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object:Roger Bacon
--- WIKI
Roger Bacon OFM (/bekn/;[6] Latin: Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Frater Rogerus; c.1219/20 c.1292), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor Mirabilis, was a medieval English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism. In the early modern era, he was regarded as a wizard and particularly famed for the story of his mechanical or necromantic brazen head. He is sometimes credited (mainly since the 19th century) as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method. Bacon applied the empirical method of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) to observations in texts attri buted to Aristotle. Bacon discovered the importance of empirical testing when the results he obtained were different than those that would have been predicted by Aristotle.[7][8] (Aristotle had never performed experiments to verify his explanations of his observations of nature.[citation needed])

His linguistic work has been heralded for its early exposition of a universal grammar. However, more recent[when?] re-evaluations emphasise that Bacon was essentially a medieval thinker, with much of his "experimental" knowledge obtained from books in the scholastic tradition.[9] He was, however, partially responsible for a revision of the medieval university curriculum, which saw the addition of optics to the traditional quadrivium.[10]

Bacon's major work, the Opus Majus, was sent to Pope Clement IV in Rome in 1267 upon the pope's request. Although gunpowder was first invented and described in China, Bacon was the first in Europe to record its formula.

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Roger Bacon




Idol: (Gr. eidolon, and Lat. idolum, image or likeness) Democritus (5th c. B.C.) tried to explain sense perception by means of the emission of little particles (eidola) from the sense object. This theory and the term, idolum, are known throughout the later middle ages, but in a pejorative sense, as indicating a sort of "second-hand" knowledge. G. Bruno is usually credited with the earliest Latin use of the term to name that which leads philosophers into error, but this is an unmerited honor. The most famous usage occurs in F. Bacon's Novum Oiganum, I, 39-68, where the four chief causes of human error in philosophy and science are called the Idols of the Tribe (weakness of understanding in the whole human race), of the Cave (individual prejudices and mental defects), of the Forum (faults of language in the communication of ideas), and of the Theatre (faults arising from received systems of philosophy). A very similar teaching, without the term, idol, had been developed by Grosseteste and Roger Bacon in the 13th century. -- V.J.R.

Occultism ::: This word meant originally only the science of things hid; even in the Middle Ages of Europe thosephilosophers who were the forerunners of the modern scientists, those who then studied physical nature,called their science occultism, and their studies occult, meaning the things that were hid or not known tothe common run of mankind. Such a medieval philosopher was Albertus Magnus, a German; and so alsowas Roger Bacon, an Englishman -- both of the thirteenth century of the Christian era.Occultism as theosophists use the term, and as it should be used, means the study of the hid things ofBeing, the science of life or universal nature. In one sense this word can be used to mean the study ofunusual "phenomena," which meaning it usually has today among people who do not think of the vastlylarger field of causes which occultism, properly speaking, investigates. Doubtless mere physicalphenomena have their place in study, but they are on the frontier, on the outskirts -- the superficialities -of occultism. The study of true occultism means penetrating deep into the causal mysteries of Being.Occultism is a generalizing term for the entire body of the occult sciences -- the sciences of the secrets ofuniversal nature; as H. P. Blavatsky phrases it, "physical and psychic, mental and spiritual; calledHermetic and Esoteric Sciences." Occultism may be considered also to be a word virtuallyinterchangeable with the phrase esoteric philosophy, with, however, somewhat more emphasis laid on theoccult or secret or hid portions of the esoteric philosophy. Genuine occultism embraces not merely thephysical, physiological, psychological, and spiritual portions of man's being, but has an equal and indeeda perhaps wider range in the studies dealing with the structure and operations as well as the origin anddestiny of the kosmos.

Other figures worthy of mention who fit wholly into none of the above currents of thought are Raymond Lull (+1315), an active opponent of Averroism and the inventor of the famous Ars magna which intrigued young Leibnitz; Roger Bacon (+c. 1293) who under the influence of Platonism, furthered the mathematical and experimental methods; William of Moerbeke (+1286), one of the greatest philologists of the M.A., who greatly improved the translations of Aristotelian and Neoplatonic literature by consulting directly Greek sources; the first proponents of the via moderna doctrine in Logic, William Shyreswood (+1249) and Petrus Hispanus (+1277).

