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--- WIKI
Padmasambhava (lit. "He who came into being in a lotus"), also known as Guru Rinpoche, was an 8th-century Buddhist master from the Indian subcontinent. Although there was a historical Padmasambhava, little is known of him apart from helping the construction of the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet at Samye, at the behest of Trisong Detsen, and shortly thereafter leaving Tibet due to court intrigues. A number of legends have grown around Padmasambhava's life and deeds, and he is widely venerated as a "second Buddha" by adherents of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, the Himalayan states of India, and elsewhere. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is a character of a genre of literature called terma, an emanation of Amitbha that is said to appear to tertns in visionary encounters and a focus of guru yoga practice, particularly in the Rim schools. The Nyingma school considers Padmasambhava to be a founder of their tradition.
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OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

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SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Infinite_Library
The_Tibetan_Book_of_the_Dead

IN CHAPTERS TITLE

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
1.01_-_Tara_the_Divine
1.03_-_Invocation_of_Tara
1.05_-_Buddhism_and_Women
1.07_-_A_Song_of_Longing_for_Tara,_the_Infallible
1.07_-_The_Farther_Reaches_of_Human_Nature

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author
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Padmasambhava

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH

Padmasambhava, called in Tibet Guru Rimpoche or Padma-jungne, is even today one of the patron saints of Tibet and the chief guru of the Red Caps — his image occupying the place of honor on all the altars of this sect, which he founded in 749.

Padmasambhava

Padmasambhava. (T. Padma 'byung gnas) (fl. eighth century). Indian Buddhist master and tantric adept widely revered in Tibet under the appellation Guru rin po che, "Precious Guru"; considered to be the "second buddha" by members of the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism, who view him as a founder of their tradition. In Tibetan, he is also known as Padma 'byung gnas (Pemajungne), "the Lotus Born," which translates his Sanskrit name. It is difficult to assess the many legends surrounding his life and deeds, although the scholarly consensus is that he was a historical figure and did visit Tibet. The earliest reference to him is in the SBA BZHED (a work that purports to be from the eighth century, but is likely later), where he is mentioned as a water diviner and magician, suggesting that he may have been an expert in irrigation, which would have required the ability to subdue local spirits. Two texts in the Tibetan canon are attributed to him. The first is the Man ngag lta ba'i phreng ba, which is a commentary on the thirteenth chapter of the GUHYAGARBHATANTRA. The second is a commentary on the Upāyapāsapadmamālā, a MAHĀYOGA TANTRA. Regardless of his historical status and the duration of his stay in Tibet, the figure of Padmasambhava has played a key role in the narrative of Buddhism's arrival in Tibet, its establishment in Tibet, and its subsequent transmission to later generations. He is also venerated throughout the Himalayan regions of India, Bhutan, and Nepal and by the Newar Buddhists of the Kathmandu Valley. According to many of his traditional biographies, Padmasambhava was miraculously born in the center of a lotus blossom (PADMA) on Lake Danakosa in the land of OddIYĀNA, a region some scholars associate with the Swat Valley of modern Pakistan. Discovered and raised by King Indrabodhi, he abandoned his royal life to pursue various forms of Buddhist study and practice, culminating in his training as a tantric adept. He journeyed throughout the Himalayan regions of India and Nepal, meeting his first consort MANDĀRAVĀ at Mtsho padma in Himachal Pradesh, and later remaining in prolonged retreat in various locations around the Kathmandu Valley including MĀRATIKA, YANG LE SHOD and the ASURA CAVE. His reputation as an exorcist led to his invitation, at the behest of the Indian scholar sĀNTARAKsITA, to travel to Tibet in order to assist with the construction of BSAM YAS monastery. According to traditional accounts, Padmasambhava subdued and converted the indigenous deities inimical to the spread of Buddhism and, together with sāntaraksita and the Tibetan king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN, established the first Buddhist lineage and monastic center of Tibet. He remained in Tibet as a court priest, and, together with his Tibetan consort YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL, recorded and then concealed numerous teachings as hidden treasure texts (GTER MA), to be revealed by a later succession of masters spiritually linked to Padmasambhava. The Rnying ma sect preserves the corpus of instructions stemming from the master in two classes of materials: those revealed after his passing as treasure texts and those belonging to an unbroken oral tradition (BKA' MA). It is believed that Padmasambhava departed Tibet for his paradise known as the Glorious Copper-Colored Mountain (ZANGS MDOG DPAL RI), where he continues to reside. From the time of the later dissemination of the doctrine (PHYI DAR) in the eleventh century onwards, numerous biographies of the Indian master have been revealed as treasure texts, including the PADMA BKA' THANG YIG, BKA' THANG GSER 'PHRENG, and the BKA' THANG ZANGS GLING MA. Padmasambhava is the focus of many kinds of ritual activities, including the widely recited "Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava" (Tshig 'dun gsol 'debs). The tenth day of each lunar month is dedicated to Padmasambhava, a time when many monasteries, especially those in Bhutan, perform religious dances reverencing the Indian master in his eight manifestations. In iconography, Padmasambhava is depicted in eight forms, known as the guru mtshan brgyad, who represent his eight great deeds. They are Padma rgyal po, Nyi ma 'od zer, Blo ldan mchog sred, Padmasambhava, Shākya seng ge, Padmakara (also known as Sororuhavajra, T. Mtsho skyes rdo rje), Seng ge sgra sgrogs, and RDO RJE GRO LOD.


TERMS ANYWHERE

2. Padmasambhava

5. Padmasambhava

abhicAra. [alt. abhicara] (T. mngon spyod). In Sanskrit, "magic" or "wrathful action"; in ANUTTARAYOGATANTRA, the fourth of the four activities (CATURKARMAN) of the Buddhist tantric adept. AbhicAra is broken down into mArana "killing," mohana "enchanting," stambhana "paralyzing," vidvesana "rendering harm through animosity," uccAtana "removing or driving away," and vasīkarana "subduing." After initiation (ABHIsEKA), adepts who keep their tantric commitments (SAMAYA) properly and reach the requisite yogic level are empowered to use four sorts of enlightened activity, as appropriate: these four types of activities are (1) those that are pacifying (S. sANTICARA); (2) those that increase prosperity, life span, etc. (PAUstIKA), when necessary for the spread of the doctrine; (3) those that subjugate or tame (S. VAsĪKARAnA) the unruly; and finally (4) those that are violent or drastic measures (abhicAra) such as war, when the situation requires it. In the MANJUsRĪNAMASAMGĪTI, CAnakya, Candragupta's minister, is said to have used abhicAra against his enemies, and because of this misuse of tantric power was condemned to suffer the consequences in hell. Throughout the history of Buddhist tantra, the justification of violence by invoking the category of abhicAra has been a contentious issue. PADMASAMBHAVA is said to have tamed the unruly spirits of Tibet, sometimes violently, with his magical powers, and the violent acts that RWA LO TSA BA in the eleventh century countenanced against those who criticized his practices are justified by categorizing them as abhicAra.

Asura Cave. A cave south of the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal where PADMASAMBHAVA is said to have meditated and conquered the twelve bstan ma (tenma) goddesses. It is an important pilgrimage place, considered sacred by Tibetan and Newar Buddhists as well as Hindus, and the site of several Tibetan monasteries. According to the writings of one Tibetan lama, the fourth KHAMS SPRUL (Khamtrul) Rin po che, the cave may take its name from a small passage at its rear that is purported to lead to the realm of the ASURAs.

Avesa. (T. 'bebs pa; C. aweishe; J. abisha; K. amisa 阿尾捨). In Sanskrit, "possession"; the possession of shamans and mediums by a spirit or divinity so they could serve as oracles. Specific rites are outlined in esoteric Buddhist materials to incite possession in young children of usually seven or eight years of age; once the children began to shake from their inhabitation by the possessing deity, they would be asked a series of questions regarding portents for the future. In China, the tantric master VAJRABODHI was said to have used two seven-year-old girls as oracles in the palace, who were claimed to have been possessed by two deceased princesses. In Tibet, some of the bodies (rten, sku rten) through which an oracle (lha) speaks attained considerable importance in the religious and even political affairs of the state; among them the GNAS CHUNG (Nechung) oracle, said to be the pre-Buddhist spirit PE HAR, who was tamed by PADMASAMBHAVA and tasked with protecting the Buddha's teaching, has the status of state oracle.

'bar ba spun bdun. (barwa pündün). A group of seven Tibetan dharma protectors (DHARMAPALA), who are the commanders of the BTSAN (tsen) class of native Tibetan deities. They are chief among the native spirits who attempted to prevent the propagation of Buddhism in Tibet and were subdued by PADMASAMBHAVA, who accomplished this feat through meditating on HAYAGRĪVA, a wrathful tantric deity. Their chief is the dharmapAla TSI'U DMAR PO. An important place of worship of the 'bar ba spun bdun is in Dpal ti (Palti) near Yar 'brog mtsho (Lake Yardrok) and Rgyal rtse (Gyantse) in the Gtsang (Tsang) region of central Tibet. Seven temples, or btsan khang, were erected to house them, and travelers would stop and present offerings, from simple red flowers to elaborate red GTOR MA or a bla rdo (life stone). They are also known as dam can mched bdun, drag btsan mched bdun, btsan rgod 'bar ba, and btsan rgod zangs ri spun bdun.

BhAvanAkrama. (T. Sgom rim). In Sanskrit, "Stages of Meditation," the title of three separate but related works by the late-eighth century Indian master KAMALAsĪLA. During the reign of the Tibetan king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN at the end of the eighth century, there were two Buddhist factions at court, a Chinese faction led by the Northern Chan (BEI ZONG) monk Heshang Moheyan (MahAyAna) and an Indian faction of the recently deceased sANTARAKsITA, who with the king and PADMASAMBHAVA had founded the first Tibetan monastery at BSAM YAS (Samye). According to traditional accounts, sAntaraksita foretold of dangers and left instructions in his will that his student Kamalasīla should be summoned from India. A conflict seems to have developed between the Indian and Chinese partisans (and their allies in the Tibetan court) over the question of the nature of enlightenment, with the Indians holding that enlightenment takes place as the culmination of a gradual process of purification, the result of perfecting morality (sĪLA), concentration (SAMADHI), and wisdom (PRAJNA). The Chinese spoke against this view, holding that enlightenment was the intrinsic nature of the mind rather than the goal of a protracted path, such that one need simply to recognize the presence of this innate nature of enlightenment by entering a state of awareness beyond distinctions; all other practices were superfluous. According to both Chinese and Tibetan records, a debate was held between Kamalasīla and Moheyan at Bsam yas, circa 797, with the king himself serving as judge (see BSAM YAS DEBATE). According to Tibetan reports (contradicted by the Chinese accounts), Kamalasīla was declared the winner and Moheyan and his party banished from Tibet, with the king proclaiming that thereafter the MADHYAMAKA school of Indian Buddhist philosophy (to which sAntaraksita and Kamalasīla belonged) would have pride of place in Tibet. ¶ According to Tibetan accounts, after the conclusion of the debate, the king requested that Kamalasīla compose works that presented his view, and in response, Kamalasīla composed the three BhAvanAkrama. There is considerable overlap among the three works. All three are germane to the issues raised in the debate, although whether all three were composed in Tibet is not established with certainty; only the third, and briefest of the three, directly considers, and refutes, the view of "no mental activity" (amanasikAra, cf. WUNIAN), which is associated with Moheyan. The three texts set forth the process for the potential BODHISATTVA to cultivate BODHICITTA and then develop sAMATHA and VIPAsYANA and progress through the bodhisattva stages (BHuMI) to buddhahood. The cultivation of vipasyanA requires the use of both scripture (AGAMA) and reasoning (YUKTI) to understand emptiness (suNYATA); in the first BhAvanAkrama, Kamalasīla sets forth the three forms of wisdom (prajNA): the wisdom derived from learning (sRUTAMAYĪPRAJNA), the wisdom derived from reflection (CINTAMAYĪPRAJNA), and the wisdom derived from cultivation (BHAVANAMAYĪPRAJNA), explaining that the last of these gradually destroys the afflictive obstructions (KLEsAVARAnA) and the obstructions to omniscience (JNEYAVARAnA). The second BhAvanAkrama considers many of these same topics, stressing that the achievement of the fruition of buddhahood requires the necessary causes, in the form of the collection of merit (PUnYASAMBHARA) and the collection of wisdom (JNANASAMBHARA). Both the first and second works espouse the doctrine of mind-only (CITTAMATRA); it is on the basis of these and other statements that Tibetan doxographers classified Kamalasīla as a YOGACARA-SVATANTRIKA-MADHYAMAKA. The third and briefest of the BhAvanAkrama is devoted especially to the topics of samatha and vipasyanA, how each is cultivated, and how they are ultimately unified. Kamalasīla argues that analysis (VICARA) into the lack of self (ATMAN) in both persons (PUDGALA) and phenomena (DHARMA) is required to arrive at a nonconceptual state of awareness. The three texts are widely cited in later Tibetan Buddhist literature, especially on the process for developing samatha and vipasyanA.

Bka' thang gser 'phreng. (Katang Sertreng). In Tibetan, "The Golden Rosary Chronicle"; a treasure text (GTER MA) containing a well-known biography of PADMASAMBHAVA, discovered by the treasure revealer (GTER STON) SANGS RGYAS GLING PA. Its complete title is: O rgyan gu ru padma 'byung gnas kyi rnam par thar pa gser gyi phreng ba thar lam gsal byed.

bka' thang sde lnga. (katang denga). In Tibetan, "the five chronicles"; treasure texts (GTER MA) describing the times and events surrounding the life of PADMASAMBHAVA, and discovered in stages by the treasure revealer (GTER STON) O RGYAN GLING PA during the late fourteenth century. The collection contains five books: the kings (rgyal po), queens (btsun mo), ministers (blon po), translators and panditas (lo pan), and gods and ghosts (lha 'dre). These accounts contain many early legends and myths but also sections of historical value and interest, including descriptions of Chinese CHAN Buddhist doctrine.

Bka' thang zangs gling ma. (Katang Sanglingma). In Tibetan, "The Copper Island Chronicle"; the earliest of the many treasure texts (GTER MA) containing biographies of PADMASAMBHAVA, discovered by the twelfth-century treasure revealer (GTER STON) NYANG RAL NYI MA 'OD ZER.

bkra shis tshe ring mched lnga. (tashi tsering chenga). In Tibetan, "the five long-life sisters," a group of pre-Buddhist Tibetan deities who were subdued and converted to Buddhism by PADMASAMBHAVA; the sisters also make an appearance in the songs of MI LA RAS PA (MI LA'I MGUR 'BUM) collected by GTSANG SMYON HERUKA, where they give the yogin access to the highest states of bliss. According to the DGE LUGS tradition, they are dharma protectors (DHARMAPALA) who have not transcended existence in SAMSARA (although both the RNYING MA and BKA' BRGYUD sects assert that they have done so). They reside at either Mount Everest or LA PHYI, on the border between Tibet and Nepal. Their leader is Bkra shis tshe ring ma/Rdo rje kun grags ma or Tshe yi dbang phyug ma. The other members are Mthing gi zhal bzang ma, Mi g.yo glang bzang ma, Cod pan mgrin bzang ma, and Gtal dkar 'gro bzang ma. They are also known as the bkra shis tshe yi lha mo lnga.

BodhnAth Stupa. (T. Bya rung kha shor). The popular Nepali name for a large STuPA situated on the northeast edge of the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal. Venerated by both Newar and Tibetan Buddhists, it has become one of Nepal's most important and active Buddhist pilgrimage sites. The base, arranged on three terraces in a multiangled shape called viMsatikona (lit. "twenty angles"), is more than 260 feet on each side with the upper dome standing some 130 feet high. At the structure's south entrance stands a shrine to the Newar goddess known as Ajima or HARĪTĪ. Together with SVAYAMBHu and NAMO BUDDHA, BodhnAth forms a triad of great stupas often depicted together in Tibetan literature. The stupa's origins are unclear and a variety of competing traditions account for its founding and subsequent development. Most Nepali sources agree that the mahAcaitya was founded through the activities of King MAnadeva I (reigned 464-505), who unwittingly murdered his father but later atoned for his patricide through a great act of contrition. Among Newars, the stupa is commonly known as the KhAsticaitya, literally "the dew-drop CAITYA." This name is said to refer to the period in which King MAnadeva founded the stupa, a time of great drought when cloth would be spread out at night from which the morning dew could be squeezed in order to supply water necessary for the construction. The site is also called KhAsacaitya, after one legend which states that MAnadeva was the reincarnation of a Tibetan teacher called KhAsA; another well-known tradition explains the name as stemming from the buddha KAsYAPA, whose relics are said to be enclosed therein. The major Tibetan account of the stupa's origin is found in a treasure text (GTER MA) said to have been hidden by the Indian sage PADMASAMBHAVA and his Tibetan consort YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL. According to this narrative, the monument was constructed by a widowed poultry keeper. The local nobility grew jealous that such a grand project was being undertaken by a woman of such low status. They petitioned the king, requesting that he bring the construction to a halt. The king, however, refused to intervene and instead granted permission for the work to be completed, from which its Tibetan name Bya rung kha shor (Jarung Kashor, literally "permission to do what is proper") is derived. The stupa was renovated under the guidance of Tibetan lamas on numerous occasions and it eventually came under the custodial care of a familial lineage known as the Chini Lamas. Once surrounded by a small village, since 1959 BodhnAth has become a thriving center for Tibetan refugee culture and the location for dozens of relocated Tibetan monasteries.

Padmasambhava, called in Tibet Guru Rimpoche or Padma-jungne, is even today one of the patron saints of Tibet and the chief guru of the Red Caps — his image occupying the place of honor on all the altars of this sect, which he founded in 749.

Padmasambhava

Padmasambhava. (T. Padma 'byung gnas) (fl. eighth century). Indian Buddhist master and tantric adept widely revered in Tibet under the appellation Guru rin po che, "Precious Guru"; considered to be the "second buddha" by members of the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism, who view him as a founder of their tradition. In Tibetan, he is also known as Padma 'byung gnas (Pemajungne), "the Lotus Born," which translates his Sanskrit name. It is difficult to assess the many legends surrounding his life and deeds, although the scholarly consensus is that he was a historical figure and did visit Tibet. The earliest reference to him is in the SBA BZHED (a work that purports to be from the eighth century, but is likely later), where he is mentioned as a water diviner and magician, suggesting that he may have been an expert in irrigation, which would have required the ability to subdue local spirits. Two texts in the Tibetan canon are attributed to him. The first is the Man ngag lta ba'i phreng ba, which is a commentary on the thirteenth chapter of the GUHYAGARBHATANTRA. The second is a commentary on the Upāyapāsapadmamālā, a MAHĀYOGA TANTRA. Regardless of his historical status and the duration of his stay in Tibet, the figure of Padmasambhava has played a key role in the narrative of Buddhism's arrival in Tibet, its establishment in Tibet, and its subsequent transmission to later generations. He is also venerated throughout the Himalayan regions of India, Bhutan, and Nepal and by the Newar Buddhists of the Kathmandu Valley. According to many of his traditional biographies, Padmasambhava was miraculously born in the center of a lotus blossom (PADMA) on Lake Danakosa in the land of OddIYĀNA, a region some scholars associate with the Swat Valley of modern Pakistan. Discovered and raised by King Indrabodhi, he abandoned his royal life to pursue various forms of Buddhist study and practice, culminating in his training as a tantric adept. He journeyed throughout the Himalayan regions of India and Nepal, meeting his first consort MANDĀRAVĀ at Mtsho padma in Himachal Pradesh, and later remaining in prolonged retreat in various locations around the Kathmandu Valley including MĀRATIKA, YANG LE SHOD and the ASURA CAVE. His reputation as an exorcist led to his invitation, at the behest of the Indian scholar sĀNTARAKsITA, to travel to Tibet in order to assist with the construction of BSAM YAS monastery. According to traditional accounts, Padmasambhava subdued and converted the indigenous deities inimical to the spread of Buddhism and, together with sāntaraksita and the Tibetan king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN, established the first Buddhist lineage and monastic center of Tibet. He remained in Tibet as a court priest, and, together with his Tibetan consort YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL, recorded and then concealed numerous teachings as hidden treasure texts (GTER MA), to be revealed by a later succession of masters spiritually linked to Padmasambhava. The Rnying ma sect preserves the corpus of instructions stemming from the master in two classes of materials: those revealed after his passing as treasure texts and those belonging to an unbroken oral tradition (BKA' MA). It is believed that Padmasambhava departed Tibet for his paradise known as the Glorious Copper-Colored Mountain (ZANGS MDOG DPAL RI), where he continues to reside. From the time of the later dissemination of the doctrine (PHYI DAR) in the eleventh century onwards, numerous biographies of the Indian master have been revealed as treasure texts, including the PADMA BKA' THANG YIG, BKA' THANG GSER 'PHRENG, and the BKA' THANG ZANGS GLING MA. Padmasambhava is the focus of many kinds of ritual activities, including the widely recited "Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava" (Tshig 'dun gsol 'debs). The tenth day of each lunar month is dedicated to Padmasambhava, a time when many monasteries, especially those in Bhutan, perform religious dances reverencing the Indian master in his eight manifestations. In iconography, Padmasambhava is depicted in eight forms, known as the guru mtshan brgyad, who represent his eight great deeds. They are Padma rgyal po, Nyi ma 'od zer, Blo ldan mchog sred, Padmasambhava, Shākya seng ge, Padmakara (also known as Sororuhavajra, T. Mtsho skyes rdo rje), Seng ge sgra sgrogs, and RDO RJE GRO LOD.

