classes ::: mental, class, map,
children :::
branches ::: concepts, Key Concepts

bookmarks: Instances - Definitions - Quotes - Chapters - Wordnet - Webgen


object:concepts
link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_philosophical_concepts

--- SELECTIONS BY SUBJECT
  Integral Yoga ::: the Psychic Being, Trimarga, Individualization, the triple transformation, Involution, Evolution
  Integral Theory ::: AQAL - the Four Quadrants, Levels, Lines, States, Types; IMP;
  Philosophy ::: episteme - knowledge through logic?; gnosis - knowledge through experience?
  Psychology ::: Differentiation
  Hinduism + Yoga ::: Bhahman, Karma, the gunas, a solid 100+ sanskrit terms : Svaraj, Samrajya, Guru
  Buddhism ::: Buddha, Enlightenment, Dharma, Indra's Net
  Tibetan Buddhism ::: Pointing-Out instructions, Lojong, Guru Yoga, Dream Yoga
  Zen ::: Original Face, Koans,
  Christianity ::: God, Apotheosis, Kenosis, sin, evil, the Devil, dark night, temptation, humility, repentance, attonement, Salvation, Jesus, The Trinity, Ophanim, practices -- confession, communion
  Occultism / Magick ::: the magical Oath, magical ritual, The Cup, The Wand, HGA
  Unsorted :::
  Multiple ::: concentration,

--- QUESTIONS
  the difference between, concepts, topics, ideas, subjects, and words?
  what are concepts?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Concepts_in_the_philosophy_of_science

--- ALL
  Philosophy
    A priori and a posteriori, Absolute, Absolute time and space, Abstract and concrete, Adiaphora, Aesthetic emotions, Aesthetic interpretation, Agathusia and aschimothusia, Alief, All men are created equal,
    Analytic-synthetic distinction, Anthropic principle, Antinomy, Antinomian, Apeiron, Arborescent, Artha, Art manifesto, Atman, Aufheben, Autonomy, Avant-garde, Avatar, Avadhuta,
    Beauty, Being, Belief, Binary opposition, Biofact, Body without organs, Boredom, Brahman, Brahmanda, Brain in a vat, Brute fact,
    Cambridge change, Camp, Cartesian Other, Cartesian Self, Categorical imperative, Categorization, Category of being, Causal adequacy principle, Causality, Chakra, Charvaka, Chaitanya, Choice, Civic virtue,
    Class consciousness, Class, Cogito ergo sum, Cognitive bias, Cognitive closure, Commensurability, Common good, Common sense, Composition of Causes, Compossibility, Conatus, Concept, Condition of possibility,
    Conjecture, Conscience, Consent, Construct, Creativity, Crazy wisdom, Cultural hegemony, Cultural sensibility, Cuteness,
    Daimonic, Darshana, De dicto and de re, Definition, Descriptive knowledge, Desiring-production, Dharma, Dhyana, Diksha, Disciplinary institution, Discourse, Disgust, Dispositional and occurrent belief,
    Distri butive justice, Distrust, Documentality, Dogma, Duty, Dwelling,
    Ecotechnics, Ecstasy, Efficient cause, Elegance, Embodied cognition, Emergence, Empirical method, Empirical relationship, Empirical research, Entertainment, Entity, Epistemic injustice, Epistemic virtue, Epoch,
    Eroticism, Essence, Eternity, Ethics of care, Eudaimonia, Eupraxis, Excellence, Existence, Existential phenomenology, Experience,
    Fact, Fidelity, Final anthropic principle, Final cause, Formal cause, Formal theorem, Four causes, Free will, Friendship,
    Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, Gettier problem, Cooperative principle (Gricean maxims),
    Half-truth, Happiness, Harmony, Hate speech, Here is a hand, Heteronomy, History and Class Consciousness, Human rights,
    Idea, Ideal (ethics), Ideal speech situation, Identity, Ideological repression, Ideology, Ignoramus et ignorabimus, Ignorance, I know that I know nothing, Immanence, Immanent critique,
    Implicate and explicate order according to David Bohm, Infallibility, Inference, Infinity, Information, Injustice, Innocence, Instantiation principle, Institutional cruelty, Intellectual responsibility, Intention, Integral yoga, Integral philosophy, Interpellation, Intrinsic and extrinsic properties, Intuition, Ius indigenatus, Involution,
    Judgement, Jus sanguinis, Jus soli, Just War, Justice,
    Kathekon, KK thesis, Knowledge, Kundalini energy, Kaula, Kalachakra, Kala, Karma, Karma yoga,
    Lacit, Last man, League of peace, Logic, Life imitating art, Logical consequence, Logical constant, Logical form, Logical truth, Logos, Love, Loyalty,
    Magnificence, Mansion of Many Apartments, Mantra, Marx's theory of alienation, Marx's theory of human nature, Master-slave dialectic, Material cause, Matter, Max Scheler's Concept of Ressentiment, Maya, Meaning, Meaning of life, Mental representation, Mercy, Mimesis, Mind, Minority, Moksha, Molyneux's Problem, Moral responsibility, Motion, Mundane reason,
    Name, Nation, Natural and legal rights, Nature, Necessary and sufficient condition, Negative capability, Nonmaleficence, Norm of reciprocity, Norm, Normative science, Notion,
    Object, Objectivity, Om, Omphalos hypothesis, Ontology,
    Panopticon, Paradox, Passions, Pattern, Peace, Percept, Perception, Peripatetic axiom, Perpetual peace, Philosophical analysis, Philosophy of futility, Physical body, Physis, Pneuma, Political consciousness, Polychotomous key, Possible world, Posthegemony, Prakriti, Purusha, Pratyabhijna, Presupposition, Primum non nocere, Principle, Principle of double effect, Problem of induction, Problem of other minds, Prohairesis, Property, Propositional attitude,
    Qualia, Quality, Quantity,
    Rasa, Rationality, Real freedom, Reason, Reciprocity, Reference, Reform, Regress argument, Rajas, Raja yoga, Ren, Right to exist, Righteousness, Rights, Ring of Gyges, Rule of Rescue,
    Satchidananda, Sattva, Sahaja, Samarasa, Satori, Sea of Beauty, Self, Self-realization, Semantics, Sense data, Set, Shabda, Shakti, Sunyata, Slippery slope, Simulacrum, Simulated reality, Simulation hypothesis, Sittlichkeit, Social contract, Society, Soku hi, Sortal, Speculative reason, State of nature, Style, Subject, Sublime, Substance theory, Substantial form, Substitution, Suffering, Supermind, Superrationality, Symbol, Syntax,
    Taste, Tantra, Telos, The Golden Rule, The saying and the said, Theorem, Theory of justification, Thought, Thrownness, Thumos, Tamas, Ti, Time, Trailokya (Triloka), Transcendent, Transcendental apperception, Transworld identity, Trika, Triratna, Trilok (Jainism), Trust, Truth, Truth value, Type,
    bermensch, Unity of science, Unity of the proposition, Universal, Universality, Unobservable, Utility,
    Validity, Value, Vamachara, Vajrayana, Virtual, Virtue,
    Well-founded phenomenon, Work of art, Wrong, Yi, Yoga, Yidam, Zeitgeist

--- CHRISTIANITY
    Wikipedia
      God (Trinity, Father, Son, Holy Spirit), Christology, Nicene Creed, Tradition, Original sin, Salvation, Born again, Worship, Mariology (Theotokos), Saints,
      Ecclesiology (Four marks, Body of Christ, One true church, People of God, Canon law), Sacraments (Baptism, Lord's Supper, Marriage, Confirmation, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy orders), Mission

  --- BUDDHISM
    Wikipedia
      Four Noble Truths, Noble Eightfold Path (Dharma wheel), Five Aggregates, Impermanence, Suffering, Not-self, Dependent Origination, Middle Way, Emptiness, Morality, Karma, Rebirth, Samsra, Cosmology
    Buddhist concepts --- https://www.sgi.org/about-us/buddhist-concepts/
      Attachments and Liberation, Bodhisattva, Buddhism and Human Dignity, Changing Poison into Medicine, Compassion, Courage, Creating Value
      Dialogue in Buddhism, Discussion Meetings, Enlightenment of Women, Gratitude, Human Revolution, Life and Death
      Meaning of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, Middle Way, Observing the Precepts, Oneness of Life and Its Environment, Oneness of Mentor and Disciple
      Practice for Oneself and Others, Rissho AnkokuSecuring Peace for the People, Shakubuku: Enabling People to Reveal Their True Potential, Simultaneity of Cause and Effect
      Ten Factors of Life, Ten Worlds, Three Thousand Realms in a Single Moment of Life, Treasure Tower, Who is a Buddha?, Win or Lose, Wisdom, Youthfulness
    Buddhist concepts - https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/Category:Dharma_Wiki
      Abhidharma, Mahayana Agamas, Mahayana Teachers, Mahayana temples
      Tibetan Canon, Vajrayana Teachers, Vajrayana temples, Zen Teachers
      10 bodhisattva bhumis, 3 vows (Mahayana), 4 Dharma Seals, 4 opponent powers (Vajrayana), 4 ways to divide the bodies of Buddha,
      5 paths or stages (Vajrayana), 6 paramitas (Mahayana), 9 points unifying Theravada and Mahayana,
      Abhidharmakosha, Abhisheka, Alaya-vijnana, Amitabha Buddha, Archery & kyudo, Avalokitesvara,
      B. Alan Wallace, Bardo, Bhumi, Bodhichitta, Bodhisattva, Bon, Buddha nature, Buddhism, Chan Buddhism, Chenrezig,
      D-Chess, Dakini, Damaru, Dharma Paths, Dharma Paths (forum), Dharma Wheel, Dharma Wheel Engaged, Dharmakaya, Dharmapala, Dhyana, Dorje,
      Gelug, Genyen, Geshe, Jenang,
      Kadam, Kagyu, Kaliyuga, Kalpa of continuance, Kalpa of destruction, Kalpa of formation, Kangyur, Kensho, Khata, Koan, Kwan Um School of Zen, Kwan Yin, Kyudo Zen Archery 1, Kyudo Zen Archery 2,
      Lam Rim, Lama, Lojong, Lung,
      Madhyamika, Madhyamika Svatantrika, Mahakaruna, Mahayana, Main Page, Maitri, Mala (rosary), Mandala, Mantra, Medicine Buddha, Metteyya, Mount Potala, Mudra,
      Ngondro, Nichiren Buddhism, Nirmanakaya, Nyingma, Obaku Zen, Original Buddhism, Pandit, Pecha, Prajnaparamita, Puja, Pure Land,
      Rime, Rinzai Zen, Rupakaya, Sakya school, Sambhogakaya, Samprajanya, Satori, Seon, Shantideva, Shooting sport, Shravaka, Shunyata, Soto Zen, Sutrayana,
      Tara, Tengyur, Thangka, The Zen of Chess, The Zen of Golf, The Zen of stairclimbing, Timeline of Buddhism, Tonglen, Torma, Trikaya,
      Upaya, Vajra, Vajrayana, Yidam, Yogachara, Zen

  --- OCCULTISM
    Wikipedia --- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_occult_terms
      Abbey of Thelema, Abramelin oil, Acupuncture, Adept, Aether, Akashic Records, Alchemy, Alphabet of Desire, Ankh, Animism, Amulet, Anthroposophy, Apparitions, Argenteum Astrum, Ariosophy, Asatru, Ascended master, Astral projection, Astrological age, Astrological aspect, Astrology, Astrology and alchemy, Astrology and the classical elements, Astrology and numerology, Athame, Aura, Augury, Automatic writing,
      Banishing, Baphomet, Bibliomancy, Biosophy, Black magic, Black Sun, Body of light, Boline, Bon,
      Candombl, Cartomancy, Ceremonial magic, Chalice, Chaos magic, Charmstone, Chinese astrology, Christianity, Clairaudience, Clairsentience, Clairvoyance, Classical element, Cleromancy, Collective unconscious, Colour therapy, Cone of power, Conjuration, Coven, Cross of Saint Peter, Crystals, Crystal gazing, Curse, Curse tablet,
      Da'at, Damballa, Demonology, Divination, Dowsing, Druid,
      Ectoplasm, Eight-circuit model of consciousness, Elemental, Enchanting, Enochian, E.S.P., Esoteric Christianity, Esoteric cosmology, Esotericism, Evocation, Exorcism,
      Fama Fraternitatis, Familiar spirit, Feng shui, Feri Tradition, Folk religion, Fortune-telling,
      Galdr, Gematria, Geomancy, Geomantic figures, Gnosis, Gnosis (chaos magic), Goetia, Gray magic, Greater and lesser magic, Grimoire,
      Hadit, Haitian Vodou, Haruspex, Hermeticism, Hexagram, Hex, Holy Guardian Angel, Homunculus, Hoodoo, Huna, Human sacrifice,
      I Ching, Initiation, Incantation, Invocation,
      Juju,
      Kabbalah, Kemetism, Kia (magic), Kumina, Kundalini energy,
      Law of contagion, Left-hand path and right-hand path, Legendary creature, Lesser ritual of the pentagram, List of occultists, List of occult symbols, List of occult writers, Literomancy, Lithomancy, Louisiana Voodoo, Lucifer,
      Magic (paranormal), Magic circle, Magic word, Magical formula, Magick (Thelema), Maleficium (sorcery), Mathers table, Mediumship, Merkabah mysticism, Mesmerism, Methods of divination, Midrash, Mojo, Mystery religion, Mysticism, Myth and ritual,
      Nagual, Necromancy, Necronomicon, Neodruidism, Neopaganism, Neoplatonism, Neotantra, Nephilim, New Age, New Thought, Nosferatu, Nuit, Numerology,
      Obeah, Obeah and Wanga, Occultism, Omen, Oracle, Ouija,
      Paganism, Palmistry, Pentacle, Penuel, Planetary hours, Poppet, Power Animal, Pow-wow (folk magic), Psionics, Psychic, Psychonautics, Pyramid power,
      Qabalah, Qi, Quantum mysticism, Quareia, Quimbanda,
      Reality hacking, Reiki, Reincarnation, Resurrection, Rhabdomancy, Ritual, Rosicrucianism, Runecasting,
      Sacrifice, Santera, Satan, Satanism, Scrying, Sance, Secret Chiefs, Seidr, Seven Rays, Servitor (chaos magic), Sex magic, Shamanism, Sigil, Sigil of Baphomet, Sigillum Dei, Sorcery, Spell, Stregheria, Synchromysticism,
      Table of correspondences, Talisman, Tantra, Tarot divination, Thaumaturgy, Thelema, Thelemic mysticism, Theosophy, Therianthropy, Theurgy, Trance, Transfiguration, Transmutation, True Will, Typhonian,
      Ukehi, Veve, Vodun, Vampires, Voodoo, Voodoo doll, Wand, West African Vodun, Wicca, Witchcraft, Ya sang, Zos Kia Cultu

    Thelema --- http://www.thelemapedia.org/index.php/Concepts_in_Thelema
      93
      Abrahadabra
      Aeons
      Aeon of Horus
      Agape
      Body of Light
      City of the Pyramids
      Great Work
      Holy Books of Thelema
      Holy Guardian Angel
      Keys of the Law
      Lust of Result
      Magick
      Night of Pan
      Numbers in Thelema
      Phallus
      Saying Will
      Secret Chiefs
      Stele of Revealing
      True Will
      Yoni


--- CONCEPTS
  the Real-Idea, theories, categorization

--- NOTES
  concepts
    in philosophy, integral theory, occultism, Integral Yoga
    in Computer Science


--- QUOTES

Those who really want to be yogis must give up, once for all, this nibbling at things.
Take up one idea. Make that one idea your life - think of it, dream of it, live on that idea.
Let the brain, muscles, nerves, every part of your body, be full of that idea, and just leave every other idea alone.
This is the way to success and this is the way great spiritual giants are produced. Others are mere talking-machines.
If we really want to be blessed and make others blessed, we must go deeper.
~ Swami Vivekananda, Raja-Yoga, Pratyahara and Dharana, 73


--- FOOTER
class:mental
class:class
class:map




see also ::: ein, dictionaries, themes
see also ::: topics, anew book







see also ::: anew_book, dictionaries, ein, themes, topics

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contact me @ integralyogin@gmail.com or
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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
addiction
attributes
autopoiesis
class
class
dark_night
difficulties
elements_in_the_yoga
ether
Evil
Evolution
formula
God
grade
Guru
Henosis
holon
Honesty
identity
Ignorance
Individualization
Indras_Net
injunctions
Involution
Karma
knowledge
level
Level_10_Attributes
Life_as_an_RPG
Lojong
mystery
nouns
planes
Pointing-out_instructions
potential
preferences
principle
process
Psychic_Being
range
Real-Idea
rules
sequence
shastra
siddhis
Sin_(quotes)
space
structure
survey
The_Future
the_Future
the_Individual
the_source_of_inspirations
the_Temple_of_Remembrance
the_Universe
Theurgy
the_Way
Time
value
verbs
VET
SEE ALSO

anew_book
dictionaries
ein
themes
topics

AUTH

BOOKS
A_Brief_History_of_Everything
City_of_God
Enchiridion_text
Evolution_II
Faust
Full_Circle
General_Principles_of_Kabbalah
Heart_of_Matter
josh_books
Know_Yourself
Kosmic_Consciousness
Let_Me_Explain
Liber_157_-_The_Tao_Teh_King
Life_without_Death
Modern_Man_in_Search_of_a_Soul
My_Burning_Heart
On_Interpretation
Poetics
Process_and_Reality
Questions_And_Answers_1953
Savitri
Sayings_of_Sri_Ramakrishna_(toc)
Sex_Ecology_Spirituality
Spiral_Dynamics
Synergetics_-_Explorations_in_the_Geometry_of_Thinking
The_Act_of_Creation
The_Archetypes_and_the_Collective_Unconscious
the_Book
The_Book_of_Miracle
The_Diamond_Sutra
The_Divine_Companion
The_Divine_Milieu
The_Essential_Songs_of_Milarepa
The_Ever-Present_Origin
The_Golden_Bough
The_Lotus_Sutra
The_Red_Book_-_Liber_Novus
The_Republic
The_Science_of_Knowing
The_Seals_of_Wisdom
The_Secret_Doctrine
The_Self-Organizing_Universe
The_Study_and_Practice_of_Yoga
The_Sweet_Dews_of_Chan_Zen
The_Use_and_Abuse_of_History
The_Wit_and_Wisdom_of_Alfred_North_Whitehead
The_Yoga_Sutras
Toward_the_Future
Twilight_of_the_Idols

IN CHAPTERS TITLE
00.05_-_A_Vedic_Conception_of_the_Poet
03.05_-_Some_Conceptions_and_Misconceptions
1.02_-_The_Concept_of_the_Collective_Unconscious
1.032_-_Our_Concept_of_God
1.03_-_Concerning_the_Archetypes,_with_Special_Reference_to_the_Anima_Concept
1956-04-25_-_God,_human_conception_and_the_true_Divine_-_Earthly_existence,_to_realise_the_Divine_-_Ananda,_divine_pleasure_-_Relations_with_the_divine_Presence_-_Asking_the_Divine_for_what_one_needs_-_Allowing_the_Divine_to_lead_one
2.01_-_On_the_Concept_of_the_Archetype
5.02_-_Against_Teleological_Concept

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
0_0.01_-_Introduction
00.03_-_Upanishadic_Symbolism
00.04_-_The_Beautiful_in_the_Upanishads
00.05_-_A_Vedic_Conception_of_the_Poet
0.00a_-_Introduction
000_-_Humans_in_Universe
0.00_-_INTRODUCTION
0.00_-_The_Book_of_Lies_Text
0.00_-_The_Wellspring_of_Reality
0.02_-_The_Three_Steps_of_Nature
0.04_-_The_Systems_of_Yoga
0.05_-_Letters_to_a_Child
0.05_-_The_Synthesis_of_the_Systems
0.06_-_INTRODUCTION
0.08_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Captain
0.09_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Teacher
01.01_-_A_Yoga_of_the_Art_of_Life
01.01_-_Sri_Aurobindo_-_The_Age_of_Sri_Aurobindo
01.01_-_The_One_Thing_Needful
01.02_-_Sri_Aurobindo_-_Ahana_and_Other_Poems
01.02_-_The_Creative_Soul
01.03_-_The_Yoga_of_the_King_-_The_Yoga_of_the_Souls_Release
01.04_-_Sri_Aurobindos_Gita
01.04_-_The_Intuition_of_the_Age
01.04_-_The_Poetry_in_the_Making
01.06_-_On_Communism
01.07_-_Blaise_Pascal_(1623-1662)
01.08_-_Walter_Hilton:_The_Scale_of_Perfection
01.09_-_William_Blake:_The_Marriage_of_Heaven_and_Hell
0.10_-_Letters_to_a_Young_Captain
01.10_-_Nicholas_Berdyaev:_God_Made_Human
01.12_-_Goethe
01.12_-_Three_Degrees_of_Social_Organisation
0.11_-_Letters_to_a_Sadhak
0_1957-12-21
0_1958-06-06_-_Supramental_Ship
0_1958-11-04_-_Myths_are_True_and_Gods_exist_-_mental_formation_and_occult_faculties_-_exteriorization_-_work_in_dreams
0_1959-10-06_-_Sri_Aurobindos_abode
0_1960-05-24_-_supramental_flood
0_1960-09-20
0_1960-11-15
0_1961-01-17
0_1961-02-11
0_1961-03-17
0_1961-03-27
0_1961-04-15
0_1961-04-18
0_1961-05-19
0_1961-08-02
0_1961-08-08
0_1961-12-16
0_1961-12-20
0_1962-05-15
0_1962-07-25
0_1962-10-06
0_1963-02-15
0_1963-02-19
0_1963-02-23
0_1963-03-06
0_1963-03-16
0_1963-06-15
0_1963-08-03
0_1963-09-28
0_1963-11-04
0_1964-01-04
0_1964-03-25
0_1964-07-18
0_1964-08-11
0_1964-08-15
0_1964-10-07
0_1964-10-10
0_1964-10-30
0_1964-11-12
0_1964-11-28
0_1965-01-09
0_1965-02-19
0_1965-03-10
0_1965-03-20
0_1965-05-19
0_1965-06-26
0_1966-01-26
0_1966-04-27
0_1966-05-14
0_1966-07-09
0_1966-10-08
0_1966-11-09
0_1967-03-22
0_1967-04-15
0_1967-04-19
0_1967-05-03
0_1967-05-06
0_1967-06-14
0_1967-07-05
0_1967-07-29
0_1967-08-12
0_1967-08-19
0_1967-09-13
0_1967-09-30
0_1967-11-22
0_1967-12-27
0_1967-12-30
0_1968-02-17
0_1968-03-13
0_1968-03-16
0_1968-05-04
0_1968-05-22
0_1968-08-28
0_1968-09-11
0_1968-09-25
0_1968-11-09
0_1968-12-25
0_1969-01-01
0_1969-01-15
0_1969-02-05
0_1969-05-28
0_1969-09-20
0_1969-12-13
0_1969-12-27
0_1970-02-07
0_1970-04-18
0_1970-05-13
0_1970-05-30
0_1970-07-04
0_1970-07-22
0_1970-07-25
0_1971-04-17
0_1971-07-17
0_1972-01-12
0_1972-05-06
0_1972-06-24
0_1972-07-19
0_1972-07-22
0_1973-02-18
02.02_-_Lines_of_the_Descent_of_Consciousness
02.03_-_An_Aspect_of_Emergent_Evolution
02.05_-_Federated_Humanity
02.06_-_Vansittartism
02.10_-_The_Kingdoms_and_Godheads_of_the_Little_Mind
02.11_-_The_Kingdoms_and_Godheads_of_the_Greater_Mind
02.12_-_Mysticism_in_Bengali_Poetry
02.12_-_The_Ideals_of_Human_Unity
02.13_-_On_Social_Reconstruction
03.01_-_Humanism_and_Humanism
03.02_-_The_Philosopher_as_an_Artist_and_Philosophy_as_an_Art
03.03_-_A_Stainless_Steel_Frame
03.03_-_Modernism_-_An_Oriental_Interpretation
03.04_-_The_Body_Human
03.04_-_The_Other_Aspect_of_European_Culture
03.04_-_The_Vision_and_the_Boon
03.04_-_Towardsa_New_Ideology
03.05_-_Some_Conceptions_and_Misconceptions
03.05_-_The_World_is_One
03.06_-_Divine_Humanism
03.06_-_Here_or_Otherwhere
03.08_-_The_Standpoint_of_Indian_Art
03.09_-_Buddhism_and_Hinduism
04.03_-_The_Eternal_East_and_West
04.08_-_An_Evolutionary_Problem
05.02_-_Gods_Labour
05.03_-_Bypaths_of_Souls_Journey
05.04_-_The_Measure_of_Time
05.05_-_In_Quest_of_Reality
05.05_-_Man_the_Prototype
05.06_-_Physics_or_philosophy
05.08_-_An_Age_of_Revolution
05.09_-_Varieties_of_Religious_Experience
05.11_-_The_Place_of_Reason
05.12_-_The_Soul_and_its_Journey
05.13_-_Darshana_and_Philosophy
05.14_-_The_Sanctity_of_the_Individual
05.15_-_Sartrian_Freedom
05.17_-_Evolution_or_Special_Creation
05.18_-_Man_to_be_Surpassed
05.31_-_Divine_Intervention
06.09_-_How_to_Wait
06.13_-_Body,_the_Occult_Agent
07.06_-_Nirvana_and_the_Discovery_of_the_All-Negating_Absolute
07.08_-_The_Divine_Truth_Its_Name_and_Form
07.25_-_Prayer_and_Aspiration
08.13_-_Thought_and_Imagination
08.15_-_Divine_Living
08.28_-_Prayer_and_Aspiration
09.01_-_Prayer_and_Aspiration
09.06_-_How_Can_Time_Be_a_Friend?
09.11_-_The_Supramental_Manifestation_and_World_Change
100.00_-_Synergy
1.001_-_The_Aim_of_Yoga
10.02_-_The_Gospel_of_Death_and_Vanity_of_the_Ideal
10.04_-_Transfiguration
10.06_-_Beyond_the_Dualities
1.009_-_Perception_and_Reality
1.00b_-_INTRODUCTION
1.00b_-_Introduction
1.00c_-_DIVISION_C_-_THE_ETHERIC_BODY_AND_PRANA
1.00e_-_DIVISION_E_-_MOTION_ON_THE_PHYSICAL_AND_ASTRAL_PLANES
1.00_-_Main
1.00_-_PREFACE_-_DESCENSUS_AD_INFERNOS
1.00_-_Preliminary_Remarks
1.00_-_The_way_of_what_is_to_come
1.013_-_Defence_Mechanisms_of_the_Mind
1.01_-_Adam_Kadmon_and_the_Evolution
1.01_-_Archetypes_of_the_Collective_Unconscious
1.01_-_BOOK_THE_FIRST
1.01_-_Description_of_the_Castle
1.01_-_Foreward
1.01_-_Fundamental_Considerations
1.01_-_Historical_Survey
1.01_-_How_is_Knowledge_Of_The_Higher_Worlds_Attained?
1.01_-_'Imitation'_the_common_principle_of_the_Arts_of_Poetry.
1.01_-_Isha_Upanishad
1.01_-_MAPS_OF_EXPERIENCE_-_OBJECT_AND_MEANING
1.01_-_MASTER_AND_DISCIPLE
1.01_-_Newtonian_and_Bergsonian_Time
1.01_-_On_renunciation_of_the_world
1.01_-_Our_Demand_and_Need_from_the_Gita
1.01_-_Principles_of_Practical_Psycho_therapy
1.01_-_Soul_and_God
1.01_-_Tara_the_Divine
1.01_-_THAT_ARE_THOU
1.01_-_the_Call_to_Adventure
1.01_-_The_Ego
1.01_-_The_Four_Aids
1.01_-_The_Highest_Meaning_of_the_Holy_Truths
1.01_-_The_Science_of_Living
1.01_-_What_is_Magick?
1.01_-_Who_is_Tara
1.02.2.1_-_Brahman_-_Oneness_of_God_and_the_World
1.02.3.1_-_The_Lord
1.02.3.2_-_Knowledge_and_Ignorance
1.02.3.3_-_Birth_and_Non-Birth
1.02.4.1_-_The_Worlds_-_Surya
1.024_-_Affiliation_With_Larger_Wholes
10.24_-_Savitri
1.025_-_Sadhana_-_Intensifying_a_Lighted_Flame
1.02_-_In_the_Beginning
1.02_-_Isha_Analysis
1.02_-_MAPS_OF_MEANING_-_THREE_LEVELS_OF_ANALYSIS
1.02_-_Meditating_on_Tara
1.02_-_Prayer_of_Parashara_to_Vishnu
1.02_-_Priestly_Kings
1.02_-_Self-Consecration
1.02_-_Skillful_Means
1.02_-_Taras_Tantra
1.02_-_The_7_Habits__An_Overview
1.02_-_The_Age_of_Individualism_and_Reason
1.02_-_The_Child_as_growing_being_and_the_childs_experience_of_encountering_the_teacher.
1.02_-_The_Concept_of_the_Collective_Unconscious
1.02_-_The_Development_of_Sri_Aurobindos_Thought
1.02_-_The_Divine_Teacher
1.02_-_The_Eternal_Law
1.02_-_The_Magic_Circle
1.02_-_THE_NATURE_OF_THE_GROUND
1.02_-_The_Philosophy_of_Ishvara
1.02_-_The_Pit
1.02_-_The_Principle_of_Fire
1.02_-_The_Stages_of_Initiation
1.02_-_The_Three_European_Worlds
1.02_-_The_Two_Negations_1_-_The_Materialist_Denial
1.02_-_The_Vision_of_the_Past
1.02_-_THE_WITHIN_OF_THINGS
1.02_-_Where_I_Lived,_and_What_I_Lived_For
1.031_-_Intense_Aspiration
1.032_-_Our_Concept_of_God
1.035_-_The_Recitation_of_Mantra
10.37_-_The_Golden_Bridge
1.03_-_APPRENTICESHIP_AND_ENCULTURATION_-_ADOPTION_OF_A_SHARED_MAP
1.03_-_A_Sapphire_Tale
1.03_-_Bloodstream_Sermon
1.03_-_Concerning_the_Archetypes,_with_Special_Reference_to_the_Anima_Concept
1.03_-_.REASON._IN_PHILOSOPHY
1.03_-_Some_Aspects_of_Modern_Psycho_therapy
1.03_-_Some_Practical_Aspects
1.03_-_Spiritual_Realisation,_The_aim_of_Bhakti-Yoga
1.03_-_Sympathetic_Magic
1.03_-_Tara,_Liberator_from_the_Eight_Dangers
1.03_-_The_Coming_of_the_Subjective_Age
1.03_-_THE_GRAND_OPTION
1.03_-_The_House_Of_The_Lord
1.03_-_The_Human_Disciple
1.03_-_THE_ORPHAN,_THE_WIDOW,_AND_THE_MOON
1.03_-_The_Sephiros
1.03_-_The_Syzygy_-_Anima_and_Animus
1.03_-_The_Two_Negations_2_-_The_Refusal_of_the_Ascetic
1.03_-_To_Layman_Ishii
1.040_-_Re-Educating_the_Mind
1.045_-_Piercing_the_Structure_of_the_Object
1.04_-_Body,_Soul_and_Spirit
1.04_-_Descent_into_Future_Hell
1.04_-_KAI_VALYA_PADA
1.04_-_Magic_and_Religion
1.04_-_ON_THE_DESPISERS_OF_THE_BODY
1.04_-_Reality_Omnipresent
1.04_-_Religion_and_Occultism
1.04_-_SOME_REFLECTIONS_ON_PROGRESS
1.04_-_The_Aims_of_Psycho_therapy
1.04_-_THE_APPEARANCE_OF_ANOMALY_-_CHALLENGE_TO_THE_SHARED_MAP
1.04_-_The_Core_of_the_Teaching
1.04_-_The_Discovery_of_the_Nation-Soul
1.04_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda
1.04_-_The_Paths
1.04_-_The_Sacrifice_the_Triune_Path_and_the_Lord_of_the_Sacrifice
1.04_-_The_Self
1.04_-_Wake-Up_Sermon
1.04_-_Wherefore_of_World?
1.04_-_Yoga_and_Human_Evolution
1.052_-_Yoga_Practice_-_A_Series_of_Positive_Steps
1.056_-_Lack_of_Knowledge_is_the_Cause_of_Suffering
1.057_-_The_Four_Manifestations_of_Ignorance
1.05_-_Adam_Kadmon
1.05_-_Christ,_A_Symbol_of_the_Self
1.05_-_Hsueh_Feng's_Grain_of_Rice
1.05_-_Knowledge_by_Aquaintance_and_Knowledge_by_Description
1.05_-_Problems_of_Modern_Psycho_therapy
1.05_-_Ritam
1.05_-_Some_Results_of_Initiation
1.05_-_The_Activation_of_Human_Energy
1.05_-_The_Creative_Principle
1.05_-_The_Destiny_of_the_Individual
1.05_-_THE_HOSTILE_BROTHERS_-_ARCHETYPES_OF_RESPONSE_TO_THE_UNKNOWN
1.05_-_THE_NEW_SPIRIT
1.05_-_War_And_Politics
1.06_-_Agni_and_the_Truth
1.06_-_Being_Human_and_the_Copernican_Principle
1.06_-_Dhyana
1.06_-_Incarnate_Teachers_and_Incarnation
1.06_-_LIFE_AND_THE_PLANETS
1.06_-_Magicians_as_Kings
1.06_-_Man_in_the_Universe
1.06_-_Psycho_therapy_and_a_Philosophy_of_Life
1.06_-_The_Desire_to_be
1.06_-_THE_FOUR_GREAT_ERRORS
1.06_-_The_Literal_Qabalah
1.06_-_The_Objective_and_Subjective_Views_of_Life
1.06_-_The_Sign_of_the_Fishes
1.06_-_The_Transformation_of_Dream_Life
1.06_-_Wealth_and_Government
1.06_-_Yun_Men's_Every_Day_is_a_Good_Day
1.07_-_A_Song_of_Longing_for_Tara,_the_Infallible
1.07_-_Bridge_across_the_Afterlife
1.07_-_Cybernetics_and_Psychopathology
1.07_-_Incarnate_Human_Gods
1.07_-_Medicine_and_Psycho_therapy
1.07_-_Samadhi
1.07_-_Savitri
1.07_-_Standards_of_Conduct_and_Spiritual_Freedom
1.07_-_The_Continuity_of_Consciousness
1.07_-_The_Ego_and_the_Dualities
1.07_-_The_Farther_Reaches_of_Human_Nature
1.07_-_THE_GREAT_EVENT_FORESHADOWED_-_THE_PLANETIZATION_OF_MANKIND
1.07_-_THE_.IMPROVERS._OF_MANKIND
1.07_-_The_Literal_Qabalah_(continued)
1.07_-_The_Primary_Data_of_Being
1.07_-_The_Three_Schools_of_Magick_2
1.07_-_TRUTH
1.083_-_Choosing_an_Object_for_Concentration
1.089_-_The_Levels_of_Concentration
1.08a_-_The_Ladder
1.08_-_Civilisation_and_Barbarism
1.08_-_Information,_Language,_and_Society
1.08_-_Psycho_therapy_Today
1.08_-_RELIGION_AND_TEMPERAMENT
1.08_-_Stead_and_the_Spirits
1.08_-_The_Depths_of_the_Divine
1.08_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.08_-_The_Methods_of_Vedantic_Knowledge
1.08_-_The_Synthesis_of_Movement
1.097_-_Sublimation_of_Object-Consciousness
1.09_-_Civilisation_and_Culture
1.09_-_Fundamental_Questions_of_Psycho_therapy
1.09_-_Man_-_About_the_Body
1.09_-_Saraswati_and_Her_Consorts
1.09_-_SKIRMISHES_IN_A_WAY_WITH_THE_AGE
1.09_-_Sri_Aurobindo_and_the_Big_Bang
1.09_-_Talks
1.09_-_Taras_Ultimate_Nature
1.09_-_The_Absolute_Manifestation
1.09_-_The_Ambivalence_of_the_Fish_Symbol
1.09_-_The_Pure_Existent
1.09_-_The_Worship_of_Trees
1.1.01_-_Seeking_the_Divine
1.1.01_-_The_Divine_and_Its_Aspects
1.1.02_-_Sachchidananda
1.1.04_-_Philosophy
11.04_-_The_Triple_Cord
1.1.05_-_The_Siddhis
11.06_-_The_Mounting_Fire
11.08_-_Body-Energy
1.10_-_Aesthetic_and_Ethical_Culture
1.10_-_Conscious_Force
1.10_-_Farinata_and_Cavalcante_de'_Cavalcanti._Discourse_on_the_Knowledge_of_the_Damned.
1.10_-_The_Absolute_of_the_Being
1.10_-_THE_FORMATION_OF_THE_NOOSPHERE
1.10_-_The_Image_of_the_Oceans_and_the_Rivers
1.10_-_Theodicy_-_Nature_Makes_No_Mistakes
1.10_-_The_Revolutionary_Yogi
1.10_-_The_Secret_of_the_Veda
1.10_-_THINGS_I_OWE_TO_THE_ANCIENTS
1.1.1.03_-_Creative_Power_and_the_Human_Instrument
11.10_-_The_Test_of_Truth
11.15_-_Sri_Aurobindo
1.11_-_Delight_of_Existence_-_The_Problem
1.11_-_FAITH_IN_MAN
1.11_-_Oneness
1.11_-_The_Kalki_Avatar
1.11_-_The_Master_of_the_Work
1.1.1_-_The_Mind_and_Other_Levels_of_Being
1.11_-_The_Seven_Rivers
1.11_-_The_Soul_or_the_Astral_Body
1.11_-_The_Three_Purushas
1.1.2_-_Commentary
1.12_-_Delight_of_Existence_-_The_Solution
1.12_-_Independence
1.1.2_-_Intellect_and_the_Intellectual
1.12_-_The_Astral_Plane
1.12_-_The_Divine_Work
1.12_-_THE_FESTIVAL_AT_PNIHTI
1.12_-_The_Herds_of_the_Dawn
1.12_-_The_Sacred_Marriage
1.12_-_The_Sociology_of_Superman
1.12_-_The_Superconscient
1.12_-_TIME_AND_ETERNITY
1.12_-_Truth_and_Knowledge
1.13_-_Dawn_and_the_Truth
1.13_-_Gnostic_Symbols_of_the_Self
1.13_-_Knowledge,_Error,_and_Probably_Opinion
1.13_-_SALVATION,_DELIVERANCE,_ENLIGHTENMENT
1.13_-_The_Divine_Maya
1.13_-_THE_HUMAN_REBOUND_OF_EVOLUTION_AND_ITS_CONSEQUENCES
1.13_-_The_Kings_of_Rome_and_Alba
1.13_-_The_Lord_of_the_Sacrifice
1.13_-_The_Supermind_and_the_Yoga_of_Works
1.14_-_IMMORTALITY_AND_SURVIVAL
1.14_-_The_Limits_of_Philosophical_Knowledge
1.14_-_The_Secret
1.14_-_The_Structure_and_Dynamics_of_the_Self
1.14_-_The_Supermind_as_Creator
1.14_-_The_Suprarational_Beauty
1.15_-_Conclusion
1.15_-_Index
1.15_-_In_the_Domain_of_the_Spirit_Beings
1.15_-_On_incorruptible_purity_and_chastity_to_which_the_corruptible_attain_by_toil_and_sweat.
1.15_-_THE_DIRECTIONS_AND_CONDITIONS_OF_THE_FUTURE
1.15_-_The_Possibility_and_Purpose_of_Avatarhood
1.15_-_The_Supramental_Consciousness
1.15_-_The_Suprarational_Good
1.15_-_The_Supreme_Truth-Consciousness
1.15_-_The_Value_of_Philosophy
1.16_-_THE_ESSENCE_OF_THE_DEMOCRATIC_IDEA
1.16_-_The_Suprarational_Ultimate_of_Life
1.17_-_DOES_MANKIND_MOVE_BIOLOGICALLY_UPON_ITSELF?
1.17_-_God
1.17_-_Legend_of_Prahlada
1.17_-_Religion_as_the_Law_of_Life
1.17_-_SUFFERING
1.17_-_The_Divine_Birth_and_Divine_Works
1.17_-_The_Divine_Soul
1.17_-_The_Transformation
1.18_-_Asceticism
1.18_-_FAITH
1.18_-_Mind_and_Supermind
1.18_-_On_insensibility,_that_is,_deadening_of_the_soul_and_the_death_of_the_mind_before_the_death_of_the_body.
1.18_-_The_Divine_Worker
1.18_-_THE_HEART_OF_THE_PROBLEM
1.18_-_The_Perils_of_the_Soul
1.19_-_Life
1.19_-_Tabooed_Acts
1.19_-_The_Curve_of_the_Rational_Age
1.19_-_The_Victory_of_the_Fathers
1.200-1.224_Talks
1.201_-_Socrates
1.2.03_-_The_Interpretation_of_Scripture
1.20_-_The_End_of_the_Curve_of_Reason
1.20_-_The_Hound_of_Heaven
1.21_-_FROM_THE_PRE-HUMAN_TO_THE_ULTRA-HUMAN,_THE_PHASES_OF_A_LIVING_PLANET
1.21_-_Tabooed_Things
1.22__-_Dominion_over_different_provinces_of_creation_assigned_to_different_beings
1.22_-_ON_THE_GIFT-GIVING_VIRTUE
1.22_-_Tabooed_Words
1.22_-_THE_END_OF_THE_SPECIES
1.22_-_The_Necessity_of_the_Spiritual_Transformation
1.23_-_Conditions_for_the_Coming_of_a_Spiritual_Age
1.23_-_Our_Debt_to_the_Savage
1.23_-_The_Double_Soul_in_Man
1.240_-_1.300_Talks
1.240_-_Talks_2
1.24_-_Matter
1.24_-_The_Killing_of_the_Divine_King
1.25_-_SPIRITUAL_EXERCISES
1.25_-_The_Knot_of_Matter
1.26_-_Continues_the_description_of_a_method_for_recollecting_the_thoughts._Describes_means_of_doing_this._This_chapter_is_very_profitable_for_those_who_are_beginning_prayer.
1.26_-_The_Ascending_Series_of_Substance
1.27_-_The_Sevenfold_Chord_of_Being
1.28_-_Need_to_Define_God,_Self,_etc.
1.28_-_Supermind,_Mind_and_the_Overmind_Maya
1.28_-_The_Killing_of_the_Tree-Spirit
1.29_-_What_is_Certainty?
1.2_-_Katha_Upanishads
1.300_-_1.400_Talks
13.02_-_A_Review_of_Sri_Aurobindos_Life
1.3.03_-_Quiet_and_Calm
13.05_-_A_Dream_Of_Surreal_Science
1.32_-_The_Ninth_Circle__Traitors._The_Frozen_Lake_of_Cocytus._First_Division,_Caina__Traitors_to_their_Kindred._Camicion_de'_Pazzi._Second_Division,_Antenora__Traitors_to_their_Country._Dante_questions_Bocca_degli
1.32_-_The_Ritual_of_Adonis
1.3.4.01_-_The_Beginning_and_the_End
1.35_-_The_Tao_2
1.36_-_Quo_Stet_Olympus_-_Where_the_Gods,_Angels,_etc._Live
1.37_-_Oriential_Religions_in_the_West
1.39_-_The_Ritual_of_Osiris
1.400_-_1.450_Talks
1.4.03_-_The_Guru
14.06_-_Liberty,_Self-Control_and_Friendship
1.40_-_The_Nature_of_Osiris
1.42_-_Osiris_and_the_Sun
1.439
1.43_-_Dionysus
1.43_-_The_Holy_Guardian_Angel_is_not_the_Higher_Self_but_an_Objective_Individual
1.44_-_Demeter_and_Persephone
1.450_-_1.500_Talks
1.46_-_The_Corn-Mother_in_Many_Lands
1.47_-_Lityerses
1.48_-_The_Corn-Spirit_as_an_Animal
1.49_-_Ancient_Deities_of_Vegetation_as_Animals
1.4_-_Readings_in_the_Taittiriya_Upanishad
1.53_-_The_Propitation_of_Wild_Animals_By_Hunters
1.58_-_Do_Angels_Ever_Cut_Themselves_Shaving?
1.62_-_The_Fire-Festivals_of_Europe
1.63_-_Fear,_a_Bad_Astral_Vision
1.63_-_The_Interpretation_of_the_Fire-Festivals
1.64_-_The_Burning_of_Human_Beings_in_the_Fires
1.65_-_Balder_and_the_Mistletoe
1.65_-_Man
1.66_-_The_External_Soul_in_Folk-Tales
1.66_-_Vampires
1.67_-_The_External_Soul_in_Folk-Custom
1.68_-_The_God-Letters
1.70_-_Morality_1
18.04_-_Modern_Poems
1.83_-_Epistola_Ultima
1913_08_02p
1913_12_16p
1914_01_29p
1914_03_22p
1914_05_02p
1914_07_11p
1914_08_18p
1914_08_20p
1915_01_02p
1929-05-19_-_Mind_and_its_workings,_thought-forms_-_Adverse_conditions_and_Yoga_-_Mental_constructions_-_Illness_and_Yoga
1929-06-23_-_Knowledge_of_the_Yogi_-_Knowledge_and_the_Supermind_-_Methods_of_changing_the_condition_of_the_body_-_Meditation,_aspiration,_sincerity
1929-07-28_-_Art_and_Yoga_-_Art_and_life_-_Music,_dance_-_World_of_Harmony
1938_08_17p
1951-01-20_-_Developing_the_mind._Misfortunes,_suffering;_developed_reason._Knowledge_and_pure_ideas.
1951-01-25_-_Needs_and_desires._Collaboration_of_the_vital,_mind_an_accomplice._Progress_and_sincerity_-_recognising_faults._Organising_the_body_-_illness_-_new_harmony_-_physical_beauty.
1951-02-24_-_Psychic_being_and_entity_-_dimensions_-_in_the_atom_-_Death_-_exteriorisation_-_unconsciousness_-_Past_lives_-_progress_upon_earth_-_choice_of_birth_-_Consecration_to_divine_Work_-_psychic_memories_-_Individualisation_-_progress
1951-03-10_-_Fairy_Tales-_serpent_guarding_treasure_-_Vital_beings-_their_incarnations_-_The_vital_being_after_death_-_Nightmares-_vital_and_mental_-_Mind_and_vital_after_death_-_The_spirit_of_the_form-_Egyptian_mummies
1951-03-14_-_Plasticity_-_Conditions_for_knowing_the_Divine_Will_-_Illness_-_microbes_-_Fear_-_body-reflexes_-_The_best_possible_happens_-_Theories_of_Creation_-_True_knowledge_-_a_work_to_do_-_the_Ashram
1951-03-24_-_Descent_of_Divine_Love,_of_Consciousness_-_Earth-_a_symbolic_formation_-_the_Divine_Presence_-_The_psychic_being_and_other_worlds_-_Divine_Love_and_Grace_-_Becoming_consaious_of_Divine_Love_-_Finding_ones_psychic_being_-_Responsibility
1951-03-29_-_The_Great_Vehicle_and_The_Little_Vehicle_-_Choosing_ones_family,_country_-_The_vital_being_distorted_-_atavism_-_Sincerity_-_changing_ones_character
1951-04-23_-_The_goal_and_the_way_-_Learning_how_to_sleep_-_relaxation_-_Adverse_forces-_test_of_sincerity_-_Attitude_to_suffering_and_death
1951-04-28_-_Personal_effort_-_tamas,_laziness_-_Static_and_dynamic_power_-_Stupidity_-_psychic_and_intelligence_-_Philosophies-_different_languages_-_Theories_of_Creation_-_Surrender_of_ones_being_and_ones_work
1951-05-11_-_Mahakali_and_Kali_-_Avatar_and_Vibhuti_-_Sachchidananda_behind_all_states_of_being_-_The_power_of_will_-_receiving_the_Divine_Will
1953-05-27
1953-06-03
1953-06-10
1953-07-08
1953-07-15
1953-09-30
1953-10-14
1953-11-04
1953-12-16
1953-12-30
1954-04-28_-_Aspiration_and_receptivity_-_Resistance_-_Purusha_and_Prakriti,_not_masculine_and_feminine
1954-07-07_-_The_inner_warrior_-_Grace_and_the_Falsehood_-_Opening_from_below_-_Surrender_and_inertia_-_Exclusive_receptivity_-_Grace_and_receptivity
1954-08-25_-_Ananda_aspect_of_the_Mother_-_Changing_conditions_in_the_Ashram_-_Ascetic_discipline_-_Mothers_body
1954-12-22_-_Possession_by_hostile_forces_-_Purity_and_morality_-_Faith_in_the_final_success_-Drawing_back_from_the_path
1955-04-13_-_Psychoanalysts_-_The_underground_super-ego,_dreams,_sleep,_control_-_Archetypes,_Overmind_and_higher_-_Dream_of_someone_dying_-_Integral_repose,_entering_Sachchidananda_-_Organising_ones_life,_concentration,_repose
1955-05-18_-_The_Problem_of_Woman_-_Men_and_women_-_The_Supreme_Mother,_the_new_creation_-_Gods_and_goddesses_-_A_story_of_Creation,_earth_-_Psychic_being_only_on_earth,_beings_everywhere_-_Going_to_other_worlds_by_occult_means
1955-06-29_-_The_true_vital_and_true_physical_-_Time_and_Space_-_The_psychics_memory_of_former_lives_-_The_psychic_organises_ones_life_-_The_psychics_knowledge_and_direction
1955-07-06_-_The_psychic_and_the_central_being_or_jivatman_-_Unity_and_multiplicity_in_the_Divine_-_Having_experiences_and_the_ego_-_Mental,_vital_and_physical_exteriorisation_-_Imagination_has_a_formative_power_-_The_function_of_the_imagination
1955-07-13_-_Cosmic_spirit_and_cosmic_consciousness_-_The_wall_of_ignorance,_unity_and_separation_-_Aspiration_to_understand,_to_know,_to_be_-_The_Divine_is_in_the_essence_of_ones_being_-_Realising_desires_through_the_imaginaton
1955-07-20_-_The_Impersonal_Divine_-_Surrender_to_the_Divine_brings_perfect_freedom_-_The_Divine_gives_Himself_-_The_principle_of_the_inner_dimensions_-_The_paths_of_aspiration_and_surrender_-_Linear_and_spherical_paths_and_realisations
1955-11-16_-_The_significance_of_numbers_-_Numbers,_astrology,_true_knowledge_-_Divines_Love_flowers_for_Kali_puja_-_Desire,_aspiration_and_progress_-_Determining_ones_approach_to_the_Divine_-_Liberation_is_obtained_through_austerities_-_...
1955-11-23_-_One_reality,_multiple_manifestations_-_Integral_Yoga,_approach_by_all_paths_-_The_supreme_man_and_the_divine_man_-_Miracles_and_the_logic_of_events
1955-12-07_-_Emotional_impulse_of_self-giving_-_A_young_dancer_in_France_-_The_heart_has_wings,_not_the_head_-_Only_joy_can_conquer_the_Adversary
1956-01-04_-_Integral_idea_of_the_Divine_-_All_things_attracted_by_the_Divine_-_Bad_things_not_in_place_-_Integral_yoga_-_Moving_idea-force,_ideas_-_Consequences_of_manifestation_-_Work_of_Spirit_via_Nature_-_Change_consciousness,_change_world
1956-01-25_-_The_divine_way_of_life_-_Divine,_Overmind,_Supermind_-_Material_body__for_discovery_of_the_Divine_-_Five_psychological_perfections
1956-02-15_-_Nature_and_the_Master_of_Nature_-_Conscious_intelligence_-_Theory_of_the_Gita,_not_the_whole_truth_-_Surrender_to_the_Lord_-_Change_of_nature
1956-02-22_-_Strong_immobility_of_an_immortal_spirit_-_Equality_of_soul_-_Is_all_an_expression_of_the_divine_Will?_-_Loosening_the_knot_of_action_-_Using_experience_as_a_cloak_to_cover_excesses_-_Sincerity,_a_rare_virtue
1956-03-07_-_Sacrifice,_Animals,_hostile_forces,_receive_in_proportion_to_consciousness_-_To_be_luminously_open_-_Integral_transformation_-_Pain_of_rejection,_delight_of_progress_-_Spirit_behind_intention_-_Spirit,_matter,_over-simplified
1956-04-04_-_The_witness_soul_-_A_Gita_enthusiast_-_Propagandist_spirit,_Tolstoys_son
1956-04-25_-_God,_human_conception_and_the_true_Divine_-_Earthly_existence,_to_realise_the_Divine_-_Ananda,_divine_pleasure_-_Relations_with_the_divine_Presence_-_Asking_the_Divine_for_what_one_needs_-_Allowing_the_Divine_to_lead_one
1956-05-16_-_Needs_of_the_body,_not_true_in_themselves_-_Spiritual_and_supramental_law_-_Aestheticised_Paganism_-_Morality,_checks_true_spiritual_effort_-_Effect_of_supramental_descent_-_Half-lights_and_false_lights
1956-06-06_-_Sign_or_indication_from_books_of_revelation_-_Spiritualised_mind_-_Stages_of_sadhana_-_Reversal_of_consciousness_-_Organisation_around_central_Presence_-_Boredom,_most_common_human_malady
1956-07-11_-_Beauty_restored_to_its_priesthood_-_Occult_worlds,_occult_beings_-_Difficulties_and_the_supramental_force
1956-08-15_-_Protection,_purification,_fear_-_Atmosphere_at_the_Ashram_on_Darshan_days_-_Darshan_messages_-_Significance_of_15-08_-_State_of_surrender_-_Divine_Grace_always_all-powerful_-_Assumption_of_Virgin_Mary_-_SA_message_of_1947-08-15
1956-10-03_-_The_Mothers_different_ways_of_speaking_-_new_manifestation_-_new_element,_possibilities_-_child_prodigies_-_Laws_of_Nature,_supramental_-_Logic_of_the_unforeseen_-_Creative_writers,_hands_of_musicians_-_Prodigious_children,_men
1956-10-24_-_Taking_a_new_body_-_Different_cases_of_incarnation_-_Departure_of_soul_from_body
1956-11-21_-_Knowings_and_Knowledge_-_Reason,_summit_of_mans_mental_activities_-_Willings_and_the_true_will_-_Personal_effort_-_First_step_to_have_knowledge_-_Relativity_of_medical_knowledge_-_Mental_gymnastics_make_the_mind_supple
1956-12-12_-_paradoxes_-_Nothing_impossible_-_unfolding_universe,_the_Eternal_-_Attention,_concentration,_effort_-_growth_capacity_almost_unlimited_-_Why_things_are_not_the_same_-_will_and_willings_-_Suggestions,_formations_-_vital_world
1957-01-02_-_Can_one_go_out_of_time_and_space?_-_Not_a_crucified_but_a_glorified_body_-_Individual_effort_and_the_new_force
1957-01-09_-_God_is_essentially_Delight_-_God_and_Nature_play_at_hide-and-seek_-__Why,_and_when,_are_you_grave?
1957-03-13_-_Our_best_friend
1957-04-03_-_Different_religions_and_spirituality
1957-05-01_-_Sports_competitions,_their_value
1957-07-10_-_A_new_world_is_born_-_Overmind_creation_dissolved
1957-09-18_-_Occultism_and_supramental_life
1957-10-02_-_The_Mind_of_Light_-_Statues_of_the_Buddha_-_Burden_of_the_past
1957-10-16_-_Story_of_successive_involutions
1957-11-27_-_Sri_Aurobindos_method_in_The_Life_Divine_-_Individual_and_cosmic_evolution
1957-12-11_-_Appearance_of_the_first_men
1958-02-19_-_Experience_of_the_supramental_boat_-_The_Censors_-_Absurdity_of_artificial_means
1958-05-14_-_Intellectual_activity_and_subtle_knowing_-_Understanding_with_the_body
1958-09-17_-_Power_of_formulating_experience_-_Usefulness_of_mental_development
1958_09_19
1958-10-01_-_The_ideal_of_moral_perfection
1958-10-22_-_Spiritual_life_-_reversal_of_consciousness_-_Helping_others
1960_04_07?_-_28
1960_11_14?_-_51
1961_03_17_-_57
1961_07_18
1962_10_12
1963_03_06
1963_11_04
1964_03_25
1966_07_06
1969_11_07
1970_01_23
1970_02_09
1970_04_11
1970_04_17
1970_05_12
1970_05_15
1.A_-_ANTHROPOLOGY,_THE_SOUL
1.cllg_-_A_Dance_of_Unwavering_Devotion
1.ct_-_Creation_and_Destruction
1f.lovecraft_-_At_the_Mountains_of_Madness
1f.lovecraft_-_Beyond_the_Wall_of_Sleep
1f.lovecraft_-_Dagon
1f.lovecraft_-_Deaf,_Dumb,_and_Blind
1f.lovecraft_-_From_Beyond
1f.lovecraft_-_Pickmans_Model
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Battle_that_Ended_the_Century
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Beast_in_the_Cave
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Call_of_Cthulhu
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Case_of_Charles_Dexter_Ward
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Challenge_from_Beyond
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dreams_in_the_Witch_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Horror_at_Red_Hook
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Horror_in_the_Museum
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Loved_Dead
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Mound
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_out_of_Time
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_over_Innsmouth
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shunned_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Thing_on_the_Doorstep
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Trap
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Whisperer_in_Darkness
1f.lovecraft_-_Through_the_Gates_of_the_Silver_Key
1.fs_-_The_Imitator
1.fs_-_Variety
1.jk_-_Endymion_-_Book_I
1.jk_-_Endymion_-_Book_II
1.jm_-_Upon_this_earth,_the_land_of_the_Victorious_Ones
1.jr_-_Description_Of_Love
1.jr_-_Two_Kinds_Of_Intelligence
1.kbr_-_Illusion_and_Reality
1.nrpa_-_The_Summary_of_Mahamudra
1.nrpa_-_The_Viewm_Concisely_Put
1.pbs_-_Chorus_from_Hellas
1.pbs_-_Peter_Bell_The_Third
1.pbs_-_The_Revolt_Of_Islam_-_Canto_I-XII
1.poe_-_Eureka_-_A_Prose_Poem
1.poe_-_The_Power_Of_Words_Oinos.
1.rb_-_Abt_Vogler
1.rb_-_An_Epistle_Containing_the_Strange_Medical_Experience_of_Kar
1.rb_-_Bishop_Blougram's_Apology
1.rb_-_Caliban_upon_Setebos_or,_Natural_Theology_in_the_Island
1.rb_-_Pauline,_A_Fragment_of_a_Question
1.rb_-_Pippa_Passes_-_Part_II_-_Noon
1.rb_-_Sordello_-_Book_the_Fifth
1.rmpsd_-_Its_value_beyond_assessment_by_the_mind
1.sk_-_Is_there_anyone_in_the_universe
1.srh_-_The_Royal_Song_of_Saraha_(Dohakosa)
1.whitman_-_As_A_Strong_Bird_On_Pinious_Free
1.whitman_-_Song_of_Myself
1.whitman_-_Song_Of_Myself-_XL
1.whitman_-_To_A_Foild_European_Revolutionaire
1.ww_-_Address_To_My_Infant_Daughter
1.ww_-_Inscriptions_Written_with_a_Slate_Pencil_upon_a_Stone
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_II-_Book_First-_The_Wanderer
1.ww_-_The_Excursion-_V-_Book_Fouth-_Despondency_Corrected
2.01_-_Habit_1__Be_Proactive
2.01_-_Indeterminates,_Cosmic_Determinations_and_the_Indeterminable
2.01_-_Isha_Upanishad__All_that_is_world_in_the_Universe
2.01_-_On_Books
2.01_-_On_the_Concept_of_the_Archetype
2.01_-_THE_ADVENT_OF_LIFE
2.01_-_The_Object_of_Knowledge
2.01_-_The_Therapeutic_value_of_Abreaction
2.02_-_Brahman,_Purusha,_Ishwara_-_Maya,_Prakriti,_Shakti
2.02_-_Indra,_Giver_of_Light
2.02_-_The_Ishavasyopanishad_with_a_commentary_in_English
2.02_-_The_Mother_Archetype
2.02_-_THE_SCINTILLA
2.02_-_The_Status_of_Knowledge
2.02_-_Yoga
2.03_-_Karmayogin__A_Commentary_on_the_Isha_Upanishad
2.03_-_On_Medicine
2.03_-_The_Christian_Phenomenon_and_Faith_in_the_Incarnation
2.03_-_THE_ENIGMA_OF_BOLOGNA
2.03_-_The_Eternal_and_the_Individual
2.03_-_The_Mother-Complex
2.03_-_The_Purified_Understanding
2.03_-_The_Pyx
2.03_-_The_Supreme_Divine
2.04_-_Agni,_the_Illumined_Will
2.04_-_Concentration
2.04_-_On_Art
2.04_-_Positive_Aspects_of_the_Mother-Complex
2.04_-_The_Divine_and_the_Undivine
2.04_-_The_Living_Church_and_Christ-Omega
2.05_-_Apotheosis
2.05_-_Habit_3__Put_First_Things_First
2.05_-_The_Cosmic_Illusion;_Mind,_Dream_and_Hallucination
2.05_-_The_Divine_Truth_and_Way
2.05_-_The_Religion_of_Tomorrow
2.06_-_On_Beauty
2.06_-_Reality_and_the_Cosmic_Illusion
2.06_-_The_Synthesis_of_the_Disciplines_of_Knowledge
2.06_-_Works_Devotion_and_Knowledge
2.07_-_The_Knowledge_and_the_Ignorance
2.07_-_The_Supreme_Word_of_the_Gita
2.07_-_The_Triangle_of_Love
2.08_-_ALICE_IN_WONDERLAND
2.08_-_God_in_Power_of_Becoming
2.08_-_Memory,_Self-Consciousness_and_the_Ignorance
2.08_-_The_Branches_of_The_Archetypal_Man
2.08_-_The_Sword
2.09_-_Human_representations_of_the_Divine_Ideal_of_Love
2.09_-_Memory,_Ego_and_Self-Experience
2.09_-_On_Sadhana
2.09_-_SEVEN_REASONS_WHY_A_SCIENTIST_BELIEVES_IN_GOD
2.09_-_The_Pantacle
2.0_-_Reincarnation_and_Karma
2.0_-_THE_ANTICHRIST
2.1.01_-_God_The_One_Reality
2.1.02_-_Nature_The_World-Manifestation
2.1.03_-_Man_and_Superman
2.10_-_Knowledge_by_Identity_and_Separative_Knowledge
2.10_-_The_Realisation_of_the_Cosmic_Self
2.11_-_The_Boundaries_of_the_Ignorance
2.11_-_The_Modes_of_the_Self
2.11_-_The_Vision_of_the_World-Spirit_-_The_Double_Aspect
2.12_-_On_Miracles
2.12_-_The_Origin_of_the_Ignorance
2.12_-_The_Realisation_of_Sachchidananda
2.1.3.1_-_Students
2.1.3.3_-_Reading
2.13_-_Exclusive_Concentration_of_Consciousness-Force_and_the_Ignorance
2.13_-_On_Psychology
2.13_-_The_Difficulties_of_the_Mental_Being
2.1.3_-_Wrong_Movements_of_the_Vital
2.14_-_On_Movements
2.14_-_The_Origin_and_Remedy_of_Falsehood,_Error,_Wrong_and_Evil
2.14_-_The_Passive_and_the_Active_Brahman
2.14_-_The_Unpacking_of_God
2.15_-_On_the_Gods_and_Asuras
2.15_-_Reality_and_the_Integral_Knowledge
2.16_-_Oneness
2.16_-_The_Integral_Knowledge_and_the_Aim_of_Life;_Four_Theories_of_Existence
2.17_-_December_1938
2.17_-_The_Progress_to_Knowledge_-_God,_Man_and_Nature
2.17_-_The_Soul_and_Nature
2.18_-_January_1939
2.18_-_SRI_RAMAKRISHNA_AT_SYAMPUKUR
2.19_-_The_Planes_of_Our_Existence
2.2.01_-_The_Problem_of_Consciousness
2.2.02_-_Consciousness_and_the_Inconscient
2.2.03_-_The_Science_of_Consciousness
2.20_-_Chance
2.20_-_Nov-Dec_1939
2.20_-_THE_MASTERS_TRAINING_OF_HIS_DISCIPLES
2.20_-_The_Philosophy_of_Rebirth
2.21_-_1940
2.21_-_IN_THE_COMPANY_OF_DEVOTEES_AT_SYAMPUKUR
2.21_-_The_Ladder_of_Self-transcendence
2.21_-_The_Order_of_the_Worlds
2.22_-_Rebirth_and_Other_Worlds;_Karma,_the_Soul_and_Immortality
2.22_-_THE_STILLEST_HOUR
2.22_-_The_Supreme_Secret
2.22_-_Vijnana_or_Gnosis
2.2.3_-_Depression_and_Despondency
2.23_-_Man_and_the_Evolution
2.2.3_-_The_Aitereya_Upanishad
2.24_-_Gnosis_and_Ananda
2.24_-_The_Evolution_of_the_Spiritual_Man
2.25_-_List_of_Topics_in_Each_Talk
2.25_-_The_Triple_Transformation
2.26_-_The_Ascent_towards_Supermind
2.27_-_The_Gnostic_Being
2.28_-_The_Divine_Life
2.3.01_-_Concentration_and_Meditation
2.3.02_-_The_Supermind_or_Supramental
2.3.07_-_The_Vital_Being_and_Vital_Consciousness
2.4.2_-_Interactions_with_Others_and_the_Practice_of_Yoga
28.01_-_Observations
30.02_-_Greek_Drama
3.00.2_-_Introduction
30.06_-_The_Poet_and_The_Seer
3.00_-_Introduction
3.00_-_The_Magical_Theory_of_the_Universe
30.14_-_Rabindranath_and_Modernism
30.17_-_Rabindranath,_Traveller_of_the_Infinite
30.18_-_Boris_Pasternak
3.01_-_Forms_of_Rebirth
3.01_-_Natural_Morality
3.01_-_The_Principles_of_Ritual
3.01_-_The_Soul_World
3.02_-_SOL
3.02_-_The_Formulae_of_the_Elemental_Weapons
3.02_-_The_Great_Secret
3.02_-_The_Motives_of_Devotion
3.02_-_The_Practice_Use_of_Dream-Analysis
3.02_-_The_Psychology_of_Rebirth
3.03_-_On_Thought_-_II
3.03_-_SULPHUR
3.03_-_The_Four_Foundational_Practices
3.03_-_The_Godward_Emotions
3.03_-_THE_MODERN_EARTH
3.03_-_The_Spirit_Land
3.04_-_LUNA
3.04_-_On_Thought_-_III
3.04_-_The_Spirit_in_Spirit-Land_after_Death
3.04_-_The_Way_of_Devotion
3.05_-_SAL
3.05_-_The_Conjunction
3.05_-_The_Divine_Personality
3.05_-_The_Physical_World_and_its_Connection_with_the_Soul_and_Spirit-Lands
3.06_-_Charity
3.06_-_Death
3.06_-_Thought-Forms_and_the_Human_Aura
3.07_-_The_Ascent_of_the_Soul
3.07_-_The_Formula_of_the_Holy_Grail
3.08_-_The_Mystery_of_Love
3.09_-_The_Return_of_the_Soul
3.0_-_THE_ETERNAL_RECURRENCE
3.1.02_-_A_Theory_of_the_Human_Being
31.04_-_Sri_Ramakrishna
3.1.04_-_Transformation_in_the_Integral_Yoga
31.05_-_Vivekananda
31.08_-_The_Unity_of_India
31.09_-_The_Cause_of_Indias_Decline
3.10_-_The_New_Birth
31.10_-_East_and_West
3.1.19_-_Parabrahman
3.11_-_Spells
3.12_-_ON_OLD_AND_NEW_TABLETS
3.14_-_Of_the_Consecrations
3.16_-_THE_SEVEN_SEALS_OR_THE_YES_AND_AMEN_SONG
3.18_-_Of_Clairvoyance_and_the_Body_of_Light
3.2.01_-_On_Ideals
32.03_-_In_This_Crisis
3.2.03_-_Jainism_and_Buddhism
3.2.04_-_The_Conservative_Mind_and_Eastern_Progress
3.2.05_-_The_Yoga_of_the_Bhagavad_Gita
3.2.06_-_The_Adwaita_of_Shankaracharya
32.07_-_The_God_of_the_Scientist
3.2.08_-_Bhakti_Yoga_and_Vaishnavism
32.08_-_Fit_and_Unfit_(A_Letter)
3.20_-_Of_the_Eucharist
3.2.10_-_Christianity_and_Theosophy
3.2.2_-_Sleep
3.2.4_-_Sex
3.3.01_-_The_Superman
3.4.2_-_Guru_Yoga
3.5.01_-_Aphorisms
3-5_Full_Circle
3.6.01_-_Heraclitus
36.07_-_An_Introduction_To_The_Vedas
3.7.1.02_-_The_Reincarnating_Soul
3.7.1.03_-_Rebirth,_Evolution,_Heredity
3.7.1.05_-_The_Significance_of_Rebirth
3.7.1.06_-_The_Ascending_Unity
3.7.1.07_-_Involution_and_Evolution
3.7.1.08_-_Karma
3.7.1.09_-_Karma_and_Freedom
3.7.1.11_-_Rebirth_and_Karma
3.7.1.12_-_Karma_and_Justice
3.7.2.01_-_The_Foundation
3.7.2.02_-_The_Terrestial_Law
3.7.2.03_-_Mind_Nature_and_Law_of_Karma
3.7.2.05_-_Appendix_I_-_The_Tangle_of_Karma
3.7.2.06_-_Appendix_II_-_A_Clarification
3.8.1.05_-_Occult_Knowledge_and_the_Hindu_Scriptures
3_-_Commentaries_and_Annotated_Translations
4.01_-_INTRODUCTION
4.01_-_Introduction
4.01_-_THE_COLLECTIVE_ISSUE
4.01_-_The_Presence_of_God_in_the_World
4.02_-_Difficulties
4.02_-_The_Integral_Perfection
4.02_-_The_Psychology_of_the_Child_Archetype
4.03_-_Prayer_to_the_Ever-greater_Christ
4.03_-_The_Meaning_of_Human_Endeavor
4.03_-_The_Senses_And_Mental_Pictures
4.04_-_The_Perfection_of_the_Mental_Being
4.04_-_THE_REGENERATION_OF_THE_KING
4.05_-_THE_DARK_SIDE_OF_THE_KING
4.05_-_The_Instruments_of_the_Spirit
4.05_-_The_Passion_Of_Love
4.06_-_THE_KING_AS_ANTHROPOS
4.07_-_THE_RELATION_OF_THE_KING-SYMBOL_TO_CONSCIOUSNESS
4.08_-_THE_RELIGIOUS_PROBLEM_OF_THE_KINGS_RENEWAL
4.09_-_REGINA
4.0_-_The_Path_of_Knowledge
4.1.01_-_The_Intellect_and_Yoga
4.10_-_The_Elements_of_Perfection
4.17_-_The_Action_of_the_Divine_Shakti
4.19_-_The_Nature_of_the_supermind
4.20_-_The_Intuitive_Mind
4.22_-_The_supramental_Thought_and_Knowledge
4.23_-_The_supramental_Instruments_--_Thought-process
4.24_-_The_supramental_Sense
4.25_-_Towards_the_supramental_Time_Vision
4.26_-_The_Supramental_Time_Consciousness
4.2_-_Karma
4.3_-_Bhakti
5.01_-_EPILOGUE
5.01_-_The_Dakini,_Salgye_Du_Dalma
5.02_-_Against_Teleological_Concept
5.02_-_Perfection_of_the_Body
5.03_-_The_Divine_Body
5.04_-_THE_POLARITY_OF_ADAM
5.06_-_THE_TRANSFORMATION
5.07_-_ROTUNDUM,_HEAD,_AND_BRAIN
5.08_-_ADAM_AS_TOTALITY
5.2.01_-_The_Descent_of_Ahana
5_-_The_Phenomenology_of_the_Spirit_in_Fairytales
6.01_-_THE_ALCHEMICAL_VIEW_OF_THE_UNION_OF_OPPOSITES
6.06_-_SELF-KNOWLEDGE
6.08_-_THE_CONTENT_AND_MEANING_OF_THE_FIRST_TWO_STAGES
6.09_-_THE_THIRD_STAGE_-_THE_UNUS_MUNDUS
6.0_-_Conscious,_Unconscious,_and_Individuation
6.10_-_THE_SELF_AND_THE_BOUNDS_OF_KNOWLEDGE
7_-_Yoga_of_Sri_Aurobindo
9.99_-_Glossary
Apology
A_Secret_Miracle
Avatars_of_the_Tortoise
Big_Mind_(non-dual)
Big_Mind_(ten_perfections)
Blazing_P1_-_Preconventional_consciousness
Blazing_P2_-_Map_the_Stages_of_Conventional_Consciousness
Blazing_P3_-_Explore_the_Stages_of_Postconventional_Consciousness
BOOK_II._-_A_review_of_the_calamities_suffered_by_the_Romans_before_the_time_of_Christ,_showing_that_their_gods_had_plunged_them_into_corruption_and_vice
BOOK_II._--_PART_I._ANTHROPOGENESIS.
BOOK_II._--_PART_III._ADDENDA._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_II._--_PART_II._THE_ARCHAIC_SYMBOLISM_OF_THE_WORLD-RELIGIONS
BOOK_I._--_PART_I._COSMIC_EVOLUTION
BOOK_I._--_PART_III._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BOOK_I._--_PART_II._THE_EVOLUTION_OF_SYMBOLISM_IN_ITS_APPROXIMATE_ORDER
Book_of_Genesis
Book_of_Imaginary_Beings_(text)
BOOK_VIII._-_Some_account_of_the_Socratic_and_Platonic_philosophy,_and_a_refutation_of_the_doctrine_of_Apuleius_that_the_demons_should_be_worshipped_as_mediators_between_gods_and_men
BOOK_VII._-_Of_the_select_gods_of_the_civil_theology,_and_that_eternal_life_is_not_obtained_by_worshipping_them
BOOK_VI._-_Of_Varros_threefold_division_of_theology,_and_of_the_inability_of_the_gods_to_contri_bute_anything_to_the_happiness_of_the_future_life
BOOK_V._-_Of_fate,_freewill,_and_God's_prescience,_and_of_the_source_of_the_virtues_of_the_ancient_Romans
BOOK_XI._-_Augustine_passes_to_the_second_part_of_the_work,_in_which_the_origin,_progress,_and_destinies_of_the_earthly_and_heavenly_cities_are_discussed.Speculations_regarding_the_creation_of_the_world
BOOK_XIII._-_That_death_is_penal,_and_had_its_origin_in_Adam's_sin
BOOK_XII._-_Of_the_creation_of_angels_and_men,_and_of_the_origin_of_evil
BOOK_XV._-_The_progress_of_the_earthly_and_heavenly_cities_traced_by_the_sacred_history
BOOK_XXII._-_Of_the_eternal_happiness_of_the_saints,_the_resurrection_of_the_body,_and_the_miracles_of_the_early_Church
BOOK_XX._-_Of_the_last_judgment,_and_the_declarations_regarding_it_in_the_Old_and_New_Testaments
BS_1_-_Introduction_to_the_Idea_of_God
Conversations_with_Sri_Aurobindo
COSA_-_BOOK_I
COSA_-_BOOK_X
COSA_-_BOOK_XI
Cratylus
Diamond_Sutra_1
DS2
DS3
DS4
ENNEAD_01.01_-_The_Organism_and_the_Self.
ENNEAD_01.08_-_Of_the_Nature_and_Origin_of_Evils.
ENNEAD_02.01_-_Of_the_Heaven.
ENNEAD_02.04a_-_Of_Matter.
ENNEAD_02.04b_-_Of_Matter.
ENNEAD_02.05_-_Of_the_Aristotelian_Distinction_Between_Actuality_and_Potentiality.
ENNEAD_02.09_-_Against_the_Gnostics;_or,_That_the_Creator_and_the_World_are_Not_Evil.
ENNEAD_03.01_-_Concerning_Fate.
ENNEAD_03.03_-_Continuation_of_That_on_Providence.
ENNEAD_03.05_-_Of_Love,_or_Eros.
ENNEAD_03.06_-_Of_the_Impassibility_of_Incorporeal_Entities_(Soul_and_and_Matter).
ENNEAD_03.07_-_Of_Time_and_Eternity.
ENNEAD_03.08b_-_Of_Nature,_Contemplation_and_Unity.
ENNEAD_04.02_-_How_the_Soul_Mediates_Between_Indivisible_and_Divisible_Essence.
ENNEAD_04.03_-_Psychological_Questions.
ENNEAD_04.04_-_Questions_About_the_Soul.
ENNEAD_04.06b_-_Of_Sensation_and_Memory.
ENNEAD_04.07_-_Of_the_Immortality_of_the_Soul:_Polemic_Against_Materialism.
ENNEAD_04.08_-_Of_the_Descent_of_the_Soul_Into_the_Body.
ENNEAD_04.09_-_Whether_All_Souls_Form_a_Single_One?
ENNEAD_05.01_-_The_Three_Principal_Hypostases,_or_Forms_of_Existence.
ENNEAD_05.03_-_The_Self-Consciousnesses,_and_What_is_Above_Them.
ENNEAD_05.04_-_How_What_is_After_the_First_Proceeds_Therefrom;_of_the_One.
ENNEAD_05.07_-_Do_Ideas_of_Individuals_Exist?
ENNEAD_05.08_-_Concerning_Intelligible_Beauty.
ENNEAD_05.09_-_Of_Intelligence,_Ideas_and_Essence.
ENNEAD_06.01_-_Of_the_Ten_Aristotelian_and_Four_Stoic_Categories.
ENNEAD_06.02_-_The_Categories_of_Plotinos.
ENNEAD_06.03_-_Plotinos_Own_Sense-Categories.
ENNEAD_06.04_-_The_One_and_Identical_Being_Is_Everywhere_Present_As_a_Whole.
ENNEAD_06.04_-_The_One_Identical_Essence_is_Everywhere_Entirely_Present.
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_and_Identical_Being_is_Everywhere_Present_In_Its_Entirety.345
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_Identical_Essence_is_Everywhere_Entirely_Present.
ENNEAD_06.06_-_Of_Numbers.
ENNEAD_06.07_-_How_Ideas_Multiplied,_and_the_Good.
ENNEAD_06.08_-_Of_the_Will_of_the_One.
ENNEAD_06.09_-_Of_the_Good_and_the_One.
Euthyphro
Gorgias
Kafka_and_His_Precursors
Liber
Liber_111_-_The_Book_of_Wisdom_-_LIBER_ALEPH_VEL_CXI
Liber_46_-_The_Key_of_the_Mysteries
Liber_71_-_The_Voice_of_the_Silence_-_The_Two_Paths_-_The_Seven_Portals
Maps_of_Meaning_text
Meno
MoM_References
Phaedo
Prayers_and_Meditations_by_Baha_u_llah_text
r1912_07_01
r1913_01_31
r1914_01_03
r1914_05_09
r1914_08_16
r1915_01_14
r1927_10_30
Sayings_of_Sri_Ramakrishna_(text)
Sophist
Symposium_translated_by_B_Jowett
Tablets_of_Baha_u_llah_text
Talks_001-025
Talks_026-050
Talks_051-075
Talks_100-125
Talks_176-200
Talks_225-239
Talks_600-652
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_1
Talks_With_Sri_Aurobindo_2
The_Act_of_Creation_text
Theaetetus
The_Anapanasati_Sutta__A_Practical_Guide_to_Mindfullness_of_Breathing_and_Tranquil_Wisdom_Meditation
The_Book_of_Certitude_-_P1
The_Book_of_Certitude_-_P2
The_Coming_Race_Contents
The_Divine_Names_Text_(Dionysis)
The_Dwellings_of_the_Philosophers
the_Eternal_Wisdom
The_Gold_Bug
The_Gospel_According_to_John
The_Gospel_According_to_Luke
The_Gospel_According_to_Matthew
The_Logomachy_of_Zos
The_Monadology
The_Riddle_of_this_World
The_Shadow_Out_Of_Time
Thus_Spoke_Zarathustra_text
Timaeus