Scotism: The philosophical and theological system named after John Duns Scotus (1266? -1308), Doctor Subtilis, a Franciscan student and later professor at Oxford and Paris and the most gifted of the opponents of the Thomist school. The name is almost synonymous with subtlety and the system generally is characterized by excessive criticism, due to Duns Scotus' predilection for mathematical studies -- the influence, perhaps, of his Franciscan predecessor, Roger Bacon, upon him. This spirit led Scotus to indiscriminate attack upon all his great predecessors in both Franciscan and Dominican Schools, especially St. Thomas, upon the ground of the inconclusiveness of their philosophical arguments. His own system is noted especially for its constant use of the so called Scotist or formal distinction which is considered to be on the one hand less than real, because it is not between thing and thing, and yet more than logical or virtual, because it actually exists between various thought objects or "formalities" in one and the sime individual prior to the action of the mind -- distinctio formalis actualis ex natuta rei. e g., the distinction between the essence and existence, between the animality and rationality in a man, between the principle of individuation in him and his matter and form, and between the divine attributes in God, are all formal distinctions. This undoubtedly leaves the system open to the charge of extreme realism and a tendency generally to consider the report of abstract thought with little regard for sense experience. Further by insisting also upon a formal unity of these formalities which exists apart from conception and is therefore apparently real, the system appears to lead logically to monism, e.g., the really distinct materiality in all material things is formally one apart from the abstracting and universalizing activity of the mind. By insisting that this formal unity is less than real unity, the Scotists claim to escape the charge.

QUOTES [1 / 1 - 61 / 61]

KEYS (10k)

   1 Roger Bacon


   44 Roger Bacon
   2 George Henry Lewes

1:Prudens quaestio dimidium scientiae. (To ask the proper question is half of knowing.) ~ Roger Bacon, Doctor Mirabilis,


