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Gofer ::: (language) A lazy functional language designed by Mark Jones at the Programming Research Group, Oxford, UK in 1991. expressions, and wild card, as and irrefutable patterns. It lacks modules, arrays and standard classes.Gofer comes with an interpreter (in C), a compiler which compiles to C, documentation and examples. Unix Version 2.30 (1994-06-10) Mac_Gofer version 0.16 beta. Ported to Sun, Acorn Archimedes, IBM PC, Macintosh, Atari, Amiga.Version 2.30 added support for contexts in datatype and member function definitions, Haskell style arrays, an external function calling mechanism for functional state threads, an experimental implementation of do notation for monad comprehensions.Latest version: HUGS.[Introduction to Gofer 2.20, M.P. Jones.][The implementation of the Gofer functional programming system, Mark P. Jones, Research Report YALEU/DCS/RR-1030, Yale University, Department of Computer Science, May 1994. FTP: nebula.cs.yale.edu/pub/yale-fp/reports]. . . (1995-02-14)

Gofer "language" A {lazy} {functional language} designed by Mark Jones "mpj@cs.nott.ac.uk" at the {Programming Research Group}, Oxford, UK in 1991. It is very similar to {Haskell} 1.2. It has {lazy evaluation}, {higher order functions}, {pattern matching}, and {type class}es, lambda, case, conditional and let expressions, and wild card, "as" and {irrefutable patterns}. It lacks {modules}, {arrays} and standard {classes}. Gofer comes with an {interpreter} (in C), a {compiler} which compiles to {C}, documentation and examples. Unix Version 2.30 (1994-06-10) Mac_Gofer version 0.16 beta. Ported to {Sun}, {Acorn} {Archimedes}, {IBM PC}, {Macintosh}, {Atari}, {Amiga}. Version 2.30 added support for contexts in datatype and member function definitions, Haskell style {arrays}, an external function calling mechanism for gofc, an experimental implementation of Launchbury/Peyton Jones style lazy functional state threads, an experimental implementation of "do" notation for {monad comprehensions}. ["Introduction to Gofer 2.20", M.P. Jones.] [The implementation of the Gofer functional programming system, Mark P. Jones, Research Report YALEU/DCS/RR-1030, Yale University, Department of Computer Science, May 1994. FTP: nebula.cs.yale.edu/pub/yale-fp/reports]. {(http://cs.nott.ac.uk/Department/Staff/mpj/)}. {FTP Yale (ftp://nebula.cs.yale.edu/)}, {FTP Glasgow (ftp://ftp.dcs.glasgow.ac.uk/)}, {FTP Chalmers (ftp://ftp.cs.chalmers.se/pub/haskell/gofer/)}. (1995-02-14)

Haskell "language" (Named after the logician {Haskell Curry}) A {lazy} {purely functional} language largely derived from {Miranda} but with several extensions. Haskell was designed by a committee from the {functional programming} community in April 1990. It features static {polymorphic} typing, {higher-order functions}, user-defined {algebraic data types}, and {pattern-matching} {list comprehensions}. Innovations include a {class} system, systematic operator {overloading}, a {functional I/O} system, functional {arrays}, and {separate compilation}. Haskell 1.3 added many new features, including {monadic I/O}, standard libraries, {constructor classes}, {labeled fields} in datatypes, {strictness} {annotations}, an improved {module} system, and many changes to the Prelude. {Gofer} is a cut-down version of Haskell with some extra features. {Filename extension}: .hs, .lhs ({literate programming}). {(http://haskell.org/)}. ["Report on the Programming Language Haskell Version 1.1", Paul Hudak & P. Wadler eds, CS Depts, U Glasgow and Yale U., Aug 1991]. [Version 1.2: SIGPLAN Notices 27(5), Apr 1992]. {Haskell 1.3 Report (http://haskell.cs.yale.edu/haskell-report/haskell-report.html)}. Mailing list: "haskell-request@cs.yale.edu". Yale Haskell - Version 2.0.6, Haskell 1.2 built on {Common Lisp}. {(ftp://nebula.cs.yale.edu/pub/haskell/yale/)}. Glasgow Haskell (GHC) - Version 2.04 for {DEC Alpha}/{OSF}2; {HPPA1.1}/{HPUX}9,10; {SPARC}/{SunOs} 4, {Solaris} 2; {MIPS}/{Irix} 5,6; {Intel 80386}/{Linux},{Solaris} 2,{FreeBSD},{CygWin} 32; {PowerPC}/{AIX}. GHC generates {C} or {native code}. {(ftp://ftp.dcs.glasgow.ac.uk/pub/haskell/glasgow/)}. E-mail: "glasgow-haskell-request@dcs.glasgow.ac.uk". Haskell-B - Haskell 1.2 implemented in {LML}, generates {native code}. {(ftp://ftp.cs.chalmers.se/pub/haskell/chalmers/)}. E-mail: "hbc@cs.chalmers.se". (1997-06-06)