PRIMARY CLASS

class
map
mental
SIMILAR TITLES
concepts
Game Concepts Analysis
Key Concepts
What are concepts

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH


TERMS ANYWHERE

1. Discursive thought. Faculty of connecting ideas consciously, coherently and purposively. Thinking in logical form. Drawing of inferences. Process of passing from given data or premisses to legitimate conclusions. Forming or discovering rightly relations between ideas. Deriving properly statements from given assumptions or facts. Power, manifestation and result of valid argumentation. Ordering concepts according to the canons of logic. Legitimate course of a debate.

1. The faculty of imagining, or of forming mental images or concepts of what is not actually present to the senses. 2. Mental creative ability. 3. The product of imagining; a conception or mental creation. imagination"s, Imagination"s, imaginations, Imaginations.

(2) A proposition about origins of ideas, concepts, or universals: that they or at least those of them having existential reference are derived solely or primarily from experience or some significant part of experience.

2. The attempted clarification of the basic concepts, presuppositions and postulates of the sciences, and the revelation of the empirical, rational, or pragmatic grounds upon which they are presumed to rest. This aspect of the philosophy of science is closely related to the foregoing but includes, in addition to the logical and epistemological subject-matter, a large portion of metaphysics. Roughly, the task here is two-fold. On the one hand it involves the critical analysis of certain basic notions, such as quantity, quality, time, space, cause and law, which are used by the scientist but not subjected to examination. On the other hand it includes a similar study of certain presupposed beliefs, such as the belief in an external world, the belief in the uniformity of nature, and the belief in the rationality of natural processes.

3. Abundance (yiduo xiangrong butong men): The number "one" is meaningful only in distinction to "many," and vice versa. "One" and "many" thus define and pervade one another, and yet the distinctiveness of the two concepts is left intact.

(3) A proposition about the nature of meaning, ideas, concepts, or universals: that they (and thus, some contend, knowledge) "consist of" or "are reducible to" references to directly presented data or content of experience; or that signs standing for meanings, ideas, concepts, or universals refer to experienced content only or primarily; or that the meaning of a term consists simply of the sum of its possible consequences in experience; or that if all possible experiential consequences of two propositions are identical, their meanings are identical.

Abstracta: Such neutral, purely denotative entities as qualities, numbers, relations, logical concepts, appearing neither directly nor literally in time. (Broad) -- H.H.

abstract language: Words that represent concepts rather than physical things.

acceleration: The term describes two related concepts:

Accounting concepts - Are the basic underlying assumptions that are adhered to in the preparation of financial statements, i.e., theses include the assumptions of accruals, going concern, consistency and prudence.

A contradiction in terms, concepts, or propositions forming an inconsistent triad (Mrs. Ladd-Franklin), a set of three propositions such that if any two are true the third must be false; thus any two will strictly imply the contradictory of the third. An antilogism may be obtained from any strictly valid Aristotelian syllogism by contradicting the conclusion, q.v. Antilogism. -- C.A.B.

Alan Kay "person" The leader of the Software Concepts Group at {Xerox} {Palo Alto Research Centre} which developed {Smalltalk}, the pioneering {object-oriented programming} system, in 1972. (1994-11-24)

Alan Kay ::: (person) The leader of the Software Concepts Group at Xerox Palo Alto Research Centre which developed Smalltalk, the pioneering object-oriented programming system, in 1972. (1994-11-24)

Al-Ghani ::: The One who is beyond being labeled and limited by the manifestations of His Names, as He is Great (Akbar) and beyond all concepts. The One who is infinitely abundant with His Names.

A like result may be obtained for the functional calculus of order omega (theory of types) by utilizing a representation of it within the Zermelo set theory. It is thus in a certain sense impossible to postulate the non-enumerable infinite: any set of postulates designed to do so will have an unintended interpretation within the enumerable. Usual sets of mathematical postulates for the real number system (see number) have an appearance to the contrary only because they are incompletely formalized (i.e., the mathematical concepts are formalized, while the underlying logic remains unformalized and indefinite).

Al-Quddus ::: The One who is free and beyond being defined, conditioned and limited by His manifest qualities and concepts! Albeit the engendered existence is the disclosure of His Names, He is pure and beyond from becoming defined and limited by them!

Also frame network. ::: A knowledge base that represents semantic relations between concepts in a network. This is often used as a form of knowledge representation. It is a directed or undirected graph consisting of vertices, which represent concepts, and edges, which represent semantic relations between concepts,[283] mapping or connecting semantic fields.

Also ontology extraction, ontology generation, or ontology acquisition. ::: The automatic or semi-automatic creation of ontologies, including extracting the corresponding domain's terms and the relationships between the concepts that these terms represent from a corpus of natural language text, and encoding them with an ontology language for easy retrieval.

altruism ::: The belief that people have a moral obligation to serve others or the "greater good". It is generally opposed to the concepts of self-interest and egoism.

AM 1. "communications" {Amplitude Modulation}. 2. "artificial intelligence" A program by {Doug Lenat} to discover concepts in elementary mathematics. AM was written in 1976 in {Interlisp}. From 100 fundamental concepts and about 250 {heuristics} it discovered several important mathematical concepts including subsets, disjoint sets, sets with the same number of elements, and numbers. It worked by filling slots in {frames} maintaining an agenda of resource-limited prioritised tasks. AM's successor was {Eurisko}. {(http://homepages.enterprise.net/hibou/aicourse/lenat.txt)}. (1999-04-19)

AM ::: 1. (communications) Amplitude Modulation.2. (artificial intelligence) A program by Doug Lenat to discover concepts in elementary mathematics. AM was written in 1976 in Interlisp. From 100 number of elements, and numbers. It worked by filling slots in frames maintaining an agenda of resource-limited prioritised tasks.AM's successor was Eurisko. . (1999-04-19)

Among his most important works the following must be mentioned: Paz en la Guerra, 1897; De la Ensenanza Superior en Espana, 1899; En Torno al Casticismo, 1902; Amor y Pedagogia, 1902; Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho, 1905; Mi Religion y Otros Ensayos, 1910; Soliloquios y Conversaciones, 1912; Contra Esto y Aquello, 1912; Ensayos, 7 vols., 1916-1920; Del Sentimiento Tragico de la Vida en los Hombres y en los Pueblos, 1914; Niebla, 1914; La Agonia del Cristianismo, 1930; etc. Unamuno conceives of everv individual man as an end in himself and not a means. Civilization has an individual responsibility towards each man. Man lives in society, but society as such is an abstraction. The concrete fact is the individual man "of flesh and blood". This doctrine of man constitutes the first principle of his entire philosophy. He develops it throughout his writings by way of a soliloquy in which he attacks the concepts of "man", "Society", "Humanity", etc. as mere abstractions of the philosophers, and argues for the "Concrete", "experiential" facts of the individual living man. On his doctrine of man as an individual fact ontologically valid, Unamuno roots the second principle of his philosophy, namely, his theory of Immortality. Faith in immortality grows out, not from the realm of reason, but from the realm of facts which lie beyond the boundaries of reason. In fact, reason as such, that is, as a logical function is absolutely disowned bv Unamuno, as useless and unjustified. The third principle of his philosophy is his theory of the Logos which has to do with man's intuition of the world and his immediate response in language and action. -- J.A.F.

Among its members W. Dubislav (1937), K. Grelling, O. Helmer, C. G. Hempel, A. Herzberg, K.. Korsch, H. Reichenbach (q.v.), M. Strauss. Many members of the following groups may be regarded as adherents of Scientific Empiricism: the Berlin Society for Scientific Philosophy, the W arsaw School, the Cambridge School for Analytic Philosophy (q.v.), further, in U. S. A., some of the representatives of contemporary Pragmatism (q.v.), especially C. W. Morris, of Neo-Realism (q.v.), and of Operationalism (q.v.).   Among the individual adherents not belonging to the groups mentioned: E. Kaila (Finland), J. Jörgensen (Denmark), A. Ness (Norway); A. J. Ayer, J. H. Woodger (England); M. Boll (France); K. Popper (now New Zealand); E. Brunswik, H. Gomperz, Felix Kaufmann, R. V. Mises, L. Rougier, E. Zilsel (now in U. S. A.); E. Nagel, W. V. Quine, and many others (in U.S.A.). The general attitude and the views of Scientific Empiricism are in esential agreement with those of Logical Empiricism (see above, 1). Here, the unity of science is especially emphasized, in various respects   There is a logical unity of the language of science; the concepts of different branches of science are not of fundamentally different kinds but belong to one coherent system. The unity of science in this sense is closely connected with the thesis of Physicahsm (q.v.).   There is a practical task in the present stage of development, to come to a better mutual adaptation of terminologies in different branches of science.   There is today no unity of the laws of science. It is an aim of the future development of science to come, if possible, to a simple set of connected, fundamental laws from which the special laws in the different branches of science, including the social sciences, can be deduced. Here also, the analysis of language is regarded as one of the chief methods of the science of science. While logical positivism stressed chiefly the logical side of this analysis, it is here carried out from various directions, including an analysis of the biological and sociological sides of the activities of language and knowledge, as they have been emphasized earlier by Pragmatism (q.v.), especially C. S. Peirce and G. H. Mead. Thus the development leads now to a comprehensive general theory of signs or semiotic (q.v.) as a basis for philosophy The following publications and meetings may be regarded as organs of this movement.   The periodical "Erkenntnis", since 1930, now continued as "Journal of Unified Science"   The "Encyclopedia of Unified Science", its first part ("Foundations of the Unity of Science", 2 vols.) consisting of twenty monographs (eight appeared by 1940). Here, the foundations of various fields of science are discussed, especially from the point of view of the unity of science and scientific procedure, and the relations between the fields. Thus, the work intends to serve as an introduction to the science of science (q.v.).   A series of International Congresses for the Unity of Science was started by a preliminary conference in Prague 1934 (see report, Erkenntnis 5, 1935). The congresses took place at Pans in 1935 ("Actes", Pans 1936; Erkenntnis 5, 1936); at Copenhagen in 1936 (Erkenntnis 6, 1937); at Paris in 1937; at Cambridge, England, in 1938 (Erkenntnis 7, 1938); at Cambridge, Mass., in 1939 (J. Unif. Sc. 9, 1941); at Chicago in 1941.   Concerning the development and the aims of this movement, see O. Neurath and C. W. Morris (for both, see above, I D), further H. Reichenbach, Ziele and Wege der heutigen Naturphilosophie, 1931; S. S. Stevens, "Psychology and the Science of Science", Psych. Bull. 36, 1939 (with bibliography). Bibliographies in "Erkenntnis": 1, 1931, p. 315, p. 335 (Polish authors); 2, 1931, p. 151, p. 189; 5, 1935, p. 185, p. 195 (American authors), p. 199 (Polish authors), p. 409, larger bibliography: in Encycl. Unif. Science, vol. II, No. 10 (to ippetr in 1942). -- R.C.

Analogy of proportion: Is had when the principle of unity is found, not in the relations of two or more to a common concept but in the interrelation of two concepts to themselves. This relation may be one of similitude or order. Thus being is predicated of substance and quantity, not because of their relations to a third reality which primordially contains this notion, but because of a relation both of similitude and order which they have to each other.

Analogy: Originally a mathematical term, Analogia, meaning equality of ratios (Euclid VII Df. 20, V. Dfs. 5, 6), which entered Plato's philosophy (Republic 534a6), where it also expressed the epistemological doctrine that sensed things are related as their mathematical and ideal correlates. In modern usage analogy was identified with a weak form of reasoning in which "from the similarity of two things in certain particulars, their similarity in other particulars is inferred." (Century Dic.) Recently, the analysis of scientific method has given the term new significance. The observable data of science are denoted by concepts by inspection, whose complete meaning is given by something immediately apprehendable; its verified theory designating unobservable scientific objects is expressed by concepts by postulation, whose complete meaning is prescribed for them by the postulates of the deductive theory in which they occur. To verify such theory relations, termed epistemic correlations (J. Un. Sc. IX: 125-128), are required. When these are one-one, analogy exists in a very precise sense, since the concepts by inspection denoting observable data are then related as are the correlated concepts by postulation designating unobservable scientific objects. -- F.S.C.N. Analogy of Pythagoras: (Gr. analogia) The equality of ratios, or proportion, between the lengths of the strings producing the consonant notes of the musical scale. The discovery of these ratios is credited to Pythagoras, who is also said to have applied the principle of mathematical proportion to the other arts, and hence to have discovered, in his analogy, the secret of beauty in all its forms. -- G.R.M.

analysis: A branch of mathematics that studies functions, sequences and related concepts. In a vague sense, the word "analysis" in the class="d-title" name suggests that the branch predominantly seeks to understand these "from within" rather than looking at their structure as a whole.

Analytic, Transcendental: In Kant: The section of the Critique of Pure Reason which deals with the concepts and principles of the understanding. Its main purpose is the proof of the categories within the realm of phenomena. -- A.C.E.

Animitta. (P. animitta; T. mtshan ma med pa; C. wuxiang; J. muso; K. musang 無相). In Sanskrit, "signless"; one of three "gates to deliverance" (VIMOKsAMUKHA), along with emptiness (suNYATA) and wishlessness (APRAnIHITA). A sign or characteristic (NIMITTA) refers to the generic appearance of an object, in distinction to its secondary characteristics or ANUVYANJANA. Advertence toward the generic sign and secondary characteristics of an object produces a recognition or perception (SAMJNA) of that object, which may in turn lead to clinging or rejection and ultimately suffering. Hence, signlessness is crucial in the process of sensory restraint (INDRIYASAMVARA), a process in which one does not actively react to the generic signs of an object (i.e., treating it in terms of the effect it has on oneself), but instead seeks to halt the perceptual process at the level of simple recognition. By not seizing on these signs, perception is maintained at a pure level prior to an object's conceptualization and the resulting proliferation of concepts (PRAPANCA) throughout the full range of sensory experience. As the frequent refrain in the SuTRAs states, "In the seen, there is only the seen," and not the superimpositions (cf. SAMAROPA) created by the intrusion of ego (ATMAN) into the perceptual process. Mastery of this technique of sensory restraint provides access to the signless gate to deliverance. Signlessness is produced through insight into impermanence (ANITYA) and serves as the counteragent (PRATIPAKsA) to attachments to anything experienced through the senses; once the meditator has abandoned all such attachments to the senses, he is then able to advert toward NIRVAnA, which ipso facto has no sensory signs of its own by which it can be recognized. In the PRAJNAPARAMITA literature, signlessness, emptiness, and wishlessness are equally the absence of the marks or signs of intrinsic existence (SVABHAVA). The YOGACARABHuMIsASTRA says when signlessness, emptiness, and wishlessness are spoken of without differentiation, the knowledge of them is that which arises from hearing or learning (sRUTAMAYĪPRAJNA), thinking (CINTAMAYĪPRAJNA), and meditation (BHAVANAMAYĪPRAJNA), respectively.

An Shigao. (J. An Seiko; K. An Sego 安世高) (fl. c. 148-180 CE). An early Buddhist missionary in China and first major translator of Indian Buddhist materials into Chinese; he hailed from Arsakes (C. ANXI GUO), the Arsacid kingdom (c. 250 BCE-224 CE) of PARTHIA. (His ethnikon AN is the Chinese transcription of the first syllable of Arsakes.) Legend says that he was a crown prince of Parthia who abandoned his right to the throne in favor of a religious life, though it is not clear whether he was a monk or a layperson, or a follower of MAHAYANA or SARVASTIVADA, though all of the translations authentically ascribed to him are of mainstream Buddhist materials. An moved eastward and arrived in 148 at the Chinese capital of Luoyang, where he spent the next twenty years of his life. Many of the earliest translations of Buddhist texts into Chinese are attributed to An Shigao, but few can be determined with certainty to be his work. His most famous translations are the Ren benyu sheng jing (MAHANIDANASUTTANTA), ANBAN SHOUYI JING (ANAPANASATISUTTA), Yinchiru jing, and Daodi jing. Although his Anban shouyi jing is called a SuTRA, it is in fact made up of both short translations and his own exegesis on these translations, making it all but impossible to separate the original text from his exegesis. An Shigao seems to have been primarily concerned with meditative techniques such as ANAPANASMṚTI and the study of numerical categories such as the five SKANDHAs and twelve AYATANAs. Much of An's pioneering translation terminology was eventually superseded as the Chinese translation effort matured, but his use of transcription, rather than translation, in rendering seminal Buddhist concepts survived, as in the standard Chinese transcriptions he helped popularize for buddha (C. FO) and BODHISATTVA (C. pusa). Because of his renown as an early translator, later Buddhist scriptural catalogues (JINGLU) in China ascribed to An Shigao many works that did not carry translator attributions; hence, there are many indigenous Chinese Buddhist scriptures (see APOCRYPHA) that are falsely attributed to him.

antinomy ::: n. --> Opposition of one law or rule to another law or rule.
An opposing law or rule of any kind.
A contradiction or incompatibility of thought or language; -- in the Kantian philosophy, such a contradiction as arises from the attempt to apply to the ideas of the reason, relations or attributes which are appropriate only to the facts or the concepts of experience.


Antitypy: The property of concepts or objects of thought to resist attribution of qualities or postulates incompatible with their semantic value and ontological nature. -- T.G.

apoha. (T. gzhan sel; C. chu; J. jo; K. che 除). In Sanskrit, "exclusion"; a technical term in later Indian Buddhist philosophy of language and epistemology, which describes comprehension through the negative process of exclusion: i.e., only by excluding everything that is other than the target concept will the significance of that concept be comprehended. Buddhist apoha theory therefore posits that concepts convey meaning only to the extent that they "exclude" other meanings: e.g., the concept "chair" is understood only by the mental consciousness excluding everything else that is "not chair." Concepts thus do not denote the actual objects that they purport to reference but instead denote the mere "exclusion" of everything else that is not relevant. See also VYATIREKA.

Applicative Language for Digital Signal Processing ::: (language) (ALDiSP) A functional language with special features for real-time I/O and numerical processing, developed at the Technical University of Berlin in 1989.[An Applicative Real-Time Language for DSP - Programming Supporting Asynchronous Data-Flow Concepts, M. Freericks in Microprocessing and Microprogramming 32, N-H 1991]. (1995-04-19)

Applicative Language for Digital Signal Processing "language" (ALDiSP) A {functional language} with special features for {real-time} {I/O} and numerical processing, developed at the {Technical University of Berlin} in 1989. ["An Applicative Real-Time Language for DSP - Programming Supporting Asynchronous Data-Flow Concepts", M. Freericks "mfx@cs.tu-berlin.de" in Microprocessing and Microprogramming 32, N-H 1991]. (1995-04-19)

A PRIORI (Lat.) In advance, i.e. without prior investigation or experience. Opposite: a posteriori = afterwards, after investigation or experience.

The correct explanation of the aprioristic in our apprehension was given long ago by
Platon. According to him, there is another kind of certainty than that of ordinary experience. This certainty is the outcome of remembering anew concepts acquired in previous incarnations. Everything aprioristic is thus obtained ultimately from experience. K 5.28.14


arapacana. (T. a ra pa dza na). The arapacana is a syllabary of Indic or Central Asian origin typically consisting of forty-two or forty-three letters, named after its five initial constituents a, ra, pa, ca, and na. The syllabary appears in many works of the MAHAYANA tradition, including the PRAJNAPARAMITA, GAndAVYuHA, LALITAVISTARA, and AVATAMSAKA SuTRAs, as well as in texts of the DHARMAGUPTAKA VINAYA (SIFEN LÜ) and MuLASARVASTIVADA VINAYA. It occurs in both original Sanskrit works and Chinese and Tibetan translations. In most cases, each syllable in the list is presumed to correspond to a key doctrinal term beginning with, or containing, that syllable. A, for example, is associated with the concept of ANUTPADA (nonarising), ra with rajo'pagata (free from impurity), and so forth. Recitation of the syllabary, therefore, functioned as a mystical representation of, or mnemonic device (DHARAnĪ) for recalling, important MahAyAna doctrinal concepts, somewhat akin to the MATṚKA lists of the ABHIDHARMA. Other interpretations posit that the syllables themselves are the primal sources whence the corresponding terms later developed. The syllabary includes: a, ra, pa, ca, na, la, da, ba, da, sa, va, ta, ya, sta, ka, sa, ma, ga, stha, tha, ja, sva, dha, sa, kha, ksa, sta, jNa, rta, ha, bha, cha, sma, hva, tsa, gha, tha, na, pha, ska, ysa, sca, ta, dha. The arapacana also constitutes the central part of the root MANTRA of the BODHISATTVA MANJUsRĪ; its short form is oM a ra pa ca na dhi. It is therefore also considered to be an alternate name for MaNjusrī.