Brag yer pa. [alt. Yer pa; G.yer pa] (Drak Yerpa). A complex of meditation caves and temples northeast of LHA SA, regarded as one of the premier retreat locations of central Tibet. The ancient hermitage complex was founded by queen Mong bza' khri lcam (Mongsa Tricham) and her children and was inhabited during the imperial period by Tibet's religious kings SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO, KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN, and RAL PA CAN. The Indian sage PADMASAMBHAVA is said to have spent some seven months in retreat there and hid numerous treasure texts (GTER MA) in the area. Brag yer pa is considered one of his three primary places of attainment (grub gnas), together with CHIMS PHU and Shel brag (Sheldrak). Lha lung Dpal gyi rdo rje (Lhalung Palgyi Dorje), assassin of King GLANG DAR MA, is said to have spent more than twenty-two years in retreat there. Brag yer pa later gained prominence under the influence of the BKA' GDAMS sect after the Bengali scholar ATIsA passed some three years at the site.

brtan [alt. bstan] ma bcu gnyis. (denma chunyi). A group of twelve pre-Buddhist Tibetan deities converted to Buddhism by PADMASAMBHAVA. The site of their subjugation is said to have been either Kha la brag (Kaladrak) or 'U yug, although individual members have variant legends. They are considered to be subordinate to the BKRA SHIS TSHE RING MCHED LNGA, "five long-life sisters," and, like that group of deities, frequently appear in the retinue of DPAL LDAN LHA MO. Their status in the world is ambiguous, considered by some to be enlightened, by others to be mundane. Rdo rje g.yu sgron ma (Dorje Yudronma) is generally considered to be their leader, though sometimes Rdo rje grags mo rgyal (Dorje Drakmo Gyel) is given that honor. All members are said to take possession of female mediums, some of whom were sponsored by the powerful DGE LUGS monasteries of SE RA and 'BRAS SPUNGS. The brtan ma are divided into three groups of four members each: the bdud mo (dumo) (female BDUD), gnod sbyin (nojin) (female YAKsA), and sman mo (menmo). Their names, without the epithet "Rdo rje" (i.e., "Vajra") are Kun grags ma, G.ya' ma skyong, Kun bzang mo, and Bgegs kyi gtso in the group of bdud mo; Spyan gcig ma, Dpal gyi yum, Drag mo rgyal, and Klu mo dkar in the group of gnod sbyin chen mo; and Bod khams skyong, Sman gcig ma, G.yar mo sil, and G.yu sgron ma in the group of sman mo. There are numerous variations in the names.

Bsam yas debate. An important event in the early dissemination (SNGA DAR) of Buddhism in Tibet. During the reign of the king KHRI SRONG LDE BRTSAN at the end of the eighth century, there were two Buddhist factions at court, a Chinese faction led by the Northern Chan (BEI ZONG) monk Heshang MOHEYAN (the Chinese transcription of "MahAyAna") and an Indian faction associated with the recently deceased sANTARAKsITA who, with the king and PADMASAMBHAVA, had founded the first Tibetan monastery at BSAM YAS. According to traditional accounts, sAntaraksita foretold of dangers and left instructions in his will that his student KAMALAsĪLA be called from India. A conflict seems to have developed between the Indian and Chinese partisans (and their allies in the Tibetan court) over the question of the nature of enlightenment, with the Indians holding that enlightenment takes place as the culmination of a gradual process of purification, the result of combining ethical practice (sĪLA), meditation (SAMADHI), and wisdom (PRAJNA). The Chinese spoke against this view, holding that enlightenment was the intrinsic nature of the mind itself rather than the goal of a protracted path of practice. Therefore, to recognize the presence of this innate nature of enlightenment, one need only enter a state of awareness beyond distinctions; all other practices were superfluous. According to both Chinese and Tibetan records, a debate was held between Kamalasīla and Moheyan at Bsam yas, circa 797, with the king himself serving as judge. According to Tibetan records (contradicted by Chinese accounts), Kamalasīla was declared the winner and Moheyan and his party were banished from Tibet, with the king proclaiming that the MADHYAMAKA school of Indian Buddhist philosophy (to which sAntaraksita and Kamalasīla belonged) would thereafter be followed in Tibet. Kamalasīla died shortly after the debate, supposedly assassinated by members of the Chinese faction. Scholars have suggested that although a controversy between the Indian and Chinese Buddhists (and their Tibetan partisans) occurred, it is unlikely that a face-to-face debate took place or that the outcome of the controversy was so unequivocal. The "debate" may instead have been an exchange of statements; indeed, KAmalasīla's third BHAVANAKRAMA seems to derive from this exchange. It is also important to note that, regardless of the merits of the Indian and Chinese philosophical positions, China was Tibet's chief military rival at the time, whereas India posed no such threat. The debate's principal significance derives from the fact that from this point on, Tibet largely sought its Buddhism from India; no school of Chinese Buddhism subsequently exerted any major influence in Tibet. It is said that when he departed, Moheyan left behind one shoe, indicating that traces of his view would remain in Tibet; some scholars have suggested possible connections between Chan positions and the RDZOGS CHEN teachings that developed in the ninth century. In Tibetan polemics of later centuries, it was considered particularly harsh to link one's opponent's views to the antinomian views of Moheyan. Moheyan himself was transformed into something of a trickster figure, popular in Tibetan art and drama. This event is variously referred to in English as the Council of Samye, the Council of Lha sa, and the Samye Debate. See also DUNWU.

Bsam yas. (Samye). Tibet's first Buddhist monastery, constructed on the north bank of the Gtsang po (Tsangpo) River in central Tibet, probably circa 779. The Tibetan king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN invited the renowned Indian Buddhist preceptor sANTARAKsITA to found the institution and ordain Tibet's first monks. According to traditional accounts, local spirits hostile to Buddhism blocked the completion of the project. Unable to continue his work, sAntaraksita convinced the Tibetan ruler to invite the powerful Indian tantric master PADMASAMBHAVA to his kingdom in order to subdue these autochthonous spirits. Padmasambhava reached the site and, from atop the nearby hill called He po ri, he subjugated the demons, binding them by oath to become protectors of the dharma (DHARMAPALA). The Bsam yas complex was subsequently constructed in the form of a MAndALA arranged in the shape of the universe according to Buddhist cosmological accounts, based on the model of ODANTAPURĪ, a PAla-dynasty monastery located in the present-day Indian state of Bihar. At the center stands the main basilica, serving as Mount SUMERU, surrounded by chapels representing the four continents and eight subcontinents in the four cardinal directions, all of which is ringed by a massive wall capped with a thousand STuPAs. According to Tibetan and Chinese sources, in about 797 the monastery served as the venue for a great dispute between proponents of Indian and Chinese Buddhist perspectives on enlightenment and meditation. The outcome of this famous BSAM YAS DEBATE, in which the Indian view is said to have prevailed, greatly influenced the development of Buddhism in Tibet, which subsequently became a tradition that looked more to India than China for inspiration. Bsam yas was a religiously and politically vibrant institution from its inception up to the tenth century, after which its influence waned under BKA' GDAMS, SA SKYA, and eventually DGE LUGS control. Bsam yas's central basilica is renowned for its art and its architectural design, said to be a fusion of styles from India, China, Tibet, and Central Asia. The complex suffered on numerous occasions due to fires and, most recently, at the hands of the Chinese military during the Cultural Revolution. Extensive reconstruction and renovations were begun in the 1980s and Bsam yas remains an important pilgrimage destination and a potent symbol of Tibet's Buddhist heritage.

'cham. A Tibetan term for precisely choreographed ritual dances usually performed by a group of monks in a monastery courtyard and generally coinciding with a major monastic festival or important religious event. In many cases, the dancers are dressed in elaborate costumes, including painted masks, with the performance involving varied routines during the course of several days. Some dances, such as the zhwa nag (black hat) dance, symbolize the subjugation of forces inimical to Buddhism. Others may represent episodes from the life of Buddhist personalities, including PADMASAMBHAVA and MI LA RAS PA, or aspects of their spiritual attainment. Monks generally begin to train while quite young, although the most experienced performers practice 'cham as a form of active meditation. The dances are most often public events, performed before crowds of lay Buddhists from surrounding villages. Most performances are therefore a combination of religious ritual and social gathering and nearly every large dance festival will include several jester figures to keep the public entertained during slow periods in the program. See also LHA MO.

Chims phu. [alt. Mchims phu]. A conglomeration of meditation caves and hermitages on the side of a low ridge near BSAM YAS monastery south of LHA SA; also known as Mchims phu. It forms one of central Tibet's most important and active pilgrimage sites. The location's principal cave, Brag dmar ke'u tshang (Drakmar Ke'utsang), is one of eight major centers connected with PADMASAMBHAVA, and is considered the representation of the Indian master's speech. It is identified as the place where Padmasambhava first gave the instructions known as the "eight transmitted precepts of attainment" (SGRUB PA BKA' BGYAD) to his eight main disciples, including the Tibetan king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN. It is also the location where Padmasambhava resurrected Khri srong lde btsan's young daughter PADMA GSAL, and gave her the teachings of the MKHA' 'GRO SNYING THIG for the first time. The Chims phu complex also contains a natural representation of Padmasambhava's pure land, ZANGS MDOG DPAL RI, the glorious copper-colored mountain, as well as meditation caves of YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL, VAIROCANA, and KLONG CHEN RAB 'BYAMS, who died there. Many of the caves and hermitages at Chims phu are still used for meditation retreat by Tibetan men and women.

dAkinī. (T. mkha' 'gro ma; C. tuzhini; J. dakini; K. tojini 荼枳尼). In Sanskrit, a cannibalistic female demon, a witch; in sANTIDEVA's BODHICARYAVATARA, a female hell guardian (narakapAlA); in tantric Buddhism, dAkinīs, particularly the vajradAkinī, are guardians from whom tAntrikas obtain secret doctrines. For example, the VAJRABHAIRAVA adept LAlitavajra is said to have received the YAMANTAKA tantras from vajradAkinīs, who allowed him to bring back to the human world only as many of the texts as he could memorize in one night. The dAkinī first appears in Indian sources during the fourth century CE, and it has been suggested that they evolved from local female shamans. The term is of uncertain derivation, perhaps having something to do with "drumming" (a common feature of shamanic ritual). The Chinese, Japanese, and Korean give simply a phonetic transcription of the Sanskrit. In Tibetan, dAkinī is translated as "sky goer" (mkha' 'gro ma), probably related to the Sanskrit khecara, a term associated with the CAKRASAMVARATANTRA. Here, the dAkinī is a goddess, often depicted naked, in semi-wrathful pose (see VAJRAYOGINĪ); they retain their fearsome element but are synonymous with the highest female beauty and attractiveness and are enlightened beings. They form the third of what are known as the "inner" three jewels (RATNATRAYA): the guru, the YI DAM, and the dAkinīs and protectors (DHARMAPALA; T. chos skyong). The archetypical Tibetan wisdom or knowledge dAkinī (ye shes mkha' 'gro) is YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL, the consort of PADMASAMBHAVA. dAkinīs are classified in a variety of ways, the most common being mkha' 'gro sde lnga, the female buddhas equivalent to the PANCATATHAGATA or five buddha families (PANCAKULA): BuddhadAkinī [alt. AkAsadhAtvīsvarī; SparsavajrA] in the center of the mandala, with LocanA, MAmakī, PAndaravAsinī, and TARA in the cardinal directions. Another division is into three: outer, inner, and secret dAkinīs. The first is a YOGINĪ or a YOGIN's wife or a regional goddess, the second is a female buddha that practitioners visualize themselves to be in the course of tantric meditation, and the last is nondual wisdom (ADVAYAJNANA). This division is also connected with the three bodies (TRIKAYA) of MahAyAna Buddhism: the NIRMAnAKAYA (here referring to the outer dAkinīs), SAMBHOGAKAYA (meditative deity), and the DHARMAKAYA (the knowledge dAkinī). The word dAkinī is found in the title of the explanation (vAkhyA) tantras of the yoginī class or mother tantras included in the CakrasaMvaratantra group.

dam can. (damchen). In Tibetan, "bound by oath"; a term for the pre-Buddhist Tibetan deities, also called ordinary or mundane (LAUKIKA) deities, who have been subjugated and made to take a solemn oath (SAMAYA) to protect Buddhism. According to traditional accounts, the Tibetan king KHRI SRONG SDE BTSAN encountered many hindrances during the construction of the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet at BSAM YAS. The Indian teacher sANTARAKsITA advised the king to invite PADMASAMBHAVA to subdue the malevolent spirits; these spirits, referred to generally as the "eight classes of gods and demons" (lha srin sde brgyad; see AstASENA), include the BRTAN MA BCU GNYIS, various local deities (yul lha) inhabiting mountain passes, plains, and peaks, and the spirits of powerful deceased persons (rgyal po). Illustrative is the account of the subjugation of the powerful rgyal po spirit RDO RJE GRAGS LDAN (in some accounts the emissary of a powerful spirit called PE HAR RGYAL PO), who becomes an important protector, particularly of the RNYING MA sect, and through the GNAS CHUNG oracle a protector of the Tibetan state.

dharmapāla. (P. dhammapāla; T. chos skyong; C. fahu; J. hogo; K. popho 法護). In Sanskrit, "protector of the DHARMA"; in Mahāyāna and tantric texts, dharmapālas are divinities, often depicted in wrathful forms, who defend Buddhism from its enemies and who guard Buddhist practitioners from various forms of external and internal dangers. The histories of many Buddhist nations often involve the conversion of local deities into dharma protectors. In Tibet, for example, the worship of dharmapālas is said to have begun in the early eighth century CE at the instigation of PADMASAMBHAVA (c. eighth century), when he was invited to the country by the Tibetan king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN. On his arrival, PadmasaMbhava is said to have used his powers to subdue baleful local deities he encountered along the way and spared only those who promised to become dharmapālas. In Tibetan Buddhism, dharmapālas are divided into two groups, the mundane ('jig rten pa), who are worldly deities who protect the dharma, and the supramundane ('jig rten las 'das pa), enlightened beings who appear in wrathful form to defend the dharma. The eight types of nonhuman beings (AstASENĀ) are also sometimes listed as dharma-protectors, viz., GARUdA, DEVA, NĀGA, YAKsA, GANDHARVA, ASURA, KIMNARA, and MAHORĀGA.

Dwags lha sgam po. (Daklha Gampo). The site of an important BKA' BRGYUD monastic complex in the Dwags po (Dakpo) region of south-central Tibet, founded in 1121 by SGAM PO PA BSOD RNAM RIN CHEN. Flanked by an unusual range of mountains, the location was originally developed by the Tibetan king SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO, who constructed one of his many "taming temples" (mtha' 'dul) there in order to pin down the head of the supine demoness (srin mo) believed to be hindering the spread of Buddhism in Tibet. It is said that PADMASAMBHAVA later hid several treasure texts (GTER MA) in the surrounding peaks, foremost among which was the BAR DO THOS GROL CHEN MO, or "Liberation Through Hearing in the Intermediate State," usually known in English as The Tibetan Book of the Dead, which was unearthed by the treasure revealer (GTER STON) KARMA GLING PA. Dwags lha sgam po is best known, however, as the seat of the important Bka' brgyud hierarch Sgam po pa and under his direction it became an active center for meditative retreats. His numerous disciples, from whom stem the four major and eight minor Bka' brgyud subsects, include the first KARMA PA DUS GSUM MKHYEN PA and PHAG MO GRU PA RDO RJE RGYAL PO. Following Sgam po pa's death, the complex was directed by masters in his familial lineage, and later, Sgam po pa's incarnation lineage, including lamas such as DWAGS PO BKRA SHIS RNAM RGYAL. It was destroyed by the invading Dzungar Mongol army in 1718 and rebuilt, only to be completely destroyed once again during the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Several small chapels have since been renovated.

Evans-Wentz, Walter Y. (1878-1965). American Theosophist, best known as the editor of THE TIBETAN BOOK OF THE DEAD. Walter Wentz was born in Trenton, New Jersey, the son of a German immigrant and an American Quaker. As a boy he took an early interest in books on spiritualism he found in his father's library, reading as a teen both Isis Unveiled and The Secret Doctrine by Madame HELENA PETROVNA BLAVATSKY of the Theosophical Society. He moved to California at the turn of the century, where in 1901, he joined the American section of the Theosophical Society. After graduating from Stanford University, Wentz went to Jesus College at Oxford in 1907 to study Celtic folklore. He later traveled to Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and then on to India. In 1919, he arrived in the British hill station of Darjeeling, where he acquired a Tibetan manuscript. The manuscript was a portion of a cycle of treasure texts (GTER MA) discovered by RATNA GLING PA, entitled "The Profound Doctrine of Self-Liberation of the Mind [through Encountering] the Peaceful and Wrathful Deities" (Zab chos zhi khro dgongs pa rang grol), said to have been discovered in the fourteenth century. Since he could not read Tibetan, Evans-Wentz took the text to KAZI DAWA SAMDUP, the English teacher at a local school. Kazi Dawa Samdup provided Evans-Wentz with a translation of a portion of the text, which Evans-Wentz augmented with his own introduction and notes, publishing it in 1927 as The Tibetan Book of the Dead. Since its publication, various editions of the book have sold over 500,000 copies in English, making it the most famous Tibetan Buddhist text in the world. The text describes the process of death and rebirth, focusing on the intervening transition period called the BAR DO, or "intermediate state" (ANTARĀBHAVA). The text provides instructions on how to recognize reality in the intermediate state and thus gain liberation from rebirth. Through listening to the instructions in the text being read aloud, the departed consciousness is able to gain liberation; the Tibetan title of the text, BAR DO THOS GROL CHEN MO, means "Great Liberation in the Intermediate State through Hearing." Evans-Wentz's approach to the text reflects his lifelong commitment to Theosophy. Other translations that Kazi Dawa Samdup made for Evans-Wentz were included in Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines (1935). In 1924, after Kazi Dawa Samdup's death, Evans-Wentz visited his family in Kalimpong, from whom he received a manuscript translation of the MI LA RAS PA'I RNAM THAR, a biography of MI LA RAS PA, which Evans-Wentz subsequently edited and published as Tibet's Great Yogi Milarepa (1928). He returned to Darjeeling in 1935 and employed two Sikkimese monks to translate another work from the same cycle of texts as the Bar do thos grol, entitled "Self-Liberation through Naked Vision Recognizing Awareness" (Rig pa ngo sprod gcer mthong rang grol). During the same visit, he received a summary of a famous biography of PADMASAMBHAVA. These works formed the last work in his series, The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation, eventually published in 1954.

Ge sar. A legendary king who is the hero of the most famous Tibetan cycle of epic poetry, traditionally sung by bards; it is said to be the longest work of literature in the world. The songs recount the birth and adventures of Ge sar, the king of the land of Gling. The name Ge sar apparently derives from Zoroastrian sources and stories of Ge sar appear in a number of Central Asian languages. It is unclear whether Ge sar was a historical figure; elements of the songs seem to derive from the period of the later dissemination (PHYI DAR) of Buddhism to Tibet, although the earliest version of the songs in the form they are known today dates to the fifteenth century. In the songs, the world has fallen into chaos and various gods such as Brahmā and sAKRA, and various Buddhist figures, such as PADMASAMBHAVA and the buddha AMITĀBHA, decide that a hero should descend into the world to restore order. That hero is Ge sar, who defeats many foes, including the evil king of Hor.

