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object:Montesquieu
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title class:Baron


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OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Persian_Letters
The_Spirit_of_the_Laws

IN CHAPTERS TITLE

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
04.01_-_The_March_of_Civilisation
BOOK_I._--_PART_III._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED

PRIMARY CLASS

author
SIMILAR TITLES
Montesquieu

DEFINITIONS

Montesquieu, Charles De Secondat: (1689-1755) French historian and writer in the field of politics. His Lettres persanes, thinly disguise trenchant criticism of the decadence of French society through the letters of two Persian visitors. His masterpiece, L'Esprit des Lois, gives a political and social philosophy in pointing the relation between the laws and the constitution of government. He finds a relation between all laws in the laws of laws, the necessary relations derived from the nature of things. In his analysis of the English constitution, he stressed the separation of powers in a manner that has had lasting influence though based on historical inaccuracy. -- L.E.D.



QUOTES [3 / 3 - 424 / 424]


KEYS (10k)

   2 Baron de Montesquieu
   1 Mortimer J Adler

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

  226 Baron de Montesquieu
  155 Montesquieu
   4 Victor Hugo
   4 Charles de Montesquieu
   2 Thomas A Edison
   2 Russell Kirk
   2 Mark R Levin
   2 Lord Chesterfield
   2 Baron de Montesquieu

1:An empire founded by war has to maintain itself by war.
   ~ Baron de Montesquieu,
2:There is no crueler tyranny than that which is perpetuated under the shield of law and in the name of justice." ~ Baron de Montesquieu,
3:Reading list (1972 edition)[edit]
1. Homer - Iliad, Odyssey
2. The Old Testament
3. Aeschylus - Tragedies
4. Sophocles - Tragedies
5. Herodotus - Histories
6. Euripides - Tragedies
7. Thucydides - History of the Peloponnesian War
8. Hippocrates - Medical Writings
9. Aristophanes - Comedies
10. Plato - Dialogues
11. Aristotle - Works
12. Epicurus - Letter to Herodotus; Letter to Menoecus
13. Euclid - Elements
14.Archimedes - Works
15. Apollonius of Perga - Conic Sections
16. Cicero - Works
17. Lucretius - On the Nature of Things
18. Virgil - Works
19. Horace - Works
20. Livy - History of Rome
21. Ovid - Works
22. Plutarch - Parallel Lives; Moralia
23. Tacitus - Histories; Annals; Agricola Germania
24. Nicomachus of Gerasa - Introduction to Arithmetic
25. Epictetus - Discourses; Encheiridion
26. Ptolemy - Almagest
27. Lucian - Works
28. Marcus Aurelius - Meditations
29. Galen - On the Natural Faculties
30. The New Testament
31. Plotinus - The Enneads
32. St. Augustine - On the Teacher; Confessions; City of God; On Christian Doctrine
33. The Song of Roland
34. The Nibelungenlied
35. The Saga of Burnt Njal
36. St. Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica
37. Dante Alighieri - The Divine Comedy;The New Life; On Monarchy
38. Geoffrey Chaucer - Troilus and Criseyde; The Canterbury Tales
39. Leonardo da Vinci - Notebooks
40. Niccolò Machiavelli - The Prince; Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy
41. Desiderius Erasmus - The Praise of Folly
42. Nicolaus Copernicus - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
43. Thomas More - Utopia
44. Martin Luther - Table Talk; Three Treatises
45. François Rabelais - Gargantua and Pantagruel
46. John Calvin - Institutes of the Christian Religion
47. Michel de Montaigne - Essays
48. William Gilbert - On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies
49. Miguel de Cervantes - Don Quixote
50. Edmund Spenser - Prothalamion; The Faerie Queene
51. Francis Bacon - Essays; Advancement of Learning; Novum Organum, New Atlantis
52. William Shakespeare - Poetry and Plays
53. Galileo Galilei - Starry Messenger; Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
54. Johannes Kepler - Epitome of Copernican Astronomy; Concerning the Harmonies of the World
55. William Harvey - On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals; On the Circulation of the Blood; On the Generation of Animals
56. Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan
57. René Descartes - Rules for the Direction of the Mind; Discourse on the Method; Geometry; Meditations on First Philosophy
58. John Milton - Works
59. Molière - Comedies
60. Blaise Pascal - The Provincial Letters; Pensees; Scientific Treatises
61. Christiaan Huygens - Treatise on Light
62. Benedict de Spinoza - Ethics
63. John Locke - Letter Concerning Toleration; Of Civil Government; Essay Concerning Human Understanding;Thoughts Concerning Education
64. Jean Baptiste Racine - Tragedies
65. Isaac Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; Optics
66. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Discourse on Metaphysics; New Essays Concerning Human Understanding;Monadology
67.Daniel Defoe - Robinson Crusoe
68. Jonathan Swift - A Tale of a Tub; Journal to Stella; Gulliver's Travels; A Modest Proposal
69. William Congreve - The Way of the World
70. George Berkeley - Principles of Human Knowledge
71. Alexander Pope - Essay on Criticism; Rape of the Lock; Essay on Man
72. Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu - Persian Letters; Spirit of Laws
73. Voltaire - Letters on the English; Candide; Philosophical Dictionary
74. Henry Fielding - Joseph Andrews; Tom Jones
75. Samuel Johnson - The Vanity of Human Wishes; Dictionary; Rasselas; The Lives of the Poets
   ~ Mortimer J Adler,

