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object:James Clerk Maxwell
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class:Physics

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--- WIKI
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics. His most notable achievement was to formulate the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, bringing together for the first time electricity, magnetism, and light as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics" after the first one realised by Isaac Newton. With the publication of "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" in 1865, Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space as waves moving at the speed of light. He proposed that light is an undulation in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. The unification of light and electrical phenomena led his prediction of the existence of radio waves. Maxwell is also regarded as a founder of the modern field of electrical engineering. He helped develop the MaxwellBoltzmann distri bution, a statistical means of describing aspects of the kinetic theory of gases. He is also known for presenting the first durable colour photograph in 1861 and for his foundational work on analysing the rigidity of rod-and-joint frameworks (trusses) like those in many bridges. His discoveries helped usher in the era of modern physics, laying the foundation for such fields as special relativity and quantum mechanics. Many physicists regard Maxwell as the 19th-century scientist having the greatest influence on 20th-century physics. His contri butions to the science are considered by many to be of the same magnitude as those of Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. In the millennium polla survey of the 100 most prominent physicistsMaxwell was voted the third greatest physicist of all time, behind only Newton and Einstein. On the centenary of Maxwell's birthday, Einstein described Maxwell's work as the "most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton". Einstein, when he visited the University of Cambridge in 1922, was told by his host that he had done great things because he stood on Newton's shoulders; Einstein replied: "No I don't. I stand on the shoulders of Maxwell".

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   82 James Clerk Maxwell
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1:One scientific epoch ended and another began with James Clerk Maxwell. ~ Albert Einstein,
2:Thoroughly conscious ignorance is the prelude to every real advance in science. ~ James Clerk Maxwell,
3:It is of great advantage to the student of any subject to read the original memoirs on that subject, for science is always most completely assimilated when it is in the nascent state... ~ James Clerk Maxwell,
4:Happy is the man who can recognize in the work of to-day a connected portion of the work of life and an embodiment of the work of Eternity. The foundations of his confidence are unchangeable, for he has been made a partaker of Infinity. He strenuously works out his daily enterprises because the present is given him for a possession.
   Thus ought man to be an impersonation of the divine process of nature, and to show forth the union of the infinite with the finite, not slighting his temporal existence, remembering that in it only is individual action possible, nor yet shutting out from his view that which is eternal, knowing that Time is a mystery which man cannot endure to contemplate until eternal Truth enlighten it. ~ James Clerk Maxwell,
5:But it is evident that all analogies of this kind depend on principles of a more fundamental nature; and that, if we had a true mathematical classification of quantities, we should be able at once to detect the analogy between any system of quantities presented to us and other systems of quantities in known sciences, so that we should lose no time in availing ourselves of the mathematical labors of those who had already solved problems essentially the same. [...] At the same time, I think that the progress of science, both in the way of discovery, and in the way of diffusion, would be greatly aided if more attention were paid in a direct way to the classification of quantities. ~ James Clerk Maxwell, Remarks on the mathematical classification of physical quantities, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, 1871,
6:... if we conceive of a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course, such a being, whose attributes are as essentially finite as our own, would be able to do what is impossible to us. For we have seen that molecules in a vessel full of air at uniform temperature are moving with velocities by no means uniform, though the mean velocity of any great number of them, arbitrarily selected, is almost exactly uniform. Now let us suppose that such a vessel is divided into two portions, A and B, by a division in which there is a small hole, and that a being, who can see the individual molecules, opens and closes this hole, so as to allow only the swifter molecules to pass from A to B, and only the slower molecules to pass from B to A. He will thus, without expenditure of work, raise the temperature of B and lower that of A, in contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics. ~ James Clerk Maxwell,

