classes ::: Poetry, Mythology, Greek, author,
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branches ::: Ovid

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Goodreads - Ovid
subject class:Poetry
subject class:Mythology
language class:Greek
Influences:Homer, Virgil, Hesiod, Lucretius Carus, Catullus, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Sophocles, Euripides, Aeschylus

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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks












Ovid tells that after Deukalion’s flood, Zeus ordered Prometheus and Athene to create a new race of men out of mud; he made them in the image of the gods with an upright posture, after Epimetheus had succeeded in fashioning only mindless creatures. This represents a stage in the history of the downward arc of evolution, which may be interpreted cosmically, geographically, and in relation to man. It is in one sense the descent of the manasaputras, agnishvattas, and other Sons of Flame, who endowed the mindless forms with the divine spark; so that Prometheus is Lucifer, Phosphoros, the Light-bringer, the serpent of Eden, etc.

ovidian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the Latin poet Ovid; resembling the style of Ovid.

oviducal ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to oviducts; as, oviducal glands.

oviduct ::: n. --> A tube, or duct, for the passage of ova from the ovary to the exterior of the animal or to the part where further development takes place. In mammals the oviducts are also called Fallopian tubes.


1. THE PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS formalizes the use of the sentential connectives and, or, not, if . . . then. Various systems of notation are current, of which we here adopt a particular one for purposes of exposition. We use juxtaposition to denote conjunction ("pq" to mean "p and q"), the sign ∨ to denote inclusive disjunction ("p ∨ q" to mean ("p or q or both"), the sign + to denote exclusive disiunction ("p + q" to mean "p or q but not both"), the sign ∼ to denote negation ("∼p" to mean "not p"), the sign ⊃ to denote the conditional ("p ⊃ q" to mean "if p then q," or "not both p and not-q"), the sign ≡ to denote the biconditional ("p ≡ q" to mean "p if and only if q," or "either p and q or not-p and not-q"), and the sign | to denote alternative denial ("p | q" to mean "not both p and q"). -- The word or is ambiguous in ordinary English usage between inclusive disjunction and exclusive disjunction, and distinct notations are accordingly provided for the two meanings of the word, The notations "p ⊃ q" and "p ≡ q" are sometimes read as "p implies q" and "p is equivalent to q" respectively. These readings must, however, be used with caution, since the terms implication and equivalence are often used in a sense which involves some relationship between the logical forms of the propositions (or the sentences) which they connect, whereas the validity of p ⊃ q and of p ≡ q requires no such relationship. The connective ⊃ is also said to stand for "material implication," distinguished from formal implication (§ 3 below) and strict implication (q. v.). Similarly the connective ≡ is said to stand for "material equivalence."

32-bit application "architecture, operating system" {IBM PC} software that runs in a 32-bit {flat address space}. The term {32-bit application} came about because {MS-DOS} and {Microsoft Windows} were originally written for the {Intel 8088} and {80286} {microprocessors}. These are {16 bit} microprocessors with a {segmented address space}. Programs with more than 64 kilobytes of code and/or data therefore had to switch between {segments} quite frequently. As this operation is quite time consuming in comparison to other machine operations, the application's performance may suffer. Furthermore, programming with segments is more involved than programming in a flat address space, giving rise to some complications in programming languages like "{memory models}" in {C} and {C++}. The shift from 16-bit software to 32-bit software on {IBM PC} {clones} became possible with the introduction of the {Intel 80386} microprocessor. This microprocessor and its successors support a segmented address space with 16-bit and 32 bit segments (more precisely: segments with 16- or 32-bit address offset) or a linear 32-bit address space. For compatibility reasons, however, much of the software is nevertheless written in 16-bit models. {Operating systems} like {Microsoft Windows} or {OS/2} provide the possibility to run 16-bit (segmented) programs as well as 32-bit programs. The former possibility exists for {backward compatibility} and the latter is usually meant to be used for new software development. See also {Win32s}. (1995-12-11)

5th Glove "hardware, virtual reality" A {data glove} and flexor strip kit (5th Glove DFK) sold by {Fifth Dimension Technologies} for $495 ($345 for the left-handed version, $45 for each extra flexor strip). The DFK provides a data glove, a flexon strip (with an elbow or knee-joint sensor), an interface card, cables, and KineMusica software. The package uses flexible optical-bending sensing to track hand and arm movement. The glove can be used with 5DT's ultrasonic tracking system, the 5DT Head and Hand tracker ($245), which can track movement from up to two metres away from the unit's transmitter. (1998-02-06)

A20 handler "software, storage" {IBM PC} memory manager software providing {HMA}. {XMM}s usually provide this functionality. Named after the 21st address line (A20), controlling the access to HMA. (1996-01-10)

abatised ::: a. --> Provided with an abatis.

ABP 1. "networking" {Alternating bit protocol}. 2. {Microsoft} {Address Book Provider}.

. a brahman ::: brahman without qualities (, also called santaṁ brahma, the featureless Reality whose "illimitable freedom . . . provides the indispensable condition for . . . a free and infinite selfexpression in quality and feature". nirguna nirgun guni . a gun

. a brahman ::: brahman with qualities, the active brahman, whose "being assumes by conscious Will all kinds of properties [], shapings of the stuff of conscious being, habits as it were of cosmic character and power of dynamic self-consciousness"; it provides the basis of "general personality" in the vision of brahman (brahmadarsana) from which emerge the bhavas or "states of perception" of the purus.a that reveal the "divine secret behind personality".

abstract data type "programming" (ADT) A kind of {data abstraction} where a type's internal form is hidden behind a set of {access functions}. Values of the type are created and inspected only by calls to the access functions. This allows the implementation of the type to be changed without requiring any changes outside the {module} in which it is defined. {Objects} and ADTs are both forms of data abstraction, but objects are not ADTs. Objects use procedural abstraction (methods), not type abstraction. A classic example of an ADT is a {stack} data type for which functions might be provided to create an empty stack, to {push} values onto a stack and to {pop} values from a stack. {Reynolds paper (}. {Cook paper "OOP vs ADTs" (}. (2003-07-03)

abstract machine 1. "language" A processor design which is not intended to be implemented as {hardware}, but which is the notional executor of a particular {intermediate language} (abstract machine language) used in a {compiler} or {interpreter}. An abstract machine has an {instruction set}, a {register set} and a model of memory. It may provide instructions which are closer to the language being compiled than any physical computer or it may be used to make the language implementation easier to {port} to other {platforms}. A {virtual machine} is an abstract machine for which an {interpreter} exists. Examples: {ABC}, {Abstract Machine Notation}, {ALF}, {CAML}, {F-code}, {FP/M}, {Hermes}, {LOWL}, {Christmas}, {SDL}, {S-K reduction machine}, {SECD}, {Tbl}, {Tcode}, {TL0}, {WAM}. 2. "theory" A procedure for executing a set of instructions in some formal language, possibly also taking in input data and producing output. Such abstract machines are not intended to be constructed as {hardware} but are used in thought experiments about {computability}. Examples: {Finite State Machine}, {Turing Machine}. (1995-03-13)

Abstract Syntax Notation 1 "language, standard, protocol" (ASN.1, X.208, X.680) An {ISO}/{ITU-T} {standard} for transmitting structured {data} on {networks}, originally defined in 1984 as part of {CCITT X.409} '84. ASN.1 moved to its own standard, X.208, in 1988 due to wide applicability. The substantially revised 1995 version is covered by the X.680 series. ASN.1 defines the {abstract syntax} of {information} but does not restrict the way the information is encoded. Various ASN.1 encoding rules provide the {transfer syntax} (a {concrete} representation) of the data values whose {abstract syntax} is described in ASN.1. The standard ASN.1 encoding rules include {BER} (Basic Encoding Rules - X.209), {CER} (Canonical Encoding Rules), {DER} (Distinguished Encoding Rules) and {PER} (Packed Encoding Rules). ASN.1 together with specific ASN.1 encoding rules facilitates the exchange of structured data especially between {application programs} over networks by describing data structures in a way that is independent of machine architecture and implementation language. {OSI} {Application layer} {protocols} such as {X.400} {MHS} {electronic mail}, {X.500} directory services and {SNMP} use ASN.1 to describe the {PDU}s they exchange. Documents describing the ASN.1 notations: {ITU-T} Rec. X.680, {ISO} 8824-1; {ITU-T} Rec. X.681, {ISO} 8824-2; {ITU-T} Rec. X.682, {ISO} 8824-3; {ITU-T} Rec. X.683, {ISO} 8824-4 Documents describing the ASN.1 encoding rules: {ITU-T} Rec. X.690, {ISO} 8825-1; {ITU-T} Rec. X.691, {ISO} 8825-2. [M. Sample et al, "Implementing Efficient Encoders and Decoders for Network Data Representations", IEEE Infocom 93 Proc, v.3, pp. 1143-1153, Mar 1993. Available from Logica, UK]. See also {snacc}. (2005-07-03)

Abstract Window Toolkit "graphics" (AWT) {Java}'s {platform}-independent {windowing}, graphics, and user-interface {toolkit}. The AWT is part of the {Java Foundation Classes} (JFC) - the standard {API} for providing a {graphical user interface} (GUI) for a Java program. Compare: {SWING}. ["Java in a Nutshell", O'Reilly]. {(}. (2000-07-26)

Accelerated Graphics Port "hardware, graphics" (AGP) A {bus} specification by {Intel} which gives low-cost 3D {graphics cards} faster access to {main memory} on {personal computers} than the usual {PCI} bus. AGP dynamically allocates the PC's normal {RAM} to store the screen image and to support {texture mapping}, {z-buffering} and {alpha blending}. Intel has built AGP into a {chipset} for its {Pentium II} microprocessor. AGP cards are slightly longer than a PCI card. AGP operates at 66 {MHz}, doubled to 133 MHz, compared with PCI's 33 Mhz. AGP allows for efficient use of {frame buffer} memory, thereby helping 2D graphics performance as well. AGP provides a coherent memory management design which allows scattered data in system memory to be read in rapid bursts. AGP reduces the overall cost of creating high-end graphics subsystems by using existing system memory. {Specification (}. (2004-07-19)

accession ::: n. --> A coming to; the act of acceding and becoming joined; as, a king&

access point "networking" (AP) Any device that acts as a communication hub to allow users of a {wireless network} to connect to a {wired LAN}. APs are important for providing heightened wireless {security} and for extending the physical range of service a wireless user has access to. (2010-03-21)

According to an important theorem of Gödel, the functional calculus of order omega with the axiom of infinity added, if consistent, is incomplete in the sense that there are formulas A containing no free variables, such that neither A nor ∼A is a theorem. The same thing holds of any logistic system obtained by adding new primitive formulas and primitive rules of inference, provided only that the effective (recursive) character of the formal construction of the system is retained. Thus the system is not only incomplete but, in the indicated sense, incompletable. The same thing holds also of a large variety of logistic systems which could be considered as acceptable substitutes for the functional calculus of order omega with axiom of infinity; in particular the Zermelo set theory (§ 9 below) is in the same sense incomplete and incompletable.

Acorn Computers Ltd. "company" A UK computer manufacturer, part of the {Acorn Computer Group} plc. Acorn was founded on 1978-12-05, on a kitchen table in a back room. Their first creation was an electronic slot machine. After the {Acorn System 1}, 2 and 3, Acorn launched the first commercial {microcomputer} - the {ATOM} in March 1980. In April 1981, Acorn won a contract from the {BBC} to provide the {PROTON}. In January 1982 Acorn launched the {BBC Microcomputer} System. At one time, 70% of microcomputers bought for UK schools were BBC Micros. The Acorn Computer Group went public on the Unlisted Securities Market in September 1983. In April 1984 Acorn won the Queen's Award for Technology for the BBC Micro and in September 1985 {Olivetti} took a controlling interest in Acorn. The {Master} 128 Series computers were launched in January 1986 and the BBC {Domesday} System in November 1986. In 1983 Acorn began to design the Acorn RISC Machine (ARM), the first low-cost, high volume {RISC} processor chip (later renamed the {Advanced RISC Machine}). In June 1987 they launched the {Archimedes} range - the first 32-bit {RISC} based {microcomputers} - which sold for under UKP 1000. In February 1989 the R140 was launched. This was the first {Unix} {workstation} under UKP 4000. In May 1989 the A3000 (the new {BBC Microcomputer}) was launched. In 1990 Acorn formed {Advanced RISC Machines} Ltd. (ARM) in partnership with {Apple Computer, Inc.} and {VLSI} to develop the ARM processor. Acorn has continued to develop {RISC} based products. With 1992 revenues of 48.2 million pounds, Acorn Computers was the premier supplier of {Information Technology} products to UK education and had been the leading provider of 32-bit RISC based {personal computers} since 1987. Acorn finally folded in the late 1990s. Their operating system, {RISC OS} was further developed by a consortium of suppliers. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:comp.sys.acorn}, {news:comp.sys.acorn.announce}, {}, {news:comp.binaries.acorn}, {news:comp.sources.acorn}, {news:comp.sys.acorn.advocacy}, {}. {Acorn's FTP server (}. {HENSA software archive (}. {Richard Birkby's Acorn page (}. {RiscMan's Acorn page (}. {Acorn On The Net (}. {"The Jungle" by Simon Truss (}. [Recent history?] (2000-09-26)

Acrobat "text, product" A product from {Adobe Systems, Inc.}, for manipulating documents stored in {Portable Document Format}. Acrobat provides a {platform}-independent means of creating, viewing, and printing documents. {Acropolis: the magazine of Acrobat publishing (}. (1995-04-21)

Act3 "language" A high-level {actor} language by {Carl Hewitt}. A descendant of {Act2} which provides support for automatic generation of {customers} and for {delegation} and {inheritance}. ["Linguistic Support of Receptionists for Shared Resources", C. Hewitt et al in Seminar on Concurrency, S.D. Brookes et al eds, LNCS 197, Springer 1985, pp. 330-359]. (1994-11-08)

ActiveX "programming" A type of {COM} component that can self-register, also known as an "ActiveX control". All COM objects implement the "IUnknown" interface but an ActiveX control usually also implements some of the standard interfaces for embedding, user interface, methods, properties, events, and persistence. ActiveX controls were originally called "{OLE} Controls", and were required to provide all of these interfaces but that requirement was dropped, and the name changed, to make ActiveX controls lean enough to be downloaded as part of a web page. Because ActiveX components can support the OLE embedding interfaces, they can be included in web pages. Because they are COM objects, they can be used from languages such as {Visual Basic}, {Visual C++}, {Java}, {VBScript}. ["Understanding ActiveX and OLE", David Chappell, MS Press, 1996]. {(}. (2002-04-19)

Actors "theory" A model for {concurrency} by {Carl Hewitt}. Actors are autonomous and concurrent {objects} which execute {asynchronously}. The Actor model provides flexible mechanisms for building parallel and {distributed} software systems. {(}. ["Laws for Communicating Parallel Processes", C. Hewitt et al, IFIP 77, pp. 987-992, N-H 1977]. ["ACTORS: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems", Gul A. Agha "", Cambridge Press, MA, 1986]. (1999-11-23)

Ada Core Technologies "company" (ACT) The company that maintains {GNAT}. Ada Core Technologies was founded in 1994 by the original authors of the GNAT compiler. ACT provides software for {Ada 95} development. {(}. (2000-10-28)

Adaptable User Interface "tool, product" (AUI, Oracle Toolkit) A toolkit from {Oracle} allowing applications to be written which will be portable between different {windowing systems}. AUI provides one {call level interface} along with a resource manager and editor across a range of "standard" {GUIs}, including {Macintosh}, {Microsoft Windows} and the {X Window System}. (1995-03-16)

addressing mode 1. "processor, programming" One of a set of methods for specifying the {operand}(s) for a {machine code} {instruction}. Different processors vary greatly in the number of addressing modes they provide. The more complex modes described below can usually be replaced with a short sequence of instructions using only simpler modes. The most common modes are "register" - the operand is stored in a specified {register}; "absolute" - the operand is stored at a specified memory address; and "{immediate}" - the operand is contained within the instruction. Most processors also have {indirect addressing} modes, e.g. "register indirect", "memory indirect" where the specified register or memory location does not contain the operand but contains its address, known as the "{effective address}". For an absolute addressing mode, the effective address is contained within the instruction. Indirect addressing modes often have options for pre- or post- increment or decrement, meaning that the register or memory location containing the {effective address} is incremented or decremented by some amount (either fixed or also specified in the instruction), either before or after the instruction is executed. These are very useful for {stacks} and for accessing blocks of data. Other variations form the effective address by adding together one or more registers and one or more constants which may themselves be direct or indirect. Such complex addressing modes are designed to support access to multidimensional arrays and arrays of data structures. The addressing mode may be "implicit" - the location of the operand is obvious from the particular instruction. This would be the case for an instruction that modified a particular control register in the CPU or, in a {stack} based processor where operands are always on the top of the stack. 2. In {IBM} {System 370}/{XA} the addressing mode bit controls the size of the {effective address} generated. When this bit is zero, the CPU is in the 24-bit addressing mode, and 24 bit instruction and operand effective addresses are generated. When this bit is one, the CPU is in the 31-bit addressing mode, and 31-bit instruction and operand effective addresses are generated. ["IBM System/370 Extended Architecture Principles of Operation", Chapter 5., 'Address Generation', BiModal Addressing]. (1995-03-30)

"A divine Force is at work and will choose at each moment what has to be done or has not to be done, what has to be momentarily or permanently taken up, momentarily or permanently abandoned. For provided we do not substitute for that our desire or our ego, and to that end the soul must be always awake, always on guard, alive to the divine guidance, resistant to the undivine misleading from within or without us, that Force is sufficient and alone competent and she will lead us to the fulfilment along ways and by means too large, too inward, too complex for the mind to follow, much less to dictate. It is an arduous and difficult and dangerous way, but there is none other.” The Synthesis of Yoga

“A divine Force is at work and will choose at each moment what has to be done or has not to be done, what has to be momentarily or permanently taken up, momentarily or permanently abandoned. For provided we do not substitute for that our desire or our ego, and to that end the soul must be always awake, always on guard, alive to the divine guidance, resistant to the undivine misleading from within or without us, that Force is sufficient and alone competent and she will lead us to the fulfilment along ways and by means too large, too inward, too complex for the mind to follow, much less to dictate. It is an arduous and difficult and dangerous way, but there is none other.” The Synthesis of Yoga

Administration Management Domain "networking" (ADMD) An {X.400} {Message Handling System} {public service carrier}. The ADMDs in all countries worldwide together provide the X.400 {backbone}. Examples: {MCImail} and {ATTmail} in the U.S., {British Telecom} {Gold400mail} in the U.K. See also {PRMD}. [RFC 1208]. (1997-05-07)

Advanced Communications Function "networking" (ACF) A group of {IBM} {SNA} products that provide {distributed processing} and resource sharing such as {VTAM} and {NCP}. [Communication or Communications?] (1997-05-07)

Advanced RISC Machine "processor" (ARM, Originally {Acorn} RISC Machine). A series of low-cost, power-efficient 32-bit {RISC} {microprocessors} for embedded control, computing, {digital signal processing}, {games}, consumer {multimedia} and portable applications. It was the first commercial RISC microprocessor (or was the {MIPS R2000}?) and was licensed for production by {Asahi Kasei Microsystems}, {Cirrus Logic}, {GEC Plessey Semiconductors}, {Samsung}, {Sharp}, {Texas Instruments} and {VLSI Technology}. The ARM has a small and highly {orthogonal instruction set}, as do most RISC processors. Every instruction includes a four-bit code which specifies a condition (of the {processor status register}) which must be satisfied for the instruction to be executed. Unconditional execution is specified with a condition "true". Instructions are split into load and store which access memory and arithmetic and logic instructions which work on {registers} (two source and one destination). The ARM has 27 registers of which 16 are accessible in any particular processor mode. R15 combines the {program counter} and processor status byte, the other registers are general purpose except that R14 holds the {return address} after a {subroutine} call and R13 is conventionally used as a {stack pointer}. There are four processor modes: user, {interrupt} (with a private copy of R13 and R14), fast interrupt (private copies of R8 to R14) and {supervisor} (private copies of R13 and R14). The {ALU} includes a 32-bit {barrel-shifter} allowing, e.g., a single-{cycle} shift and add. The first ARM processor, the ARM1 was a prototype which was never released. The ARM2 was originally called the Acorn RISC Machine. It was designed by {Acorn Computers Ltd.} and used in the original {Archimedes}, their successor to the {BBC Micro} and {BBC Master} series which were based on the eight-bit {6502} {microprocessor}. It was clocked at 8 MHz giving an average performance of 4 - 4.7 {MIPS}. Development of the ARM family was then continued by a new company, {Advanced RISC Machines Ltd.} The {ARM3} added a {fully-associative} on-chip {cache} and some support for {multiprocessing}. This was followed by the {ARM600} chip which was an {ARM6} processor {core} with a 4-kilobyte 64-way {set-associative} {cache}, an {MMU} based on the MEMC2 chip, a {write buffer} (8 words?) and a {coprocessor} interface. The {ARM7} processor core uses half the power of the {ARM6} and takes around half the {die} size. In a full processor design ({ARM700} chip) it should provide 50% to 100% more performance. In July 1994 {VLSI Technology, Inc.} released the {ARM710} processor chip. {Thumb} is an implementation with reduced code size requirements, intended for {embedded} applications. An {ARM800} chip is also planned. {AT&T}, {IBM}, {Panasonic}, {Apple Coputer}, {Matsushita} and {Sanyo} either rely on, or manufacture, ARM 32-bit processor chips. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.sys.arm}. (1997-08-05)

Advanced SCSI Peripheral Interface "storage, programming" (ASPI) A set of libraries designed to provide programs running under {Microsoft Windows} with a consistent interface for accessing {SCSI} devices. ASPI has become a {de facto standard}. The ASPI layer is a collection of programs ({DLLs}) that together implement the ASPI interface. Many problems are caused by device manufacturers packaging incomplete sets of these DLLs with their hardware, often with incorrect date stamps, causing newer versions to get replaced with old. ASPICHK from Adaptec will check the ASPI components installed on a computer. The latest ASPI layer as of March 1999 is 1014. The {ATAPI} standard for {IDE} devices makes them look to the system like SCSI devices and allows them to work through ASPI. {(}. (1999-03-30)

Advanced Technology Attachment Interface with Extensions "storage, standard" (ATA-2, Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics, EIDE) A proposed (May 1996 or earlier?) {standard} from {X3T10} (document 948D rev 3) which extends the {Advanced Technology Attachment} interface while maintaining compatibility with current {IBM PC} {BIOS} designs. ATA-2 provides for faster data rates, 32-bit transactions and (in some drives) {DMA}. Optional support for power saving modes and removable devices is also in the standard. ATA-2 was developed by {Western Digital} as "Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics" (EIDE) around 1994. {Marketroids} call it "Fast ATA" or "Fast ATA-2". ATA-2 was followed by {ATA-3} and {ATA-4} ("Ultra DMA"). (2000-10-07)

adware "software" Any kind of {software} that displays advertisements while it is running. The display of adverts is sometimes incidental to the software's main purpose (e.g. a game). In the case of a piece of {malware}, the adverts may be its only purpose, possibly hidden behind a pretence of providing some desired function like a security scanner. The adware's distributors may get paid for every machine infected. The adverts may vary in obtrusiveness from occasional or out-of-the-way images, audio or video to blocking access to the desired function while the advert is presented. {Nagware} is a special case of adware where the advert is for a license for, or upgrade to, the program itself. (2018-12-13)

afford ::: v. t. --> To give forth; to supply, yield, or produce as the natural result, fruit, or issue; as, grapes afford wine; olives afford oil; the earth affords fruit; the sea affords an abundant supply of fish.
To give, grant, or confer, with a remoter reference to its being the natural result; to provide; to furnish; as, a good life affords consolation in old age.
To offer, provide, or supply, as in selling, granting,

aforehand ::: adv. --> Beforehand; in anticipation. ::: a. --> Prepared; previously provided; -- opposed to behindhand.

Aimnet "networking, company" An {Internet} {access provider} for individuals and corporations. They provide {dial-up}, {SLIP}, {PPP} and {shell accounts} as well as {ISDN}. {(}. Address: Cupertino, CA 95014, USA. Telephone: +1 (408) 253 0900 (1995-02-08)

AIR "standard" A future {infrared} standard from {IrDA}. AIR will provide in-room multipoint to multipoint connectivity. AIR supports a data rate of 4 Mbps at a distance of 4 metres, and 250 Kbps at up to 8 metres. It is designed for cordless connections to multiple peripherals and meeting room collaboration applications. See also {IrDA Data} and {IrDA Control} (1999-10-14)

Al-Adl ::: The One who provides each of His manifestations their due right in consonance with their creation program. The One who is absolutely free from unjustness or tyranny.

Al-Hafiz ::: The One who provides all requirements to preserve and maintain existence.

alias 1. "operating system" A name, usually short and easy to remember and type, that is translated into another name or string, usually long and difficult to remember or type. Most {command interpreters} (e.g. {Unix}'s {csh}) allow the user to define aliases for commands, e.g. "alias l ls -al". These are loaded into memory when the interpreter starts and are expanded without needing to refer to any file. 2. "networking" One of several alternative {hostnames} with the same {Internet address}. E.g. in the {Unix} {hosts} database (/etc/hosts or {NIS} map) the first field on a line is the {Internet address}, the next is the official hostname (the "{canonical} name" or "{CNAME}"), and any others are aliases. Hostname aliases often indicate that the host with that alias provides a particular network service such as {archie}, {finger}, {FTP}, or {web}. The assignment of services to computers can then be changed simply by moving an alias (e.g. from one {Internet address} to another, without the clients needing to be aware of the change. 3. "file system" The name used by {Apple computer, Inc.} for {symbolic links} when they added them to the {System 7} {operating system} in 1991. (1997-10-22) 4. "programming" Two names ({identifiers}), usually of local or global {variables}, that refer to the same resource ({memory} location) are said to be aliased. Although names introduced in {programming languages} are typically mapped to different {memory} locations, aliasing can be introduced by the use of {address} arithmetic and {pointers} or language-specific features, like {C++} {references}. Statically deciding (e.g. via a {program analysis} executed by a sophisticated {compiler}) which locations of a {program} will be aliased at run time is an {undecidable} problem. [G. Ramalingam: "The Undecidability of Aliasing", ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), Volume 16, Issue 5, September 1994, Pages: 1467 - 1471, ISSN:0164-0925.] (2004-09-12)

allot ::: v. t. --> To distribute by lot.
To distribute, or parcel out in parts or portions; or to distribute to each individual concerned; to assign as a share or lot; to set apart as one&

Al-Maleek ::: The Sovereign One, who manifests His Names as he wishes and governs them in the world of acts as He pleases. The one who has providence over all things.

Al-Matin ::: The One who sustains the world of acts, the steadfast, the creator of robustness and stability, the provider of strength and resistance!

Al-Mujib ::: The One who unequivocally responds to all who turn towards Him (in prayer and invocation) and provides their needs.

Al-Muqeet ::: The One who facilitates the expression of the Name al-Hafiz by providing the necessary material and spiritual platform for it.

Al-Razzaq ::: The One who provides all necessary nutrition for the survival of any unit of manifestation regardless of its plane of existence.

Alta Vista "web" A {website} provided by {Digital} which features a very fast Web and {Usenet} {search engine}. As of April 1996 its word index is 33GB in size. AltaVista is currently (June 1996) the largest Web index, with 30 million pages from 225,000 servers, and three million articles from 14,000 {Usenet} news groups. It is accessed over 12 million times per weekday. {(}. (1996-06-10)

Al-Wakil ::: The One who provides the means for self-actualization. The One who advocates and protects those who place their trust in Him, providing them with the most auspicious outcomes.

AMD 29000 "processor" A {RISC} {microprocessor} descended from the {Berkley RISC} design. Like the {SPARC} design that was introduced shortly afterward, the 29000 has a large {register set} split into local and global sets. But though it was introduced before the SPARC, it has a more elegant method of register management. The 29000 has 64 global registers, in comparison to the SPARC's eight. In addition, the 29000 allows variable sized windows allocated from the 128 register stack {cache}. The current window or stack frame is indicated by a stack pointer, a pointer to the caller's frame is stored in the current frame, like in an ordinary stack (directly supporting stack languages like {C}, a {CISC}-like philosophy). Spills and fills occur only at the ends of the cache, and registers are saved/loaded from the memory stack. This allows variable window sizes, from 1 to 128 registers. This flexibility, plus the large set of global registers, makes {register allocation} easier than in SPARC. There is no special {condition code register} - any general register is used instead, allowing several condition codes to be retained, though this sometimes makes code more complex. An {instruction prefetch} buffer (using {burst mode}) ensures a steady instruction stream. To reduce delays caused by a branch to another stream, the first four new instructions are cached and next time a cached branch (up to sixteen) is taken, the cache supplies instructions during the initial memory access delay. Registers aren't saved during interrupts, allowing the interrupt routine to determine whether the overhead is worthwhile. In addition, a form of register access control is provided. All registers can be protected, in blocks of 4, from access. These features make the 29000 useful for embedded applications, which is where most of these processors are used, allowing it the claim to be "the most popular RISC processor". The 29000 also includes an {MMU} and support for the {AMD 29027} {FPU}. (1995-06-19)

AMD Am2901 "processor" A 4-bit {bit-slice} processor from {Advanced Micro Devices}. It featured sixteen 4-bit {registers} and a 4-bit {ALU} and operation signals to allow carry/borrow or shift operations and such to operate across any number of other 2901s. An {address sequencer} (such as the {2910}) could provide control signals with the use of custom {microcode} in {ROM}. (1994-11-16)

American Telephone and Telegraph, Inc. "company, telecommunications, Unix" (AT&T) One of the largest US telecommunications providers, also noted for being the birthplace of the {Unix} {operating system} and the {C} and {C++} programming languages. AT&T was incorporated in 1885, but traces its lineage to Alexander Graham Bell and his invention of the telephone in 1876. As parent company of the former {Bell System}, AT&T's primary mission was to provide telephone service to virtually everyone in the United States. In its first 50 years, AT&T established subsidiaries and allied companies in more than a dozen other countries. It sold these interests in 1925 and focused on achieving its mission in the United States. It did, however, continue to provide international long distance service. The Bell System was dissolved at the end of 1983 with AT&T's divestiture of the Bell telephone companies. AT&T split into three parts in 1996, one of which is {Lucent Tecnologies}, the former systems and equipment portion of AT&T (including Bell Laboratories). See also {3DO}, {Advanced RISC Machine}, {Berkeley Software Distribution}, {Bell Laboratories}, {Concurrent C}, {Death Star}, {dinosaurs mating}, {InterNIC}, {System V}, {Nawk}, {Open Look}, {rc}, {S}, {Standard ML of New Jersey}, {Unix International}, {Unix conspiracy}, {USG Unix}, {Unix System Laboratories}. {AT&T Home (}. (2002-06-21)

America On-Line, Inc. "company, communications" (AOL) A US on-line service provider based in Vienna, Virginia, USA. AOL claims to be the largest and fastest growing provider of on-line services in the world, with the most active subscriber base. AOL offers its three million subscribers {electronic mail}, interactive newspapers and magazines, conferencing, software libraries, computing support, and on-line classes. In October 1994 AOL made {Internet} {FTP} available to its members and in May 1995, full Internet access including {web}. AOL's main competitors are {Prodigy} and {Compuserve}. {(}. (1997-08-26)

Amiga "computer" A range of home computers first released by {Commodore Business Machines} in early 1985 (though they did not design the original - see below). Amigas were popular for {games}, {video processing}, and {multimedia}. One notable feature is a hardware {blitter} for speeding up graphics operations on whole areas of the screen. The Amiga was originally called the Lorraine, and was developed by a company named "Amiga" or "Amiga, Inc.", funded by some doctors to produce a killer game machine. After the US game machine market collapsed, the Amiga company sold some {joysticks} but no Lorraines or any other computer. They eventually floundered and looked for a buyer. Commodore at that time bought the (mostly complete) Amiga machine, infused some money, and pushed it through the final stages of development in a hurry. Commodore released it sometime[?] in 1985. Most components within the machine were known by nicknames. The {coprocessor} commonly called the "Copper" is in fact the "{Video} Timing Coprocessor" and is split between two chips: the instruction fetch and execute units are in the "Agnus" chip, and the {pixel} timing circuits are in the "Denise" chip (A for address, D for data). "Agnus" and "Denise" were responsible for effects timed to the {real-time} position of the video scan, such as midscreen {palette} changes, {sprite multiplying}, and {resolution} changes. Different versions (in order) were: "Agnus" (could only address 512K of {video RAM}), "Fat Agnus" (in a {PLCC} package, could access 1MB of video RAM), "Super Agnus" (slightly upgraded "Fat Agnus"). "Agnus" and "Fat Agnus" came in {PAL} and {NTSC} versions, "Super Agnus" came in one version, jumper selectable for PAL or NTSC. "Agnus" was replaced by "Alice" in the A4000 and A1200, which allowed for more {DMA} channels and higher bus {bandwidth}. "Denise" outputs binary video data (3*4 bits) to the "Vidiot". The "Vidiot" is a hybrid that combines and amplifies the 12-bit video data from "Denise" into {RGB} to the {monitor}. Other chips were "Amber" (a "flicker fixer", used in the A3000 and Commodore display enhancer for the A2000), "Gary" ({I/O}, addressing, G for {glue logic}), "Buster" (the {bus controller}, which replaced "Gary" in the A2000), "Buster II" (for handling the Zorro II/III cards in the A3000, which meant that "Gary" was back again), "Ramsey" (The {RAM} controller), "DMAC" (The DMA controller chip for the WD33C93 {SCSI adaptor} used in the A3000 and on the A2091/A2092 SCSI adaptor card for the A2000; and to control the {CD-ROM} in the {CDTV}), and "Paula" ({Peripheral}, Audio, {UART}, {interrupt} Lines, and {bus Arbiter}). There were several Amiga chipsets: the "Old Chipset" (OCS), the "Enhanced Chipset" (ECS), and {AGA}. OCS included "Paula", "Gary", "Denise", and "Agnus". ECS had the same "Paula", "Gary", "Agnus" (could address 2MB of Chip RAM), "Super Denise" (upgraded to support "Agnus" so that a few new {screen modes} were available). With the introduction of the {Amiga A600} "Gary" was replaced with "Gayle" (though the chipset was still called ECS). "Gayle" provided a number of improvments but the main one was support for the A600's {PCMCIA} port. The AGA chipset had "Agnus" with twice the speed and a 24-bit palette, maximum displayable: 8 bits (256 colours), although the famous "{HAM}" (Hold And Modify) trick allows pictures of 256,000 colours to be displayed. AGA's "Paula" and "Gayle" were unchanged but AGA "Denise" supported AGA "Agnus"'s new screen modes. Unfortunately, even AGA "Paula" did not support High Density {floppy disk drives}. (The Amiga 4000, though, did support high density drives.) In order to use a high density disk drive Amiga HD floppy drives spin at half the rotational speed thus halving the data rate to "Paula". Commodore Business Machines went bankrupt on 1994-04-29, the German company {Escom AG} bought the rights to the Amiga on 1995-04-21 and the Commodore Amiga became the Escom Amiga. In April 1996 Escom were reported to be making the {Amiga} range again but they too fell on hard times and {Gateway 2000} (now called Gateway) bought the Amiga brand on 1997-05-15. Gateway licensed the Amiga operating system to a German hardware company called {Phase 5} on 1998-03-09. The following day, Phase 5 announced the introduction of a four-processor {PowerPC} based Amiga {clone} called the "{pre\box}". Since then, it has been announced that the new operating system will be a version of {QNX}. On 1998-06-25, a company called {Access Innovations Ltd} announced {plans (} to build a new Amiga chip set, the {AA+}, based partly on the AGA chips but with new fully 32-bit functional core and 16-bit AGA {hardware register emulation} for {backward compatibility}. The new core promised improved memory access and video display DMA. By the end of 2000, Amiga development was under the control of a [new?] company called {Amiga, Inc.}. As well as continuing development of AmigaOS (version 3.9 released in December 2000), their "Digital Environment" is a {virtual machine} for multiple {platforms} conforming to the {ZICO} specification. As of 2000, it ran on {MIPS}, {ARM}, {PPC}, and {x86} processors. {(}. {Amiga Web Directory (}. {amiCrawler (}. Newsgroups: {news:comp.binaries.amiga}, {news:comp.sources.amiga}, {news:comp.sys.amiga}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.advocacy}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.announce}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.applications}, {}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.datacomm}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.emulations}, {}, {}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.hardware}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.introduction}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.marketplace}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.misc}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.multimedia}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.programmer}, {}, {}, {news:comp.sys.amiga.telecomm}, {news:comp.Unix.amiga}. See {aminet}, {Amoeba}, {bomb}, {exec}, {gronk}, {guru meditation}, {Intuition}, {sidecar}, {slap on the side}, {Vulcan nerve pinch}. (2003-07-05)

Ananke ::: “This truth of Karma has been always recognised in the East in one form or else in another; but to the Buddhists belongs the credit of having given to it the clearest and fullest universal enunciation and the most insistent importance. In the West too the idea has constantly recurred, but in external, in fragmentary glimpses, as the recognition of a pragmatic truth of experience, and mostly as an ordered ethical law or fatality set over against the self-will and strength of man: but it was clouded over by other ideas inconsistent with any reign of law, vague ideas of some superior caprice or of some divine jealousy,—that was a notion of the Greeks,—a blind Fate or inscrutable Necessity, Ananke, or, later, the mysterious ways of an arbitrary, though no doubt an all-wise Providence.” Essays in Philosophy and Yoga

anchor ::: 1. Any of various devices dropped by a chain, cable, or rope to the bottom of a body of water for preventing or restricting the motion of a vessel or other floating object, typically having broad, hooklike arms that bury themselves in the bottom to provide a firm hold. 2. A person or thing that can be relied on for support, stability, or security; mainstay.

Andrew Project "project" A distributed system project for support of educational and research computing at {Carnegie Mellon University}, named after Andrew Carnegie, an American philanthropist who provided money to establish CMU. See also {Andrew File System}, {Andrew Message System}, {Andrew Toolkit}, {class}. {Home FTP (}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.soft-sys.andrew}. [More detail?] (1997-11-17)

An expression A introduced by contextual definition -- i.e., by a definition which construes particular kinds of expressions containing A, as abbreviations or substitutes for certain expressions not containing A, but provides no such construction for A itself -- is an incomplete symbol in this sense. In Principia Mathematica, notations for classes, and descriptions (more correctly, notations which serve some of the purposes that would be served by notations for classes and by descriptions) are introduced in this way by contextual definition. -- A. C.

Animated GIF "graphics, file format" (GIF89a) A variant of the {GIF} {image} format, often used on {web} pages to provide moving {icons} and banners. The GIF89a format supports multiple "frames" that give the impression of motion when displayed in sequence, much like a flip book. The animation may repeat continuously or play once. Animated GIFs aren't supported by earlier {web browsers}, however the first frame of the image is still shown. There are many utilities to create animated GIFs from a sequence of individual GIF files. There are also utilities that will produce animated GIFs automatically from a piece of text or a single image. One problem with this format is the size of the files produced, as they are by definition a sequence of individual images. Apart from minimising the number of frames, the best way to decrease file size is to assist the {LZW} compression by using blocks of solid colour, avoid {dithering}, and use fewer colours. If areas of an image don't change from one frame to another, they don't need to be redrawn so make the area a transparent block in the second frame. (1999-08-01)

an inn or hotel providing overnight lodging for travelers.

annotation 1. "programming, compiler" Extra information associated with a particular point in a document or program. Annotations may be added either by a {compiler} or by the programmer. They are not usually essential to the correct function of the program but give hints to improve performance. 2. "hypertext" A new commentary {node} linked to an existing node. If readers, as well as authors, can annotate nodes, then they can immediately provide feedback if the information is misleading, out of date or plain wrong. (1995-11-26)

anonymous FTP "networking" An interactive service provided by many {Internet} {hosts} allowing any user to transfer documents, files, programs, and other archived data using {File Transfer Protocol}. The user logs in using the special {user name} "ftp" or "anonymous" and his {e-mail address} as {password}. He then has access to a special directory hierarchy containing the publically accessible files, typically in a subdirectory called "pub". This is usually a separate area from files used by local users. A reference like ftp: /pub/eua/erlang/info means that files are available by anonymous FTP from the host called in the directory (or file) /pub/eua/erlang/info. Sometimes the {hostname} will be followed by an {Internet address} in parentheses. The directory will usually be given as a path relative to the anonymous FTP login directory. A reference to a file available by FTP may also be in the form of a {URL} starting "ftp:". See also {Archie}, {archive site}, {EFS}, {FTP by mail}, {web}. (1995-11-26)

A PArse REquest Language "language" (APAREL) A {PL/I} extension to provide {BNF} {parsing} routines, for {IBM 360}. ["APAREL: A Parse Request Language", R.W. Balzer et al, CACM 12(11) (Nov 1969)]. (1995-11-26)

apology ::: n. --> Something said or written in defense or justification of what appears to others wrong, or of what may be liable to disapprobation; justification; as, Tertullian&

apparatus ::: pl. --> of Apparatus ::: n. --> Things provided as means to some end.
Hence: A full collection or set of implements, or utensils, for a given duty, experimental or operative; any complex instrument or appliance, mechanical or chemical, for a specific action

Apple Newton "computer" A {Personal Digital Assistant} produced by {Apple Computer}. The Newton provides a clever, {user-friendly} interface and relies solely on pen-based input. Eagerly anticipated, the Newton uses handwriting recognition software to "learn" the users handwriting and provide reliable {character recognition}. Various third-party software applications are available and add-on {peripherals} like wireless {modems} for {Internet} access are being sold by {Apple Computer, Inc.} and its licensees. {Newton Inc.}'s {NewtonOS} competes with {Microsoft Corporation}'s {Windows CE}, and was to be compatible with {DEC}'s {StrongARM} SA-1100, an embedded 200MHz {microprocessor}, which was due in 1998. {(}. {Handwriting recognition example (}. (1997-09-12)

AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol "protocol" (ADSP) A {protocol} which provides a simple transport method for data accross a network. (1996-06-18)

apple-touch-icon-precomposed "programming" An alternative form of {apple-touch-icon} that is not subject to automatic modification (rounding, drop-shadow, reflective shine) as applied by {iOS} versions prior to iOS 7. A {web page} specifies a pre-composed icon by including an element in the "head" like: "link rel="apple-touch-icon-precomposed" href="apple-touch-icon-precomposed.png"" The icon can be provided in various different resolutions for different screen sizes and resolutions, e.g. apple-touch-icon-152x152-precomposed.png for {retina iPad} with {iOS7}. {Everything you always wanted to know about touch icons (}. (2018-08-19)

apple-touch-icon "programming" (apple-touch-icon.png) {Apple}'s default {icon} (image) used to represent a {website}, e.g. when saved as a {bookmark} or on the {home screen} of an {iOS} device such as an {iPhone} or {iPad}. Apple's scheme allows a site to offer images of different sizes so the client can choose the most appropriate one according to its screen size and resolution. Apple devices and applications completely ignore the {favicon}.ico {de facto standard} which, while somewhat quirky in its use of the {ico} format, has been pretty much universally adopted elsewhere. Conversely, apple-touch-icon.png will be ignored by non-Apple devices, possibly because its 16x16 resolution would look pretty shabby on most smart phones. The icon can be provided in various different resolutions for different screen sizes and resolutions, e.g. apple-touch-icon-152x152.png for {retina iPad} with {iOS7}. {( Apple documentation}. {(}. (2018-08-19)

Application environment specification "programming" (AES) A set of specifications from {OSF} for programming and {user interfaces}, aimed at providing a consistent application environment on different hardware. It includes "O/S" for the {operating system} (user commands and program interfaces), "U/E" for the User Environment ({Motif}), and "N/S" for Network services. [Reference?] (1994-12-07)

Application Executive "language" (AE) An {embeddable language}, written as a {C} {interpreter} by Brian Bliss at UIUC. AE is compiled with an {application} and thus exists in the same process and address space. It includes a {dbx} {symbol table} scanner to access compiled variables and routines, or you can enter them manually by providing a type/name declaration and the address. When the {interpreter} is invoked, {source code} fragments are read from the input stream (or a string), {parsed}, and evaluated immediately. The user can call compiled functions in addition to a few {built-in} intrinsics, declare new data types and data objects, etc. Different input streams can be evaluated in parallel on {Alliant} computers. AE has been ported to {SunOS} (cc or {gcc}), {Alliant FX} and {Cray YMP} (soon). {(}. {(}. (1992-04-21)

application layer "networking" The top layer of the {OSI} seven layer model. This layer handles issues like {network transparency}, resource allocation and problem partitioning. The application layer is concerned with the user's view of the network (e.g. formatting {electronic mail} messages). The {presentation layer} provides the application layer with a familiar local representation of data independent of the format used on the network. (1994-11-28)

Application Program Interface "programming" (API, or "application programming interface") The interface (calling conventions) by which an {application program} accesses {operating system} and other services. An API is defined at {source code} level and provides a level of {abstraction} between the application and the {kernel} (or other privileged utilities) to ensure the {portability} of the code. An API can also provide an interface between a {high level language} and lower level utilities and services which were written without consideration for the {calling conventions} supported by compiled languages. In this case, the API's main task may be the translation of parameter lists from one format to another and the interpretation of {call-by-value} and {call-by-reference} arguments in one or both directions. (1995-02-15)

application server 1. "software" A {designer}'s or {developer}'s suite of {software} that helps {programmers} isolate the {business logic} in their {programs} from the {platform}-related code. {Application} {servers} can handle all of the {application} {logic} and {connectivity} found in {client-server} {applications}. Many {application} {servers} also offer features such as {transaction management}, {clustering} and {failover}, and {load balancing}; nearly all offer {ODBC} support. {Application} {servers} range from small {footprint}, web-based {processors} for intelligent appliances or remote {embedded} devices, to complete environments for assembling, deploying, and maintaining {scalable} {multi-tier} applications across an {enterprise}. 2. "software" Production {programs} run on a mid-sized computer that handle all {application} operations between {browser}-based computers and an organisation's back-end business {applications} or {databases}. The {application} {server} works as a translator, allowing, for example, a customer with a {browser} to search an online retailer's {database} for pricing information. 3. "hardware" The device on which {application} {server} {software} runs. {Application Service Providers} offer commercial access to such devices. {Citrix Application Serving White Paper (}. {Application Server Sites, a list maintained by Vayda & Herzum (}. {The Application Server Zone at DevX, (}. {TechMetrix Research's Application Server Directory, (}. (2001-03-30)

Application Service Element "networking" (ASE) Software in the {presentation layer} of the {OSI} seven layer model which provides an abstracted interface layer to service {application protocol data units} (APDU). Because {applications} and {networks} vary, ASEs are split into common services and specific services. Examples of services provided by the {common application service element} (CASE) include remote operations (ROSE) and {database} {concurrency control and recovery} (CCR). The {specific application service element} (SASE) provides more specialised services such as file transfer, database access, and order entry. {Csico docs (}. (2003-09-27)

application service provider "business, networking" (ASP) A service (usually a business) that provides remote access to an {application program} across a {network} {protocol}, typically {HTTP}. A common example is a {website} that other websites use for accepting payment by credit card as part of their {online ordering} systems. As this term is complex-sounding but vague, it is widely used by {marketroids} who want to avoid being specific and clear at all costs. (2001-03-26)

Application-Specific Integrated Circuit "hardware" (ASIC) An {integrated circuit} designed to perform a particular function by defining the interconnection of a set of basic circuit building blocks drawn from a library provided by the circuit manufacturer. (1995-02-15)

appoint ::: v. t. --> To fix with power or firmness; to establish; to mark out.
To fix by a decree, order, command, resolve, decision, or mutual agreement; to constitute; to ordain; to prescribe; to fix the time and place of.
To assign, designate, or set apart by authority.
To furnish in all points; to provide with everything necessary by way of equipment; to equip; to fit out.

archie "tool, networking" A system to automatically gather, index and serve information on the {Internet}. The initial implementation of archie by {McGill University} School of Computer Science provided an indexed directory of filenames from all {anonymous FTP} archives on the Internet. Later versions provide other collections of information. See also {archive site}, {Gopher}, {Prospero}, {Wide Area Information Servers}. (1995-12-28)

ARI Service "company" The trading name of the remnants of {AST Research, Inc.}. ARI Services is a wholly owned subsidiary of {Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.}, of Seoul, Korea. They no longer manufacture or distribute computer hardware, but they continue to provide worldwide technical and service support to owners of systems that they manufactured. {AST Computers, LLC} is a separate company. Headquarters: 16225 Alton Parkway, POB 57005, Irvine, California 92619-7005, USA. {(}. (2000-03-28)

Arjuna "language" An {object-oriented programming} system developed by a team led by Professor Santosh Shrivastava at the {University of Newcastle}, implemented entirely in {C++}. Arjuna provides a set of tools for the construction of {fault-tolerant} {distributed} applications. It exploits features found in most object-oriented languages (such as {inheritance}) and only requires a limited set of system capabilities commonly found in conventional {operating systems}. Arjuna provides the programmer with {classes} that implement {atomic transactions}, {object level recovery}, {concurrency} control and {persistence}. The system is {portable}, modular and flexible; the system software has been available via FTP since 1992. {(}. (1995-03-06)

arming ::: providing with whatever will add strength, force, or security; support; fortify.

armour ::: 1. Any covering worn as a defense against weapons, especially a metallic sheathing, suit of armour, mail. 2. Any quality, characteristic, situation, or thing that serves as protection. armours, armoured.* n. 1. Weapons. v. 2. Provides with weapons or whatever will add strength, force or security; supports; fortifies. *armed, arming.

arms ::: n. 1. Weapons. v. 2. Provides with weapons or whatever will add strength, force or security; supports; fortifies. armed, arming.

articulated ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Articulate ::: a. --> United by, or provided with, articulations; jointed; as, an articulated skeleton.
Produced, as a letter, syllable, or word, by the organs of speech; pronounced.

Artisoft, Inc. "company, networking" A company, known for the {LANtastic} range of networking products. Originally providers of proprietary, {peer-to-peer} network hardware and software for small installations, Artisoft now also sells {Ethernet} and {Novell}-compatible hardware and software. {(}. Telephone: +1 (800) 809 1257. Address: Tucson, Arizona, USA; Phoenix, Arizona, USA. (1995-04-24)

As a free creature, man is responsible for his freely performed actions. Man knows the basic principles of the Divine Law through the natural use of his intellect. Thus known, the Divine Law is called the natural moral law. It is immutable. Suarez' ethics provides a rational justification for most of the accepted moral standards of Christianity. The individual has rights and duties in regard to other creatures and himself; he has duties toward his Creator. The political theory of Suarez is most noted for its opposition to the divine right of kings. He held that a ruler derives his authority immediately from the consent of the people, ultimately from God. Suarez maintained that there are several forms of political organizations in which social justice may be secured.

As against the faulty ethical procedures of the past and of his own day, therefore, Kant very early conceived and developed the more critical concept of "form," -- not in the sense of a "mould" into which content is to be poured (a notion which has falselv been taken over by Kant-students from his theoretical philosophy into his ethics), but -- as a method of rational (not ratiocinative, but inductive) reflection; a method undetermined by, although not irrespective of, empirical data or considerations. This methodologically formal conception constitutes Kant's major distinctive contribution to ethical theory. It is a process of rational reflection, creative construction, and transition, and as such is held by him to be the only method capable if coping with the exigencies of the facts of hunnn experience and with the needs of moral obligation. By this method of creative construction the reflective (inductive) reason is able to create, as each new need for a next reflectively chosen step arises, a new object of "pure" -- that is to say, empirically undetermined -- "practical reason." This makes possible the transition from a present no longer adequate ethical conception or attitude to an untried and as yet "indemonstrable" object. No other method can guarantee the individual and social conditions of progress without which the notion of morality loses all assignable meaning. The newly constructed object of "pure practical reason" is assumed, in the event, to provide a type of life and conduct which, just because it is of my own construction, will be likely to be accompanied by the feeling of self-sufficiency which is the basic pre-requisite of any worthy human happiness. It is this theory which constitutes Kant's ethical formalism. See also Autonomy, Categorical Imperative, Duty, End(s), Freedom, Happiness, Law, Moral, Practical Imperative, Will. -- P. A.S.


ASP 1. "web" {Active Server Pages}. 2. "networking" {application service provider}. 3. "language" A {query language}(?). [Sammet 1969, p.702]. 4. "processor" {Attached Support Processor}. (2000-07-08)

Association for Computing "body" (ACM, before 1997 - "Association for Computing Machinery") The largest and oldest international scientific and educational computer society in the industry. Founded in 1947, only a year after the unveiling of {ENIAC}, ACM was established by mathematicians and electrical engineers to advance the science and application of {Information Technology}. {John Mauchly}, co-inventor of the ENIAC, was one of ACM's founders. Since its inception ACM has provided its members and the world of computer science a forum for the sharing of knowledge on developments and achievements necessary to the fruitful interchange of ideas. ACM has 90,000 members - educators, researchers, practitioners, managers, and engineers - who drive the Association's major programs and services - publications, special interest groups, chapters, conferences, awards, and special activities. The ACM Press publishes journals (notably {CACM}), book series, conference proceedings, {CD-ROM}, {hypertext}, {video}, and specialized publications such as curricula recommendations and self-assessment procedures. {(}. (1998-02-24)

Association for Progressive Communications "body, philosophy" (APC) A world-wide organisation of like-minded computer networks providing a global communications network dedicated to the free and balanced flow of information. The APC defends and promotes non-commercial, productive online space for NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations) and collaborates with like-minded organisations to ensure that the information and communication needs of civil society are considered in telecommunications, donor and investment policy. A few of APC's partner organisations include The {Institute for Global Communications} (USA), GreenNet (UK), Nicarao (Nicaragua) Enda-Tiers Monde (Senegal) and GlasNet (Ukraine). These organisations serve people working toward goals that include the prevention of warfare, elimination of militarism and poverty, protection of the environment, human rights, social and economic justice, participatory democracy, non-violent conflict resolution, and the promotion of sustainable development. {(}. E-mail: "". (2000-10-08)

AST Computers, LLC "company" The private company formed in January 1999 when Mr. Beny Alagem, the former chairman of {Packard Bell NEC, Inc.}, bought the name and intellectual property of {AST Research, Inc.}. AST Computers, LLC provide {hardware, software}, and services for small US businesses. {Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.}, of Seoul, Korea, owns a minority stake. {(}. Address: Los Angeles, CA, USA. (2000-03-28)

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line "communications, protocol" (ADSL, or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop) A form of {Digital Subscriber Line} in which the bandwidth available for {downstream} connection is significantly larger then for {upstream}. Although designed to minimise the effect of {crosstalk} between the upstream and downstream channels this setup is well suited for {web browsing} and {client}-{server} applications as well as for some emerging applications such as {video on demand}. The data-rate of ADSL strongly depends on the length and quality of the line connecting the end-user to the telephone company. Typically the upstream data flow is between 16 and 640 {kilobits} per second while the downstream data flow is between 1.5 and 9 {megabits} per second. ADSL also provides a voice channel. ADSL can carry digital data, analog voice, and broadcast {MPEG2} video in a variety of implementations to meet customer needs. ["Data Cooks, But Will Vendors Get Burned?", "Supercomm Spotlight On ADSL" & "Lucent Sells Paradine", Wilson & Carol, Inter@ctive Week Vol. 3

Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter "communications, hardware" (ACIA) A kind of {integrated circuit} that provides data formatting and control to {EIA-232} serial interfaces. [Is this the same as a {UART}?] (1997-05-07)

AT Attachment Packet Interface "storage" (ATAPI) Part of the {EIDE} interface that provides additional commands to control a {CD-ROM} drive or {magnetic tape}. [Winn L. Rosch "The Winn L. Rosch Hardware Bible" (Third Edition), Sams Publishing, 1994]. (1998-11-01)

Attachment Unit Interface "networking" (AUI) The part of the {IEEE} {Ethernet} {standard} located between the {MAC}, and the {MAU}. The AUI is a {transceiver} cable that provides a path between a {node}'s Ethernet interface and the MAU. (1996-12-08)

attacks as a service "security, legal" A kind of {cybercrime as a service} in which the service provider performs {denial of service} attacks on behalf of others for money. (2015-02-23)

attired ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Attire ::: p. p. --> Provided with antlers, as a stag.

Attributed File System "storage" (AtFS) The basis of the {Shape_VC} toolkit. Cooperative work within projects is supported by a status model controlling visibility of version objects, locking, and "long transactions" for synchronising concurrent updates. The concept of object attributes provides a basis for storing management information with versions and passing this information between individual tools. This mechanism is useful for building integrated environments from a set of unrelated tools. (2000-02-24)

Aufklärung: In general, this German word and its English equivalent Enlightenment denote the self-emancipation of man from mere authority, prejudice, convention and tradition, with an insistence on freer thinking about problems uncritically referred to these other agencies. According to Kant's famous definition "Enlightenment is the liberation of man from his self-caused state of minority, which is the incapacity of using one's understanding without the direction of another. This state of minority is caused when its source lies not in the lack of understanding, but in the lack of determination and courage to use it without the assistance of another" (Was ist Aufklärung? 1784). In its historical perspective, the Aufklärung refers to the cultural atmosphere and contrlbutions of the 18th century, especially in Germany, France and England [which affected also American thought with B. Franklin, T. Paine and the leaders of the Revolution]. It crystallized tendencies emphasized by the Renaissance, and quickened by modern scepticism and empiricism, and by the great scientific discoveries of the 17th century. This movement, which was represented by men of varying tendencies, gave an impetus to general learning, a more popular philosophy, empirical science, scriptural criticism, social and political thought. More especially, the word Aufklärung is applied to the German contributions to 18th century culture. In philosophy, its principal representatives are G. E. Lessing (1729-81) who believed in free speech and in a methodical criticism of religion, without being a free-thinker; H. S. Reimarus (1694-1768) who expounded a naturalistic philosophy and denied the supernatural origin of Christianity; Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86) who endeavoured to mitigate prejudices and developed a popular common-sense philosophy; Chr. Wolff (1679-1754), J. A. Eberhard (1739-1809) who followed the Leibnizian rationalism and criticized unsuccessfully Kant and Fichte; and J. G. Herder (1744-1803) who was best as an interpreter of others, but whose intuitional suggestions have borne fruit in the organic correlation of the sciences, and in questions of language in relation to human nature and to national character. The works of Kant and Goethe mark the culmination of the German Enlightenment. Cf. J. G. Hibben, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1910. --T.G. Augustinianism: The thought of St. Augustine of Hippo, and of his followers. Born in 354 at Tagaste in N. Africa, A. studied rhetoric in Carthage, taught that subject there and in Rome and Milan. Attracted successively to Manicheanism, Scepticism, and Neo-Platontsm, A. eventually found intellectual and moral peace with his conversion to Christianity in his thirty-fourth year. Returning to Africa, he established numerous monasteries, became a priest in 391, Bishop of Hippo in 395. Augustine wrote much: On Free Choice, Confessions, Literal Commentary on Genesis, On the Trinity, and City of God, are his most noted works. He died in 430.   St. Augustine's characteristic method, an inward empiricism which has little in common with later variants, starts from things without, proceeds within to the self, and moves upwards to God. These three poles of the Augustinian dialectic are polarized by his doctrine of moderate illuminism. An ontological illumination is required to explain the metaphysical structure of things. The truth of judgment demands a noetic illumination. A moral illumination is necessary in the order of willing; and so, too, an lllumination of art in the aesthetic order. Other illuminations which transcend the natural order do not come within the scope of philosophy; they provide the wisdoms of theology and mysticism. Every being is illuminated ontologically by number, form, unity and its derivatives, and order. A thing is what it is, in so far as it is more or less flooded by the light of these ontological constituents.   Sensation is necessary in order to know material substances. There is certainly an action of the external object on the body and a corresponding passion of the body, but, as the soul is superior to the body and can suffer nothing from its inferior, sensation must be an action, not a passion, of the soul. Sensation takes place only when the observing soul, dynamically on guard throughout the body, is vitally attentive to the changes suffered by the body. However, an adequate basis for the knowledge of intellectual truth is not found in sensation alone. In order to know, for example, that a body is multiple, the idea of unity must be present already, otherwise its multiplicity could not be recognized. If numbers are not drawn in by the bodily senses which perceive only the contingent and passing, is the mind the source of the unchanging and necessary truth of numbers? The mind of man is also contingent and mutable, and cannot give what it does not possess. As ideas are not innate, nor remembered from a previous existence of the soul, they can be accounted for only by an immutable source higher than the soul. In so far as man is endowed with an intellect, he is a being naturally illuminated by God, Who may be compared to an intelligible sun. The human intellect does not create the laws of thought; it finds them and submits to them. The immediate intuition of these normative rules does not carry any content, thus any trace of ontologism is avoided.   Things have forms because they have numbers, and they have being in so far as they possess form. The sufficient explanation of all formable, and hence changeable, things is an immutable and eternal form which is unrestricted in time and space. The forms or ideas of all things actually existing in the world are in the things themselves (as rationes seminales) and in the Divine Mind (as rationes aeternae). Nothing could exist without unity, for to be is no other than to be one. There is a unity proper to each level of being, a unity of the material individual and species, of the soul, and of that union of souls in the love of the same good, which union constitutes the city. Order, also, is ontologically imbibed by all beings. To tend to being is to tend to order; order secures being, disorder leads to non-being. Order is the distribution which allots things equal and unequal each to its own place and integrates an ensemble of parts in accordance with an end. Hence, peace is defined as the tranquillity of order. Just as things have their being from their forms, the order of parts, and their numerical relations, so too their beauty is not something superadded, but the shining out of all their intelligible co-ingredients.   S. Aurelii Augustini, Opera Omnia, Migne, PL 32-47; (a critical edition of some works will be found in the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna). Gilson, E., Introd. a l'etude de s. Augustin, (Paris, 1931) contains very good bibliography up to 1927, pp. 309-331. Pope, H., St. Augustine of Hippo, (London, 1937). Chapman, E., St. Augustine's Philos. of Beauty, (N. Y., 1939). Figgis, J. N., The Political Aspects of St. Augustine's "City of God", (London, 1921). --E.C. Authenticity: In a general sense, genuineness, truth according to its title. It involves sometimes a direct and personal characteristic (Whitehead speaks of "authentic feelings").   This word also refers to problems of fundamental criticism involving title, tradition, authorship and evidence. These problems are vital in theology, and basic in scholarship with regard to the interpretation of texts and doctrines. --T.G. Authoritarianism: That theory of knowledge which maintains that the truth of any proposition is determined by the fact of its having been asserted by a certain esteemed individual or group of individuals. Cf. H. Newman, Grammar of Assent; C. S. Peirce, "Fixation of Belief," in Chance, Love and Logic, ed. M. R. Cohen. --A.C.B. Autistic thinking: Absorption in fanciful or wishful thinking without proper control by objective or factual material; day dreaming; undisciplined imagination. --A.C.B. Automaton Theory: Theory that a living organism may be considered a mere machine. See Automatism. Automatism: (Gr. automatos, self-moving) (a) In metaphysics: Theory that animal and human organisms are automata, that is to say, are machines governed by the laws of physics and mechanics. Automatism, as propounded by Descartes, considered the lower animals to be pure automata (Letter to Henry More, 1649) and man a machine controlled by a rational soul (Treatise on Man). Pure automatism for man as well as animals is advocated by La Mettrie (Man, a Machine, 1748). During the Nineteenth century, automatism, combined with epiphenomenalism, was advanced by Hodgson, Huxley and Clifford. (Cf. W. James, The Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, ch. V.) Behaviorism, of the extreme sort, is the most recent version of automatism (See Behaviorism).   (b) In psychology: Psychological automatism is the performance of apparently purposeful actions, like automatic writing without the superintendence of the conscious mind. L. C. Rosenfield, From Beast Machine to Man Machine, N. Y., 1941. --L.W. Automatism, Conscious: The automatism of Hodgson, Huxley, and Clifford which considers man a machine to which mind or consciousness is superadded; the mind of man is, however, causally ineffectual. See Automatism; Epiphenomenalism. --L.W. Autonomy: (Gr. autonomia, independence) Freedom consisting in self-determination and independence of all external constraint. See Freedom. Kant defines autonomy of the will as subjection of the will to its own law, the categorical imperative, in contrast to heteronomy, its subjection to a law or end outside the rational will. (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, § 2.) --L.W. Autonomy of ethics: A doctrine, usually propounded by intuitionists, that ethics is not a part of, and cannot be derived from, either metaphysics or any of the natural or social sciences. See Intuitionism, Metaphysical ethics, Naturalistic ethics. --W.K.F. Autonomy of the will: (in Kant's ethics) The freedom of the rational will to legislate to itself, which constitutes the basis for the autonomy of the moral law. --P.A.S. Autonymy: In the terminology introduced by Carnap, a word (phrase, symbol, expression) is autonymous if it is used as a name for itself --for the geometric shape, sound, etc. which it exemplifies, or for the word as a historical and grammatical unit. Autonymy is thus the same as the Scholastic suppositio matertalis (q. v.), although the viewpoint is different. --A.C. Autotelic: (from Gr. autos, self, and telos, end) Said of any absorbing activity engaged in for its own sake (cf. German Selbstzweck), such as higher mathematics, chess, etc. In aesthetics, applied to creative art and play which lack any conscious reference to the accomplishment of something useful. In the view of some, it may constitute something beneficent in itself of which the person following his art impulse (q.v.) or playing is unaware, thus approaching a heterotelic (q.v.) conception. --K.F.L. Avenarius, Richard: (1843-1896) German philosopher who expressed his thought in an elaborate and novel terminology in the hope of constructing a symbolic language for philosophy, like that of mathematics --the consequence of his Spinoza studies. As the most influential apostle of pure experience, the posltivistic motive reaches in him an extreme position. Insisting on the biologic and economic function of thought, he thought the true method of science is to cure speculative excesses by a return to pure experience devoid of all assumptions. Philosophy is the scientific effort to exclude from knowledge all ideas not included in the given. Its task is to expel all extraneous elements in the given. His uncritical use of the category of the given and the nominalistic view that logical relations are created rather than discovered by thought, leads him to banish not only animism but also all of the categories, substance, causality, etc., as inventions of the mind. Explaining the evolution and devolution of the problematization and deproblematization of numerous ideas, and aiming to give the natural history of problems, Avenarius sought to show physiologically, psychologically and historically under what conditions they emerge, are challenged and are solved. He hypothesized a System C, a bodily and central nervous system upon which consciousness depends. R-values are the stimuli received from the world of objects. E-values are the statements of experience. The brain changes that continually oscillate about an ideal point of balance are termed Vitalerhaltungsmaximum. The E-values are differentiated into elements, to which the sense-perceptions or the content of experience belong, and characters, to which belongs everything which psychology describes as feelings and attitudes. Avenarius describes in symbolic form a series of states from balance to balance, termed vital series, all describing a series of changes in System C. Inequalities in the vital balance give rise to vital differences. According to his theory there are two vital series. It assumes a series of brain changes because parallel series of conscious states can be observed. The independent vital series are physical, and the dependent vital series are psychological. The two together are practically covariants. In the case of a process as a dependent vital series three stages can be noted: first, the appearance of the problem, expressed as strain, restlessness, desire, fear, doubt, pain, repentance, delusion; the second, the continued effort and struggle to solve the problem; and finally, the appearance of the solution, characterized by abating anxiety, a feeling of triumph and enjoyment.   Corresponding to these three stages of the dependent series are three stages of the independent series: the appearance of the vital difference and a departure from balance in the System C, the continuance with an approximate vital difference, and lastly, the reduction of the vital difference to zero, the return to stability. By making room for dependent and independent experiences, he showed that physics regards experience as independent of the experiencing indlvidual, and psychology views experience as dependent upon the individual. He greatly influenced Mach and James (q.v.). See Avenarius, Empirio-criticism, Experience, pure. Main works: Kritik der reinen Erfahrung; Der menschliche Weltbegriff. --H.H. Averroes: (Mohammed ibn Roshd) Known to the Scholastics as The Commentator, and mentioned as the author of il gran commento by Dante (Inf. IV. 68) he was born 1126 at Cordova (Spain), studied theology, law, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, became after having been judge in Sevilla and Cordova, physician to the khalifah Jaqub Jusuf, and charged with writing a commentary on the works of Aristotle. Al-mansur, Jusuf's successor, deprived him of his place because of accusations of unorthodoxy. He died 1198 in Morocco. Averroes is not so much an original philosopher as the author of a minute commentary on the whole works of Aristotle. His procedure was imitated later by Aquinas. In his interpretation of Aristotelian metaphysics Averroes teaches the coeternity of a universe created ex nihilo. This doctrine formed together with the notion of a numerical unity of the active intellect became one of the controversial points in the discussions between the followers of Albert-Thomas and the Latin Averroists. Averroes assumed that man possesses only a disposition for receiving the intellect coming from without; he identifies this disposition with the possible intellect which thus is not truly intellectual by nature. The notion of one intellect common to all men does away with the doctrine of personal immortality. Another doctrine which probably was emphasized more by the Latin Averroists (and by the adversaries among Averroes' contemporaries) is the famous statement about "two-fold truth", viz. that a proposition may be theologically true and philosophically false and vice versa. Averroes taught that religion expresses the (higher) philosophical truth by means of religious imagery; the "two-truth notion" came apparently into the Latin text through a misinterpretation on the part of the translators. The works of Averroes were one of the main sources of medieval Aristotelianlsm, before and even after the original texts had been translated. The interpretation the Latin Averroists found in their texts of the "Commentator" spread in spite of opposition and condemnation. See Averroism, Latin. Averroes, Opera, Venetiis, 1553. M. Horten, Die Metaphysik des Averroes, 1912. P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin, 2d ed., Louvain, 1911. --R.A. Averroism, Latin: The commentaries on Aristotle written by Averroes (Ibn Roshd) in the 12th century became known to the Western scholars in translations by Michael Scottus, Hermannus Alemannus, and others at the beginning of the 13th century. Many works of Aristotle were also known first by such translations from Arabian texts, though there existed translations from the Greek originals at the same time (Grabmann). The Averroistic interpretation of Aristotle was held to be the true one by many; but already Albert the Great pointed out several notions which he felt to be incompatible with the principles of Christian philosophy, although he relied for the rest on the "Commentator" and apparently hardly used any other text. Aquinas, basing his studies mostly on a translation from the Greek texts, procured for him by William of Moerbecke, criticized the Averroistic interpretation in many points. But the teachings of the Commentator became the foundation for a whole school of philosophers, represented first by the Faculty of Arts at Paris. The most prominent of these scholars was Siger of Brabant. The philosophy of these men was condemned on March 7th, 1277 by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, after a first condemnation of Aristotelianism in 1210 had gradually come to be neglected. The 219 theses condemned in 1277, however, contain also some of Aquinas which later were generally recognized an orthodox. The Averroistic propositions which aroused the criticism of the ecclesiastic authorities and which had been opposed with great energy by Albert and Thomas refer mostly to the following points: The co-eternity of the created word; the numerical identity of the intellect in all men, the so-called two-fold-truth theory stating that a proposition may be philosophically true although theologically false. Regarding the first point Thomas argued that there is no philosophical proof, either for the co-eternity or against it; creation is an article of faith. The unity of intellect was rejected as incompatible with the true notion of person and with personal immortality. It is doubtful whether Averroes himself held the two-truths theory; it was, however, taught by the Latin Averroists who, notwithstanding the opposition of the Church and the Thomistic philosophers, gained a great influence and soon dominated many universities, especially in Italy. Thomas and his followers were convinced that they interpreted Aristotle correctly and that the Averroists were wrong; one has, however, to admit that certain passages in Aristotle allow for the Averroistic interpretation, especially in regard to the theory of intellect.   Lit.: P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin au XIIIe Siecle, 2d. ed. Louvain, 1911; M. Grabmann, Forschungen über die lateinischen Aristotelesübersetzungen des XIII. Jahrhunderts, Münster 1916 (Beitr. z. Gesch. Phil. d. MA. Vol. 17, H. 5-6). --R.A. Avesta: See Zendavesta. Avicehron: (or Avencebrol, Salomon ibn Gabirol) The first Jewish philosopher in Spain, born in Malaga 1020, died about 1070, poet, philosopher, and moralist. His main work, Fons vitae, became influential and was much quoted by the Scholastics. It has been preserved only in the Latin translation by Gundissalinus. His doctrine of a spiritual substance individualizing also the pure spirits or separate forms was opposed by Aquinas already in his first treatise De ente, but found favor with the medieval Augustinians also later in the 13th century. He also teaches the necessity of a mediator between God and the created world; such a mediator he finds in the Divine Will proceeding from God and creating, conserving, and moving the world. His cosmogony shows a definitely Neo-Platonic shade and assumes a series of emanations. Cl. Baeumker, Avencebrolis Fons vitae. Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1892-1895, Vol. I. Joh. Wittman, Die Stellung des hl. Thomas von Aquino zu Avencebrol, ibid. 1900. Vol. III. --R.A. Avicenna: (Abu Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina) Born 980 in the country of Bocchara, began to write in young years, left more than 100 works, taught in Ispahan, was physician to several Persian princes, and died at Hamadan in 1037. His fame as physician survived his influence as philosopher in the Occident. His medical works were printed still in the 17th century. His philosophy is contained in 18 vols. of a comprehensive encyclopedia, following the tradition of Al Kindi and Al Farabi. Logic, Physics, Mathematics and Metaphysics form the parts of this work. His philosophy is Aristotelian with noticeable Neo-Platonic influences. His doctrine of the universal existing ante res in God, in rebus as the universal nature of the particulars, and post res in the human mind by way of abstraction became a fundamental thesis of medieval Aristotelianism. He sharply distinguished between the logical and the ontological universal, denying to the latter the true nature of form in the composite. The principle of individuation is matter, eternally existent. Latin translations attributed to Avicenna the notion that existence is an accident to essence (see e.g. Guilelmus Parisiensis, De Universo). The process adopted by Avicenna was one of paraphrasis of the Aristotelian texts with many original thoughts interspersed. His works were translated into Latin by Dominicus Gundissalinus (Gondisalvi) with the assistance of Avendeath ibn Daud. This translation started, when it became more generally known, the "revival of Aristotle" at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Albert the Great and Aquinas professed, notwithstanding their critical attitude, a great admiration for Avicenna whom the Arabs used to call the "third Aristotle". But in the Orient, Avicenna's influence declined soon, overcome by the opposition of the orthodox theologians. Avicenna, Opera, Venetiis, 1495; l508; 1546. M. Horten, Das Buch der Genesung der Seele, eine philosophische Enzyklopaedie Avicenna's; XIII. Teil: Die Metaphysik. Halle a. S. 1907-1909. R. de Vaux, Notes et textes sur l'Avicennisme Latin, Bibl. Thomiste XX, Paris, 1934. --R.A. Avidya: (Skr.) Nescience; ignorance; the state of mind unaware of true reality; an equivalent of maya (q.v.); also a condition of pure awareness prior to the universal process of evolution through gradual differentiation into the elements and factors of knowledge. --K.F.L. Avyakta: (Skr.) "Unmanifest", descriptive of or standing for brahman (q.v.) in one of its or "his" aspects, symbolizing the superabundance of the creative principle, or designating the condition of the universe not yet become phenomenal (aja, unborn). --K.F.L. Awareness: Consciousness considered in its aspect of act; an act of attentive awareness such as the sensing of a color patch or the feeling of pain is distinguished from the content attended to, the sensed color patch, the felt pain. The psychologlcal theory of intentional act was advanced by F. Brentano (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte) and received its epistemological development by Meinong, Husserl, Moore, Laird and Broad. See Intentionalism. --L.W. Axiological: (Ger. axiologisch) In Husserl: Of or pertaining to value or theory of value (the latter term understood as including disvalue and value-indifference). --D.C. Axiological ethics: Any ethics which makes the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, by making the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on a consideration of the value or goodness of something, e.g. the action itself, its motive, or its consequences, actual or probable. Opposed to deontological ethics. See also teleological ethics. --W.K.F. Axiologic Realism: In metaphysics, theory that value as well as logic, qualities as well as relations, have their being and exist external to the mind and independently of it. Applicable to the philosophy of many though not all realists in the history of philosophy, from Plato to G. E. Moore, A. N. Whitehead, and N, Hartmann. --J.K.F. Axiology: (Gr. axios, of like value, worthy, and logos, account, reason, theory). Modern term for theory of value (the desired, preferred, good), investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. Had its rise in Plato's theory of Forms or Ideas (Idea of the Good); was developed in Aristotle's Organon, Ethics, Poetics, and Metaphysics (Book Lambda). Stoics and Epicureans investigated the summum bonum. Christian philosophy (St. Thomas) built on Aristotle's identification of highest value with final cause in God as "a living being, eternal, most good."   In modern thought, apart from scholasticism and the system of Spinoza (Ethica, 1677), in which values are metaphysically grounded, the various values were investigated in separate sciences, until Kant's Critiques, in which the relations of knowledge to moral, aesthetic, and religious values were examined. In Hegel's idealism, morality, art, religion, and philosophy were made the capstone of his dialectic. R. H. Lotze "sought in that which should be the ground of that which is" (Metaphysik, 1879). Nineteenth century evolutionary theory, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and economics subjected value experience to empirical analysis, and stress was again laid on the diversity and relativity of value phenomena rather than on their unity and metaphysical nature. F. Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883-1885) and Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887) aroused new interest in the nature of value. F. Brentano, Vom Ursprung sittlicher Erkenntnis (1889), identified value with love.   In the twentieth century the term axiology was apparently first applied by Paul Lapie (Logique de la volonte, 1902) and E. von Hartmann (Grundriss der Axiologie, 1908). Stimulated by Ehrenfels (System der Werttheorie, 1897), Meinong (Psychologisch-ethische Untersuchungen zur Werttheorie, 1894-1899), and Simmel (Philosophie des Geldes, 1900). W. M. Urban wrote the first systematic treatment of axiology in English (Valuation, 1909), phenomenological in method under J. M. Baldwin's influence. Meanwhile H. Münsterberg wrote a neo-Fichtean system of values (The Eternal Values, 1909).   Among important recent contributions are: B. Bosanquet, The Principle of Individuality and Value (1912), a free reinterpretation of Hegelianism; W. R. Sorley, Moral Values and the Idea of God (1918, 1921), defending a metaphysical theism; S. Alexander, Space, Time, and Deity (1920), realistic and naturalistic; N. Hartmann, Ethik (1926), detailed analysis of types and laws of value; R. B. Perry's magnum opus, General Theory of Value (1926), "its meaning and basic principles construed in terms of interest"; and J. Laird, The Idea of Value (1929), noteworthy for historical exposition. A naturalistic theory has been developed by J. Dewey (Theory of Valuation, 1939), for which "not only is science itself a value . . . but it is the supreme means of the valid determination of all valuations." A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic (1936) expounds the view of logical positivism that value is "nonsense." J. Hessen, Wertphilosophie (1937), provides an account of recent German axiology from a neo-scholastic standpoint.   The problems of axiology fall into four main groups, namely, those concerning (1) the nature of value, (2) the types of value, (3) the criterion of value, and (4) the metaphysical status of value.   (1) The nature of value experience. Is valuation fulfillment of desire (voluntarism: Spinoza, Ehrenfels), pleasure (hedonism: Epicurus, Bentham, Meinong), interest (Perry), preference (Martineau), pure rational will (formalism: Stoics, Kant, Royce), apprehension of tertiary qualities (Santayana), synoptic experience of the unity of personality (personalism: T. H. Green, Bowne), any experience that contributes to enhanced life (evolutionism: Nietzsche), or "the relation of things as means to the end or consequence actually reached" (pragmatism, instrumentalism: Dewey).   (2) The types of value. Most axiologists distinguish between intrinsic (consummatory) values (ends), prized for their own sake, and instrumental (contributory) values (means), which are causes (whether as economic goods or as natural events) of intrinsic values. Most intrinsic values are also instrumental to further value experience; some instrumental values are neutral or even disvaluable intrinsically. Commonly recognized as intrinsic values are the (morally) good, the true, the beautiful, and the holy. Values of play, of work, of association, and of bodily well-being are also acknowledged. Some (with Montague) question whether the true is properly to be regarded as a value, since some truth is disvaluable, some neutral; but love of truth, regardless of consequences, seems to establish the value of truth. There is disagreement about whether the holy (religious value) is a unique type (Schleiermacher, Otto), or an attitude toward other values (Kant, Höffding), or a combination of the two (Hocking). There is also disagreement about whether the variety of values is irreducible (pluralism) or whether all values are rationally related in a hierarchy or system (Plato, Hegel, Sorley), in which values interpenetrate or coalesce into a total experience.   (3) The criterion of value. The standard for testing values is influenced by both psychological and logical theory. Hedonists find the standard in the quantity of pleasure derived by the individual (Aristippus) or society (Bentham). Intuitionists appeal to an ultimate insight into preference (Martineau, Brentano). Some idealists recognize an objective system of rational norms or ideals as criterion (Plato, Windelband), while others lay more stress on rational wholeness and coherence (Hegel, Bosanquet, Paton) or inclusiveness (T. H. Green). Naturalists find biological survival or adjustment (Dewey) to be the standard. Despite differences, there is much in common in the results of the application of these criteria.   (4) The metaphysical status of value. What is the relation of values to the facts investigated by natural science (Koehler), of Sein to Sollen (Lotze, Rickert), of human experience of value to reality independent of man (Hegel, Pringle-Pattlson, Spaulding)? There are three main answers:   subjectivism (value is entirely dependent on and relative to human experience of it: so most hedonists, naturalists, positivists);   logical objectivism (values are logical essences or subsistences, independent of their being known, yet with no existential status or action in reality);   metaphysical objectivism (values   --or norms or ideals   --are integral, objective, and active constituents of the metaphysically real: so theists, absolutists, and certain realists and naturalists like S. Alexander and Wieman). --E.S.B. Axiom: See Mathematics. Axiomatic method: That method of constructing a deductive system consisting of deducing by specified rules all statements of the system save a given few from those given few, which are regarded as axioms or postulates of the system. See Mathematics. --C.A.B. Ayam atma brahma: (Skr.) "This self is brahman", famous quotation from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.5.19, one of many alluding to the central theme of the Upanishads, i.e., the identity of the human and divine or cosmic. --K.F.L.

