range of network protocols including X25 and Internet TCP/IP.Compare mirror. See also rdist. (1997-12-12)

replication "database, networking" Creating and maintaining a duplicate copy of a database or file system on a different computer, typically a {server}. The term usually implies the intelligent copying of parts of the source database which have changed since the last replication with the destination. Replication may be one-way or two-way. Two-way replication is much more complicated because of the possibility that a replicated object may have been updated differently in the two locations in which case some method is needed to reconcile the different versions. For example, {Lotus Notes} can automatically distribute document databases across telecommunications networks. Notes supports a wide range of network {protocols} including {X25} and {Internet} {TCP/IP}. Compare {mirror}. See also {rdist}. (1997-12-12)

rl Kent Wittenburg "kentw@bellcore.com". The RL files contain code for defining {relational grammars} and using them in a bottom-up parser to recognise and/or parse expressions in Relational Languages. The approach is a simplification of that described in Wittenburg, Weitzman, and Talley (1991), Unification-Based Grammars and Tabular Parsing for Graphical Languages, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 2:347-370. This code is designed to support the definition and parsing of Relational Languages, which are characterised as sets of objects standing in user-defined relations. Correctness and completeness is independent of the order in which the input is given to the parser. Data to be {parsed} can be in many forms as long as an interface is supported for queries and predicates for the relations used in grammar productions. To date, this software has been used to parse recursive pen-based input such as math expressions and {flow charts}; to check for {data integrity} and design conformance in databases; to automatically generate constraints in drag-and-drop style graphical interfaces; and to generate graphical displays by parsing relational data and generating output code. requires: Common Lisp ports: Allegro Common Lisp 4.1, Macintosh Common Lisp 2.0 {(ftp://flash.bellcore.com/rl/)}. (1992-10-31)

Screenwrite ::: (language) A columnar format third generation programming language similar in layout to assembler and used for transaction processing, solely on standards, relational databases and fourth generation languages but it is believed that some systems made it through Y2K.[Dates?](2003-05-15)

Screenwrite "language" An easy-to-use, columnar format {third generation programming language} used for {transaction processing}. It was implemented solely on the {Honeywell} {Bull} {TPS6} {database}/transaction management system, on their Level 6 {DPS6} {minicomputers} running under the {GCOS6} {operating system}. In the UK it was used by local authorities, the Ministry of Defense, Rank Xerox (UK) and possibly others. Being proprietary technology, Screenwrite's popularity waned with the introduction of {open systems} standards, {relational databases} and {fourth generation languages} but it is believed that some systems made it through {Y2K}. [Dates?] (2003-05-15)

Siemens Nixdorf Informationssteme, AG ::: (company) (SNI) A separate company within Siemens, the largest IT company in Europe. SNI sells the BS2000 operating system, a wide variety of databases, servers and other products. (1997-06-13)

Siemens Nixdorf Informationssteme, AG "company" (SNI) A separate company within {Siemens}, the largest {IT} company in Europe. SNI sells the {BS2000} {operating system}, a wide variety of {databases}, {servers} and other products. (1997-06-13)

siod "language" (Scheme In One Defun or Scheme In One Day) A small {Scheme} implementation in {C} by George Carrette "gjc@world.std.com", "gjc@mitech.com". SIOD is arranged as a set of subroutines that can be called from any main program for the purpose of introducing an interpreted extension language. It compiles to 20 kbytes of executable ({VAX}/{VMS}). {Lisp} calls {C} and C calls Lisp transparently. SIOD supports symbols, strings, {arrays}, {hash coding}, file i/o (binary, text, seek), data save/restore in binary and text, interface to commercial {databases} such {Oracle} and {Digital} {RDB}. Version 3.0 runs on {VAX}/{VMS},{Unix}, {Sun-3}, {Sun-4}, {Amiga}, {Macintosh}, {MIPS}, {Cray}, {ALPHA}/{VMS}, {Windows NT} and {OS/2}. It can be compiled by most {ANSI C} compilers and {C++} compilers, e.g. {gcc} -Wall. {(ftp://world.std.com/pub/gjc/)}, {(ftp://world.std.com/src/lisp/)}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.scheme}. (1994-02-18)

siod ::: (language) (Scheme In One Defun or Scheme In One Day) A small Scheme implementation in C by George Carretteintroducing an interpreted extension language. It compiles to 20 kbytes of executable (VAX/VMS). Lisp calls C and C calls Lisp transparently.SIOD supports symbols, strings, arrays, hash coding, file i/o (binary, text, seek), data save/restore in binary and text, interface to commercial databases such Oracle and Digital RDB.Version 3.0 runs on VAX/VMS,Unix, Sun-3, Sun-4, Amiga, Macintosh, MIPS, Cray, ALPHA/VMS, Windows NT and OS/2. It can be compiled by most ANSI C compilers and C++ compilers, e.g. gcc -Wall. , .Usenet newsgroup: comp.lang.scheme. (1994-02-18)

Slide "project" A now-retired {Jakarta} project to develop a repository for content management. Slide is no longer in development. It featured {WebDAV}, DeltaV WebDAV versioning, different databases and file system storage, transactions and locking, flexible permissions per file and more. {Slide home (http://jakarta.apache.org/slide/)}. (2008-06-04)

SPARQL ::: An RDF query language—that is, a semantic query language for databases—able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework (RDF) format.[288][289]

SQR "database, language" A {fourth generation language} for the creation of reports from {databases}. SQR is interpreted to dynamically generate {SQL} queries and format the results. Originally a {Sybase} product, it was then sold to MITI, who subsequently changed their name to {SQRIBE}. SQR Server supports {native} database access for all major {DBMSs} and the use of {platform} independent {Java} code. (1998-09-19)

SQR ::: (database, language) A fourth generation language for the creation of reports from databases. SQR is interpreted to dynamically generate SQL queries and format the results.Originally a Sybase product, it was then sold to MITI, who subsequently changed their name to SQRIBE.SQR Server supports native database access for all major DBMSs and the use of platform independent Java code. (1998-09-19)

Starset ::: Portable storage/retrieval language for distributed databases. Starset programming Language, M.M. Gilula et al, Nauka, Moscow 1991, ISBN 5-02-006831-4.

Starset Portable storage/retrieval language for distributed databases. "Starset programming Language", M.M. Gilula et al, Nauka, Moscow 1991, ISBN 5-02-006831-4.

stored procedure ::: (database) A subroutine stored in a database and executed by the database management system. The subroutine may be written in the same language in which the database is queried and may be precompiled to improve performance.Typically a stored procedure encapsulates some business process. Performing this on the database server avoids the network overhead of transferring input data to procedures also provide consistent implementation of the business logic to clients written in different languages and running in different environments.Some financial systems allow databases access through stored procedures alone, this restricts actions on the data to a small number of auditable queries.Sybase SQL Server (Adaptive Server Enterprise) was the first commercially successful RDBMS to support stored procedures.(2004-03-04)

stored procedure "database" A {subroutine} stored in a {database} and executed by the {database management system}. The subroutine may be written in the same language in which the database is queried and may be precompiled to improve performance. Typically a stored procedure encapsulates some business process. Performing this on the database server avoids the network overhead of transferring input data to the client for processing. This would be particularly significant if processing lots of data and returning a small result set like a total or maximum. Stored procedures also provide consistent implementation of the business logic to clients written in different languages and running in different environments. Some financial systems allow databases access through stored procedures alone, this restricts actions on the data to a small number of auditable queries. Sybase SQL Server ({Adaptive Server Enterprise}) was the first commercially successful RDBMS to support stored procedures. (2004-03-04)

system catalog ::: (database) The data dictionary of a DBMS. The system catalogue stores meta-data including the schemas of the databases. It is a mini-database, and is maybe referred to as being on line, as it is active, and can be queried by users like any other table. (1999-04-27)

system catalog "database" The {data dictionary} of a {DBMS}. The system catalogue stores {metadata} including the {schemas} of the {databases}. It is a mini-database, and is usually stored using the DBMS itself in special {tables} called {system tables}. It maybe referred to as being "on line", as it is active, and can be queried by users like any other table. (1999-04-27)

template wizard "application" Software to guide the creation of some kind of {template}. Examples include {Excel}'s Template Wizard add-in for creating databases to receive form data. Most {web authoring} tools include facilities for inserting text into template page designs. (2008-10-22)

Theseus "language" A language based on {Euclid}, never implemented. ["Theseus - A Programming Language for Relational Databases", J.E. Shopiro, ACM Trans Database Sys 4(4):493-517, Mar 1979]. (1994-12-14)

Theseus ::: (language) A language based on Euclid, never implemented.[Theseus - A Programming Language for Relational Databases, J.E. Shopiro, ACM Trans Database Sys 4(4):493-517, Mar 1979]. (1994-12-14)

thin client "networking" A simple {client} program or hardware device which relies on most of the function of the system being in the {server}. {Gopher} clients, for example, are very thin; they are {stateless} and are not required to know how to interpret and display objects much more complex than menus and plain text. Gopher servers, on the other hand, can search {databases} and provide {gateways} to other services. By the mid-1990s, the model of decentralised computing where each user has his own full-featured and independent {microcomputer}, seemed to have displaced a centralised model in which multiple users use thin clients (e.g. {dumb terminals}) to work on a shared {minicomputer} or {mainframe} server. Networked {personal computers} typically operate as "fat clients", often providing everything except some file storage and printing locally. By 1996, reintroduction of thin clients is being proposed, especially for {LAN}-type environments (see the {cycle of reincarnation}). The main expected benefit of this is ease of maintenance: with fat clients, especially those suffering from the poor networking support of {Microsoft} {operating systems}, installing a new application for everyone is likely to mean having to physically go to every user's workstation to install the application, or having to modify client-side configuration options; whereas with thin clients the maintenance tasks are centralised on the server and so need only be done once. Also, by virtue of their simplicity, thin clients generally have fewer hardware demands, and are less open to being screwed up by ambitious {lusers}. Never one to miss a bandwagon, Microsoft bought up {Insignia Solutions, Inc.}'s "{NTRIGUE}" Windows remote-access product and combined it with {Windows NT} version 4 to allow thin clients (either hardware or software) to communicate with applications running under on a server machine under {Windows Terminal Server} in the same way as {X} had done for {Unix} decades before. (1999-02-01)

thin client ::: (networking) A simple client program or hardware device which relies on most of the function of the system being in the server.Gopher clients, for example, are very thin; they are stateless and are not required to know how to interpret and display objects much more complex than menus and plain text. Gopher servers, on the other hand, can search databases and provide gateways to other services.By the mid-1990s, the model of decentralised computing where each user has his own full-featured and independent microcomputer, seemed to have displaced a computers typically operate as fat clients, often providing everything except some file storage and printing locally.By 1996, reintroduction of thin clients is being proposed, especially for LAN-type environments (see the cycle of reincarnation). The main expected client-side configuration options; whereas with thin clients the maintenance tasks are centralised on the server and so need only be done once.Also, by virtue of their simplicity, thin clients generally have fewer hardware demands, and are less open to being screwed up by ambitious lusers.Never one to miss a bandwagon, Microsoft bought up Insignia Solutions, Inc.'s NTRIGUE Windows remote-access product and combined it with Windows NT version applications running under on a server machine under Windows Terminal Server in the same way as X had done for Unix decades before. (1999-02-01)

tree "mathematics, data" A {directed acyclic graph}; i.e. a {graph} wherein there is only one route between any pair of {nodes}, and there is a notion of "toward top of the tree" (i.e. the {root node}), and its opposite direction, toward the {leaves}. A tree with n nodes has n-1 edges. Although maybe not part of the widest definition of a tree, a common constraint is that no node can have more than one parent. Moreover, for some applications, it is necessary to consider a node's {daughter} nodes to be an ordered {list}, instead of merely a {set}. As a data structure in computer programs, trees are used in everything from {B-trees} in {databases} and {file systems}, to {game trees} in {game theory}, to {syntax trees} in a human or computer {languages}. (1998-11-12)

tree ::: (mathematics, data) A directed acyclic graph; i.e. a graph wherein there is only one route between any pair of nodes, and there is a notion of toward top of the tree (i.e. the root node), and its opposite direction, toward the leaves. A tree with n nodes has n-1 edges.Although maybe not part of the widest definition of a tree, a common constraint is that no node can have more than one parent. Moreover, for some applications, it is necessary to consider a node's daughter nodes to be an ordered list, instead of merely a set.As a data structure in computer programs, trees are used in everything from B-trees in databases and file systems, to game trees in game theory, to syntax trees in a human or computer languages. (1998-11-12)