*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Wissenschaft ist Macht. ~ Roger Bacon,
2:All science requires mathematics. ~ Roger Bacon,
3:Mathematics is the gate and key to science. ~ Roger Bacon,
4:To ask the proper question is half of knowing. ~ Roger Bacon,
5:Experimental science is the queen of knowledge. ~ Roger Bacon,
6:Knowledge of languages is the doorway to wisdom. ~ Roger Bacon,
7:Argument is conclusive, but it does not remove doubt. ~ Roger Bacon,
8:Cease to be ruled by dogmas and authorities; look at the world! ~ Roger Bacon,
9:A little learning is a dangerous thing but none at all is fatal. ~ Roger Bacon,
10:The conquest of learning is achieved through the knowledge of languages. ~ Roger Bacon,
11:... mathematics is absolutely necessary and useful to the other sciences. ~ Roger Bacon,
12:One man alone had really known the sciences, namely, Robert, Bishop of Lincoln. ~ Roger Bacon,
13:It is easier for a man to burn down his own house than to get rid of his prejudices. ~ Roger Bacon,
14:For the things of this world cannot be made known without a knowledge of mathematics. ~ Roger Bacon,
15:A man is crazy who writes a secret in any other way than one which will conceal it from the vulgar. ~ Roger Bacon,
16:Prudens quaestio dimidium scientiae. (To ask the proper question is half of knowing.) ~ Roger Bacon, Doctor Mirabilis,
17:Reasoning draws a conclusion, but does not make the conclusion certain, unless the mind discovers it by the path of experience. ~ Roger Bacon,
18:The calendar is intolerable to all wisdom, the horror of all astronomy, and a laughing stock from a mathematician's point of view. ~ Roger Bacon,
19:If in other sciences we should arrive at certainty without doubt and truth without error, it behooves us to place the foundation of knowledge in mathematics. ~ Roger Bacon,
20:If in other sciences we should arrive at certainty without doubt and truth without error, it behooves us to place the foundations of knowledge in mathematics. ~ Roger Bacon,
21:[...] any fool can make a discovery. Every baby has to discover more in the first years of its life than Roger Bacon ever discovered in his laboratory. ~ George Bernard Shaw,
22:If in other sciences we should arrive at certainty without doubt and truth without error, it behooves us to place the foundations of knowledge in mathematics... ~ Roger Bacon,
23:Argument is conclusive, but it does not remove doubt, so that the mind may rest in the sure knowledge of the truth, unless it finds it by the method of experiment. ~ Roger Bacon,
24:Western science, following Roger Bacon, believed man could force nature to reveal its secrets; the Sioux simply petitioned nature for friendship. — Vine Deloria, Jr. ~ Vine Deloria Jr,
25:The strongest arguments prove nothing so long as the conclusions are not verified by experience. Experimental science is the queen of sciences and the goal of all speculation. ~ Roger Bacon,
26:Vacuum stands and remains a mathematical space. A cube placed in a vacuum would not displace anything, as it would displace air or water in a space already containing those fluids. ~ Roger Bacon,
27:If in other sciences we should arrive at certainty without doubt and truth without error, it behooves us to place the foundations of knowledge in mathematics. ~ Roger Bacon Opus Majus, Book 1, Chapter 4.,
28:Atheists are like wild feral dogs wih no master. But Christians are like loving dogs with a giving and loving master. Domesticated dogs will love you always, but Feral wild dogs HAVE to be put down. they are a danger to us all. ~ Roger Bacon,
29:Roger Bacon held that three classes of substance were capable of magic: the herbal, the mineral, and the verbal. With their leaves of fiber, their inks of copperas and soot, and their words, books are an amalgam of the three. ~ Matthew Battles,
30:For if any man who never saw fire proved by satisfactory arguments that fire burns. His hearer's mind would never be satisfied, nor would he avoid the fire until he put his hand in it that he might learn by experiment what argument taught. ~ Roger Bacon,
31:There are four chief obstacles in grasping truth ... namely, submission to faulty and unworthy authority, influence of custom, popular prejudice, and the concealment of our own ignorance accompanied by an ostentatious display of our knowledge. ~ Roger Bacon,
32:All sciences are connected; they lend each other material aid as parts of one great whole, each doing its own work, not for itself alone, but for the other parts; as the eye guides the body and the foot sustains it and leads it from place to place. ~ Roger Bacon,
33:Few have attained to consummate wisdom in the perfection of philosophy: Solomon attained to it, and Aristotle in relation to his times, and in a later age Avicenna, and in our own days the recently deceased Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, and Adam Marsh. ~ Roger Bacon,
34:There are two modes of knowledge: through argument and through experience. Argument brings conclusions and compels us to concede them, but it does not cause certainty nor remove doubts that the mind may rest in truth, unless this is provided by experience. ~ Roger Bacon,
35:Neglect of mathematics work injury to all knowledge, since he who is ignorant of it cannot know the other sciences or things of this world. And what is worst, those who are thus ignorant are unable to perceive their own ignorance, and so do not seek a remedy. ~ Roger Bacon,
36:All science requires mathematics. The knowledge of mathematical things is almost innate in us. This is the easiest of sciences, a fact which is obvious in that no one's brain rejects it; for laymen and people who are utterly illiterate know how to count and reckon. ~ Roger Bacon,
37:It is not necessarily impossible for human beings to fly, but it so happens that God did not give them the knowledge of how to do it. It follows, therefore, that anyone who claims that he can fly must have sought the aid of the devil. To attempt to fly is therefore sinful. ~ Roger Bacon,
38:There are four great sciences, without which the other sciences cannot be known nor a knowledge of things secured ... Of these sciences the gate and key is mathematics ... He who is ignorant of this [mathematics] cannot know the other sciences nor the affairs of this world. ~ Roger Bacon,