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1:Gin a body meet a body ~ James Clerk Maxwell
2:My soul is an entangled knot, ~ James Clerk Maxwell
3:At quite uncertain times and places, ~ James Clerk Maxwell
4:Ampere was the Newton of Electricity. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
5:What's the go of that? What's the particular go of that? ~ James Clerk Maxwell
6:One scientific epoch ended and another began with James Clerk Maxwell. ~ Albert Einstein
7:One scientific epoch ended and another began with James Clerk Maxwell. ~ Albert Einstein,
8:James Clerk Maxwell's [work is the] most profound and the most fruitful. ~ Albert Einstein
9:Thoroughly conscious ignorance is the prelude to every real advance in science. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
10:I have the capacity of being more wicked than any example that man could set me. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
11:Thoroughly conscious ignorance is the prelude to every real advance in science. ~ James Clerk Maxwell,
12:Faraday is, and must always remain, the father of that enlarged science of electromagnetism. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
13:I have looked into most philosophical systems and I have seen that none will work without God. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
14:All the mathematical sciences are founded on relations between physical laws and laws of numbers. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
15:Heat may be generated and destroyed by certain processes, and this shows that heat is not a substance. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
16:Mathematicians may flatter themselves that they possess new ideas which mere human language is as yet unable to express. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
17:The true Logic for this world is the Calculus of Probabilities, which takes account of the magnitude of the probability. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
18:The only laws of matter are those that our minds must fabricate and the only laws of mind are fabricated for it by matter. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
19:I have also a paper afloat, with an electromagnetic theory of light, which, till I am convinced to the contrary, I hold to be great guns. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
20:It is a universal condition of the enjoyable that the mind must believe in the existence of a law, and yet have a mystery to move about in. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
21:Colour as perceived by us is a function of three independent variables at least three are I think sufficient, but time will show if I thrive. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
22:James Clerk Maxwell had proven mathematically that light was electromagnetic radiation—electricity that was vibrating at an extremely high frequency. ~ Sean Patrick
23:Francis Galton, whose mission it seems to be to ride other men's hobbies to death, has invented the felicitous expression 'structureless germs'. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
24:In every branch of knowledge the progress is proportional to the amount of facts on which to build, and therefore to the facility of obtaining data. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
25:Thus number may be said to rule the whole world of quantity, and the four rules of arithmetic may be regarded as the complete equipment of the mathematician. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
26:We can scarcely avoid the inference that light consists in the transverse undulations of the same medium which is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
27:The chief philosophical value of physics is that it gives the mind something distinct to lay hold of, which, if you don't, Nature at once tells you you are wrong. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
28:By the study of Boltzmann I have been unable to understand him. He could not understand me on account of my shortness, and his length was and is an equal stumbling block to me. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
29:statistical laws are not necessarily used as a result of our ignorance. statistical laws can reflect how things really are. there are matters that can only be treated statistically. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
30:It is of great advantage to the student of any subject to read the original memoirs on that subject, for science is always most completely assimilated when it is in the nascent state. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
31:The 2nd law of thermodynamics has the same degree of truth as the statement that if you throw a tumblerful of water into the sea, you cannot get the same tumblerful of water out again. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
32:It is of great advantage to the student of any subject to read the original memoirs on that subject, for science is always most completely assimilated when it is in the nascent state... ~ James Clerk Maxwell
33:It is of great advantage to the student of any subject to read the original memoirs on that subject, for science is always most completely assimilated when it is in the nascent state... ~ James Clerk Maxwell,
34:One scientific epoch ended and another began with James Clerk Maxwell. ~ Albert Einstein
35:The mathematical difficulties of the theory of rotation arise chiefly from the want of geometrical illustrations and sensible images, by which we might fix the results of analysis in our minds. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
36:This change in the conception of reality is the most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton. Refering to James Clerk Maxwell's contributions to physics. ~ Albert Einstein
37:The equations at which we arrive must be such that a person of any nation, by substituting the numerical values of the quantities as measured by his own national units, would obtain a true result. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
38:In Science, it is when we take some interest in the great discoverers and their lives that it becomes endurable, and only when we begin to trace the development of ideas that it becomes fascinating. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
39:Very few of us can now place ourselves in the mental condition in which even such philosophers as the great Descartes were involved in the days before Newton had announced the true laws of the motion of bodies. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
40:The student who uses home made apparatus, which is always going wrong, often learns more than one who has the use of carefully adjusted instruments, to which he is apt to trust and which he dares not take to pieces. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
41:We define thermodynamics ... as the investigation of the dynamical and thermal properties of bodies, deduced entirely from the first and second law of thermodynamics, without speculation as to the molecular constitution. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
42:... that, in a few years, all great physical constants will have been approximately estimated, and that the only occupation which will be left to men of science will be to carry these measurements to another place of decimals. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
43:All the mathematical sciences are founded on relations between physical laws and laws of numbers, so that the aim of exact science is to reduce the problems of nature to the determination of quantities by operations with numbers. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
44:An Experiment, like every other event which takes place, is a natural phenomenon; but in a Scientific Experiment the circumstances are so arranged that the relations between a particular set of phenomena may be studied to the best advantage. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
45:Science is incompetent to reason upon the creation of matter itself out of nothing. We have reached the utmost limit of our thinking faculties when we have admitted that because matter cannot be eternal and self-existent it must have been created. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
46:DOES THE PROGRESS OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE TEND TO GIVE ANY ADVANTAGE TO THE OPINION OF NECESSITY (OR DETERMINISM) OVER THAT OF THE CONTINGENCY OF EVENTS AND THE FREEDOM OF THE WILL?

NO.