Gnas chung. (Nechung). In Tibetan, lit. "Small Place," a monastery serving as the seat of the GNAS CHUNG ORACLE, Tibet's state oracle, located near 'BRAS SPUNGS monastery outside LHA SA. According to tradition, on the advice of sĀNTARAKsITA, KHRI SRONG SDE BTSAN invited the tantric thaumaturge PADMASAMBHAVA to Tibet to subdue spirits hostile to the introduction of Buddhism. Padmasambhava appointed a powerful spirit PE HAR as the protector of Buddhism of Tibet in general and of BSAM YAS monastery in particular. The main place (T. gnas chen) of Pe har is in Bsam yas, and a smaller shrine dedicated to his worship (and to the worship of RDO RJE GRAGS LDAN, the chief form in which Pe har carries out his work in Tibet) was located on the site of the present Gnas chung monastery. The monastery became important during the time of the fifth DALAI LAMA (1617-1682) and his regent SDE SRID SANGS RGYAS RGYA MTSHO, who completed an extensive expansion of the monastery in 1683 as part of a strategy to legitimatize the new government of Tibet (the DGA' LDAN PHO BRANG). They expanded the role of Pe har and made Nechung monastery the seat of Tibet's state oracle, introducing new invocations and rituals as an integral part of the monastery's practices. In the late nineteenth century, O rgyan Phrin las chos 'phel, a lama from SMIN GROL GLING monastery, introduced a number of RNYING MA tantric practices to the monastery; his incarnations are called the Gnas chung sprul skus.

Gnubs chen Sangs rgyas ye shes. (Nupchen Sangye Yeshe) (c. 832-962). A Tibetan Buddhist master revered as one of the twenty-five original disciples of the Indian tantric adept PADMASAMBHAVA. He is the author of the BSAM GTAN MIG SGRON, an early text explaining, among other systems, RDZOGS CHEN. According to traditional biographies, he was born in to the Gnubs (Nup) clan, an important clan that provided ministers to the kings in central Tibet. In his youth, he studied with Padmasambhava and numerous other masters in India, Nepal, and northwest India. He later made seven trips to Nepal and India, collecting and translating tantric texts. He is considered to be the chief recipient of the ANUYOGA teachings. Other sources state that he frightened away king GLANG DAR MA with his magical powers when the king threatened his community of practitioners. ZHI BA 'OD and others criticized the RNYING MA PA for claiming an Indian origin for texts that they alleged had in fact been composed by Gnubs chen Sangs rgyas ye shes.

Gnyan chen thang lha. (Nyenchen Tangla). An important Tibetan mountain god, sometimes said to be an emanation of VAJRAPĀnI, despite being a worldly DHARMAPĀLA. He was subdued by PADMASAMBHAVA; some accounts say that his domestication occurred in four settings, with Padmasambhava in four different guises: first in the heavens, with Padmasambhava assuming the guise of Vajrapāni; the second at He po ri near BSAM YAS, with Padmasambhava in the form of Padma HERUKA; the third time on the very peak of Bsam yas monastery, with Padmasambhava in the form of VAJRAHuMKĀRA; and finally as Padmasambhava himself. His connection with Bsam yas is furthered by his identification with a NĀGA king named Zur phud lnga pa; this serpent king was asked by Padmasambhava to be the protector of the monastery, but he refused, recommending instead that Padmasambhava travel to Hor and bring back PE HAR RGYAL PO for the job. Gnyan chen thang lha is said to be the chief of all SA BDAG (earth spirits) in central Tibet and the protector of Dmar po ri, the hill in LHA SA on which the PO TA LA stands, although his principal seat is in northern Tibet, at the mountain range that bears his name. Gnyan chen thang lha appears as a member of numerous groupings of Tibetan deities, often as their leader. He is the leader of the 360 mountain gods, the chief of the ser bdag bco brgyad (the eighteen masters of hail), and one of the mgur lha bcu gsum of the BON pantheon. He is also called Thang lha yar shur, Thang lha yab shur, Yar shur gnyan gyi lha, and Gter bdag gnyan chen thang lha.

gter ma. (terma). In Tibetan, "hidden treasures" or "treasure text," a source of Tibetan Buddhist and BON sacred objects, including a wide range of manuscripts, relics, statuary, and ritual implements from earlier periods. Such treasure texts have been found in caves, mountains, lakes, valleys, or sequestered away in monasteries, sometimes within a pillar. Whether gter ma are BUDDHAVACANA, i.e., authentic words of the Buddha (or a buddha) or whether they are APOCRYPHA, is contested. In the RNYING MA canon, a division is made between gter ma and BKA' MA, the latter made up of commonly authenticated canonical works. Some gter ma are authentic (although proper criteria for authenticity is a subject of debate in both traditional and modern sources), and some are clearly forgeries and fabricated antiquities. Gter ma are of three types: sa gter ("earth treasure"), dgongs gter ("mind treasure"), and dag snang ("pure vision"). Those physically discovered in caves and so on are sa gter; they may be revealed in a public gathering (khrom gter) or found privately (gsang gter) and then shown to others; they may be accompanied by a prophecy (lung bstan; gter lung; see VYĀKARAnA) of the discovery, made at the time of concealment; the gter ma may have a guardian (gter srung), and the revealer (GTER STON) is often assisted by a dĀKINĪ. Dgongs gter are discovered in the mindstream of the revealer, placed there as seeds to be found, coming from an earlier lifetime, often as a direct disciple of PADMASAMBHAVA. Dag snang are discovered by the revealer through the power of the innate purity of the mind. Gter ma are associated most closely with the RNYING MA sect, although not exclusively so. The basic account of gter ma, in which myth and historical fact are interwoven, relates that prior to the persecution of Buddhism by GLANG DAR MA (reigned c. 838-842), PADMASAMBHAVA hid many teachings, often dictated to YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL, as treasures to be discovered in later times in order to ensure the continuation of the doctrine and to provide appropriate teachings for future generations. The first Tibetan gter ma appear sometime after the start of the second dispensation (PHYI DAR), c. 1000, with the rise of the new (GSAR MA) sects of BKA' GDAMS, SA SKYA, and BKA' BRGYUD, who in many cases call into question the authenticity of earlier Tibetan practices and translations. Gter ma became more common in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. Prominent among the revealers is PADMA LAS 'BREL RTSAL, a shadowy figure who revealed the RDZOGS CHEN SNYING THIG that KLONG CHEN RAB 'BYAMS PA then systematized into the definitive RDZOGS CHEN teachings. Klong chen pa's scholarly presentation was again made more accessible through a series of gter ma (called the KLONG CHEN SNYING THIG) discovered by 'JIGS MED GLING PA. These are the basis of the rdzogs chen teachings as they are commonly found today in most branches of the Rnying ma sect. According to traditional accounts, Padmasambhava taught a system of meditation called the MKHA' 'GRO SNYING THIG ("Heart Essence of the dākinī") to PADMA GSAL, the daughter of king KHRI SRONG SDE BTSAN, in whose heart he had inscribed a sacred syllable after bringing her back from the dead. They were discovered there by Padma las 'brel rtsal and Klong chen pa, who are her reincarnations. Besides this widely acknowledged tradition, there are numerous other gter ma that form the basis of practices and rituals in specific Rnying ma monasteries. For example, the main line of teachings and consecrations (ABHIsEKA) in the DPAL YUL monastery in the Khams region of eastern Tibet, and in its reestablished Indian branch near Mysore in South India, is based on gter ma teachings combining Rnying ma and Bka' brgyud practices, revealed by Mi 'gyur rdo rje and redacted by KARMA CHAGS MED; the gter ma discovered by PADMA GLING PA are held in great reverence by the 'BRUG PA BKA' BRGYUD sect in Bhutan; and the secret teachings of the fifth DALAI LAMA (1617-1682) that later locate and legitimate the role of the Dalai Lamas in the Dge lugs pa sect originated in gter ma that he revealed. The different gter ma were brought together in a quasi-canonical form by 'JAM MGON KONG SPRUL BLO GROS MTHA' YAS in his RIN CHEN GTER MDZOD ("Treasury of Precious Treasure Teachings"). It is believed that the sacred and even political space of Tibet is empowered through the discovery of gter ma and, by extension, that the religious practice of a region is empowered through the discovery of treasures within it.

guru mtshan brgyad. See PADMASAMBHAVA

Guru Rin po che. A devotional title for PADMASAMBHAVA. The name, mixing Sanskrit and Tibetan, literally means "precious teacher" and is the appellation of Padmasambhava most commonly used by Tibetans.

guruyoga. (T. bla ma'i rnal 'byor). The practice of GURU devotion, considered especially important in tantric practice, in which one's teacher is regarded as a buddha. In Tibetan Buddhism, guruyoga is included in a series of preliminary practices (SNGON 'GRO) to be undertaken before receiving a consecration. According to such works as DPAL SPRUL's KUN BZANG BLA MA'I ZHAL LUNG ("Words of My Perfect Teacher"), guruyoga includes reciting one hundred thousand repetitions of the name MANTRA of one's guru, visualized in the form of an enlightened being (in the case of that text, PADMASAMBHAVA). Guruyoga also includes the proper attitude toward a guru, as set forth in the GURUPANCĀsIKĀ and expanded on at length at the beginning of works of the LAM RIM-type genre. See also GAnACAKRA.

Hemis Monastery. A monastery located about twenty-five miles (forty km.) southeast of Leh, the capital of Ladakh. Hemis Monastery is sited just south of the Indus River, within present-day Hemis National Park. The largest monastery in the kingdom of Ladakh, Hemis Monastery was founded in the mid-seventeenth century by Stag tsang ras pa (Taktsang Repa), who was supported by King Seng ge rnam rgyal (Senge Namgyal, 1570-1642), one of the most important kings in the history of Ladakhi Buddhism. Hemis is central to the 'BRUG PA BKA' BRGYUD community in the region, and the two-day 'CHAM (sacred dance) festival that is held each summer in honor of PADMASAMBHAVA is widely known throughout the area.

Indrabhuti. (T. In dra bo dhi). There are at least three figures by this name known to the Indian and Tibetan traditions. Perhaps the most important is a semimythical king of OddIYĀNA ([alt. Uddiyāna], probably the Swat region of northwest India but also identified as Orissa) at the time of the miraculous birth of PADMASAMBHAVA; according to tradition, he had no male heir, and so he installed Padmasambhava as crown prince. A second Indrabhuti is listed among the eighty-four MAHĀSIDDHA as a teacher of TILOPA; he may be the Indrabhuti, closely associated with mahāsiddha Lawapa, who is first in the lineage list (T. gsan yig) of the VAJRAYOGINĪ practices of the Tibetan SA SKYA sect and a brother of Laksmīnkarā. There is also a ninth-century Indian king and tantric master, a student of Ācārya Kukurāja, who authored the Cittaratnavisodhana, called Indrabhuti.

'Jigs med gling pa. (Jikme Lingpa) (1729-1798). A Tibetan exegete and visionary, renowned as one of the premier treasure revealers (GTER STON) in the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism. 'Jigs med gling pa was born in the central Tibetan region of 'Phyong rgyas (Chongye), and from an early age recalled many of his previous incarnations, including those of the Tibetan king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN, the scholars SGAM PO PA and KLONG CHEN PA and, in his immediately preceding birth, Chos rje gling pa. After a period of monastic education, in his late twenties, he undertook an intense series of meditation retreats, first at Dpal ri monastery and then at the CHIMS PHU cave complex near BSAM YAS. In one of the numerous visions he experienced during this period, he received the KLONG CHEN SNYING THIG, or "Heart Sphere of the Great Expanse," from a dĀKINĪ at the BODHNĀTH STuPA in Kathmandu. The revelation of this text is considered a "mind treasure" (dgongs gter), composed by Padmasambhava and revealed to the mind of a later disciple. 'Jigs med gling pa kept this revelation secret for seven years before transcribing it. The klong chen snying thig corpus systematized by 'Jigs med gling pa, including numerous explanatory texts, tantric initiations, and ritual cycles, became a seminal component of the RDZOGS CHEN teachings in the Rnying ma sect. While based in central Tibet, 'Jigs med gling pa was also influential in Tibet's eastern regions, serving as spiritual teacher to the royal family of SDE DGE and supervising the printing of the collected Rnying ma tantras in twenty-eight volumes. His patrons and disciples included some of the most powerful and prestigious individuals from Khams in eastern Tibet, and his active participation in reviving Rnying ma traditions during a time of persecution earned him a place at the forefront of the burgeoning eclectic or nonsectarian (RIS MED) movement. Numerous subsequent visionaries involved in promulgating the movement identified themselves as 'Jigs med gling pa's reincarnation, including 'JAM DBYANG MKHYEN BRTSE DBANG PO, MDO MKHYEN BRTSE YE SHES RDO RJE, DPAL SPRUL RIN PO CHE, and DIL MGO MKHYEN BRTSE. See also GTER MA.

Kailāsa. The Sanskrit name for one of the most important sacred mountains in Asia, generally referred to in English as Kailash or Mount Kailash. It is 21,778 ft. high and is located in southwestern Tibet, not far from the current borders of India and Nepal. Lake Manasarovar is located eighteen miles to the southeast; these two sites have long been places of pilgrimage for Buddhists, Hindus, Jains, and followers of Tibetan BON, some of whom have regarded the striking dome-shaped peak as Mount SUMERU. The mountain is particularly important in Tibetan Buddhism, where it is called Gangs dkar Ti se ("White Snow Mountain Ti se") or simply Gangs rin po che ("Precious Snow Mountain"). Pilgrims from across the Tibetan Buddhist world visit Mount Kailāsa, especially in the Year of the Horse, which occurs once every twelve years in the Tibetan calendrical cycle. Within that year, it is considered auspicious to visit the mountain at the time that marks the Buddha's birth, enlightenment, and passage into PARINIRVĀnA (generally falling in May or June, depending on the lunar calendar). The primary form of practice is the thirty-two mile clockwise circumambulation of the mountain, often completed in a single day, with specific rituals and practices performed along the route. It is said that one circumambulation purifies the negative KARMAN of one lifetime, ten circumambulations purify the negative KARMAN accumulated over the course of a KALPA, and one hundred circumambulations ensure enlightenment. The mountain came to take on numerous tantric associations beginning in the eleventh century. According to a popular story, the yogin MI LA RAS PA won control of the mountain for the Buddhists by defeating a rival Bon priest, Na ro bon chung, in a contest of miracles. The mountain later became an important meditation site for the followers of Mi la ras pa, principally members of the 'BRUG PA BKA' BRGYUD and 'BRI GUNG BKA' BRGYUD sects. Both sĀKYAMUNI Buddha and PADMASAMBHAVA are said to have visited Kailāsa. One of the most important associations of Mount Kailāsa is with the CAKRASAMVARATANTRA, which names twenty-four sacred lands (PĪtHA) as potent locations for tantric practice. The CakrasaMvara literature recounts how long ago these twenty-four lands came under the control of Mahesvara (siva) in the form of Rudra Bhairava. The buddha VAJRADHARA, in the wrathful form of a HERUKA deity, subdued BHAIRAVA, transforming each of the twenty-four sites into a MAndALA of the deity CakrasaMvara and his retinue. In Tibetan literature, Mount Kailāsa came to be identified with one of the twenty-four sites, the one called Himavat or Himālaya ("The Snowy," or "The Snow Mountain"); this was one of several important transpositions of sacred locations in India onto Tibetan sites. The BKA' BRGYUD sect grouped the peak together with two other important mountain pilgrimage sites in southern Tibet, LA PHYI and TSA RI, identified respectively as CakrasaMvara's body, speech, and mind. These claims drew criticism from some Tibetan quarters, such as the renowned scholar SA SKYA PAnDITA, who argued that the sites associated with CakrasaMvara were located not in Tibet but in India. Such criticism has not prevented Mount Kailāsa from remaining one of the most important pilgrimage places in the Tibetan cultural domain.

Kamalasīla. (T. Ka ma la shī la) (c. 740-795). One of the most important Madhyamaka authors of late Indian Buddhism, a major representative of the Yogācāra-Madhyamaka synthesis, and a participant in the famous BSAM YAS DEBATE. According to Tibetan doxographies, he was a proponent of the YOGĀCĀRA-SVĀTANTRIKA-MADHYAMAKA. Although little is known about his life, according to Tibetan sources he was a monk and teacher at NĀLANDĀ. Tibetan sources also count him as one of three (together with sĀNTARAKsITA and JNĀNAGARBHA) "Eastern Svātantrikas" (RANG RGYUD SHAR GSUM), suggesting that he was from Bengal. He was clearly a direct disciple of sāntaraksita, composing important commentaries on his teacher's two major works, the MADHYAMAKĀLAMKĀRA and the TATTVASAMGRAHA. The latter commentary, which is extant in Sanskrit, is an important source for both Hindu and Buddhist philosophical positions in the eighth century. sāntaraksita had gone to Tibet at the invitation of the Tibetan king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN, where, with the assistance of PADMASAMBHAVA, he founded BSAM YAS, the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet. According to tradition, at the time of his death sāntaraksita warned that a mistaken philosophical view would become established in Tibet and advised the king to invite Kamalasīla to come to Tibet in order to dispel it. This mistaken view was apparently that of Heshang MOHEYAN, a Northern CHAN (BEI ZONG) monk who had developed a following at the Tibetan court. Kamalasīla was invited, and a debate was held between the Indian monk and his Chinese counterpart, with the king serving as judge. It is unclear whether a face-to-face debate took place or rather an exchange of documents. According to Tibetan sources, the king declared Kamalasīla the winner, named MADHYAMAKA as the official philosophical school of his realm, and banished the Chinese contingent. (Chinese records describe a different outcome.) This event, variously known as the BSAM YAS DEBATE, the Council of Bsam yas, and the Council of Lhasa, is regarded as one of the key moments in the history of Tibetan Buddhism. Three of Kamalasīla's most important works appear to have been composed in response to the issues raised in the debate, although whether all three were composed in Tibet is not established with certainty. These texts, each entitled BHĀVANĀKRAMA or "Stages of Meditation," set forth the process for the potential BODHISATTVA to cultivate BODHICITTA and then develop sAMATHA and VIPAsYANĀ and progress through the bodhisattva stages (BHuMI) to buddhahood. The cultivation of vipasyanā requires the use of both scripture (ĀGAMA) and reasoning (YUKTI) to understand emptiness (suNYATĀ); in the first Bhāvanākrama, he sets forth the three forms of wisdom (PRAJNĀ): the wisdom derived from hearing or learning (sRUTAMAYĪPRAJNĀ), the wisdom derived from thinking and reflection (CINTĀMAYĪPRAJNĀ), and the wisdom derived from meditation (BHĀVANĀMAYĪPRAJNĀ). This "gradual" approach, very different from what was advocated in the Chinese CHAN ZONG, is set forth in all three of the Bhāvanākrama, which, according to Tibetan tradition, were composed in Tibet after the Bsam yas debate, at the request of the king. However, only the third, and the briefest, directly considers, and refutes, the view of "no mental activity" (amanasikāra), which is associated with Moheyan. It was also during his time in Tibet that Kamalasīla composed his most important independent (i.e., noncommentarial) philosophical work, the MADHYAMAKĀLOKA, or "Illumination of the Middle Way," a wide-ranging exposition of the Yogācāra-Madhyamaka synthesis. It deals with a number of central epistemological and logical issues to articulate what is regarded as the defining tenet of the Yogācāra-Svātantrika-Madhyamaka school: that major YOGĀCĀRA doctrines, such as "mind-only" (CITTAMĀTRA), and the three natures (TRISVABHĀVA) are important in initially overcoming misconceptions, but they are in fact only provisional (NEYĀRTHA) teachings for those who have not yet understood the Madhyamaka view. The Madhyamakāloka is also important for its exploration of such central MAHĀYĀNA doctrines as the TATHĀGATAGARBHA and the question of the EKAYĀNA. On this latter point, Kamalasīla argues against the Yogācāra position that there are three final vehicles (for the sRĀVAKA, PRATYEKABUDDHA, and BODHISATTVA, with some beings excluded from any path to liberation) in favor of the position that there is a single vehicle to buddhahood (BUDDHAYĀNA) for all beings. Kamalasīla is said to have been murdered in Tibet by partisans of the Chinese position, who caused his death by squeezing his kidneys.

kapāla. (T. thod pa; C. dulou qi/jiebobei; J. dokuroki/kohahai; K. ch'ongnu ki/kopp'abae 髑髏器/劫波杯). In Sanskrit, "skull"; used in Buddhist TANTRA to refer to the skull cup that is often one of the accoutrements of MAHĀSIDDHAs and wrathful deities. The vessel, made from the cranium of a human skull, is often elaborately carved and inlaid with precious metals. The symbolism of the skull cup is variously explained; most generally, it is yet another antinomian aspect of Buddhist tantra, in which things that would be regarded as polluting in Indian culture (in this case the skull of a corpse) are put to use to overcome dualities. It is also said that the skull cup is a constant reminder of death. In tantric SĀDHANAs, the skull cup is often said to contain the elixir of immortality (AMṚTA). The skull cup figures prominently in tantric iconography (being held, for example, by PADMASAMBHAVA) and in tantric practice. For example, in GCOD practice, one visualizes the top of one's own head being cut off and transformed into a huge vessel, where one's own body is cooked and offered to VAJRAYOGINĪ.