39:[I]f in other sciences we should arrive at certainty without doubt and truth without error, it behooves us to place the foundations of knowledge in mathematics, in so far as disposed through it we are able to reach certainty in other sciences and truth by the exclusion of error. ~ Roger Bacon,
40:The thirteenth-century philosopher Roger Bacon claimed that “nobody can obtain to proficiency in the science of mathematics by the method hitherto known unless he devotes to its study thirty or forty years.” Today, the entire body of mathematics known to Bacon is now acquired by your average high school junior. ~ Joshua Foer,
41:There are two modes of acquiring knowledge, namely by reasoning and experience. Reasoning draws a conclusion and makes us grant the conclusion, but does not make the conclusion certain, nor does it remove doubt so that the mind may rest on the intuition of truth, unless the mind discovers it by the path of experience. ~ Roger Bacon,
42:Roger Bacon, a disciple of the Arabs, also insisted on the primary necessity of Mathematics, without which no other science can be known; yet by Mathematics it is clear that he meant something very different from what we mean, including under that head even dancing, singing, gesticulation, and performance on musical instruments. ~ George Henry Lewes,
43:Now there are four chief obstacles in grasping truth, which hinder every man, however learned, and scarcely allow anyone to win a clear title to learning, namely, submission to faulty and unworthy authority, influence of custom, popular prejudice, and concealment of our own ignorance accompanied by an ostentatious display of our knowledge. ~ Roger Bacon,
44:But we must here state that we should not see anything if there were a vacuum. But this would not be due to some nature hindering species, and resisting it, but because of the lack of a nature suitable for the multiplication of species; for species is a natural thing, and therefore needs a natural medium; but in a vacuum nature does not exist. ~ Roger Bacon,
45:In the mathematics I can report no deficience, except that it be that men do not sufficiently understand the excellent use of the pure mathematics, in that they do remedy and cure many defects in the wit and faculties intellectual. For if the wit be too dull, they sharpen it; if too wandering, they fix it; if too inherent in the sense, they abstract it. ~ Roger Bacon,
46:But concerning vision alone is a separate science formed among philosophers, namely, optics, and not concerning any other sense ... It is possible that some other science may be more useful, but no other science has so much sweetness and beauty of utility. Therefore it is the flower of the whole of philosophy and through it, and not without it, can the other sciences be known. ~ Roger Bacon,
47:Roger Bacon expressed a feeling which afterwards moved many minds, when he said that if he had the power he would burn all the works of the Stagirite, since the study of them was not simply loss of time, but multiplication of ignorance. Yet in spite of this outbreak every page is studded with citations from Aristotle, of whom he everywhere speaks in the highest admiration. ~ George Henry Lewes,
48:There are in fact four very significant stumbling blocks in the way of grasping the truth, which hinder every man however learned, and scarcely allow anyone to win a clear title to wisdom, namely, the example of weak and unworthy authority, longstanding custom, the feeling of the ignorant crowd, and the hiding of our own ignorance while making a display of our apparent knowledge. ~ Roger Bacon,
49:The first known European book to describe the use of cryptography was written in the thirteenth century by the English Franciscan monk and polymath Roger Bacon. Epistle on the Secret Works of Art and the Nullity of Magic included seven methods for keeping messages secret, and cautioned: “A man is crazy who writes a secret in any other way than one which will conceal it from the vulgar. ~ Simon Singh,
50:Alas,” mused Roger Bacon, “it is not only the public which so often fails to appreciate the nature of our more delicate investigations—many of our leading churchmen are particularly lacking in the finer faculties of discernment. Led by the twin banes of intolerance and ignorance, they too often condemn where they rightly should revere. They traduce what should be championed. They denounce what should be praised. ~ Stephen R Lawhead,
51:As regards authority I so proceed. Boetius says in the second prologue to his Arithmetic, 'If an inquirer lacks the four parts of mathematics, he has very little ability to discover truth.' And again, 'Without this theory no one can have a correct insight into truth.' And he says also, 'I warn the man who spurns these paths of knowledge that he cannot philosophize correctly.' And Again, 'It is clear that whosoever passes these by, has lost the knowledge of all learning.' ~ Roger Bacon,
52:After Bruno's death, during the first half of the seventeenth century, Descartes seemed about to take the leadership of human thought... in promoting an evolution doctrine as regards the mechanical formation of the solar system... but his constant dread of persecution, both from Catholics and Protestants, led him steadily to veil his thoughts and even to suppress them. ...Since Roger Bacon, perhaps, no great thinker had been so completely abased and thwarted by theological oppression. ~ Andrew Dickson White,
53:No one really knew the sciences except the Lord Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, by reason of his length of life and experience, as well as of his studiousness and zeal. He knew mathematics and perspective, and there was nothing which he was unable to know; and at the same time he was sufficiently acquainted with languages to be able to understand the saints and the philosophers and the wise men of antiquity but his knowledge of languages was not such as to enable him to effect translations until the latter portion of his life. ~ Roger Bacon,
54:forever. I would add to my reply as well, the borrowing of a simple invitation from the 13th-century English philosopher Roger Bacon: “Contemplate the world!” Because if we do not store in our heart a profound reverence for the miracles of nature as well as for the accomplishments of men and for their sometimes kind and illustrious way of thinking — even if our life is at its beginning and we have seen nothing yet; or if we’ve seen it all and find man evil — we will not be capable of recognizing those marvels, we will not be ~ Philippe Petit,