- ESSAY FOR THE ERANUS CLUB ON SCIENCE AND FREE WILL ~ James Clerk Maxwell
47:Every existence above a certain rank has its singular points; the higher the rank the more of them. At these points, influences whose physical magnitude is too small to be taken account of by a finite being may produce results of the greatest importance. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
48:The mind of man has perplexed itself with many hard questions. Is space infinite, and in what sense? Is the material world infinite in extent, and are all places within that extent equally full of matter? Do atoms exist or is matter infinitely divisible? ~ James Clerk Maxwell
49:Francis Galton, whose mission it seems to be to ride other men's hobbies to death, has invented the felicitous expression 'structureless germs'. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
50:But though the professed aim of all scientific work is to unravel the secrets of nature, it has another effect, not less valuable, on the mind of the worker. It leaves him in possession of methods which nothing but scientific work could have led him to invent. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
51:Gases are distinguished from other forms of matter, not only by their power of indefinite expansion so as to fill any vessel, however large, and by the great effect heat has in dilating them, but by the uniformity and simplicity of the laws which regulate these changes. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
52:It would of course be a great step forward if we succeeded in combining the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field into a single structure. Only so could the era in theoretical physics inaugurated by Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell be brought to a satisfactory close. ~ Albert Einstein
53:The dimmed outlines of phenomenal things all merge into one another unless we put on the focusing-glass of theory, and screw it up sometimes to one pitch of definition and sometimes to another, so as to see down into different depths through the great millstone of the world. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
54:Almighty God, Who hast created man in Thine own image, and made him a living soul that he might seek after Thee, and have dominion over Thy creatures, teach us to study the works of Thy hands, that we may subdue the earth to our use, and strengthen the reason for Thy service; ~ James Clerk Maxwell
55:In speaking of the Energy of the field, however, I wish to be understood literally. All energy is the same as mechanical energy, whether it exists in the form of motion or in that of elasticity, or in any other form. The energy in electromagnetic phenomena is mechanical energy. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
56:One of the chief peculiarities of this treatise is the doctrine that the true electric current, on which the electromagnetic phenomena depend, is not the same thing as the current of conduction, but that the time-variation of the electric displacement must [also] be taken into account. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
57:The aether: Invented by Isaac Newton, reinvented by James Clerk Maxwell. This is the stuff that fills up the empty space of the universe. Discredited and discarded by Einstein, the aether is now making a Nixonian comeback. It's really the vacuum, but burdened by theoretical, ghostly particles. ~ Leon M Lederman
58:James Clerk Maxwell and his theory of electromagnetism. Born in 1831 in Edinburgh, Maxwell, the son of a Scottish landowner, was destined to become the greatest theoretical physicist of the nineteenth century. At the age of fifteen, he wrote his first published paper on a geometrical method for tracing ovals. ~ Manjit Kumar
59:In your letter you apply the word imponderable to a molecule. Don't do that again. It may also be worth knowing that the aether cannot be molecular. If it were, it would be a gas, and a pint of it would have the same properties as regards heat, etc., as a pint of air, except that it would not be so heavy. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
60:The University of Cambridge, in accordance with that law of its evolution, by which, while maintaining the strictest continuity between the successive phases of its history, it adapts itself with more or less promptness to the requirements of the times, has lately instituted a course of Experimental Physics. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
61:The vast interplanetary and vast interstellar regions will no longer be regarded as waste places in the universe. We shall find them to be already full of this wonderful medium; so full that no human power can remove it from the smallest portion of space or produce the slightest flaw in its infinite continuity. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
62:That feeling in your heart: it’s called mono no aware. It is a sense of the transience of all things in life. The sun, the dandelion, the cicada, the Hammer, and all of us: we are all subject to the equations of James Clerk Maxwell, and we are all ephemeral patterns destined to eventually fade, whether in a second or an eon. ~ Ken Liu
63:The theory I propose may therefore be called a theory of the Electromagnetic Field because it has to do with the space in the neighbourhood of the electric or magnetic bodies, and it may be called a Dynamical Theory, because it assumes that in the space there is matter in motion, by which the observed electromagnetic phenomena are produced. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
64:What, then, is light according to the electromagnetic theory? It consists of alternate and opposite rapidly recurring transverse magnetic disturbances, accompanied with electric displacements, the direction of the electric displacement being at the right angles to the magnetic disturbance, and both at right angles to the direction of the ray. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
65:Everything passes, Hiroto,” Dad said. “That feeling in your heart: It’s called mono no aware. It is a sense of the transience of all things in life. The sun, the dandelion, the cicada, the Hammer, and all of us: We are all subject to the equations of James Clerk Maxwell and we are all ephemeral patterns destined to eventually fade, whether in a second or an eon. ~ Anonymous
66:It was a great step in science when men became convinced that, in order to understand the nature of things, they must begin by asking, not whether a thing is good or bad, noxious or beneficial, but of what kind it is? And how much is there of it? Quality and Quantity were then first recognised as the primary features to be observed in scientific inquiry. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
67:By the time I began my study of physics in the early 1970s, the idea of unifying gravity with the other forces was as dead as the idea of continuous matter. It was a lesson in the foolishness of once great thinkers. Ernst Mach didn’t believe in atoms, James Clerk Maxwell believed in the aether, and Albert Einstein searched for a unified-field theory. Life is tough. ~ Lee Smolin
68:The popularisation of scientific doctrines is producing as great an alteration in the mental state of society as the material applications of science are effecting in its outward life. Such indeed is the respect paid to science, that the most absurd opinions may become current, provided they are expressed in language, the sound of which recals [sic] some well-known scientific phrase. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
69:But when we face the great questions about gravitation Does it require time? Is it polar to the 'outside of the universe' or to anything? Has it any reference to electricity? or does it stand on the very foundation of matter-mass or inertia? then we feel the need of tests, whether they be comets or nebulae or laboratory experiments or bold questions as to the truth of received opinions. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
70:If we betake ourselves to the statistical method, we do so confessing that we are unable to follow the details of each individual case, and expecting that the effects of widespread causes, though very different in each individual, will produce an average result on the whole nation, from a study of which we may estimate the character and propensities of an imaginary being called the Mean Man. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
71:Thus science strips off, one after the other, the more or less gross materialisations by which we endeavour to form an objective image of the soul, till men of science, speculating, in their non-scientific intervals, like other men on what science may possibly lead to, have prophesied that we shall soon have to confess that the soul is nothing else than a function of certain complex material systems. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
72:The vast interplanetary and interstellar regions will no longer be regarded as waste places in the universe, which the Creator has not seen fit to fill with the symbols of the manifold order of His kingdom. We shall find them to be already full of this wonderful medium; so full, that no human power can remove it from the smallest portion of space, or produce the slightest flaw in its infinite continuity. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
73:Very few of us can now place ourselves in the mental condition in which even such philosophers as the great Descartes were involved in the days before Newton had announced the true laws of the motion of bodies. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
74:But I should be very sorry if an interpretation founded on a most conjectural scientific hypothesis were to get fastened to the text in Genesis... The rate of change of scientific hypothesis is naturally much more rapid than that of Biblical interpretations, so that if an interpretation is founded on such an hypothesis, it may help to keep the hypothesis above ground long after it ought to be buried and forgotten. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
75:Science appears to us with a very different aspect after we have found out that it is not in lecture rooms only, and by means of the electric light projected on a screen, that we may witness physical phenomena, but that we may find illustrations of the highest doctrines of science in games and gymnastics, in travelling by land and by water, in storms of the air and of the sea, and wherever there is matter in motion. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
76:This change in the conception of reality is the most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton.