Tuxedo "database, networking" {Cross-platform} distributed {transaction monitor} {middleware} marketed by {BEA systems}. Tuxedo supports the production of {scalable} {client-server} applications and the coordination of {transactions} spanning heterogeneous {databases}, {operating systems}, and {hardware}. {BEA Home (http://beasys.com/)}. [Connection with {Novell, Inc.}?] (2003-01-08)

Tuxedo ::: (database, networking) Cross-platform distributed transaction monitor middleware marketed by BEA systems. Tuxedo supports the production of scalable client-server applications and the coordination of transactions spanning heterogeneous databases, operating systems, and hardware. .[Connection with Novell, Inc.?](2003-01-08)

two-phase commit "database" A technique for maintaining {integrity} in distributed {databases}. Where a system uses two or more database, a transaction among the distibuted database should be {atomic} ("all or nothing"). This is done by handling the transaction in two phases. First the databases prepare the transaction, confirm that it is possible to process it, and lock the relevant record. Once all the required databases confirm that the transaction is viable, the system instructs them all to {commit} it - i.e. to make it permanent. If it is not possible to process it, the system will instruct the databases to {rollback} (undo) the transaction. (2000-02-28)

two-phase commit ::: (database) A technique for maintaining integrity in distributed databases. Where a system uses two or more database, a transaction among the transaction, confirm that it is possible to process it, and lock the relevant record.Once all the required databases confirm that the transaction is viable, the system instructs them all to commit it - i.e. to make it permanent. If it is not possible to process it, the system will instruct the databases to rollback (undo) the transaction.(2000-02-28)

Very Large Memory "architecture" (VLM) A {processor} and {operating system} that can use more than 4GB of {RAM}, which is the limit for systems using {32-bit} addresses. VLM architectures allow {application programs} and {Very Large Databases} with more than 4GB of data to be placed entirely in {physical memory}, with large performance enhancements. Some recent processors like the {DEC Alpha} can process 64 bits of data at a time and use addresses wider than 32 bits. {Digital Unix (http://unix.digital.com/unix/64bit/)}. (Solaris {http://sun.com/solaris/64bit.html}). (SGI {http://sgi.com/Technology/standard/faq.html}). (Unix 98 {http://UNIX-systems.org/version2/whatsnew/login_64bit.html}). [How wide are the address busses?] (1998-07-07)

Very Large Memory ::: (architecture) (VLM) A processor and operating system that can use more than 4GB of RAM, which is the limit for systems using 32-bit addresses.VLM architectures allow application programs and Very Large Databases with more than 4GB of data to be placed entirely in physical memory, with large performance enhancements.Some recent processors like the DEC Alpha can process 64 bits of data at a time and use addresses wider than 32 bits. .(Solaris http://www.sun.com/solaris/64bit.html).(SGI http://www.sgi.com/Technology/standard/faq.html).(Unix 98 http://www.UNIX-systems.org/version2/whatsnew/login_64bit.html).[How wide are the address busses?] (1998-07-07)

Watcom International ::: (company) A provider of application development tools and IBM PC-based SQL database servers.Founded in 1974, Watcom initially focused on scientific and engineering markets establishing itself as a supplier of programming and information tools worldwide, serving customers in 60 countries with highly regarded products such as WATFOR-77 for mainframes, minicomputers and PCs.Since the introduction of Watcom C in 1988, the company has emerged as an industry leader in optimising compilers for 16 and 32-bit Intel-based IBM PCs.Moving into the client/server market in 1992, Watcom introduced Watcom SQL, including SQL database servers for multi-user networks and single-user Series. In June, 1993, Watcom launched VX*REXX, an integrated visual development environment for OS/2.In February 1994, Watcom became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Powersoft Corporation which merged with Sybase Inc. on 13 February 1995. Today the company addresses a broad range of application developers, including corporate MIS professionals, system integrators, VARs and independent software vendors.Watcom has strategic relationships with IBM, Lotus, Microsoft, Intel and Novell. Based on its academic roots, Watcom maintains a research relationship with the nearby University of Waterloo.Watcom's products include the Watcom SQL databases, Watcom C/C++, and Watcom VX*REXX 2.1.Ian McPhee is President and Chief Executive Officer, David Boswell is Vice President of Sales and Marketing, Craig Dynes is Vice President of Finance and David Yach is Vice President of Development.Headquarters: Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. (1995-04-18)

Watcom International "company" A provider of application development tools and {IBM PC}-based {SQL} {database} {servers}. Founded in 1974, Watcom initially focused on scientific and engineering markets establishing itself as a supplier of programming and information tools worldwide, serving customers in 60 countries with highly regarded products such as {WATFOR}-77 for {mainframes}, {minicomputers} and {PCs}. Since the introduction of {Watcom C} in 1988, the company has emerged as an industry leader in optimising compilers for 16 and 32-bit {Intel-based} {IBM PCs}. Moving into the {client/server} market in 1992, Watcom introduced {Watcom SQL}, including {SQL} {database} {servers} for multi-user networks and single-user {stand-alone} applications. The product has since been incorporated into {Powersoft}'s {PowerBuilder} development environment and the {Powersoft Enterprise Series}. In June, 1993, Watcom launched {VX*REXX}, an integrated visual development environment for {OS/2}. In February 1994, Watcom became a wholly-owned subsidiary of {Powersoft Corporation} which merged with {Sybase Inc.} on 13 February 1995. Today the company addresses a broad range of application developers, including corporate {MIS} professionals, system integrators, {VARs} and independent software vendors. Watcom has strategic relationships with {IBM}, {Lotus}, {Microsoft}, {Intel} and {Novell}. Based on its academic roots, Watcom maintains a research relationship with the nearby {University of Waterloo}. Watcom's products include the {Watcom SQL} {databases}, {Watcom C/C++}, and {Watcom VX*REXX} 2.1. Ian McPhee is President and Chief Executive Officer, David Boswell is Vice President of Sales and Marketing, Craig Dynes is Vice President of Finance and David Yach is Vice President of Development. Headquarters: Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. (1995-04-18)

Watcom SQL ::: (database, product) A family of databases from Watcom International, based on scalable technology and a SQL database engine. Version 4.0 adds stored Microsoft Windows, Windows NT, OS/2 and MS DOS; and multi-user network server versions for Microsoft Windows, Windows NT, OS/2, NetWare NLM and MS DOS. (1995-04-18)

Watcom SQL "database, product" A family of {databases} from {Watcom International}, based on scalable technology and a {SQL} {database engine}. Version 4.0 adds {stored procedures} and {triggers}. It is designed for environments ranging from large departmental networks with a diverse range of PC client systems, to peer-to-peer {workgroups}, to {stand-alone} PCs. It is available in stand-alone versions for {Microsoft Windows}, {Windows NT}, {OS/2} and {MS DOS}; and {multi-user} network server versions for {Microsoft Windows}, {Windows NT}, {OS/2}, {NetWare NLM} and {MS DOS}. (1995-04-18)

Watcom VX*REXX "programming, tool" A visual development environment for creating {OS/2} applications with {graphical user interfaces}. It includes a project management facility, visual designer and an interactive {source level debugger}. Version 2.1 introduced the VX*REXX Client/Server Edition for {client/server} {GUI} application development on {OS/2} by incorporating {database} {objects}. Using {IBM}'s {DRDA} support on OS/2, users can access {DB2} for {MVS}, DB2/400 for {AS/400}, and DB2/VSE and VM (SQL/DS) for {VM} and {VSE}. Also supported are {Watcom SQL} and {ODBC}-enabled databases. Since the VX*REXX visual development environment is based on IBM's {object-oriented} {SOM} technology, VX*REXX applications are open and extensible through the addition of new SOM objects. (1995-04-18)

White pages ::: A directory service for locating individuals by name (by analogy with the telephone directory). The Internet supports several databases that contain basic and postal addresses. These databases can be searched to get information about particular individuals. See Knowbot, Netfind, whois, X.500, finger.

White pages A directory service for locating individuals by name (by analogy with the telephone directory). The {Internet} supports several {databases} that contain basic information about users, such as {electronic mail} addresses, telephone numbers and postal addresses. These databases can be searched to get information about particular individuals. See {Knowbot}, {Netfind}, {whois}, {X.500}, {finger}.



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   11 Anonymous
   3 Gene Kim
   2 Robert C Martin
   2 Pedro Domingos
   2 Michelle McNamara
   2 Jonathan Haidt
   2 Glenn Greenwald

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*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Learning happens in the minds and souls, not in the databases of multiple-choice tests. ~ Ken Robinson,
2:Companies that build and maintain databases in the cloud are snagging a growing slice of the $36 billion market. ~ Anonymous,
3:Finally, most identity thefts occur when databases are not securely managed. So, my advice? Don’t ever end up in a database. ~ Joseph Fink,
4:This is systems security for the Central Intelligence Agency. We would like to know why you are attempting to hack one of our classified databases. ~ Dan Brown,
5:Databases, ontologies, and visual representations tie informatic genomes to the specific practices of computers, computational biology, and bioinformatics. ~ Anonymous,
6:As you study computer science you develop this wonderful mental acumen, particularly with relational databases, systems analysis, and artificial intelligence. ~ Frederick Lenz,
7:change’ is any activity that is physical, logical, or virtual to applications, databases, operating systems, networks, or hardware that could impact services being delivered. ~ Gene Kim,
8:The reason why there is more pessimism about technology in Europe has to do with history, the use of databases to keep track of people in the camps, ecological disasters. ~ Evgeny Morozov,
9:a ‘change’ is any activity that is physical, logical, or virtual to applications, databases, operating systems, networks, or hardware that could impact services being delivered. ~ Gene Kim,
10:We’ve got one huge advantage—people believe what they see in databases. They’ve never learned the most important rule of cyberspace—computers don’t lie but liars can compute. ~ Terry Hayes,
11:We also know that ISIS is recruiting who are not in those databases. So of course, we're going to miss them. And then we now learn that DHS says, "No, we can't check their social media." ~ Carly Fiorina,
12:Next, we found numerous instances where developers have administrative access to production applications and databases. This violates the required segregation of duty required to prevent risk for fraud. ~ Gene Kim,
13:Second, we're spending a huge amount of money on technology so that everyone can check out laptops and portable phones. We're spending more money to write our existing information into databases or onto CD-ROM. ~ Jay Chiat,
14:Over time, managers and executives began using statistics and analysis to forecast the future, relying on databases and spreadsheets in much the same way ancient seers relied on tea leaves and goat entrails. The ~ Josh Kaufman,
15:That is really not much different from the search engines that are being constructed today for users throughout the entire world to allow them to search through databases to access the information that they require. ~ Stephen Cambone,
16:The quality of the information used in background checks is another cause for concern. One of the most common problems is that databases may include arrest records without any indication of whether a person was convicted. ~ Anonymous,
17:it would be good to include staleness measurements in the standard set of metrics for databases. Eventual consistency is a deliberately vague guarantee, but for operability it’s important to be able to quantify “eventual. ~ Martin Kleppmann,
18:If an NSA, FBI, CIA, DIA, etc analyst has access to query raw SIGINT databases, they can enter and get results for anything they want. Phone number, email, user id, cell phone handset id (IMEI), and so on - it's all the same. ~ Edward Snowden,
19:By rendering the model in ASN.1, the NCBI created a system that combined objects (DNA sequences, protein sequences, references, sequence features) from a variety of databases and manipulated them all with a common set of software tools. ~ Anonymous,
20:It is fitting that yesteryear's swashbuckling newspaper reporter has turned into today's solemn young sobersides nursing a glass of watered white wine after a day of toiling over computer databases in a smoke-free, noise-free newsroom. ~ Russell Baker,
21:Database schemas are notoriously volatile, extremely concrete, and highly depended on. This is one reason why the interface between OO applications and databases is so difficult to manage, and why schema updates are generally painful. ~ Robert C Martin,
22:The security of computers and the Internet is a horrible and dangerous mess. Every week we hear about breaches of databases of Social Security numbers and financial information and health records, and about critical infrastructure being insecure. ~ Matt Blaze,
23:Beyond collecting comprehensive data about the online activities of hundreds of millions of people, X-KEYSCORE allows any NSA analyst to search the system’s databases by email address, telephone number, or identifying attributes such as an IP address. ~ Glenn Greenwald,
24:One class of software, broadly known as analytical databases, dispenses with the relational model. Using innovations in on-disk storage and the use of distributed memory, analytical databases combine the flexibility of SQL with the speed of traditional OLAP systems. ~ Anonymous,
25:Two of the NSA’s internal databases, code-named HAPPYFOOT and FASCIA, contain comprehensive location information of devices worldwide. The NSA uses the databases to track people’s movements, identify people who associate with people of interest, and target drone strikes. ~ Bruce Schneier,
26:TeleAtlas,” or with the new satellite imagery services, “Images copyright Digital Globe.” These companies made substantial investments in their databases (NavTeq alone reportedly invested $750 million to build their database of street addresses and directions. Digital Globe ~ Tim O Reilly,
27:the NSA databases “store information about your political views, your medical history, your intimate relationships and your activities online.” The agency claims this personal information won’t be abused, “but these documents show that the NSA probably defines ‘abuse’ very narrowly. ~ Glenn Greenwald,
28:Having been blacklisted from working in television during the McCarthy era, I know the harm of government using private corporations to intrude into the lives of innocent Americans. When government uses the telephone companies to create massive databases of all our phone calls it has gone too far. ~ Studs Terkel,
29:I’d just like to point out that I have a serious issue with the fact that we’ve sat here all night watching Eric hack into a hundred different secure and confidential websites and databases—including some really scary federal places—yet he refuses to get us free cable TV.”