Ari or Arizal (Rabbi Isaac Luria) :::
Ari is an acronym for &

Ars Combinatoria: (Leibniz) An art or technique of deriving or inventing complex concepts by a combination of a relatively few simple ones taken as primitive. This technique was proposed as a valuable subject for study by Leibniz in De Arte Combinatoria (1666) but was never greatly developed by him. Leibniz's program for logic consisted of two main projects: (1) the development of a universal characteristic (characteristica universalis), and (2) the development of a universal mathematics (mathesis universalis (q.v.). The universal characteristic was to be a universal language for scientists and philosophers. With a relatively few basic symbols for the ultimately simple ideas, and a suitable technique for constructing compound ideas out of the simple ones, Leibniz thought that a language could be constructed which would be much more efficient for reasoning and for communication than the vague, complicated, and more or less parochial languages then available. This language would be completely universal in the sense that all scientific and philosophical concepts could be expressed in it, and also in that it would enable scholars m all countries to communicate over the barriers of their vernacular tongues. Leibniz's proposals in this matter, and what work he did on it, are the grand predecessors of a vast amount of research which has been done in the last hundred years on the techniques of language construction, and specifically on the invention of formal rules and procedures for introducing new terms into a language on the basis of terms already present, the general project of constructing a unified language for science and philosophy. L. Couturat, La Logique de Leibniz, Paris, 1901; C. I. Lewis, A Survey of Symbolic Logic, Berkeley, 1918. -- F.L.W.

artificial intelligence ::: (artificial intelligence) (AI) The subfield of computer science concerned with the concepts and methods of symbolic inference by computer and symbolic faster. The term was coined by Stanford Professor John McCarthy, a leading AI researcher.Examples of AI problems are computer vision (building a system that can understand images as well as a human) and natural language processing (building have foundered on the amount of context information and intelligence they seem to require.The term is often used as a selling point, e.g. to describe programming that drives the behaviour of computer characters in a game. This is often no more intelligent than Kill any humans you see; keep walking; avoid solid objects; duck if a human with a gun can see you.See also AI-complete, neats vs. scruffies, neural network, genetic programming, fuzzy computing, artificial life. CMU Artificial Intelligence Repository .(2002-01-19)

artificial intelligence "artificial intelligence" (AI) The subfield of computer science concerned with the concepts and methods of {symbolic inference} by computer and symbolic {knowledge representation} for use in making inferences. AI can be seen as an attempt to model aspects of human thought on computers. It is also sometimes defined as trying to solve by computer any problem that a human can solve faster. The term was coined by Stanford Professor {John McCarthy}, a leading AI researcher. Examples of AI problems are {computer vision} (building a system that can understand images as well as a human) and {natural language processing} (building a system that can understand and speak a human language as well as a human). These may appear to be modular, but all attempts so far (1993) to solve them have foundered on the amount of context information and "intelligence" they seem to require. The term is often used as a selling point, e.g. to describe programming that drives the behaviour of computer characters in a game. This is often no more intelligent than "Kill any humans you see; keep walking; avoid solid objects; duck if a human with a gun can see you". See also {AI-complete}, {neats vs. scruffies}, {neural network}, {genetic programming}, {fuzzy computing}, {artificial life}. {ACM SIGART (http://sigart.acm.org/)}. {U Cal Davis (http://phobos.cs.ucdavis.edu:8001)}. {CMU Artificial Intelligence Repository (http://cs.cmu.edu/Web/Groups/AI/html/repository.html)}. (2002-01-19)

AstasAhasrikAprajNApAramitA. (T. Sher phyin brgyad stong pa; C. Xiaopin bore jing; J. Shobon hannyakyo; K. Sop'um panya kyong 小品般若經). In Sanskrit, "Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines." This scripture is now generally accepted to be the earliest of the many PRAJNAPARAMITA sutras and thus probably one of the very earliest of the MAHAYANA scriptures. The Asta, as it is often referred to in the literature, seems to have gradually developed over a period of about two hundred years, from the first century BCE to the first century CE. Some of its earliest recensions translated into Chinese during the Han dynasty do not yet display the full panoply of self-referentially MahAyAna terminology that characterize the more elaborate recensions translated later, suggesting that MahAyAna doctrine was still under development during the early centuries of the Common Era. The provenance of the text is obscure, but the consensus view is that it was probably written in central or southern India. The Asta, together with its verse summary, the RATNAGUnASAMCAYAGATHA, probably represents the earliest stratum of the prajNApAramitA literature; scholars believe that this core scripture was subsequently expanded between the second and fourth centuries CE into other massive PrajNApAramitA scriptures in as many as 100,000 lines (the sATASAHASRIKAPRAJNAPARAMITA). By about 500 CE, the Asta's basic ideas had been abbreviated into shorter condensed statements, such as the widely read, 300-verse VAJRACCHEDIKAPRAJNAPARAMITA ("Diamond Sutra"). (Some scholars have suggested instead that the "Diamond Sutra" may in fact represent one of the earliest strata of the prajNApAramitA literature.) The MahAyAna tradition's view of its own history, however, is that the longest of the prajNApAramitA scriptures, the 100,000-line satasAhasrikAprajNApAramitA, is the core text from which all the other perfection of wisdom sutras were subsequently excerpted. The main interlocutor of the Asta, as in most of the prajNApAramitA scriptures, is SUBHuTI, an ARHAT foremost among the Buddha's disciples in dwelling at peace in remote places, rather than sARIPUTRA, who much more commonly appears in this role in the mainstream Buddhist scriptures (see AGAMA; NIKAYA). The prominent role accorded to Subhuti suggests that the prajNApAramitA literature may derive from forest-dwelling (Aranyaka) ascetic traditions distinct from the dominant, urban-based monastic elite. The main goal of the Asta and other prajNApAramitA scriptures is rigorously to apply the foundational Buddhist notion of nonself (ANATMAN) to the investigation of all phenomena-from the usual compounded things (SAMSKARA) and conditioned factors (SAMSKṚTADHARMA), but even to such quintessentially Buddhist summa bona as the fruits of sanctity (ARYAMARGAPHALA) and NIRVAnA. The constant refrain of the Asta is that there is nothing that can be grasped or to which one should cling, not PRAJNA, not PARAMITA, not BODHISATTVA, and not BODHI. Even the six perfections (sAdPARAMITA) of the bodhisattva are subjected to this same refutation: for example, only when the bodhisattva realizes that there is no giver, no recipient, and no gift will he have mastered the perfection of giving (DANAPARAMITA). Such radical nonattachment even to the central concepts of Buddhism itself helps to foster a thoroughgoing awareness of the emptiness (suNYATA) of all things and thus the perfection of wisdom (prajNApAramitA). Even if the Asta's area of origin was in the south of India, the prajNApAramitA scriptures seem initially to have found their best reception in the northwest of India during the KUSHAN dynasty (c. first century CE), whence they would have had relatively easy entrée into Central Asia and then East Asia. This geographic proximity perhaps accounts for the early acceptance the Asta and the rest of the prajNApAramitA literature received on the Chinese mainland, helping to make China the first predominantly MahAyAna tradition.

Augustinianism. Alexander of Hales (+1245) is the founder of this line and the first great Scholastic to utilize all of Aristotle's works, whose terminology and concepts he adopted rather than the spirit. Others worthy of mention are John de la Rochelle (+1145), Adam of Marsh (+1258) and Thomas of York (+1260). The Metaphysica of this latter constitutes a milestone in philsophy's fight for autonomy. The outstanding representative of this group is Bonaventure (+1274), who combined great constructive ability with profound psychological and mystical insight. Prominent among his pupils were Matthew of Aquasparta (+1302), John Peckham (+1292), William de la Mare (+1298) and Walter of Brügge (+1306). Also prominent in this line are Roger of Marston, Richard of Middleton (+1308), a forerunner of Duns Scotus, William of Ware, Duns Scotus' master, and Peter Johannis Olivi (+1298). Among the Dominicans who belonged to this group should be mentioned Roland of Cremona, Peter of Tarantaise (+1276), Richard Fitzacre (+1248) and Robert Kilwardby (+1279). Among the secular clergy, although more independent in their allegiance, we may place here Gerard of Abbeville and Henri of Ghent (1293).

average: A number of different but related concepts which corresponds to the mathematical/statistical idea of central tendency. Common taken to be the mean if unspecified.

A view of the nature of mathematics which is widely different from any of the above is held by the school of mathematical intuitionism (q. v.). According to this school, mathematics is "identical with the exact part of our thought." "No science, not even philosophy or logic, can be a presupposition for mathematics. It would be circular to apply any philosophical or logical theorem as a means of proof in mathematics, since such theorems already presuppose for their formulation the construction of mathematical concepts. If mathematics is to be in this sense presupposition-free, then there remains for it no other source than an intuition which presents mathematical concepts and inferences to us as immediately clear. . . . [This intuition] is nothing else than the ability to treat separately certain concepts and inferences which regularly occur in ordinary thinking." This is quoted in translation from Heyting, who, in the same connection, characterizes the intuitionittic doctrine as asserting the existence of mathematical objects (Gegenstände), which are immediately grasped by thought, are independent of experience, and give to mathematics more than a mere formal content. But to these mathematical objects no existence is to be ascribed independent of thought. Elsewhere Heyting speaks of a relationship to Kant in the apriority ascribed to the natural numbers, or rather to the underlying ideas of one and the process of adding one and the indefinite repetition of the latter. At least in his earlier writings, Brouwer traces the doctrine of intuitionism directly to Kant. In 1912 he speaks of "abandoning Kant's apriority of space but adhering the more resolutely to the apriority of time" and in the same paper explicitly reaffirms Kant's opinion that mathematical judgments are synthetic and a priori.

avyAkṛta. (P. avyAkata; T. lung du ma bstan pa/lung ma bstan; C. wuji; J. muki; K. mugi 無). In Sanskrit, "indeterminate" or "unascertainable"; used to refer to the fourteen "indeterminate" or "unanswered" questions (avyAkṛtavastu) to which the Buddha refuses to respond. The American translator of PAli texts HENRY CLARKE WARREN rendered the term as "questions which tend not to edification." These questions involve various metaphysical assertions that were used in traditional India to evaluate a thinker's philosophical lineage. There are a number of versions of these "unanswerables," but one common list includes fourteen such questions, three sets of which are framed as "four alternatives" (CATUsKOtI): (1) Is the world eternal?, (2) Is the world not eternal?, (3) Is the world both eternal and not eternal?, (4) Is the world neither eternal nor not eternal?; (5) Is the world endless?, (6) Is the world not endless?, (7) Is the world both endless and not endless?, (8) Is the world neither endless nor not endless?; (9) Does the tathAgata exist after death?, (10) Does the tathAgata not exist after death?, (11) Does the tathAgata both exist and not exist after death?, (12) Does the tathAgata neither exist nor not exist after death?; (13) Are the soul (jīva) and the body identical?, and (14) Are the soul and the body not identical? It was in response to such questions that the Buddha famously asked whether a man shot by a poisoned arrow would spend time wondering about the height of the archer and the kind of wood used for the arrow, or whether he should seek to remove the arrow before it killed him. Likening these fourteen questions to such pointless speculation, he called them "a jungle, a wilderness, a puppet-show, a writhing, and a fetter, and is coupled with misery, ruin, despair, and agony, and does not tend to aversion, absence of passion, cessation, quiescence, knowledge, supreme wisdom, and nirvAna." The Buddha thus asserted that all these questions had to be set aside as unanswerable for being either unexplainable conceptually or "wrongly framed" (P. thapanīya). Questions that were "wrongly framed" inevitably derive from mistaken assumptions and are thus the products of wrong reflection (AYONIsOMANASKARA); therefore, any answer given to them would necessarily be either misleading or irrelevant. The Buddha's famous silence on these questions has been variously interpreted, with some seeing his refusal to answer these questions as deriving from the inherent limitations involved in using concepts to talk about such rarified existential questions. Because it is impossible to expect that concepts can do justice, for example, to an enlightened person's state of being after death, the Buddha simply remains silent when asked this and other "unanswerable" questions. The implication, therefore, is that it is not necessarily the case that the Buddha does not "know" the answer to these questions, but merely that he realizes the conceptual limitations inherent in trying to answer them definitively and thus refuses to respond. Yet other commentators explained that the Buddha declined to answer the question of whether the world (that is, SAMSARA) will ever end because the answer ("no") would prove too discouraging to his audience.

ayonisomanaskAra. [alt. ayonisomanasikAra] (P. ayonisomanasikAra; T. tshul bzhin ma yin pa'i yid la byed pa/tshul min yid byed; C. feili zuoyi/buzheng siwei; J. hiri no sai/fushoshiyui; K. piri chagŭi/pujong sayu 非理作意/不正思惟). In Sanskrit, "unsystematic attention" or "wrong reflection"; attention directed to an object in a superficial manner, without thoroughgoing attention. This term refers especially to the entrancement with the compounded forms of things as revealed through their external marks (LAKsAnA) and secondary characteristics (ANUVYANJANA), so that one does not perceive that they are impermanent (ANITYA). It also entails wrongly ascribing a notion of permanent selfhood (SATKAYADṚstI) to things that are compounded and thus lacking a perduring substratum of being. Because of unsystematic attention to sensory experience, the sentient being becomes subject to an inexorable process of conceptual proliferation (PRAPANCA), in which everything that can be experienced in this world is tied together into a labyrinthine network of concepts, all connected to oneself and projected outward as craving (TṚsnA), conceit (MANA), and wrong views (DṚstI), thus creating bondage to SAMSARA.

Begriffsgefuhl: (Ger. Literally, conceptual feeling) The faculty of eliciting feelings, images or recollections associated viith concepts or capable of being substituted for them. Sometimes, the affective tone peculiar to a given concept. -- O.F.K.

Behaviorism: The contemporary American School of psychology which abandons the concepts of mind and consciousness, and restricts both animal and human psychology to the study of behavior. The impetus to behaviorism was given by the Russian physiologist, Pavlov, who through his investigation of the salivary reflex in dogs, developed the concept of the conditioned reflex. See Conditioned Reflex. The founder of American behaviorism is J.B. Watson, who formulated a program for psychology excluding all reference to consciousness and confining itself to behavioral responses. (Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, 1914.) Thinking and emotion are interpreted as implicit behavior: the former is implicit or subvocal speech; the latter implicit visceral reactions. A distinction has been drawn between methodological and dogmatic behaviorism: the former ignores "consciousness" and advocates, in psychology, the objective study of behaviour; the latter denies consciousness entirely, and is, therefore, a form of metaphysical materialism. See Automatism. -- L.W.

belief-desire-intention software model (BDI) ::: A software model developed for programming intelligent agents. Superficially characterized by the implementation of an agent's beliefs, desires and intentions, it actually uses these concepts to solve a particular problem in agent programming. In essence, it provides a mechanism for separating the activity of selecting a plan (from a plan library or an external planner application) from the execution of currently active plans. Consequently, BDI agents are able to balance the time spent on deliberating about plans (choosing what to do) and executing those plans (doing it). A third activity, creating the plans in the first place (planning), is not within the scope of the model, and is left to the system designer and programmer.

bija jagrat. ::: "seed of wakefulness"; the consciousness, which is nameless and pure, but in which the jiva, etc., exist potentially, associated with their corresponding concepts and names

bindery ::: (networking) A Novell Netware database that contains definitions for entities such as users, groups, and workgroups. The bindery allows the network supervisor to design an organised and secure operating environment based on the individual requirements of each of these entities.The bindery has three components: objects, properties, and property data sets. Objects represent any physical or logical entity, including users, user groups, account restrictions, internetwork addresses). Property data sets are the values assigned to an entity's bindery properties.[Netware Version 3.11 Concepts documentation (a glossary of Netware-related terms)]. (1996-03-07)

bindery "networking" A {Novell Netware} database that contains definitions for entities such as users, groups, and {workgroups}. The bindery allows the network supervisor to design an organised and secure operating environment based on the individual requirements of each of these entities. The bindery has three components: objects, properties, and property data sets. Objects represent any physical or logical entity, including users, user groups, file servers. Properties are characteristics of each object (e.g. passwords, account restrictions, {internetwork addresses}). Property data sets are the values assigned to an entity's bindery properties. [Netware Version 3.11 "Concepts" documentation (a glossary of Netware-related terms)]. (1996-03-07)

(b) In logic: Disparate terms have been variously defined by logicians: Boethius defined disparate terms as those which are diverse yet not contradictory. See Prantl, Geschichte der Logik, I, 686. Leibniz considered two concepts disparate "if neither of the terms contains the other" that is to say if they are not in the relation of genus and species. (Couturat, Letbntz, Inedits, pp. 53, 62.) --L.W. Disparity: See Disparate. Disputatio: (Scholastic) Out of the quaestiones disputatae developed gradually a rigid form of scholastic disputation. The defensor theseos proposed his thesis and explained or proved it in syllogistic form. The opponentes argued against the thesis and its demonstration by repeating first the proposition and the syllogism proving it, then either by denying the validity of one or the other premises (nego maiorem, minorem) or by making distinctions restricting the proposition (distinguo maiorem, minorem). In the disputations of students under the direction of a magister the latter used to summarize the disputation and to "determine the question". -- R.A.

blo rigs. [alt. blo rig] (lorik). In Tibetan, "mind and reasoning," "categories of mind" or "mind and awareness" (when spelled blo rig); a genre of Tibetan monastic textbook literature (yig cha) that sets forth the categories of mind so that beginners can learn the basic concepts of Buddhist epistemology and logic. This genre supplements, or is a subset of, the "collected topics" (BSDUS GRWA) genre of textbook that forms the basis of the curriculum during the first years of study in many Tibetan monasteries. The categories of mind are not fixed, but usually include subdivisions into seven, three, and pairs. The seven minds range on a scale from wrong consciousness (log shes), through doubt, assumption, and inference (ANUMANA), to direct perception (PRATYAKsA); among the contrasting pairs of minds are "sense consciousness" (dbang shes) via the sense faculties (INDRIYA) and "mental consciousness" (yid shes) based on MANAS; minds that are tshad ma ("valid") and tshad min ("invalid"); conceptual (rtog bcas) and nonconceptual minds (rtog med); and minds that have a specifically characterized (SVALAKsAnA) appearing object (snang yul) and a generally characterized (SAMANYALAKsAnA) appearing object. The last of the contrasting pairs is primary and secondary minds, or minds (CITTA) and mental factors (CAITTA). Longer discussion of this topic includes a discussion of the fifty-one mental factors in several subcategories. The explanation of mind in blo rigs draws mainly on terminology found in DHARMAKĪRTI's PRAMAnAVARTTIKA and its commentarial tradition, as well as the ABHIDHARMAKOsABHAsYA.

Brentano, Franz: (1838-1917) Who had originally been a Roman Catholic priest may be described as an unorthodox neo-scholastic. According to him the only three forms of psychic activity, representation, judgment and "phenomena of love and hate", are just three modes of "intentionality", i.e., of referring to an object intended. Judgments may be self-evident and thereby characterized as true and in an analogous way love and hate may be characterized as "right". It is on these characterizations that a dogmatic theory of truth and value may be based. In any mental experience the content is merely a "physical phenomenon" (real or imaginary) intended to be referred to, what is psychic is merely the "act" of representing, judging (viz. affirming or denying) and valuing (i.e. loving or hating). Since such "acts" are evidently immaterial, the soul by which they are performed may be proved to be a purely spiritual and imperishable substance and from these and other considerations the existence, spirituality, as also the infinite wisdom, goodness and justice of God may also be demonstrated. It is most of all by his classification of psychic phenomena, his psychology of "acts" and "intentions" and by his doctrine concerning self-evident truths and values that Brentano, who considered himself an Aristotelian, exercised a profound influence on subsequent German philosophers: not only on those who accepted his entire system (such as A. Marty and C. Stumpf) but also those who were somewhat more independent and original and whom he influenced either directly (as A. Meinong and E. Husserl) or indirectly (as M. Scheler and Nik. Hartmann). Main works: Psychologie des Aristoteles, 1867; Vom Dasein Gottes, 1868; Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt, 1874; Vom Ursprung sittliches Erkenntnis, 1884; Ueber die Zukunft der Philosophie, 1893; Die vier Phasen der Philos., 1895. -- H.Go. Broad, C.D.: (1887) As a realistic critical thinker Broad takes over from the sciences the methods that are fruitful there, classifies the various propositions used in all the sciences, and defines basic scientific concepts. In going beyond science, he seeks to reach a total view of the world by bringing in the facts and principles of aesthetic, religious, ethical and political experience. In trying to work out a much more general method which attacks the problem of the connection between mathematical concepts and sense-data better than the method of analysis in situ, he gives a simple exposition of the method of extensive abstraction, which applies the mutual relations of objects, first recognized in pure mathematics, to physics. Moreover, a great deal can be learned from Broad on the relation of the principle of relativity to measurement.

buddhi. (T. blo; C. siwei; J. shiyui; K. sayu 思惟). In Sanskrit and PAli, "intelligence," "comprehension," or "discernment"; referring specifically to the ability to fashion and retain concepts and ideas (related etymologically to the words buddha and BODHI, from the root √budh "to wake up"). In Buddhist usage, buddhi sometimes denotes a more elevated faculty of mind that surpasses the rational and discursive in its ability to discern truth. Buddhi is thus a kind of intuitive intelligence, comprehension, or insight, which can serve to catalyze wisdom (PRAJNA) and virtuous (KUsALA) actions. According to some strands of MAHAYANA philosophy, this discernment is an inherent and fundamental characteristic of the mind, which is essentially free of all mistaken discriminations and devoid of distinction or change. In such contexts, buddhi is often associated with the original nature of the mind. See RIG PA.

But Kant's versatile, analytical mind could not rest here; and gradually his ideas underwent a radical transformation. He questioned the assumption, common to dogmatic metaphysics, that reality can be apprehended in and through concepts. He was helped to this view by the study of Leibniz's Nouveaux Essais (first published in 1765), and the skepticism and empiricism of Hume, through which, Kant stated, he was awakened from his "dogmatic slumbers". He cast about for a method by which the proper limits and use of reason could be firmly established. The problem took the form: By what right and within what limits may reason make synthetic, a priori judgments about the data of sense?

Cantong qi. (J. Sandokai; K. Ch'amdong kye 参同契). A famous verse attributed to the Chinese CHAN master SHITOU XIQIAN. Along with the BAOJING SANMEI, the Cantong qi is revered in the Chinese CAODONG ZONG and Japanese SoToSHu traditions as the foundational scripture of the tradition. The Cantong qi is relatively short (forty-four five-character stanzas, for a total of 220 Sinographs), but Shitou's verse is praised for its succinct and unequivocal expression of the teaching of nonduality. The Sinograph "can" in the title means to "consider," "compare," or "differentiate"; it thus carries the connotation of "difference" and is said to refer to the myriad phenomena. The Sinograph "tong" means "sameness" and is said to refer to the oneness of all phenomena. The Sinograph "qi" means "tally" and is said to refer to the tallying of oneself and all phenomena. The title might be alluding to an earlier verse bearing the same title, which is attributed to the renowned Daoist master Wei Boyang. The Cantong qi also seems to be the root source from which were derived core concepts in the "five ranks" (WUWEI) doctrine, an emblematic teaching of the mature Caodong school.

categorical data: Data that is used (or can only be used) as labels rather than quantities, as such no arithmetic structure exist and certain concepts (such as mean or median) are undefined.

central tendency: A common measure in summary statistics bsed around the loose idea that we can assign one location to represent the locations of a number of objects considered as one. Thus, there is not just one but rather a number of slightly different concepts which fits the description of central tendency. It is what is commonly referred to by the similarly loose idea of an average.

Characteristica Universalis: The name given by Leibniz to his projected (but only partially realized) "universal language" for the formulation of knowledge. This language was to be ideographic, with simple characters standing for simple concepts, and combinations of them for compound ideas, so that all knowledge could be expressed in terms which all could easily learn to use and understand. It represents an adumbration of the more recent and more successful logistic treatment of mathematics and science. It is to be distinguished, however, from the "universal calculus," also projected by Leibniz, which was to be the instrument for the development and manipulation of systems in the universal language. -- W.K.F.

China. The traditional basic concepts of Chinese metaphysics are ideal. Heaven (T'ien), the spiritual and moral power of cosmic and social order, that distributes to each thing and person its alloted sphere of action, is theistically and personalistically conceived in the Shu Ching (Book of History) and the Shih Ching (Book of Poetry). It was probably also interpreted thus by Confucius and Mencius, assuredly so by Motze. Later it became identified with Fate or impersonal, immaterial cosmic power. Shang Ti (Lord on High) has remained through Chinese history a theistic concept. Tao, as cosmic principle, is an impersonal, immaterial World Ground. Mahayana Buddhism introduced into China an idealistic influence. Pure metaphysical idealism was taught by the Buddhist monk Hsuan Ch'uang. Important Buddhist and Taoist influences appear in Sung Confucianism (Ju Chia). a distinctly idealistic movement. Chou Tun I taught that matter, life and mind emerge from Wu Chi (Pure Being). Shao Yung espoused an essential objective idealism: the world is the content of an Universal Consciousness. The Brothers Ch'eng Hsao and Ch'eng I, together with Chu Hsi, distinguished two primordial principles, an active, moral, aesthetic, and rational Law (Li), and a passive ether stuff (Ch'i). Their emphasis upon Li is idealistic. Lu Chiu Yuan (Lu Hsiang Shan), their opponent, is interpreted both as a subjective idealist and as a realist with a stiong idealistic emphasis. Similarly interpreted is Wang Yang Ming of the Ming Dynasty, who stressed the splritual and moral principle (Li) behind nature and man.

Choronzon: The Demon of Dispersion and Confusion. Its num ber is 333 which is also that of Impotence and lack of control, thus identifying these concepts. Dr. Dee described this "demon" as quintessentialising the metaphysical antithesis of all that is implied by "Magic

CICERO "project" Control Information system Concepts based on Encapsulated Real-time Objects. A {CERN} {DRDC} proposal. (1995-01-25)

CICERO ::: (project) Control Information system Concepts based on Encapsulated Real-time Objects.A CERN DRDC proposal. (1995-01-25)

citta. (T. sems; C. xin; J. shin; K. sim 心). In Sanskrit and PAli, "mind," "mentality," or "thought"; used broadly to refer to general mentality, citta is the factor (DHARMA) that is present during any type of conscious activity. Citta is contrasted with the physical body or materiality (RuPA), and is synonymous in this context with "name" (NAMA), as in the term NAMARuPA. In this sense, citta corresponds to the last four of the five aggregates (SKANDHA), excluding only the first aggregate, of materiality (RuPA), i.e., sensation (VEDANA), perception (SAMJNA), conditioning factors (SAMSKARA), and consciousness (VIJNANA). (Where the correspondences on this list are further refined, the first three of these mentality aggregates correspond to the mental concomitants, viz., CAITTA, while citta is restricted to the last aggregate, that of consciousness, or vijNAna.) Citta in this broad sense is synonymous with both mentality (MANAS) and consciousness (vijNAna): mind is designated as citta because it "builds up" (cinoti) virtuous and nonvirtuous states; as manas, because it calculates and examines; and as vijNAna, because it discriminates among sensory stimuli. Mind as "consciousness" refers to the six consciousnesses (sadvijNAna): the five sensory consciousnesses of the visual (CAKsURVIJNANA), auditory (sROTRAVIJNANA), olfactory (GHRAnAVIJNANA), gustatory (JIHVAVIJNANA), and tactile (KAYAVIJNANA), along with the mental consciousness (MANOVIJNANA). In some strands of MAHAYANA thought, such as YOGACARA, mind is instead considered to encompass not only mentality but all dharmas, and the distinction between mentality and materiality is presumed to be merely nominal; YogAcAra is thus sometimes called the school of CITTAMATRA, or "mind-only." Citta as mentality serves as one of the four foundations of mindfulness (SMṚTYUPASTHANA) in Buddhist meditative training, and refers to various general states of mind, e.g., a mind (citta) that is depressed, distracted, developed, concentrated, or freed. Citta is also used to signify mind itself in distinction to various sets of mental concomitants (caitta) that accompany the basic sensory consciousnesses. The DHAMMASAnGAnI, the first of the seven books of the PAli ABHIDHAMMAPItAKA, classifies citta as the first of a fourfold division of factors into mind (citta), mental concomitants (P. CETASIKA), materiality or form (rupa), and NIRVAnA (P. nibbAna). In this text's treatment, a moment of consciousness (citta) will always arise in association with a variety of associated mental factors (P. cetasika), seven of which are always present during every moment of consciousness: (1) sensory contact or sense impression (P. phassa; S. SPARsA), (2) feeling or sensation (VEDANA), (3) perception or conception (P. saNNA; S. SAMJNA), (4) volition (CETANA), (5) concentration (SAMADHI), (6) vitality (JĪVITA), and (7) attention, viz., the advertence of the mind toward an object (P. manasikAra; S. MANASKARA). The SARVASTIVADA ABHIDHARMA instead divides all dharmas into five groups: mind (citta), mental concomitants (caitta), materiality (rupa), forces dissociated from thought (CITTAVIPRAYUKTASAMSKARA), and the unconditioned (ASAMSKṚTA). In this system, ten specific factors are said universally to accompany all conscious activity and are therefore called "factors of wide extent" or "omnipresent mental factors" (MAHABHuMIKA): (1) sensation (vedanA); (2) volition (cetanA); (3) perception (saMjNA); (4) zeal or "desire-to-act" (CHANDA) (5) sensory contact (sparsa); (6) discernment (mati); (7) mindfulness (SMṚTI); (8) attention (manaskAra); (9) determination (ADHIMOKsA); (10) concentration (samAdhi). According to the system set forth by ASAnGA in his ABHIDHARMASAMUCCAYA, this list is divided into two sets of five: the five omnipresent (SARVATRAGA) mental factors (vedanA, saMjNA, cetanA, sparsa, and manaskAra) and the five determining (pratiniyama) mental factors (chanda, adhimoksa, smṛti, samAdhi, and prajNA). ¶ In the experience of enlightenment (BODHI), the citta is said to be "freed" from the "point of view" that is the self (ATMAN). The citta is then no longer subject to the limitations perpetuated by ignorance (AVIDYA) and craving (TṚsnA) and thus becomes nonmanifesting (because there is no longer any projection of ego into the perceptual process), infinite (because the mind is no longer subject to the limitations of conceptualization), and lustrous (because the ignorance that dulls the mind has been vanquished forever). Scriptural statements attest to this inherent luminosity of the citta, which may be revealed through practice and manifested in enlightenment. For example, in the PAli AnGUTTARANIKAYA, the Buddha says, "the mind, O monks, is luminous" (P. pabhassaraM idaM bhikkhave cittaM). Such statements are the strands from which the MahAyAna subsequently derives such concepts as the inherent quality of buddhahood (BUDDHADHATU; C. FOXING) or the embryo of the TATHAGATAs (TATHAGATAGARBHA) that is said to be innate in the mind.

Class-Relation Method "programming" A design technique based on the concepts of {object-oriented programming} and the {Entity-Relationship model} from the French company {Softeam}. (1994-12-05)

Class-Relation Method ::: (programming) A design technique based on the concepts of object-oriented programming and the Entity-Relationship model from the French company Softeam. (1994-12-05)

collectiveunconscious ::: Collective Unconscious Originally coined by Carl Jung, the 'collective unconscious' is a term used in analytical psychology. Jung distinguished the 'collective unconscious' from the 'personal unconscious' specific to each human being, but Freud did not distinguish between an 'individual psychology' and a 'collective psychology'. It is a product of ancestral experience containing such concepts as science, religion, and morality. The collective unconscious could be considered a reservoir of the experiences of our species.

computer literacy "education" Basic skill in use of computers, from the perspective of such skill being a necessary societal skill. The term was coined by Andrew Molnar, while director of the Office of Computing Activities at the {National Science Foundation}. "We started computer literacy in '72 [...] We coined that phrase. It's sort of ironic. Nobody knows what computer literacy is. Nobody can define it. And the reason we selected [it] was because nobody could define it, and [...] it was a broad enough term that you could get all of these programs together under one roof" (cited in Aspray, W., (September 25, 1991) "Interview with Andrew Molnar," OH 234. Center for the History of Information Processing, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota). The term, as a coinage, is similar to earlier coinages, such as "visual literacy", which {Merriam-Webster (http://m-w.com/)} dates to 1971, and the more recent "media literacy". A more useful definition from {(http://www.computerliteracyusa.com/)} is: Computer literacy is an understanding of the concepts, terminology and operations that relate to general computer use. It is the essential knowledge needed to function independently with a computer. This functionality includes being able to solve and avoid problems, adapt to new situations, keep information organized and communicate effectively with other computer literate people. (2007-03-23)

conception ::: 1. Origin or beginning. 2. The act or power of forming notions, ideas, or concepts. 3. The act of conceiving; the state of being conceived; fertilization; inception of pregnancy. 4. Something conceived in the mind; a concept, plan, design, idea, or thought. conception"s.

Conception: (Lat. concipere, to take together) Cognition of abstracta or universals as distinguished from cognition of concreta or particulars. (See Abstractum.) Conception, as a mode of cognition, may or may not posit real or subsistent universals corresponding to the concepts of the mind. See Conceptualism; Conceptual Realism. -- L.W.

conceptualisation ::: (artificial intelligence) The collection of objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the family members. Choosing a conceptualisation is the first stage of knowledge representation.Every knowledge base, knowledge-based system, or knowledge-level agent is committed to some conceptualisation, explicitly or implicitly. (1994-10-19)

conceptualisation "artificial intelligence" The process or result of listing the types of objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them. A conceptualisation is an {abstract}, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent. For example, we may conceptualise a family as the set of names, sexes and the relationships of the family members. Choosing a conceptualisation is the first stage of {knowledge representation}. A conceptualisation is a high-level {data model}. Every {knowledge base}, {knowledge-based system}, or {knowledge-level agent} is committed to some conceptualisation, explicitly or implicitly. (2013-04-17)

Conceptualism: A solution of the problem of universals which seeks a compromise between extreme nominalism (generic concepts are signs which apply indifferently to a number of particulars) and extreme realism (generic concepts refer to subsistent universals). Conceptualism offers various interpretations of conceptual objectivity: the generic concept refers to a class of resembling particulars, the object of a concept is a universal essence pervading the particulars, but having; no reality apart from them, concepts refer to abstracta, that is to say, to ideal objects envisaged by the mind but having no metaphysical status. -- L.W.

conceptual ::: of or relating to concepts or mental conception.

concrete operational period: In Piaget's stages of cognitive development, a period between ages seven and eleven during which children gain a better understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.

Consequence: (Ger. Konsequenz) In Husserl: The relation of formal-analytic inclusion which obtains between certain noematic senses. Consequence: See Valid. Consequence-logic: (Ger. Konsequenzlogik) Consistency-logic (Logik der Widerspruchslosigkeit); pure apophantic analytics (in a strict sense); a level of pure formal logic in which the only thematic concepts of validity are consequence, inconsequence, and compatibility. Consequence-logic includes the essential content of traditional syllogistics and the disciplines making up formal-mathematical analysis. -- D.C.

Consistency principle - 1. uniformity of accounting procedures used by an accounting entity from period to period. Or 2. uniformity of measurement concepts and procedures used for related items within the company's financial statements for one period. It is difficult for financial statement users to make projections when data are not measured and classified in the same manner over time. A change in accounting principle should not be made unless it can be justified as being preferable.

constraint logic programming ::: A form of constraint programming, in which logic programming is extended to include concepts from constraint satisfaction. A constraint logic program is a logic program that contains constraints in the body of clauses. An example of a clause including a constraint is A(X,Y) :- X+Y>0, B(X), C(Y). In this clause, X+Y>0 is a constraint; A(X,Y), B(X), and C(Y) are literals as in regular logic programming. This clause states one condition under which the statement A(X,Y) holds: X+Y is greater than zero and both B(X) and C(Y) are true.

contextualism ::: A collection of views that emphasize the context in which an action, utterance or expression occurs, and argues that, in some important respect, the action, utterance or expression can only be understood within that context. Contextualist views hold that philosophically controversial concepts, such as "meaning P", "knowing that P", "having a reason to A", and possibly even "being true" or "being right" only have meaning relative to a specified context. Some philosophers hold that context-dependence may lead to relativism; nevertheless, contextualist views are increasingly popular within philosophy.

Contraries: (a) Logic: (i) Terms: According to Aristotle, Categ. 1lb-18, contrariety is one of the four kinds of opposition between concepts: contradictory, privative, contrary, relative. Those terms are contrary "which, in the same genus, are separated by the greatest possible difference" ib. 6a-17. Thus pairs of contraries belong to the same genus, or contrary sub-genera, or are themselves sub-genera, ib. 14a-18.

Cost - 1. the sacrifice, measured by the price paid, to acquire, produce, or main­tain goods or services. Prices paid for materials, labour, and factory overhead in the manufacture of goods are costs. Or 2. an asset. The term cost is often used when referring to the valuation of a good or service acquired. When it is used in this sense, a cost is an asset. The concepts of cost and expense are often used interchangeably. When the benefits of the acquisition of the goods or services expire, the cost becomes an expense or loss. An expense is a cost with expired benefits. A loss is an expense (expired cost) with no related benefit.

Criterion ethical: In ethics the main problem is often said to be the finding of a criterion of virtue, or of rightness, or of goodness, depending on which of these concepts is taken as basic; and the quest for a moral standard, or for an ethical first principle, or for a summum bonum may generally be construed as a quest for such a criterion (e.g., Kant's first form of the categorical imperative may be interpreted as a criterion of rightness). Hence to find a criterion of, say, goodness is to find a characteristic whose presence, absence, or degree may be taken as a mark of the presence, absence, or degree of goodness. Thus hedonists hold pleasantness to be such a characteristic. Often, finding a criterion of a characteristic is taken as equivalent to finding a definition of that characteristic. Strictly, this is not the case, for a characteristic may serve as a criterion of another with which it is not identical. Pleasantness might be a criterion of goodness without being identical with it, if only the above relation held between pleasantness and goodness. However, the discovery of a definition of a characteristic does normally furnish a criterion of that characteristic. Vide the definition of a right act as an act conducive to the greatest happiness.

CSSA ::: An object-oriented language.[Key Concepts in the INCAS Multicomputer Project, J. Nehmer et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-13(8):913-923 (Aug 1987)].

CSSA An {object-oriented} language. ["Key Concepts in the INCAS Multicomputer Project", J. Nehmer et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-13(8):913-923 (Aug 1987)].

cybernetics "robotics" /si:`b*-net'iks/ The study of control and communication in living and man-made systems. The term was first proposed by {Norbert Wiener} in the book referenced below. Originally, cybernetics drew upon electrical engineering, mathematics, biology, neurophysiology, anthropology, and psychology to study and describe actions, feedback, and response in systems of all kinds. It aims to understand the similarities and differences in internal workings of organic and machine processes and, by formulating abstract concepts common to all systems, to understand their behaviour. Modern "second-order cybernetics" places emphasis on how the process of constructing models of the systems is influenced by those very systems, hence an elegant definition - "applied epistemology". Related recent developments (often referred to as {sciences of complexity}) that are distinguished as separate disciplines are {artificial intelligence}, {neural networks}, {systems theory}, and {chaos theory}, but the boundaries between those and cybernetics proper are not precise. See also {robot}. {The Cybernetics Society (http://cybsoc.org)} of the UK. {American Society for Cybernetics (http://asc-cybernetics.org/)}. {IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society (http://isye.gatech.edu/ieee-smc/)}. {International project "Principia Cybernetica" (http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/DEFAULT.html)}. ["Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine", N. Wiener, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1948] (2002-01-01)

cybernetics ::: (robotics) /si:`b*-net'iks/ The study of control and communication in living and man-made systems.The term was first proposed by Norbert Wiener in the book referenced below. Originally, cybernetics drew upon electrical engineering, mathematics, biology, processes and, by formulating abstract concepts common to all systems, to understand their behaviour.Modern second-order cybernetics places emphasis on how the process of constructing models of the systems is influenced by those very systems, hence an elegant definition - applied epistemology.Related recent developments (often referred to as sciences of complexity) that are distinguished as separate disciplines are artificial intelligence, neural networks, systems theory, and chaos theory, but the boundaries between those and cybernetics proper are not precise.See also robot. of the UK. . . .Usenet newsgroup: .[Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine, N. Wiener, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1948](2002-01-01)

Daojiao yishu. (J. Dokyo gisu; K. Togyo ŭich'u 道教義樞). In Chinese, "The Pivotal Meaning of the Teachings of the DAO"; a text attributed to the Daoist priest Meng Anpai (d.u.); an encyclopedic work that provides a detailed explanation of thirty-seven matters of Daoist doctrine, five of which are now lost. Among the thirty-seven concepts explained in the text, there are concepts borrowed directly from Buddhism, such as the dharma body (DHARMAKAYA), three jewels (RATNATRAYA), three vehicles (TRIYANA), three realms of existence (TRILOKA [DHATU]), knowledge of external objects, and the PURE LAND of SUKHAVATĪ. The text also employs Buddhist terms, concepts, and classificatory systems throughout. The greatest Buddhist influence on this text came from the SAN LUN ZONG and especially from the teachings of the Sanlun master JIZANG. The Daojiao yishu was, in fact, written to demonstrate the sophistication of Daoist thought in response to Buddhist criticisms during the Tang dynasty. This text influenced the compilation of many later Daoist works, such as the Yunji qiqian.

darsanamArga. (T. mthong lam; C. jiandao; J. kendo; K. kyondo 見道). In Sanskrit, "path of vision"; the third of the five paths (PANCAMARGA) to liberation and enlightenment, whether as an ARHAT or as a buddha. It follows the second path, the path of preparation (PRAYOGAMARGA) and precedes the fourth path, the path of meditation or cultivation (BHAVANAMARGA). This path marks the adept's first direct perception of reality, without the intercession of concepts, and brings an end to the first three of the ten fetters (SAMYOJANA) that bind one to the cycle of rebirth: (1) belief in the existence of a self in relation to the body (SATKAYADṚstI), (2) belief in the efficacy of rites and rituals (sĪLAVRATAPARAMARsA) as a means of salvation, and (3) doubt about the efficacy of the path (VICIKITSA). Because this vision renders one a noble person (ARYA), the path of vision marks the inception of the "noble path" (AryamArga). According to the SarvAstivAda soteriological system, the darsanamArga occurs over the course of fifteen moments of realization of the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, with the sixteenth moment marking the beginning of the BHAVANAMARGA. There are four moments of realization for each of the four truths. The first moment is that of doctrinal acquiescence (DHARMAKsANTI) with regard to the sensuous realm (KAMADHATU). In that moment, the afflictions (KLEsA) of the sensuous realm associated with the truth of suffering are abandoned. This is followed by a moment of doctrinal knowledge (DHARMAJNANA) of the truth of suffering with regard to the sensuous realm, which is the state of understanding that the afflictions of that level have been abandoned. Next comes a moment of realization called subsequent acquiescence (anvayaksAnti), in which the afflictions associated with the truth of suffering in the two upper realms, the realm of subtle materiality (RuPADHATU) and the immaterial realm (ARuPYADHATU) are abandoned; there is finally a moment of subsequent knowledge (anvayajNAna) of the truth of suffering with regard to the two upper realms. This sequence of four moments-doctrinal acquiescence and doctrinal knowledge (which are concerned with the sensuous realm) and subsequent acquiescence and subsequent knowledge (which are concerned with the two upper realms)-is repeated for the remaining truths of origin, cessation, and path. In each case, the moments of realization called acquiescence are the time when the afflictions are actually abandoned; they are called uninterrupted paths (ANANTARYAMARGA) because they cannot be interrupted or impeded in severing the hold of the afflictions. The eight moments of knowledge are the state of having realized that the afflictions of the particular level have been abandoned. They are called paths of liberation (VIMUKTIMARGA). An uninterrupted path, followed by a path of liberation, are likened to throwing out a thief and locking the door behind him. The sixteenth moment in the sequence-the subsequent knowledge of the truth of the path with regard to the upper realms-constitutes the first moment of the next path, the bhAvanAmArga. For a BODHISATTVA, the attainment of the path of vision coincides with the inception of the first BODHISATTVABHuMI (see also DAsABHuMI). The ABHIDHARMASAMUCCAYA explains that the bodhisattva's path of vision is also a direct perception of reality and is focused on the four noble truths; unlike the mainstream account, however, all three realms are considered simultaneously, and the sixteenth moment is not the first instant of the path of cultivation (bhAvanAmArga). The YOGACARA system is based on their doctrine of the falsehood of the subject/object bifurcation. The first eight instants describe the elimination of fetters based on false conceptualization (VIKALPA) of objects, and the last eight the elimination of fetters based on the false conceptualization of a subject; thus the actual path of vision is a direct realization of the emptiness (suNYATA) of all dharmas (sarvadharmasunyatA). This view of the darsanamArga as the first direct perception (PRATYAKsA) of emptiness is also found in the MADHYAMAKA school, according to which the bodhisattva begins to abandon the afflictive obstructions (KLEsAVARAnA) upon attaining the darsanamArga. See also DHARMAKsANTI; JIEWU; DUNWU JIANXIU.

Dazhidu lun. (J. Daichidoron; K. Taejido non 大智度論). In Chinese, "Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom"; an important Chinese text that is regarded as the translation of a Sanskrit work whose title has been reconstructed as *MāhāprājNāpāramitāsāstra or *MahāprajNāpāramitopedesa. The work is attributed to the MADHYAMAKA exegete NĀGĀRJUNA, but no Sanskrit manuscripts or Tibetan translations are known and no references to the text in Indian or Tibetan sources have been identified. The work was translated into Chinese by the KUCHA monk KUMĀRAJĪVA (344-413) between 402 and 406; it was not translated into Chinese again. Some scholars speculate that the work was composed by an unknown Central Asian monk of the SARVĀSTIVĀDA school who had "converted" to MADHYAMAKA, perhaps even Kumārajīva himself. The complete text was claimed to have been one hundred thousand slokas or one thousand rolls (zhuan) in length, but the extant text is a mere one hundred rolls. It is divided into two major sections: the first is Kumārajīva's full translation of the first fifty-two chapters of the text; the second is his selective translations from the next eighty-nine chapters of the text. The work is a commentary on the PANCAVIMsATISĀHASRIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, and is veritable compendium of Buddhist doctrine, replete with quotations from a wide range of Indian texts. Throughout the translation, there appear frequent and often substantial interlinear glosses and interpolations, apparently provided by Kumārajīva himself and targeting his Chinese readership; it is the presence of such interpolations that has raised questions about the text's Indian provenance. In the first thirty-four rolls, the Dazhidu lun provides a detailed explanation of the basic concepts, phrases, places, and figures that appear in the PaNcaviMsatisāhasrikāprajNāpāramitā (e.g., BHAGAVAT, EVAM MAYĀ sRUTAM, RĀJAGṚHA, buddha, BODHISATTVA, sRĀVAKA, sĀRIPUTRA, suNYATĀ, NIRVĀnA, the six PĀRAMITĀ, and ten BALA). The scope of the commentary is extremely broad, covering everything from doctrine, legends, and rituals to history and geography. The overall concern of the Dazhidu lun seems to have been the elucidation of the concept of buddhahood, the bodhisattva career, the MAHĀYĀNA path (as opposed to that of the HĪNAYĀNA), PRAJNĀ, and meditation. The Dazhidu lun thus served as an authoritative source for the study of Mahāyāna in China and was favored by many influential writers such as SENGZHAO, TIANTAI ZHIYI, FAZANG, TANLUAN, and SHANDAO. Since the time of the Chinese scriptural catalogue KAIYUAN SHIJIAO LU (730), the Dazhidu lun, has headed the roster of sĀSTRA materials collected in the Chinese Buddhist canon (DAZANGJING; see also KORYo TAEJANGGYoNG); this placement is made because it is a principal commentary to the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ sutras that open the SuTRA section of the canon. Between 1944 and 1980, the Belgian scholar ÉTIENNE LAMOTTE published an annotated French translation of the entire first section and chapter 20 of the second section as Le Traité de la Grande Vertu de Sagesse, in five volumes.

decision tree: A type of tree diagram used to display information relevant to and support the process of decision making by using probabilities and expected values amongst other mathematical/statistical concepts.

Deduction: (Lat. deductio, a leading down) Necessary analytical inference. (a) In logic: inference in which a conclusion follows necessarily from one or more given premisses. Definitions given have usually required that the conclusion be of lesser generality than one of the premisses, and have sometimes explicitly excluded immediate inference; but neither restriction fits very well with the ordinary actual use of the word. (b) In psychology, analytical reasoning from general to particular or less general. The mental drawing of conclusions from given postulates. Deduction of the Categories: (In Kant: Deduktion der Kategorien) Transcendental deduction: An exposition of the nature and possibility of a priori forms and the explanation and justification of their use as necessary conditions of experience. Empirical deduction: Factual explanation of how concepts arise in experience and reflection. See Kantianism. -- O.F.K.

degrees of freedom: A number of related concepts in physics, mechanics, engineering and statistics regarding the independence/interdependence of parameters. Informally, any parameters/variables whose value can occur or be set independently of the values of other parameters/variables count as one degree of freedom towards the (total) number of degrees of freedom of the whole system.

demography: The study of human populations using statistical concepts and techniques.

density: The measure of mass per volume and related concepts where either constituent measures may be substituted. (e.g. energy density, charge density.)

Determination: (Lat. determinare, to limit) The limitation of a reality or thought to a narrower field than its original one. In a monistic philosophy the original, single principle must be considered as narrowed down to various genera and species, and eventually to individual existence if such be admitted, in order to introduce that differentiation of reality which is required in a multiple world. In Platonism, the Forms or Ideas are one for each type of thing but are "determined" to multiple existence by the addition of matter (Timaeus). Neo-Platonism is even more interested in real determination, since the One is the logical antecedent of the Many. Here determination is effected by the introduction of negations, or privations, into successive emanations of the One. With Boethius, mediaeval philosophy became concerned with the determination of being-in-general to an actual manifold of things. In Boethianism there is a fusion of the question of real determination with that of logical limitation of concepts. In modern thought, the problem is acute in Spinozism: universal substance (substantia, natura, Deus) must be reduced to an apparent manifold through attributes, modes to the individual. Determination is said to be by way of negation, according to Spinoza (Epist. 50), and this means that universal substance is in its perfect form indeterminate, but is thought to become determinate by a sort of logical loss of absolute perfection. The theory is brought to an almost absurd simplicity in the Ontology of Chr. Wolff, where being is pictured as successively determined to genera, species and individual. Determination is also an important factor in the developmental theories of Hegel and Bergson. -- V.J.B.

Dianoia: (Gr. dianoia) The faculty or exercise of thinking, as exhibited especially in the discriminating and conjoining or disjoining of concepts; the discursive understanding (Aristotle). -- G.R.M.