{Referring to James Clerk Maxwell's contributions to physics} ~ Albert Einstein
77:Whether this vast homogeneous expanse of isotropic matter is fitted not only to be a medium of physical interaction between distant bodies, and to fulfil other physical functions of which perhaps we have as yet no conception, but also to constitute the material organism of beings exercising functions of life and mind as high or higher than ours are at present is a question far transcending the limits of physical speculation. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
78:Accordingly, we find Euler and D'Alembert devoting their talent and their patience to the establishment of the laws of rotation of the solid bodies. Lagrange has incorporated his own analysis of the problem with his general treatment of mechanics, and since his time M. Poinsôt has brought the subject under the power of a more searching analysis than that of the calculus, in which ideas take the place of symbols, and intelligent propositions supersede equations. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
79:In fact, whenever energy is transmitted from one body to another in time, there must be a medium or substance in which the energy exists after it leaves one body and before it reaches the other ... and if we admit this medium as an hypothesis, I think it ought to occupy a prominent place in our investigations, and that we ought to endeavour to construct a mental representation of all the details of its action, and this has been my constant aim in this treatise. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
80:this determinism says that in every case the result is determined by the previous condition of the subject we are looking at. Our free will at the best is like that of Lucretius's atoms — which at quite uncertain times and places deviate in an uncertain manner from their course.

the atoms can swerve so there’s always the small possibility even for air molecules of not being forced to follow the determined laws.