“That’d be illegal. ~ Paige Tyler,
30:The folks like myself that do this for a living, we were expecting a regular campaign had built the databases, done all the new social media, learned our lessons from [Barack] Obama whipping us twice on how to do voter contact, and then Donald Trump gets in it and turns it into a national election. ~ Melissa Harris Perry,
31:In the past few years, police around the country have built up vast networks of cameras mounted on squad cars and posts that continuously take pictures of license plates, instantaneously enter the numbers in big computer databases and, as a result, quietly track the moves of millions of lawabiding Americans. You OK with that? ~ Anonymous,
32:We get information in the mail, the regular postal mail, encrypted or not, vet it like a regular news organization, format it - which is sometimes something that's quite hard to do, when you're talking about giant databases of information - release it to the public and then defend ourselves against the inevitable legal and political attacks. ~ Julian Assange,
33:From the perspective of the world's national security apparatuses you exist in several locations. You appear on property and income-tax registries, on passport and ID card databases. You show up on passenger manifests and telephone logs . . . You are fingertip swirls, facial ratios, dental records, voice patterns, spending trails, e-mail threads. ~ Mohsin Hamid,
34:ZODB, for example, is similar to Python’s shelve but addresses many of its limitations, better supporting larger databases, concurrent updates, transaction processing, and automatic write-through on in-memory changes (shelves can cache objects and flush to disk at close time with their writeback option, but this has limitations: see other resources). ~ Mark Lutz,
35:It's fascinating as we continue to innovate and lead the way in both the application space and the database space. In the very beginning, people said you couldn't make relational databases fast enough to be commercially viable. I thought we could, and we were the first to do it. But we took tremendous abuse until IBM said, "Oh yeah, this stuff is good." ~ Larry Ellison,
36:In the information-processing ecosystem, learners are the superpredators. Databases, crawlers, indexers, and so on are the herbivores, patiently munging on endless fields of data. Statistical algorithms, online analytical processing, and so on are the predators. Herbivores are necessary, since without them the others couldn’t exist, but superpredators have a more exciting life. ~ Pedro Domingos,
37:Writing in Library Journal, Ben Vershbow of the Institute for the Future of Book envisioned a digital ecology in which "parts of books will reference parts of other books. Books will be woven toghether out of components in remote databases and servers." Kevin Kelly wrote in The New York times Magagzine: "In the the new world of books, every bit informs another; every page reads all the other pages. ~ Jeff Jarvis,
38:Um, because you're loopier than Flacky McPsycho, Mayor of Crazytown?"

"My databases show no record of this Crazytown of which you speak. A brain the size of an entire city burns inside me. My intelligence quotient is beyond the human scale. I would prefer if you did not refer to me in such a fashion."

"Oh, poor baby. Did I hurt the mass-murdering psychopathic artificial intelligence's feelings? ~ Amie Kaufman,
39:The biochemist's approach pivots on concentration: find the protein by looking where it's most likely to be concentrated, and distill it out of the mix. The geneticist's approach, in contrast, pivots on information: find the gene by search for differences in "databases" created by two closely related cells and multiply the gene in bacteria via cloning. The biochemist distills forms; the gene cloner amplifies information. ~ Siddhartha Mukherjee,
40:ART said, What does it want?

To kill all the humans, I answered.

I could feel ART metaphorically clutch its function. If there were no humans, there would be no crew to protect and no reason to do research and fill its databases. It said, That is irrational.