Khri srong lde btsan. (Trisong Detsen) (r. 754-799). A Tibetan ruler considered the second of three great religious kings (chos rgyal) during the Imperial Period, the other two being SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO and RAL PA CAN, and as a human incarnation of the BODHISATTVA AVALOKITEsVARA. Inheriting the throne in 754 as the thirty-eighth monarch of the Yar klungs dynasty, Khri srong lde btsan directed several events that are considered milestones in Tibetan history. During the early years of his reign, he extended the boundaries of the Tibetan empire forged under his predecessors. In 763, the king's army occupied the imperial capital of Tang China at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), an action commemorated on a stele that was erected in front of the PO TA LA Palace. However, Khri srong lde btsan is best remembered for his patronage of Buddhism and support in founding Tibet's first Buddhist monastery of BSAM YAS. Later chronicles record that he actively suppressed the native BON religion, as well as the aristocratic clans who were its benefactors, although he never entirely proscribed early Bon rituals. Khri srong lde btsan invited the renowned Indian Buddhist preceptor sĀNTARAKsITA to oversee the project of building Bsam yas and to establish the first monastic order in Tibet. According to traditional accounts, local spirits inimical to Buddhism created obstacles that hindered the project, which prompted the Indian abbot to request Khri srong lde btsan to invite the powerful tantric master PADMASAMBHAVA to Tibet in order to aid in their subjugation, after which the establishment of the monastery was able to proceed. Khri srong lde btsan is said to have become a devotee of Padmasambhava, with one of his queens, YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL, becoming the yogin's consort and serving as scribe for many of his GTER MA teachings. Padmasambhava also revived the king's eight-year-old daughter PADMA GSAL after her death in order to bestow a special teaching. According to tradition, at the time of his death, sĀNTARAKsITA warned in his final testament that a mistaken philosophical view would become established in Tibet and advised the king to invite KAMALAsĪLA to come to Tibet in order to dispel it. The view was apparently that of the Northen Chan (BEI ZONG) monk Heshang Moheyan, who had developed a following at the Tibetan court. Kamalasīla was invited and a debate was held between the Indian monk and the Chinese monk, with the king serving as judge. It is unclear whether a face-to-face debate took place or rather an exchange of documents. According to Tibetan sources, the king declared Kamalasīla the winner, named MADHYAMAKA as the official philosophical school of his realm, and banished the Chinese party from his kingdom. (Chinese records describe a different outcome.) This event, variously known as the BSAM YAS DEBATE, the Council of Bsam yas, and the Council of Lhasa, is regarded as one of the key moments in the history of Tibetan Buddhism.

Klong chen rab 'byams. (Longchen Rabjam) (1308-1364). Also known as Klong chen pa (Longchenpa). An esteemed master and scholar of the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism known especially for his promulgation of RDZOGS CHEN. Klong chen pa is believed to be the direct reincarnation of PADMA LAS 'BREL RTSAL, who revealed the Rdzogs chen snying thig, and also of PADMA GSAL, who first received those teachings from the Indian master PADMASAMBHAVA. Born in the central Tibetan region of G.yo ru (Yoru), he received ordination at the age of twelve. At nineteen, he entered GSANG PHU NE'U THOG monastery where he engaged in a wide range of studies, including philosophy, numerous systems of SuTRA and TANTRA, and the traditional Buddhist sciences, including grammar and poetics. Having trained under masters as diverse as the abbots of Gsang phu ne'u thog and the third KARMA PA, RANG 'BYUNG RDO RJE, he achieved great scholarly mastery of numerous traditions, including the Rnying ma, SA SKYA, and BKA' BRGYUD sects. However, Klong chen pa quickly became disillusioned at the arrogance and pretension of many scholars of his day, and in his mid-twenties gave up the monastery to pursue the life of a wandering ascetic. At twenty-nine, he met the great yogin Kumārarāja at BSAM YAS monastery, who accepted him as a disciple and transmitted the three classes of rdzogs chen (rdzogs chen sde gsum), a corpus of materials that would become a fundamental part of Klong chen pa's later writings and teaching career. Klong chen pa lived during a period of great political change in Tibet, as the center of political authority and power shifted from Sa skya to the Phag mo gru pa hierarchs. Having fallen out of favor with the new potentate, TAI SI TU Byang chub rgyal mtshan (Jangchub Gyaltsen, 1302-1364), he was forced to spend some ten years as a political exile in the Bum thang region of Bhutan, where he founded eight monasteries including Thar pa gling (Tarpa ling). Among the most important and well-known works in Klong chen pa's extensive literary corpus are his redaction of the meditation and ritual manuals of the heart essence (SNYING THIG), composed mainly in the hermitage of GANGS RI THOD DKAR. Other important works include his exegesis on the theory and practice of rdzogs chen, such as the MDZOD BDUN ("seven treasuries") and the NGAL GSO SKOR GSUM ("Trilogy on Rest"). Klong chen pa's writings are renowned for their poetic style and refinement. They formed the basis for a revitalization of Rnying ma doctrine led by the eighteenth-century visionary and treasure revealer (GTER STON) 'JIGS MED GLING PA.

klong chen snying thig. (longchen nyingtik). In Tibetan, the "Heart Essence of the Great Expanse," one of the most important cycles of "treasure texts" (GTER MA) of the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism. They are RDZOGS CHEN teachings revealed by 'JIGS MED GLING PA in 1757. The teachings were a dgongs gter, or "mind treasure," discovered by him in his own mind. They are considered to embody the two major snying thig lineages, the BI MA SNYING THIG brought to Tibet by VIMALAMITRA and the MKHA' 'GRO SNYING THIG brought to Tibet by PADMASAMBHAVA. The revelation eventually encompassed three volumes, including dozens of individual treatises, SĀDHANAS, and prayers.

Klu khang. (Lukang). In Tibetan, the "NĀGA Temple"; a small temple located in the middle of an artificial lake behind the PO TA LA Palace in LHA SA, Tibet, reached by a stone bridge. Its full name is Rdzong rgyab klu khang, the "Nāga Temple Behind the Fortress [i.e., the Po ta la]." According to legend, the regent of the fifth DALAI LAMA, SDE SRID SANGS RGYAS RGYA MTSHO, negotiated an agreement with the king of the nāgas at the time of construction of the Po ta la, receiving the king's permission to dig up the soil in return for building a temple in honor of the nāga king in the center of the lake that formed in the pit from groundwater. The temple was constructed around 1700 during the reign of the sixth Dalai Lama, who is said to have used the upper chamber for romantic assignations. The temple is a small three-storied pavilion in the shape of a MAndALA, with doors in each of the cardinal directions. The temple was rebuilt by the eighth Dalai Lama in 1791 and restored by the thirteenth Dalai Lama, who used it as a retreat. The temple is renowned for a magnificent set of murals on the second and third floors. The murals depict the eighty-four MAHĀSIDDHAs, PADMASAMBHAVA and his chief disciples, illustrations of the human body drawn from Tibetan medicine, a wide arrary of RDZOGS CHEN practices, scenes from the life of the renowned treasure revealer (GTER STON) PADMA GLING PA, and the peaceful and wrathful deities of the BAR DO.

Lamaism: A popular term for Tibetan esoteric Buddhism, not used by the Buddhists themselves. It designates the religious beliefs and institutions of Tibet, derived from Mahayana Buddhism (q.v.) which was first introduced in the seventh century by the chieftain Sron-tsan-gampo, superimposed on the native Shamais-tic Bon religion, resuscitated and mixed with Tantric (q.v.) elements by the mythic Hindu Padmasambhava, and reformed by the Bengalese Atisa in the 11th and Tsong-kha-pa at the turn of the 14th century. The strong admixture of elements of the exorcismal, highly magically charged and priest-ridden original Bon, has given Buddhism a turn away from its philosophic orientation and produced in Lamaism a form that places great emphasis on mantras (q.v.)—the most famous one being om mani padme hum —elaborate ritual, and the worship of subsidiary tutelary deities, high dignitaries, and living incarnations of the Buddha. This worship is institutionalized, incorporating a belief in the double incarnation of the Bodhisattva (q.v.) in the Dalai-Lama who resides with political powers at the capital Lhasa, and the more spiritual head Tashi-Lama who rules at Tashi-lhum-po.

Main works: Le fondemcnt de l'induction, 187; Psychologie et metaphysique, 1885; Etudes sur le syllogisme, 1907; Note sur le pari de Pascal. --L.W. Lamaism: (from Tibetan b La-ma, honorable title of a monk) The religious beliefs and institutions of Tibet, derived from Mahayana Buddhism (q.v.) which was first introduced in the 7th century by the chieftain Sron-tsan-gampo, superimposed on the native Shamaistic Bon religion, resuscitated and mixed with Tantric (q.v.) elements by the mythic Hindu Padmasambhava, and reformed by the Bengalese Atisa in the 11th and Tsong-kha-pa at the turn of the 14th century. The strong admixture of elements of the exorcismal, highly magically charged and priest-ridden original Bon, has given Buddhism a turn away from its philosophic orientation and produced in Lamaism a form that places great emphasis on mantras (q.v.) -- the most famous one being om mani padme hum) -- elaborate ritual, and the worship of subsidiary tutelary deities, high dignitaries, and living incarnations of the Buddha. This worship is institutionalized, with a semblance of the papacy, in the double incarnation of the Bodhisattva (q.v.) in the Dalai-Lama who resides with political powers at the capital Lhasa, and the more spiritual head Tashi-Lama who rules at Tashi-Ihum-po. Contacts with Indian and Chinese traditions have been maintained for centuries and the two canons of Lamaism, the Kan-jur of 108 books and the Tan-jur of 225 books represent many translations as well as original works, some of great philosophical value. -- K.F.L.

ma mo. A class of indigenous Tibetan female spirits. They are generally hostile, known to carry disease sacks (nad rkyal). With the advent of Buddhism in Tibet, they came to be identified with the Indian deity Mātarī [alt. Mātṛkā]. DPAL LDAN LHA MO is considered their leader. PADMASAMBHAVA subdued all ma mo on a mountain named Chu bo ri. There are numerous groupings of ma mo who appear in various deities' retinues, such as Dpal ldan lha mo and YAMA, and who are invoked in rituals, called on both to cease their illness-causing activities and to inflict illnesses on enemies. They also figure in weather-making rituals, since they are able to withhold or send rain. They are depicted as ugly emaciated women with matted hair and withered breasts.

Mandāravā. (T. Man da ra ba) (c. eighth century). A revered female Indian Buddhist master, renowned as a close disciple and consort of the tantric adept PADMASAMBHAVA. She was born the daughter of the king of Sahor, modern Rewalsar in Mandi District, Himachel Pradesh. According to traditional sources, Mandāravā rejected the marriage arrangements made by her father, wishing instead to renounce the world and practice religion. Padmasambhava accepted her as his disciple and the couple remained in a hilltop retreat. The king learned of their arrangement and, in a fit of anger, had Padmasambhava (or, according to some accounts, the couple) burned alive. As a dense cloud of smoke cleared, the adept appeared seated atop a lotus in the center of a large lake, miraculously unscathed. The king and his court were thus converted to Buddhism and became Padmasambhava's disciples. The lake became known in Tibetan as Mtsho Padma (Lotus Lake) and has become a major site for pilgrimage and religious practice. Mandāravā accompanied Padmasambhava to MĀRATIKA cave in Nepal where they undertook the practice of longevity. Although Mandāravā remained most of her life in India, she was revered as a dĀKINĪ in Tibet, where she is believed to have appeared numerous times as a female teacher and YOGINĪ.

Māratika. (T. 'Chi ba mthar byed). A cave in eastern Nepal near the town of Rumjitar, called Haileshi in Nepali, believed by Tibetan Buddhists to be the site where PADMASAMBHAVA and his consort MANDĀRAVĀ undertook the practice of longevity for three months. According to traditional accounts, in a vision the couple received initiation and blessings directly from the buddha AMITĀYUS, and Padmasambhava attained the state of a VIDYĀDHARA with the power to control the duration of his life.

Mchog gyur gling pa. (Chokgyur Lingpa) (1829-1870). A Tibetan Buddhist visionary renowned for his activities as a treasure revealer (GTER STON) in Khams, eastern Tibet. His full name is often given as Mchog 'gyur bde chen zhig po gling pa (Chokgyur Dechen Shikpo Lingpa). At the age of thirteen, he had his first vision of PADMASAMBHAVA, who predicted that he would discover treasure texts (GTER MA). His early claims to be a gter ston were rejected and he was expelled from his monastery for having a consort. He eventually won the trust of 'JAM MGON KONG SPRUL and 'JAM DBYANGS MKHYEN BRTSE DBANG PO, and came to be regarded as an authentic revealer of treasure, discovering texts that he himself translated and for which he composed liturgies. He also discovered relics and images. With 'Jam mgon kong sprul and 'Jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse dbang po, he is considered an important figure in the RIS MED or nonsectarian movement in eastern Tibet during the nineteenth century.

Mkha' 'gro snying thig. (Kandro Nyingtik). In Tibetan, "Heart Essence of the dĀKINĪs"; an important set of treasure texts (GTER MA) of the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism. These RDZOGS CHEN teachings are said to have been transmitted by PADMASAMBHAVA to Princess PADMA GSAL and to YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL. The treasure texts were discovered by PADMA LAS 'BREL RTSAL and were later included in the SNYING THIG YA BZHI, the fourfold collection of snying thig teachings by KLONG CHEN PA. He composed a commentary on the Mkha' 'gro snying thig, entitled Mkha' 'gro yang thig. The text and commentary together are known as the Mkha' 'gro snying thig ma bu, the "Mother and Son Heart Essence of the dākinīs."

Nyang ral nyi ma 'od zer. (Nyangral Nyima Öser) (1124-1196). A Tibetan Buddhist master considered the first of the "five kingly treasure revealers" (GTER STON RGYAL PO LNGA) and as a reincarnation of the Tibetan king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN. He is also sometimes counted as the first of the "three supreme emanations" (mchog gi sprul sku gsum); the others are GURU CHOS KYI DBANG PHYUG and RGOD LDEM CAN. Born in the southern Tibetan region of LHO BRAG, he received numerous visions of PADMASAMBHAVA, before commencing his illustrious career as a treasure revealer (GTER STON). His Chos 'byung me tog snying po sbrang rtsi'i bcud ("Nectar of the Honey in the Heart of the Flower: A History of the Dharma") is an important early history of the dharma, with special emphasis on the RNYING MA sect. Among his other well-known works are the Bka' brgyad bde gshegs 'dus pa'i rgyud ("Tantra of the Gathering of the Sugatas of the Eight Transmitted Precepts") and a biography of Padmasambhava entitled BKA' THANG ZANGS GLING MA ("Copper Island Chronicle").

Oddiyāna. (T. O rgyan/U rgyan). Also spelled Odiyāna and Uddiyāna; a region northeast of India known for its early tantric Buddhist activity, often identified by modern scholars with the Swat Valley of Pakistan. It is fabled as the birthplace of PADMASAMBHAVA and is the place of origin of numerous tantric texts and lineages, including the GUHYASAMĀJATANTRA. Several Tibetan masters wrote accounts of their travels through Oddiyāna, including O RGYAN PA RIN CHEN DPAL, whose name literally means "the man of Oddiyāna," as well as Stag tshang ras pa (Taktsangrepa), and Buddhagupta. Because the Tibetan name O rgyan is almost synonymous with Padmasambhava (who is often referred to in Tibetan as O rgyan rin po che, O rgyan chen po, O rgyan pa, O rgyan pad ma, etc.), O rgyan is found in the names of many Tibetan temples and monasteries.

O rgyan gling pa. (Orgyen Lingpa) (1323-1360). A Tibetan treasure revealer (GTER STON) and master of the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism. At the age of twenty-three he is said to have discovered treasure texts (GTER MA) at BSAM YAS monastery. He is credited with discovering numerous treasure cycles, including the "Five Chronicles" (BKA' THANG SDE LNGA). He is also responsible for revealing a well-known biography of PADMASAMBHAVA, the PADMA BKA' THANG YIG, also referred to as the "Crystal Cave Chronicle" (Bka' thang shel brag ma) due to its extraction from Padmasambhava's meditation site at "Crystal Cave" (Shel brag) in the Yar klungs valley of central Tibet.

Other lists include Padmasambhava's female disciples MANDĀRAVĀ and YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL.

Padma bka' thang yig. (Pema gatangyik). In Tibetan, "Chronicle of the Lotus"; a treasure text (GTER MA) containing a well-known biography of PADMASAMBHAVA, discovered by the treasure revealer (GTER STON) O RGYAN GLING PA. Its complete title is: O rgyan gu ru padma 'byung gnas kyi skyes rabs rnam par thar pa rgyas par bkod pa padma bka'i thang yig. Because it was excavated from Shel brag (Sheldrak), or Crystal Cave, it is also known as the Shel brag ma ("Crystal Cave Version").

Padma bkod. (Pema ko). One of Tibet's foremost SBAS YUL, or "hidden lands," located in southern Tibet and partially in Arunachal Pradesh in India. It is the location of the so-called Gtsang po (Tsangpo) gorges, where the Gtsang po River of Tibet makes a 180-degree bend from east to west through steep cliffs and waterfalls before changing its name to the Brahmaputra River in India. The region is primarily associated with PADMASAMBHAVA and his twenty-five main disciples, who are said to have meditated in caves throughout the area. After spending time there in retreat, the Indian master prophesied that the locale would become a powerful center for religious practice. The treasure revealer (GTER STON) Bdud 'dul rdo rje (Dudul Dorje, 1615-1672) discovered a pilgrimage guide (gnas yig) to the site and identified its geographical features with the body of the goddess VAJRAVĀRĀHĪ. Padma bkod was formally "opened" as a pilgrimage site and place of practice by Sgam po O rgyan 'gro 'dul gling pa (Gampo Orgyan Drodul Lingpa, b. 1757), Rig 'dzin Rdo rje rtog med (Rikdzin Dorje Tokme, 1746-1797), and Chos gling Gar dbang 'chi med rdo rje (Choling Garwang Chime Dorje, b. 1763). The remote region is famous for its forests and dense jungle wilderness, and the numerous ethnic tribal groups living there. It has served as a safe haven for those fleeing conflict as well as a site for tantric practice. According to a seventeenth-century account, it is associated especially with VAJRAYOGINĪ, with the river representing her central channel (AVADHuTĪ).