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Mediocrity is a hand-rail. ~ Montesquieu
2:Nature repairs everything. ~ Montesquieu
3:Virtue has need of limits. ~ Montesquieu
4:Very good laws may be ill timed. ~ Montesquieu
5:Solemnity is the shield of idiots ~ Montesquieu
6:Mediocrity is a hand-rail. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
7:Virtue has needs of limits. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
8:Az bilmek için çok okumak gereklidir.. ~ Montesquieu
9:Useless laws weaken the necessary laws. ~ Montesquieu
10:A rational army would run away. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
11:Very good laws may be ill timed. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
12:Power should be a check on power. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
13:Solemnity is the shield of idiots ~ Baron de Montesquieu
14:Virtue is necessary to a republic. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
15:Peace is a natural effect of trade. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
16:Honor is unknown in despotic states. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
17:La société est fondée sur un avantage mutuel. ~ Montesquieu
18:Trade is the best cure for prejudice. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
19:The less men think, the more they talk. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
20:Useless laws weaken the necessary laws. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
21:  La faveur est la grande divinité des Français. ~ Montesquieu
22:Europe is a state with several provinces ~ Baron de Montesquieu
23:Happy the people whose annals are boring to read. ~ Montesquieu
24:Laws undertake to punish only overt acts. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
25:Power ought to serve as a check to power. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
26:An injustice to one is a threat made to all ~ Baron de Montesquieu
27:Happy the people whose annals are tiresome. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
28:Luxury ruins republics; poverty, monarchies. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
29:در دنیا لذتی که با مطالعه کتاب برابری کند، وجود ندارد ~ Montesquieu
30:Passion makes us feel, but never see clearly. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
31:Law should be like death, which spares no one. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
32:The state of slavery is in its own nature bad. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
33:Every man who has power is impelled to abuse it. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
34:If triangles made a god, they would give him three sides. ~ Montesquieu
35:Liberty is the right to do what the law permits. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
36:You have to study a great deal to know a little. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
37:Injustice towards others is a threat to everybody ~ Baron de Montesquieu
38:Lunch kills half of Paris, supper the other half. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
39:If triangles had a god, he would have three sides. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
40:The severity of the laws prevents their execution. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
41:Man is a social animal formed to please in society. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
42:If the triangles made a god, they would give him three sides. ~ Montesquieu
43:La liberté est le droit de faire ce que les lois permettent. ~ Montesquieu
44:Vitam Impendere Vero (I consecrate my life to truth). ~ Baron de Montesquieu
45:When we seek after wit, we discover only foolishness. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
46:Amar la lectura es trocar horas de hastío por horas deliciosas. ~ Montesquieu
47:What orators lack in depth they make up for in length. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
48:An empire founded by war has to maintain itself by war. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
49:Liberty is the right of doing whatever the laws permit. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
50:Society is the union of men and not the men themselves. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
51:A really intelligent man feels what other men only know. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
52:The English are busy; they don't have time to be polite. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
53:If you run after wit, you will succeed in catching folly. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
54:It is always the adventurous who accomplish great things. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
55:I've never known any trouble that an hour's reading didn't assuage ~ Montesquieu
56:Liberty... is there only when there is no abuse of power. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
57:Never create by law what can be accomplished by morality. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
58:Republics end through luxury; monarchies through poverty. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
59:To succeed in the world we must look foolish but be wise. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
60:An empire founded by war has to maintain itself by war.
   ~ Baron de Montesquieu,
61:I've never known any trouble that an hour's reading didn't assuage. ~ Montesquieu
62:No kingdom has shed more blood than the kingdom of Christ. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
63:Slowness is frequently the cause of much greater slowness. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
64:The history of commerce is that of the communication of the people. ~ Montesquieu
65:I've never known any distress that an hour's reading didn't relieve. ~ Montesquieu
66:There should be weeping at a man's birth, not at his death. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
67:C est le tyran qui m outrage, et non pas celui qui exerce la tyrannie ~ Montesquieu
68:en fait de religion, les plus proches sont les plus grandes ennemies. ~ Montesquieu
69:Government should be set up so that no man need be afraid of another. ~ Montesquieu
70:Oh, how empty is praise when it reflects back to its origin! ~ Baron de Montesquieu
71:If the triangles made a god, they would give him three sides. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
72:I have never known any distress that an hour's reading did not relieve ~ Montesquieu
73:A nation may lose its liberties in a day and not miss them in a century ~ Montesquieu
74:An injustice committed against anyone is a threat to everyone. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
75:I have never known any distress that an hour's reading did not relieve. ~ Montesquieu
76:I have never known any distress that an hour’s reading did not relieve. ~ Montesquieu
77:Men should be bewailed at their birth, and not at their death. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
78:Political liberty is to be found only in moderate governments. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
79:A good writer does not write as people write, but as he writes. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
80:The less luxury there is in a republic, the more it is perfect. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
81:Ces monarques sont comme le soleil, qui porte partout la chaleur et la vie. ~ Montesquieu
82:In the matter of dress one should always keep below one's ability. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
83:I've never known any trouble that an hour's worth of reading didn't assauge ~ Montesquieu
84:Not to be loved is a misfortune, but it is an insult to be loved no longer. ~ Montesquieu
85:The English are busy folk; they have no time in which to be polite. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
86:The history of commerce is that of the communication of the people. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
87:The laws do not take upon them to punish any other than overt acts. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
88:The spirit of moderation should also be the spirit of the lawgiver. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
89:To love to read is to exchange hours of ennui for hours of delight. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
90:Countries are well cultivated, not as they are fertile, but as they are free. ~ Montesquieu
91:Republics come to an end by luxurious habits; monarchies by poverty. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
92:There is hardly any grief that an hour's reading will not dissipate. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
93:To become truly great, one has to stand with people, not above them. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
94:Wonderful maxim: not to talk of things any more after they are done. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
95:I believe it to be true that if men were virtuous, they would have no friends. ~ Montesquieu
96:Republics are brought to their ends by luxury; monarchies by poverty. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
97:There have never been so many civil wars as in the Kingdom of Christ. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
98:Coffee renders many foolish people temporarily capable of wise actions ~ Baron de Montesquieu
99:This punishment of death is the remedy, as it were, of a sick society. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
100:I have never known any distress that an hour's reading did not relieve. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
101:I like peasants-they are not sophisticated enough to reason speciously. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
102:The life of man is but a succession of vain hopes and groundless fears. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
103:A nation may lose its liberties in a day and not miss them in a century. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
104:Men, who are rogues individually, are in the mass very honorable people. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
105:The majority of men are more capable of great actions than of good ones. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
106:The success of most things depends upon knowing how long it will take to succeed. ~ Montesquieu
107:It is difficult for the united states to be all of equal power and extent. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
108:Aimer lire, c'est faire un échange des heures d'ennui contre des heures délicieuses. ~ Montesquieu
109:Fain would I glide down a gentle river, but I am carried away by a torrent. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
110:Man, as a physical being, is like other bodies governed by invariable laws. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
111:Not to be loved is a misfortune, but it is an insult to be loved no longer. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
112:Human laws made to direct the will ought to give precepts, and not counsels. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
113:Countries are well cultivated, not as they are fertile, but as they are free. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
114:Il faut que l'Ecriture fût bien obscure autrefois et bien claire à présent. Reste-t-il ~ Montesquieu
115:There are three species of government: republican, monarchical, and despotic. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
116:Life was given to me as a favor, so I may abandon it when it is one no longer. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
117:  La dissimulation, cet art parmi nous si pratiqué et si nécessaire, est ici inconnue : ~ Montesquieu
118:When God endowed human beings with brains, He did not intend to guarantee them. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
119:Virtue in a republic is the love of one's country, that is the love of equality. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
120:Certain kinds of foolishness are such that a greater foolishness would be better. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
121:I can assure you that no kingdom has ever had as many civil wars as the kingdom of Christ. ~ Montesquieu
122:Montesquieu had the style of a genius; Buffon, the genius of style. ~ Friedrich Melchior Baron von Grimm
123:The success of most things depends upon knowing how long it will take to succeed. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
124:It is unreasonable ... to oblige a man not to attempt the defense of his own life. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
125:Talent is a gift which God has given us secretly, and which we reveal without perceiving it. ~ Montesquieu
126:Countries are not cultivated in proportion to their fertility, but to their liberty. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
127:La justice élève sa voix; mais elle a peine à se faire entendre dans le tumulte des passions. ~ Montesquieu
128:  Les Tartares ont conquis deux fois la Chine et ils la tiennent encore sous leur obéissance. ~ Montesquieu
129:I have always observed that to succeed in the world one should appear like a fool but be wise. ~ Montesquieu
130:It is necessary from the very nature of things that power should be a check to power. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
131:  As-tu bien réfléchi à l'état barbare et malheureux où nous entraînerait la perte des arts  ? ~ Montesquieu
132:Friendship is a contract in which we render small services in expectation of big ones. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
133:It is always the adventurers who do great things, not the sovereigns of great empires. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
134:It is rare to find learned men who are clean, do not stink and have a sense of humour. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
135:  Je voudrais que les hommes parlassent aux rois comme les anges parlent à notre saint prophète. ~ Montesquieu
136:I have always observed that to succeed in the world one should seem a fool, but be wise. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
137:When one wants to change manners and customs, one should not do so by changing the laws. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
138:When the body of the people is possessed of the supreme power, it is called a democracy. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
139:Friendship is an arrangement by which we undertake to exchange small favors for big ones. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
140:I have read descriptions of Paradise that would make any sensible person stop wanting to go there. ~ Montesquieu
141:Success in the majority of circumstances depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
142:It is requisite the government be so constituted as one man need not be afraid of another. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
143:Politics are a smooth file, which cuts gradually, and attains its end by slow progression. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
144:Raillery is a mode of speaking in favor of one's wit at the expense of one's better nature. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
145:There is something in animals beside the power of motion. They are not machines; they feel. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
146:The wickedness of mankind makes it necessary for the law to suppose them better than they really are ~ Montesquieu
147:Do you think that God will punish them for not practicing a religion which he did not reveal to them? ~ Montesquieu
148:I suffer from the disease of writing books and being ashamed of them when they are finished. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
149:Talent is a gift which God has given us secretly, and which we reveal without perceiving it. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
150:Самата природа мъдро се погрижва хорските глупости да бъдат преходни, а книгите ги правят безсмъртни. ~ Montesquieu
151:I have seen descriptions of Paradise sufficient to make all sensible people give up their hopes of it. ~ Montesquieu
152:I should like to abolish funerals; the time to mourn a person is at his birth, not his death. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
153:The public business must be carried on with a certain motion, neither too quick nor too slow. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
154:Vanity and pride of nations; vanity is as advantageous to a government as pride is dangerous. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
155:There is a very good saying that if triangles invented a god, they would make him three-sided. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
156:...there are few truths important enough to justify paining and reproving others for not knowing them... ~ Montesquieu
157:An author is a fool who, not content with boring those he lives with, insists on boring future generations. ~ Montesquieu
158:I have read descriptions of Paradise that would make any sensible person stop wanting to go there. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
159:Liberty itself has appeared intolerable to those nations who have not been accustomed to enjoy it. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
160:I shall ever repeat it, that mankind are governed not by extremes, but by principals of moderation. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
161:The harshest tyranny is that which acts under the protection of legality and the banner of justice. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
162:Those who have few affairs to attend to are great speakers. The less men think, the more they talk. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
163:We were born in a flourishing realm, but we did not believe that its boundaries were those of our knowledge. ~ Montesquieu
164:What cowardice it is to be dismayed by the happiness of others and devastated by there good fortune. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
165:A fondness for reading changes the inevitable dull hours of our life into exquisite hours of delight. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
166:Do you think that God will punish them for not practicing a religion which he did not reveal to them? ~ Baron de Montesquieu
167:The wickedness of mankind makes it necessary for the law to suppose them better than they really are. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
168:At our coming into the world we contract an immense debt to our country, which we can never discharge. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
169:The deterioration of every government begins with the decay of the principles on which it was founded. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
170:Les astrologues sont proprement nos directeurs; ils font plus : ils entrent dans le gouvernement de l'Etat. - Si ~ Montesquieu
171:There are countries where a man is worth nothing; there are others where he is worth less than nothing. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
172:The reason the Romans built their great paved highways was because they had such inconvenient footwear. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
173:The state is the association of men, and not men themselves; the citizen may perish, and the man remain. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
174:I shall be obliged to wander to the right and to the left, that I may investigate and discover the truth. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
175:Laws, in their most general signification, are the necessary relations derived from the nature of things. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
176:Love of reading enables a man to exchange the weary hours, which come to every one, for hours of delight. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
177:There is no greater tyranny than that which is perpetrated under the shield of the law and in the name of justice. ~ Montesquieu
178:Christianity stamped its character on jurisprudence; for empire has ever a connection with the priesthood. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
179:An author is a fool who, not content with boring those he lives with, insists on boring future generations. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
180:Each particular society begins to feel its strength, whence arises a state of war between different nations. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
181:If you would be holy, instruct your children, because all the good acts they perform will be imputed to you. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
182:Sometimes a man who deserves to be looked upon because he is a fool is despised only because he is a lawyer. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
183:The public revenues are a portion that each subject gives of his property, in order to secure or enjoy the remainder. ~ Montesquieu
184:There is as yet no liberty if the power of judging be not separated from legislative power and the executrix ~ Baron de Montesquieu
185:When the [law making] and [law enforcement] powers are united in the same person... there can be no liberty. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
186:Aimer à lire, c'est faire un échange des heures d'ennui que l'on doit avoir dans sa vie, contre des heures délicieuses. ~ Montesquieu
187:The prejudices of superstition are superior to all others, and have the strongest influence on the human mind. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
188:There is no crueler tyranny than that which is perpetuated under the shield of law and in the name of justice. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
189:I have ever held it as a maxim never to do that through another which it was impossible for me to execute myself ~ Baron de Montesquieu
190:Knowledge humanizes mankind, and reason inclines to mildness; but prejudices eradicate every tender disposition. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
191:The incomparable stupidity of life teaches us to love our parents; divine philosophy teaches us to forgive them. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
192:There is no crueler tyranny than that which is perpetuated under the shield of law and in the name of justice." ~ Baron de Montesquieu,
193:Great commanders write their actions with simplicity; because they receive more glory from facts than from words. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
194:  Un grand seigneur est un homme qui voit le roi, qui parle aux ministres, qui a des ancêtres, des dettes et des pensions. ~ Montesquieu
195:The spirit of commerce... renders every man willing to live on his own property...& prevents the growth of luxury. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
196:We are so blind that we know neither when to mourn, nor when to rejoice; our mirth and our sadness are nearly always false. ~ Montesquieu
197:  Aussi puis-je t'assurer qu'il n'y a jamais eu de royaume où il y ait eu tant de guerres civiles que dans celui de Christ. ~ Montesquieu
198:  "Les changements ne peuvent être faits que par le prince, ou par le peuple. Mais, là, les princes n'ont garde d'en faire, ~ Montesquieu
199:a conqueror, I say, can change the course of everything, and muffled tyranny is the first thing which is liable to violence. ~ Montesquieu
200:Ces auteurs, me repartit-il, n'ont point cherché dans l'Ecriture ce qu'il faut croire, mais ce qu'ils croient eux-mêmes; ils ~ Montesquieu
201:In constitutional states, liberty is compensation for heavy taxes; in dictatorships, the subsititue is light taxes. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
202:It is not the young people that degenerate; they are not spoiled till those of maturer age are already sunk into corruption. ~ Montesquieu
203:There is a very good saying that if triangles invented a god, they would make him three-sided. ~ Charles de Montesquieu, Lettres persannes
204:  Les philosophes les plus sensés qui ont réfléchi sur la nature de Dieu ont dit qu'il était un être souverainement parfait; ~ Montesquieu
205:A man who writes well writes not as others write, but as he himself writes; it is often in speaking badly that he speaks well. ~ Montesquieu
206:For a country, everything will be lost when the jobs of an economist and a banker become highly respected professions. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
207:Les êtres particuliers intelligents peuvent avoir des lois qu'ils ont faites; mais ils en ont aussi qu'ils
n'ont pas faites. ~ Montesquieu
208:The Tyranny of a prince in an oligarchy
is not so dangerous to the public welfare as the apathy of a citizen in a democracy. ~ Montesquieu
209:There is no nation so powerful, as the one that obeys its laws not from principals of fear or reason, but from passion. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
210:In a republic there is no coercive force as in other governments, the laws must therefore endeavor to supply this defect. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
211:...when the laws have ceased to be executed, as this can only come from the corruption of the republic, the state is already lost. ~ Montesquieu
212:  J'ose le dire : dans l'état présent où est l'Europe, il n'est pas possible que la religion catholique y subsiste cinq cents ans. ~ Montesquieu
213:In the infancy of societies, the chiefs of state shape its institutions; later the institutions shape the chiefs of state. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
214:There is no crueller tyranny,” said Montesquieu, “than the one exercised in the shadow of the law, and with the colours of justice. ~ Clive James
215:  D'ailleurs ce roi est un grand magicien : il exerce son empire sur l'esprit même de ses sujets; il les fait penser comme il veut. ~ Montesquieu
216:Every man is capable of doing good to another, but to contribute to the happiness of an entire society is to become akin to the gods ~ Montesquieu
217:It is not the young people that degenerate; they are not spoiled till those of mature age are already sunk into corruption. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
218:Wherever I find envy I take a pleasure in provoking it: I always praise before an envious man those who make him grow pale. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
219:The tyranny of a prince in an oligarchy is not so dangerous to the public welfare as the apathy of a citizen in a democracy. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
220:The culminating point of administration is to know well how much power, great or small, we ought to use in all circumstances. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
221:The sublimity of administration consists in knowing the proper degree of power that should be exerted on different occasions. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
222:A man who writes well writes not as others write, but as he himself writes; it is often in speaking badly that he speaks well. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
223:  Ce corps a quarante têtes, toutes remplies de figures, de métaphores et d'antithèses; tant de bouches ne parlent que par exclamation; ~ Montesquieu
224:The lively phraseology of Montesquieu was the result of long meditation. His words, as light as wings, bear on them grave reflections. ~ Joseph Joubert
225:That anyone who possesses power has a tendency to abuse it is an eternal truth. They tend to go as far as the barriers will allow. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
226:The crime against nature will never make any great progress in society unless people are prompted to it by some particular custom. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
227:...when the laws have ceased to be executed, as this can only come from the corruption of the republic, the state is already lost. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
228:Each citizen contributes to the revenues of the State a portion of his property in order that his tenure of the rest may be secure. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
229:With truths of a certain kind, it is not enough to make them appear convincing: one must also make them felt. Of such kind are moral truths. ~ Montesquieu
230:  La nature, industrieuse en faveur des hommes, ne s'est pas bornée à leur donner les désirs : elle a voulu que nous en eussions nous-mêmes, ~ Montesquieu
231:  On peut comparer les empires à un arbre dont les branches trop étendues ôtent tout le suc du tronc, et ne servent qu'à faire de l'ombrage. ~ Montesquieu
232:  Cette gravité des Asiatiques vient du peu de commerce qu'il y a entre eux : ils ne se voient que lorsqu'ils y sont forcés par la cérémonie. ~ Montesquieu
233:When a government lasts a long while, it deteriorates by insensible degrees. Republics end through luxury, monarchies through poverty. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
234:When virtue is banished, ambition invades the minds of those who are disposed to receive it and avarice possesses the whole community. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
235:As soon as man enters into a state of society he loses the sense of his weakness; equality ceases, and then commences the state of war. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
236:But constant experience shows us that every man invested with power is apt to abuse it, and to carry his authority as far as it will go. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
237:Democracy is corrupted not only when the spirit of equality is corrupted, but likewise when they fall into a spirit of extreme equality. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
238:When the savages of Louisiana are desirous of fruit, they cut the tree to the root and gather the fruit. This is an emblem of despotic government. ~ Montesquieu
239:People here argue about religion interminably, but it appears that they are competing at the same time to see who can be the least devout. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
240:With truths of a certain kind, it is not enough to make them appear convincing: one must also make them felt. Of such kind are moral truths. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
241:The Ottoman Empire whose sick body was not supported by a mild and regular diet, but by a powerful treatment, which continually exhausted it. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
242:When a government is arrived to that degree of corruption as to be incapable of reforming itself, it would not lose much by being new moulded. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
243:When the savages of Louisiana wish to have fruit, they cut the tree at the bottom and gather the fruit. That is exactly a despotic government. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
244:Nada atrasa mais o progresso dos conhecimentos do que um livro ruim de um autor célebre, porque antes de instruir é preciso começar por desvendar o erro. ~ Montesquieu
245:There are bad examples which are worse than crimes; and more states have perished from the violation of morality than from the violation of law. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
246:Nature is just to all mankind, and repays them for their industry. She renders them industrious by annexing rewards in proportion to their labor. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
247:  L'impunité règne dans ce gouvernement sévère : les chrétiens qui cultivent les terres, les Juifs qui lèvent les tributs, sont exposés à mille violences. ~ Montesquieu
248:If only we wanted to be happy, it would be easy; but we want to be happier than other people, which is difficult, since we think them happier than they are. ~ Montesquieu
249:[The Pope] will make the king believe that three are only one, that the bread he eats is not bread... and a thousand other things of the same kind. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
250:  Il n'y a que deux sortes de guerres justes : les unes qui se font pour repousser un ennemi qui attaque; les autres, pour secourir un allié qui est attaqué. ~ Montesquieu
251:The false notion of miracles comes of our vanity, which makes us believe we are important enough for the Supreme Being to upset nature on our behalf. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
252:We receive three educations, one from our parents, one from our school masters, and one from the world. The third contradicts all that the first two teach us. ~ Montesquieu
253:As men are affected in all ages by the same passions, the occasions which bring about great changes are different, but the causes are always the same. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
254:Montesquieu had said that to love reading was to exchange hours of boredom for hours of delight; Laharpe had said that a book is a friend that never deceives. ~ Upton Sinclair
255:The Christian religion is a stranger to mere despotic power. The mildness so frequently recommended in the Gospel is incompatible with the despotic rage. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
256:I never listen to calumnies, because if they are untrue I run the risk of being deceived, and if they be true, of hating persons not worth thinking about. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
257:The love of study is in us the only lasting passion. All the others quit us in proportion as this miserable machine which holds them approaches its ruins. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
258:The mood and temper of the public in regard to the treatment of crime and criminals is one of the most unfailing tests of the civilisation of any country. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
259:according to Montesquieu, the persons, the liberties, the property, mankind itself, are nothing but materials to exercise the sagacity of lawgivers." Rousseau. ~ Fr d ric Bastiat
260:J'ai pu vivre dans la servitude; mais j'ai toujours été libre: j'ai réformé tes lois sur celles de la nature; et mon esprit s'est toujours tenu dans l'indépendance. ~ Montesquieu
261:La réputation et la vertu y sont regardées comme imaginaires, si elles ne sont accompagnées de la faveur du prince, avec laquelle elles naissent et meurent de même. ~ Montesquieu
262:[Montesquieu] lifted the veil from the venerable errors which enslaved opinion, and pointed the way to those luminous truths of which he had but a glimpse himself. ~ James Madison
263:There is only one thing that can form a bond between men, and that is gratitude... we cannot give someone else greater power over us than we have ourselves. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
264:Nothing is a greater obstacle to our progress in knowledge, than a bad performance of a celebrated author; because, before we instruct we must begin with undeceiving. ~ Montesquieu
265:Study has been for me the sovereign remedy against all the disappointments of life. I have never known any trouble that an hour's reading would not dissipate. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
266:We receive three educations, one from our parents, one from our school-masters, and one from the world. The third contradicts all that the first two teach us. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
267:  Soit que le gouvernement soit doux, soit qu'il soit cruel, on punit toujours par degrés : on inflige un châtiment plus ou moins grand à un crime plus ou moins grand. ~ Montesquieu
268:A truly virtuous man would come to the aid of the most distant stranger as quickly as to his own friend.
If men were perfectly virtuous, they wouldn’t have friends. ~ Montesquieu
269:  La plupart des législateurs ont été des hommes bornés, que le hasard a mis à la tête des autres, et qui n'ont presque consulté que leurs préjugés et leurs fantaisies. ~ Montesquieu
270:Although born in a prosperous realm, we did not believe that its boundaries should limit our knowledge, and that the lore of the East should alone enlighten us. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
271:Love of the republic in a democracy, is a love of the democracy; love of the democracy is that of equality. Love of the democracy is likewise that of frugality. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
272:There are only two cases in which war is just: first, in order to resist the aggression of an enemy, and second, in order to help an ally who has been attacked. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
273:  Depuis que je suis en Europe, mon cher Rhédi, j'ai vu bien des gouvernements : ce n'est pas comme en Asie, où les règles de la politique se trouvent partout les mêmes. ~ Montesquieu
274:If we only wanted to be happy, it would be easy; but we want to be happier than other people, which is almost always difficult, since we think them happier than they are. ~ Montesquieu
275:In the birth of societies it is the chiefs of states who give it its special character; and afterward it is this special character that forms the chiefs of state. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
276:To lend money without interest, is certainly an action laudable and extremely good; but it is obvious, that it is only a counsel of religion, and not a civil law. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
277:We ought to be very cautious and circumspect in the prosecution of magic and heresy. The attempt to put down these two crimes may be extremely perilous to liberty. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
278:If we only wanted to be happy, it would be easy; but we want to be happier than other people, and that is almost always difficult, since we think them happier than they are. ~ Montesquieu
279:Slavery, properly so called, is the establishment of a right which gives to one man such a power over another as renders him absolute master of his life and fortune. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
280:  "On s'étonne de ce qu'il n'y a presque jamais de changement dans le gouvernement des princes d'Orient. D'où vient cela, si ce n'est de ce qu'il est tyrannique et affreux  ? ~ Montesquieu
281:  Voilà comment un seul homme occupe à ses plaisirs tant de sujets de l'un et de l'autre sexe, les fait mourir pour l'Etat, et les rend inutiles à la propagation de l'espèce. ~ Montesquieu
282:In republican governments, men are all equal; equal they are also in despotic governments: in the former, because they are everything; in the latter, because they are nothing. ~ Montesquieu
283:  Nous sommes nés dans un royaume florissant; mais nous n'avons pas cru que ses bornes fussent celles de nos connaissances, et que la lumière orientale dût seule nous éclairer. ~ Montesquieu
284:  Le crime de lèse-majesté n'est autre chose, selon eux, que le crime que le plus faible commet contre le plus fort en lui désobéissant, de quelque manière qu'il lui désobéisse. ~ Montesquieu
285:False happiness renders men stern and proud, and that happiness is never communicated. True happiness renders them kind and sensible, and that happiness is always shared. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
286:The pagan religion, which prohibited only some of the grosser crimes, and which stopped the hand but meddled not with the heart, might have crimes that were inexplicable. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
287:Better it is to say that the government most comfortable to nature is that which best agrees with the humor and disposition of the people in whose favor it is established. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
288:If we only wanted to be happy, it would be easy; but we want to be happier than other people, and that is almost always difficult, since we think them happier than they are. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
289:The power of divorce can be given only to those who feel the inconveniences of marriage, and who are sensible of the moment when it is for their interest to make them cease. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
290:In republican governments, men are all equal; equal they are also in despotic governments: in the former, because they are everything; in the latter, because they are nothing. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
291:In the state of nature... all men are born equal, but they cannot continue in this equality. Society makes them lose it, and they recover it only by the protection of the law. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
292:Experience constantly proves that every man who has power is impelled to abuse it; he goes on till he is pulled up by some limits. Who would say it! virtue even has need of limits. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
293:  «Voici les livres de science, ou plutôt d'ignorance occulte; tels sont ceux qui contiennent quelque espèce de diablerie : exécrables, selon la plupart des gens, pitoyables, selon moi. Tels ~ Montesquieu
294:As virtue is necessary in a republic, and honor in a monarchy, fear is what is required in a despotism. As for virtue, it is not at all necessary, and honor would be dangerous there. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
295:Cette belliqueuse nation, uniquement occupée de sa gloire présente, sûre de vaincre dans tous les temps, ne songeait point à se signaler dans l'avenir par la mémoire de ses conquêtes passées. ~ Montesquieu
296:If one only wished to be happy, this could be easily accomplished; but we wish to be happier than other people, and this is always difficult, for we believe others to be happier than they are. ~ Montesquieu
297:There is no one, says another, whom fortune does not visit once in his life; but when she does not find him ready to receive her, she walks in at the door, and flies out at the window. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
298:Montesquieu, who wrote that “bad examples can be worse than crimes.” He continued: “More states have perished because of a violation of their mores than because of a violation of their Laws.” What ~ Eric Metaxas
299:One more organ or one less in our body would give us a different intelligence. In fact, all the established laws as to why our body is a certain way would be different if our body were not that way. ~ Montesquieu
300:  La puissance illimitée de nos sublimes sultans, qui n'a d'autre règle qu'elle-même, ne produit pas plus de monstres que cet art indigne qui veut faire plier la justice, tout inflexible qu'elle est. ~ Montesquieu
301:J'ai vu avec étonnement la faiblesse de l'empire des Osmanlins. Ce corps malade ne se soutient pas par un régime doux et tempéré, mais par des remèdes violents, qui l'épuisent et le minent sans cesse. ~ Montesquieu
302:Honor sets all the parts of the body politic in motion, and by its very action connects them; thus each individual advances the public good, while he only thinks of promoting his own interest. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
303:Montesquieu well knew, and justly admired, the happy constitution of this country [Great Britain], where fixed and known laws equally restrain monarchy from tyranny and liberty from licentiousness. ~ Lord Chesterfield
304:Religious wars are not caused by the fact that there is more than one religion, but by the spirit of intolerance... the spread of which can only be regarded as the total eclipse of human reason. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
305:In bodies moved, the motion is received, increased, diminished, or lost, according to the relations of the quantity of matter and velocity; each diversity is uniformity, each change is constancy. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
306:One more organ or one less in our body would give us a different intelligence. In fact, all the established laws as to why our body is a certain way would be different if our body were not that way. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
307:What unhappy beings men are! They constantly waver between false hopes and silly fears, and instead of relying on reason they create monsters to frighten themselves with, and phantoms which lead them astray. ~ Montesquieu
308:A person of my acquaintance said: . . .