I know, I said, if the humans were dead, who would make the media? It was so outrageous, it sounded like something a human would say. ~ Martha Wells,
41:Irritable bowel syndrome is a well-documented, little-publicized aftermath of diarrheal infections—especially severe or repeated bouts. If you talk to people who’ve recently been diagnosed with IBS, about a third of them will say that their symptoms began after a bad attack of food poisoning. Defense Department databases reveal a five-fold higher risk of IBS among men and women who suffered an acute diarrheal infection while deployed in the Middle East. ~ Mary Roach,
42:Mitochondrial DNA is completely separate from a person’s regular DNA. It’s a bit of genetic material residing in the mitochondria of every cell in the body, and it is inherited unchanged from generation to generation, through the female line. That means all the descendants—male and female—of a particular woman will have identical mitochondrial DNA, which we call mtDNA. This kind of DNA is extremely useful in forensic work, and separate databases are kept of it. ~ Douglas Preston,
43:It’s a completely different business model!” he exclaimed. “You need different skills, different people, different systems, different databases. There’s also less psychic satisfaction, less glamor, and less visibility compared to the glamor of the original equipment business. As in ‘I sold ten auto insurance policies today.’ Big deal! Or ‘I sold ten elevator maintenance contracts today.’ Big deal! You don’t get great press notices or win trips to Hawaii for that.” “No, ~ Adrian J Slywotzky,
44:We need to take information, wherever it is stored, make our copies and share them with the world. We need to take stuff that's out of copyright and add it to the archive. We need to buy secret databases and put them on the Web. We need to download scientific journals and upload them to file sharing networks... With enough of us, around the world, we’ll not just send a strong message opposing the privatization of knowledge - we’ll make it a thing of the past. Will you join us? ~ Aaron Swartz,
45:Which kinds of decisions are premature? Decisions that have nothing to do with the business requirements—the use cases—of the system. These include decisions about frameworks, databases, web servers, utility libraries, dependency injection, and the like. A good system architecture is one in which decisions like these are rendered ancillary and deferrable. A good system architecture does not depend on those decisions. A good system architecture allows those decisions to be made at the latest possible moment, without significant impact. ~ Robert C Martin,
46:requires us to divide our attention between ever more emails, text messages, cellphone calls, video streams, and blinking banners, resulting, he argues, in lowered productivity and a distracted life devoid of meaning and depth. A similar point is made by Hal Crowther (2010: 108) in an essay in Granta: Though the educational potential of the Internet is limitless, it is becoming apparent that wired students use technology less to learn than to distract themselves from learning, and to take advantage of toxic shortcuts like research-paper databases and essay-writing websites. ~ Scott Thornbury,
47:Although government officials have repeatedly said there is a rigorous process for making sure no one is unfairly placed in the databases, the guidelines acknowledge that all nominations of “known terrorists” are considered justified unless the National Counterterrorism Center has evidence to the contrary. In an April 2014 court filing, the government disclosed that there were 468,749 KST nominations in 2013, of which only 4,915 were rejected—a rate of about 1 percent.10 The rules appear to invert the legal principle of due process, defining nominations as “presumptively valid. ~ Jeremy Scahill,
48:Databases of this type are interrogated in a language called SQL. You send them commands like the one shown here to interact with their stored information. Understanding how to manipulate these databases is subtle. The example command, for example, creates a “view”: a virtual database table that pulls together data from multiple existing tables, and that can then be addressed by the SQL commands like a standard table. When to create views and how to do so well is a tricky question, one of many that you must understand and master to tease reasonable results out of real-world databases. ~ Cal Newport,
49:A similar concern about using the web to provide just-in-time information shows up among physicians arguing the future of medical education. Increasingly, and particularly while making a first diagnosis, physicians rely on handheld databases, what one philosopher calls “E-memory.” The physicians type in symptoms and the digital tool recommends a potential diagnosis and suggested course of treatment. Eighty-nine percent of medical residents regard one of these E-memory tools, UpToDate, as their first choice for answering clinical questions. But will this “just-in-time” and “just enough” information teach young doctors to organize their own ideas and draw their own conclusions? ~ Sherry Turkle,
50:The old botanical metaphors for memory, with their emphasis on continual, indeterminate organic growth, are, it turns out, remarkably apt. In fact, they seem to be more fitting than our new, fashionably high-tech metaphors, which equate biological memory with the precisely defined bits of digital data stored in databases and processed by computer chips. Governed by highly variable biological signals, chemical, electrical, and genetic, every aspect of human memory—the way it’s formed, maintained, connected, recalled—has almost infinite gradations. Computer memory exists as simple binary bits—ones and zeros—that are processed through fixed circuits, which can be either open or closed but nothing in between. ~ Nicholas Carr,
51:languages like Maya or Luxembourgish. Translation is no longer usually to or from English. Technology, far from replacing humans, is instead a tool that helps them keep up with surging demand for high-quality translation. “Translation memory” (TM) was the first big useful tool. Since the 1980s translators have been able to dip into vast TM databases containing whole sentences that have already been translated in a given language pair, helping them to speed up repetitive work, such as translating instruction manuals. “Machine translation” is the next step. Computers learn from huge databases of already-translated text to make ever-better guesses about how to render whole chunks from one language into another. Translators ~ Anonymous,
52:In ordinary times—times here understood to mean whole geologic epochs—extinction takes place only very rarely, more rarely even than speciation, and it occurs at what’s known as the background extinction rate. This rate varies from one group of organisms to another; often it’s expressed in terms of extinctions per million species-years. Calculating the background extinction rate is a laborious task that entails combing through whole databases’ worth of fossils. For what’s probably the best-studied group, which is mammals, it’s been reckoned to be roughly .25 million species-years. This means that, since there are about fifty-five hundred mammal species wandering around today, at the background extinction rate you’d expect—once again very roughly—one species to disappear every seven hundred years. ~ Elizabeth Kolbert,
53:A more welcome fellow traveler on the modern human diaspora from Africa may have been the dog, the first known domestic animal. There is evidence that Aurignacian people living in Goyet Cave, Belgium, already had large dogs accompanying them about 35,000 years ago. The dogs were anatomically distinct from wolves in their shorter and broader snout and dental proportions, and isotope data suggest that they, like the humans, were feeding off horses and wild cattle. Moreover, ancient dog DNA was obtained, which showed that the Belgian dogs were already genetically diverse and that their mitochondrial sequences could not be matched among the large databases of contemporary wolf and dog DNA. These findings are important because they suggest that dog domestication had already been under way well before 35,000 years ago. ~ Chris Stringer,
54:retrieve? When it comes to databases, chances are you’ll need to retrieve your data as often than you’ll need to insert it. That’s where this chapter comes in: you’ll meet the powerful SELECT statement and learn how to gain access to that important information you’ve been putting in your tables. You’ll even learn how to use WHERE, AND, and OR to selectively get to your data and even avoid displaying the data that you don’t need. I’m a star! Date or no date? 54 A better SELECT 57 What the * is that? 58 How to query your data types 64 More punctuation problems 65 Unmatched single quotes 66 Single quotes are special characters 67 INSERT data with single quotes in it 68 SELECT specific columns to limit results 73 SELECT specific columns for faster results 73 Combining your queries 80 Finding numeric values 83 Smooth Comparison Operators ~ Anonymous,
55:This is the truth: We are a nation accustomed to being afraid. If I’m being honest, not just with you but with myself, it’s not just the nation, and it’s not just something we’ve grown used to. It’s the world, and it’s an addiction. People crave fear. Fear justifies everything. Fear makes it okay to have surrendered freedom after freedom, until our every move is tracked and recorded in a dozen databases the average man will never have access to. Fear creates, defines, and shapes our world, and without it, most of us would have no idea what to do with ourselves. Our ancestors dreamed of a world without boundaries, while we dream new boundaries to put around our homes, our children, and ourselves. We limit our potential day after day in the name of a safety that we refuse to ever achieve. We took a world that was huge with possibility, and we made it as small as we could. ~ Mira Grant,
56:I’m probably the only sixteen-year-old girl in a three hundred mile radius who knows how to distinguish between a poltergeist from an actual ghost (hint: If you can disrupt it with nitric acid, or if it throws new crap at you every time, it’s a poltergeist), or how to tell if a medium’s real or faking it (poke ‘em with a true iron needle). I know the six signs of a good occult store (Number One is the proprietor bolts the door before talking about Real Business) and the four things you never do when you’re in a bar with other people who know about the darker side of the world (don’t look weak). I know how to access public information and talk my way around clerks in courthouses (a smile and the right clothing will work wonders). I also know how to hack into newspaper files, police reports, and some kinds of government databases (primary rule: Don’t get caught. Duh). ~ Lilith Saintcrow,
57:Yes, but all that’s needed is to break reciprocity,” he answered. “By controlling information, making sure it flows one way. Take over the databases. Trump up panic situations, so the public will support paternalistic ‘protections.’ Make sure lots of privacy laws get passed, then bribe open some back doors, so elites can see it all anyway, and ‘privacy’ only protects them. “Of course there’s more to the program than that,” Hamish continued, gaining momentum. “The smarty-pants knowledge castes will see what’s happening and complain. So you propagandize a lot of populist resentment against the scientists and other professionals, calling them ‘smug elites.’ Finally … when the civil servants and techies have lost the public’s trust, just cut the other estates out of the information loop, take complete control over the cameras and government agencies and voilà! A tyranny that lasts millennia! ~ David Brin,
58:I think the best life would be one that's lived off the grid. No bills, your name in no government databases. No real proof you're even who you say you are, aside from, you know, being who you say you are. I don't mean living in a mountain hut with solar power and drinking well water. I think nature's beautiful and all, but I don't have any desire to live in it. I need to live in a city. I need pay as you go cell phones in fake names, wireless access stolen or borrowed from coffee shops and people using old or no encryption on their home networks. Taking knife fighting classes on the weekend! Learning Cantonese and Hindi and how to pick locks. Getting all sorts of skills so that when your mind starts going, and you're a crazy raving bum, at least you're picking their pockets while raving in a foreign language at smug college kids on the street. At least you're always gonna be able to eat. ~ Joey Comeau,
59:According to a recent report from the research firm Gartner Inc., “through 2017, 60% of big-data projects will fail to go beyond piloting and experimentation and will be abandoned.” It turns out that faith in Hadoop has outpaced the technology’s ability to bring big data into the mainstream. Demand for Hadoop is on the rise, yet customers have found that a technology built to index the Web may not be sufficient for corporate big-data tasks, said Nick Heudecker, research director for information management at Gartner. It can take a lot of work to combine data stored in legacy repositories with the data that’s stored in Hadoop. And while Hadoop can be much faster than traditional databases for some purposes, it often isn’t fast enough to respond to queries immediately or to work on incoming information in real time. Satisfying requirements for data security and governance also poses a challenge. ~ Anonymous,
60:Symbolist machine learning is an offshoot of the knowledge engineering school of AI. In the 1970s, so-called knowledge-based systems scored some impressive successes, and in the 1980s they spread rapidly, but then they died out. The main reason they did was the infamous knowledge acquisition bottleneck: extracting knowledge from experts and encoding it as rules is just too difficult, labor-intensive, and failure-prone to be viable for most problems. Letting the computer automatically learn to, say, diagnose diseases by looking at databases of past patients’ symptoms and the corresponding outcomes turned out to be much easier than endlessly interviewing doctors. Suddenly, the work of pioneers like Ryszard Michalski, Tom Mitchell, and Ross Quinlan had a new relevance, and the field hasn’t stopped growing since. (Another important problem was that knowledge-based systems had trouble dealing with uncertainty, of which more in Chapter 6.) ~ Pedro Domingos,
61:Integration databases—don’t do it! Seriously! Not even with views. Not even with stored procedures. Take it up a level, and wrap a web service around the database. Then make the web service redundant and accessed through a virtual IP. Build a test harness to verify what happens when the web service is down. That’s an enterprise integration technology. Reaching into another system’s database is just…icky. Nothing hobbles a system’s ability to adapt quite like having other systems poking into its guts. Database “integrations” are pure evil. They violate encapsulation and information hiding by exposing the most intimate details about a system’s inner workings. They encourage inappropriate coupling at both the structural and semantic levels. Even worse, the system that hangs its database out for the world cannot trust the data in the database at all. Rows can be added or modified by other entities even while the owner has objects in memory mapped from those rows. Vital application logic can be bypassed, resulting in illegal or unreachable states.[119] ~ Anonymous,
62:Scrolling through the rest of the 3,500 documents in Michelle’s hard drive, one comes upon a file titled “RecentDNAresults,” which features the EAR’s Y-STR markers (short tandem repeats on the Y chromosome that establish male-line ancestry), including the elusive rare PGM marker. Having the Golden State Killer’s DNA was always the one ace up this investigation’s sleeve. But a killer’s DNA is only as good as the databases we can compare it to. There was no match in CODIS. And there was no match in the California penal system’s Y-STR database. If the killer’s father, brothers, or uncles had been convicted of a felony in the past sixteen years, an alert would have gone to Paul Holes or Erika Hutchcraft (the current lead investigator in Orange County). They would have looked into the man’s family, zeroed in on a member who was in the area of the crimes, and launched an investigation. But they had nothing. There are public databases that the DNA profile could be used to match, filled not with convicted criminals but with genealogical buffs. You can enter the STR markers on the Y chromosome of the killer into these public databases and try to find a match, or at least a surname that could help you with the search. ~ Michelle McNamara,
63:Scrolling through the rest of the 3,500 documents in Michelle’s hard drive, one comes upon a file titled “RecentDNAresults,” which features the EAR’s Y-STR markers (short tandem repeats on the Y chromosome that establish male-line ancestry), including the elusive rare PGM marker. Having the Golden State Killer’s DNA was always the one ace up this investigation’s sleeve. But a killer���s DNA is only as good as the databases we can compare it to. There was no match in CODIS. And there was no match in the California penal system’s Y-STR database. If the killer’s father, brothers, or uncles had been convicted of a felony in the past sixteen years, an alert would have gone to Paul Holes or Erika Hutchcraft (the current lead investigator in Orange County). They would have looked into the man’s family, zeroed in on a member who was in the area of the crimes, and launched an investigation. But they had nothing. There are public databases that the DNA profile could be used to match, filled not with convicted criminals but with genealogical buffs. You can enter the STR markers on the Y chromosome of the killer into these public databases and try to find a match, or at least a surname that could help you with the search. ~ Michelle McNamara,
64:Steps in the IPB Process  First, define the battlefield environment. Identify characteristics of the battlefield that influence both friendly and competitor operations. Establish the limits of the battlefield and identify elements that are unknown but should be known.  Second, describe the battlefield’s effects on operations. This step always includes an examination of terrain and weather but may also include the characteristics of geography and infrastructure and their effects on friendly and threat operations, as well as such factors as politics, civilian press, local population, and demographics.  The third step is to evaluate the competitor. If the competitor is known, determine how it normally organizes for combat and conducts operations under similar circumstances. This information can be drawn from historical databases and well-developed threat models. With new or less well-known competitors, intelligence databases and threat courses of action may have to be developed simultaneously.  Finally, determine the competitor’s possible courses of action. The main question to be answered here is: Given what the competitor normally prefers to do and the effects of the specific environment in which it is operating, what are its likely objectives and courses of action? ~ Anonymous,
65:Livingston: What do you think makes a good hacker? Spolsky: I think what makes a good hack is the observation that you can do without something that everybody else thinks you need. To me, the most elegant hack is when somebody says, "These 2,000 lines of code end up doing the same thing as those 2 lines of code would do. I know it seems complicated, but arithmetically it's really the same." When someone cuts through a lot of crap and says, "You know, it doesn't really matter." For example, Ruby on Rails is a framework that you can use with the Ruby programming language to access databases. It is the first framework that you can use from any programming language for accessing databases to realize that it's OK to require that the names of the columns in the database have a specific format. Everybody else thought, "You need to be allowed to use whatever name you want in the database and whatever name you want in the application." Therefore you have to create all this code to map between the name in the database and the name in the application. Ruby on Rails finally said, "It's no big deal if you're just forced to use the same name in both places. You know, it doesn't really matter." And suddenly it becomes much simpler and much cleaner. To me, that is an elegant hack—saying, "This particular distinction that we used to fret over, just throw it away. ~ Jessica Livingston,
66:The gathering of information to control people is fundamental to any ruling power. As resistance to land acquisition and the new economic policies spreads across India, in the shadow of outright war in Central India, as a containment technique, India’s government has embarked on a massive biometrics program, perhaps one of the most ambitious and expensive information gathering projects in the world—the Unique Identification Number (UID). People don’t have clean drinking water, or toilets, or food, or money, but they will have election cards and UID numbers. Is it a coincidence that the UID project run by Nandan Nilekani, former CEO of Infosys, ostensibly meant to “deliver services to the poor,” will inject massive amounts of money into a slightly beleaguered IT industry?50 To digitize a country with such a large population of the illegitimate and “illegible”—people who are for the most part slum dwellers, hawkers, Adivasis without land records—will criminalize them, turning them from illegitimate to illegal. The idea is to pull off a digital version of the Enclosure of the Commons and put huge powers into the hands of an increasingly hardening police state. Nilekani’s technocratic obsession with gathering data is consistent with Bill Gates’s obsession with digital databases, numerical targets, and “scorecards of progress” as though it were a lack of information that is the cause of world hunger, and not colonialism, debt, and skewed profit-oriented corporate policy.51 ~ Arundhati Roy,
67:So for most of the late twentieth century, political scientists embraced blank-slate theories in which people soaked up the ideology of their parents or the TV programs they watched. Some political scientists even said that most people were so confused about political issues that they had no real ideology at all.
But then came the studies of twins. In the 1980s, when scientists began analyzing large databases that allowed them to compare identical twins (who share all of their genes, plus, usually, their prenatal and childhood environments) to same-sex fraternal twins (who share half of their genes, plus their prenatal and childhood environments), they found that the identical twins were more similar on just about everything. And what’s more, identical twins reared in separate households (because of adoption) usually turn out to be very similar, whereas unrelated children reared together (because of adoption) rarely turn out similar to each other, or to their adoptive parents; they tend to be more similar to their genetic parents. Genes contribute, somehow, to just about every aspect of our personalities.
We’re not just talking about IQ, mental illness, and basic personality traits such as shyness. We’re talking about the degree to which you like jazz, spicy foods, and abstract art; your likelihood of getting a divorce or dying in a car crash; your degree of religiosity, and your political orientation as an adult. Whether you end up on the right or the left of the political spectrum turns out to be just as heritable as most other traits: genetics explains between a third and a half of the variability among people on their political attitudes. Being raised in a liberal or conservative household accounts for much less. ~ Jonathan Haidt,
68:The cornerstone of control is the state’s system of surveillance, exposed by Snowden. I saw the effect of blanket surveillance as a reporter in the Stasi sate of Communist East Germany. I was followed by men, invariably with crew cuts and leather jackets, whom I presumed to be agents of the Stasi— the Ministry for State Security, which the ruling Communist Party described as the “shield and sword” of the nation. Stasi agents visited those I interviewed soon after I left their homes. My phone was bugged. Some of those I worked with were pressured to become informants. Fear hung like icicles over every conversation. People would whisper to me to convey the most banal pieces of information.