Auto Idle "processor" A facility provided by some {Intel} {clock doubled} {microprocessors} where the internal {clock} can be slowed to the external {clock rate} while the processor is waiting for {data} from {memory}, returning to full speed as soon as the data arrives. See also {System Management Mode}. (1994-11-09)

A/UX "operating system" (Apple's UniX) {Apple}'s first version of {Unix} for {Macintosh} computers. A/UX merges the {Macintosh Finder} ({GUI}) with a Unix core, offering functions from both systems. It will run on some late-model {Motorola 68000} Macs, but not on the {Power Mac}. A/UX is based on {AT&T} Unix {System V}.2.2 with numerous extensions from V.3, V.4 and {BSD} 4.2/4.3. It also provides full {POSIX} compliance. A/UX 3.x.x incorporates {System 7} for the Macintosh, thus supporting the vast majority of Macintosh {applications}. System 7 and Unix are fully integrated under A/UX 3.x.x with the Unix file system being seen as a disk drive by the Finder. {jagubox's A/UX Home Page (}. (1997-12-13)

avener ::: n. --> An officer of the king&

Axiomatic Architecture Description Language "language, architecture, parallel" (AADL) A language allowing concise modular specification of {multiprocessor} architectures from the compiler/operating-system interface level down to chip level. AADL is rich enough to specify target architectures while providing a concise model for clocked {microarchitectures}. ["AADL: A Net-Based Specification Method for Computer Architecture Design", W. Damm et al in Languages for Parallel Architectures, J.W. deBakker ed, Wiley, 1989]. (2003-06-30)

Baan "company" A provider of {enterprise resource planning} and {manufacturer resource planning} software. {(}. (1998-07-07)

backup software "tool, software" {Software} for doing a {backup}, often included as part of the {operating system}. Backup software should provide ways to specify what files get backed up and to where. It may include its own {scheduling} function to automate the procedure or, preferably, work with generic scheduling facilities. It may include facilities for managing the backup media (e.g. maintaining an index of tapes) and for restoring files from backups. Examples are {Unix}'s {dump} command and {Windows}'s {ntbackup}. (2004-03-16)

Basic Input/Output System "operating system" (BIOS, ROM BIOS) The part of the {system software} of the {IBM PC} and compatibles that provides the lowest level interface to {peripheral} devices and controls the first stage of the {bootstrap} process, including installing the {operating system}. The BIOS is stored in {ROM}, or equivalent, in every PC. Its main task is to load and execute the operating system which is usually stored on the computer's {hard disk}, but may be loaded from {CD-ROM} or {floppy disk} at install time. In order to provide acceptable performance (e.g. for screen display), some software vendors access the routines in the BIOS directly, rather than using the higher level operating system calls. Thus, the BIOS in the compatible computer must be 100% compatible with the IBM BIOS. As if that wasn't bad enough, many {application programs} bypass even the BIOS and address the screen hardware directly just as the BIOS does. Consequently, {register} level compatibility is required in the compatible's display electronics, which means that it must provide the same storage locations and identification as the original IBM hardware. (1999-06-09)

basilica ::: n. --> Originally, the place of a king; but afterward, an apartment provided in the houses of persons of importance, where assemblies were held for dispensing justice; and hence, any large hall used for this purpose.
A building used by the Romans as a place of public meeting, with court rooms, etc., attached.
A church building of the earlier centuries of Christianity, the plan of which was taken from the basilica of the

BCPL "language" (Basic CPL) A British systems language developed by Richards in 1969 and descended from {CPL} (Combined Programming Language). BCPL is low-level, typeless and block-structured, and provides only one-dimensional {arrays}. Case is not significant, but conventionally reserved words begin with a capital. Flow control constructs include: If-Then, Test-Then-Else, Unless-Do, While-Do, Until-Do, Repeat, Repeatwhile, Repeatuntil, For-to-By-Do, Loop, Break and Switchon-Into-Case-Default-Endcase. BCPL has conditional expressions, pointers, and manifest constants. It has both procedures: 'Let foo(bar) Be command' and functions: 'Let foo(bar) = expression'. 'Valof $(..Resultis..$)' causes a compound command to produce a value. Parameters are {call-by-value}. Program segments communicate via the global vector where system and user variables are stored in fixed numerical locations in a single array. The first BCPL {compiler} was written in {AED}. BCPL was used to implement the {TRIPOS} {operating system}, which was subsequently reincarnated as {AmigaDOS}. ["BCPL - The Language and its Compiler", Martin Richards & Colin Whitby-Stevens, Cambridge U Press 1979]. See {OCODE}, {INTCODE}. Oxford BCPL differed slightly: Test-Ifso-Ifnot, and section brackets in place of $( $). The original {INTCODE} {interpreter} for BCPL is available for {Amiga}, {Unix}, {MS-DOS} {(}. A BCPL compiler {bootstrap} kit with an {INTCODE} {interpreter} in {C} was written by Ken Yap "". (1995-03-26)

bedded ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Bed ::: a. --> Provided with a bed; as, double-bedded room; placed or arranged in a bed or beds.

BETA Kristensen, Madsen "", Moller-Pedersen & Nygaard, 1983. Object-oriented language with block structure, coroutines, concurrency, {strong typing}, part objects, separate objects and classless objects. Central feature is a single abstraction mechanism called "patterns", a generalisation of classes, providing instantiation and hierarchical inheritance for all objects including procedures and processes. Mjolner Informatics ApS, Aarhus, implementations for Mac, Sun, HP, Apollo. E-mail: "". Mailing list: "". ["Object-Oriented Programming in the BETA Programming Language", Ole Lehrmann et al, A-W June 1993, ISBN 0-201-62430-3]. [{Jargon File}] (1995-10-31)

bignum "programming" /big'nuhm/ (Originally from {MIT} {MacLISP}) A {multiple-precision} computer representation for very large integers. Most computer languages provide a type of data called "integer", but such computer integers are usually limited in size; usually they must be smaller than 2^31 (2,147,483,648) or (on a {bitty box}) 2^15 (32,768). If you want to work with numbers larger than that, you have to use {floating-point} numbers, which are usually accurate to only six or seven decimal places. Computer languages that provide bignums can perform exact calculations on very large numbers, such as 1000! (the factorial of 1000, which is 1000 times 999 times 998 times ... times 2 times 1). For example, this value for 1000! was computed by the {MacLISP} system using bignums: 40238726007709377354370243392300398571937486421071 46325437999104299385123986290205920442084869694048 00479988610197196058631666872994808558901323829669 94459099742450408707375991882362772718873251977950 59509952761208749754624970436014182780946464962910 56393887437886487337119181045825783647849977012476 63288983595573543251318532395846307555740911426241 74743493475534286465766116677973966688202912073791 43853719588249808126867838374559731746136085379534 52422158659320192809087829730843139284440328123155 86110369768013573042161687476096758713483120254785 89320767169132448426236131412508780208000261683151 02734182797770478463586817016436502415369139828126 48102130927612448963599287051149649754199093422215 66832572080821333186116811553615836546984046708975 60290095053761647584772842188967964624494516076535 34081989013854424879849599533191017233555566021394 50399736280750137837615307127761926849034352625200 01588853514733161170210396817592151090778801939317 81141945452572238655414610628921879602238389714760 88506276862967146674697562911234082439208160153780 88989396451826324367161676217916890977991190375403 12746222899880051954444142820121873617459926429565 81746628302955570299024324153181617210465832036786 90611726015878352075151628422554026517048330422614 39742869330616908979684825901254583271682264580665 26769958652682272807075781391858178889652208164348 34482599326604336766017699961283186078838615027946 59551311565520360939881806121385586003014356945272 24206344631797460594682573103790084024432438465657 24501440282188525247093519062092902313649327349756 55139587205596542287497740114133469627154228458623 77387538230483865688976461927383814900140767310446 64025989949022222176590433990188601856652648506179 97023561938970178600408118897299183110211712298459 01641921068884387121855646124960798722908519296819 37238864261483965738229112312502418664935314397013 74285319266498753372189406942814341185201580141233 44828015051399694290153483077644569099073152433278 28826986460278986432113908350621709500259738986355 42771967428222487575867657523442202075736305694988 25087968928162753848863396909959826280956121450994 87170124451646126037902930912088908694202851064018 21543994571568059418727489980942547421735824010636 77404595741785160829230135358081840096996372524230 56085590370062427124341690900415369010593398383577 79394109700277534720000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000. [{Jargon File}] (1996-06-27)

Binary file /home/jpc/Documents/Code/KEYS/DICTIONARIES/DICTIONARIES.tar.gz matches

bird ::: n. --> Orig., a chicken; the young of a fowl; a young eaglet; a nestling; and hence, a feathered flying animal (see 2).
A warm-blooded, feathered vertebrate provided with wings. See Aves.
Specifically, among sportsmen, a game bird.
Fig.: A girl; a maiden. ::: v. i.

BITNET "networking" /bit'net/ (Because It's Time NETwork) An academic and research computer network connecting approximately 2500 computers. BITNET provides interactive, {electronic mail} and file transfer services, using a {store and forward} {protocol}, based on {IBM} {Network Job Entry} protocols. Bitnet-II encapsulates the Bitnet protocol within {IP} {packets} and depends on the {Internet} to route them. BITNET traffic and Internet traffic are exchanged via several {gateway} hosts. BITNET is now operated by {CREN}. BITNET is everybody's least favourite piece of the network. The BITNET hosts are a collection of {IBM} {dinosaurs}, {VAXen} (with lobotomised communications hardware), and {Prime Computer} supermini computers. They communicate using 80-character {EBCDIC} card images (see {eighty-column mind}); thus, they tend to mangle the {headers} and text of third-party traffic from the rest of the {ASCII}/{RFC 822} world with annoying regularity. BITNET is also notorious as the apparent home of {BIFF}. [{Jargon File}] (2002-09-02)

bit slice "architecture" A technique for constructing a {processor} from modules, each of which processes one {bit-field} or "slice" of an {operand}. Bit slice processors usually consist of an {ALU} of 1, 2, 4 or 8 bits and control lines (including {carry} or {overflow} signals usually internal to the {CPU}). For example, two 4-bit ALUs could be arranged side by side, with control lines between them, to form an 8-bit ALU. A {sequencer} executes a program to provide data and control signals. The {AMD Am2901} is an example. (1994-11-15)

bit stuffing "protocol" A {protocol} which guarantees the receiver of {synchronous} data can recover the sender's clock. When the data stream sent contains a large number of adjacent bits which cause no transition of the signal, the receiver cannot adjust its clock to maintain proper synchronised reception. To eliminate the possibility of such a pathological case, when a preset number of transitionless bits have been transmitted, a bit which does cause a transition is "stuffed" (transmitted) by the sender. The receiver follows the same protocol and removes the stuffed bit after the specified number of transitionless bits, but can use the stuffed bit to recover the sender's clock. The advantage of bit stuffing is that only a bit (not a {byte}) is inserted in the data stream, and that only when the content of the data stream fails to provide a timing signal to the receiver. Thus very nearly 100% of the bits transported are useful data. In contrast, {asynchronous} transmission of data "throws away" a start bit and one or more stop bits for each data byte sent. (1996-04-23)

Black Data Processing Associates "body" (BDPA) A non-profit professional association, founded in 1975 to promote positive influence in the {information technology} (IT) industry and how it affects African Americans. The BDPA facilitates African American professional participation in local and national activities keeping up with developing IT trends. BDPA offers a forum for exchanging information and ideas about the computer industry. It provides numerous networking opportunities through monthly program meetings, seminars, and workshops and the annual national conference. Membership is open to anyone interested in IT. The Foundation provides scholarships to students who compete in an annual {Visual Basic} competition. {(}. E-mail: "". Telephone: Ms. Pat Drumming, +1 (800) 727-BDPA. (1996-04-07)

blog "web" (From "web log") Any kind of diary published on the {web}, usually written by an individual (a "blogger") but also by corporate bodies. Blogging is regarded by some as an important social phenomenon as it contributes to the easy exchange of ideas among a large and growing international community ("the blogosphere"). A blog is just a special kind of {website}. The {home page} usually shows the most recent article and links to earlier articles, the owner's profile and web logs written by the owner's friends. There is usually a facility for readers to add comments to the bottom of articles. Blogs usually provide an {RSS feed} of current articles, allowing readers to subscribe by adding the feed to their favourite RSS reader. Many sites, e.g. {(}, let you create a blog for free. Many blogs consist almost entirely of links to other web logs, some publish original content, a few are worth reading. (2013-08-15)

bodied ::: v. 1. Furnished or provided with a body; embodied. 2. Gave shape to, gave bodily form to, exhibited in outward reality. 3. Represented; symbolized, typified. adj. 4. Possessing or existing in bodily form, endowed with material form. half-bodied, million-bodied, three-bodied, two-bodied.

bovid ::: a. --> Relating to that tribe of ruminant mammals of which the genus Bos is the type.

breadcrumbs (After the story "Hansel and Gretel" by the Brothers Grimm). 1. "web" {Links} displayed across the top of a {web page} listing the most recently visited pages so the reader can quickly jump back to one. Since this function is provided by the {web browser}, breadcrumbs are a waste of space. A better use of the space is to display links to the page's logical parent pages in the information hierarchy. 2. "programming" Information output by statements inserted into a program for {debugging by printf}. [{Jargon File}] (2007-03-07)

bridge ::: n. 1. A structure spanning and providing passage over a gap or barrier, such as a river or roadway. bridges, bridge-like. v. 2. To build or provide a bridge over something; span. Also fig. 3. To join by or as if by a bridge; link, connect. bridged, bridging.

British Telecom "company" (BT) The largest telecommunications provider in the UK. Due to regulatory issues, BT had to sell off its interest in McCaw Cellular. BT sold it to {AT&T} for something like 4B$. BT then invested that in {MCI}. As a part of the deal, MCI was given BT North America, which was the old {Tymnet}. MCI laid off about 40% of the Tymnet staff. {(}. (1995-05-09)

B. The Probability-Relation. Considering the general grounds of probability, it is pertinent to analyze the proper characteristics of this concept and the valid conditions of its use in inferential processes. Probability presents itself as a special relation between the premisses and the conclusion of an argument, namely when the premisses are true but not completely sufficient to condition the truth of the conclusion. A probable inference must however be logical, even though its result is not certain, for its premisses must be a true sign of its conclusion. The probability-relation may take three aspects: it is inductive, probable or presumptive. In strict induction, there is an essential connection between the facts expressed in the premisses and in the conclusion, which almost forces a factual result from the circumstances of the predication. This type of probability-relation is prominent in induction proper and in statistics. In strict probability, there is a logical connection between the premisses and the conclusion which does not entail a definite factual value for the latter. This type of probability-relation is prominent in mathematical probability and circumstantial evidence. In strict presumption, there is a similarity of characteristics between the fact expressed in the conclusion and the real event if it does or did exist. This type of probability-relation is prominent in analogy and testimony. A presumptive conclusion should be accepted provisionally, and it should have definite consequences capable of being tested. The results of an inductive inference and of a probable inference may often be brought closer together when covering the same field, as the relations involved are fundamental enough for the purpose. This may be done by a qualitative analysis of their implications, or by a quantitative comparison of their elements, as it is done for example in the methods of correlation. But a presumptive inference cannot be reduced to either of the other two forms without losing its identity, because the connection between its elements is of an indefinite character. It may be said that inductive and probable inferences have an intrinsic reasonableness, while presumptive inferences have an extrinsic reasonableness. The former involve determinism within certain limits, while the latter display indeterminacy more prominently. That is why very poor, misleading or wrong conclusions are obtained when mathematical methods are applied to moral acts, judiciary decisions or indirect testimony The activity of the human will has an intricate complexity and variability not easily subjected to calculation. Hence the degree of probability of a presumptive inference can be estimated only by the character and circumstances of its suggested explanation. In moral cases, the discussion and application of the probability-relation leads to the consideration of the doctrines of Probabilism and Probabiliorism which are qualitative. The probability-relation as such has the following general implications which are compatible with its three different aspects, and which may serve as general inferential principle: Any generalization must be probable upon propositions entailing its exemplification in particular cases; Any generalization or system of generalizations forming a theory, must be probable upon propositions following from it by implication; The probability of a given proposition on the basis of other propositions constituting its evidence, is the degree of logical conclusiveness of this evidence with respect to the given proposition; The empirical probability (p = S/E) of a statement S increases as verifications accrue to the evidence E, provided the evidence is taken as a whole; and Numerical probabilities may be assigned to facts or statements only when the evidence includes statistical data or other numerical information which can be treated by the methods of mathematical probability. C. Mathematical Probability. The mathematical theory of probability, which is also called the theory of chances or the theory of relative possibilities, is concerned with the application of mathematical methods to the determination of the likelihood of any event, when there are not sufficient data to determine with certainty its occurrence or failure. As Laplace remarked, it is nothing more than common sense reduced to calculation. But its range goes far beyond that of common sense for it has not only conditioned the growth of various branches of mathematics, such as the theory of errors, the calculus of variations and mathematical statistics, but it has also made possible the establishment of a number of theories in the natural and social sciences, by its actual applications to concrete problems. A distinction is usually made between direct and inverse probability. The determination of a direct or a priori probability involves an inference from given situations or sets of possibilities numerically characterized, to future events related with them. By definition, the direct probability of the occurrence of any particular form of an event, is the ratio of the number of ways in which that form might occur, to the whole number of ways in which the event may occur, all these forms being equiprobable or equally likely. The basic principles referring to a priori probabilities are derived from the analysis of the various logical alternatives involved in any hypothetical questions such as the following: (a) To determine whether a cause, whose exact nature is or is not known, will prove operative or not in certain circumstances; (b) To determine how often an event happens or fails. The comparison of the number of occurrences with that of the failures of an event, considered in simple or complex circumstances, affords a baisis for several cases of probable inference. Thus, theorems may be established to deal with the probability of success and the probability of failure of an event, with the probability of the joint occurrence of several events, with the probability of the alternative occurrence of several events, with the different conditions of frequency of occurrence of an event; with mathematical expectation, and with similar questions. The determination of an a posteriori or inverse probability involves an inference from given situations or events, to past conditions or causes which rnay have contributed to their occurrence. By definition, an inverse probability is the numerical value assigned to each one of a number of possible causes of an actual event that has already occurred; or more generally, it is the numerical value assigned to hypotheses which attempt to explain actual events or circumstances. If an event has occurred as a result of any one of n several causes, the probability that C was the actual cause is Pp/E (Pnpn), when P is the probability that the event could be produced by C if present, and p the probability that C was present before the occurrence of that event. Inverse probability is based on general and special assumptions which cannot always be properly stated, and as there are many different sets of such assumptions, there cannot be a coercive reason for making a definite choice. In particular, the condition of the equiprobability of causes is seldom if ever fulfilled. The distinction between the two kinds of probability, which has led to some confusion in interpreting their grounds and their relations, can be technically ignored now as a result of the adoption of a statistical basis for measuring probabilities. In particular, it is the statistical treatment of correlation which led to the study of probabilities of concurrent phenomena irrespective of their direction in time. This distinction may be retained, howe\er, for the purpose of a general exposition of the subject. Thus, a number of probability theorems are obtained by using various cases of direct and inverse probability involving permutations and combinations, the binomial theorem, the theory of series, and the methods of integration. In turn, these theurems can be applied to concrete cases of the various sciences.

btoa "tool, messaging, algorithm, file format" /B too A/ A {binary} to {ASCII} conversion utility. btoa is a {uuencode} or {base 64} equivalent which addresses some of the problems with the uuencode standard but not as many as the base 64 standard. It avoids problems that some {hosts} have with spaces (e.g. conversion of groups of spaces to tabs) by not including them in its character set, but may still have problems on non-ASCII systems (e.g. {EBCDIC}). btoa is primarily used to transfer {binary files} between systems across connections which are not {eight-bit clean}, e.g. {electronic mail}. btoa takes adjacent sets of four binary {octets} and encodes them as five ASCII {octets} using ASCII characters '!' through to 'u'. Special characters are also used: 'x' marks the beginning or end of the archive; 'z' marks four consecutive zeros and 'y' (version 5.2) four consecutive spaces. Each group of four octets is processed as a 32-bit integer. Call this 'I'. Let 'D' = 85^4. Divide I by D. Call this result 'R'. Make I = I - (R * D) to avoid {overflow} on the next step. Repeat, for values of D = 85^3, 85^2, 85 and 1. At each step, to convert R to the output character add decimal 33 (output octet = R + ASCII value for '!'). Five output octets are produced. btoa provides some {integrity checking} in the form of a line {checksum}, and facilities for patching corrupted downloads. The {algorithm} used by btoa is more efficient than uuencode or base 64. ASCII files are encoded to about 120% the size of their binary sources. This compares with 135% for uuencode or base 64. {C source (}. (version 5.2 - ~1994). Pre-compiled {MS-DOS} versions are also available. (1997-08-08)

B-Toolkit "tool, programming, product" A set of software tools designed to support a rigorous or formal development of software systems using the {B-Method}. The Toolkit also provides a development environment automating the management of all associated files, ensuring that the entire development, including code and documentation, is always in a consistent state. The Toolkit includes: a specification, design and code configuration management system, including integrity and dependency management and source file editing facilities; a set of software specification and design analysis tools, which includes {syntax} checkers, type checkers and a specification animator; a set of verification tools, which includes a proof-obligation generator and automatic and interactive provers; a set of coding tools, which includes a translator, linker, rapid prototyping facilities and a reusable specification/code module library; a documentation tool for automatically producing fully cross-referenced and indexed type-set documents from source files; a re-making tool for automatically re-checking and re-generating specifications, designs, code and documentation after modifications to source files. A normal licence costs 25,000 pounds, academic 6,250 pounds. (1995-03-13)

BTRIEVE Technologies, Inc. "company, database" /bee-treev/ (BTI) A provider of {client-server} {database engines}. BTI was founded by former {Novell, Inc.} employees, including the original developers of the Btrieve database engine. BTI acquired the database product line from Novell in April, 1994. {(}. Address: Austin, Texas, USA. (1995-12-14)

buffer 1. An area of memory used for storing messages. Typically, a buffer will have other attributes such as an input pointer (where new data will be written into the buffer), and output pointer (where the next item will be read from) and/or a count of the space used or free. Buffers are used to decouple processes so that the reader and writer may operate at different speeds or on different sized blocks of data. There are many different algorithms for using buffers, e.g. first-in first-out (FIFO or shelf), last-in first-out (LIFO or stack), double buffering (allowing one buffer to be read while the other is being written), cyclic buffer (reading or writing past the end wraps around to the beginning). 2. An electronic device to provide compatibility between two signals, e.g. changing voltage levels or current capability.

built-in (Or "primitive") A built-in function or operator is one provided by the lowest level of a language implementation. This usually means it is not possible (or efficient) to express it in the language itself. Typical examples are the basic arithmetic and {Boolean} operators (in {C} syntax: +, -, *, /, %, !, &&, ||), bit manipulation operators (~, &, |, ^) and I/O primitives. Other common functions may be provided in libraries but are not built-in if they are written in the language being implemented. (1995-02-14)

bulletin board system "communications, application" (BBS, bboard /bee'bord/, message board, forum; plural: BBSes) A computer and associated software which typically provides an electronic message database where people can log in and leave messages. Messages are typically split into {topic groups} similar to the {newsgroups} on {Usenet} (which is like a distributed BBS). Any user may submit or read any message in these public areas. The term comes from physical pieces of board on which people can pin messages written on paper for general consumption - a "physical bulletin board". {Ward Christensen}, the programmer and operator of the first BBS (on-line 1978-02-16) called it a CBBS for "computer bulletin board system". Since the rise of the {World-Wide Web}, the term has become antiquated, though the concept is more popular than ever, with many {websites} featuring discussion areas where users can post messages for public consumption. Apart from public message areas, some BBSes provided archives of files, personal {electronic mail} and other services of interest to the system operator ({sysop}). Thousands of BBSes around the world were run from amateurs' homes on {MS-DOS} boxes with a single {modem} line each. Although BBSes were traditionally the domain of hobbyists, many connected directly to the {Internet} (accessed via {telnet}), others were operated by government, educational, and research institutions. Fans of {Usenet} or the big commercial {time-sharing} bboards such as {CompuServe}, {CIX} and {GEnie} tended to consider local BBSes the low-rent district of the hacker culture, but they helped connect hackers and users in the personal-{micro} and let them exchange code. Use of this term for a {Usenet} newsgroup generally marks one either as a {newbie} fresh in from the BBS world or as a real old-timer predating {Usenet}. (2005-09-20)

bull ::: n. --> The male of any species of cattle (Bovidae); hence, the male of any large quadruped, as the elephant; also, the male of the whale.
One who, or that which, resembles a bull in character or action.
Taurus, the second of the twelve signs of the zodiac.
A constellation of the zodiac between Aries and Gemini. It contains the Pleiades.
One who operates in expectation of a rise in the price of

buoyage ::: n. --> Buoys, taken collectively; a series of buoys, as for the guidance of vessels into or out of port; the providing of buoys.

Business Analyst "job" A person who analyses the operations of a department or functional unit to develop a general systems solution to the problem. The solution will typically involve a combination of manual and automated processes. The business analyst can provide insights into an operation for an {information systems analyst}. (2004-03-09)

Business Application Programming Interface "business, application, programming" (BAPI) /bap'ee/ A set of {methods} provided by an {SAP} business {object}. Release 4.0 of {SAP AG}'s {R/3} system supports {object-oriented programming} via an interface defined in terms of {objects} and {methods} called BAPIs. For example if a material object provides a function to check availability, the corresponding SAP business object type "Material" might provide a BAPI called "Material.CheckAvailability". The definitions of SAP business objects and their BAPIs are kept in an SAP business object repository. SAP provide {classes} and {libraries} to enable a programming team to build SAP applications that use business objects and BAPIs. Supported environments include {COM} and {Java}. The {Open BAPI Network (}. gives background information and lists objects and BAPIs. (2002-08-30)

cabaret ::: n. --> A tavern; a house where liquors are retailed.
a type of restaurant where liquor and dinner is served, and entertainment is provided, as by musicians, dancers, or comedians, and providing space for dancing by the patrons; -- similar to a nightclub. The term cabaret is often used in the names of such an establishment.
the type of entertainment provided in a cabaret{2}.

calcific ::: a. --> Calciferous. Specifically: (Zool.) of or pertaining to the portion of the oviduct which forms the eggshell in birds and reptiles.

Calc "tool, mathematics" An extensible, advanced desk calculator and mathematical tool written in {Emacs Lisp} by Dave Gillespie "". Calc runs as part of {GNU Emacs}. You can use Calc as only a simple four-function calculator, but it also provides additional features including choice of algebraic or {RPN} ({stack}-based) entry, logarithms, trigonometric and financial functions, {arbitrary precision}, complex numbers, vectors, matrices, dates, times, infinities, sets, algebraic simplification, differentiation, and integration. FTP calc-2.02.tar.z from your nearest {GNU archive site}. (2000-10-20)

Calculus: The name calculus may be applied to any organized method of solving problems or drawing inferences by manipulation of symbols according to formal rules. Or an exact definition of a calculus may be provided by identifying it with a logistic system, (q.v.) satisfying the requirement of effectiveness.

call-by-name "reduction" (CBN) (Normal order reduction, leftmost, outermost reduction). An {argument} passing convention (first provided by {ALGOL 60}?) where argument expressions are passed unevaluated. This is usually implemented by passing a pointer to a {thunk} - some code which will return the value of the argument and an environment giving the values of its {free variables}. This {evaluation strategy} is guaranteed to reach a {normal form} if one exists. When used to implement {functional programming} languages, call-by-name is usually combined with {graph reduction} to avoid repeated evaluation of the same expression. This is then known as {call-by-need}. The opposite of call-by-name is {call-by-value} where arguments are evaluated before they are passed to a function. This is more efficient but is less likely to terminate in the presence of infinite data structures and {recursive} functions. Arguments to {macros} are usually passed using call-by-name. (2006-05-27)

call-by-reference "programming" An {argument} passing convention where the address of an argument {variable} is passed to a {function} or {procedure}, as opposed to passing the value of the argument expression. Execution of the function or procedure may have {side-effects} on the actual argument as seen by the caller. The {C} language's "&" (address of) and "*" (dereference) operators allow the programmer to code explicit call-by-reference. Other languages provide special syntax to declare reference arguments (e.g. {ALGOL 60}). See also {call-by-name}, {call-by-value}, {call-by-value-result}. (2006-05-27)

Call-Level Interface "database, standard" (SQL/CLI) A programming interface designed to support {SQL} access to {databases} from shrink-wrapped {application programs}. CLI was originally created by a subcommittee of the {SQL Access Group} (SAG). The SAG/CLI specification was published as the {Microsoft} {Open DataBase Connectivity} (ODBC) specification in 1992. In 1993, SAG submitted the CLI to the {ANSI} and {ISO} SQL committees. SQL/CLI provides an international standard implementation-independent CLI to access SQL databases. {Client-server} tools can easily access databases through {dynamic link libraries}. It supports and encourages a rich set of client-server tools. SQL/CLI is an addendum to 1992 SQL standard (SQL-92). It was completed as ISO standard ISO/IEC 9075-3:1995 Information technology -- Database languages -- SQL -- Part 3: Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI). The current SQL/CLI effort is adding support for {SQL3}. {(}. (1996-10-27)

canalise ::: to divert into certain channels; give a certain direction to or provide a certain outlet for, in order to control or regulate. canalises, canalised.

CAP 1. "networking" {Columbia AppleTalk Package}. 2. "communications" {Carrierless Amplitude/Phase Modulation}. 3. "networking" {Competitive Access Provider}

careful ::: a. --> Full of care; anxious; solicitous.
Filling with care or solicitude; exposing to concern, anxiety, or trouble; painful.
Taking care; giving good heed; watchful; cautious; provident; not indifferent, heedless, or reckless; -- often followed by of, for, or the infinitive; as, careful of money; careful to do right.

Cartesianism: The philosophy of the French thinker, Rene Descartes (Cartesius) 1596-1650. After completing his formal education at the Jesuit College at La Fleche, he spent the years 1612-1621 in travel and military service. The reminder of his life was devoted to study and writing. He died in Sweden, where he had gone in 1649 to tutor Queen Christina. His principal works are: Discours de la methode, (preface to his Geometric, Meteores, Dieptrique) Meditationes de prima philosophia, Principia philosophiae, Passions de l'ame, Regulae ad directionem ingenii, Le monde. Descartes is justly regarded as one of the founders of modern epistemology. Dissatisfied with the lack of agreement among philosophers, he decided that philosophy needed a new method, that of mathematics. He began by resolving to doubt everything which could not pass the test of his criterion of truth, viz. the clearness and distinctness of ideas. Anything which could pass this test was to be readmitted as self-evident. From self-evident truths, he deduced other truths which logically follow from them. Three kinds of ideas were distinguished: innate, by which he seems to mean little more than the mental power to think things or thoughts; adventitious, which come to him from without; factitious, produced within his own mind. He found most difficulty with the second type of ideas. The first reality discovered through his method is the thinking self. Though he might doubt nearly all else, Descartes could not reasonably doubt that he, who was thinking, existed as a res cogitans. This is the intuition enunciated in the famous aphorism: I think, therefore I am, Cogito ergo sum. This is not offered by Descartes as a compressed syllogism, but as an immediate intuition of his own thinking mind. Another reality, whose existence was obvious to Descartes, was God, the Supreme Being. Though he offered several proofs of the Divine Existence, he was convinced that he knew this also by an innate idea, and so, clearly and distinctly. But he did not find any clear ideas of an extra-mental, bodily world. He suspected its existence, but logical demonstration was needed to establish this truth. His adventitious ideas carry the vague suggestion that they are caused by bodies in an external world. By arguing that God would be a deceiver, in allowing him to think that bodies exist if they do not, he eventually convinced himself of the reality of bodies, his own and others. There are, then, three kinds of substance according to Descartes: Created spirits, i.e. the finite soul-substance of each man: these are immaterial agencies capable of performing spiritual operations, loosely united with bodies, but not extended since thought is their very essence. Uncreated Spirit, i.e. God, confined neither to space nor time, All-Good and All-Powerful, though his Existence can be known clearly, his Nature cannot be known adequately by men on earth, He is the God of Christianity, Creator, Providence and Final Cause of the universe. Bodies, i.e. created, physical substances existing independently of human thought and having as their chief attribute, extension. Cartesian physics regards bodies as the result of the introduction of "vortices", i.e. whorls of motion, into extension. Divisibility, figurability and mobility, are the notes of extension, which appears to be little more thin what Descartes' Scholastic teachers called geometrical space. God is the First Cause of all motion in the physical universe, which is conceived as a mechanical system operated by its Maker. Even the bodies of animals are automata. Sensation is the critical problem in Cartesian psychology; it is viewed by Descartes as a function of the soul, but he was never able to find a satisfactory explanation of the apparent fact that the soul is moved by the body when sensation occurs. The theory of animal spirits provided Descartes with a sort of bridge between mind and matter, since these spirits are supposed to be very subtle matter, halfway, as it were, between thought and extension in their nature. However, this theory of sensation is the weakest link in the Cartesian explanation of cognition. Intellectual error is accounted for by Descartes in his theory of assent, which makes judgment an act of free will. Where the will over-reaches the intellect, judgment may be false. That the will is absolutely free in man, capable even of choosing what is presented by the intellect as the less desirable of two alternatives, is probably a vestige of Scotism retained from his college course in Scholasticism. Common-sense and moderation are the keynotes of Descartes' famous rules for the regulation of his own conduct during his nine years of methodic doubt, and this ethical attitude continued throughout his life. He believed that man is responsible ultimately to God for the courses of action that he may choose. He admitted that conflicts may occur between human passions and human reason. A virtuous life is made possible by the knowledge of what is right and the consequent control of the lower tendencies of human nature. Six primary passions are described by Descartes wonder, love, hatred, desire, joy and sorrow. These are passive states of consciousness, partly caused by the body, acting through the animal spirits, and partly caused by the soul. Under rational control, they enable the soul to will what is good for the body. Descartes' terminology suggests that there are psychological faculties, but he insists that these powers are not really distinct from the soul itself, which is man's sole psychic agency. Descartes was a practical Catholic all his life and he tried to develop proofs of the existence of God, an explanation of the Eucharist, of the nature of religious faith, and of the operation of Divine Providence, using his philosophy as the basis for a new theology. This attempted theology has not found favor with Catholic theologians in general.

cater ::: n. --> A provider; a purveyor; a caterer.
To provide food; to buy, procure, or prepare provisions.
By extension: To supply what is needed or desired, at theatrical or musical entertainments; -- followed by for or to.
The four of cards or dice. ::: v. t.

caution ::: n. --> A careful attention to the probable effects of an act, in order that failure or harm may be avoided; prudence in regard to danger; provident care; wariness.
Security; guaranty; bail.
Precept or warning against evil of any kind; exhortation to wariness; advice; injunction. ::: v. t.

Cellular Digital Packet Data "communications, protocol" (CDPD) A wireless standard providing two-way, 19.2 kbps {packet} data transmission over exisiting {mobile telephone} channels. [Reference?] (1994-12-05)

Central office exchange service "communications" (Centrex) A {PBX} service providing {switching} at the {central office} instead of at the company premises. Typically, the telephone company owns and manages all the communications equipment necessary to implement the PBX and then sells various services to the company. (1999-10-27)

cfortran.h "library" A {transparent}, machine independent interface between {C} and {Fortran} routines and {global data}, developed by Burkhard Burow at CERN. It provides {macros} which allow the {C} {preprocessor} to translate a simple description of a C (Fortran) routine or global data into a Fortran (C) interface. Version 2.6 runs on {VAX}/{VMS}/{Ultrix}, {DECstation}, {Silicon Graphics}, {IBM} {RS/6000}, {Sun}, {Cray}, {Apollo}, {HP9000}, {LynxOS}, {f2c}, {NAG f90}. {(}. cfortran.h was reviewed in RS/Magazine November 1992 and a user's experiences with cfortran.h are described in the Jan 93 issue of Computers in Physics. (1992-04-12)

CGOL "language" A package providing {ALGOL}-like {surface syntax} for {MACLISP}, written by V.R. Pratt in 1977. {(}. ["CGOL - An Alternative Exetrnal Representation for LISP Users", V. Pratt, MIT AI Lab, Working Paper 89, 1976]. (2005-01-07)

Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol "networking, security, standard, protocol" (CHAP) An {authentication} scheme used by {PPP} servers to validate the identity of the originator of the connection upon connection or any time later. CHAP applies a three-way {handshaking} procedure. After the link is established, the server sends a "challenge" message to the originator. The originator responds with a value calculated using a {one-way hash function}. The server checks the response against its own calculation of the expected hash value. If the values match, the authentication is acknowledged; otherwise the connection is usually terminated. CHAP provides protection against {playback} attack through the use of an incrementally changing identifier and a variable challenge value. The authentication can be repeated any time while the connection is open limiting the time of exposure to any single attack, and the server is in control of the frequency and timing of the challenges. As a result, CHAP provides greater security then {PAP}. CHAP is defined in {RFC} 1334. (1996-03-05)

channel service unit "communications" (CSU) A type of {interface} used to connect a {terminal} or computer to a digital medium in the same way that a {modem} is used for connection to an analogue medium. A CSU is provided by the {communication carrier} to customers who wish to use their own equipment to retime and regenerate the incoming signals. The customer must supply all of the transmit logic, receive logic and timing recovery in order to use the CSU, whereas a {digital service unit} DSU performs these functions. (1995-01-30)

Chip Scale Packaging "hardware" (CSP) A type of {surface mount} {integrated circuit} packaging that provides pre-speed-sorted, pre-tested and pre-packaged {die} without requiring special testing. An example is {Motorola}'s {Micro SMT} packaging. See also: {chip-on-board}, {flip chip}, {multichip module}, {known good die}, {ball grid array}. ["Chip scale packaging gains at SMI. (Surface Mount International)", Bernard Levine, Electronic News (1991), Sept 4, 1995 v41 n2081 p1(2)]. (2006-08-14)

choragus ::: n. --> A chorus leader; esp. one who provided at his own expense and under his own supervision one of the choruses for the musical contents at Athens.

Chrysippus: (280-209 B.C.) One of the leaders of the Stoic School, whose voluminous writings have been completely lost. In many respects he deviated from the Stoic speculative course; for instance, he combined the principle of natural necessity, or determinism, with the doctrine of Providence. -- R.B.W.

ciliated ::: a. --> Provided with, or surrounded by, cilia; as, a ciliate leaf; endowed with vibratory motion; as, the ciliated epithelium of the windpipe.

citra (chitra) ::: picture; two-dimensional image (rūpa) or writing (lipi)"formed from the material provided by the background, by the mental eye acting through the material"; short for citra-dr.s.t.i.

C+@ "language" (Formerly "Calico"). An {object-oriented language} from {Bell Laboratories} which uniformly represents all data as pointers to self-described objects. C+@ provides {multiple inheritance} with {delegation} and with control over which {methods} come from which delegated object; and {default methodologies}. It has a simple {syntax} with emphasis on graphics. It was originally used for prototyping of telecommunication services. The language is patented by AT&T and {Unir Tech} has the exclusive license from Bell Labs to distribute C+@. Unfortunately Unir is owned and operated by well-known anti-{IETF} ranter, Jim Fleming, which may have had something to do with the language's rapid disappearence from the radar screen. It runs under {SunOS} and compiles to {Vcode}. E-mail: Jim Vandendorpe "". ["A Dynamic C-Based Object-Oriented System for Unix", S. Engelstad et al, IEEE Software 8(3):73-85 (May 1991)]. ["The C+@ Programming Language", J. Fleming, Dr Dobbs J, Oct 1993, pp.24-32]. [{Jargon File}] (2005-01-05)

Classless Inter-Domain Routing "networking" (CIDR) /sid*r/ A technique that summarises a block of {Internet addresses} in a {routing table} as an address in {dotted decimal notation} followed by a {forward slash} and a two-digit decimal number giving the number of leading one bits in the subnet mask. For example, specifies a subnet mask of 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 (binary), implying the block of addresses through CIDR is "classless" because it is not limited to the subnet masks specified by {Internet address} classes A, B and C. According to {RFC 1519}, CIDR was implemented to distribute Internet address space more efficiently and to provide a mechanism for {IP route aggregation}. This in turn reduces the number of entries in IP routing tables, enabling faster, more efficient routing, e.g. using {routing} {protocols} such as {OSPF}. CIDR is supported by {BGP4}. See also {RFC 1467}, {RFC 1518}, {RFC 1520}. (2006-01-26)

Clean "language" A {lazy} {higher-order} {purely functional language} from the {University of Nijmegen}. Clean was originally a subset of {Lean}, designed to be an experimental {intermediate language} and used to study the {graph rewriting} model. To help focus on the essential implementation issues it deliberately lacked all {syntactic sugar}, even {infix} expressions or {complex lists}, As it was used more and more to construct all kinds of applications it was eventually turned into a general purpose functional programming language, first released in May 1995. The new language is {strongly typed} (Milner/Mycroft type system), provides {modules} and {functional I/O} (including a {WIMP} interface), and supports {parallel processing} and {distributed processing} on {loosely coupled} parallel architectures. Parallel execution was originally based on the {PABC} {abstract machine}. It is one of the fastest implementations of functional languages available, partly aided by programmer {annotations} to influence evaluation order. Although the two variants of Clean are rather different, the name Clean can be used to denote either of them. To distinguish, the old version can be referred to as Clean 0.8, and the new as Clean 1.0 or Concurrent Clean. The current release of Clean (1.0) includes a compiler, producing code for the {ABC} {abstract machine}, a {code generator}, compiling the ABC code into either {object-code} or {assembly language} (depending on the {platform}), I/O libraries, a {development environment} (not all platforms), and {documentation}. It is supported (or will soon be supported) under {Mac OS}, {Linux}, {OS/2}, {Windows 95}, {SunOS}, and {Solaris}. {(}. E-mail: "". Mailing list: "". ["Clean - A Language for Functional Graph Rewriting", T. Brus et al, IR 95, U Nijmegen, Feb 1987]. ["Concurrent Clean", M.C. van Eekelen et al, TR 89-18, U Nijmegen, Netherlands, 1989]. [{Jargon File}] (1995-11-08)

CLISP "language" 1. A {Common Lisp} implementation by {Bruno Haible (} of {Karlsruhe University} and {Michael Stoll (}. of {Munich University}, both in Germany. CLISP includes an {interpreter}, {bytecode compiler}, almost all of the {CLOS} {object system}, a {foreign language interface} and a {socket interface}. An {X11} interface is available through {CLX} and {Garnet}. Command line editing is provided by the {GNU} readline library. CLISP requires only 2 MB of {RAM}. The {user interface} comes in German, English, French, Spanish, Dutch, and Russian and can be changed at {run time}. CLISP is {Free Software} and distributed under the {GPL}. It runs on {microcomputers} ({OS/2}, {Microsoft Windows}, {Amiga}, {Acorn}) as well as on {Unix} workstations ({Linux}, {BSD}, {SVR4}, {Sun4}, {Alpha}, {HP-UX}, {NeXTstep}, {SGI}, {AIX}, {Sun3} and others). {Official web page (}. {Mailing list (}. (2003-08-04) 2. {Conversational LISP}. (2019-11-21)

clock rate "processor, benchmark" The fundamental rate in {cycles} per second at which a computer performs its most basic operations such as adding two numbers or transfering a value from one {register} to another. The clock rate of a computer is normally determined by the frequency of a crystal. The original {IBM PC}, circa 1981, had a clock rate of 4.77 MHz (almost five million cycles/second). As of 1995, {Intel}'s Pentium chip runs at 100 MHz (100 million cycles/second). The clock rate of a computer is only useful for providing comparisons between computer chips in the same {processor family}. An {IBM PC} with an {Intel 486} {CPU} running at 50 MHz will be about twice as fast as one with the same CPU, memory and display running at 25 MHz. However, there are many other factors to consider when comparing different computers. Clock rate should not be used when comparing different computers or different processor families. Rather, some {benchmark} should be used. Clock rate can be very misleading, since the amount of work different computer chips can do in one cycle varies. For example, {RISC} CPUs tend to have simpler instructions than {CISC} CPUs (but higher clock rates) and {pipelined} processors execute more than one instruction per cycle. (1995-01-12)

clothe ::: v. t. --> To put garments on; to cover with clothing; to dress.
To provide with clothes; as, to feed and clothe a family; to clothe one&

cloud computing "architecture" A loosely defined term for any system providing access via the {Internet} to processing power, storage, software or other computing services, often via a {web browser}. Typically these services will be rented from an external company that hosts and manages them. (2009-04-21)

cluster 1. "architecture" Multiple {servers} providing the same service. The term may imply {resilience} to failure and/or some kind of {load balancing} between the servers. Compare {RAIS}. 2. "file system" An elementary unit of allocation of a {disk} made up of one or more physical {blocks}. A {file} is made up of a whole number of possibly non-contiguous clusters. The cluster size is a tradeoff between space efficiency (the bigger is the cluster, the bigger is on the average the wasted space at the end of each file) and the length of the {FAT}. (1996-11-04)

CLX "library, graphics" The {Common Lisp} library providing a low-level interface to the {X Window System}, equivalent to {Xlib}. {Graphics toolkits} can be built on top of CLX, e.g. {McCLIM}, {Garnet}, {CLUE} and {CLIO}. Various LISP implementors have independently ported CLX to their own {platforms}, fixing {bugs} and, in some cases, adding features in the process. {CLX Wiki (}. (2004-08-27)

co-location "networking" /koh'loh-kay`sh*n/ or /koh`loh-kay'sh*n/ (Or "colocation") Providing network connections such as {Internet} {leased lines} to several {servers} housed together in a {server room}. This is typically provided as a commercial service. The hyphenated form is correct and the most common on the web, followed by "colocation". "collocation" (/ko`loh-kay'sh*n/, not /koh'-/), is an old word with a similar meaning. It is common in dictionaries and follows the pattern of other Latin-derived words like collect, college, and collate, but is least common on the web. The verbal form is "to colocate" or "co-locate" (commonly /koh'loh`kayt/, also (US) /koh`loh'kayt/). (2000-10-03)

Columbia AppleTalk Package "networking" (CAP) An implementation of {Apple Computer}'s {AppleTalk} {protocols} for {Unix} {4.2BSD} and its derivatives, from {Columbia University}. There are two different {LAP} delivery mechanisms for: {IPTalk} and {Ethertalk} (possibly using {UAB}). CAP supports the following {AppleTalk} {protocols}: {AppleTalk Transaction Protocol} (ATP), {Name Binding Protocol} (NBP), {Printer Access Protocol} (PAP), {AppleTalk Session Protocol} (ASP), {AppleTalk Filing Protocol} (AFP) client side. In addition, the {Datagram Delivery Protocol} (DDP) and {Zone Information Protocol} (ZIP) are partially available. The structure of the {Internet Appletalk Bridge} software makes it impossible to provide full DDP service. Only the Get Zone List ATP ZIP command is implemented for ZIP. (1995-01-10)

command line interface "operating system" A means of communication between a {program} and its {user}, based solely on textual input and output. Commands are input with the help of a {keyboard} or similar device and are interpreted and executed by the program. Results are output as text or graphics to the {terminal}. Command line interfaces usually provide greater flexibility than {graphical user interfaces}, at the cost of being harder for the novice to use. Consequently, some {hackers} look down on GUIs as designed {For The Rest Of Them}. (1996-01-12)

command line option "software" (Or "option", "flag", "switch", "option switch") An argument to a command that modifies its function rather than providing data. Options generally start with "-" in {Unix} or "/" in {MS-DOS}. This is usually followed by a single letter or occasionally a digit. More recently, {GNU} software adopted the --longoptionname style, usually in addition to traditional, single-character, -x style equivalents. Some commands require each option to be a separate argument, introduced by a new "-" or "/", others allow multiple option letters to be concatenated into a single argument with a single "-" or "/", e.g. "ls -al". A few Unix commands (e.g. {ar}, {tar}) allow the "-" to be omitted. Some options may or must be followed by a value, e.g. "cc prog.c -o prog", sometimes with and sometimes without an intervening space. {getopt} and {getopts} are commands for parsing command line options. There is also a {C} library routine called getopt for the same purpose. (2007-02-18)

commendam ::: n. --> A vacant living or benefice commended to a cleric (usually a bishop) who enjoyed the revenue until a pastor was provided. A living so held was said to be held in commendam. The practice was abolished by law in 1836.

Commercial Internet eXchange "networking, body" (CIX) The CIX is a non-profit, 501(c)6, trade association coordinating {Internet} services. Its member organisations provide {TCP/IP} or {OSI} data {internetwork} services to the general public. The CIX gives them unrestricted access to other worldwide networks. It also takes an interest in the development and future direction of the {Internet}. The CIX provides a neutral forum to exchange ideas, information, and experimental projects among suppliers of internetworking services. The CIX broadens the base of national and international cooperation and coordination among member networks. Together, the membership may develop consensus positions on legislative and policy issues of mutual interest. The CIX encourages technical research and development for the mutual benefit of suppliers and customers of data communications internetworking services. It assists its member networks in the establishment of, and adherence to, operational, technical, and administrative policies and standards necessary to ensure fair, open, and competitive operations and communication among member networks. CIX policies are formulated by a member-elected board of directors. {(}. (1995-01-13)

commissary ::: n. --> One to whom is committed some charge, duty, or office, by a superior power; a commissioner.
An officer of the bishop, who exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction in parts of the diocese at a distance from the residence of the bishop.
An officer having charge of a special service; as, the commissary of musters.
An officer whose business is to provide food for a body

Common Architecture for Next Generation Internet Protocol "networking" (CATNIP, originally Common Architecture Technology for Next-generation Internet Protocol) A network architecture designed to provide a compressed form of the existing {network layer} {protocols} and to integrate {CLNP}, {IP}, and {IPX}. It provides for any of the {transport layer} {protocols} in use, including {TP4}, {CLTP}, {TCP}, {UDP}, {IPX}, and {SPX}, to run over any of the network layer protocol formats: CLNP, IP (version 4), IPX and CATNIP. CATNIP was originally proposed by Robert L. Ullmann of {Lotus Development Corporation} on 1993-12-22. It was published as {RFC 1707} in October 1994 but it is not an {Internet} standard of any kind. (1996-03-23)

Common ISDN Application Programming Interface "networking" (CAPI, Common-ISDN-API) A programming interface standard for an application program to communicate with an {ISDN} card. Work on CAPI began in 1989, focussing on the German ISDN protocol, and was finished in 1990 by a CAPI working group consisting of application providers, ISDN equipment manufacturers, large customers, user groups and DBP Telekom, resulting in COMMON-ISDN-API Version 1.1. Following completion of the international protocol specification, almost every telecommunication provider offers {BRI} and {PRI} with {protocols} based on {Q.931} / ETS 3009 102. Common-ISDN-API Version 2.0 was developed to support all Q.931 protocols. {(}. [Why not CIAPI?] (1998-09-07)

Common Lisp "language" A dialect of {Lisp} defined by a consortium of companies brought together in 1981 by the {Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency} (DARPA). Companies included {Symbolics}, {Lisp Machines, Inc.}, {Digital Equipment Corporation}, {Bell Labs}., {Xerox}, {Hewlett-Packard}, {Lawrence Livermore Labs}., {Carnegie-Mellon University}, {Stanford University}, {Yale}, {MIT} and {USC Berkeley}. Common Lisp is {lexically scoped} by default but can be {dynamically scoped}. Common Lisp is a large and complex language, fairly close to a superset of {MacLisp}. It features {lexical binding}, data structures using defstruct and setf, {closures}, multiple values, types using declare and a variety of numerical types. Function calls allow "&optional", keyword and "&rest" arguments. Generic sequence can either be a list or an {array}. It provides formatted printing using escape characters. Common LISP now includes {CLOS}, an extended LOOP {macro}, condition system, {pretty printing} and logical pathnames. Implementations include {AKCL}, {CCL}, {CLiCC}, {CLISP}, {CLX}, {CMU Common Lisp}, {DCL}, {KCL}, {MCL} and {WCL}. Mailing list: "". {ANSI Common Lisp draft proposal (}. ["Common LISP: The Language", Guy L. Steele, Digital Press 1984, ISBN 0-932376-41-X]. ["Common LISP: The Language, 2nd Edition", Guy L. Steele, Digital Press 1990, ISBN 1-55558-041-6]. (1994-09-29)

Common Management Information Protocol "protocol" (CMIP) Part of the {OSI} body of {standards} specifying {protocol} elements that may be used to provide the operation and notification services described in the related standard, CMIS ({Common Management Information Services}). Document: {ISO}/{IEC} 9596, or equivalent {ITU} X.711. (1997-12-07)

Common Object Request Broker Architecture "standard, programming" (CORBA) An {Object Management Group} specification which provides a standard messaging interface between distributed {objects}. The original CORBA specification (1.1) has been revised through version 2 (CORBA 2) with the latest specification being version 3 (CORBA 3). In its most basic form CORBA consists of the {Interface Definition Language} (IDL) and the Dynamic Invocation Interface (DII). The IDL definition is complied into a Stub (client) and Skeleton (server) component that communicate through an {Object Request Broker} (ORB). When an ORB determines that a request is to a remote object, it may execute the request by communicating with the remote ORB. The Corba IDL can be mapped to a number of languages including {C}, {C++}, {Java}, {COBOL}, {Smalltalk}, {Ada}, {Lisp}, {Python}, and {IDLscript}. CORBA ORBs are widely available for a number of platforms. The OMG standard for inter-ORB communication is {IIOP}, this ensures that all CORBA 2 compliant ORBS are able to interoperate. See also {COSS}, {Component Object Model}, {RMI}. {OMG CORBA specs (}. (2007-09-04)

commons ::: n. pl. --> The mass of the people, as distinguished from the titled classes or nobility; the commonalty; the common people.
The House of Commons, or lower house of the British Parliament, consisting of representatives elected by the qualified voters of counties, boroughs, and universities.
Provisions; food; fare, -- as that provided at a common table in colleges and universities.
A club or association for boarding at a common table,

communications software "communications, software" {Application programs}, {operating system} components, and probably {firmware}, forming part of a {communication system}. These different software components might be classified according to the functions within the {Open Systems Interconnect} model which they provide. Typical applications include a {web browser}, {Mail User Agent}, {chat} and {telnet}. (2001-03-18)

Compatible Timesharing System "operating system" (CTSS) One of the earliest (1963) experiments in the design of interactive {time-sharing} {operating systems}. CTSS was ancestral to {Multics}, {Unix}, and {ITS}. It was developed at the {MIT} Computation Center by a team led by Fernando J. Corbato. CTSS ran on a modified {IBM 7094} with a second 32K-word bank of memory, using two {2301 drums} for swapping. {Remote access} was provided to up to 30 users via an {IBM 7750} {communications controller} connected to {dial-up} {modems}. The name {ITS} (Incompatible {time-sharing} System) was a hack on CTSS, meant both as a joke and to express some basic differences in philosophy about the way I/O services should be presented to user programs. (1997-01-29)

Competitive Access Provider "networking" (CAP, or "Bypass Carrier") A company which provides network links between the customer and the {IntereXchange Carrier} or even directly to the {Internet Service Provider}. CAPs operate private networks independent of {Local Exchange Carriers}. ["Getting Connected The Internet at 56k and Up", Kevin Dowd, First Edition, p. 49, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., June 1996, ISBN 1-56592-154-2 (US), ISBN 1-56592-203-4 (international)]. (1997-07-23)

Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) A processor where each instruction can perform several low-level operations such as memory access, arithmetic operations or address calculations. The term was coined in contrast to {Reduced Instruction Set Computer}. Before the first RISC processors were designed, many computer architects were trying to bridge the "{semantic gap}" - to design {instruction sets} to support {high-level languages} by providing "high-level" instructions such as procedure call and return, loop instructions such as "decrement and branch if non-zero" and complex {addressing modes} to allow data structure and {array} accesses to be compiled into single instructions. While these architectures achieved their aim of allowing high-level language constructs to be expressed in fewer instructions, it was observed that they did not always result in improved performance. For example, on one processor it was discovered that it was possible to improve the performance by NOT using the procedure call instruction but using a sequence of simpler instructions instead. Furthermore, the more complex the instruction set, the greater the overhead of decoding an instruction, both in execution time and silicon area. This is particularly true for processors which used {microcode} to decode the (macro) instruction. It is easier to debug a complex instruction set implemented in microcode than one whose decoding is "{hard-wired}" in silicon. Examples of CISC processors are the {Motorola} {680x0} family and the {Intel 80186} through {Intel 486} and {Pentium}. (1994-10-10)

Compulink Information eXchange (CIX) A London-based conferencing system, also providing {electronic mail}, {FTP}, {telnet}, {IRC}, {Gopher} and {web}. Includes conferences "archimedes" or "bbc" for users of {Acorn} computers. E-mail: "". Telephone: +44 (181) 390 8446. (1994-11-08)

CompuServe Information Service "company" (CIS, CompuServe Interactive Services). An ISP and on-line service {portal} based in Columbus, Ohio, USA; part of {AOL} since February 1998. CIS was founded in 1969 as a computer {time-sharing service}. Along with {AOL} and {Prodigy}, CIS was one of the first pre-Internet, on-line services for consumers, providing {bulletin boards}, on-line conferencing, business news, sports and weather, financial transactions, {electronic mail}, {Usenet} news, travel and entertainment data and on-line editions of computer publications. CIS was originally run by {CompuServe Corporation}. In 1979, CompuServe was the first service to offer {electronic mail} and technical support to personal computer users. In 1980 they were the first to offer {real-time} {chat} with its CB Simulator. By 1982, the company had formed its Network Services Division to provide wide-area networking to corporate clients. Initially mostly serving the USA, in 1986 they developed a Japanese version called NIFTYSERVE. In 1989, they expanded into Europe and became a leading {Internet service provider}. In 2001 they released version 7.0 of their client program. {CompuServe home (}. (2009-04-02)

Compusult Ltd. A computer consulting firm (in Newfoundland, Canada?) that provides a public access {Unix}. (1994-10-20)

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility "body" (CPSR) A non-profit organisation whose mission is to provide the public and policymakers with realistic assessments of the power, promise and problems of {Information Technology} and the effects of computers on society. CPSR was founded in the USA in 1981 but has spread to many other countries. CPSR is supported by its membership. CPSR sponsors conferences such as their Annual Meeting, Directions and Implications in Advanced Computing (DIAC), the Participatory Design Conference (PDC) and the Computers, Freedom and Privacy (CFP) conference. {CPSR Home (}. (2012-11-04)

Computer Telephone Integration "communications" (CTI or "- Telephony -") Enabling computers to know about and control telephony functions such as making and receiving voice, {fax} and data calls, telephone directory services and {caller identification}. CTI is used in call centres to link incoming calls to computer software functions such as database look-up of the caller's number, supported by services such as {Automatic Number Identification} and {Dialled Number Identification Service}. Application software ({middleware}) can link {personal computers} and servers with telephones and/or a {PBX}. Telephony and {software} vendors such as {AT&T}, {British Telecom}, {IBM}, {Novell}, {Microsoft} and {Intel} have developed CTI services. The main {CTI} functions are integrating {messaging} with {databases}, {word processors} etc.; controlling voice, {fax}, and {e-mail} messaging systems from a single {application program}; graphical call control - using a {graphical user interface} to perform functions such as making and receiving calls, forwarding and conferencing; call and {data} association - provision of information about the caller from databases or other applications automatically before the call is answered or transferred; {speech synthesis} and {speech recognition}; automatic logging of call related information for invoicing purposes or callback. CTI can improve customer service, increase productivity, reduce costs and enhance workflow automation. IBM were one of the first with workable CTI, now sold as "CallPath". {Callware}'s {Phonetastic} is another {middleware} product. CTI came out of the 1980s call centre boom, where it linked central servers and {IVRs} with {PBX}es to provide call transfer and {screen popping}. In the 1990s, efforts were made by several vendors, such as IBM, Novell {TSAPI} and Microsoft {TAPI}, to provide a version for {desktop computers} that would allow control of a desktop telephone and assist in {hot desking}. See also {Telephony Application Programming Interface}. (2012-11-18)

compute server "computer, parallel" A kind of {parallel processor} where the parallel processors have no I/O except via a bus or other connection to a {front-end processor} which handles all I/O to disks, {terminals} and network. In some antiquated {IBM} {mainframes}, a second CPU was provided that could not access I/O devices, known as the slave or attached processor, while the CPU having access to all devices was known as the master processor. (1995-03-19)

Concert/C "language, parallel" A {parallel} extension of {ANSI C} with {asynchronous} {message passing}, developed at the {IBM} {TJWRC} in July 1993. Concert/C provides {primitives} to create and terminate {processes} and communicate between them. The programmer explicitly expresses parallelization and distribution. {1994 Announcement (}. (2013-05-05)

Concurrent Massey Hope "language, functional programming" An extension of {Massey Hope}, by Peter Burgess, Robert Pointon, and Nigel Perry "" of {Massey University}, NZ, that provides {multithreading} and {type}d inter-{thread} communication. It uses {C} for {intermediate code} rather than {assembly language}. (1999-08-04)

Concurrent Pascal "language" An extension of a {Pascal} subset, {Sequential Pascal}, developed by Brinch Hansen in 1972-75. Concurrent Pascal was the first language to support {monitors}. It provided access to hardware devices through monitor calls and also supported processes and {class}es. ["The Programming Language Concurrent Pascal", Per Brinch Hansen, IEEE Trans Soft Eng 1(2):199-207 (Jun 1975)]. (1994-11-30)

Concurrent Versions System "programming" (CVS) A {cross-platform} {code management system} originally based on {RCS}. CVS tracks all revisions to a file in an associated file with the same name as the original file but with the string ",v" (for version) appended to the filename. These files are stored in a (possibly centralised) repository. Changes are checked in or "committed" along with a comment (which appears in the the "commit log"). CVS has the notions of projects, {branches}, file locking and many others needed to provide a full-functioned repository. It is commonly accessed over over its own "anonCVS" {protocol} for read-only access (many {open source} projects are available by anonymous CVS) and over the {SSH} protocol by those with commit privileges ("committers"). CVS has been rewritten several times and does not depend on RCS. However, files are still largely compatible; one can easily migrate a project from RCS to CVS by copying the history files into a CVS repository. A sub-project of the {OpenBSD} project is building a complete new implementation of CVS, to be called OpenCVS. {CVS Home (}. {OpenCVS (}. (2005-01-17)

condition out "programming" A programming technique that prevents a section of {code} from being executed by putting it in an {if statement} whose condition is always false. It is often easier to do this than to {comment out} the code because you don't need to modify the code itself (as you would if commenting out each line individually) or worry about {nested comments} within the code (as you would if putting nesting comment delimiters around it). For example, in {Perl} you could write: if (0) { ...code to be ignored... } In a compiled language, the {compiler} could simply generate no code for the whole if statement. Some compiled languages such as C provide {compile-time directives} that achieve the same effect, e.g.:

condom "jargon" 1. The protective plastic bag that accompanies {3.5-inch microfloppy diskettes}. Rarely, also used of (paper) disk envelopes. Unlike the {write protect tab}, the condom (when left on) not only impedes the practice of {SEX} but has also been shown to have a high failure rate as drive mechanisms attempt to access the disk - and can even fatally frustrate insertion. 2. The protective cladding on a {light pipe}. 3. "keyboard condom": A flexible, transparent plastic cover for a keyboard, designed to provide some protection against dust and {programming fluid} without impeding typing. 4. "elephant condom": the plastic shipping bags used inside cardboard boxes to protect hardware in transit. [{Jargon File}] (1995-03-14)

cons cell "programming" /konz sel/ or /kons sel/ A {Lisp} {pair} object containing any two objects. In {Lisp}, "cons" (short for "construct") is the fundamental operation for building structures such as {lists} and other {binary trees}. The application of "cons" to objects H and T is written (cons H T) and returns a pair object known as a "cons", "cons cell" or {dotted pair}. Typically, a cons would be stored in memory as a two consecutive {pointers}. The two objects in a cons, and the functions to extract them, are called "car" and "cdr" after two 15-bit fields of the {machine code} {instruction} format of the {IBM 7090} that hosted the original LISP implementation. These fields were called the "address" and "decrement" parts so "car" stood for "Contents of Address part of Register" and "cdr" for "Contents of Decrement part of Register". In the typical case where the cons holds one node of a {list} structure, the car is the {head} of the list (first element) and the cdr is the {tail} of the list (the rest). If the list had only one element then the tail would be an empty list, represented by the cdr containing the special value "nil". To aid in working with nested structures such as lists of lists, Lisp provides functions to access the car of the car ("caar"), the car of the cdr ("cadr"), the cdr of the car ("cdar") and the cdr of the cdr ("cddr"). (2014-11-09)

Constructive Cost Model "programming" (COCOMO) A method for estimating the cost of a {software} package, proposed by Dr Barry Boehm. The Basic COCOMO Model estimates the effort required to develop software in three modes of development ({Organic Mode}, {Semidetached Mode}, or {Embedded Mode}) using only {DSIs} as an input. The Basic model is good for quick estimates. The Intermediate Model extends the Basic Model with an {Effort Adjustment Factor} (EAF) and different coefficients for the effort equation. The user supplies settings for cost drivers that determine the effort and duration of the software projects. It also allows DSI values and cost drivers to be chosen for individual components instead of for the system as a whole. The Detailed COCOMO Model uses effort multipliers for each phase of the project and provides a three-level product hierarchy and has some other capabilities such as a procedure for adjusting the phase distribution of the development schedule. ["Software Engineering Economics", B. Boehm, Prentice-Hall, 1981]. (1996-05-29)

constructive proof "mathematics" A proof that something exists that provides an example or a method for actually constructing it. For example, for any pair of finite real numbers n " 0 and p " 0, there exists a real number 0 " k " 1 such that f(k) = (1-k)*n + k*p = 0. A constructive proof would proceed by rearranging the above to derive an equation for k: k = 1/(1-n/p) From this and the constraints on n and p, we can show that 0 " k " 1. A few mathematicians actually reject *all* non-constructive arguments as invalid; this means, for instance, that the law of the {excluded middle} (either P or not-P must hold, whatever P is) has to go; this makes {proof by contradiction} invalid. See {intuitionistic logic}. Constructive proofs are popular in theoretical computer science, both because computer scientists are less given to abstraction than mathematicians and because {intuitionistic logic} turns out to be an appropriate theoretical treatment of the foundations of computer science. (2014-08-24)

constructor "programming" 1. In {object-oriented languages}, a {function} provided by a {class} to initialise a newly created {object}. The constructor function typically has the same name as the class. It may take arguments, e.g. to set various attributes of the object or it may just leave everything undefined to be set elsewhere. A class may also have a {destructor} function that is called when objects of the class are destroyed. 2. In {functional programming} and {type theory}, one of the symbols used to create an object with an {algebraic data type}. (2014-10-04)

consultant "job" A person who facilitates organisational change and/or provides subject matter expertise on technical, functional and business topics during development or implementation. Consultants perform {business requirements analysis}, recommend selection of packaged {software}, develop proposals for consulting services and manage implementation projects at client sites. They provides expert knowledge of products such as {SAP R/3}, {PeopleSoft}, {HRMS/Financials} and {SmartStream}. (2004-03-09)

container class "programming" A {class} whose {instances} are collections of other objects. Examples include {arrays}, {lists}, {queues} and {stacks}. A container class typically provides {methods} such as count, insert, delete and search. (2014-10-15)

context-sensitive menu "operating system" A {menu} which appears in response to a user action (typically a {mouse} click) and whose contents are determined by which {application window} was clicked or has the {input focus}. Most {GUIs} use a secondary mouse button (right or middle) to call up a context-sensitive menu as the {primary mouse button} is normally used to interact with objects which are already visible. The context-sensitive menu often contains functions that are also available in a {menu bar} but the context-sensitive menu provides quick access to a subset of functions that are particularly relevant to the window area clicked on. The {RISC OS} {WIMP} uses only context-sensitive menus (always invoked using the middle mouse button). This saves screen space and reduces mouse movement compared to a {menu bar}. (1999-09-22)

contract programmer "job, programming" A {programmer} who works on a fixed-length or temporary contract, and is often employed to write certain types of code or to work on a specific project. Despite the fact that contractors usually cost more than hiring a permanent employee with the same skills, it is common for organisations to employ them for extended periods, sometimes renewing their contracts for many years, due to lack of certainty about the future or simple lack of planning. A contract programmer may be independent or they may work in a supplier's {professional services} department, providing consultancy and programming services for the supplier's products. (2015-03-07)

Control Program "operating system" (CP) The component of {IBM}'s {Virtual Machine} (VM) that provides "guest support" for {operating systems} that run on IBM {mainframe} compatible processors. Cp does this by providing a seamless {emulation} of privileged functions in the problem program environment. (1999-01-19)

Coordinating Committee for Intercontinental Research Networks (CCIRN) A committee that includes the United States FNC and its counterparts in North America and Europe. Co-chaired by the executive directors of the Federal Networking Council and the European Association of Research Networks (RARE), the CCIRN provides a forum for cooperative planning among the principal North American and European research networking bodies. (1994-11-30)

core 1. "storage" {Main memory} or {RAM}. This term dates from the days of {ferrite core memory} and, like the technology, is now archaic. Some derived idioms outlived the hardware: for example, "in core" (meaning {paged in}), {core dump}, "core image", "core file". Some varieties of Commonwealth hackish prefer {store}. [{Jargon File}] (2009-11-06) 2. "processor" An {integrated circuit} design, usually for a {microprocessor}, which includes only the {CPU} and which is intended to be incorporated on a chiip with other circuits such as {cache}, {memory management unit}, I/O ports and timers. The trend in 2009 is to have multiple cores per chip. The {ARM6}, {ARM7} and {ARM8} are early examples, the {Intel} {Core i9} more recent. 3. "language" A varient on {kernel} as used to describe features built into a language as opposed to those provided by {libraries}. (2009-11-06)

Corporation for Open Systems (COS) An international consortium of computer users and vendors set up to provide ways of testing {OSI} implementations. (1994-11-30)

Corporation for Research and Educational Networking "body" (CREN) The organisation responsible for providing networking service to {BITNET} and {CSNET} users. CREN was formed in October 1989, when {BITNET} and {CSNET} were combined under one authority. {CSNET} is no longer operational, but CREN still runs {BITNET}. [Still true?] (1996-05-17)

Cosmology: A branch of philosophy which treats of the origin and structure of the universe. It is to be contrasted with ontology or metaphysics, the study of the most general features of reality, natural and supernatural, and with the philosophy of nature, which investigates the basic laws, processes and divisions of the objects in nature. It is perhaps impossible to draw or maintain a sharp distinction between these different subjects, and treatises which profess to deal with one of them usually contain considerable material on the others. Encyclopedia, section 35), are the contingency, necessity, eternity, limitations and formal laws of the world, the freedom of man and the origin of evil. Most philosophers would add to the foregoing the question of the nature and interrelationship of space and time, and would perhaps exclude the question of the nature of freedom and the origin of evil as outside the province of cosmology. The method of investigation has usually been to accept the principles of science or the results of metaphysics and develop the consequences. The test of a cosmology most often used is perhaps that of exhibiting the degree of accordance it has with respect to both empirical fact and metaphysical truth. The value of a cosmology seems to consist primarily in its capacity to provide an ultimate frame for occurrences in nature, and to offer a demonstration of where the limits of the spatio-temporal world are, and how they might be transcended.