- ESSAY FOR THE ERANUS CLUB ON SCIENCE AND FREE WILL ~ James Clerk Maxwell
81:That small word "Force," they make a barber's block, Ready to put on Meanings most strange and various, fit to shock Pupils of Newton.... The phrases of last century in this Linger to play tricks- Vis viva and Vis Mortua and Vis Acceleratrix:- Those long-nebbed words that to our text books still Cling by their titles, And from them creep, as entozoa will, Into our vitals. But see! Tait writes in lucid symbols clear One small equation; And Force becomes of Energy a mere Space-variation. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
82:We shall see that the mathematical treatment of the subject [of electricity] has been greatly developed by writers who express themselves in terms of the 'Two Fluids' theory. Their results, however, have been deduced entirely from data which can be proved by experiment, and which must therefore be true, whether we adopt the theory of two fluids or not. The experimental verification of the mathematical results therefore is no evidence for or against the peculiar doctrines of this theory. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
83:Ultimately, no amount of opposition could stifle Tesla’s creative powers. Enthused by his discoveries with X-rays, he devoted his energies to the realm of high-frequency electricity. Two decades earlier, James Clerk Maxwell had proven mathematically that light was electromagnetic radiation—electricity that was vibrating at an extremely high frequency. In 1888, Heinrich Hertz had confirmed that an electric spark emits electromagnetic waves. Tesla knew that this unexplored territory would yield astounding ~ Sean Patrick
84:I think men of science as well as other men need to learn from Christ, and I think Christians whose minds are scientific are bound to study science that their view of the glory of God may be as extensive as their being is capable. But I think that the results which each man arrives at in his attempts to harmonize his science with his Christianity ought not to be regarded as having any significance except to the man himself, and to him only for a time, and should not receive the stamp of a society. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
85:I have been battering away at Saturn, returning to the charge every now and then. I have effected several breaches in the solid ring, and now I am splash into the fluid one, amid a clash of symbols truly astounding. When I reappear it will be in the dusky ring, which is something like the state of the air supposing the siege of Sebastopol conducted from a forest of guns 100 miles one way, and 30,000 miles the other, and the shot never to stop, but go spinning away round a circle, radius 170,000 miles. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
86:The experimental investigation by which Ampere established the law of the mechanical action between electric currents is one of the most brilliant achievements in science. The whole, theory and experiment, seems as if it had leaped, full grown and full armed, from the brain of the 'Newton of Electricity'. It is perfect in form, and unassailable in accuracy, and it is summed up in a formula from which all the phenomena may be deduced, and which must always remain the cardinal formula of electro-dynamics. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
87:Surely a University is the very place where we should be able to overcome this tendency of men to become, as it were, granulated into small worlds, which are all the more worldly for their very smallness. We lose the advantage of having men of varied pursuits collected into one body, if we do not endeavour to imbibe some of the spirit even of those whose special branch of learning is different from our own. ~ James Clerk Maxwell, "Introductory Lecture on Experimental Physics," The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell (1890) Vol.2
88:Mathematicians may flatter themselves that they possess new ideas which mere human language is as yet unable to express. Let them make the effort to express these ideas in appropriate words without the aid of symbols, and if they succeed they will not only lay us laymen under a lasting obligation, but, we venture to say, they will find themselves very much enlightened during the process, and will even be doubtful whether the ideas as expressed in symbols had ever quite found their way out of the equations into their minds. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
89:In the heavens we discover [stars] by their light, and by their light alone ... the sole evidence of the existence of these distant worlds ... that each of them is built up of molecules of the same kinds we find on earth. A molecule of hydrogen, for example, whether in Sirius or in Arcturus, executes its vibrations in precisely the same time. Each molecule therefore throughout the universe bears impressed upon it the stamp of a metric system as distinctly as does the metre of the Archives at Paris, or the royal cubit of the Temple of Karnac. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
90:And last of all we have the secondary forms of crystals bursting in upon us, and sparkling in the rigidity of mathematical necessity and telling us, neither of harmony of design, usefulness or moral significance, nothing but spherical trigonometry and Napier's analogies. It is because we have blindly excluded the lessons of these angular bodies from the domain of human knowledge that we are still in doubt about the great doctrine that the only laws of matter are those which our minds must fabricate, and the only laws of mind are fabricated for it by matter. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
91:Natural causes, as we know, are at work, which tend to modify, if they do not at length destroy, all the arrangements and dimensions of the earth and the whole solar system. But though in the course of ages catastrophes have occurred and may yet occur in the heavens, though ancient systems may be dissolved and new systems evolved out of their ruins, the molecules [i.e. atoms] out of which these systems are built-the foundation stones of the material universe-remain unbroken and unworn.‎ They continue to this day as they were created-perfect in number and measure and weight. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
92:So many of the properties of matter, especially when in the gaseous form, can be deduced from the hypothesis that their minute parts are in rapid motion, the velocity increasing with the temperature, that the precise nature of this motion becomes a subject of rational curiosity. Daniel Bernoulli, Herapath, Joule, Kronig, Clausius, &c., have shewn that the relations between pressure, temperature and density in a perfect gas can be explained by supposing the particles move with uniform velocity in straight lines, striking against the sides of the containing vessel and thus producing pressure. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
93:That small word “Force,” they make a barber's block,
Ready to put on
Meanings most strange and various, fit to shock
Pupils of Newton....
The phrases of last century in this
Linger to play tricks—
Vis viva and Vis Mortua and Vis Acceleratrix:—
Those long-nebbed words that to our text books still
Cling by their titles,
And from them creep, as entozoa will,
Into our vitals.
But see! Tait writes in lucid symbols clear
One small equation;
And Force becomes of Energy a mere
Space-variation. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
94:Electromagnetic theory is entirely a mathematical theory illustrated by a few crude physical pictures. These pictures are no more than the clothes that dress up the body of mathematics and make it appear presentable in the society of sciences. ...Though he [James Clerk Maxwell] had tried desperately to build a physical account of electromagnetic phenomena, in his classic Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism he omitted most of this material and emphasized the highly polished, complex mathematical theory. ...Radio waves and light waves operate in a physical darkness illuminated only for those who would carry the torch of mathematics. ~ Morris Kline, Mathematics and the Physical World (1959) pp. 360-361.
95:A molecule of hydrogen....whether in Sirius or in Arcturus, executes its vibrations in precisely the same time. Each molecule therefore throughout the universe bears impressed upon it the stamp of a metric system as distinctly as does the metre of the Archives at Paris, or the double royal cubit of the temple of Karnac. No theory of evolution can be formed to account for the similarity of molecules, for evolution necessarily implies continuous change, and the molecule is incapable of growth or decay, of generation or destruction.... We are therefore unable to ascribe either the existence of the molecules or the identity of their properties to any of the causes which we call natural. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
96:Therein lies the key, I think, to Einstein’s brilliance and the lessons of his life. As a young student he never did well with rote learning. And later, as a theorist, his success came not from the brute strength of his mental processing power but from his imagination and creativity. He could construct complex equations, but more important, he knew that math is the language nature uses to describe her wonders. So he could visualize how equations were reflected in realities—how the electromagnetic field equations discovered by James Clerk Maxwell, for example, would manifest themselves to a boy riding alongside a light beam. As he once declared, “Imagination is more important than knowledge.”6 ~ Walter Isaacson
97:Mathematical theories have sometimes been used to predict phenomena that were not confirmed until years later. For example, Maxwell's equations, named after physicist James Clerk Maxwell, predicted radio waves. Einstein's field equations suggested that gravity would bend light and that the universe is expanding. Physicist Paul Dirac once noted that the abstract mathematics we study now gives us a glimpse of physics in the future. In fact, his equations predicted the existence of antimatter, which was subsequently discovered. Similarly, mathematician Nikolai Lobachevsky said that "there is no branch of mathematics, however abstract, which may not someday be applied to the phenomena of the real world. ~ Clifford A Pickover
98:By 1860, a great deal was known about electricity and magnetism. Magnets could be used to make electric currents flow, and flowing electric currents could deflect compass needles in the same way that magnets could. There was clearly a link between these two phenomena, but nobody had come up with a unified description. The breakthrough was made by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who, in a series of papers in 1861 and 1862, developed a single theory of electricity and magnetism that was able to explain all of the experimental work of Faraday, Ampère and others. But Maxwell’s crowning glory came in 1864, when he published a paper that is undoubtedly one of the greatest achievements in the history of science. Albert ~ Brian Cox
99:Happy is the man who can recognize in the work of to-day a connected portion of the work of life and an embodiment of the work of Eternity. The foundations of his confidence are unchangeable, for he has been made a partaker of Infinity. He strenuously works out his daily enterprises because the present is given him for a possession.
   Thus ought man to be an impersonation of the divine process of nature, and to show forth the union of the infinite with the finite, not slighting his temporal existence, remembering that in it only is individual action possible, nor yet shutting out from his view that which is eternal, knowing that Time is a mystery which man cannot endure to contemplate until eternal Truth enlighten it. ~ James Clerk Maxwell,
100:Happy is the man who can recognize in the work of to-day a connected portion of the work of life and an embodiment of the work of Eternity. The foundations of his confidence are unchangeable, for he has been made a partaker of Infinity. He strenuously works out his daily enterprises because the present is given him for a possession.