The Stasi did not set up massive death camps and gulags. It did not have to. Its network of as many as 2 million informants in a country of 17 million was everywhere. There were 102,000 secret police officers employed full-time to monitor the population— one for every 166 East Germans. The Nazis broke bones. The Stasi broke souls. The East German security apparatus pioneered the psychological disintegration skills that torturers and interrogators in America’s black sites, and within our prison system, have honed to a chilling perfection.

The goal of wholesale surveillance, as Hannah Arendt wrote in The Origins of Totalitarianism, is not, in the end, to discover crimes, “but to be on hand when the government decides to arrest a certain category of the population”. This is what happened to [Lynne] Stewart. And because Americans’ emails, phone conversations, Web searches, and geographical movements are recorded and stored in perpetuity in government databases, there will be more than enough “evidence” to seize us should the state deem it necessary. This information waits like a dormant virus inside government vaults to be released against us. It does not matter how trivial or innocent that information is. In totalitarian states, justice, like truth, is irrelevant. ~ Chris Hedges,
69:Guess you’re wondering why I wanted to see you,” the lieutenant said.
“A little, yeah.” Linc didn’t bother to ask how Warren had gotten his address.
“I realized last time we talked that I didn’t know your last name.”
“That would be because I never mentioned it.”
The other man chuckled. “Right. And I didn’t want to ask the Corellis. So, I, uh, ran your plates.”
That was why he’d walked them to the hospital parking lot.
“I was curious. No offense, but in this type of case you cover all your bases.”
Linc knew what was coming. He folded his arms over his chest, listening more to the birds in the willow tree than to the lieutenant.
“I got the basic screen. Full name, address, date of birth. You’re an organ donor. After that, nada. Level Five block. Access to subject information restricted.”
Linc sighed.
“That’s federal, isn’t it?” The lieutenant looked over at him. “But not the FBI. Those guys comb their hair. You with the agency? The army?”
“Want me to lie?”
“No, of course not.” Mike Warren seemed awfully pleased with himself. “I did get your last name. Nice to meet a real Bannon.”
Linc braced himself, prepared to field irrelevant questions about his brother RJ and the Montgomery case, but the lieutenant seemed inclined to stop while he was ahead.
“Look, I know your connection to Kenzie is personal. But that doesn’t mean you have nothing to contribute. Going forward, if you can help, it would be just between you and me. Totally off the record.”
Linc knew what Mike Warren was getting at. Different databases, different protocols. Not a lot of sharing. The lieutenant was way out of his league, but he had the guts to ask. Linc respected that.
“Happy to,” he replied. “But there are limits.”
“I understand.” Mike Warren got up and looked toward Linc’s car. “Okay. I have to get back to the station. I’ll let you get back to whatever you were doing.”
“Sorting socks.”
The lieutenant grinned. “My apologies for the interruption. ~ Janet Dailey,
70:Give us an idea of…” Noya Baram rubs her temples. “Oh, well.” Augie begins to stroll around again. “The examples are limitless. Small examples: elevators stop working. Grocery-store scanners. Train and bus passes. Televisions. Phones. Radios. Traffic lights. Credit-card scanners. Home alarm systems. Laptop computers will lose all their software, all files, everything erased. Your computer will be nothing but a keyboard and a blank screen. “Electricity would be severely compromised. Which means refrigerators. In some cases, heat. Water—well, we have already seen the effect on water-purification plants. Clean water in America will quickly become a scarcity. “That means health problems on a massive scale. Who will care for the sick? Hospitals? Will they have the necessary resources to treat you? Surgical operations these days are highly computerized. And they will not have access to any of your prior medical records online. “For that matter, will they treat you at all? Do you have health insurance? Says who? A card in your pocket? They won’t be able to look you up and confirm it. Nor will they be able to seek reimbursement from the insurer. And even if they could get in contact with the insurance company, the insurance company won’t know whether you’re its customer. Does it have handwritten lists of its policyholders? No. It’s all on computers. Computers that have been erased. Will the hospitals work for free? “No websites, of course. No e-commerce. Conveyor belts. Sophisticated machinery inside manufacturing plants. Payroll records. “Planes will be grounded. Even trains may not operate in most places. Cars, at least any built since, oh, 2010 or so, will be affected. “Legal records. Welfare records. Law enforcement databases. The ability of local police to identify criminals, to coordinate with other states and the federal government through databases—no more. “Bank records. You think you have ten thousand dollars in your savings account? Fifty thousand dollars in a retirement account? You think you have a pension that allows you to receive a fixed payment every month?” He shakes his head. “Not if computer files and their backups are erased. Do banks have a large wad of cash, wrapped in a rubber band with your name on it, sitting in a vault somewhere? Of course not. It’s all data.” “Mother of God,” says Chancellor Richter, wiping his face with a handkerchief. ~ Bill Clinton,
71:For almost all astronomical objects, gravitation dominates, and they have the same unexpected behavior. Gravitation reverses the usual relation between energy and temperature. In the domain of astronomy, when heat flows from hotter to cooler objects, the hot objects get hotter and the cool objects get cooler. As a result, temperature differences in the astronomical universe tend to increase rather than decrease as time goes on. There is no final state of uniform temperature, and there is no heat death. Gravitation gives us a universe hospitable to life. Information and order can continue to grow for billions of years in the future, as they have evidently grown in the past. The vision of the future as an infinite playground, with an unending sequence of mysteries to be understood by an unending sequence of players exploring an unending supply of information, is a glorious vision for scientists. Scientists find the vision attractive, since it gives them a purpose for their existence and an unending supply of jobs. The vision is less attractive to artists and writers and ordinary people. Ordinary people are more interested in friends and family than in science. Ordinary people may not welcome a future spent swimming in an unending flood of information. A darker view of the information-dominated universe was described in the famous story “The Library of Babel,” written by Jorge Luis Borges in 1941.§ Borges imagined his library, with an infinite array of books and shelves and mirrors, as a metaphor for the universe. Gleick’s book has an epilogue entitled “The Return of Meaning,” expressing the concerns of people who feel alienated from the prevailing scientific culture. The enormous success of information theory came from Shannon’s decision to separate information from meaning. His central dogma, “Meaning is irrelevant,” declared that information could be handled with greater freedom if it was treated as a mathematical abstraction independent of meaning. The consequence of this freedom is the flood of information in which we are drowning. The immense size of modern databases gives us a feeling of meaninglessness. Information in such quantities reminds us of Borges’s library extending infinitely in all directions. It is our task as humans to bring meaning back into this wasteland. As finite creatures who think and feel, we can create islands of meaning in the sea of information. Gleick ends his book with Borges’s image of the human condition: We walk the corridors, searching the shelves and rearranging them, looking for lines of meaning amid leagues of cacophony and incoherence, reading the history of the past and of the future, collecting our thoughts and collecting the thoughts of others, and every so often glimpsing mirrors, in which we may recognize creatures of the information. ~ Freeman Dyson,
72:Here’s a simple definition of ideology: “A set of beliefs about the proper order of society and how it can be achieved.”8 And here’s the most basic of all ideological questions: Preserve the present order, or change it? At the French Assembly of 1789, the delegates who favored preservation sat on the right side of the chamber, while those who favored change sat on the left. The terms right and left have stood for conservatism and liberalism ever since. Political theorists since Marx had long assumed that people chose ideologies to further their self-interest. The rich and powerful want to preserve and conserve; the peasants and workers want to change things (or at least they would if their consciousness could be raised and they could see their self-interest properly, said the Marxists). But even though social class may once have been a good predictor of ideology, that link has been largely broken in modern times, when the rich go both ways (industrialists mostly right, tech billionaires mostly left) and so do the poor (rural poor mostly right, urban poor mostly left). And when political scientists looked into it, they found that self-interest does a remarkably poor job of predicting political attitudes.9 So for most of the late twentieth century, political scientists embraced blank-slate theories in which people soaked up the ideology of their parents or the TV programs they watched.10 Some political scientists even said that most people were so confused about political issues that they had no real ideology at all.11 But then came the studies of twins. In the 1980s, when scientists began analyzing large databases that allowed them to compare identical twins (who share all of their genes, plus, usually, their prenatal and childhood environments) to same-sex fraternal twins (who share half of their genes, plus their prenatal and childhood environments), they found that the identical twins were more similar on just about everything.12 And what’s more, identical twins reared in separate households (because of adoption) usually turn out to be very similar, whereas unrelated children reared together (because of adoption) rarely turn out similar to each other, or to their adoptive parents; they tend to be more similar to their genetic parents. Genes contribute, somehow, to just about every aspect of our personalities.13 We’re not just talking about IQ, mental illness, and basic personality traits such as shyness. We’re talking about the degree to which you like jazz, spicy foods, and abstract art; your likelihood of getting a divorce or dying in a car crash; your degree of religiosity, and your political orientation as an adult. Whether you end up on the right or the left of the political spectrum turns out to be just as heritable as most other traits: genetics explains between a third and a half of the variability among people on their political attitudes.14 Being raised in a liberal or conservative household accounts for much less. How can that be? How can there be a genetic basis for attitudes about nuclear power, progressive taxation, and foreign aid when these issues only emerged in the last century or two? And how can there be a genetic basis for ideology when people sometimes change their political parties as adults? To answer these questions it helps to return to the definition of innate that I gave in chapter 7. Innate does not mean unmalleable; it means organized in advance of experience. The genes guide the construction of the brain in the uterus, but that’s only the first draft, so to speak. The draft gets revised by childhood experiences. To understand the origins of ideology you have to take a developmental perspective, starting with the genes and ending with an adult voting for a particular candidate or joining a political protest. There are three major steps in the process. Step ~ Jonathan Haidt,

IN CHAPTERS [0/0]









WORDNET



--- Overview of noun database

The noun database has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts)
                  
1. database ::: (an organized body of related information)


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun database

1 sense of database                          

Sense 1
database
   => information, info
     => message, content, subject matter, substance
       => communication
         => abstraction, abstract entity
           => entity


--- Hyponyms of noun database

1 sense of database                          

Sense 1
database
   => list, listing
   => electronic database, on-line database, computer database, electronic information service
   => subdata base


--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun database

1 sense of database                          

Sense 1
database
   => information, info




--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun database

1 sense of database                          

Sense 1
database
  -> information, info
   => ammunition
   => factoid
   => misinformation
   => material
   => details, inside information
   => fact
   => format, formatting, data format, data formatting
   => gen
   => database
   => news, intelligence, tidings, word
   => news
   => nuts and bolts
   => intelligence, intelligence information
   => confirmation
   => insider information
   => secret, arcanum
   => secret
   => propaganda
   => course of study, program, programme, curriculum, syllabus
   => news
   => evidence
   => readout, read-out
   => tabulation, tabular matter
   => skinny
   => stuff
   => report card, report




--- Grep of noun database
computer database
database
database management
database management system
electronic database
lexical database
object-oriented database
object-oriented database management system
on-line database
patent and trademark office database
relational database
relational database management system



IN WEBGEN [10000/1574]