Cosmos: (Gr. kosmos -- in order, duly; hence, good behavior, government, mode or fashion, ornament, dress (cf. cosmetic); a ruler; the world or universe as perfectly arranged and ordered; cf. providence.)

Cousin, Victor: (1792-1867) Was among those principally responsible for producing the shift in French philosophy away from sensationalism in the direction of "spiritualism"; in his own thinking, Cousin was first influenced by Locke and Condillac, and later turned to idealism under the influence of Maine de Biran and Schelling. His most characteristic philosophical insights are contained in Fragments Philosophiques (1826), in which he advocated as the basis of metaphysics a careful observation and analysis of the facts of the conscious life. He lectured at the Sorbonne from 1815 until 1820 when he was suspended for political reasons, but he was reinstated in 1827 and continued to lecture there until 1832. He exercised a great influence on his philosophical contemporaries and founded the spiritualistic or eclectic school in French Philosophy. The members of his school devoted themselves largely to historical studies for which Cousin had provided the example in his Introduction a l'Histoire General de la Philosophie, 7th ed. 1872. -- L.W.

CPL Combined Programming Language. U Cambridge and U London. A very complex language, syntactically based on ALGOL 60, with a pure functional subset. Provides the ..where.. form of local definitions. Strongly typed but has a "general" type enabling a weak form of polymorphism. Functions may be defined as either normal or applicative order. Typed array and polymorphic list structures. List selection is through structure matching. Partially implemented on the Titan (Atlas 2) computer at Cambridge. Led to the much simpler BCPL. "The Main Features of CPL", D.W. Barron et al, Computer J 6(2):134-143 (Jul 1963).

crayola /kray-oh'l*/ A {super-minicomputer} or {super-microcomputer} that provides some reasonable percentage of {supercomputer} performance for an unreasonably low price. A crayola might also be a {killer micro}. [{Jargon File}] (1994-10-13)

C-Refine A {preprocessor} for {C} and languages with similar syntax by Lutz Prechelt "". C-Refine allows symbolic naming of code fragments so as to redistribute complexity and provide running commentary. Version 3.0 is available from comp.sources.reviewed archives. It is highly portable and has been ported to {Unix}, {MS-DOS}, {Atari}, {Amiga}. {(}. (1992-07-16)

C shell "operating system" (csh) The {Unix} {command-line interpreter} {shell} and {script language} by {William Joy}, originating from {Berkeley} {Unix}. {Unix} systems up to around {Unix Version 7} only had one shell - the {Bourne shell}, sh. Csh had better {interactive} features, notably command input {history}, allowing earlier commands to be recalled and edited (though it was still not as good as the {VMS} equivalent of the time). Presumably, csh's {C}-like {syntax} was intended to endear it to programmers but sadly it lacks some {sh} features which are useful for writing {shell scripts} so you need to know two different syntaxes for every shell construct. A plethora of different shells followed csh, e.g. {tcsh}, {ksh}, {bash}, {rc}, but sh and csh are the only ones which are provided with most versions of Unix. (1998-04-04)

CSNET Computers and Science Network, operated by {CREN} for US computer science institutes. It provides {electronic mail} service via {dial-up} lines, {X.25} and {Internet} services.

Customer Relationship Management "business" (CRM, CIS, Customer Information Systems, Customer Interaction Software, TERM, Technology Enabled Relationship Manager) Enterprise-wide software applications that allow companies to manage every aspect of their relationship with a customer. The aim of these systems is to assist in building lasting customer relationships - to turn customer satisfaction into customer loyalty. Customer information acquired from sales, marketing, customer service, and support is captured and stored in a centralised {database}. The system may provide {data-mining} facilities that support an {opportunity management system}. It may also be integrated with other systems such as accounting and manufacturing for a truly enterprise-wide system with thousands of users. (1999-08-20)

cybercrime as a service "security, legal" (CaaS) A kind of {software as a service} that involves performing illegal online activities ({cybercrime}) on behalf of others for money. Cybercrime as a service represents an evolution of online crime from the sale of illegal products such as {malware} and {exploit} kits to offering everything necessary to arrange a {cyber fraud} or to conduct a {cyber attack}. As well as providing malicious code, the service provider also rents out the {infrastructure} ({servers} and {network} connections) to control the distribution and operation of the malware, e.g., bullet-proof hosting or huge {botnets}. (2015-02-22)

DANTE A company established by the national research networks in Europe to provide international network services.

dasbodh. ::: 17th century advaita vedanta spiritual text orally narrated in 1654 by Saint Samarth Ramdas &

database management system "database" (DBMS) A suite of programs which typically manage large structured sets of persistent data, offering ad hoc query facilities to many users. They are widely used in business applications. A database management system (DBMS) can be an extremely complex set of software programs that controls the organisation, storage and retrieval of data (fields, records and files) in a database. It also controls the security and integrity of the database. The DBMS accepts requests for data from the application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organisation's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system. Data security prevents unauthorised users from viewing or updating the database. Using passwords, users are allowed access to the entire database or subsets of the database, called subschemas (pronounced "sub-skeema"). For example, an employee database can contain all the data about an individual employee, but one group of users may be authorised to view only payroll data, while others are allowed access to only work history and medical data. The DBMS can maintain the integrity of the database by not allowing more than one user to update the same record at the same time. The DBMS can keep duplicate records out of the database; for example, no two customers with the same customer numbers (key fields) can be entered into the database. {Query languages} and {report writers} allow users to interactively interrogate the database and analyse its data. If the DBMS provides a way to interactively enter and update the database, as well as interrogate it, this capability allows for managing personal databases. However, it may not leave an audit trail of actions or provide the kinds of controls necessary in a multi-user organisation. These controls are only available when a set of application programs are customised for each data entry and updating function. A business information system is made up of subjects (customers, employees, vendors, etc.) and activities (orders, payments, purchases, etc.). Database design is the process of deciding how to organize this data into record types and how the record types will relate to each other. The DBMS should mirror the organisation's data structure and process transactions efficiently. Organisations may use one kind of DBMS for daily transaction processing and then move the detail onto another computer that uses another DBMS better suited for random inquiries and analysis. Overall systems design decisions are performed by data administrators and systems analysts. Detailed database design is performed by database administrators. The three most common organisations are the {hierarchical database}, {network database} and {relational database}. A database management system may provide one, two or all three methods. Inverted lists and other methods are also used. The most suitable structure depends on the application and on the transaction rate and the number of inquiries that will be made. Database machines are specially designed computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Connected to one or more mainframes via a high-speed channel, database machines are used in large volume transaction processing environments. Database machines have a large number of DBMS functions built into the hardware and also provide special techniques for accessing the disks containing the databases, such as using multiple processors concurrently for high-speed searches. The world of information is made up of data, text, pictures and voice. Many DBMSs manage text as well as data, but very few manage both with equal proficiency. Throughout the 1990s, as storage capacities continue to increase, DBMSs will begin to integrate all forms of information. Eventually, it will be common for a database to handle data, text, graphics, voice and video with the same ease as today's systems handle data. See also: {intelligent database}. (1998-10-07)

Data Encryption Standard (DES) The {NBS}'s popular, standard {encryption} algorithm. It is a {product cipher} that operates on 64-bit blocks of data, using a 56-bit key. It is defined in {FIPS} 46-1 (1988) (which supersedes FIPS 46 (1977)). DES is identical to the {ANSI} standard {Data Encryption Algorithm} (DEA) defined in ANSI X3.92-1981. DES has been implemented in {VLSI}. {SunOS} provides a des command which can make use of DES hardware if fitted. Neither the software nor the hardware are supposed to be distributed outside the USA. {Unix manual pages}: des(1), des(3), des(4). (1994-12-06)

data hierarchy The system of data objects which provide the {methods} for {information} storage and retrieval. Broadly, a data hierarchy may be considered to be either natural, which arises from the alphabet or syntax of the language in which the information is expressed, or machine, which reflects the facilities of the computer, both hardware and software. A natural data hierarchy might consist of {bits}, {characters}, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, and chapters. One might use components bound to an application, such as field, record, and file, and these would ordinarily be further specified by having {data descriptors} such as name field, address field, etc. On the other hand, a machine or software system might use {bit}, {byte}, {word}, {block}, {partition}, {channel}, and {port}. Programming languages often provide {types} or {objects} which can create data hierarchies of arbitrary complexity, thus allowing software system designers to model language structures described by the linguist to greater or lesser degree. The distinction between the natural form of data and the facilities provided by the machine may be obscure, because users force their needs into the molds provided, and programmers change machine designs. As an example, the natural data type "character" and the machine type "byte" are often used interchangeably, because the latter has evolved to meet the need of representing the former. (1995-11-03)

data link layer "networking" Layer two, the second lowest layer in the {OSI} seven layer model. The data link layer splits data into {frames} (see {fragmentation}) for sending on the {physical layer} and receives acknowledgement frames. It performs error checking and re-transmits frames not received correctly. It provides an error-free virtual channel to the {network layer}. The data link layer is split into an upper sublayer, {Logical Link Control} (LLC), and a lower sublayer, {Media Access Control} (MAC). Example {protocols} at this layer are {ABP}, {Go Back N}, {SRP}. (1995-02-14)

Data Link Provider Interface "networking" (DLPI) The interface that a {network driver} presents to the (higher level) {logical link layer} for driving the network at the {datagram} level in a {Unix} {STREAMS} environment and possibly elsewhere. DLPI corresponds to {ISO 8802}/2 ({LLC}) which covers both {connection-oriented} and {connectionless} {protocols}. [Is this correct? Better explanation?] (1996-01-29)

data service unit "communications" (DSU or "data service unit") A device used in digital transmission for connecting a CSU (Channel Service Unit) to {Data Terminal Equipment} (a terminal or computer), in the same way that a {modem} is used for connection to an analogue medium. A DSU provides a standard interface to a user's terminal which is compatible with {modems} and handles such functions as signal translation, regeneration, reformatting, and timing. The transmitting portion of the DSU processeses the customers' signal into bipolar pulses suitable for transmission over the digital facility. The receiving portion of the DSU is used both to extract timing information and to regenerate mark and space information from the received {bipolar} signal. (1995-01-30)

data set organization "operating system, storage" (DSORG) An {IBM} term for {file} structure. These include PS {physical sequential}, DA {direct access}, IS {indexed sequential}, PO {partitioned} (a library). This system dates from {OS/360}, and breaks down beginning with {VSAM} and {VTAM}, where it is no longer applied. Sequential and indexed data sets can be accessed using either a "basic" or a "queued" "access method." For example a DSORG=PS file can use either BSAM (basic sequential access method) or QSAM (queued sequential access method). It can also be processed as a {direct file} using BDAM. Likewise a library can be processed using BPAM (basic partitioned access method), BSAM, QSAM, or BDAM. DSORG and access method are somewhat, but not completely, orthogonal. The "basic" access method deals with {physical blocks} rather than {records}, and usually provides more control over the specific {device}. Each I/O operation using the "basic" access method reads or writes a single block. A "basic" read or write starts an {asynchronous} I/O operation, and the programmer is responsible for waiting for completion and checking for errors. The "queued" access method deals with {logical records} and provides blocking and deblocking services. It is "queued" because it provides {read-ahead} and {write-behind} services. While a program is processing records in one input block, for example, QSAM may be reading one or more blocks ahead. Queued "get" or "put" operations are synchronous as far as the programmer is concerned. The operation is complete when the next logical record has been successfully processed. EXCP ({Execute Channel Program}) is a lower-level method of accessing data. IBM manuals usually named "Data Administration Guide", e.g. SC26-4505-1 for MVS/ESA DFP 3.1, provide more detail about data set organizations and access methods. (2005-08-08)

daughterboard "hardware" (Or "daughter board", "daughtercard", "daughter card") A {printed circuit board} that connects to the {motherboard}. The daughterboard is typically smaller than the motherboard. A daughterdboard often adds to or supports the main functions of the {motherboard}, unlike an {expansion card} which provides some new function. For example, a post-release hardware modification might be released as a daughterboard for soldering onto the {motherboard}. (2004-09-28)

DB2 catalog "database" An {IBM} {DB2} {system table} listing all objects in a database installation including hosts, servers, databases, tables and many more. Commands are provided to manage the catalog, e.g. db2 catalog database mydatabase on /databases/mydatabase to add a database reference. {Catalog documentation (}. (2014-08-16)

DC "language, tool" The {Unix} {arbitrary precision} {postfix} calculator and its language. Here is an example program which prints out {factorials}: echo "[la1+dsa*pla2220"y]sy0sa1lyx" | dc {Unix manual page}: dc(1). {bc} provides a somewhat more readable syntax which is compiled into dc. There is also a {GNU DC}. (1995-03-17)

decision support database A {database} from which data is extracted and analysed statistically (but not modified) in order to inform business or other decisions. This is in contrast to an {operational database} which is being continuously updated. For example, a decision support database might provide data to determine the average salary of different types of workers, whereas an operational database containing the same data would be used to calculate pay check amounts. Often, decision support data is extracted from operation databases. (1995-02-14)

dedicated line "communications" A telephone line leased expressly for the purpose of connecting two users more-or-less permenantly.. Such lines may be "voice grade" which provides the {bandwidth} and {signal to noise ratio} of ordinary {public switched telephone network} circuits, or specified in ways which allow transport of suitably encoded digital signals at faster rates. In some cases, lines may be physical wires between the communicating parties. Over longer distances, it is common for the connection to be virtual, which means that although the two users can communicate only with each other, their signals and others are multiplexed, amplified, switched, scrambled, demultiplexed and so on in complex ways between the end points. This contrasts with a {dial-up} connection which is only opened when one end requires it. (1996-08-10)

Defense Data Network Network Information Center (DDN NIC or just "The NIC") The {DDN} {NIC}'s primary responsibility is the assignment of {Internet address}es and {Autonomous System numbers}, the administration of the root domain, and providing information and support services to the {DDN}. It is also a primary repository for {RFCs}. See also {Internet Registry}. (1994-12-07)

Definition: In the development of a logistic system (q. v.) it is usually desirable to introduce new notations, beyond what is afforded by the primitive symbols alone, by means of syntactical definitions or nominal definitions, i.e., conventions which provide that certain symbols or expressions shall stand (as substitutes or abbreviations) for particular formulas of the system. This may be done either by particular definitions, each introducing a symbol or expression to stand for some one formula, or by schemata of definition, providing that any expression of a certain form shall stand for a certain corresponding formula (so condensing many -- often infinitely many -- particular definitions into a single schema). Such definitions, whether particular definitions or schemata, are indicated, in articles herein by the present writer, by an arrow →, the new notation introduced (the definiendum) being placed at the left, or base of the arrow, and the formula for which it shall stand (the definiens) being placed at the right, or head, of the arrow. Another sign commonly employed for the same purpose (instead of the arrow) is the equality sign = with the letters Df, or df, appearing either as a subscript or separately after the definiens.

defray ::: v. t. --> To pay or discharge; to serve in payment of; to provide for, as a charge, debt, expenses, costs, etc.
To avert or appease, as by paying off; to satisfy; as, to defray wrath.

Delphi 1. "company, communications" A US {Internet service provider}. [Addresses?] (1995-04-06) 2. "language" {Borland}'s {Object Oriented Pascal} (OOPascal) {Rapid Application Development} package for {Microsoft Windows}. Delphi combines visual, component-based design with an optimising {native code compiler} and scalable database access. (1996-05-27)

Demon Internet Ltd. "company" One of the first company to provide public {Internet} access in the UK. The staff of Demon Systems Ltd., an established software house, started Demon Internet on 1992-06-01 and it was the first system in the United Kingdom to offer low cost full {Internet} access. It was started with the support of about 100 founder members who discussed the idea on {Compulink Information Exchange}, and were brave enough to pay a year's subscription in advance. They aimed to have 200 members in the first year to cover costs, ignoring any time spent. After about two weeks they realised they needed nearer 400. By November 1993 they had over 2000 subscribers and by August 1994 they had about 11000 with 20% per month growth. All revenues have been reinvested in resources and expansion of service. Demon link to {Sprintlink} in the United States making them totally independent. They peer with {EUNet} and {PIPEX} to ensure good connectivity in Great Britain as well as having links to the {JANET}/{JIPS} UK academic network. A direct line into the {Department of Computing, Imperial College, London (} from their Central London {Point of Presence} (PoP) ( gives access to the biggest {FTP} and {Archie} site in Europe. Demon provide local call access to a large proportion of the UK. The central London {PoP} provides {leased line} connections at a cheaper rate for those customers in the central 0171 area. Further lines and {PoPs} are being added continuously. Subscribers get allocated an {Internet Address} and can choose a {hostname} within the {domain}. They can have any number of e-mail address at that host. In October 1994 Demon confirmed a large contract with the major telecommunications provider {Energis}. They will supply guaranteed bandwidth to Demon's 10Mb/s {backbone} from several cities and towns. Several {PoPs} will be phased out and replaced with others during 1995. E-mail: "". {(}. {(}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:demon.announce}. Telephone: +44 (181) 349 0063. Address: Demon Internet Ltd., 42 Hendon Lane, Finchley, London N3 1TT, UK. (1994-11-08)

dependence ::: n. --> The act or state of depending; state of being dependent; a hanging down or from; suspension from a support.
The state of being influenced and determined by something; subjection (as of an effect to its cause).
Mutu/// /onnection and support; concatenation; systematic ///er relation.
Subjection to the direction or disposal of another; inability to help or provide for one&

depot ::: n. --> A place of deposit for the storing of goods; a warehouse; a storehouse.
A military station where stores and provisions are kept, or where recruits are assembled and drilled.
The headquarters of a regiment, where all supplies are received and distributed, recruits are assembled and instructed, infirm or disabled soldiers are taken care of, and all the wants of the regiment are provided for.

Desktop Management Interface "standard, operating system" (DMI) A {specification} from the {Desktop Management Task Force} (DMTF) that establishes a standard {framework} for managing networked computers. DMI covers {hardware} and {software}, {desktop} systems and {servers}, and defines a model for filtering events and describing {interfaces}. DMI provides a common path for technical support, IT managers, and individual users to access information about all aspects of a computer - including {processor} type, installation date, attached {printers} and other {peripherals}, power sources, and maintenance history. It provides a common format for describing products to aid vendors, systems integrators, and end users in enterprise desktop management. DMI is not tied to any specific hardware, operating system, or management protocols. It is easy for vendors to adopt, mappable to existing management protocols such as {Simple Network Management Protocol} (SNMP), and can be used on non-network computers. DMI's four components are: Management Information Format (MIF) - a text file containing information about the hardware and software on a computer. Manufacturers can create their own MIFs specific to a component. Service layer - an OS add-on that connects the management interface and the component interface and allows management and component software to access MIF files. The service layer also includes a common interface called the local agent, which is used to manage individual components. Component interface (CI) - an {application program interface} (API) that sends status information to the appropriate MIF file via the service layer. Commands include Get, Set, and Event. Management interface (MI) - the management software's interface to the service layer. Commands are Get, Set, and List. CI, MI, and service layer drivers are available on the Internet. {Intel}'s {LANDesk Client Manager} (LDCM) is based on DMI. Version: 2.0s (as of 2000-01-19). {(}. {Sun overview (}. (2000-01-19)

desktop publishing "text, application" (DTP) Using computers to lay out text and graphics for printing in magazines, newsletters, brochures, etc. A good DTP system provides precise control over templates, styles, fonts, sizes, colour, paragraph formatting, images and fitting text into irregular shapes. Example programs include {FrameMaker}, {PageMaker}, {InDesign} and {GeoPublish}. {(}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.text.desktop}. (2005-03-14)

destructor "programming" A {function} provided by a {class} in {C++} and some other {object-oriented languages} to delete an object, the inverse of a {constructor}. (1998-04-28)

Deus ex machina: Literally, the god from the machine; an allusion to the device whereby in ancient drama a god was brought on the stage, sometimes to provide a supernatural solution to a dramatic difficulty, hence any person, thing, or concept artificially introduced to solve a difficulty. -- G.R.M.

digest A periodical collection of messages which have been posted to a {newsgroup} or {mailing list}. A digest is prepared by a {moderator} who selects articles from the group or list, formats them and adds a contents list. The digest is then either mailed to an alternative {mailing list} or posted to an alternative newsgroup. Some {news readers} and {electronic mail} programs provide commands to "undigestify" a digest, i.e. to split it up into individual articles which may then be read and saved or discarded separately.

digital certificate "communications, security" An {attachment} to an {electronic mail} message used for security purposes, e.g. to verify that a user sending a message is who he or she claims to be, and to provide the receiver with the means to encode a reply. An individual wishing to send an encrypted message applies for a digital certificate from a {certificate authority} (CA). The CA issues an encrypted digital certificate containing the applicant's {public key} and a variety of other identification information. The CA makes its own public key readily available on the {Internet}. The recipient of an encrypted message uses the CA's public key to decode the digital certificate attached to the message, verifies it as issued by the CA and then obtains the sender's public key and identification information held within the certificate. (2006-05-27)

Digital Equipment Computer Users Society "body" (DECUS) A world-wide organisation of {Information Technology} professionals interested in the products, services, and technologies of {Digital Equipment Corporation} and related vendors. Membership in the US chapter is free and provides participants with the means to enhance their professional development, forums for technical training, mechanisms for obtaining up-to-date information, advocacy programs and opportunities for informal disclosure and interaction with professional colleagues of like interest. {DECUS Home (}. (2014-08-26)

Digital Express Group, Inc. (Digex) The largest {Internet provider} in the Washington metropolitan area with {POPs} in Maryland, Virginia, New Jersey, New York and California. {(}. (1994-10-25)

Digital Library Initiative A project to research digital libraries which aims to provide real collections to real users (high school students, University researchers and students, users in public libraries). The project is sponsored jointly by three US federal funding agencies, led by the National Science Foundation. The {University of Michigan}, one of the six sites selected in 1994 to collaborate, will provide collections on earth and space sciences. The project, known there as the University of Michigan Digital Library Project (UMDL), is a large, multi-year project headed by Daniel Atkins, Dean of the School of Information and Library Studies. {UMDL (}. (1995-02-23)

Digital Subscriber Line "communications, protocol" (DSL, or Digital Subscriber Loop, xDSL - see below) A family of {digital} {telecommunications} {protocols} designed to allow high speed data communication over the existing {copper} telephone lines between end-users and telephone companies. When two conventional {modems} are connected through the telephone system ({PSTN}), it treats the communication the same as voice conversations. This has the advantage that there is no investment required from the telephone company (telco) but the disadvantage is that the {bandwidth} available for the communication is the same as that available for voice conversations, usually 64 kb/s ({DS0}) at most. The {twisted-pair} copper cables into individual homes or offices can usually carry significantly more than 64 kb/s but the telco needs to handle the signal as digital rather than analog. There are many implementation of the basic scheme, differing in the communication {protocol} used and providing varying {service levels}. The {throughput} of the communication can be anything from about 128 kb/s to over 8 Mb/s, the communication can be either symmetric or asymmetric (i.e. the available bandwidth may or may not be the same {upstream} and {downstream}). Equipment prices and service fees also vary considerably. The first technology based on DSL was {ISDN}, although ISDN is not often recognised as such nowadays. Since then a large number of other protocols have been developed, collectively referred to as xDSL, including {HDSL}, {SDSL}, {ADSL}, and {VDSL}. As yet none of these have reached very wide deployment but wider deployment is expected for 1998-1999. {(}. {2Wire DSL provider lookup (}. ["Data Cooks, But Will Vendors Get Burned?", "Supercomm Spotlight On ADSL" & "Lucent Sells Paradine", Wilson & Carol, Inter@ctive Week Vol. 3

directional coupler "communications" (tap) A {passive} device used in {cable} systems to divide and combine {radio frequency} signals. A directional coupler has at least three ports: line in, line out, and the tap. The signal passes between line in and line out ports with loss referred to as the {insertion loss}. A small portion of the signal power applied to the line in port passes to the tap port. A signal applied to the tap port is passed to the line in port less the tap attenuation value. The tap signals are isolated from the line out port to prevent reflections. A signal applied to the line out port passes to the line in port and is isolated from the tap port. Some devices provide more than one tap output line (multi-taps). (1995-12-23)

disprovide ::: v. t. --> Not to provide; to fail to provide.

Divine providence is admitted by all Jewish philosophers, but its extent is a matter of dispute. The conservative thinkers, though admitting the stability of the natural order and even seeing in that order a medium of God's providence, allow greater latitude to the interference of God in the regulation of human events, or even in disturbing the natural order on occasion. In other words, they admit a frequency of miracles. The more liberal, though they do not deny the occurrence of miracles, attempt to limit it, and often rationalize the numerous miraculous events related in the Bible and bring them within the sphere of the rational order. Typical and representative is Maimonides' view of Providence. He limits its extent in the sublunar world to the human genus only on account of its possession of mind. As a result he posits a graded Providence, namely, that the one who is more intellectually perfect receives more attention or special Providence. This theory is also espoused, with certain modifications, by Ibn Daud and Gersonides. Divine providence does by no means impair human freedom, for it is rarely direct, but is exerted through a number of mediate causes, and human choice is one of the causes.

drawbar ::: n. --> An openmouthed bar at the end of a car, which receives a coupling link and pin by which the car is drawn. It is usually provided with a spring to give elasticity to the connection between the cars of a train.
A bar of iron with an eye at each end, or a heavy link, for coupling a locomotive to a tender or car.

edged ::: 1. Having or provided with an edge or border. ::: 2. Having a cutting edge or especially an edge or edges as specified (often used in combination). 3. keen-edged. Sharpness with reference to the mind.

egoism ::: n. --> The doctrine of certain extreme adherents or disciples of Descartes and Johann Gottlieb Fichte, which finds all the elements of knowledge in the ego and the relations which it implies or provides for.
Excessive love and thought of self; the habit of regarding one&

Elements ::: The elementary state of material Force is, in the view of the old Indian physicists, a condition of pure material extension in Space of which the peculiar property is vibration typified to us by the phenomenon of sound. But vibration in this state of ether is not sufficient to create forms. There must first be some obstruction in the flow of the Force ocean, some contraction and expansion, some interplay of vibrations, some impinging of force upon force so as to create a beginning of fixed relations and mutual effects. Material Force modifying its first ethereal status assumes a second, called in the old language the aerial, of which the special property is contact between force and force, contact that is the basis of all material relations. Still we have not as yet real forms but only varying forces. A sustaining principle is needed. This is provided by a third self-modification of the primitive Force of which the principle of light, electricity, fire and heat is for us the characteristic manifestation. Even then, we can have forms of force preserving their own character and peculiar action, but not stable forms of Matter. A fourth state characterised by diffusion and a first medium of permanent attractions and repulsions, termed picturesquely water or the liquid state, and a fifth of cohesion, termed earth or the solid state, complete the necessary elements.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 21-22, Page: 87-88

entry ::: 1. The act or an instance of entering. 2.* Something that provides access to get in or get out. Also fig. *3. Permission or right to enter; access. entry"s, entries.

equipped ::: furnished or provided with whatever is needed or for any undertaking; prepared.

equip ::: v. t. --> To furnish for service, or against a need or exigency; to fit out; to supply with whatever is necessary to efficient action in any way; to provide with arms or an armament, stores, munitions, rigging, etc.; -- said esp. of ships and of troops.
To dress up; to array; accouter.

EVIL. ::: In God's providence there is no evil, but only good or its preparation.

execute ::: v. t. --> To follow out or through to the end; to carry out into complete effect; to complete; to finish; to effect; to perform.
To complete, as a legal instrument; to perform what is required to give validity to, as by signing and perhaps sealing and delivering; as, to execute a deed, lease, mortgage, will, etc.
To give effect to; to do what is provided or required by; to perform the requirements or stimulations of; as, to execute a decree, judgment, writ, or process.

Experimentalism: Since Dewey holds that "experimentation enters into the determination of every warranted proposition" (Logic, p. 461), he tends to view the process of inquiry as experimentation. Causal propositions, for example, become prospective, heuristic, teleological; not retrospective, revelatory or ontological. Laws are predictions of future occurrences provided certain operations are carried out. Experimentalism, however, is sometimes interpreted in the wider Baconian sense as an admonition to submit ideas to tests, whatever these may be. If this is done, pseudo-problems (such as common epistemological questions) either evaporate or are quickly resolved.

fail ::: v. i. --> To be wanting; to fall short; to be or become deficient in any measure or degree up to total absence; to cease to be furnished in the usual or expected manner, or to be altogether cut off from supply; to be lacking; as, streams fail; crops fail.
To be affected with want; to come short; to lack; to be deficient or unprovided; -- used with of.
To fall away; to become diminished; to decline; to decay; to sink.

fallopian ::: a. --> Pertaining to, or discovered by, Fallopius; as, the Fallopian tubes or oviducts, the ducts or canals which conduct the ova from the ovaries to the uterus.

Ficino, Marsilio: Of Florence (1433-99). Was the main representative of Platonism in Renaissance Italy. His doctrine combines NeoPlatonic metaphysics and Augustinian theologv with many new, original ideas. His major work, the Theologia Ptatonica (1482) presents a hierarchical system of the universe (God, Angelic Mind, Soul, Quality, Body) and a great number of arguments for the immortality of the soul. Man is considered as the center of the universe, and human life is interpreted as an internal ascent of the soul towards God. Through the Florentine Academy Ficino's Platonism exercised a large influence upon his contemporaries. His theory of "Platonic love" had vast repercussions in Italian, French and English literature throughout the sixteenth century. His excellent Latin translations of Plato (1484), Plotinus (1492), and other Greek philosophers provided the occidental world with new materials of the greatest importance and were widely used up to the beginning of the nineteenth century. -- P.O.K.

finding ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Find ::: n. --> That which is found, come upon, or provided; esp. (pl.), that which a journeyman artisan finds or provides for himself; as tools, trimmings, etc.
Support; maintenance; that which is provided for one;

F. Logos: (Gr. logos) A term denoting either reason or one of the expressions of reason or order in words or things; such as word, discourse, definition, formula, principle, mathematical ratio. In its most important sense in philosophy it refers to a cosmic reason which gives order and intelligibility to the world. In this sense the doctrine first appears in Heraclitus, who affirms the reality of a Logos analogous to the reason in man that regulates all physical processes and is the source of all human law. The conception is developed more fully by the Stoics, who conceive of the world as a living unity, perfect in the adaptation of its parts to one another and to the whole, and animated by an immanent and purposive reason. As the creative source of this cosmic unity and perfection the world-reason is called the seminal reason (logos spermatikos), and is conceived as containing within itself a multitude of logoi spermatikoi, or intelligible and purposive forms operating in the world. As regulating all things, the Logos is identified with Fate (heimarmene); as directing all things toward the good, with Providence (pronoia); and as the ordered course of events, with Nature (physis). In Philo of Alexandria, in whom Hebrew modes of thought mingle with Greek concepts, the Logos becomes the immaterial instrument, and even at times the personal agency, through which the creative activity of the transcendent God is exerted upon the world. In Christian philosophy the Logos becomes the second person of the Trinity and its functions are identified with the creative, illuminating and redemptive work of Jesus Christ. Finally the Logos plays an important role in the system of Plotinus, where it appears as the creative and form-giving aspect of Intelligence (Nous), the second of the three Hypostases. -- G. R.

foothold ::: a place providing support for the foot in climbing or standing. Also fig.

forecast ::: v. t. --> To plan beforehand; to scheme; to project.
To foresee; to calculate beforehand, so as to provide for. ::: v. i. --> To contrive or plan beforehand.

foregoer ::: n. --> One who goes before another; a predecessor; hence, an ancestor&

foreseen ::: p. p. --> Provided; in case that; on condition that.

foresee ::: v. t. --> To see beforehand; to have prescience of; to foreknow.
To provide. ::: v. i. --> To have or exercise foresight.

foresighted ::: a. --> Sagacious; prudent; provident for the future.

foresight ::: n. --> The act or the power of foreseeing; prescience; foreknowledge.
Action in reference to the future; provident care; prudence; wise forethought.
Any sight or reading of the leveling staff, except the backsight; any sight or bearing taken by a compass or theodolite in a forward direction.
Muzzle sight. See Fore sight, under Fore, a.

forethought ::: a. --> Thought of, or planned, beforehand; aforethought; prepense; hence, deliberate. ::: n. --> A thinking or planning beforehand; prescience; premeditation; forecast; provident care.

"For it is only the few who can make the past Teacher and his teaching, the past Incarnation and his example and influence a living force in their lives. For this need also the Hindu discipline provides in the relation of the Guru and the disciple. The Guru may sometimes be the Incarnation or World-Teacher; but it is sufficient that he should represent to the disciple the divine wisdom, convey to him something of the divine ideal or make him feel the realised relation of the human soul with the Eternal.” The Synthesis of Yoga*

“For it is only the few who can make the past Teacher and his teaching, the past Incarnation and his example and influence a living force in their lives. For this need also the Hindu discipline provides in the relation of the Guru and the disciple. The Guru may sometimes be the Incarnation or World-Teacher; but it is sufficient that he should represent to the disciple the divine wisdom, convey to him something of the divine ideal or make him feel the realised relation of the human soul with the Eternal.” The Synthesis of Yoga

Frege, (Friedrich Ludwig) Gottlob, 1848-1925, German mathematician and logician. Professor of mathematics at the University of Jena, 1879-1918. Largely unknown to, or misunderstood by, his contemporaries, he is now regarded by many as "beyond question the greatest logician of the Nineteenth Century" (quotation from Tarski). He must be regarded -- after Boole (q. v.) -- as the second founder of symbolic logic, the essential steps in the passage from the algebra of logic to the logistic method (see the article Logistic system) having been taken in his Begriffsschrift of 1879. In this work there appear tor the first time the propositional calculus in substantially its modern form, the notion of propositional function, the use of quantifiers, the explicit statement of primitive rules of inference, the notion of an hereditary property and the logical analysis of proof by mathematical induction or recursion (q. v.). This last is perhaps the most important element in the definition of an inductive cardinal number (q.v.) and provided the basis for Frege's derivation of arithmetic from logic in his Grundlagen der Anthmetik (1884) and Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, vol. 1 (1893), and vol. 2 (1903). The first volume of Grundgesetze der Arithmetik is the culmination of Frege's work, and we find here many important further ideas. In particular, there is a careful distinction between using a formula to express something else and naming a formula in order to make a syntactical statement about it, quotation marks being used in order to distinguish the name of a formula from the formula itself. In an appendix to the second volume of Grundgesetze , Frege acknowledges the presence of an inconsistency in his system through what is now known as the Russel paradox (see Paradoxes , logical), as had been called to his attention by Russell when the book was nearly through the press. -- A.C.

frogged ::: a. --> Provided or ornamented with frogs; as, a frogged coat. See Frog, n., 4.

full ::: Compar. --> Filled up, having within its limits all that it can contain; supplied; not empty or vacant; -- said primarily of hollow vessels, and hence of anything else; as, a cup full of water; a house full of people.
Abundantly furnished or provided; sufficient in. quantity, quality, or degree; copious; plenteous; ample; adequate; as, a full meal; a full supply; a full voice; a full compensation; a house full of furniture.

Function: In mathematics and logic, an n-adic function is a law of correspondence between an ordered set of n things (called arguments of the function, or values of the independent variables) and another thing (the value of the function, or value of the dependent variable), of such a sort that, given any ordered set of n arguments which belongs to a certain domain (the range of the function), the value of the function is uniquely determined. The value ot the function is spoken of as obtained by applying the function to the arguments. The domain of all possible values of the function is called the range of the dependent variable. If F denotes a function and X1, X2, . . . , Xn denote the first argument, second argument, etc., respectively, the notation F(X1, X2, . . . , Xn) is used to denote the corresponding value of the function; or the notation may be [F](X1, X2 . . . , Xn), to provide against ambiguities which might otherwisc arise if F were a long expression rather than a single letter.

funding ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Fund ::: a. --> Providing a fund for the payment of the interest or principal of a debt.
Investing in the public funds.

furnish ::: v. t. --> To supply with anything necessary, useful, or appropriate; to provide; to equip; to fit out, or fit up; to adorn; as, to furnish a family with provisions; to furnish one with arms for defense; to furnish a Cable; to furnish the mind with ideas; to furnish one with knowledge or principles; to furnish an expedition or enterprise, a room or a house.
To offer for use; to provide (something); to give (something); to afford; as, to furnish food to the hungry: to furnish

fusee ::: n. --> A flintlock gun. See 2d Fusil.
A fuse. See Fuse, n.
A kind of match for lighting a pipe or cigar.
A small packet of explosive material with wire appendages allowing it to be conveniently attached to a railroad track. It will explode with a loud report when run over by a train, and is used to provide a warning signal to the engineer.
The track of a buck.

geissler tube ::: --> A glass tube provided with platinum electrodes, and containing some gas under very low tension, which becomes luminous when an electrical discharge is passed through it; -- so called from the name of a noted maker in germany. It is called also Plucker tube, from the German physicist who devised it.

Generic Image: (Lat. genus, kind) A mental image which is sufficiently vague and indeterminate to represent a number of different members of a class and thus to provide the imaginal basis of a concept. A generic image is thus intermediate between a concrete image and a generic concept. The vagueness of the generic image contrasts with the specificity of the concrete image, yet the generic image lacks the fullness of meaning requisite to a genuine concept. The doctrine of the generic image was introduced by Francis Galton who drew the analogy with composite photography (Inquiries into Human Faculty, 1883 appendix on Generic Images) and is adopted by Huxley (Hume, Ch. IV). The existence of non-specific or generic images would be challenged by most contemporary psychologists. -- L.W.

gird ::: 1. To encircle; surround. 2. To provide, equip, or invest, as with power or strength. girt.

girdler ::: n. --> One who girdles.
A maker of girdles.
An American longicorn beetle (Oncideres cingulatus) which lays its eggs in the twigs of the hickory, and then girdles each branch by gnawing a groove around it, thus killing it to provide suitable food for the larvae.

Greece. Homeric thought centered in Moira (Fate), an impersonal, immaterial power that distributes to gods and men their respective stations. While the main stream of pre-Socratic thought was naturalistic, it was not materialistic. The primordial Being of things, the Physis, is both extended and spiritual (hylozoism). Soul and Mind are invariably identified with Physis. Empedocles' distinction between inertia and force (Love and Hate) was followed by Anaxagoras' introduction of Mind (Nous) as the first cause of order and the principle of spontaneity or life in things. Socrates emphasized the ideological principle and introduced the category of Value as primary both in Nature and Man. He challenged the completeness of the mechanical explanation of natural events. Plato's theory of Ideas (as traditionally interpreted by historians) is at once a metaphysics, epistemology, and axiology. Ideas, forming a hierarchy and systematically united in the Good, are timeless essences comprising the realm of true Being. They are archetypes and causes of things in the realm of Non-Being (Space). Aristotle, while moving in the direction of common-sense realism, was also idealistic. Forms or species are secondary substances, and collectively form the dynamic and rational structure of the World. Active reason (Nous Poietikos), possessed by all rational creatures, is immaterial and eternal. Mind is the final cause of all motion. God is pure Mind, self-contained, self-centered, and metaphysically remote from the spatial World. The Stoics united idealism and hylozoistic naturalism in their doctrine of dynamic rational cosmic law (Logos), World Soul, Pneuma, and Providence (Pronoia).

guarantor ::: one who provides a warrant or guarantee to another.

guide ::: n. 1. One who goes with or before for the purpose of leading the way: said of persons, of God, Providence, and of impersonal agents, such as stars, light, etc. 2. One who shows the way by leading, directing, or advising. Also fig. 3. One who serves as a model for others, as in a course of conduct. Guide, guides. v. 4. To assist one to travel through, or reach a destination in, an unfamiliar area, as by accompanying or giving directions. 5. To direct the course of; steer. 6.* Fig. To lead the way for (a person). guides, guided, guiding. **adj. *guideless.**

gymnasiarch ::: n. --> An Athenian officer who superintended the gymnasia, and provided the oil and other necessaries at his own expense.

harbinger ::: n. --> One who provides lodgings; especially, the officer of the English royal household who formerly preceded the court when traveling, to provide and prepare lodgings.
A forerunner; a precursor; a messenger. ::: v. t. --> To usher in; to be a harbinger of.

harpsichord ::: n. --> A harp-shaped instrument of music set horizontally on legs, like the grand piano, with strings of wire, played by the fingers, by means of keys provided with quills, instead of hammers, for striking the strings. It is now superseded by the piano.

Hauber's law: Given a set of conditional sentences A1 ⊃ B1, A2 ⊃ B2, . . . , An ⊃ Bn, we may infer each of the conditional sentences B1 ⊃ A1, B2 ⊃ A2, . . . , Bn ⊃ An, provided we know that A1, A2, . . . , An are exhaustive and B1, B2, . . . , Bn are mutually exclusive -- i.e., provided we have also A1 ∨ A2 ∨ . . . ∨ An and ∼[B1B2], ∼[B1B3], . . . , ∼[Bn-1Bn]. This form (or set of forms) of valid inference of the propositional calculus is Hauber's law. -- A.C.

haustellate ::: a. --> Provided with a haustellum, or sucking proboscis. ::: n. --> One of the Haustellata.

hooked ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Hook ::: a. --> Having the form of a hook; curvated; as, the hooked bill of a bird.
Provided with a hook or hooks.

hypothecation ::: n. --> The act or contract by which property is hypothecated; a right which a creditor has in or to the property of his debtor, in virtue of which he may cause it to be sold and the price appropriated in payment of his debt. This is a right in the thing, or jus in re.
A contract whereby, in consideration of money advanced for the necessities of the ship, the vessel, freight, or cargo is made liable for its repayment, provided the ship arrives in safety.

implement ::: n. --> That which fulfills or supplies a want or use; esp., an instrument, toll, or utensil, as supplying a requisite to an end; as, the implements of trade, of husbandry, or of war. ::: v. t. --> To accomplish; to fulfill.
To provide with an implement or implements; to cause

implicitly ::: adv. --> In an implicit manner; without reserve; with unreserved confidence.
By implication; impliedly; as, to deny the providence of God is implicitly to deny his existence.

improvided ::: a. --> Unforeseen; unexpected; not provided against; unprepared.

improvidence ::: n. --> The quality of being improvident; want of foresight or thrift.

improvident ::: a. --> Not provident; wanting foresight or forethought; not foreseeing or providing for the future; negligent; thoughtless; as, an improvident man.

improvidentially ::: adv. --> Improvidently.

improvidently ::: adv. --> In a improvident manner.

improvise ::: v. t. --> To compose, recite, or sing extemporaneously, especially in verse; to extemporize; also, to play upon an instrument, or to act, extemporaneously.
To bring about, arrange, or make, on a sudden, or without previous preparation.
To invent, or provide, offhand, or on the spur of the moment; as, he improvised a hammer out of a stone.

improvision ::: n. --> Improvidence.

In a mathematical development of the real number system or the complex number system, an appropriate set of postulates may be the starting point. Or the non-negative integers may first be introduced (by postulates or otherwise -- see arithmetic, foundations of) and from these the above outlined extensions may be provided for by successive logical constructions, in any one of several alternative ways.

indifferentism ::: n. --> State of indifference; want of interest or earnestness; especially, a systematic apathy regarding what is true or false in religion or philosophy; agnosticism.
Same as Identism.
A heresy consisting in an unconcern for any particular creed, provided the morals be right and good.

In English and other natural languages there occur also common names (common nouns), such a common name being thought of as if it could serve as a name of anything belonging to a specified class or having specified characteristics. Under usual translations into symbolic notation, common names are replaced by proper names of classes or of class concepts; and this would seem to provide the best logical analysis. In actual English usage, however, a common noun is often more nearly like a variable (q. v.) having a specified range. -- A.C.

In genera, Anglo-Catholic philosophy has been an incarnational or sacramental one, finding God in the Biblical revelation culminating in Christ, but unwilling to limit his self-disclosure to that series of events. Incarnationalism provides, it is said, the setting for the historic Incarnation; general revelation is on sacramental lines, giving meaning to the particular sacraments. For Anglo-Catholic philosophical theology, in its central stream, the key to dogma is the cumulative experience of Christian people, tested by the Biblical revelation as source and standard of that experience and hence "classical" in its value. Revelation is the ultimate authority; the Church possesses a trustworthiness about her central beliefs, but statement of these may change from age to age. Sometimes this main tendency of Anglo-Catholic thought has been sharply criticized by thinkers, themselves Anglicans (cf. Tennant's Philosophical Theology); but these have, in general, served as useful warnings rather than as normal expressions of the Anglican mind.

"In God"s providence there is no evil, but only good or its preparation.” Essays Divine and Human

“In God’s providence there is no evil, but only good or its preparation.” Essays Divine and Human

In his chief work, the Ethica, Spinoza's teaching is expressed in a manner for which geometry supplies the model. This expository device served various purposes. It may be interpreted as a clue to Spinoza's ideal of knowledge. So understood, it represents the condensed and ordered expression, not of 'philosophy' alone, but rather of all knowledge, 'philosophy' and 'science', as an integrated system. In such an ideal ordering of ideas, (rational) theology and metaphysics provide the anchorage for the system. On the one hand, the theology-metaphysics displays the fundamental principles (definitions, postulates, axioms) upon which the anchorage depends, and further displays in deductive fashion the primary fund of ideas upon which the inquiries of science, both 'descriptive' and 'normative' must proceed. On the other hand, the results of scientific inquiry are anchored at the other end, by a complementary metaphysico-theological development of their significance. Ideally, there obtains, for Spinoza, both an initial theology and metaphysics -- a necessary preparation for science -- and a culminating theology and metaphysics, an interpretative absorption of the conclusions of science.

In Itself there is no harm in passing through, provided one does not stop there. But ego, sex, ambition, etc., if they get exag> gerated, can easily lead to a dangerous downfall.

inspirational; offering or providing hope, encouragement, salvation, etc.

instruct ::: a. --> Arranged; furnished; provided.
Instructed; taught; enlightened. ::: v. t. --> To put in order; to form; to prepare.
To form by communication of knowledge; to inform the mind of; to impart knowledge or information to; to enlighten; to teach;

interpolated ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Interpolate ::: a. --> Inserted in, or added to, the original; introduced; foisted in; changed by the insertion of new or spurious matter.
Provided with necessary interpolations; as, an interpolated table.

interpret ::: 1. To give or provide the meaning of; explain; explicate; elucidate. 2. To conceive the significance of; construe. interpreted, interpreting, interpreter, interpreters, interpretation, interpretation"s, world-interpreting.

intersticed ::: a. --> Provided with interstices; having interstices between; situated at intervals.

In the field of the philosophy of religion, Platonism becomes obscure. There is little doubt that Plato paid only lip-service to the anthropomorphic polytheism of Athenian religion. Many of the attributes of the Idea of the Good are those of an eternal God. The Republic (Book II) pictures the Supreme Being as perfect, unchangeable and the author of truth. Similar rationalizations are found throughout the Laws. Another current of religious thought is to be found m the Timaeus, Politicus and Sophist. The story of the making of the universe and man by the Demiurgus is mythic and yet it is in many points a logical development of his theory of Ideas. The World-Maker does not create things from nothing, he fashions the world out of a pre-existing chaos of matter by introducing patterns taken from the sphere of Forms. This process of formation is also explained, in the Timaeus (54 ff), in terms of various mathematical figures. In an early period of the universe, God (Chronos) exercised a sort of Providential care over things in this world (Politicus, 269-275), but eventually man was left to his own devices. The tale of Er, at the end of the Republic, describes a judgment of souls after death, their separation into the good and the bad, and the assignment of various rewards and punishments. H. Stephanus et J. Serranus (ed.), Platonis Opera (Paris, 1578), has provided the standard pagination, now used in referring to the text of Plato, it is not a critical edition. J. Burnet (ed.), Platonis Opera, 5 vol. (Oxford, 1899-1907). Platon, Oeuvres completes, texte et trad., Collect. G. Bude (Paris, 1920 ff.). The Dialogues of Plato, transl. B. Jowett, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 1920). W. Pater, Plato and Platonism (London, 1909). A. E. Taylor, Plato, the Man and his Work (N. Y., 1927). P. Shorey, What Plato Said (Chicago, 1933). A. Dies, Autour de Platon, 2 vol. (Paris, 1927). U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorf, Platon, 2 vol. (Berlin, 1919). John Burnet, Platonism (Berkeley, 1928). Paul Elmer More, Platonism (Oxford, 1931). Constantm Ritter, Essence of Plato's Philosophy (London, 1933). Leon Robin, Platon (Paris, 1935). Paul Shorey, Platonism, Ancient and Modern (Berkeley, 1938). A. E. Taylor, Platontsm and Its Influence (London, 1924). F. J. E. Woodbridge, The Son of Apollo (Boston, 1929). C. Bigg, The Christian Platomsts of Alexandria (Oxford, 1913). T. Whittaker, The Neo-Platonists (Cambridge, 1918, 2nd ed ). John H. Muirhead, The Platonic Tradition in Angle-Saxon Philosophy (New York, 1931). F. J. Powicke, The Cambridge Platonists (Boston, 1927). -- V.J.B.

It is held that society has not accomplished many basic transformations peacefully, that fundamental changes in the economic system or the social superstructure, such as that from medieval serf-lord to modern worker-capitalist economy, have usually involved violence wherein the class struggle passes into the acute stage of revolution because the existing law articulates and the state power protects the obsolete forms and minority-interest classes which must be superseded. The evolution of capitalism is considered to have reached the point where the accelerating abundance of which its technics are capable is frustrated by economic relationships such as those involved in individual ownership of productive means, hiring and firing of workers in the light of private profits and socially unplanned production for a money market. It is held that only technics collectively owned and production socially planned can provide employment and abundance of goods for everyone. The view taken is that peaceful attainment of them is possible, but will probably be violently resisted by priveleged minorities, provoking a contest of force in which the working class majority will eventually triumph the world over.

It is usually to be required that a logistic system shall provide an effective criterion for recognizing formulas, proofs, and proofs as a consequence of a set of formulas; i.e., it shall be a matter of direct observation, and of following a fixed set of directions for concrete operations with symbols, to determine whether a given finite sequence of primitive symbols is a formula, or whether a given finite sequence of formulas is a proof, or is a proof as a conseqence of a given set of formulas. If this requirement is not satisfied, it may be necessary -- e.g. -- given a particular finite sequence of formulas, to seek by some argument adapted to the special case to prove or disprove that it satisfies the conditions to be a proof (in the technical sense); i.e., the criterion for formal recognition of proofs then presupposes, in actual application, that we already know what a valid deduction is (in a sense which is stronger than that merely of the ability to follow concrete directions in a particular case). See further on this point logic, formal, § 1.

Karnia-marga is a much simpler road provided one's mind is not fixed on the karma to the exclusion of the Divine. The aim must be the Divine and the work can only be a means,

key ::: 1. A small metal instrument specially cut to fit into a lock and move its bolt. 2. Fig. Something that explains a mystery or gives an answer to a mystery, a code etc. 3. Something that is crucial in providing an explanation or interpretation. 4. Fig. Serving as an essential component; "a cardinal rule”. 5. The principal tonality of a composition. 6. Pitch of the voice. keys.

knurl ::: n. --> A contorted knot in wood; a crossgrained protuberance; a nodule; a boss or projection.
One who, or that which, is crossgrained. ::: v. t. --> To provide with ridges, to assist the grasp, as in the edge of a flat knob, or coin; to mill.

::: "Law is necessary for order and stability, but it becomes a conservative and hampering force unless it provides itself with an effective machinery for changing the laws as soon as circumstances and new needs make that desirable.” *The Human Cycle

“Law is necessary for order and stability, but it becomes a conservative and hampering force unless it provides itself with an effective machinery for changing the laws as soon as circumstances and new needs make that desirable.” The Human Cycle

Life then reveals itself as essentially the same everywhere from the atom to man, the atom containing the subconscious stuff and movement of being which are released into consciousness in the animal, with plant life as a midway stage in the evolution. Life is really a universal operation of Conscious-Force acting subconsciously on and in Matter; it is the operation that creates, maintains, destroys and re-creates forms or bodies and attempts by play of nerve-force, that is to say, by currents of interchange of stimulating energy to awake conscious sensation in those bodies. In this operation there are three stages; the lowest is that in which the vibration is still in the sleep of Matter, entirely subconscious so as to seem wholly mechanical; the middle stage is that in which it becomes capable of a response still submental but on the verge of what we know as consciousness; the highest is that in which life develops conscious mentality in the form of a mentally perceptible sensation which in this transition becomes the basis for the development of sense-mind and intelligence. It is in the middle stage that we catch the idea of Life as distinguished from Matter and Mind, but in reality it is the same in all the stages and always a middle term between Mind and Matter, constituent of the latter and instinct with the former. It is an operation of Conscious-Force which is neither the mere formation of substance nor the operation of mind with substance and form as its object of apprehension; it is rather an energising of conscious being which is a cause and support of the formation of substance and an intermediate source and support of conscious mental apprehension. Life, as this intermediate energising of conscious being, liberates into sensitive action and reaction a form of the creative force of existence which was working subconsciently or inconsciently, absorbed in its own substance; it supports and liberates into action the apprehensive consciousness of existence called mind and gives it a dynamic instrumentation so that it can work not only on its own forms but on forms of life and matter; it connects, too, and supports, as a middle term between them, the mutual commerce of the two, mind and matter. This means of commerce Life provides in the continual currents of her pulsating nerve-energy which carry force of the form as a sensation to modify Mind and bring back force of Mind as will to modify Matter. It is th
   refore this nerve-energy which we usually mean when we talk of Life; it is the Prana or Life-force of the Indian system. But nerve-energy is only the form it takes in the animal being; the same Pranic energy is present in all forms down to the atom, since everywhere it is the same in essence and everywhere it is the same operation of Conscious-Force,—Force supporting and modifying the substantial existence of its own forms, Force with sense and mind secretly active but at first involved in the form and preparing to emerge, then finally emerging from their involution. This is the whole significance of the omnipresent Life that has manifested and inhabits the material universe.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 21-22, Page: 198-199

livery stable ::: --> A stable where horses are kept for hire, and where stabling is provided. See Livery, n., 3 (e) (f) & (g).

Logic, formal: Investigates the structure of propositions and of deductive reasoning by a method which abstracts from the content of propositions which come under consideration and deals only with their logical form. The distinction between form and content can be made definite with the aid of a particular language or symbolism in which propositions are expressed, and the formal method can then be characterized by the fact that it deals with the objective form of sentences which express propositions and provides in these concrete terms criteria of meaningfulness and validity of inference. This formulation of the matter presupposes the selection of a particular language which is to be regarded as logically exact and free from the ambiguities and irregularities of structure which appear in English (or other languages of everyday use) -- i.e., it makes the distinction between form and content relative to the choice of a language. Many logicians prefer to postulate an abstract form for propositions themselves, and to characterize the logical exactness of a language by the uniformity with which the concrete form of its sentences reproduces or parallels the form of the propositions which they express. At all events it is practically necessary to introduce a special logical language, or symbolic notation, more exact than ordinary English usage, if topics beyond the most elementary are to be dealt with (see logistic system, and semiotic).

loopholed ::: a. --> Provided with loopholes.

Maimon, Moses ben: (better known as Maimonides) (Abu Imram Musa Ibn Maimun Ibn Abdallah) (1135-1204) Talmud commentator and leading Jewish philosopher during the Middle Ages. Born in Cordova, left Spain and migrated to Palestine in 1165 and ultimately 1160, settled in Fez, N. Africa, whence he settled in Fostat, Egypt. His Guide for the Perplexed (More Nebukim in Heb.; Dalalat al-hairin, in Arab.) contains the summa of Jewish philosophic thought up to his time. It is written in the spirit of Aristotelianism and is divided into three parts. The first is devoted to the problems of Biblical anthropomorphisms, Divine attributes, and exposition and criticism of the teachings of the Kalam; the second to the proof of the existence of God, matter and form, creatio de novo, and an exposition of prophecy; the third to God and the world including problems of providence, evil, prescience and freedom of the will, teleology, and rationality of the precepts of the Torah. Maimonides exerted great influence not only on the course of subsequent Jewish speculation but also on the leaders of the thirteenth century scholastic philosophy, Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas. -- M.W.

mandibulated ::: a. --> Provided with mandibles adapted for biting, as many insects.

Marcus Aurelius: (121-180 A.D.) The Roman Emperor who as a Stoic endowed chairs in Athens for the four great philosophical schools of the Academy, the Lyceum, The Garden and the Stoa. Aurelius' Stoicism, tempered by his friend Fronto's humanism, held to a rational world-order and providence as well as to a notion of probable truth rather than of the Stoic infallibilism. In the famous 12 books of Meditations, the view is prominent that death was as natural as birth and development was the end of the individual and should elicit the fear of no one. His harsh treatment of the Christians did not coincide with his mild nature which may have reflected the changed character of Stoicism brought on by the decadence of Rome.

margin ::: n. 1. A border or edge. 2. The blank space bordering the written or printed area on a page. margins. v. 3. Provides with a margin.

marshal ::: n. --> Originally, an officer who had the care of horses; a groom.
An officer of high rank, charged with the arrangement of ceremonies, the conduct of operations, or the like
One who goes before a prince to declare his coming and provide entertainment; a harbinger; a pursuivant.
One who regulates rank and order at a feast or any other assembly, directs the order of procession, and the like.

Meaning: A highly ambiguous term, with at least four pivotal senses, involving intention or purpose, designation or reference, definition or translation, causal antecedents or consequences. Each of these provides overlapping families of cases generated by some or all of the following types of systematic ambiguity: -- Arising from a contrast between the standpoints of speaker and interpreter. arising from contrast between the meaning of specific utterances (tokens) and that of the general (type) symbol. arising from attention to one rather than another use of language (e.g., to the expressive rather than the evocative or referential uses). Some of these ambiguities are normally eliminated by attention to the context in which the term 'meaning' occurs. Adequate definition, would, accordingly, involve a detailed analysis of the types of context which are most common. The following is a preliminary outline. "What does X {some event, not necessarily linguistic) mean?" =   "Of what is X an index?"   "Of what is X a sign?" "What does S (a speaker) mean by X (an utterance)?" =   "What are S's interests, intentions, purposes in uttering X?"   "To whom (what) is he referring?"   "What effect does he wish to produce in the hearer?"   "What other utterance could he have used to express the same interest, make the same reference, or produce the same effect?" "What does X (an utterance of a speaker) mean to an interpreter?" =   "What does I take S to have meant by X (in any of the senses listed under B)?" "What does X (a type symbol) mean in language L?"   "What symbols (in L) can be substituted for X (in specified contexts) without appreciable loss of expressive, evocative or referential function?"   In a translation from L into another language M, either of X or of a more complex symbol containing X as part, what portion of the end-product corresponds to X?"   In addition to the above, relatively nontechnical senses, many writers use the word in divergent special ways based upon and implying favored theories about meaning.

Mean: In general, that which in some way mediates or occupies a middle position among various things or between two extremes. Hence (especially in the plural) that through which an end is attained; in mathematics the word is used for any one of various notions of average; in ethics it represents moderation, temperance, prudence, the middle way. In mathematics:   The arithmetic mean of two quantities is half their sum; the arithmetic mean of n quantities is the sum of the n quantities, divided by n. In the case of a function f(x) (say from real numbers to real numbers) the mean value of the function for the values x1, x2, . . . , xn of x is the arithmetic mean of f(x1), f(x2), . . . , f(xn). This notion is extended to the case of infinite sets of values of x by means of integration; thus the mean value of f(x) for values of x between a and b is ∫f(x)dx, with a and b as the limits of integration, divided by the difference between a and b.   The geometric mean of or between, or the mean proportional between, two quantities is the (positive) square root of their product. Thus if b is the geometric mean between a and c, c is as many times greater (or less) than b as b is than a. The geometric mean of n quantities is the nth root of their product.   The harmonic mean of two quantities is defined as the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of their reciprocals. Hence the harmonic mean of a and b is 2ab/(a + b).   The weighted mean or weighted average of a set of n quantities, each of which is associated with a certain number as weight, is obtained by multiplying each quantity by the associated weight, adding these products together, and then dividing by the sum of the weights. As under A, this may be extended to the case of an infinite set of quantities by means of integration. (The weights have the role of estimates of relative importance of the various quantities, and if all the weights are equal the weighted mean reduces to the simple arithmetic mean.)   In statistics, given a population (i.e., an aggregate of observed or observable quantities) and a variable x having the population as its range, we have:     The mean value of x is the weighted mean of the values of x, with the probability (frequency ratio) of each value taken as its weight. In the case of a finite population this is the same as the simple arithmetic mean of the population, provided that, in calculating the arithmetic mean, each value of x is counted as many times over as it occurs in the set of observations constituting the population.     In like manner, the mean value of a function f(x) of x is the weighted mean of the values of f(x), where the probability of each value of x is taken as the weight of the corresponding value of f(x).     The mode of the population is the most probable (most frequent) value of x, provided there is one such.     The median of the population is so chosen that the probability that x be less than the median (or the probability that x be greater than the median) is ½ (or as near ½ as possible). In the case of a finite population, if the values of x are arranged in order of magnitude     --repeating any one value of x as many times over as it occurs in the set of observations constituting the population     --then the middle term of this series, or the arithmetic mean of the two middle terms, is the median.     --A.C. In cosmology, the fundamental means (arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic) were used by the Greeks in describing or actualizing the process of becoming in nature. The Pythagoreans and the Platonists in particular made considerable use of these means (see the Philebus and the Timaeus more especially). These ratios are among the basic elements used by Plato in his doctrine of the mixtures. With the appearance of the qualitative physics of Aristotle, the means lost their cosmological importance and were thereafter used chiefly in mathematics. The modern mathematical theories of the universe make use of the whole range of means analyzed by the calculus of probability, the theory of errors, the calculus of variations, and the statistical methods. In ethics, the 'Doctrine of the Mean' is the moral theory of moderation, the development of the virtues, the determination of the wise course in action, the practice of temperance and prudence, the choice of the middle way between extreme or conflicting decisions. It has been developed principally by the Chinese, the Indians and the Greeks; it was used with caution by the Christian moralists on account of their rigorous application of the moral law.   In Chinese philosophy, the Doctrine of the Mean or of the Middle Way (the Chung Yung, literally 'Equilibrium and Harmony') involves the absence of immoderate pleasure, anger, sorrow or joy, and a conscious state in which those feelings have been stirred and act in their proper degree. This doctrine has been developed by Tzu Shu (V. C. B.C.), a grandson of Confucius who had already described the virtues of the 'superior man' according to his aphorism "Perfect is the virtue which is according to the mean". In matters of action, the superior man stands erect in the middle and strives to follow a course which does not incline on either side.   In Buddhist philosophy, the System of the Middle Way or Madhyamaka is ascribed more particularly to Nagarjuna (II c. A.D.). The Buddha had given his revelation as a mean or middle way, because he repudiated the two extremes of an exaggerated ascetlsm and of an easy secular life. This principle is also applied to knowledge and action in general, with the purpose of striking a happy medium between contradictory judgments and motives. The final objective is the realization of the nirvana or the complete absence of desire by the gradual destruction of feelings and thoughts. But while orthodox Buddhism teaches the unreality of the individual (who is merely a mass of causes and effects following one another in unbroken succession), the Madhyamaka denies also the existence of these causes and effects in themselves. For this system, "Everything is void", with the legitimate conclusion that "Absolute truth is silence". Thus the perfect mean is realized.   In Greek Ethics, the doctrine of the Right (Mean has been developed by Plato (Philebus) and Aristotle (Nic. Ethics II. 6-8) principally, on the Pythagorean analogy between the sound mind, the healthy body and the tuned string, which has inspired most of the Greek Moralists. Though it is known as the "Aristotelian Principle of the Mean", it is essentially a Platonic doctrine which is preformed in the Republic and the Statesman and expounded in the Philebus, where we are told that all good things in life belong to the class of the mixed (26 D). This doctrine states that in the application of intelligence to any kind of activity, the supreme wisdom is to know just where to stop, and to stop just there and nowhere else. Hence, the "right-mean" does not concern the quantitative measurement of magnitudes, but simply the qualitative comparison of values with respect to a standard which is the appropriate (prepon), the seasonable (kairos), the morally necessary (deon), or generally the moderate (metrion). The difference between these two kinds of metretics (metretike) is that the former is extrinsic and relative, while the latter is intrinsic and absolute. This explains the Platonic division of the sciences into two classes: those involving reference to relative quantities (mathematical or natural), and those requiring absolute values (ethics and aesthetics). The Aristotelian analysis of the "right mean" considers moral goodness as a fixed and habitual proportion in our appetitions and tempers, which can be reached by training them until they exhibit just the balance required by the right rule. This process of becoming good develops certain habits of virtues consisting in reasonable moderation where both excess and defect are avoided: the virtue of temperance (sophrosyne) is a typical example. In this sense, virtue occupies a middle position between extremes, and is said to be a mean; but it is not a static notion, as it leads to the development of a stable being, when man learns not to over-reach himself. This qualitative conception of the mean involves an adaptation of the agent, his conduct and his environment, similar to the harmony displayed in a work of art. Hence the aesthetic aspect of virtue, which is often overstressed by ancient and neo-pagan writers, at the expense of morality proper.   The ethical idea of the mean, stripped of the qualifications added to it by its Christian interpreters, has influenced many positivistic systems of ethics, and especially pragmatism and behaviourism (e.g., A. Huxley's rule of Balanced Excesses). It is maintained that it is also involved in the dialectical systems, such as Hegelianism, where it would have an application in the whole dialectical process as such: thus, it would correspond to the synthetic phase which blends together the thesis and the antithesis by the meeting of the opposites. --T.G. Mean, Doctrine of the: In Aristotle's ethics, the doctrine that each of the moral virtues is an intermediate state between extremes of excess and defect. -- O.R.M.

mesometrium ::: n. --> The fold of the peritoneum supporting the oviduct.

"method chosen for preparation" was that of Mahasarasvati ::: "the method chosen for fulfilment" was "Mahakali"s in the Mahasaraswati mould", on "the basis of hidden calm & self-possession" provided by Mahesvari and strongly coloured by Mahalaks.mi.Mah Mahakali-Mahasarasvati

Missing definition "introduction" First, this is an (English language) __computing__ dictionary. It includes lots of terms from related fields such as mathematics and electronics, but if you're looking for (or want to submit) words from other subjects or general English words or other languages, try {(}, {(}, {(}, {(} or {(}. If you've already searched the dictionary for a computing term and it's not here then please __don't tell me__. There are, and always will be, a great many missing terms, no dictionary is ever complete. I use my limited time to process the corrections and definitions people have submitted and to add the {most frequently requested missing terms (missing.html)}. Try one of the sources mentioned above or {(}, {(} or {(}. See {the Help page (help.html)} for more about missing definitions and bad cross-references. (2014-09-20)! {exclamation mark}!!!Batch "language, humour" A daft way of obfuscating text strings by encoding each character as a different number of {exclamation marks} surrounded by {question marks}, e.g. "d" is encoded as "?!!!!?". The language is named after the {MSDOS} {batch file} in which the first converter was written. {esoteric programming languages} {wiki entry (!!!Batch)}. (2014-10-25)" {double quote}

Modality is the name given to certain classifications of propositions which are either supplementary to the classification into true and false or intended to provided categories additional to truth and falsehood -- namely to classifications of propositions as possible, problematical, and the like. See Strict implication, and Propostitional calculus, Many-valued.

More precisely: Let "S" be a symbol (simple or complex) in the language L. And let "f(S)" be any sentence containing "S" and constructed in conformity with the syntactical rules of L. Let "e1" be any experiential sentence of L. Then "S" may be said to be vague in the context "f(. .)" if, for at last one "e1" the rules of L do not provide that f(S) be either consistent or inconsistent with e1. And "S" may be said to be vague in L if it is vague in at least one context of L.

Most of the basic problems and theories of cosmology seem to have been discussed by the pre-Socratic philosophers. Their views are modified and expanded in the Timaeus of Plato, and rehearsed and systematized in Aristotle's Physics. Despite multiple divergencies, all these Greek philosophers seem to be largely agreed that the universe is limited in space, has neither a beginning nor end in time, is dominated by a set of unalterable laws, and has a definite and recurring rhythm. The cosmology of the Middle Ages diverges from the Greek primarily through the introduction of the concepts of divine creation and annihilation, miracle and providence. In consonance with the tendencies of the new science, the cosmologies of Descartes, Leibniz and Newton bring the medieval views into closer harmony with those of the Greeks. The problems of cosmology were held to be intrinsically insoluble by Kant. After Kant there was a tendency to merge the issues of cosmology with those of metaphysics. The post-Kantians attempted to deal with both in terms of more basic principles and a more flexible dialectic, their opponents rejected both as without significance or value. The most radical modern cosmology is that of Peirce with its three cosmic principles of chance, law and continuity; the most recent is that of Whitehead, which finds its main inspiration in Plato's Timaeus.

Motive ::: Internal states that provide direction for one&

naked ::: a. --> Having no clothes on; uncovered; nude; bare; as, a naked body; a naked limb; a naked sword.
Having no means of defense or protection; open; unarmed; defenseless.
Unprovided with needful or desirable accessories, means of sustenance, etc.; destitute; unaided; bare.
Without addition, exaggeration, or excuses; not concealed or disguised; open to view; manifest; plain.

not provided with, not lodged in, a house; homeless.

nourished ::: provided with food or other substances necessary for life and growth; fed. nourishing, nourishment.

Now it is readily verified that all the primitive formulas are tautologies, and that for the rule of modus ponens (and the rule of substitution) the property holds that if the premisses of the inference are tautologies the conclusion must be a tautology. It follows that every theorem of the propositional calculus is a tautology. By a more difficult argument it can be shown also that every tautology is a theorem. Hence the test whether a formula is a tautology provides a solution of the decision problem of the propositional calculus.

nut ::: n. --> The fruit of certain trees and shrubs (as of the almond, walnut, hickory, beech, filbert, etc.), consisting of a hard and indehiscent shell inclosing a kernel.
A perforated block (usually a small piece of metal), provided with an internal or female screw thread, used on a bolt, or screw, for tightening or holding something, or for transmitting motion. See Illust. of lst Bolt.
The tumbler of a gunlock.

ochreated ::: a. --> Wearing or furnished with an ochrea or legging; wearing boots; booted.
Provided with ochrea, or sheathformed stipules, as the rhubarb, yellow dock, and knotgrass.

ootype ::: n. --> The part of the oviduct of certain trematode worms in which the ova are completed and furnished with a shell.

opinions and mental preferences may build a wall of arguments against the spiritual truth that has to be realised and refuse to accept it if it presents itself in a form which does not conform to its own previous ideas ::: so also it may prevent one from recog- nising the Divine if the Divine presents himself in a form for whidi the intellect is not prepared or which in any detail runs counter to its prejudgements and prejudices. One can depend on one’s reason in other matters provided the mind tries to be open and impartial and free from undue passion and is prepared to concede that it is not always right and may err ; but it is not safe to depend on it alone In matters which escape its jurisdiction, specially in spiritual realisation and in matters of yoga which belong to a different order of knowledge.

"Our sins are the misdirected steps of a seeking Power that aims, not at sin, but at perfection, at something that we might call a divine virtue. Often they are the veils of a quality that has to be transformed and delivered out of this ugly disguise: otherwise, in the perfect providence of things, they would not have been suffered to exist or to continue. The Master of our works is neither a blunderer nor an indifferent witness nor a dallier with the luxury of unneeded evils. He is wiser than our reason and wiser than our virtue.” The Synthesis of Yoga

“Our sins are the misdirected steps of a seeking Power that aims, not at sin, but at perfection, at something that we might call a divine virtue. Often they are the veils of a quality that has to be transformed and delivered out of this ugly disguise: otherwise, in the perfect providence of things, they would not have been suffered to exist or to continue. The Master of our works is neither a blunderer nor an indifferent witness nor a dallier with the luxury of unneeded evils. He is wiser than our reason and wiser than our virtue.” The Synthesis of Yoga

overprovident ::: a. --> Too provident.

overruling ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Overrule ::: a. --> Exerting controlling power; as, an overruling Providence.

ovidian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the Latin poet Ovid; resembling the style of Ovid.

oviducal ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to oviducts; as, oviducal glands.

oviduct ::: n. --> A tube, or duct, for the passage of ova from the ovary to the exterior of the animal or to the part where further development takes place. In mammals the oviducts are also called Fallopian tubes.

pabulation ::: n. --> The act of feeding, or providing food.
Food; fodder; pabulum.

paned ::: a. --> Having panes; provided with panes; also, having openings; as, a paned window; paned window sash.
Having flat sides or surfaces; as, a six/paned nut.

parovarium ::: n. --> A group of tubules, a remnant of the Wolffian body, often found near the ovary or oviduct; the epoophoron.

Peano's first publication on mathematicil logic was the introduction to his Calcolo Geometrico, 1888. His postulates for arithmetic (see arithmetic, foundations of) appeared in his Arith¦metices Principia (1889) and in revised form in Sul concetto di numero (Rivista di Matematica, vol. 1 (1891)), and were repeated in successive volumes (more properly, editions) of his Formulaire de Mathematiques (1894-1908). The last-named work, written with the aid of collaborators, was intended to provide a reduction of all mathematics to symbolic notation, and often the encyclopedic aspect was stressed as much as, or more than, that of logical analysis.

physostomi ::: n. pl. --> An order of fishes in which the air bladder is provided with a duct, and the ventral fins, when present, are abdominal. It includes the salmons, herrings, carps, catfishes, and others.

Pieh Mo: Neo-Mohists; heretical Mohists. See Mo che and Chinese philosophy. Pien: Argumentation or dialectics, which "is to make clear the distinction between right and wrong, to ascertain the principles of order and disorder, to make clear the points of similarity and difference, to examine the laws of names and actualities, to determine what is beneficial and what is harmful, and to decide what is uncertain and doubtful. It describes the ten thousand things as they are, and discusses the various opinions in their comparative merits. It uses names to specify actualities, propositions to express ideas, and explanations to set forth reasons, including or excluding according to classes." It involves seven methods: "The method of possibility is to argue from what is not exhausted. The method of hypothesis is to argue from what is not actual at present. The method of imitation is to provide a model. What is imitated is taken as the model. If the reason agrees with the model, it is correct. If it does not agree with the model, it is incorrect. This is the method of imitation. The method of comparison is to make clear about one thing by means of another. The method of parallel is to compare two propositions consistently throughout. The method of analogy says, 'You are so. Why should I not be so?" The method of induction is to grant what has not been accepted on the basis of its similarity to what has already been accepted. For example, when it is said that all the others are the same, how can I say that the others are different?" (Neo-Mohism.) -- W.T.C.

piercer ::: n. --> One who, or that which, pierces or perforates
An instrument used in forming eyelets; a stiletto.
A piercel.
The ovipositor, or sting, of an insect.
An insect provided with an ovipositor.

pillowed ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Pillow ::: a. --> Provided with a pillow or pillows; having the head resting on, or as on, a pillow.

pimp ::: n. --> One who provides gratification for the lust of others; a procurer; a pander. ::: v. i. --> To procure women for the gratification of others&

Plato's theory of knowledge can hardly be discussed apart from his theory of reality. Through sense perception man comes to know the changeable world of bodies. This is the realm of opinion (doxa), such cognition may be more or less clear but it never rises to the level of true knowledge, for its objects are impermanent and do not provide a stable foundation for science. It is through intellectual, or rational, cognition that man discovers another world, that of immutable essences, intelligible realities, Forms or Ideas. This is the level of scientific knowledge (episteme); it is reached in mathematics and especially in philosophy (Repub. VI, 510). The world of intelligible Ideas contains the ultimate realities from which the world of sensible things has been patterned. Plato experienced much difficulty in regard to the sort of existence to be attributed to his Ideas. Obviously it is not the crude existence of physical things, nor can it be merely the mental existence of logical constructs. Interpretations have varied from the theory of the Christian Fathers (which was certainly not that of Plato himself) viz , that the Ideas are exemplary Causes in God's Mind, to the suggestion of Aristotle (Metaphysics, I) that they are realized, in a sense, in the world of individual things, but are apprehended only by the intellect The Ideas appear, however, particularly in the dialogues of the middle period, to be objective essences, independent of human minds, providing not only the foundation for the truth of human knowledge but afso the ontological bases for the shadowy things of the sense world. Within the world of Forms, there is a certain hierarchy. At the top, the most noble of all, is the Idea of the Good (Repub. VII), it dominates the other Ideas and they participate in it. Beauty, symmetry and truth are high-ranking Ideas; at times they are placed almost on a par with the Good (Philebus 65; also Sympos. and Phaedrus passim). There are, below, these, other Ideas, such as those of the major virtues (wisdom, temperance, courage, justice and piety) and mathematical terms and relations, such as equality, likeness, unlikeness and proportion. Each type or class of being is represented by its perfect Form in the sphere of Ideas, there is an ideal Form of man, dog, willow tree, of every kind of natural object and even of artificial things like beds (Repub. 596). The relationship of the "many" objects, belonging to a certain class of things in the sense world, to the "One", i.e. the single Idea which is their archetype, is another great source of difficulty to Plato. Three solutions, which are not mutually exclusive, are suggested in the dialogues (1) that the many participate imperfectly in the perfect nature of their Idea, (2) that the many are made in imitation of the One, and (3) that the many are composed of a mixture of the Limit (Idea) with the Unlimited (matter).