Padma 'byung gnas. See PADMASAMBHAVA

Padma gling pa. (Pema Lingpa) (1450-1521). An esteemed Bhutanese treasure revealer (GTER STON), famous for unearthing treasure in public and responsible for promulgating numerous important religious traditions, including forms of ritual monastic dance ('CHAM). He is counted as the fourth of the so-called five kingly treasure revealers (GTER STON RGYAL PO LNGA) and the last of the five pure incarnations of the royal princess PADMA GSAL. He is also regarded as the mind incarnation of the translator VAIROCANA and an incarnation of KLONG CHEN RAB 'BYAMS. Padma gling pa was born into a humble family of blacksmiths in the Bum thang region of Bhutan and studied the craft from the age of nine. Many examples of Padma gling pa's craftsmanship, in the form of swords and chain mail, still exist. Padma gling pa's life is somewhat unusual in that he did not undertake a traditional course of study with a spiritual master; it is recorded that he once declared, "I have no master and I am not a disciple." Rather, his religious training was achieved almost entirely through visionary revelation. At the age of twenty-six, he had a vision of PADMASAMBHAVA, who bestowed on him a roster of 108 treasure texts that he would unearth in the future. The next year, amid a large public gathering, he made his first treasure discovery at ME 'BAR MTSHO, a wide pool of water in a nearby river. Surrounded by a multitude of people gathered along the riverside, Padma gling pa dove in the waters holding a burning butter lamp in his hand. When he reemerged, he held a great treasure chest under his arm, and, to the crowd's amazement, the lamp in his hand was unextinguished; from that point on the pool was called "Burning Flame Lake." This feat marked the beginning of Padma gling pa's prolific career as treasure revealer and teacher. Between the years 1501 and 1505, he founded his seat at GTAM ZHING monastery in Bum thang. Padma gling pa composed a lengthy autobiography recording many of his activities in great detail. He was a controversial figure in his time (some of the treasure texts he discovered contain condemnations of those who doubted their authenticity), and the historicity of his deeds has been the subject of scholarly critique. However, Padma gling pa remains an important figure in the religious and cultural life of Bhutan, where he is considered both a saint and a national hero. He never received monastic ordination and fathered several sons who continued to transmit Padma gling pa's spiritual lineage, especially at SGANG STENG monastery in central Bhutan. Several incarnation lineages of Padma gling pa were also recognized, such as the gsung sprul ("speech incarnation") based at LHA LUNG Monastery in southern Tibet. Both the sixth DALAI LAMA TSHANGS DBYANGS RGYA MTSHO and the Bhutanese royal family are said to be descendants of Padma gling pa's familial lineage.

Padma gsal. (Pemasel) (fl. c. eighth century). The daughter of the Tibetan King KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN, to whom PADMASAMBHAVA entrusted a lineage of RDZOGS CHEN instructions known as MKHA' 'GRO SNYING THIG. She died at the age of eight. When the Tibetan king brought her body before the Indian master at the Brag dmar ke'u tshang (Drakmar Ke'utsang) cave at CHIMS PHU, he asked why someone with the great merit to be both a princess and a disciple of Padmasambhava had to die while still a child. The Indian master revealed she had been a bee who stung one of the four brothers involved in the completion of the great BODHNĀTH STuPA. Thereafter Padmasambhava miraculously revived her, transmitted the instructions of the Mkha 'gro snying thig, and prophesied that she would reveal the teachings as a treasure (GTER MA) in a future rebirth as PADMA LAS 'BREL RTSAL. Some traditions describe a lineage of five pure incarnations of the royal princess Padma gsal (lha lcam padma gsal gyi dag pa'i skye ba lnga), including several important lamas of the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism:

Padmakāra. (S). See PADMASAMBHAVA.

Pe har rgyal po. (Pehar Gyalpo). A god of the Tangut people (T. Mi nyag; C. Xixia), who was adopted into Tibetan Buddhism as the state oracle. According to Tibetan legend, at the completion of the BSAM YAS monastery at the end of the eighth century, the monastery was in need of a protector god. At that time, Pe har was in residence at a hermitage in Bhata hor, having come there from Bengal. In the early ninth century, the Tibetan king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN sent his nephew Prince Mu rug btsan po to conquer Mi nyag and destroy Bhata hor, which he did with the assistance of the god VAIsRAVAnA. Pe har fled, turning himself into a vulture to escape. A YAKsA in Vaisravana's command shot him with an arrow, and brought him to Bsam yas, where PADMASAMBHAVA installed him as the monastery's protector. Other versions credit Padmasambhava with the actual capture of Pe har, and still others have GE SAR defeat Pe har. The kingdom of Mi nyag was finally destroyed by the Mongol Genghis Khan in the twelfth century, leading to an influx in Mi nyag refugees; this was a time when Pe har's legends were being developed. From that point, Pe har, as a captured deity made to serve the Tibetan state, is a figure much interwoven in the events of the history of Tibetan imperial expansion. Pe har is said to have resided at Bsam yas for some seven centuries before moving to the Gnas chung shrine below 'BRAS SPUNGS monastery outside of LHA SA at the time of the fifth DALAI LAMA. It is at GNAS CHUNG, a monastery with both RNYING MA and DGE LUGS PA affiliations, that he serves as the state oracle. The legends of his move involve an initial move to a Rnying ma monastery on the banks of the Skyid chu upriver from Lha sa. Pe har and the abbot of the monastery did not get along, and, after causing a fair amount of mischief, Pe har was locked in a wooden box that was thrown into the river. Various accounts relate how the box was retrieved by monks of 'Bras spungs, and how Pe har then escaped, alighting in the form of a white dove in a tree below Gnas chung monastery where Pe har subsequently took up residence. (See GNAS CHUNG ORACLE for Pe har's activities as the Tibetan state oracle.) Pe har has been fully integrated into native Tibetan spirit pantheons: he is the head of the worldly DHARMAPĀLA, chief of the three hundred sixty rgyal po spirits, and leader of a group of deities known as the rgyal po sku lnga, the "kings of the five bodies," who in addition to Pe har are Brgya byin, Mon bu pu tra, Shing bya can, and Dgra lha skyes gcig bu, all of whom are also seen as emanations of Pe har. His consort is named Bdud gza' smin dkar. In iconography Pe har is frequently pictured as white, with three faces and six arms riding a white lion, although he is also shown with one face and two hands. Finally, the spelling of his name varies considerably, including Dpe kar, Pe dkar, Spe dkar, Dpe dkar, Be dkar, Dpe ha ra, and Pe ha ra.

phur pa. [alt. phur bu] (S. kīla). A Tibetan ritual dagger. Although the word is used colloquially for any form of stake driven into the ground, such as a tent peg, in the context of Tibetan Buddhism it refers to a ritual implement used in the performance of tantric ceremonies. In its most common design, the phur pa is shaped like a stake with a three-sided blade tapering to a point, while the shaft of its handle is frequently capped with three wrathful or semiwrathful faces and a half-VAJRA. They are fashioned from a variety of materials and may be carved in clay, wood, or bone and are regularly cast from metal alloys. In some instances, phur ba daggers revealed as treasure (GTER MA) are said to be formed from meteorites (rnam lcags). The phur pa is regularly used in rituals for the subjugation of harmful or obstructive forces, such as the "black hat dance" in which participants repeatedly strike an effigy believed to embody those forces. It is also associated with the tantric literature of Rdo rje phur ba (S. VAJRAKĪLAYA) attributed to PADMASAMBHAVA, in which the lower portion of the central deity takes the form of a ritual dagger.

phyi dar. (chi dar). In Tibetan, "later dissemination." Tibetan historians have traditionally divided the dissemination of Buddhist teachings in Tibet into two periods. The "earlier dissemination" (SNGA DAR) began in the seventh century with the conversion of king SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO to Buddhism and continued with the arrival of the Indian masters sĀNTARAKsITA and PADMASAMBHAVA and the founding of the first monastery at BSAM YAS during the reign of king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN. This period ended in 842 with the assassination of king GLANG DAR MA and the fall of the Tibetan monarchy. There ensued a "dark period" of almost two centuries, during which recorded contact between Indian and Tibetan Buddhists declined. The "later dissemination" commenced in earnest in the eleventh century. It is marked by patronage of Buddhism by king YE SHES 'OD in western Tibet and especially the work of the noted translator RIN CHEN BZANG PO, who made three trips to India to study and to retrieve Buddhist texts, as well as the work of RNGOG LEGS PA'I SHES RAB. The noted Bengali monk ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNĀNA arrived in Tibet in 1042. The "later dissemination" was a period of extensive translation of Indian texts; these new (GSAR MA) translations of tantras became central to the so-called "new" sects of Tibetan Buddhism: BKA' GDAMS, SA SKYA, BKA' BRGYUD, and later DGE LUGS, with the RNYING MA ("ancient") sect basing itself on "old" translations from the earlier dissemination. Of particular importance during this later dissemination was the resurgence of monastic ordination, especially that of the MuLASARVĀSTIVĀDA VINAYA. New artistic styles were also introduced from neighboring regions during this period.

Rang 'byung rdo rje. (Rangjung Dorje) (1284-1339). A Tibetan Buddhist master recognized as the third KARMA PA, renowned for his erudition and his knowledge of practice traditions based on both new translation (GSAR MA) and old translation (RNYING MA) tantras. He was born either in the Skyid rong Valley or in the western Tibetan region of Ding ri and, according to traditional sources, as a child, was known for his exceptional perspicacity. The DEB THER SNGON PO ("Blue Annals") records that as a five-year-old boy, he met O RGYAN PA RIN CHEN DPAL, his principal guru, who recognized the young boy as the reincarnation of his teacher KARMA PAKSHI when the child climbed up on a high seat that had been prepared for O rgyan pa Rin chen dpal and declared himself to have been Karma Pakshi in his previous life (this was before the institution of incarnate lamas was established in Tibet). Rang 'byung rdo rje trained first at MTSHUR PHU monastery. He also studied with teachers from GSANG PHU and JO NANG. His collected works include explanations of the major YOGĀCĀRA and MADHYAMAKA treatises and commentaries and rituals based on the CAKRASAMVARA, HEVAJRA, GUHYASAMĀJA, and KĀLACAKRA tantras. According to his traditional biographies, while in retreat, he had a vision of VIMALAMITRA and PADMASAMBHAVA in which he received the complete transmission of the Rnying ma tantras. He received instructions on the RDZOGS CHEN doctrine from Rig 'dzin Gzhon nu rgyal po, and wrote short works on rdzogs chen. He also discovered a treasure text (GTER MA), known as the Karma snying thig. He was a renowned poet and wrote important works on GCOD practice. The third Karma pa was also a skilled physician and astrologer. He developed a new system of astrology known as Mtshur rtsi, or "Mtshur phu astrology," on the basis of which a new Tibetan calendar was formulated and promulgated at Mtshur phu monastery. In 1331, he was summoned to the court of the Yuan emperor Tugh Temür, but stopped enroute when he correctly interpreted portents that the emperor had died. He later traveled to the Mongol capital of Daidu (modern Beijing) during the reign of Togon Temür, for whom he procured an elixir of long life. After returning to Tibet, he was summoned once again to the Mongol capital, where he passed away while meditating in a three-dimensional CakrasaMvara MAndALA. Rang 'byung rdo rje's writings include the influential tantric work Zab mo nang don ("Profound Inner Meaning"). It is said that his image appeared in the full moon on the evening of his death, and illustrations of the third Karma pa often portray him seated amid a lunar disk.

Ratna gling pa. (Ratna Lingpa) (1403-1478). An important treasure revealer (GTER STON) of the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism, credited with discovering twenty-five collections of treasure texts (GTER MA). As a youth, he was identified as the reincarnation of Lang gro Dkon mchog 'byung gnas, one of the twenty-five disciples of PADMASAMBHAVA. According to traditional sources, he is said to have uncovered in a single lifetime the treasures ordinarily discovered in three lifetimes, and therefore is known under three names: Zhig po gling pa (Shikpo Lingpa), 'Gro 'dul gling pa (Drodul Lingpa), and Ratna gling pa. The treasures included RDZOGS CHEN teachings, peaceful and wrathful guru SĀDHANAs, AVALOKITEsVARA practices, and MAHĀMUDRĀ texts. He also searched extensively for ancient tantras and oral traditions and compiled an extensive RNYING MA'I RGYUD 'BUM, a compendium of the tantras and tantric exegetical literature of the Rnying ma sect; that compendium is no longer extant, but it served as the basis of the rnying ma'i rgyud 'bum of 'JIGS MED GLING PA.

Rdo rje gro lod. (Dorje Drolo). One of the eight forms of PADMASAMBHAVA, that in which he subdued harmful spirits at Spa ro stag tshang (Paro Taktsang) and established Buddhism in Bhutan. He is wrathful with one face with three eyes, holds a VAJRA and a dagger (PHUR PA), and rides a tiger.

Rdo rje legs pa. (Dorje Lekpa). A Tibetan deity who was subdued by PADMASAMBHAVA at 'O yug bge'u tshang and became a DHARMAPĀLA. He is a member of the gter gyi srung ma sde bzhi, "the four guardians of treasure," who guard the treasures of the four quarters of the world; he occupies the southern quarter and guards gold. He is depicted riding a goat and wearing a broad-brimmed hat. His origin legends include being born from the union of two demons (BDUD) as well as being the spirit of a learned but sinful Indian monk from NĀLANDĀ. He is said to take possession of numerous mediums.

rdzogs chen. (dzokchen). A Tibetan philosophical and meditative tradition, usually rendered in English as "great perfection" or "great completion." Developed and maintained chiefly within the RNYING MA sect, rdzogs chen has also been embraced to varying degrees by other Tibetan Buddhist sects. The non-Buddhist Tibetan BON religion also upholds a rdzogs chen tradition. According to legend, the primordial buddha SAMANTABHADRA (T. Kun tu bzang po) taught rdzogs chen to the buddha VAJRASATTVA, who transmitted it to the first human lineage holder, DGA' RAB RDO RJE. From him, rdzogs chen was passed to MANJUsRĪMITRA and thence to sRĪSIMHA, and the Tibetan translator Ba gor VAIROCANA, who had been sent to India by the eighth-century Tibetan King KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN. In addition to Vairocana, the semimythical figures of VIMALAMITRA and PADMASAMBHAVA are considered to be foundational teachers of rdzogs chen in Tibet. Historically, rdzogs chen appears to have been a Tibetan innovation, drawing on multiple influences, including both non-Buddhist native Tibetan beliefs and Chinese and Indian Buddhist teachings. The term was likely taken from the GUHYAGARBHATANTRA. In the creation and completion stages of tantric practice, one first generates a visualization of a deity and its MAndALA and next dissolves these into oneself, merging oneself with the deity. In the Guhyagarbha and certain other tantras, this is followed with a stage known as rdzogs chen, in which one rests in the unelaborated natural state of one's own innately luminous and pure mind. In the Rnying ma sect's nine-vehicle (T. THEG PA DGU) doxography of the Buddhist teachings, these three stages constitute the final three vehicles: the MAHĀYOGA, ANUYOGA, and ATIYOGA, or rdzogs chen. The rdzogs chen literature is traditionally divided into three categories, which roughly trace the historical development of the doctrine and practices: the mind class (SEMS SDE), space class (KLONG SDE), and instruction class (MAN NGAG SDE). These are collected in a group of texts called the RNYING MA'I RGYUD 'BUM ("treasury of Rnying ma tantras"). The mind class is comprised largely of texts attributed to Vairocana, including the so-called eighteen tantras and the KUN BYED RGYAL PO. They set forth a doctrine of primordial purity (ka dag) of mind (sems nyid), which is the basis of all things (kun gzhi). In the natural state, the mind, often referred to as BODHICITTA, is spontaneously aware of itself (rang rig), but through mental discursiveness (rtog pa) it creates delusion ('khrul ba) and thus gives rise to SAMSĀRA. Early rdzogs chen ostensibly rejected all forms of practice, asserting that striving for liberation would simply create more delusion. One is admonished to simply recognize the nature of one's own mind, which is naturally empty (stong pa), luminous ('od gsal ba), and pure. As tantra continued to grow in popularity in Tibet, and new techniques and doctrines were imported from India, a competing strand within rdzogs chen increasingly emphasized meditative practice. The texts of the space class (klong sde) reflect some of this, but it is in the instruction class (man ngag sde), dating from the eleventh to fourteenth centuries, that rdzogs chen fully assimilated tantra. The main texts of this class are the so-called seventeen tantras and the two "seminal heart" collections, the BI MA SNYING THIG ("Seminal Heart of Vimalamitra") and the MKHA' 'GRO SNYING THIG ("Seminal Heart of the dĀKINĪ"). The seventeen tantras and the "Seminal Heart of Vimalamitra" are said to have been taught by Vimalamitra and concealed as "treasure" (GTER MA), to be discovered at a later time. The "Seminal Heart of the dākinī" is said to have been taught by Padmasambhava and concealed as treasure by his consort, YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL. In the fourteenth century, the great scholar KLONG CHEN RAB 'BYAMS PA DRI MED 'OD ZER systematized the multitude of received rdzogs chen literature in his famous MDZOD BDUN ("seven treasuries") and the NGAL GSO SKOR GSUM ("Trilogy on Rest"), largely creating the rdzogs chen teachings as they are known today. With the man ngag sde, the rdzogs chen proponents made full use of the Tibetan innovation of treasure, a means by which later tantric developments were assimilated to the tradition without sacrificing its claim to eighth-century origins. The semilegendary figure of Padmasambhava was increasingly relied upon for this purpose, gradually eclipsing Vairocana and Vimalamitra as the main rdzogs chen founder. In subsequent centuries there have been extensive additions to the rdzogs chen literature, largely by means of the treasure genre, including the KLONG CHEN SNYING THIG of 'JIGS MED GLING PA and the Bar chad kun gsal of MCHOG GYUR GLING PA to name only two. Outside of the Rnying ma sect, the authenticity of these texts is frequently disputed, although there continue to be many adherents to rdzogs chen from other Tibetan Buddhist lineages. Rdzogs chen practitioners are commonly initiated into the teachings with "pointing-out instructions" (sems khrid/ngos sprod) in which a lama introduces the student to the nature of his or her mind. Two main practices known as KHREGS CHOD (breakthrough), in which one cultivates the experience of innate awareness (RIG PA), and THOD RGAL (leap over), elaborate visualizations of external light imagery, preserve the tension between the early admonition against practice and the appropriation of complex tantric techniques and doctrines. Extensive practices engaging the subtle body of psychic channels, winds, and drops (rtsa rlung thig le) further reflect the later tantric developments in rdzogs chen. ¶ RDZOGS CHEN is also used as the short name for one of the largest and most active Tibetan monasteries, belonging to the Rnying ma sect of Tibetan Buddhism, located in the eastern Tibetan region of Khams; the monastery's full name is Rus dam bsam gtan o rgyan chos gling (Rudam Samten Orgyan Choling). It is a major center for both academic study and meditation retreat according to Rnying ma doctrine. At its peak, the monastery housed over one thousand monks and sustained more than two hundred branches throughout central and eastern Tibet. The institution was founded in 1684-1685 by the first RDZOGS CHEN INCARNATION Padma rig 'dzin (Pema Rikdzin) with the support of the fifth DALAI LAMA NGAG DBANG BLO BZANG RGYA MTSHO. Important meditation hermitages in the area include those of MDO MKHYEN RTSE YE SHE RDO RJE and MI PHAM 'JAM DBYANGS RNAM RGYAL RGYA MTSHO. DPAL SPRUL RIN PO CHE passed many years in retreat there, during which time he composed his great exposition of the preliminary practices of Tibetan Buddhism entitled the KUN BZANG BLA MA'I ZHAL LUNG ("Words of My Perfect Teacher").

Red Caps, Red Hats, Red Hoods Often applied, especially by Europeans to the adherents of the Unreformed Buddhist sects, called in Tibet the Ning-ma-pas, who wear red robes and hoods. This sect was founded in Tibet in the latter part of the 8th century during the reign of the Tibetan king Ti-song De-tsen, who was so impressed with the precepts of Buddhism that he summoned Padmasambhava from Udyayana in Northwest India to spread the religion of the Buddha in Tibet. But by this time the Buddhism of Northwest India and Nepal had become infected with tantric practices, and these practices predominated in Tibet until the great reformer Tsong-kha-pa (born 1358) founded the order of the Gelukpas or Yellow Caps.