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Wikipedia - DECIPHER -- Biological database
Wikipedia - Deductive database
Wikipedia - Delimiter-separated values -- Store two-dimensional arrays of data by separating the values in each row with specific delimiter characters. Most database and spreadsheet programs are able to read or save data in a delimited format
Wikipedia - Dependency theory (database theory)
Wikipedia - Dialog (online database)
Wikipedia - Dictionary of Scottish Architects -- Online database on architects and their works
Wikipedia - Digital library -- Online database of digital objects stored in electronic media formats and accessible via computers
Wikipedia - Discogs -- Website and database about audio recordings
Wikipedia - Diseases Database
Wikipedia - Distributed database management system
Wikipedia - Distributed database
Wikipedia - DNA database
Wikipedia - Document-oriented database -- A document-oriented NoSQL database, or document store, is a computer program designed for storing, retrieving and managing semi-structured, document-oriented information.
Wikipedia - DPVweb -- Database for virologists
Wikipedia - Draft:CSV (storage engine) -- Storage engine for the MySQL relational database management systems
Wikipedia - Draft:DuckDB -- Serverless relational database management system (RDBMS)
Wikipedia - Draft:Montana Memory Project -- American historical database (1890-1978)
Wikipedia - Draft:RavenDB -- Open source document-oriented database
Wikipedia - Drizzle (database server)
Wikipedia - Durability (database systems)
Wikipedia - EARS-Net -- biological database
Wikipedia - EDA database
Wikipedia - Embedded database
Wikipedia - Endgame database
Wikipedia - Energy Citations Database -- United States Department of Energy database
Wikipedia - Ensembl genome database project
Wikipedia - Ethnologue -- Database of the world's languages published by SIL International
Wikipedia - European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases
Wikipedia - EuroWordNet -- Computational linguistics database
Wikipedia - Evolutionary Technologies International -- Former database company
Wikipedia - Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia -- Astronomical database
Wikipedia - Facial recognition system -- Technology capable of matching a face from an image against a database of faces
Wikipedia - Factba.se -- Website hosting a database of Donald Trump statements
Wikipedia - Falcon (storage engine) -- Storage engine for the MySQL relational database management systems
Wikipedia - FARME -- biological database
Wikipedia - FDA Adverse Event Reporting System -- US FDA supporting computerized database
Wikipedia - Federated database system
Wikipedia - Federated database
Wikipedia - FileMaker -- Database management system
Wikipedia - Find a Grave -- online database of cemetery records
Wikipedia - Firebird (database server) -- Relational database management system
Wikipedia - Flat file database
Wikipedia - Flat-file database -- Database stored as an ordinary unstructured file
Wikipedia - Flora of North America -- Book, website, database
Wikipedia - FoundationDB -- Free and open-source multi-model NoSQL database developed by Apple
Wikipedia - Fourth normal form -- Normal form used in database normalization
Wikipedia - Frank Bisby -- Botanist and pioneer in developing taxonomy databases (1945-2011)
Wikipedia - Freebase (database) -- Online knowledge base (2007-2016)
Wikipedia - Freesound -- Collaborative database of audio snippets, samples, recordings, bleeps
Wikipedia - Frequent pattern discovery -- Technique for database mining
Wikipedia - Full-text database
Wikipedia - GC-Wiki -- British internal intelligence database
Wikipedia - Gemstone Database Management System
Wikipedia - Gemstone (database)
Wikipedia - GeneCards -- Human gene database maintained by the Weizmann Institute of Science
Wikipedia - Gene Disease Database
Wikipedia - Generic Model Organism Database
Wikipedia - Geographic Names Information System -- Geographical database
Wikipedia - GeoNames -- Geographical database available and accessible through various web services
Wikipedia - GEOnet Names Server -- Database of geographical objects maintained by the United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
Wikipedia - Giphy -- American online database and search engine
Wikipedia - Glacio-geological databases -- Data on glacially associated sedimentary deposits and erosional activity from former and current ice-sheets
Wikipedia - Global Historical Climatology Network -- A database of temperature, precipitation and pressure records
Wikipedia - Global Terrorism Database -- Post-1970 terrorist incident database by the University of Maryland, College Park
Wikipedia - Glottolog -- Bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
Wikipedia - Google Tables -- Cloud-based collaborative database software
Wikipedia - Government database
Wikipedia - Grand Comics Database
Wikipedia - Graph databases
Wikipedia - Graph Database
Wikipedia - Graph database -- Database that uses mathematical graphs to store and search data
Wikipedia - Great Britain Historical GIS -- Database that documents and visualises the changing human geography of the British Isles
Wikipedia - GreeNC -- Wiki-database of plant lncRNAs
Wikipedia - Guide to Pharmacology -- pharmacology database
Wikipedia - GWAS catalog -- Online database of genome-wide association study results
Wikipedia - GWAS Central -- Genetic association study database
Wikipedia - Halloween Problem -- Phenomenon with database updates where a row is updated more than once
Wikipedia - HanCinema -- Korean film and drama database
Wikipedia - HeinOnline -- Online database for legal materials
Wikipedia - Heterogeneous database system
Wikipedia - Hierarchical database model
Wikipedia - Hierarchical database
Wikipedia - HOLMES 2 -- database of the United Kingdom government for major crimes
Wikipedia - HSQLDB -- Java-based database engine
Wikipedia - IBM Db2 Family -- Relational model database server
Wikipedia - IBM System R -- Relational database management system, first implementation of SQL
Wikipedia - ICANN -- American nonprofit organization that coordinates several Internet address databases
Wikipedia - ICWATCH -- Database of LinkedIn profiles hosted by WikilLeaks
Wikipedia - IEEE Xplore -- Research database focused on computer science, electrical engineering, electronics, and allied fields
Wikipedia - IMDb -- Online database for movies, television, and video games
Wikipedia - Index (database)
Wikipedia - Indexed Database API
Wikipedia - InfiniDB -- Database management software company based in Frisco, Texas
Wikipedia - Ingres (database)
Wikipedia - In-memory database
Wikipedia - InnoDB -- Storage engine for the MySQL database management system
Wikipedia - INTEGRALL -- biological database
Wikipedia - Intelligent database
Wikipedia - InterBase -- Relational database management system
Wikipedia - Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera -- Taxonomic database
Wikipedia - International Conference on Database Theory
Wikipedia - International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration
Wikipedia - International Plant Names Index -- Database of plant names
Wikipedia - Internet Adult Film Database -- Online database of US pornographic films and actors
Wikipedia - Internet Broadway Database -- Online database of Broadway theatre productions and their personnel
Wikipedia - Internet Movie Database
Wikipedia - Internet Movie Firearms Database
Wikipedia - Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Wikipedia - IPUMS -- World's largest individual-level population database
Wikipedia - Irish Statute Book -- Irish legal website/database
Wikipedia - Isolation (database systems)
Wikipedia - Japanese Movie Database -- Online database of films and actors
Wikipedia - JASPAR -- Open-access database storing curated, non-redundant transcription factor (TF) binding profiles
Wikipedia - Java Database Connectivity
Wikipedia - Jewish Museum of the American West -- Online database of pioneer Jews of the western United States
Wikipedia - Jordan Antiquities Database and Information System -- Computer database of antiquities in Jordan
Wikipedia - Journal of Database Management
Wikipedia - JPL Small-Body Database -- Astronomy database
Wikipedia - Key-value database -- Data storage paradigm
Wikipedia - LacED -- biological database
Wikipedia - Legislation.gov.uk -- Official web-accessible database of the statute law of the United Kingdom
Wikipedia - Library of Latin Texts -- Database of Latin texts
Wikipedia - List of academic databases and search engines -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of biodiversity databases -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of biological databases
Wikipedia - List of databases using MVCC -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of funding opportunity databases -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of in-memory databases -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of international databases on individual student achievement tests -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of neuroscience databases -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of online databases -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - List of online music databases -- Wikimedia list article
Wikipedia - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature -- Online database of prokaryotes taxonomy
Wikipedia - List of relational database management systems -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Lock (database)
Wikipedia - Logbook of The World -- Amateur radio verification database
Wikipedia - Logeion -- Database for Latin and Ancient Greek dictionaries
Wikipedia - Logical database design technique
Wikipedia - Lumiere (database) -- Database of European film box office admissions
Wikipedia - LyricWiki -- Former lyrics database
Wikipedia - Main memory database
Wikipedia - Management information base -- Database used for managing the entities in a communication network
Wikipedia - MariaDB -- Database management system, relational, open source, community developed fork of MySQL
Wikipedia - Mathematics Genealogy Project -- Web-based database for the academic genealogy of mathematicians
Wikipedia - M-CM-^Mslendingabok (genealogical database) -- Database of Icelandic genealogy
Wikipedia - MEGARes -- Curated antibiotic resistance gene database
Wikipedia - Memory (storage engine) -- Storage engine for the MySQL relational database management systems
Wikipedia - MICRO Relational Database Management System
Wikipedia - Microsoft Access -- Database manager that is part of the Microsoft Office package
Wikipedia - Microsoft Azure SQL Database
Wikipedia - Microsoft Cinemania -- Film database released annually by Microsoft between 1992 and 1997
Wikipedia - Microsoft Jet Database Engine
Wikipedia - Microsoft SQL Server -- Family of database software
Wikipedia - MINAS -- Database of Metal Ions in Nucleic AcidS
Wikipedia - Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer -- Medical database
Wikipedia - MNIST database
Wikipedia - Mobile database
Wikipedia - Model 204 -- Database management system for IBM mainframes
Wikipedia - MongoDB -- Cross-platform document-oriented database
Wikipedia - Motorcycle Hall of Fame -- American museum and database
Wikipedia - Mouse Genome Database
Wikipedia - MUBII-TB-DB -- biological database
Wikipedia - Multidimensional database
Wikipedia - Multimedia database
Wikipedia - Multi-model database -- Database management system
Wikipedia - Multiversion concurrency control -- Concurrency control method commonly used by database management systems
Wikipedia - MusicBrainz -- Online music metadata database
Wikipedia - MvirDB -- biological database
Wikipedia - MyAnimeList -- English-language anime and manga database website
Wikipedia - MySQL -- SQL database engine software
Wikipedia - National Center for Biotechnology Information -- Database branch of the US National Library of Medicine
Wikipedia - National Crime Information Center -- US central database of crime-related information
Wikipedia - National Database > Registration Authority
Wikipedia - National Do Not Call Registry -- Telephone database in the United States
Wikipedia - National Geoscience Database of Iran -- Iranian Geoscience government agency
Wikipedia - National Register Information System -- Database of properties that have been listed on the United States National Register of Historic Places
Wikipedia - National Register of Citizens for Assam -- Indian citizenship database originally by Assam state
Wikipedia - National Vulnerability Database
Wikipedia - Navigational Database
Wikipedia - Navigational database -- Database in which records or objects are found by following references from other objects
Wikipedia - Negative database
Wikipedia - Neo4j -- free and open-source graph database implemented in Java
Wikipedia - Neogene of the Old World -- Database related to natural history
Wikipedia - Network database model
Wikipedia - Network database
Wikipedia - NewsBank -- News database resource
Wikipedia - New South Wales Heritage Database -- Database maintained by the Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW, Australia)
Wikipedia - NewSQL -- Relational database management with a desiree scalable performance of NoSQL, by combining OLTP plus ACID schemes
Wikipedia - NGP VAN -- privately owned voter database and web hosting service provider
Wikipedia - NNDB -- Online biographical database
Wikipedia - Normattiva -- Italian law database
Wikipedia - NoSQL -- Database class for storage and retrieval of modeled data
Wikipedia - OBD Memorial -- Russian government database project
Wikipedia - Object-based spatial database
Wikipedia - ObjectDatabase++
Wikipedia - Object database -- Database management system
Wikipedia - ObjectDB -- Object database for Java
Wikipedia - Object-oriented database
Wikipedia - Object-relational database
Wikipedia - Online database
Wikipedia - On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences -- Online database of integer sequences
Wikipedia - OpenCorporates -- Database on corporate entities
Wikipedia - Open Database Connectivity -- ODBC, standard interface for accessing database systems
Wikipedia - Open Database License -- Share-alike license for databases
Wikipedia - OpenStreetMap -- Collaboratively edited world map available under free Open Database License
Wikipedia - Operational database
Wikipedia - Oracle database
Wikipedia - Oracle Database -- Proprietary database management system