Thus ought man to be an impersonation of the divine process of nature, and to show forth the union of the infinite with the finite, not slighting his temporal existence, remembering that in it only is individual action possible, nor yet shutting out from his view that which is eternal, knowing that Time is a mystery which man cannot endure to contemplate until eternal Truth enlighten it. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
101:In 1862, the Scottish mathematician James Clerk Maxwell developed a set of fundamental equations that unified electricity and magnetism. On his deathbed, he coughed up a strange sort of confession, declaring that “something within him” discovered the famous equations, not he. He admitted he had no idea how ideas actually came to him—they simply came to him. William Blake related a similar experience, reporting of his long narrative poem Milton: “I have written this poem from immediate dictation twelve or sometimes twenty lines at a time without premeditation and even against my will.” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe claimed to have written his novella The Sorrows of Young Werther with practically no conscious input, as though he were holding a pen that moved on its own. ~ David Eagleman
102:Mathematicians may flatter themselves that they possess new ideas which mere human language is yet unable to express. Let them make the effort to express these ideas in appropriate words without the aid of symbols, and if they succeed they will not only lay us laymen under a lasting obligation, but we venture to say, they will find themselves very much enlightened during the process, and will even be doubtful whether the ideas as expressed in symbols had ever quite found their way out of the equations of their minds. ~ James Clerk Maxwell, "Thomson & Tait's Natural Philosophy" in Nature, Vol. 7 (Mar. 27, 1873) A review of Elements of Natural Philosophy [2] (1873) by Sir W. Thomson, P. G. Tait. See Nature, Vol. 7-8, Nov. 1872-Oct. 1873, pp. 399-400, or The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, p. 328.
103:But it is evident that all analogies of this kind depend on principles of a more fundamental nature; and that, if we had a true mathematical classification of quantities, we should be able at once to detect the analogy between any system of quantities presented to us and other systems of quantities in known sciences, so that we should lose no time in availing ourselves of the mathematical labors of those who had already solved problems essentially the same. [...] At the same time, I think that the progress of science, both in the way of discovery, and in the way of diffusion, would be greatly aided if more attention were paid in a direct way to the classification of quantities. ~ James Clerk Maxwell, Remarks on the mathematical classification of physical quantities, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, 1871,
104:The latest and most successful creation of theoretical physics, namely Quantum Mechanics, is fundamentally different in its principles from the two programmes which we will briefly call Newton's and Maxwell's. For the quantities that appear in its laws make no claim to describe Physical Reality itself, but only the probabilities for the appearances of a particular physical reality on which our attention is fixed. Dirac, to whom, in my opinion, we owe the most logically perfect presentation of this theory, rightly points out that it appears, for example, to be by no means easy to give a theoretical description of a photon that shall contain within it the reasons that determine whether or not the photon will pass a polarizator set obliquely in its path. ~ Paul Dirac, Albert Einstein, in James Clerk Maxwell (1931), p. 72-73
105:But it is evident that all analogies of this kind depend on principles of a more fundamental nature; and that, if we had a true mathematical classification of quantities, we should be able at once to detect the analogy between any system of quantities presented to us and other systems of quantities in known sciences, so that we should lose no time in availing ourselves of the mathematical labors of those who had already solved problems essentially the same. [...] At the same time, I think that the progress of science, both in the way of discovery, and in the way of diffusion, would be greatly aided if more attention were paid in a direct way to the classification of quantities.