Rgya gar chos 'byung. (Gyakar Chojung). In Tibetan, "History of the Dharma in India," a detailed history of the development of Buddhism on the subcontinent written in 1608 by the Tibetan savant Kun dga' snying po (1575-1634), better known as TĀRANĀTHA. The work's complete title is Dam pa'i chos rin po che 'phags pa'i yul du ji ltar dar ba'i tshul gsal bar ston pa dgos 'dod kun 'byung. It is often consulted by Tibetan and Western scholars of Buddhism because of its judicious use of earlier traditional sources and its sense of the larger history of the subcontinent, perhaps fostered by the author's access to Indian informants, unusual for such a late period in Indian Buddhist history. The work restricts itself largely to the history of Buddhism in India and follows a chronology that can be loosely characterized as historical: it is based on five time periods between the time of AJĀTAsATRU and AsOKA, five time periods from there to the time of the third Buddhist council (see COUNCIL, THIRD), and remaining time periods covering the great MAHĀYĀNA masters, through the history of the Pāla dynasty. It ends with a history of Buddhism in different regions, a history of TANTRA, and of image making. Tāranātha's Rgya gar chos 'byung is supplemented by his histories of PADMASAMBHAVA, the KĀLACAKRATANTRA, the TĀRĀ and YAMĀNTAKA lineages, and by his BKA' 'BABS BDUN LDAN GYI RNAM THAR, "Biographies of the Seven Instruction Lineages."

Ri bo dpal 'bar. (Riwo Palbar). A mountain in Skyid grong (Kyirong) county of southwestern Tibet on the Nepalese border believed to have been a retreat location of both the Indian sage PADMASAMBHAVA and the Tibetan YOGIN MI LA RAS PA. According to the latter's biography, the village of Ragma at the mountain's base was home to many of the yogin's patrons and the site of his meditation cave called Byang chub rdzong (Jangchup Dzong), "The Fortress of Enlightenment." Near the summit lies a small chapel, now in partial ruins, housing the relics of the great RNYING MA scholar and historian KAḤ THOG RIG 'DZIN TSHE DBANG NOR BU.

rje 'bangs nyer lnga. (jebang nyernga). In Tibetan, lit. "the twenty-five, king and subjects," referring to the twenty-five chief disciples of the eighth-century Indian adept PADMASAMBHAVA during his activity in Tibet. The king refers to the Tibetan ruler KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN, who was responsible for inviting Padmasambhava to Tibet to aid in the founding of BSAM YAS monastery. According to some lists, the remaining twenty-four disciples are:

Rma chen spom ra. (Machen Pomra). A Tibetan mountain god whose seat is A MYES RMA CHEN in A mdo (today the Qinghai region of China) where he is the chief SA BDAG, or "earth lord," of the region. As with other pre-Buddhist Tibetan mountain deities, Rma chen spom ra was converted to Buddhism, in his case by PADMASAMBHAVA. The mountain was inserted into a Tibetan list of the twenty-four PĪtHA from the CAKRASAMVARATANTRA, and is further understood to be a three-dimensional CakrasaMvara MAndALA. The cult of Rma chen spom ra was introduced to central Tibet by TSONG KHA PA, a native of the region; he made Rma chen spom ra the chief DHARMAPĀLA of DGA' LDAN monastery. That monastery used to remove his image from the monastery each night to a small shrine outside the walls: since the god is a layman and has a female consort, by the rules of the monastery he cannot sleep inside the walls. Later the practice was replaced with a formal daily request to the god to leave the monastery for the night. He is golden, wears a golden cuirass and a helmet, carries a lance with a flag, a sack made from the skin of a mongoose and rides a white horse. His consort is the sman mo (menmo) Gung sman ma (Gungmenma). The DGE LUGS sect considers the god Phying dkar ba (Chingkarwa) to be an emanation of Rma chen spom ra.

Rnying ma. (Nyingma). In Tibetan, "Ancient," the name of one of the four major sects of Tibetan Buddhism. The name derives from the sect's origins during the "early dissemination" (SNGA DAR) of Buddhism in Tibet and its reliance on translations of TANTRAs made during that period; this is in distinction to the new (GSAR MA) sects of BKA' BRGYUD, SA SKYA, and DGE LUGS, all of which arose during the later dissemination (PHYI DAR) and make use of newer translations. The Rnying ma is thus "ancient" in relation to the new sects and only began to be designated as such after their appearance. The sect traces its origins back to the teachings of the mysterious figure of PADMASAMBHAVA, who visited Tibet during the eighth century and is said to have hidden many texts, called "treasures" (GTER MA), to be discovered in the future. In addition to the Buddhist canon accepted by all sects of Tibetan Buddhism, the Rnying ma adds another collection of tantras (the RNYING MA'I RGYUD 'BUM) as well as the discovered "treasure" (GTER MA) texts to their canonical corpus, works that in many cases the other sects regard as APOCRYPHA, i.e., not of Indian origin. Rnying ma identifies nine vehicles among the corpus of Buddhist teachings, the highest of which is known as ATIYOGA or, more commonly, the "great perfection" (RDZOGS CHEN). These teachings describe the mind as the primordial basis, characterized by qualities such as presence, spontaneity, luminosity, original purity, unobstructed freedom, expanse, clarity, self-liberation, openness, effortlessness, and intrinsic awareness. It is not accessible through conceptual elaboration or logical analysis. Rather, the primordial basis is an eternally pure state free from the dualism of subject and object, infinite and perfect from the beginning, and ever complete. The technique for the discovery of the ubiquitous original purity and self-liberation is to engage in a variety of practices designed to eliminate karmic obstructions, at which point the mind eliminates all thoughts and experiences itself, thereby recognizing its true nature. The rdzogs chen doctrine does not seem to derive directly from any of the Indian philosophical schools; its precise connections to the Indian Buddhist tradition have yet to be established. Some scholars have claimed an historical link and doctrinal affinity between rdzogs chen and the CHAN tradition of Chinese Buddhism, but the precise relationship between the two remains to be fully investigated. It is noteworthy that certain of the earliest extant rdzogs chen texts specifically contrast their own tradition with that of Chan. In comparison to the Dge lugs, Bka' brgyud, and Sa skya, the Rnying ma (with some important exceptions, notably at the time of the fifth DALAI LAMA) remained largely uninvolved in state politics, both within Tibet and in foreign relations. Although they developed great monasteries, such as SMIN GROL GLING, RDZOGS CHEN, and RDO RJE BRAG, the Rnying ma also maintained a strong local presence as lay tantric practitioners (sngags pa) who performed a range of ritual functions for the community. The Rnying ma produced many famous scholars and visionaries, such as KLONG CHEN RAB 'BYAMS, 'JIGS MED GLING PA, and MI PHAM. In the nineteenth century, Rnying ma scholars played a key role in the so-called nonsectarian movement (RIS MED) in eastern Tibet, which produced many important new texts.

sāntaraksita. (T. Zhi ba 'tsho) (725-788). Eighth-century Indian Mahāyāna master who played an important role in the introduction of Buddhism into Tibet. According to traditional accounts, he was born into a royal family in Zahor in Bengal and was ordained at NĀLANDĀ monastery, where he became a renowned scholar. He is best known for two works. The first is the TATTVASAMGRAHA, or "Compendium of Principles," a critical survey and analysis of the various non-Buddhist and Buddhist schools of Indian philosophy, set forth in 3,646 verses in twenty-six chapters. This work, which is preserved in Sanskrit, along with its commentary by his disciple KAMALAsĪLA, remains an important source on the philosophical systems of India during this period. His other famous work is the MADHYAMAKĀLAMKĀRA, or "Ornament of the Middle Way," which sets forth his own philosophical position, identified by later Tibetan doxographers as YOGĀCĀRA-*SVĀTANTRIKA-MADHYAMAKA, so called because it asserts, as in YOGĀCĀRA, that external objects do not exist, i.e., that sense objects are of the nature of consciousness; however, it also asserts, unlike Yogācāra and like MADHYAMAKA, that consciousness lacks ultimate existence. It further asserts that conventional truths (SAMVṚTISATYA) possess their own character (SVALAKsAnA) and in this regard differs from the other branch of Madhyamaka, the *PRĀSAnGIKA. The Yogacāra-Madhyamaka synthesis, of which sāntaraksita is the major proponent, was the most important philosophical development of late Indian Buddhism, and the MadhyamakālaMkāra is its locus classicus. This work, together with the MADHYAMAKĀLOKA of sāntaraksita's disciple Kamalasīla and the SATYADVAYAVIBHAnGA of JNĀNAGARBHA, are known in Tibet as the "three works of the eastern *Svātantrikas" (rang rgyud shar gsum) because the three authors were from Bengal. sāntaraksita's renown as a scholar was such that he was invited to Tibet by King KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN. When a series of natural disasters indicated that the local deities were not positively disposed to the introduction of Buddhism, he left Tibet for Nepal and advised the king to invite the Indian tantric master PADMASAMBHAVA, who subdued the local deities. With this accomplished, sāntaraksita returned, the first Buddhist monastery of BSAM YAS was founded, and sāntaraksita invited twelve MuLASARVĀSTIVĀDA monks to Tibet to ordain the first seven Tibetan monks. sāntaraksita lived and taught at Bsam yas from its founding (c. 775) until his death (c. 788) in an equestrian accident. Tibetans refer to him as the "bodhisattva abbot." The founding of Bsam yas and the ordination of the first monks were pivotal moments in Tibetan Buddhist history, and the relationship of sāntaraksita, Padmasambhava, and Khri srong lde btsan figures in many Tibetan legends, most famously as brothers in a previous life. Prior to his death, sāntaraksita predicted that a doctrinal dispute would arise in Tibet, in which case his disciple Kamalasīla should be invited from India. Such a conflict arose between the Indian and Chinese factions, and Kamalasīla came to Tibet to debate with the Chan monk Moheyan in what is referred to as the BSAM YAS DEBATE, or the "Council of Lhasa."

Sba bzhed. (Bashe). In Tibetan, the "Annals of Sba," a ninth-century history of the early Tibetan dynastic period and the activities of King KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN, traditionally attributed to the author Sba Gsal snang (Ba Salnang, c. late-eighth century)-a leading member of the Sba (Ba) clan and abbot of BSAM YAS monastery during the years leading up to the BSAM YAS DEBATE. The text thus discusses the founding of Bsam yas, the debate, and other events surrounding the establishment of Buddhism during the period. It contains the earliest reference to PADMASAMBHAVA, describing him as a water diviner. Modern scholarship tends to date the complete version of the work to the twelfth or even fourteenth century, although there are extant fragments that are likely earlier. The complete title is Sba bzhed ces bya ba las sba gsal snang gi bzhed pa bzhugs.

sbas yul. (beyul). In Tibetan, "hidden land," often translated as "hidden valley," a paradisaical land whose existence is not often known until the land is "opened" by a lama (BLA MA). Such lands are typically located in southern Tibet, northern Nepal, and Sikkim and are associated especially with the RNYING MA sect as sites where PADMASAMBHAVA hid treasure texts (GTER MA). After converting the local gods to Buddhism, Padmasambhava "sealed" the lands so that they could be discovered at a time in the future and serve as a refuge from the vicissitudes of the world; the weather is clement, the harvests are good, and there is no disease or conflict. They are special places for the practice of TANTRA during the degenerate age of the dharma, where an adept can make rapid progress on the path; in this regard, they are akin to Buddhist PURE LANDs, even though they are located on earth. Hidden lands are considered safe havens, inaccessible to the enemies of the dharma and of Tibet, where one may live a long and peaceful life. According to some traditions, there are 108 hidden lands. In addition to concealing treasure texts in the hidden lands, Padmasambhava also left guidebooks for their discovery. One of the most famous of the hidden lands is PADMA BKOD.

Sgrag yang rdzong. (Drakyang Dzong). One of two labyrinthine cave complexes located near RDO RJE BRAG monastery, south of LHA SA in central Tibet; venerated as a site where the Indian adept PADMASAMBHAVA and his consort YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL remained in meditation retreat.

snga dar. (ngadar). In Tibetan, "earlier dissemination" or "first dissemination," the first of two historical periods when Buddhism was disseminated to Tibet. The beginning of the period is variously indicated, sometimes being traced as far back as the first (and likely legendary) Tibetan king, Gnya' khri btsan po, sometimes to the king Lha tho tho ri. However, it is agreed that the dissemination became well established during the reign of king SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO in the seventh century, with his marriage to a Chinese princess and a Nepalese princess, each a Buddhist and each of whom brought a statue of the Buddha with her to Tibet. It continued through the reign of King KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN, during which sĀNTARAKsITA and PADMASAMBHAVA came to Tibet, the first Tibetan monastery at BSAM YAS was founded, and the BSAM YAS DEBATE took place. Traditionally the end of the first dissemination is associated with the murder of the great patron of Buddhism, King RAL PA CAN, by his brother GLANG DAR MA in 838, who then seized the throne and instituted a suppression of Buddhism. The beginning of the second or later dissemination (PHYI DAR) is traditionally dated from the first journey of the translator RIN CHEN BZANG PO to India. Subsequent research has shown that the dissemination of Buddhism in general did not end with the death of Ral pa can, but that there was a decline in particular forms of monasticism that disadvantaged institutional forms of religious expression. See JO KHANG.

snying thig. (nyingtik). In Tibetan, "heart drop" or "heart essence" (an abbreviation of snying gi thig le), a term used to describe an important genre of texts of the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism. The master sRĪSIMHA is said to have divided the "instruction class" (MAN NGAG SDE) of the great completion (RDZOGS CHEN) teachings into four cycles: the outer, inner, secret, and the most secret unexcelled cycle (yang gsang bla na med pa). In Tibet, VIMALAMITRA organized the teachings of this fourth cycle into an explanatory lineage with scriptures and an aural lineage without scriptures and then concealed these teachings, which were later revealed as the BI MA'I SNYING THIG ("Heart Essence of Vimalamitra"). During his stay in Tibet, PADMASAMBHAVA concealed teachings on the most secret unexcelled cycle, called "heart essence of the dĀKINĪ" (MKHA' 'GRO SNYING THIG). In the fourteenth century, these and other teachings were compiled and elaborated upon by KLONG CHEN RAB 'BYAMS into what are known as the "four heart essences" (SNYING THIG YA BZHI): (1) the "heart essence of VIMALAMITRA" (Bi ma'i snying thig), (2) the "ultimate essence of the lama" (bla ma yang thig), (3) the "heart essence of the dākinī" (mkha' 'gro snying thig), and (4) two sections composed by Klong chen pa, the "ultimate essence of the dākinī" (mkha' 'gro yang thig) and the "ultimate essence of the profound" (zab mo yang thig). Although tracing its roots back to Padmasambhava and Vimalamitra in the eighth century, the snying thig texts and their practices likely derive from Tibetan reformulations of great completion teachings beginning in the eleventh century, when new translations of Indian tantras were being made in Tibet. A wide range of new meditative systems were added into the rdzogs chen corpus, which would prove to be essential to Tibetan Buddhist practice, especially in the RNYING MA and BKA' BRGYUD sects in subsequent centuries.

srīsiMha. (T. Shrī sing ha) (fl. eighth century). Sanskrit proper name of an important figure in the early dissemination (SNGA DAR) of Buddhism to Tibet, especially in the propagation of the RDZOGS CHEN teachings. According to some Tibetan accounts, he was born in China, although other sources identify his birthplace as Khotan or Kinnaur. At the age of eighteen, he is said to have traveled to Suvarnadvīpa, often identified as the island of Sumatra. There he has a vision of AVALOKITEsVARA, who advised him to go to India. Before doing so, he studied at "five-peak mountain," which some sources assume is WUTAISHAN in China. He next went to the Sosadvīpa charnel ground (sMAsĀNA), where he studied with MANJUsRĪMITRA for twenty-five years. After his teacher's death, he traveled to BODHGAYĀ, where he unearthed tantric texts hidden there by MaNjusrīmitra. srīsiMha is especially remembered in Tibet as the teacher of VAIROCANA, one of the most important figures in the earlier dissemination of Buddhism to Tibet. Vairocana was one of the first seven Tibetans (SAD MI BDUN) ordained as Buddhist monks by sĀNTARAKsITA at the monastery of BSAM YAS, and he soon became an illustrious translator. He is said to have been a disciple of PADMASAMBHAVA and a participant on the Indian side in the BSAM YAS DEBATE. After Padmasambhava's departure from Tibet, the king required a fuller exposition of TANTRA and sent Vairocana to India to obtain further tantric instructions. After many trials, he arrived in India, where he was instructed by srīsiMha. Fearing that other Indian masters would object to his imparting the precious esoteric teachings to a foreigner, srīsiMha insisted that he study sutras and less esoteric tantric texts with other teachers during the day, conveying the most secret teachings to him under the cover of darkness; these were the rdzogs chen teachings that Vairocana took back to Tibet and taught to king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN. Among other esoteric teachings that Vairocana gave to srīsiMha is srīsiMha's tantric commentary on the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀHṚDAYASuTRA.

Stag tshang. (Taktsang). In Tibetan, "Tiger's Lair," a complex of meditation caves and temples located in Paro, Bhutan, considered one of the most important sacred Buddhist sites in the Himalayan region associated with the Indian adept PADMASAMBHAVA; also known as Spa gro Stag tshang (Paro Taktsang). Situated on a sheer cliff more than two thousand feet above the valley floor, the complex is the best known among numerous Stag tshang, or "Tiger's Lair," sites located across eastern Tibet. According to traditional accounts, Padmasambhava miraculously flew to the spot in wrathful form as RDO RJE DROD LO, seated on the back of a tigress believed to have been his consort YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL, and remained there for three months. In 853, one of Padmasambhava's twenty-five main disciples, Glang chen Dpal gyi seng ge (Langchen Palkyi Sengye), went to meditate in the main cave at Stag tshang, after which it became known as Stag tshang dpal phug, or "Pal's cave at Taktsang." Later, many great masters undertook meditation retreats there; these include PHA DAM PA SANGS RGYAS, MA GCIG LAB SGRON, THANG STONG RGYAL PO, and, according to one tradition, the great YOGIN MI LA RAS PA. The first buildings were likely erected in the fourteenth century. However, it was under the direction of the Bhutanese reformer ZHABS DRUNG NGAG DBANG RNAM RGYAL and later his regent Bstan 'dzin rab rgyas, that the modern structure was completed in 1692. In 1998, the complex was destroyed by fire.

Swāt. A valley in present-day northern Pakistan, commonly identified with the ancient region known as OddIYĀNA, Uddiyāna, or Udyāna; an important center in the history of Indian Buddhism. Buddhism moved into this area shortly after the time of King AsOKA and flourished there in the periods that followed. Swāt contains many important archeological sites including STuPAs and such relics as the footprints of the Buddha (BUDDHAPĀDA). Many of the first buddha images also come from this region. Swāt's geographical location between Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent made it an important trading and religious center. According to Chinese pilgrims, beginning with FAXIAN, who visited this region in the fifth century CE, this area was at one time home to five hundred Buddhist monasteries. This area is also fabled as the birthplace of PADMASAMBHAVA and the origin of numerous tantric texts and lineages, including the GUHYASAMĀJATANTRA. Several Tibetan masters also wrote accounts of their travels through Oddiyāna, including O RGYAN PA RIN CHEN DPAL, whose name literally means "the man of Oddiyāna," Stag tshang ras pa (Taktsangrepa), and BUDDHAGUPTA. Muslim armies began to moving into the region in the eighth century, which eventually led to the demise of Buddhism.