Plotinism offers a well-developed theory of sensation. The objects of sensation are of a lower order of being than the perceiving organism. The inferior cannot act upon the superior. Hence sensation is an activity of the sensory agent upon its objects. Sensation provides a direct, realistic perception of material things, but, since they are ever-changing, such knowledge is not valuable. In internal seme perception, the imagimtion also functions actively, memory is attributed to the imaginative power and it serves not only in the recall of sensory images but also in the retention of the verbal formulae in which intellectual concepts are expressed. The human soul can look either upward or downward; up to the sphere of purer spirit, or down to the evil regions of matter. Rational knowledge is a cognition of intelligible realities, or Ideas in the realm of Mind which is often referred to as Divine. The climax of knowledge consists in an intuitive and mystical union with the One; this is experienced by few.

Political Personalism: The doctrine that the state is under obligation to provide opportunity to each citizen for the highest possible physical, mental, and spiritual development, because personality is the supreme achievement of the social order. A movement in France represented by the journal Esprit. -- R.T.F.

Positive Reinforcement ::: Something positive provided after a response in order to increase the probability of that response occurring in the future.

potluck ::: n. --> Whatever may chance to be in the pot, or may be provided for a meal.

poverty ::: 1. The state of being poor; lack of the means of providing material needs or comforts. 2. Deficiency of necessary or desirable ingredients, qualities, etc.

preambulary ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to a preamble; introductory; contained or provided for in a preamble.

Preface ::: This supplement to the Lexicon of an Infinite Mind, A Dictionary of Words and Terms in Savitri, is a selection of answers to our numerous questions posed to disciples and devotees of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother. It is a rare treasure for generations to come for it provides a profound insight into the understanding of various terms and phrases in Savitri by those who knew Sri Aurobindo and had His darshan many times and a few others with a deep knowledge of specific terms in Savitri.

prepare ::: v. t. --> To fit, adapt, or qualify for a particular purpose or condition; to make ready; to put into a state for use or application; as, to prepare ground for seed; to prepare a lesson.
To procure as suitable or necessary; to get ready; to provide; as, to prepare ammunition and provisions for troops; to prepare ships for defence; to prepare an entertainment. ::: v. i.

preprovide ::: v. t. --> To provide beforehand.

pro- ::: --> A prefix signifying before, in front, forth, for, in behalf of, in place of, according to; as, propose, to place before; proceed, to go before or forward; project, to throw forward; prologue, part spoken before (the main piece); propel, prognathous; provide, to look out for; pronoun, a word instead of a noun; proconsul, a person acting in place of a consul; proportion, arrangement according to parts.

procure ::: v. t. --> To bring into possession; to cause to accrue to, or to come into possession of; to acquire or provide for one&

prospection ::: n. --> The act of looking forward, or of providing for future wants; foresight.

provant ::: v. t. --> To supply with provender or provisions; to provide for. ::: a. --> Provided for common or general use, as in an army; hence, common in quality; inferior.

proveditor ::: n. --> One employed to procure supplies, as for an army, a steamer, etc.; a purveyor; one who provides for another.

provided ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Provide ::: conj. --> On condition; by stipulation; with the understanding; if; -- usually followed by that; as, provided that nothing in this act shall prejudice the rights of any person whatever.

providence ::: a manifestation of divine care or direction.

providence ::: n. --> The act of providing or preparing for future use or application; a making ready; preparation.
Foresight; care; especially, the foresight and care which God manifests for his creatures; hence, God himself, regarded as exercising a constant wise prescience.
A manifestation of the care and superintendence which God exercises over his creatures; an event ordained by divine direction.

provident ::: a. --> Foreseeing wants and making provision to supply them; prudent in preparing for future exigencies; cautious; economical; -- sometimes followed by of; as, aprovident man; an animal provident of the future.

providential ::: a. --> Effected by, or referable to, divine direction or superintendence; as, the providential contrivance of thing; a providential escape.

providently ::: adv. --> In a provident manner.

providentness ::: n. --> The quality or state of being provident; carefulness; prudence; economy.

provider ::: n. --> One who provides, furnishes, or supplies; one who procures what is wanted.

provide ::: v. t. --> To look out for in advance; to procure beforehand; to get, collect, or make ready for future use; to prepare.
To supply; to afford; to contribute.
To furnish; to supply; -- formerly followed by of, now by with.
To establish as a previous condition; to stipulate; as, the contract provides that the work be well done.
To foresee.

providing ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Provide

providore ::: n. --> One who makes provision; a purveyor.

provisional ::: providing or serving for the time being only; existing only until permanently or properly replaced; temporary.

provision ::: n. --> The act of providing, or making previous preparation.
That which is provided or prepared; that which is brought together or arranged in advance; measures taken beforehand; preparation.
Especially, a stock of food; any kind of eatables collected or stored; -- often in the plural.
That which is stipulated in advance; a condition; a previous agreement; a proviso; as, the provisions of a contract; the

proviso ::: n. --> An article or clause in any statute, agreement, contract, grant, or other writing, by which a condition is introduced, usually beginning with the word provided; a conditional stipulation that affects an agreement, contract, law, grant, or the like; as, the contract was impaired by its proviso.

provisor ::: n. --> One who provides; a purveyor.
The purveyor, steward, or treasurer of a religious house.
One who is regularly inducted into a benefice. See Provision, 5.
One who procures or receives a papal provision. See Provision, 6.

prudent ::: careful in providing for the future; provident; economical, thrifty, frugal.

purveyance ::: n. --> The act or process of providing or procuring; providence; foresight; preparation; management.
That which is provided; provisions; food.
A providing necessaries for the sovereign by buying them at an appraised value in preference to all others, and oven without the owner&

purveyor ::: a person or thing that habitually provides or supplies a particular thing or quality. purveyors.

purveyor ::: n. --> One who provides victuals, or whose business is to make provision for the table; a victualer; a caterer.
An officer who formerly provided, or exacted provision, for the king&

purvey ::: v. t. --> To furnish or provide, as with a convenience, provisions, or the like.
To procure; to get. ::: v. i. --> To purchase provisions; to provide; to make provision.
To pander; -- with to.

quarried ::: a. --> Provided with prey. ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Quarry

quartermaster ::: n. --> An officer whose duty is to provide quarters, provisions, storage, clothing, fuel, stationery, and transportation for a regiment or other body of troops, and superintend the supplies.
A petty officer who attends to the helm, binnacle, signals, and the like, under the direction of the master.

reason ::: v. 1. To form conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts or premises. 2. To determine or conclude by logical thinking. reasons, reasoned.* *n. 3. An underlying fact or cause that provides logical sense for a premise or occurrence. Reason, reason"s, Reason"s. ::: *

refuge ::: 1. Protection or shelter, as from danger or hardship, trouble, etc. 2. A place providing protection or shelter; sanctuary; haven. ::: To take refuge: To find asylum, safety, protection in something.

renneted ::: a. --> Provided or treated with rennet.

resignation ::: n. --> The act of resigning or giving up, as a claim, possession, office, or the like; surrender; as, the resignation of a crown or comission.
The state of being resigned or submissive; quiet or patient submission; unresisting acquiescence; as, resignation to the will and providence of God.

Romanticism was a healthy and necessary influence in reasserting the dignity of nature, in stressing the emotional factor in knowledge, and in emphasizing the concepts of process and evolution. It was an inadequate doctrine, in that it did not clarify the detailed movement of the process it posited, and could offer no positive advice for discovering this, other than to be inspired and intuit it. Romanticism is metaphysical expressionism, and like any expressionistic doctrine it is unable to give any concrete meaning to the concept of causality; it can therefore provide no categories under which to comprehend things, but can only say that things are because they have been expressed, and can be understood only by being re-expressed i.e., only by re-living the experience of their creator.

Scepticism, Fourteenth Century: At the beginning of the 14th century, Duns Scotus adopted a position which is not formally sceptical, though his critical attitude to earlier scholasticism may contain the germs of the scepticism of his century. Among Scotistic pre-sceptical tendencies may be mentioned the stress on self-knowledge rather than the knowledge of extra-mental reality, psychological voluntarism which eventuallj made the assent of judgment a matter of will rather than of intellect, and a theory of the reality of universal essences which led to a despair of the intellect's capacity to know such objects and thus spawned Ockhamism. Before 1317, Henry of Harclay noticed that, since the two terms of efficient causal connection are mutually distinct and absolute things, God, by his omnipotent will, can cause anything which naturally (naturaliter) is caused by a finite agent. He inferred from this that neither the present nor past existence of a finite external agent is necessarily involved in cognition (Pelstex p. 346). Later Petrus Aureoli and Ockham made the sime observation (Michalski, p. 94), and Ockham concluded that natural knowledge of substance and causal connection is possible only on the assumption that nature is pursuing a uniform, uninterrupted course at the moment of intuitive cognition. Without this assumption, observed sequences might well be the occasion of direct divine causal action rather than evidence of natural causation. It is possible that these sceptical views were suggested by reading the arguments of certain Moslem theologians (Al Gazali and the Mutakallimun), as well as by a consideration of miracles. The most influential sceptical author of the fourteenth century was Nicholas of Autrecourt (fl. 1340). Influenced perhaps by the Scotist conception of logical demonstration, Nicholas held that the law of noncontradiction is the ultimate and sole source of certainty. In logical inference, certainty is guaranteed because the consequent is identical with part or all of the antecedent. No logical connection can be established, therefore, between the existence or non-existence of one thing and the existence or non-existence of another and different thing. The inference from cause to effect or conversely is thus not a matter of certainty. The existence of substance, spiritual or physical, is neither known nor probable. We are unable to infer the existence of intellect or will from acts of intellection or volition, and sensible experience provides no evidence of external substances. The only certitudes properly so-called are those of immediate experience and those of principles known ex terminis together with conclusions immediately dependent on them. This thoroughgoing scepticism appears to have had considerable influence in its time, for we find many philosophers expressing, expounding, or criticizing it. John Buridan has a detailed criticism in his commentary on Aristotle's Physics (in 1 I, q. 4), Fitz-Ralph, Jacques d'Eltville, and Pierre d'Ailly maintain views similar to Nicholas', with some modifications, and there is at least one exposition of Nicholas' views in an anonymous commentary on the Sentences (British Museum, Ms. Harley 3243). These sceptical views were usually accompanied by a kind of probabilism. The condemnation of Nicholas in 1347 put a damper on the sceptical movement, and there is probably no continuity from these thinkers to the French sceptics of the 16th century. Despite this lack of direct influence, the sceptical arguments of 14th century thinkers bear marked resemblances to those employed by the French Occasionalists, Berkeley and Hume.

Schleiermacher, Friedrich Ernst Daniel (1768-1834): Religion, in which Schleiermacher substitutes for a theology (regarded impossible because of the unknowableness of God) the feeling of absolute dependence, is sharply delineated from science as the product of reason in which nature may ultimately attain its unity. Schleiermacher, a romanticist, exhibits Fichtean and Schellingean influence, and transcends Kant by proclaiming an ideal realism. Nature, the totality of existence, is an organism, just as knowledge is a system. Through the unity of the real and the ideal, wisdom, residing with the Absolute as the final unity, arises and is ever striven for by man. A determinism is evident in religion where sin and grace provide two poles and sin is regarded partly avoidable, partly unreal, and in ethics where freedom is admitted only soteriologically as spontaneous acknowledgment of identity with the divine in the person of Christ. However, the right to uniqueness and individuality in which each attains his real nature, is stressed. An elaborate ethics is based on four goods: State, Society, School, and Church, to which accrue virtues and duties. An absolute good is lacking, except insofar as it lies in the complete unity of reason and nature. -- K.F.L.

screen ::: n. 1. A moveable or fixed device, usually consisting of a covered frame, that provides shelter, serves as a partition, etc. 2. Something interposed as a partition so as to conceal from view. 3. A window or door insertion or framed wire or plastic mesh used to keep out insects and permit air flow. 4. A specially prepared, light reflecting, flat vertical surface for the reception of images as from a slide or motion picture projector. screens. v. 5. To conceal from view with or as if with a screen. screens, screened.

seating ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Seat ::: n. --> The act of providong with a seat or seats; as, the seating of an audience.
The act of making seats; also, the material for making seats; as, cane seating.

seine ::: n. --> A large net, one edge of which is provided with sinkers, and the other with floats. It hangs vertically in the water, and when its ends are brought together or drawn ashore incloses the fish.

shade ::: 1. The comparative darkness caused by the interception or screening of rays of light from an object, place, or area. 2. A place or an area of comparative darkness, as one sheltered from the sun. 3. A shadow. 4. A spectre; a shadow. 5. Something that provides a shield or protection from a direct source of light. 6. A colour that varies slightly from a standard colour due to a difference in hue, saturation, or luminosity. 7. Fig. Something resembling a ghost or a disembodied spirit; something insubstantial or fleeting. 8. shades. Darkness gathering at the close of day. Shade, shades.

sheathed ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Sheathe ::: a. --> Povided with, or inclosed in, sheath.
Invested by a sheath, or cylindrical membranaceous tube, which is the base of the leaf, as the stalk or culm in grasses; vaginate.

shelter ::: n. 1. Something that provides cover or protection, as from the weather, danger, etc. v. 2. To provide with refuge as by shelter, to harbour; to take under (one"s) protection. adj. **3. Protected from troubles, annoyances, sordidness, etc. 4. Protected or shielded from storms, cold, the sun, etc. by a wall, roof, barrier, or the like. sheltered, sheltering.**

shiftless ::: a. --> Destitute of expedients, or not using successful expedients; characterized by failure, especially by failure to provide for one&

short ::: superl. --> Not long; having brief length or linear extension; as, a short distance; a short piece of timber; a short flight.
Not extended in time; having very limited duration; not protracted; as, short breath.
Limited in quantity; inadequate; insufficient; scanty; as, a short supply of provisions, or of water.
Insufficiently provided; inadequately supplied; scantily furnished; lacking; not coming up to a resonable, or the

shrouded ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Shroud ::: a. --> Provided with a shroud or shrouds.

shunt ::: v. t. --> To shun; to move from.
To cause to move suddenly; to give a sudden start to; to shove.
To turn off to one side; especially, to turn off, as a grain or a car upon a side track; to switch off; to shift.
To provide with a shunt; as, to shunt a galvanometer.
A turning off to a side or short track, that the principal track may be left free.

signed ::: provided with a signature or signatures. Also fig.

Sleep cannot be replaced, bm it can be changed ,* /or you can become conscious in sleep. If you are thus conscious, then the night can be utilised for a higher working — provided the body gets its due rest ; for the object of sleep is the body's rest and the renewal of the vital-physical force.

soil ::: 1. The top layer of the earth"s surface. 2. A particular kind of earth or ground such as sandy soil. 3. Any place or condition providing the opportunity for growth or development. 4. A country, land, or region, esp. one"s native land. temple-soil.

sollar ::: n. --> See Solar, n.
A platform in a shaft, especially one of those between the series of ladders in a shaft. ::: v. t. --> To cover, or provide with, a sollar.

sonde ::: v. t. --> That which is sent; a message or messenger; hence, also, a visitation of providence; an affliction or trial.

sortilege ::: (on page 44) divination by the random selection of playingcards; (elsewhere) a method of receiving guidance and predictions from texts found seemingly by chance (as by opening a book at random) and interpreted by the faculties of jñana; also, a text found in this way and subjected to this kind of interpretation. Sri Aurobindo listed sortileges among the "external means" that can provide "data for a past and future knowledge" (see trikaladr.s.t.i); although some sortileges required "a very figurative & even fanciful interpretation", he took the results he obtained by this method to be signs of "an intelligent, omniscient & all-combining Mind at work which uses everything in the world as its instrument & is superior to the system of relations & connections already fixed in this world".

sparkler ::: n. --> One who scatters; esp., one who scatters money; an improvident person.
One who, or that which, sparkles.
A tiger beetle.

spendthrift ::: n. --> One who spends money profusely or improvidently; a prodigal; one who lavishes or wastes his estate. Also used figuratively. ::: a. --> Prodigal; extravagant; wasteful.

spermatozoid ::: n. --> The male germ cell in animals and plants, the essential element in fertilization; a microscopic animalcule-like particle, usually provided with one or more cilia by which it is capable of active motion. In animals, the familiar type is that of a small, more or less ovoid head, with a delicate threadlike cilium, or tail. Called also spermatozoon. In plants the more usual term is antherozoid.

Sri Aurobindo: " Love? It is not Love who meets the burdened great and governs the fate of men! Nor is it Pain. Time also does not do these things — it only provides the field and movement of events. If I had wanted to give a name, I would have done it, but it has purposely to be left nameless because it is indefinable. He may use Love or Pain or Time or any of these powers but is not any of them. You can call him the Master of the Evolution, if you like. Letters of Savitri

Sri Aurobindo: “ Love? It is not Love who meets the burdened great and governs the fate of men! Nor is it Pain. Time also does not do these things—it only provides the field and movement of events. If I had wanted to give a name, I would have done it, but it has purposely to be left nameless because it is indefinable. He may use Love or Pain or Time or any of these powers but is not any of them. You can call him the Master of the Evolution, if you like. Letters of Savitri

Sri Aurobindo: "This truth of Karma has been always recognised in the East in one form or else in another; but to the Buddhists belongs the credit of having given to it the clearest and fullest universal enunciation and the most insistent importance. In the West too the idea has constantly recurred, but in external, in fragmentary glimpses, as the recognition of a pragmatic truth of experience, and mostly as an ordered ethical law or fatality set over against the self-will and strength of man: but it was clouded over by other ideas inconsistent with any reign of law, vague ideas of some superior caprice or of some divine jealousy, — that was a notion of the Greeks, — a blind Fate or inscrutable Necessity, Ananke, or, later, the mysterious ways of an arbitrary, though no doubt an all-wise Providence.” Essays in Philosophy and Yoga *Ananke"s.

Sri Aurobindo: “This truth of Karma has been always recognised in the East in one form or else in another; but to the Buddhists belongs the credit of having given to it the clearest and fullest universal enunciation and the most insistent importance. In the West too the idea has constantly recurred, but in external, in fragmentary glimpses, as the recognition of a pragmatic truth of experience, and mostly as an ordered ethical law or fatality set over against the self-will and strength of man: but it was clouded over by other ideas inconsistent with any reign of law, vague ideas of some superior caprice or of some divine jealousy,—that was a notion of the Greeks,—a blind Fate or inscrutable Necessity, Ananke, or, later, the mysterious ways of an arbitrary, though no doubt an all-wise Providence.” Essays in Philosophy and Yoga

stepped ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Step ::: a. --> Provided with a step or steps; having a series of offsets or parts resembling the steps of stairs; as, a stepped key.

steward ::: n. --> A man employed in a large family, or on a large estate, to manage the domestic concerns, supervise other servants, collect the rents or income, keep accounts, and the like.
A person employed in a hotel, or a club, or on board a ship, to provide for the table, superintend the culinary affairs, etc. In naval vessels, the captain&

stipendiate ::: v. t. --> To provide with a stipend, or salary; to support; to pay.

stringer ::: n. --> One who strings; one who makes or provides strings, especially for bows.
A libertine; a wencher.
A longitudinal sleeper.
A streak of planking carried round the inside of a vessel on the under side of the beams.
A long horizontal timber to connect uprights in a frame, or to support a floor or the like.

subtle body ::: a subtler material existence behind our outer body which provides the substance not only of our physical but of our vital and mental sheaths.

Taoism, however, became too mystical, and Confucianism too formalistic. "Hundred schools" grew and flourished, many in direct opposition to Taoism and Confucianism. There was Mohism (Mo, founded by Mo Tzu, between 500 and 396 B.C.) which rejected formalism in favor of "benefit" and "utility" which are to be promoted through universal love (chien ai), practical observation and application, and obedience to the will of Heaven. There was Neo-Mohism (Mo che, 300 B.C.) which, in trying to prove the thesis of Mohism, developed an intricate system of logic. There was Sophism (ming chia, 400 B.C.) which displayed much sophistry about terms and concepts, particularly about the relationship between substance and quality (chien pai). There was Legalism (fa chia, 500-200 B.C.) which advocated law, statecraft, and authority as effective instruments of government. finally, there was the Yin Yang school (400-200 B.C.) which emphasized yin and yang as the two fundamental principles, always contrasting but complementary, and underlying all conceivable objects, qualities, situations, and relationships. It was this school that provided a common ground for the fusion of ancient divergent philosophical tendencies in medieval China.

terminal ::: n. --> Of or pertaining to the end or extremity; forming the extremity; as, a terminal edge.
Growing at the end of a branch or stem; terminating; as, a terminal bud, flower, or spike.
That which terminates or ends; termination; extremity.
Either of the ends of the conducting circuit of an electrical apparatus, as an inductorium, dynamo, or electric motor, usually provided with binding screws for the attachment of wires by

theatine ::: n. --> One of an order of Italian monks, established in 1524, expressly to oppose Reformation, and to raise the tone of piety among Roman Catholics. They hold no property, nor do they beg, but depend on what Providence sends. Their chief employment is preaching and giving religious instruction.
One of an order of nuns founded by Ursula Benincasa, who died in 1618.

The early Greek notion of the universe as ordered by destiny or fate was gradually refined until the time of Plato and Aristotle who conceived the world as ordered by an intelligent principle (nous) of divine justice or harmony; Plato, Philebus, 30: ". . . there is in the universe a cause of no mean power, which orders and arranges . . ."; and Aristotle, Physics, 252a-12: "nature is everywhere the cause of order". This cosmic view was an essential element of the Stoic metaphysics, and was later incorporated into medieval philosophy and theology as the divine governance or ordering of creation, i.e. providence.

"The elementary state of material Force is, in the view of the old Indian physicists, a condition of pure material extension in Space of which the peculiar property is vibration typified to us by the phenomenon of sound. But vibration in this state of ether is not sufficient to create forms. There must first be some obstruction in the flow of the Force ocean, some contraction and expansion, some interplay of vibrations, some impinging of force upon force so as to create a beginning of fixed relations and mutual effects. Material Force modifying its first ethereal status assumes a second, called in the old language the aerial, of which the special property is contact between force and force, contact that is the basis of all material relations. Still we have not as yet real forms but only varying forces. A sustaining principle is needed. This is provided by a third self-modification of the primitive Force of which the principle of light, electricity, fire and heat is for us the characteristic manifestation. Even then, we can have forms of force preserving their own character and peculiar action, but not stable forms of Matter. A fourth state characterised by diffusion and a first medium of permanent attractions and repulsions, termed picturesquely water or the liquid state, and a fifth of cohesion, termed earth or the solid state, complete the necessary elements.” The Life Divine*

“The elementary state of material Force is, in the view of the old Indian physicists, a condition of pure material extension in Space of which the peculiar property is vibration typified to us by the phenomenon of sound. But vibration in this state of ether is not sufficient to create forms. There must first be some obstruction in the flow of the Force ocean, some contraction and expansion, some interplay of vibrations, some impinging of force upon force so as to create a beginning of fixed relations and mutual effects. Material Force modifying its first ethereal status assumes a second, called in the old language the aerial, of which the special property is contact between force and force, contact that is the basis of all material relations. Still we have not as yet real forms but only varying forces. A sustaining principle is needed. This is provided by a third self-modification of the primitive Force of which the principle of light, electricity, fire and heat is for us the characteristic manifestation. Even then, we can have forms of force preserving their own character and peculiar action, but not stable forms of Matter. A fourth state characterised by diffusion and a first medium of permanent attractions and repulsions, termed picturesquely water or the liquid state, and a fifth of cohesion, termed earth or the solid state, complete the necessary elements.” The Life Divine

The formulation which we have given provides a means of proving theorems of the propositional calculus, the proof consisting of an explicit finite sequence of formulas, the last of which is the theorem proved, and each of which is either a primitive formula or inferable from preceding formulas by a single application of the rule of inference (or one of the rules of inference, if the alternative formulation of the pure propositional calculus employing the rule of substitution is adopted). The test whether a given finite sequence of formulas is a proof of the last formula of the sequence is effective -- we have the means of always determining of a given formula whether it is a primitive formula, and the means of always determining of a given formula whether it is inferable from a given finite list of formulas by a single application of modus ponens (or substitution). Indeed our formulation would not be satisfactory otherwise. For in the contrary case a proof would not necessarily carry conviction, the proposer of a proof could fairly be asked to give a proof that it was a proof -- in short the formal analysis of what constitutes a proof (in the sense of a cogent demonstration) would be incomplete.

The historical antecedents of experimental psychology are various. From British empiricism and the psychological philosophy of Locke, Berkeley and Hume came associationism (see Associationism), the psychological implications of which were more fully developed by Herbart and Bain. Associationism provided the conceptual framework and largely colored the procedures of early experimental psychology. Physics and physiology gave impetus to experiments on sensory phenomena while physiology and neurology fostered studies of the nervous system and reflex action. The names of Helmholtz, Johannes Müller, E. H. Weber and Fechner are closely linked with this phase of the development of experimental psychology. The English biologist Galton developed the statistical methods of Quetelet for the analysis of data on human variation and opened the way for the mental testing movement; the Russian physiologist Pavlov, with his researches on "conditioned reflexes," contributed an experimental technique which has proved of paramount importance for the psychologist. Even astronomy made its contribution; variations in reaction time of different observers having long been recognized by astronomers as an important source of error in their observations.

The human soul is considered by Plato to be an immaterial agent, superior in nature to the body and somewhat hindered by the body in the performance of the higher, psychic functions of human life. The tripartite division of the soul becomes an essential teaching of Platonic psychology from the Republic onward. The rational part is highest and is pictured as the ruler of the psychological organism in the well-regulated man. Next in importance is the "spirited" element of the soul, which is the source of action and the seat of the virtue of courage. The lowest part is the concupiscent or acquisitive element, which may be brought under control by the virtue of temperancc The latter two are often combined and called irrational in contrast to the highest part. Sensation is an active function of the soul, by which the soul "feels" the objects of sense through the instrumentality of the body. Particularly in the young, sensation is a necessary prelude to the knowledge of Ideas, but the mature and developed soul must learn to rise above sense perception and must strive for a more direct intuition of intelligible essences. That the soul exists before the body (related to the Pythagorean and, possibly, Orphic doctrine of transmigration) and knows the world of Ideas immediately in this anterior condition, is the foundation of the Platonic theory of reminiscence (Meno, Phaedo, Republic, Phaedrus). Thus the soul is born with true knowledge in it, but the soul, due to the encrustation of bodily cares and interests, cannot easily recall the truths innately, and we might say now, subconsciously present in it. Sometimes sense perceptions aid the soul in the process of reminiscence, and again, as in the famous demonstration of the Pythagorean theorem by the slave boy of the Meno, the questions and suggestions of a teacher provide the necessary stimuli for recollection. The personal immortality of the soul is very clearly taught by Plato in the tale of Er (Repub. X) and, with various attempts at logical demonstration, in the Phaedo. Empirical and physiological psychology is not stressed in Platonism, but there is an approach to it in the descriptions of sense organs and their media in the Timaeus 42 ff.

The influence of Pietism and of Rousseau's gospel of Nature are apparent in the essentially Christian and democratic direction in which Kant develops this rigorous ethics. The reality of God and the immortality of souls -- concerning which no theoretical demonstration was possible -- emerge now as postulates of practical reason; God, to assure the moral governance of a world in which virtue is crowned with happiness, the "summum bonum"; immortality, so that the pursuit of moral perfection may continue beyond the empirical life of man. These postulates, together with moral freedom and popular rights, provide the basis for Kant's assertion of the primacy of practical reason.

The vital part of us normally exists after the dissolution of the body for some time and passes away into the vital piano where it remains til! the vital sheath dissolves. Afterwards it passes, if it is mentally evolved, in the mental sheath to some mental world and finally the psychic leaves its mental sheath also and goes to its place of rest. If the mental is strongly developed, then the mental part of us can remain ; so also can the vital, provided they are organised by and centred round the true psychic being — for they then share the immortality of the psychic. Otherwise the psychic draws mind and life into itself and enters into^an intematal quiescence.

This representation does not reproduce faithfully all particulars of the traditional account. The fact is that the traditional doctrine, having grown up from various sources and under an inadequate formal analysis, is not altogether what seems to be the best representation, and simply note the four following points of divergence: We have defined the connectives ⊃x and ∧x in terms of universal and existential quantification, whereas the traditional account might be thought to be more closely reproduced if they were taken as primitive notations. (It would, however, not be difficult to reformulate the functional calculus of first order so that these connectives would be primitive and the usual quantifiers defined in terms of them.) The traditional account associates the negation in E and O with the copula (q. v.), whereas the negation symbol is here prefixed to the sub-formula P(x). (Notice that this sub-formula represents ambiguously a proposition and that, in fact, the notation of the functional calculus of first order provides for applying negation only to propositions.) The traditional account includes under A and E respectively, also (propositions denoted by) P(A) and ∼P(A), where A is an individual constant. These singular propositions are ignored in our account of opposition and immediate inference, but will appear in § 5 as giving variant forms of certain syllogisms. Some aspects of the traditional account require that A and E be represented as we have here, others that they be represented by     [(Ex)S(x)][S(x) ⊃x P(x)]   and   [(Ex)S(x)][S(x) ⊃x ∼P(x)]     respectively. The question concerning the choice between these two interpretations is known as the problem of existential import of propositions. We prefer to introduce (Ex)S(x) as a separate premiss at those places where it is required. Given a fixed subject S and a fixed predicate P, we have, according to the square of opposition, that A and O are contradictory, E and I are contradictory, A and E are contrary, I and O are subcontrary, A and I are subaltern, E and O are subaltern. The two propositions in a contradictory pair cannot be both true and cannot be both false (one is the exact negation of the other). The two propositions in a subaltern pair are so related that the first one, together with the premiss (Ex)S(x), implies the second (subalternation). Under the premiss (Ex)S(x), the contrary pair, A, E, cannot be both true, and the subcontrary pair, I, O, cannot be both false.

thorough-lighted ::: a. --> Provided with thorough lights or windows at opposite sides, as a room or building.

Though the supermind is suprarational to our intelligence and its workings occult to our apprehension, it is nothing irrationally mystic, but rather its existence and emergence is a logical necessity of the nature of existence, always provided we grant that not matter or mind alone but spirit is the fundamental reality and everywhere a universal presence. All things are a manifestation of the infinite spirit out of its own being, out of its own consciousness and by the self-realising, self-determining, self-fulfilling power of that consciousness. The Infinite, we may say, organises by the power of its self-knowledge the law of its own manifestation of being in the universe, not only the material universe present to our senses, but whatever lies behind it on whatever planes of existence. All is organised by it not under any inconscient compulsion, not according to a mental fantasy or caprice, but in its own infinite spiritual freedom according to the self-truth of its being, its infinite potentialities and its will of self-creation out of those potentialities, and the law of this self-truth is the necessity that compels created things to act and evolve each according to its own nature. The Intelligence— to give it an inadequate name—the Logos that thus organises its own manifestation is evidently something infinitely greater, more extended in knowledge, compelling in self-power, large both in the delight of its self-existence and the delight of its active being and works than the mental intelligence which is to us the highest realised degree and expression of consciousness. It is to this intelligence infinite in itself but freely organising and self-determiningly organic in its self-creation and its works that we may give for our present purpose the name of the divine supermind or gnosis.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 23-24, Page: 785-86

Three senses of "Ockhamism" may be distinguished: Logical, indicating usage of the terminology and technique of logical analysis developed by Ockham in his Summa totius logicae; in particular, use of the concept of supposition (suppositio) in the significative analysis of terms. Epistemological, indicating the thesis that universality is attributable only to terms and propositions, and not to things as existing apart from discourse. Theological, indicating the thesis that no tneological doctrines, such as those of God's existence or of the immortality of the soul, are evident or demonstrable philosophically, so that religious doctrine rests solely on faith, without metaphysical or scientific support. It is in this sense that Luther is often called an Ockhamist.   Bibliography:   B. Geyer,   Ueberwegs Grundriss d. Gesch. d. Phil., Bd. II (11th ed., Berlin 1928), pp. 571-612 and 781-786; N. Abbagnano,   Guglielmo di Ockham (Lanciano, Italy, 1931); E. A. Moody,   The Logic of William of Ockham (N. Y. & London, 1935); F. Ehrle,   Peter von Candia (Muenster, 1925); G. Ritter,   Studien zur Spaetscholastik, I-II (Heidelberg, 1921-1922).     --E.A.M. Om, aum: (Skr.) Mystic, holy syllable as a symbol for the indefinable Absolute. See Aksara, Vac, Sabda. --K.F.L. Omniscience: In philosophy and theology it means the complete and perfect knowledge of God, of Himself and of all other beings, past, present, and future, or merely possible, as well as all their activities, real or possible, including the future free actions of human beings. --J.J.R. One: Philosophically, not a number but equivalent to unit, unity, individuality, in contradistinction from multiplicity and the mani-foldness of sensory experience. In metaphysics, the Supreme Idea (Plato), the absolute first principle (Neo-platonism), the universe (Parmenides), Being as such and divine in nature (Plotinus), God (Nicolaus Cusanus), the soul (Lotze). Religious philosophy and mysticism, beginning with Indian philosophy (s.v.), has favored the designation of the One for the metaphysical world-ground, the ultimate icility, the world-soul, the principle of the world conceived as reason, nous, or more personally. The One may be conceived as an independent whole or as a sum, as analytic or synthetic, as principle or ontologically. Except by mysticism, it is rarely declared a fact of sensory experience, while its transcendent or transcendental, abstract nature is stressed, e.g., in epistemology where the "I" or self is considered the unitary background of personal experience, the identity of self-consciousness, or the unity of consciousness in the synthesis of the manifoldness of ideas (Kant). --K.F.L. One-one: A relation R is one-many if for every y in the converse domain there is a unique x such that xRy. A relation R is many-one if for every x in the domain there is a unique y such that xRy. (See the article relation.) A relation is one-one, or one-to-one, if it is at the same time one-many and many-one. A one-one relation is said to be, or to determine, a one-to-one correspondence between its domain and its converse domain. --A.C. On-handedness: (Ger. Vorhandenheit) Things exist in the mode of thereness, lying- passively in a neutral space. A "deficient" form of a more basic relationship, termed at-handedness (Zuhandenheit). (Heidegger.) --H.H. Ontological argument: Name by which later authors, especially Kant, designate the alleged proof for God's existence devised by Anselm of Canterbury. Under the name of God, so the argument runs, everyone understands that greater than which nothing can be thought. Since anything being the greatest and lacking existence is less then the greatest having also existence, the former is not really the greater. The greatest, therefore, has to exist. Anselm has been reproached, already by his contemporary Gaunilo, for unduly passing from the field of logical to the field of ontological or existential reasoning. This criticism has been repeated by many authors, among them Aquinas. The argument has, however, been used, if in a somewhat modified form, by Duns Scotus, Descartes, and Leibniz. --R.A. Ontological Object: (Gr. onta, existing things + logos, science) The real or existing object of an act of knowledge as distinguished from the epistemological object. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ontologism: (Gr. on, being) In contrast to psychologism, is called any speculative system which starts philosophizing by positing absolute being, or deriving the existence of entities independently of experience merely on the basis of their being thought, or assuming that we have immediate and certain knowledge of the ground of being or God. Generally speaking any rationalistic, a priori metaphysical doctrine, specifically the philosophies of Rosmini-Serbati and Vincenzo Gioberti. As a philosophic method censored by skeptics and criticists alike, as a scholastic doctrine formerly strongly supported, revived in Italy and Belgium in the 19th century, but no longer countenanced. --K.F.L. Ontology: (Gr. on, being + logos, logic) The theory of being qua being. For Aristotle, the First Philosophy, the science of the essence of things. Introduced as a term into philosophy by Wolff. The science of fundamental principles, the doctrine of the categories. Ultimate philosophy; rational cosmology. Syn. with metaphysics. See Cosmology, First Principles, Metaphysics, Theology. --J.K.F. Operation: "(Lit. operari, to work) Any act, mental or physical, constituting a phase of the reflective process, and performed with a view to acquiring1 knowledge or information about a certain subject-nntter. --A.C.B.   In logic, see Operationism.   In philosophy of science, see Pragmatism, Scientific Empiricism. Operationism: The doctrine that the meaning of a concept is given by a set of operations.   1. The operational meaning of a term (word or symbol) is given by a semantical rule relating the term to some concrete process, object or event, or to a class of such processes, objectj or events.   2. Sentences formed by combining operationally defined terms into propositions are operationally meaningful when the assertions are testable by means of performable operations. Thus, under operational rules, terms have semantical significance, propositions have empirical significance.   Operationism makes explicit the distinction between formal (q.v.) and empirical sentences. Formal propositions are signs arranged according to syntactical rules but lacking operational reference. Such propositions, common in mathematics, logic and syntax, derive their sanction from convention, whereas an empirical proposition is acceptable (1) when its structure obeys syntactical rules and (2) when there exists a concrete procedure (a set of operations) for determining its truth or falsity (cf. Verification). Propositions purporting to be empirical are sometimes amenable to no operational test because they contain terms obeying no definite semantical rules. These sentences are sometimes called pseudo-propositions and are said to be operationally meaningless. They may, however, be 'meaningful" in other ways, e.g. emotionally or aesthetically (cf. Meaning).   Unlike a formal statement, the "truth" of an empirical sentence is never absolute and its operational confirmation serves only to increase the degree of its validity. Similarly, the semantical rule comprising the operational definition of a term has never absolute precision. Ordinarily a term denotes a class of operations and the precision of its definition depends upon how definite are the rules governing inclusion in the class.   The difference between Operationism and Logical Positivism (q.v.) is one of emphasis. Operationism's stress of empirical matters derives from the fact that it was first employed to purge physics of such concepts as absolute space and absolute time, when the theory of relativity had forced upon physicists the view that space and time are most profitably defined in terms of the operations by which they are measured. Although different methods of measuring length at first give rise to different concepts of length, wherever the equivalence of certain of these measures can be established by other operations, the concepts may legitimately be combined.   In psychology the operational criterion of meaningfulness is commonly associated with a behavioristic point of view. See Behaviorism. Since only those propositions which are testable by public and repeatable operations are admissible in science, the definition of such concepti as mind and sensation must rest upon observable aspects of the organism or its behavior. Operational psychology deals with experience only as it is indicated by the operation of differential behavior, including verbal report. Discriminations, or the concrete differential reactions of organisms to internal or external environmental states, are by some authors regarded as the most basic of all operations.   For a discussion of the role of operational definition in phvsics. see P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics, (New York, 1928) and The Nature of Physical Theory (Princeton, 1936). "The extension of operationism to psychology is discussed by C. C. Pratt in The Logic of Modem Psychology (New York. 1939.)   For a discussion and annotated bibliography relating to Operationism and Logical Positivism, see S. S. Stevens, Psychology and the Science of Science, Psychol. Bull., 36, 1939, 221-263. --S.S.S. Ophelimity: Noun derived from the Greek, ophelimos useful, employed by Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) in economics as the equivalent of utility, or the capacity to provide satisfaction. --J.J.R. Opinion: (Lat. opinio, from opinor, to think) An hypothesis or proposition entertained on rational grounds but concerning which doubt can reasonably exist. A belief. See Hypothesis, Certainty, Knowledge. --J.K.F- Opposition: (Lat. oppositus, pp. of oppono, to oppose) Positive actual contradiction. One of Aristotle's Post-predicaments. In logic any contrariety or contradiction, illustrated by the "Square of Opposition". Syn. with: conflict. See Logic, formal, § 4. --J.K.F. Optimism: (Lat. optimus, the best) The view inspired by wishful thinking, success, faith, or philosophic reflection, that the world as it exists is not so bad or even the best possible, life is good, and man's destiny is bright. Philosophically most persuasively propounded by Leibniz in his Theodicee, according to which God in his wisdom would have created a better world had he known or willed such a one to exist. Not even he could remove moral wrong and evil unless he destroyed the power of self-determination and hence the basis of morality. All systems of ethics that recognize a supreme good (Plato and many idealists), subscribe to the doctrines of progressivism (Turgot, Herder, Comte, and others), regard evil as a fragmentary view (Josiah Royce et al.) or illusory, or believe in indemnification (Henry David Thoreau) or melioration (Emerson), are inclined optimistically. Practically all theologies advocating a plan of creation and salvation, are optimistic though they make the good or the better dependent on moral effort, right thinking, or belief, promising it in a future existence. Metaphysical speculation is optimistic if it provides for perfection, evolution to something higher, more valuable, or makes room for harmonies or a teleology. See Pessimism. --K.F.L. Order: A class is said to be partially ordered by a dyadic relation R if it coincides with the field of R, and R is transitive and reflexive, and xRy and yRx never both hold when x and y are different. If in addition R is connected, the class is said to be ordered (or simply ordered) by R, and R is called an ordering relation.   Whitehcid and Russell apply the term serial relation to relations which are transitive, irreflexive, and connected (and, in consequence, also asymmetric). However, the use of serial relations in this sense, instead ordering relations as just defined, is awkward in connection with the notion of order for unit classes.   Examples: The relation not greater than among leal numbers is an ordering relation. The relation less than among real numbers is a serial relation. The real numbers are simply ordered by the former relation. In the algebra of classes (logic formal, § 7), the classes are partially ordered by the relation of class inclusion.   For explanation of the terminology used in making the above definitions, see the articles connexity, reflexivity, relation, symmetry, transitivity. --A.C. Order type: See relation-number. Ordinal number: A class b is well-ordered by a dyadic relation R if it is ordered by R (see order) and, for every class a such that a ⊂ b, there is a member x of a, such that xRy holds for every member y of a; and R is then called a well-ordering relation. The ordinal number of a class b well-ordered by a relation R, or of a well-ordering relation R, is defined to be the relation-number (q. v.) of R.   The ordinal numbers of finite classes (well-ordered by appropriate relations) are called finite ordinal numbers. These are 0, 1, 2, ... (to be distinguished, of course, from the finite cardinal numbers 0, 1, 2, . . .).   The first non-finite (transfinite or infinite) ordinal number is the ordinal number of the class of finite ordinal numbers, well-ordered in their natural order, 0, 1, 2, . . .; it is usually denoted by the small Greek letter omega. --A.C.   G. Cantor, Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Numbers, translated and with an introduction by P. E. B. Jourdain, Chicago and London, 1915. (new ed. 1941); Whitehead and Russell, Princtpia Mathematica. vol. 3. Orexis: (Gr. orexis) Striving; desire; the conative aspect of mind, as distinguished from the cognitive and emotional (Aristotle). --G.R.M.. Organicism: A theory of biology that life consists in the organization or dynamic system of the organism. Opposed to mechanism and vitalism. --J.K.F. Organism: An individual animal or plant, biologically interpreted. A. N. Whitehead uses the term to include also physical bodies and to signify anything material spreading through space and enduring in time. --R.B.W. Organismic Psychology: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, an instrument) A system of theoretical psychology which construes the structure of the mind in organic rather than atomistic terms. See Gestalt Psychology; Psychological Atomism. --L.W. Organization: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, work) A structured whole. The systematic unity of parts in a purposive whole. A dynamic system. Order in something actual. --J.K.F. Organon: (Gr. organon) The title traditionally given to the body of Aristotle's logical treatises. The designation appears to have originated among the Peripatetics after Aristotle's time, and expresses their view that logic is not a part of philosophy (as the Stoics maintained) but rather the instrument (organon) of philosophical inquiry. See Aristotelianism. --G.R.M.   In Kant. A system of principles by which pure knowledge may be acquired and established.   Cf. Fr. Bacon's Novum Organum. --O.F.K. Oriental Philosophy: A general designation used loosely to cover philosophic tradition exclusive of that grown on Greek soil and including the beginnings of philosophical speculation in Egypt, Arabia, Iran, India, and China, the elaborate systems of India, Greater India, China, and Japan, and sometimes also the religion-bound thought of all these countries with that of the complex cultures of Asia Minor, extending far into antiquity. Oriental philosophy, though by no means presenting a homogeneous picture, nevertheless shares one characteristic, i.e., the practical outlook on life (ethics linked with metaphysics) and the absence of clear-cut distinctions between pure speculation and religious motivation, and on lower levels between folklore, folk-etymology, practical wisdom, pre-scientiiic speculation, even magic, and flashes of philosophic insight. Bonds with Western, particularly Greek philosophy have no doubt existed even in ancient times. Mutual influences have often been conjectured on the basis of striking similarities, but their scientific establishment is often difficult or even impossible. Comparative philosophy (see especially the work of Masson-Oursel) provides a useful method. Yet a thorough treatment of Oriental Philosophy is possible only when the many languages in which it is deposited have been more thoroughly studied, the psychological and historical elements involved in the various cultures better investigated, and translations of the relevant documents prepared not merely from a philological point of view or out of missionary zeal, but by competent philosophers who also have some linguistic training. Much has been accomplished in this direction in Indian and Chinese Philosophy (q.v.). A great deal remains to be done however before a definitive history of Oriental Philosophy may be written. See also Arabian, and Persian Philosophy. --K.F.L. Origen: (185-254) The principal founder of Christian theology who tried to enrich the ecclesiastic thought of his day by reconciling it with the treasures of Greek philosophy. Cf. Migne PL. --R.B.W. Ormazd: (New Persian) Same as Ahura Mazdah (q.v.), the good principle in Zoroastrianism, and opposed to Ahriman (q.v.). --K.F.L. Orphic Literature: The mystic writings, extant only in fragments, of a Greek religious-philosophical movement of the 6th century B.C., allegedly started by the mythical Orpheus. In their mysteries, in which mythology and rational thinking mingled, the Orphics concerned themselves with cosmogony, theogony, man's original creation and his destiny after death which they sought to influence to the better by pure living and austerity. They taught a symbolism in which, e.g., the relationship of the One to the many was clearly enunciated, and believed in the soul as involved in reincarnation. Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Plato were influenced by them. --K.F.L. Ortega y Gasset, Jose: Born in Madrid, May 9, 1883. At present in Buenos Aires, Argentine. Son of Ortega y Munillo, the famous Spanish journalist. Studied at the College of Jesuits in Miraflores and at the Central University of Madrid. In the latter he presented his Doctor's dissertation, El Milenario, in 1904, thereby obtaining his Ph.D. degree. After studies in Leipzig, Berlin, Marburg, under the special influence of Hermann Cohen, the great exponent of Kant, who taught him the love for the scientific method and awoke in him the interest in educational philosophy, Ortega came to Spain where, after the death of Nicolas Salmeron, he occupied the professorship of metaphysics at the Central University of Madrid. The following may be considered the most important works of Ortega y Gasset:     Meditaciones del Quijote, 1914;   El Espectador, I-VIII, 1916-1935;   El Tema de Nuestro Tiempo, 1921;   España Invertebrada, 1922;   Kant, 1924;   La Deshumanizacion del Arte, 1925;   Espiritu de la Letra, 1927;   La Rebelion de las Masas, 1929;   Goethe desde Adentio, 1934;   Estudios sobre el Amor, 1939;   Ensimismamiento y Alteracion, 1939;   El Libro de las Misiones, 1940;   Ideas y Creencias, 1940;     and others.   Although brought up in the Marburg school of thought, Ortega is not exactly a neo-Kantian. At the basis of his Weltanschauung one finds a denial of the fundamental presuppositions which characterized European Rationalism. It is life and not thought which is primary. Things have a sense and a value which must be affirmed independently. Things, however, are to be conceived as the totality of situations which constitute the circumstances of a man's life. Hence, Ortega's first philosophical principle: "I am myself plus my circumstances". Life as a problem, however, is but one of the poles of his formula. Reason is the other. The two together function, not by dialectical opposition, but by necessary coexistence. Life, according to Ortega, does not consist in being, but rather, in coming to be, and as such it is of the nature of direction, program building, purpose to be achieved, value to be realized. In this sense the future as a time dimension acquires new dignity, and even the present and the past become articulate and meaning-full only in relation to the future. Even History demands a new point of departure and becomes militant with new visions. --J.A.F. Orthodoxy: Beliefs which are declared by a group to be true and normative. Heresy is a departure from and relative to a given orthodoxy. --V.S. Orthos Logos: See Right Reason. Ostensible Object: (Lat. ostendere, to show) The object envisaged by cognitive act irrespective of its actual existence. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ostensive: (Lat. ostendere, to show) Property of a concept or predicate by virtue of which it refers to and is clarified by reference to its instances. --A.C.B. Ostwald, Wilhelm: (1853-1932) German chemist. Winner of the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1909. In Die Uberwindung des wissenschaftlichen Materialistmus and in Naturphilosophie, his two best known works in the field of philosophy, he advocates a dynamic theory in opposition to materialism and mechanism. All properties of matter, and the psychic as well, are special forms of energy. --L.E.D. Oupnekhat: Anquetil Duperron's Latin translation of the Persian translation of 50 Upanishads (q.v.), a work praised by Schopenhauer as giving him complete consolation. --K.F.L. Outness: A term employed by Berkeley to express the experience of externality, that is the ideas of space and things placed at a distance. Hume used it in the sense of distance Hamilton understood it as the state of being outside of consciousness in a really existing world of material things. --J.J.R. Overindividual: Term used by H. Münsterberg to translate the German überindividuell. The term is applied to any cognitive or value object which transcends the individual subject. --L.W. P

topic ::: n. --> One of the various general forms of argument employed in probable as distinguished from demonstrative reasoning, -- denominated by Aristotle to`poi (literally, places), as being the places or sources from which arguments may be derived, or to which they may be referred; also, a prepared form of argument, applicable to a great variety of cases, with a supply of which the ancient rhetoricians and orators provided themselves; a commonplace of argument or oratory.
A treatise on forms of argument; a system or scheme of forms

toxodonta ::: --> An extinct order of Mammalia found in the South American Tertiary formation. The incisor teeth were long and curved and provided with a persistent pulp. They are supposed to be related both to the rodents and ungulates. Called also Toxodontia.

trap ::: v. t. --> To dress with ornaments; to adorn; -- said especially of horses.
To catch in a trap or traps; as, to trap foxes.
Fig.: To insnare; to take by stratagem; to entrap.
To provide with a trap; as, to trap a drain; to trap a sewer pipe. See 4th Trap, 5. ::: n.

tressured ::: a. --> Provided or bound with a tressure; arranged in the form of a tressure.

trousseau ::: n. --> The collective lighter equipments or outfit of a bride, including clothes, jewelry, and the like; especially, that which is provided for her by her family.

truffled ::: a. --> Provided or cooked with truffles; stuffed with truffles; as, a truffled turkey.

trunnioned ::: a. --> Provided with trunnions; as, the trunnioned cylinder of an oscillating steam engine.

tubular ::: a. --> Having the form of a tube, or pipe; consisting of a pipe; fistular; as, a tubular snout; a tubular calyx. Also, containing, or provided with, tubes.

tubulated ::: a. --> Made in the form of a small tube; provided with a tube, or elongated opening.

tubulation ::: n. --> The act of shaping or making a tube, or of providing with a tube; also, a tube or tubulure; as, the tubulation of a retort.

turfing ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Turf ::: n. --> The act or process of providing or covering with turf.

twibilled ::: a. --> Armed or provided with a twibil or twibils.

unbelief ::: n. --> The withholding of belief; doubt; incredulity; skepticism.
Disbelief; especially, disbelief of divine revelation, or in a divine providence or scheme of redemption.

uncloaked ::: not provided with, or covered by, a cloak or other garments.

uncompanioned ::: not provided with a companion; not accompanied by any other (person or thing).

underhanded ::: a. --> Underhand; clandestine.
Insufficiently provided with hands or workers; short-handed; sparsely populated.

undiocesed ::: a. --> Unprovided with a diocese; having no diocese.

unhoused ::: a. --> Driven from a house; deprived of shelter.
Not provided with a house or shelter; houseless; homeless.

unprovided for; not backed by measures taken beforehand or other means for meeting a need.

unprovident ::: a. --> Improvident.

unprovide ::: v. t. --> To deprive of necessary provision; to unfurnish.

upholder ::: n. --> A broker or auctioneer; a tradesman.
An undertaker, or provider for funerals.
An upholsterer.
One who, or that which, upholds; a supporter; a defender; a sustainer.

upholsterer ::: n. --> One who provides hangings, coverings, cushions, curtains, and the like; one who upholsters.

uterus ::: n. --> The organ of a female mammal in which the young are developed previous to birth; the womb.
A receptacle, or pouch, connected with the oviducts of many invertebrates in which the eggs are retained until they hatch or until the embryos develop more or less. See Illust. of Hermaphrodite in Append.

vagina ::: n. --> A sheath; a theca; as, the vagina of the portal vein.
Specifically, the canal which leads from the uterus to the external orifice if the genital canal, or to the cloaca.
The terminal part of the oviduct in insects and various other invertebrates. See Illust., of Spermatheca.
The basal expansion of certain leaves, which inwraps the stem; a sheath.
The shaft of a terminus, from which the bust of figure

ventilate ::: v. t. --> To open and expose to the free passage of air; to supply with fresh air, and remove impure air from; to air; as, to ventilate a room; to ventilate a cellar; to ventilate a mine.
To provide with a vent, or escape, for air, gas, etc.; as, to ventilate a mold, or a water-wheel bucket.
To change or renew, as the air of a room.
To winnow; to fan; as, to ventilate wheat.
To sift and examine; to bring out, and subject to

viander ::: n. --> A feeder; an eater; also, one who provides viands, or food; a host.

victual ::: n. --> Food; -- now used chiefly in the plural. See Victuals.
Grain of any kind. ::: v. t. --> To supply with provisions for subsistence; to provide with food; to store with sustenance; as, to victual an army; to victual a ship.

viewless ::: 1. That cannot be seen; invisible. 2. Providing no view.

vigilant ::: a. --> Attentive to discover and avoid danger, or to provide for safety; wakeful; watchful; circumspect; wary.

vindicate ::: to provide justification or support for. vindicated.

volumescope ::: n. --> An instrument consisting essentially of a glass tube provided with a graduated scale, for exhibiting to the eye the changes of volume of a gas or gaseous mixture resulting from chemical action, and the like.

vulva ::: n. --> The external parts of the female genital organs; sometimes, the opening between the projecting parts of the external organs.
The orifice of the oviduct of an insect or other invertebrate.

watch-fires ::: fires maintained during the night as signals and for providing light and warmth to sentinels.

webbed ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Web ::: a. --> Provided with a web.
Having the toes united by a membrane, or web; as, the webbed feet of aquatic fowls.

well-informed ::: a. --> Correctly informed; provided with information; well furnished with authentic knowledge; intelligent.

well ::: n. 1. A deep hole or shaft sunk into the earth to obtain water, oil, gas, etc. 2. A source, esp. one that provides a continuous supply. 3. An apparent reservoir or source of energy, etc. wells. *v. wells. 4. Rises, springs, or gushes as water, from the earth or some other source (often followed by up). *welled.

wive ::: v. i. --> To marry, as a man; to take a wife. ::: v. t. --> To match to a wife; to provide with a wife.
To take for a wife; to marry.

workhouse ::: n. --> A house where any manufacture is carried on; a workshop.
A house in which idle and vicious persons are confined to labor.
A house where the town poor are maintained at public expense, and provided with labor; a poorhouse.

Zeno the Stoic: (c. 340-265 B.C.) A native of Cyprus and the founder of the Stoic School in Athens. His philosophy was built on the principle that reality is a rational order in which nature is controlled by laws of Reason, interpreted in the vein of pantheism. Men's lives are guided by Providence against which it is futile to resist and to which wise men willingly submit. -- R.B.W.

zoospore ::: n. --> A spore provided with one or more slender cilia, by the vibration of which it swims in the water. Zoospores are produced by many green, and by some olive-brown, algae. In certain species they are divided into the larger macrozoospores and the smaller microzoospores. Called also sporozoid, and swarmspore.
See Swarmspore.

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KEYS (10k)

   4 Ovid
   1 Taigen Dan Leighton


  597 Ovid
   10 Anonymous
   4 William Shakespeare
   4 David Livingstone
   3 Wayne Dyer
   3 Victor Hugo
   3 Trevor Noah
   3 Mason Cooley
   3 Joyce Meyer
   3 George Herbert
   2 Zig Ziglar
   2 Tony Robbins
   2 Tom Robbins
   2 Terry Pratchett
   2 Sun Tzu
   2 Stendhal
   2 Sean Patrick
   2 Ron Kaufman
   2 Oscar Wilde
   2 Napoleon Bonaparte

1:The result justifies the deed. ~ Ovid
2:And if there is no dust shake it off. ~ Ovid,
3:Fortune resists half-hearted prayers. ~ Ovid,
4:what we have been, or now are, we shall not be tomorrow" ~ Ovid, Metamorphoses,
5:Reading list (1972 edition)[edit]
1. Homer - Iliad, Odyssey
2. The Old Testament
3. Aeschylus - Tragedies
4. Sophocles - Tragedies
5. Herodotus - Histories
6. Euripides - Tragedies
7. Thucydides - History of the Peloponnesian War
8. Hippocrates - Medical Writings
9. Aristophanes - Comedies
10. Plato - Dialogues
11. Aristotle - Works
12. Epicurus - Letter to Herodotus; Letter to Menoecus
13. Euclid - Elements
14.Archimedes - Works
15. Apollonius of Perga - Conic Sections
16. Cicero - Works
17. Lucretius - On the Nature of Things
18. Virgil - Works
19. Horace - Works
20. Livy - History of Rome
21. Ovid - Works
22. Plutarch - Parallel Lives; Moralia
23. Tacitus - Histories; Annals; Agricola Germania
24. Nicomachus of Gerasa - Introduction to Arithmetic
25. Epictetus - Discourses; Encheiridion
26. Ptolemy - Almagest
27. Lucian - Works
28. Marcus Aurelius - Meditations
29. Galen - On the Natural Faculties
30. The New Testament
31. Plotinus - The Enneads
32. St. Augustine - On the Teacher; Confessions; City of God; On Christian Doctrine
33. The Song of Roland
34. The Nibelungenlied
35. The Saga of Burnt Njal
36. St. Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica
37. Dante Alighieri - The Divine Comedy;The New Life; On Monarchy
38. Geoffrey Chaucer - Troilus and Criseyde; The Canterbury Tales
39. Leonardo da Vinci - Notebooks
40. Niccolò Machiavelli - The Prince; Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy
41. Desiderius Erasmus - The Praise of Folly
42. Nicolaus Copernicus - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
43. Thomas More - Utopia
44. Martin Luther - Table Talk; Three Treatises
45. François Rabelais - Gargantua and Pantagruel
46. John Calvin - Institutes of the Christian Religion
47. Michel de Montaigne - Essays
48. William Gilbert - On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies
49. Miguel de Cervantes - Don Quixote
50. Edmund Spenser - Prothalamion; The Faerie Queene
51. Francis Bacon - Essays; Advancement of Learning; Novum Organum, New Atlantis
52. William Shakespeare - Poetry and Plays
53. Galileo Galilei - Starry Messenger; Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
54. Johannes Kepler - Epitome of Copernican Astronomy; Concerning the Harmonies of the World
55. William Harvey - On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals; On the Circulation of the Blood; On the Generation of Animals
56. Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan
57. René Descartes - Rules for the Direction of the Mind; Discourse on the Method; Geometry; Meditations on First Philosophy
58. John Milton - Works
59. Molière - Comedies
60. Blaise Pascal - The Provincial Letters; Pensees; Scientific Treatises
61. Christiaan Huygens - Treatise on Light
62. Benedict de Spinoza - Ethics
63. John Locke - Letter Concerning Toleration; Of Civil Government; Essay Concerning Human Understanding;Thoughts Concerning Education
64. Jean Baptiste Racine - Tragedies
65. Isaac Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; Optics
66. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Discourse on Metaphysics; New Essays Concerning Human Understanding;Monadology
67.Daniel Defoe - Robinson Crusoe
68. Jonathan Swift - A Tale of a Tub; Journal to Stella; Gulliver's Travels; A Modest Proposal
69. William Congreve - The Way of the World
70. George Berkeley - Principles of Human Knowledge
71. Alexander Pope - Essay on Criticism; Rape of the Lock; Essay on Man
72. Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu - Persian Letters; Spirit of Laws
73. Voltaire - Letters on the English; Candide; Philosophical Dictionary
74. Henry Fielding - Joseph Andrews; Tom Jones
75. Samuel Johnson - The Vanity of Human Wishes; Dictionary; Rasselas; The Lives of the Poets
   ~ Mortimer J Adler,