Wikipedia - Oracle NoSQL Database
Wikipedia - Oracle Template Library -- C++ library for database access
Wikipedia - Oregon Performance Reporting Information System -- Database of workforce system in Oregon, USA
Wikipedia - Outline of databases
Wikipedia - Oxford English Corpus -- Is a text corpus and database of 21st century English
Wikipedia - Parallel database
Wikipedia - Partition (database)
Wikipedia - Persistence framework -- Database middleware
Wikipedia - Philosophy Research Index -- Indexing database
Wikipedia - PhpMyAdmin -- Database administration tool
Wikipedia - Physiotherapy Evidence Database -- Physical therapy-centered bibliographic database
Wikipedia - Placenames Database of Ireland -- Also known as logainm.ie,
Wikipedia - Plants of the World Online -- Online database of the world's plants
Wikipedia - Police National Computer -- UK database of criminal, driving and property records
Wikipedia - Postcode Address File -- British geographical database of all known Royal Mail postal addresses and postcodes
Wikipedia - Price of Weed -- User-generated price database for cannabis
Wikipedia - Probabilistic database
Wikipedia - Project MUSE -- Online database of journals and ebooks
Wikipedia - PROSPERO -- Online systematic review database
Wikipedia - Protein Data Bank -- International open access database of large biological molecules
Wikipedia - PubChem -- Chemical information database
Wikipedia - Query throughput -- Measurement of database system performance
Wikipedia - RAC: Repository of Antibiotic resistance Cassettes -- biological database
Wikipedia - Rate Your Music -- Online collaborative metadata database of music and film releases
Wikipedia - Rat Genome Database
Wikipedia - Reactome -- Database of biological pathways
Wikipedia - Realm (database)
Wikipedia - Real-time database
Wikipedia - REBASE (database) -- Database for DNA restriction enzymes
Wikipedia - Record (computer science) -- Information block that is part of a database (data row)
Wikipedia - Redis -- Open-source in-memory key-value database
Wikipedia - RefSeq -- Database containing reference sequences of genes, proteins and transcripts
Wikipedia - Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances -- Database of toxicity information
Wikipedia - Relational algebra -- Theory introduced for modeling relational databases
Wikipedia - Relational database management systems
Wikipedia - Relational database management system -- DBMS that is based on the relational model
Wikipedia - Relational databases
Wikipedia - Relational Database
Wikipedia - Relational database -- Digital database whose organization is based on the relational model of data
Wikipedia - Relational model -- Database model
Wikipedia - Relation (database)
Wikipedia - Remote Database Access -- Protocol standard for database access
Wikipedia - Research database
Wikipedia - Research Papers in Economics -- Bibliographic database for economics
Wikipedia - ResFinder -- biological database
Wikipedia - Roud Folk Song Index -- Database of English-language folksongs
Wikipedia - Row (database)
Wikipedia - Rundata -- Database of runic inscriptions
Wikipedia - Saccharomyces Genome Database
Wikipedia - Schema-agnostic databases
Wikipedia - ScienceDirect -- Website providing subscription-based access to a database of scientific and medical research
Wikipedia - Scopus -- Bibliographic database
Wikipedia - Security Account Manager -- Windows database that stores users' passwords
Wikipedia - Semantic data model -- Database model
Wikipedia - Sequence database
Wikipedia - SESAM (database)
Wikipedia - Sex offender registries in the United States -- Many sex offenders in the US must register themselves on a public US government database
Wikipedia - Shadow library -- Database of content that is a copy of content that is otherwise obscured or not accessible because of paywalls or other accessibility restrictions
Wikipedia - Shane's Chess Information Database
Wikipedia - Shard (database architecture) -- Horizontal partition of data in a database or search engine
Wikipedia - SIMBAD -- Astronomical database
Wikipedia - Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool -- Biological database
Wikipedia - Social Security Death Index -- Database of American death records
Wikipedia - Spanner (database)
Wikipedia - Spanner (distributed database technology)
Wikipedia - Sparksee (graph database) -- Graph database system
Wikipedia - Spatial database -- Database optimized for storing and querying data that represents objects defined in a geometric space
Wikipedia - Spatiotemporal database -- Database managing time and space information
Wikipedia - Species 2000 -- Federated taxonomic database system for species checklists
Wikipedia - SQLBuddy -- Database administration tool
Wikipedia - SQLite -- Serverless relational database management system (RDBMS)
Wikipedia - SQL Server Express -- Relational database management system
Wikipedia - Swiss Media Database -- TV program
Wikipedia - Symposium on Principles of Database Systems
Wikipedia - Table (database)
Wikipedia - Taxonomic database
Wikipedia - Template talk:Database models
Wikipedia - Template talk:Database-software-stub
Wikipedia - Template talk:Databases
Wikipedia - Template talk:Database
Wikipedia - Temporal database -- Database that stores information relating to past, present and future time
Wikipedia - Terminology-oriented database
Wikipedia - TerminusDB -- free and open-source graph database
Wikipedia - Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment -- U.S. government database
Wikipedia - The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) -- Database of medical images for cancer research
Wikipedia - The Himalayan Database -- Elizabeth Hawley's climbing statistics
Wikipedia - The Political Graveyard -- Online database of American political figures
Wikipedia - Thermodynamic databases for pure substances -- Thermodynamic properties list
Wikipedia - TiDB -- NewSQL relational distributed database
Wikipedia - Time series database -- Unordered set of n-time-series possibly of different lengths
Wikipedia - Torah database -- Electronic collection of classic Jewish texts
Wikipedia - Transaction (database)
Wikipedia - Transaction log -- History of actions executed by a database management system
Wikipedia - Transport Research International Documentation -- US transportation research database
Wikipedia - Trigger (database)
Wikipedia - Trove -- Australian online library database aggregator
Wikipedia - Tz database -- Collaborative compilation of information about the world's time zones
Wikipedia - U-CARE -- biological database
Wikipedia - UniProt -- Database of protein sequences and functional information
Wikipedia - Unisys DMSII -- Database management system
Wikipedia - United Kingdom National DNA Database -- UK database of DNA records, established in 1995
Wikipedia - Versant Object Database
Wikipedia - Very large database
Wikipedia - VFDB -- biological database
Wikipedia - View (database)
Wikipedia - Virtual biobank -- Online database providing biobank data
Wikipedia - Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database -- Database at Emory University
Wikipedia - Vulnerability database -- Computer security vulnerabilities
Wikipedia - Web SQL Database
Wikipedia - Wikidata -- collaboratively edited and free multilingual knowledge database and graph hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation
Wikipedia - Wikipedia:Database download -- Information on downloading dumps of the wiki database
Wikipedia - Wikipedia:Database reports/User preferences -- Statistics on the user preferences of a wiki
Wikipedia - Wikipedia:Database reports -- Reports made by querying the wiki database
Wikipedia - WikiScanner -- Defunct database linking Wikipedia edits to institutions
Wikipedia - Windows Internal Database
Wikipedia - Women Also Know Stuff -- Database of women in political science
Wikipedia - World Atlas of Language Structures -- Database of the structures of many languages.
Wikipedia - World Database of Happiness -- Archive of research findings on subjective appreciation of life.
Wikipedia - World Ocean Database Project -- An international collection of ocean profile-plankton data
Wikipedia - World Register of Marine Species -- Web-based database of marine species
Wikipedia - World Spider Catalog -- Online taxonomic database
Wikipedia - XML databases
Wikipedia - XML database
Wikipedia - YAGO (database)
Wikipedia - Yago (database)
Wikipedia - Z39.50 -- Application layer communications protocol for searching and retrieving information from a database over a TCP/IP computer network
Wikipedia - Zope Object Database
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Day Of The Warrior(1996) - The Legion to Ensure Total Harmony and Law (L.E.T.H.A.L.), is tracking a criminal mastermind known only as The Warrior. While investigating his combination diamond smuggling/art theft/porn production industry, the agents discover that he has cracked their secret database and has stolen the files on...
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Baldr Force Exe Resolution -- -- Satelight -- 4 eps -- Visual novel -- Action Drama Mecha Sci-Fi -- Baldr Force Exe Resolution Baldr Force Exe Resolution -- Any network runs all over the world, and the development of the information network reaches its acme. In this age, there are two developed worlds; "the real world" and "wired", or the virtual network world. -- -- Soma Toru belongs to a hacking group, Steppen Wolf, which runs around the network world freely. They attack the database of the UN forces as their last work. During this attack, he loses Nonomura Yuya, his friend as well as the team leader. Toru is arrested by the army. In exchange for letting him free, he has to work for an anti-hacker organization, the first squad of the UN Security Force Information Administration Bureau. -- -- Working for them, he is looking for the person who killed his friend, while the other members also have their own reason to fight. -- -- The three-way fights of the terrorist group, the security enterprise, and the army, continue every day. The various events occurred during the fight seem to be independent of each other at the first glance, but they're converging on one event as if they were attracted by something. -- -- Based on the game by GIGA. -- -- (Source: ANN) -- -- Licensor: -- Funimation -- OVA - Nov 10, 2006 -- 15,668 6.46
Eve no Jikan (Movie) -- -- Studio Rikka -- 1 ep -- Original -- Sci-Fi Slice of Life -- Eve no Jikan (Movie) Eve no Jikan (Movie) -- In the Japan of the future, employing androids for various purposes is nothing out of the ordinary. However, treating androids on the same level as humans is frowned upon, and there is constant paranoia surrounding the possibility of robots defying humans, their masters. Those who appear too trustworthy of their androids are chided and labeled "dori-kei," or "android-holics." -- -- High school student Rikuo Sakisaka notices when his house droid, Sammy, starts behaving curiously—she has been leaving the house without his instruction. When he inspects the movement logs in her database, a cryptic line grabs his attention: "Are you enjoying the time of EVE?" Accompanied by his friend Masakazu Masaki, Rikuo tracks the whereabouts of his houseroid to a cafe called Time of Eve, where it is forbidden for customers to display prejudice against one another. The cafe, Rikuo realizes, is frequented by both man and machine, with no evidence to tell either apart. -- -- Each customer—from the cheerful Akiko, to a robot dangerously close to breaking down—has their own story and challenges to overcome. While Rikuo tries to reveal Sammy's intentions, he begins to question the legitimacy of the fear that drives humans to regard androids as nothing more than mere tools. -- -- -- Licensor: -- NYAV Post, Pied Piper -- Movie - Mar 6, 2010 -- 108,248 8.04
Eve no Jikan (Movie) -- -- Studio Rikka -- 1 ep -- Original -- Sci-Fi Slice of Life -- Eve no Jikan (Movie) Eve no Jikan (Movie) -- In the Japan of the future, employing androids for various purposes is nothing out of the ordinary. However, treating androids on the same level as humans is frowned upon, and there is constant paranoia surrounding the possibility of robots defying humans, their masters. Those who appear too trustworthy of their androids are chided and labeled "dori-kei," or "android-holics." -- -- High school student Rikuo Sakisaka notices when his house droid, Sammy, starts behaving curiously—she has been leaving the house without his instruction. When he inspects the movement logs in her database, a cryptic line grabs his attention: "Are you enjoying the time of EVE?" Accompanied by his friend Masakazu Masaki, Rikuo tracks the whereabouts of his houseroid to a cafe called Time of Eve, where it is forbidden for customers to display prejudice against one another. The cafe, Rikuo realizes, is frequented by both man and machine, with no evidence to tell either apart. -- -- Each customer—from the cheerful Akiko, to a robot dangerously close to breaking down—has their own story and challenges to overcome. While Rikuo tries to reveal Sammy's intentions, he begins to question the legitimacy of the fear that drives humans to regard androids as nothing more than mere tools. -- -- Movie - Mar 6, 2010 -- 108,248 8.04
Kyojinzoku no Hanayome -- -- Studio Hokiboshi -- 9 eps -- Manga -- Fantasy Shounen Ai -- Kyojinzoku no Hanayome Kyojinzoku no Hanayome -- Kouichi Mizuki ends his high school basketball career on a high note, bringing his team to victory during their final match at nationals. Now free from club activities, he looks forward to spending more time socializing, maybe even finding room for romance. But fate has slightly different plans for him when a magical circle transports Kouichi to Tildant, the land of giants. -- -- Upon his arrival, Kouichi comes face-to-face with Caius Lao Bistail, the titan king and the culprit behind his summoning. Caius is overjoyed, claiming Kouichi to be his fated bride and asking him to bear his children! It soon becomes evident to Kouichi that his species, let alone gender, is not a problem as Caius pushes him down onto a lavish bed. Will Kouichi ever find romance in this relationship that is bound to end in tears? -- -- -- -- The complete edition with explicit scenes was distributed online via Comic Festa Anime Zone. The censored version was broadcast on Tokyo MX. This database entry reflects censored TV version of the anime. -- 19,067 5.26