- Remarks on the mathematical classification of physical quantities
Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, 1871 ~ James Clerk Maxwell
106:Accordingly, we find Euler and D'Alembert devoting their talent and their patience to the establishment of the laws of rotation of the solid bodies. Lagrange has incorporated his own analysis of the problem with his general treatment of mechanics, and since his time M. Poinsot has brought the subject under the power of a more searching analysis than that of the calculus, in which ideas take the place of symbols, and intelligent propositions supersede equations. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
107:... if we conceive of a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course, such a being, whose attributes are as essentially finite as our own, would be able to do what is impossible to us. For we have seen that molecules in a vessel full of air at uniform temperature are moving with velocities by no means uniform, though the mean velocity of any great number of them, arbitrarily selected, is almost exactly uniform. Now let us suppose that such a vessel is divided into two portions, A and B, by a division in which there is a small hole, and that a being, who can see the individual molecules, opens and closes this hole, so as to allow only the swifter molecules to pass from A to B, and only the slower molecules to pass from B to A. He will thus, without expenditure of work, raise the temperature of B and lower that of A, in contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics. ~ James Clerk Maxwell,
108:Natural causes, as we know, are at work, which tend to modify, if they do not at length destroy, all the dimensions of the earth and the whole solar system. But though in the course of ages catastrophes have occurred and may yet occur in the heavens, though ancient systems may be dissolved and new systems evolved out of their ruins, the molecules out of which these systems are built-the foundation stones of the material universe-remain unbroken and unworn.

They continue this day as they were created-perfect in number and measure and weight, and form the innefaceable characters impressed on them we may learn that those aspirations after accuracy in measurement, truth in statement, and justice in action, which we reckon among our noblest attributes as men, are ours because they are essential constituents of the image of Him who in the beginning created, not only the heaven and the earth, but the materials which heaven and earth consist. ~ James Clerk Maxwell
109:So many of the properties of matter, especially when in the gaseous form, can be deduced from the hypothesis that their minute parts are in rapid motion, the velocity increasing with the temperature, that the precise nature of this motion becomes a subject of rational curiosity. Daniel Bernoulli, John Herapath, Joule, Krönig, Clausius, &c., have shewn that the relations between pressure, temperature and density in a perfect gas can be explained by supposing the particles move with uniform velocity in straight lines, striking against the sides of the containing vessel and thus producing pressure. (1860) ~ James Clerk Maxwell

IN CHAPTERS









WORDNET



--- Overview of noun james_clerk_maxwell

The noun james clerk maxwell has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts)
            
1. Maxwell, J. C. Maxwell, James Clerk Maxwell ::: (Scottish physicist whose equations unified electricity and magnetism and who recognized the electromagnetic nature of light (1831-1879))




--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun james_clerk_maxwell

1 sense of james clerk maxwell                    

Sense 1
Maxwell, J. C. Maxwell, James Clerk Maxwell
   INSTANCE OF=> physicist
     => scientist
       => person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
         => organism, being
           => living thing, animate thing
             => whole, unit
               => object, physical object
                 => physical entity
                   => entity
         => causal agent, cause, causal agency
           => physical entity
             => entity