'Study has always been for me the sovereign remedy against life's unpleasantness, since I have never experienced any sorrow that an hour's reading did not eliminate. ~ Montesquieu
309:A person of my acquaintance said: . . .

"Study has always been for me the sovereign remedy against life's unpleasantness, since I have never experienced any sorrow that an hour's reading did not eliminate. ~ Montesquieu
310:«Je suis, disait-il, esclave; mais je le suis d'un homme qui est votre maître et le mien, et j'use du pouvoir qu'il m'a donné sur vous : c'est lui qui vous châtie, et non pas moi, qui ne fais que prêter ma main.» ~ Montesquieu
311:If I knew something that would serve my country but would harm mankind, I would never reveal it; for I am a citizen of humanity first and by necessity, and a citizen of France second, and only by accident ~ Baron de Montesquieu
312:Law in general is human reason, inasmuch as it governs all the inhabitants of the earth: the political and civil laws of each nation ought to be only the particular cases in which human reason is applied. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
313:In every government there are three sorts of power: the legislative; the executive in respect to things dependent on the law of nations; and the executive in regard to matters that depend on the civil law. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
314:What unhappy beings men are! They constantly waver between false hopes and silly fears, and instead of relying on reason they create monsters to frighten themselves with, and phantoms which lead them astray. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
315:L'esprit humain est la contradiction même : dans une débauche licencieuse, on se révolte avec fureur contre les préceptes, et la Loi, faite pour nous rendre plus justes, ne sert souvent qu'à nous rendre plus coupables. ~ Montesquieu
316:The coffee is prepared in such a way that it makes those who drink it witty: at least there is not a single soul who, on quitting the house, does not believe himself four times wittier that when he entered it. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
317:Men in excess of happiness or misery are equally inclined to severity. Witness conquerors and monks! It is mediocrity alone, and a mixture of prosperous and adverse fortune that inspire us with lenity and pity. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
318:After Montesquieu, the next great addition to Sociology (which is the term I may be allowed to invent to designate Social Physics) was made by Condorcet, proceeding on the views suggested by his illustrious friend Turgot. ~ Auguste Comte
319:the works of Locke, Montesquieu, Hobbes, and Hume, as well as those of such reigning legal sages as Sir William Blackstone, Hugo Grotius, and Samuel von Pufendorf. He was especially taken with the jurist Emmerich de Vattel, ~ Ron Chernow
320:If I knew of something that could serve my nation but would ruin another, I would not propose it to my prince, for I am first a man and only then a Frenchman...because I am necessarily a man, and only accidentally am I French. ~ Montesquieu
321:Ever since the invention of gunpowder.. I continually tremble lest men should, in the end, uncover some secret which would provide a short way of abolishing mankind, of annihilating peoples and nations in their entirety. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
322:  Il y a chez les sauvages une autre coutume qui n'est pas moins pernicieuse que la première : c'est la cruelle habitude où sont les femmes de se faire avorter, afin que leur grossesse ne les rende pas désagréables à leurs maris. ~ Montesquieu
323:Thus the cerebral footings were laid. Voltaire preferred intellectual liberty and enlightened despotism. Montesquieu wanted limited monarchy and a separation of political powers. Rousseau dreamed of an ideal republican commonwealth. ~ Jay Winik
324:  On se plaint, en Perse, de ce que le royaume est gouverné par deux ou trois femmes. C'est bien pis en France, où les femmes en général gouvernent, et non seulement prennent en gros, mais même se partagent en détail toute l'autorité. ~ Montesquieu
325:If I knew of something that could serve my nation but would ruin another, I would not propose it to my prince, for I am first a man and only then a Frenchman... because I am necessarily a man, and only accidentally am I French. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
326:Nature, in her wisdom, seems to have arranged it so that men's stupidity should be ephemeral, and books make them immortal. A fool ought to be content having exacerbated everyone around him, but he insists tormenting future generations. ~ Montesquieu
327:History is full of religious wars; but, we must take care to observe, it was not the multiplicity of religions that produced these wars, it was the intolerating spirit which animated that one which thought she had the power of governing. ~ Montesquieu
328:Now, there is no such thing as ‘man’ in this world. In my life I have seen Frenchmen, Italians, Russians, and so on. I even know, thanks to Montesquieu, that one can be Persian. But as for man, I declare I’ve never encountered him. ~ Joseph de Maistre
329:They who assert that a blind fatality produced the various effects we behold in this world talk very absurdly; for can anything be more unreasonable than to pretend that a blind fatality could be productive of intelligent beings. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
330:The alms given to a naked man in the street do not fulfil the obligations of the state, which owes to every citizen a certain subsistence, a proper nourishment, convenient clothing, and a kind of life not incompatible with health. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
331:We must have constantly present in our minds the difference between independence and liberty. Liberty is a right of doing whatever the laws permit, and if a citizen could do what they forbid he would no longer be possessed of liberty. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
332:Sade writes the least erotic sex scenes you might imagine, alternating with long stretches of dialogue on moral philosophy, politics, religion, family life, the origins of the state and patriarchy, much as one might find in Locke or Montesquieu, ~ Ada Palmer
333:Political liberty in a citizen is that tranquillity of spirit which comes from the opinion each one has of his security, and in order for him to have this liberty the government must be such that one citizen cannot fear another citizen. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
334:The law of nations is naturally founded on this principle, that different nations ought in time of peace to do one another all the good they can, and in time of war as little injury as possible, without prejudicing their real interests. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
335:Mais, ma soeur, au nom de Dieu, qui nous éclaire, recevez ce livre sacré que je vous porte; c'est le livre de notre législateur Zoroastre; lisez-le sans prévention; recevez dans votre coeur les rayons de lumière qui vous éclaireront en le lisant; ~ Montesquieu
336:Ces peuples n'étaient point proprement barbares, puisqu'ils étaient libres; mais ils le sont devenus depuis que, soumis pour la plupart à une puissance absolue, ils ont perdu cette douce liberté si conforme à la raison, à l'humanité et à la nature. ~ Montesquieu
337:Many a person who could not comprehend Rousseau, and would be puzzled by Montesquieu, could understand Paine as an open book. He wrote with a clarity, a sharpness of outline and exactness of speech that even a schoolboy should be able to grasp. ~ Thomas A Edison
338:Mais, parce qu'ils n'ont pas été assez heureux pour trouver des mosquées dans leur pays, crois-tu qu'ils soient condamnés à des châtiments éternels, et que Dieu les punisse pour n'avoir pas pratiqué une religion qu'il ne leur a pas fait connaître  ? ~ Montesquieu
339:il faut vivre avec les hommes tels qu ils sont : les gens qu on dit etre de si bonne compagnie ne sont souvent que ceux dont les vices sont plus raffines ; et peut-etre en est-il comme des poisons, dont les plus subtils sont aussi les plus dangereux. ~ Montesquieu
340:  Paris est peut-être la ville du monde la plus sensuelle, et où l'on raffine le plus sur les plaisirs; mais c'est peut-être celle où l'on mène une vie plus dure. Pour qu'un homme vive délicieusement, il faut que cent autres travaillent sans relâche. ~ Montesquieu
341:Pole midagi kummalisemat, kui saata hukatusse suur hulk inimesi selleks, et maapõuest välja tuua kulda ja hõbedat - iseenesest täiesti tarbetuid metalle, mis kujutavad endast rikkust vaid sellepärast, et nad on valitud seda tähistama... (CXVIII kiri). ~ Montesquieu
342:[245] "In large and populous cities," says the author of the Fable of the Bees, i, p. 133, "they wear clothes above their rank, and, consequently, have the pleasure of being esteemed by a vast majority, not as what they are, but what they appear to be. ~ Montesquieu
343:  Mon cher Usbek, quand je vois des hommes qui rampent sur un atome, c'est-à-dire la terre, qui n'est qu'un point de l'univers, se proposer directement pour modèles de la Providence, je ne sais comment accorder tant d'extravagance avec tant de petitesse. ~ Montesquieu
344:Thus the creation, which seems an arbitrary act, supposes laws as invariable as those of the fatality of the Atheists. It would be absurd to say that the Creator might govern the world without those rules, since without them it could not subsist. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
345:The right of conquest is not a right. A society can be founded only with the consent of its members. If it is destroyed by conquest, the nation becomes free again; it is not a new society, and if the conquerer tries to create one it will be a dictatorship. ~ Montesquieu
346:I acknowledge that history is full of religious wars: but we must distinguish; it is not the multiplicity of religions which has produced these wars; it was the intolerating spirit which animated that one which thought she had the power of governing. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
347:Superioritatea dragostei asupra dezmăţului provine din înmulţirea plăcerilor. Toate gândurile, dorinţele, simţămintele devin reciproce. În dragoste, aveţi două trupuri şi două suflete ; în desfrâu, aveţi un suflet care se scârbeşte chiar de propriul său trup. ~ Montesquieu
348:- « Les lois y [dans une monarchie] tiennent la place de toutes ces vertus, dont on n’a aucun besoin ; l’État vous en dispense: une action qui se fait sans bruit, y est en quelque façon sans conséquence. » Montesquieu, De l’Esprit des Lois, 1748, Book 2, Ch. 5, ~ Montesquieu
349:How admirable is that religion which, while it seems to have in view only the felicity of another world, is at the same time the highest happiness of this. ~ Charles de Montesquieu, reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895), p. 498
350:There is still another inconvenieney in conquests made by democracies; their government is ever odious to the conquered states. It is apparently monarchical, but in reality it is more oppressive than monarchy, as the experience of all ages and countries evinces. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
351:  Avant l'abaissement de la puissance d'Espagne, les catholiques étaient beaucoup plus forts que les protestants. Ces derniers sont peu à peu parvenus à un équilibre. Les protestants deviendront tous les jours plus riches et plus puissants, et les catholiques plus faibles. ~ Montesquieu
352:There is no error so monstrous that it fails to find defenders among the ablest men. Imagine a congress of eminent celebrities, such as More, Bacon, Grotius, Pascal, Cromwell, Bossuet, Montesquieu, Jefferson, Napoleon, Pitt, etc. The result would be an Encyclopedia of Error. ~ Lord Acton
353:  C'est le destin des héros de se ruiner à conquérir des pays qu'ils perdent soudain, ou à soumettre des nations qu'ils sont obligés eux-mêmes de détruire; comme cet insensé qui se consumait à acheter des statues qu'il jetait dans la mer et des glaces qu'il brisait aussitôt. ~ Montesquieu
354:Democracy has two excesses to avoid: the spirit of inequality, which leads to an aristocracy, or to the government of a single individual; and the spirit of extreme equality, which conducts it to despotism, as the despotism of a single individual finishes by conquest. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
355:When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
356:Laws, in their most general signification, are the necessary relations arising from the nature of things. In this sense all beings have their laws: the Deity His laws, the material world its laws, the intelligences superior to man their laws, the beasts their laws, man his laws. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
357:The desire for glory is no different from that instinct for preservation that is common to all creatures. It is as if we enhance our being if we can gain a place in the memory of others; it is a new life that we acquire, which becomes as precious to us as the one we received from Heaven. ~ Montesquieu
358:It is clear that in a monarchy, where he who commands the exceution of the laws generally thinks himself above them, there is lessneed of virtue than in a popular government, where the person entrusted with the execution of the laws is sensible of his being subject to their direction. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
359:If one only wished to be happy, this could be easily accomplished; but we wish to be happier that other people, and this is always difficult, for we believe others to be happier than they are. you are comparing your lot with an ideal which is of course better and therefore you feel worse ~ Baron de Montesquieu
360:A father of the church said that property was theft, many centuries before Proudhon was born. Bourdaloue reaffirmed it. Montesquieu was the inventor of national workshops and of the theory that the state owed every man a living. Nay, was not the church herself the first organized democracy? ~ James Russell Lowell
361:Toutes les conquêtes sublimes sont plus ou moins des prix de hardiesse. Pour que la révolution soit, il ne suffit pas que Montesquieu la pressente, que Diderot la prêche, que Beaumarchais l’annonce, que Condorcet la calcule, qu’Arouet la prépare, que Rousseau la prémédite ; il faut que Danton l’ose. ~ Victor Hugo
362:[92] Plato, in his fourth book of Laws, says that the præfectures of music and gymnic exercises are the most important employments in the city; and, in his Republic, iii, Damon will tell you, says he, what sounds are capable of corrupting the mind with base sentiments, or of inspiring the contrary virtues. ~ Montesquieu
363:Christians are beginning to lose the spirit of intolerance which animated them... They have realized that zeal for the advancement of religion is different from a due attachment to it; and that in order to love it and fulfil its behests, it is not necessary to hate and persecute those who are opposed to it. ~ Montesquieu
364:Les hommes extrêmement heureux, et les hommes extrêmement malheureux a , sont également portés à la dureté ; témoin les moines et les conquérants. Il n’y a que la médiocrité et le mé- lange de la bonne et de la mauvaise fortune, qui donnent de la douceur et de la pitié."
The Spirit of the Laws, Bk VI, Ch IX ~ Montesquieu
365:The late Président de Montesquieu told me that he knew how to be blind--he had been so for such a long time--but I swear that I do not know how to be deaf: I cannot get used to it, and I am as humiliated and distressed by it today as I was during the first week. No philosophy in the world can palliate deafness. ~ Lord Chesterfield
366:My dear Usbek, when women feel, as they lose their attractiveness, that their end is coming in advance, they would like to go backwards to youth again. How could they possibly not attempt to deceive other people? - they make every effort to deceive themselves, and to escape from the most distressing thought we can have. ~ Montesquieu
367:Religion gives to virtue the sweetest hopes, to unrepenting vice just alarms, to true repentance the most powerful consolations; but she endeavors above all things to inspire in men love, meekness, and piety. ~ Charles de Montesquieu, reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895), p. 502
368:The spirit of commerce is frugality, economy, moderation, labor, ponderance, tranquillity, order, and rule. So long as this spirit subsides, the riches it produces have no bad effect. The mischief is when excessive wealth destroys the spirit of commerce, then it is that the conveniences of inequality... are felt. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
369:Locke, Montesquieu, many of the philosophers of the European Enlightenment, and the Founders, among others, knew that the history of organized government is mostly a history of a relative few and perfidious men co-opting, coercing, and eventually repressing the many through the centralization and consolidation of authority. ~ Mark R Levin
370:- « Ces règles sont un rapport constamment établi. Entre un corps mû et un autre corps mû, c’est suivant les rapports de la masse et de la vitesse que tous les mouvements sont reçus, augmentés, diminués, perdus ; chaque diversité est uniformité, chaque changement est constance. » Montesquieu, De l’Esprit des Lois, 1748, Ch. 1, ~ Montesquieu
371:We may like well to know what is Plato’s and what is Montesquieu’s or Goethe’s part, and what thought was always dear to the writer himself; but the worth of the sentences consists in their radiancy and equal aptitude to all intelligence. They fit all our facts like a charm. We respect ourselves the more that we know them. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson
372:The political liberty, of the subject, (separation of powers), is a tranquility of mind arising from the opinion each person has of [their] safety. In order to have this liberty. It is requisite the government be so constituted as one [person] need not to be afraid of another."