Haskell ::: (language) (Named after the logician Haskell Curry) A lazy purely functional language largely derived from Miranda but with several extensions. Innovations include a class system, systematic operator overloading, a functional I/O system, functional arrays, and separate compilation.Haskell 1.3 added many new features, including monadic I/O, standard libraries, constructor classes, labeled fields in datatypes, strictness annotations, an improved module system, and many changes to the Prelude.Gofer is a cut-down version of Haskell with some extra features.Filename extension: .hs, .lhs (literate programming). .[Report on the Programming Language Haskell Version 1.1, Paul Hudak & P. Wadler eds, CS Depts, U Glasgow and Yale U., Aug 1991].[Version 1.2: SIGPLAN Notices 27(5), Apr 1992]. .Mailing list: .Yale Haskell - Version 2.0.6, Haskell 1.2 built on Common Lisp. .Glasgow Haskell (GHC) - Version 2.04 for DEC Alpha/OSF2; HPPA1.1/HPUX9,10; SPARC/SunOs 4, Solaris 2; MIPS/Irix 5,6; Intel 80386/Linux,Solaris 2,FreeBSD,CygWin 32; PowerPC/AIX. GHC generates C or native code. .E-mail: .Haskell-B - Haskell 1.2 implemented in LML, generates native code. .E-mail: . (1997-06-06)

Joy "language" A {functional programming} language by Manfred von Thun. Joy is unusual because it is not based on {lambda calculus}, but on the {composition} of {functions}. Functions take a stack as argument, consume any number of parameters from it, and return it with any number of results on it. The concatenation of programs denotes the composition of functions. One of the datatypes of Joy is that of quoted programs, of which lists are a special case. {Joy Home (http://latrobe.edu.au/philosophy/phimvt/joy.html)}. (2003-06-13)

Joy ::: (language) A functional programming language by Manfred von Thun. Joy is unusual because it is not based on lambda calculus, but on the composition of programs denotes the composition of functions. One of the datatypes of Joy is that of quoted programs, of which lists are a special case. .(2003-06-13)

Liana "language" A {C}-like, interpretive, {object-oriented programming} language, {class} library, and integrated development environment designed specifically for development of {application programs} for {Microsoft Windows} and {Windows NT}. Designed by Jack Krupansky "Jack@BaseTechnology.com" of {Base Technology}, Liana was first released as a commercial product in August 1991. The language is designed to be as easy to use as {BASIC}, as concise as {C}, and as flexible as {Smalltalk}. The {OOP} {syntax} of {C++} was chosen over the less familiar syntax of {Smalltalk} and {Objective-C} to appeal to {C} programmers and in recognition of C++ being the leading OOP language. The syntax is a simplified subset of {C/C++}. The {semantics} are also a simplified subset of C/C++, but extended to achieve the flexibility of Smalltalk. Liana is a typeless language (like {Lisp}, {Snobol} and {Smalltalk}), which means that the datatypes of variables, function parameters, and function return values are not needed since values carry the type information. Hence, variables are simply containers for values and function parameters are simply pipes through which any type of value can flow. {Single inheritance}, but not {multiple inheritance}, is supported. {Memory management} is automatic using {reference counting}. The library includes over 150 {classes}, for {dynamic arrays}, {associative lookup} tables, windows, menus, dialogs, controls, bitmaps, cursors, icons, mouse movement, keyboard input, fonts, text and graphics display, {DDE}, and {MDI}. Liana provides flexible OOP support for Windows programming. For example, a {list box} automatically fills itself from an associated {object}. That object is not some sort of special object, but is merely any object that "behaves like" an array (i.e., has a "size" member function that returns the number of elements, a "get" function that returns the ith element, and the text for each element is returned by calling the "text" member function for the element). A related product, C-odeScript, is an embeddable application scripting language. It is an implementation of Liana which can be called from C/C++ applications to dynamically evaluate expressions and statement sequences. This can be used to offer the end-user a macro/scripting capability or to allow the C/C++ application to be customized without changing the C/C++ source code. Here's a complete Liana program which illustrates the flexibility of the language semantics and the power of the class library: main {  // Prompt user for a string.  // No declaration needed for "x" (becomes a global variable.)  x = ask ("Enter a String");  // Use "+" operator to concatenate strings. Memory  // management for string temporaries is automatic. The  // "message" function displays a Windows message box.  message ("You entered: " + x);  // Now x will take on a different type. The "ask_number"  // function will return a "real" if the user's input  // contains a decimal point or an "int" if no decimal  // point.  x = ask_number ("Enter a Number");  // The "+" operator with a string operand will  // automatically convert the other operand to a string.  message ("You entered: " + x);  // Prompt user for a Liana expression. Store it in a  // local variable (the type, string, is merely for  // documentation.)  string expr = ask ("Enter an Expression");  // Evaluate the expression. The return value of "eval"  // could be any type. The "source_format" member function  // converts any value to its source format (e.g., add  // quotes for a string.) The "class_name" member function  // return the name of the class of an object/value.  // Empty parens can be left off for member function calls.  x = eval (expr);  message ("The value of " + expr + " is " + x.source_format +    " its type is " + x.class_name); } The author explained that the "Li" of Liana stands for "Language interpreter" and liana are vines that grow up trees in tropical forests, which seemed quite appropriate for a tool to deal with the complexity of MS Windows! It is also a woman's name. ["Liana for Windows", Aitken, P., PC TECHNIQUES, Dec/Jan 1993]. ["Liana: A Language For Writing Windows Programs", Burk, R., Tech Specialist (R&D Publications), Sep 1991]. ["Liana v. 1.0." Hildebrand, J.D., Computer Language, Dec 1992]. ["Liana: A Windows Programming Language Based on C and C++", Krupansky, J., The C Users Journal, Jul 1992]. ["Writing a Multimedia App in Liana", Krupansky, J., Dr. Dobb's Journal, Winter Multimedia Sourcebook 1994]. ["The Liana Programming Language", R. Valdes, Dr Dobbs J Oct 1993, pp.50-52]. (1999-06-29)