55:First, by the figurations of art there be made instruments of navigation without men to row them, as great ships to brooke the sea, only with one man to steer them, and they shall sail far more swiftly than if they were full of men; also chariots that shall move with unspeakable force without any living creature to stir them. Likewise an instrument may be made to fly withall if one sits in the midst of the instrument, and do turn an engine, by which the wings, being artificially composed, may beat the air after the manner of a flying bird. ~ Roger Bacon,
56:Grosseteste influenced Roger Bacon's ideas about mathematics and Nature. Bacon wrote hundreds of pages on the subject and, indeed, no historical figure has ever appeared more preoccupied with the question than he. He believed that mathematical knowledge was innate to the human mind and mathematics was a unique form of thought known both by ourselves and by Nature. Its uniqueness is characterized by the fact that it allows complete certainty to be achieved and hence our knowledge of Nature can be secure only in so far as we found it upon mathematical principles. ~ John D Barrow,
57:All the men who are now called discoverers, in every matter ruled by thought, have been men versed in the minds of their predecessors, and learned in what had been before them. There is not one exception. I do not say that every man has made direct acquantance with the whole of his mental ancestry... But... it is remarkable how many of the greatest names in all departments of knowledge have been real antiquaries in their several subjects. I may cite among those... in science, Aristotle, Plato, Ptolemy, Euclid, Archimedes, Roger Bacon, Copernicus, Francis Bacon, Ramus, Tycho Brahe, Galileo, Napier, Descartes, Leibnitz, Newton, Locke. ~ Augustus De Morgan, A Budget of Paradoxes (1872),
58:It is only rather recently that science has begun to make peace with its magical roots. Until a few decades ago, it was common for histories of science either to commence decorously with Copernicus's heliocentric theory or to laud the rationalism of Aristotelian antiquity and then to leap across the Middle Ages as an age of ignorance and superstition. One could, with care and diligence, find occasional things to praise in the works of Avicenna, William of Ockham, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon, but these sparse gems had to be thoroughly dusted down and scraped clean of unsightly accretions before being inserted into the corners of a frame fashioned in a much later period. ~ Philip Ball,
59:[...] it is a strange thing that most of the feeling we call religious, most of the mystical outcrying which is one of the most prized and used and desired reactions of our species, is really the understanding and the attempt to say that man is related to the whole thing, related inextricably to all reality, known and unknowable. This is a simple thing to say, but the profound feeling of it made a Jesus, a St. Augustine, a St. Francis, a Roger Bacon, a Charles Darwin, and an Einstein. Each of them in his own tempo and with his own voice discovered and reaffirmed with astonishment the knowledge that all things are one thing and that one thing is all things—plankton, a shimmering phosphorescence on the sea and the spinning planets and an expanding universe, all bound together by the elastic string of time. It is advisable to look from the tide pool to the stars and then back to the tide pool again. ~ John Steinbeck,
60:The moment they appeared on the scene, the first optical devices (Al-Hasan ibn al-Haitam aka Alhazen's camera obscura in the tenth century, Roger Bacon's instruments in the thirteenth, the increasing number of visual prostheses, lenses, astronomic telescopes and so on from the Renaissance on) profoundly altered the contexts in which mental images were topographically stored and retrieved, the impera- tive to re-present oneself, the imaging of the imagination which was such a great help in mathematics according to Descartes and which he considered a veritable part of the body, veram partem corporis. Just when we were apparently procuring the means to see further and better the unseen of the universe, we were about to lose what little power had of imagining it. The telescope, that epitome of the visual prosthesis, projected an image of a world beyond our reach and thus another way of moving about in the world, the logistics of perception inaugurating an unknown conveyance of sight that produced a tele- scoping of near and far, a phenomenon of acceleration obliterating our experience of distances and dimensions. ~ Paul Virilio,
61:Books are not made to be believed, but to be subjected to inquiry. When we consider a book, we mustn’t ask ourselves what it says but what it means, a precept that the commentators of the holy books had very clearly in mind. The unicorn, as these books speak of him, embodies a moral truth, or allegorical, or analogical, but one that remains true, as the idea that chastity is a noble virtue remains true. But as for the literal truth that sustains the other three truths, we have yet to see what original experience gave birth to the letter. The literal object must be discussed, even if its higher meaning remains good. In a book it is written that diamond can be cut only with a billy goat’s blood. My great master Roger Bacon said it was not true, simply because he had tried and had failed. But if the relation between a diamond and goat’s blood had had a nobler meaning, that would have remained intact.” “Then higher truths can be expressed while the letter is lying,” I said. “Still, it grieves me to think this unicorn doesn’t exist, or never existed, or cannot exist one day.” “It is not licit to impose confines on divine omnipotence, and if God so willed, unicorns could also exist. But console yourself, they exist in these books, which, if they do not speak of real existence, speak of possible existence.” “So must we then read books without faith, which is a theological virtue?” “There are two other theological virtues as well. The hope that the possible is. And charity, toward those who believed in good faith that the possible was.” “But ~ Umberto Eco,