Baron de Montesquieu,
Spirit of laws
1748 ~ Montesquieu
373:Brutes are deprived of the high advantages which we have; but they have some which we have not. They have not our hopes, but theyare without our fears; they are subject like us to death, but without knowing it; even most of them are more attentive than we to self-preservation, and do not make so bad a use of their passions. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
374:  On remarque que, dans les pays où l'on met dans les mains paternelles plus de récompenses et de punitions, les familles sont mieux réglées : les pères sont l'image du créateur de l'univers, qui, quoiqu'il puisse conduire les hommes par son amour, ne laisse pas de se les attacher encore par les motifs de l'espérance et de la crainte. ~ Montesquieu
375:وما أكثر ما بدأت هذا الكتاب وتركته، وقد تركت للرياح ألف مرة ما كنت أكتب من الأوراق، وكنت أشعر بهبود الأيدي الأبوية في كل يوم، وكنت أسير وراء هدفي من غير وضع مشروع، وكنت لا أعرف القواعد ولا الشواذ، وكنت لا أجد الحقيقة إلا لأفقدها، ولكنني عندما أكتشفت مبادئي أتاني كل ما بحثت عنه، فأبصرت في غضون عشرين عامًا بدء كتابي ونموَّه وتقدمه وتمامه. ~ Montesquieu
376:  Lorsque je pense aux funestes effets de cette liqueur, je ne puis m'empêcher de la regarder comme le présent le plus redoutable que la nature ait fait aux hommes. Si quelque chose a flétri la vie et la réputation de nos monarques, ç'a été leur intempérance : c'est la source la plus empoisonnée de leurs injustices et de leurs cruautés. ~ Montesquieu
377:They maintain that all unlimited power must be unlawful, because it cannot have had a lawful origin. For, we cannot, say they, give to another more power over us than we ourselves have : now, we have not unlimited power over ourselves ; for example, we have no right to take our own lives: no one upon earth then, they conclude, had such a power. ~ Montesquieu
378:I acknowledge that history is full of religious wars: but we must distinguish; it is not the multiplicity of religions which has produced wars; it is the intolerant spirit animating that which believed itself in the ascendant. ~ Charles de Montesquieu, Letter No. 86 of the Persian Letters (Lettres persanes, 1721, translation and introduction by John Davidson, 1899)
379:If a human creature is composed of two beings, and if the acknowledgment of the necessity of preserving their union is the chief mark of submission to the decrees of our Creator, that necessity should be made a religious law; and if the enforced preservation of this union will make men more responsible for their actions, it should be made a civil law. ~ Montesquieu
380:Power can be restrained only by counterbalancing power, Montesquieu reasoned. No man, and no political body or office, ought to possess unchecked power. For the sake of personal liberty and free community, power ought to be divided and hedged. Might this slow the actions of the state? Well, be it so, Montesquieu thought: freedom is better than haste. ~ Russell Kirk
381:Democratic and aristocratic states are not in their own nature free. Political liberty is to be found only in moderate governments; and even in these it is not always found. It is there only when there is no abuse of power. But constant experience shows us that every man invested with power is apt to abuse it, and to carry his authority as far as it will go. ~ Montesquieu
382:No tyranny is more cruel than the one practised in the shadow of the laws and under color of justice - when, so to speak, one proceeds to drown the unfortunate on the very plank by which they had saved themselves. And since a tyrant never lacks instruments for his tyranny, Tiberius always found judges ready to condemn as many people as he might suspect. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
383:Rhedi: I am always afraid that they will eventually succeed in discovering some secret which will provide a quicker way of making men die, and exterminate whole countries and nations.

Usbek: No, if such a fateful invention came to be discovered, it would soon be banned by international law; by the unanimous consent of every country the discovery would be buried. ~ Montesquieu
384:Vanity is as advantageous to a government as pride is dangerous. To be convinced of this we need only represent, on the one hand,the numberless benefits which result from vanity, as industry, the arts, fashions, politeness, and taste; and on the other, the infinite evils which spring from the pride of certain nations, a laziness, poverty, a total neglect of everything. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
385:As with their fashions, so is it with their customs and style of living: French manners change with the age of the king. The monarch could even succeed in making his people solemn if he chose to try. He impresses his own characteristics upon the court, the court upon the city, and the city on the provinces. The soul of the sovereign is a mould in which all the others are formed. ~ Montesquieu
386:May the new era be an era of liberty and respect for everyone--including writers! Only through liberty and respect for culture can Europe be saved from the cruel days of which Montesquieu spoke in the Esprit des lois: "Thus, in the days of fables, after the floods and deluges, there came forth from the soil armed men who exterminated each other." Boook XXXII, Chapter XXIII. ~ Curzio Malaparte
387:A love of the republic in a democracy is a love of the democracy, as the latter is that of equality. A love of the democracy is likewise that of frugality. Since every individual ought here to enjoy the same happiness, and the same advantages, they should consequently taste the same pleasures and form the same hopes, which cannot be expected but from a general frugality. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
388:We ought to be very cautious in the prosecution of magic and heresy. The attempt to put down these two crimes may be extremely perilous to liberty, and may be the origin of a number of petty acts of tyranny if the legislator be not on his guard; for as such an accusation does not bear directly on the overt acts of a citizen, but refers to the idea we entertain of his character. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
389:  Dans toute cette vaste étendue de pays que j'ai traversée, je n'ai trouvé que Smyrne qu'on puisse regarder comme une ville riche et puissante. Ce sont les Européens qui la rendent telle, et il ne tient pas aux Turcs qu'elle ne ressemble à toutes les autres.   Voilà, cher Rustan, une juste idée de cet empire, qui, avant deux siècles, sera le théâtre des triomphes de quelque conquérant. ~ Montesquieu
390:Jefferson, Madison and many others taught that complex laws and codes were sure signs of oppression. They agreed with Montesquieu, Lock and Hume and that laws must be simple....and indeed that the entire legal code must be simple enough that every citizen knows the entire law. If a person doesn't know the law....he shouldn't be held liable for breaking it or freedom is greatly reduced. ~ Oliver DeMille
391:A prince who loves and fears religion is a lion who stoops to the hand that strokes or to the voice that appeases him. He who fears and hates religion is like the savage beast that growls and bites the chain, which prevents his flying on the passenger. He who has no religion at all is that terrible animal who perceives his liberty only when he tears in pieces, and when he devours. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
392:تحدث مونتسكييو في كتاب "روح القانون" عن أثر المناخ والتربة في حياة الإنسان:

1- المناخ:

المناخ البارد: شجاعة- نقاء النفس- قوة جسدية.

المناخ الحار: جبن- مكر- ضعف.

2- التربة:

يصل تأثير التربة إلى الحد السياسي ونوع الحكومات:

- التربة الخصبة = نظام ملكي وديكتاتورية.

- التربة الفقيرة = نظام جمهوري وديمقراطية.

- سكان الجزر = الاستقلالية والاستقرار. ~ Montesquieu
393:In vain do we seek tranquility in the desert; temptations are always with us; our passions, represented by the demons, never let us alone: those monsters created by the heart, those illusions produced by the mind, those vain specters that are our errors and our lies always appear before us to seduce us; they attack us even in our fasting or our mortifications, in other words, in our very strength. ~ Montesquieu
394:Si je savais quelque chose qui me fût utile, et qui fût préjudiciable à ma famille, je la rejetterais de mon esprit. Si je savais quelque chose utile à ma famille et qui ne le fût pas à ma patrie, je chercherais à l’oublier. Si je savais quelque chose utile à ma patrie et qui fût préjudiciable au genre humain, je la regarderais comme un crime car je suis nécessairement homme et français que par hasard. ~ Montesquieu
395:In vain do we seek tranquility in the desert; temptations are always with us; our passions, represented by the demons, never let us alone: those monsters created by the heart, those illusions produced by the mind, those vain specters that are our errors and our lies always appear before us to seduce us; they attack us even in our fasting or our mortifications, in other words, in our very strength. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
396:Souvent ils les ont faites trop subtiles, et ont suivi des idées logiciennes plutôt que l’équité naturelle. Dans la suite elles ont été trouvées trop dures, et par un esprit d’équité on a cru devoir s’en écarter ; mais ce remède était un nouveau mal. Quelles que soient les lois, il faut toujours les suivre, et les regarder comme la conscience publique, à laquelle celle des particuliers doit se conformer toujours. ~ Montesquieu
397:What I have here advanced is confirmed by the unanimous testimony of historians, and is extremely agreeable to the nature of things. For it is clear that in a monarchy, where he who commands the execution of the laws generally thinks himself above them, there is less need of virtue than in a popular government, where the person entrusted with the execution of the laws is sensible of his being subject to their direction. ~ Montesquieu
398:For myself, I would rather not write history than write it for the purpose of following the prejudices and passions of the times.

Here, someone makes the Capetians descend from the Merovingians; there, someone else has it that the name very Christian has always been applied to the {French} princes.

They don't form a system after reading history; they begin with the system and then search for the proofs. ~ Montesquieu
399:Nature, in her wisdom, seems to have arranged it so that men's stupidities should be ephemeral, and books make them immortal. A fool ought to be content with having exasperated everyone around him, but he insists on tormenting future generations; he wants his foolishness to overcome the oblivion which he might have enjoyed like a tomb; he wants posterity to be informed that he existed, and to be aware for ever that he was a fool. ~ Montesquieu
400:They who love to inform themselves, are never idle. Though I have no business of consequence to take care of, I am nevertheless continually employed. I spend my life in examining things: I write down in the evening whatever I have remarked, what I have seen, and what I have heard in the day: every thing engages my attention, and every thing excites my wonder: I am like an infant, whose organs, as yet tender, are strongly affected by the slightest objects. ~ Montesquieu
401:They who love to inform themselves, are never idle. Though I have no business of consequence to take care of, I am nevertheless continually employed. I spend my life in examining things: I write down in the evening whatever I have remarked, what I have seen, and what I have heard in the day: every thing engages my attention, and every thing excites my wonder: I am like an infant, whose organs, as yet tender, are strongly affected by the slightest objects. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
402:  Le roi de France est le plus puissant prince de l'Europe. Il n'a point de mines d'or comme le roi d'Espagne son voisin; mais il a plus de richesses que lui, parce qu'il les tire de la vanité de ses sujets, plus inépuisable que les mines. On lui a vu entreprendre ou soutenir de grandes guerres, n'ayant d'autres fonds que des titres d'honneur à vendre, et, par un prodige de l'orgueil humain, ses troupes se trouvaient payées, ses places munies, et ses flottes équipées. ~ Montesquieu
403:إذا رأت قوانين دولة معاناة أديان كثيرة وجب عليها أن تلزم هذه الأديان بالتسامح نحو بعضها بعضًا، ومن المبادئ أن يصبح كل دين مزجور زاجرًا، وذلك أنه إذا استطاع الخروج من دائرة الضغط مصادفة لم يلبث أن يهاجم الدين الذي ضغطه عن طغيان، لا عن دين. ومن المفيد، إذن أن تطلب القوانين من هذه الأديان المختلفة ألا يكدر بعضها صفو بعض فضلًا عن عدم تكدير صفو الدولة، ولا يعد المواطن مطيعًا للقوانين مطلقًا باقتصاره على عدم تكدير كيان الدولة، بل يجب عليه أيضًا، ألا يكدر أحدًا من المواطنين أيًّا كان. ~ Montesquieu
404:Christians are beginning to lose the spirit of intolerance which animated them: experience has shown the error of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain, and of the persecution of those Christians in France whose belief differed a little from that of the king. They have realized that zeal for the advancement of religion is different from a due attachment to it; and that in order to love it and fulfil its behests, it is not necessary to hate and persecute those who are opposed to it. ~ Baron de Montesquieu
405:Il est vrai qu'elles ne s'y livrent guère dans leur jeunesse que pour favoriser une passion plus chère; mais, à mesure qu'elles vieillissent, leur passion pour le jeu semble rajeunir, et cette passion remplit tout le vide des autres.   Elles veulent ruiner leurs maris et, pour y parvenir, elles ont des moyens pour tous les âges, depuis la plus tendre jeunesse jusques à la vieillesse la plus décrépite : les habits et les équipages commencent le dérangement; la coquetterie l'augmente; le jeu l'achève. ~ Montesquieu
406:إن القانون على العموم هو الموجب البشري ما سيطر على أمم الأرض طُرًّا، ولا ينبغي للقوانين السياسية والمدنية في كل أمة أن تكون غير الأحوال الخاصة التي يطبق عليه الموجب البشري … ويجب أن تكون تلك القوانين خاصة بطبيعة البلد، خاصة بالإقليم البارد أو الحار أو المعتدل، وبطبيعة الأرض وموقعها واتساعها، وبجنس حياة الأمم أو الزراع أو الصائدين أو الرعاة، ويجب أن تناسب درجة الحرية التي يمكن أن يبيحها النظام، ودين الأهلين وعواطفهم وغناهم وعددهم وتجارتهم وطبائعهم ومناهجهم … وهذا ما أحاول صنعه في هذا الكتاب، فأبحث في جميع هذه الصلات، وهي التي يتألف من مجموعها ما يسمى روح الشرائع. ~ Montesquieu
407:As early as the late eighteenth century, the great French political philosopher Montesquieu noted the geographic concentration of prosperity and poverty, and proposed an explanation for it. He argued that people in tropical climates tended to be lazy and to lack inquisitiveness. As a consequence, they didn’t work hard and were not innovative, and this was the reason why they were poor. Montesquieu also speculated that lazy people tended to be ruled by despots, suggesting that a tropical location could explain not just poverty but also some of the political phenomena associated with economic failure, such as dictatorship. The ~ Daron Acemo lu
408:This led Montesquieu to become one of the earliest proponents of the trade theory of peace when he observed that hunting and herding nations often found themselves in conflict and wars, whereas trading nations “became reciprocally dependent,” making peace “the natural effect of trade.” The psychology behind the effect, Montesquieu speculated, was exposure of different societies to customs and manners different from their own, which leads to “a cure for the most destructive prejudices.” Thus, he concluded, “we see that in countries where the people move only by the spirit of commerce, they make a traffic of all the humane, all the moral virtues. ~ Michael Shermer
409:But there is not a single person employed in any way at the court, in Paris, or in the provinces, who is not acquainted with some woman through whose hands pass all the favours and sometimes all the wrongs which he may wish done. These women are all in each other’s secrets, and form a sort of republic, the members of which are always busy aiding and serving each other; it is like a state within a state; and anyone at court, in Paris, or in the provinces who sees the activity of the ministers, the magistrates, and the prelates, if he does not know the women who govern them, is like a man who sees a machine at work, but who is ignorant of the springs that move it. ~ Montesquieu
410:Lao Tzu saw this twenty-six centuries ago: ‘The more prohibitions you have, the less virtuous people will be.’ Montesquieu’s phrase for the calming effect of trade on human violence, intolerance and enmity was ‘doux commerce’ – sweet commerce. And he has been amply vindicated in the centuries since. The richer and more market-oriented societies have become, the nicer people have behaved. Think of the Dutch after 1600, the Swedes after 1800, the Japanese after 1945, the Germans likewise, the Chinese after 1978. The long peace of the nineteenth century coincided with the growth of free trade. The paroxysm of violence that convulsed the world in the first half of the twentieth century coincided with protectionism. ~ Matt Ridley
411:One of them said to me once, “I believe in the immortality of the soul for six months at a time; my opinions depend entirely upon my bodily condition: I am a Spinozist, a Socinian, a Catholic, ungodly or devout, according to the state of my animal spirits, the quality of my digestion, the rarity or heaviness of the air I breathe, the lightness or solidity of the food I eat. When the doctor is at my bedside, the confessor has me at a disadvantage. I know very well how to prevent religion from annoying me when I am in good health; but I allow myself to be consoled by it when I am ill: when I have nothing more to hope for here below, religion offers itself, and gains me by its promises; I am glad to give myself up to it, and to die with hope on my side. ~ Montesquieu
412:We are not afraid of death,” the suicide bombers say to show their superiority to ordinary people. But they are afraid of life, constantly trampling on it, slandering it, destroying it, and training children still in their cradles for martyrdom. Observers have noted that the photos of terrorists taken a few hours before they made their attacks show people who are serene and at peace. They have eliminated doubt: they know. It is the paradox of open societies that they seem to be disordered, unjust, threatened by crime, loneliness, and drugs because they display their indignity before the whole world, never ceasing to admit their defects, whereas other, more oppressive societies seem harmonious because the press and the opposition are muzzled.
“Where there are no visible conflicts, there is no freedom,” Montesquieu said. ~ Pascal Bruckner
413:Wilson insisted that the centralized administrative state must, by logic and necessity, replace or thoroughly alter the constitutional structure—particularly the Framers’ incorporation of Charles de Montesquieu’s separation-of-powers doctrine, essential to curtailing the likelihood of concentrated tyranny, which must be abandoned in principle. Otherwise there can be no real historical progress. “The study of administration, philosophically viewed, is closely connected with the study of the proper distribution of constitutional authority. . . . If administrative study can discover the best principles upon which to base such distribution, it will have done constitutional study an invaluable service. Montesquieu did not, I am convinced, say the last word on this head.”44 Hence the administrative state is to effectively replace the constitutional state, the latter being old and immovable. ~ Mark R Levin
414:[20:47, 2/13/2017] +90 537 860 5250: Tarih boyunca Paris görkemliliği ile herkesin dikkatini çekmiştir. Pacsal'ı, Régniers'i, Corneille'i Descartes'i, Jean Jacques'i, Voltaire'i, Molier'i, Montesquieu'ı ile insanlık hayatına damgasını vuran bir şehirdir. Sanatçısı ile sanatıile bir örnek şehirdir Paris.
Paris diğer şehirlerle nasıl kıyaslanamazsa kenar mahallelerinde yaşayan sokak çocukları da o denli kıyaslanamaz. Tehlikelerden korkmayan bu çocuklar iç çamaşırı kullanmazlar. Ayrıca ayaklarında ayakkabı, üstlerinde palto yoktur. Külhanbeyi gibi dolaşırlar. Arkadaşları meyhaneciler, sarhoşlar ve hırsızlardır.
Paris'in çocukları annelik kavramını bilmez. Yatacak yeri yoktur. Yatakları kaldırımlar, yorganları gökyüzüdür. Bütün suçlarına rağmen Paris'in çocukları on üç yaşına kadar suçsuzdurlar. On üç yaşına kadar ellerinden tutulduğunda diğerleri gibi birer dürüst vatandaş olurlar.
Paris halkı özellikle kenar mahallelerinde kendini gösterir.Gerçek Parisli oradadır. ~ Victor Hugo
415:In New York the curriculum guide for 11th-grade American history tells students that there were three "foundations" for the Constitution: the European Enlightenment, the "Haudenosaunee political system", and the antecedent colonial experience. Only the Haudenosaunee political system receives explanatory subheadings: "a. Influence upon colonial leadership and European intellectuals (Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau); b. Impact on Albany Plan of Union, Articles of Confederation, and U.S. Constitution".