1:Agreeing to differ. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
2:Venus favors the bold. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
3:Beauty is a frail good. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
4:Do not believe hastily. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
5:Pursuits become habits. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
6:Giving calls for genius. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
7:The gods favor the bold. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
8:Beauty is a fragile gift. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
9:Every lover is a soldier. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
10:Habit had made the custom. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
11:Love is a credulous thing. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
12:Love is a kind of warfare. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
13:Skill makes love unending. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
14:Tempus fugit (time flies). ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
15:Art lies in concealing art. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
16:Giving requires good sense. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
17:Lovers remember everything. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
18:Bear patiently with a rival. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
19:Courage conquers all things. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
20:Few love what they may have. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
21:There is something in omens. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
22:To give requires good sense. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
23:Art lies by its own artifice. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
24:God himself favors the brave. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
25:Habits change into character. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
26:Love is a believing creature. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
27:The gods have their own laws. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
28:Time that devours all things. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
29:A short absence is the safest. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
30:The gods have their own rules. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
31:The result justifies the deed. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
32:The spirits run riot in youth. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
33:An injury may prove a blessing. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
34:Anyone can be rich in promises. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
35:Idleness ruins the constitution ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
36:Love is an affair of credulity. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
37:Nothing is stronger than habit. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
38:A bitter drug oft brings relief. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
39:An evil life is a kind of death. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
40:Let the poor man mind his tongue ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
41:We two are to ourselves a crowd. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
42:Anger assists hands however weak. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
43:Fortune and love favor the brave. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
44:God himself helps those who dare. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
45:No man provokes me with impunity. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
46:Safety lies in the middle course. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
47:Simplicity, very rare in our age. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
48:The mind alone can not be exiled. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
49:This victory will be your I ruin. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
50:You will be safest in the middle. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
51:Dripping water hollows out a stone ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
52:Either attempt it not, or succeed. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
53:Fortune and love favour the brave. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
54:Good-bye to the lies of the poets. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
55:Little things please little minds. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
56:Love is a kind of military service ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
57:Love is no assignment for cowards. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
58:Neglect of appearance becomes men. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
59:Nothing is swifter than our years. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
60:Novelty in all things is charming. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
61:The act is judged of by the event. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
62:The end doesn't justify the means. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
63:Time is generally the best doctor. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
64:Time, motion and wine cause sleep. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
65:Against the bold, daring is unsafe. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
66:A lover fears all that he believes. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
67:A safe pleasure is a tame pleasure. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
68:A woman is always buying something. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
69:Love fed fat soon turns to boredom. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
70:Time is the devourer of all things. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
71:We can learn even from our enemies. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
72:All things change, nothing perishes. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
73:Chaste is she whom no one has asked. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
74:Even pleasure cloys without variety. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
75:Everything changes, nothing is lost. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
76:everything changes, nothing perishes ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
77:If you want to be loved, be lovable. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
78:Often they benefit who suffer wrong. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
79:Pleasant words are the food of love. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
80:That you may be beloved, be amiable. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
81:The brave find a home in every land. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
82:The ungovernable passion for wealth. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
83:Time is generally the best medicine. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
84:Art is most effective when concealed. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
85:Excessive love in loathing ever ends. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
86:Fortune resists half-hearted prayers. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
87:I can't live without you or with you. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
88:If the art is concealed, it succeeds. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
89:If you want to be loved, be loveable. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
90:Love, and a cough, are not concealed. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
91:Misfortunes often sharpen the genius. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
92:Tis best to be silent in a bad cause. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
93:Ah me! love can not be cured by herbs. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
94:All things can corrupt perverse minds. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
95:A pleasing face is no small advantage. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
96:Daring is not safe against daring men. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
97:It is a kingly act to help the fallen. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
98:Love is a thing full of anxious fears. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
99:Put faith in one who's had experience. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
100:Small minds are captivated by trifles. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
101:That tuneful nymph, the babbling Echo. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
102:The bold adventurer succeeds the best. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
103:The gods behold all righteous actions. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
104:The prayers of cowards fortune spurns. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
105:There is a divinity within our breast. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
106:Whatever charm thou hast, be charming. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
107:You will go most safely in the middle. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
108:Difficulty is what wakes up the genius. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
109:It is ill to marry in the month of May. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
110:Keep a mid course between two extremes. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
111:Love and dignity do not dwell together. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
112:Love that is fed by jealousy dies hard. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
113:The deeds of men never escape the gods. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
114:The love of fame puts spurs to the mind ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
115:There is a certain pleasure in weeping. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
116:Trivial losses often prove great gains. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
117:What ignorance there is in human minds. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
118:A burthen cheerfully borne becomes light ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
119:A man is sorry to be honest for nothing. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
120:Et, si non liceat scribere, mutus ero.]" ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
121:Have consideration for wounded feelings. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
122:He who can simulate sanity will be sane. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
123:It is good to be taught even by an enemy ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
124:Often a silent face has voice and words. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
125:Only the mind cannot be sent into exile. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
126:Thanks are justly due for boons unbought ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
127:The gods see the deeds of the righteous. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
128:The result proves the wisdom of the act. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
129:The rose is often found near the nettle. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
130:Use the occasion, for it passes swiftly. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
131:Anything cracked will shatter at a touch. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
132:A thousand ills require a thousand cures. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
133:If he should love deny him what he loves! ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
134:In an easy cause any man may be eloquent. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
135:It's right to learn, even from the enemy. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
136:One should learn even from one's enemies. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
137:Spare the soul that feels a deadly wound. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
138:Tears at times have the weight of speech. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
139:The more they drink the more they thirst. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
140:There is no need of words; believe facts. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
141:There is no small pleasure in pure water. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
142:When a rose dies, a thorn is left behind. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
143:A gift in time of need is most acceptable. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
144:Dear to girls' hearts is their own beauty. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
145:If God be my friend, I cannot be wretched. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
146:It is annoying to be honest to no purpose. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
147:Let love steal in disguised as friendship. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
148:Make good use of your time, it flies fast. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
149:The iron ring is worn out by constant use. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
150:There is no excellency without difficulty. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
151:There will grow from straws a mighty heap. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
152:The sick mind can not bear anything harsh. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
153:Tis you, alone, can save, or give my doom. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
154:What is reason now was passion heretofore. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
155:You can learn from anyone even your enemy. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
156:A boar is often held by a not-so-large dog. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
157:Burdens become light when cheerfully borne. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
158:Grief brims itself and flows away in tears. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
159:Happy the man who can count his sufferings. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
160:He whom all hate all wish to see destroyed. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
161:I hate, and yet must love the thing I hate. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
162:In an easy matter. Anybody can be eloquent. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
163:In war the olive branch of peace is of use. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
164:Like fragile ice anger passes away in time. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
165:Love is the force that leaves you colorless ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
166:Make the workmanship surpass the materials. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
167:Right it is to be taught even by the enemy. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
168:Take away leisure and Cupid's bow is broken ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
169:The battle is over when the foe has fallen. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
170:The heavier crop is ever in others' fields. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
171:The love of fame usually spurs on the mind. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
172:The whole earth is the brave man's country. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
173:The wild boar is often held by a small dog. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
174:All love is vanquished by a succeeding love. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
175:Beauty- it was a favor bestowed by the gods. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
176:He who says o'er much I love not is in love. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
177:I flee who chases me and chase who flees me. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
178:Isn't the best defense always a good attack? ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
179:It is not easy to bear prosperity unruffled. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
180:It is the act of a coward to wish for death. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
181:Knowest thou not that kings have long hands? ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
182:Most safely shall you tread the middle path. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
183:Pluck with quick hand the fruit that passes. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
184:Poetry comes fine-spun from a mind at peace. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
185:The love of glory gives an immense stimulus. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
186:The mind ill at ease, the body suffers also. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
187:When you have set yourself a task finish it. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
188:While I am speaking the opportunity is lost. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
189:You will be melancholy, if you are solitary. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
190:A pleasing countenance is no light advantage. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
191:A woman is a creature that's always shopping. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
192:Destroy our leisure and you break love's bow. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
193:Every delay that postpones our joys, is long. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
194:Every man should stay within his own fortune. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
195:In time the bull is brought to wear the yoke. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
196:Love and dignity cannot share the same abode. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
197:Love will enter cloaked in friendship's name. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
198:No thanks attach to a kindness long deferred. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
199:The cause is hidden, but the result is known. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
200:A field becomes exhausted by constant tillage. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
201:Diseases of the mind impair the bodily powers. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
202:Every lover is a soldier. (Love is a warfare.) ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
203:Forbear to lay the guilt of a few on the many. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
204:Good hope is often beguiled by her own augury. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
205:If you would marry suitably, marry your equal. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
206:Nothing is more powerful than custom or habit. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
207:Often the prickly thorn produces tender roses. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
208:Sickness seizes the body from bad ventilation. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
209:The burden which is well borne becomes light." ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
210:The sharp thorn often produces delicate roses. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
211:What follows I flee; what flees I ever pursue. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
212:When disposition wins us, the features please. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
213:You will hardly conquer, but conquer you must. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
214:Be bold, take courage... and be strong of soul ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
215:Deadly poisons are concealed under sweet honey. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
216:Envy depreciates the genius of the great Homer. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
217:Great is the strife between beauty and modesty. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
218:He who would not be idle, let him fall in love. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
219:It is art to conceal art. -Ars est celare artem ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
220:It is the poor man who'll ever count his flock. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
221:Out of many things a great heap will be formed. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
222:Presents, believe me, seduce both men and gods. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
223:There is a certain kind of pleasure in weeping. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
224:There is a good deal in a man's mode of eating. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
225:Where belief is painful we are slow to believe. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
226:Gain, acquired by many agents, soon accumulates. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
227:If thou wouldst marry wisely, marry thine equal. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
228:It is prudence that first forsakes the wretched. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
229:Love is a thing that is full of cares and fears. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
230:Mad desire, when it has the most, longs for more ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
231:The burden becomes light that is shared by love. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
232:The need has gone; the memorial thereof remains. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
233:What is without periods of rest will not endure. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
234:And I will capture your minds with sweet novelty. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
235:A pleasing countenance is no slight disadvantage. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
236:Even the gods are moved by the voice of entreaty. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
237:In our play we reveal what kind of people we are. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
238:The penalty may be removed, the crime is eternal. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
239:This also, that I live, I consider a gift of God. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
240:Treat a thousand dispositions in a thousand ways. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
241:We hate the hawk because he ever lives in battle. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
242:Add little to little and there will be a big pile. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
243:As the hawk is wont to pursue the trembling doves. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
244:I see and approve better things, but follow worse. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
245:Jupiter has no leisure to attend to little things. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
246:Love conquers all things; let us own her dominion. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
247:Pure women are only those who have not been asked. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
248:That load becomes light which is cheerfully borne. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
249:The cause is hidden; the effect is visible to all. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
250:The lamp burns bright when wick and oil are clean. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
251:We have ploughed the vast ocean in a fragile bark. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
252:Well has he lived who has lived well in obscurity. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
253:By looking at squinting people you learn to squint. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
254:Death is less bitter punishment than death's delay. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
255:Either do not attempt at all or go through with it. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
256:It is less to suffer punishment than to deserve it. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
257:I too am not powerless, and my weapons strike hard. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
258:Occupy yourself, and you will be out of harm's way. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
259:Tempus edax rerum. Time the devourer of everything. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
260:There is no excellence uncoupled with difficulties. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
261:The workmanship was better than the subject matter. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
262:All things may corrupt when minds are prone to evil. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
263:Few people want the pleasures they are free to take. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
264:fool, what else is sleep but chill death's likeness? ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
265:Leave war to others; 'tis Protesilaus' part of love. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
266:My hopes are not always realized, but I always hope. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
267:We must improve our time; time goes with rapid foot. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
268:What is now an act of reason, was but blind impulse. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
269:What is now reason was formerly impulse or instinct. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
270:A ruler should be slow to punish and swift to reward. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
271:Everything comes gradually and at its appointed hour. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
272:Friendship is but a name; fidelity but an empty name. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
273:It is something to hold the scepter with a firm hand. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
274:It's a kindness that the mind can go where it wishes. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
275:One does not yearn for that which is easily acquired. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
276:Only begin, and you will become eloquent of yourself. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
277:The laws allow arms to be taken against an armed foe. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
278:The least strength suffices to break what is bruised. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
279:There is a God within us and intercourse with heaven. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
280:What one beholds of a woman is the least part of her. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
281:Everyone's a millionaire where promises are concerned. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
282:He who has lived obscurely and quietly has lived well. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
283:Love's dominion, like a kings, admits of no partition. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
284:Luck affects everything; let your hook always be cast. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
285:Our advantages fly away without aid. Pluck the flower. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
286:Thanks are justly due for things got without purchase. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
287:The gift derives its value from the rank of the giver. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
288:The vulgar herd estimate friendship by its advantages. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
289:Wine gives courage and makes men more apt for passion. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
290:Yield to him who opposes you; by yielding you conquer. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
291:Although the power is lacking, the will is commendable. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
292:Envy feeds on the living. It ceases when they are dead. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
293:In sweet water there is a pleasure ungrudged by anyone. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
294:Jupiter from on high smiles at the perjuries of lovers. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
295:Let the man who does not wish to be idle, fall in love. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
296:Men do not value a good deed unless it brings a reward. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
297:That which never has been, never is, and never will be. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
298:The glow of inspiration warms us; it is a holy rapture. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
299:There is a God within us, and we glow when He stirs us. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
300:These are the evils which result from gossiping habits. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
301:When the roses are gone, nothing is left but the thorn. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
302:Dear to the heart of a girl is her own beauty and charm. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
303:Everyone wishes that the man whom he fears would perish. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
304:He, who is not prepared today, will be less so tomorrow. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
305:Stop short of your appetite; eat less than you are able. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
306:The love of country is more powerful than reason itself. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
307:When the character's right, looks are a greater delight. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
308:Wherever I look there is nothing but the image of death. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
309:You do not know it but you are the talk of all the town. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
310:Beauty is heaven's gift, and how few can boast of beauty. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
311:Grief is put to flight and assuaged by generous draughts. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
312:I shall speak facts; but some will say I deal in fiction. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
313:My intention is to tell of bodies changed into new forms. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
314:Riches, the incentives to evil, are dug out of the earth. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
315:Sleep ... peace of the soul, who puttest care to flight. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
316:Take rest; a field that has rested gives a bountiful crop ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
317:The punishment can be remitted; the crime is everlasting. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
318:When there is plenty of wine, sorrow and worry take wing. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
319:Endure and persist; this pain will turn to good by and by. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
320:Fair peace becomes men; ferocious anger belongs to beasts. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
321:I see and praise what is better, but follow what is worse. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
322:Pleasure is sweetest when 'tis paid for by another's pain. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
323:Stones are hollowed out by the constant dropping of water. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
324:The man who falls in love chill find plenty of occupation. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
325:Though the power be wanting, yet the wish is praiseworthy. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
326:Chastity, once lost, cannot be recalled; it goes only once. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
327:Do not lay on the multitude the blame that is due to a few. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
328:Happy is he who dares courageously to defend what he loves. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
329:To feel our ills is one thing, but to cure them is another. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
330:We do not bear sweets; we are recruited by a bitter potion. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
331:Wine prepares the heart for love, unless you take too much. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
332:Hastiness is the beginning of wrath, and its end repentance. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
333:How little is the promise of the child fulfilled in the man. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
334:Medicine sometimes snatches away health, sometimes gives it. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
335:Quarrels are the dowry which married folk bring one another. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
336:The rest of the crowd were friends of my fortune, not of me. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
337:The time will come when you will hate the sight of a mirror. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
339:A mind conscious of right laughs at the falsehoods of rumour. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
340:Judgement of beauty can err, what with the wine and the dark. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
341:Love is a naked child: do you think he has pockets for money? ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
342:Remove the temptation of idleness and Cupid's bow is useless. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
343:That you may please others you must be forgetful of yourself. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
344:They come to see, they come that they themselves may be seen. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
345:Though strength be wanting, the will to action Merits praise. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
346:Twice does he live who can enjoy the remembrance of the past. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
347:You put aside the work that's done, and seek some work to do. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
349:A light breath fans the flame, a violent gust extinguishes it. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
350:Be patient and tough; someday this pain will be useful to you. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
351:Fair peace is becoming to men; fierce anger belongs to beasts. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
352:If you are not ready today, you will be even less so tomorrow. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
353:Imperceptibly the hours glide on, and beguile us as they pass. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
354:Majesty and love do not well agree, nor do they live together. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
355:Minds that are ill at ease are agitated by both hope and fear. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
356:The vulgar crowd values friends according to their usefulness. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
357:We are charmed by neatness: Let not your hair be out of order. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
358:When the heart is sick it cannot bear the slightest annoyance. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
359:Women can always be caught; that's the first rule of the game. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
360:Fools laugh at the Latin language. -Rident stolidi verba Latina ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
361:Gold will buy the highest honours; and gold will purchase love. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
362:Happy the man who ventures boldly to defend what he holds dear. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
363:It is lawful to be taught by an enemy. Fas est ab hoste doceri. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
364:It is some alleviation to ills we cannot cure to speak of them. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
365:Let others praise ancient times; I am glad I was born in these. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
366:The poet's labors are a work of joy, and require peace of mind. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
367:What is hid is unknown: for what is unknown there is no desire. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
368:Courage conquers all things: it even gives strength to the body. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
369:Envy, the meanest of vices, creeps on the ground like a serpent. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
370:Let those who have deserved their punishment, bear it patiently. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
371:Tears are at times as eloquent as words. [Weeping hath a voice.] ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
372:That, which has not its alternation of rest, will not last long. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
373:The swallow is not ensnared by men because of its gentle nature. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
374:ye gods! what thick encircling darkness blinds the minds of men! ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
375:Let what is irksome become habitual, no more will it trouble you. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
376:Love is born of idleness and, once born, by idleness is fostered. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
377:Men should not care too much for good looks; neglect is becoming. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
378:People are slow to claim confidence in undertakings of magnitude. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
379:Very slight violence will break that which has once been cracked. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
380:We two [Deucalion and Pyrrha, after the deluge] form a multitude. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
381:When the lightning strikes but one, not one only does it terrify. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
382:Beauty, if you do not open your doors, takes age from lack of use. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
383:Envy assails the noblest: the winds howl around the highest peaks. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
384:It's useful that there should be Gods, so let's believe there are. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
385:The man who has experienced shipwreck shudders even at a calm sea. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
386:There are as many characters in men As there are shapes in nature. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
387:We suffer by our proximity. [Who get a blow intended for another.] ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
388:Alas! how difficult it is not to betray one's guilt by one's looks. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
389:Give way to your opponent; thus will you gain the crown of victory. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
390:The more highminded a man is the more easily is his anger appeased. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
391:Though the strength is lacking, yet the willingness is commendable. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
392:Time spent in the cultivation of the fields passes very pleasantly. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
393:Today is truly the Golden Age: gold buys hornor, gold procures love ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
394:What is lawful is undesirable; what is unlawful is very attractive. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
395:Whether they yield or refuse, it delights women to have been asked. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
396:Bear and endure: This sorrow will one day prove to be for your good. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
397:Hate I shall, if I can; if I can't, I shall love though not willing. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
398:If he did not succeed, he at least failed in a glorious undertaking. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
399:Man looks aloft, and with erected eyes Beholds his hereditary skies. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
400:Nothing is more useful to man that those arts which have no utility. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
401:That pleasure which can be safely indulged in is the least inviting. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
402:The judge's duty is to inquire about the time, as well as the facts. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
403:The purpose of law is to prevent the strong always having their way. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
404:Where crime is taught from early years, it becomes a part of nature. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
405:Death is not grievous to me, for I shall lay aside my pains by death. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
406:He who holds the hook is aware in what waters many fish are swimming. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
407:If you give up your quiet life, the bow of Cupid will lose its power. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
408:Those gifts are ever more precious which the giver has made precious. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
409:Time is a stream which glides smoothly on and is past before we know. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
410:Have patience and endure; this unhappiness will one day be beneficial. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
411:Honesty, by evil fortune tried, Finds in adversity the seed of praise. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
412:There are a thousand forms of evil; there will be a thousand remedies. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
413:Things which of themselves avail nothing, when united become powerful. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
414:We are slow to believe that which if believed would hurt our feelings. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
415:A soldier when aged is not appreciated; the love of an old man sickens. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
416:It is some relief to weep; grief is satisfied and carried off by tears. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
417:The mind grows sicker than the body in contemplation of it's suffering. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
418:Many women long for what eludes them, and like not what is offered them. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
419:Pride is innate in beauty, and haughtiness is the companion of the fair. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
420:Sleep, nature's rest, divine tranquility, That brings peace to the mind. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
421:The mind that's conscious of its rectitude, Laughs at the lies of rumor. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
422:Those gifts are ever the most acceptable which the giver makes precious. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
423:The mightiest rivers lose their force when split up into several streams. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
424:There is no useful thing which may not be turned to an injurious purpose. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
425:To dismiss a guest is a more ungracious act than not to admit him at all. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
426:Alas! How difficult it is to prevent the countenance from betraying guilt! ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
427:I attempt a difficult work; but there is no excellence without difficulty. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
428:It is the mind that makes the man, and our vigour is in our immortal soul. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
429:The most wretched fortune is safe; for there is no fear of anything worse. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
430:There is no such thing as pure pleasure; some anxiety always goes with it. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
431:Thou beginnest better than thou endest. The last is inferior to the first. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
432:We are always striving for things forbidden, and coveting those denied us. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
433:Concealed sorrow bursts the heart, and rages within us as an internal fire. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
434:That's one of the greatest curses ever inflicted on the human race, memory. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
435:The mind, conscious of rectitude, laughed to scorn the falsehood of report. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
436:Thy destiny is only that of man, but thy aspirations may be those of a god. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
437:We always strive after what is forbidden, and desire the things refused us. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
438:When I was from Cupid's passions free, my Muse was mute and wrote no elegy. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
439:Although they posses enough, and more than enough still they yearn for more. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
440:Dripping water hollows out stone, not through force but through persistence. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
441:If you have a voice, sing; but if you have good arms, then go in for dancing. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
442:Keep thy hook always baited, for a fish lurks even in the most unlikely swim. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
443:Let ancient times delight other folk, I rejoice that I was not born till now. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
444:Tis base to plead the unhappy prisoner's cause, With eloquence that's bought. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
445:We are ever striving after what is forbidden, and coveting what is denied us. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
446:Heaven rewards the pious; those who cherish the gods Themselves are cherished. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
447:Overlook our deeds, since you know that crime was absent from our inclination. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
448:The good of other times let people state; I think it lucky I was born so late. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
449:A horse never runs so fast as when he has other horses to catch up and outpace. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
450:Let love give way to business; give attention to business and you will be safe. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
451:What is allowed us is disagreeable, what is denied us causes us intense desire. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
452:Every one who repeats it adds something to the scandal. [The rolling snow-ball.] ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
453:Thou fool, what is sleep but the image of death? Fate will give an eternal rest. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
454:To be silent is but a small virtue; but it is a serious fault to reveal secrets. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
455:Calumny ever pursues the great, even as the winds hurl themselves on high places. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
456:Remove but the temptations of leisure, and the bow of Cupid will lose its effect. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
457:Suppressed pain chokes us; in our breasts It surges, adding ever to its strength. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
458:There is no pleasure pure and simple, and some care always comes to mar our joys. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
459:All human things hang on a slender thread, the strongest fall with a sudden crash. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
460:If Jupiter should hurl a bolt whenever men sin, His armory would quickly be empty. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
461:Nations and empires flourish and decay, By turns command, and in their turns obey. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
462:Nothing is so high and above all danger that is not below and in the power of God. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
463:She that weds well will wisely match her love, Nor be below her husband nor above. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
464:There is a deity within us who breathes that divine fire by which we are animated. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
465:Those dreams are true which we have in the morning, as the lamp begins to flicker. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
466:We take no pleasure in permitted joys, But what's forbidden is more keenly sought. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
467:By faithful study of the nobler arts, our nature's softened, and more gentle grows. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
468:She who resists as though she would not win, By her own treason falls an easy prey. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
469:He lives well who lives retired, and keeps His wants within the limits of his means. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
470:Niobe would have been called most blessed of mothers, had she not seemed so herself. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
471:Our integrity is never worth so much as when we have parted with our all to keep it. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
472:See that you promise: what harm is there in promise? In promises anyone can be rich. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
473:The applause and the favour of our fellow-men Fan even a spark of genius to a flame. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
474:There is no brotherhood between love and dignity, Nor can they share the same abode. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
475:Thus all things altered. Nothing dies. And here and there the unbodied spirit flies. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
476:You who seek an end of love, love yields to business: be busy, and you will be safe. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
477:Consider the misfortunes of others, and you will be the better able to bear your own. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
478:Envy feeds on the living, after death it rests, then the honor of a man protects him. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
479:It warms the blood, adds luster to the eyes, and wine and love have ever been allies. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
480:There is some joy in weeping. For our tears Fill up the cup, then wash our pain away. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
481:Those things that nature denied to human sight, she revealed to the eyes of the soul. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
482:Thou seest how sloth wastes the sluggish body, as water is corrupted unless it moves. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
483:What makes men indifferent to their wives is that they can see them when they please. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
484:Alluring pleasure is said to have softened the savage dispositions (of early mankind). ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
485:He who sins easily, sins less. The very power Renders less vigorous the roots of evil. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
486:Those presents are the most acceptable which are enhanced by our regard for the donor. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
487:The pleasure that is granted to me from a sense of duty ceases to be a pleasure at all. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
488:We covet what is guarded; the very care invokes the thief. Few love what they may have. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
489:What is it that love does to a woman? Without she only sleeps with it alone, she lives. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
491:A wealthy traveller fears an ambush, while one with empty pockets journeys on in safety. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
492:Bring a lawsuit against a man who can pay; the poor man's acts are not worth the expense ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
493:Constant Penelope sends to thee, careless Ulysses. Write not again, but come, sweet mate ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
494:It is convenient that there be gods, and, as it is convenient, let us believe there are. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
495:Lente, lente currite, noctis equi. Translation: Run slowly, slowly, horses of the night. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
496:The wit of man has devised cruel statutes, And nature oft permits what is by law forbid. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
497:Great talents, by the rust of long disuse, Grow lethargic and shrink from what they were. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
498:Love is too prone to trust. Would I could think My charges false and all too rashly made. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
499:As the yellow gold is tried in fire, so the faith of friendship must be seen in adversity. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove
500:Not for any one man's delight has Nature made the sun, the wind, the waters; all are free. ~ ovid, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Habit had made the custom. ~ Ovid,
2:Love is a credulous thing. ~ Ovid,
3:Love is a kind of warfare. ~ Ovid,
4:Skill makes love unending. ~ Ovid,
5:Tempus fugit (time flies). ~ Ovid,
6:What is harder than stone? ~ Ovid,
7:While I speak, time flies. ~ Ovid,
8:Art lies in concealing art. ~ Ovid,
9:Giving requires good sense. ~ Ovid,
10:Lovers remember everything. ~ Ovid,
11:Bear patiently with a rival. ~ Ovid,
12:Courage conquers all things. ~ Ovid,
13:Courage conquers all things: ~ Ovid,
14:Few love what they may have. ~ Ovid,
15:Men do not value a good deed ~ Ovid,
16:There is something in omens. ~ Ovid,
17:To give requires good sense. ~ Ovid,
18:Art lies by its own artifice. ~ Ovid,
19:Even as a cow she was lovely. ~ Ovid,
20:God himself favors the brave. ~ Ovid,
21:Habits change into character. ~ Ovid,
22:Love is a believing creature. ~ Ovid,
23:Omnia mutantur, nihil interit ~ Ovid,
24:Omnia mutantur; nihil interit ~ Ovid,
25:The gods have their own laws. ~ Ovid,
26:Who gives to Aristaeus honey; ~ Ovid,
27:A short absence is the safest. ~ Ovid,
28:Darkness makes any woman fair. ~ Ovid,
29:The gods have their own rules. ~ Ovid,
30:The result justifies the deed. ~ Ovid,
31:The spirits run riot in youth. ~ Ovid,
32:An injury may prove a blessing. ~ Ovid,
33:Anyone can be rich in promises. ~ Ovid,
34:Honesty, by evil fortune tried, ~ Ovid,
35:Idleness ruins the constitution ~ Ovid,
36:Leve fit quod bene fertur onus. ~ Ovid,
37:Love is an affair of credulity. ~ Ovid,
38:Nothing is stronger than habit. ~ Ovid,
39:Temporis ars medicina fere est. ~ Ovid,
40:A bitter drug oft brings relief. ~ Ovid,
41:All-devouring time, envious age, ~ Ovid,
42:An evil life is a kind of death. ~ Ovid,
43:Let the poor man mind his tongue ~ Ovid,
44:We two are to ourselves a crowd. ~ Ovid,
45:Anger assists hands however weak. ~ Ovid,
46:Fortune and love favor the brave. ~ Ovid,
47:God himself helps those who dare. ~ Ovid,
48:If you would be loved, be lovable ~ Ovid,
49:No man provokes me with impunity. ~ Ovid,
50:Safety lies in the middle course. ~ Ovid,
51:Simplicity, very rare in our age. ~ Ovid,
52:The mind alone can not be exiled. ~ Ovid,
53:This victory will be your I ruin. ~ Ovid,
54:You will be safest in the middle. ~ Ovid,
55:By yielding you may obtain victory ~ Ovid,
56:Dripping water hollows out a stone ~ Ovid,
57:Either attempt it not, or succeed. ~ Ovid,
58:Fortune and love favour the brave. ~ Ovid,
59:Good-bye to the lies of the poets. ~ Ovid,
60:I intend to speak of metamorphoses ~ Ovid,
61:Little things please little minds. ~ Ovid,
62:Love is a kind of military service ~ Ovid,
63:Love is no assignment for cowards. ~ Ovid,
64:Neglect of appearance becomes men. ~ Ovid,
65:Nothing is swifter than our years. ~ Ovid,
66:Novelty in all things is charming. ~ Ovid,
67:The act is judged of by the event. ~ Ovid,
68:The end doesn't justify the means. ~ Ovid,
69:Time is generally the best doctor. ~ Ovid,
70:Time, motion and wine cause sleep. ~ Ovid,
71:Against the bold, daring is unsafe. ~ Ovid,
72:A lover fears all that he believes. ~ Ovid,
73:A safe pleasure is a tame pleasure. ~ Ovid,
74:A woman is always buying something. ~ Ovid,
75:I intend to speak of metamorphoses. ~ Ovid,
76:Love fed fat soon turns to boredom. ~ Ovid,
77:Simplicity is a jewel rarely found. ~ Ovid,
78:There are as many characters in men ~ Ovid,
79:Time is the devourer of all things. ~ Ovid,
80:We can learn even from our enemies. ~ Ovid,
81:All things change, nothing perishes. ~ Ovid,
82:All things change; nothing perishes. ~ Ovid,
83:And he sets his mind to unknown arts ~ Ovid,
84:Chaste is she whom no one has asked. ~ Ovid,
85:Even pleasure cloys without variety. ~ Ovid,
86:Everything changes, nothing is lost. ~ Ovid,
87:everything changes, nothing perishes ~ Ovid,
88:If you want to be loved, be lovable. ~ Ovid,
89:Often they benefit who suffer wrong. ~ Ovid,
90:Pleasant words are the food of love. ~ Ovid,
91:That you may be beloved, be amiable. ~ Ovid,
92:The brave find a home in every land. ~ Ovid,
93:The ungovernable passion for wealth. ~ Ovid,
94:Art is most effective when concealed. ~ Ovid,
95:Excessive love in loathing ever ends. ~ Ovid,
96:Fortune resists half-hearted prayers. ~ Ovid,
97:I can't live without you or with you. ~ Ovid,
98:If the art is concealed, it succeeds. ~ Ovid,
99:If you want to be loved, be loveable. ~ Ovid,
100:Love, and a cough, are not concealed. ~ Ovid,
101:Misfortunes often sharpen the genius. ~ Ovid,
102:the gods are created by poets" --Ovid ~ Ovid,
103:Tis best to be silent in a bad cause. ~ Ovid,
104:To be loved, be lovable.” —Ovid ~ Zig Ziglar,
105:Ah me! love can not be cured by herbs. ~ Ovid,
106:All things can corrupt perverse minds. ~ Ovid,
107:And besides, we lovers fear everything ~ Ovid,
108:A pleasing face is no small advantage. ~ Ovid,
109:Daring is not safe against daring men. ~ Ovid,
110:It is a kingly act to help the fallen. ~ Ovid,
111:Love is a thing full of anxious fears. ~ Ovid,
112:Put faith in one who's had experience. ~ Ovid,
113:Small minds are captivated by trifles. ~ Ovid,
114:That tuneful nymph, the babbling Echo. ~ Ovid,
115:The bold adventurer succeeds the best. ~ Ovid,
116:The gods behold all righteous actions. ~ Ovid,
117:The prayers of cowards fortune spurns. ~ Ovid,
118:There is a certain pleasure in weeping ~ Ovid,
119:There is a divinity within our breast. ~ Ovid,
120:We take no pleasure in permitted joys, ~ Ovid,
121:Whatever charm thou hast, be charming. ~ Ovid,
122:When a house is tottering to its fall, ~ Ovid,
123:You will go most safely in the middle. ~ Ovid,
124:Difficulty is what wakes up the genius. ~ Ovid,
125:It is ill to marry in the month of May. ~ Ovid,
126:Keep a mid course between two extremes. ~ Ovid,
127:Love and dignity do not dwell together. ~ Ovid,
128:Love that is fed by jealousy dies hard. ~ Ovid,
129:Someday this pain will be useful to you ~ Ovid,
130:The art of medicine in the season lies: ~ Ovid,
131:The deeds of men never escape the gods. ~ Ovid,
132:The god we now behold with opened eyes, ~ Ovid,
133:The love of fame puts spurs to the mind ~ Ovid,
134:There is a certain pleasure in weeping. ~ Ovid,
135:Thou beginnest better than thou endest. ~ Ovid,
136:Trivial losses often prove great gains. ~ Ovid,
137:What ignorance there is in human minds. ~ Ovid,
138:A burthen cheerfully borne becomes light ~ Ovid,
139:Alles verändert sich nur, nichts stirbt. ~ Ovid,
140:A man is sorry to be honest for nothing. ~ Ovid,
141:Have consideration for wounded feelings. ~ Ovid,
142:He who can simulate sanity will be sane. ~ Ovid,
143:I am compelled to speak of metamorphoses ~ Ovid,
144:in flammam flammas, in mare fundis aquas ~ Ovid,
145:It is good to be taught even by an enemy ~ Ovid,
146:Jokaisen rakkauden voittaa uusi rakkaus. ~ Ovid,
147:Odero, si potero; si non, inuitus amabo. ~ Ovid,
148:Often a silent face has voice and words. ~ Ovid,
149:Only she is chaste whom none has invited ~ Ovid,
150:Only the mind cannot be sent into exile. ~ Ovid,
151:Sleep, rest of things, O pleasing Deity, ~ Ovid,
152:Thanks are justly due for boons unbought ~ Ovid,
153:The gods see the deeds of the righteous. ~ Ovid,
154:The result proves the wisdom of the act. ~ Ovid,
155:The rose is often found near the nettle. ~ Ovid,
156:Use the occasion, for it passes swiftly. ~ Ovid,
157:Anything cracked will shatter at a touch. ~ Ovid,
158:A thousand ills require a thousand cures. ~ Ovid,
159:If he should love deny him what he loves! ~ Ovid,
160:If the subject's easy we may all be wise; ~ Ovid,
161:In an easy cause any man may be eloquent. ~ Ovid,
162:It's right to learn, even from the enemy. ~ Ovid,
163:Spare the soul that feels a deadly wound. ~ Ovid,
164:Suppressed pain chokes us; in our breasts ~ Ovid,
165:Tears at times have the weight of speech. ~ Ovid,
166:The more they drink the more they thirst. ~ Ovid,
167:The raven once in snowy plumes was drest, ~ Ovid,
168:There is a god within us, and the heavens ~ Ovid,
169:There is no need of words; believe facts. ~ Ovid,
170:There is no small pleasure in pure water. ~ Ovid,
171:Video meliora proboque, deteriora sequor. ~ Ovid,
172:When a rose dies, a thorn is left behind. ~ Ovid,
173:A gift in time of need is most acceptable. ~ Ovid,
174:By constant dripping, water hollows stone, ~ Ovid,
175:Dear to girls' hearts is their own beauty. ~ Ovid,
176:Great talents, by the rust of long disuse, ~ Ovid,
177:He lives well who lives retired, and keeps ~ Ovid,
178:If God be my friend, I cannot be wretched. ~ Ovid,
179:It is annoying to be honest to no purpose. ~ Ovid,
180:Let love steal in disguised as friendship. ~ Ovid,
181:Make good use of your time, it flies fast. ~ Ovid,
182:Nothing aids which may not also injure us. ~ Ovid,
183:The iron ring is worn out by constant use. ~ Ovid,
184:There is no excellency without difficulty. ~ Ovid,
185:There will grow from straws a mighty heap. ~ Ovid,
186:The sick mind can not bear anything harsh. ~ Ovid,
187:The wit of man has devised cruel statutes, ~ Ovid,
188:Tis you, alone, can save, or give my doom. ~ Ovid,
189:We beg one hour of death, that neither she ~ Ovid,
190:We believe slowly when belief brings pain. ~ Ovid,
191:What is reason now was passion heretofore. ~ Ovid,
192:You can learn from anyone even your enemy. ~ Ovid,
193:You will go most safely by the middle way. ~ Ovid,
194:A boar is often held by a not-so-large dog. ~ Ovid,
195:Burdens become light when cheerfully borne. ~ Ovid,
196:Fair Flora! Now attend thy sportful feast, ~ Ovid,
197:First try all other means, but if the wound ~ Ovid,
198:Grief brims itself and flows away in tears. ~ Ovid,
199:Happy the man who can count his sufferings. ~ Ovid,
200:Here Jove with Hermes came; but in disguise ~ Ovid,
201:He whom all hate all wish to see destroyed. ~ Ovid,
202:I am a shipwrecked man who fears every sea. ~ Ovid,
203:I hate, and yet must love the thing I hate. ~ Ovid,
204:In an easy matter. Anybody can be eloquent. ~ Ovid,
205:In war the olive branch of peace is of use. ~ Ovid,
206:Like fragile ice anger passes away in time. ~ Ovid,
207:Love is the force that leaves you colorless ~ Ovid,
208:Make the workmanship surpass the materials. ~ Ovid,
209:Right it is to be taught even by the enemy. ~ Ovid,
210:Take away leisure and Cupid's bow is broken ~ Ovid,
211:The battle is over when the foe has fallen. ~ Ovid,
212:The heavier crop is ever in others' fields. ~ Ovid,
213:The love of fame usually spurs on the mind. ~ Ovid,
214:The mind that's conscious of its rectitude, ~ Ovid,
215:There is some joy in weeping. For our tears ~ Ovid,
216:The sea's vast depths lie open to the fish; ~ Ovid,
217:The whole earth is the brave man's country. ~ Ovid,
218:The wild boar is often held by a small dog. ~ Ovid,
219:Wind feeds the fire, and wind extinguishes: ~ Ovid,
220:All love is vanquished by a succeeding love. ~ Ovid,
221:Anche le lacrime hanno il peso della parola. ~ Ovid,
222:Beauty- it was a favor bestowed by the gods. ~ Ovid,
223:Greatly he failed, but he had greatly dared. ~ Ovid,
224:He who says o'er much I love not is in love. ~ Ovid,
225:I flee who chases me and chase who flees me. ~ Ovid,
226:If you would conquer Love, he must be fought ~ Ovid,
227:Isn't the best defense always a good attack? ~ Ovid,
228:It is not easy to bear prosperity unruffled. ~ Ovid,
229:It is the act of a coward to wish for death. ~ Ovid,
230:Knowest thou not that kings have long hands? ~ Ovid,
231:Live without envy, spend your peaceful years ~ Ovid,
232:Most safely shall you tread the middle path. ~ Ovid,
233:Pluck with quick hand the fruit that passes. ~ Ovid,
234:Poetry comes fine spun from a mind at peace. ~ Ovid,
235:Poetry comes fine-spun from a mind at peace. ~ Ovid,
236:She who resists as though she would not win, ~ Ovid,
237:The earth yields up her stores, of every ill ~ Ovid,
238:The love of glory gives an immense stimulus. ~ Ovid,
239:The mind ill at ease, the body suffers also. ~ Ovid,
240:When you have set yourself a task finish it. ~ Ovid,
241:While I am speaking the opportunity is lost. ~ Ovid,
242:your fate is mortal: what you ask for isn’t. ~ Ovid,
243:You will be melancholy, if you are solitary. ~ Ovid,
244:A pleasing countenance is no light advantage. ~ Ovid,
245:A woman is a creature that's always shopping. ~ Ovid,
246:Destroy our leisure and you break love's bow. ~ Ovid,
247:Every delay that postpones our joys, is long. ~ Ovid,
248:Every man should stay within his own fortune. ~ Ovid,
249:He who sins easily, sins less. The very power ~ Ovid,
250:I can live neither with you, nor without you. ~ Ovid,
251:In time the bull is brought to wear the yoke. ~ Ovid,
252:Love and dignity cannot share the same abode. ~ Ovid,
253:Love will enter cloaked in friendship's name. ~ Ovid,
254:Not for any one man's delight has Nature made ~ Ovid,
255:No thanks attach to a kindness long deferred. ~ Ovid,
256:Què li podia retreure sinó haver-la estimada? ~ Ovid,
257:Take this at least, this last advice, my son: ~ Ovid,
258:Tempore difficiles veniunt ad aratra juvenci; ~ Ovid,
259:The applause and the favour of our fellow-men ~ Ovid,
260:The burden which is well borne becomes light. ~ Ovid,
261:The cause is hidden, but the result is known. ~ Ovid,
262:A field becomes exhausted by constant tillage. ~ Ovid,
263:Be bold, take courage... and be strong of soul ~ Ovid,
264:Diseases of the mind impair the bodily powers. ~ Ovid,
265:Every lover is a soldier. (Love is a warfare.) ~ Ovid,
266:Forbear to lay the guilt of a few on the many. ~ Ovid,
267:Good hope is often beguiled by her own augury. ~ Ovid,
268:He who can believe himself well, will be well. ~ Ovid,
269:I am an exile; but it is the fault that pains; ~ Ovid,
270:If you would marry suitably, marry your equal. ~ Ovid,
271:Nothing is more powerful than custom or habit. ~ Ovid,
272:Often the prickly thorn produces tender roses. ~ Ovid,
273:Sickness seizes the body from bad ventilation. ~ Ovid,
274:The sharp thorn often produces delicate roses. ~ Ovid,
275:Though strength be wanting, the will to action ~ Ovid,
276:Tis on the living Envy feeds. She silent grows ~ Ovid,
277:What follows I flee; what flees I ever pursue. ~ Ovid,
278:When disposition wins us, the features please. ~ Ovid,
279:With wavering steps does fickle fortune stray, ~ Ovid,
280:You will hardly conquer, but conquer you must. ~ Ovid,
281:Be bold, take courage... and be strong of soul. ~ Ovid,
282:Deadly poisons are concealed under sweet honey. ~ Ovid,
283:Envy depreciates the genius of the great Homer. ~ Ovid,
284:Great is the strife between beauty and modesty. ~ Ovid,
285:He who would not be idle, let him fall in love. ~ Ovid,
286:If Jupiter should hurl a bolt whenever men sin, ~ Ovid,
287:It is art to conceal art. -Ars est celare artem ~ Ovid,
288:It is the poor man who'll ever count his flock. ~ Ovid,
289:Love is too prone to trust. Would I could think ~ Ovid,
290:Out of many things a great heap will be formed. ~ Ovid,
291:Perfer et obdura; dolor hic tibi proderit olim. ~ Ovid,
292:Presents, believe me, seduce both men and gods. ~ Ovid,
293:Rare is the virtue that's not ruled by Fortune, ~ Ovid,
294:Sometimes tears carry the same weight as words. ~ Ovid,
295:There is a certain kind of pleasure in weeping. ~ Ovid,
296:There is a good deal in a man's mode of eating. ~ Ovid,
297:Tis base to plead the unhappy prisoner's cause, ~ Ovid,
298:Where belief is painful we are slow to believe. ~ Ovid,
299:You start in April and cross to the time of May ~ Ovid,
300:for no god may undo what another god has done... ~ Ovid,
301:Gain, acquired by many agents, soon accumulates. ~ Ovid,
302:If thou wouldst marry wisely, marry thine equal. ~ Ovid,
303:In our play we reveal what kind of people we are ~ Ovid,
304:It is prudence that first forsakes the wretched. ~ Ovid,
305:Love is a thing that is full of cares and fears. ~ Ovid,
306:Mad desire, when it has the most, longs for more ~ Ovid,
307:The burden becomes light that is shared by love. ~ Ovid,
308:The need has gone; the memorial thereof remains. ~ Ovid,
309:What is without periods of rest will not endure. ~ Ovid,
310:who can carry
The incineration of a Universe? ~ Ovid,
311:Winds sweep the summits, envy seeks the heights. ~ Ovid,
312:With patience bear what pains you have deserved, ~ Ovid,
313:And I will capture your minds with sweet novelty. ~ Ovid,
314:A pleasing countenance is no slight disadvantage. ~ Ovid,
315:Beneath the sun's rays our shadow is our comrade; ~ Ovid,
316:Even the gods are moved by the voice of entreaty. ~ Ovid,
317:In our play we reveal what kind of people we are. ~ Ovid,
318:The penalty may be removed, the crime is eternal. ~ Ovid,
319:There is no brotherhood between love and dignity, ~ Ovid,
320:This also, that I live, I consider a gift of God. ~ Ovid,
321:Treat a thousand dispositions in a thousand ways. ~ Ovid,
322:We hate the hawk because he ever lives in battle. ~ Ovid,
323:We praise times past, while we times present use; ~ Ovid,
324:Add little to little and there will be a big pile. ~ Ovid,
325:As the hawk is wont to pursue the trembling doves. ~ Ovid,
326:Constant Penelope sends to thee, careless Ulysses. ~ Ovid,
327:I see and approve better things, but follow worse. ~ Ovid,
328:Jupiter has no leisure to attend to little things. ~ Ovid,
329:Love conquers all things; let us own her dominion. ~ Ovid,
330:Man's last day must ever be awaited and none to be ~ Ovid,
331:Pure women are only those who have not been asked. ~ Ovid,
332:Some wounds grow worse beneath the surgeon's hand; ~ Ovid,
333:That load becomes light which is cheerfully borne. ~ Ovid,
334:The cause is hidden. The effect is visible to all. ~ Ovid,
335:The cause is hidden; the effect is visible to all. ~ Ovid,
336:The lamp burns bright when wick and oil are clean. ~ Ovid,
337:We have ploughed the vast ocean in a fragile bark. ~ Ovid,
338:Well has he lived who has lived well in obscurity. ~ Ovid,
339:By looking at squinting people you learn to squint. ~ Ovid,
340:Death is less bitter punishment than death's delay. ~ Ovid,
341:Either do not attempt at all or go through with it. ~ Ovid,
342:Everyone is desirous of his own pursuits, and loves ~ Ovid,
343:It is less to suffer punishment than to deserve it. ~ Ovid,
344:I too am not powerless, and my weapons strike hard. ~ Ovid,
345:Occupy yourself, and you will be out of harm's way. ~ Ovid,
346:Tempus edax rerum. Time the devourer of everything. ~ Ovid,
347:There is no excellence uncoupled with difficulties. ~ Ovid,
348:The workmanship was better than the subject matter. ~ Ovid,
349:When worse may yet befall, there's room for prayer, ~ Ovid,
350:All things may corrupt when minds are prone to evil. ~ Ovid,
351:and I will reach the stars with the crown of my head ~ Ovid,
352:Few people want the pleasures they are free to take. ~ Ovid,
353:Heaven rewards the pious; those who cherish the gods ~ Ovid,
354:I have never injured anybody with a mordant poem; my ~ Ovid,
355:Leave war to others; 'tis Protesilaus' part of love. ~ Ovid,
356:My hopes are not always realized, but I always hope. ~ Ovid,
357:We must improve our time; time goes with rapid foot. ~ Ovid,
358:What is now an act of reason, was but blind impulse. ~ Ovid,
359:What is now reason was formerly impulse or instinct. ~ Ovid,
360:A ruler should be slow to punish and swift to reward. ~ Ovid,
361:Everything comes gradually and at its appointed hour. ~ Ovid,
362:Friendship is but a name; fidelity but an empty name. ~ Ovid,
363:It is something to hold the scepter with a firm hand. ~ Ovid,
364:It's a kindness that the mind can go where it wishes. ~ Ovid,
365:Niobe would have been called most blessed of mothers, ~ Ovid,
366:Nitimur in vetitum" -- "We strive after the forbidden ~ Ovid,
367:One does not yearn for that which is easily acquired. ~ Ovid,
368:Only begin, and you will become eloquent of yourself. ~ Ovid,
369:The laws allow arms to be taken against an armed foe. ~ Ovid,
370:The least strength suffices to break what is bruised. ~ Ovid,
371:There is a God within us and intercourse with heaven. ~ Ovid,
372:Time was when genius was more precious than gold, but ~ Ovid,
373:What one beholds of a woman is the least part of her. ~ Ovid,
374:All that remained of Daphne was her shining loveliness ~ Ovid,
375:Everyone's a millionaire where promises are concerned. ~ Ovid,
376:He who has lived obscurely and quietly has lived well. ~ Ovid,
377:(...) Los dioses no están exentos de sentir la cólera. ~ Ovid,
378:Love's dominion, like a kings, admits of no partition. ~ Ovid,
379:Luck affects everything; let your hook always be cast. ~ Ovid,
380:O fool, what else is sleep but chill death's likeness? ~ Ovid,
381:Our advantages fly away without aid. Pluck the flower. ~ Ovid,
382:Thanks are justly due for things got without purchase. ~ Ovid,
383:The gift derives its value from the rank of the giver. ~ Ovid,
384:The result justifies the deed
(Exitus acta probat) ~ Ovid,
385:The vulgar herd estimate friendship by its advantages. ~ Ovid,
386:Wine gives courage and makes men more apt for passion. ~ Ovid,
387:Yield to him who opposes you; by yielding you conquer. ~ Ovid,
388:Although the power is lacking, the will is commendable. ~ Ovid,
389:A prince should be slow to punish, and quick to reward. ~ Ovid,
390:Envy feeds on the living. It ceases when they are dead. ~ Ovid,
391:Friendship is but a name, faith is an empty name. Alas, ~ Ovid,
392:Grant me profits only, grant me the joy of profit made, ~ Ovid,
393:"Gutta cavat lapidem." (Dripping water carves a stone.) ~ Ovid,
394:Heavens! what thick darkness pervades the minds of men. ~ Ovid,
395:In sweet water there is a pleasure ungrudged by anyone. ~ Ovid,
396:Jupiter from on high smiles at the perjuries of lovers. ~ Ovid,
397:Let the man who does not wish to be idle, fall in love. ~ Ovid,
398:See that you promise: what harm is there in promise? In ~ Ovid,
399:Struggling over my fickle heart, love draws it now this ~ Ovid,
400:That which never has been, never is, and never will be. ~ Ovid,
401:The glow of inspiration warms us; it is a holy rapture. ~ Ovid,
402:There is a God within us, and we glow when He stirs us. ~ Ovid,
403:These are the evils which result from gossiping habits. ~ Ovid,
404:what we have been, or now are, we shall not be tomorrow ~ Ovid,
405:When the roses are gone, nothing is left but the thorn. ~ Ovid,
406:As many as the shells that are on the shore, so many are ~ Ovid,
407:Dear to the heart of a girl is her own beauty and charm. ~ Ovid,
408:Everyone wishes that the man whom he fears would perish. ~ Ovid,
409:He, who is not prepared today, will be less so tomorrow. ~ Ovid,
410:Riches too increase, and the maddening craving for gold, ~ Ovid,
411:Sleep ... peace of the soul, who puttest care to flight. ~ Ovid,
412:Stop short of your appetite; eat less than you are able. ~ Ovid,
413:The love of country is more powerful than reason itself. ~ Ovid,
414:We need to accept the strangeness of things as they are. ~ Ovid,
415:When the character's right, looks are a greater delight. ~ Ovid,
416:Wherever I look there is nothing but the image of death. ~ Ovid,
417:yo me abraso, y el amor reina en mi corazón deshabitado. ~ Ovid,
418:You do not know it but you are the talk of all the town. ~ Ovid,
419:Beauty is heaven's gift, and how few can boast of beauty. ~ Ovid,
420:Change is always powerful. Let your hook be always cast. ~ Ovid,
421:Face troubles from their birth, for 'tis too late to cure ~ Ovid,
422:Grief is put to flight and assuaged by generous draughts. ~ Ovid,
423:I shall speak facts; but some will say I deal in fiction. ~ Ovid,
424:Let others seek safety. Nothing is safer than misfortune, ~ Ovid,
425:My intention is to tell of bodies changed into new forms. ~ Ovid,
426:Ovid lies here, the poet, skilled in love's gentle sport; ~ Ovid,
427:Riches, the incentives to evil, are dug out of the earth. ~ Ovid,
428:Take rest; a field that has rested gives a bountiful crop ~ Ovid,
429:The punishment can be remitted; the crime is everlasting. ~ Ovid,
430:When there is plenty of wine, sorrow and worry take wing. ~ Ovid,
431:Endure and persist; this pain will turn to good by and by. ~ Ovid,
432:Fair peace becomes men; ferocious anger belongs to beasts. ~ Ovid,
433:I see and praise what is better, but follow what is worse. ~ Ovid,
434:Love will enter cloaked in friendship’s name. --Ovid ~ Emma Scott,
435:Pleasure is sweetest when 'tis paid for by another's pain. ~ Ovid,
436:Stones are hollowed out by the constant dropping of water. ~ Ovid,
437:Take rest; a field that has rested gives a beautiful crop. ~ Ovid,
438:The man who falls in love chill find plenty of occupation. ~ Ovid,
439:There is no pleasure pure and simple, and some care always ~ Ovid,
440:Though the power be wanting, yet the wish is praiseworthy. ~ Ovid,
441:Chastity, once lost, cannot be recalled; it goes only once. ~ Ovid,
442:Do not lay on the multitude the blame that is due to a few. ~ Ovid,
443:Happy is he who dares courageously to defend what he loves. ~ Ovid,
444:To feel our ills is one thing, but to cure them is another. ~ Ovid,
445:We do not bear sweets; we are recruited by a bitter potion. ~ Ovid,
446:Wine prepares the heart for love, unless you take too much. ~ Ovid,
447:Hastiness is the beginning of wrath, and its end repentance. ~ Ovid,
448:How little is the promise of the child fulfilled in the man. ~ Ovid,
449:Medicine sometimes snatches away health, sometimes gives it. ~ Ovid,
450:Quarrels are the dowry which married folk bring one another. ~ Ovid,
451:The rest of the crowd were friends of my fortune, not of me. ~ Ovid,
452:The time will come when you will hate the sight of a mirror. ~ Ovid,
453:A mind conscious of right laughs at the falsehoods of rumour. ~ Ovid,
454:Judgement of beauty can err, what with the wine and the dark. ~ Ovid,
455:Love is a naked child: do you think he has pockets for money? ~ Ovid,
456:Remove the temptation of idleness and Cupid's bow is useless. ~ Ovid,
457:That you may please others you must be forgetful of yourself. ~ Ovid,
458:They come to see, they come that they themselves may be seen. ~ Ovid,
459:Twice does he live who can enjoy the remembrance of the past. ~ Ovid,
460:You put aside the work that's done, and seek some work to do. ~ Ovid,
461:A light breath fans the flame, a violent gust extinguishes it. ~ Ovid,
462:A new idea is delicate. It can be killed by a sneer or a yawn. ~ Ovid,
463:Be patient and tough; someday this pain will be useful to you. ~ Ovid,
464:Fair peace is becoming to men; fierce anger belongs to beasts. ~ Ovid,
465:If you are not ready today, you will be even less so tomorrow. ~ Ovid,
466:Imperceptibly the hours glide on, and beguile us as they pass. ~ Ovid,
467:Let others praise ancient times; I am glad I was born in these ~ Ovid,
468:Majesty and love do not well agree, nor do they live together. ~ Ovid,
469:Minds that are ill at ease are agitated by both hope and fear. ~ Ovid,
470:The vulgar crowd values friends according to their usefulness. ~ Ovid,
471:We are charmed by neatness: Let not your hair be out of order. ~ Ovid,
472:When the heart is sick it cannot bear the slightest annoyance. ~ Ovid,
473:Women can always be caught; that's the first rule of the game. ~ Ovid,
474:Fools laugh at the Latin language. -Rident stolidi verba Latina ~ Ovid,
475:Gold will buy the highest honours; and gold will purchase love. ~ Ovid,
476:Happy are those who dare courageously to defend what they love. ~ Ovid,
477:Happy the man who ventures boldly to defend what he holds dear. ~ Ovid,
478:It is lawful to be taught by an enemy. Fas est ab hoste doceri. ~ Ovid,
479:It is some alleviation to ills we cannot cure to speak of them. ~ Ovid,
480:Let others praise ancient times; I am glad I was born in these. ~ Ovid,
481:The poet's labors are a work of joy, and require peace of mind. ~ Ovid,
482:What is hid is unknown: for what is unknown there is no desire. ~ Ovid,
483:By arts, sails, and oars, ships are rapidly moved; arts move the ~ Ovid,
484:Ceza kaldırılabilir; ama suç insanın içinde sonsuza kadar yaşar. ~ Ovid,
485:Envy, the meanest of vices, creeps on the ground like a serpent. ~ Ovid,
486:Let those who have deserved their punishment, bear it patiently. ~ Ovid,
487:Tears are at times as eloquent as words. [Weeping hath a voice.] ~ Ovid,
488:That, which has not its alternation of rest, will not last long. ~ Ovid,
489:The swallow is not ensnared by men because of its gentle nature. ~ Ovid,
490:Let what is irksome become habitual, no more will it trouble you. ~ Ovid,
491:Love is a driver, bitter and fierce if you fight and resist him, ~ Ovid,
492:Love is born of idleness and, once born, by idleness is fostered. ~ Ovid,
493:Men should not care too much for good looks; neglect is becoming. ~ Ovid,
494:People are slow to claim confidence in undertakings of magnitude. ~ Ovid,
495:Tantes petxines hi ha a la platja, com sofriments hi ha a l’amor. ~ Ovid,
496:Very slight violence will break that which has once been cracked. ~ Ovid,
497:We two [Deucalion and Pyrrha, after the deluge] form a multitude. ~ Ovid,
498:When the lightning strikes but one, not one only does it terrify. ~ Ovid,
499:Beauty, if you do not open your doors, takes age from lack of use. ~ Ovid,
500:Envy assails the noblest: the winds howl around the highest peaks. ~ Ovid,
501:It's useful that there should be Gods, so let's believe there are. ~ Ovid,
502:O ye gods! what thick encircling darkness blinds the minds of men! ~ Ovid,
503:The cause is hidden; the effect is visible to all. —Ovid ~ Annie Jacobsen,
504:The drop excavates the stone, not with force but by falling often. ~ Ovid,
505:The man who has experienced shipwreck shudders even at a calm sea. ~ Ovid,
506:We suffer by our proximity. [Who get a blow intended for another.] ~ Ovid,
507:Alas! how difficult it is not to betray one's guilt by one's looks. ~ Ovid,
508:Give way to your opponent; thus will you gain the crown of victory. ~ Ovid,
509:The more highminded a man is the more easily is his anger appeased. ~ Ovid,
510:Though the strength is lacking, yet the willingness is commendable. ~ Ovid,
511:Time spent in the cultivation of the fields passes very pleasantly. ~ Ovid,
512:Today is truly the Golden Age: gold buys hornor, gold procures love ~ Ovid,
513:To live well is to live unnoticed."
"Bene qui latuit bene dixit. ~ Ovid,
514:What is lawful is undesirable; what is unlawful is very attractive. ~ Ovid,
515:Whether they yield or refuse, it delights women to have been asked. ~ Ovid,
516:Bear and endure: This sorrow will one day prove to be for your good. ~ Ovid,
517:If he did not succeed, he at least failed in a glorious undertaking. ~ Ovid,
518:Man looks aloft, and with erected eyes Beholds his hereditary skies. ~ Ovid,
519:Nothing is more useful to man that those arts which have no utility. ~ Ovid,
520:That pleasure which can be safely indulged in is the least inviting. ~ Ovid,
521:The judge's duty is to inquire about the time, as well as the facts. ~ Ovid,
522:The purpose of law is to prevent the strong always having their way. ~ Ovid,
523:Where crime is taught from early years, it becomes a part of nature. ~ Ovid,
524:Death is not grievous to me, for I shall lay aside my pains by death. ~ Ovid,
525:Fas est ab hoste doceri.
One should learn even from one's enemies. ~ Ovid,
526:Hate I shall, if I can; if I can't, I shall love though not willing. ~ Ovid,
527:He loved a lifeless thing and he was utterly and hopelessly wretched. ~ Ovid,
528:He who holds the hook is aware in what waters many fish are swimming. ~ Ovid,
529:If you give up your quiet life, the bow of Cupid will lose its power. ~ Ovid,
530:Omnia mutantur, nihil interit (everything changes, nothing perishes). ~ Ovid,
531:Those gifts are ever more precious which the giver has made precious. ~ Ovid,
532:Time is a stream which glides smoothly on and is past before we know. ~ Ovid,
533:There are a thousand forms of evil; there will be a thousand remedies. ~ Ovid,
534:Things which of themselves avail nothing, when united become powerful. ~ Ovid,
535:We are slow to believe that which if believed would hurt our feelings. ~ Ovid,
536:A soldier when aged is not appreciated; the love of an old man sickens. ~ Ovid,
537:Dignity and love do not blend well, nor do they continue long together. ~ Ovid,
538:It is some relief to weep; grief is satisfied and carried off by tears. ~ Ovid,
539:Now I am ready to tell how bodies are changed
Into different bodies. ~ Ovid,
540:The mind grows sicker than the body in contemplation of it's suffering. ~ Ovid,
541:Many women long for what eludes them, and like not what is offered them. ~ Ovid,
542:Pride is innate in beauty, and haughtiness is the companion of the fair. ~ Ovid,
543:Sleep, nature's rest, divine tranquility, That brings peace to the mind. ~ Ovid,
544:Those gifts are ever the most acceptable which the giver makes precious. ~ Ovid,
545:Thus earth of late so rude, So shapeless, man, till now unknown, became. ~ Ovid,
546:The mightiest rivers lose their force when split up into several streams. ~ Ovid,
547:There is no useful thing which may not be turned to an injurious purpose. ~ Ovid,
548:To dismiss a guest is a more ungracious act than not to admit him at all. ~ Ovid,
549:Alas! How difficult it is to prevent the countenance from betraying guilt! ~ Ovid,
550:Either you pursue or push, O Sisyphus, the stone destined to keep rolling. ~ Ovid,
551:I attempt a difficult work; but there is no excellence without difficulty. ~ Ovid,
552:It is the mind that makes the man, and our vigour is in our immortal soul. ~ Ovid,
553:The most wretched fortune is safe; for there is no fear of anything worse. ~ Ovid,
554:There is no such thing as pure pleasure; some anxiety always goes with it. ~ Ovid,
555:We are always striving for things forbidden, and coveting those denied us. ~ Ovid,
556:Concealed sorrow bursts the heart, and rages within us as an internal fire. ~ Ovid,
557:That's one of the greatest curses ever inflicted on the human race, memory. ~ Ovid,
558:The mind, conscious of rectitude, laughed to scorn the falsehood of report. ~ Ovid,
559:Thy destiny is only that of man, but thy aspirations may be those of a god. ~ Ovid,
560:We always strive after what is forbidden, and desire the things refused us. ~ Ovid,
561:When I was from Cupid's passions free, my Muse was mute and wrote no elegy. ~ Ovid,
562:Aliudque cupido, mens aliud suadet: video meliora proboque,deteriora sequor! ~ Ovid,
563:Although they posses enough, and more than enough still they yearn for more. ~ Ovid,
564:Dripping water hollows out stone, not through force but through persistence. ~ Ovid,
565:Et ignotas animum dimittit in artes.
And he sets his mind to unknown arts. ~ Ovid,
566:If you have a voice, sing; but if you have good arms, then go in for dancing. ~ Ovid,
567:Keep thy hook always baited, for a fish lurks even in the most unlikely swim. ~ Ovid,
568:Let ancient times delight other folk, I rejoice that I was not born till now. ~ Ovid,
569:or that writing a poem you can read to no one
is like dancing in the dark. ~ Ovid,
570:We are ever striving after what is forbidden, and coveting what is denied us. ~ Ovid,
571:Overlook our deeds, since you know that crime was absent from our inclination. ~ Ovid,
572:The good of other times let people state; I think it lucky I was born so late. ~ Ovid,
573:A horse never runs so fast as when he has other horses to catch up and outpace. ~ Ovid,
574:Let love give way to business; give attention to business and you will be safe. ~ Ovid,
575:What is allowed us is disagreeable, what is denied us causes us intense desire. ~ Ovid,
576:Bene vixit, bene qui latuit."

(To live well is to live concealed.) ~ Ovid,
577:Every one who repeats it adds something to the scandal. [The rolling snow-ball.] ~ Ovid,
578:Nothing is stronger than Custom
(Fac tibi consuescat: nil adsuetudine maius) ~ Ovid,
579:Thou fool, what is sleep but the image of death? Fate will give an eternal rest. ~ Ovid,
580:To be silent is but a small virtue; but it is a serious fault to reveal secrets. ~ Ovid,
581:Calumny ever pursues the great, even as the winds hurl themselves on high places. ~ Ovid,
582:Remove but the temptations of leisure, and the bow of Cupid will lose its effect. ~ Ovid,
583:This letter gives me a tongue; and were I not allowed to write, I should be dumb. ~ Ovid,
584:All human things hang on a slender thread, the strongest fall with a sudden crash. ~ Ovid,
585:Nations and empires flourish and decay, By turns command, and in their turns obey. ~ Ovid,
586:Nothing is so high and above all danger that is not below and in the power of God. ~ Ovid,
587:She that weds well will wisely match her love, Nor be below her husband nor above. ~ Ovid,
588:There is a deity within us who breathes that divine fire by which we are animated. ~ Ovid,
589:Those dreams are true which we have in the morning, as the lamp begins to flicker. ~ Ovid,
590:Blemishes are hid by night and every fault forgiven; darkness makes any woman fair. ~ Ovid,
591:By faithful study of the nobler arts, our nature's softened, and more gentle grows. ~ Ovid,
592:Our integrity is never worth so much as when we have parted with our all to keep it. ~ Ovid,
593:Thus all things altered. Nothing dies. And here and there the unbodied spirit flies. ~ Ovid,
594:To wish for what you want is not enough; With ardent longing you must strive for it. ~ Ovid,
595:You who seek an end of love, love yields to business: be busy, and you will be safe. ~ Ovid,
596:Consider the misfortunes of others, and you will be the better able to bear your own. ~ Ovid,
597:Envy feeds on the living, after death it rests, then the honor of a man protects him. ~ Ovid,
598:Her clear conscience mocked rumour’s mendacity, But we are a mob prone to credit sin. ~ Ovid,
599:I prate of ancient poets' monstrous lies,
Ne'er seen or now or then by human eyes. ~ Ovid,
600:It warms the blood, adds luster to the eyes, and wine and love have ever been allies. ~ Ovid,
601:Those things that nature denied to human sight, she revealed to the eyes of the soul. ~ Ovid,
602:Thou seest how sloth wastes the sluggish body, as water is corrupted unless it moves. ~ Ovid,
603:What makes men indifferent to their wives is that they can see them when they please. ~ Ovid,
604:Alluring pleasure is said to have softened the savage dispositions (of early mankind). ~ Ovid,
605:My purpose is to tell of bodies that have been changed into shapes of different kinds. ~ Ovid,
606:Se, mikä on sallittua, ei ole mieluisaa.
Mikä on kiellettyä, siihen on palava halu. ~ Ovid,
607:Those presents are the most acceptable which are enhanced by our regard for the donor. ~ Ovid,
608:Saepe creat molles aspera spina rosas" - "Often the prickly thorn produces tender roses ~ Ovid,
609:The pleasure that is granted to me from a sense of duty ceases to be a pleasure at all. ~ Ovid,
610:We covet what is guarded; the very care invokes the thief. Few love what they may have. ~ Ovid,
611:What is it that love does to a woman? Without she only sleeps with it alone, she lives. ~ Ovid,
612:When lizard-footed giants climbed the hills And with a hundred hands clawed at the sky. ~ Ovid,
613:Agamemnon escaped with his life From land battles and sea storms, then fell to his wife. ~ Ovid,
614:A wealthy traveller fears an ambush, while one with empty pockets journeys on in safety. ~ Ovid,
615:Bring a lawsuit against a man who can pay; the poor man's acts are not worth the expense ~ Ovid,
616:It is convenient that there be gods, and, as it is convenient, let us believe there are. ~ Ovid,
617:Lente, lente currite, noctis equi. Translation: Run slowly, slowly, horses of the night. ~ Ovid,
618:156. "By faithful study of the nobler arts, our nature's softened, and more gentle grows. ~ Ovid,
619:Hurry to your goal together. That is full bliss when man and woman lie equally conquered. ~ Ovid,
620:As the yellow gold is tried in fire, so the faith of friendship must be seen in adversity. ~ Ovid,
621:Everything changes
Everything flows.
What we were or are
Tomorrow we will not be. ~ Ovid,
622:Not knowing what he sees, he adores the sight; That false face fools and fuels his delight ~ Ovid,
623:Phantasos: he takes illusory shapes of all inanimate things, earth, stones, rivers, trees. ~ Ovid,
624:The wounded limb shrinks from the slightest touch; and a slight shadow alarms the nervous. ~ Ovid,
625:God gave man an upright countenance to survey the heavens, and to look upward to the stars. ~ Ovid,
626:In prosperity you may count on many friends; if the sky becomes overcast you will be alone. ~ Ovid,
627:It is not safe to despise what Love commands. He reigns supreme, and rules the mighty gods. ~ Ovid,
628:Man should ever look to his last day, and no one should be called happy before his funeral. ~ Ovid,
629:Our neighbour's crop is always more fruitful and his cattle produce more milk than our own. ~ Ovid,
630:(...) Y las armas del más bravo de los hombres fueron la recompensa del más elocuente (...) ~ Ovid,
631:A frail gift is beauty, which grows less as time draws on, and is devoured by its own years. ~ Ovid,
632:I attempt an arduous task but there is no worth in that which is not a difficult achievement ~ Ovid,
633:My bark, once struck by the fury of the storm, dreads again to approach the place of danger. ~ Ovid,
634:Quem põe ponto final numa paixão com o ódio, ou ainda ama, ou não consegue deixar de sofrer. ~ Ovid,
635:Saepe tepent alii iuvenes: ego semper amavi,/ Et si, quid faciam, nunc quoque, quaeris, amo. ~ Ovid,
636:There is a certain pleasure in weeping; grief finds in tears both a satisfaction and a cure. ~ Ovid,
637:There is no such thing as pure, unalloyed pleasure; some bitter ever mingles with the sweet. ~ Ovid,
638:While strength and years permit, endure labor; soon bent old age will come with silent foot. ~ Ovid,
639:119. "Let your hook be always cast in the pond. when you least expect it, there will be fish. ~ Ovid,
640:Our native soil draws all of us, by I know not what sweetness, and never allows us to forget. ~ Ovid,
641:The crop always seems better in our neighbor's field, and our neighbor's cow gives more milk. ~ Ovid,
642:Todas las grandes riquezas que posees se encuentran ahora reducidas al espacio que tu cuerpo. ~ Ovid,
643:Believe me, the gods spare the afflicted, and do not always oppress those who are unfortunate. ~ Ovid,
644:He is a foolish swimmer who swims against the stream, when he might take the current sideways. ~ Ovid,
645:in Ovid, difficulty is what wakes up the genius (ingenium mala saepe movent), ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
646:Rest strengthens the body, the mind too is thus supported; but unremitting toil destroys both. ~ Ovid,
647:The mind is sicker than the sick body; in contemplation of its sufferings it becomes hopeless. ~ Ovid,
648:And warns us to use life’s beauty as it blooms. The thorn is spurned when the rose has dropped. ~ Ovid,
649:Brass shines with constant usage, a beautiful dress needs wearing,Leave a house empty, it rots. ~ Ovid,
650:If Jupiter hurled his thunderbolt as often as men sinned, he would soon be out of thunderbolts. ~ Ovid,
651:Pedigree and ancestry and what we ourselves have not achieved, I scarcely recognize as our own. ~ Ovid,
652:Qui non est hodie eras minus aptus erit. He who is not prepared today will be less so tomorrow. ~ Ovid,
653:Tunc amo, tunc odi frustra, quod amare necesse est;
tunc ego, sed tecum, mortuus esse uelim. ~ Ovid,
654:Ants do no bend their ways to empty barns, so no friend will visit the place of departed wealth. ~ Ovid,
655:Birth and ancestry, and that which we have not ourselves achieved, we can scarcely call our own. ~ Ovid,
656:Neither can the wave that has passed by be recalled, nor the hour which has passed return again. ~ Ovid,
657:Nor is there any law more just, than that he who has plotted death shall perish by his own plot. ~ Ovid,
658:Suppressed grief suffocates, it rages within the breast, and is forced to multiply its strength. ~ Ovid,
659:Vain sopimaton miellyttää, vain oma nautinto kiinnostaa, ja toisten murheet viihdyttävät eniten. ~ Ovid,
660:What is harder than rock, or softer than water? Yet soft water hollows out hard rock. Persevere. ~ Ovid,
661:Who would have known of Hector, if Troy had been happy? The road to valor is built by adversity. ~ Ovid,
662:Winged time glides on insensibly, and deceive us; and there is nothing more fleeting than years. ~ Ovid,
663:Thus I am not able to exist either with you or without you; and I seem not to know my own wishes. ~ Ovid,
664:Truly now is the golden age; the highest honour comes by means of gold; by gold love is procured. ~ Ovid,
665:Wine stimulates the mind and makes it quick with heat; care flees and is dissolved in much drink. ~ Ovid,
666:How little you know about the age you live in if you think that honey is sweeter than cash in hand ~ Ovid,
667:At times it is folly to hasten at other times, to delay. The wise do everything in its proper time. ~ Ovid,
668:Brass shines with constant usage, a beautiful dress needs wearing,
Leave a house empty, it rots. ~ Ovid,
669:Gifts, believe me, captivate both men and Gods, Jupiter himself was won over and appeased by gifts. ~ Ovid,
670:Money nowadays is money; money brings office; money gains friends; everywhere the poor man is down. ~ Ovid,
671:Phoebus amat visaeque cupit conubia Daphnes, quodque cupit, sperat, suaque illum oracula fallunt ♥♥ ~ Ovid,
672:Whilst you are prosperous you can number many friends; but when the storm comes you are left alone. ~ Ovid,
673:A broken fortune is like a falling column; the lower it sinks, the greater weight it has to sustain. ~ Ovid,
674:The wounded gladiator forswears all fighting, but soon forgetting his former wound resumes his arms. ~ Ovid,
675:It’s Ovid. The most acceptable gifts . . . are the ones made precious by our love of the giver. ~ Lydia Kang,
676:May you live unenvied, and pass many pleasant years unknown to fame; and also have congenial friends. ~ Ovid,
677:It is expedient that there should be gods, and, since it is expedient, let us believe that gods exist. ~ Ovid,
678:Note too that a faithful study of the liberal arts humanizes character and permits it not to be cruel. ~ Ovid,
679:Passion persuades me one way, reason another. I see the better and approve it, but I follow the worse. ~ Ovid,
680:So long as you are secure you will count many friends; if your life becomes clouded you will be alone. ~ Ovid,
681:Some people think that because they do the opposite of what they are asked to do, they have initiative ~ Ovid,
682:That fair face will as years roll on lose its beauty, and old age will bring its wrinkles to the brow. ~ Ovid,
683:I am the poet of the poor, because I was poor when I loved; since I could not give gifts, I gave words. ~ Ovid,
684:Had I not sinned what would there be for you to pardon. My fate has given you the opportunity for mercy. ~ Ovid,
685:I cannot keep track of all the vagaries of fashion, Every day, so it seems, brings in a different style. ~ Ovid,
686:Resist beginnings: it is too late to employ medicine when the evil has grown strong by inveterate habit. ~ Ovid,
687:As God is propitiated by the blood of a hundred bulls, so also is he by the smallest offering of incense. ~ Ovid,
688:For this reason, if you believe proverbs, let me tell you the common one: "It is unlucky to marry in May. ~ Ovid,
689:The spirited horse, which will try to win the race of its own accord, will run even faster if encouraged. ~ Ovid,
690:To have properly studied the liberal sciences gives a polish to our manners, and removes all awkwardness. ~ Ovid,
691:Work while your strength and years permit you; crooked age will by-and-by come upon you with silent foot. ~ Ovid,
692:Nowadays nothing but money counts: a fortune brings honors, friendships, the poor man everywhere lies low. ~ Ovid,
693:The dove, O hawk, that has once been wounded by thy talons, is frightened by the least movement of a wing. ~ Ovid,
694:The glow of inspiration warms us; this holy rapture springs from the seeds of the Divine mind sown in man. ~ Ovid,
695:Tis not always in a physician's power to cure the sick; at times the disease is stronger than trained art. ~ Ovid,
696:Happy is the man who has broken the chains which hurt the mind, and has given up worrying once and for all. ~ Ovid,
697:If you count the sunny and the cloudy days of the whole year, you will find that the sunshine predominates. ~ Ovid,
698:In the make-up of human beings, intelligence counts for more than our hands, and that is our true strength. ~ Ovid,
699:The mind conscious of innocence despises false reports: but we are a set always ready to believe a scandal. ~ Ovid,
700:To wish is of little account; to succeed you must earnestly desire; and this desire must shorten thy sleep. ~ Ovid,
701:According to the state of a man's conscience, so do hope and fear on account of his deeds arise in his mind. ~ Ovid,
702:¡Ay! Aquello que muchas veces nos produce un gran alegría es a menudo el origin de nuestras desgracias (...) ~ Ovid,
703:Dunque suvvia, non confidare nell'aspetto che inganna; chiunque tu sia, stima qualcosa di superiore al corpo. ~ Ovid,
704:In an easy cause anyone can be eloquent; the slightest strength is enough to break what is already shattered. ~ Ovid,
705:It’s Ovid. The most acceptable gifts . . . are the ones made precious by our love of the giver.” Allene ~ Lydia Kang,
706:you put too much faith in the power of the gods, if you think they can give and take away the shape of things ~ Ovid,
707:Give me the waters of Lethe that numb the heart, if they exist, I will still not have the power to forget you. ~ Ovid,
708:I could not possibly count the gold-digging ruses of women, Not if I had ten mouths, not if I had ten tongues. ~ Ovid,
709:If thou wishest to put an end to love, attend to business (love yields to employment); then thou wilt be safe. ~ Ovid,
710:It is a pleasure appropriate to man, for him to save a fellow-man, and gratitude is acquired in no better way. ~ Ovid,
711:Whether you call my heart affectionate, or you call it womanish: I confess, that to my misfortune, it is soft. ~ Ovid,
712:Wij mensen zijn dan ook gehard en tehen veel bestand, een wezenlijk bewijs van dat waaruit wij zijn geschapen. ~ Ovid,
713:Ah me! how easy it is (how much all have experienced it) to indulge in brave words in another person's trouble. ~ Ovid,
714:In your judgment virtue requires no reward, and is to be sought for itself, unaccompanied by external benefits. ~ Ovid,
715:Time glides away and as we get older through the noiseless years; the days flee and are restrained by no reign. ~ Ovid,
716:Writings survive the years; it is by writings that you know Agamemnon, and those who fought for or against him. ~ Ovid,
717:Meet the disorder in the outset, the medicine may be too late, when the disease has gained ground through delay. ~ Ovid,
718:Perfer et obdura, dolor hic tibi proderit olim. (Be patient and tough; someday this pain will be useful to you.) ~ Ovid, ignotas animum dimittit in artes, naturamque nouat. (to arts unknown he bends his wits, and alters nature.) ~ Ovid,
720:Indulgent gods, grant me to sin once with impunity. That is sufficient. Let a second offence bear its punishment. ~ Ovid,
721:Our native land charms us with inexpressible sweetness, and never never allows us to forget that we belong to it. ~ Ovid,
722:What is deservedly suffered must be borne with calmness, but when the pain is unmerited, the grief is resistless. ~ Ovid,
723:¡Desgraciado de mí! El niño tiene flechas
certeras. Yo me abraso, y el Amor
reina en mi corazón deshabitado. ~ Ovid,
724:Enhance and intensify one's vision of that synthesis of truth and beauty which is the highest and deepest reality. ~ Ovid,
725:Our native land charms us with inexpressible sweetness, and never, never allows us to forget that we belong to it. ~ Ovid,
726:Thence are we a hardy generation, and able to endure fatigue, and we give proofs from what original we are sprung. ~ Ovid,
727:105. " I congratulate myself on not having arrived into this world until the present time. This age suits my taste. ~ Ovid,
728:All things human hang by a slender thread; and that which seemed to stand strong suddenly falls and sinks in ruins. ~ Ovid,
729:Every woman thinks herself attractive; even the plainest is satisfied with the charms she deems that she possesses. ~ Ovid,
730:Gutta cavat lapidem, non vi sed saepe cadendo. (The drop excavates the stone, not with force but by falling often.) ~ Ovid,
731:The Bible had at best become like the work of Ovid or Homer: containing great truth, but not itself true. ~ Douglas Murray, ignotas animum dimittit in artes, naturamque nouat. (to arts unknown he bends his wits,
and alters nature.) ~ Ovid,
733:Chance is always powerful. Let your hook be always cast; in the pool where you least expect it, there will be a fish. ~ Ovid,
734:He who has it in his power to commit sin, is less inclined to do so. The very idea of being able, weakens the desire. ~ Ovid,
735:I hate a woman who offers herself because she ought to do so, and cold and dry thinks of her sewing when making love. ~ Ovid,
736:It is but a small merit to observe silence, but it is a grave fault to speak of matters on which we should be silent. ~ Ovid,
737:Love is a child and naked; he has years that know no meanness, and he has no clothes, so that he is open in his ways. ~ Ovid,
738:She only is chaste, who is chaste where there is no danger of detection: she who does not, because she may not, does. ~ Ovid,
739:Truly it is allowed us to weep: by weeping we disperse our wrath; and tears go through the heart, even like a stream. ~ Ovid,
740:Virtue and vice, evil and good, are siblings, or next-door neighbors, Easy to make mistakes, hard to tell them apart. ~ Ovid,
741:A wound will perhaps become tolerable with length of time; but wounds which are raw shudder at the touch of the hands. ~ Ovid,
742:I would that you were either less beautiful, or less corrupt. Such perfect beauty does not suit such imperfect morals. ~ Ovid,
743:What is more useful than fire? Yet if any one prepares to burn a house, it is with fire that he arms his daring hands. ~ Ovid,
744:Argus, you are fallen, and the light in all your lamps is utterly put out: one hundred eyes, one darkness all the same! ~ Ovid,
745:Seeking is all very well, but holding requires greater talent: Seeking involves some luck; now the demand is for skill. ~ Ovid,
746:Skilled in every trick, a worthy heir of his paternal craft, he would make black look like white, and white look black. ~ Ovid,
747:Take the advice of light when you're looking at linens or jewels; Looking at faces or forms, take the advice of the day. ~ Ovid,
748:Est deus in nobis: agitante calescimus illo. ~ There is a God within us, and we glow when he stirs us. ~ Ovid, Fasti, Book VI. 6,
749:For in this strange anatomy we wear, the head has greater powers than the hand; the spirit, heart, and mind are over all. ~ Ovid,
750:It is no less a feat to keep what you have, than to increase it. In one there is chance, the other will be a work of art. ~ Ovid,
751:To be thoroughly imbued, with the liberal arts refines the manners, and makes men to be mild and gentle in their conduct. ~ Ovid,
752:Women's words are as light as the doomed leaves whirling in autumn, Easily swept by the wind, easily drowned by the wave. ~ Ovid,
753:Haste is productive of injury, and so is too much hesitation. He is the wisest man who does everything at the proper time. ~ Ovid,
754:Barbarus hic ego sum, quia non intelligor illis.

(In this place I am a barbarian, because men do not understand me.) ~ Ovid,
755:It is hope which makes the shipwrecked sailor strike out with his arms in the midst of the sea, though no land is in sight. ~ Ovid,
756:Ten en cuenta que si regalas algo a tu amante antes de haberla poseído, es muy fácil que te quedes sin regalo y sin amante. ~ Ovid,
757:We are all bound thither; we are hastening to the same common goal. Black death calls all things under the sway of its laws. ~ Ovid,
758:Why should I go into details, we have nothing that is not perishable except what our hearts and our intellects endows us with. ~ Ovid,
759:a poet of ancient Rome called Ovid, who most assuredly was not a Christian.” The magister looked sadly at Father Willibald ~ Anonymous,
760:Peace filled the world—until some futile brain Envied the lions’ diet and gulped down A feast of flesh to fill his greedy guts. ~ Ovid,
761:The high-spirited man may indeed die, but he will not stoop to meanness. Fire, though it may be quenched, will not become cool. ~ Ovid,
762:Be patient and tough; someday this pain will be useful to you. Ovid, epigram in Someday This Pain Will Be Useful to You ~ Peter Cameron,
763:There is nothing constant in the universe. All ebb and flow, and every shape that's born, bears in its womb the seeds of change. ~ Ovid,
764:(...) Así como yo he sido siempre amante de la paz, mi hermano, por el contrario, se complacía con las luchas y los distubios (...) ~ Ovid,
765:As the mind of each man is conscious of good or evil, so does he conceive within his breast hope or fear, according to his actions. ~ Ovid,
766:I am above being injured by fortune, though she steals away much, more will remain with me. The blessing I now enjoy transcend fear. ~ Ovid,
767:Venus is kind to creatures as young as we;We know not what we do, and while we're youngWe have the right to live and love like gods. ~ Ovid,
768:And now I have finished the work, which neither the wrath of Jove, nor fire, nor the sword, nor devouring age shall be able to destroy. ~ Ovid,
769:Eurydice, dying now a second time, uttered no complaint against her husband. What was there to complain of, but that she had been loved? ~ Ovid,
770:Henry James rhymed Fellowship with the gesture of biting a neglected apple, and Ovid a scarlet curtain with the skin of Atalanta. ~ Hugh Kenner,
771:Opportunity is ever worth expecting; let your hood be ever hanging ready. The fish will be in the pool where you least imagine it to be. ~ Ovid,
772:Venus is kind to creatures as young as we;
We know not what we do, and while we’re young
We have the right to live and love like gods. ~ Ovid,
773:The hunter follows things which flee from him; he leaves them when they are taken; and ever seeks for that which is beyond what he has found. ~ Ovid,
774:All other creatures look down toward the earth, but man was given a face so that might turn his eyes toward the stars and his gaze upon the sky. ~ Ovid,
775:Cura pii Dis sunt, & qui coluere coluntur. ~ Heaven rewards the pious; those who cherish God ~ Themselves are cherished. ~ Ovid, Metamorphoses, VIIL, 725,
776:…why would Caesar fear Ovid, except for knowing that neither his divinity nor all his legions could protect him from a good line of poetry. ~ Tobias Wolff,
777:Devouring Time and envious Age, all things yield to you; and with lingering death you destroy, step by step, with venomed tooth whatever you attack. ~ Ovid,
778:If it were in my power, I would be wiser; but a newly felt power carries me off in spite of myself; love leads me one way, my understanding another. ~ Ovid,
779:I grabbed a pile of dust, and holding it up, foolishly asked for as many birthdays as the grains of dust, I forgot to ask that they be years of youth. ~ Ovid,
780:Non inpune feres neque'' ait ''reddere Canenti, laesaque quid faciat, quid amans, quid femina disces rebus'' ait ''sed amans et laesa et femina Circe! ~ Ovid,
781:An anthill increases by accumulation. Medicine is consumed by distribution. That which is feared lessens by association. This is the thing to understand. ~ Ovid,
782:A good disposition is a virtue in itself, and it is lasting; the burden of the years cannot depress it, and love that is founded on it endures to the end. ~ Ovid,
783:Adde, quod ingénues didicisse fideliter artes Emollit mores, nec sinit esse fervos. To be instructed in the arts, softens the manners and makes men gentle. ~ Ovid,
784:I am dragged along by a strange new force. Desire and reason are pulling in different directions. I see the right way and approve it, but follow the wrong. ~ Ovid,
785:I spent the morning reading Ovid. I read differently now, more painstakingly, knowing I am probably revisiting the books I love for the last time. ~ Nicole Krauss,
786:An animal more like the gods than these, more intellectually capable and able to control the other beasts, had not as yet appeared: now man was born, either ~ Ovid,
787:A new idea is delicate. It can be killed by a sneer or a yawn; it can be stabbed to death by a quip and worried to death by a frown on the right man's brow. ~ Ovid,
788:Cunning leads to knavery. It is but a step from one to the other, and that very slippery. Only lying makes the difference; add that to cunning, and it is knavery. ~ Ovid,
789:Tempore ruricolæ patiens fit taurus aratri. - In time the bull is brought to wear the yoke. ~ Ovid, Tristia, 4. 6. 1. Translation by Thomas Watson. Hecatompathia. No. 47.,
790:Expedit esse deos et, ut expedit, esse putemus. - The existence of the gods is expedient and, as it is expedient, let us assume it. ~ Ovid, The Art of Love (c. AD 2) I, 645,
791:The Stolen and Perverted Writings of Homer & Ovid, of Plato & Cicero, which all men ought to contemn, are set up by artifice against the Sublime of the Bible ~ William Blake,
792:Wine, not too much, inspires and make the mind,to the soft joys of Venus strong inclined,which, buried in excess, unapt to love,stupidly lies and knows not hom to move ~ Ovid,
793:But love, resistless love, my soul invades, discretion this, affection that perswades. I see the right and I approve it too, condemn the wrong and yet the wrong pursue. ~ Ovid,
794:ego pulveris hausti
ostendens cumulum, quot haberet corpora pulvis,
tot mihi natales contingere vana rogavi;
excidit, ut peterem iuvenes quoque protinus annos. ~ Ovid,
795:..when in the fast embrace their limbs were knit, they two were two no more, nor man, nor woman – one body then that neither seemed and both.   - Ovid, Metamorphoses. ~ L H Cosway,
796:Crédule enfant, à quoi bon ces vains efforts pour saisir une fugitive apparence? L'objet de ton désir n'existe pas! ... Cette ombre que tu vois, c'est le reflet de ton image. ~ Ovid,
797:Happy is the man who has broken the chains which hurt the mind, and has given up worrying once and for all.”
"Be patient and tough; one day this pain will be useful to you. ~ Ovid,
798:As long as you are lucky, you will have many friends; if cloudy times appear, you will be alone. -Donec eris felix, multos numerabis amicos; tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris ~ Ovid,
799:Their useless torches on dry hedges throw,
That catch the flames, and kindle all the row;
So burns the God, consuming in desire,
And feeding in his breast a fruitless fire ~ Ovid,
800:When all the other animals, downcast looked upon the earth, he [Prometheus] gave a face raised on high to man, and commanded him to see the sky and raise his high eyes to the stars. ~ Ovid,
801:She made up prayers and said them,
Worshipping unknown gods with unknown singing,
Her customary magic, which would cover
The white moon’s face and darken the sun with cloud. ~ Ovid,
802:There is nothing in the whole world which abides. All things are in a state of ebb and flow, and every shadow passes away. Even time itself, like a river, is constantly gliding away . ~ Ovid,
803:Let me tell you I am better acquainted with you for a long absence, as men are with themselves for a long affliction: absence does but hold off a friend, to make one see him the truer. ~ Ovid,
804:And I think I am about to mistake you for a volume of Ptolemy.” He drew her face closer to his. “Make that Ovid,” he said. His lips brushed lightly against hers. “Make that Ars Amatoria. ~ Loretta Chase,
805:Nihil ita sublime est, supraque pericula tendit  Non sit ut inferius suppositumque deo. - Nothing is so high and above all danger that is not below and in the power of God. ~ Ovid, Tristium, IV. 8. 47,
806:Quid vos perdiderit, dicam? nescistis amare:
Defuit ars vobis; arte perennat amor.