DICOM "medical, standard" (From Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine) A {standard} developed by ACR-NEMA (American College of Radiology - National Electrical Manufacturer's Association) for communications between medical imaging devices. It conforms to the {ISO reference model} for network communications and incorporates {object-oriented} design concepts. (1995-03-29)

DICOM ::: (medical, standard) (From Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine) A standard developed by ACR-NEMA (American College of Radiology - National imaging devices. It conforms to the ISO reference model for network communications and incorporates object-oriented design concepts. (1995-03-29)

digital carrier ::: (hardware, communications) A medium which can carry digital signals; broadly equivalent to the physical layer of the OSI seven layer model of can include direct current (DC), whereas broadband carriers are modulated by various methods into frequency bands which do not include DC.Sometimes a modem (modulator/demodulator) or codec (coder/decoder) combines several channels on one transmission path. The combining of channels is called division multiplexing (FDM) and codecs with time division multiplexing (TDM) though this grouping of concepts is somewhat arbitrary.If the medium of a carrier is copper telephone wire, the circuit may be called T1, T3, etc. as these designations originally described such.T1 carriers used a restored polar line coding scheme which allowed a baseband signal to be transported as broadband and restored to baseband at the receiver. T1 is not used in this sense today, and indeed it is often confused with the DS1 signal carried. (1996-03-31)

digital carrier "hardware, communications" A medium which can carry {digital} signals; broadly equivalent to the {physical layer} of the {OSI} seven layer model of networks. Carriers can be described as {baseband} or {broadband}. A baseband carrier can include direct current (DC), whereas broadband carriers are modulated by various methods into frequency bands which do not include DC. Sometimes a {modem} (modulator/demodulator) or {codec} (coder/decoder) combines several channels on one transmission path. The combining of channels is called {multiplexing}, and their separation is called demultiplexing, independent of whether a modem or codec bank is used. Modems can be associated with {frequency division multiplexing} (FDM) and codecs with {time division multiplexing} (TDM) though this grouping of concepts is somewhat arbitrary. If the medium of a carrier is copper telephone wire, the circuit may be called {T1}, {T3}, etc. as these designations originally described such. T1 carriers used a restored polar line coding scheme which allowed a baseband signal to be transported as broadband and restored to baseband at the receiver. T1 is not used in this sense today, and indeed it is often confused with the {DS1} signal carried. (1996-03-31)

dimension: Several related concepts informally revolving around the idea of the number of indices needed to describe all elements of a mathematical object where "adjacent" elements receive "adjacent" numberings.

Dogma: The Greek term signified a public ordinance of decree, also an opinion. A present meaning: an established, or generally admitted, philosophic opinion explicitly formulated, in a depreciative sense; one accepted on authority without the support of demonstration or experience. Kant calls a directly synthetical proposition grounded on concepts a dogma which he distinguishes from a mathema, which is a similar proposition effected by a construction of concepts. In the history of Christianity dogmas have come to mean definition of revealed truths proposed by the supreme authority of the Church as articles of faith which must be accepted by all its members. -- J.J.R.

duality: A number of related concepts revolving around the idea that the structure of statements remain true for certain commutation (juxtaposition) of the representation of mathematical objects within such statements.

Dunwu rudao yaomen lun. (J. Tongo nyudo yomonron; K. Tono ipto yomun non 頓悟入道要門論). In Chinese, "Treatise on the Essential Gate of Entering the Way through Sudden Awakening," composed by the Tang dynasty CHAN master DAZHU HUIHAI (d.u.); also known as the Dunwu yaomen. The monk Miaoxie (d.u.) discovered this text in a box and published it in 1369 together with Dazhu's recorded sayings that he selectively culled from the JINGDE CHUANDENG LU. Miaoxie's edition is comprised of two rolls. The first roll contains Dazhu's text the Dunwu rudao yaomen lun, and the second contains his sayings, which Miaoxie entitled the Zhufang menren canwen yulu. A preface to this edition was prepared by the monk Chongyu (1304-1378). The Dunwu rudao yaomen lun focuses on the notion of "sudden awakening" (DUNWU) and attempts to explicate various doctrinal concepts, such as sĪLA, DHYĀNA, PRAJNĀ, TATHATĀ, BUDDHA-NATURE (FOXING), and "no-thought" (WUNIAN), from the perspective of sudden awakening. The text explains sudden awakening as the "sudden" (dun) eradication of deluded thoughts and "awakening" (WU) to nonattainment or the fundamental absence of anything that needs to be achieved. Citing such scriptures as the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA and VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, the text also contends that the mind itself is the foundation of cultivation and practice. The primary method of cultivation discussed in the text is seated meditation (ZUOCHAN), which it describes as the nonarising of deluded thoughts and seeing one's own nature (JIANXING). The Dunwu rudao yaomen lun also contends that sudden awakening begins with the perfection of giving (DĀNAPĀRAMITĀ).

eliminative materialism ::: An absolute version of materialism and physicalism with respect to mental entities and mental vocabulary, according to which humans' common-sense understanding of the mind (what eliminativists call folk psychology) is not a viable theory on which to base scientific investigation: behaviour and experience can only be adequately explained on the biological level. Therefore, no coherent neural basis will be found for everyday folk psychological concepts (such as belief, desire and intention, for they are illusory and therefore do not have any consistent neurological substrate. Eliminative materialists therefore believe that consciousness does not exist except as an epiphenomenon of brain function and some believe that the concept will eventually be eliminated as neuroscience progresses.

entity-relationship model "data, database, specification" The most common kind of {data modelling}, proposed by {P. Chen} in 1976, in which a database is divided into "entities" and "relations". Part of capturing the {requirements} of an {application} is defining the entities involved and their relationships. Together, these form an entity-relationship model. Entities are the kinds of things or concepts the application deals with, e.g. products, customers, sales transactions. A relationship connects two entities and says how many instances of each participate in the relationship - one-to-one, one-to-many or many-to-many. Entities and some relationships correspond to database {tables}. A table corresponding to a relationship is also known as a "join table" after the {join} database operation. A model is represented graphically as an {entity-relationship diagram}. ["The entity-relationship model: toward a unified view of data", P.P. Chen, ACM Transactions on Database Systems 1:1 pp 9-36, 1976]. (2019-11-03)

equivalence principle: Several related concepts that equates systems of different frames of reference.

Evolution ::: As the word is used in theosophy it means the "unwrapping," "unfolding," "rolling out" of latent powersand faculties native to and inherent in the entity itself, its own essential characteristics, or more generallyspeaking, the powers and faculties of its own character: the Sanskrit word for this last conception issvabhava. Evolution, therefore, does not mean merely that brick is added to brick, or experience merelytopped by another experience, or that variation is superadded on other variations -- not at all; for thiswould make of man and of other entities mere aggregates of incoherent and unwelded parts, without anessential unity or indeed any unifying principle.In theosophy evolution means that man has in him (as indeed have all other evolving entities) everythingthat the cosmos has because he is an inseparable part of it. He is its child; one cannot separate man fromthe universe. Everything that is in the universe is in him, latent or active, and evolution is the bringingforth of what is within; and, furthermore, what we call the surrounding milieu, circumstances -- nature, touse the popular word -- is merely the field of action on and in which these inherent qualities function,upon which they act and from which they receive the corresponding reaction, which action and reactioninvariably become a stimulus or spur to further manifestations of energy on the part of the evolvingentity.There are no limits in any direction where evolution can be said to begin, or where we can conceive of itas ending; for evolution in the theosophical conception is but the process followed by the centers ofconsciousness or monads as they pass from eternity to eternity, so to say, in a beginningless and endlesscourse of unceasing growth.Growth is the key to the real meaning of the theosophical teaching of evolution, for growth is but theexpression in detail of the general process of the unfolding of faculty and organ, which the usual wordevolution includes. The only difference between evolution and growth is that the former is a generalterm, and the latter is a specific and particular phase of this procedure of nature.Evolution is one of the oldest concepts and teachings of the archaic wisdom, although in ancient days theconcept was usually expressed by the word emanation. There is indeed a distinction, and an importantone, to be drawn between these two words, but it is a distinction arising rather in viewpoint than in anyactual fundamental difference. Emanation is a distinctly more accurate and descriptive word fortheosophists to use than evolution is, but unfortunately emanation is so ill-understood in the Occident,that perforce the accepted term is used to describe the process of interior growth expanding into andmanifesting itself in the varying phases of the developing entity. Theosophists, therefore, are, strictlyspeaking, rather emanationists than evolutionists; and from this remark it becomes immediately obviousthat the theosophist is not a Darwinist, although admitting that in certain secondary or tertiary senses anddetails there is a modicum of truth in Charles Darwin's theory adopted and adapted from the FrenchmanLamarck. The key to the meaning of evolution, therefore, in theosophy is the following: the core of everyorganic entity is a divine monad or spirit, expressing its faculties and powers through the ages in variousvehicles which change by improving as the ages pass. These vehicles are not physical bodies alone, butalso the interior sheaths of consciousness which together form man's entire constitution extending fromthe divine monad through the intermediate ranges of consciousness to the physical body. The evolvingentity can become or show itself to be only what it already essentially is in itself -- therefore evolution isa bringing out or unfolding of what already preexists, active or latent, within. (See also Involution)

Fayuan zhulin. (J. Hoon jurin; K. Pobwon churim 法苑珠林). In Chinese, "A Grove of Pearls in the Garden of the Dharma," compiled in 668 by the Tang-dynasty monk Daoshi (d. 683) of XIMINGXI; a comprehensive encyclopedia of Buddhism, in one hundred rolls and one hundred chapters, based on the DA TANG NEIDIAN LU and XU GAOSENG ZHUAN, which were compiled by Daoshi's elder brother, the monk DAOXUAN (596-667). The encyclopedia provides definitions and explanations for hundreds of specific Buddhist concepts, terms, and numerical lists. Each chapter deals with a single category such as the three realms of existence (TRILOKA[DHĀTU]), revering the Buddha, the DHARMA, and the SAMGHA, the monastery, relics (sARĪRA), repentance, receiving the precepts, breaking the precepts, and self-immolation (SHESHEN), covering these topics with numerous individual entries. The Fayuan zhulin is characterized by its use of numerous passages quoted from Buddhist scriptures in support of its explanations and interpretations. Since many of the texts that Daoshi cites in the Fayuan zhulin are now lost, the encyclopedia serves as an invaluable source for the study of medieval Chinese Buddhism.

Fengfa yao. (J. Hohoyo; K. Pongpop yo 奉法要). In Chinese, "Essentials of Upholding the DHARMA," a short Buddhist catechism, composed by Xichao (336-377), a lay follower of the monk ZHI DUN, which is preserved in the HONGMING JI. The Fengfa yao provides a brief overview of a number of important doctrinal concepts and categories, such as the three refuges (TRIsARAnA), five precepts (PANCAsĪLA), fasting, six recollections (ANUSMṚTI), five rebirth destinies (GATI), five aggregates (SKANDHA), five hindrances (NĪVARAnA), six sense bases (INDRIYA), mind (CITTA), KARMAN, patient endurance (KsĀNTI), NIRLĀnA, six perfections (PĀRAMILĀ), FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, confession, doing good works, etc. These notions are sometimes explained with reference to Daoist thought and historical and mythical events in China. As such, the Fengfa yao is an important source for studying the manner in which Buddhist doctrine was understood in early China.

Fictionism: An extreme form of pragmatism or instrumentalism according to which the basic concepts and principles of natural science, mathematics, philosophy, ethics, religion and jurisprudence are pure fictions which, though lacking objective truth, are useful instruments of action. The theory is advanced under the influence of Kant, by the German philosopher H. Vaihinger in his Philosophie des Als Ob, 1911. Philosophv of the "As If." English translation by C. K. Ogden.) See Fiction, Construction. -- L. W.

filognosy: love for the knowledge of self-realisation as inspired by as well the western as eastern concepts of emancipation that together make for the integrity of the different views, forms of logic and intelligence one finds in modern society on a global scale.

F. Logos: (Gr. logos) A term denoting either reason or one of the expressions of reason or order in words or things; such as word, discourse, definition, formula, principle, mathematical ratio. In its most important sense in philosophy it refers to a cosmic reason which gives order and intelligibility to the world. In this sense the doctrine first appears in Heraclitus, who affirms the reality of a Logos analogous to the reason in man that regulates all physical processes and is the source of all human law. The conception is developed more fully by the Stoics, who conceive of the world as a living unity, perfect in the adaptation of its parts to one another and to the whole, and animated by an immanent and purposive reason. As the creative source of this cosmic unity and perfection the world-reason is called the seminal reason (logos spermatikos), and is conceived as containing within itself a multitude of logoi spermatikoi, or intelligible and purposive forms operating in the world. As regulating all things, the Logos is identified with Fate (heimarmene); as directing all things toward the good, with Providence (pronoia); and as the ordered course of events, with Nature (physis). In Philo of Alexandria, in whom Hebrew modes of thought mingle with Greek concepts, the Logos becomes the immaterial instrument, and even at times the personal agency, through which the creative activity of the transcendent God is exerted upon the world. In Christian philosophy the Logos becomes the second person of the Trinity and its functions are identified with the creative, illuminating and redemptive work of Jesus Christ. Finally the Logos plays an important role in the system of Plotinus, where it appears as the creative and form-giving aspect of Intelligence (Nous), the second of the three Hypostases. -- G. R.

For the account given by Brouwerian intuitionism of the nature of mathematics, and the asserted priority of mathematics to logic and philosophy, see the article Mathematics. This account, with its reliance on the intuition of ordinary thinking and on the immediate evidence of mathematical concepts and inferences, and with its insistence on intuitively understandable construction as the only method for mathematical existence proofs, leads to a rejection of certain methods and assumptions of classical mathematics. In consequence, certain parts of classical mathematics have to be abandoned and others have to be reconstructed in different and often more complicated fashion.

Fourth Dimension A subject on which there is great confusion, owing chiefly to failure to distinguish between physical concepts and the concepts of pure geometry. Physical bodies are three-dimensional, neither more nor less; anything with fewer or more dimensions is not a physical body. In pure mathematics we may assume as many or few so-called dimensions as we like, as independent variables, and use this formulation in the interpretation of phenomena. Thus we can represent motion or position in time by a vector or a line, and thus devise a special calculus for the interpretation of physical phenomena, which we may call a space-time continuum. But we err if we try to imagine the existence of one-, two-, or four-dimensional physical bodies. It is of course easy to calculate how many sides, edges, such a transcendental body would have, supposing it could exist; but such calculations are purely algebraic. Such cloudy speculations have been seized upon to explain such phenomena as spiritualism and UFOs. However, this dimensional calculus is only useful for the interpretation of nonphysical ideas or phenomena — for example, the phenomena of thought or emotion — where physical concepts have been abstracted from our mind.

frame language ::: A technology used for knowledge representation in artificial intelligence. Frames are stored as ontologies of sets and subsets of the frame concepts. They are similar to class hierarchies in object-oriented languages although their fundamental design goals are different. Frames are focused on explicit and intuitive representation of knowledge whereas objects focus on encapsulation and information hiding. Frames originated in AI research and objects primarily in software engineering. However, in practice the techniques and capabilities of frame and object-oriented languages overlap significantly.

Frank, Philipp: (b. 1884) A member of the "Vienna Circle," who has made his home in the U. S. He has been avowedly influenced by Mach. His major work lies on the borderline between philosophy and physics and he makes an effort "to employ only concepts which will not lose their usefulness outside of physics."

Future: That part of time which includes all the events which will happen. According to many occultists and esoteric philosophers, the future co-exists with the present and the past, time is indivisible, unchangeable, and past, present and future are merely concepts of the human mind which moves along a “time track” through the reality which is time; foreknowledge, prophecy, etc., can be explained as glimpses ahead along the time track.

gambler's ruin: A number of related concepts and results in probability that is not in the gamblers' favour. Including how a player with a smaller stake goes bankrupt with a higher probability than a player with larger stake (i.e. a player against the house), even in the case of a fair game (which is often not the case); or that any player of finite wealth who only raises or maintain the same level of bets will ventually be bankrupt.

ganying. (J. kanno; K. kamŭng 感應). In Chinese, "sympathetic resonance," or "stimulus and response," a seminal concept in traditional Chinese philosophy, which is appropriated in early Chinese Buddhism to explain the Buddhist concepts of action (KARMAN) and grace (i.e., the "response" of a buddha or BODHISATTVA to a supplicant's invocation, or "stimulus"). Ganying is a mode of seemingly spontaneous (although not "uncaused") response that occurs naturally in a universe conceived holistically in terms of pattern or "principle" (LI) and interdependent order. The notion itself is deceptively simple: objects belonging to the same category or class are conceived as resonating spontaneously with each other, just as would two identically tuned strings on a pair of zithers. The notion of resonance was used in traditional Chinese philosophy to explain or rationalize the mechanism behind the elaborate system of correlated categories generally known as five-phase (wuxing) thought-viz., the primary elements of metal, wood, water, fire, and soil. According to early Chinese cosmology, the underlying principles and patterns of the universe seemingly give rise to, or resonate spontaneously with, correlative manifestations in the physical world. The Chinese conception of the universe as an interconnected harmonious whole finds expression in theories concerning the cyclic progression of the five phases and yin (dark) and yang (light), as well as in elaborate prescriptions pertaining to the ritual life of the court. The universe, according to this view, is in a state of continual motion and flux. The patterns of change are the result of the cyclic interactions between the five phases and the forces (or vital energies, C. qi) of yin and yang, which tend naturally in the direction of rhythmic balance and harmony. Humans do not stand apart from the natural universe but rather constitute a fundamental and integral part of this whole. Early Buddhist thinkers in China adapted the mechanism of sympathetic resonance to explain in Chinese terms how an action (karman) performed in one time period could evoke a corresponding response, or fruition (VIPĀKA), in another. In addition, sympathetic resonance was used by early Chinese Buddhist thinkers to make sense of the notion of grace. In this later sense, sentient beings' faith (sRADDHĀ) and/or roots of virtue (KUsALAMuLA) would invoke a "sympathetic response" in the minds of the buddhas and bodhisattvas, which prompts them to respond accordingly with salvific grace. In the PURE LAND traditions, sentient beings' recitation of the name of AMITĀBHA (see NIANFO) creates a sympathetic response in the mind of that buddha, which prompts him in turn to bring them to his pure land, where they may become enlightened. The rubric of ganying is just as prevalent in popular religious tracts in China, where it refers to the principle of moral retribution-the belief that one's good and evil deeds will result in corresponding rewards and punishments. While the Chinese notion of moral retribution (bao) meted out in this life or the next was indebted to Buddhist notions of karman and rebirth, in the premodern period, such retribution emerged as a fundamental principle of Chinese popular religious belief and practice, irrespective of one's specific religious affiliation. This doctrine was propagated through innumerable tales of miraculous retribution-such as "numinous attestation" (lingyan), "responsive attestation" (yingyan), or "numinous response" (lingying), and so on-that "attested" (yan) to the reality of the "numinous" or "supernatural" (ling) and the inevitability of divine justice.

Gematria (Hebrew Numerology) :::
Gematria is a system for calculating the numerical equivalence of letters, words, and phrases. This system is used for the purpose of gaining insight into interrelating concepts.


generator: Several relate concepts where a set of mathematical objects considered to be simpler than and completely specifies the mathematical object in question.

geometry: A branch of mathematics concerning distances between points, sets of points or angles formed by them and ideas derived from these concepts such as adjacency, areas and shapes etc.

geyi. (J. kakugi; K. kyogŭi 格義). In Chinese, "matching concepts," or "categorized concepts"; geyi has typically been explained as a method of translation and exegesis that was supposedly popular during the incipiency of Buddhism in China. It has been presumed that Buddhist translators of the Wei and Jin dynasties borrowed terms and concepts drawn from indigenous Chinese philosophy (viz., "Daoism") to "match" (ge) the "meaning" (yi) of complicated and poorly understood Sanskrit Buddhist terminology. For instance, translators borrowed the term wuwei, used in both Chinese Daoist and Confucian writings to refer to "nonaction" or "nondeliberative activity," to render the seminal Buddhist concept of NIRVĀnA. Misunderstandings were rife, however, since the matches would as often distort the Buddhist denotations of terms as clarify them. The technique of geyi has often been assumed by scholars to demonstrate that early Buddhism in China drew from the indigenous Daoist tradition in its initial attempts to make its message intelligible to its new Chinese audience. This view would correspondingly suggest that Daoism provided the inspiration for much of early Buddhist writing in China. This practice of drawing parallels to native Chinese concepts was criticized as early as the fourth century by the translator and cataloguer DAO'AN (312-385), who lobbied for the creation of a distinctive Chinese Buddhist vocabulary. Eventually Chinese Buddhists created their own neologisms for Buddhist technical terms, or resorted to transcription (viz., using Sinographs phonetically to transcribe the sound of the Sanskrit words) in order to render particularly significant, or polysemous, terms: e.g., using the transcription niepan, rather than the translation wuwei, as the standard rendering for nirvāna. In fact, however, the term geyi is quite rare in Chinese Buddhist literature from this incipient period. In the few instances where the term is attested, geyi seems instead to refer to Chinese attempts to cope with the use of lengthy numerical lists of seminal factors found in Indian Buddhist doctrinal formulations. This Indian proclivity for categorization is seldom evident in traditional Chinese philosophy and it would have been an extraordinary challenge for Chinese Buddhists to learn how to employ such lists skillfully. Against the received understanding of geyi as "matching concepts," then, the term may instead mean something more akin to "categorized concepts," referring to this Buddhist proclivity for producing extensive numerical lists of dharmas. See also FASHU.

Gezerah Shavah (&

Gnosiology: (Gr. gnosis, knowledge + logos, discourse) Theory of knowledge in so far as it relates to the origin, nature, limits and validity of knowledge as distinguished from methodology, the study of the basic concepts, postulates and presuppositions of the special sciences. -- L.W.

Gnosiology: Theory of knowledge in so far as it relates to the origin, nature, limits and validity of knowledge as distinguished from methodology, the study of the basic concepts, postulates and presuppositions of the special sciences.

Gnosis: (Gr. knowledge) Originally a generic term for knowledge, in the first and second centuries A.D. it came to mean an esoteric knowledge of higher religious and philosophic truths to be acquired by an elite group of intellectually developed believers. Philo Judaeus (30 B.C. to 50 A.D.) is a fore-runner of Jewish Gnosticism; the allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament, use of Greek philosophical concepts, particularly the Logos doctrine, in Biblical exegesis, and a semi-mystical number theory characterize his form of gnosis. Christian gnostics (Cerinthus, Menander, Saturninus, Valentine, Basilides, Ptolemaeus, and possibly Marcion) maintained that only those men who cultivated their spiritual powers were truly immortal, and they adopted the complicated teaching of a sphere of psychic intermediaries (aeons) between God and earthly things. There was also a pagan gnosis begun before Christ as a reformation of Greek and Roman religion. Philosophically, the only thing common to all types of gnosis is the effort to transcend rational, logical thought processes by means of intuition.

God: In metaphysical thinking a name for the highest, ultimate being, assumed by theology on the basis of authority, revelation, or the evidence of faith as absolutely necessary, but demonstrated as such by a number of philosophical systems, notably idealistic, monistic and dualistic ones. Proofs of the existence of God fall apart into those that are based on facts of experience (desire or need for perfection, dependence, love, salvation, etc.), facts of religious history (consensus gentium, etc.)), postulates of morality (belief in ultimate justice, instinct for an absolute good, conscience, the categorical imperative, sense of duty, need of an objective foundation of morality, etc.)), postulates of reason (cosmological, physico-theological, teleological, and ontological arguments), and the inconceivableness of the opposite. As to the nature of God, the great variety of opinions are best characterized by their several conceptions of the attributes of God which are either of a non-personal (pantheistic, etc.) or personal (theistic, etc.) kind, representing concepts known from experience raised to a superlative degree ("omniscient", "eternal", etc.). The reality, God, may be conceived as absolute or as relative to human values, as being an all-inclusive one, a duality, or a plurality. Concepts of God calling for unquestioning faith, belief in miracles, and worship or representing biographical and descriptive sketches of God and his creation, are rather theological than metaphysical, philosophers, on the whole, utilizing the idea of God or its linguistic equivalents in other languages, despite popular and church implications, in order not to lose the feeling-contact with the rather abstract world-ground. See Religion, Philosophy of. -- K.F.L.

graph (abstract data type) ::: In computer science, a graph is an abstract data type that is meant to implement the undirected graph and directed graph concepts from mathematics; specifically, the field of graph theory.

Herbartianism: The philosophical, but particularly the psychological and pedagogical doctrines of Johann Friedrich Herbart (q.v.) as expounded in modified and developed form by his disciples, notably M. Lazarus and H. Steinthal in psychology, T. Zillcr and W. Rein in pedagogy, M. Drobisch in religious philosophy and ethics. In America, the movement was vigorous and influential, but shortlived (about 1890-1910) and confined mainly to education (Charles De-Garmo and Charles A. McMurry). Like Herbart, his disciples strove for a clarification of concepts with special emphasis on scientific method, the doctrine of apperception, and the efficacy of a mathematical approach even in their psychology which was dominated by associational thinking; yet they discarded more or less the master's doctrine of reals. -- K.F.L.

Heterogeneity: (Lat. Heterogeneitas) The condition of having different parts; diversity of composition; distinction of kind. Hamilton's law: "that every concept contains other concepts under it; and therefore, when divided proximately, we descend always to other concepts, but never to individuals; in other words, things the most homogeneous -- similar -- must in certain respects be heterogeneous -- dissimilar." Employed by H. Spencer (1820-1903) to denote the presence of differentiation in the cosmic material. Opposite of: homogeneity (q- v.). -- J.K.F.

Hinduism ::: The oldest major religion, as well as a philosophy, that encompasses a variety of traditions and practices but which has shared concepts of cosmology as well a shared collection of sacred texts that expound upon morality, consciousness, and cyclicity.

His aesthetics defines art as an expression of sentiment, as a language. His logic emphasizes the distinction of categories, reducing opposition to a derivative of distinction. According to his ethics, economics is an autonomous and absolute moment of spirit. His theory of history regards all history as contemporaneous. His philosophy is one of the greatest attempts at elaboration of pure concepts entirely appropriate to historical experience.

Homogeneity: (Lat. homogeneitas) The condition of having similar parts; uniformity of composition; identity of kind. Hamilton's Law of, "that however different any two concepts may be, they both are subordinate to some higher concept -- things most unlike must in some respects be like". Employed by H. Spencer (1820-1903) to denote the absence of differentiation in the cosmic material. Opposite of heterogeneity (q.v.). -- J.K.F.

Hongming ji. (J. Gumyoshu; K. Hongmyong chip 弘明集). In Chinese, "Collection on the Propagation and Clarification [of Buddhism]," compiled by the monk SENGYOU (445-518) of the Liang dynasty sometime between 515 and 518. The Hongming ji is a fourteen-roll collection of Buddhist apologetics, prepared in response to growing criticisms of the religion by rival Confucians and Daoists, and to interference in Buddhism's religious affairs by the government. Against these challenges, the Hongming ji attempted to defend the authenticity of the translated scriptures of Buddhism and its seminal doctrines. In its explanation and defense of such concepts as buddha or KARMAN, the Hongming ji drew not just on Buddhist sources, but also on the common terminology of its opponents. For this reason, the Hongming ji serves as an important source for studying the interactions between the different Chinese religious traditions and the process through which Buddhism was appropriated in early China. Sengyou's Hongming ji was expanded to thirty rolls by DAOXUAN in his Guang hongming ji.

huatou. (J. wato; K. hwadu 話頭). In Chinese, "topic of inquiry"; in some contexts, "critical phrase" or "keyword." The Song-dynasty CHAN master DAHUI ZONGGAO, in the LINJI ZONG, popularized a meditative technique in which he urged his students (many of whom were educated literati) to use a Chan case (GONG'AN) as a "topic of meditative inquiry" (huatou) rather than interpret it from purely intellectual or literary perspectives. Perhaps the most famous and most widely used huatou is the topic "no" (WU) attributed to the Chan master ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN: A monk asked Zhaozhou, "Does a dog have buddha-nature (FOXING), or not?," to which Zhaozhou replied "WU" ("no"; lit. "it does not have it"; see GOUZI WU FOXING; WU GONG'AN). Because of the widespread popularity of this particular one-word topic in China, Korea, and Japan, this huatou is often interpreted as a "critical phrase'" or "keyword," in which the word "wu" is presumed to be the principal topic and thus the "keyword," or "critical phrase," of the longer gong'an exchange. Because Zhaozhou's answer in this exchange goes against the grain of East Asian Mahāyāna Buddhism-which presumes that all sentient beings, including dogs, are inherently enlightened-the huatou helps to foster questioning, or technically "doubt" (YIQING), the focus of a new type of Chan meditation called KANHUA CHAN, "the Chan of investigating the huatou." Huatou (which literally means "head of speech," and thus "topic") might best be taken metaphorically as the "apex of speech," or the "point at which (or beyond which) speech exhausts itself." Speech is of course initiated by thought, so "speech" in this context refers to all the discriminative tendencies of the mind, viz., conceptualization. By leading to the very limits of speech-or more accurately thought-the huatou acts as a purification device that frees the mind of its conceptualizing tendencies, leaving it clear, attentive, and calm. Even though the huatou is typically a word or phrase taken from the teachings of previous Chan masters, it is a word that is claimed to bring an end to conceptualization, leaving the mind receptive to the influence of the unconditioned. As Dahui notes, huatou produces a "cleansing knowledge and vision" (see JNĀNADARsANA) that "removes the defects of conceptual understanding so that one may find the road leading to liberation." Huatou is thus sometimes interpreted in Chinese Buddhism as a type of meditative "homeopathy," in which one uses a small dosage of the poison of concepts to cure the disease of conceptualization. Dahui's use of the huatou technique was first taught in Korea by POJO CHINUL, where it is known by its Korean pronunciation as hwadu, and popularized by Chinul's successor, CHIN'GAK HYESIM. Investigation of the hwadu remains the most widespread type of meditation taught and practiced in Korean Buddhism. In Japanese Zen, the use of the wato became widespread within the RINZAISHu, due in large part to the efforts of HAKUIN EKAKU and his disciples.

Huayan shiyi. (J. Kegon no jugi; K. Hwaom sibŭi 華嚴十義). In Chinese, "Ten Meanings [propounded by] the Huayan [School]." A central thesis of HUAYAN philosophy is the "unimpeded interpenetration of all phenomena" (shishi wu'ai; see SHISHI WU'AI FAJIE). In order to provide some sense of what this "unimpeded interpenetration" entails, Huayan exegetes employed ten examples to explain how each constituent of a pair of concepts mutually validates and subsumes the other constituent: (1) the "teaching" and the "meaning" it designates (jiaoyi); (2) "phenomena" and their underlying "principle" (lishi); (3) "understanding" and its "implementation" (jiexing); (4) "causes" and their "results" (yinguo); (5) the "expounders" of the dharma and the "dharma" they expound (renfa); (6) the "distinction" and "unity" between distinct things (fenqi jingwei); (7) the "teacher," his "disciple," the "dharma" that is imparted from the former to the latter, and the "wisdom" that the disciple receives from that dharma (shidi fazhi); (8) the "dominant" and the "subordinate," the "primary" and the "secondary," and relations that pertain between things (zhuban yizheng); (9) the enlightened sages who "respond" to the spiritual maturity of their audiences and the audiences whose spiritual maturity "solicited" the appearance of the enlightened sages in the world (suishenggen yushixian); and (10) the spiritual "obstacles" and their corresponding "antidotes," the "essence" of phenomena and their "functions" or "efficacy" (nishun tiyong zizai). Each constituent of the above ten dichotomies derives its contextualized meaning and provisional existence from its opposite, thereby illustrating the Huayan teaching of the interconnectedness and mutual interpenetration between all things.

Huayan shiyi. (J. Kegon no jui; K. Hwaom sibi 華嚴十異). In Chinese, "Ten Distinctions of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA," ten reasons why HUAYAN exegetes consider the AvataMsakasutra to be superior to all other scriptures and thus the supreme teaching of the Buddha. (1) The "time of its exposition" was unique (shiyi): the sutra was supposedly the first scripture preached after the Buddha's enlightenment and thus offers the most unadulterated enunciation of his experience. (2) The "location of its exposition" was unique (chuyi): it is said that the BODHI TREE under which the sutra was preached was the center of the "oceans of world systems of the lotus womb world" (S. padmagarbhalokadhātu; C. lianhuazang shijie; cf. TAIZoKAI). (3) The "preacher" was unique (zhuyi): The sutra was supposedly preached by VAIROCANA Buddha, as opposed to other "emanation buddhas." (4) The "audience" was unique (zhongyi): only advanced BODHISATTVAs-along with divinities and demigods who were in actuality emanations of the Buddha-were present for its preaching; thus, there was no division between MAHĀYĀNA and HĪNAYĀNA. (5) The "basis" of the sutra was unique (suoyiyi): its teaching was based on the one vehicle (EKAYĀNA), not the other provisional vehicles created later within the tradition. (6) The "exposition" of the sutra was unique (shuoyi): the AvataMsakasutra preached in this world system is consistent with the sutra as preached in all other world systems; this is unlike other sutras, which were provisional adaptations to the particular needs of this world system only. (7) The "status" of the vehicles in the sutra were unique (weiyi): no provisional categorization of the three vehicles of Buddhism (TRIYĀNA) was made in this sutra. This is because, according to the sutra's fundamental theme of "unimpeded interpenetration," any one vehicle subsumes all other vehicles and teachings. (8) Its "practice" was unique (xingyi): the stages (BHuMI) of the BODHISATTVA path are simultaneously perfected in this sutra's teachings, as opposed to having to be gradually perfected step-by-step. (9) The enumeration of "dharma gates," or list of dharmas, was unique (famenyi): whereas other sutras systematize doctrinal formulas using different numerical schemes (e.g., FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, eightfold path, etc.), this sutra exclusively employs in all its lists the number "ten"-a mystical number that symbolizes the sutra's infinite scope and depth. (10) Its "instantiation" was unique (shiyi): even the most mundane phenomena described in the AvataMsakasutra (such as trees, water, mountains, etc.) are expressions of the deepest truth; this is unlike other sutras that resort primarily to abstract, philosophical concepts like "emptiness" (suNYATĀ) or "suchness" (TATHATĀ) in order to express their profoundest truths.

Huayan wujiao. (J. Kegon no gokyo; K. Hwaom ogyo 華嚴五教). In Chinese, "Huayan's five classifications of the teachings." The HUAYAN ZONG recognizes two different versions of this doctrinal-classification schema, which ranks different strands of Buddhist teachings. The best-known version was outlined by DUSHUN and FAZANG: (1) The HĪNAYĀNA teachings (xiaojiao; cf. XIAOSHENG JIAO), also known as the srāvakayāna teaching (shengwenjiao), was pejoratively referred to as "teachings befitting the [spiritually] obtuse" (yufa). The ĀGAMAs and the ABHIDHARMAs were relegated to this class, which supposedly dealt primarily with theories of elements (DHĀTU) and more basic concepts such as dependent origination (PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA). (2) The "elementary teaching [of Mahāyāna]" ([Dasheng] SHIJIAO). Within this category, two additional subgroups were differentiated. The first was the "initial teaching pertaining to emptiness" (kong shijiao), which encompassed the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ literature and exegetical traditions such as MADHYAMAKA. This class of teachings was characterized by an emphasis (or, in Huayan's polemical assessment, an overemphasis) on the doctrine of emptiness (suNYATĀ). The second subgroup, the "initial teaching pertaining to phenomena" (xiang shijiao), broaches the dynamic and phenomenal aspects of reality and did not confine itself to the theme of emptiness. YOGĀCĀRA and its traditional affiliate sutras and commentaries were classified under this subgroup. Together, these two subgroups were deemed the provisional teachings (quanjiao) within the MAHĀYĀNA tradition. (3) The "advanced [Mahāyāna] teachings" ([Dasheng] ZHONGJIAO) focused on the way true suchness (ZHENRU; S. TATHATĀ) was innately immaculate but could be activated in response to myriad conditions. The DASHENG QIXIN LUN ("Awakening of Faith"), sRĪMĀLĀDEVĪSIMHANĀDASuTRA, and LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA are examples of texts belonging to this doctrinal category. The treatment in these texts of the one mind (YIXIN) and TATHĀGATAGARBHA thought was considered a more definitive rendition of the MAHĀYĀNA teachings than were the elementary teachings (shijiao). (4) The "sudden teachings" (DUNJIAO), which includes texts like the VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, was ranked as a unique category of subitist teachings befitting people of keen spiritual faculties (TĪKsnENDRIYA), and therefore bypasses traditional, systematic approaches to enlightenment. The CHAN ZONG's touted soteriological methods involving sudden enlightenment (DUNWU) and its rejection of reliance on written texts led some Huayan teachers to relegate that school to this advanced, but still inferior, category of the teachings. Chan was thus superseded by, (5) the "perfect teachings" or "consummate teachings" (YUANJIAO). This supposedly most comprehensive and definitive strand of Buddhist teaching was reserved for the Huayan school and especially its definitive scripture, the AVATAMSAKASuTRA. ¶ The second version of five classifications was made by GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841) in his YUANREN LUN: (1) The "teachings pertaining to the human and heavenly realms" (RENTIAN JIAO) encompassed "mundane" (LAUKIKA) practices, such as the observation of the five precepts (PANCAsĪLA) and the ten wholesome ways of action (KUsALA-KARMAPATHA); this classification was named because of its believed efficacy to lead practitioners to higher realms of rebirth. (2) The "HĪNAYĀNA teachings" (XIAOSHENG JIAO), which were similar to the previous "xiaojiao." (3) The "dharma-characteristics teachings of MAHĀYĀNA" (Dasheng faxiang jiao), which was analogous to the aforementioned "elementary teaching pertaining to phenomena" (xiang shijiao) in the preceding classification scheme. (4) The "characteristics-negating teachings of MAHĀYĀNA" (Dasheng poxiang jiao) was analogous to the preceding "elementary teaching pertaining to emptiness." (5) The "nature-revealing teaching of the one vehicle" (yisheng xiangxing jiao) was equivalent to the last three categories Fazang's system combined together. See also HUAYAN WUJIAO ZHANG.

hyperfocus: is an intense form of mental concentration or visualisation that focuses consciousness on a narrow subject, or beyond objective reality and onto subjective mental planes, daydreams, concepts, fiction, the imagination, and other objects of the mind.

IBM 1620 ::: (computer) A computer built by IBM and released in late 1959. The 1620 cost from around $85,000(?) up to hundreds of thousands of dollars(?) according distinguish it from the business-oriented IBM 1401. It was regarded as inexpensive, and many schools started out with one.It was either developed for the US Navy to teach computing, or as a replacement for the very successful IBM 650 which did quite well in the low end scientific market. Rumour has it that the Navy called this computer the CADET - Can't Add, Doesn't Even Try.The ALU used lookup tables to add, subtract and multiply but it could do address increments and the like without the tables. You could change the number base by cards. The divide instruction required additional hardware, as did floating point operations.The basic machine had 20,000 decimal digits of ferrite core memory arranged as a 100 by 100 array of 12-bit locations, each holding two digits. Each digit was stored as four numeric bits, one flag bit and one parity bit. The numeric bits stored a decimal digit (values above nine were illegal).Memory was logically divided into fields. On the high-order digit of a field the flag bit indicated the end of the field. On the low-order digit it indicated a addressing if you had that option installed. A few illegal bit combinations were used to store things like record marks and numeric blanks.On a subroutine call it stored the return address in the five digits just before the entry point to the routine, so you had to build your own stack to do recursion.The enclosure was grey, and the core was about four or five inches across. The core memory was kept cool inside a temperature-controlled box. The machine took a few minutes to warm up after power on before you could use it. If it got too hot there was a thermal cut-out switch that would shut it down.Memory could be expanded up to 100,000 digits in a second cabinet. The cheapest package used paper tape for I/O. You could also get punched cards and later models could be hooked up to a 1311 disk drive (a two-megabyte washing machine), a 1627 plotter, and a 1443 line printer.Because the 1620 was popular with colleges, IBM ran a clearing house of software for a nominal cost such as Snobol, COBOL, chess games, etc.The model II, released about three years later, could add and subtract without tables. The clock period decreased from 20 to 10 microseconds, instruction fetch the console teletype changed from a model C to a Selectric. Later still, IBM marketed the IBM 1710.A favorite use was to tune a FM radio to pick up the interference from the lights on the console. With the right delay loops you could generate musical notes. Hackers wrote interpreters that played music from notation like C44.1620 consoles were used as props to represent Colossus in the film The Forbin Project, though most of the machines had been scrapped by the time the film was made. . . (Thanks Victor E. McGee, pictured).[Basic Programming Concepts and the IBM 1620 Computer, Leeson and Dimitry, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962]. (1997-08-05)

IBM 1620 "computer" A computer built by {IBM} and released in late 1959. The 1620 cost from around $85,000(?) up to hundreds of thousands of dollars(?) according to the configuration. It was billed as a "small scientific computer" to distinguish it from the business-oriented {IBM 1401}. It was regarded as inexpensive, and many schools started out with one. It was either developed for the US Navy to teach computing, or as a replacement for the very successful {IBM 650} which did quite well in the low end scientific market. Rumour has it that the Navy called this computer the CADET - Can't Add, Doesn't Even Try. The {ALU} used lookup tables to add, subtract and multiply but it could do address increments and the like without the tables. You could change the number base by adjusting the tables, which were input during the boot sequence from {Hollerith} cards. The divide instruction required additional hardware, as did {floating point} operations. The basic machine had 20,000 decimal digits of {ferrite core memory} arranged as a 100 by 100 array of 12-bit locations, each holding two digits. Each digit was stored as four numeric bits, one flag bit and one parity bit. The numeric bits stored a decimal digit (values above nine were illegal). Memory was logically divided into fields. On the high-order digit of a field the flag bit indicated the end of the field. On the low-order digit it indicated a negative number. A flag bit on the low order of the address indicated {indirect addressing} if you had that option installed. A few "illegal" bit combinations were used to store things like record marks and "numeric blanks". On a {subroutine} call it stored the {return address} in the five digits just before the entry point to the routine, so you had to build your own {stack} to do {recursion}. The enclosure was grey, and the core was about four or five inches across. The core memory was kept cool inside a temperature-controlled box. The machine took a few minutes to warm up after power on before you could use it. If it got too hot there was a thermal cut-out switch that would shut it down. Memory could be expanded up to 100,000 digits in a second cabinet. The cheapest package used {paper tape} for I/O. You could also get {punched cards} and later models could be hooked up to a 1311 {disk drive} (a two-{megabyte} {washing machine}), a 1627 {plotter}, and a 1443 {line printer}. Because the 1620 was popular with colleges, IBM ran a clearing house of software for a nominal cost such as {Snobol}, {COBOL}, chess games, etc. The model II, released about three years later, could add and subtract without tables. The {clock period} decreased from 20 to 10 microseconds, instruction fetch sped up by a few cycles and it added {index registers} of some sort. Some of the model I's options were standard on the model II, like {indirect addressing} and the {console} {teletype} changed from a model C to a {Selectric}. Later still, IBM marketed the {IBM 1710}. A favorite use was to tune a FM radio to pick up the "interference" from the lights on the console. With the right delay loops you could generate musical notes. Hackers wrote {interpreters} that played music from notation like "C44". {IBM 1620 console (img:/pub/misc/IBM1620-console.jpg)} 1620 consoles were used as props to represent {Colossus} in the film "The Forbin Project", though most of the machines had been scrapped by the time the film was made. {A fully configured 1620 (http://uranus.ee.auth.gr/TMTh/exhibit.htm)}. {IBM 1620 at Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA (/pub/misc/IBM1620-Tuck1960s.jpg)} (Thanks Victor E. McGee, pictured). ["Basic Programming Concepts and the IBM 1620 Computer", Leeson and Dimitry, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962]. (2018-09-11)

Idea: (Gr. idea) This term has enjoyed historically a considerable diversity of usage. In pre-Platonic Greek: form, semblance, nature, fashion or mode, class or species. Plato (and Socrates): The Idea is a timeless essence or universal, a dynamic and creative archetype of existents. The Ideas comprise a hierarchy and an organic unity in the Good, and are ideals as patterns of existence and as objects of human desire. The Stoics: Ideas are class concepts in the human mind. Neo-Platonism: Ideas are archetypes of things considered as in cosmic Mind (Nous or Logos). Early Christianity and Scholasticism: Ideas are archetypes eternally subsistent in the mind of God. 17th Century: Following earlier usage, Descartes generally identified ideas with subjective, logical concepts of the human mind. Ideas were similarly treated as subjective or mental by Locke, who identified them with all objects of consciousness. Simple ideas, from which, by combination, all complex ideas are derived, have their source either in sense perception or "reflection" (intuition of our own being and mental processes). Berkeley: Ideas are sense objects or perceptions, considered either as modes of the human soul or as a type of mind-dependent being. Concepts derived from objects of intuitive introspection, such as activity, passivity, soul, are "notions." Hume: An Idea is a "faint image" or memory copy of sense "impressions." Kant: Ideas are concepts or representations incapable of adequate subsumption under the categories, which escape the limits of cognition. The ideas of theoretical or Pure Reason are ideals, demands of the human intellect for the absolute, i.e., the unconditioned or the totality of conditions of representation. They include the soul, Nature and God. The ideas of moral or Practical Reason include God, Freedom, and Immortality. The ideas of Reason cannot be sensuously represented (possess no "schema"). Aesthetic ideas are representations of the faculty of imagination to which no concept can be adequate.

IDEAS, SCALING DOWN OF When the causal ideas of intuition are mentalized into mental concepts, these ideas become ideals for reason, and when these ideals are emotionalized, they become dogmas for emotional thinking. But when the ideas have thus been twice scaled down, their relative validity has been made absolute and thus they have become inimical to life. K 5.8.19

Ideatum: Noun denoting the object of an idea or that which is represented in the mind by the idea. Also applied to really existing things outside the mind corresponding to the concepts in consciousness. -- J.J.R.

Identity-philosophy: In general the term has been applied to any theory which failed to distinguish between spirit and matter, subject and object, regarding them as an undifferentiated unity; hence such a philosophy is a species of monism. In the history of philosophy it usually signifies the system which has been called Identitätsphilosophie by Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling who held that spirit and nature are fundamentally the same, namely, the Absolute. Neither the ego nor the non-ego are the ultimate principles of being; they are both relative concepts which are contained in something absolute. This is the supreme principle of Absolute Identity of the ideal and the real. Reasoning does not lead us to the Absolute which can only be attained by immediate intellectual intuition. In it we find the eternal concepts of things and from it we can derive everything else. We are obliged to conceive the Absolute Identity as the indifference of the ideal and the real. Of course, this is God in Whom all opposites are united. He is the unity of thought and being, the subjective and the objective, form and essence, the general and infinite, and the particular and finite. This teaching is similar to that of Spinoza. -- J.J.R.

In contributing some elements of a "universal calculus" he may be said to have been the first serious student of symbolic logic. He devised a symbolism for such concepts and relations as "and", "or", implication between concepts, class inclusion, class and conceptual equivalence, etc. One of his sets of symbolic representations for the four standard propositions of traditional logic coincides with the usage of modern logic He anticipated in the principles of his calculus many of the important rules of modern symbolic systems. His treatment, since it was primarily intensional, neglected important extensional features of recent developments, but, on the other hand, called attention to certain intensional distinctions now commonly neglected.

Indian Ethics: Ethical speculations are inherent in Indian philosophy (q.v.) with its concepts of karma, moksa, ananda (q.v.). Belief in salvation is universal, hence optimism rather than pessimism is prevalent even though one's own life is sometimes treated contemptuously, fatalism is embraced or the doctrine of non-attachment and desirelessness is subscribed to. Social institutions, thoughts, and habits in India are interdependent with the theory of karma and the belief in universal law and order (cf. dharma). For instance, caste exists because dharma is inviolable, man is born into his circumstances because he reaps what he has sown. Western influence, in changing Indian institutions, will eventually also modify Indian ethical theories. All the same, great moral sensitiveness is not lacking, rather much the contrary, as is proven by the voluminous story and didactic fable literature which has also acted on the West. Hindu moral conscience is evident from the ideals of womanhood (symbolized in Sita), of loyalty (symbolized in Hanuman), of kindness to all living beings (cf. ahimsa), of tolerance (the racial and religious hotchpotch which is India being an eloquent witness), the great respect for the samnyasin (who, as a member of the Brahman caste has precedence over the royal or military). Critics confuse -- and the wretched conduct of some Hindus confirm the indistinction -- practical morality with the fearless statements of metaphysics pursued with relentless logic "beyond good and evil."

indriyasaMvara. (T. dbang po sdom pa; C. genlüyi; J. konritsugi; K. kŭnyurŭi 根律儀). In Sanskrit and Pāli, "sensory restraint," or "guarding the sense organs"; an important factor in the development of mindfulness (SMṚTI, P. SATI) and eventually concentration (SAMĀDHI), in which the meditator trains to see things as they actually are, rather than only in terms of oneself-i.e., as things we like, dislike, or are indifferent toward. In addition to its role in formal meditative training, indriyasaMvara should also be maintained throughout the ordinary activities of everyday life, in order to control the inveterate tendency toward craving. Maintaining sensory restraint helps the meditator to control one's reaction to the generic signs (NIMITTA) or secondary characteristics (ANUVYANJANA) of an object; instead, one halts the perceptual process at the level of simple recognition, simply noting what is seen, heard, etc. By not seizing on these signs and characteristics, perception is maintained at a level prior to an object's conceptualization and the resulting proliferation of concepts (PRAPANCA) throughout the full range of one's sensory experience. As the frequent refrain in the sutras states, "In the seen, there is only the seen," and not the superimpositions created by the intrusion of ego (ĀTMAN) into the perceptual process. Mastery of this technique of sensory restraint provides access to the signless (ĀNIMITTA) gate to deliverance (VIMOKsAMUKHA).

In English and other natural languages there occur also common names (common nouns), such a common name being thought of as if it could serve as a name of anything belonging to a specified class or having specified characteristics. Under usual translations into symbolic notation, common names are replaced by proper names of classes or of class concepts; and this would seem to provide the best logical analysis. In actual English usage, however, a common noun is often more nearly like a variable (q. v.) having a specified range. -- A.C.

In Epistemology (See his Mind and the World-Order) Lewis has presented a "conceptualistic pragmatism" based on these theses: "A priori truth is definitive in nature and rises exclusively from the analysis of concepts." "The choice of conceptual systems for . . . application [to particular given experiences] is . . . pragmatic." "That experience in general is such as to be capable of conceptual interpretation . . . could not conceivably be otherwise." --C.A.B. Li: Reason; Law; the Rational Principle. This is the basic concept of modern Chinese philosophy. To the Neo-Confucians, especially Ch'eng I-ch'uan (1033-1107), Ch'eng Ming-tao (1032-1086) and Chu Hsi (1130-1200), Reason is the rational principle of existence whereas the vital force (ch'i) is the material principle. All things have the same Reason in them, making them one reality. By virtue of their Reason, Heaven and Earth and all things are not isolated. The Reason of a thing is one with the Reason of all things. A thing can function easily if it follows its own Reason. Everything can be understood by its Reason. This Reason of a thing is the same as its nature (hsingj. Subjectively it is the nature, objectively it is Reason. Lu Hsiang-shan (1139-1193) said that there is only one mind and there is only one Reason, which are identical. It fills the universe, manifesting itself everywhere. To Wang Yang-ming (1473-1529), the mind itself is the embodiment of Reason. To say that there is nothing existing independent of Reason is to say that there is nothing apart from the mind. See Li hsueh, Chinese philosophy, and ch'i. -- W.T.C.

inertial frame of reference: An inertial coordinate system for positions and related concepts.

(In Kant) A judgment comprising two concepts related by a copula, typically an attribute (predicate) asserted of a substance or thing (subject). Kant denied that hypothetical and disjunctive propositions can be reduced to categorical ones and insisted that each of the forms of judgment denotes a distinct function of the understanding. See Logik, § 24. -- O.F.K.

In Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (Tr. Analytic): The procedure of the imagination by which the categories of the understanding are applied to the manifold of sensuous intuitions. Imagination, working with the pure form of time, connects sense and understanding. This is possible because the imagination contains an element of both sense and understanding, and thus is capable of formulating the rules and procedures by means of which sensuous representations may be subsumed under pure concepts. See Kantianism. -- O.F.K.

In scholasticism: The English term translates three Latin terms which, in Scholasticism, have different significations. Ens as a noun is the most general and most simple predicate; as a participle it is an essential predicate only in regard to God in Whom existence and essence are one, or Whose essence implies existence. Esse, though used sometimes in a wider sense, usually means existence which is defined as the actus essendi, or the reality of some essence. Esse quid or essentia designates the specific nature of some being or thing, the "being thus" or the quiddity. Ens is divided into real and mental being (ens rationis). Though the latter also has properties, it is said to have essence only in an improper way. Another division is into actual and potential being. Ens is called the first of all concepts, in respect to ontology and to psychology; the latter statement of Aristotle appears to be confirmed by developmental psychology. Thing (res) and ens are synonymous, a res may be a res extra mentem or only rationis. Every ens is: something, i.e. has quiddity, one, true, i.e. corresponds to its proper nature, and good. These terms, naming aspects which are only virtually distinct from ens, are said to be convertible with ens and with each other. Ens is an analogical term, i.e. it is not predicated in the same manner of every kind of being, according to Aquinas. In Scotism ens, however, is considered as univocal and as applying to God in the same sense as to created beings, though they be distinguished as entia ab alto from God, the ens a se. See Act, Analogy, Potency, Transcendentals. -- R.A.

Intelligible: Understandable; comprehensible; knowable; meaningful; Orderly; logical; coherent; rational; Communicable; expressible; Having unity of principle; capable of complete rational explanation or understanding; capable of causal explanation; Clear to natural or pure reason; apprehensible by the intellect (q.v.) only as against apprehensible through the senses; conceptual as against perceptual; conceptually describable or explainable; Capable of being known synoptically or as it is in itself or in essence; capable of being known through itself as against by agency of something else; graspable by in tuition, self-explanatory; Capable of being appreciated or sympathized with; Super-sensible; of the nature of mind, reason, or their higher powers. . -- M.T.K Intension and extension: The intension of a concept consists of the qualities or properties which go to make up the concept. The extension of a concept consists of the things which fall under the concept; or, according to another definition, the extension of a concept consists of the concepts which are subsumed under it (determine subclasses). This is the old distinction between intension and extension, and coincides approximately with the distinction between a monadic proposittonal function (q. v.) in intension and a class (q. v.). The words intension and extension are also used in connection with a number of distinctions related or analogous to this one, the adjective extensional being applied to notions or points of view which in some respect confine attention to truth-values of propositions as opposed to meanings constituting propositions. In the case of (interpreted) calculi of propositions or propositional functions, the adjective intensional may mean that account is taken of modality, extensional that all functions of propositions which appear are truth-functions. The extreme of the extensional point of view does away with propositions altogether and retains only truth-values in their place. -- A.C.

Interoceptor: See Receptor. Intersubjective: Used and understood by, or valid for different subjects. Especially, i. language, i. concepts, i. knowledge, i. confirmability (see Verification). The i. character of science is especially emphasized by Scientific Empiricism (q. v., I C). -- R.C.

In the first edition of the Logische Untersuchungen phenomenology was defined (much as it had been by Hamilton and Lazarus) as descriptive analysis of subjective processes Erlebnisse. Thus its theme was unqualifiedly identified with what was commonly taken to be the central theme of psychology; the two disciplines were said to differ only in that psychology sets up causal or genetic laws to explain what phenomenology merely describes. Phenomenology was called "pure" so far as the phenomenologist distinguishes the subjective from the objective and refrains from looking into either the genesis of subjective phenomena or their relations to somatic and environmental circumstances. Husserl's "Prolegomena zur reinen Logik" published as the first part of the Logische Untersuchungen, had elaborated the concept of pure logic, a theoretical science independent of empirical knowledge and having a distinctive theme: the universal categorial forms exemplified in possible truths, possible facts, and their respective components. The fundamental concepts and laws of this science, Husserl maintained, are genuine only if they can be established by observing the matters to which they apply. Accordingly, to test the genuineness of logical theory, "wir wollen auf die 'Sachen selbst' zurückgehen": we will go, from our habitual empty understanding of this alleged science, back to a seeing of the logical forms themselves. But it is then the task of pure phenomenology to test the genuineness and range of this "seeing," to distinguish it from other ways of being conscious of the same or other matters. Thus, although pure phenomenology and pure logic are mutually independent disciplines with separate themes, phenomenological analysis is indispensible to the critical justification of logic. In like manner, Husserl maintained, it is necessary to the criticism of other alleged knowledge; while, in another way, its descriptions are prerequisite to explanatory psychology. However, when Husserl wrote the Logische Untersuchungen, he did not yet conceive phenomenological analysis as a method for dealing with metaphysical problems.

In the second part, the "Transcendental Logic", Kant treats of the synthetic forms of the understanding. (Verstand), which he calls "categories" or "pure principles of the understanding". Of these he recognizes twelve in all, arranged in groups of threes under the heads: quantity, quality, relation and modality. The sensuous materials embedded in the forms of sensibility constitute percepts, while reason, through the understanding, supplies the concepts and principles by means of which percepts are synthesized into meaningful judgments of Nature. In the celebrated "deduction of the categories", Kant shows that without these forms there could be no knowledge or experience of Nature. Just therein and only therein lies their va1idity.

ISWIM "language" (If You See What I Mean) An influential but unimplemented computer programming language described in the article by {Peter J. Landin} cited below. Landin attempted to capture all known programming language concepts, including {assignment} and control operators such as {goto} and {coroutines}, within a single {lambda calculus} based framework. ISWIM is an {imperative language} with a functional core, consisting of {sugared} {lambda calculus} plus {mutable variables} and {assignment}. A powerful control mechanism, Landin's {J operator}, enables capture of the current {continuation} (the {call/cc} operator of {Scheme} is a simplified version). Being based on lambda calculus ISWIM had {higher order functions} and {lexically scoped} variables. The {operational semantics} of ISWIM are defined using Landin's {SECD machine} and use {call-by-value} ({eager evaluation}). To make ISWIM look more like mathematical notation, Landin replaced {ALGOL}'s semicolons and begin end blocks with the {off-side rule} and scoping based on indentation. An ISWIM program is a single {expression} qualified by "where" clauses (auxiliary definitions including equations among variables), conditional expressions and function definitions. With {CPL}, ISWIM was one of the first programming languages to use "where" clauses. New {data types} could be defined as a (possibly recursive) {sum of products} like the {algebraic data types} found in modern functional languages. ISWIM variables were probably {dynamically typed} but Landin may have planned some form of {type inference}. Concepts from ISWIM appear in Art Evan's {PAL} and John Reynold's {Gedanken}, Milner's {ML} and purely functional languages with lazy evaluation like {SASL}, {Miranda} and {Haskell}. [{"The Next 700 Programming Languages" (http://www.cs.utah.edu/~wilson/compilers/old/papers/p157-landin.pdf)}, P.J. Landin, CACM 9(3):157-166, Mar 1966]. (2007-03-20)

It is in his biology that the distinctive concepts of Aristotle show to best advantage. The conception of process as the actualization of determinate potentiality is well adapted to the comprehension of biological phenomena, where the immanent teleology of structure and function is almost a part of the observed facts. It is here also that the persistence of the form, or species, through a succession of individuals is most strikingly evident. His psychology is scarcely separable from his biology, since for Aristotle (as for Greek thought generally) the soul is the principle of life; it is "the primary actualization of a natural organic body." But souls differ from one another in the variety and complexity of the functions they exercise, and this difference in turn corresponds to differences in the organic structures involved. Fundamental to all other physical activities are the functions of nutrition, growth and reproduction, which are possessed by all living beings, plants as well as animals. Next come sensation, desire, and locomotion, exhibited in animals in varying degrees. Above all are deliberative choice and theoretical inquiry, the exercise of which makes the rational soul, peculiar to man among the animals. Aristotle devotes special attention to the various activities of the rational soul. Sense perception is the faculty of receiving the sensible form of outward objects without their matter. Besides the five senses Aristotle posits a "common sense," which enables the rational soul to unite the data of the separate senses into a single object, and which also accounts for the soul's awareness of these very activities of perception and of its other states. Reason is the faculty of apprehending the universals and first principles involved in all knowledge, and while helpless without sense perception it is not limited to the concrete and sensuous, but can grasp the universal and the ideal. The reason thus described as apprehending the intelligible world is in one difficult passage characterized as passive reason, requiring for its actualization a higher informing reason as the source of all intelligibility in things and of realized intelligence in man.

It should not be confused with the concept of mass. (intuitively, "the amount of material the object has"; or the more advanced concepts of "the object's 'unwillingless' to accelerate", i.e. inertia.) While mass is an intrinsic property of the object - it's always the same for the same object; weight is extrinsic, it depends on the strength of the gravitational field.

J A derivative and redesign of {APL} with added features and control structures. J is {purely functional} with {lexical scope} and more conventional control structures, plus several new concepts such as {function rank} and {function arrays}. J was designed and developed by Kennneth E. Iverson and Roger Hui "hui@yrloc.ipsa.reuter.com". J uses only the {ASCII} character set but has a spelling scheme that retains the advantages of {APL}'s special alphabet. J is a conventional procedural programming language but can be used as a {purely functional} language. Version 4.1 for {MS-DOS}, Sun, Mac, Archimedes. Source available in C from {Iverson Software}, +1 (416) 925 6096. Version 6 package from ISI includes an interpreter and tutorial. Ported to {DEC}, {NeXT}, {SGI}, {Sun-3}, {Sun-4}, {Vax}, {RS/6000}, {MIPS}, {Macintosh}, {Acorn Archimedes}, {IBM PC}, {Atari}, {3b1}, {Amiga}. {(ftp://watserv1.waterloo.edu/languages/apl/j)}. J-mode {GNU Emacs} macros available by {(ftp://think.com/pub/j/gmacs/j-interaction-mode.el)}. ["APL\?", Roger K.W. Hui et al, APL90 Conf Proc, Quote Quad 20(4):192-200]. (1992-10-31)

John von Neumann "person" /jon von noy'mahn/ Born 1903-12-28, died 1957-02-08. A Hungarian-born mathematician who did pioneering work in quantum physics, game theory, and {computer science}. He contributed to the USA's Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bomb. von Neumann was invited to Princeton University in 1930, and was a mathematics professor at the {Institute for Advanced Studies} from its formation in 1933 until his death. From 1936 to 1938 {Alan Turing} was a visitor at the Institute and completed a Ph.D. dissertation under von Neumann's supervision. This visit occurred shortly after Turing's publication of his 1934 paper "On Computable Numbers with an Application to the Entscheidungs-problem" which involved the concepts of logical design and the universal machine. von Neumann must have known of Turing's ideas but it is not clear whether he applied them to the design of the IAS Machine ten years later. While serving on the BRL Scientific Advisory Committee, von Neumann joined the developers of {ENIAC} and made some critical contributions. In 1947, while working on the design for the successor machine, {EDVAC}, von Neumann realized that ENIAC's lack of a centralized control unit could be overcome to obtain a rudimentary stored program computer. He also proposed the {fetch-execute cycle}. His ideas led to what is now often called the {von Neumann architecture}. {(http://sis.pitt.edu/~mbsclass/is2000/hall_of_fame/vonneuma.htm)}. {(http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/VonNeumann.html)}. {(http://ftp.arl.mil/~mike/comphist/54nord/)}. (2004-01-14)

judgment ::: v. i. --> The act of judging; the operation of the mind, involving comparison and discrimination, by which a knowledge of the values and relations of thins, whether of moral qualities, intellectual concepts, logical propositions, or material facts, is obtained; as, by careful judgment he avoided the peril; by a series of wrong judgments he forfeited confidence.
The power or faculty of performing such operations (see 1); esp., when unqualified, the faculty of judging or deciding


J. W. Young, Lectures on Fundamental Concepts of Algebra and Geometry, New York, 1911.

Kedushah [&

knowledge ::: (artificial intelligence, information science) The objects, concepts and relationships that are assumed to exist in some area of interest. A collection as a knowledge base and a program for extending and/or querying a knowledge base is a knowledge-based system.Knowledge differs from data or information in that new knowledge may be created from existing knowledge using logical inference. If information is data plus meaning then knowledge is information plus processing.A common form of knowledge, e.g. in a Prolog program, is a collection of facts and rules about some subject.For example, a knowledge base about a family might contain the facts that John is David's son and Tom is John's son and the rule that the son of someone's son is their grandson. From this knowledge it could infer the new fact that Tom is David's grandson.See also Knowledge Level. (1994-10-19)

knowledge "artificial intelligence, information science" The objects, concepts and relationships that are assumed to exist in some area of interest. A collection of {knowledge}, represented using some {knowledge representation} language is known as a {knowledge base} and a program for extending and/or querying a knowledge base is a {knowledge-based system}. Knowledge differs from {data} or {information} in that new knowledge may be created from existing knowledge using logical {inference}. If information is data plus meaning then knowledge is information plus processing. A common form of knowledge, e.g. in a {Prolog} program, is a collection of {facts} and {rules} about some subject. For example, a {knowledge base} about a family might contain the facts that John is David's son and Tom is John's son and the rule that the son of someone's son is their grandson. From this knowledge it could infer the new fact that Tom is David's grandson. See also {Knowledge Level}. (1994-10-19)

KNOWLEDGE Knowledge is a perfect thought system of the necessary facts. It is only the planetary hierarchy that can decide whether all the facts are there. K 2.18.4

Knowledge of reality consists in a system of subjective reality concepts, based on and agreeing with the facts of objective material reality. When these facts have been ascertained and placed in their correct relationships (historical, logical, psychological, and causal), man will have true knowledge of reality. K 5.38.3


Known Lazy Bastard "abuse" (KLB) A term, used among technical support staff, for a user who repeatedly asks for help with problems whose solutions are clearly explained in the documentation, and persists in doing so after having been told to {RTFM}. KLBs are singled out for special treatment (i.e. ridicule), especially if they have been heard to say "It's so boring to read the manual! Why don't you just tell me?". The deepest pit in Hell is reserved for KLBs whose questions reveal total ignorance of the basic concepts (e.g., "How do I make a font in {Excel}?", "Where do I turn on my {RAM}?"), and who refuse to accept that their questions are neither simple nor well-formed. (1998-09-07)

Korn's philosophy represents an attack against naive and dogmatic positivism, but admits and even assimilates an element of Positivism which Korn calls Native Argentinian Positivism. Alejandro Korn may be called The Philosopher of Freedom. In fact, freedom is the keynote of his thought. He speaks of Human liberty as the indissoluble union of economic and ethical liberties. The free soul's knowledge of the world of science operates mainly on the basis of intuition. In fact, intuition is the basis of all knowledge. "Necessity of the objective world order", "Freedom of the spirit in the subjective realm", "Identity", 'Purpose", "Unity of Consciousness", and other similar concepts, are "expressions of immediate evidence and not conclusions of logical dialectics". The experience of freedom, according to Korn, leads to the problem of evaluation, which he defines as "the human response to a fact", whether the fact be an object or an event. Valuation is an experience which grows out of the struggle for liberty. Values, therefore, are relative to the fields of experience in which valuation takes place. The denial of an absolute value or values, does not signify the exclusion of personal faith. On the contrary, personal, faith is the common ground and point of departure of knowledge and action. See Latin-American Philosophy. -- J.A.F.

LADY "language" ["Key Concepts in the INCAS Multicomputer Project", J. Nehmer et al IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-13(8):913-923 (Aug 1987)]. (1996-06-21)

LADY ::: (language) [Key Concepts in the INCAS Multicomputer Project, J. Nehmer et al IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-13(8):913-923 (Aug 1987)]. (1996-06-21)

Leibniz's philosophy was the dawning consciousness of the modern world (Dewey). So gradual and continuous, like the development of a monad, so all-inclusive was the growth of his mind, that his philosophy, as he himself says, "connects Plato with Democritus, Aristotle with Descartes, the Scholastics with the moderns, theology and morals with reason." The reform (if all science was to be effected by the use of two instruments, a universal scientific language and a calculus of reasoning. He advocated a universal language of ideographic symbols in which complex concepts would be expressed by combinations of symbols representing simple concepts or by new symbols defined as equivalent to such a complex. He believed that analysis would enable us to limit the number of undefined concepts to a few simple primitives in terms of which all other concepts could be defined. This is the essential notion back of modern logistic treatments.

linear type 1. "theory, programming" An attribute of values which are used exactly once: they are neither duplicated nor destroyed. Such values require no {garbage collection}, and can safely be updated in place, even if they form part of a data structure. Linear types are related to the {linear logic} of J.-Y Girard. They extend Schmidt's notion of {single threading}, provide an alternative to Hudak and Bloss' {update analysis}, and offer a practical complement to Lafont and Holmström's elegant {linear languages}. ['Use-Once' Variables and Linear Objects - Storage Management, Reflection and Multi-Threading, Henry Baker. {(http://home.pipeline.com/~hbaker1/Use1Var.html)}]. ["Linear types can change the world!", Philip Wadler, "Programming Concepts and Methods", April 1990, eds. M. Broy, C. Jones, pub. North-Holland, IFIP TC2 Working Conference on Programming Concepts and Methods, Sea of Galilee, Israel]. (1995-03-03)

linear type ::: 1. (theory, programming) An attribute of values which are used exactly once: they are neither duplicated nor destroyed. Such values require no garbage collection, and can safely be updated in place, even if they form part of a data structure.Linear types are related to the linear logic of J.-Y Girard. They extend Schmidt's notion of single threading, provide an alternative to Hudak and Bloss' update analysis, and offer a practical complement to Lafont and Holmstr�m's elegant linear languages.['Use-Once' Variables and Linear Objects - Storage Management, Reflection and Multi-Threading, Henry Baker. ].[Linear types can change the world!, Philip Wadler, Programming Concepts and Methods, April 1990, eds. M. Broy, C. Jones, pub. North-Holland, IFIP TC2 Working Conference on Programming Concepts and Methods, Sea of Galilee, Israel]. (1995-03-03)

localisation "programming" (l10n) Adapting a product to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target market "{locale}". Localisation includes the translation of the {user interface}, {on-line help} and {documentation}, and ensuring the images and concepts are culturally appropriate and sensitive. There may be subtle cross-cultural considerations, e.g. do the icons make sense in other parts of the world? {Internationalisation} is the process that occurs during application development that makes localisation easier by separating the details that differ between locales from the rest of the program that stays the same. If internationalisation is thorough, localisation will require no programming. The abbreviation l10n means "L - 10 letters - N". (1999-06-09)

localisation ::: (programming) (l10n) Adapting a product to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target market locale.Localisation includes the translation of the user interface, on-line help and documentation, and ensuring the images and concepts are culturally appropriate and sensitive. There may be subtle cross-cultural considerations, e.g. do the icons make sense in other parts of the world?Internationalisation is the process that occurs during application development that makes localisation easier by separating the details that differ between locales from the rest of the program that stays the same. If internationalisation is thorough, localisation will require no programming.The abbreviation l10n means L - 10 letters - N. (1999-06-09)

Lokottaravāda. (P. Lokuttaravāda; T. 'Jig rten 'das par smra ba; C. Shuochushibu; J. Setsushussebu; K. Solch'ulsebu 出世部). In Sanskrit, lit. "Teaching of Transcendence," meaning "Those Who Teach [that the Buddha and the BUDDHAVACANA] are Transcendent," the name of one of the three main branches of the MAHĀSĀMGHIKA school of mainstream Buddhism; also known as the EKAVYAVAHĀRIKA ("Those Who Make a Single Utterance"). (Note that the Chinese translation suggests that the school should properly be called the Lokottaranikāya.) The name for the school comes from its distinguishing doctrine: that the Buddha articulates all of his teachings in a single utterance that is altogether transcendent or supramundane (LOKOTTARA). Later interpretations of the school also suggest that its name may derive from the fact that all the things of this world can be described in a single utterance because those phenomena are nothing more than mental constructions or have merely provisional reality. The Lokottaravāda position is in distinction to two rival schools that derive from the KAUKKUtIKA branch of the MahāsāMghika: the BAHUsRUTĪYA, who asserted that the buddhavacana includes both transcendent and provisional teachings; and the PRAJNAPTIVĀDA, who asserted that the Buddha taught not only transcendent truths but also employed provisional designations (PRAJNAPTI) and concepts to frame his teachings for his audience. The Lokottaravāda is now primarily known as the school that composed the MAHĀVASTU, a biography of the Buddha that is the earliest extant text of BUDDHIST HYBRID SANSKRIT. The Mahāvastu claims that all the seemingly mundane acts of the Buddha are in fact transcendent; hence, although the Buddha may appear to function like ordinary people, he in fact remains constantly in a state of meditation.

Macintosh user interface ::: (operating system) The graphical user interface used by Apple Computer's Macintosh family of personal computers, based on graphical representations of familiar office objects (sheets of paper, files, wastepaper bin, etc.) positioned on a two-dimensional desktop workspace.Programs and data files are represented on screen by small pictures (icons). An object is selected by moving a mouse over the real desktop which correspondingly moves the pointer on screen. When the pointer is over an icon on screen, the icon is selected by pressing the button on the mouse.A hierarchical file system is provided that lets a user drag a document (a file) icon into and out of a folder (directory) icon. Folders can also contain can icon. For people that are not computer enthusiasts, managing files on the Macintosh is easier than using the MS-DOS or Unix command-line interpreter.The Macintosh always displays a row of menu titles at the top of the screen. When a mouse button is pressed over a title, a pull-down menu appears below it. With the mouse button held down, the option within the menu is selected by pointing to it and then releasing the button.Unlike the IBM PC, which, prior to Microsoft Windows had no standard graphical user interface, Macintosh developers almost always conform to the Macintosh basic tasks are always performed in the same way. Apple also keeps technical jargon down to a minimum.Although the Macintosh user interface provides consistency; it does not make up for an application program that is not designed well. Not only must the for experienced typists, the mouse is a cumbersome substitute for well-designed keyboard commands, especially for intensive text editing.Urban legned has it that the Mac user interface was copied from Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center. Although it is true that Xerox's smalltalk had a GUI and which are now considered fundamental, such as dragging objects and pull-down menus with the mouse, were actually invented at Apple.Pull-down menus have become common on IBM, Commodore and Amiga computers. Microsoft Windows and OS/2 Presentation Manager, Digital Research's GEM, and operating environments also incorporate some or all of the desktop/mouse/icon features.Apple Computer have tried to prevent other companies from using some GUI concepts by taking legal action against them. It is because of such restrictive refused to support ports of their software to Apple machines, though this ban has now been lifted. [Why? When?] (1996-07-19)

Macintosh user interface "operating system" The {graphical user interface} used by {Apple Computer}'s {Macintosh} family of {personal computers}, based on graphical representations of familiar office objects (sheets of paper, files, wastepaper bin, etc.) positioned on a two-dimensional "{desktop}" workspace. Programs and data files are represented on screen by small pictures ({icons}). An object is selected by moving a {mouse} over the real desktop which correspondingly moves the {pointer} on screen. When the pointer is over an icon on screen, the icon is selected by pressing the button on the mouse. A {hierarchical file system} is provided that lets a user "{drag}" a document (a file) icon into and out of a {folder} (directory) icon. Folders can also contain other folders and so on. To delete a document, its icon is dragged into a {trash can} icon. For people that are not computer enthusiasts, managing files on the Macintosh is easier than using the {MS-DOS} or {Unix} {command-line interpreter}. The Macintosh always displays a row of menu titles at the top of the screen. When a mouse button is pressed over a title, a {pull-down menu} appears below it. With the mouse button held down, the option within the menu is selected by pointing to it and then releasing the button. Unlike the {IBM PC}, which, prior to {Microsoft Windows} had no standard {graphical user interface}, Macintosh developers almost always conform to the Macintosh interface. As a result, users are comfortable with the interface of a new program from the start even if it takes a while to learn all the rest of it. They know there will be a row of menu options at the top of the screen, and basic tasks are always performed in the same way. Apple also keeps technical jargon down to a minimum. Although the Macintosh user interface provides consistency; it does not make up for an {application program} that is not designed well. Not only must the application's menus be clear and understandable, but the locations on screen that a user points to must be considered. Since the mouse is the major selecting method on a Macintosh, mouse movement should be kept to a minimum. In addition, for experienced typists, the mouse is a cumbersome substitute for well-designed keyboard commands, especially for intensive text editing. {Urban legned} has it that the Mac user interface was copied from {Xerox}'s {Palo Alto Research Center}. Although it is true that Xerox's {smalltalk} had a GUI and Xerox introduced some GUI concepts commercially on the {Xerox Star} computer in 1981, and that {Steve Jobs} and members of the Mac and {Lisa} project teams visited PARC, Jef Raskin, who created the Mac project, points out that many GUI concepts which are now considered fundamental, such as dragging objects and pull-down menus with the mouse, were actually invented at Apple. {Pull-down menus} have become common on {IBM}, {Commodore} and {Amiga} computers. {Microsoft Windows} and {OS/2} {Presentation Manager}, {Digital Research}'s {GEM}, {Hewlett-Packard}'s {New Wave}, the {X Window System}, {RISC OS} and many other programs and operating environments also incorporate some or all of the desktop/mouse/icon features. {Apple Computer} have tried to prevent other companies from using some {GUI} concepts by taking legal action against them. It is because of such restrictive practises that organisations such as the {Free Software Foundation} previously refused to support ports of their software to Apple machines, though this ban has now been lifted. [Why? When?] (1996-07-19)

Madhupindikasutta. (C. Miwanyu jing; J. Mitsugan'yukyo; K. Mirhwanyu kyong 蜜丸喩經). In Pāli, "Discourse on the Honey Ball," the eighteenth sutta in the MAJJHIMANIKĀYA (a separate SARVĀSTIVĀDA recension appears as the 115th SuTRA in the Chinese translation of the MADHYAMĀGAMA, along with an untitled recension of unidentified affiliation in the EKOTTARĀGAMA). The Buddha addresses a prince named Dandapāni, describing his teachings as avoiding discord with beings in this world, as indifference to perceptions, as abandoning doubts, and as not craving for existence. The disciple Mahākaccāna (S. MAHĀKĀTYĀYANA) then further explicates the sermon's meaning and the Buddha praises his erudition. The AttHASĀLINĪ cites the Madhupindikasutta as an example of a scripture that, although preached by a disciple, still qualifies as the word of the Buddha (BUDDHAVACANA) because Mahākaccāna's exegesis is based on a synopsis given first by the Buddha. The Madhupindikasutta is best known for its discussion of how the process of sensory perception culminates in conceptual proliferation (P. papaNca; S. PRAPANCA). Any sentient being will be subject to an impersonal causal process of perception in which consciousness (P. viNNāna; S. VIJNĀNA) occurs conditioned by a sense base and a sense object; the contact between these three brings about sensory impingement (P. phassa; S. SPARsA), which in turn leads to sensation (VEDANĀ). At that point, however, the sense of ego intrudes and this process then becomes an intentional one, whereby what one feels, one perceives (P. saNNā; S. SAMJNĀ); what one perceives, one thinks about (P. vitakka; S. VITARKA); and what one thinks about, one conceptualizes (papaNca). However, by allowing oneself to experience sensory objects not as things-in-themselves but as concepts invariably tied to one's own point of view, the perceiving subject now becomes the hapless object of an inexorable process of conceptual subjugation: viz., what one conceptualizes becomes proliferated conceptually (P. papaNcasaNNāsankhā; a term apparently unattested in Sanskrit) throughout all of one's sensory experience in the past, present, and future. The consciousness thus ties together everything that can be experienced in this world into a labyrinthine network of concepts, all tied to oneself and projected into the external world as craving (TṚsnĀ), conceit (MĀNA), and wrong views (DṚstI), thus creating bondage to SAMSĀRA. The goal of training is a state of mind in which this tendency toward conceptual proliferation is brought to an end (P. nippapaNca; S. NIsPRAPANCA).

Maieutic: Adjective derived from the Greek maia, midwife; hence pertaining to the art of assisting at childbirth, and to the positive aspect of the Socratic method. Socrates pretended to be a midwife, like his mother, since he assisted at the birth of knowledge by eliciting correct concepts by his process of interrogation and examination. -- J.J.R.

Mainstream_economics ::: is a term used to describe schools of economic thought considered to be orthodox. Many of the underlying categories within and concepts central to mainstream economics are readily taught at universities. Many of the underpinning models and beliefs are based on concepts that involve economic scarcity, the role of governmental regulation or other action in effecting an actor's decision, the concept of utility and the idea that people are purely rational actors who will make decisions that are based purely on available information and not emotion.

Margaret Hamilton "person" (born 1936-08-17) A {computer scientist}, {systems engineer} and business owner, credited with coining the term {software engineering}. Margaret Hamilton published over 130 papers, proceedings and reports about the 60 projects and six major programs in which she has been involved. In 1965 she became Director of Software Programming at MIT's {Charles Stark Draper Laboratory} and Director of the Software Engineering Division of the {MIT Instrumentation Laboratory}, which developed on-board {flight software} for the Apollo space program. At {NASA}, Hamilton pioneered the Apollo on-board guidance software that navigated to and landed on the Moon and formed the basis for software used in later missions. At the time, programming was a hands-on, engineering descipline; computer science and software engineering barely existed. Hamilton produced innovations in {system design} and software development, enterprise and {process modelling}, development paradigms, {formal systems modelling languages}, system-oriented objects for systems modelling and development, {automated life-cycle environments}, {software reliability}, {software reuse}, {domain analysis}, correctness by built-in language properties, open architecture techniques for robust systems, full {life-cycle automation}, {quality assurance}, {seamless integration}, {error detection and recovery}, {man-machine interface} systems, {operating systems}, {end-to-end testing} and {life-cycle management}. She developed concepts of {asynchronous software}, {priority scheduling} and {Human-in-the-loop} decision capability, which became the foundation for modern, ultra-reliable software design. The Apollo 11 moon landing would have aborted when spurious data threatened to overload the computer, but thanks to the innovative asynchronous, priority based scheduling, it eliminated the unnecessary processing and completed the landing successfully. In 1986, she founded {Hamilton Technologies, Inc.}, developed around the {Universal Systems Language} and her systems and software design {paradigm} of {Development Before the Fact} (DBTF). (2015-03-08)

Margin analysis - The approach utilising such concepts as marginal revenue, marginal cost, and marginal profit for economic decision making

Mars ::: A legendary tragic failure, the archetypal Hacker Dream Gone Wrong. Mars was the code name for a family of PDP-10 compatible computers built by Systems Concepts DEC KL10, and ran all KL10 binaries (including the operating system) with no modifications at about 2--3 times faster than a KL10.When DEC cancelled the Jupiter project in 1983, Systems Concepts should have made a bundle selling their machine into shops with a lot of software investment excitement in the PDP-10 world. TOPS-10 was running on the Mars by the summer of 1984, and TOPS-20 by early fall.Unfortunately, the hackers running Systems Concepts were much better at designing machines than at mass producing or selling them; the company allowed other hungry startups building workstations with power comparable to the KL10 at a fraction of the price.By the time SC shipped the first SC-30M to Stanford in late 1985, most customers had already made the traumatic decision to abandon the PDP-10, usually for VMS or Unix boxes. Most of the Mars computers built ended up being purchased by CompuServe.This tale and the related saga of Foonly hold a lesson for hackers: if you want to play in the Real World, you need to learn Real World moves.[Jargon File]

Mars A legendary tragic failure, the archetypal Hacker Dream Gone Wrong. Mars was the code name for a family of PDP-10 compatible computers built by Systems Concepts (now, The SC Group): the multi-processor SC-30M, the small uniprocessor SC-25M, and the never-built superprocessor SC-40M. These machines were marvels of engineering design; although not much slower than the unique {Foonly} F-1, they were physically smaller and consumed less power than the much slower DEC KS10 or Foonly F-2, F-3, or F-4 machines. They were also completely compatible with the DEC KL10, and ran all KL10 binaries (including the operating system) with no modifications at about 2--3 times faster than a KL10. When DEC cancelled the Jupiter project in 1983, Systems Concepts should have made a bundle selling their machine into shops with a lot of software investment in PDP-10s, and in fact their spring 1984 announcement generated a great deal of excitement in the PDP-10 world. {TOPS-10} was running on the Mars by the summer of 1984, and {TOPS-20} by early fall. Unfortunately, the hackers running Systems Concepts were much better at designing machines than at mass producing or selling them; the company allowed itself to be sidetracked by a bout of perfectionism into continually improving the design, and lost credibility as delivery dates continued to slip. They also overpriced the product ridiculously; they believed they were competing with the KL10 and VAX 8600 and failed to reckon with the likes of Sun Microsystems and other hungry startups building workstations with power comparable to the KL10 at a fraction of the price. By the time SC shipped the first SC-30M to Stanford in late 1985, most customers had already made the traumatic decision to abandon the PDP-10, usually for VMS or Unix boxes. Most of the Mars computers built ended up being purchased by {CompuServe}. This tale and the related saga of {Foonly} hold a lesson for hackers: if you want to play in the {Real World}, you need to learn Real World moves. [{Jargon File}]

Maya ::: A Sanskrit term that refers to several Buddhist concepts and philosophies depending on the source and time period. It generally translates as "illusion" or "magic show" and is used to depict the phenomenal world as being devoid of fundamentally true substance. This is due to the causal emanation of it from noumenal reality.

Mechanics: The science of motion, affording theoretical description by means of specification of position of particles bound by relations to other particles, usually having no extension but possessing mass. This involves space and time and frames of reference (in a relative fashion). Particles are assumed to traverse continuous paths. Auxiliary kinematical concepts are displacement, velocity, acceleration. The dynamical concept of forces (F's) acting independently of one another is coupled with mass (M) in a defining law, as F = Ma, where a = acceleration. Explicit reference to causation is avoided and is held to be unnecessary. Classical mechanics is restricted to the use of central forces (along the lines joining particles and a function of the length of those lines). This with a knowledge of boundary conditions leads to complete mechanistic determinism. The entire system of mechanics may also be developed by starting with other cortcepts such as energy and a stationary principle (usually that of "least action") in either an integral or differential form. -- W.M.M.

MENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS Mental consciousness is the monad&

MENTOR ::: CAI language. Computer Systems for Teaching Complex Concepts, Report 1742, BBN, Mar 1969.

MENTOR CAI language. "Computer Systems for Teaching Complex Concepts", Report 1742, BBN, Mar 1969.

metadata "data, data processing" /me't*-day`t*/, or combinations of /may'-/ or (Commonwealth) /mee'-/; /-dah`t*/ (Or "meta-data") Data about {data}. In {data processing}, metadata is definitional data that provides information about or documentation of other data managed within an application or environment. For example, metadata would document data about {data elements} or {attributes}, (name, size, data type, etc) and data about {records} or {data structures} (length, fields, columns, etc) and data about data (where it is located, how it is associated, ownership, etc.). Metadata may include descriptive information about the context, quality and condition, or characteristics of the data. A collection of metadata, e.g. in a {database}, is called a {data dictionary}. Myers of {The Metadata Company} claims to have coined the term in 1969 though it appears in the book, "Extension of programming language concepts" published in 1968, by {Philip R. Bagley}. Bagley was a pioneer of computer document retrieval. "A survey of extensible programming languages" by Solntsseff and Yezerski (Annual Review in Automatic Programming, 1974, pp267-307) cites "the notion of 'metadata' introduced by Bagley". (2010-05-15)

Metadata ::: (product) (Note: One unhyphenated word with initial capital; contrast meta data) A word coined by Jack E. Myers to represent current and future lines of products implementing the concepts of his MetaModel, and also to designate his company The Metadata Company that would develop and market those products.A data and publication search performed when Myers coined the term, early in the summer of 1969, did not discover any use either of the word metadata or meta data. Myers used the term in a 1973 product brochure and it is an Incontestable registered U.S. Trademark. (1997-04-06)

metempirics ::: n. --> The concepts and relations which are conceived as beyond, and yet as related to, the knowledge gained by experience.

module 1. "programming" An independent piece of {software} which forms part of one or more larger {programs}. Different languages have different concepts of a module but there are several common ideas. Modules are usually compiled seperately (in compiled languages) and provide an {abstraction} or information hiding mechanism so that a module's implementation can be changed without requiring any change to other modules. In this respect they are similar to {objects} in an {object-oriented language}, though a module may contain many {procedures} and/or {functions} which would correspond to many objects. A module often has its own {name space} for {identifiers} so the same identifier may be used to mean different things in different modules. [Difference from {package}?]. 2. "hardware" An independent assembly of electronic components with some distinct function, e.g. a RAM module consisting of several RAM chips mounted on a small circuit board. (1997-10-27)

module ::: 1. (programming) An independent piece of software which forms part of one or more larger programs. Different languages have different concepts of a module but there are several common ideas.Modules are usually compiled seperately (in compiled languages) and provide an abstraction or information hiding mechanism so that a module's implementation they are similar to objects in an object-oriented language, though a module may contain many procedures and/or functions which would correspond to many objects.A module often has its own name space for identifiers so the same identifier may be used to mean different things in different modules.[Difference from package?].2. (hardware) An independent assembly of electronic components with some distinct function, e.g. a RAM module consisting of several RAM chips mounted on a small circuit board. (1997-10-27)

momentum: The concept of the stored (and conserved) influence of motion that can be transferred to other objects upon impact, captured by 2 modern concepts/definitions: linear momentum and angular momentum. The plural of the word momentum is momenta.

morality: in the strictest sense of the word, deals with that which is innatelyregarded as right or wrong. The term is often used to refer to a system of principles and judgments shared by cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which humans subjectively determine whether given actions are right or wrong.

Most of the basic problems and theories of cosmology seem to have been discussed by the pre-Socratic philosophers. Their views are modified and expanded in the Timaeus of Plato, and rehearsed and systematized in Aristotle's Physics. Despite multiple divergencies, all these Greek philosophers seem to be largely agreed that the universe is limited in space, has neither a beginning nor end in time, is dominated by a set of unalterable laws, and has a definite and recurring rhythm. The cosmology of the Middle Ages diverges from the Greek primarily through the introduction of the concepts of divine creation and annihilation, miracle and providence. In consonance with the tendencies of the new science, the cosmologies of Descartes, Leibniz and Newton bring the medieval views into closer harmony with those of the Greeks. The problems of cosmology were held to be intrinsically insoluble by Kant. After Kant there was a tendency to merge the issues of cosmology with those of metaphysics. The post-Kantians attempted to deal with both in terms of more basic principles and a more flexible dialectic, their opponents rejected both as without significance or value. The most radical modern cosmology is that of Peirce with its three cosmic principles of chance, law and continuity; the most recent is that of Whitehead, which finds its main inspiration in Plato's Timaeus.

multimedia ::: Human-computer interaction involving text, graphics, voice and video. Often also includes concepts from hypertext.This term has come to be almost synonymous with CD-ROM in the personal computer world because the large amounts of data involved are currently best supplied on CD-ROM.Usenet newsgroup: comp.multimedia. (1994-12-02)

multimedia "multimedia" Any collection of data including {text}, {graphics}, {images}, {audio} and {video}, or any system for processing or interacting with such data. Often also includes concepts from {hypertext}. This term was once almost synonymous with {CD-ROM} in the {personal computer} world because the large amounts of data involved were best supplied on CD-ROM. {DVD}s and {broadband} {Internet} connections have now largely replaced CDs as the means of delivery. A "multimedia PC" typically includes software for playing DVD video, {5.1 audio} hardware and can display video on a television. It may also include a television receiver and software to record broadcast television to disk and play it back. The {Multimedia Personal Computer} (MPC) standard was an attempt to improve compatibility between such systems. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.multimedia}. (1994-12-02)

n.**1. Not subject to death. Immortal, immortal"s, Immortal"s, immortals, Immortals, immortals", Immortals". adj. 2. Everlasting; perpetual; constant. 3. Not subject to death or decay; having perpetual life. 4. Of or relating to immortal or divine beings or concepts. 5. Never to be forgotten; everlasting. adv. immortally.**

neo-Confucianism ::: A form of Confucianism primarily developed during the Song dynasty, as a response to the dominance of Taoism and Buddhism at the time. Neo-Confucians such as Zhu Xi recognized that the Confucianism lacked a thorough metaphysical system, and so synthesized one based on previous Confucian concepts. There were many competing views within the Neo-Confucian community, but overall, a system emerged that resembled both the Buddhist and Taoist thought of the time.

New Storage System "storage" (NSS) A major {Multics} implementation project during the 1970s. The initial Multics {file system} design had evolved from the one-huge-disk world of {CTSS}. When multiple disk units were used they were just assigned increasing ranges of disk addresses, so a {segment} could have {pages} scattered over all disks on the system. This provided good {I/O} {parallelism} but made {crash recovery} expensive. NSS redesigned the lower levels of the file system, introducing the concepts of {logical volume} and {physical volume} and a mapping from a Multics directory branch to a {VTOC} entry for each file. The new system had much better recovery performance in exchange for a small space and performance cost. (1997-01-29)

nirvikalpajNāna. (T. rnam par mi rtog pa'i ye shes; C. wu fenbie zhi; J. mufunbetsuchi; K. mu punbyol chi 無分別智). In Sanskrit, "nondiscriminative wisdom," "nonconceptual awareness"; the insight that is marked by freedom from the misconception that there is an inherent bifurcation between a perceiving subject (grāhaka) and its perceived objects (grāhya). In the YOGĀCĀRA school, this misconception is called the discrimination of object and subject (GRĀHYAGRĀHAKAVIKALPA). Overcoming this bifurcation leads to the nondiscriminative wisdom (nirvikalpajNāna), which, in the five-stage path (PANCAMĀRGA) system of the Yogācāra school, marks the inception of the path of vision (DARsANAMĀRGA), where the adept sees reality directly, without the intercession of concepts, and realizes the inherent unity of objects and cognition (jNeya-jNāna). The MAHĀYĀNASAMGRAHA explains that nirvikalpajNāna has as its nature the following five types of absences: (1) the absence of inattention (amanasikāra), such as occurs during sleep, (2) the absence of discursive thought (VITARKA) and sustained consideration (VICĀRA), (3) the quiescence of the cessation of perception and feeling (SAMJNĀVEDAYITANIRODHA), (4) the absence of materiality (RuPA), and (5) the absence of analytical investigation regarding truthfulness. These attributes mean that nirvikalpajNāna (1) is not merely a lack of attention; (2) it is not just the second stage of DHYĀNA or higher, where discursive thought (vitarka) and investigation (vicāra) no longer pertain; (3) it is not the "equipoise of cessation" (NIRODHASAMĀPATTI), which no longer includes mind (CITTA) and mental concomitants (CAITTA), because wisdom (JNĀNA) is not possible without mind and its concomitants; (4) it is free from any kind of discrimination; and (5) it cannot be an object of analytical investigation, since it transcends the relationship between the objects in any discursive analysis. This type of wisdom is therefore associated with knowledge (jNāna) that is supramundane (LOKOTTARA) and uncontaminated (ANĀSRAVA). The term nirvikalpajNāna also appears in MADHYAMAKA descriptions of the path (MĀRGA), despite the fact that Madhyamaka does not reject the conventional existence of external objects. Here, the term refers to the nonconceptual realization of emptiness (suNYATĀ) that occurs on the path of vision (DARsANAMĀRGA) and above, where reality is directly perceived in an experience in which emptiness and the consciousness that realizes emptiness are said to be like "pure water poured into pure water." See also VIKALPA; TRIVIKALPA.

Nishida Kitaro. (西田幾太郎) (1870-1945). Influential Japanese philosopher of the modern era and founder of what came to be known as the KYOTO SCHOOL, a contemporary school of Japanese philosophy that sought to synthesize ZEN Buddhist thought with modern Western, and especially Germanic, philosophy. Nishida was instrumental in establishing in Japan the discipline of philosophy as practiced in Europe and North America, as well as in exploring possible intersections between European philosophy and such Buddhist ontological notions as the idea of nonduality (ADVAYA). Nishida was born in 1870, just north of Ishikawa prefecture's capital city of Kanazawa. In 1894, he graduated from Tokyo Imperial University with a degree in philosophy and eventually took an appointment at Kyoto University, where he taught from 1910 until his retirement in 1927. At Kyoto University, Nishida attracted a group of students who would later become known collectively as the "Kyoto School." These philosophers addressed an array of philosophical concerns, including metaphysics, ontology, phenomenology, and epistemology, using Western critical methods but in conjunction with Eastern religious concepts. Nishida's influential 1911 publication Zen no kenkyu ("A Study of Goodness") synthesized Zen Buddhist and German phenomenology to explore the unity between the ordinary and the transcendent. He argued that, through "pure experience" (J. junsui keiken), an individual human being is able to come in contact with a limitless, absolute reality that can be described either as God or emptiness (suNYATĀ). In Nishida's treatment, philosophy is subsumed under the broader soteriological quest for individual awakening, and its significance derives from its effectiveness in bringing about this goal of awakening. Other important works by Nishida include Jikaku ni okeru chokkan to hansei ("Intuition and Reflection in Self-Consciousness," 1917), Geijutsu to dotoku ("Art and Morality," 1923), Tetsugaku no konpon mondai ("Fundamental Problems of Philosophy," 1933), and Bashoteki ronri to shukyoteki sekaikan ("The Logic of the Place of Nothingness and the Religious Worldview," 1945). Nishida's Zen no kenkyu also helped lay the foundation for what later became regarded as Nihonjinron, a nationalist discourse that advocated the uniqueness and superiority of the Japanese race. Prominent in Nishida's philosophy is the idea that the Japanese-as exemplified in their exceptional cultivation of Zen, which here can stand for both Zen Buddhism and the homophonous word for "goodness"-are uniquely in tune with this concept of "pure experience." This familiarity, in part influenced by his longtime friend DAISETZ TEITARO SUZUKI, elevates the Japanese race mentally and spiritually above all other races in the world. This view grew in popularity during the era of Japanese colonial expansion and remained strong in some quarters even after the end of World War II. Since at least the 1970s, Nishida's work has been translated and widely read among English-speaking audiences. Beginning in the 1990s, however, his writings have come under critical scrutiny in light of their ties with Nihonjinron and Japanese nationalism.

Noetic: Ihe character some entities have due to their resulting from the activity of nous or reason. Thus those concepts which are non-sensuous and non-empirical but are conceived by reason alone are noetic, the noetic aspects of reality are those which are knowable by reason. In a more general sense, "noetic" is equivalent to "cognitive". -- C.A.B.

nominalism ::: The belief that universals or mental concepts have no objective reality but exist only as words or "names" (Latin nomina).

Objecting to Fichte, his master's method of deducing everything from a single, all-embracing principle, he obstinately adhered to the axiom that everything is what it is, the principle of identity. He also departed from him in the principle of idealism and freedom. As nnn is not free in the sense of possessing a principle independent of the environment, he reverted to the Kantian doctrine that behind and underlying the world of appearance there is a plurality of real things in themselves that are independent of the operations of mind upon them. Deserving credit for having developed the realism that was latent in Kant's philosophy, he conceived the ''reals" so as to do away with the contradictions in the concepts of experience. The necessity for assuming a plurality of "reals" arises as a result of removing the contradictions in our experiences of change and of things possessing several qualities. Herbart calls the method he applies to the resolution of the contradictions existing between the empirically derived concepts, the method of relations, that is the accidental relation between the different "reals" is a question of thought only, and inessential for the "reals" themselves. It is the changes in these relations that form the process of change in the world of experience. Nothing can be ultimately real of which two contradictory predicates can be asserted. To predicate unity and multiplicity of an object is to predicate contradictions. Hence ultimate reality must be absolutely unitary and also without change. The metaphysically interpreted abstract law of contradiction was therefore central in his system. Incapability of knowing the proper nature of these "reals" equals the inability of knowing whether they are spiritual or material. Although he conceived in his system that the "reals" are analogous with our own inner states, yet his view of the "reals" accords better with materialistic atomism. The "reals" are simple and unchangeable in nature.

object-oriented 1. "programming" (OO) Based on {objects}, {classes} and {methods}, as in {object-oriented programming} or {object-oriented design}. An {object-oriented database} applies the same concepts to the storage of objects. 2. "graphics" {vector graphics}. (2014-01-06)

Observation: (Lat. ob + servare, to save, keep, observe) The act of becoming aware of objects through the sense organs and of interpreting them by means of concepts. See Sensation. -- A.C.B.

Occult Sciences: In occult terminology, the science of living, the science of the secrets of nature which deals with things and concepts transcending material and sensual perception, expounding the brotherhood of sentient beings. Also called Esoteric Sciences or Hermetic Sciences.

Of quite a different kind are so-called real definitions, which are not conventions for introducing new symbols or notations -- as syntactical and semantical definitions are -- but are propositions of equivalence (material, formal, etc.) between two abstract entities (propositions, concepts, etc.) of which one is called the definiendum and the other the definiens. Not all such propositions of equivalence, however, are real definitions, but only those in which the definiens embodies the "essential nature" (essentia, ουσια) of the definiendum. The notion of a real definition thus has all the vagueness of the quoted phrase, but the following may be given as an example. If all the notations appearing, including ⊃x, have their usual meanings (regarded as given in advance), the proposition expressed by (F)(G)[[F(x) ⊃x G(x)] ≡ (x)[∼F(x) ∨ G(x)]] is a real definition of formal implication -- to be contrasted with the nominal definition of the ¦notation for formal implication which is given in the article Logic, formal, § 3. This formula, expressing a real definition of formal implication, might appear, e.g., as a primitive formula in a logistic system.

Of the reasoning reason (rationis ratiocinantts) . A distinction in which our mind conceives things as distinct when there is no foundation in reality for making such a distinction, the whole distinction is dependent upon the one reasoning. E.g. when in one and the same thing we conceive the nature of subject and predicate as diverse attributes, as when we say: man is man, or when we conceive the same thing through synonymous concepts, as if we say: man is a rational animal, as though we are distinguishing man from rational animal.

OMTool ::: A graphical tool from General Electric Advanced Concepts Center for design and analysis of systems with the OMT methodology. Generates C++ and SQL code.