How many experts on the American Constitution would endorse this stirring tribute to the "Haudenosaunee political system"? How many have heard of that system? Whatever influence the Iroquois confederation may have had on the framers of the Constitution was marginal; on European intellectuals it was marginal to the point of invisibility. No other state curriculum offers this analysis of the making of the Constitution. But then no other state has so effective an Iroquois lobby. ~ Arthur M Schlesinger Jr
416:Another much-discussed question is, whether women are intended by nature to be subject to men.“No,” said a very gallant philosopher to me the other day; “nature never dictated any such law.The dominion which we exercise over them is tyrannical; they yield themselves to men only because they are more tender-hearted, and consequently more human and more rational.These advantages, which, had we been reasonable, would, without doubt, have been the cause of their subordination, because we are irrational.

“Now, if it is true that it is a tyrannical power which we have over women, it is none the less true that they exercise over us a natural dominion- that of beauty, which nothing can resist.Our power does not extend to all countries, but that of beauty is universal.Why, then, should we have any privilege?Is it because we are stronger than they?But that would be the height of injustice.We use every possible means to discourage them.Our powers would be found equal if we were educated alike.Try women in those gifts which education has not weakened, and we soon will see which is the abler sex. ~ Montesquieu
417:Atreverse; el progreso se obtiene a este precio.

Todas las conquistas sublimes son, más o menos, premios al atrevimiento. Para que la Revolución exista, no basta con que Montesquieu la presienta, ni con que Diderot la predique, ni con que Beaumarchais la anuncie, ni con que Condorcet la calcule, ni con que Arouet la prepare, ni con que Rousseau la premedite; es preciso que Danton se atreva.

El grito «¡Audacia!» es un fiat lux. Para la marcha hacia delante del género humano es preciso que encuentre en las cumbres de la sociedad ejemplos permanentes y altivos de valor. La temeridad deslumbra a la historia, y es una gran luz para el hombre. La aurora es audaz cuando se eleva sobre el horizonte. Intentar, desafiar, persistir, perseverar, ser fiel a sí mismo, hacer frente al destino, asombrar a la catástrofe por el poco miedo que nos infunde, ya sea enfrentándose a los poderes injustos o insultando a la victoria ebria, resistir y persistir; he aquí el ejemplo que necesitan los pueblos y la luz que los electriza. El mismo formidable relámpago va de la antorcha de Prometeo al botafuego de Cambronne. ~ Victor Hugo
418:MOST legislators have been men of inferior capacity whom chance exalted over their fellows, and who took counsel almost exclusively of their own prejudices and whims.

It would seem that they had not even a sense of the greatness and dignity of their work: they amused themselves by framing childish institutions, well devised indeed to please small minds, but discrediting their authors with people of sense.

They flung themselves into useless details; and gave their attention to individual interests: the sign of the narrow genius, which grasps things piecemeal and cannot take a general view.

Some of them have been so affected as to employ another language than the vernacular-a ridiculous thing in a framer of laws; for how can they be obeyed if they are not known?

They have often abolished needlessly those which were already established-that is to say, they have plunged nations into the confusion which always accompanies change.

It is true that, by reason of some extravagance springing rather from the nature than from the mind of man, it is sometimes necessary to change certain laws. But the case is rare; and when it happens it requires the most delicate handling; much solemnity ought to be observed, and endless precautions taken, in order to lead the people to the natural conclusion that the laws are most sacred, since so many formalities are necessary to their abrogation.

Often they have made them too subtle, following logical instead of natural equity. As a consequence such laws have been found too severe; and a spirit of justice required that they should be set aside; but the cure was as bad as the disease. Whatever the laws may be, obedience to them is necessary; they are to be regarded as the public conscience, with which all private consciences ought to be in conformity.

(Letter #79) ~ Montesquieu
419:Nessun limite a Parigi. Nessuna città ha avuto questa dominazione che dileggiava talvolta coloro ch'essa soggioga: Piacervi o ateniesi! esclamava Alessandro. Parigi fa più che la legge, fa la moda; e più che la moda, l'abitudine. Se le piace, può esser stupida, e talvolta si concede questo lusso, allora l'universo è stupido con lei. Poi Parigi si sveglia, si frega gli occhi e dice: «Come sono sciocca!» e sbotta a ridere in faccia al genere umano. Quale meraviglia, una simile città! Quanto è strano che questo grandioso e questo burlesco si faccian buona compagnia, che tutta questa maestà non sia turbata da tutta questa parodia e che la stessa bocca possa oggi soffiare nella tromba del giudizio finale e domani nello zufolo campestre! Parigi ha una giocondità suprema: la sua allegrezza folgora e la sua farsa regge uno scettro. Il suo uragano esce talvolta da una smorfia; le sue esplosioni, le sue giornate, i suoi capolavori, i suoi prodigi e le sue epopee giungono fino in capo al mondo, e i suoi spropositi anche. La sua risata è una bocca di vulcano che inzacchera tutta la terra, i suoi lazzi sono faville; essa impone ai popoli le sue caricature, così come il suo ideale, ed i più alti monumenti della civiltà umana ne accettano le ironie e prestano la loro eternità alle sue monellerie. È superba: ha un 14 luglio prodigioso, che libera l'universo; fa fare il giuramento della palla corda a tutte le nazioni; la sua notte del 4 agosto dissolve in tre ore mille anni di feudalismo; fa della sua logica il muscolo della volontà unanime; si moltiplica sotto tutte le forme del sublime; riempie del suo bagliore Washington, Kosciusko, Bolivar, Botzaris, Riego, Bem, Manin, Lopez, John Brown, Garibaldi; è dappertutto dove s'accende l'avvenire, a Boston nel 1779, all'isola di Leon nel 1820, a Budapest nel 1848, a Palermo nel 1860; sussurra la possente parola d'ordine: Libertà, all'orecchio degli abolizionisti americani radunati al traghetto di Harper's Ferry ed all'orecchio dei patrioti d'Ancona, riuniti nell'ombra degli Archi, davanti all'albergo Gozzi, in riva al mare; crea Canaris, Quiroga, Pisacane; irraggia la grandezza sulla terra; e Byron muore a Missolungi e Mazet muore a Barcellona, andando là dove il suo alito li spinge; è tribuna sotto i piedi di Mirabeau, cratere sotto i piedi di Robespierre; i suoi libri, il suo teatro, la sua arte, la sua scienza, la sua letteratura, la sua filosofia sono i manuali del genere umano; vi sono Pascal, Régnier, Corneille, Descartes, Gian Giacomo; Voltaire per tutti i minuti, Molière per tutti i secoli; fa parlar la sua lingua alla bocca universale e questa lingua diventa il Verbo; costruisce in tutte le menti l'idea del progresso; i dogmi liberatori da lei formulati sono per le generazioni altrettanti cavalli di battaglia, e appunto coll'anima dei suoi pensatori e dei suoi poeti si sono fatti dal 1789 in poi gli eroi di tutti i popoli. Il che non le impedisce d'esser birichina; e quel genio enorme che si chiama Parigi, mentre trasfigura il mondo colla sua luce, disegna col carboncino il naso di Bourginier sul muro del tempio di Teseo e scrive Crédeville, ladro, sulle piramidi.

Parigi mostra sempre i denti; quando non brontola, ride.

Siffatta è questa Parigi. I fumacchi dei suoi tetti sono le idee dell'universo. Mucchio di fango e di pietre, se si vuole; ma, soprattutto, essere morale: è più che grande, è immensa. Perché? Perché osa.

Osare: il più progresso si ottiene a questo prezzo. Tutte le conquiste sublimi sono, più o meno, premî al coraggio, perché la rivoluzione sia, non basta che Montesquieu la presagisca, che Diderot la predichi, che Beaumarchais l'annunci, che Condorcet la calcoli, che Arouet la prepari e che Rousseau la premediti: bisogna che Danton l'osi. ~ Victor Hugo
420:Reading list (1972 edition)[edit]
1. Homer – Iliad, Odyssey
2. The Old Testament
3. Aeschylus – Tragedies
4. Sophocles – Tragedies
5. Herodotus – Histories
6. Euripides – Tragedies
7. Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War
8. Hippocrates – Medical Writings
9. Aristophanes – Comedies
10. Plato – Dialogues
11. Aristotle – Works
12. Epicurus – Letter to Herodotus; Letter to Menoecus
13. Euclid – Elements
14. Archimedes – Works
15. Apollonius of Perga – Conic Sections
16. Cicero – Works
17. Lucretius – On the Nature of Things
18. Virgil – Works
19. Horace – Works
20. Livy – History of Rome
21. Ovid – Works
22. Plutarch – Parallel Lives; Moralia
23. Tacitus – Histories; Annals; Agricola Germania
24. Nicomachus of Gerasa – Introduction to Arithmetic
25. Epictetus – Discourses; Encheiridion
26. Ptolemy – Almagest
27. Lucian – Works
28. Marcus Aurelius – Meditations
29. Galen – On the Natural Faculties
30. The New Testament
31. Plotinus – The Enneads
32. St. Augustine – On the Teacher; Confessions; City of God; On Christian Doctrine
33. The Song of Roland
34. The Nibelungenlied
35. The Saga of Burnt Njál
36. St. Thomas Aquinas – Summa Theologica
37. Dante Alighieri – The Divine Comedy;The New Life; On Monarchy
38. Geoffrey Chaucer – Troilus and Criseyde; The Canterbury Tales
39. Leonardo da Vinci – Notebooks
40. Niccolò Machiavelli – The Prince; Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy
41. Desiderius Erasmus – The Praise of Folly
42. Nicolaus Copernicus – On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
43. Thomas More – Utopia
44. Martin Luther – Table Talk; Three Treatises
45. François Rabelais – Gargantua and Pantagruel
46. John Calvin – Institutes of the Christian Religion
47. Michel de Montaigne – Essays
48. William Gilbert – On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies
49. Miguel de Cervantes – Don Quixote
50. Edmund Spenser – Prothalamion; The Faerie Queene
51. Francis Bacon – Essays; Advancement of Learning; Novum Organum, New Atlantis
52. William Shakespeare – Poetry and Plays
53. Galileo Galilei – Starry Messenger; Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
54. Johannes Kepler – Epitome of Copernican Astronomy; Concerning the Harmonies of the World
55. William Harvey – On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals; On the Circulation of the Blood; On the Generation of Animals
56. Thomas Hobbes – Leviathan
57. René Descartes – Rules for the Direction of the Mind; Discourse on the Method; Geometry; Meditations on First Philosophy
58. John Milton – Works
59. Molière – Comedies
60. Blaise Pascal – The Provincial Letters; Pensees; Scientific Treatises
61. Christiaan Huygens – Treatise on Light
62. Benedict de Spinoza – Ethics
63. John Locke – Letter Concerning Toleration; Of Civil Government; Essay Concerning Human Understanding;Thoughts Concerning Education
64. Jean Baptiste Racine – Tragedies
65. Isaac Newton – Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; Optics
66. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – Discourse on Metaphysics; New Essays Concerning Human Understanding;Monadology
67. Daniel Defoe – Robinson Crusoe
68. Jonathan Swift – A Tale of a Tub; Journal to Stella; Gulliver's Travels; A Modest Proposal
69. William Congreve – The Way of the World
70. George Berkeley – Principles of Human Knowledge
71. Alexander Pope – Essay on Criticism; Rape of the Lock; Essay on Man
72. Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu – Persian Letters; Spirit of Laws
73. Voltaire – Letters on the English; Candide; Philosophical Dictionary
74. Henry Fielding – Joseph Andrews; Tom Jones
75. Samuel Johnson – The Vanity of Human Wishes; Dictionary; Rasselas; The Lives of the Poets ~ Mortimer J Adler
421:Reading list (1972 edition)[edit]
1. Homer - Iliad, Odyssey
2. The Old Testament
3. Aeschylus - Tragedies
4. Sophocles - Tragedies
5. Herodotus - Histories
6. Euripides - Tragedies
7. Thucydides - History of the Peloponnesian War
8. Hippocrates - Medical Writings
9. Aristophanes - Comedies
10. Plato - Dialogues
11. Aristotle - Works
12. Epicurus - Letter to Herodotus; Letter to Menoecus
13. Euclid - Elements
14.Archimedes - Works
15. Apollonius of Perga - Conic Sections
16. Cicero - Works
17. Lucretius - On the Nature of Things
18. Virgil - Works
19. Horace - Works
20. Livy - History of Rome
21. Ovid - Works
22. Plutarch - Parallel Lives; Moralia
23. Tacitus - Histories; Annals; Agricola Germania
24. Nicomachus of Gerasa - Introduction to Arithmetic
25. Epictetus - Discourses; Encheiridion
26. Ptolemy - Almagest
27. Lucian - Works
28. Marcus Aurelius - Meditations
29. Galen - On the Natural Faculties
30. The New Testament
31. Plotinus - The Enneads
32. St. Augustine - On the Teacher; Confessions; City of God; On Christian Doctrine
33. The Song of Roland
34. The Nibelungenlied
35. The Saga of Burnt Njal
36. St. Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica
37. Dante Alighieri - The Divine Comedy;The New Life; On Monarchy
38. Geoffrey Chaucer - Troilus and Criseyde; The Canterbury Tales
39. Leonardo da Vinci - Notebooks
40. Niccolò Machiavelli - The Prince; Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy
41. Desiderius Erasmus - The Praise of Folly
42. Nicolaus Copernicus - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
43. Thomas More - Utopia
44. Martin Luther - Table Talk; Three Treatises
45. François Rabelais - Gargantua and Pantagruel
46. John Calvin - Institutes of the Christian Religion
47. Michel de Montaigne - Essays
48. William Gilbert - On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies
49. Miguel de Cervantes - Don Quixote
50. Edmund Spenser - Prothalamion; The Faerie Queene
51. Francis Bacon - Essays; Advancement of Learning; Novum Organum, New Atlantis
52. William Shakespeare - Poetry and Plays
53. Galileo Galilei - Starry Messenger; Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
54. Johannes Kepler - Epitome of Copernican Astronomy; Concerning the Harmonies of the World
55. William Harvey - On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals; On the Circulation of the Blood; On the Generation of Animals
56. Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan
57. René Descartes - Rules for the Direction of the Mind; Discourse on the Method; Geometry; Meditations on First Philosophy
58. John Milton - Works
59. Molière - Comedies
60. Blaise Pascal - The Provincial Letters; Pensees; Scientific Treatises
61. Christiaan Huygens - Treatise on Light
62. Benedict de Spinoza - Ethics
63. John Locke - Letter Concerning Toleration; Of Civil Government; Essay Concerning Human Understanding;Thoughts Concerning Education
64. Jean Baptiste Racine - Tragedies
65. Isaac Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; Optics
66. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Discourse on Metaphysics; New Essays Concerning Human Understanding;Monadology
67.Daniel Defoe - Robinson Crusoe
68. Jonathan Swift - A Tale of a Tub; Journal to Stella; Gulliver's Travels; A Modest Proposal
69. William Congreve - The Way of the World
70. George Berkeley - Principles of Human Knowledge
71. Alexander Pope - Essay on Criticism; Rape of the Lock; Essay on Man
72. Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu - Persian Letters; Spirit of Laws
73. Voltaire - Letters on the English; Candide; Philosophical Dictionary
74. Henry Fielding - Joseph Andrews; Tom Jones
75. Samuel Johnson - The Vanity of Human Wishes; Dictionary; Rasselas; The Lives of the Poets
   ~ Mortimer J Adler,
422:To narrow natural rights to such neat slogans as "liberty, equality, fraternity" or "life, liberty, property," . . . was to ignore the complexity of public affairs and to leave out of consideration most moral relationships. . . .

Burke appealed back beyond Locke to an idea of community far warmer and richer than Locke's or Hobbes's aggregation of individuals. The true compact of society, Burke told his countrymen, is eternal: it joins the dead, the living, and the unborn. We all participate in this spiritual and social partnership, because it is ordained of God. In defense of social harmony, Burke appealed to what Locke had ignored: the love of neighbor and the sense of duty. By the time of the French Revolution, Locke's argument in the Second Treatise already had become insufficient to sustain a social order. . . .

The Constitution is not a theoretical document at all, and the influence of Locke upon it is negligible, although Locke's phrases, at least, crept into the Declaration of Independence, despite Jefferson's awkwardness about confessing the source of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

If we turn to the books read and quoted by American leaders near the end of the eighteenth century, we discover that Locke was but one philosopher and political advocate among the many writers whose influence they acknowledged. . . .