Robotics;Notes -- -- Production I.G -- 22 eps -- Visual novel -- Sci-Fi Mystery Drama Mecha School -- Robotics;Notes Robotics;Notes -- It has always been the aspiration of the Central Tanegashima High School Robotics Research Club to complete the GunPro1, a fully functioning giant robot. For years, the members of the club have contributed to its progress and it is now Akiho Senomiya's goal to finally make the dream of all the past club members become a reality. However, things are not as easy as they seem as the club lacks the funding for such a huge endeavor. Aside from that, the only other club member, Kaito Yashio, shows no interest in assisting his childhood friend and instead indulges in playing mecha-fighting games on his "PokeCom." -- -- As Kaito is in the middle of wasting his days, he receives an indecipherable message and hears a voice that seems to be drowned out by the noise of static. He searches for the source, only to realize that it came from Airi Yukifune, an AI which only exists within the augmented reality system accessible via the PokeCom. Robotic;Notes follows the story of Kaito as he discovers a peculiar report in Airi's database, one that would have disastrous consequences in the future. -- -- -- Licensor: -- Funimation -- 159,591 7.34
Shingeki no Kyojin: The Final Season Part 2 -- -- - -- ? eps -- Manga -- Action Military Mystery Super Power Drama Fantasy Shounen -- Shingeki no Kyojin: The Final Season Part 2 Shingeki no Kyojin: The Final Season Part 2 -- Second part of Shingeki no Kyojin: The Final Season. -- TV - Jan ??, 2022 -- 161,248 N/A -- -- Robotics;Notes -- -- Production I.G -- 22 eps -- Visual novel -- Sci-Fi Mystery Drama Mecha School -- Robotics;Notes Robotics;Notes -- It has always been the aspiration of the Central Tanegashima High School Robotics Research Club to complete the GunPro1, a fully functioning giant robot. For years, the members of the club have contributed to its progress and it is now Akiho Senomiya's goal to finally make the dream of all the past club members become a reality. However, things are not as easy as they seem as the club lacks the funding for such a huge endeavor. Aside from that, the only other club member, Kaito Yashio, shows no interest in assisting his childhood friend and instead indulges in playing mecha-fighting games on his "PokeCom." -- -- As Kaito is in the middle of wasting his days, he receives an indecipherable message and hears a voice that seems to be drowned out by the noise of static. He searches for the source, only to realize that it came from Airi Yukifune, an AI which only exists within the augmented reality system accessible via the PokeCom. Robotic;Notes follows the story of Kaito as he discovers a peculiar report in Airi's database, one that would have disastrous consequences in the future. -- -- -- Licensor: -- Funimation -- 159,591 7.34
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Category:Database_management_systems
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ACM Transactions on Database Systems
Active database
Adult Film Database
Aerodrome mapping database
Aerospike (database)
Aid Worker Security Database
Alternative Splicing and Transcript Diversity database
Amazon Relational Database Service
Antimicrobial Drug Database
Aquatic toxicology databases
Arachne (archaeological database)
Asia-Pacific Trade Agreements Database
Atla Religion Database
Atmospheric chemistry observational databases
Atomicity (database systems)
Australasian Underwater Cultural Heritage Database
Australian Heritage Database
Australian National Bibliographic Database
Australian Rock Database
Back-end database
Beach Volleyball Database
Beilstein database
Bento (database)
Beta-Lactamase Database
Beta-Lactamase Database (BLAD)
Beta-Lactamase Database (BLDB)
BFI Film & TV Database
Bibliographic database
BioCyc database collection
Biological database
Biometric Database Law
Blockchain-based database
Book:Databases
Borland Database Engine
Building Performance Database
CAB Direct (database)
Calypso Ichthyological Database
Cambridge Structural Database
CAMPUS (database)
Canmore (database)
Carbohydrate Structure Database
CATH database
Centralized database
Chemical database
Chemical Database Service
Chess database
China Biographical Database
China Economic Databases
Chinese National Vulnerability Database
Christian Film Database
Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database
Civil Engineering Database
Clara database
Clergy of the Church of England database
Cloud database
Column (database)
Comparison of database access
Comparison of database tools
Comparison of multi-model databases
Comparison of MySQL database engines
Comparison of object database management systems
Comparison of objectrelational database management systems
Comparison of relational database management systems
Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database
Configuration management database
Conserved Domain Database
Consistency (database systems)
Controversial Ohio database searches of Joe Wurzelbacher
COSMIC cancer database
Cost database
Cross-strait language database
Crystallographic database
Crystallography Open Database
CSA (database company)
Cursor (databases)
Danish Film Database
Database
Database abstraction layer
Database administration
Database administrator
Database and Collections of Information Misappropriation Act
Database application
Database caching
Database Center for Life Science
Database-centric architecture
Database connection
Database design
Database Directive
Database dump
Database encryption
Database engine
Database forensics
Database index
Database (journal)
Database journalism
Database machine
Database Management Library
Database model
Database normalization
Database of Interacting Proteins
Database of Molecular Motions
Database of Salon Artists
Database preservation
Database publishing
Database right
Database schema
Database server
Database Software
Database storage structures
Database System Concepts
Database testing
Database theory
Database transaction
Database trigger
Database virtualization
Database Workbench
Data Security Threats Database
Db2 Database
Dietary Supplements (database)
Diseases Database
Distributionalrelational database
DNA database
Document-oriented database
DOTO Database
Drizzle (database server)
Durability (database systems)
Earth Human STR Allele Frequencies Database
Embedded database
Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database
Empress Embedded Database
Energy Citations Database
Energy Science and Technology Database
Ensembl genome database project
Eukaryotic Pathogen Database
Eukaryotic Promoter Database
European Cultivated Potato Database
European Sleep Apnea Database
European Soil Database
Evolutionary database design
Facial expression databases
FAME (database)
Families of Structurally Similar Proteins database
Federated database system
Financial Instruments Reference Database System
Firebird (database server)
Flat-file database
Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database
Freebase (database)
Full-text database
Functional database model
Gemstone (database)
Gender, Institutions and Development Database
Generic Model Organism Database
Genomes OnLine Database
Genome Taxonomy Database
German Emigrants Database
Glacio-geological databases
Glass databases
Global Research Identifier Database
Global Species Database
Gmelin database
Government database
G protein-coupled receptors database
Grand Comics Database
Graph database
Guardian (database)
Hekaton (database)
Helix (database)
Henry A. Wallace Police Crime Public Database
Heterogeneous database system
Hierarchical database model
Histone Database
Historical Marker Database
Hong Kong Movie DataBase
Human Metabolome Database
Human Mortality Database
Human Protein Reference Database
IMAGE (database)
In-database processing
Indexed Database API
Indian Genetic Disease Database
Informit (database)
Ingres (database)
In-memory database
Inorganic Crystal Structure Database
Intelligent database
International Conference on Database Theory
International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration
Internet Adult Film Database
Internet Movie Cars Database
Internet Movie Firearms Database
Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Internet Theatre Database
Iraqi Legal Database
slendingabk (genealogical database)
Isolation (database systems)
Japanese Movie Database
Java Database Connectivity
Journal of Database Management
JPL Small-Body Database
Kaii-Ykai Densh Database
Keyvalue database
Ki Database
Korean Movie Database
Leiden Open Variation Database
Leuven Database of Ancient Books
Lightning Memory-Mapped Database
Line information database
List of academic databases and search engines
List of biodiversity databases
List of biological databases
List of databases for oncogenomic research
List of Drosophila databases
List of funding opportunity databases
List of genealogy databases
List of in-memory databases
List of international databases on individual student achievement tests
List of long non-coding RNA databases
List of neuroscience databases
List of online music databases
List of relational database management systems
List of tz database time zones
Lists of database management systems
Lumiere (database)
Manifesto Project Database
Materials database
Media contacts database
Microarray databases
MICRO Relational Database Management System
Microsoft Azure SQL Database
Microsoft Jet Database Engine
Middle Eastern Geodatabase for Antiquities (MEGA)
Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer
MNIST database
Mobile database
Model organism database
Molecular Modeling Database
Mouse Models of Human Cancer database
Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database
Multi-Omics Profiling Expression Database
MusicDNA (database)
Music ownership databases
Mustard Database
Names Database
NAPP (database)
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA Star and Exoplanet Database
National Database & Registration Authority
National Forensic DNA Database of South Africa
National Hip Fracture Database
National Pupil Database
National Vulnerability Database
Navigational database
NCI-Nature Pathway Interaction Database
Nearby Stars Database
New Zealand Nationally Significant Collections and Databases
Nintendo Network Service Database
Non-native speech database
Nuclear magnetic resonance database method
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra database
Object database
Objectrelational database
Online database
Open Database Connectivity
Open Database License
Open energy system databases
Open Regulatory Annotation Database
Open Source Vulnerability Database
Operational database
Operon database
Oracle Database
Orientations of Proteins in Membranes database
Outline of databases
Pakistan MNP Database
Paleobiology Database
Paradox (database)
Parallel database
Partition (database)
PASCAL (database)
PDBbind database
Petrological Database of the Ocean Floor
Placenames Database of Ireland
Plant Proteome Database
Political Database of the Americas
Portable Database Image
Postcode Plants Database
Probabilistic database
Project-Level Aid Database
Protein database
Protein structure database
Proteomics Identifications Database
Raima Database Manager
Range query (database)
Rat Genome Database
Real-time database
Real-time Neutron Monitor Database
REBASE (database)
Relational database
Relation (database)
Remote Database Access
Reptile Database
Resistance Database Initiative
Riken integrated database of mammals
RNA modification database
Roller Coaster DataBase
Routing Assets Database
Row (database)
SARG database
Schema-agnostic databases
Scottish Built Ships database
Scylla (database)
Sequence database
SESAM (database)
Shane's Chess Information Database
Shard (database architecture)
SILVA ribosomal RNA database
Simple Sloppy Semantic Database
SIPRI Arms Transfers Database, Iraq 19731990
Small Molecule Pathway Database
Source Code in Database
Spanner (database)
Sparksee (graph database)
Spatial database
Spatiotemporal database
Spectral Database for Organic Compounds
SPIN bibliographic database
Structural Classification of Proteins database
Stuttgart Database of Scientific Illustrators 14501950
Suicide Attack Database
Superbase (database)
Superfamily database
Swedish Film Database
Symposium on Principles of Database Systems
Table (database)
TALON (database)
Tandem Repeats Database
Taxonomic database
Temporal database
Tephritid Workers Database
Terrorist Screening Database
Tethys (database)
The Big Cartoon DataBase
The Human-Induced Earthquake Database
Thermodynamic databases for pure substances
Threat Matrix (database)
Time series database
Torah database
Toxin and Toxin-Target Database
Transactional database
Transporter Classification Database
TV White Space Database
Tz database
UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database
United Kingdom National DNA Database
United Nations Multilingual Terminology Database
Upsizing (database)
Versant Object Database
VINITI Database RAS
Voter database
Vulnerability database
Web SQL Database
Windows Internal Database
World Database of Happiness
World Database on Protected Areas
World Inequality Database
XML database
YAGO (database)
Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database
Yeast Metabolome Database
Zope Object Database



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Savitri -- Savitri extended toc
Savitri Section Map -- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
authors -- Crowley - Peterson - Borges - Wilber - Teresa - Aurobindo - Ramakrishna - Maharshi - Mother
places -- Garden - Inf. Art Gallery - Inf. Building - Inf. Library - Labyrinth - Library - School - Temple - Tower - Tower of MEM
powers -- Aspiration - Beauty - Concentration - Effort - Faith - Force - Grace - inspiration - Presence - Purity - Sincerity - surrender
difficulties -- cowardice - depres. - distract. - distress - dryness - evil - fear - forget - habits - impulse - incapacity - irritation - lost - mistakes - obscur. - problem - resist - sadness - self-deception - shame - sin - suffering
practices -- Lucid Dreaming - meditation - project - programming - Prayer - read Savitri - study
subjects -- CS - Cybernetics - Game Dev - Integral Theory - Integral Yoga - Kabbalah - Language - Philosophy - Poetry - Zen
6.01 books -- KC - ABA - Null - Savitri - SA O TAOC - SICP - The Gospel of SRK - TIC - The Library of Babel - TLD - TSOY - TTYODAS - TSZ - WOTM II
8 unsorted / add here -- Always - Everyday - Verbs


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