   1 Psychology
   1 Fiction
   1 Alchemy

   2 Carl Jung

   2 Aion

1.05 - THE HOSTILE BROTHERS - ARCHETYPES OF RESPONSE TO THE UNKNOWN, #Maps of Meaning, #Jordan Peterson, #Psychology
  of Arabic alchemy that the concept of the Elixir vitae arrived in the West.578 Roger Bacon speaks of a
  medicine which makes the impurities and all the corruptions of the most base metal disappear, and

1.06 - The Sign of the Fishes, #Aion, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  adept in alchemy (as also was Albertus); Roger Bacon (c. 1214-c.
  1294), the English forerunner of inductive science; and finally

1.07 - The Prophecies of Nostradamus, #Aion, #Carl Jung, #Psychology
  lar to Roger Bacon, who had revived the theory that Christianity
  was under the influence of the planet Mercury. Pierre d'Ailly

1.1.05 - The Siddhis, #Essays Divine And Human, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
   present day is magic precisely in the same sense as the scientific experiments of Roger Bacon or Paracelsus. There is a good deal of fraud and error and self-deception mixed up with it, but so there was with the earliest efforts of the European scientists. The defects of Western practitioners or Eastern quacks do not get rid of our true & ancient Yoga.

1f.lovecraft - The Case of Charles Dexter Ward, #Lovecraft - Poems, #unset, #Integral Yoga
   Raymond Lullys Ars Magna et Ultima in Zetzners edition, Roger Bacons
   Thesaurus Chemicus, Fludds Clavis Alchimiae, and Trithemius De Lapide