OMTool A graphical tool from General Electric Advanced Concepts Center for design and analysis of systems with the {OMT} methodology. Generates {C++} and {SQL} code.

ontology ::: 1. (philosophy) A systematic account of Existence.2. (artificial intelligence) (From philosophy) An explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them.For AI systems, what exists is that which can be represented. When the knowledge about a domain is represented in a declarative language, the set of interpretation and well-formed use of these terms. Formally, an ontology is the statement of a logical theory.A set of agents that share the same ontology will be able to communicate about a domain of discourse without necessarily operating on a globally shared theory. consistent with the definitions in the ontology. The idea of ontological commitment is based on the Knowledge-Level perspective.3. (information science) The hierarchical structuring of knowledge about things by subcategorising them according to their essential (or at least the previous senses of ontology (above) which has become common in discussions about the difficulty of maintaining subject indices. (1997-04-09)

ontology 1. "philosophy" A systematic account of Existence. 2. "artificial intelligence" (From philosophy) An explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them. For {AI} systems, what "exists" is that which can be represented. When the {knowledge} about a {domain} is represented in a {declarative language}, the set of objects that can be represented is called the {universe of discourse}. We can describe the ontology of a program by defining a set of representational terms. Definitions associate the names of entities in the {universe of discourse} (e.g. classes, relations, functions or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names mean, and formal {axioms} that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms. Formally, an ontology is the statement of a {logical theory}. A set of {agents} that share the same ontology will be able to communicate about a domain of discourse without necessarily operating on a globally shared theory. We say that an agent commits to an ontology if its observable actions are consistent with the definitions in the ontology. The idea of ontological commitment is based on the {Knowledge-Level} perspective. 3. "information science" The hierarchical structuring of knowledge about things by subcategorising them according to their essential (or at least relevant and/or cognitive) qualities. See {subject index}. This is an extension of the previous senses of "ontology" (above) which has become common in discussions about the difficulty of maintaining {subject indices}. (1997-04-09)

Opal 1. A {DSP} language. ["OPAL: A High Level Language and Environment for DSP boards on PC", J.P. Schwartz et al, Proc ICASSP-89, 1989]. 2. The language of the {object-oriented database} {GemStone}. ["Making Smalltalk a Database System", G. Copeland et al, Proc SIGMOD'84, ACM 1984, pp.316- 325]. 3. A {simulation} language with provision for {stochastic variables}. An extension of {Autostat}. ["C-E-I-R OPAL", D. Pilling, Internal Report, C.E.I.R. Ltd. (1963)]. 4. A language for compiler testing said to be used internally by {DEC}. 5. A {functional programming} language designed at the {Technische Universitaet Berlin} as a testbed for the development of {functional programs}. OPAL integrates concepts from Algebraic Specification and Functional Programming, which favour the (formal) development of (large) production-quality software written in a {purely functional} style. The core of OPAL is a {strongly typed}, {higher-order}, {strict} applicative language which belongs to the tradition of {Hope} and {ML}. The algebraic flavour of OPAL is visible in the syntactical appearance and in the preference of {parameterisation} to {polymorphism}. OPAL supports: {information hiding} - each language unit is divided into an interface (signature) and an implementation part; selective import; {parameterised modules}; free constructor {views} on {sorts}, which allow pattern-based function definitions despite quite different implementations; full {overloading} of names; puristic scheme language with no {built-in} data types (except {Booleans} and denotations). OPAL and its predecessor OPAL-0 have been used for some time at the Technische Universitaet Berlin in CS courses and for research into optimising compilers for applicative languages. The OPAL compiler itself is writte entirely in OPAL. An overview is given in "OPAL: Design And Implementation of an Algebraic Programming Language". {(http://cs.tu-berlin.de/~opal/)}. {(ftp://ftp.cs.tu-berlin.de/pub/local/uebb/papers/DesignImplOpal.ps.gz)}. (1995-02-16)

parallel: Describing lines (or other geomtric objects) that are non-intersecting, "going" in the same direction and keep equal distance everywhere. For lines, these three concepts are exactly the same in Euclidean geometry, while in other geometries, the concept of parallel (without further clarifications) can be taken to mean an extension to any of these, given that this concept on geometric objects originated from related concepts that happen to be the same in Euclidean geometry.

particle: In mechanics, the concept of an ideal object with position and mass (thus momentum and other concepts that follow) but no (or negligible) size and spin.

percept ::: 1. A mental impression of something perceived by the senses, viewed as the basic component in the formation of concepts; a sense datum. 2. The act of perceiving; an impression or sensation of something perceived.

Phenomenology: Since the middle of the Eighteenth Century, "Phänomenologie," like its English equivalent, has been a name for several disciplines, an expression for various concepts. Lambert, in his Neue Organon (1764), attached the name "Phänomenologie" to the theory of the appearances fundamental to all empirical knowledge. Kant adopted the word to express a similar though more restricted sense in his Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft (1786). On the other hand, in Hegel's Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807) the same word expresses a radically different concept. A precise counterpart of Hegel's title was employed by Hamilton to express yet another meaning. In "The Divisions of Philosophy" (Lectures on Metaphysics, 1858), after stating that "Philosophy properly so called" is "conversant about Mind," he went on to say: "If we consider the mind merely with the view of observing and generalizing the various phaenomena it reveals, . . . we have . . . one department of mental science, and this we may call the Phaenomenology of Mind." Similarly Moritz Lazarus, in his Leben der Seele (1856-57), distinguished Phänomenologie from Psychologie: The former describes the phenomena of mental life; the latter seeks their causal explanation.

physical layer "networking" Layer one, the lowest layer in the {OSI} seven layer model. The physical layer encompasses details such as electrical and mechanical connections to the network, transmission of {binary} data as changing voltage levels on wires or similar concepts on other connectors, and {data rates}. The physical layer is used by the {data link layer}. Example physical layer {protocols} are {CSMA/CD}, {token ring} and bus. (2004-06-29)

physical layer ::: (networking) Layer one, the lowest layer in the OSI seven layer model. The physical layer encompasses details such as electrical and mechanical connections to the network, transmission of binary data as changing voltage levels on wires or similar concepts on other connectors, and data rates.The physical layer is used by the data link layer.Example physical layer protocols are CSMA/CD, token ring and bus.(2004-06-29)

pictogram "text" (Or "pictograph") A {symbol} which is a picture that represents an object or concept, e.g. a picture of an envelope used to represent an {e-mail message}. Pictograms are common in everyday life, e.g. signs in public places or roads, whereas the term "{icon}" is specific to interfaces on computers or other electronic devices. Pictograms are the most common kind of {ideogram} (symbols representing concepts), the other kind are not pictures but are conventions. (2014-07-30)

Platonic School The philosophers of the Academy, who followed Plato and can be traced down to the days of Cicero, gradually undergoing change during that period and divisible into schools connected with the names of prominent philosophers. Distinguished from the Aristotelian or Peripatetic school, much as philosophy is distinguished from science or as idealism is distinguished from naturalism. The principal feature is the Platonic dualism: of noumenon and phenomenon, of the self-moving and that which is moved, of the Idea and its manifestation in an organic being, of the permanent and the impermanent, of soul and body, nous and psyche, etc. In epistemology this dualism appears as philosophia and sense experience — the wisdom which apprehends reality and that which forms concepts from the data of sense experience; in morals, as the contrast between the Good, which is altruistic because it apprehends the unity of all beings, and the ethic of self-seeking based on the illusion of separateness.

Plotinism offers a well-developed theory of sensation. The objects of sensation are of a lower order of being than the perceiving organism. The inferior cannot act upon the superior. Hence sensation is an activity of the sensory agent upon its objects. Sensation provides a direct, realistic perception of material things, but, since they are ever-changing, such knowledge is not valuable. In internal seme perception, the imagimtion also functions actively, memory is attributed to the imaginative power and it serves not only in the recall of sensory images but also in the retention of the verbal formulae in which intellectual concepts are expressed. The human soul can look either upward or downward; up to the sphere of purer spirit, or down to the evil regions of matter. Rational knowledge is a cognition of intelligible realities, or Ideas in the realm of Mind which is often referred to as Divine. The climax of knowledge consists in an intuitive and mystical union with the One; this is experienced by few.

Polarity, philosophy of: Philosophies that make the concept of polarity one of the systematic principles according to which opposites involve each other when applied to any significant realm of investigation. Polarity was one of the basic concepts in the philosophy of Cusanus and Schelling. Morris R. Cohen made use of the principle of polarity in scientific philosophy, in biology, in social and historical analysis, in law and in ethics. (Cf. Reason and Nature). -- H.H.

Political Philosophy: That branch of philosophy which deals with political life, especially with the essence, origin and value of the state. In ancient philosophy politics also embraced what we call ethics. The first and most important ancient works on Political Philosophy were Plato's Politeia (Republic) and Aristotle's Politics. The Politeia outlines the structure and functions of the ideal state. It became the pattern for all the Utopias (see Utopia) of later times. Aristotle, who considers man fundamentally a social creature i.e. a political animal, created the basis for modern theories of government, especially by his distinction of the different forms of government. Early Christianity had a rather negative attitude towards the state which found expression in St. Augustine's De Civitate Dei. The influence of this work, in which the earthly state was declared to be civitas diaboli, a state of the devil, was predominant throughout the Middle Ages. In the discussion of the relation between church and empire, the main topic of medieval political philosophy, certain authors foreshadowed modern political theories. Thomas Aquinas stressed the popular origin of royal power and the right of the people to restrict or abolish that power in case of abuse; William of Ockham and Marsiglio of Padua held similar views. Dante Alighieri was one of the first to recognize the intrinsic value of the state; he considered the world monarchy to be the only means whereby peace, justice and liberty could be secured. But it was not until the Renaissance that, due to the rediscovery of the individual and his rights and to the formation of territorial states, political philosophy began to play a major role. Niccolo Machiavelli and Jean Bodin laid the foundation for the new theories of the state by stressing its independence from any external power and its indivisible sovereignty. The theory of popular rights and of the right of resistance against tyranny was especially advocated by the "Monarchomachi" (Huguenots, such as Beza, Hotman, Languet, Danaeus, Catholics such as Boucher, Rossaeus, Mariana). Most of them used the theory of an original contract (see Social Contract) to justify limitations of monarchical power. Later, the idea of a Natural Law, independent from divine revelation (Hugo Grotius and his followers), served as an argument for liberal -- sometimes revolutionary -- tendencies. With the exception of Hobbes, who used the contract theory in his plea for absolutism, almost all the publicists of the 16th and 17th century built their liberal theories upon the idea of an original covenant by which individuals joined together and by mutual consent formed a state and placed a fiduciary trust in the supreme power (Roger Williams and John Locke). It was this contract which the Pilgrim Fathers translated into actual facts, after their arrival in America, in November, 1620, long before John Locke had developed his theorv. In the course of the 17th century in England the contract theory was generally substituted for the theory of the divine rights of kings. It was supported by the assumption of an original "State of Nature" in which all men enjoyed equal reciprocal rights. The most ardent defender of the social contract theory in the 18th century was J. J. Rousseau who deeply influenced the philosophy of the French revolution. In Rousseau's conception the idea of the sovereignty of the people took on a more democratic aspect than in 17th century English political philosophy which had been almost exclusively aristocratic in its spirit. This tendency found expression in his concept of the "general will" in the moulding of which each individual has his share. Immanuel Kant who made these concepts the basis of his political philosophy, recognized more clearly than Rousseau the fictitious character of the social contract and treated it as a "regulative idea", meant to serve as a criterion in the evaluation of any act of the state. For Hegel the state is an end in itself, the supreme realization of reason and morality. In marked opposition to this point of view, Marx and Engels, though strongly influenced by Hegel, visualized a society in which the state would gradually fade away. Most of the 19th century publicists, however, upheld the juristic theory of the state. To them the state was the only source of law and at the same time invested with absolute sovereignty: there are no limits to the legal omnipotence of the state except those which are self imposed. In opposition to this doctrine of unified state authority, a pluralistic theory of sovereignty has been advanced recently by certain authors, laying emphasis upon corporate personalities and professional groups (Duguit, Krabbe, Laski). Outspoken anti-stateism was advocated by anarchists such as Kropotkin, etc., by syndicalists and Guild socialists. -- W.E.

Praedicabilia: (Lat. that which is able to be predicated) Since Greek philosophic thinking, the modes of predicating or the concepts to be affirmed of any subject whatsoever, usually enumerated as five: genus, species, difference, property (or, characteristic), and accident. They assumed an important role in the scholastic discussions of universals. According to Kant, they are pure, yet derived concepts of the understanding. -- K.F.L.

pragmatism ::: A philosophy that originated in the United States in the late 19th century. Pragmatism is characterized by the insistence on consequences, utility and practicality as vital components of meaning and truth. Pragmatism objects to the view that human concepts and intellect represent reality, and therefore stands in opposition to both formalist and rationalist schools of philosophy. Rather, pragmatism holds that it is only in the struggle of intelligent organisms with the surrounding environment that theories acquire significance, and only with a theory's success in this struggle that it becomes true.

PrajNaptivāda. (P. PaNNattivādā; T. Btags par smra ba; C. Shuojiabu; J. Setsukebu/Sekkebu; K. Solga pu 假部). In Sanskrit, "Teaching of Designations"; one of the two schools of the KAUKKUtIKA branch of the MAHĀSĀMGHIKA school of mainstream Buddhism, along with the BAHUsRUTĪYA; it may have split off as a separate school around the middle of the third century CE. The PrajNaptivāda posits a distinction between reality and the way that reality is perceived by ordinary sentient beings. Beings use the "provisional designations" (PRAJNAPTI) of concepts in order to describe what is real, but those concepts are merely imputations of reality and have only conventional validity (PRAJNAPTISAT). The PrajNaptivāda also claims that the Buddha inevitably was compelled to use such provisional designations in order to convey his teachings to ordinary beings, a position distinct from the LOKOTTARAVĀDA, one of the other major branches of the MahāsāMghika, which claims that the Buddha articulated the entirety of his teachings in a single utterance that was altogether transcendent (LOKOTTARA). Little is known about the regional center or geographic extent of the school.

prapaNca. (P. papaNca; T. spros pa; C. xilun; J. keron; K. hŭiron 戲論). In Sanskrit, lit. "diffusion," "expansion"; viz. "conceptualization" or "conceptual proliferation"; the tendency of the process of cognition to proliferate the perspective of the self (ĀTMAN) throughout all of one's sensory experience via the medium of concepts. The locus classicus for describing how sensory perception culminates in conceptual proliferation appears in the Pāli MADHUPIndIKASUTTA. As that scripture explains, any living being will be subject to an impersonal causal process of perception in which consciousness (P. viNNāna; S. VIJNĀNA) occurs conditioned by an internal sense base (INDRIYA) and an external sense object (ĀYATANA); the contact among these three brings about sensory impingement or contact (P. phassa; S. SPARsA), which in turn leads to the sensation (VEDANĀ) of that contact as pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral. At that point, however, the sense of ego intrudes and this process then becomes an intentional one, whereby what one feels, one perceives (P. saNNā; S. SAMJNĀ); what one perceives, one thinks about (P. vitakka; S. VITARKA); and what one thinks about, one conceptualizes (P. papaNca; S. prapaNca). By allowing oneself to experience sensory objects not as things-in-themselves but as concepts invariably tied to one's own perspective, the perceiving subject then becomes the hapless object of an inexorable process of conceptual subjugation: viz., what one conceptualizes becomes proliferated conceptually (P. papaNcasaNNāsankhā; a term apparently unattested in Sanskrit) throughout all of one's sensory experience. Everything that can be experienced in this world in the past, present, and future is now bound together into a labyrinthine network of concepts, all tied to oneself and projected into the external world as craving (TṚsnĀ), conceit (MĀNA), and wrong views (DṚstI), thus creating bondage to SAMSĀRA. By systematic attention (YONIsOMANASKĀRA) to the impersonal character of sensory experience and through sensory restraint (INDRIYASAMVARA), this tendency to project ego throughout the entirety of the perceptual process is brought to an end. In this state of "conceptual nonproliferation" (P. nippapaNca; S. NIḤPRAPANCA), perception is freed from concepts tinged by this proliferating tendency, allowing one to see the things of this world as impersonal causal products that are inevitably impermanent (ANITYA), suffering (DUḤKHA), and nonself (ANĀTMAN). ¶ The preceding interpretation reflects the specific denotation of the term as explicated in Pāli scriptural materials. In a Mahāyāna context, prapaNca may also connote "elaboration" or "superimposition," especially in the sense of a fanciful, imagined, or superfluous quality that is mistakenly projected on to an object, resulting in its being misperceived. Such projections are described as manifestations of ignorance (AVIDYĀ); reality and the mind that perceives reality are described as being free from prapaNca (NIsPRAPANCA), and the purpose of Buddhist practice in one sense can be described as the recognition and elimination of prapaNca in order to see reality clearly and directly. In the MADHYAMAKA school, the most dangerous type of prapaNca is the presumption of intrinsic existence (SVABHĀVA). In YOGĀCĀRA, prapaNca is synonymous with the "seeds" (BĪJA) that provide the basis for perception and the potentiality for future action. In this school, prapaNca is closely associated with false discrimination (VIKALPA), specifically the bifurcation of perceiving subject and perceived object (GRĀHYAGRĀHAKAVIKALPA). The goal of practice is said to be a state of mind that is beyond all thought constructions and verbal elaboration. ¶ The precise denotation of prapaNca has been the subject of much perplexity and debate within the Buddhist tradition, which is reflected in the varying translations for the term in Buddhist canonical languages. The standard Chinese rendering xilun means "frivolous debate," which reflects the tendency of prapaNca to complicate meaningful discussion about the true character of sensory cognition. The Tibetan spros ba means something like "extension, elaboration" and reflects the tendency of prapaNca to proliferate a fanciful conception of reality onto the objects of perception.

pratyātmādhigama. (T. so sor rang gis rig pa; C. neizheng; J. naisho; K. naejŭng 内證). In Sanskrit, "specific understanding" or "individual understanding," a term used to describe the personal realization of a buddha, which is entirely nonconceptual and inexpressible. It is this realization that a buddha then compassionately translates into concepts and words in order to teach the dharma to sentient beings.

Precisely how long a year is depends on the definition and the method of measurement, giving rise to different concepts such as the many different types of astronomical years, as well as a calendar year.

PRINCIPLE THINKING The second kind of thinking from below (47:6).
Mostly makes real phenomena absolute, since concepts are absolute.. (K 1.20.4f)


PROgrammed Graph REwriting Systems ::: (language) (PROGRES) A very high level language based on graph grammars, developed by Andy Scheurr and Albert Zuendorf of RWTH, Aachen in 1991.PROGRES supports structurally object-oriented specification of attributed graph structures with multiple inheritance hierarchies and types of types (for imperative programming of composite graph transformations (with built-in backtracking and cancelling arbitrary sequences of failing graph modifications).It is used for implementing abstract data types with graph-like internal structure, as a visual language for the graph-oriented database GRAS, and as a rule-oriented language for prototyping nondeterministically specified data/rule base transformations.PROGRES has a formally defined semantics based on PROgrammed Graph Rewriting Systems. It is an almost statically typed language which additionally offers down casting operators for run time checked type casting/conversion (in order to avoid severe restrictions concerning the language's expressiveness).Version RWTH 5.10 includes an integrated environment.[A. Scheurr, Introduction to PROGRES, an Attribute Graph Grammar Based Specification Language, in Proc WG89 Workshop on Graphtheoretic Concepts in Computer Science, LNCS 411, Springer 1991]. (1993-11-02)

PROgrammed Graph REwriting Systems "language" (PROGRES) A very high level language based on {graph grammars}, developed by Andy Scheurr "andy@i3.informatik.rwth-aachen.de" and Albert Zuendorf "albert@i3.informatik.rwth-aachen.de" of {RWTH}, Aachen in 1991. PROGRES supports structurally {object-oriented specification} of {attributed graph} structures with {multiple inheritance} hierarchies and types of types (for {parametric polymorphism}). It also supports declarative/relational specification of derived attributes, node sets, binary relationships (directed edges) and {Boolean} {constraints}, rule-oriented/visual specification of parameterised graph rewrite rules with complex application conditions, {nondeterministic} and {imperative programming} of composite graph transformations (with built-in {backtracking} and cancelling arbitrary sequences of failing graph modifications). It is used for implementing {abstract data types} with graph-like internal structure, as a visual language for the {graph-oriented database} {GRAS}, and as a rule-oriented language for prototyping {nondeterministic}ally specified data/rule base transformations. PROGRES has a formally defined {semantics} based on "PROgrammed Graph Rewriting Systems". It is an almost {statically typed} language which additionally offers "down casting" operators for run time checked type casting/conversion (in order to avoid severe restrictions concerning the language's expressiveness). Version RWTH 5.10 includes an integrated environment. [A. Scheurr, "Introduction to PROGRES, an Attribute Graph Grammar Based Specification Language", in Proc WG89 Workshop on Graphtheoretic Concepts in Computer Science", LNCS 411, Springer 1991]. {(ftp://ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/pub/Unix/PROGRES/)} for {Sun-4}. (1993-11-02)

Prolepsis: (Gr. prolepsis) Notion, preconception. The term is used by the Stoics and Epicureans to denote any primary general notion that arises spontaneously and unconsciously in the mind is distinguished from concepts that result from conscious reflection. These prolepses are regarded by the Stoics as common to all men as rational beings, and are sometimes called innate (symphytoi), though in general they were looked upon as the natural outgrowth of sense-perception. -- G.R.M.

Purposiveness: (in Kant's philosophy: die Zweckmässigkeit) Adaptation whether in the body of an animal or plant to its own needs or in a beautiful object to the human intelligence. We must not say dogmatically, Kant contends, that there is a purpose behind the phenomena, but we can say that they occur as if there were, though we cannot bring the purpose under definite concepts. -- A.C.E.

Quantum mechanics - the branch of mechanics that deals with the mathematical description of the motion and interaction of subatomic particles, incorporating the concepts of quantization of energy, wave-particle duality, the uncertainty principle, and the correspondence principle. See /r/quantum

Ratnakīrti. (T. Dkon mchog grags pa). Eleventh-century YOGĀCĀRA logician and student of JNānasrīmitra at VIKRAMAsĪLA monastery. He is the author of ten extant treatises on logic, including the Apohasiddhi, or "Proof of Exclusion." The work deals with the topic of APOHA, the theory that words refer to concepts rather than to objects in the world and that these concepts are the exclusion of their opposite, i.e., that one's idea of a table, for example, is not that of a specific table but rather a generic image of everything that is "non-nontable," i.e., not not a table. Buddhist logicians considered the question of the negative and positive aspects of the meaning of words as well as their sequence; Ratnakīrti argued that they are simultaneous. The Ratnakīrtikalā, a commentary to the ABHISAMAYĀLAMKĀRA, is attributed to Ratnakīrti, but its author may be a different scholar of the same name.

Real Programmers Don't Use Pascal ::: (humour) Back in the good old days - the Golden Era of computers, it was easy to separate the men from the boys (sometimes called Real Men and out that Real Men don't relate to anything, and aren't afraid of being impersonal.)But, as usual, times change. We are faced today with a world in which little old ladies can get computers in their microwave ovens, 12-year-old kids can blow danger of becoming extinct, of being replaced by high-school students with TRASH-80s.There is a clear need to point out the differences between the typical high-school junior Pac-Man player and a Real Programmer. If this difference is why it would be a mistake to replace the Real Programmers on their staff with 12-year-old Pac-Man players (at a considerable salary savings).LANGUAGESThe easiest way to tell a Real Programmer from the crowd is by the programming language he (or she) uses. Real Programmers use Fortran. Quiche Eaters use need all these abstract concepts to get their jobs done - they are perfectly happy with a keypunch, a Fortran IV compiler, and a beer.Real Programmers do List Processing in Fortran.Real Programmers do String Manipulation in Fortran.Real Programmers do Accounting (if they do it at all) in Fortran.Real Programmers do Artificial Intelligence programs in Fortran.If you can't do it in Fortran, do it in assembly language. If you can't do it in assembly language, it isn't worth doing.STRUCTURED PROGRAMMINGThe academics in computer science have gotten into the structured programming rut over the past several years. They claim that programs are more easily in the world won't help you solve a problem like that - it takes actual talent. Some quick observations on Real Programmers and Structured Programming:Real Programmers aren't afraid to use GOTOs.Real Programmers can write five-page-long DO loops without getting confused.Real Programmers like Arithmetic IF statements - they make the code more interesting.Real Programmers write self-modifying code, especially if they can save 20 nanoseconds in the middle of a tight loop.Real Programmers don't need comments - the code is obvious.Since Fortran doesn't have a structured IF, REPEAT ... UNTIL, or CASE statement, Real Programmers don't have to worry about not using them. Besides, they can be simulated when necessary using assigned GOTOs.Data Structures have also gotten a lot of press lately. Abstract Data Types, Structures, Pointers, Lists, and Strings have become popular in certain circles. Languages, as we all know, have implicit typing based on the first letter of the (six character) variable name.OPERATING SYSTEMSWhat kind of operating system is used by a Real Programmer? CP/M? God forbid - CP/M, after all, is basically a toy operating system. Even little old ladies and grade school students can understand and use CP/M.Unix is a lot more complicated of course - the typical Unix hacker never can remember what the PRINT command is called this week - but when it gets right systems: they send jokes around the world on UUCP-net and write adventure games and research papers.No, your Real Programmer uses OS 370. A good programmer can find and understand the description of the IJK305I error he just got in his JCL manual. A great outstanding programmer can find bugs buried in a 6 megabyte core dump without using a hex calculator. (I have actually seen this done.)OS is a truly remarkable operating system. It's possible to destroy days of work with a single misplaced space, so alertness in the programming staff is people claim there is a Time Sharing system that runs on OS 370, but after careful study I have come to the conclusion that they were mistaken.PROGRAMMING TOOLSWhat kind of tools does a Real Programmer use? In theory, a Real Programmer could run his programs by keying them into the front panel of the computer. Back the first operating system for the CDC7600 in on the front panel from memory when it was first powered on. Seymore, needless to say, is a Real Programmer.One of my favorite Real Programmers was a systems programmer for Texas Instruments. One day he got a long distance call from a user whose system had includes a keypunch and lineprinter in his toolkit, he can get along with just a front panel and a telephone in emergencies.In some companies, text editing no longer consists of ten engineers standing in line to use an 029 keypunch. In fact, the building I work in doesn't contain a system is called SmallTalk, and would certainly not talk to the computer with a mouse.Some of the concepts in these Xerox editors have been incorporated into editors running on more reasonably named operating systems - Emacs and VI being two. The the Real Programmer wants a you asked for it, you got it text editor - complicated, cryptic, powerful, unforgiving, dangerous. TECO, to be precise.It has been observed that a TECO command sequence more closely resembles transmission line noise than readable text [4]. One of the more entertaining will probably destroy your program, or even worse - introduce subtle and mysterious bugs in a once working subroutine.For this reason, Real Programmers are reluctant to actually edit a program that is close to working. They find it much easier to just patch the binary object Programmer to do the job - no Quiche Eating structured programmer would even know where to start. This is called job security.Some programming tools NOT used by Real Programmers:Fortran preprocessors like MORTRAN and RATFOR. The Cuisinarts of programming - great for making Quiche. See comments above on structured programming.Source language debuggers. Real Programmers can read core dumps.Compilers with array bounds checking. They stifle creativity, destroy most of the interesting uses for EQUIVALENCE, and make it impossible to modify the operating system code with negative subscripts. Worst of all, bounds checking is inefficient.Source code maintenance systems. A Real Programmer keeps his code locked up in a card file, because it implies that its owner cannot leave his important programs unguarded [5].THE REAL PROGRAMMER AT WORKWhere does the typical Real Programmer work? What kind of programs are worthy of the efforts of so talented an individual? You can be sure that no Real or sorting mailing lists for People magazine. A Real Programmer wants tasks of earth-shaking importance (literally!).Real Programmers work for Los Alamos National Laboratory, writing atomic bomb simulations to run on Cray I supercomputers.Real Programmers work for the National Security Agency, decoding Russian transmissions.It was largely due to the efforts of thousands of Real Programmers working for NASA that our boys got to the moon and back before the Russkies.Real Programmers are at work for Boeing designing the operating systems for cruise missiles.Some of the most awesome Real Programmers of all work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. Many of them know the entire operating system of the bytes of unused memory in a Voyager spacecraft that searched for, located, and photographed a new moon of Jupiter.The current plan for the Galileo spacecraft is to use a gravity assist trajectory past Mars on the way to Jupiter. This trajectory passes within 80 +/-3 kilometers of the surface of Mars. Nobody is going to trust a Pascal program (or a Pascal programmer) for navigation to these tolerances.As you can tell, many of the world's Real Programmers work for the U.S. Government - mainly the Defense Department. This is as it should be. Recently, programmers and Quiche Eaters alike.) Besides, the determined Real Programmer can write Fortran programs in any language.The Real Programmer might compromise his principles and work on something slightly more trivial than the destruction of life as we know it, providing Fortran, so there are a fair number of people doing graphics in order to avoid having to write COBOL programs.THE REAL PROGRAMMER AT PLAYGenerally, the Real Programmer plays the same way he works - with computers. He is constantly amazed that his employer actually pays him to do what he would be breath of fresh air and a beer or two. Some tips on recognizing Real Programmers away from the computer room:At a party, the Real Programmers are the ones in the corner talking about operating system security and how to get around it.At a football game, the Real Programmer is the one comparing the plays against his simulations printed on 11 by 14 fanfold paper.At the beach, the Real Programmer is the one drawing flowcharts in the sand.At a funeral, the Real Programmer is the one saying Poor George, he almost had the sort routine working before the coronary.In a grocery store, the Real Programmer is the one who insists on running the cans past the laser checkout scanner himself, because he never could trust keypunch operators to get it right the first time.THE REAL PROGRAMMER'S NATURAL HABITATWhat sort of environment does the Real Programmer function best in? This is an important question for the managers of Real Programmers. Considering the amount of money it costs to keep one on the staff, it's best to put him (or her) in an environment where he can get his work done.The typical Real Programmer lives in front of a computer terminal. Surrounding this terminal are:Listings of all programs the Real Programmer has ever worked on, piled in roughly chronological order on every flat surface in the office.Some half-dozen or so partly filled cups of cold coffee. Occasionally, there will be cigarette butts floating in the coffee. In some cases, the cups will contain Orange Crush.Unless he is very good, there will be copies of the OS JCL manual and the Principles of Operation open to some particularly interesting pages.Taped to the wall is a line-printer Snoopy calendar for the year 1969.Strewn about the floor are several wrappers for peanut butter filled cheese bars - the type that are made pre-stale at the bakery so they can't get any worse while waiting in the vending machine.Hiding in the top left-hand drawer of the desk is a stash of double-stuff Oreos for special occasions.Underneath the Oreos is a flowcharting template, left there by the previous occupant of the office. (Real Programmers write programs, not documentation. Leave that to the maintenance people.)The Real Programmer is capable of working 30, 40, even 50 hours at a stretch, under intense pressure. In fact, he prefers it that way. Bad response time project done on time, but creates a convenient excuse for not doing the documentation. In general:No Real Programmer works 9 to 5 (unless it's the ones at night).Real Programmers don't wear neckties.Real Programmers don't wear high-heeled shoes.Real Programmers arrive at work in time for lunch [9].A Real Programmer might or might not know his wife's name. He does, however, know the entire ASCII (or EBCDIC) code table.Real Programmers don't know how to cook. Grocery stores aren't open at three in the morning. Real Programmers survive on Twinkies and coffee.THE FUTUREWhat of the future? It is a matter of some concern to Real Programmers that the latest generation of computer programmers are not being brought up with the same ever learning Fortran! Are we destined to become an industry of Unix hackers and Pascal programmers?From my experience, I can only report that the future is bright for Real Programmers everywhere. Neither OS 370 nor Fortran show any signs of dying out, one of them has a way of converting itself back into a Fortran 66 compiler at the drop of an option card - to compile DO loops like God meant them to be.Even Unix might not be as bad on Real Programmers as it once was. The latest release of Unix has the potential of an operating system worthy of any Real in - like having the best parts of Fortran and assembly language in one place. (Not to mention some of the more creative uses for

Real Programmers Don't Use Pascal "humour" Back in the good old days - the "Golden Era" of computers, it was easy to separate the men from the boys (sometimes called "Real Men" and "Quiche Eaters" in the literature). During this period, the Real Men were the ones that understood computer programming, and the Quiche Eaters were the ones that didn't. A real computer programmer said things like "DO 10 I=1,10" and "ABEND" (they actually talked in capital letters, you understand), and the rest of the world said things like "computers are too complicated for me" and "I can't relate to computers - they're so impersonal". (A previous work [1] points out that Real Men don't "relate" to anything, and aren't afraid of being impersonal.) But, as usual, times change. We are faced today with a world in which little old ladies can get computers in their microwave ovens, 12-year-old kids can blow Real Men out of the water playing Asteroids and Pac-Man, and anyone can buy and even understand their very own Personal Computer. The Real Programmer is in danger of becoming extinct, of being replaced by high-school students with {TRASH-80s}. There is a clear need to point out the differences between the typical high-school junior Pac-Man player and a Real Programmer. If this difference is made clear, it will give these kids something to aspire to -- a role model, a Father Figure. It will also help explain to the employers of Real Programmers why it would be a mistake to replace the Real Programmers on their staff with 12-year-old Pac-Man players (at a considerable salary savings). LANGUAGES The easiest way to tell a Real Programmer from the crowd is by the programming language he (or she) uses. Real Programmers use {Fortran}. Quiche Eaters use {Pascal}. Nicklaus Wirth, the designer of Pascal, gave a talk once at which he was asked how to pronounce his name. He replied, "You can either call me by name, pronouncing it 'Veert', or call me by value, 'Worth'." One can tell immediately from this comment that Nicklaus Wirth is a Quiche Eater. The only parameter passing mechanism endorsed by Real Programmers is call-by-value-return, as implemented in the {IBM 370} {Fortran-G} and H compilers. Real programmers don't need all these abstract concepts to get their jobs done - they are perfectly happy with a {keypunch}, a {Fortran IV} {compiler}, and a beer. Real Programmers do List Processing in Fortran. Real Programmers do String Manipulation in Fortran. Real Programmers do Accounting (if they do it at all) in Fortran. Real Programmers do {Artificial Intelligence} programs in Fortran. If you can't do it in Fortran, do it in {assembly language}. If you can't do it in assembly language, it isn't worth doing. STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING The academics in computer science have gotten into the "structured programming" rut over the past several years. They claim that programs are more easily understood if the programmer uses some special language constructs and techniques. They don't all agree on exactly which constructs, of course, and the examples they use to show their particular point of view invariably fit on a single page of some obscure journal or another - clearly not enough of an example to convince anyone. When I got out of school, I thought I was the best programmer in the world. I could write an unbeatable tic-tac-toe program, use five different computer languages, and create 1000-line programs that WORKED. (Really!) Then I got out into the Real World. My first task in the Real World was to read and understand a 200,000-line Fortran program, then speed it up by a factor of two. Any Real Programmer will tell you that all the Structured Coding in the world won't help you solve a problem like that - it takes actual talent. Some quick observations on Real Programmers and Structured Programming: Real Programmers aren't afraid to use {GOTOs}. Real Programmers can write five-page-long DO loops without getting confused. Real Programmers like Arithmetic IF statements - they make the code more interesting. Real Programmers write self-modifying code, especially if they can save 20 {nanoseconds} in the middle of a tight loop. Real Programmers don't need comments - the code is obvious. Since Fortran doesn't have a structured IF, REPEAT ... UNTIL, or CASE statement, Real Programmers don't have to worry about not using them. Besides, they can be simulated when necessary using {assigned GOTOs}. Data Structures have also gotten a lot of press lately. Abstract Data Types, Structures, Pointers, Lists, and Strings have become popular in certain circles. Wirth (the above-mentioned Quiche Eater) actually wrote an entire book [2] contending that you could write a program based on data structures, instead of the other way around. As all Real Programmers know, the only useful data structure is the Array. Strings, lists, structures, sets - these are all special cases of arrays and can be treated that way just as easily without messing up your programing language with all sorts of complications. The worst thing about fancy data types is that you have to declare them, and Real Programming Languages, as we all know, have implicit typing based on the first letter of the (six character) variable name. OPERATING SYSTEMS What kind of operating system is used by a Real Programmer? CP/M? God forbid - CP/M, after all, is basically a toy operating system. Even little old ladies and grade school students can understand and use CP/M. Unix is a lot more complicated of course - the typical Unix hacker never can remember what the PRINT command is called this week - but when it gets right down to it, Unix is a glorified video game. People don't do Serious Work on Unix systems: they send jokes around the world on {UUCP}-net and write adventure games and research papers. No, your Real Programmer uses OS 370. A good programmer can find and understand the description of the IJK305I error he just got in his JCL manual. A great programmer can write JCL without referring to the manual at all. A truly outstanding programmer can find bugs buried in a 6 megabyte {core dump} without using a hex calculator. (I have actually seen this done.) OS is a truly remarkable operating system. It's possible to destroy days of work with a single misplaced space, so alertness in the programming staff is encouraged. The best way to approach the system is through a keypunch. Some people claim there is a Time Sharing system that runs on OS 370, but after careful study I have come to the conclusion that they were mistaken. PROGRAMMING TOOLS What kind of tools does a Real Programmer use? In theory, a Real Programmer could run his programs by keying them into the front panel of the computer. Back in the days when computers had front panels, this was actually done occasionally. Your typical Real Programmer knew the entire bootstrap loader by memory in hex, and toggled it in whenever it got destroyed by his program. (Back then, memory was memory - it didn't go away when the power went off. Today, memory either forgets things when you don't want it to, or remembers things long after they're better forgotten.) Legend has it that {Seymore Cray}, inventor of the Cray I supercomputer and most of Control Data's computers, actually toggled the first operating system for the CDC7600 in on the front panel from memory when it was first powered on. Seymore, needless to say, is a Real Programmer. One of my favorite Real Programmers was a systems programmer for Texas Instruments. One day he got a long distance call from a user whose system had crashed in the middle of saving some important work. Jim was able to repair the damage over the phone, getting the user to toggle in disk I/O instructions at the front panel, repairing system tables in hex, reading register contents back over the phone. The moral of this story: while a Real Programmer usually includes a keypunch and lineprinter in his toolkit, he can get along with just a front panel and a telephone in emergencies. In some companies, text editing no longer consists of ten engineers standing in line to use an 029 keypunch. In fact, the building I work in doesn't contain a single keypunch. The Real Programmer in this situation has to do his work with a "text editor" program. Most systems supply several text editors to select from, and the Real Programmer must be careful to pick one that reflects his personal style. Many people believe that the best text editors in the world were written at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center for use on their Alto and Dorado computers [3]. Unfortunately, no Real Programmer would ever use a computer whose operating system is called SmallTalk, and would certainly not talk to the computer with a mouse. Some of the concepts in these Xerox editors have been incorporated into editors running on more reasonably named operating systems - {Emacs} and {VI} being two. The problem with these editors is that Real Programmers consider "what you see is what you get" to be just as bad a concept in Text Editors as it is in women. No the Real Programmer wants a "you asked for it, you got it" text editor - complicated, cryptic, powerful, unforgiving, dangerous. TECO, to be precise. It has been observed that a TECO command sequence more closely resembles transmission line noise than readable text [4]. One of the more entertaining games to play with TECO is to type your name in as a command line and try to guess what it does. Just about any possible typing error while talking with TECO will probably destroy your program, or even worse - introduce subtle and mysterious bugs in a once working subroutine. For this reason, Real Programmers are reluctant to actually edit a program that is close to working. They find it much easier to just patch the binary {object code} directly, using a wonderful program called SUPERZAP (or its equivalent on non-IBM machines). This works so well that many working programs on IBM systems bear no relation to the original Fortran code. In many cases, the original source code is no longer available. When it comes time to fix a program like this, no manager would even think of sending anything less than a Real Programmer to do the job - no Quiche Eating structured programmer would even know where to start. This is called "job security". Some programming tools NOT used by Real Programmers: Fortran preprocessors like {MORTRAN} and {RATFOR}. The Cuisinarts of programming - great for making Quiche. See comments above on structured programming. Source language debuggers. Real Programmers can read core dumps. Compilers with array bounds checking. They stifle creativity, destroy most of the interesting uses for EQUIVALENCE, and make it impossible to modify the operating system code with negative subscripts. Worst of all, bounds checking is inefficient. Source code maintenance systems. A Real Programmer keeps his code locked up in a card file, because it implies that its owner cannot leave his important programs unguarded [5]. THE REAL PROGRAMMER AT WORK Where does the typical Real Programmer work? What kind of programs are worthy of the efforts of so talented an individual? You can be sure that no Real Programmer would be caught dead writing accounts-receivable programs in {COBOL}, or sorting {mailing lists} for People magazine. A Real Programmer wants tasks of earth-shaking importance (literally!). Real Programmers work for Los Alamos National Laboratory, writing atomic bomb simulations to run on Cray I supercomputers. Real Programmers work for the National Security Agency, decoding Russian transmissions. It was largely due to the efforts of thousands of Real Programmers working for NASA that our boys got to the moon and back before the Russkies. Real Programmers are at work for Boeing designing the operating systems for cruise missiles. Some of the most awesome Real Programmers of all work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. Many of them know the entire operating system of the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft by heart. With a combination of large ground-based Fortran programs and small spacecraft-based assembly language programs, they are able to do incredible feats of navigation and improvisation - hitting ten-kilometer wide windows at Saturn after six years in space, repairing or bypassing damaged sensor platforms, radios, and batteries. Allegedly, one Real Programmer managed to tuck a pattern-matching program into a few hundred bytes of unused memory in a Voyager spacecraft that searched for, located, and photographed a new moon of Jupiter. The current plan for the Galileo spacecraft is to use a gravity assist trajectory past Mars on the way to Jupiter. This trajectory passes within 80 +/-3 kilometers of the surface of Mars. Nobody is going to trust a Pascal program (or a Pascal programmer) for navigation to these tolerances. As you can tell, many of the world's Real Programmers work for the U.S. Government - mainly the Defense Department. This is as it should be. Recently, however, a black cloud has formed on the Real Programmer horizon. It seems that some highly placed Quiche Eaters at the Defense Department decided that all Defense programs should be written in some grand unified language called "ADA" ((C), DoD). For a while, it seemed that ADA was destined to become a language that went against all the precepts of Real Programming - a language with structure, a language with data types, {strong typing}, and semicolons. In short, a language designed to cripple the creativity of the typical Real Programmer. Fortunately, the language adopted by DoD has enough interesting features to make it approachable -- it's incredibly complex, includes methods for messing with the operating system and rearranging memory, and Edsgar Dijkstra doesn't like it [6]. (Dijkstra, as I'm sure you know, was the author of "GoTos Considered Harmful" - a landmark work in programming methodology, applauded by Pascal programmers and Quiche Eaters alike.) Besides, the determined Real Programmer can write Fortran programs in any language. The Real Programmer might compromise his principles and work on something slightly more trivial than the destruction of life as we know it, providing there's enough money in it. There are several Real Programmers building video games at Atari, for example. (But not playing them - a Real Programmer knows how to beat the machine every time: no challenge in that.) Everyone working at LucasFilm is a Real Programmer. (It would be crazy to turn down the money of fifty million Star Trek fans.) The proportion of Real Programmers in Computer Graphics is somewhat lower than the norm, mostly because nobody has found a use for computer graphics yet. On the other hand, all computer graphics is done in Fortran, so there are a fair number of people doing graphics in order to avoid having to write COBOL programs. THE REAL PROGRAMMER AT PLAY Generally, the Real Programmer plays the same way he works - with computers. He is constantly amazed that his employer actually pays him to do what he would be doing for fun anyway (although he is careful not to express this opinion out loud). Occasionally, the Real Programmer does step out of the office for a breath of fresh air and a beer or two. Some tips on recognizing Real Programmers away from the computer room: At a party, the Real Programmers are the ones in the corner talking about operating system security and how to get around it. At a football game, the Real Programmer is the one comparing the plays against his simulations printed on 11 by 14 fanfold paper. At the beach, the Real Programmer is the one drawing flowcharts in the sand. At a funeral, the Real Programmer is the one saying "Poor George, he almost had the sort routine working before the coronary." In a grocery store, the Real Programmer is the one who insists on running the cans past the laser checkout scanner himself, because he never could trust keypunch operators to get it right the first time. THE REAL PROGRAMMER'S NATURAL HABITAT What sort of environment does the Real Programmer function best in? This is an important question for the managers of Real Programmers. Considering the amount of money it costs to keep one on the staff, it's best to put him (or her) in an environment where he can get his work done. The typical Real Programmer lives in front of a computer terminal. Surrounding this terminal are: Listings of all programs the Real Programmer has ever worked on, piled in roughly chronological order on every flat surface in the office. Some half-dozen or so partly filled cups of cold coffee. Occasionally, there will be cigarette butts floating in the coffee. In some cases, the cups will contain Orange Crush. Unless he is very good, there will be copies of the OS JCL manual and the Principles of Operation open to some particularly interesting pages. Taped to the wall is a line-printer Snoopy calendar for the year 1969. Strewn about the floor are several wrappers for peanut butter filled cheese bars - the type that are made pre-stale at the bakery so they can't get any worse while waiting in the vending machine. Hiding in the top left-hand drawer of the desk is a stash of double-stuff Oreos for special occasions. Underneath the Oreos is a flowcharting template, left there by the previous occupant of the office. (Real Programmers write programs, not documentation. Leave that to the maintenance people.) The Real Programmer is capable of working 30, 40, even 50 hours at a stretch, under intense pressure. In fact, he prefers it that way. Bad response time doesn't bother the Real Programmer - it gives him a chance to catch a little sleep between compiles. If there is not enough schedule pressure on the Real Programmer, he tends to make things more challenging by working on some small but interesting part of the problem for the first nine weeks, then finishing the rest in the last week, in two or three 50-hour marathons. This not only impresses the hell out of his manager, who was despairing of ever getting the project done on time, but creates a convenient excuse for not doing the documentation. In general: No Real Programmer works 9 to 5 (unless it's the ones at night). Real Programmers don't wear neckties. Real Programmers don't wear high-heeled shoes. Real Programmers arrive at work in time for lunch [9]. A Real Programmer might or might not know his wife's name. He does, however, know the entire {ASCII} (or EBCDIC) code table. Real Programmers don't know how to cook. Grocery stores aren't open at three in the morning. Real Programmers survive on Twinkies and coffee. THE FUTURE What of the future? It is a matter of some concern to Real Programmers that the latest generation of computer programmers are not being brought up with the same outlook on life as their elders. Many of them have never seen a computer with a front panel. Hardly anyone graduating from school these days can do hex arithmetic without a calculator. College graduates these days are soft - protected from the realities of programming by source level debuggers, text editors that count parentheses, and "user friendly" operating systems. Worst of all, some of these alleged "computer scientists" manage to get degrees without ever learning Fortran! Are we destined to become an industry of Unix hackers and Pascal programmers? From my experience, I can only report that the future is bright for Real Programmers everywhere. Neither OS 370 nor Fortran show any signs of dying out, despite all the efforts of Pascal programmers the world over. Even more subtle tricks, like adding structured coding constructs to Fortran have failed. Oh sure, some computer vendors have come out with Fortran 77 compilers, but every one of them has a way of converting itself back into a Fortran 66 compiler at the drop of an option card - to compile DO loops like God meant them to be. Even Unix might not be as bad on Real Programmers as it once was. The latest release of Unix has the potential of an operating system worthy of any Real Programmer - two different and subtly incompatible user interfaces, an arcane and complicated teletype driver, virtual memory. If you ignore the fact that it's "structured", even 'C' programming can be appreciated by the Real Programmer: after all, there's no type checking, variable names are seven (ten? eight?) characters long, and the added bonus of the Pointer data type is thrown in - like having the best parts of Fortran and assembly language in one place. (Not to mention some of the more creative uses for

Reason is a clarified, ordered and organised Ignorance. It is a half-enlightened Ignorance seeking for truth, but a truth which it insists on founding upon the data and postulates of the Ignorance. Reason is not in possession of the Truth, it is a seeker. It is [unable to] discover the Truth or embody it; it leaves Truth covered but rendered into mental representations, a verbal and ideative scheme, an abstract algebra of concepts, a theory of the Ignorance. Sense-evidence is its starting point and it never really gets away from that insecure beginning. Its concepts start from sense-data and though like a kite it can fly high into an air of abstractions, it is held to the earth of sense by a string of great strength; if that string is broken it drifts lazily [in] the clouds and always it falls back by natural gravitation to its original earth basis—only so can it receive strength to go farther. Its field is the air and sky of the finite, it cannot ascend into the stratosphere of the spiritual vision, still less can it move at ease in the Infinite.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 12, Page: 256


Receptivity: (Lat. recipere, to take back) The collective name for receptive or sensory functions of the mind in contrast to its active or motor functions. In the Kantian terminology, receptivity is defined as the faculty of receiving representations in contrast to spontaneity, the faculty of knowing an object by means of concepts. See Kant, Critique of Pare Reason, A 50-B 74. -- L.W.

Relativity of Knowledge: Sec Relativism, Epistemological. Relevance or Relevancy: (Fr. relevant) Relation between concepts which are capable of combining to form meaningful propositions or between propositions belonging to the same "universe of discourse." -- L.W.

Renwang jing. (J. Ninnogyo; K. Inwang kyong 仁王經). In Chinese, "Scripture for Humane Kings"; an influential indigenous Chinese scripture (see APOCRYPHA), known especially for its role in "state protection Buddhism" (HUGUO FOJIAO) and for its comprehensive outline of the Buddhist path of practice (MĀRGA). Its full title (infra) suggests that the scripture belongs to the "perfection of wisdom" (PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ) genre of literature, but it includes also elements drawn from both the YOGĀCĀRA and TATHĀGATAGARBHA traditions. The text's audience and interlocutors are not the typical sRĀVAKAs and BODHISATTVAs but instead kings hailing from the sixteen ancient regions of India, who beseech the Buddha to speak this sutra in order to protect both their states and their subjects from the chaos attending the extinction of the dharma (MOFA; SADDHARMAVIPRALOPA). By having kings rather than spiritual mentors serve as the interlocutors, the scripture thus focuses on those qualities thought to be essential to governing a state founded on Buddhist principles. The text's concepts of authority, the path, and the world draw analogies with the "humane kings" of this world who serve and venerate the transcendent monks and bodhisattvas. The service and worship rendered by the kings turns them into bodhisattvas, while the soteriological vocation of the monks and bodhisattvas conversely renders them kings. Thus, the relationship between the state and the religion is symbiotic. The sutra is now generally presumed to be an indigenous Chinese scripture that was composed to buttress imperial authority by exalting the benevolent ruler as a defender of the dharma. The Renwang jing is also known for including the ten levels of faith (sRADDHĀ) as a preliminary stage of the Buddhist path prior to the arousal of the thought of enlightenment (BODHICITTOTPĀDA). It is one of a number of Chinese Buddhist apocrypha that seek to provide a comprehensive elaboration of all fifty-two stages of the path, including the PUSA YINGLUO BENYE JING and the YUANJUE JING. The Renwang jing is not known in Sanskrit sources, but there are two recensions of the Chinese text. The first, Renwang bore boluomi jing, is purported to have been translated by KUMĀRAJĪVA and is dated to c. 402, and the latter, titled Renwang huguo bore boluomiduo jing, is attributed to AMOGHAVAJRA and dated to 765. The Amoghavajra recension is based substantially on the Kumārajīva text, but includes additional teachings on MAndALA, MANTRA, and DHĀRAnĪ, additions that reflect Amoghavajra's place in the Chinese esoteric Buddhist tradition. Furthermore, because Amoghavajra was an advisor to three Tang-dynasty rulers, his involvement in contemporary politics may also have helped to shape the later version. Chinese scriptural catalogues (JINGLU) were already suspicious about the authenticity of the Renwang jing as least as early as Fajing's 594 Zhongjing mulu; Fajing lists the text together with twenty-one other scriptures of doubtful authenticity (YIJING), because its content and diction do not resemble those of the ascribed translator. Modern scholars have also recognized these content issues. One of the more egregious examples is the RENWANG JING's reference to four different perfection of wisdom (prajNāpāramitā) sutras that the Buddha is said to have proclaimed; two of the sutras listed are, however, simply different Chinese translations of the same text, the PANCAVIMsATISĀHASRIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, a blunder that an Indian author could obviously not have committed. Another example is the scripture's discussion of a three-truth SAMĀDHI (sandi sanmei), in which these three types of concentrations are named worldly truth (shidi), authentic truth (zhendi), and supreme-meaning truth (diyiyidi). This schema is peculiar, and betrays its Chinese origins, because "authentic truth" and "supreme-meaning truth" are actually just different Chinese renderings of the same Sanskrit term, PARAMĀTHASATYA. Based on other internal evidence, scholars have dated the composition of the sutra to sometime around the middle of the fifth century. Whatever its provenance, the text is ultimately reclassified as an authentic translation in the 602 catalogue Zongjing mulu by Yancong and continues to be so listed in all subsequent East Asian catalogues. See also APOCRYPHA; SANDI.