Що вас згубило? Не вміли любить: бракувало мистецтва -
Тільки мистецька любов може тривалою буть. ~ Ovid,
807:All right, boy, skewer me. I've dropped my defenses,
I'm an easy victim. Why, by now
Your arrows practically know their own way to the target
And feel less at home in their quiver than in me. ~ Ovid,
808:Est deus in nobis; et sunt commercia cœli. ~ There is a God within us and intercourse with heaven. ~ Ovid, Ars Amatoria, Book III. 549. (Milton's "Looks commercing with the skies" said to be inspired by this phrase),
809:Acceptissima semper, munera sunt, auctor quae pretiosa facit.” Mr. Rossi turned to Ernie for a translation. “It’s Ovid. The most acceptable gifts . . . are the ones made precious by our love of the giver. ~ Lydia Kang,
810:Sed tamen ut fuso taurorum sanguine centum,  Sic capitur minimo thuris honore deux. - As God is propitiated by the blood of a hundred bulls, so also is he by the smallest offering of incense. ~ Ovid, Tristium, II. 75,
811:Sleep, rest of nature, O sleep, most gentle of the divinities, peace of the soul, thou at whose presence care disappears, who soothest hearts wearied with daily employments, and makest them strong again for labour! ~ Ovid,
812:Inde fernut, titidem qui vivere debeat annos, corpre de patrio parvum phenica renasci' It's from Ovid. It means, 'A little phoenix is born anew from the father's body, fated to live the same number of years. ~ Ian Caldwell,
813:Sleep, thou repose of all things; sleep, thou gentlest of the deities; thou peace of the mind, from which care flies; who doest soothe the hearts of men wearied with the toils of the day, and refittest them for labor. ~ Ovid,
814:My mind leads me to speak now of forms changed into new bodies: O gods above, inspire this undertaking (which you’ve changed as well) and guide my poem in its epic sweep from the world’s beginning to the present day. The ~ Ovid,
815:Si la tierra y el mar -dijo un día- me son cerrados por el tirano, éste no podrá cerrarme el camino a los aires. Aun cuando sea el dueño del mundo entero, el cielo no está bajo su poderío y podré por él trazarme un camino. ~ Ovid,
816:Just take me and molt me and turn me inside out, till, like a character in Ovid, I become one with your lust, that’s what I wanted. Give me a blindfold, hold my hand, and don’t ask me to think—will you do that for me? ~ Andr Aciman,
817:All things change, nothing is extinguished. There is nothing in the whole world which is permanent. Everything flows onward; all things are brought into being with a changing nature; the ages themselves glide by in constant movement. ~ Ovid,
818:Alcohol is necessary for a man so that he can have a good opinion of himself, undisturbed be the facts. Finley Peter Dunne There is more refreshment and stimulation in a nap, even of the briefest, than in all the alcohol ever distilled. ~ Ovid,
819:Should anyone here in Rome lack finesse at love-making,
Let him
Try me - read my book, and the results are guaranteed!
Technique is the secret. Charioteer, sailor, oarsman,
All need it.
Technique can control
Love himself. ~ Ovid,
820:Why cannot we be delighted with an author, and even feel a predilection for him, without a dislike of others? An admiration of Catullus or Virgil, of Tibullus or Ovid, is never to be heightened by a discharge of bile on Horace. ~ Walter Savage Landor,
821:Read what is here. How could reading a letter harm you?

There might even be something in it that pleases you.

My secrets are carried, by these letters, over land and sea:

even enemies read letters received from their enemies. ~ Ovid,
822:Ere land and sea and the all-covering sky Were made, in the whole world the countenance Of nature was the same, all one, well named Chaos, a raw and undivided mass, Naught but a lifeless bulk, with warring seeds Of ill-joined elements compressed together. ~ Ovid,
823:As wave is driven by wave
And each, pursued, pursues the wave ahead,
So time flies on and follows, flies, and follows,
Always, for ever and new. What was before
Is left behind; what never was is now;
And every passing moment is renewed. ~ Ovid,
824:As a matter of fact, if either of the two men were Buckingham or Ovid or Byron, they might have respectively realized that “love is the salt of life,” and “the perpetual source of fears and anxieties,” and “a capricious power”—but they weren’t poets, they ~ Ed McBain,
825:Time itself flows on with constant motion, just like a river: for no more than a river can the fleeting hour stand still. As wave is driven on by wave, and, itself pursued, pursues the one before, so the moments of time at once flee and follow, and are ever new. ~ Ovid,
826:My soul would sing of metamorphoses.
But since, o gods, you were the source of these
bodies becoming other bodies, breathe
your breath into my book of changes: may
the song I sing be seamless as its way
weaves from the world's beginning to our day. ~ Ovid,
827:I think there might even come a time when I would read Virgil again. Ovid's Metamorphoses, perhaps, not because the music goes round and round and never comes out, but because it's an extraordinary picture of ceaseless change that never comes to an end. ~ William Golding,
828:For the statement of Isaiah (28:19) is true: “Trouble gives understanding”; likewise, hunger is the best condiment. For those who are afflicted have a better understanding of the Holy Scriptures; the smug and prosperous read them as if they were some poem written by Ovid. ~ Martin Luther,
829:O gods, \ If any gods will listen, I deserve \ Punishment surely, I do not refuse it, \ But lest, in living, I offend the living, Offend the dead in death, drive me away \ From either realm, change me somehow, refuse me \ Both life and death!
-- Myrrha, before being transformed into a tree ~ Ovid,
830:In the Roman world, Ovid’s Metamorphoses – that extraordinary mythological epic about people changing shape (and probably the most influential work of literature on Western art after the Bible) – repeatedly returns to the idea of the silencing of women in the process of their transformation. ~ Mary Beard,
831:(...) No se conocían todavía los motivos que motivaban al hombre ni los suplicios. En este siglo feliz se desconocían aún esas amenazas materiales que sirven de freno a la licencia. No se sabía de ningún criminal que temblase ante la presencia de un juez, porque las gentes no necesitaban jueces (...) ~ Ovid,
832:For such a career I lacked both endurance and inclination:
the stress of ambition left me cold,
while the Muse, the creative spirit, was forever urging on me
that haven of leisure to which I'd always leaned.
The poets of those days I cultivated and cherished:
for me, bards were so many gods. ~ Ovid,
833:- ¡Oh, dioses inmortales! Si no os aterra escuchar culpas terribles... os confesaré que soy la más miserable de las pecadoras... ¡No temo, no, morir! Pero si viviendo podría envenenar a los vivos, muriendo podría no ser la paz de los que en ella permanecen. Podéis hacer el prodigio de que ni viva ni muera... ~ Ovid,
834:A red rose peeping through a white? Or else a cherry (double graced) Within a lily? Centre placed? Or ever marked the pretty beam, A strawberry shows, half drowned in cream? Or seen rich rubies blushing through A pure smooth pearl, and orient too? So like to this, nay all the rest, Is each neat niplet of her breast. ~ Ovid,
835:There are other books in a man's library besides Ovid, and after dawdling ever so long at a woman's knee, one day he gets up and is free. We have all been there; we have all had the fever--the strongest and the smallest, from Samson, Hercules, Rinaldo, downward: but it burns out, and you get well. ~ William Makepeace Thackeray,
836:Sixteen, I reflected, biting into a stolen pie. By this time in her life, my sister Mary had been pregnant. Ovid had dedicated his life to poetry. Queen Elizabeth had seen a suitor beheaded. Romeo and Juliet were dead. Whereas I, Margaret Lucas, was nothing if not in health, no single true adventure to my name. ~ Danielle Dutton,
837:Nothing in the entire universe ever perishes, believe me, but things vary, and adopt a new form. The phrase being born is used for beginning to be something different from what one was before, while dying means ceasing to be the same. Though this thing may pass into that, and that into this, yet the sums of things remains unchanged. ~ Ovid,
838:These are my memories of Norman: red earth and fireflies, singing and demonstrating on the Oval, reading Melville, Poe, Lenin and Mao Tse Tung, reading Ovid and Shakespeare on warm spring mornings with a favorite professor, of conservative political leaning, and accompanying another in the afternoons, singing revolutionary songs. ~ Azar Nafisi,
839:I got nervous at bulls and eagles,
Trying to figure what shape Zeus might take for sex
When it could be your turn next. But now I don't care any longer,
I've come to my senses, your profile leaves me cold.
Why am I different? you ask. I'll tell you. Because you keep nagging
For presents
. That's what turns me off. ~ Ovid,
840:Ovid recounts Jupiter’s disgust with the evil deeds of humans—their contempt for the gods, their violence, their lust for slaughter. He decides to wipe them out, which disappoints his fellow gods because…who will bring incense to their altars? No worries, Jupiter says, he’ll create another race of beings far superior to the first. ~ Cynthia Barnett,
841:Amy read Ovid and Virgil and Aristophanes and Homer. She read dry histories and scandalous love poetry (her governesses, who had little Latin and less Greek, naïvely assumed that anything in a classical tongue must be respectable), but mostly she returned again and again to The Odyssey.
Odysseus had fought to go home, and so would Amy. ~ Lauren Willig,
842:Ovid tells us, in his Metamorphoses, that the young girls who were gathering flowers with Proserpina that fatal day were turned into the Sirens—the bird-bodied golden-feathered singers with female faces of the Homeric tradition—and then went wandering about over land and sea, crying out in search of their vanished playmate. ~ Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa,
843:Vulcan, the god who had forged his armour,
had fired his body to ashes; all that remained of Achilles
the great was a small amount of material, barely sufficient
to fill an urn. But his fame lives on to fill the expanse
of the whole wide world. His glory measures up to the man;
it matches his noble self, untouched by shadowy Hades. ~ Ovid,
844:The first thing to get in your head is that every single
Girl can be caught - and that you'll catch her if
You set your toils right. Birds will sooner fall dumb in
Cicadas in summer, or a hunting-dog
Turn his back on a hare, than a lover's bland inducements
Can fail with a woman, Even one you suppose
Reluctant will want it. ~ Ovid,
845:Behold great Whitman, whose licentious line Delights the rake, and warms the souls of swine; Whose fever'd fancy shuns the measur'd pace, And copies Ovid's filth without his grace. In his rough brain a genius might have grown, Had he not sought to play the brute alone; But void of shame, he let his wit run wild, And liv'd and wrote as Adam's bestial child. ~ H P Lovecraft,
846:His classical reading is great: he can quote  Horace, Juvenal, Ovid and Martial by rote.  He has read Metaphysics * * * Spinoza and Kant  And Theology too: I have heard him descant  Upon Basil and Jerome. Antiquities, art, He is fond of. He knows the old masters by heart,  And his taste is refined. ~ Owen Meredith (Lord Lytton), Lucile (1860), Canto II, Part IV.,
847:Nothing retains its form; new shapes from old. Nature, the great inventor, ceaselessly contrives. In all creation, be assured, there is no death - no death, but only change and innovation; what we men call birth is but a different new beginning; death is but to cease to be the same. Perhaps this may have moved to that, and that to this, yet still the sum of things remains the same. ~ Ovid,
848:Hay un camino oscuro, cuesta abajo, que conduce hasta los Infiernos, donde todo es silencio y horror (...) Y lo mismo que el océano recibe todos los ríos que corren por la Tierra, así el imperio de este dios Plutón, recibe todas las almas descarriadas, de las cuales unas se ocupan en los mismos anhelos que tenían en vida, muchas en el servicio de Plutón, y bastantes en desesperarse (...) ~ Ovid,
849:God helps those who help themselves. ~ Algernon Sidney, Discourse Concerning Government, Chapter II. Ovid—Metamorphoses. X. 586. Pliny the Elder, viewing the Eruption of Vesuvius, Aug., 79. Friedrich Schiller, William Tell, I. 2. Simonides is quoted as author by Claudian. Sophocles, Fragments. Terence, Phormio. I. 4. Vergil, Æneid (29-19 BC), X, 284. Quoted as a proverb by old and modern writers,
850:An almost infallible means of saving yourself from the desire of self-destruction is always to have something to do.
Creech, the commentator on Lucretius, marked upon his manuscripts: “N. B. Must hang myself when I have finished.” He kept his word with himself that he might have the pleasure of ending like his author. If he had undertaken a commentary upon Ovid he would have lived longer. ~ Voltaire,
851:it is the Mediterranean, specifically Italy, that gave us the poet Ovid, who in the Metamorphoses deplored the eating of animals, and the vegetarian Leonardo da Vinci, who envisioned a day when the life of an animal would be valued as highly as that of a person, and Saint Francis, who once petitioned the Holy Roman Emperor to scatter grain on fields on Christmas Day and give the crested larks a feast. ~ Mary Roach,
852:Why had Ovid lived in Ancient Rome in 20 BCE23 and not Chicago in 2006 CE? Would Ovid still have been Ovid if he had lived in America? No, he wouldn’t have been, because he would have been a Native American or possibly an American Indian or a First Person or an Indigenous Person, and they did not have Latin or any other kind of written language then. So did Ovid matter because he was Ovid or because he lived in Ancient Rome? ~ John Green,
853:(...) Los rayos del Sol jamás penetraban en ella. Siempre rodeada de espesas nubes, nunca los gallos anunciaron el retorno de la Aurora. Jamás los perros importunaron con sus ladridos la tranquilidad allí reinante. El viento no agita ni las hojas ni las ramas. No se oyen querellas ni murmullos: es ésta la mansión del silencio y la dulce tranquilidad. El Leteo, corriendo sobre losguijarros, es el único suave murmullo que allí se oye (...) ~ Ovid,
854:Why had Ovid lived in Ancient Rome in 20 BCE and not Chicago in 2006 CE? Would Ovid still have been Ovid if he had lived in America? No, he wouldn't have been, because he would have been a Native American or possibly and American Indian or a First Person or an Indigenous Person, and they did not have Latin or any other kind of written language then. So did Ovid matter because he was Ovid or because he lived in ancient Rome? ~ John Green,
855:From high Meonia's rocky shores I came, Of poor decsent, Acoetes is my name, My sire was measly born: no oxen ploughed, His fruitful fields, nor in his pastures lowed, His whole estate within the waters lay' With lines and hooks he caught the finny prey; His art was all his livelehood, which he Thus with his dying lips bequeathed to me: In streams, my boy, and rivers take thy chance; There swims', said he, Thy whole inheritance. ~ Ovid,
856:Perhaps you think that there are sacred groves and cities of the gods along the way, temples displaying all the gifts of wealth? Not so: your path is full of lurking perils as well as images of savage beasts. “And if you hold this course unswervingly, you’ll find the horns of Taurus in your way, 110 the Archer and the gaping jaws of Leo, and Scorpio, whose long and curving arms sweep one way, while the curving arms of Cancer sweep broadly in the opposite direction. ~ Ovid,
857:Nothing retains its form; new shapes from old
Nature, the great inventor, ceaselessly
Contrives. In all creation, be assured,
There is no death - no death, but only change
And innovation; what we men call birth
Is but a different new beginning; death
Is but to cease to be the same. Perhaps
This may have moved to that and that to this,
Yet still the sum of things remains the same.
Nothing can last, I do believe, for long
In the same image. ~ Ovid,
858:Ajax defending his honor when he fought against Troy along with Ulysses, who claimed his actions enabled the Greeks to be victorious. The chiefs side with Ulysses, and Ajax, having lost his honor as a warrior, draws his sword and proclaims:

"But this at least is mine, or does Ulysses claim this also for himself? This I must employ against myself; and the sword which has often reeked with Phrygian blood will now reek with its masters, lest any man but Ajax ever conquer Ajax. ~ Ovid,
859:Frightened, he runs off to the silent fields
and howls aloud, attempting speech in vain;
foam gathers at the corners of his mouth;
he turns his lust for slaughter on the flocks,
and mangles them, rejoicing still in blood.
His garments now become a shaggy pelt;
his arms turn into legs, and he, to wolf
while still retaining traces of the man:
greyness the same, the same cruel visage,
the same cold eyes and bestial appearance. ~ Ovid The story of King Lycaon from Ovid's Metamorphosis, Book I, ll. 321-331 tr. Charles Martin ~ Ovid,
860:Mister Cameron - I have read the unexpurgated Ovid, the love poems of Sappho, the Decameron in the original, and a great many texts in Greek and Latin histories that were not though fit for proper gentlemen to read, much less proper ladies. I know in precise detail what Caligula did to, and with, his sisters, and I can quote it to you in Latin or in my own translation if you wish. I am interested in historical truth, and truth in history is often unpleasant and distasteful to those of fine sensibility. I frankly doubt that you will produce anything to shock me. ~ Mercedes Lackey,
861:Mister Cameron - I have read the unexpurgated Ovid, the love poems of Sappho, the Decameron in the original, and a great many texts in Greek and Latin histories that were not though fit for proper gentlemen to read, much less proper ladies. I know in precise detail what Caligula did to, and with, his sisters, and I can quote it to you in Latin or in my own translation if you wish. I am interested in historical truth, and truth in history is often unpleasant and distasteful to those of fine sensibility. I frankly doubt that you will produce anything to shock me. ~ Mercedes Lackey,
862:He plunged his arms deep to embrace
One who vanished in agitated water.
Again and again he kissed
The lips that seemed to be rising to kiss his
But dissolved, as he touched them,
Into a soft splash and a shiver of ripples.
How could he clasp and caress his own reflection?
And still he could not comprehend
What the deception was, what the delusion.
He simply became more excited by it.
Poor misguided boy! Why clutch so vainly
At such a brittle figment? What you hope
To lay hold of has no existence.
Look away and what you love is nowhere. ~ Ovid,
863:I liked to call myself a poet and had affected a habit of reading classical texts (in translation, of course – I was a lazy student). I would ride the Greyhound for thirty-six hours down from the Midwest to Leechfield, then spend days dressed in black in the scalding heat of my mother’s front porch reading Homer (or Ovid or Virgil) and waiting for someone to ask me what I was reading. No one ever did. People asked me what I was drinking, how much I weighed, where I was living, and if I had married yet, but no one gave me a chance to deliver my lecture on Great Literature. ~ Mary Karr,
864:Through steep, and sheer, and inaccessible,
through difficult and through impossible
places, they track him, and he flees the hunt
he has so often led, longing to cry out
to the pack behind him, "It's me! Actaeon!
Recognize your master!" But the words
betray him and the air resounds with baying.

...torn by their teeth, he makes
a sound no man would make and no stag either,
a cry that echoes through those well-know heights;
and kneeling like a supplicant at prayer,
he turns towards them pleading with his eyes,
as a man would with his hands. ~ Ovid,
865:Zero-sum thinking is a name for envy. Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, gives an apt description of the “House of Envy” (as a poet in that most zero-sum of political systems, the Roman empire, might): “Envy within, busy at the meal of snake’s flesh... her tongue dripped venom. Only the sight of suffering could bring a smile to her lips. She never knew the comfort of sleep, but... looked with dismay on men’s good fortune... She could hardly refrain from weeping when she saw no cause for tears.” I didn’t know Hillary Clinton’s involvement in politics dated back to the reign of Augustus. Then ~ P J O Rourke,
866:What is it with Dictators and Writers, anyway? Since before the infamous Caesar-Ovid war they've had beef. Like the Fantastic Four and Galactus, like the X-Men and the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants, like the Teen Titans and Deathstroke, Foreman and Ali, Morrison and Crouch, Sammy and Sergio, they seemed destined to be eternally linked in the Halls of Battle. Rushdie claims that tyrants and scribblers are natural antagonists, but I think that's too simple; it lets writers off pretty easy. Dictators, in my opinion, just know competition when they see it. Same with writers. Like, after all, recognizes like. ~ Junot D az,
867:Susurrus whispers through the grass and gorse, godling of the Martian wind, gene-spliced tyke of Zephyros and Ares. His story needs no Ovid, tells itself in the rustle of striplings and flowers he loves, the tale that he is: a zygote collaged from: spermatazoa flensed to nuclear caducei; a mathematical transform by the Fréres Fourier, Jean and Charles, flip of an axis changing Y to X; and the egg from which Eros hatched, is always hatching, offered up blithely to a god of war gone broody, Ares a sharper marksman than any brat with bow and arrow, no more to be argued with than the groundling Renart in a frum. ~ Hal Duncan,
868:The Greeks had a word, xenia—guest friendship—a command to take care of traveling strangers, to open your door to whoever is out there, because anyone passing by, far from home, might be God. Ovid tells the story of two immortals who came to Earth in disguise to cleanse the sickened world. No one would let them in but one old couple, Baucis and Philemon. And their reward for opening their door to strangers was to live on after death as trees—an oak and a linden—huge and gracious and intertwined. What we care for, we will grow to resemble. And what we resemble will hold us, when we are us no longer. . . . ~ Richard Powers,
869:Glad that you thus continue your resolve
To suck the sweets of sweet philosophy
Only, good master, while we do admire
This virtue and this moral discipline,
Let's be no Stoics nor no stocks, I pray,
Or so devote to Aristotle's checks
As Ovid be an outcast quite abjured.
Balk logic with acquaintance that you have,
And practise rhetoric in your common talk,
Music and poesy use to quicken you,
The mathematics and the metaphysics
Fall to them as you find your stomach serves you.
No profit grows where is no pleasure ta'en.
In brief, sir, study what you most affect. ~ William Shakespeare,
870:And when wine has soaked Cupid’s drunken wings,
he’s stayed, weighed down, a captive of the place.
Wine rouses courage and is fit for passion:
care flies, and deep drinking dilutes it.
Don’t trust the treacherous lamplight overmuch:
night and wine can harm your view of beauty.
Paris saw the goddesses in the light, a cloudless heaven,
when he said to Venus: ‘Venus, you win, over them both.’
Faults are hidden at night: every blemish is forgiven,
and the hour makes whichever girl you like beautiful.
Judge jewellery, and fabric stained with purple,
judge a face, or a figure, in the light. ~ Ovid,
871:Sure, there is Ovid, the Roman poet who wrote The Art of Love; Don Juan, the mythical womanizer based on the exploits of various Spanish noblemen; the Duke de Lauzun, the legendary French rake who died on the guillotine; and Casanova, who detailed his hundred-plus conquests in four thousand pages of memoirs. But the undisputed father of modern seduction is Ross Jeffries, a tall, skinny, porous-faced self-proclaimed nerd from Marina Del Rey, California. Guru, cult leader, and social gadfly, he commands an army sixty thousand horny men strong, including top government officials, intelligence officers, and cryptographers. His ~ Neil Strauss,
872:And now the measure of my song is done:
The work has reached its end; the book is mine,
None shall unwrite these words: nor angry Jove,
Nor war, nor fire, nor flood,
Nor venomous time that eats our lives away.
Then let that morning come, as come it will,
When this disguise I carry shall be no more,
And all the treacherous years of life undone,
And yet my name shall rise to heavenly music,
The deathless music of the circling stars.
As long as Rome is the Eternal City
These lines shall echo from the lips of men,
As long as poetry speaks truth on earth,
That immortality is mine to wear. ~ Ovid,
873:Así, cuando asistieres a un festín en que abunden los dones de Baco, si una muchacha que te atrae se coloca cerca de ti en el lecho, ruega a este padre de la alegría, cuyos misterios se celebran por la noche, que los vapores del vino no lleguen a trastornar tu cabeza. Allí te será permitido dirigir a tu bella insinuantes discursos con palabras veladas que no escaparán a su perspicacia y se los aplicará a sí misma; escribe en la mesa con gotas de vino dulcísimas ternuras, en las que tu amiga adivine tu pasión avasalladora, y clava en los suyos tus ojos respirando fuego: un semblante mudo habla a las veces con singular elocuencia. ~ Ovid,
874:You ask perhaps if one should take the maid herself?
Such a plan brings the greatest risk with it.
In one case, fresh from bed, she’ll get busy, in another be tardy,
in one case you’re a prize for her mistress, in the other herself.
There’s chance in it: even if it favours the idea,
my advice nevertheless is to abstain.
I don’t pick my way over sharp peaks and precipices,
no youth will be caught out being lead by me.
Still, while she’s giving and taking messages,
if her body pleases you as much as her zeal,
make the lady your first priority, her companion the next:
Love should never be begun with a servant. ~ Ovid,
875:The god of Delos, proud in victory,
Saw Cupid draw his bow's taut arc, and said:
'Mischievous boy, what are a brave man's arms
To you? That gear becomes my shoulders best.
My aim is sure; I wound my enemies,
I wound wild beasts; my countless arrows slew
But now the bloated Python, whose vast coils
Across so many acres spread their blight.
You and your loves! You have your torch to light them!Let that content you; never claim my fame!'

And Venus' son replied: 'Your bow, Apollo,
May vanquish all, but mine shall vanquish you.
As every creature yields to power divine,
So likewise shall your glory yield to mine. ~ Ovid,
876:When he, whoever of the gods it was, had thus arranged in order and resolved that chaotic mass, and reduced it, thus resolved, to cosmic parts, he first moulded the Earth into the form of a mighty ball so that it might be of like form on every side … And, that no region might be without its own forms of animate life, the stars and divine forms occupied the floor of heaven, the sea fell to the shining fishes for their home, Earth received the beasts, and the mobile air the birds … Then Man was born:… though all other animals are prone, and fix their gaze upon the earth, he gave to Man an uplifted face and bade him stand erect and turn his eyes to heaven. ~ Ovid,
877:The peach was soft and firm, and when I finally succeeded in tearing it apart with my cock, I saw that its reddened core reminded me not just of an anus but of a vagina, so that holding each half in either hand firmly against my cock, I began to rub myself, thinking of no one and of everyone, including the poor peach, which had no idea what was being done to it except that it had to play along and probably in the end took some pleasure in the act as well, till I thought I heard it say to me, Fuck me, Elio, fuck me harder, and after a moment, Harder, I said! while I scanned my mind for images from Ovid—wasn’t there a character who had turned into a peach ~ Andr Aciman,
878:Although the gods were in the distant skies,
Pythagoras drew near them with his mind;
what nature had denied to human sight,
he saw with his intellect, his mental eye.
When he, with reason and tenacious care,
had probed all things, he taught-- to those who gathered
in silence and amazement-- what he'd learned
of the beginnings of the universe,
of what caused things to happen, and what is
their nature: what god is, whence come the snows,
what is the origin of lightning bolts--
whether it is the thundering winds or Jove
that cleave the cloudbanks-- and what is the cause
of earthquakes, and what laws control the course
of stars: in sum, whatever had been hid,
Pythagoras revealed. ~ Ovid,
879:Who are you? She asked silently, as she laid away the collector's quotations, his drawings, his scraps of famous poetry: "Come live with me and be my love..." interleaved with menus: 'oysters, fish stew, tortoise in its shell, bread from the oven, honey from the honeycomb.' The books were unsplattered but much fingered, their pages soft with turning and re-turning, like collections of old fairy tales. Often Jess thought of Rapunzel and golden apples and enchanted gardens. She thought of Ovid, and Dante, and Cervantes, and the Pre-Raphaelites, for sometimes McClintock pictured his beloved eating, and sometimes sleeping in fields of poppies, and once throned like Persephone, with strawberry vines entwined in her long hair. ~ Allegra Goodman,
880:Like a helpless maiden from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Antinous, pursued by a proto-god – Hadrian – slipped into a river and was transformed. His life became incidental; his death in the waters of the Nile and his resurrection as a god, as a star, as (possibly) saviour of Hadrian, as the inspiration of a city, was his whole story. He gazed out implacably over the empire; still gazes, passively, in art collections throughout the Western world, a Galatea turned to stone. The mystery of Antinous will always be more powerful in his absence than it could ever have been in his presence. But if one attempts to examine the story more closely, to move behind the placid beauty, behind the unforgettable image, Antinous starts to slip away. ~ Elizabeth Speller,
881:Their love was equal; on the hills they roamed together, and together they would go back to their cave; and this time too they went into the Lapith's palace side by side and side by side were fighting in the fray. A javelin (no knowing from whose hand) came from the left and wounded Cyllarus, landing below the place where the chest joins neck--slight wound, but when the point was pulled away, cold grew his damaged heart and cold his limbs. Hylonome embraced him as he died, caressed the wound and, putting lips to lips, she tried to stay his spirit as it fled. And when she saw him lifeless, she moaned words that in that uproar failed to reach my ears; and fell upon the spear that pierced her love, and, dying, held her husband in her arms. ~ Ovid,
882:And so it is that in order to speak of our own times, I have had to make a long detour, by way of Ovid’s fragile Medusa and Montale’s pitch-black Lucifer. It’s hard for a novelist to convey his idea of lightness with examples drawn from the events of contemporary life without making it the unattainable object of an endless quest. Yet Milan Kundera has done just that, with clarity and immediacy. His novel Nesnesitelná lehkost bytí (The Unbearable Lightness of Being, 1981) is in fact a bitter declaration of the Ineluctable Weight of Living—living not only with the desperate and all-pervading state of oppression that was the fate of his unlucky country, but with the human condition shared also by us, however much luckier we may be. For ~ Italo Calvino,
883:Look at the four-spaced year
That imitates four seasons of our lives;
First Spring, that delicate season, bright with flowers,
Quickening, yet shy, and like a milk-fed child,
Its way unsteady while the countryman
Delights in promise of another year.
Green meadows wake to bloom, frail shoots and grasses,
And then Spring turns to Summer's hardiness,
The boy to manhood. There's no time of year
Of greater richness, warmth, and love of living,
New strength untried. And after Summer, Autumn,
First flushes gone, the temperate season here
Midway between quick youth and growing age,
And grey hair glinting when the head turns toward us,
Then senile Winter, bald or with white hair,
Terror in palsy as he walks alone. ~ Ovid,
884:But now I get it! I am that other one!
I've finally seen through my own image!
I burn with love for - me! The spark I kindle
is the torch I carry: whatever can I do?
Am I the favor-seeker, or the favor sought?

Why seek at all, when all that I desire
is mine already? Riches in such abundance
that I've been left completely without means!

Oh, would that I were able to secede
from my own body, depart from what I love!
(Now that's an odd request from any lover.)
My grief is draining me, my end is near;
soon I will be extinguished in my prime.
This death is no grave matter, for it brings an end to sorrow. Of course, I would have been
delighted if my beloved could have lived on,
but now in death we two will merge as one. ~ Ovid,
885:Later, at four in the morning, Myron encounters his eldest son, Sean, in the kitchen. They talk about schoolwork (Sean has an imminent exam), about what Sean would like to become (a physicist and a poet). “Medio tutissimus ibis,” Sean’s father says, and the son translates, “You will be safest in the middle.” (All three boys know their Ovid.) Son and father regard each other, and Myron says, or perhaps merely thinks, the following: “My son, I remember when our family was only you and your mother and I. . . . I remember when this refrigerator was hung with your nursery drawings. I remember when you put your child’s hand so gently against Leo’s infant cheek, silk touching silk, I remember so much, I would keep you here until morning telling you, beloved boy, but now I must go to bed. ~ Edith Pearlman,
886:Venus of Eryx, from her mountain throne,
Saw Hades and clasped her swift-winged son, and said:
'Cupid, my child, my warrior, my power,
Take those sure shafts with which you conquer all,
And shoot your speedy arrows to the heart
Of the great god to whom the last lot fell
When the three realms were drawn. Your mastery
Subdues the gods of heaven and even Jove,
Subdues the ocean's deities and him,
Even him, who rules the ocean's deities.
Why should Hell lag behind? Why not there too
Extend your mother's empire and your own....?

Then Cupid, guided by his mother, opened
His quiver of all his thousand arrows
Selected one, the sharpest and the surest,
The arrow most obedient to the bow,
And bent the pliant horn against his knee
And shot the barbed shaft deep in Pluto's heart. ~ Ovid,
887:Eis os únicos barcos que temos para voltar a nossa pátria; eis nosso único meio de escapar de Minos. Ele, que fechou todas as outras saídas, não pode fechar o ar para nós; resta-nos o ar; fenda-o graças a minha invenção. Mas não é para a virgem de Tégia, nem para o companheiro de Boótes, que é preciso olhar, mas para Orião, armado com uma clava; é por mim que você deve orientar sua marcha com as asas que eu lhe darei; irei na frente para mostrar o caminho; preocupe-se somente em me seguir; guiado por mim você estará seguro, se através das camadas do éter, nós nos aproximarmos do sol, a cera não poderá suportar o calor; se, descendo, agitarmos as asas muito perto do mar, nossas plumas, batendo, serão molhadas pelas águas marinhas. Voe entre os dois. Preste atenção também nos ventos, meu filho; onde seu sopro o guiar, deixe-se levar em suas asas."

(Conselhos de Dédalo a Ícaro - em A Arte de Amar) ~ Ovid,
888:The River God circled around me as I stood shrouded in darkness and, not knowing what had happened, searched all around the hollow cloud. Twice, unwittingly, he walked around the place where the goddess had hidden me and twice he called: ‘Ho there, Arethusa! Hallo, Arethusa!’ Alas what feelings did I have then! Assuredly I was like a lamb when it hears the wolves howling around the high sheepfold, or like a hare, hiding in the branches, watching the jaws of hostile hounds, and not daring to move. Still Achelous did not depart; for he did not see any footsteps leading further on. He kept watch on the spot where the mist was. A cold sweat broke out on my limbs, when I was just trapped, and dark drops fell from my whole body. Wherever I moved my foot, a pool flowed out, moisture dripped from my hair. More quickly than I can tell of, I was changed into a stream. OVID, METAMORPHOSES, BOOK 5 (TRANS. ~ Elizabeth Speller,
889:Thomas Trevelyan
Reading in Ovid the sorrowful story of Itys,
Son of the love of Tereus and Procne, slain
For the guilty passion of Tereus for Philomela,
The flesh of him served to Tereus by Procne,
And the wrath of Tereus, the murderess pursuing
Till the gods made Philomela a nightingale,
Lute of the rising moon, and Procne a swallow!
Oh livers and artists of Hellas centuries gone,
Sealing in little thuribles dreams and wisdom,
Incense beyond all price, forever fragrant,
A breath whereof makes clear the eyes of the soul!
How I inhaled its sweetness here in Spoon River!
The thurible opening when I had lived and learned
How all of us kill the children of love, and all of us,
Knowing not what we do, devour their flesh;
And all of us change to singers, although it be
But once in our lives, or change -- alas! -- to swallows,
To twitter amid cold winds and falling leaves!
~ Edgar Lee Masters,
890:To A Nun
Please God, forsake your water and dry bread,
And fling the bitter cress you eat aside.
Put by your rosary. In Mary's name leave chanting creeds
To mildewing monks in Rome.
Spring's at work in gardens bright with sun,
Springtime's not made for living like a nun.
Your faith, my fairest lady, your religion,
Shows but a single face of love's medallion.
Slip on this ring and this green gown, these laces The wood is furnitured with resting places.
Hide in the birch tree's shade; upon your knees
Murmur the mass of cuckoos, litanies
Of spring's green foliage. There's no sacrilege
If we find heaven here against the hedge.
Remember Ovid's book and Ovid's truth There's such a thing as having too much faith.
Let us discover the shapes, the earthly signs,
Of our true selves, our souls, among the vines.
For surely God and all his saints above,
High in their other heaven, pardon love.
~ Anonymous,
891:Ovid in Tears"

Love is like a garden in the heart, he said.
They asked him what he meant by garden.
He explained about gardens. “In the cities,”
he said, “there are places walled off where color
and decorum are magnified into a civilization.
Like a beautiful woman,” he said. How like
a woman, they asked. He remembered their wives
and said garden was just a figure of speech,
then called for drinks all around. Two rounds
later he was crying. Talking about how Charlemagne
couldn’t read but still made a world. About Hagia
Sophia and putting a round dome on a square
base after nine hundred years of failure.
The hand holding him slipped and he fell.
“White stone in the white sunlight,” he said
as they picked him up. “Not the great fires
built on the edge of the world.” His voice grew
fainter as they carried him away. “Both the melody
and the symphony. The imperfect dancing
in the beautiful dance. The dance most of all. ~ Jack Gilbert,
892:But now as Phoebus anointed Phaethon
With medicinal blocker
To protect him from the burning
And fixed the crown of rays on the boy’s head
He saw the tragedy to come

And sighed: “At least, if you can,
Stick to these instructions, my son.
First: use the whip not at all, or lightly.
But rein the team hard. It is not easy.
Their whole inclination is to be gone.

Second: avoid careering
Over the whole five zones of heaven.
Keep to that broad highway that curves
Within three zones, temperate and tropic.
Avoid the poles, and their killing blizzards.

Keep to that highway, follow the wheel ruts.
Share your heat fairly
Between heaven and earth, not too low
And not crashing in among the stars. Too high,
You will set heaven aflame—and, too low, earth.

The middle way is best, and safest.
And do not veer too far to the right
Where your wheels might crush the Serpent, nor to the left
Where they might be shattered against the Altar.
Take a bearing between them. ~ Ovid,
893:Good Idea?
<i>For Justin Clemens
Fin-de-Siècle</i> France
much more congenial
to the glum exuberance
of your thoughts. Exile
in the land of mediocrity
and gum-trees, no doubt
unjust as Ovid’s. Our Caesar
a banal bureaucrat who
jogs around a lake
in Canberra. “Intellectuals”
debate base quackery
in our desert island’s
bored media. Nearly
buried by the sandstorm’s
insignificance, I asked
for a good idea. My thesis
a pauper’s grave,
withered formulae; since
the thirst for life
often kills. I was, frankly,
serious. You: “Then again
there are no good ideas”
and discoursed
with obstinate, burning
exactitude the belief
of doubt. Abelard lost
his balls for this. You
may be the last cynic
in the barren domain
of odious and senseless
pastoral optimism;
the strained and resilient
rope flung toward
my hands sinking in
the sand of the island’s
so-called culture, or lack
thereof. Amen.
~ Ali Alizadeh,
894:‘and Ask Ye Why These Sad Tears Stream?’
'And ask ye why these sad tears stream?'
‘Te somnia nostra reducunt.’
And ask ye why these sad tears stream?
Why these wan eyes are dim with weeping?
I had a dream–a lovely dream,
Of her that in the grave is sleeping.
I saw her as ’twas yesterday,
The bloom upon her cheek still glowing;
And round her play’d a golden ray,
And on her brows were gay flowers blowing.
With angel-hand she swept a lyre,
A garland red with roses bound it;
Its strings were wreath’d with lambent fire
And amaranth was woven round it.
I saw her mid the realms of light,
In everlasting radiance gleaming;
Co-equal with the seraphs bright,
Mid thousand thousand angels beaming.
I strove to reach her, when, behold,
Those fairy forms of bliss Elysian,
And all that rich scene wrapt in gold,
Faded in air–a lovely vision!
And I awoke, but oh! to me
That waking hour was doubly weary;
And yet I could not envy thee,
Although so blest, and I so dreary.
~ Alfred Lord Tennyson,
895:believe I already wrote in my notes that love was very similar to torture or surgery. But this idea can be developed in a most bitter way. Even if two lovers are very much in love and full of mutual desires, one of the two will always be calmer or less possessed than the other. The former is the operator or the executioner; the latter is the subject, the victim. Do you hear these sighs, preludes to a tragedy of dishonor, these groans, these cries, these gasps? Who hasn't uttered them, who has resisted extorting them? And what do you find to be the worst part of the torment applied by the careful torturers? The revolting sleepwalker eyes, the limbs with muscles that jump or stiffen as if they were galvanized; certainly, not even the most furious effects of intoxication, delirium or opium could provide such horrible and curious examples. And the human face, which Ovid believed to be made to reflect the stars, is now wearing an expression of crazy ferocity or slackening in some sort of death. Surely, I would think it a sacrilege if I used the word "ecstasy" for such decomposition. ~ Charles Baudelaire,
896:En Crotona vivía un hombre de la isla de Samos que se había expatriado por no soportar a un odioso tirano (...) Ese hombre fue el primero que le aconsejó:
- ¡No matarás! ¡No matarás para comer!
(...) Gustaban los hombres asemejarse a las bestias? Hasta los dioses, que ahora gustaban del sacrificio de los animales, llegarían un tiempo en el que preferirían los frutos de la tierra (...) Pero, ¿no merecería el castigo de los dioses quien, después de utilizar el pausado y honrado trabajo del buey, lo desyugara para matarlo y comerlo?
Aquel sabio enseño igualmente que las almas son inmortales y que cuando un cuerpo muere, ellas buscan otro cuerpo al que guiar (...) Y después de entrar en materia, y que navego, por así decirlo, en pleno mar de la disquisición, os aseguraré que todo es mutable en el Universo. No puede volver atrás el río. No se detiene ni un punto el rápido transcurso de las horas. Una ola empuja a las otras. Nunca es presente; siempre es pasado (...) Toda criatura no permanece la misma ni un segundo. Y cuando pensamos que es consumida, ya se está transformando en una nueva (...) ~ Ovid,
897:Let your mistress’s birthday be one of great terror to you:
that’s a black day when anything has to be given.
However much you avoid it, she’ll still win: it’s
a woman’s skill, to strip wealth from an ardent lover.
A loose-robed pedlar comes to your lady: she likes to buy:
and explains his prices while you’re sitting there.
She’ll ask you to look, because you know what to look for:
then kiss you: then ask you to buy her something there.
She swears that she’ll be happy with it, for years,
but she needs it now, now the price is right.
If you say you haven’t the money in the house, she’ll ask
for a note of hand – and you’re sorry you learnt to write.
Why - she asks doesn’t she for money as if it’s her birthday,
just for the cake, and how often it is her birthday, if she’s in need?
Why - she weeps doesn’t she, mournfully, for a sham loss,
that imaginary gem that fell from her pierced ear?
They many times ask for gifts, they never give in return:
you lose, and you’ll get no thanks for your loss.
And ten mouths with as many tongues wouldn’t be enough
for me to describe the wicked tricks of whores. ~ Ovid,
898:We were nobodies, two young lit. students chatting away in a rickety old house in a small town at the edge of the world, a place where nothing of any significance had ever happened and presumably never would, we had barely started out on our lives and knew nothing about anything, but what we read was not nothing, it concerned matters of the utmost significance and was written by the greatest thinkers and writers in Western culture, and that was basically a miracle, all you had to do was fill in a library lending slip and you had access to what Plato, Sappho or Aristophanes had written in the incomprehensibly distant mists of time, or Homer, Sophocles, Ovid, Lucullus, Lucretius or Dante, Vasari, da Vinci, Montaigne, Shakespeare, Cervantes or Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Lukács, Arendt or those who wrote in the modern day, Foucault, Barthes, Lévi-Strauss, Deleuze, Serres. Not to mention the millions of novels, plays and collections of poetry which were available. All one lending slip and a few days away. We didn’t read any of these to be able to summarise the contents, as we did with the literature on the syllabus, but because they could give us something. ~ Karl Ove Knausg rd,
899:I Go Back To The House For A Book
I turn around on the gravel
and go back to the house for a book,
something to read at the doctor’s office,
and while I am inside, running the finger
of inquisition along a shelf,
another me that did not bother
to go back to the house for a book
heads out on his own,
rolls down the driveway,
and swings left toward town,
a ghost in his ghost car,
another knot in the string of time,
a good three minutes ahead of me—
a spacing that will now continue
for the rest of my life.
Sometimes I think I see him
a few people in front of me on a line
or getting up from a table
to leave the restaurant just before I do,
slipping into his coat on the way out the door.
But there is no catching him,
no way to slow him down
and put us back in synch,
unless one day he decides to go back
to the house for something,
but I cannot imagine
for the life of me what that might be.
He is out there always before me,
blazing my trail, invisible scout,
hound that pulls me along,
shade I am doomed to follow,
my perfect double,
only bumped an inch into the future,
and not nearly as well-versed as I
in the love poems of Ovid
I who went back to the house
that fateful winter morning and got the book.
~ Billy Collins,
900:Arrive before your Husband. Not that I can
See quite what good arriving first will do;
But still arrive before him. When he's taken
His place upon the couch and you go too
To sit beside him, on your best behavior
Stealthily touch my foot, and look at me,
Watching my nods, my eyes, my face's language;
Catch and return my signals secretly.
I'll send a wordless message with my eyebrows;
You'll read my fingers' words, words traced in wine.
When you recall our games of love together,
Your finger on rosy cheeks must trace a line.
If in your silent thoughts you wish to chide me,
Let your hand hold the lobe of your soft ear;
When, darling, what I do or say gives pleasure,
Keep turning to an fro the ring you wear.
When you wish well-earned curses on your husband,
Lay your hand on the table, as in prayer.
If he pours you wine, watch out, tell him to drink it;
Ask for what you want from the waiter there.
I shall take next the glass you hand the waiter
And I'll drink from the place you took your sips;
If he should offer anything he's tasted,
Refuse whatever food has touch his lips.
Don't let him plant his arms upon your shoulders,
Don't let him rest your gentle head on his hard chest,
Don't let your dress, your breasts, admit his fingers,
And--most of all--no kisses to be pressed!
You kiss--and I'll reveal myself your lover;
I'll say 'they're mine'; my legal claim I'll stake.
All this, of course I'll see, But what's well hidden
under your dress--blind terror makes me quake. ~ Ovid,
901:Ballade Adresse A Geoffrey Chaucer
O Socratès plains de philosophie,
Seneque en meurs, Auglius en pratique,
Ovides grans en ta poëtrie,
Briés en parler, saiges en rethorique . . .
Grant translateur, noble Geoffrey Chaucier.
O Socrates, filled with philosophy,
Seneca in morals, Aulus Gellius in practice,
Great Ovid of your poetry,
Brief in speech, wise in rhetoric,
Most high eagle, who by your science
Enlumined the realm of Æneas.
The Isle of giants, of Brut, who has
Sown the flowers and planted the rose bower
For those ignorant of French,
Great translator, noble Geoffrey Chaucer.
You are the god of earthly love in Albion,
And of the Rose - in the Angelic land,
Which, from the Saxoness Angelica, has flourished
Into Angle-land, from her whose name is applied
As the last in this etymology You have translated in good English;
And a garden for which you ask for plants
From those who compose in order to be authorities,
You have long since created,
Great translator, noble Geoffrey Chaucer.
From you therefore, from the fountain of Helicon,
I have asked to have an authentic drink,
From the stream that is entirely in your power,
In order to quench my fevered thirst,
I who shall be shall be paralyzed in Gaul
Until you send to give me drink.
I am Eustaces; you shall have some of my plants;
Take in good grace these works of a schoolboy
Which you will recieve from me by Clifford,
Great translator, noble Geoffrey Chaucer.
~ Eustache Deschamps,
902:For those who have walked through the fires of hell and rather than fall to its flames, have emerged battered, but victorious. In the immortal words of Ovid: Quin ninc quoque frigidus artus, dum loquor, horror habet, parsque est meminisse doloris- Even now while I tell it, cold horror envelops me and my pains return the minute I think of it. We can never escape the pain of our pasts, or the flashbacks that assault us when we dare to let our thoughts drift unattended, but we can choose to not let it ruin the future we, alone, can build for ourselves.
And for those who are currently trapped in a bad situation. May you find the resolute strength it takes to free yourself, and to finally see the beauty that lives inside you. You are resplendent, and you deserve respect and love. Don't let the minions of hatred or cruelty define you, or steal away your own humanity. When our compassion and ability to love and appreciate others go, then our bullies and oppressors have truly won, for it is not they who are harmed, but rather we who lose our souls and hearts to the same miserable bitterness that causes them to lash out against us. The cycle can be broken- it must be broken, even though the path is never easy or without cost. Yet victory is made sweeter when you know it came from within you, without violent retribution. The best revenge is to leave them mired in their hateful misery while you learn to bask in the warmth of self-esteem and happiness. Never forget that broken wings can and do heal in time, and that those scarred wings can carry the eagle to the top of the highest mountain. ~ Sherrilyn Kenyon,
903:Horreur Sympathique (Sympathetic Horror)
De ce ciel bizarre et livide,
Tourmenté comme ton destin,
Quels pensers dans ton âme vide
Descendent? réponds, libertin.
— Insatiablement avide
De l'obscur et de l'incertain,
Je ne geindrai pas comme Ovide
Chassé du paradis latin.
Cieux déchirés comme des grèves
En vous se mire mon orgueil;
Vos vastes nuages en deuil
Sont les corbillards de mes rêves,
Et vos lueurs sont le reflet
De l'Enfer où mon coeur se plaît.
Reflected Horror
From that sky, bizarre and livid,
Distorted as your destiny,
What thoughts into your empty soul
Descend? Answer me, libertine.
— Insatiably avid
For the dark and the uncertain,
I shall not whimper like Ovid
Chased from his Latin paradise.
Skies torn like the shores of the sea,
You are the mirror of my pride;
Your vast clouds in mourning
Are the black hearses of my dreams,
And your gleams are the reflection
Of the Hell which delights my heart.
— Translated by William Aggeler
Sympathetic Horror
From livid skies that, without end,
As stormy as your future roll,
What thoughts into your empty soul
(Answer me, libertine!) descend?
— Insatiable yet for all
That turns on darkness, doom, or dice,
I'll not, like Ovid, mourn my fall,
Chased from the Latin paradise.
Skies, torn like seacoasts by the storm!
In you I see my pride take form,
And the huge clouds that rush in streams
Are the black hearses of my dreams,
And your red rays reflect the hell,
In which my heart is pleased to dwell.
— Translated by Roy Campbell
~ Charles Baudelaire,
904:The Brother's Reply
Sister, fie, for shame, no more,
Give this ignorant babble o'er,
Nor with little female pride
Things above your sense deride.
Why this foolish under-rating
Of my first attempts at Latin?
Know you not each thing we prize
Does from small beginnings rise?
'Twas the same thing with your writing,
Which you now take such delight in.
First you learnt the down-stroke line,
Then the hair-stroke thin and fine,
Then a curve, and then a better,
Till you came to form a letter;
Then a new task was begun,
How to join them two in one;
Till you got (these first steps past)
To your fine text-hand at last.
So though I at first commence
With the humble accidence,
And my study's course affords
Little else as yet but words,
I shall venture in a while
At construction, grammar, style,
Learn my syntax, and proceed
Classic authors next to read,
Such as wiser, better, make us,
Sallust, Phædrus, Ovid, Flaccus:
All the poets (with their wit),
All the grave historians writ,
Who the lives and actions show
Of men famous long ago;
Even their very sayings giving
In the tongue they used when living.
Think not I shall do that wrong
Either to my native tongue,
English authors to despise,
Or those books which you so prize;
Though from them awhile I stray,
By new studies called away,
Them when next I take in hand,
I shall better understand.
For I've heard wise men declare
Many words in English are
From the Latin tongue derived,
Of whose sense girls are deprived
'Cause they do not Latin know.But if all this anger grow
From this cause, that you suspect
By proceedings indirect,
I would keep (as misers pelf)
All this learning to myself;
Sister, to remove this doubt,
Rather than we will fall out,
(If our parents will agree)
You shall Latin learn with me.
~ Charles Lamb,
905:I MEAN not to defend the scapes of any,
Or justify my vices being many;
For I confess, if that might merit favour,
Here I display my lewd and loose behaviour.
I loathe, yet after that I loathe, I run: 5
Oh, how the burthen irks, that we should shun.
I cannot rule myself but where Love please;
Am driven like a ship upon rough seas.
No one face likes me best, all faces move,
A hundred reasons make me ever love. 10
If any eye me with a modest look,
I blush, and by that blushful glance am took;
And she that’s coy I like, for being no clown,
Methinks she would be nimble when she’s down.
Though her sour looks a Sabine’s brow resemble, 15
I think she’ll do, but deeply can dissemble.
If she be learned, then for her skill I crave her;
If not, because she’s simple I would have her.
Before Callimachus one prefers me far;
Seeing she likes my books, why should we jar? 20
Another rails at me, and that I write,
Yet would I lie with her, if that I might:
Trips she, it likes me well; plods she, what then?
She would be nimbler lying with a man.
And when one sweetly sings, then straight I long, 25
To quaver on her lips even in her song;
Or if one touch the lute with art and cunning,
Who would not love those hands for their swift running?
And her I like that with a majesty,
Folds up her arms, and makes low courtesy. 30
To leave myself, that am in love with all,
Some one of these might make the chastest fall.
If she be tall, she’s like an Amazon,
And therefore fills the bed she lies upon:
If short, she lies the rounder: to speak troth, 35
Both short and long please me, for I love both.
I think what one undecked would be, being drest;
Is she attired? then show her graces best.
A white wench thralls me, so doth golden yellow:
And nut-brown girls in doing have no fellow. 40
If her white neck be shadowed with brown hair,
Why so was Leda’s, yet was Leda fair.
Amber-tress’d is she? Then on the morn think I:
My love alludes to every history:
A young wench pleaseth, and an old is good, 45
This for her looks, that for her womanhood:
Nay what is she, that any Roman loves,
But my ambitious ranging mind approves? ~ Ovid,
906:An Inventory Of The Furniture In Dr. Priestley's Study
A map of every country known,
With not a foot to call his own.
A list of folks that kicked a dust
On this poor globe, from Ptol. the First;
He hopes,- indeed it is but fair,Some day to get a corner there.
A group of all the British kings,
Fair emblem! on a packthread swings.
The Fathers, ranged in goodly row,
A decent, venerable show,
Writ a great while ago, they tell us,
And many an inch o'ertop their fellows.
A Juvenal to hunt for mottos;
And Ovid's tales of nymphs and grottos.
The meek-robed lawyers all in white;
Pure as the lamb,- at least, to sight.
A shelf of bottles, jar and phial,
By which the rogues he can defy all,All filled with lightning keen and genuine,
And many a little imp he'll pen you in;
Which, like Le Sage's sprite, let out,
Among the neighbours makes a rout;
Brings down the lightning on their houses,
And kills their geese, and frights their spouses.
A rare thermometer, by which
He settles, to the nicest pitch,
The just degrees of heat, to raise
Sermons, or politics, or plays.
Papers and books, a strange mixed olio,
From shilling touch to pompous folio;
Answer, remark, reply, rejoinder,
Fresh from the mint, all stamped and coined here;
Like new-made glass, set by to cool,
Before it bears the workman's tool.
A blotted proof-sheet, wet from Bowling.
-'How can a man his anger hold in?'Forgotten rimes, and college themes,
Worm-eaten plans, and embryo schemes;-
A mass of heterogeneous matter,
A chaos dark, no land nor water;New books, like new-born infants, stand,
Waiting the printer's clothing hand;Others, a mottly ragged brood,
Their limbs unfashioned all, and rude,
Like Cadmus' half-formed men appear;
One rears a helm, one lifts a spear,
And feet were lopped and fingers torn
Before their fellow limbs were born;
A leg began to kick and sprawl
Before the head was seen at all,
Which quiet as a mushroom lay
Till crumbling hillocks gave it way;
And all, like controversial writing,
Were born with teeth, and sprung up fighting.
'But what is this,' I hear you cry,
'Which saucily provokes my eye?'A thing unknown, without a name,
Born of the air and doomed to flame.
~ Anna Laetitia Barbauld,
907:The Request
I'AVE often wish'd to love; what shall I do?
Me still the cruel boy does spare;
And I a double task must bear,
First to woo him, and then a mistress too.
Come at last and strike, for shame,
If thou art any thing besides a name;
I'll think thee else no God to be,
But poets rather Gods, who first created thee.
I ask not one in whom all beauties grow;
Let me but love, whate'er she be,
She cannot seem deform'd to me;
And I would have her seem to others so.
Desire takes wings and straight does fly,
It stays not dully to inquire the Why.
That happy thing, a lover, grown,
I shall not see with others' eyes, scarce with mine own.
If she be coy, and scorn my noble fire;
If her chill heart I cannot move;
Why I'll enjoy the very love,
And make a mistress of my own desire.
Flames their most vigorous heat do hold,
And purest light, if compass'd round with cold:
So, when sharp winter means most harm,
The springing plants are by the snow itself kept warm.
But do not touch my heart, and so be gone;
Strike deep thy burning arrows in!
Lukewarmness I account a sin,
As great in love as in religion.
Come arm'd with flames; for I would prove
All the extremities of mighty Love.
Th' excess of heat is but a fable;
We know the torrid zone is now found habitable.
Among the woods and forests thou art found,
There boars and lions thou dost tame;
Is not my heart a nobler game?
Let Venus, men; and beasts, Diana, wound!
Thou dost the birds thy subjects make;
Thy nimble feathers do their wings o'ertake:
Thou all the spring their songs dost hear;
Make me love too, I'll sing to' thee all the year!
What service can mute fishes do to thee?
Yet against them thy dart prevails,
Piercing the armour of their scales;
And still thy sea-born mother lives i'th' sea.
Dost thou deny only to me
The no-great privilege of captivity?
I beg or challenge here thy bow;
Either thy pity to me, or else thine anger, show.
Come! or I 'll teach the world to scorn that bow:
I'll teach them thousand wholesome arts
Both to resist and cure thy darts,
More than thy skilful Ovid e'er did know.
Musick of sighs thou shalt not hear,
Nor drink one wretched lover's tasteful tear:
Nay, unless soon thou woundest me,
My verses shall not only wound, but murder, thee.
~ Abraham Cowley,
908:Sandys Ghost ; A Proper Ballad On The New Ovid's
Ye Lords and Commons, Men of Wit,
And Pleasure about Town;
Read this ere you translate one Bit
Of Books of high Renown.
Beware of Latin Authors all!
Nor think your Verses Sterling,
Though with a Golden Pen you scrawl,
And scribble in a Berlin:
For not the Desk with silver Nails,
Nor Bureau of Expense,
Nor standish well japann'd avails,
To writing of good Sense.
Hear how a Ghost in dead of Night,
With saucer Eyes of Fire,
In woeful wise did sore affright
A Wit and courtly 'Squire.
Rare Imp and Phoebus, hopeful Youth
Like Puppy tame that uses
To fetch and carry, in his Mouth,
The Works of all the Muses.
Ah! why did he write Poetry,
That hereto was so civil;
And sell his soul for vanity,
To Rhyming and the Devil?
A Desk he had of curious Work,
With glittering Studs about;
Within the same did Sandys lurk,
Though Ovid lay without.
Now as he scratch'd to fetch up Thought,
Forth popp'd the Sprite so thin;
And from the Key-hole bolted out,
All upright as a Pin.
With Whiskers, Band, and Pantaloon,
And Ruff composed most duly;
This 'Squire he dropp'd his Pen full soon,
While as the Light burnt bluely.
'Ho! Master Sam,' quoth Sandys' sprite,
'Write on, nor let me scare ye;
Forsooth, if Rhymes fall in not right,
To Budgell seek, or Carey.
'I hear the Beat of Jacob's Drums,
Poor Ovid finds no Quarter!
See first the merry Pembroke comes
In Haste, without his Garter.
'Then Lords and Lordlings, 'Squires and Knights,
Wits, Witlings, Prigs and Peers!
Garth at St. James's, and at White's,
Beats up for Volunteers.
'What Fenton will not do, nor Gay,
Nor Congreve, Rowe, nor Stanyan,
Tom Burnet or Tom D'Urfey may,
John Dunton, Steele, or any one.
'If Justice Philips' costive head
Some frigid Rhymes disburses;
They shall like Persian Tales be read,
And glad both Babes and Nurses.
'Let Warwick's Muse with Ashurst join,
And Ozell's with Lord Hervey's:
Tickell and Addison combine,
And P-pe translate with Jervas.
'Landsdowne himself, that lively Lord,
Who bows to every Lady,
Shall join with Frowde in one Accord,
And be like Tate and Brady.
'Ye Ladies too draw forth your pen,
I pray where can the hurt lie?
Since you have Brains as well as Men,
As witness Lady Wortley.
'Now, Tonson, list thy Forces all,
Review them, and tell Noses;
For to poor Ovid shall befal
A strange Metamorphosis.
'A Metamorphosis more strange
Than all his Books can vapour;'
'To what' (quoth 'squire) 'shall Ovid change?'
Quoth Sandys: 'To waste paper.'
~ Alexander Pope,
909:[the virgin birth account] occurs everywhere. When the Herod figure ( the extreme figure of misgovernment) has brought man to the nadir of spirit, the occult forces of the cycle begin to move. In an inconspicuous village, Mary is born who will maintain herself undefiled by fashionable errors of her generation. Her womb, remaining fallw as the primordial abyss, summons itself by its very readiness the original power that fertilzed the void.
Mary's virgin birth story is recounted everywhere. and with such striking unity of the main contours, that early christian missionaries had to think the devil must be creating mockeries of Mary's birth wherever they testified. One missionary reports that after work was begun among Tunja and Sogamozzo South American Indians, "the demon began giving contrary doctrines. The demon sought to discredit Mary's account, declaring it had not yet come to pass; but presently, the sun would bring it to pass by taking flesh in the womb of a virgin in a small village, causing her to conceive by rays of the sun while she yet remained virgin."
Hindu mythology tells of the maiden parvati who retreated to the high hills to practice austerities. Taraka had usurped mastery of the world, a tyrant. Prophecy said only a son of the high god Shiva could overthrow him. Shive however was the pattern god of yoga-alone, aloof, meditating. It was impossible Shiva could be moved to beget.
Parvati tried changing the world situation by metching Shiva in meditation. Aloof, indrawn in her soul meditating, she fasted naked beneath the blazing sun, even adding to the heat by building four great fires. One day a Brahmin youth arrived and asked why anyone so beautiful should be destroying herself with such torture. "My desire," she said "is Shiva, the Highest. He is the god of solitude and concentration. I therefore imitate his meditation to move him from his balance and bring him to me in love."
Shiva, the youth announced, is a god of destruction, shiva is World Annhilator. Snakes are his garlands.
The virgin said: He is beyond the mind of such as you. He is terrifying but the source of grace. snake garlands or jewel garlands he can assume or put off at will. Shiva is my love.
The youth thereupon put away his disguise-he was Shiva.
The Buddha descended from heaven to his mother's womb in the shape of a milk white elephant. The Aztec Coatlicue was approached by a god in the form of a ball of feathers. The chapters of Ovid's Metamorphoses swarm with nymphs beset by gods in sundry masquerades: jove as a bull, a swan, a shower of gold. Any leaf, any nut, or even the breath of a breeze, may be enough to fertilize the ready virgin womb. The procreating power is everywhere. And according to whim or destiny of the hour, either a hero savior or a world--annihilating demon may be conceived-one can never know. ~ Joseph Campbell,


The Transformation of Scylla

Now Glaucus, with a lover's haste, bounds o'er
The swelling waves, and seeks the Latian shore.
Messena, Rhegium, and the barren coast
Of flaming Aetna, to his sight are lost:
At length he gains the Tyrrhene seas, and views
The hills where baneful philters Circe brews;
Monsters, in various forms, around her press;
As thus the God salutes the sorceress.
O Circe, be indulgent to my grief,
And give a love-sick deity relief.
Too well the mighty pow'r of plants I know,
To those my figure, and new Fate I owe.
Against Messena, on th' Ausonian coast,
I Scylla view'd, and from that hour was lost.
In tend'rest sounds I su'd; but still the fair
Was deaf to vows, and pityless to pray'r.
If numbers can avail, exert their pow'r;
Or energy of plants, if plants have more.
I ask no cure; let but the virgin pine
With dying pangs, or agonies, like mine.

No longer Circe could her flame disguise,
But to the suppliant God marine, replies:

When maids are coy, have manlier aims in view;
Leave those that fly, but those that like, pursue.
If love can be by kind compliance won;
See, at your feet, the daughter of the Sun.

Sooner, said Glaucus, shall the ash remove
From mountains, and the swelling surges love;
Or humble sea-weed to the hills repair;
E'er I think any but my Scylla fair.

Strait Circe reddens with a guilty shame,
And vows revenge for her rejected flame.
Fierce liking oft a spight as fierce creates;
For love refus'd, without aversion, hates.
To hurt her hapless rival she proceeds;
And, by the fall of Scylla, Glaucus bleeds.

Some fascinating bev'rage now she brews;
Compos'd of deadly drugs, and baneful juice.
At Rhegium she arrives; the ocean braves,
And treads with unwet feet the boiling waves.
Upon the beach a winding bay there lies,
Shelter'd from seas, and shaded from the skies:
This station Scylla chose: a soft retreat
From chilling winds, and raging Cancer's heat.
The vengeful sorc'ress visits this recess;
Her charm infuses, and infects the place.
Soon as the nymph wades in, her nether parts
Turn into dogs; then at her self she starts.
A ghastly horror in her eyes appears;
But yet she knows not, who it is she fears;
In vain she offers from her self to run,
And drags about her what she strives to shun.

N.B. All electronic versions end here. The Internet Classics Archive
will soon feature the remainder of Book 14 and all of Book 15 from
Garth's translation.



Copyright statement:

The Internet Classics Archive by Daniel C. Stevenson, Web Atomics.

World Wide Web presentation is copyright (C) 1994-2000, Daniel

C. Stevenson, Web Atomics.

All rights reserved under international and pan-American copyright

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in any form. Direct permission requests to

Translation of "The Deeds of the Divine Augustus" by Augustus is

copyright (C) Thomas Bushnell, BSG.



911:The Grammarians Funeral
Eight Parts of Speech this Day wear Mourning Gowns
Declin'd Verbs, Pronouns, Participles, Nouns.
And not declined, Adverbs and Conjunctions,
In Lillies Porch they stand to do their functions.
With Preposition; but the most affection
Was still observed in the Interjection.
The Substantive seeming the limbed best,
Would set an hand to bear him to his Rest.
The Adjective with very grief did say,
Hold me by strength, or I shall faint away.
The Clouds of Tears did over-cast their faces,
Yea all were in most lamentable Cases.
The five Declensions did the Work decline,
And Told the Pronoun Tu, The work is thine:
But in this case those have no call to go
That want the Vocative, and can't say O!
The Pronouns said that if the Nouns were there,
There was no need of them, they might them spare:
But for the sake of Emphasis they would,
In their Discretion do what ere they could.
Great honour was confer'd on Conjugations,
They were to follow next to the Relations.
Amo did love him best, and Doceo might
Alledge he was his Glory and Delight.
But Lego said by me he got his skill,
And therefore next the Herse I follow will.
Audio said little, hearing them so hot,
Yet knew by him much Learning he had got.
O Verbs the Active were, Or Passive sure,
Sum to be Neuter could not well endure.
But this was common to them all to Moan
Their load of grief they could not soon Depone.
A doleful Day for Verbs, they look so moody,
They drove Spectators to a Mournful Study.
The Verbs irregular, 'twas thought by some,
Would break no rule, if they were pleas'd to come.
Gaudeo could not be found; fearing disgrace
He had with-drawn, sent Maereo in his Place.
Possum did to the utmost he was able,
And bore as Stout as if he'd been A Table.
Volo was willing, Nolo some-what stout,
But Malo rather chose, not to stand out.
Possum and Volo wish'd all might afford
Their help, but had not an Imperative Word.
Edo from Service would by no means Swerve,
Rather than fail, he thought the Cakes to Serve.
Fio was taken in a fit, and said,
By him a Mournful POEM should be made.
Fero was willing for to bear a part,
Altho' he did it with an aking heart.
Feror excus'd, with grief he was so Torn,
He could not bear, he needed to be born.
Such Nouns and Verbs as we defective find,
No Grammar Rule did their attendance bind.
They were excepted, and exempted hence,
But Supines, all did blame for negligence.
Verbs Offspring, Participles hand-in-hand,
Follow, and by the same direction stand:
The rest Promiscuously did croud and cumber,
Such Multitudes of each, they wanted Number.
Next to the Corpse to make th' attendance even,
Jove, Mercury, Apollo came from heaven.
And Virgil, Cato, gods, men, Rivers, Winds,
With Elegies, Tears, Sighs, came in their kinds.
Ovid from Pontus hast's Apparrell'd thus,
In Exile-weeds bringing De Tristibus:
And Homer sure had been among the Rout,
But that the Stories say his Eyes were out.
Queens, Cities, Countries, Islands, Come
All Trees, Birds, Fishes, and each Word in Um.
What Syntax here can you expect to find?
Where each one bears such discomposed mind.
Figures of Diction and Construction,
Do little: Yet stand sadly looking on.
That such a Train may in their motion chord,
Prosodia gives the measure Word for Word.
~ Benjamin Tompson,
912:Reading list (1972 edition)[edit]
1. Homer – Iliad, Odyssey
2. The Old Testament
3. Aeschylus – Tragedies
4. Sophocles – Tragedies
5. Herodotus – Histories
6. Euripides – Tragedies
7. Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War
8. Hippocrates – Medical Writings
9. Aristophanes – Comedies
10. Plato – Dialogues
11. Aristotle – Works
12. Epicurus – Letter to Herodotus; Letter to Menoecus
13. Euclid – Elements
14. Archimedes – Works
15. Apollonius of Perga – Conic Sections
16. Cicero – Works
17. Lucretius – On the Nature of Things
18. Virgil – Works
19. Horace – Works
20. Livy – History of Rome
21. Ovid – Works
22. Plutarch – Parallel Lives; Moralia
23. Tacitus – Histories; Annals; Agricola Germania
24. Nicomachus of Gerasa – Introduction to Arithmetic
25. Epictetus – Discourses; Encheiridion
26. Ptolemy – Almagest
27. Lucian – Works
28. Marcus Aurelius – Meditations
29. Galen – On the Natural Faculties
30. The New Testament
31. Plotinus – The Enneads
32. St. Augustine – On the Teacher; Confessions; City of God; On Christian Doctrine
33. The Song of Roland
34. The Nibelungenlied
35. The Saga of Burnt Njál
36. St. Thomas Aquinas – Summa Theologica
37. Dante Alighieri – The Divine Comedy;The New Life; On Monarchy
38. Geoffrey Chaucer – Troilus and Criseyde; The Canterbury Tales
39. Leonardo da Vinci – Notebooks
40. Niccolò Machiavelli – The Prince; Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy
41. Desiderius Erasmus – The Praise of Folly
42. Nicolaus Copernicus – On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
43. Thomas More – Utopia
44. Martin Luther – Table Talk; Three Treatises
45. François Rabelais – Gargantua and Pantagruel
46. John Calvin – Institutes of the Christian Religion
47. Michel de Montaigne – Essays
48. William Gilbert – On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies
49. Miguel de Cervantes – Don Quixote
50. Edmund Spenser – Prothalamion; The Faerie Queene
51. Francis Bacon – Essays; Advancement of Learning; Novum Organum, New Atlantis
52. William Shakespeare – Poetry and Plays
53. Galileo Galilei – Starry Messenger; Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
54. Johannes Kepler – Epitome of Copernican Astronomy; Concerning the Harmonies of the World
55. William Harvey – On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals; On the Circulation of the Blood; On the Generation of Animals
56. Thomas Hobbes – Leviathan
57. René Descartes – Rules for the Direction of the Mind; Discourse on the Method; Geometry; Meditations on First Philosophy
58. John Milton – Works
59. Molière – Comedies
60. Blaise Pascal – The Provincial Letters; Pensees; Scientific Treatises
61. Christiaan Huygens – Treatise on Light
62. Benedict de Spinoza – Ethics
63. John Locke – Letter Concerning Toleration; Of Civil Government; Essay Concerning Human Understanding;Thoughts Concerning Education
64. Jean Baptiste Racine – Tragedies
65. Isaac Newton – Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; Optics
66. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – Discourse on Metaphysics; New Essays Concerning Human Understanding;Monadology
67. Daniel Defoe – Robinson Crusoe
68. Jonathan Swift – A Tale of a Tub; Journal to Stella; Gulliver's Travels; A Modest Proposal
69. William Congreve – The Way of the World
70. George Berkeley – Principles of Human Knowledge
71. Alexander Pope – Essay on Criticism; Rape of the Lock; Essay on Man
72. Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu – Persian Letters; Spirit of Laws
73. Voltaire – Letters on the English; Candide; Philosophical Dictionary
74. Henry Fielding – Joseph Andrews; Tom Jones
75. Samuel Johnson – The Vanity of Human Wishes; Dictionary; Rasselas; The Lives of the Poets ~ Mortimer J Adler,
913:Reading list (1972 edition)[edit]
1. Homer - Iliad, Odyssey
2. The Old Testament
3. Aeschylus - Tragedies
4. Sophocles - Tragedies
5. Herodotus - Histories
6. Euripides - Tragedies
7. Thucydides - History of the Peloponnesian War
8. Hippocrates - Medical Writings
9. Aristophanes - Comedies
10. Plato - Dialogues
11. Aristotle - Works
12. Epicurus - Letter to Herodotus; Letter to Menoecus
13. Euclid - Elements
14.Archimedes - Works
15. Apollonius of Perga - Conic Sections
16. Cicero - Works
17. Lucretius - On the Nature of Things
18. Virgil - Works
19. Horace - Works
20. Livy - History of Rome
21. Ovid - Works
22. Plutarch - Parallel Lives; Moralia
23. Tacitus - Histories; Annals; Agricola Germania
24. Nicomachus of Gerasa - Introduction to Arithmetic
25. Epictetus - Discourses; Encheiridion
26. Ptolemy - Almagest
27. Lucian - Works
28. Marcus Aurelius - Meditations
29. Galen - On the Natural Faculties
30. The New Testament
31. Plotinus - The Enneads
32. St. Augustine - On the Teacher; Confessions; City of God; On Christian Doctrine
33. The Song of Roland
34. The Nibelungenlied
35. The Saga of Burnt Njal
36. St. Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica
37. Dante Alighieri - The Divine Comedy;The New Life; On Monarchy
38. Geoffrey Chaucer - Troilus and Criseyde; The Canterbury Tales
39. Leonardo da Vinci - Notebooks
40. Niccolò Machiavelli - The Prince; Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy
41. Desiderius Erasmus - The Praise of Folly
42. Nicolaus Copernicus - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
43. Thomas More - Utopia
44. Martin Luther - Table Talk; Three Treatises
45. François Rabelais - Gargantua and Pantagruel
46. John Calvin - Institutes of the Christian Religion
47. Michel de Montaigne - Essays
48. William Gilbert - On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies
49. Miguel de Cervantes - Don Quixote
50. Edmund Spenser - Prothalamion; The Faerie Queene
51. Francis Bacon - Essays; Advancement of Learning; Novum Organum, New Atlantis
52. William Shakespeare - Poetry and Plays
53. Galileo Galilei - Starry Messenger; Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
54. Johannes Kepler - Epitome of Copernican Astronomy; Concerning the Harmonies of the World
55. William Harvey - On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals; On the Circulation of the Blood; On the Generation of Animals
56. Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan
57. René Descartes - Rules for the Direction of the Mind; Discourse on the Method; Geometry; Meditations on First Philosophy
58. John Milton - Works
59. Molière - Comedies
60. Blaise Pascal - The Provincial Letters; Pensees; Scientific Treatises
61. Christiaan Huygens - Treatise on Light
62. Benedict de Spinoza - Ethics
63. John Locke - Letter Concerning Toleration; Of Civil Government; Essay Concerning Human Understanding;Thoughts Concerning Education
64. Jean Baptiste Racine - Tragedies
65. Isaac Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; Optics
66. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Discourse on Metaphysics; New Essays Concerning Human Understanding;Monadology
67.Daniel Defoe - Robinson Crusoe
68. Jonathan Swift - A Tale of a Tub; Journal to Stella; Gulliver's Travels; A Modest Proposal
69. William Congreve - The Way of the World
70. George Berkeley - Principles of Human Knowledge
71. Alexander Pope - Essay on Criticism; Rape of the Lock; Essay on Man
72. Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu - Persian Letters; Spirit of Laws
73. Voltaire - Letters on the English; Candide; Philosophical Dictionary
74. Henry Fielding - Joseph Andrews; Tom Jones
75. Samuel Johnson - The Vanity of Human Wishes; Dictionary; Rasselas; The Lives of the Poets
   ~ Mortimer J Adler,
914:The Fable Of Dryope - Ovid's Metamorphoses Book 9,
[v. 324-393]
She said, and for her lost Calanthis sighs,
When the fair Consort of her son replies.
'Since you a servant's ravish'd form bemoan,
And kindly sigh for sorrows not your own;
Let me (if tears and grief permit) relate
A nearer woe, a sister's stranger fate.
No Nymph of all OEchalia could compare
For beauteous form with Dryope the fair,
Her tender mother's only hope and pride,
(Myself the offspring of a second bride)
This Nymph compress'd by him who rules the day,
Whom Delphi and the Delian isle obey,
Andraemon lov'd; and, bless'd in all those charms
That pleas'd a God, succeeded to her arms.
'A lake there was, with shelving banks around,
Whose verdant summit fragrant myrtles crown'd.
These shades, unknowing of the fates, she sought,
And to the Naiads flow'ry garlands brought;
Her smiling babe (a pleasing charge) she prest
Within her arms, and nourish'd at her breast.
Not distant far, a wat'ry Lotos grows,
The spring was new, and all the verdant boughs
Adorn'd with blossoms promis'd fruits that vie
In glowing colours with the Tyrian dye:
Of these she cropp'd to please her infant son,
And I myself the same rash act had done:
But lo! I saw, (as near her side I stood)
The violated blossoms drop with blood;
Upon the tree I cast a frightful look;
The trembling tree with sudden horror shook.
Lotis the nymph (if rural tales be true)
As from Priapus' lawless lust she flew,
Forsook her form; and fixing here became
A flow'ry plant, which still preserves her name.
'This change unknown, astonish'd at the sight
My trembling sister strove to urge her flight,
And first the pardon of the nymphs implor'd,
And those offended sylvan powers ador'd:
But when she backward would have fled, she found
Her stiff'ning feet were rooted in the ground:
In vain to free her fasten'd feet she strove,
And as she struggles, only moves above;
She feels th' encroaching bark around her grow
By quick degrees, and cover all below:
Surpris'd at this, her trembling hand she heaves
To rend her hair, the shooting leaves are seen
To rise, and shade her with a sudden green.
The child Amphissus, to her bosom prest,
Perceiv'd a colder and a harder breast,
And found the springs, that ne'er till then deny'd
Their milky moisture, on a sudden dry'd.
I saw, unhappy! what I now relate,
And stood the helpless witness of thy fate,
Embrac'd thy boughs, thy rising bark delay'd,
There wish'd to grow, and mingle shade with shade.
'Behold Andraemon and th' unhappy sire
Appear, and for their Dryope enquire;
A springing tree for Dryope they find,
And print warm kisses on the panting rind.
Prostrate, with tears their kindred plant bedew,
And close embrace as to the roots they grew,
The face was all that now remain'd of thee,
No more a woman, nor yet quite a tree;
Thy branches hung with humid pearls appear,
From ev'ry leaf distils a trickling tear,
And straight a voice, while yet a voice remains,
Thus thro' the trembling boughs in sighs complains.
''If to the wretched any faith be giv'n,
I swear by all th' unpitying pow'rs of heav'n,
No wilful crime this heavy vengeance bred;
In mutual innocence our lives we led:
If this be false, let these new greens decay,
Let sounding axes lop my limbs away,
And crackling flames on all my honours prey.
But from my branching arms this infant bear,
Let some kind nurse supply a mother's care:
And to his mother let him oft be led,
Sport in her shades, and in her shades be fed;
Teach him, when first his infant voice shall frame
Imperfect words, and lisp his mother's name,
To hail this tree; and say with weeping eyes,
Within this plant my hapless parent lies:
And when in youth he seeks the shady woods,
Oh, let him fly the crystal lakes and floods,
Nor touch the fatal flow'rs; but, warn'd by me,
Believe a Goddess shrin'd in ev'ry tree.
My sire, my sister, and my spouse farewell!
If in your breasts or love, or pity dwell,
Protect your plant, nor let my branches feel
The browsing cattle or the piercing steel.
Farewell! and since I cannot bend to join
My lips to yours, advance at least to mine.
My son, thy mother's parting kiss receive,
While yet thy mother has a kiss to give.
I can no more; the creeping rind invades
My closing lips, and hides my head in shades:
Remove your hands, the bark shall soon suffice
Without their aid to seal these dying eyes.'
'She ceas'd at once to speak, and ceas'd to be;
And all the nymph was lost within the tree;
Yet latent life thro' her new branches reign'd,
And long the plant a human heat retain'd.'
~ Alexander Pope,
915:Ovid To His Wife
MY aged head now stoops its honours low,
Bow'd with the load of fifty winters' snow;
And for the raven's glossy black assumes
The downy whiteness of the cygnet's plumes:
Loose scatter'd hairs around my temples stray,
And spread the mournful shade of sickly grey:
I bend beneath the weight of broken years,
Averse to change, and chill'd with causeless fears.
The season now invites me to retire
To the dear lares of my household fire;
To homely scenes of calm domestic peace,
A poet's leisure, and an old man's ease;
To wear the remnant of uncertain life
In the fond bosom of a faithful wife;
In safe repose my last few hours to spend,
Nor fearful nor impatient of their end.
Thus a safe port the wave-worn vessels gain,
Nor tempt again the dangers of the main;
Thus the proud steed, when youthful glory fades,
And creeping age his stiffening limbs invades,
Lies stretch'd at ease on the luxuriant plain,
And dreams his morning triumphs o'er again:
The hardy veteren from the camp retires,
His joints unstrung, and feeds his household fires,
Satiate with same enjoys well-earn'd repose,
And sees his stormy day serenely close.
Not such my lot: Severer fates decree
My shatter'd bark must plough an unknown sea.
Forc'd from my native seats and sacred home,
Friendless, alone, thro' Scythian wilds to roam;
With trembling knees o'er unknown hills I go,
Stiff with blue ice and heap'd with drifted snow:
Pale suns there strike their feeble rays in vain,
Which faintly glance against the marble plain;
Red Ister there, which madly lash'd the shore,
His idle urn seal'd up, forgets to roar;
Stern winter in eternal tr umph reigns,
Shuts up the bounteous year and starves the plains.
My failing eyes the weary waste explore,
The savage mountains and the dreary shore,
And vainly look for scenes of old delight;
No lov'd familiar objects meet my fight;
No long remember'd streams, or conscious bowers,
Wake the gay memory of youthful hours.
I fondly hop'd, content with learned ease,
To walk amidst cotemporary trees;
In every scene some fav'rite spot to trace,
And meet in all some kind domestic face;
To stretch my limbs upon my native soil,
With long vacation from unquiet toil;
Resign my breath where first that breath I drew,
And sink into the spot from whence I grew.
But if my feeble age is doom'd to try
Unusual seasons and a foreign sky,
To some more genial clime let me repair,
And taste the healing balm of milder air;
Near to the glowing sun's directer ray,
And pitch my tent beneath the eye of day.
Could not the winter in my veins suffice,
Without the added rage of Scythian skies?
The snow of time my vital heat exhaust,
And hoary age, without Sarmatian frost?
Ye tuneful maids! who once, in happier days,
Beneath the myrtle grove inspir'd my lays,
How shall I now your wonted aid implore;
Where seek your footsteps on this savage shore,
Whose ruder echoes ne'er were taught to bear
The poet's numbers or the lover's care?
Yet storm and tempest are of ills the least
Which this inhospitable land infest:
Society than solitude is worse,
And man to man is still the greatest curse.
A savage race my fearful steps surround,
Practis'd in blood and disciplin'd to wound;
Unknown alike to pity as to fear,
Hard as their soil, and as their skies severe.
Skill'd in each mystery of direst art,
They arm with double death the poison'd dart:
Uncomb'd and horrid grows their spiky hair;
Uncouth their vesture, terrible their air:
The lurking dagger at their side hung low,
Leaps in quick vengeance on the hapless foe:
No stedfast faith is here, no sure repose;
An armed truce is all this nation knows:
The rage of battle works, when battles cease;
And wars are brooding in the lap of peace.
Since CÆSAR wills, and I a wretch must be,
Let me be safe at least in misery!
To my sad grave in calm oblivion steal,
Nor add the woes I fear to all I feel !
Yet here, forever here, your bard must dwell,
Who sung of sports and tender loves so well.
Here must he live: but when he yields his breath
O let him not be exil'd even in death!
Lest mix'd with Scythian shades, a Roman ghost
Wander on this inhospitable coast.
CÆSAR no more shall urge a wretch's doom;
The bolt of JOVE pursues not in the tomb.
To thee, dear wife, some friend with pious care
All that of OVID then remains shall bear;
Then wilt thou weep to see me so return,
And with fond passion clasp my silent urn.
O check thy grief, that tender bosom spare,
Hurt not thy cheeks, nor soil thy flowing hair.
Press the pale marble with thy lips, and give
One precious tear, and bid my memory live:
The silent dust shall glow at thy command,
And the warm ashes feel thy pious hand.
~ Anna Laetitia Barbauld,
916:The world's great age begins anew,
   The golden years return,
The earth doth like a snake renew
   Her winter weeds outworn:
Heaven smiles, and faiths and empires gleam
Like wrecks of a dissolving dream.