Tārā. (T. Sgrol ma; C. Duoluo; J. Tara; K. Tara 多羅). In Sanskrit, lit. "Savioress"; a female bodhisattva who has the miraculous power to be able to deliver her devotees from all forms of physical danger. Tārā is said to have arisen from either a ray of blue light from the eye of the buddha AMITĀBHA, or from a tear from the eye of the BODHISATTVA AVALOKITEsVARA as he surveyed the suffering universe. The tear fell into a valley and formed a lake, out of which grew the lotus from which Tārā appeared. She is thus said to be the physical manifestation of the compassion of Avalokitesvara, who is himself the quintessence of the compassion of the buddhas. Because buddhas are produced from wisdom and compassion, Tārā, like the goddess PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ ("Perfection of Wisdom"), is hailed as "the mother of all buddhas," despite the fact that she is most commonly represented as a beautiful sixteen-year-old maiden. She is often depicted together with BHṚKUTĪ (one of her forms) as one of two female bodhisattvas flanking Avalokitesvara. Tārā is the subject of much devotion in her own right, serving as the subject of many stories, prayers, and tantric SĀDHANAs. She can appear in peaceful or wrathful forms, depending on the circumstances, her powers extending beyond the subjugation of these worldly frights, into the heavens and into the hells. She has two major peaceful forms, however. The first is SITATĀRĀ, or White Tārā. Her right hand is in VARADAMUDRĀ, her left is at her chest in VITARKAMUDRĀ and holds a lotus and she sits in DHYĀNĀSANA. The other is sYĀMATĀRĀ, or Green Tārā. Her right hand is in varadamudrā, her left is at her chest in vitarkamudrā and holds an utpala, and she sits in LALITĀSANA. Her wrathful forms include KURUKULLĀ, a dancing naked YOGINĪ, red in color, who brandishes a bow and arrow in her four arms. In tantric MAndALAs, she appears as the consort of AMOGHASIDDHI, the buddha of the northern quarter; together they are lord and lady of the KARMAKULA. But she is herself also the sole deity in many tantric SĀDHANAs, in which the meditator, whether male or female, visualizes himself or herself in Tārā's feminine form. Tārā is best-known for her salvific powers, appearing the instant her devotee recites her MANTRA, oM tāre tuttāre ture svāhā. She is especially renowned as Astabhayatrānatārā, "Tārā Who Protects from the Eight Fears," because of her ability to deliver those who call upon her when facing the eight great fears (mahābhaya) of lions, elephants, fire, snakes, thieves, water, imprisonment, and demons. Many tales are told recounting her miraculous interventions. Apart from the recitation of her mantra, a particular prayer is the most common medium of invoking Tārā in Tibet. It is a prayer to twenty-one Tārās, derived from an Indian TANTRA devoted to Tārā, the Sarvatathāgatamātṛtārāvisvakarmabhavatantra ("Source of All Rites to Tārā, the Mother of All the Tathāgatas"). According to some commentarial traditions on the prayer, each of the verses refers to a different form of Tārā, totaling twenty-one. According to others, the forms of Tārā are iconographically almost indistinguishable. Tārā entered the Buddhist pantheon relatively late, around the sixth century, in northern India and Nepal, and her worship in Java is attested in inscriptions dating to the end of the eighth century. Like Avalokitesvara, she has played a crucial role in Tibet's history, in both divine and human forms. One version of the creation myth that has the Tibetan race originating from a dalliance between a monkey and an ogress says the monkey was a form of Avalokitesvara and the ogress a form of Tārā. Worship of Tārā in Tibet began in earnest with the second propagation and the arrival of ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNĀNA in the eleventh century; she appears repeatedly in accounts of his life and in his teachings. He had visions of the goddess at crucial points in his life, and she advised him to make his fateful journey to Tibet, despite the fact that his life span would be shortened as a result. His sādhanas for the propitiation of Sitatārā and syāmatārā played a key role in promoting the worship of Tārā in Tibet. He further was responsible for the translation of several important Indic texts relating to the goddess, including three by Vāgīsvarakīrti that make up the 'chi blu, or "cheating death" cycle, the foundation of all lineages of the worship of Sitatārā in Tibet. The famous Tārā chapel at Atisa's temple at SNYE THANG contains nearly identical statues of the twenty-one Tārās. The translator Darmadra brought to Tibet the important ANUYOGA tantra devoted to the worship of Tārā, entitled Bcom ldan 'das ma sgrol ma yang dag par rdzogs pa'i sangs rgyas bstod pa gsungs pa. Tārā is said to have taken human form earlier in Tibetan history as the Chinese princess WENCHENG and Nepalese princess Bhṛkutī, who married King SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO, bringing with them buddha images that would become the most revered in Tibet. Which Tārā they were remains unsettled; however, some sources identify Wencheng with syāmatārā and Bhṛkutī with the goddess of the same name, herself said to be a form of Tārā. Others argue that the Nepalese princess was Sitatārā, and Wencheng was syāmatārā. These identifications, however, like that of Srong btsan sgam po with Avalokitesvara, date only to the fourteenth century, when the cult of Tārā in Tibet was flourishing. In the next generation, Tārā appeared as the wife of King KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN and the consort of PADMASAMBHAVA, YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL, who in addition to becoming a great tantric master herself, served as scribe when Padmasambhava dictated the treasure texts (GTER MA). Later, Tārā is said to have appeared as the great practitioner of the GCOD tradition, MA GCIG LAP SGRON (1055-1149). Indeed, when Tārā first vowed eons ago to achieve buddhahood in order to free all beings from SAMSĀRA, she swore she would always appear in female form.

Tsa ri. Also spelled Tsā ri; an important pilgrimage region in the sacred geography of Tibet, its central feature is the Pure Crystal Mountain (Dag pa shel ri). The BKA' BRGYUD sect, in particular, considers the site to be one of three quintessential pilgrimage destinations connected with the CAKRASAMVARATANTRA (together with KAILĀSA and LA PHYI). According to the CakrasaMvaratantra tradition, two of the twenty-four sacred lands (PĪtHA), viz., Cārita and Devīkota, are believed to be located in the region. Hunting and even cultivation are banned in some parts of the valley. Situated on the remote border between Tibet and Assam, Tsa ri is also one of the Himalayan region's most difficult and dangerous locations to access. The circumambulation trails skirting the mountain traverse high passes, deep ravines, and dense jungle. They also pass through territory controlled by tribal groups who are often unfriendly to outside visitors. For this reason, the state-sponsored pilgrimage season was traditionally preceded by government negotiations (and payments) in order to guarantee safe passage for pilgrims. The area is said to have been sanctified by visits from PADMASAMBHAVA and VIMALAMITRA, who are thought to have deposited there numerous treasure texts (GTER MA). Tsa ri later became primarily associated with the 'BRUG PA BKA' BRGYUD through the activity of GTSANG PA RGYA RAS YE SHES RDO RJE, who is often said to have "opened" the site as a powerful place for spiritual practice.

Vairocana. (T. Rnam par snang mdzad; C. Dari rulai/Piluzhena; J. Dainichi nyorai/Birushana; K. Taeil yorae/Pirojana 大日如來/盧遮那). In Sanskrit, "Resplendent"; one of the five buddhas (PANCATATHĀGATA) and the chief buddha of the TATHĀGATAKULA; he is also one of the major buddhas of East Asian Buddhism, where he is often conflated with MAHĀVAIROCANA. The origin of Vairocana can be traced back to the Hindu tradition, where he appears as a relatively minor deity associated with the Sun. ¶ Although the name Vairocana appears in some mainstream Buddhist and PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ materials, it is not until the emergence of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA that Vairocana comes to be widely regarded as the buddha who is the personification of the universal truth of the religion. In its "Chapter on Vairocana," Vairocana is considered to be the main buddha of the sutra, who is omnipresent as the DHARMAKĀYA. Vairocana is, however, also described in the sutra as a buddha who mastered the BODHISATTVA path by making vows to attain buddhahood, performing all types of virtuous deeds, hearing the dharma, cultivating meditative practices, and realizing the truth of the dependent origination of the dharma realm (C. FAJIE YUANQI) in which each and every thing in existence is in multivalent interaction with all other things in a state of complete and perfect interfusion. In this case, Vairocana as the reward body (SAMBHOGAKĀYA) is called ROCANA (C. Lushena) in order to distinguish him from Vairocana (C. Piluzhena) as the dharmakāya buddha. With the growing popularity of the AvataMsakasutra, Vairocana becomes one of the principal buddhas of East Asian Buddhism. Many Vairocana images were constructed in China starting in the sixth century, and colossal images of him were erected in the LONGMEN Grottoes near Luoyang in northern China and in ToDAIJI in Nara, Japan. In Korea, Vairocana (as the dharmakāya buddha) often appeared at the center of a buddha triad, flanked by sĀKYAMUNI (as the NIRMĀnAKĀYA) and ROCANA (as the saMbhogakāya). Vairocana's popularity expanded with his appearance in the MAHĀVAIROCANASuTRA, and, from this point on, Vairocana is generally regarded as the main buddha of the AvataMsakasutra and the HUAYAN ZONG, while Mahāvairocana is regarded as the main buddha of the MAHĀVAIROCANĀBHISAMBODHISuTRA and the ZHENYAN or SHINGON schools. ¶ Vairocana is also the central deity of the VAJRADHĀTU (J. KONGoKAI) and the GARBHADHĀTU (J. TAIZoKAI) MAndALAs of YOGATANTRA associated with the SARVATATHĀGATATATTVASAMGRAHA, a highly influential tantric text in India, Tibet, and East Asia. He appears in the central assembly of the vajradhātu mandala, displaying the MUDRĀ of wisdom (dainichi ken-in), surrounded by the four directional buddhas (AKsOBHYA, RATNASAMBHAVA, AMITĀBHA, and AMOGHASIDDHI), each of whom embodies four aspects of Vairocana's wisdom. In the garbhadhātu mandala, Vairocana is located at the center of the eight-petaled lotus in the central cloister of the mandala, along with the four buddhas and four bodhisattvas sitting on the eight petals. Vairocana is typically depicted as white in color, holding the wheel of dharma (DHARMACAKRA) in his hands, which are in the gesture of teaching (VITARKAMUDRĀ). Vairocana is closely associated with the bodhisattva SAMANTABHADRA, and his consort is Vajradhātvīsvarī. The commentaries on the SarvatathāgatatattvasaMgraha recount that Prince SIDDHĀRTHA was meditating on the banks of the NAIRANJANĀ River when he was roused by Vairocana and the buddhas of the ten directions, who informed him that such meditation would not result in the achievement of buddhahood. He thus left his physical body behind and traveled in a mind-made body (MANOMAYAKĀYA) to the AKANIstHA heaven, where he received various consecrations and achieved buddhahood. He next descended to the summit of Mount SUMERU, where he taught the yogatantras. Finally, he returned to the world, inhabited his physical body, and then displayed to the world the well-known defeat of MĀRA and the achievement of buddhahood. ¶ Vairocana is also the name of one of the chief figures in the earlier dissemination (SNGA DAR) of Buddhism to Tibet, where he is known by his Tibetan pronunciation of Bai ro tsa na. He was one of the first seven Tibetans (SAD MI BDUN) to be ordained as Buddhist monks by the Indian master sĀNTARAKsITA at the first Tibetan monastery, BSAM YAS. According to Tibetan accounts, he was sent by King KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN to India to study Sanskrit and to gather texts and teachings. He is said to have received teachings of the "mind class" (SEMS SDE) and the "expanse class" (KLONG SDE) at BODHGAYĀ, before traveling to OddIYĀNA, where he met the master sRĪSIMHA, who gave him exoteric teachings during the day and instructed him secretly in the great completeness (RDZOGS CHEN) practices at night. Returning to Tibet, he followed the same program, instructing the king secretly in the "mind class" teachings at night. This raised suspicions, which led to his banishment to eastern Tibet. He was later allowed to return, at the request of VIMALAMITRA. He is renowned as one of the three major figures (along with PADMASAMBHAVA and Vimalamitra) in the dissemination of the rdzogs chen teachings in Tibet and translated many texts from Sanskrit into Tibetan; the manuscripts of some of his translations have been discovered at DUNHUANG. See also JNĀNAMUstI.

Vajrakīlaya. (T. Rdo rje phur pa). In Sanskrit, "Vajra Dagger," a tantric buddha worshipped primarily by the RNYING MA and BKA' BRGYUD sects of Tibetan Buddhism. He is the deification of the KĪLA (see PHUR PA), the ritual dagger used in tantric ceremonies. In the rituals involving the use of the kīla, the tantric dagger is typically used to subdue a ritual site, to subjugate the local demon by pinning him or her to the ground; the MAndALA is thus planted and established on top of the offending demon. The dagger may be stabbed into a three-sided box, the triangle representing the violent tantric activity of liberation, or into an effigy. As a deity, Vajrakīlaya originally held the same duties as the ritual dagger: to protect the borders of ritual space and to pin down and destroy enemies, human or otherwise. This tradition may derive in part from the ancient Indian myth of Indrakīla, in which the serpent Vṛtra is pinned and stabilized by a mythic "peg" (kīla). Vajrakīlaya is found in the major early tantra systems as well as the GUHYASAMĀJATANTRA and the SARVATATHĀGATATATTVASAMGRAHA, which contains his mantra and places him in the center of a MAndALA, although throughout his status is inferior to that of the buddhas and bodhisattvas. It is only in the Vajrakīlaya tantras that the deity attains the status of a buddha. These texts are reputed to be eighth-century translations from Indic languages, transmitted in Tibet by PADMASAMBHAVA. The tantras form a substantial section of the RNYING MA'I RGYUD 'BUM, but BU STON rejected the Indian origin of the tantras and left them out of the BKA' 'GYUR. Defenders of the tradition cite the fact that 'BROG MI SHĀKYA YE SHES wrote that he saw the eight-syllable Vajrakīla MANTRA at the BODHGAYĀ STuPA. In addition, SA SKYA PAndITA discovered a Sanskrit fragment of the Vajrakīlamulatantrakhanda at BSAM YAS, and sĀKYAsRĪBHADRA confirmed that the cycle had existed in India. Although no East Asian tradition of Vajrakīlaya exists, some scholars have suggested an identification with Vajrakumāra; tantras concerning this deity were brought to China in the eighth century by AMOGHAVAJRA, but this identification is disputed. Vajrakīlaya is wrathful, with three faces with three eyes each, and six or more hands holding various instruments in addition to the kīla. He is said to dispel obstacles to progress on the path to enlightenment and to the swift attainment of both mundane and supramundane goals.

Vajravidāranadhāranī. (T. Rdo rje rnam par 'joms pa shes bya ba'i gzungs; C. Rangxiang jingang tuoluoni jing; J. Kongo saisai darani/Eso kongo daranikyo; K. Kŭmgang ch'oeswae tarani/Yangsang kŭmgang tarani kyong 金剛摧碎陀羅尼/壤相金剛陀羅尼經). Lit., "Dhāranī of the Adamantine Pulverizer"; a DHĀRAnĪ scripture probably composed sometime between the late-seventh and early-eighth centuries, which enjoyed great popularity in India and Tibet. There are two late Chinese translations, one by Maitrībhadra (C. Cixian, fl. tenth century), the other by the central Asian monk Shaluoba (1259-1314). There are a few Tibetan commentaries on the text attributed to such Indian tantric Buddhist masters who went to Tibet as sĀNTARAKsITA (725-788), Buddhaguhya (fl. eighth century), and PADMASAMBHAVA (fl. eighth century). The text states that VAJRAPĀnI's wrathful form strikes fear into all sentient beings, which stops them from performing evil actions, destroys their ignorance and defilements, and protects them from any suffering. The text also lists various other practical benefits that accrue from reciting it, such as curing illness, longevity, and good fortune, and recommends reciting it between twenty-one and a hundred times. Due to its popularity, the Vajravidāranadhāranī itself became deified, and Vajravidārana was worshipped as one of the manifestations of Vajrapāni.

Yang le shod. (Yanglesho). An important pilgrimage site south of the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal, sacred to Tibetan and Newar Buddhists as well as to Hindus, although the source and meaning of the name are unclear. According to traditional Buddhist accounts, PADMASAMBHAVA practiced meditation in a cave here, subdued NĀGA demons through the practice of VAJRAKĪLAYA, and attained realization of MAHĀMUDRĀ. Hindus relate the site to the avatāra of Visnu called sesa Nārāyana.

Ye shes mtsho rgyal. (Yeshe Tsogyal) (c. 757-817). A renowned female Tibetan Buddhist master, generally regarded as a wisdom dĀKINĪ and venerated especially as consort and disciple of the Indian adept PADMASAMBHAVA. Ye shes mtsho rgyal was born into an aristocratic family in central Tibet, south of LHA SA. According to traditional biographical accounts, a nearby lake miraculously swelled at the time of her birth and she was thus given the name "victor of the lake" (mtsho rgyal). This lake, near the cave complex of SGRAG YANG RDZONG, is believed to still hold Ye shes mtsho rgyal's life essence (bla). Her remarkable beauty even at a young age drew numerous suitors, but rather than submit to a marriage arranged by her father, she fled in order to undertake religious practice. She spent a brief period of time in the court of the Tibetan ruler KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN (perhaps as one of his wives), after which she met Padmasambhava and was accepted as one of his chief disciples. In addition to receiving and practicing numerous tantric instructions, Ye shes mtsho rgyal helped to conceal many of Padmasambhava's treasure teachings (GTER MA), many of which are said to be her transcriptions of Padmasambhava's teachings. She is regarded as the first Tibetan to achieve buddhahood in a single lifetime. As a wisdom dākinī, she is also known as Bde chen rgyal mo ("Great Bliss Queen").

Ye shes sde. (Yeshe De) (fl. late eighth/early ninth century). A Tibetan translator (LO TSĀ BA) during the early dissemination (SNGA DAR) of Buddhism in Tibet; a native of Ngam shod of the Sna nam clan, also referred to by the clan name Zhang. He is said to have been a disciple of both PADMASAMBHAVA and sRĪSIMHA, from whom he received tantric instructions, especially in the SEMS SDE (mind class) of RDZOGS CHEN. He collaborated with some fifteen Indian scholars, among them Jinamitra, sīlendrabodhi, and Dānasīla, on the translation of as many as 347 different works, if the later canonical records are correct. His translations includes upwards of 163 Mahāyāna sutras, among them the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ, AVATAMSAKASuTRA, and RATNAKutASuTRA collections, translations of the YOGĀCĀRABHuMI and other basic MADHYAMAKA and YOGĀCĀRA treatises, as well as a number of works by his contemporaries sĀNTARAKsITA and KAMALAsĪLA. He is also credited with the translation of tantric works that would come to be known as the "old translations" used by the RNYING MA sect. He is said to have been a practitioner of the VAJRAKĪLAYA tantras. He is also author of a number of original compositions, among them the Lta ba'i khyad par ("Differences in Views"), preserved in both a BSTAN 'GYUR and DUNHUANG version, which divides the Madhyamaka school into Sautrāntika-Madhyamaka and Yogācāra-Madhyamaka. See also DPAL BRTSEGS; KLU'I RGYAL MTSHAN.

Zangs mdog dpal ri. (Sangdok Palri). In Tibetan, the "Glorious Copper-Colored Mountain"; the abode of PADMASAMBHAVA. It is located on the island of Cāmara, one of the two "subcontinents" flanking the island of JAMBUDVĪPA; Cāmara is sometimes identified as Sri Lanka. After leaving Tibet, Padmasambhava is said to have departed for the Copper-Colored Mountain. The island was inhabited by ogres (RAKsASA), whom he first had to subdue. He then constructed an octagonal palace, called "Lotus Light" (Padma 'od), at the summit of the mountain, where he will abide until the end of SAMSĀRA. In Tibetan Buddhism, Copper-Colored Mountain came to function as a PURE LAND, although it is located on earth, and is not flat as pure lands are supposed to be. There are numerous prayers for rebirth on the Copper-Colored Mountain and numerous accounts of devotees being transported there in dreams and visions. Among the most common depictions of Padmasambhava in Tibetan painting are those of him enthroned on the Copper-Colored Mountain.



QUOTES [7 / 7 - 25 / 25]


KEYS (10k)

   4 Padmasambhava
   1 Wikipedia
   1 Judith Simmer-Brown
   1 Chamtrul Rinpoche

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   18 Padmasambhava

1:No matter what suffering may befall you now, do not give in to it but develop courage again and again. ~ Padmasambhava,
2:Our past thinking has determined our present status, and our present thinking will determine our future status; for man is what man thinks. ~ Padmasambhava, The Tibetan Book of The Dead,
3:However industrious you may be, there is no end to worldly activities; but if you practice the Dharma You will swiftly conclude everything.
However nice they may seem, Samsaric affairs always end in disaster; but the fruits of practicing the Dharma Will never deteriorate. ~ Padmasambhava,
4:A hundred things may be explained to you, a thousand things told, but one thing only should you grasp. Know one thing and everything is freed- remain within your inner nature, your Awareness. May I recognize all the manifestations that appear to me in the bardo (intermediate state) as being my own projections; emanations of my own mind. ~ Padmasambhava,
5:Never underestimate the long-term consequences of your actions. For as long as the mind has the obscurration of grasping at an inherently existing "me", then there will be karma. No matter how far on the path one is, no matter how realised one is, no matter how many miraculous powers one has attained, for as long as there is even a subtle trace of this obscurration, karma is there.
   That is why Padmasambhava, an enlightened being not even affected by it, had skilfully told ordinary beings, "My realization is higher than the sky, but my observance of karma is finer than grains of flour." ~ Chamtrul Rinpoche,
6:WHEN THE GREAT YOGIN Padmasambhava, called by Tibetans Guru Rinpoche, "the precious teacher," embarks on his spiritual journey, he travels from place to place requesting teachings from yogins and yoginls. Guided by visions and dreams, his journey takes him to desolate forests populated with ferocious wild animals, to poison lakes with fortified islands, and to cremation grounds. Wherever he goes he performs miracles, receives empowerments, and ripens his own abilities to benefit others.