Richard Hamming ::: (person) Professor Richard Wesley Hamming (1915-02-11 - 1998-01-07). An American mathematician known for his work in information theory (notably error detection and correction), having invented the concepts of Hamming code, Hamming distance, and Hamming window.Richard Hamming received his B.S. from the University of Chicago in 1937, his M.A. from the University of Nebraska in 1939, and his Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1942. In 1945 Hamming joined the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos.In 1946, after World War II, Hamming joined the Bell Telephone Laboratories where he worked with both Shannon and John Tukey. He worked there until 1976 when he accepted a chair of computer science at the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California.Hamming's fundamental paper on error-detecting and error-correcting codes (Hamming codes) appeared in 1950.His work on the IBM 650 leading to the development in 1956 of the L2 programming language. This never displaced the workhorse language L1 devised by Michael V Wolontis. By 1958 the 650 had been elbowed aside by the 704.Although best known for error-correcting codes, Hamming was primarily a numerical analyst, working on integrating differential equations and the Hamming (better to solve the right problem the wrong way than the wrong problem the right way.).In 1968 he was made a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and awarded the Turing Prize from the Association for Computing Machinery. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers awarded Hamming the Emanuel R Piore Award in 1979 and a medal in 1988. . . .[Richard Hamming. Coding and Information Theory. Prentice-Hall, 1980. ISBN 0-13-139139-9].(2003-06-07)

Richard Hamming "person" Professor Richard Wesley Hamming (1915-02-11 - 1998-01-07). An American mathematician known for his work in {information theory} (notably {error detection and correction}), having invented the concepts of {Hamming code}, {Hamming distance}, and {Hamming window}. Richard Hamming received his B.S. from the University of Chicago in 1937, his M.A. from the University of Nebraska in 1939, and his Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1942. In 1945 Hamming joined the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos. In 1946, after World War II, Hamming joined the {Bell Telephone Laboratories} where he worked with both {Shannon} and {John Tukey}. He worked there until 1976 when he accepted a chair of computer science at the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California. Hamming's fundamental paper on error-detecting and error-correcting codes ("{Hamming codes}") appeared in 1950. His work on the {IBM 650} leading to the development in 1956 of the {L2} programming language. This never displaced the workhorse language {L1} devised by Michael V Wolontis. By 1958 the 650 had been elbowed aside by the 704. Although best known for error-correcting codes, Hamming was primarily a numerical analyst, working on integrating {differential equations} and the {Hamming spectral window} used for smoothing data before {Fourier analysis}. He wrote textbooks, propounded aphorisms ("the purpose of computing is insight, not numbers"), and was a founder of the {ACM} and a proponent of {open-shop} computing ("better to solve the right problem the wrong way than the wrong problem the right way."). In 1968 he was made a fellow of the {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers} and awarded the {Turing Prize} from the {Association for Computing Machinery}. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers awarded Hamming the Emanuel R Piore Award in 1979 and a medal in 1988. {(http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Hamming.html)}. {(http://zapata.seas.smu.edu/~gorsak/hamming.html)}. {(http://webtechniques.com/archives/1998/03/homepage/)}. [Richard Hamming. Coding and Information Theory. Prentice-Hall, 1980. ISBN 0-13-139139-9]. (2003-06-07)

RIGHT, CONCEPTION OF An individual&

Romanticism: As a general philosophical movement, romanticism is best understood as the initial phase of German Idealism, serving as a transition from Kant to Hegel, and flourishing chiefly between 1775 and 1815. It is associated primarily with the Schlegel brothers, Novalis, Fried, Schelling, and Schleiermacher, with Schelhng as its culmination and most typical figure. The philosophical point of departure for romanticism is the Kantian philosophy, and romanticism shares with all German Idealism both the fundamental purpose of extending knowledge to the realm of noumena, and the fundamental doctrine that all reality is ultimately spiritual, derivative from a living spirit and so knowable by the human spirit. The essence of philosophical romanticism as expressed by Schelhng, that which differentiates it from other types of Idealism, resides in its conception of Spirit; upon this depend its metaphysical account of nature and man, and its epistemological doctrine of the proper method for investigating and understanding reality. Romanticism holds that Spirit, or the Absolute, is essentially creative; the ultimate ground of all things is primarily an urge to self-expression, and all that it has brought into being is but a means to its fuller self-realization. If the Absolute of Fichte is a moralist, and that of Hegel a logician, then that of the romanticists is primarily an artist. From this basic view there springs a metaphysic that interprets the universe in terms of the concepts of evolution, process, life, and consciousness. The world of nature is one manifestation of Spirit, man is another and a higher such manifestation, for in man Spirit seeks to become conscious of its own work. The metaphysical process is the process by which the Absolute seeks to realize itself, and all particular things are but phases within it. Hence, the epistemology of romanticism is exclusively emotional and intuitive, stressing the necessity for fullness of experience and depth of feeling if reality is to be understood. Reason, being artificial and analytical, is inadequate to the task of comprehending the Absolute; knowing is living, and the philosopher must approach nature through inspiration, longing, and sympathy.

Romanticism was a healthy and necessary influence in reasserting the dignity of nature, in stressing the emotional factor in knowledge, and in emphasizing the concepts of process and evolution. It was an inadequate doctrine, in that it did not clarify the detailed movement of the process it posited, and could offer no positive advice for discovering this, other than to be inspired and intuit it. Romanticism is metaphysical expressionism, and like any expressionistic doctrine it is unable to give any concrete meaning to the concept of causality; it can therefore provide no categories under which to comprehend things, but can only say that things are because they have been expressed, and can be understood only by being re-expressed i.e., only by re-living the experience of their creator.

sahaja nirvikalpa samadhi. ::: the permanent and natural state of absorption in one's Self without concepts; remaining alertly aware and thought-free, with a still mind devoid of differentiation of Self and non-Self even while being engaged in the activities of worldly life

SakkapaNhasutta. (C. Di-Shi suowen jing; J. Taishaku shomongyo; K. Che-Sok somun kyong 帝釋所問經). In Pāli, "Discourse on Sakka's Question"; the twenty-first sutta of the DĪGHANIKĀYA (there are three separate recensions in Chinese: an independent sutra translated by FAXIAN; a SARVĀSTIVĀDA recension that appears as the fourteenth sutra in the Chinese translation of the DĪRGHĀGAMA; and a SARVĀSTIVĀDA recension that appears as the 134th sutra in the Chinese translation of the MADHYAMĀGAMA). The sutra is preached to sAKRA (P. Sakka), king of the gods, by the Buddha while he dwelt in the Indrasāla [alt. Indrasaila] (P. Indasāla) cave near RĀJAGṚHA. sakra inquired as to why there was so much hostility between beings. The Buddha explained that hostility is caused by selfishness; that selfishness is caused by likes and dislikes, and that likes and dislikes, in turn, are caused by desire. Desire is produced by mental preoccupations (S. VITARKA, P. vitakka) born from the proliferation of concepts (S. PRAPANCA, P. papaNca) that gives rise to SAMSĀRA. The Buddha then delineates a practice to be pursued and a practice to be abandoned for subduing this conceptual proliferation.

saMjNā. (P. saNNā; T. 'du shes; C. xiang; J. so; K. sang 想). In Sanskrit, "perception," "discrimination," or "(conceptual) identification." The term has both positive and negative connotations. As one of the five omnipresent factors (SARVATRAGA) among the listings of mental concomitants (CAITTA, P. CETASIKA) in the VAIBĀsIKA school of SARVĀSTIVĀDA ABHIDHARMA and in the YOGĀCĀRA school, saMjNā might best be translated as "discrimination," referring to the mental function of differentiating and identifying objects through the apprehension of their specific qualities. SaMjNā perceives objects in such a way that when the object is perceived again it can be readily recognized and categorized conceptually. In this perceptual context, there are six varieties of saMjNā, each derived from one of the six sense faculties. Thus we have perception of visual objects (rupasaMjNā), perception of auditory objects (sabdasaMjNā), perception of mental objects (dharmasaMjNā), and so on. As the third of the five aggregates (SKANDHA), saMjNā is used in this sense, particularly as the factor that perceives pleasant or unpleasant sensations as being such, giving rise to attraction, aversion and other afflictions (KLEsA) that motivate action (KARMAN). In the compound "equipoise of nonperception" (ASAMJNĀSAMĀPATTI), saMjNā refers to mental activities that, when temporarily suppressed, bring respite from tension. Some accounts interpret this state positively to mean that the perception aggregate itself is no longer functioning, implying a state of rest with the cessation of all conscious thought. In other accounts, however, asaMjNāsamāpatti is characterized as a nihilistic state of mental dormancy, which some non-Buddhist teachers had mistakenly believed to be the ultimate, permanent quiescence of the mind and to have become attached to this state as if it were final liberation. In Pāli materials, saNNā may also refer to "concepts" or "perceptions" that may be used as objects of meditation. The Pāli canon offers several of these meditative objects, such as the perception of impermanence (aniccasaNNā, see S. ANITYA), the perception of danger (ĀDĪNAVA-saNNā), the perception of repugnance (patighasaNNā, see PRATIGHA), and so on.

samprajnata samadhi. ::: meditation with concepts; contemplation

saMvṛti. (P. sammuti; T. kun rdzob; C. shisu/su; J. sezoku/zoku; K. sesok/sok 世俗/俗). In Sanskrit, "conventional" or "relative"; a term used to designate the phenomena, concepts, and understanding associated with unenlightened, ordinary beings (PṚTHAGJANA). SaMvṛti is akin to the Sanskrit term LAUKIKA (mundane), in that both are used to indicate worldly things or unenlightened views, and is typically contrasted with PARAMĀRTHA, meaning "ultimate" or "absolute." In Sanskrit the term carries the connotation of "covering, concealing," implying that the independent reality apparently possessed by ordinary phenomena may seem vivid and convincing, but is in fact ultimately illusory and unreal. Much analysis and debate has occurred within the various philosophical schools regarding the questions of if, how, and in what way saMvṛti or conventional phenomena exist. For example, in his PRASANNAPADĀ, the seventh-century scholar CANDRAKĪRTI lists the following three characteristics of saMvṛti. First, they conceal reality (avacchādana). Second, they are mutually dependent (anyonyasamāsraya), meaning that saMvṛti phenomena are dependent on causes and conditions. Finally, they are concerned with worldly activities or speech (lokavyavahāra). Buddhas and BODHISATTVAs use their understanding of conventional reality to help them convey the DHARMA to ordinary beings and lead them away from suffering. See also SAMVṚTISATYA.

sanzhi. (J. sanshi; K. samji 三止). In Chinese, "threefold calming" or "threefold concentration"; a complement to the "threefold contemplation" (SANGUAN) taught by TIANTAI ZHIYI of the TIANTAI ZONG. These three types of calming or concentration are: (1) the "concentration that [leads to the] experience of reality" (tizhen zhi); (2) the "concentration that [leads to] expedient responses to conditions" (fangbian suiyuan zhi); and (3) the "concentration that [leads to the] cessation of the two discriminatory extremes" (xi erbian fenbie zhi). The first concentration corresponds to the "contemplation of emptiness" in the "threefold contemplation" scheme; this is because, by bringing to cessation the various forms of conceptual proliferation (PRAPANCA) and bringing the practitioner to a direct experience of emptiness (suNYATĀ), it generates an insight into the fact that all things are dependent for their existence on conditions and therefore lack a "self" or any abiding substance. The second mode of concentration corresponds to the "contemplation of conventional existence"; this is because, by abiding in this concentration, the bodhisattva understands emptiness without becoming stuck in inactivity or unresponsiveness to worldly phenomena, such as the suffering of other sentient beings. He is able to function dynamically in the world without becoming disquieted or contaminated by those conditions he is responding to or participating in. The third complements the "contemplation of the mean" in the "threefold contemplation" scheme, and brings an end to such dualistic concepts as SAMSĀRA and NIRVĀnA. The "discriminatory extremes" are sometimes read as referring to the excesses that are potentially involved in practicing exclusively the first two modes of concentration.

satisfiability ::: In mathematical logic, satisfiability and validity are elementary concepts of semantics. A formula is satisfiable if it is possible to find an interpretation (model) that makes the formula true.[282] A formula is valid if all interpretations make the formula true. The opposites of these concepts are unsatisfiability and invalidity, that is, a formula is unsatisfiable if none of the interpretations make the formula true, and invalid if some such interpretation makes the formula false. These four concepts are related to each other in a manner exactly analogous to Aristotle's square of opposition.

Science, philosophy of: That philosophic discipline which is the systematic study of the nature of science, especially of its methods, its concepts and presuppositions, and its place in the general scheme of intellectual disciplines.

semantic network ::: (data) A graph consisting of nodes that represent physical or conceptual objects and arcs that describe the relationship between the nodes, resulting in relationship to other concepts and the information is stored by interconnecting nodes with labelled arcs. (1999-01-07)

semantic network "data" A {graph} consisting of {nodes} that represent physical or conceptual objects and arcs that describe the relationship between the nodes, resulting in something like a data flow diagram. Semantic nets are an effective way to represent data as they incorporate the inheritance mechanism that prevents duplication of data. That is, the meaning of a concept comes from its relationship to other concepts and the information is stored by interconnecting nodes with labelled arcs. (1999-01-07)

Shanjia Shanwai. (J. Sange Sangai; K. San'ga Sanoe 山家山外). In Chinese, "On-Mountain, Off-Mountain"; two factions in a debate that engulfed the TIANTAI ZONG during the eleventh century over issues of the school's orthodoxy and orthopraxy. The Shanjia (On-Mountain) faction was led by the monk SIMING ZHILI (960-1028) and his disciples; they pejoratively referred to their opponents within the Tiantai school, such as Ciguang Wu'en (912-988), Yuanqing (d. 997), Qingzhao (963-1017), Zhiyuan (976-1022) and their disciples, as Shanwai (Off-Mountain), for drawing on non-Tiantai elements in their exegeses. The debate began over an issue of textual authenticity, but soon came to cover almost all major facets of Tiantai doctrine and practice. The On-Mountain faction criticized their rivals for attempting to interpret Tiantai doctrine using concepts borrowed from texts such as the DASHENG QIXIN LUN, which had not previously been an integral text in Tiantai exegesis, and from rival exegetical traditions, such as the HUAYAN ZONG. These Shanwai monks argued that the doctrine of the "TRICHILIOCOSM in an single instant of thought" (YINIAN SANQIAN) should be understood in the Huayan framework of the suchness that is in accord with conditions (zhenru suiyuan): in this understanding, an instant of thought is identified with the true mind that in its essence is pure, unchanging, and inherently enlightened; subsequently, by remaining in accord with conditions, that suchness in turn produces the trichiliocosm in all its diversity. From this perspective, they argued that the true mind should be the focus of contemplative practice in Tiantai. Shanjia masters feared such interpretations were a threat to the autonomy of the Tiantai tradition and sought to remove these Huayan elements so that the orthodox teachings of Tiantai would be preserved. Zhili, the major proponent of the Shanjia faction, argued that the Shanwai concept of suchness involved the principle of separation (bieli), since it excluded the afflicted and the ignorant, and only encompassed the pure and the enlightened. According to Zhili, suchness does not produce the trichiliocosm only when it is in accord with conditions, as the Huayan-influenced Shanwai exegetes asserted, because suchness is in fact identical to the trichiliocosm; therefore the instant of thought that encompasses all the trichiliocosm, including both its pure and impure aspects, should be the true focus of contemplative practice in Tiantai. Zhili's disciple Renyue (992-1064) and his fourth-generation successor Congyi (1042-1091) were subsequently branded the "Later Off-Mountain Faction," because they accepted some of the Shanwai arguments and openly rejected parts of Zhili's argument. Nevertheless, the Shanjia faction eventually prevailed, overshadowing their Shanwai rivals and institutionalizing Zhili's interpretations as the authentic teachings of the Tiantai tradition. Two Tiantai genealogical histories from the Southern Song dynasty, the Shimen zhengtong ("Orthodox Transmission of Buddhism") and the FOZU TONGJI ("Chronicle of the Buddhas and Patriarchs"), list Zhili as the last patriarch in the dharma transmission going back to the Buddha, thus legitimating the orthodoxy of the Shanjia faction from that point forward.

Shruti: “The attraction and glitter of desire, thought perceptions and concepts which hide the direct vision of the truth, the slayer of the truth because it invades life as the apparent truth itself.”

Sign-Language: A system of signs established either traditionally (primitive tribes) or technically (deaf-mutes) for the purpose of communicating concepts or sentences, rather than letters or sounds or words as in signalling The question of the priority of vocal and gesture speech is much debated, but there is no doubt that primitive peoples used signs for communicating intentions and expressing their needs, especially when dealing with tribes with a different tongue. This is almost a psychological reflex, as it may be noted in the elementary improvised mimic of travellers among people they do not understand, and also in the vivid gestures accompanying the utterances of even civilized people like those of the Mediternnean shores. Sign-languages have a psychological, sociological and ethnological importance, as they may reveal the fundamental trains of thought, the sociological status, the race peculiarities, the geographical segregation, and even the beliefs and rituals of those who use them. Their study would also give material for various syntactical, semantical and logical problems.

Siming Zhili. (J. Shimei Chirei; K. Samyong Chirye 四明知禮) (960-1028). Chinese monk of the TIANTAI tradition. Zhili was a native of Siming in present-day Zhejiang province. After losing his mother at an early age, Zhili resolved to become a monk and he received the full monastic precepts at age fifteen. He then studied the VINAYA and the scriptures of the Tiantai tradition. In 991, he became the abbot of Ganfusi, and four years later he began his residence at the monastery Bao'enyuan on Mt. Siming, whence his toponym. In 1009, he completed the restoration of Bao'enyuan and the following year his monastery received the official plaque renaming it Yanqingsi. Zhili later found himself at the center of the SHANJIA SHANWAI or "Home-Mountain/Off-Mountain" debate that racked the Song-dynasty Tiantai school. Zhili's Shanjia (Home Mountain) faction and the Tiantai monk Ciguang Wu'en's (912-986) Shanwai (Off Mountain) faction were split over the authenticity of one of TIANTAI1 ZHIYI's texts and the practice of contemplation, as well as the role and value of practices and concepts generated from outside the Tiantai tradition in explicating Tiantai doctrine. In response to this debate, Zhili composed a series of letters, which were edited together as the SIMING SHIYI SHU. Zhili also composed the Shibu'er men zhiyao chao and wrote extensively on various PURE LAND-related repentance rituals. Zhili's disciples later comprised three separate branches of the Chinese Tiantai tradition.

SIMULA I ::: (language) SIMUlation LAnguage.An extension to ALGOL 60 for the Univac 1107 designed in 1962 by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl and implemented in 1964. SIMULA I was designed for discrete and object-oriented programming languages like Smalltalk. It also featured coroutines.SIMULA's philosophy was the result of addressing the problems of describing complex systems for the purpose of simulating them. This philosophy proved to be language which also has very good discrete event simulation capability. Virtually all OOP products are derived in some manner from SIMULA.For a description of the evolution of SIMULA and therefore the fundamental concepts of OOP, see Dahl and Nygaard in [History of Programming Languages. Ed. R. W. Wexelblat. Addison-Wesley, 1981]. (1995-03-29)

SIMULA I "language" SIMUlation LAnguage. An extension to {ALGOL 60} for the {Univac 1107} designed in 1962 by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl and implemented in 1964. SIMULA I was designed for {discrete simulation}. It introduced the {record} {class}, leading the way to {data abstraction} and {object-oriented programming} languages like {Smalltalk}. It also featured {coroutines}. SIMULA's philosophy was the result of addressing the problems of describing complex systems for the purpose of simulating them. This philosophy proved to be applicable for describing complex systems generally (not just for simulation) and so SIMULA is a general-purpose object-oriented application programming language which also has very good discrete event simulation capability. Virtually all OOP products are derived in some manner from SIMULA. For a description of the evolution of SIMULA and therefore the fundamental concepts of OOP, see Dahl and Nygaard in ["History of Programming Languages". Ed. R. W. Wexelblat. Addison-Wesley, 1981]. (1995-03-29)

Smalltalk "language" The pioneering {object-oriented programming} system developed in 1972 by the Software Concepts Group, led by {Alan Kay}, at {Xerox PARC} between 1971 and 1983. It includes a language, a programming environment, and an extensive object library. Smalltalk took the concepts of {class} and {message} from {Simula-67} and made them all-pervasive. Innovations included the {bitmap display}, windowing system, and use of a {mouse}. The {syntax} is very simple. The fundamental construction is to send a message to an {object}: object message or with extra parameters object message: param1 secondArg: param2 .. nthArg: paramN where "secondArg:" etc. are considered to be part of the message name. Five pseudo-variables are defined: "self", "super", "nil", "true", "false". "self" is the receiver of the current message. "super" is used to delegate processing of a message to the {superclass} of the receiver. "nil" is a reference to "nothing" (an instance of UndefinedObject). All variables initially contain a reference to nil. "true" and "false" are {Booleans}. In Smalltalk, any message can be sent to any object. The recipient object itself decides (based on the message name, also called the "message selector") how to respond to the message. Because of that, the {multiple inheritance} system included in the early versions of Smalltalk-80 appeared to be unused in practice. All modern implementations have single inheritance, so each class can have at most one superclass. Early implementations were {interpreted} but all modern ones use {dynamic translation} (JIT). Early versions were Smalltalk-72, Smalltalk-74, Smalltalk-76 (inheritance taken from Simula, and concurrency), and Smalltalk-78, {Smalltalk-80}. Other versions include {Little Smalltalk}, {Smalltalk/V}, {Kamin's interpreters}. Current versions are {VisualWorks}, {Squeak}, {VisualAge}, {Dolphin Smalltalk}, {Object Studio}, {GNU Smalltalk}. See also: {International Smalltalk Association}. {UIUC Smalltalk archive (http://st-www.cs.uiuc.edu/)}. {FAQ (http://XCF.Berkeley.EDU/pub/misc/smalltalk/FAQ/)}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.smalltalk}. ["The Smalltalk-76 Programming System Design and Implementation", D.H. Ingalls, 5th POPL, ACM 1978, pp. 9-16]. (2001-09-11)

Smalltalk ::: (language) The pioneering object-oriented programming system developed in 1972 by the Software Concepts Group, led by Alan Kay, at Xerox PARC between 1971 and 1983. It includes a language, a programming environment, and an extensive object library.Smalltalk took the concepts of class and message from Simula-67 and made them all-pervasive. Innovations included the bitmap display, windowing system, and use of a mouse.The syntax is very simple. The fundamental construction is to send a message to an object: object message or with extra parameters object message: param1 secondArg: param2 .. nthArg: paramN where secondArg: etc. are considered to be part of the message name.Five pseudo-variables are defined: self, super, nil, true, false. self is the receiver of the current message. super is used to delegate to nothing (an instance of UndefinedObject). All variables initially contain a reference to nil. true and false are Booleans.In Smalltalk, any message can be sent to any object. The recipient object itself decides (based on the message name, also called the message selector) how to practice. All modern implementations have single inheritance, so each class can have at most one superclass.Early implementations were interpreted but all modern ones use dynamic translation (JIT).Early versions were Smalltalk-72, Smalltalk-74, Smalltalk-76 (inheritance taken from Simula, and concurrency), and Smalltalk-78, Smalltalk-80. Other versions are VisualWorks, Squeak, VisualAge, Dolphin Smalltalk, Object Studio, GNU Smalltalk.See also: International Smalltalk Association. . .Usenet newsgroup: comp.lang.smalltalk.[The Smalltalk-76 Programming System Design and Implementation, D.H. Ingalls, 5th POPL, ACM 1978, pp. 9-16].(2001-09-11)

Space, homogeneous: A form of sensibility, an intuition peculiar to man which enables him to externalize his concepts in relation to one another, reveals the objectivity of things; foreshadows and prepares the way for social life. (Bergson). -- H.H.

spiritualized concepts.” The descent of Michael to

Strand ::: 1. AND-parallel logic programming language. Essentially flat Parlog83 with sequential-and and sequential-or eliminated.[Strand: New Concepts on Parallel Programming, Ian Foster et al, P-H 1990]. Strand88 is a commercial implementation.2. A query language, implemented on top of INGRES (an RDBMS). [Modelling Summary Data, R. Johnson, Proc ACM SIGMOD Conf 1981].

Strand 1. {AND-parallel} {logic programming} language. Essentially flat {Parlog83} with sequential-and and sequential-or eliminated. ["Strand: New Concepts on Parallel Programming", Ian Foster et al, P-H 1990]. {Strand88} is a commercial implementation. 2. A query language, implemented on top of {INGRES} (an {RDBMS}). ["Modelling Summary Data", R. Johnson, Proc ACM SIGMOD Conf 1981].

stream 1. "communications" An {abstraction} referring to any flow of data from a source (or sender, producer) to a single sink (or receiver, consumer). A stream usually flows through a channel of some kind, as opposed to {packets} which may be addressed and routed independently, possibly to multiple recipients. Streams usually require some mechanism for establishing a channel or a "{connection}" between the sender and receiver. 2. "programming" In the {C} language's buffered input/ouput library functions, a stream is associated with a file or device which has been opened using {fopen}. Characters may be read from (written to) a stream without knowing their actual source (destination) and buffering is provided transparently by the library routines. 3. "operating system" Confusingly, {Sun} have called their modular {device driver} mechanism "{STREAMS}". 4. "operating system" In {IBM}'s {AIX} {operating system}, a stream is a {full-duplex} processing and data transfer path between a driver in {kernel space} and a process in {user space}. [IBM AIX 3.2 Communication Programming Concepts, SC23-2206-03]. 5. "communications" {streaming}. 6. "programming" {lazy list}. (1996-11-06)

stream ::: 1. (communications) An abstraction referring to any flow of data from a source (or sender, producer) to a single sink (or receiver, consumer). A stream usually require some mechanism for establishing a channel or a connection between the sender and receiver.2. (programming) In the C language's buffered input/ouput library functions, a stream is associated with a file or device which has been opened their actual source (destination) and buffering is provided transparently by the library routines.3. (operating system) Confusingly, Sun have called their modular device driver mechanism STREAMS.4. (operating system) In IBM's AIX operating system, a stream is a full-duplex processing and data transfer path between a driver in kernel space and a process in user space.[IBM AIX 3.2 Communication Programming Concepts, SC23-2206-03].5. (communications) streaming.6. (programming) lazy list. (1996-11-06)

STREAMS "operating system" A collection of {system calls}, {kernel} resources, and kernel utility routines that can create, use, and dismantle a {stream}. A "stream head" provides the interface between the stream and the user processes. Its principal function is to process STREAMS-related user system calls. A "stream module" processes data that travel bewteen the stream head and driver. The "stream end" provides the services of an external input/output device or an internal software driver. The internal software driver is commonly called a {pseudo-device} driver. The STREAMS concept has been formalised in {Unix} {System V}. For example, {SVR4} implements {sockets} and {pipes} using STREAMS, resulting in pipe(2) openning bidirectional pipes. [IBM AIX 3.2 Communication Programming Concepts, SC23-2206-03]. (1999-06-29)

STREAMS ::: (operating system) A collection of system calls, kernel resources, and kernel utility routines that can create, use, and dismantle a stream. A stream internal software driver. The internal software driver is commonly called a pseudo-device driver.The STREAMS concept has been formalised in Unix System V. For example, SVR4 implements sockets and pipes using STREAMS, resulting in pipe(2) openning bidirectional pipes.[IBM AIX 3.2 Communication Programming Concepts, SC23-2206-03]. (1999-06-29)

structuralism ::: Any approach or theory that studies underlying structural relationships between concepts.

Succession and Duration: These concepts are inseparable from the idea of 'flowing' time in which every event endures relatively to a succession of other events. In Leibniz's view, succession was the most important characteristic of time defined by him as "the order of succession." Some thinkers, notably H. Bergson, regard duration (duree) as the very essence of time, "time perceived as indivisible," in which the vital impulse (elan vital) becomes the creative source of all change comparable to a snow-ball rolling down a hill and swelling on its way. According to A. N. Whitehead, duration is 'a slab of nature' possessing temporal thickness, it is a cross-section of the world in its process, or "the immediate present condition of the world at some epoch." -- R.B.W.

Such methods of introducing new concepts, functions, etc. as definition by abstraction (q. v.), definition by recursion (q. v.), definition by composition (see Recursiveness) may be dealt with by reducing them to nominal definitions; i.e., by finding a nominal definition such that the definiens (and therefore also the definiendum) turns out, under an intended interpretation of the logistic system, to mean the concept, function, etc. which is to be introduced.

suddha manas. ::: pure mind; mind without concepts

*suraMgamasutra. (T. Dpa' bar 'gro ba'i mdo; C. Shoulengyan jing; J. Shuryogongyo; K. Sunŭngom kyong 首楞嚴經). A Chinese indigenous scripture (see APOCRYPHA), usually known in the West by its reconstructed Sanskrit title suraMgamasutra, meaning "Heroic March Sutra." Its full title is Dafoding rulai miyin xiuzheng liaoyi zhu pusa wanxing Shoulengyan jing; in ten rolls. (This indigenous scripture should be distinguished from an early-fifth century Chinese translation of the suRAMGAMASAMĀDHISuTRA, attributed by KUMĀRAJĪVA, in two rolls, for which Sanskrit fragments are extant.) According to the account in the Chinese cataloguer Zhisheng's Xu gujin yijing tuji, the suraMgamasutra was brought to China by a sRAMAnA named Pāramiti. Because the suraMgamasutra had been proclaimed a national treasure, the Indian king had forbidden anyone to take the sutra out of the country. In order to transmit this scripture to China, Pāramiti wrote the sutra out in minute letters on extremely fine silk, then he cut open his arm and hid the small scroll inside his flesh. With the sutra safely hidden away, Pāramiti set out for China and eventually arrived in Guangdong province. There, he happened to meet the exiled Prime Minister Fangrong, who invited him to reside at the monastery of Zhizhisi, where he translated the sutra in 705 CE. Apart from Pāramiti's putative connection to the suraMgamasutra, however, nothing more is known about him and he has no biography in the GAOSENG ZHUAN ("Biographies of Eminent Monks"). Zhisheng also has an entry on the suraMgamasutra in his KAIYUAN SHIJIAO LU, but there are contradictions in these two extant catalogue accounts of the sutra's transmission and translation. The Kaiyuan Shijiao lu merely records that the sramana Huidi encountered an unnamed Western monk at Guangdong, who had with him a copy of the Sanskrit recension of this sutra, and Huidi invited him to translate the scripture together. Since the names of this Western monk and his patron Fangrong are not mentioned, the authenticity of the scripture has been called into question. Although Zhisheng assumed the suraMgamasutra was a genuine Indian scripture, the fact that no Sanskrit manuscript of the text is known to exist, as well as the inconsistencies in the stories about its transmission to China, have led scholiasts for centuries to questions the scripture's authenticity. There is also internal evidence of the scripture's Chinese provenance, such as the presence of such indigenous Chinese philosophical concepts as yin-yang cosmology and the five elements (wuxing) theory, the stylistic beauty of the literary Chinese in which the text is written, etc. For these and other reasons, the suraMgamasutra is now generally recognized to be a Chinese apocryphal composition. The sutra opens with one of the most celebrated stories in East Asian Buddhist literature: the Buddha's attendant ĀNANDA's near seduction by the harlot Mātangī. With Ānanda close to being in flagrante delicto, the Buddha sends the bodhisattva MANJUsRĪ to save him from a PĀRĀJIKA offense, by employing the suraMgama DHĀRAnĪ to thwart Mātangī's seductive magic. The Buddha uses the experience to teach to Ānanda and the congregation the suRAMGAMASAMĀDHI, which counters the false views about the aggregates (SKANDHA) and consciousness (VIJNĀNA) and reveals the TATHĀGATAGARBHA that is inherent in all sentient beings. This tathāgatagarbha, or buddha-nature, is made manifest through the suraMgamasamādhi, which constitutes the "heroic march" forward toward enlightenment. The suraMgamasutra was especially influential in the CHAN school during the Song and Ming dynasties, which used the text as the scriptural justification for the school's distinctive teaching that Chan "points directly to the human mind" (ZHIZHI RENXIN), so that one may "see the nature and achieve buddhahood" (JIANXING CHENGFO). Several noted figures within the Chan school achieved their own awakenings through the influence of the suraMgamasutra, including the Ming-dynasty master HANSHAN DEQING (1546-1623), and the sutra was particularly important in the writings of such Ming-dynasty Chan masters as YUNQI ZHUHONG (1535-1615). The leading Chan monk of modern Chinese Buddhism, XUYUN (1840-1959), advocated the practice of the suraMgamasutra throughout his life, and it was the only scripture that he ever annotated. As a mark of the sutra's influence in East Asian Buddhism, the suraMgamasutra is one of the few apocryphal scriptures that receives its own mention in another indigenous sutra: the apocryphal Foshuo fa miejin jing ("The Sutra on the Extinction of the Dharma") states that the first sutra to disappear from the world during the dharma-ending age (MOFA) will in fact be the suraMgamasutra. The Tibetan translation of this Chinese apocryphon was produced during the Qianlong era (1735-1796) of the Qing dynasty; the scripture was apparently so important in contemporary Chinese Buddhism that it was deemed essential for it to be represented in the Tibetan canon as well.

SYSTEM THINKING The highest kind of consciousness in the mental envelope (47:4) is still inaccessible to mankind. Its manifestations consist in &

Taoism, however, became too mystical, and Confucianism too formalistic. "Hundred schools" grew and flourished, many in direct opposition to Taoism and Confucianism. There was Mohism (Mo, founded by Mo Tzu, between 500 and 396 B.C.) which rejected formalism in favor of "benefit" and "utility" which are to be promoted through universal love (chien ai), practical observation and application, and obedience to the will of Heaven. There was Neo-Mohism (Mo che, 300 B.C.) which, in trying to prove the thesis of Mohism, developed an intricate system of logic. There was Sophism (ming chia, 400 B.C.) which displayed much sophistry about terms and concepts, particularly about the relationship between substance and quality (chien pai). There was Legalism (fa chia, 500-200 B.C.) which advocated law, statecraft, and authority as effective instruments of government. finally, there was the Yin Yang school (400-200 B.C.) which emphasized yin and yang as the two fundamental principles, always contrasting but complementary, and underlying all conceivable objects, qualities, situations, and relationships. It was this school that provided a common ground for the fusion of ancient divergent philosophical tendencies in medieval China.

Tapas is the energising conscious-power of cosmic being by which the world is created, maintained and governed; it includes all concepts of force, will, energy, power, everything dynamic and dynamising.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 25, Page: 101


technology "jargon, marketing" {Marketroid} jargon for "{software}", "{hardware}", "{protocol}" or something else too technical to name. The most flagrant abuse of this word has to be "{Windows NT}" (New Technology) - {Microsoft}'s attempt to make the incorporation of some ancient concepts into their OS sound like real progress. The irony, and even the meaning, of this seems to be utterly lost on Microsoft whose {Windows 2000} start-up screen proclaims "Based on NT Technology", (meaning yet another version of NT, including some {Windows 95} features at last). See also: {solution}. (2001-06-28)

technology ::: (jargon) Marketroid jargon for software, hardware, protocol or something else too technical to name.The most flagrant abuse of this word has to be Windows NT (New Technology) - Microsoft's attempt to make the incorporation of some ancient concepts into proclaims Based on NT Technology, (meaning yet another version of NT, including some Windows 95 features at last).See also: solution.(2001-06-28)

TEMPO ::: A programming language with simple syntax and semantics designed for teaching semantic and pragmatic aspects of programming languages.[TEMPO: A Unified Treatment of Binding Time and Parameter Passing Concepts in Programming Languages, N.D. Jones et al, LNCS 66, Springer 1978].

TEMPO A programming language with simple {syntax} and {semantics} designed for teaching semantic and pragmatic aspects of programming languages. ["TEMPO: A Unified Treatment of Binding Time and Parameter Passing Concepts in Programming Languages", N.D. Jones et al, LNCS 66, Springer 1978].

The diversity of concepts that Husserl himself expressed by the word "phenomenology" has been a source of diverse usages among thinkeis who came under his influence and are often referred to as "the phenomenological school." Husserl himself always meant by "phenomenology" a science of the subjective and its intended objects qua intentional; this core of sense pervades the development of his own concept of phenomenology as eidetic, transcendental, constitutive. Some thinkers, appropriating only the psychological version of this central concept, have developed a descriptive intentional psychology -- sometimes empirical, sometimes eidetic -- under the title "phenomenology." On the other hand, Husserl's broader concept of eidetic science based on seeing essences and essentially necessary relations -- especially his concept of material ontology -- has been not only adopted but made central by others, who define phenomenology accordingly. Not uncommonly, these groups reject Husserl's method of transcendental-phenomenological reduction and profess a realistic metaphysics. Finally, there are those who, emphasizing Husserl's cardinal principle that evidence -- seeing something that is itself presented -- is the only ultimate source of knowledge, conceive their phenomenology more broadly and etymologically, as explication of that which shows itself, whatever may be the latter 's nature and ontologicil status. -- D.C.

The doctrine that the concepts of mathematics are empirical and the postulates elementary experimental truths has been held in various forms (either for all mathematics, or specially for geometry) by J. S. Mill, H. Helmholtz, M. Pasch, and others. However, the usual contemporary view, especially among mathematicians, is that the propositions of mathematics say nothing about empirical reality. Even in the case of applied geometry, it is held, the geometry is used to organize physical measurement, but does not receive an interpretation under which its propositions become unqualifiedly experimental or empirical in character; a particular system of geometry, applied in a particular way, may be wrong (and demonstrably wrong by experiment), but there is not, in significant cases, a unique geometry which, when applied in the particular way, is right.

The importance of the person in Scholastic thought insured the personalistic concepts until they found expression in the work of Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274).

theme: A principal concept or concepts that unifies and preoccupies a literarywork. See motif.

theory: a structured set of concepts to explain a phenomena or group of phenomena.

The philosophical aspect of Marxism is known as dialectical materialism (q.v.); in epistemology it adopts empiricism; in axiology, an interest theory of value strongly tinged, in places, with humanitarianism. The social theory of Marxism centers around the concepts of basic (but not complete) economic determinism (q.v.), and the class character of society. In economics it maintains a labor theory of value (q.v.) which involves the concept of surplus value (q.v.) in the capitalistic mode of production. Upon the basis of its analysis of capitalism, Marxism erects the ethical conclusion that capitalism is unjust and ought to be supplanted by socialism. It predicts for the more or less immediate future the decay of capitalism, an inevitable and victorious revolution of the workers, and the establishing of socialism under the dictatorship of the proletariat. It looks forward to the ultimate goal of the "withering away of the state" leading to a classless society, communistic in economy and self-regulatory in politics. -- M.B.M.

The position taken is that investigation reveals basic, recurrent patterns of change, expressible as laws of materialist dialectics, which are seen as relevant to every level of existence, and, because validated by past evidence, as indispensable hypotheses in guiding further investigation. These are Law of interpenetration, unity and strife of opposites. (All existences, being complexes of opposing elements and forces, have the character of a changing unity. The unity is considered temporary, relative, while the process of change, expressed by interpenetration and strife, is continuous, absolute.) Law of transformation of quantity into quality and vice versa. (The changes which take place in nature are not merely quantitative; their accumulation eventually precipitates new qualities in a transition which appears as a sudden leap in comparison to the gradualness of the quantitative changes up to that point. The new quality is considered as real as the original quality. It is not mechanically reducible to it it is not merely a larger amount of the former quality, but something into which that has developed.) Law of negation of negation. (The series of quantitative changes and emerging qualities is unending. Each state or phase of development is considered a synthesis which resolves the contradictions contained in the preceding synthesis and which generates its own contradictions on a different qualitative level.) These laws, connecting ontology with logic, are contrasted to the formalistic laws of identity, difference and excluded middle of which they are considered qualitatively enriched reconstructions. Against the ontology of the separateness and self-identity of each thing, the dialectical laws emphasize the interconnectedness of all things and self-development of each thing. An A all parts of which are always becoming non-A may thus be called non-A as well as A. The formula, A is A and cannot be non-A, becomes, A is A and also non-A, that is, at or during the same instant: there is no instant, it is held, during which nothing happens. The view taken is that these considerations apply as much to thought and concepts, as to things, that thought is a process, that ideas gain their logical content through interconnectedness with other ideas, out of and into which they develop.

This book represents more than twelve years of effort. Donald Lopez initiated the project with the assistance of several of his graduate students at the University of Michigan, many of whom have now gone on to receive their degrees and be appointed to university positions. Around that time, Robert Buswell asked Lopez to serve as one of the editors of his two-volume Encyclopedia of Buddhism (New York: Macmillan Reference, 2004). When that project was completed, Lopez invited Buswell to join him as coauthor of the dictionary project, an offer he enthusiastically accepted, bringing with him his own team of graduate students from UCLA. In dividing up responsibilities for the dictionary, Buswell took principal charge of entries on mainstream Buddhist concepts, Indian abhidharma, and East Asian Buddhism; Lopez took principal charge of entries on MahAyAna Buddhism in India, Buddhist tantra, and Tibetan Buddhism. Once drafts of the respective sections were complete, we exchanged files to review each other's sections. Over the last seven years, we were in touch almost daily on one or another aspect of the project as we expanded upon and edited each other's drafts, making this a collaborative project in the best sense of the term. Graduate students at both the University of Michigan and UCLA assisted in gathering materials for the dictionary, preparing initial drafts, and tracing the multiple cross-references to Asian language terms. This project would have been impossible without their unstinting assistance and extraordinary commitment; we are grateful to each of them. Those graduate students and colleagues who made particularly extensive contributions to the dictionary are listed on the title page.

This new dictionary seeks to address the needs of this present age. For the great majority of scholars of Buddhism, who do not command all of the major Buddhist languages, this reference book provides a repository of many of the most important terms used across the traditions, and their rendering in several Buddhist languages. For the college professor who teaches "Introduction to Buddhism" every year, requiring one to venture beyond one's particular area of geographical and doctrinal expertise, it provides descriptions of many of the important figures and texts in the major traditions. For the student of Buddhism, whether inside or outside the classroom, it offers information on many fundamental doctrines and practices of the various traditions of the religion. This dictionary is based primarily on six Buddhist languages and their traditions: Sanskrit, PAli, Tibetan, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Also included, although appearing much less frequently, are terms and proper names in vernacular Burmese, Lao, Mongolian, Sinhalese, Thai, and Vietnamese. The majority of entries fall into three categories: the terminology of Buddhist doctrine and practice, the texts in which those teachings are set forth, and the persons (both human and divine) who wrote those texts or appear in their pages. In addition, there are entries on important places-including monasteries and sacred mountains-as well as on the major schools and sects of the various Buddhist traditions. The vast majority of the main entries are in their original language, although cross-references are sometimes provided to a common English rendering. Unlike many terminological dictionaries, which merely provide a brief listing of meanings with perhaps some of the equivalencies in various Buddhist languages, this work seeks to function as an encyclopedic dictionary. The main entries offer a short essay on the extended meaning and significance of the terms covered, typically in the range of two hundred to six hundred words, but sometimes substantially longer. To offer further assistance in understanding a term or tracing related concepts, an extensive set of internal cross-references (marked in small capital letters) guides the reader to related entries throughout the dictionary. But even with over a million words and five thousand entries, we constantly had to make difficult choices about what to include and how much to say. Given the long history and vast geographical scope of the Buddhist traditions, it is difficult to imagine any dictionary ever being truly comprehensive. Authors also write about what they know (or would like to know); so inevitably the dictionary reflects our own areas of scholarly expertise, academic interests, and judgments about what readers need to learn about the various Buddhist traditions.