A brighter Hellas rears its mountains
   From waves serener far;
A new Peneus rolls his fountains
   Against the morning star.
Where fairer Tempes bloom, there sleep
Young Cyclads on a sunnier deep.

A loftier Argo cleaves the main,
   Fraught with a later prize;
Another Orpheus sings again,
   And loves, and weeps, and dies.
A new Ulysses leaves once more
Calypso for his native shore.

Oh, write no more the tale of Troy,
   If earth Death's scroll must be!
Nor mix with Laian rage the joy
   Which dawns upon the free:
Although a subtler Sphinx renew
Riddles of death Thebes never knew.

Another Athens shall arise,
   And to remoter time
Bequeath, like sunset to the skies,
   The splendour of its prime;
And leave, if nought so bright may live,
All earth can take or Heaven can give.

Saturn and Love their long repose
   Shall burst, more bright and good
Than all who fell, than One who rose,
   Than many unsubdu'd:
Not gold, not blood, their altar dowers,
But votive tears and symbol flowers.

Oh cease! must hate and death return?
   Cease! must men kill and die?
Cease! drain not to its dregs the urn
   Of bitter prophecy.
The world is weary of the past,
Oh might it die or rest at last!

Composition Date:

Written at Pisa in the autumn of 1821 and published in 1822, Hellas
is a "lyrical drama" treating of the contemporary struggle for freedom in
Greece and dedicated to Prince Mavrocordato, whom Shelley met in exile at
Pisa and who had returned to Greece in June 1821 to take part in the revolution
against the Turks. Shelley writes in a Preface: "The Persae of Aeschylus
afforded me the first model of my conception, although the decision of the
glorious contest now waging in Greece being yet suspended forbids a catastrophe
parallel to the return of Xerxes and the desolation of the Persians. I have,
therefore, contented myself with exhibiting a series of lyric pictures ... [suggesting]
the final triumph of the Greek cause as a portion of the cause of civilization
and social improvement." The action takes place in the palace of the Turkish
king, where he receives reports on the progress of the war from messengers
and prophecies of doom from visionary visitors. The last news, however, is of
a Turkish victory, to the dismay of the Greek slaves who act as chorus throughout
the play. "The final chorus," according to Shelley's note, "is indistinct and
obscure, as the event of the living drama whose arrival it foretells. Prophecies
of wars, and rumours of wars, etc., may safely be made by poet or prophet in
any age, but to anticipate however darkly a period of regeneration and happiness
is a more hazardous exercise of the faculty which bards possess or feign. It
will remind the reader 'magno nec proximus intervallo' of Isaiah and
Virgil, whose ardent spirits overleaping the actual reign of evil which we
endure and bewail, already saw the possible and perhaps approaching state of
society in which the 'lion shall lie down with the lamb,' and 'omnis feret
omnia tellus.' Let these great names be my authority and excuse."

The world's great age: the "annus magnus" at the end of which, according
to an idea of the ancients, all the heavenly bodies would return to their original
positions, and when, in consequence, the history of the world would begin to
repeat itself.

Peneus: a river in Thessaly.

Tempe: the vale through which Peneus flows.

Cyclads: a group of islands in the Aegean.

Argo: the vessel which bore Jason on his search for the Golden Fleece.

See Virgil, Eclogue IV:

Another Tiphys shall new seas explore;
Another Argo land the chiefs upon th'Iberian shore;
Another Helen other wars create,
And great Achilles urge the Trojan fate

(Dryden's translation).

Orpheus. For the stories of Orpheus--his entrancing music, the loss of his
wife Eurydice and his ultimate failure to recover her from the underworld, and
his death at the hands of Maenads (worshippers of Dionysus)--see Ovid's

Calypso: a sorceress on whose island Ulysses remained for seven years on
the way home from Troy to Ithaca.

Laian rage. Laius was King of Thebes, father of Oedipus, and head of a
house whose horrors were a favourite theme of Greek tragedy.

Sphinx: a monster who sat on the roadside at Thebes and slew all who could
not solve a riddle it proposed.

Shelley's note reads (in part): "Saturn and Love were among the deities of
a real or imaginary state of innocence and happiness. All those who
fell, or the Gods of Greece, Asia and Egypt; the One who rose, or
Jesus Christ . . .; and the many unsubdued, or the monstrous objects of
the idolatry of China, India, the Antarctic islands, and the native tribes of

~ Percy Bysshe Shelley, Chorus from Hellas
917:Vertumnus And Pomona : Ovid's Metamorphoses,
Book 14 [v. 623-771]
The fair Pomona flourish'd in his reign;
Of all the Virgins of the sylvan train,
None taught the trees a nobler race to bear,
Or more improv'd the vegetable care.
To her the shady grove, the flow'ry field,
The streams and fountains, no delights could yield;
'Twas all her joy the ripening fruits to tend,
And see the boughs with happy burthens bend.
The hook she bore instead of Cynthia's spear,
To lop the growth of the luxuriant year,
To decent form the lawless shoots to bring,
And teach th' obedient branches where to spring.
Now the cleft rind inserted graffs receives,
And yields an offspring more than nature gives;
Now sliding streams the thirsty plants renew,
And feed their fibres with reviving dew.
These cares alone her virgin breast employ,
Averse from Venus and the nuptial joy.
Her private orchards, wall'd on ev'ry side,
To lawless sylvans all access deny'd.
How oft the Satyrs and the wanton Fawns,
Who haunt the forests, or frequent the lawns,
The God whose ensign scares the birds of prey,
And old Silenus, youthful in decay,
Employ'd their wiles, and unavailing care,
To pass the fences, and surprise the fair.
Like these, Vertumnus own'd his faithful flame,
Like these, rejected by the scornful dame.
To gain her sight a thousand forms he wears,
And first a reaper from the field appears,
Sweating he walks, while loads of golden grain
O'ercharge the shoulders of the seeming swain.
Oft o'er his back a crooked scythe is laid,
And wreathes of hay his sun-burnt temples shade:
Oft in his harden'd hand a goad he bears,
Like one who late unyok'd the sweating steers.
Sometimes his pruning-hook corrects the vines,
And the loose stragglers to their ranks confines.
Now gath'ring what the bounteous year allows,
He pulls ripe apples from the bending boughs.
A soldier now, he with his sword appears;
A fisher next, his trembling angle bears;
Each shape he varies, and each art he tries,
On her bright charms to feast his longing eyes.
A female form at last Vertumnus wears,
With all the marks of rev'rend age appears,
His temples thinly spread with silver hairs;
Propp'd on his staff, and stooping as he goes,
A painted mitre shades his furrow'd brows.
The God in this decrepit form array'd,
The gardens enter'd, and the fruit survey'd,
And 'Happy you!' (he thus address'd the maid)
'Whose charms as far all other nymphs out-shine,
'As other gardens are excell'd by thine!'
Then kiss'd the fair; (his kisses warmer grow
Than such as women on their sex bestow.)
Then plac'd beside her on the flow'ry ground,
Beheld the trees with autumn's bounty crown'd.
An Elm was near, to whose embraces led,
The curling vine her swelling clusters spread:
He view'd her twining branches with delight,
And prais'd the beauty of the pleasing sight.
'Yet this tall elm, but for his vine' (he said)
'Had stood neglected, and a barren shade;
And this fair vine, but that her arms surround
Her marry'd elm, had crept along the ground.
Ah beauteous maid, let this example move
Your mind, averse from all the joys of love.
Deign to be lov'd, and ev'ry heart subdue!
What nymph could e'er attract such crowds as you?
Not she whose beauty urg'd the Centaurs' arms,
Ulysses' Queen, nor Helen's fatal charms.
Ev'n now, when silent scorn is all they gain,
A thousand court you, tho' they court in vain,
A thousand sylvans, demigods, and gods,
That haunt our mountains and our Alban woods.
But if you'll prosper, mark what I advise,
Whom age, and long experience render wise,
And one whose tender care is far above
All that these lovers ever felt of love,
(Far more than e'er can by yourself be guess'd)
Fix on Vertumnus, and reject the rest.
For his firm faith I dare engage my own;
Scarce to himself, himself is better known.
To distant lands Vertumnus never roves;
Like you contented with his native groves;
Nor at first sight, like most, admires the fair;
For you he lives; and you alone shall share
His last affection, as his early care.
Besides, he's lovely far above the rest,
With youth immortal, and with beauty blest.
Add, that he varies ev'ry shape with ease,
And tries all forms that may Pomona please.
But what should most excite a mutual flame,
Your rural cares, and pleasures are the same:
To him your orchard's early fruits are due,
(A pleasing off'ring when 'tis made by you)
He values these; but yet (alas) complains,
That still the best and dearest gift remains.
Not the fair fruit that on yon' branches glows
With that ripe red th' autumnal sun bestows;
Nor tasteful herbs that in these gardens rise,
Which the kind soil with milky sap supplies;
You, only you, can move the God's desire:
Oh crown so constant and so pure a fire!
Let soft compassion touch your gentle mind;
Think, 'tis Vertumnus begs you to be kind!
So may no frost, when early buds appear,
Destroy the promise of the youthful year;
Nor winds, when first your florid orchard blows,
Shake the light blossoms from their blasted boughs!'
This when the various God had urg'd in vain,
He straight assum'd his native form again;
Such, and so bright an aspect now he bears,
As when thro' clouds th' emerging sun appears,
And thence exerting his refulgent ray,
Dispels the darkness, and reveals the day.
Force he prepar'd, but check'd the rash design;
For when, appearing in a form divine,
The Nymph surveys him, and beholds the grace
Of charming features, and a youthful face,
In her soft breast consenting passions move,
And the warm maid confess'd a mutual love.
~ Alexander Pope,
918:Le Cygne (The Swan)
À Victor Hugo
Andromaque, je pense à vous! Ce petit fleuve,
Pauvre et triste miroir où jadis resplendit
L'immense majesté de vos douleurs de veuve,
Ce Simoïs menteur qui par vos pleurs grandit,
A fécondé soudain ma mémoire fertile,
Comme je traversais le nouveau Carrousel.
Le vieux Paris n'est plus (la forme d'une ville
Change plus vite, hélas! que le coeur d'un mortel);
Je ne vois qu'en esprit tout ce camp de baraques,
Ces tas de chapiteaux ébauchés et de fûts,
Les herbes, les gros blocs verdis par l'eau des flaques,
Et, brillant aux carreaux, le bric-à-brac confus.
Là s'étalait jadis une ménagerie;
Là je vis, un matin, à l'heure où sous les cieux
Froids et clairs le Travail s'éveille, où la voirie
Pousse un sombre ouragan dans l'air silencieux,
Un cygne qui s'était évadé de sa cage,
Et, de ses pieds palmés frottant le pavé sec,
Sur le sol raboteux traînait son blanc plumage.
Près d'un ruisseau sans eau la bête ouvrant le bec
Baignait nerveusement ses ailes dans la poudre,
Et disait, le coeur plein de son beau lac natal:
«Eau, quand donc pleuvras-tu? quand tonneras-tu, foudre?»
Je vois ce malheureux, mythe étrange et fatal,
Vers le ciel quelquefois, comme l'homme d'Ovide,
Vers le ciel ironique et cruellement bleu,
Sur son cou convulsif tendant sa tête avide
Comme s'il adressait des reproches à Dieu!
Paris change! mais rien dans ma mélancolie
N'a bougé! palais neufs, échafaudages, blocs,
Vieux faubourgs, tout pour moi devient allégorie
Et mes chers souvenirs sont plus lourds que des rocs.
Aussi devant ce Louvre une image m'opprime:
Je pense à mon grand cygne, avec ses gestes fous,
Comme les exilés, ridicule et sublime
Et rongé d'un désir sans trêve! et puis à vous,
Andromaque, des bras d'un grand époux tombée,
Vil bétail, sous la main du superbe Pyrrhus,
Auprès d'un tombeau vide en extase courbée
Veuve d'Hector, hélas! et femme d'Hélénus!
Je pense à la négresse, amaigrie et phtisique
Piétinant dans la boue, et cherchant, l'oeil hagard,
Les cocotiers absents de la superbe Afrique
Derrière la muraille immense du brouillard;
À quiconque a perdu ce qui ne se retrouve
Jamais, jamais! à ceux qui s'abreuvent de pleurs
Et tètent la Douleur comme une bonne louve!
Aux maigres orphelins séchant comme des fleurs!
Ainsi dans la forêt où mon esprit s'exile
Un vieux Souvenir sonne à plein souffle du cor!
Je pense aux matelots oubliés dans une île,
Aux captifs, aux vaincus!... à bien d'autres encor!
The Swan
To Victor Hugo
Andromache, I think of you! — That little stream,
That mirror, poor and sad, which glittered long ago
With the vast majesty of your widow's grieving,
That false Simois swollen by your tears,
Suddenly made fruitful my teeming memory,
As I walked across the new Carrousel.
— Old Paris is no more (the form of a city
Changes more quickly, alas! than the human heart);
I see only in memory that camp of stalls,
Those piles of shafts, of rough hewn cornices, the grass,
The huge stone blocks stained green in puddles of water,
And in the windows shine the jumbled bric-a-brac.
Once a menagerie was set up there;
There, one morning, at the hour when Labor awakens,
Beneath the clear, cold sky when the dismal hubbub
Of street-cleaners and scavengers breaks the silence,
I saw a swan that had escaped from his cage,
That stroked the dry pavement with his webbed feet
And dragged his white plumage over the uneven ground.
Beside a dry gutter the bird opened his beak,
Restlessly bathed his wings in the dust
And cried, homesick for his fair native lake:
'Rain, when will you fall? Thunder, when will you roll?'
I see that hapless bird, that strange and fatal myth,
Toward the sky at times, like the man in Ovid,
Toward the ironic, cruelly blue sky,
Stretch his avid head upon his quivering neck,
As if he were reproaching God!
Paris changes! but naught in my melancholy
Has stirred! New palaces, scaffolding, blocks of stone,
Old quarters, all become for me an allegory,
And my dear memories are heavier than rocks.
So, before the Louvre, an image oppresses me:
I think of my great swan with his crazy motions,
Ridiculous, sublime, like a man in exile,
Relentlessly gnawed by longing! and then of you,
Andromache, base chattel, fallen from the embrace
Of a mighty husband into the hands of proud Pyrrhus,
Standing bowed in rapture before an empty tomb,
Widow of Hector, alas! and wife of Helenus!
I think of the negress, wasted and consumptive,
Trudging through muddy streets, seeking with a fixed gaze
The absent coco-palms of splendid Africa
Behind the immense wall of mist;
Of whoever has lost that which is never found
Again! Never! Of those who deeply drink of tears
And suckle Pain as they would suck the good she-wolf!
Of the puny orphans withering like flowers!
Thus in the dim forest to which my soul withdraws,
An ancient memory sounds loud the hunting horn!
I think of the sailors forgotten on some isle,
— Of the captives, of the vanquished!...of many others too!
— Translated by William Aggeler
The Swan
To Victor Hugo
Andromache! — This shallow stream, the brief
Mirror you once so grandly overcharged
With your vast majesty of widowed grief,
This lying Simois your tears enlarged,
Evoked your name, and made me think of you,
As I was crossing the new Carrousel.
— Old Paris is no more (cities renew,
Quicker than human hearts, their changing spell).
In mind I see that camp of huts, the muddle
Of rough-hewn roofs and leaning shafts for miles,
The grass, green logs stagnating in the puddle,
Where bric-a-brac lay glittering in piles.
Once a menagerie parked there.
And there it chanced one morning, when from slumber freed,
Labour stands up, and Transport through still air
Rumbles its sombre hurricane of speed, —
A swan escaped its cage: and as its feet
With finny palms on the harsh pavement scraped,
Trailing white plumage on the stony street,
In the dry gutter for fresh water gaped.
Nervously bathing in the dust, in wonder
It asked, remembering its native stream,
'When will the rain come down? When roll the thunder?'
I see it now, strange myth and fatal theme!
Sometimes, like Ovid's wretch, towards the sky
(Ironically blue with cruel smile)
Its neck, convulsive, reared its head on high
As though it were its Maker to revile.
Paris has changed, but in my grief no change.
New palaces and scaffoldings and blocks,
To me, are allegories, nothing strange.
My memories are heavier than rocks.
Passing the Louvre, one image makes me sad:
That swan, like other exiles that we knew,
Grandly absurd, with gestures of the mad,
Gnawed by one craving! — Then I think of you,
Who fell from your great husband's arms, to be
A beast of freight for Pyrrhus, and for life,
Bowed by an empty tomb in ecstasy —
Great Hector's widow! Helenus's wife!
I think, too, of the starved and phthisic negress
Tramping the mud, who seeks, with haggard eye,
The palms of Africa, and for some egress
Out of this great black wall of foggy sky:
Of those who've lost what they cannot recover:
Of those who slake with tears their lonely hours
And milk the she-wolf, Sorrow, for their mother:
And skinny orphans withering like flowers.
So in the forest of my soul's exile,
Remembrance winds his horn as on he rides.
I think of sailors stranded on an isle,
Captives, and slaves — and many more besides.
— Translated by Roy Campbell
Le Cygne
Andromache, of thee I think! and of
the dreary streamlet where, through exiled years,
shone the vast grandeur of thy widow's love,
that false Simois brimmed with royal tears
poured like the Nile across my memory strange,
as past the Louvre new I strolled, apart.
— Old Paris is no more (for cities change
— alas! — more quickly than a mortal's heart);
only my memory sees the capitals,
the shafts unfinished once, in pools of rain,
the slimy marble blocks, weeds, market-stalls
with old brass gleaming through each dusty pane.
that corner houses a whole menagerie once;
and here one day I saw, when 'neath the fair
cold heavens, Toil awoke, and over the stones
the storm of traffic rent the silent air,
a swan which from its cage had made escape
patting the torrid blocks with webby feet,
trailing great plumes of snow, while beak agape
fumbled for water in the parching street;
wildly it plunged its wings in dust again,
mourning its native lake, and seemed to shrill:
'lightning, when comest thou? and when, the rain?'
strange symbol! wretched bird, I see it still,
up to the sky, like Ovid's fool accurst,
up to the cruelly blue ironic sky
raising its neck convulsed and beak athirst,
as though reproaching God in each mad cry.
towns change... but in my melancholy naught
has moved at all! new portals, ladders, blocks,
old alleys — all become symbolic thought,
in me, loved memories turn to moveless rocks.
so, crushing me, the Louvre gates recall
my huge white swan, insane with agony,
comic, sublime, like exiles one and all
by truceless cravings torn! I think of thee
Andromache, a slave apportioned, whom
proud Pyrrhus took from hands more glorious,
in ecstasy bent o'er an empty tomb;
great Hector's widow, wed to Helenus!
I think of thee, consumptive Nubian,
wading the mire, wan-eyed girl, agog
to find the absent palms of proud Soudan
behind the boundless rampart of the fog;
I think of all who lose the boons we find
no more! no more! who feed on tears and cling
to the good she-wolf Grief, whose tears are kind!
— of orphans gaunt like flowers withering!
thus, in the jungle of my soul's exile,
old memories wind a horn I've heard before!
I think of sailors wrecked on some lost isle,
of prisoners, captives!... and many more!
— Translated by Lewis Piaget Shanks
~ Charles Baudelaire,
919:Sappho To Phaon (Ovid Heroid Xv)
Say, lovely youth, that dost my heart command,
Can Phaon's eyes forget his Sappho's hand?
Must then her name the wretched writer prove,
To thy remembrance lost, as to thy love?
Ask not the cause that I new numbers choose,
The Lute neglected, and the Lyric muse;
Love taught my tears in adder notes to flow,
And tun'd my heart to Elegies of woe,
I burn, I burn, as when thro' ripen'd corn
By driving winds the spreading flames are borne!
Phaon to Aetna's scorching fields retires,
While I consume with more than Aetna's fires!
No more my soul a charm in music finds,
Music has charms alone for peaceful minds.
Soft scenes of solitude no more can please,
Love enters there, and I'm my own disease.
No more the Lesbian dames my passion move,
Once the dear objects of my guilty love;
All other loves are lost in only thine,
Ah youth ungrateful to a flame like mine!
Whom would not all those blooming charms surprize,
Those heav'nly looks, and dear deluding eyes?
The harp and bow would you like Phoebus bear,
A brighter Phoebus Phaon might appear;
Would you with ivy wreath your flowing hair,
Not Bacchus' self with Phaon could compare:
Yet Phoebus lov'd, and Bacchus felt the flame,
One Daphne warm'd, and one the Cretan dame,
Nymphs that in verse no more could rival me,
That ev'n those Gods contend in charms with thee.
The Muses teach me all their softest lays,
And the wide world resounds with Sappho's praise.
Tho' great Alcaeus more sublimely sings,
And strikes with bolder rage the sounding strings,
No less renown attends the moving lyre,
Which Venus tunes, and all her loves inspire;
To me what nature has in charms deny'd,
Is well by wit's more lasting flames supply'd.
Tho' short my stature, yet my name extends
To heav'n itself, and earth's remotest ends.
Brown as I am, an Ethiopian dame
Inspir'd young Perseus with a gen'rous flame;
Turtles and doves of diff'ring hues unite,
And glossy jet is pair'd with shining white.
If to no charms thou wilt thy heart resign,
But such as merit, such as equal thine,
By none, alas! by none thou canst be mov'd,
Phaon alone by Phaon must be lov'd!
Yet once thy Sappho could thy cares employ,
Once in her arms you center'd all your joy:
No time the dear remembrance can remove,
For oh! how vast a memory has love!
My music, then, you could for ever hear,
And all my words were music to your ear;
You stopp'd with kisses my enchanting tongue,
And found my kisses sweeter than my song.
In all I pleas'd, but most in what was best;
And the last joy was dearer than the rest.
Then with each word, each glance, each motion fir'd,
You still enjoy'd, and yet you still desir'd,
'Till all dissolving in the trance we lay,
And in tumultuous raptures died away.
The fair Sicilians now thy soul inflame;
Why was I born, ye Gods, a Lesbian dame?
But ah beware, Sicilian nymphs! nor boast
That wand'ring heart which I so lately lost;
Nor be with all those tempting words abus'd,
Those tempting words were all to Sappho us'd.
And you that rule Sicilia's happy plains,
Have pity, Venus, on your Poet's pains!
Shall fortune still in one sad tenor run,
And still increase the woes so soon begun?
Inur'd to sorrow from my tender years,
My parent's ashes drank my early tears:
My brother next, neglecting wealth and fame,
Ignobly burn'd in a destructive flame:
An infant daughter late my griefs increas'd,
And all a mother's cares distract my breast.
Alas, what more could fate itself impose,
But thee, the last and greatest of my woes?
No more my robes in waving purple flow,
Nor on my hand the sparkling di'monds glow;
No more my locks in ringlets curl'd diffuse
The costly sweetness of Arabian dews,
Nor braids of gold the varied tresses bind,
That fly disorder'd with the wanton wind,
For whom should Sappho use such arts as these?
He's gone, whom only she desir'd to please!
Cupid's light darts my tender bosom move,
Still is there cause for Sappho still to love:
So from my birth the Sisters fix'd my doom,
And gave to Venus all my life to come;
Or while my Muse in melting notes complains,
My yielding heart keeps measure to my strains.
By charms like thine which all my soul have won,
Who might not - ah! who would not be undone?
For those Aurora Cephalus might scorn,
And with fresh blushes paint the conscious morn.
For those might Cynthia lengthen Phaon's sleep,
And bit Endymion nightly tend his sheep.
Venus for those had rapt thee to the skies,
But Mars on thee might look with Venus' eyes.
O scarce a youth, yet scarce a tender boy!
O useful time for lovers to employ!
Pride of thy age, and glory of thy race,
Come to these arms, and melt in this embrace!
The vows you never will return, receive;
And take at least the love you will not give.
See, while I write, my words are lost in tears;
The less my sense, the more my love appears.
Sure 'twas not much to bid one kind adieu,
(At least to feign was never hard to you)
Farewell, my Lesbian love, you might have said,
Or coldly thus, Farewell, oh Lesbian maid!
No tear did you, no parting kiss receive,
Nor knew I then how much I was to grieve.
No lover's gift your Sappho could confer,
And wrongs and woes were all you left with her.
No charge I gave you, and no charge could give,
But this, Be mindful of our loves, and live.
Now by the Nine, those pow'rs ador'd by me,
And Love, the God that ever waits on thee,
When first I heard (from whom I hardly knew)
That you were fled, and all my joys with you,
Like some sad statue, speechless, pale I stood,
Grief chill'd my breast, and stopp'd my freezing blood;
No sigh to rise, no tear had powr to flow,
Fix'd in a stupid lethargy of woe:
But when its way th' impetuous passion found,
I rend my tresses, and my breast I wound,
I rave, then weep, I curse, and then complain,
Now swell to rage, no melt in tears again.
Not fiercer pangs distract the mournful dame,
Whose first-born infant feeds the fun'ral flame.
My scornful brother with a smile appears,
Insults my woes, and triumphs in my tears;
His hated image ever haunts my eyes,
And why this grief? thy daughter lives, he cries.
Stung with my Love, and furious with despair,
All torn my garments, and my bosom bare,
My woes, thy crimes, I to the world proclaim;
Such inconsistent things are love and shame!
'Tis thou art all my care and my delight,
My daily longing, and my dream by night:
Oh night more pleasing than the brightest day,
When fancy gives what absence takes away,
And, dress'd in all its visionary charms,
Restores my fair deserter to my arms!
Then round your neck in wanton wreaths I twine,
Then you, methinks, as fondly circle mine:
A thousand tender words I hear and speak;
A thousand melting kisses give, and take:
Then fiercer joys, I blush to mention these,
Yet while I blush, confess how much they please.
But when, with day, the sweet delusions fly,
And all things wake to life and joy, but I,
As if once more forsaken, I complain,
And close my eyes to dream of you again;
Then frantic rise, and like some Fury rove
Thro' lonely plains, and thro' the silent grove,
As if the silent grove, and lonely plains,
That knew my pleasures, could relieve my pains.
I view the Grotto, once the scene of love,
The rocks around, the hanging roofs above,
That charm'd me more, with native moss o'ergrown,
Than Phyrgian marble, or the Parian stone.
I find the shades that veil'd our joys before;
But, Phaon gone, those shades delight no more.
Here the press'd herbs with bending tops betray
Where oft entwin'd in am'rous folds we lay;
I kiss that earth which once was press'd by you,
And all with tears the with'ring herbs bedew.
For thee the fading trees appear to mourn,
And birds defer their songs till thy return;
Night shades the grove,s and all in silence lie,
All but the mournful Philomel and I:
With mournful Philomel I join my strain,
Of Tereus she, of Phaeon I complain.
A spring there is, whose silver waters show,
Clear as a glass, the shining sands below:
A flow'ry Lotos spreads its arms above,
Shades all the banks, and seems itself a grove;
Eternal greens the mossy margin grace,
Watch'd by the sylvan Genius of the place.
Here as I lay, and swell'd with tears the flood,
Before my sight a wat'ry Virgin stood:
She stood and cry'd, 'O you that love in vain!
'Fly hence, and seek the fair Leucadian main;
'There stands a rock, from whose impending steep
'Apollo's fane surveys the rolling deep;
'There injur'd lovers, leaping from above,
'Their flames extinguish, and forget to love.
'Deucalion once, with hopeless fury burn'd,
'In vain he lov'd, relentless Pyrrha scorn'd;
'But when from hence he plung'd into the main,
'Deucalion scorn'd, and Pyrrha lov'd in vain.
Haste, Sappho, haste, from high Leucadia throw
'Thy wretched weight, nor dread the deeps below!'
She spoke, and vanish'd with the voice - I rise,
And silent tears fall trickling from my eyes.
I go, ye Nymphs! those rocks and seas to prove;
How much I fear, but ah, how much I love!
I go, ye Nymphs! where furious love inspires;
Let female fears submit to female fires.
To rocks and seas I fly from Phaon's hate,
And hope from seas and rocks a milder fate.
Ye gentle gales, beneath my body blow,
And softly lay me on the waves below!
And thou, kind Love, my sinking limbs sustain,
Spread thy soft wings, and waft me o'er the main,
Nor let a Lover's death the guiltless flood profane!
On Phoebus' shrine my harp I'll then bestow,
And this Inscription shall be plac'd below.
'Here she who sung, to him that did inspire,
'Sappho to Phoebus consecrates her Lyre;
'What suits with Sappho, Phoebus, suits with thee;
The Gift, the giver, and the God agree.'
But why, alas, relentless youth, ah why
To distant seas must tender Sappho fly?
Thy charms than those may far more pow'rful be,
And Phoebus' self is less a God to me.
Ah! canst thou doom me to the rocks and sea,
O far more faithless and more hard than they?
Ah! canst thou rather see this tender breast
Dash'd on these rocks than to thy bosom prest?
This breast which once, in vain! you lik'd so well;
Where Loves play'd, and where the Muses dwell.
Alas! the Muses now no more inspire,
Untun'd my lute, and silent is my lyre,
My languid numbers have forgot to flow,
And fancy sinks beneath a weight of woe.
Ye Lesbian virgins, and ye Lesbian dames,
Themes of my verse, and objects of my flames,
No more your groves with my glad songs shall ring,
No more these hands shall touch the trembling string:
My Phaon's fled, and I those arts resign
(Wretch that I am, to call that Phaon mine!)
Return, fair youth, return, and bring along
Joy to my soul, and vigour to my song:
Absent from thee, the Poet's flame expires;
But ah! how fiercely burn the Lover's fires!
Gods! can no pray'rs, no sighs, no numbers move
One savage heart, or teach it how to love?
The winds my pray'rs, my sighs, my numbers bear,
The flying winds have lost them all in air!
Oh when, alas! shall more auspicious gales
To these fond eyes restore thy welcome sails?
If you return - ah why these long delays?
Poor Sappho dies while careless Phaon stays.
O launch thy bark, secure of prosp'rous gales;
Cupid for thee shall spread the swelling gales;
I you will fly - (yet ah! what cause can be,
Too cruel youth, that you should fly from me?)
If not from Phaon I must hope for ease,
Ah let me seek it from the raging seas:
To raging seas unpity'd I'll remove,
And either cease to live or cease to love!
~ Alexander Pope,
920:The Bounty
[for Alix Walcott]
Between the vision of the Tourist Board and the true
Paradise lies the desert where Isaiah's elations
force a rose from the sand. The thirty-third canto
cores the dawn clouds with concentric radiance,
the breadfruit opens its palms in praise of the bounty,
bois-pain, tree of bread, slave food, the bliss of John Clare,
torn, wandering Tom, stoat-stroker in his county
of reeds and stalk-crickets, fiddling the dank air,
lacing his boots with vines, steering glazed beetles
with the tenderest prods, knight of the cockchafer,
wrapped in the mists of shires, their snail-horned steeples
palms opening to the cupped pool—but his soul safer
than ours, though iron streams fetter his ankles.
Frost whitening his stubble, he stands in the ford
of a brook like the Baptist lifting his branches to bless
cathedrals and snails, the breaking of this new day,
and the shadows of the beach road near which my mother lies,
with the traffic of insects going to work anyway.
The lizard on the white wall fixed on the hieroglyph
of its stone shadow, the palms' rustling archery,
the souls and sails of circling gulls rhyme with:
"In la sua volont è nostra pace,"
In His will is our peace. Peace in white harbours,
in marinas whose masts agree, in crescent melons
left all night in the fridge, in the Egyptian labours
of ants moving boulders of sugar, words in this sentence,
shadow and light, who live next door like neighbours,
and in sardines with pepper sauce. My mother lies
near the white beach stones, John Clare near the sea-almonds,
yet the bounty returns each daybreak, to my surprise,
to my surprise and betrayal, yes, both at once.
I am moved like you, mad Tom, by a line of ants;
I behold their industry and they are giants.
There on the beach, in the desert, lies the dark well
where the rose of my life was lowered, near the shaken plants,
near a pool of fresh tears, tolled by the golden bell
of allamanda, thorns of the bougainvillea, and that is
their bounty! They shine with defiance from weed and flower,
even those that flourish elsewhere, vetch, ivy, clematis,
on whom the sun now rises with all its power,
not for the Tourist Board or for Dante Alighieri,
but because there is no other path for its wheel to take
except to make the ruts of the beach road an allegory
of this poem's career, of yours, that she died for the sake
of a crowning wreath of false laurel; so, John Clare, forgive me,
for this morning's sake, forgive me, coffee, and pardon me,
milk with two packets of artificial sugar,
as I watch these lines grow and the art of poetry harden me
into sorrow as measured as this, to draw the veiled figure
of Mamma entering the standard elegiac.
No, there is grief, there will always be, but it must not madden,
like Clare, who wept for a beetle's loss, for the weight
of the world in a bead of dew on clematis or vetch,
and the fire in these tinder-dry lines of this poem I hate
as much as I love her, poor rain-beaten wretch,
redeemer of mice, earl of the doomed protectorate
of cavalry under your cloak; come on now, enough!
In the bells of tree-frogs with their steady clamour
in the indigo dark before dawn, the fading morse
of fireflies and crickets, then light on the beetle's armour,
and the toad's too-late presages, nettles of remorse
that shall spring from her grave from the spade's heartbreak.
And yet not to have loved her enough is to love more,
if I confess it, and I confess it. The trickle of underground
springs, the babble of swollen gulches under drenched ferns,
loosening the grip of their roots, till their hairy clods
like unclenching fists swirl wherever the gulch turns
them, and the shuddering aftermath bends the rods
of wild cane. Bounty in the ant's waking fury,
in the snail's chapel stirring under wild yams,
praise in decay and process, awe in the ordinary
in wind that reads the lines of the breadfruit's palms
in the sun contained in a globe of the crystal dew,
bounty in the ants' continuing a line of raw flour,
mercy on the mongoose scuttling past my door,
in the light's parallelogram laid on the kitchen floor,
for Thine is the Kingdom, the Glory, and the Power,
the bells of Saint Clement's in the marigolds on the altar,
in the bougainvillea's thorns, in the imperial lilac
and the feathery palms that nodded at the entry
into Jerusalem, the weight of the world on the back
of an ass; dismounting, He left His cross there for sentry
and sneering centurion; then I believed in His Word,
in a widow's immaculate husband, in pews of brown wood,
when the cattle-bell of the chapel summoned our herd
into the varnished stalls, in whose rustling hymnals I heard
the fresh Jacobean springs, the murmur Clare heard
of bounty abiding, the clear language she taught us,
"as the hart panteth," at this, her keen ears pronged
while her three fawns nibbled the soul-freshening waters,
"as the hart panteth for the water-brooks" that belonged
to the language in which I mourn her now, or when
I showed her my first elegy, her husband's, and then her own.
But can she or can she not read this? Can you read this,
Mamma, or hear it? If I took the pulpit, lay-preacher
like tender Clare, like poor Tom, so that look, Miss!
the ants come to you like children, their beloved teacher
Alix, but unlike the silent recitation of the infants,
the choir that Clare and Tom heard in their rainy county,
we have no solace but utterance, hence this wild cry.
Snails move into harbour, the breadfruit plants on the Bounty
will be heaved aboard, and the white God is Captain Bligh.
Across white feathery grave-grass the shadow of the soul
passes, the canvas cracks open on the cross-trees of the Bounty,
and the Trades lift the shrouds of the resurrected sail.
All move in their passage to the same mother-country,
the dirt-clawing weasel, the blank owl or sunning seal.
Faith grows mutinous. The ribbed body with its cargo
stalls in its doldrums, the God-captain is cast adrift
by a mutinous Christian, in the wake of the turning Argo
plants bob in the ocean's furrows, their shoots dip and lift,
and the soul's Australia is like the New Testament
after the Old World, the code of an eye for an eye;
the horizon spins slowly and Authority's argument
diminishes in power, in the longboat with Captain Bligh.
This was one of your earliest lessons, how the Christ-Son
questions the Father, to settle on another island, haunted by Him,
by the speck of a raging deity on the ruled horizon,
diminishing in meaning and distance, growing more dim:
all these predictable passages that we first disobey
before we become what we challenged; but you never altered
your voice, either sighing or sewing, you would pray
to your husband aloud, pedalling the hymns we all heard
in the varnished pew: "There Is a Green Hill Far Away,"
"Jerusalem the Golden." Your melody faltered
but never your faith in the bounty which is His Word.
All of these waves crepitate from the culture of Ovid,
its sibilants and consonants; a universal metre
piles up these signatures like inscriptions of seaweed
that dry in the pungent sun, lines ruled by mitre
and laurel, or spray swiftly garlanding the forehead
of an outcrop (and I hope this settles the matter
of presences). No soul was ever invented,
yet every presence is transparent; if I met her
(in her nightdress ankling barefoot, crooning to the shallows),
should I call her shadow that of a pattern invented
by Graeco-Roman design, columns of shadows
cast by the Forum, Augustan perspectives—
poplars, casuarina-colonnades, the in-and-out light of almonds
made from original Latin, no leaf but the olive's?
Questions of pitch. Faced with seraphic radiance
(don't interrupt!), mortals rub their skeptical eyes
that hell is a beach-fire at night where embers dance,
with temporal fireflies like thoughts of Paradise;
but there are inexplicable instincts that keep recurring
not from hope or fear only, that are real as stones,
the faces of the dead we wait for as ants are transferring
their cities, though we no longer believe in the shining ones.
I half-expect to see you no longer, then more than half,
almost never, or never then—there I have said it—
but felt something less than final at the edge of your grave,
some other something somewhere, equally dreaded,
since the fear of the infinite is the same as death,
unendurable brightness, the substantial dreading
its own substance, dissolving to gases and vapours,
like our dread of distance; we need a horizon,
a dividing line that turns the stars into neighbours
though infinity separates them, we can think of only one sun:
all I am saying is that the dread of death is in the faces
we love, the dread of our dying, or theirs;
therefore we see in the glint of immeasurable spaces
not stars or falling embers, not meteors, but tears.
The mango trees serenely rust when they are in flower,
nobody knows the name for that voluble cedar
whose bell-flowers fall, the pomme-arac purples its floor.
The blue hills in late afternoon always look sadder.
The country night waiting to come in outside the door;
the firefly keeps striking matches, and the hillside fumes
with a bluish signal of charcoal, then the smoke burns
into a larger question, one that forms and unforms,
then loses itself in a cloud, till the question returns.
Buckets clatter under pipes, villages begin at corners.
A man and his trotting dog come back from their garden.
The sea blazes beyond the rust roofs, dark is on us
before we know it. The earth smells of what's done,
small yards brighten, day dies and its mourners
begin, the first wreath of gnats; this was when we sat down
on bright verandahs watching the hills die. Nothing is trite
once the beloved have vanished; empty clothes in a row,
but perhaps our sadness tires them who cherished delight;
not only are they relieved of our customary sorrow,
they are without hunger, without any appetite,
but are part of earth's vegetal fury; their veins grow
with the wild mammy-apple, the open-handed breadfruit,
their heart in the open pomegranate, in the sliced avocado;
ground-doves pick from their palms; ants carry the freight
of their sweetness, their absence in all that we eat,
their savour that sweetens all of our multiple juices,
their faith that we break and chew in a wedge of cassava,
and here at first is the astonishment: that earth rejoices
in the middle of our agony, earth that will have her
for good: wind shines white stones and the shallows' voices.
In spring, after the bear's self-burial, the stuttering
crocuses open and choir, glaciers shelve and thaw,
frozen ponds crack into maps, green lances spring
from the melting fields, flags of rooks rise and tatter
the pierced light, the crumbling quiet avalanches
of an unsteady sky; the vole uncoils and the otter
worries his sleek head through the verge's branches;
crannies, culverts, and creeks roar with wrist-numbing water.
Deer vault invisible hurdles and sniff the sharp air,
squirrels spring up like questions, berries easily redden,
edges delight in their own shapes (whoever their shaper).
But here there is one season, our viridian Eden
is that of the primal garden that engendered decay,
from the seed of a beetle's shard or a dead hare
white and forgotten as winter with spring on its way.
There is no change now, no cycles of spring, autumn, winter,
nor an island's perpetual summer; she took time with her;
no climate, no calendar except for this bountiful day.
As poor Tom fed his last crust to trembling birds,
as by reeds and cold pools John Clare blest these thin musicians,
let the ants teach me again with the long lines of words,
my business and duty, the lesson you taught your sons,
to write of the light's bounty on familiar things
that stand on the verge of translating themselves into news:
the crab, the frigate that floats on cruciform wings,
and that nailed and thorn riddled tree that opens its pews
to the blackbird that hasn't forgotten her because it sings.
~ Derek Walcott,
921:Epistle To Dr. Arbuthnot
Shut, shut the door, good John! fatigu'd, I said,
Tie up the knocker, say I'm sick, I'm dead.
The dog-star rages! nay 'tis past a doubt,
All Bedlam, or Parnassus, is let out:
Fire in each eye, and papers in each hand,
They rave, recite, and madden round the land.
What walls can guard me, or what shades can hide?
They pierce my thickets, through my grot they glide;
By land, by water, they renew the charge;
They stop the chariot, and they board the barge.
No place is sacred, not the church is free;
Ev'n Sunday shines no Sabbath-day to me:
Then from the Mint walks forth the man of rhyme,
Happy! to catch me just at dinner-time.
Is there a parson, much bemus'd in beer,
A maudlin poetess, a rhyming peer,
A clerk, foredoom'd his father's soul to cross,
Who pens a stanza, when he should engross?
Is there, who, lock'd from ink and paper, scrawls
With desp'rate charcoal round his darken'd walls?
All fly to Twit'nam, and in humble strain
Apply to me, to keep them mad or vain.
Arthur, whose giddy son neglects the laws,
Imputes to me and my damn'd works the cause:
Poor Cornus sees his frantic wife elope,
And curses wit, and poetry, and Pope.
Friend to my life! (which did not you prolong,
The world had wanted many an idle song)
What drop or nostrum can this plague remove?
Or which must end me, a fool's wrath or love?
A dire dilemma! either way I'm sped,
If foes, they write, if friends, they read me dead.
Seiz'd and tied down to judge, how wretched I!
Who can't be silent, and who will not lie;
To laugh, were want of goodness and of grace,
And to be grave, exceeds all pow'r of face.
I sit with sad civility, I read
With honest anguish, and an aching head;
And drop at last, but in unwilling ears,
This saving counsel, 'Keep your piece nine years.'
'Nine years! ' cries he, who high in Drury-lane
Lull'd by soft zephyrs through the broken pane,
Rhymes ere he wakes, and prints before Term ends,
Oblig'd by hunger, and request of friends:
'The piece, you think, is incorrect: why, take it,
I'm all submission, what you'd have it, make it.'
Three things another's modest wishes bound,
My friendship, and a prologue, and ten pound.
Pitholeon sends to me: 'You know his Grace,
I want a patron; ask him for a place.'
Pitholeon libell'd me- 'but here's a letter
Informs you, sir, 'twas when he knew no better.
Dare you refuse him? Curll invites to dine,
He'll write a Journal, or he'll turn Divine.'
Bless me! a packet- ''Tis a stranger sues,
A virgin tragedy, an orphan muse.'
If I dislike it, 'Furies, death and rage! '
If I approve, 'Commend it to the stage.'
There (thank my stars) my whole commission ends,
The play'rs and I are, luckily, no friends.
Fir'd that the house reject him, ''Sdeath I'll print it,
And shame the fools- your int'rest, sir, with Lintot! '
'Lintot, dull rogue! will think your price too much.'
'Not, sir, if you revise it, and retouch.'
All my demurs but double his attacks;
At last he whispers, 'Do; and we go snacks.'
Glad of a quarrel, straight I clap the door,
'Sir, let me see your works and you no more.'
'Tis sung, when Midas' ears began to spring,
(Midas, a sacred person and a king)
His very minister who spied them first,
(Some say his queen) was forc'd to speak, or burst.
And is not mine, my friend, a sorer case,
When ev'ry coxcomb perks them in my face?
'Good friend, forbear! you deal in dang'rous things.
I'd never name queens, ministers, or kings;
Keep close to ears, and those let asses prick;
'Tis nothing'- Nothing? if they bite and kick?
Out with it, Dunciad! let the secret pass,
That secret to each fool, that he's an ass:
The truth once told (and wherefore should we lie?)
The queen of Midas slept, and so may I.
You think this cruel? take it for a rule,
No creature smarts so little as a fool.
Let peals of laughter, Codrus! round thee break,
Thou unconcern'd canst hear the mighty crack:
Pit, box, and gall'ry in convulsions hurl'd,
Thou stand'st unshook amidst a bursting world.
Who shames a scribbler? break one cobweb through,
He spins the slight, self-pleasing thread anew;
Destroy his fib or sophistry, in vain,
The creature's at his dirty work again;
Thron'd in the centre of his thin designs;
Proud of a vast extent of flimsy lines!
Whom have I hurt? has poet yet, or peer,
Lost the arch'd eye-brow, or Parnassian sneer?
And has not Colley still his lord, and whore?
His butchers Henley, his Free-masons Moore?
Does not one table Bavius still admit?
Still to one bishop Philips seem a wit?
Still Sappho- 'Hold! for God-sake- you'll offend:
No names! - be calm! - learn prudence of a friend!
I too could write, and I am twice as tall;
But foes like these! ' One flatt'rer's worse than all.
Of all mad creatures, if the learn'd are right,
It is the slaver kills, and not the bite.
A fool quite angry is quite innocent;
Alas! 'tis ten times worse when they repent.
One dedicates in high heroic prose,
And ridicules beyond a hundred foes;
One from all Grub Street will my fame defend,
And, more abusive, calls himself my friend.
This prints my Letters, that expects a bribe,
And others roar aloud, 'Subscribe, subscribe.'
There are, who to my person pay their court:
I cough like Horace, and, though lean, am short,
Ammon's great son one shoulder had too high,
Such Ovid's nose, and 'Sir! you have an eye'Go on, obliging creatures, make me see
All that disgrac'd my betters, met in me:
Say for my comfort, languishing in bed,
'Just so immortal Maro held his head:'
And when I die, be sure you let me know
Great Homer died three thousand years ago.
Why did I write? what sin to me unknown
Dipp'd me in ink, my parents', or my own?
As yet a child, nor yet a fool to fame,
I lisp'd in numbers, for the numbers came.
I left no calling for this idle trade,
No duty broke, no father disobey'd.
The Muse but serv'd to ease some friend, not wife,
To help me through this long disease, my life,
To second, Arbuthnot! thy art and care,
And teach the being you preserv'd, to bear.
But why then publish? Granville the polite,
And knowing Walsh, would tell me I could write;
Well-natur'd Garth inflamed with early praise,
And Congreve lov'd, and Swift endur'd my lays;
The courtly Talbot, Somers, Sheffield read,
Ev'n mitred Rochester would nod the head,
And St. John's self (great Dryden's friends before)
With open arms receiv'd one poet more.
Happy my studies, when by these approv'd!
Happier their author, when by these belov'd!
From these the world will judge of men and books,
Not from the Burnets, Oldmixons, and Cookes.
Soft were my numbers; who could take offence,
While pure description held the place of sense?
Like gentle Fanny's was my flow'ry theme,
A painted mistress, or a purling stream.
Yet then did Gildon draw his venal quill;
I wish'd the man a dinner, and sat still.
Yet then did Dennis rave in furious fret;
I never answer'd, I was not in debt.
If want provok'd, or madness made them print,
I wag'd no war with Bedlam or the Mint.
Did some more sober critic come abroad?
If wrong, I smil'd; if right, I kiss'd the rod.
Pains, reading, study, are their just pretence,
And all they want is spirit, taste, and sense.
Commas and points they set exactly right,
And 'twere a sin to rob them of their mite.
Yet ne'er one sprig of laurel grac'd these ribalds,
From slashing Bentley down to pidling Tibbalds.
Each wight who reads not, and but scans and spells,
Each word-catcher that lives on syllables,
Ev'n such small critics some regard may claim,
Preserv'd in Milton's or in Shakespeare's name.
Pretty! in amber to observe the forms
Of hairs, or straws, or dirt, or grubs, or worms;
The things, we know, are neither rich nor rare,
But wonder how the devil they got there?
Were others angry? I excus'd them too;
Well might they rage; I gave them but their due.
A man's true merit 'tis not hard to find,
But each man's secret standard in his mind,
That casting weight pride adds to emptiness,
This, who can gratify? for who can guess?
The bard whom pilfer'd pastorals renown,
Who turns a Persian tale for half a crown,
Just writes to make his barrenness appear,
And strains, from hard-bound brains, eight lines a year:
He, who still wanting, though he lives on theft,
Steals much, spends little, yet has nothing left:
And he, who now to sense, now nonsense leaning,
Means not, but blunders round about a meaning:
And he, whose fustian's so sublimely bad,
It is not poetry, but prose run mad:
All these, my modest satire bade translate,
And own'd, that nine such poets made a Tate.
How did they fume, and stamp, and roar, and chafe?
And swear, not Addison himself was safe.
Peace to all such! but were there one whose fires
True genius kindles, and fair fame inspires,
Blest with each talent and each art to please,
And born to write, converse, and live with ease:
Should such a man, too fond to rule alone,
Bear, like the Turk, no brother near the throne,
View him with scornful, yet with jealous eyes,
And hate for arts that caus'd himself to rise;
Damn with faint praise, assent with civil leer,
And without sneering, teach the rest to sneer;
Willing to wound, and yet afraid to strike,
Just hint a fault, and hesitate dislike;
Alike reserv'd to blame, or to commend,
A tim'rous foe, and a suspicious friend;
Dreading ev'n fools, by flatterers besieg'd,
And so obliging, that he ne'er oblig'd;
Like Cato, give his little senate laws,
And sit attentive to his own applause;
While wits and templars ev'ry sentence raise,
And wonder with a foolish face of praise.
Who but must laugh, if such a man there be?
Who would not weep, if Atticus were he?
What though my name stood rubric on the walls,
Or plaister'd posts, with claps, in capitals?
Or smoking forth, a hundred hawkers' load,
On wings of winds came flying all abroad?
I sought no homage from the race that write;
I kept, like Asian monarchs, from their sight:
Poems I heeded (now berhym'd so long)
No more than thou, great George! a birthday song.
I ne'er with wits or witlings pass'd my days,
To spread about the itch of verse and praise;
Nor like a puppy, daggled through the town,
To fetch and carry sing-song up and down;
Nor at rehearsals sweat, and mouth'd, and cried,
With handkerchief and orange at my side;
But sick of fops, and poetry, and prate,
To Bufo left the whole Castalian state.
Proud as Apollo on his forked hill,
Sat full-blown Bufo, puff'd by every quill;
Fed with soft dedication all day long,
Horace and he went hand in hand in song.
His library (where busts of poets dead
And a true Pindar stood without a head,)
Receiv'd of wits an undistinguish'd race,
Who first his judgment ask'd, and then a place:
Much they extoll'd his pictures, much his seat,
And flatter'd ev'ry day, and some days eat:
Till grown more frugal in his riper days,
He paid some bards with port, and some with praise,
To some a dry rehearsal was assign'd,
And others (harder still) he paid in kind.
Dryden alone (what wonder?) came not nigh,
Dryden alone escap'd this judging eye:
But still the great have kindness in reserve,
He help'd to bury whom he help'd to starve.
May some choice patron bless each grey goose quill!
May ev'ry Bavius have his Bufo still!
So, when a statesman wants a day's defence,
Or envy holds a whole week's war with sense,
Or simple pride for flatt'ry makes demands,
May dunce by dunce be whistled off my hands!
Blest be the great! for those they take away,
And those they left me- for they left me Gay;
Left me to see neglected genius bloom,
Neglected die! and tell it on his tomb;
Of all thy blameless life the sole return
My verse, and Queensb'ry weeping o'er thy urn!
Oh let me live my own! and die so too!
('To live and die is all I have to do:')
Maintain a poet's dignity and ease,
And see what friends, and read what books I please.
Above a patron, though I condescend
Sometimes to call a minister my friend:
I was not born for courts or great affairs;
I pay my debts, believe, and say my pray'rs;
Can sleep without a poem in my head,
Nor know, if Dennis be alive or dead.
Why am I ask'd what next shall see the light?
Heav'ns! was I born for nothing but to write?
Has life no joys for me? or (to be grave)
Have I no friend to serve, no soul to save?
'I found him close with Swift'- 'Indeed? no doubt',
(Cries prating Balbus) 'something will come out'.
'Tis all in vain, deny it as I will.
'No, such a genius never can lie still,'
And then for mine obligingly mistakes
The first lampoon Sir Will. or Bubo makes.
Poor guiltless I! and can I choose but smile,
When ev'ry coxcomb knows me by my style?
Curs'd be the verse, how well soe'er it flow,
That tends to make one worthy man my foe,
Give virtue scandal, innocence a fear,
Or from the soft-ey'd virgin steal a tear!
But he, who hurts a harmless neighbour's peace,
Insults fall'n worth, or beauty in distress,
Who loves a lie, lame slander helps about,
Who writes a libel, or who copies out:
That fop, whose pride affects a patron's name,
Yet absent, wounds an author's honest fame;
Who can your merit selfishly approve,
And show the sense of it without the love;
Who has the vanity to call you friend,
Yet wants the honour, injur'd, to defend;
Who tells what'er you think, whate'er you say,
And, if he lie not, must at least betray:
Who to the Dean, and silver bell can swear,
And sees at Cannons what was never there;
Who reads, but with a lust to misapply,
Make satire a lampoon, and fiction, lie.
A lash like mine no honest man shall dread,
But all such babbling blockheads in his stead.
Let Sporus tremble- 'What? that thing of silk,
Sporus, that mere white curd of ass's milk?
Satire or sense, alas! can Sporus feel?
Who breaks a butterfly upon a wheel? '
Yet let me flap this bug with gilded wings,
This painted child of dirt that stinks and stings;
Whose buzz the witty and the fair annoys,
Yet wit ne'er tastes, and beauty ne'r enjoys,
So well-bred spaniels civilly delight
In mumbling of the game they dare not bite.
Eternal smiles his emptiness betray,
As shallow streams run dimpling all the way.
Whether in florid impotence he speaks,
And, as the prompter breathes, the puppet squeaks;
Or at the ear of Eve, familiar toad,
Half froth, half venom, spits himself abroad,
In puns, or politics, or tales, or lies,
Or spite, or smut, or rhymes, or blasphemies.
His wit all see-saw, between that and this,
Now high, now low, now Master up, now Miss,
And he himself one vile antithesis.
Amphibious thing! that acting either part,
The trifling head, or the corrupted heart,
Fop at the toilet, flatt'rer at the board,
Now trips a lady, and now struts a lord.
Eve's tempter thus the rabbins have express'd,
A cherub's face, a reptile all the rest;
Beauty that shocks you, parts that none will trust,
Wit that can creep, and pride that licks the dust.
Not fortune's worshipper, nor fashion's fool,
Not lucre's madman, nor ambition's tool,
Not proud, nor servile, be one poet's praise,
That, if he pleas'd, he pleas'd by manly ways;
That flatt'ry, even to kings, he held a shame,
And thought a lie in verse or prose the same:
That not in fancy's maze he wander'd long,
But stoop'd to truth, and moraliz'd his song:
That not for fame, but virtue's better end,
He stood the furious foe, the timid friend,
The damning critic, half-approving wit,
The coxcomb hit, or fearing to be hit;
Laugh'd at the loss of friends he never had,
The dull, the proud, the wicked, and the mad;
The distant threats of vengeance on his head,
The blow unfelt, the tear he never shed;
The tale reviv'd, the lie so oft o'erthrown;
Th' imputed trash, and dulness not his own;
The morals blacken'd when the writings 'scape;
The libell'd person, and the pictur'd shape;
Abuse, on all he lov'd, or lov'd him, spread,
A friend in exile, or a father, dead;
The whisper, that to greatness still too near,
Perhaps, yet vibrates on his sovereign's ear:Welcome for thee, fair Virtue! all the past:
For thee, fair Virtue! welcome ev'n the last!
'But why insult the poor? affront the great? '
A knave's a knave, to me, in ev'ry state:
Alike my scorn, if he succeed or fail,
Sporus at court, or Japhet in a jail,
A hireling scribbler, or a hireling peer,
Knight of the post corrupt, or of the shire;
If on a pillory, or near a throne,
He gain his prince's ear, or lose his own.
Yet soft by nature, more a dupe than wit,
Sappho can tell you how this man was bit:
This dreaded sat'rist Dennis will confess
Foe to his pride, but friend to his distress:
So humble, he has knock'd at Tibbald's door,
Has drunk with Cibber, nay, has rhym'd for Moore.
Full ten years slander'd, did he once reply?
Three thousand suns went down on Welsted's lie.
To please a mistress one aspers'd his life;
He lash'd him not, but let her be his wife.
Let Budgell charge low Grub Street on his quill,
And write whate'er he pleas'd, except his will;
Let the two Curlls of town and court, abuse
His father, mother, body, soul, and muse.
Yet why? that father held it for a rule,
It was a sin to call our neighbour fool:
That harmless mother thought no wife a whore,Hear this! and spare his family, James Moore!
Unspotted names! and memorable long,
If there be force in virtue, or in song.
Of gentle blood (part shed in honour's cause,
While yet in Britain honour had applause)
Each parent sprung- 'What fortune, pray? '- Their own,
And better got, than Bestia's from the throne.
Born to no pride, inheriting no strife,
Nor marrying discord in a noble wife,
Stranger to civil and religious rage,
The good man walk'd innoxious through his age.
No courts he saw, no suits would ever try,
Nor dar'd an oath, nor hazarded a lie:
Un-learn'd, he knew no schoolman's subtle art,
No language, but the language of the heart.
By nature honest, by experience wise,
Healthy by temp'rance and by exercise;
His life, though long, to sickness past unknown;
His death was instant, and without a groan.
O grant me, thus to live, and thus to die!
Who sprung from kings shall know less joy than I.
O friend! may each domestic bliss be thine!
Be no unpleasing melancholy mine:
Me, let the tender office long engage
To rock the cradle of reposing age,
With lenient arts extend a mother's breath,
Make langour smile, and smooth the bed of death,
Explore the thought, explain the asking eye,
And keep a while one parent from the sky!
On cares like these if length of days attend,
May Heav'n, to bless those days, preserve my friend,
Preserve him social, cheerful, and serene,
And just as rich as when he serv'd a queen.
Whether that blessing be denied or giv'n,
Thus far was right, the rest belongs to Heav'n.
~ Alexander Pope,
922:The Dunciad: Book Iv
Yet, yet a moment, one dim ray of light
Indulge, dread Chaos, and eternal Night!
Of darkness visible so much be lent,
As half to show, half veil, the deep intent.
Ye pow'rs! whose mysteries restor'd I sing,
To whom time bears me on his rapid wing,
Suspend a while your force inertly strong,
Then take at once the poet and the song.
Now flam'd the Dog Star's unpropitious ray,
Smote ev'ry brain, and wither'd every bay;
Sick was the sun, the owl forsook his bow'r.
The moon-struck prophet felt the madding hour:
Then rose the seed of Chaos, and of Night,
To blot out order, and extinguish light,
Of dull and venal a new world to mould,
And bring Saturnian days of lead and gold.
She mounts the throne: her head a cloud conceal'd,
In broad effulgence all below reveal'd;
('Tis thus aspiring Dulness ever shines)
Soft on her lap her laureate son reclines.
Beneath her footstool, Science groans in chains,
And Wit dreads exile, penalties, and pains.
There foam'd rebellious Logic , gagg'd and bound,
There, stripp'd, fair Rhet'ric languish'd on the ground;
His blunted arms by Sophistry are borne,
And shameless Billingsgate her robes adorn.
Morality , by her false guardians drawn,
Chicane in furs, and Casuistry in lawn,
Gasps, as they straighten at each end the cord,
And dies, when Dulness gives her page the word.
Mad Mathesis alone was unconfin'd,
Too mad for mere material chains to bind,
Now to pure space lifts her ecstatic stare,
Now running round the circle finds it square.
But held in tenfold bonds the Muses lie,
Watch'd both by Envy's and by Flatt'ry's eye:
There to her heart sad Tragedy addres'd
The dagger wont to pierce the tyrant's breast;
But sober History restrain'd her rage,
And promised vengeance on a barb'rous age.
There sunk Thalia, nerveless, cold, and dead,
Had not her sister Satire held her head:
Nor couldst thou, Chesterfield! a tear refuse,
Thou weptst, and with thee wept each gentle Muse.
When lo! a harlot form soft sliding by,
With mincing step, small voice, and languid eye;
Foreign her air, her robe's discordant pride
In patchwork flutt'ring, and her head aside:
By singing peers upheld on either hand,
She tripp'd and laugh'd, too pretty much to stand;
Cast on the prostrate Nine a scornful look,
Then thus in quaint recitativo spoke.
Cara! Cara!
silence all that train:
Joy to great Chaos! let Division reign:
Chromatic tortures soon shall drive them hence,
Break all their nerves, and fritter all their sense:
One trill shall harmonize joy, grief, and rage,
Wake the dull Church, and lull the ranting Stage;
To the same notes thy sons shall hum, or snore,
And all thy yawning daughters cry,
Another Phoebus, thy own Phoebus, reigns,
Joys in my jigs, and dances in my chains.
But soon, ah soon, Rebellion will commence,
If Music meanly borrows aid from Sense.
Strong in new arms, lo! Giant Handel stands,
Like bold Briarerus, with a hundred hands;
To stir, to rouse, to shake the soul he comes,
And Jove's own thunders follow Mars's drums.
Arrest him, Empress, or you sleep no more-'
She heard, and drove him to th' Hibernian shore.
And now had Fame's posterior trumpet blown,
And all the nations summoned to the throne.
The young, the old, who feel her inward sway,
One instinct seizes, and transports away.
None need a guide, by sure attraction led,
And strong impulsive gravity of head:
None want a place, for all their centre found
Hung to the Goddess, and coher'd around.
Not closer, orb in orb, conglob'd are seen
The buzzing bees about their dusky Queen.
The gath'ring number, as it moves along,
Involves a vast involuntary throng,
Who gently drawn, and struggling less and less,
Roll in her Vortex, and her pow'r confess.
Not those alone who passive own her laws,
But who, weak rebels, more advance her cause.
Whate'er of dunce in college or in town
Sneers at another, in toupee or gown;
Whate'er of mongrel no one class admits,
A wit with dunces, and a dunce with wits.
Nor absent they, no members of her state,
Who pay her homage in her sons, the Great;
Who false to Phoebus bow the knee to Baal;
Or, impious, preach his Word without a call.
Patrons, who sneak from living worth to dead,
Withhold the pension, and set up the head;
Or vest dull Flattery in the sacred gown;
Or give from fool to fool the laurel crown.
And (last and worst) with all the cant of wit,
Without the soul, the Muse's hypocrite.
There march'd the bard and blockhead, side by side,
Who rhym'd for hire, and patroniz'd for pride.
Narcissus, prais'd with all a Parson's pow'r,
Look'd a white lily sunk beneath a show'r.
There mov'd Montalto with superior air;
His stretch'd-out arm display'd a volume fair;
Courtiers and Patriots in two ranks divide,
Through both he pass'd, and bow'd from side to side:
But as in graceful act, with awful eye
Compos'd he stood, bold Benson thrust him by:
On two unequal crutches propp'd he came,
Milton's on this, on that one Johnston's name.
The decent knight retir'd with sober rage,
Withdrew his hand, and closed the pompous page.
But (happy for him as the times went then)
Appear'd Apollo's mayor and aldermen,
On whom three hundred gold-capp'd youths await,
To lug the pond'rous volume off in state.
When Dulness, smiling-'Thus revive the Wits!
But murder first, and mince them all to bits;
As erst Medea (cruel, so to save!)
A new edition of old Aeson gave;
Let standard authors, thus, like trophies born,
Appear more glorious as more hack'd and torn,
And you, my Critics! in the chequer'd shade,
Admire new light through holes yourselves have made.
Leave not a foot of verse, a foot of stone,
A page, a grave, that they can call their own;
But spread, my sons, your glory thin or thick,
On passive paper, or on solid brick.
So by each bard an Alderman shall sit,
A heavy lord shall hang at ev'ry wit,
And while on Fame's triumphal Car they ride,
Some Slave of mine be pinion'd to their side.'
Now crowds on crowds around the Goddess press,
Each eager to present their first address.
Dunce scorning dunce beholds the next advance,
But fop shows fop superior complaisance,
When lo! a spector rose, whose index hand
Held forth the virtue of the dreadful wand;
His beaver'd brow a birchen garland wears,
Dropping with infant's blood, and mother's tears.
O'er every vein a shud'ring horror runs;
Eton and Winton shake through all their sons.
All flesh is humbl'd, Westminster's bold race
Shrink, and confess the Genius of the place:
The pale boy senator yet tingling stands,
And holds his breeches close with both his hands.
Then thus. 'Since man from beast by words is known,
Words are man's province, words we teach alone.
When reason doubtful, like the Samian letter,
Points him two ways, the narrower is the better.
Plac'd at the door of learning, youth to guide,
We never suffer it to stand too wide.
To ask, to guess, to know, as they commence,
As fancy opens the quick springs of sense,
We ply the memory, we load the brain,
Bind rebel Wit, and double chain on chain,
Confine the thought, to exercise the breath;
And keep them in the pale of words till death.
Whate'er the talents, or howe'er design'd,
We hang one jingling padlock on the mind:
A Poet the first day, he dips his quill;
And what the last? A very Poet still.
Pity! the charm works only in our wall,
Lost, lost too soon in yonder house or hall.
There truant Wyndham every Muse gave o'er,
There Talbot sunk, and was a wit no more!
How sweet an Ovid, Murray was our boast!
How many Martials were in Pult'ney lost!
Else sure some bard, to our eternal praise,
In twice ten thousand rhyming nights and days,
Had reach'd the work, and All that mortal can;
And South beheld that Masterpiece of Man.'
'Oh' (cried the Goddess) 'for some pedant Reign!
Some gentle James, to bless the land again;
To stick the Doctor's chair into the throne,
Give law to words, or war with words alone,
Senates and courts with Greek and Latin rule,
And turn the council to a grammar school!
For sure, if Dulness sees a grateful day,
'Tis in the shade of arbitrary sway.
O! if my sons may learn one earthly thing,
Teach but that one, sufficient for a king;
That which my priests, and mine alone, maintain,
Which as it dies, or lives, we fall, or reign:
May you, may Cam and Isis, preach it long!
'The Right Divine of Kings to govern wrong'.'
Prompt at the call, around the Goddess roll
Broad hats, and hoods, and caps, a sable shoal:
Thick and more thick the black blockade extends,
A hundred head of Aristotle's friends.
Nor wert thou, Isis! wanting to the day,
Though Christ Church long kept prudishly away.
Each staunch polemic, stubborn as a rock,
Each fierce logician, still expelling Locke,
Came whip and spur, and dash'd through thin and thick
On German Crousaz, and Dutch Burgersdyck.
As many quit the streams that murm'ring fall
To lull the sons of Marg'ret and Clare Hall,
Where Bentley late tempestuous wont to sport
In troubled waters, but now sleeps in Port.
Before them march'd that awful Aristarch;
Plow'd was his front with many a deep remark:
His hat, which never vail'd to human pride,
Walker with rev'rence took, and laid aside.
Low bowed the rest: He, kingly, did but nod;
So upright Quakers please both man and God.
'Mistress! dismiss that rabble from your throne:
Avaunt-is Aristarchus yet unknown?
Thy mighty scholiast, whose unwearied pains
Made Horace dull, and humbl'd Milton's strains.
Turn what they will to verse, their toil is vain,
Critics like me shall make it prose again.
Roman and Greek grammarians! know your better:
Author of something yet more great than letter;
While tow'ring o'er your alphabet, like Saul,
Stands our Digamma, and o'ertops them all.
'Tis true, on words is still our whole debate,
Disputes of
, of
To sound or sink in
, O or A,
Or give up Cicero to C or K.
Let Freind affect to speak as Terence spoke,
And Alsop never but like Horace joke:
For me, what Virgil, Pliny may deny,
Manilius or Solinus shall supply:
For Attic Phrase in Plato let them seek,
I poach in Suidas for unlicens'd Greek.
In ancient sense if any needs will deal,
Be sure I give them fragments, not a meal;
What Gellius or Stobaeus hash'd before,
Or chew'd by blind old Scholiasts o'er and o'er.
The critic eye, that microscope of wit,
Sees hairs and pores, examines bit by bit:
How parts relate to parts, or they to whole,
The body's harmony, the beaming soul,
Are things which Kuster, Burman, Wasse shall see,
When man's whole frame is obvious to a
'Ah, think not, Mistress! more true dulness lies
In Folly's cap, than Wisdom's grave disguise.
Like buoys, that never sink into the flood,
On learning's surface we but lie and nod.
Thine is the genuine head of many a house,
And much Divinity without a Nous.
Nor could a Barrow work on every block,
Nor has one Atterbury spoil'd the flock.
See! still thy own, the heavy canon roll,
And metaphysic smokes involve the pole.
For thee we dim the eyes, and stuff the head
With all such reading as was never read:
For thee explain a thing till all men doubt it,
And write about it, Goddess, and about it:
So spins the silkworm small its slender store,
And labours till it clouds itself all o'er.
'What tho' we let some better sort of fool
Thrid ev'ry science, run through ev'ry school?
Never by tumbler through the hoops was shown
Such skill in passing all, and touching none.
He may indeed (if sober all this time)
Plague with dispute, or persecute with rhyme.
We only furnish what he cannot use,
Or wed to what he must divorce, a Muse:
Full in the midst of Euclid dip at once,
And petrify a Genius to a Dunce:
Or set on metaphysic ground to prance,
Show all his paces, not a step advance.
With the same cement ever sure to bind,
We bring to one dead level ev'ry mind.
Then take him to develop, if you can,
And hew the block off, and get out the man.
But wherefore waste I words? I see advance
Whore, pupil, and lac'd governor from France.
Walker! our hat' -nor more he deign'd to say,
But, stern as Ajax' spectre, strode away.
In flow'd at once a gay embroider'd race,
And titt'ring push'd the Pedants off the place;
Some would have spoken, but the voice was drown'd
By the French horn, or by the op'ning hound.
The first came forwards, with as easy mien,
As if he saw St. James's and the Queen.
When thus th' attendant Orator begun,
Receive, great Empress! thy accomplish'd Son:
Thine from the birth, and sacred from the rod,
A dauntless infant! never scar'd with God.
The Sire saw, one by one, his Virtues wake:
The Mother begg'd the blessing of a Rake.
Thou gav'st that Ripeness, which so soon began,
And ceas'd so soon, he ne'er was Boy, nor Man,
Thro' School and College, thy kind cloud o'ercast,
Safe and unseen the young AEneas past:
Thence bursting glorious, all at once let down,
Stunn'd with his giddy Larum half the town.
Intrepid then, o'er seas and lands he flew:
Europe he saw, and Europe saw him too.
There all thy gifts and graces we display,
Thou, only thou, directing all our way!
To where the Seine, obsequious as she runs,
Pours at great Bourbon's feet her silken sons;
Or Tyber, now no longer Roman, rolls,
Vain of Italian Arts, Italian Souls:
To happy Convents, bosom'd deep in vines,
Where slumber Abbots, purple as their wines:
To Isles of fragrance, lilly-silver'd vales,
Diffusing languor in the panting gales:
To lands of singing, or of dancing slaves,
Love-whisp'ring woods, and lute-resounding waves.
But chief her shrine where naked Venus keeps,
And Cupids ride the Lyon of the Deeps;
Where, eas'd of Fleets, the Adriatic main
Wafts the smooth Eunuch and enamour'd swain.
Led by my hand, he saunter'd Europe round,
And gather'd ev'ry Vice on Christian ground;
Saw ev'ry Court, hear'd ev'ry King declare
His royal Sense, of Op'ra's or the Fair;
The Stews and Palace equally explor'd,
Intrigu'd with glory, and with spirit whor'd;
Try'd all hors-d' uvres, all Liqueurs defin'd,
Judicious drank, and greatly-daring din'd;
Dropt the dull lumber of the Latin store,
Spoil'd his own Language, and acquir'd no more;
All Classic learning lost on Classic ground;
And last turn'd Air, the Eccho of a Sound!
See now, half-cur'd, and perfectly well-bred,
With nothing but a Solo in his head;
As much Estate, and Principle, and Wit,
As Jansen, Fleetwood, Cibber shall think fit;
Stol'n from a Duel, follow'd by a Nun,
And, if a Borough chuse him, not undone;
See, to my country happy I restore
This glorious Youth, and add one Venus more.
Her too receive (for her my soul adores)
So may the sons of sons of sons of whores,
Prop thine, O Empress! like each neighbour Throne,
And make a long Posterity thy own.
Pleas'd, she accepts the Hero, and the Dame,
Wraps in her Veil, and frees from sense of Shame.
Then look'd, and saw a lazy, lolling sort,
Unseen at Church, at Senate, or at Court,
Of ever-listless Loit'rers, that attend
No Cause, no Trust, no Duty, and no Friend.
Thee too, my Paridel! she mark'd thee there,
Stretch'd on the rack of a too easy chair,
And heard thy everlasting yawn confess
The Pains and Penalties of Idleness.
She pity'd! but her Pity only shed
Benigner influence on thy nodding head.
But Annius, crafty Seer, with ebon wand,
And well-dissembl'd Em'rald on his hand,
False as his Gems and canker'd as his Coins,
Came, cramm'd with Capon, from where Pollio dines.
Soft, as the wily Fox is seen to creep,
Where bask on sunny banks the simple sheep,
Walk round and round, now prying here, now there;
So he; but pious, whisper'd first his pray'r.
Grant, gracious Goddess! grant me still to cheat,
O may thy cloud still cover the deceit!
Thy choicer mists on this assembly shed,
But pour them thickest on the noble head.
So shall each youth, assisted by our eyes,
See other C‘sars, other Homers rise;
Thro' twilight ages hunt th'Athenian fowl,
Which Chalcis Gods, and mortals call an Owl,
Now see an Attys, now a Cecrops clear,
Nay, Mahomet! the Pigeon at thine ear;
Be rich in ancient brass, tho' not in gold,
And keep his Lares, tho' his house be sold;
To headless Ph be his fair bride postpone,
Honour a Syrian Prince above his own;
Lord of an Otho, if I vouch it true;
Blest in one Niger, till he knows of two.
Mummius o'erheard him; Mummius, Fool-renown'd,
Who like his Cheops stinks above the ground,
Fierce as a startled Adder, swell'd, and said,
Rattling an ancient Sistrum at his head.
Speak'st thou of Syrian Princes? Traitor base!
Mine, Goddess! mine is all the horned race.
True, he had wit, to make their value rise;
From foolish Greeks to steal them, was as wise;
More glorious yet, from barb'rous hands to keep,
When Sallee Rovers chac'd him on the deep.
Then taught by Hermes, and divinely bold,
Down his own throat he risqu'd the Grecian gold;
Receiv'd each Demi-God, with pious care,
Deep in his Entrails — I rever'd them there,
I bought them, shrouded in that living shrine,
And, at their second birth, they issue mine.
Witness great Ammon! by whose horns I swore,
(Reply'd soft Annius) this our paunch before
Still bears them, faithful; and that thus I eat,
Is to refund the Medals with the meat.
To prove me, Goddess! clear of all design,
Bid me with Pollio sup, as well as dine:
There all the Learn'd shall at the labour stand,
And Douglas lend his soft, obstetric hand.
The Goddess smiling seem'd to give consent;
So back to Pollio, hand in hand, they went.
Then thick as Locusts black'ning all the ground,
A tribe, with weeds and shells fantastic crown'd,
Each with some wond'rous gift approach'd the Pow'r,
A Nest, a Toad, a Fungus, or a Flow'r.
But far the foremost, two, with earnest zeal,
And aspect ardent to the Throne appeal.
The first thus open'd: Hear thy suppliant's call,
Great Queen, and common Mother of us all!
Fair from its humble bed I rear'd this Flow'r,
Suckled, and chear'd, with air, and sun, and show'r,
Soft on the paper ruff its leaves I spread,
Bright with the gilded button tipt its head,
Then thron'd in glass, and nam'd it Caroline:
Each Maid cry'd, charming! and each Youth, divine!
Did Nature's pencil ever blend such rays,
Such vary'd light in one promiscuous blaze?
Now prostrate! dead! behold that Caroline:
No Maid cries, charming! and no Youth, divine!
And lo the wretch! whose vile, whose insect lust
Lay'd this gay daughter of the Spring in dust.
Oh punish him, or to th' Elysian shades
Dismiss my soul, where no Carnation fades.
He ceas'd, and wept. With innocence of mien,
Th'Accus'd stood forth, and thus address'd the Queen.
Of all th'enamel'd race, whose silv'ry wing
Waves to the tepid Zephyrs of the spring,
Or swims along the fluid atmosphere,
Once brightest shin'd this child of Heat and Air.
I saw, and started from its vernal bow'r
The rising game, and chac'd from flow'r to flow'r.
It fled, I follow'd; now in hope, now pain;
It stopt, I stopt; it mov'd, I mov'd again.
At last it fix'd, 'twas on what plant it pleas'd,
And where it fix'd, the beauteous bird I seiz'd:
Rose or Carnation was below my care;
I meddle, Goddess! only in my sphere.
I tell the naked fact without disguise,
And, to excuse it, need but shew the prize;
Whose spoils this paper offers to your eye,
Fair ev'n in death! this peerless Butterfly.
My sons! (she answer'd) both have done your parts:
Live happy both, and long promote our arts.
But hear a Mother, when she recommends
To your fraternal care, our sleeping friends.
The common Soul, of Heav'n's more frugal make,
Serves but to keep fools pert, and knaves awake:
A drowzy Watchman, that just gives a knock,
And breaks our rest, to tell us what's a clock.
Yet by some object ev'ry brain is stirr'd;
The dull may waken to a Humming-bird;
The most recluse, discreetly open'd, find
Congenial matter in the Cockle-kind;
The mind, in Metaphysics at a loss,
May wander in a wilderness of Moss;
The head that turns at super-lunar things,
Poiz'd with a tail, may steer on Wilkins' wings.
'O! would the sons of men once think their eyes
And reason given them but to study flies !
See Nature in some partial narrow shape,
And let the Author of the Whole escape:
Learn but to trifle; or, who most observe,
To wonder at their Maker, not to serve.'
'Be that my task' (replies a gloomy clerk,
Sworn foe to Myst'ry, yet divinely dark;
Whose pious hope aspires to see the day
When Moral Evidence shall quite decay,
And damns implicit faith, and holy lies,
Prompt to impose, and fond to dogmatize):
'Let others creep by timid steps, and slow,
On plain experience lay foundations low,
By common sense to common knowledge bred,
And last, to Nature's Cause through Nature led.
All-seeing in thy mists, we want no guide,
Mother of Arrogance, and Source of Pride!
We nobly take the high Priori Road,
And reason downward, till we doubt of God:
Make Nature still encroach upon his plan;
And shove him off as far as e'er we can:
Thrust some Mechanic Cause into his place;
Or bind in matter, or diffuse in space.
Or, at one bound o'erleaping all his laws,
Make God man's image, man the final Cause,
Find virtue local, all relation scorn
See all in self , and but for self be born:
Of naught so certain as our reason still,
Of naught so doubtful as of soul and will .
Oh hide the God still more! and make us see
Such as Lucretius drew, a god like thee:
Wrapp'd up in self, a god without a thought,
Regardless of our merit or default.
Or that bright image to our fancy draw,
Which Theocles in raptur'd vision saw,
While through poetic scenes the Genius roves,
Or wanders wild in academic groves;
That Nature our society adores,
Where Tindal dictates, and Silenus snores.'
Rous'd at his name up rose the bousy Sire,
And shook from out his pipe the seeds of fire;
Then snapp'd his box, and strok'd his belly down:
Rosy and rev'rend, though without a gown.
Bland and familiar to the throne he came,
Led up the youth, and call'd the Goddess Dame .
Then thus, 'From priestcraft happily set free,
Lo! ev'ry finished Son returns to thee:
First slave to words, then vassal to a name,
Then dupe to party; child and man the same;
Bounded by Nature, narrow'd still by art,
A trifling head, and a contracted heart.
Thus bred, thus taught, how many have I seen,
Smiling on all, and smil'd on by a queen.
Marked out for honours, honour'd for their birth,
To thee the most rebellious things on earth:
Now to thy gentle shadow all are shrunk,
All melted down, in pension, or in punk!
So K-- so B-- sneak'd into the grave,
A monarch's half, and half a harlot's slave.
Poor W-- nipp'd in Folly's broadest bloom,
Who praises now? his chaplain on his tomb.
Then take them all, oh take them to thy breast!
Thy Magus , Goddess! shall perform the rest.'
With that, a Wizard old his Cup extends;
Which whoso tastes, forgets his former friends,
Sire, ancestors, himself. One casts his eyes
Up to a Star , and like Endymion dies:
A Feather , shooting from another's head,
Extracts his brain, and principle is fled,
Lost is his God, his country, ev'rything;
And nothing left but homage to a king!
The vulgar herd turn off to roll with hogs,
To run with horses, or to hunt with dogs;
But, sad example! never to escape
Their infamy, still keep the human shape.
But she, good Goddess, sent to ev'ry child
Firm impudence, or stupefaction mild;
And straight succeeded, leaving shame no room,
Cibberian forehead, or Cimmerian gloom.
Kind self-conceit to somewhere glass applies,
Which no one looks in with another's eyes:
But as the flatt'rer or dependant paint,
Beholds himself a patriot, chief, or saint.
On others Int'rest her gay liv'ry flings,
Int'rest that waves on party-colour'd wings:
Turn'd to the sun, she casts a thousand dyes,
And, as she turns, the colours fall or rise.
Others the siren sisters warble round,
And empty heads console with empty sound.
No more, Alas! the voice of Fame they hear,
The balm of Dulness trickling in their ear.
Great C--, H--, P--, R--, K--,
Why all your toils? your Sons have learn'd to sing.
How quick ambition hastes to ridicule!
The sire is made a peer, the son a fool.
On some, a Priest succinct in amice white
Attends; all flesh is nothing in his sight!
Beeves, at his touch, at once to jelly turn,
And the huge boar is shrunk into an urn:
The board with specious miracles he loads,
Turns hares to larks, and pigeons into toads.
Another (for in all what one can shine?)
Explains the
of the vine.
What cannot copious sacrifice atone?
Thy truffles, Perigord! thy hams, Bayonne!
With French libation, and Italian strain,
Wash Bladen white, and expiate Hays's stain.
Knight lifts the head, for what are crowds undone.
To three essential partridges in one?
Gone ev'ry blush, and silent all reproach,
Contending princes mount them in their coach.
Next, bidding all draw near on bended knees,
The Queen confers her Titles and Degrees .
Her children first of more distinguish'd sort,
Who study Shakespeare at the Inns of Court,
Impale a glowworm, or vertú profess,
Shine in the dignity of F.R.S.
Some, deep Freemasons, join the silent race
Worthy to fill Pythagoras's place:
Some botanists, or florists at the least,
Or issue members of an annual feast.
Nor pass'd the meanest unregarded, one
Rose a Gregorian, one a Gormogon.
The last, not least in honour or applause,
Isis and Cam made Doctors of her Laws.
Then, blessing all, 'Go, Children of my care!
To practice now from theory repair.
All my commands are easy, short, and full:
My sons! be proud, be selfish, and be dull.
Guard my prerogative, assert my throne:
This nod confirms each privilege your own.
The cap and switch be sacred to his Grace;
With staff and pumps the Marquis lead the race;
From stage to stage the licens'd Earl may run,
Pair'd with his fellow charioteer the sun;
The learned Baron butterflies design,
Or draw to silk Arachne's subtle line;
The Judge to dance his brother Sergeant call;
The Senator at cricket urge the ball;
The Bishop stow (pontific luxury!)
An hundred souls of turkeys in a pie;
The sturdy Squire to Gallic masters stoop,
And drown his lands and manors in a soupe .
Others import yet nobler arts from France,
Teach kings to fiddle, and make senates dance.
Perhaps more high some daring son may soar,
Proud to my list to add one monarch more;
And nobly conscious, princes are but things
Born for first ministers, as slaves for kings,
Tyrant supreme! shall three Estates command,
And make one mighty Dunciad of the Land!
More she had spoke, but yawn'd-All Nature nods:
What mortal can resist the yawn of gods?
Churches and Chapels instantly it reach'd;
(St. James's first, for leaden Gilbert preach'd)
Then catch'd the schools; the Hall scarce kept awake;
The Convocation gap'd, but could not speak:
Lost was the nation's sense, nor could be found,
While the long solemn unison went round:
Wide, and more wide, it spread o'er all the realm;
Even Palinurus nodded at the helm:
The vapour mild o'er each committee crept;
Unfinish'd treaties in each office slept;
And chiefless armies doz'd out the campaign;
And navies yawn'd for orders on the main.
O Muse! relate (for you can tell alone,
Wits have short memories, and Dunces none),
Relate, who first, who last resign'd to rest;
Whose heads she partly, whose completely blest;
What charms could faction, what ambition lull,
The venal quiet, and entrance the dull;
Till drown'd was sense, and shame, and right, and wrongO sing, and hush the nations with thy song!
In vain, in vain-the all-composing hour
Resistless falls: The Muse obeys the Pow'r.
She comes! she comes! the sable throne behold
Of Night primeval, and of Chaos old!
Before her, Fancy's gilded clouds decay,
And all its varying rainbows die away.
Wit shoots in vain its momentary fires,
The meteor drops, and in a flash expires.
As one by one, at dread Medea's strain,
The sick'ning stars fade off th' ethereal plain;
As Argus' eyes by Hermes' wand oppress'd,
Clos'd one by one to everlasting rest;
Thus at her felt approach, and secret might,
Art after Art goes out, and all is Night.
See skulking Truth to her old cavern fled,
Mountains of Casuistry heap'd o'er her head!
Philosophy, that lean'd on Heav'n before,
Shrinks to her second cause, and is no more.
Physic of Metaphysic begs defence,
And Metaphysic calls for aid on Sense !
See Mystery to Mathematics fly!
In vain! they gaze, turn giddy, rave, and die.
Religion blushing veils her sacred fires,
And unawares Morality expires.
Nor public Flame, nor private , dares to shine;
Nor human Spark is left, nor Glimpse divine !
Lo! thy dread Empire, Chaos! is restor'd;
Light dies before thy uncreating word:
Thy hand, great Anarch! lets the curtain fall;
And universal Darkness buries All.
~ Alexander Pope,
923:Jubilate Agno: Fragment B, Part 2
LET PETER rejoice with the MOON FISH who keeps up the life in the waters by
Let Andrew rejoice with the Whale, who is array'd in beauteous blue and is a
combination of bulk and activity.
Let James rejoice with the Skuttle-Fish, who foils his foe by the effusion of his
Let John rejoice with Nautilus who spreads his sail and plies his oar, and the Lord
is his pilot.
Let Philip rejoice with Boca, which is a fish that can speak.
Let Bartholomew rejoice with the Eel, who is pure in proportion to where he is
found and how he is used.
Let Thomas rejoice with the Sword-Fish, whose aim is perpetual and strength
Let Matthew rejoice with Uranoscopus, whose eyes are lifted up to God.
Let James the less, rejoice with the Haddock, who brought the piece of money for
the Lord and Peter.
Let Jude bless with the Bream, who is of melancholy from his depth and serenity.
Let Simon rejoice with the Sprat, who is pure and innumerable.
Let Matthias rejoice with the Flying-Fish, who has a part with the birds, and is
sublimity in his conceit.
Let Stephen rejoice with Remora -- The Lord remove all obstacles to his glory.
Let Paul rejoice with the Scale, who is pleasant and faithful!, like God's good
Let Agrippa, which is Agricola, rejoice with Elops, who is a choice fish.
Let Joseph rejoice with the Turbut, whose capture makes the poor fisher-man
Let Mary rejoice with the Maid -- blessed be the name of the immaculate
Let John, the Baptist, rejoice with the Salmon -- blessed be the name of the Lord
Jesus for infant Baptism.
Let Mark rejoice with the Mullet, who is John Dore, God be gracious to him and
his family.
Let Barnabus rejoice with the Herring -- God be gracious to the Lord's fishery.
Let Cleopas rejoice with the Mackerel, who cometh in a shoal after a leader.
Let Abiud of the Lord's line rejoice with Murex, who is good and of a precious
Let Eliakim rejoice with the Shad, who is contemned in his abundance.
Let Azor rejoice with the Flounder, who is both of the sea and of the river,
Let Sadoc rejoice with the Bleak, who playeth upon the surface in the Sun.
Let Achim rejoice with the Miller's Thumb, who is a delicious morsel for the water
Let Eliud rejoice with Cinaedus, who is a fish yellow all over.
Let Eleazar rejoice with the Grampus, who is a pompous spouter.
Let Matthan rejoice with the Shark, who is supported by multitudes of small
Let Jacob rejoice with the Gold Fish, who is an eye-trap.
Let Jairus rejoice with the Silver Fish, who is bright and lively.
Let Lazarus rejoice with Torpedo, who chills the life of the assailant through his
Let Mary Magdalen rejoice with the Place, whose goodness and purity are of the
Lord's making.
Let Simon the leper rejoice with the Eel-pout, who is a rarity on account of his
Let Alpheus rejoice with the Whiting, whom God hath bless'd in multitudes, and
his days are as the days of PURIM.
Let Onesimus rejoice with the Cod -- blessed be the name of the Lord Jesus for a
miraculous draught of men.
Let Joses rejoice with the Sturgeon, who saw his maker in the body and obtained
Let Theophilus rejoice with the Folio, who hath teeth, like the teeth of a saw.
Let Bartimeus rejoice with the Quaviver -- God be gracious to the eyes of him,
who prayeth for the blind.
Let CHRISTOPHER, who is Simon of Cyrene, rejoice with the Rough -- God be
gracious to the CAM and to DAVID CAM and his seed for ever.
Let Timeus rejoice with the Ling -- God keep the English Sailors clear of French
Let Salome rejoice with the Mermaid, who hath the countenance and a portion of
human reason.
Let Zacharias rejoice with the Gudgeon, who improves in his growth till he is
Let Campanus rejoice with the Lobster -- God be gracious to all the CAMPBELLs
especially John.
Let Martha rejoice with the Skallop -- the Lord revive the exercise and excellence
of the Needle.
Let Mary rejoice with the Carp -- the ponds of Fairlawn and the garden bless for
the master.
Let Zebedee rejoice with the Tench -- God accept the good son for his parents
Let Joseph of Arimathea rejoice with the Barbel -- a good coffin and a tombstone without grudging!
Let Elizabeth rejoice with the Crab -- it is good, at times, to go back.
Let Simeon rejoice with the Oyster, who hath the life without locomotion.
Let Jona rejoice with the Wilk -- Wilks, Wilkie, and Wilkinson bless the name of
the Lord Jesus.
Let Nicodemus rejoice with the Muscle, for so he hath provided for the poor.
Let Gamaliel rejoice with the Cockle -- I will rejoice in the remembrance of
Let Agabus rejoice with the Smelt -- The Lord make me serviceable to the
Let Rhoda rejoice with the Sea-Cat, who is pleasantry and purity.
Let Elmodam rejoice with the Chubb, who is wary of the bait and thrives in his
Let Jorim rejoice with the Roach -- God bless my throat and keep me from things
Let Addi rejoice with the Dace -- It is good to angle with meditation.
Let Luke rejoice with the Trout -- Blessed be Jesus in Aa, in Dee and in Isis.
Let Cosam rejoice with the Perch, who is a little tyrant, because he is not liable to
that, which he inflicts.
Let Levi rejoice with the Pike -- God be merciful to all dumb creatures in respect
of pain.
Let Melchi rejoice with the Char, who cheweth the cud.
Let Joanna rejoice with the Anchovy -- I beheld and lo! 'a great multitude!
Let Neri rejoice with the Keeling Fish, who is also called the Stock Fish.
Let Janna rejoice with the Pilchard -- the Lord restore the seed of Abishai.
Let Esli rejoice with the Soal, who is flat and spackles for the increase of motion.
Let Nagge rejoice with the Perriwinkle -- 'for the rain it raineth every day.'
Let Anna rejoice with the Porpus, who is a joyous fish and of good omen.
Let Phanuel rejoice with the Shrimp, which is the childrens fishery.
Let Chuza rejoice with the Sea-Bear, who is full of sagacity and prank.
Let Susanna rejoice with the Lamprey, who is an eel with a title.
Let Candace rejoice with the Craw-fish -- How hath the Christian minister
renowned the Queen.
Let The Eunuch rejoice with the Thorn-Back -- It is good to be discovered reading
the BIBLE.
Let Simon the Pharisee rejoice with the Grigg -- the Lord bring up Issachar and
Let Simon the converted Sorcerer rejoice with the Dab quoth Daniel.
Let Joanna, of the Lord's line, rejoice with the Minnow, who is multiplied against
the oppressor.
Let Jonas rejoice with the Sea-Devil, who hath a good name from his Maker.
Let Alexander rejoice with the Tunny -- the worse the time the better the
Let Rufus rejoice with the Needle-fish, who is very good in his element.
Let Matthat rejoice with the Trumpet-fish -- God revive the blowing of the
Let Mary, the mother of James, rejoice with the Sea-Mouse -- it is good to be at
Let Prochorus rejoice with Epodes, who is a kind of fish with Ovid who is at peace
in the Lord.
Let Timotheus rejoice with the Dolphin, who is of benevolence.
Let Nicanor rejoice with the Skeat -- Blessed be the name of the Lord Jesus in
fish and in the Shewbread, which ought to be continually on the altar, now more
than ever, and the want of it is the Abomination of Desolation spoken of by
Let Timon rejoice with Crusion -- The Shew-Bread in the first place is gratitude to
God to shew who is bread, whence it is, and that there is enough and to spare.
Let Parmenas rejoice with the Mixon -- Secondly it is to prevent the last
extremity, for it is lawful that rejected hunger may take it.
Let Dorcas rejoice with Dracunculus -- blessed be the name of the Lord Jesus in
the Grotto.
Let Tychicus rejoice with Scolopendra, who quits himself of the hook by voiding
his intrails.
Let Trophimus rejoice with the Sea-Horse, who shoud have been to Tychicus the
father of Yorkshiremen.
Let Tryphena rejoice with Fluta -- Saturday is the Sabbath for the mouth of God
hath spoken it.
Let Tryphosa rejoice with Acarne -- With such preparation the Lord's Jubile is
better kept.
Let Simon the Tanner rejoice with Alausa -- Five days are sufficient for the
purposes of husbandry.
Let Simeon Niger rejoice with the Loach -- The blacks are the seed of Cain.
Let Lucius rejoice with Corias -- Some of Cain's seed was preserved in the loins
of Ham at the flood.
Let Manaen rejoice with Donax. My DEGREE is good even here, in the Lord I have
a better.
Let Sergius Paulus rejoice with Dentex -- Blessed be the name Jesus for my
Let Silas rejoice with the Cabot -- the philosophy of the times ev'n now is vain
Let Barsabas rejoice with Cammarus -- Newton is ignorant for if a man consult
not the WORD how should he understand the WORK? -Let Lydia rejoice with Attilus -- Blessed be the name of him which eat the fish
and honey comb.
Let Jason rejoice with Alopecias, who is subtlety without offence.
Let Dionysius rejoice with Alabes who is peculiar to the Nile.
Let Damaris rejoice with Anthias -- The fountain of the Nile is known to the
Eastern people who drink it.
Let Apollos rejoice with Astacus, but St Paul is the Agent for England.
Let Justus rejoice with Crispus in a Salmon-Trout -- the Lord look on the soul of
Richard Atwood.
Let Crispus rejoice with Leviathan -- God be gracious to the soul of HOBBES, who
was no atheist, but a servant of Christ, and died in the Lord -- I wronged him
God forgive me.
Let Aquila rejoice with Beemoth who is Enoch no fish but a stupendous creeping
Let Priscilla rejoice with Cythera. As earth increases by Beemoth so the sea
likewise enlarges.
Let Tyrannus rejoice with Cephalus who hath a great head.
Let Gaius rejoice with the Water-Tortoise -- Paul and Tychicus were in England
with Agricola my father.
Let Aristarchus rejoice with Cynoglossus -- The Lord was at Glastonbury in the
body and blessed the thorn.
Let Alexander rejoice with the Sea-Urchin -- The Lord was at Bristol and blessed
the waters there.
Let Sopater rejoice with Elacate -- The waters of Bath were blessed by St
Let Secundus rejoice with Echeneis who is the sea-lamprey.
Let Eutychus rejoice with Cnide -- Fish and honeycomb are blessed to eat after a
recovery. -Let Mnason rejoice with Vulvula a sort of fish -- Good words are of God, the cant
from the Devil.
Let Claudius Lysias rejoice with Coracinus who is black and peculiar to Nile.
Let Bernice rejoice with Corophium which is a kind of crab.
Let Phebe rejoice with Echinometra who is a beautiful shellfish red and green.
Let Epenetus rejoice with Erythrinus who is red with a white belly.
Let Andronicus rejoice with Esox, the Lax, a great fish of the Rhine.
Let Junia rejoice with the Faber-Fish -- Broil'd fish and honeycomb may be taken
for the sacrament.
Let Amplias rejoice with Garus, who is a kind of Lobster.
Let Urbane rejoice with Glanis, who is a crafty fish who bites away the bait and
saves himself.
Let Stachys rejoice with Glauciscus, who is good for Women's milk.
Let Apelles rejoice with Glaucus -- behold the seed of the brave and ingenious
how they are saved!
Let Aristobulus rejoice with Glycymerides who is pure and sweet.
Let Herodion rejoice with Holothuria which are prickly fishes.
Let Narcissus rejoice with Hordeia -- I will magnify the Lord who multiplied the
Let Persis rejoice with Liparis -- I will magnify the Lord who multiplied the barley
Let Rufus rejoice with Icthyocolla of whose skin a water-glue is made.
Let Asyncritus rejoice with Labrus who is a voracious fish.
Let Phlegon rejoice with the Sea-Lizard -- Bless Jesus THOMAS BOWLBY and all
the seed of Reuben.
Let Hermas rejoice with Lamyrus who is of things creeping in the sea.
Let Patrobas rejoice with Lepas, all shells are precious.
Let Hermes rejoice with Lepus, who is a venomous fish.
Let Philologus rejoice with Ligarius -- shells are all parries to the adversary.
Let Julia rejoice with the Sleeve-Fish -- Blessed be Jesus for all the TAYLERS.
Let Nereus rejoice with the Calamary -- God give success to our fleets.
Let Olympas rejoice with the Sea-Lantern, which glows upon the waters.
Let Sosipater rejoice with Cornuta. There are fish for the Sea-Night-Birds that
glow at bottom.
Let Lucius rejoice with the Cackrel Fish. God be gracious to JMs FLETCHER who
has my tackling.
Let Tertius rejoice with Maia which is a kind of crab.
Let Erastus rejoice with Melandry which is the largest Tunny.
Let Quartus rejoice with Mena. God be gracious to the immortal soul of poor
Carte, who was barbarously and cowardly murder'd -- the Lord prevent the
dealers in clandestine death.
Let Sosthenes rejoice with the Winkle -- all shells like the parts of the body are
good kept for those parts.
Let Chloe rejoice with the Limpin -- There is a way to the terrestrial Paradise
upon the knees.
Let Carpus rejoice with the Frog-Fish -- A man cannot die upon his knees.
Let Stephanas rejoice with Mormyra who is a fish of divers colours.
Let Fortunatus rejoice with the Burret -- it is good to be born when things are
Let Lois rejoice with the Angel-Fish -- There is a fish that swims in the fluid
Let Achaicus rejoice with the Fat-Back -- The Lord invites his fishers to the WEST
Let Sylvanus rejoice with the Black-Fish -- Oliver Cromwell himself was the
murderer in the Mask.
Let Titus rejoice with Mys -- O Tite siquid ego adjuero curamve levasso!
Let Euodias rejoice with Myrcus -- There is a perfumed fish I will offer him for a
sweet savour to the Lord.
Let Syntyche rejoice with Myax -- There are shells in the earth which were left by
the FLOOD.
Let Clement rejoice with Ophidion -- There are shells again in earth at sympathy
with those in sea.
Let Epaphroditus rejoice with Opthalmias -- The Lord increase the Cambridge
collection of fossils.
Let Epaphras rejoice with Orphus -- God be gracious to the immortal soul of Dr
Let Justus rejoice with Pagrus -- God be gracious to the immortal soul of Dr
Let Nymphas rejoice with Fagurus -- God bless Charles Mason and all Trinity
Let Archippus rejoice with Nerita whose shell swimmeth.
Let Eunice rejoice with Oculata who is of the Lizard kind.
Let Onesephorus rejoice with Orca, who is a great fish.
Let Eubulus rejoice with Ostrum the scarlet -- God be gracious to Gordon and
Let Pudens rejoice with Polypus -- The Lord restore my virgin!
Let Linus rejoice with Ozsena who is a kind of Polype -- God be gracious to Lyne
and Anguish.
Let Claudia rejoice with Pascer -- the purest creatures minister to wantoness by
Let Artemas rejoice with Pastinaca who is a fish with a sting.
Let Zenas rejoice with Pecten -- The Lord obliterate the laws of man!
Let Philemon rejoice with Pelagia -- The laws and judgement are impudence and
Let Apphia rejoice with Pelamis -- The Lord Jesus is man's judgement.
Let Demetrius rejoice with Peloris, who is greatest of Shell-Fishes.
Let Antipas rejoice with Pentadactylus -- A papist hath no sentiment God bless
FOR I pray the Lord JESUS that cured the LUNATICK to be merciful to all my
brethren and sisters in these houses.
For they work me with their harping-irons, which is a barbarous instrument,
because I am more unguarded than others.
For the blessing of God hath been on my epistles, which I have written for the
benefit of others.
For I bless God that the CHURCH of ENGLAND is one of the SEVEN ev'n the
candlestick of the Lord.
For the ENGLISH TONGUE shall be the language of the WEST.
For I pray Almighty CHRIST to bless the MAGDALEN HOUSE and to forward a
National purification.
For I have the blessing of God in the three POINTS of manhood, of the pen, of
the sword, and of chivalry.
For I am inquisitive in the Lord, and defend the philosophy of the scripture
against vain deceit.
For the nets come down from the eyes of the Lord to fish up men to their
For I have a greater compass both of mirth and melancholy than another.
For I bless the Lord JESUS in the innumerables, and for ever and ever.
For I am redoubted, and redoubtable in the Lord, as is THOMAS BECKET my
For I have had the grace to GO BACK, which is my blessing unto prosperity.
For I paid for my seat in St PAUL's, when I was six years old, and took
possession against the evil day.
For I am descended from the steward of the island -- blessed be the name of the
Lord Jesus king of England.
For the poor gentleman is the first object of the Lord's charity and he is the most
pitied who hath lost the most.
For I am in twelve HARDSHIPS, but he that was born of a virgin shall deliver me
out of all.
For I am safe, as to my head, from the female dancer and her admirers.
For I pray for CHICHISTER to give the glory to God, and to keep the adversary at
For I am making to the shore day by day, the Lord Jesus take me.
For I bless the Lord JESUS upon RAMSGATE PIER -- the Lord forward the building
of harbours.
For I bless the Lord JESUS for his very seed, which is in my body.
For I pray for R and his family, I pray for Mr Becher, and I bean for the Lord
For I pray to God for Nore, for the Trinity house, for all light-houses, beacons and
For I bless God that I am not in a dungeon, but am allowed the light of the Sun.
For I pray God for the PYGMIES against their feathered adversaries, as a deed of
For I pray God for all those, who have defiled themselves in matters
For I pray God be gracious to CORNELIUS MATTHEWS name and connection.
For I am under the same accusation with my Saviour -- -for they said, he is
besides himself.
For I pray God for the introduction of new creatures into this island.
For I pray God for the ostriches of Salisbury Plain, the beavers of the Medway
and silver fish of Thames.
For Charity is cold in the multitude of possessions, and the rich are covetous of
their crumbs.
For I pray to be accepted as a dog without offence, which is best of all.
For I wish to God and desire towards the most High, which is my policy.
For the tides are the life of God in the ocean, and he sends his angel to trouble
the great DEEP.
For he hath fixed the earth upon arches and pillars, and the flames of hell flow
under it.
For the grosser the particles the nearer to the sink, and the nearer to purity, the
quicker the gravitation.
For MATTER is the dust of the Earth, every atom of which is the life.
For MOTION is as the quantity of life direct, and that which hath not motion, is
For Resistance is not of GOD, but he -- hath built his works upon it.
For the Centripetal and Centrifugal forces are GOD SUSTAINING and DIRECTING.
For Elasticity is the temper of matter to recover its place with vehemence.
For Attraction is the earning of parts, which have a similitude in the life.
For the Life of God is in the Loadstone, and there is a magnet, which pointeth
due EAST.
For the Glory of God is always in the East, but cannot be seen for the cloud of the
For due East is the way to Paradise, which man knoweth not by reason of his fall.
For the Longitude is (nevertheless) attainable by steering angularly
For Eternity is a creature and is built upon Eternity ¥ê¥á¥ó¥á¥â¥ï¥ë¥ç ¥å¥g¥é
¥ó¥ç ¥ä¥é¥á¥â¥ï¥ë¥ç .
For Fire is a mixed nature of body and spirit, and the body is fed by that which
hath not life.
For Fire is exasperated by the Adversary, who is Death, unto the detriment of
For an happy Conjecture is a miraculous cast by the Lord Jesus.
For a bad Conjecture is a draught of stud and mud.
For there is a Fire which is blandishing, and which is of God direct.
For Fire is a substance and distinct, and purifyeth ev'n in hell.
For the Shears is the first of the mechanical powers, and to be used on the
For if Adam had used this instrument right, he would not have fallen.
For the power of the Shears Is direct as the life.
For the power of the WEDGE is direct as it's altitude by communication of
Almighty God.
For the Skrew, Axle and Wheel, Pulleys, the Lever and Inclined Plane are known
in the Schools.
For the Centre is not known but by the application of the members to matter.
For I have shown the Vis Inerti©¡ to be false, and such is all nonsense.
For the Centre is the hold of the Spirit upon the matter in hand.
For FRICTION is inevitable because the Universe is FULL of God's works.
For the PERPETUAL MOTION is in all the works of Almighty GOD.
For it is not so in the engines of man, which are made of dead materials, neither
indeed can be.
For the Moment of bodies, as it is used, is a false term -- bless God ye Speakers
on the Fifth of November.
For Time and Weight are by their several estimates.
For I bless GOD in the discovery of the LONGITUDE direct by the means of
For the motion of the PENDULUM is the longest in that it parries resistance.
For the WEDDING GARMENTS of all men are prepared in the SUN against the day
of acceptation.
For the Wedding Garments of all women are prepared in the MOON against the
day of their purification.
For CHASTITY is the key of knowledge as in Esdras, Sr Isaac Newton and now,
God be praised, in me.
For Newton nevertheless is more of error than of the truth, but I am of the
For WATER, is not of solid constituents, but is dissolved from precious stones
For the life remains in its dissolvent state, and that in great power.
For WATER is condensed by the Lord's FROST, tho' not by the FLORENTINE
For GLADWICK is a substance growing on hills in the East, candied by the sun,
and of diverse colours.
For it is neither stone nor metal but a new creature, soft to the ax, but hard to
the hammer.
For it answers sundry uses, but particularly it supplies the place of Glass.
For it giveth a benign light without the fragility, malignity or mischief of Glass.
For it attracteth all the colours of the GREAT BOW which is fixed in the EAST.
For the FOUNTAINS and SPRINGS are the life of the waters working up to God.
For they are in SYMPATHY with the waters above the Heavens, which are solid.
For the Fountains, springs and rivers are all of them from the sea, whose water is
filtrated and purified by the earth.
For there is Water above the visible surface in a spiritualizing state, which cannot
be seen but by application of a CAPILLARY TUBE.
For the ASCENT of VAPOURS is the return of thanksgiving from all humid bodies.
For the RAIN WATER kept in a reservoir at any altitude, suppose of a thousand
feet, will make a fountain from a spout of ten feet of the same height.
For it will ascend in a stream two thirds of the way and afterwards prank itself
into ten thousand agreeable forms.
For the SEA is a seventh of the Earth -- the spirit of the Lord by Esdras.
For MERCURY is affected by the AIR because it is of a similar subtlety.
For the rising in the BAROMETER is not effected by pressure but by sympathy.
For it cannot be seperated from the creature with which it is intimately and
eternally connected.
For where it is stinted of air there it will adhere together and stretch on the
For it works by ballancing according to the hold of the spirit.
For QUICK-SILVER is spiritual and so is the AIR to all intents and purposes.
For the AIR-PUMP weakens and dispirits but cannot wholly exhaust.
For SUCKTION is the withdrawing of the life, but life will follow as fast as it can.
For there is infinite provision to keep up the life in all the parts of Creation.
For the AIR is contaminated by curses and evil language.
For poysonous creatures catch some of it and retain it or ere it goes to the
For IRELAND was without these creatures, till of late, because of the simplicity of
the people.
For the AIR. is purified by prayer which is made aloud and with all our might.
For loud prayer is good for weak lungs and for a vitiated throat.
For SOUND is propagated in the spirit and in all directions.
For the VOICE of a figure compleat in all its parts.
For a man speaks HIMSELF from the crown of his head to the sole of his feet.
For a LION roars HIMSELF compleat from head to tail.
For all these things are seen in the spirit which makes the beauty of prayer.
For all whispers and unmusical sounds in general are of the Adversary.
For 'I will hiss saith the Lord' is God's denunciation of death.
For applause or the clapping of the hands is the natural action of a man on the
descent of the glory of God.
For EARTH which is an intelligence hath a voice and a propensity to speak in all
her parts.
For ECHO is the soul of the voice exerting itself in hollow places.
For ECHO cannot act but when she can parry the adversary.
For ECHO is greatest in Churches and where she can assist in prayer.
For a good voice hath its Echo with it and it is attainable by much supplication.
For the FOICE is from the body and the spirit -- and is a a body and a spirit.
For the prayers of good men are therefore visible to second-sighted persons.
For HARPSICHORDS are best strung with gold wire.
For HARPS and VIOLS are best strung with Indian weed.
For the GERMAN FLUTE is an indirect -- the common flute good, bless the Lord
For the feast of TRUMPETS should be kept up, that being the most direct and
acceptable of all instruments.
For the TRUMPET of God is a blessed intelligence and so are all the instruments
For GOD the father Almighty plays upon the HARP of stupendous magnitude and
For innumerable Angels fly out at every touch and his tune is a work of creation.
For at that time malignity ceases and the devils themselves are at peace.
For this time is perceptible to man by a remarkable stillness and serenity of soul.
For the ¨¡olian harp is improveable into regularity.
For when it is so improved it will be known to be the SHAWM.
For it woud be better if the LITURGY were musically performed.
For the strings of the SHAWM were upon a cylinder which turned to the wind.
For this was spiritual musick altogether, as the wind is a spirit.
For there is nothing but it may be played upon in delight.
For the flames of fire may lie blown thro musical pipes.
For it is so higher up in the vast empyrean.
For is so real as that which is spiritual.
For an IGNIS FATUUS is either the fool's conceit or a blast from the adversary.
For SHELL-FIRE or ELECTRICAL is the quick air when it is caught.
For GLASS is worked in the fire till it partakes of its nature.
For the electrical fire is easily obtain'd by the working of glass.
For all spirits are of fire and the air is a very benign one.
For the MAN in VACUO is a flat conceit of preposterous folly.
For the breath of our nostrils is an electrical spirit.
For an electrical spirit may be exasperated into a malignant fire.
For it is good to quicken in paralytic cases being the life applied unto death,
For the method of philosophizing is in a posture of Adoration.
For the School-Doctrine of Thunder and Lightning is a Diabolical Hypothesis.
For it is taking the nitre from the lower regions and directing it against the
Infinite of Heights.
For THUNDER is the voice of God direct in verse and musick.
For LIGHTNING is a glance of the glory of God.
For the Brimstone that is found at the times of thunder and lightning is worked
up by the Adversary.
For the voice is always for infinite good which he strives to impede.
For the Devil can work coals into shapes to afflict the minds of those that will not
For the coffin and the cradle and the purse are all against a man.
For the coffin is for the dead and death came by disobedience.
For the cradle is for weakness and the child of man was originally strong from the
For the purse is for money and money is dead matter with the stamp of human
For the adversary frequently sends these particular images out of the fire to
those whom they concern.
For the coffin is for me because I have nothing to do with it.
For the cradle is for me because the old Dragon attacked me in it and overcame
in Christ.
For the purse is for me because I have neither money nor human friends.
For LIGHT is propagated at all distances in an instant because it is actuated by
the divine conception.
For the Satellites of the planet prove nothing in this matter but the glory of
Almighty God.
For the SHADE is of death and from the adversary.
For Solomon said vanity of vanities, vanity of vanities all is vanity.
For Jesus says verity of verities, verity of verities all is verity.
For Solomon said THOU FOOL in malice from his own vanity.
For the Lord reviled not all in hardship and temptation unutterable.
For Fire hath this property that it reduces a thing till finally it is not.
For all the filth wicked of men shall be done away by fire in Eternity.
For the furnace itself shall come up at the last according to Abraham's vision.
For the Convex Heaven of shall work about on that great event.
For the ANTARTICK POLE is not yet but shall answer in the Consummation.
For the devil hath most power in winter, because darkness prevails.
For the Longing of Women is the operation of the Devil upon their conceptions.
For the marking of their children is from the same cause both of which are to be
parried by prayer.
For the laws of King James the first against Witchcraft were wise, had it been of
man to make laws.
For there are witches and wizards even now who are spoken to by their familiars.
For the visitation of their familiars is prevented by the Lord's incarnation.
For to conceive with intense diligence against one's neighbour is a branch of
For to use pollution, exact and cross things and at the same time to think against
a man is the crime direct.
For prayer with musick is good for persons so exacted upon.
For before the NATIVITY is the dead of the winter and after it the quick.
For the sin against the HOLY GHOST is INGRATITUDE.
For stuff'd guts make no musick; strain them strong and you shall have sweet
For the SHADOW is of death, which is the Devil, who can make false and faint
images of the works of Almighty God.
For every man beareth death about him ever since the transgression of Adam,
but in perfect light there is no shadow.
For all Wrath is Fire, which the adversary blows upon and exasperates.
For SHADOW is a fair Word from God, which is not returnable till the furnace
comes up.
For the ECLIPSE is of the adversary -- blessed be the name of Jesus for Whisson
of Trinity.
For the shadow is his and the penumbra is his and his the perplexity of the the
For the eclipses happen at times when the light is defective.
For the more the light is defective, the more the powers of darkness prevail.
For deficiencies happen by the luminaries crossing one another.
For the SUN is an intelligence and an angel of the human form.
For the MOON is an intelligence and an angel in shape like a woman.
For they are together in the spirit every night like man and wife.
For Justice is infinitely beneath Mercy in nature and office.
For the Devil himself may be just in accusation and punishment.
For HELL is without eternity from the presence of Almighty God.
For Volcanos and burning mountains are where the adversary hath most power.
For the angel GRATITUDE is my wife -- God bring me to her or her to me.
For the propagation of light is quick as the divine Conception.
For FROST is damp and unwholsome air candied to fall to the best advantage.
For I am the Lord's News-Writer -- the scribe-evangelist -- Widow Mitchel, Gun
and Grange bless the Lord Jesus.
For Adversity above all other is to be deserted of the grace of God.
For in the divine Idea this Eternity is compleat and the Word is a making many
For there is a forlorn hope ev'n for impenitent sinners because the furnace itself
must be the crown of Eternity.
For my hope is beyond Eternity in the bosom of God my saviour.
For by the grace of God I am the Reviver of ADORATION amongst ENGLISH-MEN.
For being desert-ed is to have desert in the sight of God and intitles one to the
Lord's merit.
For things that are not in the sight of men are thro' God of infinite concern.
For envious men have exceeding subtlety quippe qui in -- videant.
For avaricious men are exceeding subtle like the soul seperated from the body.
For their attention is on a sinking object which perishes.
For they can go beyond the children of light in matters of their own misery.
For Snow is the dew candied and cherishes.
For TIMES and SEASONS are the Lord's -- Man is no CHRONOLOGER.
For there is a CIRCULATION of the SAP in all vegetables.
For SOOT is the dross of Fire.
For the CLAPPING of the hands is naught unless it be to the glory of God.
For God will descend in visible glory when men begin to applaud him.
For all STAGE-Playing is Hypocrisy and the Devil is the master of their revels.
For the INNATATION of corpuscles is solved by the Gold-beater's hammer -- God
be gracious to Christopher Peacock and to all my God-Children.
For the PRECESSION of the Equinoxes is improving nature -- something being
gained every where for the glory of God perpetually.
For the souls of the departed are embodied in clouds and purged by the Sun.
For the LONGITUDE may be discovered by attending the motions of the Sun.
Way 2d.
For you must consider the Sun as dodging, which he does to parry observation.
For he must be taken with an Astrolabe, and considered respecting the point he
For you must do this upon your knees and that will secure your point.
For I bless God that I dwell within the sound of Success, and that it is well with
ENGLAND this blessed day. NATIVITY of our LORD N.S. 1759.
~ Christopher Smart,