Even Jefferson, though he had read Locke, cites in his Commonplace Book such juridical authorities as Coke and Kames much more frequently. As Gilbert Chinard puts it, "The Jeffersonian philosophy was born under the sign of Hengist and Horsa, not of the Goddess Reason"--that is, Jefferson was more strongly influenced by his understanding of British history, the Anglo-Saxon age particularly, than by the eighteenth-century rationalism of which Locke was a principal forerunner. . . .

Adams treats Locke merely as one of several commendable English friends to liberty. . . .

At bottom, the thinking Americans of the last quarter of the eighteenth century found their principles of order in no single political philosopher, but rather in their religion. When schooled Americans of that era approved a writer, commonly it was because his books confirmed their American experience and justified convictions they held already. So far as Locke served their needs, they employed Locke. But other men of ideas served them more immediately.

At the Constitutional Convention, no man was quoted more frequently than Montesquieu. Montesquieu rejects Hobbes's compact formed out of fear; but also, if less explicitly, he rejects Locke's version of the social contract. . . . It is Montesquieu's conviction that . . . laws grow slowly out of people's experiences with one another, out of social customs and habits. "When a people have pure and regular manners, their laws become simple and natural," Montesquieu says. It was from Montesquieu, rather than from Locke, that the Framers obtained a theory of checks and balances and of the division of powers. . . .

What Madison and other Americans found convincing in Hume was his freedom from mystification, vulgar error, and fanatic conviction: Hume's powerful practical intellect, which settled for politics as the art of the possible. . . . [I]n the Federalist, there occurs no mention of the name of John Locke. In Madison's Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention there is to be found but one reference to Locke, and that incidental. Do not these omissions seem significant to zealots for a "Lockean interpretation" of the Constitution? . . .

John Locke did not make the Glorious Revolution of 1688 or foreordain the Constitution of the United States. . . . And the Constitution of the United States would have been framed by the same sort of men with the same sort of result, and defended by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay, had Locke in 1689 lost the manuscripts of his Two Treatises of Civil Government while crossing the narrow seas with the Princess Mary. ~ Russell Kirk
423:I have always been interested in this man. My father had a set of Tom Paine's books on the shelf at home. I must have opened the covers about the time I was 13. And I can still remember the flash of enlightenment which shone from his pages. It was a revelation, indeed, to encounter his views on political and religious matters, so different from the views of many people around us. Of course I did not understand him very well, but his sincerity and ardor made an impression upon me that nothing has ever served to lessen.

I have heard it said that Paine borrowed from Montesquieu and Rousseau. Maybe he had read them both and learned something from each. I do not know. But I doubt that Paine ever borrowed a line from any man...

Many a person who could not comprehend Rousseau, and would be puzzled by Montesquieu, could understand Paine as an open book. He wrote with a clarity, a sharpness of outline and exactness of speech that even a schoolboy should be able to grasp. There is nothing false, little that is subtle, and an impressive lack of the negative in Paine. He literally cried to his reader for a comprehending hour, and then filled that hour with such sagacious reasoning as we find surpassed nowhere else in American letters - seldom in any school of writing.

Paine would have been the last to look upon himself as a man of letters. Liberty was the dear companion of his heart; truth in all things his object.

...we, perhaps, remember him best for his declaration:

'The world is my country; to do good my religion.'

Again we see the spontaneous genius at work in 'The Rights of Man', and that genius busy at his favorite task - liberty. Written hurriedly and in the heat of controversy, 'The Rights of Man' yet compares favorably with classical models, and in some places rises to vaulting heights. Its appearance outmatched events attending Burke's effort in his 'Reflections'.

Instantly the English public caught hold of this new contribution. It was more than a defense of liberty; it was a world declaration of what Paine had declared before in the Colonies. His reasoning was so cogent, his command of the subject so broad, that his legion of enemies found it hard to answer him.

'Tom Paine is quite right,' said Pitt, the Prime Minister, 'but if I were to encourage his views we should have a bloody revolution.'

Here we see the progressive quality of Paine's genius at its best. 'The Rights of Man' amplified and reasserted what already had been said in 'Common Sense', with now a greater force and the power of a maturing mind. Just when Paine was at the height of his renown, an indictment for treason confronted him. About the same time he was elected a member of the Revolutionary Assembly and escaped to France.

So little did he know of the French tongue that addresses to his constituents had to be translated by an interpreter. But he sat in the assembly. Shrinking from the guillotine, he encountered Robespierre's enmity, and presently found himself in prison, facing that dread instrument.

But his imprisonment was fertile. Already he had written the first part of 'The Age of Reason' and now turned his time to the latter part.

Presently his second escape cheated Robespierre of vengeance, and in the course of events 'The Age of Reason' appeared. Instantly it became a source of contention which still endures. Paine returned to the United States a little broken, and went to live at his home in New Rochelle - a public gift. Many of his old companions in the struggle for liberty avoided him, and he was publicly condemned by the unthinking.

{The Philosophy of Paine, June 7, 1925} ~ Thomas A Edison
424:L’invention
O fils du Mincius, je te salue, ô toi
Par qui le dieu des arts fut roi du peuple-roi!
Et vous, à qui jadis, pour créer l'harmonie,
L'Attique et l'onde Égée, et la belle Ionie,
Donnèrent un ciel pur, les plaisirs, la beauté,
Des moeurs simples, des lois, la paix, la liberté,
Un langage sonore aux douceurs souveraines,
Le plus beau qui soit né sur des lèvres humaines!
Nul âge ne verra pâlir vos saints lauriers,
Car vos pas inventeurs ouvrirent les sentiers;
Et du temple des arts que la gloire environne
Vos mains ont élevé la première colonne.
A nous tous aujourd'hui, vos faibles nourrissons,
Votre exemple a dicté d'importantes leçons.
Il nous dit que nos mains, pour vous être fidèles,
Y doivent élever des colonnes nouvelles.
L'esclave imitateur naît et s'évanouit;
La nuit vient, le corps reste, et son ombre s'enfuit.
Ce n'est qu'aux inventeurs que la vie est promise.
Nous voyons les enfants de la fière Tamise,
De toute servitude ennemis indomptés;
Mieux qu'eux, par votre exemple, à vous vaincre excités,
Osons; de votre gloire éclatante et durable
Essayons d'épuiser la source inépuisable.
Mais inventer n'est pas, en un brusque abandon,
Blesser la vérité, le bon sens, la raison;
Ce n'est pas entasser, sans dessein et sans forme,
Des membres ennemis en un colosse énorme;
Ce n'est pas, élevant des poissons dans les airs,
A l'aile des vautours ouvrir le sein des mers;
Ce n'est pas sur le front d'une nymphe brillante
Hérisser d'un lion la crinière sanglante:
Délires insensés! fantômes monstrueux!
Et d'un cerveau malsain rêves tumultueux!
Ces transports déréglés, vagabonde manie,
Sont l'accès de la fièvre et non pas du génie;
D'Ormus et d'Ariman ce sont les noirs combats,
Où, partout confondus, la vie et le trépas,
74
Les ténèbres, le jour, la forme et la matière,
Luttent sans être unis; mais l'esprit de lumière
Fait naître en ce chaos la concorde et le jour:
D'éléments divisés il reconnaît l'amour,
Les rappelle; et partout, en d'heureux intervalles,
Sépare et met en paix les semences rivales.
Ainsi donc, dans les arts, l'inventeur est celui
Qui peint ce que chacun put sentir comme lui;
Qui, fouillant des objets les plus sombres retraites,
Étale et fait briller leurs richesses secrètes;
Qui, par des noeuds certains, imprévus et nouveaux,
Unissant des objets qui paraissaient rivaux,
Montre et fait adopter à la nature mère
Ce qu'elle n'a point fait, mais ce qu'elle a pu faire;
C'est le fécond pinceau qui, sûr dans ses regards,
Retrouve un seul visage en vingt belles épars,
Les fait renaître ensemble, et, par un art suprême,
Des traits de vingt beautés forme la beauté même.
La nature dicta vingt genres opposés
D'un fil léger entre eux chez les Grecs divisés.
Nul genre, s'échappant de ses bornes prescrites,
N'aurait osé d'un autre envahir les limites,
Et Pindare à sa lyre, en un couplet bouffon,
N'aurait point de Marot associé le ton.
De ces fleuves nombreux dont l'antique Permesse
Arrosa si longtemps les cités de la Grèce,
De nos jours même, hélas! nos aveugles vaisseaux
Ont encore oublié mille vastes rameaux.
Quand Louis et Colbert, sous les murs de Versailles,
Réparaient des beaux-arts les longues funérailles,
De Sophocle et d'Eschyle ardents admirateurs,
De leur auguste exemple élèves inventeurs,
Des hommes immortels firent sur notre scène
Revivre aux yeux français les théâtres d'Athène.
Comme eux, instruits par eux, Voltaire offre à nos pleurs
Des grands infortunés les illustres douleurs;
D'autres esprits divins, fouillant d'autres ruines,
Sous l'amas des débris, des ronces, des épines,
Ont su, pleins des écrits des Grecs et des Romains,
Retrouver, parcourir leurs antiques chemins,
Mais, oh! la belle palme et quel trésor de gloire
75
Pour celui qui, cherchant la plus noble victoire,
D'un si grand labyrinthe affrontant les hasards,
Saura guider sa muse aux immenses regards,
De mille longs détours à la fois occupée,
Dans les sentiers confus d'une vaste épopée;
Lui dire d'être libre, et qu'elle n'aille pas
De Virgile et d'Homère épier tous les pas,
Par leur secours à peine à leurs pieds élevée;
Mais, qu'auprès de leurs chars, dans un char enlevée,
Sur leurs sentiers marqués de vestiges si beaux,
Sa roue ose imprimer des vestiges nouveaux!
Quoi! faut-il, ne s'armant que de timides voiles,
N'avoir que ces grands noms pour nord et pour étoiles,
Les côtoyer sans cesse, et n'oser un instant,
Seul et loin de tout bord, intrépide et flottant,
Aller sonder les flancs du plus lointain Nérée
Et du premier sillon fendre une onde ignorée?
Les coutumes d'alors, les sciences, les moeurs
Respirent dans les vers des antiques auteurs.
Leur siècle est en dépôt dans leurs nobles volumes.
Tout a changé pour nous, moeurs, sciences, coutumes.
Pourquoi donc nous faut-il, par un pénible soin,
Sans rien voir près de nous, voyant toujours bien loin,
Vivant dans le passé, laissant ceux qui commencent,
Sans penser, écrivant d'après d'autres qui pensent,
Retraçant un tableau que nos yeux n'ont point vu,
Dire et dire cent fois ce que nous avons lu?
De la Grèce héroïque et naissante et sauvage
Dans Homère à nos yeux vit la parfaite image.
Démocrite, Platon, Epicure, Thalès,
Ont de loin à Virgile indiqué les secrets
D'une nature encore à leurs yeux trop voilée.
Torricelli, Newton, Kepler et Galilée,
Plus doctes, plus heureux dans leurs puissants efforts,
A tout nouveau Virgile ont ouvert des trésors.
Tous les arts sont unis: les sciences humaines
N'ont pu de leur empire étendre les domaines,
Sans agrandir aussi la carrière des vers.
Quel long travail pour eux a conquis l'univers!
Aux regards de Buffon, sans voile, sans obstacles,
La terre ouvrant son sein, ses ressorts, ses miracles,
Ses germes, ses coteaux, dépouille de Téthys;
76
Les nuages épais, sur elle appesantis,
De ses noires vapeurs nourrissant leur tonnerre;
Et l'hiver ennemi, pour envahir la terre,
Roi des antres du Nord, et, de glaces armés,
Ses pas usurpateurs sur nos monts imprimés;
Et l'oeil perçant du verre, en la vaste étendue,
Allant chercher ces feux qui fuyaient notre vue,
Aux changements prédits, immuables, fixés,
Que d'une plume d'or Bailly nous a tracés;
Aux lois de Cassini les comètes fidèles;
L'aimant, de nos vaisseaux seul dirigeant les ailes;
Une Cybèle neuve et cent mondes divers
Aux yeux de nos Jasons sortis du sein des mers;
Quel amas de tableaux, de sublimes images,
Naît de ces grands objets réservés à nos âges!
Sous ces bois étrangers qui couronnent ces monts,
Aux vallons de Cusco, dans ces antres profonds,
Si chers à la fortune et plus chers au génie,
Germent des mines d'or, de gloire et d'harmonie.
Pensez-vous, si Virgile ou l'Aveugle divin
Renaissaient aujourd'hui, que leur savante main
Négligeât de saisir ces fécondes richesses,
De notre Pinde auguste éclatantes largesses?
Nous en verrions briller leurs sublimes écrits;
Et ces mêmes objets, que vos doctes mépris
Accueillent aujourd'hui d'un front dur et sévère,
Alors à vos regards auraient seuls droit de plaire.
Alors, dans l'avenir, votre inflexible humeur
Aurait soin de défendre à tout jeune rimeur
D'oser sortir jamais de ce cercle d'images
Que vos yeux auraient vu tracé dans leurs ouvrages.
Mais qui jamais a su, dans des vers séduisants,
Sous des dehors plus vrais peindre l'esprit aux sens?
Mais quelle voix jamais d'une plus pure flamme
Et chatouilla l'oreille et pénétra dans l'âme?
Mais leurs moeurs et leurs lois, et mille autres hasards,
Rendaient leur siècle heureux plus propice aux beaux-arts.
Eh bien! l'âme est partout; la pensée a des ailes.
Volons, volons chez eux retrouver leurs modèles;
Voyageons dans leur âge, où, libre, sans détour,
Chaque homme ose être un homme et penser au grand jour.
Au tribunal de Mars, sur la pourpre romaine,
77
Là du grand Cicéron la vertueuse haine
Écrase Céthégus, Catilina, Verrès;
Là tonne Démosthène; ici de Périclès
La voix; l'ardente voix, de tous les coeurs maîtresse,
Frappe, foudroie, agite, épouvante la Grèce.
Allons voir la grandeur et l'éclat de leurs jeux.
Ciel! la mer appelée en un bassin pompeux!
Deux flottes parcourant cette enceinte profonde,
Combattant sous les yeux du conquérant du monde!
O terre de Pélops! avec le monde entier
Allons voir d'Épidaure un agile coursier,
Couronné dans les champs de Némée et d'Élide;
Allons voir au théâtre, aux accents d'Euripide,
D'une sainte folie un peuple furieux
Chanter: _Amour, tyran des hommes et des dieux_;
Puis, ivres des transports qui nous viennent surprendre,
Parmi nous, dans nos vers, revenons les répandre;
Changeons en notre miel leurs plus antiques fleurs;
Pour peindre notre idée empruntons leurs couleurs;
Allumons nos flambeaux à leurs feux poétiques;
Sur des pensers nouveaux faisons des vers antiques.
Direz-vous qu'un objet né sur leur Hélicon
A seul de nous charmer pu recevoir le don?
Que leurs fables, leurs dieux, ces mensonges futiles,
Des Muses noble ouvrage, aux Muses sont utiles?
Que nos travaux savants, nos calculs studieux,
Qui subjuguent l'esprit et répugnent aux yeux,
Que l'on croit malgré soi, sont pénibles, austères,
Et moins grands, moins pompeux que leurs belles chimères?
Ces objets, hérissés, dans leurs détours nombreux,
Des ronces d'un langage obscur et ténébreux,
Pour l'âme, pour les sens offrent-ils rien à peindre?
Le langage des vers y pourrait-il atteindre?
Voilà ce que traités, préfaces, longs discours,
Prose, rime, partout nous disent tous les jours.
Mais enfin, dites-moi, si d'une oeuvre immortelle
La nature est en nous la source et le modèle,
Pouvez-vous le penser que tout cet univers,
Et cet ordre éternel, ces mouvements divers,
L'immense vérité, la nature elle-même,
Soit moins grande en effet que ce brillant système
78
Qu'ils nommaient la nature, et dont d'heureux efforts
Disposaient avec art les fragiles ressorts?
Mais quoi! ces vérités sont au loin reculées,
Dans un langage obscur saintement recélées:
Le peuple les ignore. O Muses, ô Phoebus!
C'est là, c'est là sans doute un aiguillon de plus.
L'auguste poésie, éclatante interprète,
Se couvrira de gloire en forçant leur retraite.
Cette reine des coeurs, à la touchante voix,
A le droit, en tous lieux, de nous dicter son choix,
Sûre de voir partout, introduite par elle,
Applaudir à grands cris une beauté nouvelle,
Et les objets nouveaux que sa voix a tentés
Partout, de bouche en bouche, après elle chantés.
Elle porte, à travers leurs nuages plus sombres,
Des rayons lumineux qui dissipent leurs ombres,
Et rit quand dans son vide un auteur oppressé
Se plaint qu'on a tout dit et que tout est pensé.
Seule, et la lyre en main, et de fleurs couronnée,
De doux ravissements partout accompagnée,
Aux lieux les plus déserts, ses pas, ses jeunes pas,
Trouvent mille trésors qu'on ne soupçonnait pas.
Sur l'aride buisson que son regard se pose,
Le buisson à ses yeux rit et jette une rose.
Elle sait ne point voir, dans son juste dédain,
Les fleurs qui trop souvent, courant de main en main,
Ont perdu tout l'éclat de leurs fraîcheurs vermeilles;
Elle sait même encore, ô charmantes merveilles!
Sous ses doigts délicats réparer et cueillir
Celles qu'une autre main n'avait su que flétrir.
Elle seule connaît ces extases choisies,
D'un, esprit tout de feu mobiles fantaisies,
Ces rêves d'un moment, belles illusions,
D'un monde imaginaire aimables visions,
Qui ne frappent jamais, trop subtile lumière,
Des terrestres esprits l'oeil épais et vulgaire.
Seule, de mots heureux, faciles, transparents,
Elle sait revêtir ces fantômes errants:
Ainsi des hauts sapins de la Finlande humide,
De l'ambre, enfant du ciel, distille l'or fluide,
Et sa chute souvent rencontre dans les airs
Quelque insecte volant qu'il porte au fond des mers;
79
De la Baltique enfin les vagues orageuses
Roulent et vont jeter ces larmes précieuses
Où la fière Vistule, en de nobles coteaux,
Et le froid Niémen expirent dans ses eaux.
Là, les arts vont cueillir cette merveille utile,
Tombe odorante où vit l'insecte volatile:
Dans cet or diaphane il est lui-même encor;
On dirait qu'il respire et va prendre l'essor.
Qui que tu sois enfin, ô toi, jeune poète,
Travaille, ose achever cette illustre conquête.
De preuves, de raisons, qu'est-il encor besoin?
Travaille. Un grand exemple est un puissant témoin.
Montre ce qu'on peut faire en le faisant toi-même.
Si pour toi la retraite est un bonheur suprême;
Si chaque jour les vers de ces maîtres fameux
Font bouillonner ton sang et dressent tes cheveux;
Si tu sens chaque jour, animé de leur âme,
Ce besoin de créer, ces transports, cette flamme,
Travaille. A nos censeurs c'est à toi de montrer
Tous ces trésors nouveaux qu'ils veulent ignorer.
Il faudra bien les voir, il faudra bien se taire
Quand ils verront enfin, cette gloire étrangère
De rayons inconnus ceindre ton front brillant.
Aux antres de Paros, le bloc étincelant
N'est aux vulgaires yeux qu'une pierre insensible.
Mais le docte ciseau, dans son sein invisible,
Voit, suit, trouve la vie, et l'âme, et tous ses traits.
Tout l'Olympe respire en ses détours secrets.
Là vivent de Vénus les beautés souveraines;
Là des muscles nerveux, là de sanglantes veines
Serpentent; là des flancs invaincus aux travaux,
Pour soulager Atlas des célestes fardeaux,
Aux volontés du fer leur enveloppe énorme
Cède, s'amollit, tombe; et de ce bloc informe
Jaillissent, éclatants, des dieux pour nos autels:
C'est Apollon lui-même, honneur des immortels;
C'est Alcide vainqueur des monstres de Némée;
C'est du vieillard troyen la mort envenimée;
C'est des Hébreux errants le chef, le défenseur:
Dieu tout entier habite en ce marbre penseur.
Ciel! n'entendez-vous pas de sa bouche profonde
80
Éclater cette voix créatrice du monde?
Oh! qu'ainsi parmi nous des esprits inventeurs
De Virgile et d'Homère atteignent les hauteurs,
Sachent dans la mémoire avoir comme eux un temple,
Et sans suivre leurs pas imiter leur exemple;
Faire, en s'éloignant d'eux avec un soin jaloux,
Ce qu'eux-mêmes ils feraient s'ils vivaient parmi nous!
Que la nature seule, en ses vastes miracles,
Soit leur fable et leurs dieux, et ses lois leurs oracles;
Que leurs vers, de Téthys respectant le sommeil,
N'aillent plus dans ses flots rallumer le soleil;
De la cour d'Apollon que l'erreur soit bannie,
Et qu'enfin Calliope, élève d'Uranie,
Montant sa lyre d'or sur un plus noble ton,
En langage des dieux fasse parler Newton!
Oh! si je puis un jour!... Mais quel est ce murmure?
Quelle nouvelle attaque et plus forte et plus dure?
O langue des Français! est-il vrai que ton sort
Est de ramper toujours, et que toi seule as tort?
Ou si d'un faible esprit l'indolente paresse
Veut rejeter sur toi sa honte et sa faiblesse?
Il n'est sot traducteur, de sa richesse enflé,
Sot auteur d'un poème ou d'un discours sifflé,
Ou d'un recueil ambré de chansons à la glace,
Qui ne vous avertisse, en sa fière préface,
Que, si son style épais vous fatigue d'abord,
Si sa prose vous pèse et bientôt vous endort,
Si son vers est gêné, sans feu, sans harmonie,
Il n'en est point coupable: il n'est pas sans génie;
Il a tous les talents qui font les grands succès;
Mais enfin, malgré lui, ce langage français,
Si faible en ses couleurs, si froid et si timide,
L'a contraint d'être lourd, gauche, plat, insipide,
Mais serait-ce Le Brun, Racine, Despréaux
Qui l'accusent ainsi d'abuser leurs travaux?
Est-ce à Rousseau, Buffon, qu'il résiste infidèle?
Est-ce pour Montesquieu, qu'impuissant et rebelle,
Il fuit? Ne sait-il pas, se reposant sur eux,
Doux, rapide, abondant, magnifique, nerveux,
Creusant dans les détours de ces âmes profondes,
81
S'y teindre, s'y tremper de leurs couleurs fécondes?
Un rimeur voit partout un nuage, et jamais
D'un coup d'oeil ferme et grand n'a saisi les objets;
La langue se refuse à ses demi-pensées,
De sang-froid, pas à pas, avec peine amassées;
Il se dépite alors, et, restant en chemin,
Il se plaint qu'elle échappe et glisse de sa main.
Celui qu'un vrai démon presse, enflamme, domine,
Ignore un tel supplice: il pense, il imagine;
Un langage imprévu, dans son âme produit,
Naît avec sa pensée, et l'embrasse et la suit;
Les images, les mots que le génie inspire,
Où l'univers entier vit, se meut et respire,
Source vaste et sublime et qu'on ne peut tarir,
En foule en son cerveau se hâtent de courir.
D'eux-mêmes ils vont chercher un noeud qui les rassemble;
Tout s'allie et se forme, et tout va naître ensemble.
Sous l'insecte vengeur envoyé par Junon,
Telle Io tourmentée, en l'ardente saison,
Traverse en vain les bois et la longue campagne,
Et le fleuve bruyant qui presse la montagne;
Tel le bouillant poète, en ses transports brûlants,
Le front échevelé, les yeux étincelants,
S'agite, se débat, cherche en d'épais bocages
S'il pourra de sa tête apaiser les orages
Et secouer le dieu qui fatigue son sein.
De sa bouche à grands flots ce dieu dont il est plein
Bientôt en vers nombreux s'exhale et se déchaîne;
Leur sublime torrent roule, saisit, entraîne.
Les tours impétueux, inattendus, nouveaux,
L'expression de flamme aux magiques tableaux
Qu'a trempés la nature en ses couleurs fertiles,
Les nombres tour à tour turbulents ou faciles,
Tout porte au fond des coeurs le tumulte ou la paix;
Dans la mémoire au loin tout s'imprime à jamais.
C'est ainsi que Minerve, en un instant formée,
Du front de Jupiter s'élance tout armée,
Secouant et le glaive et le casque guerrier,
Et l'horrible Gorgone à l'aspect meurtrier.
Des Toscans, je le sais, la langue est séduisante:
82
Cire molle, à tout peindre habile et complaisante,
Qui prend d'heureux contours sous les plus faibles mains
Quand le Nord, s'épuisant de barbares essaims,
Vint par une conquête en malheurs plus féconde
Venger sur les Romains l'esclavage du monde,
De leurs affreux accents la farouche âpreté
Du Latin en tous lieux souilla la pureté.
On vit de ce mélange étranger et sauvage
Naître des langues soeurs, que le temps et l'usage,
Par des sentiers divers guidant diversement,
D'une lime insensible ont poli lentement,
Sans pouvoir en entier, malgré tous leurs prodiges,
De la rouille barbare effacer les vestiges.
De là du Castillan la pompe et la fierté,
Teint encor des couleurs du langage indompté
Qu'au Tage transplantaient les fureurs musulmanes.
La grâce et la douceur sur les lèvres toscanes
Fixèrent leur empire; et la Seine à la fois
De grâce et de fierté sut composer sa voix.
Mais ce langage, armé d'obstacles indociles,
Lutte et ne veut plier que sons des mains habiles.
Est-ce un mal? Eh! plutôt rendons grâces aux dieux.
Un faux éclat longtemps ne peut tromper nos yeux;
Et notre langue même, à tout esprit vulgaire
De nos vers dédaigneux fermant le sanctuaire,
Avertit dès l'abord quiconque y veut monter
Qu'il faut savoir tout craindre et savoir tout tenter,
Et, recueillant affronts ou gloire sans mélange,
S'élever jusqu'au faîte ou ramper dans la fange.
~ Andre Marie de Chenier