   When he hears of the supreme queen of all dakinls, the greatly accomplished yogini called Secret Wisdom, he travels to the Sandal Grove cremation ground to the gates of her abode, the Palace of Skulls. He attempts to send a request to the queen with her maidservant Kumari. But the girl ignores him and continues to carry huge brass jugs of water suspended from a heavy yoke across her shoulders. When he presses his request, Kumari continues her labors, remaining silent. The great yogin becomes impatient and, through his yogic powers, magically nails the heavy jugs to the floor. No matter how hard Kumari struggles, she cannot lift them.

   Removing the yoke and ropes from her shoulders, she steps before Padmasambhava, exclaiming, "You have developed great yogic powers. What of my powers, great one?" And so saying, she draws a sparkling crystal knife from the girdle at her waist and slices open her heart center, revealing the vivid and vast interior space of her body. Inside she displays to Guru Rinpoche the mandala of deities from the inner tantras: forty-two peaceful deities manifested in her upper torso and head and fifty-eight wrathful deities resting in her lower torso. Abashed that he did not realize with whom he was dealing, Guru Rinpoche bows before her and humbly renews his request for teachings. In response, she offers him her respect as well, adding, "I am only a maidservant," and ushers him in to meet the queen Secret Wisdom. ~ Judith Simmer-Brown, Dakini's Warm Breath: The Feminine Principle in Tibetan Buddhism, Introduction: Encountering the Dakini,
7:Ekajaṭī or Ekajaṭā, (Sanskrit: "One Plait Woman"; Wylie: ral gcig ma: one who has one knot of hair),[1] also known as Māhacīnatārā,[2] is one of the 21 Taras. Ekajati is, along with Palden Lhamo deity, one of the most powerful and fierce goddesses of Vajrayana Buddhist mythology.[1][3] According to Tibetan legends, her right eye was pierced by the tantric master Padmasambhava so that she could much more effectively help him subjugate Tibetan demons.

Ekajati is also known as "Blue Tara", Vajra Tara or "Ugra Tara".[1][3] She is generally considered one of the three principal protectors of the Nyingma school along with Rāhula and Vajrasādhu (Wylie: rdo rje legs pa).

Often Ekajati appears as liberator in the mandala of the Green Tara. Along with that, her ascribed powers are removing the fear of enemies, spreading joy, and removing personal hindrances on the path to enlightenment.

Ekajati is the protector of secret mantras and "as the mother of the mothers of all the Buddhas" represents the ultimate unity. As such, her own mantra is also secret. She is the most important protector of the Vajrayana teachings, especially the Inner Tantras and termas. As the protector of mantra, she supports the practitioner in deciphering symbolic dakini codes and properly determines appropriate times and circumstances for revealing tantric teachings. Because she completely realizes the texts and mantras under her care, she reminds the practitioner of their preciousness and secrecy.[4] Düsum Khyenpa, 1st Karmapa Lama meditated upon her in early childhood.

According to Namkhai Norbu, Ekajati is the principal guardian of the Dzogchen teachings and is "a personification of the essentially non-dual nature of primordial energy."[5]

Dzogchen is the most closely guarded teaching in Tibetan Buddhism, of which Ekajati is a main guardian as mentioned above. It is said that Sri Singha (Sanskrit: Śrī Siṃha) himself entrusted the "Heart Essence" (Wylie: snying thig) teachings to her care. To the great master Longchenpa, who initiated the dissemination of certain Dzogchen teachings, Ekajati offered uncharacteristically personal guidance. In his thirty-second year, Ekajati appeared to Longchenpa, supervising every ritual detail of the Heart Essence of the Dakinis empowerment, insisting on the use of a peacock feather and removing unnecessary basin. When Longchenpa performed the ritual, she nodded her head in approval but corrected his pronunciation. When he recited the mantra, Ekajati admonished him, saying, "Imitate me," and sang it in a strange, harmonious melody in the dakini's language. Later she appeared at the gathering and joyously danced, proclaiming the approval of Padmasambhava and the dakinis.[6] ~ Wikipedia,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Please guide all beings from this swamp of cyclic existence! ~ Padmasambhava,
2:You don’t have to be a
philosopher; you just have to want to know who you are ~ Padmasambhava,
3:"All that appears is devoid of independent existence, just like a magical apparition or a dream." ~ Padmasambhava,
4:"Don't follow the past.Don't anticipate the future.Remain in the present moment.Leave your mind alone." ~ Guru Rinpoche Padmasambhava,
5:If you want to know your past life, look at your present condition.
If you want to know your future life, look at your present actions. ~ Padmasambhava,
6:Sri Krishna's message is the message of anyone who comes from far away. His message is the same as Buddha, Lao Tsu, Bodhidharma, Milarepa, Padmasambhava. ~ Frederick Lenz,
7:In our own present world age, one thousand Buddhas will appear. Each one will be accompanied by an emanation of Guru Rinpoche to carry out the Buddha’s activities. ~ Padmasambhava,
8:Our past thinking has determined our present status, and our present thinking will determine our future status; for man is what man thinks. ~ Padmasambhava, The Tibetan Book of The Dead,
9:My father is wisdom and my mother is voidness.

My country is the country of Dharma.

I am of no caste and no creed.

I am sustained by perplexity; and I am here to destroy lust, anger and sloth. ~ Padmasambhava,
10:The moments of our life are not expendable, And the [possible] circumstances of death are beyond imagination. If you do not achieve an undaunted confident security now, What point is there in your being alive, O living creature? ~ Padmasambhava,
11:However industrious you may be, there is no end to worldly activities; but if you practice the Dharma You will swiftly conclude everything.
However nice they may seem, Samsaric affairs always end in disaster; but the fruits of practicing the Dharma Will never deteriorate. ~ Padmasambhava,
12:If, upon looking outwards towards the external expanse of the sky, There are no projections emanated by the mind, And if, on looking inwards at one’s own mind, There is no projectionist who projects [thoughts] by thinking them, Then, one’s own mind, completely free from conceptual projections, will become luminously clear. [This] ~ Padmasambhava,
13:A hundred things may be explained to you, a thousand things told, but one thing only should you grasp. Know one thing and everything is freed- remain within your inner nature, your Awareness. May I recognize all the manifestations that appear to me in the bardo (intermediate state) as being my own projections; emanations of my own mind. ~ Padmasambhava,
14:death holds up an all-seeing mirror, ‘the mirror of past actions’, to our eyes, in which the consequences of all our negative and positive actions are clearly seen and there is a weighing of our past actions in the light of their consequences, the balance of which will determine the kind of existence or mental state we are being driven to enter. ~ Padmasambhava,
15:I often think of the words of the great Buddhist master Padmasambhava: "Those who believe they have plenty of time get ready only at the time of death. Then they are ravaged by regret. But isn't it far too late?" What more chilling commentary on the modern world could there be than most people die unprepared for death, as they have lived, unprepared for life? ~ Sogyal Rinpoche,
16:O, [you], with your mind far away, thinking that death will not come, Entranced by the pointless activities of this life, If you were to return empty-handed now, would not your [life’s] purpose have been [utterly] confused? Recognise what it is that you truly need! It is a sacred teaching [for liberation]! So, should you not practise this divine [sacred] teaching, beginning from this very moment? ~ Padmasambhava,
17:In modern science the methods of analysis are principally applied to investigating the nature of material entities. Thus, the ultimate nature of matter is sought through a reductive process and the macroscopic world is reduced to the microscopic world of particles. Yet, when the nature of these particles is further examined, we find that ultimately their very existence as objects is called into question. ~ Padmasambhava,
18:Abandon your notions of the past, without attributing a temporal sequence! Cut off your mental associations regarding the future, without anticipation! Rest in a spacious modality, without clinging to [the thoughts of] the present. Do not meditate at all, since there is nothing upon which to meditate. Instead, revelation will come through undistracted mindfulness — Since there is nothing by which you can be distracted. ~ Padmasambhava,
19:Agitation due to circumstances occurs when because of an external incident, you follow a thought, and your mind becomes agitated and scatters into a disturbing emotion. When that happens, keep the attitude of “There is no need to do anything!” Train in loving kindness and compassion, disenchantment, means and knowledge, and devotion. Following that, persevere in the practice as at the time of the view. That will clear it. ~ Padmasambhava,
20:As the track bends north-east, the ethereal sandstone disappears. The slopes turn black with granite, and the mountain's lower ridges break into unstable spikes and revetments. Their ribs are slashed in chiaroscuro, and their last outcrops pour towards the valley in the fluid, anthropomorphic shapes that pilgrims love. The spine and haunches of a massive stone beast, gazing at Kailas, are hailed as the Nandi bull, holy to Shiva; another rock has become the votive cake of Padmasambhava. ~ Colin Thubron,
21:Never underestimate the long-term consequences of your actions. For as long as the mind has the obscurration of grasping at an inherently existing "me", then there will be karma. No matter how far on the path one is, no matter how realised one is, no matter how many miraculous powers one has attained, for as long as there is even a subtle trace of this obscurration, karma is there.
   That is why Padmasambhava, an enlightened being not even affected by it, had skilfully told ordinary beings, "My realization is higher than the sky, but my observance of karma is finer than grains of flour." ~ Chamtrul Rinpoche,
22:  Are you oblivious to the sufferings of birth, old age, sickness and death? There is no guarantee that you will survive, even past this very day! The time has come [for you] to develop perseverance in [your] practice. For, at this singular opportunity, you could attain the everlasting bliss [of nirvāṇa]. So now is [certainly] not the time to sit idly, But, starting with [the reflection on] death, you should bring your practice to completion!3   The moments of our life are not expendable, And the [possible] circumstances of death are beyond imagination. If you do not achieve an undaunted confident security now, What point is there in your being alive, O living creature? ~ Padmasambhava,
23:Transcendent renunciation is developed by meditating on the preciousness of human
life in terms of the ocean of evolutionary possibilities, the immediacy of death, the
inexorability of evolutionary causality, and the sufferings of the ignorance-driven,
involuntary life cycle. Renunciation automatically occurs when you come face-to-face
with your real existential situation, and so develop a genuine sympathy for yourself,
having given up pretending the prison of habitual emotions and confusions is just fine.
Meditating on the teachings given on these themes in a systematic way enables you to
generate quickly an ambition to gain full control of your body and mind in order at least
to face death confidently, knowing you can navigate safely through the dangers of further
journeys. Wasting time investing your life in purposes that “you cannot take with you”
becomes ludicrous, and, when you radically shift your priorities, you feel a profound
relief at unburdening yourself of a weight of worry over inconsequential things ~ Padmasambhava,
24:WHEN THE GREAT YOGIN Padmasambhava, called by Tibetans Guru Rinpoche, "the precious teacher," embarks on his spiritual journey, he travels from place to place requesting teachings from yogins and yoginls. Guided by visions and dreams, his journey takes him to desolate forests populated with ferocious wild animals, to poison lakes with fortified islands, and to cremation grounds. Wherever he goes he performs miracles, receives empowerments, and ripens his own abilities to benefit others.

   When he hears of the supreme queen of all dakinls, the greatly accomplished yogini called Secret Wisdom, he travels to the Sandal Grove cremation ground to the gates of her abode, the Palace of Skulls. He attempts to send a request to the queen with her maidservant Kumari. But the girl ignores him and continues to carry huge brass jugs of water suspended from a heavy yoke across her shoulders. When he presses his request, Kumari continues her labors, remaining silent. The great yogin becomes impatient and, through his yogic powers, magically nails the heavy jugs to the floor. No matter how hard Kumari struggles, she cannot lift them.

   Removing the yoke and ropes from her shoulders, she steps before Padmasambhava, exclaiming, "You have developed great yogic powers. What of my powers, great one?" And so saying, she draws a sparkling crystal knife from the girdle at her waist and slices open her heart center, revealing the vivid and vast interior space of her body. Inside she displays to Guru Rinpoche the mandala of deities from the inner tantras: forty-two peaceful deities manifested in her upper torso and head and fifty-eight wrathful deities resting in her lower torso. Abashed that he did not realize with whom he was dealing, Guru Rinpoche bows before her and humbly renews his request for teachings. In response, she offers him her respect as well, adding, "I am only a maidservant," and ushers him in to meet the queen Secret Wisdom. ~ Judith Simmer-Brown, Dakini's Warm Breath: The Feminine Principle in Tibetan Buddhism, Introduction: Encountering the Dakini,
25:Ekajaṭī or Ekajaṭā, (Sanskrit: "One Plait Woman"; Wylie: ral gcig ma: one who has one knot of hair),[1] also known as Māhacīnatārā,[2] is one of the 21 Taras. Ekajati is, along with Palden Lhamo deity, one of the most powerful and fierce goddesses of Vajrayana Buddhist mythology.[1][3] According to Tibetan legends, her right eye was pierced by the tantric master Padmasambhava so that she could much more effectively help him subjugate Tibetan demons.

Ekajati is also known as "Blue Tara", Vajra Tara or "Ugra Tara".[1][3] She is generally considered one of the three principal protectors of the Nyingma school along with Rāhula and Vajrasādhu (Wylie: rdo rje legs pa).

Often Ekajati appears as liberator in the mandala of the Green Tara. Along with that, her ascribed powers are removing the fear of enemies, spreading joy, and removing personal hindrances on the path to enlightenment.

Ekajati is the protector of secret mantras and "as the mother of the mothers of all the Buddhas" represents the ultimate unity. As such, her own mantra is also secret. She is the most important protector of the Vajrayana teachings, especially the Inner Tantras and termas. As the protector of mantra, she supports the practitioner in deciphering symbolic dakini codes and properly determines appropriate times and circumstances for revealing tantric teachings. Because she completely realizes the texts and mantras under her care, she reminds the practitioner of their preciousness and secrecy.[4] Düsum Khyenpa, 1st Karmapa Lama meditated upon her in early childhood.

According to Namkhai Norbu, Ekajati is the principal guardian of the Dzogchen teachings and is "a personification of the essentially non-dual nature of primordial energy."[5]

Dzogchen is the most closely guarded teaching in Tibetan Buddhism, of which Ekajati is a main guardian as mentioned above. It is said that Sri Singha (Sanskrit: Śrī Siṃha) himself entrusted the "Heart Essence" (Wylie: snying thig) teachings to her care. To the great master Longchenpa, who initiated the dissemination of certain Dzogchen teachings, Ekajati offered uncharacteristically personal guidance. In his thirty-second year, Ekajati appeared to Longchenpa, supervising every ritual detail of the Heart Essence of the Dakinis empowerment, insisting on the use of a peacock feather and removing unnecessary basin. When Longchenpa performed the ritual, she nodded her head in approval but corrected his pronunciation. When he recited the mantra, Ekajati admonished him, saying, "Imitate me," and sang it in a strange, harmonious melody in the dakini's language. Later she appeared at the gathering and joyously danced, proclaiming the approval of Padmasambhava and the dakinis.[6] ~ Wikipedia,

IN CHAPTERS [5/5]



   3 Buddhism


   3 Bokar Rinpoche


   3 Tara - The Feminine Divine


1.01 - Tara the Divine, #Tara - The Feminine Divine, #unset, #Integral Yoga
  a Padmasambhava statue placed above them for a
  while, was told by her that this was not acceptable.

1.03 - Invocation of Tara, #Tara - The Feminine Divine, #unset, #Integral Yoga
  Termas are texts uttered by Padmasambhava in the
  8th century in Tibet, then hidden to be discovered
  --
  words spoken long ago by Padmasambhava. He titled
  this terma Tara's Profound Drop, "drop" meaning here
  --
  prayers addressed to Padmasambhava. The various
  stages are as follows:

1.05 - Buddhism and Women, #Tara - The Feminine Divine, #unset, #Integral Yoga
  Tibet by the great Indian teacher Padmasambhava in
  the 8th century of our era. Among his many disciples,
  --
  Sahor. When she became Padmasambhava's
  companion, her father was so annoyed that he ordered
  --
  When Padmasambhava left for Tibet, Mandarava
  stayed behind in India. However, she miraculously
  --
  After Padmasambhava left Tibet, it is said that she
  remained 200 years in the Land of Snow to continue
  --
  Among the women disciples of Padmasambhava,
  it is mentioned that 25 of them obtained rainbow

1.07 - A Song of Longing for Tara, the Infallible, #How to Free Your Mind - Tara the Liberator, #Thubten Chodron, #unset
  offerings and requests to Guru Rinpoche, Padmasambhava. This little rinpoche asked my friend, Why do we request the Buddha over and over again
  Please grant me blessings and inspire me?
  --
  Buddha. Similarly, Padmasambhava and Milarepa were ordinary beings like
  us, practiced the path, and became enlightened. Each of them has a conventional self but is empty of an inherently existent self. The conventional I
  --
  existence. In other words, one mindstream was labeled Padmasambhava for
  a while, and that mindstream became an enlightened mindstream. Another
  --
  The Tibetans invited Padmasambhava to come to Tibet to subdue these spirits. He did this and made many of them vow to protect the Dharma and
  Dharma practitioners. He transformed them into worldly protectors. Bound

1.07 - The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, #Sex Ecology Spirituality, #Ken Wilber, #Philosophy
  First and foremost, if this higher unfolding is to be called "religious" or "spiritual," it is a very far cry from what is ordinarily meant by those terms. We have spent several chapters painstakingly reviewing the earlier developments of the archaic, magic, and mythic structures (which are usually associated with the world's great religions), precisely because those structures are what transpersonal and contemplative development is not. And here we can definitely agree with Campbell: if 99.9 percent of people want to call magic and mythic "real religion," then so be it for them (that is a legitimate use);10 but that is not what the world's greatest yogis, saints, and sages mean by mystical or "really religious" development, and in any event is not what I have in mind. Campbell, however, is quite right that a very, very few individuals, during the magic and mythic and rational eras, were indeed able to go beyond magic, beyond mythic, and beyond rational-into the transrational and transpersonal domains. And even if their teachings (such as those of Buddha, Christ, Patanjali, Padmasambhava, Rumi, and Chih-i) were snapped up by the masses and translated downward into magic and mythic and egoic terms-"the salvation of the individual soul"-that is not what their teachings clearly and even blatantly stated, nor did they intentionally lend any support to such endeavors. Their teachings were about the release from individuality, and not about its everlasting perpetuation, a grotesque notion that was equated flat-out with hell or samsara. Their teachings, and their contemplative endeavors, were (and are) transrational through and through. That is, although all of the contemplative traditions aim at going within and beyond reason, they all start with reason, start with the notion that truth is to be established by evidence, that truth is the result of experimental methods, that truth is to be tested in the laboratory of personal experience, that these truths are open to all those who wish to try the experiment and thus disclose for themselves the truth or falsity of the spiritual claims-and that dogmas or given beliefs are precisely what hinder the emergence of deeper truths and wider visions.
  Thus, each of these spiritual or transpersonal endeavors (which we will carefully examine) claims that there exist higher domains of awareness, embrace, love, identity, reality, self, and truth. But these claims are not dogmatic; they are not believed in merely because an authority proclaimed them, or because sociocentric tradition hands them down, or because salvation depends upon being a "true believer." Rather, the claims about these higher domains are a conclusion based on hundreds of years of experimental introspection and communal verification. False claims are rejected on the basis of consensual evidence, and further evidence is used to adjust and fine-tune the experimental conclusions.

WORDNET














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100-man no Inochi no Ue ni Ore wa Tatteiru -- -- Maho Film -- 12 eps -- Manga -- Action Game Drama Fantasy Shounen -- 100-man no Inochi no Ue ni Ore wa Tatteiru 100-man no Inochi no Ue ni Ore wa Tatteiru -- Yotsuya Yuusuke along with his classmates Shindou Iu and Hakozaki Kusue have been transported to a strange and unknown world inhabited by mythological creatures. As soon as they arrive, they meet somebody calling himself the Game Master who then grants them a time-limited quest. To aid them in this quest, he also bestows Shindou and Hakozaki with the roles of a Magician and a Warrior while Yotsuya is randomly granted the role of... a Farmer?! -- -- This is how a hectic life of adventuring began for three students who now have no choice, but to complete random quests for several phases in the fantasy world if they want to stay alive and protect the real world from the demons and monsters they encounter. -- -- (Source: MU) -- 147,868 6.43
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