Liana ::: (language) A C-like, interpretive, object-oriented programming language, class library, and integrated development environment designed specifically for language is designed to be as easy to use as BASIC, as concise as C, and as flexible as Smalltalk.The OOP syntax of C++ was chosen over the less familiar syntax of Smalltalk and Objective-C to appeal to C programmers and in recognition of C++ being the are also a simplified subset of C/C++, but extended to achieve the flexibility of Smalltalk.Liana is a typeless language (like Lisp, Snobol and Smalltalk), which means that the datatypes of variables, function parameters, and function return values are type of value can flow. Single inheritance, but not multiple inheritance, is supported. Memory management is automatic using reference counting.The library includes over 150 classes, for dynamic arrays, associative lookup tables, windows, menus, dialogs, controls, bitmaps, cursors, icons, mouse movement, keyboard input, fonts, text and graphics display, DDE, and MDI.Liana provides flexible OOP support for Windows programming. For example, a list box automatically fills itself from an associated object. That object is not get function that returns the ith element, and the text for each element is returned by calling the text member function for the element).A related product, C-odeScript, is an embeddable application scripting language. It is an implementation of Liana which can be called from C/C++ applications to offer the end-user a macro/scripting capability or to allow the C/C++ application to be customized without changing the C/C++ source code.Here's a complete Liana program which illustrates the flexibility of the language semantics and the power of the class library: main{ for a tool to deal with the complexity of MS Windows! It is also a woman's name.[Liana for Windows, Aitken, P., PC TECHNIQUES, Dec/Jan 1993].[Liana: A Language For Writing Windows Programs, Burk, R., Tech Specialist (R&D Publications), Sep 1991].[Liana v. 1.0. Hildebrand, J.D., Computer Language, Dec 1992].[Liana: A Windows Programming Language Based on C and C++, Krupansky, J., The C Users Journal, Jul 1992].[Writing a Multimedia App in Liana, Krupansky, J., Dr. Dobb's Journal, Winter Multimedia Sourcebook 1994].[The Liana Programming Language, R. Valdes, Dr Dobbs J Oct 1993, pp.50-52]. (1999-06-29)

Uniform Resource Citation "web" (URC) A set of attribute/value pairs describing an object. Some of the values may be {URIs} of various kinds. Others may include, for example, athorship, publisher, datatype, date, copyright status and shoe size. A URC is not normally considered as a string, but a set of fields and values with some defined free formatting. (1995-03-24)



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1:Martin Kleppmann and Alastair R. Beresford: “A Conflict-Free Replicated JSON Datatype,” arXiv:1608.03960, August 13, 2016. ~ Martin Kleppmann,

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Wikipedia - Algebraic datatypes
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https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:ListDatatypes



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