IN CHAPTERS



   1 Integral Yoga






04.01 - The March of Civilisation, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
  
   We may follow a little more closely the march of the centuries in their undulating movement. The creative intelligence of the Renaissance too belonged to a region of the higher mind, a kind of inspirational mind. It had not the altitude or even the depth of the Greek mind nor its subtler resonances: but it regained and re-established and carried to a new degree the spirit of inquiry and curiosity, an appreciation of human motives and preoccupations, a rational understanding of man and the mechanism of the world. The original intuitive fiat, the imaginative brilliance, the spirit of adventure (in the mental as well as the physical world) that inspired the epoch gradually dwindled: it gave place to an age of consolidation, organisation, stabilisation the classical age. The seventeenth century Europe marked another peak of Europe's civilisation. That is the Augustan Age to which we have referred. The following century marked a further decline of the Intuition and higher imagination and we come to the eighteenth century terre terre rationalism. Great figures still adorned that agestalwarts that either stuck to the prevailing norm and gave it a kind of stagnant nobility or already leaned towards the new light that was dawning once more. Pope and Johnson, Montesquieu and Voltaire are its high-lights. The nineteenth century brought in another crest wave with a special gift to mankind; apparently it was a reaction to the rigid classicism and dry rationalism of the preceding age, but it came burdened with a more positive mission. Its magic name was Romanticism. Man opened his heart, his higher feeling and nobler emotional surge, his subtler sensibility and a general sweep of his vital being to the truths and realities of his own nature and of the cosmic nature. Not the clear white and transparent almost glaring light of reason and logic, of the brain mind, but the rosy or rainbow tint of the emotive and aspiring personality that seeks in and through the cosmic panorama and dreams of
  

BOOK I. -- PART III. SCIENCE AND THE SECRET DOCTRINE CONTRASTED, #The Secret Doctrine, #H P Blavatsky, #Theosophy
  worse, as philosophically as for long years already the writer has done. Whenever a Theosophist is
  taxed with insanity, he ought to reply by quoting from Montesquieu's "Lettres Persanes." "By opening
  so freely their lunatic asylums to their supposed madmen, men only seek to assure each other that they

WORDNET



--- Overview of noun montesquieu

The noun montesquieu has 1 sense (no senses from tagged texts)
                
1. Montesquieu, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat ::: (French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755))




--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun montesquieu

1 sense of montesquieu                        

Sense 1
Montesquieu, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat
   INSTANCE OF=> philosopher
     => scholar, scholarly person, bookman, student
       => intellectual, intellect
         => person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, soul
           => organism, being
             => living thing, animate thing
               => whole, unit
                 => object, physical object
                   => physical entity
                     => entity
           => causal agent, cause, causal agency
             => physical entity
               => entity




--- Hyponyms of noun montesquieu
                                    




--- Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of noun montesquieu

1 sense of montesquieu                        

Sense 1
Montesquieu, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat
   INSTANCE OF=> philosopher










--- Coordinate Terms (sisters) of noun montesquieu

1 sense of montesquieu                        

Sense 1
Montesquieu, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat
  -> philosopher
   => nativist
   => Cynic
   => eclectic, eclecticist
   => empiricist
   => epistemologist
   => esthetician, aesthetician
   => ethicist, ethician
   => existentialist, existentialist philosopher, existential philosopher
   => gymnosophist
   => libertarian
   => mechanist
   => moralist
   => naturalist
   => necessitarian
   => nominalist
   => pluralist
   => pre-Socratic
   => realist
   => Scholastic
   => Sophist
   => Stoic
   => transcendentalist
   => yogi
   HAS INSTANCE=> Abelard, Peter Abelard, Pierre Abelard
   HAS INSTANCE=> Anaxagoras
   HAS INSTANCE=> Anaximander
   HAS INSTANCE=> Anaximenes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Arendt, Hannah Arendt
   HAS INSTANCE=> Aristotle
   HAS INSTANCE=> Averroes, ibn-Roshd, Abul-Walid Mohammed ibn-Ahmad Ibn-Mohammed ibn-Roshd
   HAS INSTANCE=> Avicenna, ibn-Sina, Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bacon, Francis Bacon, Sir Francis Bacon, Baron Verulam, 1st Baron Verulam, Viscount St. Albans
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bentham, Jeremy Bentham
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bergson, Henri Bergson, Henri Louis Bergson
   HAS INSTANCE=> Berkeley, Bishop Berkeley, George Berkeley
   HAS INSTANCE=> Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius
   HAS INSTANCE=> Bruno, Giordano Bruno
   HAS INSTANCE=> Buber, Martin Buber
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cassirer, Ernst Cassirer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Cleanthes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Comte, Auguste Comte, Isidore Auguste Marie Francois Comte
   HAS INSTANCE=> Condorcet, Marquis de Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat
   HAS INSTANCE=> Confucius, Kongfuze, K'ung Futzu, Kong the Master
   HAS INSTANCE=> Democritus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Derrida, Jacques Derrida
   HAS INSTANCE=> Descartes, Rene Descartes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Dewey, John Dewey
   HAS INSTANCE=> Diderot, Denis Diderot
   HAS INSTANCE=> Diogenes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Empedocles
   HAS INSTANCE=> Epictetus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Epicurus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Haeckel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hartley, David Hartley
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
   HAS INSTANCE=> Heraclitus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Herbart, Johann Friedrich Herbart
   HAS INSTANCE=> Herder, Johann Gottfried von Herder
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hobbes, Thomas Hobbes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hume, David Hume
   HAS INSTANCE=> Husserl, Edmund Husserl
   HAS INSTANCE=> Hypatia
   HAS INSTANCE=> James, William James
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kant, Immanuel Kant
   HAS INSTANCE=> Kierkegaard, Soren Kierkegaard, Soren Aabye Kierkegaard
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lao-tzu, Lao-tse, Lao-zi
   HAS INSTANCE=> Leibniz, Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz
   HAS INSTANCE=> Locke, John Locke
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lucretius, Titus Lucretius Carus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Lully, Raymond Lully, Ramon Lully
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mach, Ernst Mach
   HAS INSTANCE=> Machiavelli, Niccolo Machiavelli
   HAS INSTANCE=> Maimonides, Moses Maimonides, Rabbi Moses Ben Maimon
   HAS INSTANCE=> Malebranche, Nicolas de Malebranche
   HAS INSTANCE=> Marcuse, Herbert Marcuse
   HAS INSTANCE=> Marx, Karl Marx
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mead, George Herbert Mead
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mill, John Mill, John Stuart Mill
   HAS INSTANCE=> Mill, James Mill
   HAS INSTANCE=> Montesquieu, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat
   HAS INSTANCE=> Moore, G. E. Moore, George Edward Moore
   HAS INSTANCE=> Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
   HAS INSTANCE=> Occam, William of Occam, Ockham, William of Ockham
   HAS INSTANCE=> Origen
   HAS INSTANCE=> Ortega y Gasset, Jose Ortega y Gasset
   HAS INSTANCE=> Parmenides
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pascal, Blaise Pascal
   HAS INSTANCE=> Peirce, Charles Peirce, Charles Sanders Peirce
   HAS INSTANCE=> Perry, Ralph Barton Perry
   HAS INSTANCE=> Plato
   HAS INSTANCE=> Plotinus
   => Popper, Karl Popper, Sir Karl Raimund Popper
   HAS INSTANCE=> Pythagoras
   HAS INSTANCE=> Quine, W. V. Quine, Willard Van Orman Quine
   HAS INSTANCE=> Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
   HAS INSTANCE=> Reid, Thomas Reid
   HAS INSTANCE=> Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
   HAS INSTANCE=> Russell, Bertrand Russell, Bertrand Arthur William Russell, Earl Russell
   HAS INSTANCE=> Schopenhauer, Arthur Schopenhauer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Schweitzer, Albert Schweitzer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Seneca, Lucius Annaeus Seneca
   HAS INSTANCE=> Socrates
   HAS INSTANCE=> Spencer, Herbert Spencer
   HAS INSTANCE=> Spengler, Oswald Spengler
   HAS INSTANCE=> Spinoza, de Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza
   HAS INSTANCE=> Steiner, Rudolf Steiner
   HAS INSTANCE=> Stewart, Dugald Stewart
   HAS INSTANCE=> Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Sir Rabindranath Tagore
   HAS INSTANCE=> Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
   HAS INSTANCE=> Thales, Thales of Miletus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Theophrastus
   HAS INSTANCE=> Weil, Simone Weil
   HAS INSTANCE=> Whitehead, Alfred North Whitehead
   HAS INSTANCE=> Williams, Sir Bernard Williams, Bernard Arthur Owen Williams
   HAS INSTANCE=> Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johan Wittgenstein
   HAS INSTANCE=> Xenophanes
   HAS INSTANCE=> Zeno, Zeno of Citium
   HAS INSTANCE=> Zeno, Zeno of Elea