The Trojan War

Priam, to whom the story was unknown,
As dead, deplor'd his metamorphos'd son:
A cenotaph his name, and title kept,
And Hector round the tomb, with all his brothers, wept.
This pious office Paris did not share;
Absent alone; and author of the war,
Which, for the Spartan queen, the Grecians drew
T' avenge the rape; and Asia to subdue.
A thousand ships were mann'd, to sail the sea:
Nor had their just resentments found delay,
Had not the winds, and waves oppos'd their way.
At Aulis, with united pow'rs they meet,
But there, cross-winds or calms detain'd the fleet.
Now, while they raise an altar on the shore,
And Jove with solemn sacrifice adore;
A boding sign the priests and people see:
A snake of size immense ascends a tree,
And, in the leafie summit, spy'd a nest,
Which o'er her callow young, a sparrow press'd.
Eight were the birds unfledg'd; their mother flew,
And hover'd round her care; but still in view:
'Till the fierce reptile first devour'd the brood,
Then seiz'd the flutt'ring dam, and drunk her blood.
This dire ostent, the fearful people view;
Calchas alone, by Phoebus taught, foreknew
What Heav'n decreed; and with a smiling glance,
Thus gratulates to Greece her happy chance:
O Argives, we shall conquer: Troy is ours,
But long delays shall first afflict our pow'rs:
Nine years of labour, the nine birds portend;
The tenth shall in the town's destruction end.

The serpent, who his maw obscene had fill'd,
The branches in his curl'd embraces held:
But, as in spires he stood, he turn'd to stone:
The stony snake retain'd the figure still his own.

Yet, not for this, the wind-bound navy weigh'd;
Slack were their sails; and Neptune disobey'd.
Some thought him loth the town should be destroy'd,
Whose building had his hands divine employ'd:
Not so the seer; who knew, and known foreshow'd,
The virgin Phoebe, with a virgin's blood
Must first be reconcil'd: the common cause
Prevail'd; and pity yielding to the laws,
Fair Iphigenia the devoted maid
Was, by the weeping priests, in linnen-robes array'd;
All mourn her fate; but no relief appear'd;
The royal victim bound, the knife already rear'd:
When that offended Pow'r, who caus'd their woe,
Relenting ceas'd her wrath; and stop'd the coming blow.
A mist before the ministers she cast,
And, in the virgin's room, a hind she plac'd.
Th' oblation slain, and Phoebe, reconcil'd,
The storm was hush'd, and dimpled ocean smil'd:
A favourable gale arose from shore,
Which to the port desir'd, the Graecian gallies bore.

The House of Fame

Full in the midst of this created space,
Betwixt Heav'n, Earth, and skies, there stands a place,
Confining on all three, with triple bound;
Whence all things, tho' remote, are view'd around;
And thither bring their undulating sound.
The palace of loud Fame, her seat of pow'r,
Plac'd on the summet of a lofty tow'r;
A thousand winding entries long and wide,
Receive of fresh reports a flowing tide.
A thousand crannies in the walls are made;
Nor gate, nor bars exclude the busie trade.
'Tis built of brass, the better to diffuse
The spreading sounds, and multiply the news:
Where eccho's in repeated eccho's play:
A mart for ever full, and open night and day.
Nor silence is within, nor voice express,
But a deaf noise of sounds, that never cease.
Confus'd and chiding, like the hollow roar
Of tides, receding from th' insulted shore,
Or like the broken thunder heard from far,
When Jove at distance drives the rouling war.
The courts are fill'd with a tumultuous din
Of crouds, or issuing forth, or entring in:
A thorough-fare of news: where some devise
Things never heard, some mingle truth with lies;
The troubled air with empty sounds they beat,
Intent to hear, and eager to repeat.
Error sits brooding there, with added train
Of vain credulity, and joys as vain:
Suspicion, with sedition join'd, are near,
And rumours rais'd, and murmurs mix'd, and panique fear.

Fame sits aloft, and sees the subject ground,
And seas about, and skies above; enquiring all around.

The Goddess gives th' alarm; and soon is known
The Grecian fleet descending on the town.
Fix'd on defence, the Trojans are not slow
To guard their shore, from an expected foe.
They meet in fight: by Hector's fatal hand
Protesilaus falls, and bites the strand:
Which with expence of blood the Grecians won;
And prov'd the strength unknown of Priam's son.
And to their cost the Trojan leaders felt
The Grecian heroes; and what deaths they dealt.

The Story of Cygnus

From these first onsets, the Sigaean shore
Was strew'd with carcasses, and stain'd with gore:
Neptunian Cygnus troops of Greeks had slain;
Achilles in his carr had scour'd the plain,
And clear'd the Trojan ranks: where-e'er he fought,
Cygnus, or Hector, through the fields he sought:
Cygnus he found; on him his force essay'd:
For Hector was to the tenth year delay'd.
His white-main'd steeds, that bow'd beneath the yoke,
He chear'd to courage, with a gentle stroke;
Then urg'd his fiery chariot on the foe;
And rising shook his lance; in act to throw.
But first he cry'd, O youth, be proud to bear
Thy death, ennobled by Pelides' spear.
The lance pursu'd the voice without delay,
Nor did the whizzing weapon miss the way;
But pierc'd his cuirass, with such fury sent,
And sign'd his bosom with a purple dint.
At this the seed of Neptune: Goddess-born,
For ornament, not use, these arms are worn;
This helm, and heavy buckler, I can spare;
As only decorations of the war:
So Mars is arm'd for glory, not for need.
'Tis somewhat more from Neptune to proceed,
Than from a daughter of the sea to spring:
Thy sire is mortal; mine is ocean's king.
Secure of death, I shou'd contemn thy dart,
Tho' naked; and impassible depart:
He said, and threw: the trembling weapon pass'd
Through nine bull-hides, each under other plac'd,
On his broad shield; and stuck within the last.
Achilles wrench'd it out; and sent again
The hostile gift: the hostile gift was vain.
He try'd a third, a tough well-chosen spear;
Th' inviolable body stood sincere,
Though Cygnus then did no defence provide,
But scornful offer'd his unshielded side.

Not otherwise th' impatient hero far'd,
Than as a bull incompass'd with a guard,
Amid the Circus roars, provok'd from far
By sight of scarlet, and a sanguine war:
They quit their ground, his bended horns elude;
In vain pursuing, and in vain pursu'd:

Before to farther fight he wou'd advance,
He stood considering, and survey'd his lance.
Doubts if he wielded not a wooden spear
Without a point: he look'd, the point was there.
This is my hand, and this my lance, he said;
By which so many thousand foes are dead,
O whither is their usual virtue fled!
I had it once; and the Lyrnessian wall,
And Tenedos, confess'd it in their fall.
Thy streams, Caicus, rowl'd a crimson-flood;
And Thebes ran red with her own natives' blood.
Twice Telephus employ'd their piercing steel,
To wound him first, and afterward to heal.
The vigour of this arm was never vain:
And that my wonted prowess I retain,
Witness these heaps of slaughter on the plain.
He said; and, doubtful of his former deeds,
To some new tryal of his force proceeds.
He chose Menoetes from among the rest;
At him he launch'd his spear, and pierc'd his breast:
On the hard earth the Lycian knock'd his head,
And lay supine; and forth the spirit fled.

Then thus the hero: Neither can I blame
The hand, or jav'lin; both are still the same.
The same I will employ against this foe,
And wish but with the same success to throw.
So spoke the chief; and while he spoke he threw;
The weapon with unerring fury flew,
At his left shoulder aim'd: nor entrance found;
But back, as from a rock, with swift rebound
Harmless return'd: a bloody mark appear'd,
Which with false joy the flatter'd hero chear'd.
Wound there was none; the blood that was in view,
The lance before from slain Menoetes drew.

Headlong he leaps from off his lofty car,
And in close fight on foot renews the war.
Raging with high disdain, repeats his blows;
Nor shield, nor armour can their force oppose;
Huge cantlets of his buckler strew the ground,
And no defence in his bor'd arms is found,
But on his flesh, no wound or blood is seen;
The sword it self is blunted on the skin.

This vain attempt the chief no longer bears;
But round his hollow temples and his ears
His buckler beats: the son of Neptune, stunn'd
With these repeated buffets, quits his ground;
A sickly sweat succeeds, and shades of night;
Inverted Nature swims before his sight:
Th' insulting victor presses on the more,
And treads the steps the vanquish'd trod before,
Nor rest, nor respite gives. A stone there lay
Behind his trembling foe, and stopp'd his way:
Achilles took th' advantage which he found,
O'er-turn'd, and push'd him backward on the ground,
His buckler held him under, while he press'd,
With both his knees, above his panting breast.
Unlac'd his helm: about his chin the twist
He ty'd; and soon the strangled soul dismiss'd.

With eager haste he went to strip the dead:
The vanish'd body from his arms was fled.
His sea-God sire, t' immortalize his frame,
Had turn'd it to a bird that bears his name.

A truce succeeds the labours of this day,
And arms suspended with a long delay.
While Trojan walls are kept with watch and ward;
The Greeks before their trenches mount the guard;
The feast approach'd; when to the blue-ey'd maid
His vows for Cygnus slain the victor paid,
And a white heyfer on her altar laid.
The reeking entrails on the fire they threw,
And to the Gods the grateful odour flew.
Heav'n had its part in sacrifice: the rest
Was broil'd, and roasted for the future feast.
The chief-invited guests were set around!
And hunger first asswag'd, the bowls were crown'd,
Which in deep draughts their cares, and labours drown'd.

The mellow harp did not their ears employ:
And mute was all the warlike symphony:
Discourse, the food of souls, was their delight,
And pleasing chat prolong'd the summer's night.
The subject, deeds of arms; and valour shown,
Or on the Trojan side, or on their own.
Of dangers undertaken, fame atchiev'd,
They talk'd by turns; the talk by turns reliev'd.
What things but these could fierce Achilles tell,
Or what cou'd fierce Achilles hear so well?
The last great act perform'd, of Cygnus slain,
Did most the martial audience entertain:
Wondring to find a body free by Fate
From steel; and which cou'd ev'n that steel rebate:
Amaz'd, their admiration they renew;
And scarce Pelides cou'd believe it true.

The Story of Caeneus

Then Nestor thus: what once this age has known,
In fated Cygnus, and in him alone,
These eyes have seen in Caeneus long before;
Whose body not a thousand swords cou'd bore.
Caeneus, in courage, and in strength, excell'd;
And still his Othrys with his fame is fill'd:
But what did most his martial deeds adorn
(Though since he chang'd his sex) a woman born.

A novelty so strange, and full of Fate,
His list'ning audience ask'd him to relate.
Achilles thus commends their common sute:
O father, first for prudence in repute,
Tell, with that eloquence, so much thy own,
What thou hast heard, or what of Caeneus known:
What was he, whence his change of sex begun,
What trophies, join'd in wars with thee, he won?
Who conquer'd him, and in what fatal strife
The youth, without a wound, cou'd lose his life?

Neleides then: Though tardy age, and time,
Have shrunk my sinews, and decay'd my prime;
Though much I have forgotten of my store,
Yet not exhausted, I remember more.
Of all that arms atchiev'd, or peace design'd,
That action still is fresher in my mind,
Than ought beside. If reverend age can give
To faith a sanction, in my third I live.

'Twas in my second cent'ry, I survey'd
Young Caenis, then a fair Thessalian maid:
Caenis the bright, was born to high command;
A princess, and a native of thy land,
Divine Achilles; every tongue proclaim'd
Her beauty, and her eyes all hearts inflam'd.
Peleus, thy sire, perhaps had sought her bed,
Among the rest; but he had either led
Thy mother then; or was by promise ty'd;
But she to him, and all, alike her love deny'd.

It was her fortune once to take her way
Along the sandy margin of the sea:
The Pow'r of ocean view'd her as she pass'd,
And, lov'd as soon as seen, by force embrac'd.
So Fame reports. Her virgin-treasure seiz'd,
And his new joys, the ravisher so pleas'd,
That thus, transported, to the nymph he cry'd;
Ask what thou wilt, no pray'r shall be deny'd.
This also Fame relates: the haughty fair,
Who not the rape ev'n of a God cou'd bear,
This answer, proud, return'd: To mighty wrongs
A mighty recompence, of right, belongs.
Give me no more to suffer such a shame;
But change the woman, for a better name;
One gift for all: she said; and while she spoke,
A stern, majestick, manly tone she took.
A man she was: and as the Godhead swore,
To Caeneus turn'd, who Caenis was before.

To this the lover adds, without request,
No force of steel shou'd violate his breast.
Glad of the gift, the new-made warrior goes;
And arms among the Greeks, and longs for equal foes.

The Skirmish between the Centaurs and Lapithites

Now brave Perithous, bold Ixion's son,
The love of fair Hippodame had won.
The cloud-begotten race, half men, half beast,
Invited, came to grace the nuptial feast:
In a cool cave's recess the treat was made,
Whose entrance, trees with spreading boughs o'er-shade
They sate: and summon'd by the bridegroom, came,
To mix with those, the Lapythaean name:
Nor wanted I: the roofs with joy resound:
And Hymen, Io Hymen, rung around.
Rais'd altars shone with holy fires; the bride,
Lovely her self (and lovely by her side
A bevy of bright nymphs, with sober grace),
Came glitt'ring like a star, and took her place.
Her heav'nly form beheld, all wish'd her joy;
And little wanted; but in vain, their wishes all employ.

For one, most brutal, of the brutal brood,
Or whether wine, or beauty fir'd his blood,
Or both at once, beheld with lustful eyes
The bride; at once resolv'd to make his prize.
Down went the board; and fastning on her hair,
He seiz'd with sudden force the frighted fair.
'Twas Eurytus began: his bestial kind
His crime pursu'd; and each as pleas'd his mind,
Or her, whom chance presented, took: the feast
An image of a taken town express'd.

The cave resounds with female shrieks; we rise,
Mad with revenge to make a swift reprise:
And Theseus first, What phrenzy has possess'd,
O Eurytus, he cry'd, thy brutal breast,
To wrong Perithous, and not him alone,
But while I live, two friends conjoyn'd in one?

To justifie his threat, he thrusts aside
The crowd of centaurs; and redeems the bride:
The monster nought reply'd: for words were vain,
And deeds cou'd only deeds unjust maintain;
But answers with his hand, and forward press'd,
With blows redoubled, on his face, and breast.
An ample goblet stood, of antick mold,
And rough with figures of the rising gold;
The hero snatch'd it up, and toss'd in air
Full at the front of the foul ravisher.
He falls; and falling vomits forth a flood
Of wine, and foam, and brains, and mingled blood.
Half roaring, and half neighing through the hall,
Arms, arms, the double-form'd with fury call;
To wreak their brother's death: a medley-flight
Of bowls, and jars, at first supply the fight,
Once instruments of feasts; but now of Fate;
Wine animates their rage, and arms their hate.

Bold Amycus, from the robb'd vestry brings
The chalices of Heav'n; and holy things
Of precious weight: a sconce that hung on high,
With tapers fill'd, to light the sacristy,
Torn from the cord, with his unhallow'd hand
He threw amid the Lapythaean band.
On Celadon the ruin fell; and left
His face of feature, and of form bereft:
So, when some brawny sacrificer knocks,
Before an altar led, an offer'd ox,
His eyes-balls rooted out, are thrown to ground;
His nose, dismantled, in his mouth is found;
His jaws, cheeks, front, one undistinguish'd wound.

This, Belates, th' avenger, cou'd not brook;
But, by the foot, a maple board he took;
And hurl'd at Amycus; his chin it bent
Against his chest, and down the centaur sent:
Whom sputtring bloody teeth, the second blow
Of his drawn sword, dispatch'd to shades below.

Grineus was near; and cast a furious look
On the side-altar, cens'd with sacred smoke,
And bright with flaming fires; The Gods, he cry'd,
Have with their holy trade our hands supply'd:
Why use we not their gifts? Then from the floor
An altar stone he heav'd, with all the load it bore:
Altar, and altar's freight together slew,
Where thickest throng'd the Lapythaean crew:
And, at once, Broteas and Oryus flew.
Oryus' mother, Mycale, was known
Down from her sphere to draw the lab'ring moon.

Exadius cry'd, Unpunish'd shall not go
This fact, if arms are found against the foe.
He look'd about, where on a pine were spread
The votive horns of a stag's branching head:
At Grineus these he throws; so just they fly,
That the sharp antlers stuck in either eye:
Breathless, and blind he fell; with blood besmear'd;
His eye-balls beaten out, hung dangling on his beard.
Fierce Rhoetus, from the hearth a burning brand
Selects, and whirling waves; 'till, from his hand
The fire took flame; then dash'd it from the right,
On fair Charaxus' temples, near the sight:
The whistling pest came on, and pierc'd the bone,
And caught the yellow hair, that shrivel'd while it shone.

Caught, like dry stubble fir'd; or like seerwood;
Yet from the wound ensu'd no purple flood;
But look'd a bubbling mass of frying blood.
His blazing locks sent forth a crackling sound;
And hiss'd, like red hot ir'n within the smithy drown'd.

The wounded warrior shook his flaming hair,
Then (what a team of horse could hardly rear)
He heaves the threshold stone, but could not throw;
The weight itself forbad the threaten'd blow;
Which dropping from his lifted arms, came down
Full on Cometes' head; and crush'd his crown.
Nor Rhoetus then retain'd his joy; but said,
So by their fellows may our foes be sped;
Then, with redoubled strokes he plies his head:
The burning lever not deludes his pains:
But drives the batter'd skull within the brains.

Thus flush'd, the conqueror, with force renew'd,
Evagrus, Dryas, Corythus, pursu'd:
First, Corythus, with downy cheeks, he slew;
Whose fall, when fierce Evagrus had in view,
He cry'd, What palm is from a beardless prey?
Rhoetus prevents what more he had to say;
And drove within his mouth the fi'ry death,
Which enter'd hissing in, and choak'd his breath.
At Dryas next he flew: but weary chance,
No longer wou'd the same success advance.
For while he whirl'd in fiery circles round
The brand, a sharpen'd stake strong Dryas found;
And in the shoulder's joint inflicts the wound.
The weapon stuck; which, roaring out with pain,
He drew; nor longer durst the fight maintain,
But turn'd his back, for fear; and fled amain.
With him fled Orneus, with like dread possess'd,
Thaumas, and Medon wounded in the breast;
And Mermeros, in the late race renown'd,
Now limping ran, and tardy with his wound.
Pholus, and Melaneus from fight withdrew,
And Abas maim'd, who boars encountring slew:
And Augur Asbolos, whose art in vain,
From fight dissuaded the four-footed train,
Now beat the hoof with Nessus on the plain;
But to his fellow cry'd, Be safely slow,
Thy death deferr'd is due to great Alcides' bow.

Mean-time strong Dryas urg'd his chance so well,
That Lycidas, Areos, Imbreus fell;
All, one by one, and fighting face to face:
Crenaeus fled, to fall with more disgrace:
For, fearful, while he look'd behind, he bore,
Betwixt his nose, and front, the blow before.
Amid the noise, and tumult of the fray,
Snoring, and drunk with wine, Aphidas lay.
Ev'n then the bowl within his hand he kept,
And on a bear's rough hide securely slept.
Him Phorbas with his flying dart transfix'd;
Take thy next draught, with Stygian waters mix'd,
And sleep thy fill, th' insulting victor cry'd;
Surpriz'd with death unfelt, the centaur dy'd;
The ruddy vomit, as he breath'd his soul
Repass'd his throat, and fill'd his empty bowl.

I saw Petraeus' arms employ'd around
A well-grown oak, to root it from the ground.
This way, and that, he wrench'd the fibrous bands;
The trunk was like a sappling, in his hands,
And still obey'd the bent: while thus he stood,
Perithous' dart drove on; and nail'd him to the wood;
Lycus, and Chromis fell, by him oppress'd:
Helops, and Dictis added to the rest
A nobler palm: Helops, through either ear
Transfix'd, receiv'd the penetrating spear.
This Dictis saw; and, seiz'd with sudden fright,
Leapt headlong from the hill of steepy height;
And crush'd an ash beneath, that cou'd not bear his weight.

The shatter'd tree receives his fall; and strikes,
Within his full-blown paunch, the sharpen'd spikes.
Strong Aphareus had heav'd a mighty stone,
The fragment of a rock; and wou'd have thrown;
But Theseus, with a club of harden'd oak,
The cubit-bone of the bold centaur broke;
And left him maim'd; nor seconded the stroke.
Then leapt on tall Bianor's back (who bore
No mortal burden but his own, before);
Press'd with his knees his sides; the double man,
His speed with spurs increas'd, unwilling ran.
One hand the hero fastn'd on his locks;
His other ply'd him with repeated strokes.
The club rung round his ears, and batter'd brows;
He falls; and lashing up his heels, his rider throws.

The same Herculean arms, Nedymnus wound;
And lay by him Lycotas on the ground,
And Hippasus, whose beard his breast invades;
And Ripheus, haunter of the woodl and shades:
And Thereus, us'd with mountain-bears to strive,
And from their dens to draw th' indignant beasts alive.

Demoleon cou'd not bear this hateful sight,
Or the long fortune of th' Athenian knight:
But pull'd with all his force, to disengage
From Earth a pine, the product of an age:
The root stuck fast: the broken trunk he sent
At Theseus; Theseus frustrates his intent,
And leaps aside; by Pallas warn'd, the blow
To shun (for so he said; and we believ'd it so).
Yet not in vain th' enormous weight was cast;
Which Crantor's body sunder'd at the waist:
Thy father's 'squire, Achilles, and his care;
Whom conquer'd in the Polopeian war,
Their king, his present ruin to prevent,
A pledge of peace implor'd, to Peleus sent.

Thy sire, with grieving eyes, beheld his Fate;
And cry'd, Not long, lov'd Crantor, shalt thou wait
Thy vow'd revenge. At once he said, and threw
His ashen-spear; which quiver'd, as it flew;
With all his force, and all his soul apply'd;
The sharp point enter'd in the centaur's side:
Both hands, to wrench it out, the monster join'd;
And wrench'd it out; but left the steel behind;
Stuck in his lungs it stood: inrag'd he rears
His hoofs, and down to ground thy father bears.
Thus trampled under foot, his shield defends
His head; his other hand the lance portends.
Ev'n while he lay extended on the dust,
He sped the centaur, with one single thrust.
Two more his lance before transfix'd from far;
And two, his sword had slain, in closer war.
To these was added Dorylas, who spread
A bull's two goring horns around his head.
With these he push'd; in blood already dy'd,
Him fearless, I approach'd; and thus defy'd:
Now, monster, now, by proof it shall appear,
Whether thy horns are sharper, or my spear.
At this, I threw: for want of other ward,
He lifted up his hand, his front to guard.
His hand it pass'd; and fix'd it to his brow:
Loud shouts of ours attend the lucky blow.
Him Peleus finish'd, with a second wound,
Which thro' the navel pierc'd: he reel'd around;
And dragg'd his dangling bowels on the ground.
Trod what he drag'd; and what he trod, he crush'd:
And to his mother-Earth, with empty belly, rush'd.

The Story of Cyllarus and Hylonome

Nor cou'd thy form, o Cyllarus, foreflow
Thy Fate (if form to monsters men allow):
Just bloom'd thy beard: thy beard of golden hue:
Thy locks, in golden waves, about thy shoulders flew.
Sprightly thy look: thy shapes in ev'ry part
So clean, as might instruct the sculptor's art;
As far as man extended: where began
The beast, the beast was equal to the man.
Add but a horse's head and neck; and he,
O Castor, was a courser worthy thee.
So was his back proportion'd for the seat:
So rose his brawny chest; so swiftly mov'd his feet.
Coal-black his colour, but like jett it shone;
His legs, and flowing tail were white alone.
Belov'd by many maidens of his kind;
But fair Hylonome possess'd his mind;
Hylonome, for features, and for face,
Excelling all the nymphs of double race:
Nor less her blandishments, than beauty, move;
At once both loving, and confessing love.
For him she dress'd: for him, with female care
She comb'd, and set in curls, her auburn hair.
Of roses, violets, and lillies mix'd,
And sprigs of flowing rosemary betwixt,
She form'd the chaplet, that adorn'd her front:
In waters of the Pegasaean fount,
And in the streams that from the fountain play,
She wash'd her face; and bath'd her twice a-day.
The scarf of furs, that hung below her side,
Was ermin, or the panther's spotted pride;
Spoils of no common beast: with equal flame
They lov'd: their silvan pleasures were the same:
All day they hunted: and when day expir'd,
Together to some shady cave retir'd:
Invited to the nuptials, both repair:
And, side by side, they both engage in war.

Uncertain from what hand, a flying dart
At Cyllarus was sent; which pierc'd his heart.
The jav'lin drawn from out the mortal wound,
He faints with stagg'ring steps; and seeks the ground:
The fair within her arms receiv'd his fall,
And strove his wand'ring spirits to recall:
And while her hand the streaming blood oppos'd,
Join'd face to face, his lips with hers she clos'd.
Stifled with kisses, a sweet death he dies;
She fills the fields with undistinguish'd cries;
At least her words were in her clamour drown'd;
For my stunn'd ears receiv'd no vocal sound.
In madness of her grief, she seiz'd the dart
New-drawn, and reeking from her lover's heart;
To her bare bosom the sharp point apply'd;
And wounded fell; and falling by his side,
Embrac'd him in her arms; and thus embracing dy'd.

Ev'n still methinks, I see Phaeocomes;
Strange was his habit, and as odd his dress.
Six lions' hides, with thongs together fast,
His upper part defended to his waist:
And where man ended, the continued vest,
Spread on his back, the houss and trappings of a beast.
A stump too heavy for a team to draw
(It seems a fable, tho' the fact I saw);
He threw at Pholon; the descending blow
Divides the skull, and cleaves his head in two.
The brains, from nose, and mouth, and either ear,
Came issuing out, as through a colendar
The curdled milk; or from the press the whey,
Driv'n down by weight above, is drain'd away.

But him, while stooping down to spoil the slain,
Pierc'd through the paunch, I tumbled on the plain.
Then Chthonyus, and Teleboas I slew:
A fork the former arm'd; a dart his fellow threw.
The jav'lin wounded me (behold the scar,
Then was my time to seek the Trojan war;
Then I was Hector's match in open field;
But he was then unborn; at least a child:
Now, I am nothing). I forbear to tell
By Periphantas how Pyretus fell;
The centaur by the knight: nor will I stay
On Amphix, or what deaths he dealt that day:
What honour, with a pointless lance, he won,
Stuck in the front of a four-footed man.
What fame young Macareus obtain'd in fight:
Or dwell on Nessus, now return'd from flight.
How prophet Mopsus not alone divin'd,
Whose valour equal'd his foreseeing mind.

Caeneus transform'd to an Eagle

Already Caeneus, with his conquering hand,
Had slaughter'd five the boldest of their band.
Pyrachmus, Helymus, Antimachus,
Bromus the brave, and stronger Stiphelus,
Their names I number'd, and remember well,
No trace remaining, by what wounds they fell.

Laitreus, the bulki'st of the double race,
Whom the spoil'd arms of slain Halesus grace,
In years retaining still his youthful might,
Though his black hairs were interspers'd with white,
Betwixt th' imbattled ranks began to prance,
Proud of his helm, and Macedonian lance;
And rode the ring around; that either hoast
Might hear him, while he made this empty boast:
And from a strumpet shall we suffer shame?
For Caenis still, not Caeneus, is thy name:
And still the native softness of thy kind
Prevails; and leaves the woman in thy mind;
Remember what thou wert; what price was paid
To change thy sex; to make thee not a maid:
And but a man in shew; go, card and spin;
And leave the business of the war to men.

While thus the boaster exercis'd his pride,
The fatal spear of Caeneus reach'd his side:
Just in the mixture of the kinds it ran;
Betwixt the neather beast, and upper man:
The monster mad with rage, and stung with smart,
His lance directed at the hero's heart:
It struck; but bounded from his harden'd breast,
Like hail from tiles, which the safe house invest.
Nor seem'd the stroke with more effect to come,
Than a small pebble falling on a drum.
He next his fauchion try'd, in closer fight;
But the keen fauchion had no pow'r to bite.
He thrust; the blunted point return'd again:
Since downright blows, he cry'd, and thrusts are vain,
I'll prove his side; in strong embraces held
He prov'd his side; his side the sword repell'd:
His hollow belly eccho'd to the stroke,
Untouch'd his body, as a solid rock;
Aim'd at his neck at last, the blade in shivers broke.

Th' impassive knight stood idle, to deride
His rage, and offer'd oft his naked side;
At length, Now monster, in thy turn, he cry'd,
Try thou the strength of Caeneus: at the word
He thrust; and in his shoulder plung'd the sword.
Then writh'd his hand; and as he drove it down,
Deep in his breast, made many wounds in one.

The centaurs saw, inrag'd, th' unhop'd success;
And rushing on in crowds, together press;
At him, and him alone, their darts they threw:
Repuls'd they from his fated body flew.
Amaz'd they stood; 'till Monichus began,
O shame, a nation conquer'd by a man!
A woman-man! yet more a man is he,
Than all our race; and what he was, are we.
Now, what avail our nerves? th' united force,
Of two the strongest