--- Hyponyms of noun james_clerk_maxwell
                                    




--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun james_clerk_maxwell

1 sense of james clerk maxwell                    

Sense 1
Maxwell, J. C. Maxwell, James Clerk Maxwell
   INSTANCE OF=> physicist










--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun james_clerk_maxwell

1 sense of james clerk maxwell                    

Sense 1
Maxwell, J. C. Maxwell, James Clerk Maxwell
  -> physicist
   => acoustician
   => astronomer, uranologist, stargazer
   => biophysicist
   => nuclear physicist
   HAS INSTANCE=> Alhazen, Alhacen, al-Haytham, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham
   HAS INSTANCE=> Anderson, Philip Anderson, Philip Warren Anderson, Phil Anderson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Appleton, Edward Appleton, Sir Edward Victor Appleton
   HAS INSTANCE=> Archimedes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Arrhenius, Svante August Arrhenius
   HAS INSTANCE=> Avogadro, Amedeo Avogadro
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bardeen, John Bardeen
   HAS INSTANCE=> Becquerel, Henri Becquerel, Antoine Henri Becquerel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bernoulli, Daniel Bernoulli
   HAS INSTANCE=> Boltzmann, Ludwig Boltzmann
   HAS INSTANCE=> Brockhouse, Bertram Brockhouse
   HAS INSTANCE=> Carnot, Sadi Carnot, Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cavendish, Henry Cavendish
   HAS INSTANCE=> Charles, Jacques Charles, Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles
   HAS INSTANCE=> Coulomb, Charles Augustin de Coulomb
   HAS INSTANCE=> Crookes, William Crookes, Sir William Crookes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Curie, Pierre Curie
   HAS INSTANCE=> Dalton, John Dalton
   HAS INSTANCE=> Dewar, Sir James Dewar
   HAS INSTANCE=> Doppler, Christian Johann Doppler
   HAS INSTANCE=> Einstein, Albert Einstein
   HAS INSTANCE=> Esaki, Leo Esaki
   HAS INSTANCE=> Fahrenheit, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit
   HAS INSTANCE=> Faraday, Michael Faraday
   HAS INSTANCE=> Fechner, Gustav Theodor Fechner
   HAS INSTANCE=> Foucault, Jean Bernard Leon Foucault
   HAS INSTANCE=> Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, Baron Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier
   HAS INSTANCE=> Franck, James Franck
   HAS INSTANCE=> Fresnel, Augustin Jean Fresnel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Fuchs, Klaus Fuchs, Emil Klaus Julius Fuchs
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gabor, Dennis Gabor
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gamow, George Gamow
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
   HAS INSTANCE=> Geiger, Hans Geiger
   HAS INSTANCE=> Gilbert, William Gilbert
   HAS INSTANCE=> Goddard, Robert Hutchings Goddard
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hawking, Stephen Hawking, Stephen William Hawking
   HAS INSTANCE=> Heaviside, Oliver Heaviside
   HAS INSTANCE=> Helmholtz, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, Baron Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz
   HAS INSTANCE=> Henry, Joseph Henry
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hertz, Heinrich Hertz, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hess, Victor Hess, Victor Franz Hess
   HAS INSTANCE=> Huygens, Christiaan Huygens, Christian Huygens
   HAS INSTANCE=> Joliot, Jean-Frederic Joliot, Joliot-Curie, Jean-Frederic Joliot-Curie
   HAS INSTANCE=> Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie
   HAS INSTANCE=> Joule, James Prescott Joule
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kastler, Alfred Kastler
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kelvin, First Baron Kelvin, William Thompson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kirchhoff, G. R. Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert Kirchhoff
   HAS INSTANCE=> Landau, Lev Davidovich Landau
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lenard, Philipp Lenard
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lippmann, Gabriel Lippmann
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lodge, Sir Oliver Lodge, Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mach, Ernst Mach
   HAS INSTANCE=> Maxwell, J. C. Maxwell, James Clerk Maxwell
   HAS INSTANCE=> Meissner, Fritz W. Meissner
   HAS INSTANCE=> Michelson, A. A. Michelson, Albert Michelson, Albert Abraham Michelson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Millikan, Robert Andrews Millikan
   HAS INSTANCE=> Neel, Louis Eugene Felix Neel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Nernst, Walther Hermann Nernst
   HAS INSTANCE=> Newton, Isaac Newton, Sir Isaac Newton
   HAS INSTANCE=> Oersted, Hans Christian Oersted
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ohm, Georg Simon Ohm
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pitot, Henri Pitot
   HAS INSTANCE=> Planck, Max Planck, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
   HAS INSTANCE=> Powell, Cecil Frank Powell
   HAS INSTANCE=> Prokhorov, Aleksandr Prokhorov, Aleksandr Mikjailovich Prokhorov
   HAS INSTANCE=> Rayleigh, Third Baron Rayleigh, Lord Rayleigh, John William Strutt
   HAS INSTANCE=> Reaumur, Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur
   HAS INSTANCE=> Roentgen, Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen, Rontgen, Wilhelm Konrad Rontgen
   HAS INSTANCE=> Rutherford, Ernest Rutherford, First Baron Rutherford, First Baron Rutherford of Nelson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Shockley, William Shockley, William Bradford Shockley
   HAS INSTANCE=> Thompson, Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford
   HAS INSTANCE=> Thomson, Joseph John Thomson, Sir Joseph John Thomson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Thomson, George Paget Thomson, Sir George Paget Thomson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Torricelli, Evangelista Torricelli
   => Townes, Charles Townes, Charles Hard Townes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Tyndall, John Tyndall
   HAS INSTANCE=> Van Allen, James Alfred Van Allen
   HAS INSTANCE=> Van de Graaff, Robert Van de Graaff, Robert Jemison Van de Graaff
   HAS INSTANCE=> van der Waals, Johannes van der Waals, Johannes Diderik van der Waals
   HAS INSTANCE=> Van Vleck, John Van Vleck, John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
   HAS INSTANCE=> Volta, Count Alessandro Volta, Conte Alessandro Volta, Conte Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta
   HAS INSTANCE=> Weber, Wilhelm Eduard Weber
   HAS INSTANCE=> Weinberg, Steven Weinberg
   HAS INSTANCE=> Wheatstone, Sir Charles Wheatstone
   HAS INSTANCE=> Wilson, Robert Woodrow Wilson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Wollaston, William Hyde Wollaston
   HAS INSTANCE=> Yang Chen Ning, Chen N. Yang
   HAS INSTANCE=> Young, Thomas Young
   HAS INSTANCE=> Zeeman, Pieter Zeeman
   HAS INSTANCE=> Zworykin, Vladimir Kosma Zworykin










--- Grep of noun james_clerk_maxwell
james clerk maxwell





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