--- Grep of noun montesquieu
baron de la brede et de montesquieu
montesquieu





IN WEBGEN [10000/363]

https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/7859944.Jane_s_Addiction
http://fr.dbaddiction.wikia.com/wiki/Wiki_Dragon_blaze
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Ibogaine#Treatment_for_opiate_addiction
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Scopolamine#Addiction
https://religion.wikia.org/wiki/Tabernanthe_iboga#Addiction_treatment
Integral World - Integral Overstretch, Social Media Addiction, and Unbridled Narcissism, Elliot Benjamin
Integral World - US President Trump, The Ultimate Outcome of Social Media Addiction and Unbridled Narcissism in America?, Elliot Benjamin
Integral World - Integral World and Internet Addiction: A Personal Experiential Account, Elliot Benjamin
Integral World - Confessions of a Bibliomaniac, A short history of my book addiction, David Lane
Allergies and Addictions: States of Consciousness
From F#@king Up to Waking Up: A Tale of Addiction, Volition, and Liberation
Politics, Addiction, and Mental Health: The Path to Recovery
dedroidify.blogspot - ram-dass-on-attachment-and-addiction
Psychology Wiki - Positive_psychology#Addiction
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Fanfic/FangViceAddiction
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/AddictionDisplacement
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/AddictionPowered
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/ComplexityAddiction
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/DescentIntoAddiction
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/NewAbilityAddiction
https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Music/JanesAddiction
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Addiction
Wikipedia - Adam Alter -- Psychologist, author, and expert on smartphone addiction.
Wikipedia - Addiction medicine
Wikipedia - Addiction psychiatry
Wikipedia - Addiction recovery groups
Wikipedia - Addiction (Skinny Puppy song) -- Song by Skinny Puppy
Wikipedia - Addiction vulnerability -- A range of genetic and environmental risk factors for developing an addiction
Wikipedia - Addiction
Wikipedia - American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry -- Accredited Continuing Medical Education and organization
Wikipedia - Austin Eubanks -- American addiction recovery advocate and Columbine High School massacre survivor
Wikipedia - Ayana Jordan -- American addiction psychiatrist
Wikipedia - Beautiful Boy: A Father's Journey Through His Son's Addiction -- 2008 memoir by David Sheff
Wikipedia - Behavioral addiction -- Compulsion to engage in a non-substance related behavior
Wikipedia - Bobby Flay's Barbecue Addiction -- American cooking show
Wikipedia - Buprenorphine -- Opioid used to treat opioid addiction and dependence, acute pain, and chronic pain
Wikipedia - Category:Addiction medicine
Wikipedia - Category:Addiction
Wikipedia - Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Wikipedia - Cocaine addiction
Wikipedia - Coding (therapy) -- Russian alternative therapeutic methods used to treat addictions
Wikipedia - Computer addiction -- Excessive or compulsive use of the computer
Wikipedia - Don Coyhis -- Native American addiction specialist
Wikipedia - Drew Pinsky -- Board Certified Physician, Addiction Medicine Specialist, American radio and television personality
Wikipedia - Drug Addiction Treatment Act -- US law
Wikipedia - Drug addiction
Wikipedia - Eric J. Nestler -- Neuroscientist of addiction and depression
Wikipedia - Fast Lane Addiction -- album by Shannon Curfman
Wikipedia - Food addiction -- behavioral addiction characterized by compulsory indulgence over foods
Wikipedia - Hei Ling Chau Addiction Treatment Centre -- Drug rehabilitation centre in Hong Kong
Wikipedia - Internet addiction disorder -- Excessive internet use that causes psychological disorders.
Wikipedia - Internet sex addiction
Wikipedia - Jane's Addiction -- American rock band
Wikipedia - LifeRing Secular Recovery -- Addiction and recovery organization
Wikipedia - List of addiction and substance abuse organizations -- Wikipedia list article
Wikipedia - Mountain Song (Jane's Addiction song) -- 1988 single by Jane's Addiction
Wikipedia - My Strange Addiction (song) -- 2019 song by Billie Eilish
Wikipedia - Nicotine addiction
Wikipedia - Nicotine withdrawal -- Process of withdrawing from nicotine addiction
Wikipedia - Opioid addiction
Wikipedia - Pornography addiction -- Compulsive sexual behaviour driven by use of pornography
Wikipedia - Puerto Rico Administration of Mental Health and Anti-Addiction Services -- Organization
Wikipedia - Seven Graham -- British intersex activist, comedian, filmmaker and playwright, and drug addiction counsellor
Wikipedia - Sexual addiction -- Proposed compulsive sexual disorder
Wikipedia - Social media addiction
Wikipedia - Template talk:Addiction glossary
Wikipedia - Template talk:Addiction
Wikipedia - Template talk:Psychostimulant addiction
Wikipedia - Twelve-step program -- organizations for recovery from addiction
Wikipedia - UK Addiction Treatment -- Private addiction treatment firm
Wikipedia - Video game addiction -- Addiction to computer and video games
Wikipedia - Warren Boyd -- American addiction counselor
Drunks(1997) - An Alcoholics Anonymous meeting brings together a disparate group of people struggling with addiction to drugs and liquor in this film based on Gary Lennon's play "Blackout." Jim (Richard Lewis) is in a bad mood as he sits in on an AA meeting in the basement of a church in New York City; he's prodde...
Rush(1991) - Raynor is an undercover narcotics cop. For his next assignment he chooses the more inexperienced but tough and good-looking Kristen.Their ultimate target is Gaines, a renowned but very elusive drug dealer. While doing their work they unexpectedly fall into a morase of drug-addiction and fall in love...
The Runner(1999) - A young man with an addiction to gambling (played by Ron Eldard) has managed to get himself into serious debt. In an effort to pay off the bookies, his uncle (Joe Mantegna) pulls a few strings and gets him a job working for a gangster (John Goodman) who needs a "runner" to place bets with various bo...
The Panic in Needle Park(1971) - A young hustler(Al Pacino)and a restless young woman(Kitty Winn)struggle with heroin addiction in 1970s New York.
Luna(1979) - While touring in Italy, a recently-widowed American opera singer has an incestuous relationship with her 15-year-old son to help him overcome his heroin addiction.
https://myanimelist.net/anime/10595/VitaminX_Addiction --
https://myanimelist.net/manga/1269/Sugar_Addiction
Bad Lieutenant (1992) ::: 7.1/10 -- NC-17 | 1h 36min | Crime, Drama, Thriller | 17 December 1992 -- Bad Lieutenant Poster -- While investigating a young nun's rape, a corrupt New York City police detective, with a serious drug and gambling addiction, tries to change his ways and find forgiveness and redemption. Director: Abel Ferrara Writers:
Beautiful Boy (2018) ::: 7.3/10 -- R | 2h | Biography, Drama | 25 October 2018 (Israel) -- Based on the best-selling pair of memoirs from father and son David and Nic Sheff, Beautiful Boy chronicles the heartbreaking and inspiring experience of survival, relapse and recovery in a family coping with addiction over many years. Director: Felix van Groeningen Writers:
Fierce People (2005) ::: 6.5/10 -- R | 1h 47min | Drama, Thriller | 30 November 2007 (USA) -- A massage therapist looking to overcome her addictions and reconnect with her son, whose father is an anthropologist in South America studying the Yanomani people, moves in with a wealthy ex-client in New Jersey. Director: Griffin Dunne Writers:
Gridlock'd (1997) ::: 6.9/10 -- R | 1h 31min | Comedy, Crime, Drama | 29 January 1997 (USA) -- Two friends try to kick their drug addiction after a friend dies from an overdose, when they try to enroll in a detox program, things quickly go wrong. Director: Vondie Curtis-Hall Writer:
Jesus' Son (1999) ::: 6.9/10 -- R | 1h 47min | Drama | 7 July 2000 (USA) -- A young man turns from drug addiction and petty crime to a life redeemed by a discovery of compassion. Director: Alison Maclean
Jesus' Son (1999) ::: 6.9/10 -- R | 1h 47min | Drama | 7 July 2000 (USA) -- A young man turns from drug addiction and petty crime to a life redeemed by a discovery of compassion. Director: Alison Maclean Writers: Denis Johnson (book), Elizabeth Cuthrell (screenplay) | 2 more credits Stars:
Luna (1979) ::: 6.5/10 -- La luna (original title) -- Luna Poster While touring in Italy, a recently-widowed American opera singer has an incestuous relationship with her 15-year-old son to help him overcome his heroin addiction. Director: Bernardo Bertolucci Writers: Franco Arcalli (story), Bernardo Bertolucci (story) | 4 more credits
Naked Lunch (1991) ::: 7.1/10 -- R | 1h 55min | Drama | 24 April 1992 (UK) -- After developing an addiction to the substance he uses to kill bugs, an exterminator accidentally kills his wife, and becomes involved in a secret government plot being orchestrated by giant bugs in a port town in North Africa. Director: David Cronenberg Writers:
No Smoking (2007) ::: 7.2/10 -- Not Rated | 2h 8min | Drama, Horror, Mystery | 26 October 2007 (India) -- A surreal story about a man, his addiction of smoking, and a mysterious and powerful organisation, which claims to cure such addictions, though through very unusual ways. Director: Anurag Kashyap Writers:
Phoenix (1998) ::: 6.4/10 -- R | 1h 47min | Crime, Drama | 4 September 1998 (USA) -- A cop (Liotta) with a gambling addiction plots a theft from the bookies who are putting pressure on him to pay off or else. Director: Danny Cannon Writer: Eddie Richey
Requiem for a Dream (2000) ::: 8.3/10 -- R | 1h 42min | Drama | 15 December 2000 (USA) -- The drug-induced utopias of four Coney Island people are shattered when their addictions run deep. Director: Darren Aronofsky Writers: Hubert Selby Jr. (based on the book by), Hubert Selby Jr. (screenplay)
Thanks for Sharing (2012) ::: 6.4/10 -- R | 1h 52min | Comedy, Drama, Romance | 14 September 2013 (Denmark) -- A romantic comedy that brings together three disparate characters who are learning to face a challenging and often confusing world as they struggle together against a common demon: sex addiction. Director: Stuart Blumberg Writers:
The Addiction (1995) ::: 6.5/10 -- Not Rated | 1h 22min | Drama, Horror | 6 October 1995 (USA) -- A New York philosophy grad student turns into a vampire after getting bitten by one, and then tries to come to terms with her new lifestyle and frequent craving for human blood. Director: Abel Ferrara Writer:
The Basketball Diaries (1995) ::: 7.3/10 -- R | 1h 42min | Biography, Crime, Drama | 21 April 1995 (USA) -- A teenager finds his dreams of becoming a basketball star threatened after he free falls into the harrowing world of drug addiction. Director: Scott Kalvert Writers: Jim Carroll (novel), Bryan Goluboff (screenplay)
The Killing of a Chinese Bookie (1976) ::: 7.4/10 -- R | 2h 15min | Crime, Drama, Thriller | 15 February 1976 (USA) -- A proud strip club owner is forced to come to terms with himself as a man, when his gambling addiction gets him in hot water with the mob, who offer him only one alternative. Director: John Cassavetes Writer:
The Man with the Golden Arm (1955) ::: 7.4/10 -- Passed | 1h 59min | Crime, Drama, Romance | 8 March 1956 (Canada) -- A junkie must face his true self to kick his drug addiction. Director: Otto Preminger Writers: Walter Newman (screenplay), Lewis Meltzer (screenplay) | 1 more credit
Thumbsucker (2005) ::: 6.6/10 -- R | 1h 36min | Comedy, Drama | 7 October 2005 (USA) -- Justin throws himself and everyone around him into chaos when he attempts to break free from his addiction to his thumb. Director: Mike Mills Writers: Walter Kirn (novel), Mike Mills
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Evil or Live -- -- Haoliners Animation League -- 12 eps -- Web manga -- Psychological School -- Evil or Live Evil or Live -- Severe internet addiction has become an epidemic infecting the nation's youth, ultimately resulting in their extreme dependence on the world wide web. Those who are too far gone are enrolled at Elite Reeducation Academy in order to help them grow into successful adults. Hibiki is one such teenager who awakens in the facility unaware of how he came to be there. He learns from the head instructor that he was knocked out and brought to the school at his mother's behest, concerned with how belligerent her son was becoming as a result of his internet addiction. -- -- Stuck in a place more akin to a prison than an academy, and with no escape from the abuses of the instructors, Hibiki decides to end his life by jumping from the roof. But as fate would have it, he meets a mysterious man named Shin who promises to give his life meaning... -- -- 64,472 5.82
Tamako Market -- -- Kyoto Animation -- 12 eps -- Original -- Slice of Life Comedy -- Tamako Market Tamako Market -- Inside the Usagiyama Shopping District lies an eccentric but close-knit community of business owners. Tamako Kitashirakawa, a clumsy though adorable teenage girl, belongs to a family of mochi bakers who own a quaint shop called Tama-ya. One day, Tamako stumbles upon a talking bird that presents himself as royalty from a distant land. Dera Mochimazzi, as he calls himself, states that he’s seeking a bride for his country’s prince. Intent on his mission, Dera follows Tamako home and develops an addiction to mochi, becoming painfully overweight and subsequently unable to fly back to his homeland; thus, he takes up residence with Tamako's family and becomes the community’s beloved mascot. -- -- Meanwhile, Tamako's friend, Mochizou Ooji, continues to hide his true feelings for her. Their fathers are fierce mochi rivals, but will it be enough to drive a wedge between Tamako and Mochizou? And just what will happen to Dera's task of finding his prince’s destined bride? -- -- -- Licensor: -- Sentai Filmworks -- TV - Jan 10, 2013 -- 312,560 7.38
Tamako Market -- -- Kyoto Animation -- 12 eps -- Original -- Slice of Life Comedy -- Tamako Market Tamako Market -- Inside the Usagiyama Shopping District lies an eccentric but close-knit community of business owners. Tamako Kitashirakawa, a clumsy though adorable teenage girl, belongs to a family of mochi bakers who own a quaint shop called Tama-ya. One day, Tamako stumbles upon a talking bird that presents himself as royalty from a distant land. Dera Mochimazzi, as he calls himself, states that he’s seeking a bride for his country’s prince. Intent on his mission, Dera follows Tamako home and develops an addiction to mochi, becoming painfully overweight and subsequently unable to fly back to his homeland; thus, he takes up residence with Tamako's family and becomes the community’s beloved mascot. -- -- Meanwhile, Tamako's friend, Mochizou Ooji, continues to hide his true feelings for her. Their fathers are fierce mochi rivals, but will it be enough to drive a wedge between Tamako and Mochizou? And just what will happen to Dera's task of finding his prince’s destined bride? -- -- TV - Jan 10, 2013 -- 312,560 7.38
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Addiction
Addiction Biology
Addiction (disambiguation)
Addiction (film)
Addiction (Glenn Hughes album)
Addiction (journal)
Addiction medicine
Addiction Pinball
Addiction psychology
Addiction Rare in Patients Treated with Narcotics
Addiction-related structural neuroplasticity
Addictions: Volume 1
Addictions: Volume 2
Addiction to power in The Lord of the Rings
Addiction vulnerability
Alternative Addiction
American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry
American Society of Addiction Medicine
Beautiful Boy: A Father's Journey Through His Son's Addiction
Behavioral addiction
Bobby Flay's Barbecue Addiction
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (College Street site)
Chronic addiction substitution treatment
Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act
Computer addiction
Disease model of addiction
Doubt Becomes the New Addiction
Drug addiction recovery groups
Drug Addiction Treatment Act
Dutch Association of Mental Health and Addiction Care
Ether addiction
European Addiction Research
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
Food addiction
Game addiction
International Institute for Trauma and Addiction Professionals
Internet addiction disorder
Internet sex addiction
Jane's Addiction
Jane's Addiction (album)
Journal of Addiction Medicine
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling
Journal of Addictions Nursing
Kingdom of Welcome Addiction
Life-process model of addiction
List of addiction and substance abuse organizations
Love addiction
My Strange Addiction
My Strange Addiction (song)
National Addiction and HIV Data Archive Program
New Mexican Disaster Squad / Western Addiction
Passages Addiction Treatment Centers
Pornography addiction
Puerto Rico Administration of Mental Health and Anti-Addiction Services
Rise to Addiction
Sexual addiction
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity
Shopping addiction
Snowboard Addiction Fun Ride
Society for the Study of Addiction
Stop! (Jane's Addiction song)
Strays (Jane's Addiction album)
Television addiction
The American Journal on Addictions
The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University
There Existed an Addiction to Blood
The Ultimate Addiction
This Addiction
UK Addiction Treatment
Up from the Catacombs The Best of Jane's Addiction
Video game addiction
Video game addiction in China


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last updated: 2021-08-18 15:20:27
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