BOOK I. -- PART III. SCIENCE AND THE SECRET DOCTRINE CONTRASTED, #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  adopts the phraseology of such old adepts as Roger Bacon, and returns to the "protyle." All this is
  hopeful and suggestive of the "signs of the times."
  things are made). The word is scarcely a new coinage, for 600 years ago Roger Bacon
  wrote in his Arte Chymiae, "The elements are made out of [[hyle]] and every element is
  The Knowledge of Roger Bacon did not come to this wonderful old magician** by inspiration, but
  because he studied ancient works on
  would not be despised even in our modern days of exact sciences. Roger Bacon, the friar, was laughed
  at as a quack, and is now generally numbered among 'pretenders' to magic art; but his discoveries were
  nevertheless accepted, and are now used by those who ridicule him the most. Roger Bacon belonged
  by right, if not by fact, to that Brotherhood which includes all those who [[Footnote continued on next
  Paracelsuses and Agrippas, from Roger Bacon down to St. Germain, who were all blind enthusiasts,
  hysteriacs or cheats, or is it the handful of modern sceptics -- the "leaders of thought" -- who are struck

The Act of Creation text, #The Act of Creation, #Arthur Koestler, #Psychology
  century of Roger Bacon and Peter Peregrine, of the budding univer-
  sities at Oxford and Cambridge, Salerno, Bologna, and Paris. But it is

The Dwellings of the Philosophers, #unset, #Anonymous, #Various
  In the 13th century, there is the illustrious English monk, Roger Bacon, whom his disciples
  nickname Doctor admirabilis (1214-1292) and whose enormous reputation becomes
  In presenting us the powerful figure of Roger Bacon, whose genius shines in the intellectual
  firmament of the 13th century like a star of the first magnitude, Armand Parrot (29) describes
  (27) The famous founder of the Order of Franciscans, to which the illustrious Adept Roger Bacon belonged,
  knew hermetic cabala perfectly well; St Francis of Assisi knew how to speak with birds.
  (29) Armand Parrot: Roger Bacon, sa personne, son genie, ses oeuvres et ses contemporains, Paris, A. Picard,
  1894, p.48,49.


--- Overview of noun roger_bacon

The noun roger bacon has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts)
1. Bacon, Roger Bacon ::: (English scientist and Franciscan monk who stressed the importance of experimentation; first showed that air is required for combustion and first used lenses to correct vision (1220-1292))

--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun roger_bacon

1 sense of roger bacon                        

Sense 1
Bacon, Roger Bacon
   INSTANCE OF=> monk, monastic
     => religious
       => religious person
         => person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
           => organism, being
             => living thing, animate thing
               => whole, unit
                 => object, physical object
                   => physical entity
                     => entity
           => causal agent, cause, causal agency
             => physical entity
               => entity
   INSTANCE OF=> scientist
     => person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
       => organism, being
         => living thing, animate thing
           => whole, unit
             => object, physical object
               => physical entity
                 => entity
       => causal agent, cause, causal agency
         => physical entity
           => entity

--- Hyponyms of noun roger_bacon

--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun roger_bacon

1 sense of roger bacon                        

Sense 1
Bacon, Roger Bacon
   INSTANCE OF=> monk, monastic
   INSTANCE OF=> scientist

--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun roger_bacon

1 sense of roger bacon                        

Sense 1
Bacon, Roger Bacon
  -> monk, monastic
   => Brother
   => Carthusian
   => Trappist, Cistercian
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bacon, Roger Bacon
   HAS INSTANCE=> Benedict, Saint Benedict, St. Benedict
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mendel, Gregor Mendel, Johann Mendel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pelagius
  -> scientist
   => cosmographer, cosmographist
   => bibliotist
   => biologist, life scientist
   => chemist
   => cognitive scientist
   => computer scientist
   => geologist
   => linguist, linguistic scientist
   => mathematician
   => medical scientist
   => microscopist
   => mineralogist
   => oceanographer
   => paleontologist, palaeontologist, fossilist
   => physicist
   => principal investigator, PI
   => psychologist
   => radiologic technologist
   => research worker, researcher, investigator
   => social scientist
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bacon, Roger Bacon
   HAS INSTANCE=> Franklin, Benjamin Franklin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Galton, Francis Galton, Sir Francis Galton
   HAS INSTANCE=> Harvey, William Harvey
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hooke, Robert Hooke

--- Grep of noun roger_bacon
roger bacon

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