Three senses of "Ockhamism" may be distinguished: Logical, indicating usage of the terminology and technique of logical analysis developed by Ockham in his Summa totius logicae; in particular, use of the concept of supposition (suppositio) in the significative analysis of terms. Epistemological, indicating the thesis that universality is attributable only to terms and propositions, and not to things as existing apart from discourse. Theological, indicating the thesis that no tneological doctrines, such as those of God's existence or of the immortality of the soul, are evident or demonstrable philosophically, so that religious doctrine rests solely on faith, without metaphysical or scientific support. It is in this sense that Luther is often called an Ockhamist.   Bibliography:   B. Geyer,   Ueberwegs Grundriss d. Gesch. d. Phil., Bd. II (11th ed., Berlin 1928), pp. 571-612 and 781-786; N. Abbagnano,   Guglielmo di Ockham (Lanciano, Italy, 1931); E. A. Moody,   The Logic of William of Ockham (N. Y. & London, 1935); F. Ehrle,   Peter von Candia (Muenster, 1925); G. Ritter,   Studien zur Spaetscholastik, I-II (Heidelberg, 1921-1922).     --E.A.M. Om, aum: (Skr.) Mystic, holy syllable as a symbol for the indefinable Absolute. See Aksara, Vac, Sabda. --K.F.L. Omniscience: In philosophy and theology it means the complete and perfect knowledge of God, of Himself and of all other beings, past, present, and future, or merely possible, as well as all their activities, real or possible, including the future free actions of human beings. --J.J.R. One: Philosophically, not a number but equivalent to unit, unity, individuality, in contradistinction from multiplicity and the mani-foldness of sensory experience. In metaphysics, the Supreme Idea (Plato), the absolute first principle (Neo-platonism), the universe (Parmenides), Being as such and divine in nature (Plotinus), God (Nicolaus Cusanus), the soul (Lotze). Religious philosophy and mysticism, beginning with Indian philosophy (s.v.), has favored the designation of the One for the metaphysical world-ground, the ultimate icility, the world-soul, the principle of the world conceived as reason, nous, or more personally. The One may be conceived as an independent whole or as a sum, as analytic or synthetic, as principle or ontologically. Except by mysticism, it is rarely declared a fact of sensory experience, while its transcendent or transcendental, abstract nature is stressed, e.g., in epistemology where the "I" or self is considered the unitary background of personal experience, the identity of self-consciousness, or the unity of consciousness in the synthesis of the manifoldness of ideas (Kant). --K.F.L. One-one: A relation R is one-many if for every y in the converse domain there is a unique x such that xRy. A relation R is many-one if for every x in the domain there is a unique y such that xRy. (See the article relation.) A relation is one-one, or one-to-one, if it is at the same time one-many and many-one. A one-one relation is said to be, or to determine, a one-to-one correspondence between its domain and its converse domain. --A.C. On-handedness: (Ger. Vorhandenheit) Things exist in the mode of thereness, lying- passively in a neutral space. A "deficient" form of a more basic relationship, termed at-handedness (Zuhandenheit). (Heidegger.) --H.H. Ontological argument: Name by which later authors, especially Kant, designate the alleged proof for God's existence devised by Anselm of Canterbury. Under the name of God, so the argument runs, everyone understands that greater than which nothing can be thought. Since anything being the greatest and lacking existence is less then the greatest having also existence, the former is not really the greater. The greatest, therefore, has to exist. Anselm has been reproached, already by his contemporary Gaunilo, for unduly passing from the field of logical to the field of ontological or existential reasoning. This criticism has been repeated by many authors, among them Aquinas. The argument has, however, been used, if in a somewhat modified form, by Duns Scotus, Descartes, and Leibniz. --R.A. Ontological Object: (Gr. onta, existing things + logos, science) The real or existing object of an act of knowledge as distinguished from the epistemological object. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ontologism: (Gr. on, being) In contrast to psychologism, is called any speculative system which starts philosophizing by positing absolute being, or deriving the existence of entities independently of experience merely on the basis of their being thought, or assuming that we have immediate and certain knowledge of the ground of being or God. Generally speaking any rationalistic, a priori metaphysical doctrine, specifically the philosophies of Rosmini-Serbati and Vincenzo Gioberti. As a philosophic method censored by skeptics and criticists alike, as a scholastic doctrine formerly strongly supported, revived in Italy and Belgium in the 19th century, but no longer countenanced. --K.F.L. Ontology: (Gr. on, being + logos, logic) The theory of being qua being. For Aristotle, the First Philosophy, the science of the essence of things. Introduced as a term into philosophy by Wolff. The science of fundamental principles, the doctrine of the categories. Ultimate philosophy; rational cosmology. Syn. with metaphysics. See Cosmology, First Principles, Metaphysics, Theology. --J.K.F. Operation: "(Lit. operari, to work) Any act, mental or physical, constituting a phase of the reflective process, and performed with a view to acquiring1 knowledge or information about a certain subject-nntter. --A.C.B.   In logic, see Operationism.   In philosophy of science, see Pragmatism, Scientific Empiricism. Operationism: The doctrine that the meaning of a concept is given by a set of operations.   1. The operational meaning of a term (word or symbol) is given by a semantical rule relating the term to some concrete process, object or event, or to a class of such processes, objectj or events.   2. Sentences formed by combining operationally defined terms into propositions are operationally meaningful when the assertions are testable by means of performable operations. Thus, under operational rules, terms have semantical significance, propositions have empirical significance.   Operationism makes explicit the distinction between formal (q.v.) and empirical sentences. Formal propositions are signs arranged according to syntactical rules but lacking operational reference. Such propositions, common in mathematics, logic and syntax, derive their sanction from convention, whereas an empirical proposition is acceptable (1) when its structure obeys syntactical rules and (2) when there exists a concrete procedure (a set of operations) for determining its truth or falsity (cf. Verification). Propositions purporting to be empirical are sometimes amenable to no operational test because they contain terms obeying no definite semantical rules. These sentences are sometimes called pseudo-propositions and are said to be operationally meaningless. They may, however, be 'meaningful" in other ways, e.g. emotionally or aesthetically (cf. Meaning).   Unlike a formal statement, the "truth" of an empirical sentence is never absolute and its operational confirmation serves only to increase the degree of its validity. Similarly, the semantical rule comprising the operational definition of a term has never absolute precision. Ordinarily a term denotes a class of operations and the precision of its definition depends upon how definite are the rules governing inclusion in the class.   The difference between Operationism and Logical Positivism (q.v.) is one of emphasis. Operationism's stress of empirical matters derives from the fact that it was first employed to purge physics of such concepts as absolute space and absolute time, when the theory of relativity had forced upon physicists the view that space and time are most profitably defined in terms of the operations by which they are measured. Although different methods of measuring length at first give rise to different concepts of length, wherever the equivalence of certain of these measures can be established by other operations, the concepts may legitimately be combined.   In psychology the operational criterion of meaningfulness is commonly associated with a behavioristic point of view. See Behaviorism. Since only those propositions which are testable by public and repeatable operations are admissible in science, the definition of such concepti as mind and sensation must rest upon observable aspects of the organism or its behavior. Operational psychology deals with experience only as it is indicated by the operation of differential behavior, including verbal report. Discriminations, or the concrete differential reactions of organisms to internal or external environmental states, are by some authors regarded as the most basic of all operations.   For a discussion of the role of operational definition in phvsics. see P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics, (New York, 1928) and The Nature of Physical Theory (Princeton, 1936). "The extension of operationism to psychology is discussed by C. C. Pratt in The Logic of Modem Psychology (New York. 1939.)   For a discussion and annotated bibliography relating to Operationism and Logical Positivism, see S. S. Stevens, Psychology and the Science of Science, Psychol. Bull., 36, 1939, 221-263. --S.S.S. Ophelimity: Noun derived from the Greek, ophelimos useful, employed by Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) in economics as the equivalent of utility, or the capacity to provide satisfaction. --J.J.R. Opinion: (Lat. opinio, from opinor, to think) An hypothesis or proposition entertained on rational grounds but concerning which doubt can reasonably exist. A belief. See Hypothesis, Certainty, Knowledge. --J.K.F- Opposition: (Lat. oppositus, pp. of oppono, to oppose) Positive actual contradiction. One of Aristotle's Post-predicaments. In logic any contrariety or contradiction, illustrated by the "Square of Opposition". Syn. with: conflict. See Logic, formal, § 4. --J.K.F. Optimism: (Lat. optimus, the best) The view inspired by wishful thinking, success, faith, or philosophic reflection, that the world as it exists is not so bad or even the best possible, life is good, and man's destiny is bright. Philosophically most persuasively propounded by Leibniz in his Theodicee, according to which God in his wisdom would have created a better world had he known or willed such a one to exist. Not even he could remove moral wrong and evil unless he destroyed the power of self-determination and hence the basis of morality. All systems of ethics that recognize a supreme good (Plato and many idealists), subscribe to the doctrines of progressivism (Turgot, Herder, Comte, and others), regard evil as a fragmentary view (Josiah Royce et al.) or illusory, or believe in indemnification (Henry David Thoreau) or melioration (Emerson), are inclined optimistically. Practically all theologies advocating a plan of creation and salvation, are optimistic though they make the good or the better dependent on moral effort, right thinking, or belief, promising it in a future existence. Metaphysical speculation is optimistic if it provides for perfection, evolution to something higher, more valuable, or makes room for harmonies or a teleology. See Pessimism. --K.F.L. Order: A class is said to be partially ordered by a dyadic relation R if it coincides with the field of R, and R is transitive and reflexive, and xRy and yRx never both hold when x and y are different. If in addition R is connected, the class is said to be ordered (or simply ordered) by R, and R is called an ordering relation.   Whitehcid and Russell apply the term serial relation to relations which are transitive, irreflexive, and connected (and, in consequence, also asymmetric). However, the use of serial relations in this sense, instead ordering relations as just defined, is awkward in connection with the notion of order for unit classes.   Examples: The relation not greater than among leal numbers is an ordering relation. The relation less than among real numbers is a serial relation. The real numbers are simply ordered by the former relation. In the algebra of classes (logic formal, § 7), the classes are partially ordered by the relation of class inclusion.   For explanation of the terminology used in making the above definitions, see the articles connexity, reflexivity, relation, symmetry, transitivity. --A.C. Order type: See relation-number. Ordinal number: A class b is well-ordered by a dyadic relation R if it is ordered by R (see order) and, for every class a such that a ⊂ b, there is a member x of a, such that xRy holds for every member y of a; and R is then called a well-ordering relation. The ordinal number of a class b well-ordered by a relation R, or of a well-ordering relation R, is defined to be the relation-number (q. v.) of R.   The ordinal numbers of finite classes (well-ordered by appropriate relations) are called finite ordinal numbers. These are 0, 1, 2, ... (to be distinguished, of course, from the finite cardinal numbers 0, 1, 2, . . .).   The first non-finite (transfinite or infinite) ordinal number is the ordinal number of the class of finite ordinal numbers, well-ordered in their natural order, 0, 1, 2, . . .; it is usually denoted by the small Greek letter omega. --A.C.   G. Cantor, Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Numbers, translated and with an introduction by P. E. B. Jourdain, Chicago and London, 1915. (new ed. 1941); Whitehead and Russell, Princtpia Mathematica. vol. 3. Orexis: (Gr. orexis) Striving; desire; the conative aspect of mind, as distinguished from the cognitive and emotional (Aristotle). --G.R.M.. Organicism: A theory of biology that life consists in the organization or dynamic system of the organism. Opposed to mechanism and vitalism. --J.K.F. Organism: An individual animal or plant, biologically interpreted. A. N. Whitehead uses the term to include also physical bodies and to signify anything material spreading through space and enduring in time. --R.B.W. Organismic Psychology: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, an instrument) A system of theoretical psychology which construes the structure of the mind in organic rather than atomistic terms. See Gestalt Psychology; Psychological Atomism. --L.W. Organization: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, work) A structured whole. The systematic unity of parts in a purposive whole. A dynamic system. Order in something actual. --J.K.F. Organon: (Gr. organon) The title traditionally given to the body of Aristotle's logical treatises. The designation appears to have originated among the Peripatetics after Aristotle's time, and expresses their view that logic is not a part of philosophy (as the Stoics maintained) but rather the instrument (organon) of philosophical inquiry. See Aristotelianism. --G.R.M.   In Kant. A system of principles by which pure knowledge may be acquired and established.   Cf. Fr. Bacon's Novum Organum. --O.F.K. Oriental Philosophy: A general designation used loosely to cover philosophic tradition exclusive of that grown on Greek soil and including the beginnings of philosophical speculation in Egypt, Arabia, Iran, India, and China, the elaborate systems of India, Greater India, China, and Japan, and sometimes also the religion-bound thought of all these countries with that of the complex cultures of Asia Minor, extending far into antiquity. Oriental philosophy, though by no means presenting a homogeneous picture, nevertheless shares one characteristic, i.e., the practical outlook on life (ethics linked with metaphysics) and the absence of clear-cut distinctions between pure speculation and religious motivation, and on lower levels between folklore, folk-etymology, practical wisdom, pre-scientiiic speculation, even magic, and flashes of philosophic insight. Bonds with Western, particularly Greek philosophy have no doubt existed even in ancient times. Mutual influences have often been conjectured on the basis of striking similarities, but their scientific establishment is often difficult or even impossible. Comparative philosophy (see especially the work of Masson-Oursel) provides a useful method. Yet a thorough treatment of Oriental Philosophy is possible only when the many languages in which it is deposited have been more thoroughly studied, the psychological and historical elements involved in the various cultures better investigated, and translations of the relevant documents prepared not merely from a philological point of view or out of missionary zeal, but by competent philosophers who also have some linguistic training. Much has been accomplished in this direction in Indian and Chinese Philosophy (q.v.). A great deal remains to be done however before a definitive history of Oriental Philosophy may be written. See also Arabian, and Persian Philosophy. --K.F.L. Origen: (185-254) The principal founder of Christian theology who tried to enrich the ecclesiastic thought of his day by reconciling it with the treasures of Greek philosophy. Cf. Migne PL. --R.B.W. Ormazd: (New Persian) Same as Ahura Mazdah (q.v.), the good principle in Zoroastrianism, and opposed to Ahriman (q.v.). --K.F.L. Orphic Literature: The mystic writings, extant only in fragments, of a Greek religious-philosophical movement of the 6th century B.C., allegedly started by the mythical Orpheus. In their mysteries, in which mythology and rational thinking mingled, the Orphics concerned themselves with cosmogony, theogony, man's original creation and his destiny after death which they sought to influence to the better by pure living and austerity. They taught a symbolism in which, e.g., the relationship of the One to the many was clearly enunciated, and believed in the soul as involved in reincarnation. Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Plato were influenced by them. --K.F.L. Ortega y Gasset, Jose: Born in Madrid, May 9, 1883. At present in Buenos Aires, Argentine. Son of Ortega y Munillo, the famous Spanish journalist. Studied at the College of Jesuits in Miraflores and at the Central University of Madrid. In the latter he presented his Doctor's dissertation, El Milenario, in 1904, thereby obtaining his Ph.D. degree. After studies in Leipzig, Berlin, Marburg, under the special influence of Hermann Cohen, the great exponent of Kant, who taught him the love for the scientific method and awoke in him the interest in educational philosophy, Ortega came to Spain where, after the death of Nicolas Salmeron, he occupied the professorship of metaphysics at the Central University of Madrid. The following may be considered the most important works of Ortega y Gasset:     Meditaciones del Quijote, 1914;   El Espectador, I-VIII, 1916-1935;   El Tema de Nuestro Tiempo, 1921;   España Invertebrada, 1922;   Kant, 1924;   La Deshumanizacion del Arte, 1925;   Espiritu de la Letra, 1927;   La Rebelion de las Masas, 1929;   Goethe desde Adentio, 1934;   Estudios sobre el Amor, 1939;   Ensimismamiento y Alteracion, 1939;   El Libro de las Misiones, 1940;   Ideas y Creencias, 1940;     and others.   Although brought up in the Marburg school of thought, Ortega is not exactly a neo-Kantian. At the basis of his Weltanschauung one finds a denial of the fundamental presuppositions which characterized European Rationalism. It is life and not thought which is primary. Things have a sense and a value which must be affirmed independently. Things, however, are to be conceived as the totality of situations which constitute the circumstances of a man's life. Hence, Ortega's first philosophical principle: "I am myself plus my circumstances". Life as a problem, however, is but one of the poles of his formula. Reason is the other. The two together function, not by dialectical opposition, but by necessary coexistence. Life, according to Ortega, does not consist in being, but rather, in coming to be, and as such it is of the nature of direction, program building, purpose to be achieved, value to be realized. In this sense the future as a time dimension acquires new dignity, and even the present and the past become articulate and meaning-full only in relation to the future. Even History demands a new point of departure and becomes militant with new visions. --J.A.F. Orthodoxy: Beliefs which are declared by a group to be true and normative. Heresy is a departure from and relative to a given orthodoxy. --V.S. Orthos Logos: See Right Reason. Ostensible Object: (Lat. ostendere, to show) The object envisaged by cognitive act irrespective of its actual existence. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ostensive: (Lat. ostendere, to show) Property of a concept or predicate by virtue of which it refers to and is clarified by reference to its instances. --A.C.B. Ostwald, Wilhelm: (1853-1932) German chemist. Winner of the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1909. In Die Uberwindung des wissenschaftlichen Materialistmus and in Naturphilosophie, his two best known works in the field of philosophy, he advocates a dynamic theory in opposition to materialism and mechanism. All properties of matter, and the psychic as well, are special forms of energy. --L.E.D. Oupnekhat: Anquetil Duperron's Latin translation of the Persian translation of 50 Upanishads (q.v.), a work praised by Schopenhauer as giving him complete consolation. --K.F.L. Outness: A term employed by Berkeley to express the experience of externality, that is the ideas of space and things placed at a distance. Hume used it in the sense of distance Hamilton understood it as the state of being outside of consciousness in a really existing world of material things. --J.J.R. Overindividual: Term used by H. Münsterberg to translate the German überindividuell. The term is applied to any cognitive or value object which transcends the individual subject. --L.W. P

Tiantai zong. (J. Tendaishu; K. Ch'ont'ae chong 天台宗). In Chinese, "Terrace of Heaven School"; one of the main schools of East Asian Buddhism; also sometimes called the "Lotus school" (C. Lianhua zong), because of its emphasis on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"). "Terrace of Heaven" is a toponym for the school's headquarters on Mt. Tiantai in present-day Zhejiang province on China's eastern seaboard. Although the school retrospectively traces its origins back to Huiwen (fl. 550-577) and NANYUE HUISI (515-577), whom the school honors as its first and second patriarchs, respectively, the de facto founder was TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597), who created the comprehensive system of Buddhist teachings and practices that we now call Tiantai. Zhiyi advocated the three truths or judgments (SANDI): (1) the truth of emptiness (kongdi), viz., all things are devoid of inherent existence and are empty in their essential nature; (2) the truth of being provisionally real (jiadi), viz., all things are products of a causal process that gives them a derived reality; and (3) the truth of the mean (zhongdi), viz., all things, in their absolute reality, are neither real nor unreal, but simply thus. Zhiyi described reality in terms of YINIAN SANQIAN (a single thought contains the TRICHILIOCOSM [TRISĀHASRAMAHĀSĀHASRALOKADHĀTU]), which posits that any given thought-moment perfectly encompasses the entirety of reality; at the same time, every phenomenon includes all other phenomena (XINGJU SHUO), viz., both the good and evil aspects of the ten constituents (DHĀTU) or the five sense organs (INDRIYA) and their respective objects and the three realms of existence (TRAIDHĀTUKA) are all contained in the original nature of all sentient beings. Based on this perspective on reality, Zhiyi made unique claims about the buddha-nature (FOXING) and contemplation (GUAN): he argued that not only buddhas but even sentient beings in such baleful existences as animals, hungry ghosts, and hell denizens, possess the capacity to achieve buddhahood; by the same token, buddhas also inherently possess all aspects of the unenlightened three realms of existence. The objects of contemplation, therefore, should be the myriad of phenomena, which are the source of defilement, not an underlying pure mind. Zhiyi's grand synthesis of Buddhist thought and practice is built around a graduated system of calmness and insight (jianzi ZHIGUAN; cf. sAMATHA and VIPAsYANĀ), which organized the plethora of Buddhist meditative techniques into a broad, overarching soteriological system. To Zhiyi is also attributed the Tiantai system of doctrinal classification (panjiao; see JIAOXIANG PANSHI) called WUSHI BAJIAO (five periods and eight teachings), which the Koryo Korean monk CH'EGWAN (d. 970) later elaborated in its definitive form in his CH'oNT'AE SAGYO ŬI (C. Tiantai sijiao yi). This system classifies all Buddhist teachings according to the five chronological periods, four types of content, and four modes of conversion. Zhiyi was succeeded by Guanding (561-632), who compiled his teacher's works, especially his three masterpieces, the FAHUA XUANYI, the FAHUA WENJU, and the MOHE ZHIGUAN. The Tiantai school declined during the Tang dynasty, overshadowed by the newer HUAYAN and CHAN schools. The ninth patriarch JINGXI ZHANRAN (711-782) was instrumental in rejuvenating the school; he asserted the superiority of the Tiantai school over the rival Huayan school by adapting Huayan concepts and terminologies into the tradition. Koryo monks such as Ch'egwan and Ŭit'ong (927-988) played major roles in the restoration of the school by helping to repatriate lost Tiantai texts back to China. During the Northern Song period, Wu'en (912-988), Yuanqing (d. 997), Zhiyuan (976-1022), and their disciples, who were later pejoratively called the SHANWAI (Off-Mountain) faction by their opponents, led the resurgence of the tradition by incorporating Huayan concepts in the school's thought and practice: they argued that since the true mind, which is pure in its essence, produces all phenomena in accord with conditions, practitioners should contemplate the true mind, rather than all phenomena. Believing this idea to be a threat to the tradition, SIMING ZHILI (960-1028) and his disciples, who called themselves SHANJIA (On-Mountain), criticized such a concept of pure mind as involving a principle of separateness, since it includes only the pure and excludes the impure, and led a campaign to expunge the Huayan elements that they felt were displacing authentic Tiantai doctrine. Although Renyue (992-1064) and Congyi (1042-1091), who were later branded as the "Later Off-Mountain Faction," criticized Zhili and accepted some of the Shanwai arguments, the Shanjia faction eventually prevailed and legitimized Zhili's positions. The orthodoxy of Zhili's position is demonstrated in the FOZU TONGJI ("Comprehensive History of the Buddhas and Patriarchs"), where the compiler Zhipan (1220-1275), himself a Tiantai monk, lists Zhili as the last patriarch in the dharma transmission going back to the Buddha. Tiantai theories and practices were extremely influential in the development of the thought and practice of the Chan and PURE LAND schools; this influence is especially noticeable in the white-lotus retreat societies (JIESHE; see also BAILIAN SHE) organized during the Song dynasty by such Tiantai monks as Zhili and Zunshi (964-1032) and in Koryo Korea (see infra). After the Song dynasty, the school declined again, and never recovered its previous popularity. ¶ Tiantai teachings and practices were transmitted to Korea during the Three Kingdoms period through such Korean monks as Hyon'gwang (fl. sixth century) and Yon'gwang (fl. sixth century), both of whom traveled to China and studied under Chinese Tiantai teachers. It was not until several centuries later, however, that a Korean analogue of the Chinese Tiantai school was established as an independent Buddhist school. The foundation of the Korean CH'oNT'AE CHONG is traditionally assumed to have occurred in 1097 through the efforts of the Koryo monk ŬICH'oN (1055-1101). Ŭich'on was originally a Hwaom monk, but he sought to use the Ch'ont'ae tradition in order to reconcile the age-old tension in Korean Buddhism between KYO (Doctrine) and SoN (Meditation). In the early thirteenth century, the Ch'ont'ae monk WoNMYO YOSE (1163-1245) organized the white lotus society (PAENGNYoN KYoLSA), which gained great popularity especially among the common people; following Yose, the school was led by Ch'on'in (1205-1248) and CH'oNCH'AEK (b. 1206). Although the Ch'ont'ae monk Chogu (d. 1395) was appointed as a state preceptor (K. kuksa; C. GUOSHI) in the early Choson period, the Ch'ont'ae school declined and eventually died out later in the Choson dynasty. The contemporary Ch'ont'ae chong is a modern Korean order established in 1966 that has no direct relationship to the school founded by Ŭich'on. ¶ In Japan, SAICHo (767-822) is credited with founding the Japanese TENDAISHu, which blends Tiantai and tantric Buddhist elements. After Saicho, such Tendai monks as ENNIN (793-864), ENCHIN (814-891), and ANNEN (b. 841) systematized Tendai doctrines and developed its unique forms, which are often called TAIMITSU (Tendai esoteric teachings). Since the early ninth century, when the court granted the Tendai school official recognition as an independent sect, Tendai became one of the major Buddhist schools in Japan and enjoyed royal and aristocratic patronage for several centuries. The Tendai school's headquarters on HIEIZAN became an important Japanese center of Buddhist learning: the founders of the so-called new Buddhist schools of the Kamakura era, such as HoNEN (1133-1212), SHINRAN (1173-1263), NICHIREN (1222-1282), and DoGEN KIGEN (1200-1253), all first studied on Mt. Hiei as Tendai monks. Although the Tendai school has lost popularity and patrons to the ZENSHu, PURE LAND, and NICHIRENSHu schools, it remains still today an active force on the Japanese Buddhist landscape.

ti. (J. tai; K. ch'e 體). In Chinese, lit. "body," and by extension "essence," or "substance"; a term widely used in East Asian religious traditions, including Buddhism. "Essence" often constitutes a philosophical pair together with the term "function" (YONG). In early Confucian texts, such as the Lunyu ("Analects") and the Mengzi, ti simply referred to a "body" or the "appearance" of a person or a thing. It was Wang Bi (226-249), the founder of the "Dark Learning" (XUANXUE) school of Chinese philosophy, who imbued the term with philosophical implications, using ti as a synonym for the Daoist concepts of "nonbeing" (WU) or "voidness" (xu). However, ti, along with its companion yong, was not widely used until the Buddhists adopted both terms to provide a basic conceptual frame for reality or truth. For example, the Later Qin (384-417) monk SENGZHAO (384-414?) identified ti as the nature of calmness (ji) and advocated its unity with yong, which he defined as the function of illumination (zhao). The SAN LUN ZONG master JIZANG (549-623), in discussing the two-truth (SATYADVAYA) theory of MADHYAMAKA, argued that "neither ultimate nor conventional" (feizhen feisu) was the ti ("essence") of the two truths, while "both ultimate and conventional" (zhensu) were their yong ("function"). The LIUZU TAN JING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch") associates ti and yong with two modes of meditation: concentration (SAMĀDHI) is the ti or essence of wisdom (PRAJNĀ); wisdom is the yong or function of concentration. GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841), the Tang master of both the HUAYAN ZONG scholastic and the Heze Chan traditions, systematized the Chinese discourse of the terms. Based on the DASHENG QIXIN LUN ("Awakening of Faith According to the Mahāyāna"), Zongmi interpreted ti as the unchanging essence of true thusness (ZHENRU), calling this absolute aspect of mind the "void and calm, numinous awareness" (KONGJI LINGZHI; see LINGZHI). Yong instead referred to the diverse functional aspects of true thusness, which corresponded to the "production-and-cessation" aspect of mind (shengmie). He also aligned ti and yong with other indigenous Chinese philosophical polarities such as, respectively, "nature" (XING) and "characteristics" (xiang), "principle" (LI) and "phenomena" (SHI), and "root" (ben) and "branches" (mo). Subsequently, Neo-Confucian thinkers, such as Cheng Yi (1033-1107) and Zhu Xi (1130-1200), adopted this paradigm into their own philosophical systems. In particular, Zhu Xi connected ti to the "nature bestowed by the heavenly mandate" (tianming zhixing) and yong to the "physical nature" (qizhi zhixing).

Time track: According to many esoteric philosophers and occultists, time sequence—past, present and future—is just a human concept; time is indivisible, externally extant, and past, present and future are merely concepts of the human mind which moves along a “time track” on a one-way trip through the reality which is time. Adherents to this view explain prescience, premonitions, prophecy, etc. as glimpses ahead along the time track.

Tiwei [Boli] jing. (提謂[波利]經). In Chinese, "Book of Trapusa [and Bhallika]"; an indigenous Chinese SuTRA (see APOCRYPHA), written c. 460-464 during the Northern Wei dynasty, which praises the value of lay practice. The scripture is a retelling of the story of the encounter between the merchants TRAPUsA and (in some versions) his brother BHALLIKA, who offered the Buddha his first meal after his enlightenment. Following the meal, the Buddha is said to have taught the brothers and transmitted to them the first two of the three refuges (see TRIsARAnA) (the SAMGHA not yet existing at the incipiency of the religion), rendering them the first lay disciples (UPĀSAKA) of the Buddha. The Chinese text offers an extended account of what the Buddha taught during that first informal discussion of his experience. The Buddha's account of the dharma discusses the Buddhist value of keeping the five precepts (PANCAsĪLA) and the lay practice of giving (DĀNA), but all set within a philosophical framework that draws heavily on indigenous Chinese concepts of the five phases or elements, the five viscera, etc., as well as the importance of karmic cause and effect.

Transcendental Philosophy: Kant's name for his proposed a priori science of pure science ("pure reason") which would include both a detailed analysis of its fundamental concepts and a complete list of all derivative notions. Such a study would go beyond the purpose and scope of his Critique of Pure Reason. Name given to Kant's philosophy. Schelling's term for his science of Mind, as opposed to the science of Nature. Transcendentalism (q.v.). --W.L. Transcendental proof: In Kant's Philosophy: Proof by showing that what is proved is a necessary condition without which human experience would be impossible and therefore valid of all phenomena. -- A.C.E.

“‘Transformation’ is a word that I have brought in myself (like ‘supermind’) to express certain spiritual concepts and spiritual facts of the integral yoga. People are now taking them up and using them in senses which have nothing to do with the significance which I put into them. Purification of the nature by the ‘influence’ of the Spirit is not what I mean by transformation; purification is only part of a psychic change or a psycho-spiritual change—the word besides has many senses and is very often given a moral or ethical meaning which is foreign to my purpose.” Letters on Yoga

transformation ::: Sri Aurobindo: "Transformation means that the higher consciousness or nature is brought down into the mind, vital and body and takes the place of the lower. There is a higher consciousness of the true self, which is spiritual, but it is above; if one rises above into it, then one is free as long as one remains there, but if one comes down into or uses mind, vital or body — and if one keeps any connection with life, one has to do so, either to come down and act from the ordinary consciousness or else to be in the self but use mind, life and body, then the imperfections of these instruments have to be faced and mended — they can only be mended by transformation.” *Letters on Yoga


  "‘Transformation" is a word that I have brought in myself (like ‘supermind") to express certain spiritual concepts and spiritual facts of the integral yoga. People are now taking them up and using them in senses which have nothing to do with the significance which I put into them. Purification of the nature by the ‘influence" of the Spirit is not what I mean by transformation; purification is only part of a psychic change or a psycho-spiritual change — the word besides has many senses and is very often given a moral or ethical meaning which is foreign to my purpose.” *Letters on Yoga

"It is indeed as a result of our evolution that we arrive at the possibility of this transformation. As Nature has evolved beyond Matter and manifested Life, beyond Life and manifested Mind, so she must evolve beyond Mind and manifest a consciousness and power of our existence free from the imperfection and limitation of our mental existence, a supramental or truth-consciousness and able to develop the power and perfection of the spirit. Here a slow and tardy change need no longer be the law or manner of our evolution; it will be only so to a greater or less extent so long as a mental ignorance clings and hampers our ascent; but once we have grown into the truth-consciousness its power of spiritual truth of being will determine all. Into that truth we shall be freed and it will transform mind and life and body. Light and bliss and beauty and a perfection of the spontaneous right action of all the being are there as native powers of the supramental truth-consciousness and these will in their very nature transform mind and life and body even here upon earth into a manifestation of the truth-conscious spirit. The obscurations of earth will not prevail against the supramental truth-consciousness, for even into the earth it can bring enough of the omniscient light and omnipotent force of the spirit conquer. All may not open to the fullness of its light and power, but whatever does open must that extent undergo the change. That will be the principle of transformation.” The Supramental Manifestation

The Mother: "Transformation. The change by which all the elements and all the movements of the being become ready to manifest the supramental Truth.”

"One thing you must know and never forget: in the work of transformation all that is true and sincere will always be kept; only what is false and insincere will disappear.” Words of the Mother, MCW Vol. 15.


Truth: See also Semiotic 2. Truth: A characteristic of some propositional meanings, namely those which are true. Truth (or falsity) as predicated of "ideas" is today normally restricted to those which are propositional in nature, concepts being spoken of as being exemplified or not rather than as being true or false. Truth is predicable indirectly of sentences or symbols which express true meanings. (See Truth, semantical.)

T'ung: Mere identity, or sameness, especially in social institutions and standards, which is inferior to harmony (ho) in which social distinctions and differences are in complete concord. (Confucianism). Agreement, as in "agreement with the superiors" (shang t'ung). The method of agreement, which includes identity, generic relationship, co-existence, and partial resemblance. "Identity means two substances having one name. Generic relationship means inclusion in the same whole. Both being in the same room is a case of co-existence. Partial resemblance means having some points of resemblance." See Mo chi. (Neo-Mohism). --W.T.C. T'ung i: The joint method of similarities and differences, by which what is present and what is absent can be distinguished. See Mo chi. --W.T.C. Tung Chung-shu: (177-104 B.C.) was the leading Confucian of his time, premier to two feudal princes, and consultant to the Han emperor in framing national policies. Firmly believing in retribution, he strongly advocated the "science of catastrophic and anomalies," and became the founder and leader of medieval Confucianism which was extensively confused with the Yin Yang philosophy. Extremely antagonistic towards rival schools, he established Confucianism as basis of state religion and education. His best known work, Ch-un-ch'iu Fan-lu, awaits English translation. --W.T.C. Turro y Darder, Ramon: Spanish Biologist and Philosopher. Born in Malgrat, Dec. 8 1854. Died in Barcelona, June 5, 1926. As a Biologist, his conclusions about the circulation of the blood, more than half a century ago, were accepted and verified by later researchers and theorists. Among other things, he showed the insufficiency and unsatisfactoriness of the mechanistic and neomechanistic explanations of the circulatory process. He was also the first to busy himself with endocrinology and bacteriological immunity. As a philosopher Turro combated the subjectivistic and metaphysical type of psychology, and circumscribed scientific investigation to the determination of the conditions that precede the occurrence of phenomena, considering useless all attempt to reach final essences. Turro does not admit, however, that the psychical series or conscious states may be causally linked to the organic series. His formula was: Physiology and Consciousness are phenomena that occur, not in connection, but in conjunction. His most important work is Filosofia Critica, in which he has put side by side two antagonistic conceptions of the universe, the objective and the subjectne conceptions. In it he holds that, at the present crisis of science and philosophy, the business of intelligence is to realize that science works on philosophical presuppositions, but that philosophy is no better off with its chaos of endless contradictions and countless systems of thought. The task to be realized is one of coming together, to undo what has been done and get as far as the original primordial concepts with which philosophical inquiry began. --J.A.F. Tychism: A term derived from the Greek, tyche, fortune, chance, and employed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) to express any theory which regards chance as an objective reality, operative in the cosmos. Also the hypothesis that evolution occurs owing to fortuitous variations. --J.J.R. Types, theory of: See Logic, formal, § 6; Paradoxes, logical; Ramified theory of types. Type-token ambiguity: The words token and type are used to distinguish between two senses of the word word.   Individual marks, more or less resembling each other (as "cat" resembles "cat" and "CAT") may (1) be said to be "the same word" or (2) so many "different words". The apparent contradiction therby involved is removed by speaking of the individual marks as tokens, in contrast with the one type of which they are instances. And word may then be said to be subject to type-token ambiguity. The terminology can easily be extended to apply to any kind of symbol, e.g. as in speaking of token- and type-sentences.   Reference: C. S. Peirce, Collected Papers, 4.517. --M.B. Tz'u: (a) Parental love, kindness, or affection, the ideal Confucian virtue of parents.   (b) Love, kindness in general. --W.T.C. Tzu hua: Self-transformation or spontaneous transformation without depending on any divine guidance or eternal agency, but following the thing's own principle of being, which is Tao. (Taoism). --W.T.C. Tzu jan: The natural, the natural state, the state of Tao, spontaneity as against artificiality. (Lao Tzu; Huai-nan Tzu, d. 122 B.C.). --W.T.C. U

Understanding: (Kant. Ger. Verstand) The faculty of thinking the object of sensuous intuition; or the faculty of concepts, judgments and principles. The understanding is the source of concepts, categories and principles by means of which the manifold of sense is brought into the unity of apperception. Kant suggests that understanding has a common root with sensibility. See Kantianism. -- O.F.K.

Unified Modeling Language "language" (UML) A non-proprietary, third generation {modelling language}. The Unified Modeling Language is an open method used to specify, visualise, construct and document the artifacts of an {object-oriented} software-intensive system under development. The UML represents a compilation of "best engineering practices" which have proven successful in modelling large, complex systems. UML succeeds the concepts of {Booch}, {OMT} and {OOSE} by fusing them into a single, common and widely usable modelling language. UML aims to be a standard modelling language which can model {concurrent} and distributed systems. UML is not an {industry standard}, but is taking shape under the auspices of the {Object Management Group} (OMG). OMG has called for information on object-oriented methodologies, that might create a rigorous software modelling language. Many industry leaders have responded in earnest to help create the standard. See also: {STP}, {IDE}. {OMG UML Home (http://uml.org/)}. {Rational UML Resource Center (http://rational.com/uml/index.jsp)}. (2002-01-03)

Unified Modeling Language ::: (language) (UML) A non-proprietary, third generation modelling language. The Unified Modeling Language is an open method used to specify, visualise, system under development. The UML represents a compilation of best engineering practices which have proven successful in modelling large, complex systems.UML succeeds the concepts of Booch, OMT and OOSE by fusing them into a single, common and widely usable modelling language. UML aims to be a standard modelling language which can model concurrent and distributed systems.UML is not an industry standard, but is taking shape under the auspices of the Object Management Group (OMG). OMG has called for information on object-oriented methodologies, that might create a rigorous software modelling language. Many industry leaders have responded in earnest to help create the standard.See also: STP, IDE. . .(2002-01-03)

Uniformity – Is the term describing the presentation of financial statements by different companies using the same accounting procedures, measurement concepts, classifications, and methods of disclosure.

vāsanā. (T. bag chags; C. xunxi/xiqi; J. kunju/jikke; K. hunsŭp/sŭpki 薰習/習氣). In Sanskrit, literally, "perfumings," hence "predispositions," "habituations," "latent tendencies," or "residual impressions" (and sometimes seen translated overliterally from the Chinese as "habit energies"); subtle tendencies created in the mind as a result of repeated exposure to positive or negative objects. Vāsanā are described as subtle forms of the afflictions (KLEsA), which hinder the attainment of buddhahood. According to the DAZHIDU LUN (*MahāprajNāpāramitāsāstra), ARHATs remain subject to the influence of the vāsanā-for example, sĀRIPUTRA's anger and NANDA's staring at beautiful women-just as the scent of incense remains behind in a censer even after all the incense has burned away. Thus, only the buddhas have removed all such latent tendencies. In the YOGĀCĀRA system, the vāsanā "perfume" the "seeds" (BĪJA) of wholesome and unwholesome actions that are implanted in the storehouse consciousness (ĀLAYAVIJNĀNA). The CHENG WEISHI LUN (*VijNaptimātratāsiddhi) lists the following three types of vāsanā: (1) linguistic predispositions (C. mingyan xiqi), the impressions created by concepts and expressions through which one evaluates his experience; (2) grasping-at-self predispositions (C. wozhi xiqi), impressions fostered by grasping at false notions of a perduring self (ĀTMAGRĀHA), which create an attachment to I and mine; and (3) cause-of-existence predispositions (C. youzhi xiqi), impressions that engender wholesome and unwholesome karmic retributions, which lead to continued rebirth in SAMSĀRA.

vector quantity: A quantity with magnitude as well as direction. As opposed to scalar quantities which has magnitude but not directions. Examples of vector quantities are velocity and displacement, whose scalar equivalent are speed and distance respectively. Note that acceleration as a vector quantity is different from acceleration as a scalar quantity, even though we do not commonly have distinct words for the two concepts.

vikalpa. (P. vikappa; T. rnam par rtog pa; C. fenbie; J. funbetsu; K. punbyol 分別). In Sanskrit, "[false] discrimination," "imagining," or "conception"; the discriminative activities of mind, generally portrayed in the negative sense of fantasy and imagination, and often equivalent to "conceptual proliferation" (PRAPANCA). Vikalpa refers to the conceptual activities of the mental consciousness (MANOVIJNĀNA), a mediated mental activity that operates through the medium of generic images (SĀMĀNYALAKsAnA). Vikalpa is often opposed to the immediate knowledge provided by direct perception (PRATYAKsA). The direct perception of reality is therefore commonly described as NIRVIKALPA, or "free from thought." ¶ Three types of conceptual discrimination (TRIVIKALPA) are typically described in the literature. (1) Intrinsic discrimination (SVABHĀVAVIKALPA), which refers to the initial advertence of thought (VITARKA) and the subsequent sustained attention (VICĀRA) to a perceived object of the six sensory consciousnesses (VIJNĀNA), that is, the discrimination of present objects, as when visual consciousness perceives a visual object. (2) Conceptualizing discrimination (ABHINIRuPAnĀVIKALPA), which refers to discursive thought on ideas that arise in the sixth mental consciousness when it adverts toward a mental object that is associated with any of the three time periods of past, present, or future. (3) Discrimination involving reflection on past events (ANUSMARAnAVIKALPA), which refers to discriminative thought involving the memory of past objects. ¶ There is a wide range of opinion as to the value of vikalpa (in the sense of "thought" or "conception") in the soteriological progress. Some traditions would hold that the structured use of conceptual and logical analysis (and especially the use of inference, or ANUMĀNA) is a necessary prerequisite to reaching a state beyond all thought. Such a position is advocated in the Indian philosophical schools and in those that favor the so-called gradual path to enlightenment. In the stages of the path to enlightenment, all forms of meditation prior to the attainment of the path of vision (DARsANAMĀRGA) are "conceptual" and thus entail vikalpa. Other schools radically devalue all thought as an obstacle to the understanding of the ultimate and would claim that the nonconceptual, described in some cases as "no-thought" (C. WUNIAN), is accessible at all times. Such an approach, most famously expounded in the CHAN traditions of Asia, is associated with the so-called sudden path to enlightenment (see DUNWU). ¶ In the YOGĀCĀRA school, vikalpa is described specifically as the "discriminative conception of apprehended and apprehender" (GRĀHYAGRĀHAKAVIKALPA), referring to the misconception that there is an inherent bifurcation between a perceiving subject (grāhaka) and its perceived objects (grāhya). This bifurcation occurs because of false imagining (ABHuTAPARIKALPA), the tendency of the relative phenomena (PARATANTRA) to be misperceived as divided into a perceiving self and a perceived object that is external to it. By relying on these false imaginings to construct our sense of what is real, we inevitably subject ourselves to continued suffering (DUḤKHA) within the cycle of birth-and-death (SAMSĀRA). Overcoming this bifurcation leads to the nondiscriminative wisdom (NIRVIKALPAJNĀNA), which, in the five-stage path (PANCAMĀRGA) system, marks the inception of the path of vision (darsanamārga), where the adept sees reality directly, without the intercession of concepts. The elimination of grāhyagrāhakavikalpa proceeds from the less to the more subtle. It is easier to realize that a projected object is a projection than to realize that a projecting subject is as well; among projected objects, it is easier to realize that afflicted (SAMKLIstA) dharmas (the SKANDHAs and so on) are projections than to realize that purified (VYAVADĀNA) dharmas (the five paths and so on) are as well; and among subjects it is easier to realize that a material subject (a mental substratum and so on) is a projection than to realize that a nominally existing subject (a nominally existing self and so on) is. This explanation of vikalpa, common in the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ commentarial tradition, influenced the theory of the SAMPANNAKRAMA (completion stage) in ANUTTARAYOGA (highest yoga) TANTRA, where prior to reaching enlightenment the four sets of vikalpas are dissolved with their associated PRĀnAs in the central channel (AVADHuTI).

What then is the explanation of the otherwise contradictory statements in the Bible regarding Solomon? Even from a historical and ethnological standpoint one may find a clue, for along purely exoteric lines there is nothing foreign in Solomon’s “idolatry” and his worship of other deities. The same racial strain ran through all the surrounding peoples as in Israel, and the respective worships, gods, and goddesses were all closely interrelated, derived from the same Babylonian concepts, appearing under different names — Blavatsky shows the identity of the mystery gods of the Phoenicians, Chaldeans, and Israelites (SD 2:3). The gods and goddesses of the nations surrounding the Jews were all theologically interrelated, aspects or permutations of the same basic idea; and, as worshiped by the people, all were variants and, in their exoteric forms, degradations of the original conception on which every great theogony and cosmogony was built (cf SD 2:535 et seq).

Whence, in the typical Scholastic or medieval notion, intellect is an immaterial faculty of the soul, that is, its operations are performed without a bodily organ, though they depend on the body and its senses for the material from which they receive their first impulse. Nothing is in the intellect that has not been previously in the senses. The impressions received by the external senses are synthesized by the internal sensus communis which forms an image or phantasm; the phantasm is presented to the intellect by imagination, memory and the vis cogitativa co-operating. The internal senses are conceived as being bound to organic functions of the brain. The intellect operates in a twofold manner, but is only one. As active intellect (intellectus agens) it "illuminates" the phantasm, disengaging there from the universal nature; as passive intellect (int. possibilis) it is informed by the result of this abstractive operation and develops the concept. Concepts are united into judgments by combination and division (assertion and negation). Judgments are related to each other in syllogistic reasoning or by the abbreviated form of enthymeme. Aquinas denies to the intellect the capacity of becoming aware of particulars in any direct way. The intellect knows of them (e.g. when asserting: Socrates is a man) only indirectly by reflecting on its own operations and finally on the phantasm which served as starting point. Propositions, however, have no directly corresponding phantasm. Later Scholastics credit the intellect with a direct knowledge of particulars (Suarez). See Abstraction, Faculty. -- R.A.

While not abandoning its interest in beauty, artistic value, and other normative concepts, recent aesthetics has tended to lay increasing emphasis on a descriptive, factual approach to the phenomena of art and aesthetic experience. It differs from art history, archeology, and cultural history in stressing a theoretical organization of materials in terms of recurrent types and tendencies, rather than a chronological or genetic one. It differs from general psychology in focusing upon certain selected phases in psycho-physical activity, and on their application to certain types of objects and situations, especially those of art. It investigates the forms and characteristics of art, which psychology does not do. It differs from art criticism in seeking a more general, theoretical understanding of the arts than is usual in that subject, and in attempting a more consistently objective, impersonal attitude. It maintains a philosophic breadth, in comparing examples of all the arts, and in assembling data and hypotheses from many sources, including philosophy, psychology, cultural history, and the social sciences. But it is departing from traditional conceptions of philosophy in that writing labelled "aesthetics" now often includes much detailed, empirical study of particular phenomena, instead of restricting itself as formerly to abstract discussion of the meaning of beauty, the sublime, and other categories, their objective or subjective nature, their relation to pleasure and moral goodness, the purpose of art, the nature of aesthetic value, etc. There has been controversy over whether such empirical studies deserve to be called "aesthetics", or whether that name should be reserved for the traditional, dialectic or speculative approach; but usage favors the extension in cases where the inquiry aims at fairly broad generalizations.

Whitehead, Alfred North: British philosopher. Born in 1861. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1911-14. Lecturer in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics at University College, London, 1914-24. Professor of Applied Mathematics at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. From 1924 until retirement in 1938, Professor of Philosophy at Harvard University. Among his most important philosophical works are the Principia Mathematica, 3 vols. (1910-13) (with Bertrand Russell; An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Natural Knowledge (1919); The Concept of Nature (1920); Science and the Modern World (1926); Religion tn the Making (1926); Symbolism (1928); Process and Reality (1929); and Adventures of Ideas (1933). The principle of relativity in physics is the key to the understanding of metaphysics. Whitehead opposes the current philosophy of static substance having qualities which he holds to be based on the simply located material bodies of Newtonian physics and the "pure sensations" of Hume. This 17th century philosophy depends upon a "bifurcation of nature" into two unequal systems of reality on the Cartesian model of mind and matter. The high abstractions of science must not be mistaken for concrete realities. Instead, Whitehead argues that there is only one reality, what appears, whatever is given in perception, is real. There is nothing existing beyond what is present in the experience of subjects, understanding by subject any actual entity. There are neither static concepts nor substances in the world; only a network of events. All such events are actual extensions or spatio-temporal unities. The philosophy of organism, as Whitehead terms his work, is based upon the patterned process of events. All things or events are sensitive to the existence of all others; the relations between them consisting in a kind of feeling. Every actual entity is then a "prehensive occasion", that is, it consists of all those active relations with other things into which it enters. An actual entity is further determined by "negative prehension", the exclusion of all that which it is not. Thus every feeling is a positive prehension, every abstraction a negative one. Every actual entity is lost as an individual when it perishes, but is preserved through its relations with other entities in the framework of the world. Also, whatever has happened must remain an absolute fact. In this sense, past events have achieved "objective immortality". Except for this, the actual entities are involved in flux, into which there is the ingression of eternal objects from the realm of possibilities. The eternal objects are universals whose selection is necessary to the actual entities. Thus the actual world is a certain selection of eternal objects. God is the principles of concretion which determines the selection. "Creativity" is the primal cause whereby possibilities are selected in the advance of actuality toward novelty. This movement is termed the consequent nature of God. The pure possibility of the eternal objects themsehes is termed his primordial nature. -- J.K.F.

wiki "web" Any collaborative {website} that users can easily modify via the web, often without restriction. A wiki allows anyone, using a {web browser}, to create, edit or delete content that has been placed on the site, including the work of other authors. Text is entered using some simple {mark-up language} which is then rendered as {HTML}. A feature common to many of the different implementations is that any word in mixed case LikeThis (a "wikiword") is rendered as a link to a page of that name, which may or may not exist. Wikis work surprisingly well. The most famous example, {Wikipedia} (referred to as "wiki" by some), is one of the most visited sites on the web. Contributors tend to be more numerous and more persistent than vandals, and old versions of pages are always available. Like many simple concepts, open editing has profound effects on usage. Allowing everyday users to create and edit any page encourages democratic use of the web and promotes content composition by nontechnical users. In contrast, a {web log}, typically authored by an individual, does not allow visitors to change the original posted material, only add comments. Wiki wiki means "quick" in Hawaiian. The first wiki was created by {Ward Cunningham} in 1995. {wiki.org (http://wiki.org/)}. (2014-10-12)

With reference to the approach to the central reality of religion, God, and man's relation to it, types of the Philosophy of Religion may be distinguished, leaving out of account negative (atheism), skeptical and cynical (Xenophanes, Socrates, Voltaire), and agnostic views, although insertions by them are not to be separated from the history of religious consciousness. Fundamentalism, mainly a theological and often a Church phenomenon of a revivalist nature, philosophizes on the basis of unquestioning faith, seeking to buttress it by logical argument, usually taking the form of proofs of the existence of God (see God). Here belong all historic religions, Christianity in its two principal forms, Catholicism with its Scholastic philosophy and Protestantism with its greatly diversified philosophies, the numerous religions of Hinduism, such as Brahmanism, Shivaism and Vishnuism, the religion of Judaism, and Mohammedanism. Mysticism, tolerated by Church and philosophy, is less concerned with proof than with description and personal experience, revealing much of the psychological factors involved in belief and speculation. Indian philosophy is saturated with mysticism since its inception, Sufism is the outstanding form of Arab mysticism, while the greatest mystics in the West are Plotinus, Meister Eckhart, Tauler, Ruysbroek, Thomas a Kempis, and Jacob Bohme. Metaphysics incorporates religious concepts as thought necessities. Few philosophers have been able to avoid the concept of God in their ontology, or any reference to the relation of God to man in their ethics. So, e.g., Plato, Spinoza, Leibniz, Schelling, and especially Hegel who made the investigation of the process of the Absolute the essence of the Philosophy of Religion.

With these principles of matter and form, and the parallel distinction between potential and actual existence, Aristotle claims to have solved the difficulties that earlier thinkers had found in the fact of change. The changes in nature are to be interpreted not as the passage from non-being to being, which would make them unintelligible, but as the process by which what is merely potential being passes over, through form, into actual being, or entelechy. The philosophy of nature which results from these basic concepts views nature as a dynamic realm in which change is real, spontaneous, continuous, and in the main directed. Matter, though indeed capable of form, possesses a residual inertia which on occasion produces accidental effects; so that alongside the teological causation of the forms Aristotle recognizes what he calls "necessity" in nature; but the products of the latter, since they are aberrations from form, cannot be made the object of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, the system of nature as developed by Aristotle is a graded series of existences, in which the simpler beings, though in themselves formed matter, function also as matter for higher forms. At the base of the series is prime matter, which as wholly unformed is mere potentiality, not actual being. The simplest formed matter is the so-called primary bodies -- earth, water, air and fire. From these as matter arise by the intervention of successively more complex forms the composite inorganic bodies, organic tissues, and the world of organisms, characterized by varying degrees of complexity in structure and function. In this realization of form in matter Aristotle distinguishes three sorts of change: qualitative change, or alteration; quantitative change, or growth and diminution; and change, of place, or locomotion, the last being primary, since it is presupposed in all the others. But Aristotle is far from suggesting a mechanical explanation of change, for not even locomotion can be explained by impact alone. The motion of the primary bodies is due to the fact that each has its natural place to which it moves when not opposed; earth to the center, then water, air, and fire to successive spheres about the center. The ceaseless motion of these primary bodies results from their ceaseless transformation into one another through the interaction of the forms of hot and cold, wet and dry. Thus qualitative differences of form underlie even the most elemental changes in the world of nature.

WordNet "human language" A large {lexical} database of English, developed under the direction of George A. Miller. Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are grouped into sets of {cognitive synonyms} ("synsets"), each expressing a distinct concept. Synsets are interlinked by means of conceptual-{semantic} and lexical relations. The resulting network of words and concepts can be navigated with the browser. WordNet is freely available for download. WordNet's structure makes it a useful tool for {computational linguistics} and {natural language processing}. {WordNet home (http://wordnet.princeton.edu/)}. (2007-04-20)

Wuliang yi jing. (J. Muryogikyo; K. Muryang ŭi kyong 無量義經). In Chinese, "Sutra of Immeasurable Meanings," one of the "Three [Sister] Sutras of the 'Lotus'" (FAHUA SANBU [JING]), along with the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") itself and the GUAN PUXIAN PUSA XINGFA JING ("Sutra on the Procedures for Contemplating the Practices of the Bodhisattva SAMANTABHADRA"). The Wuliang yi jing, is presumed to be the prequel to the influential Saddharmapundarīkasutra, while the Guan Puxian pusa xingfa jing is usually considered its sequel. The extant version of the scripture, in one roll, is attributed to the Indian translator *Dharmāgatayasas of the Southern Qi dynasty (479-502), and is claimed to have been translated in 481; the LIDAI SANBAO JI scriptural catalogue also refers to a second, nonextant translation. There is, however, no evidence that a scripture with this title ever circulated in India, and no such text is ever cited in Indian sources. In addition, there are issues with the biography of the alleged translator (*Dharmāgatayasas is otherwise unknown and this is his only attributed translation), and peculiar events in the transmission of the scripture, which suggest that attempts were made to obscure its questionable provenance. The scripture also includes unusual transcriptions and translations of Buddhist technical terminology, and peculiar taxonomies of Indian doctrinal concepts. Because of these problematic issues of provenance and content, the sutra is now suspected of being an indigenous Chinese composition (see APOCRYPHA). Such Chinese exegetes as Huiji (412-496) and TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597) presumed that this scripture was the otherwise-unknown MAHĀYĀNA sutra titled "Immeasurable Meanings" that is mentioned in the prologue to the Saddharmapundarīkasutra, which the Buddha is said to have preached just prior to beginning the "Lotus Sutra" proper. The Wuliang yi jing is in three chapters (pin). The first chapter is the prologue, where the bodhisattva "Great Adornment" (Dazhuangyan pusa) offers a long verse paean describing the Buddha's many virtues. The second chapter is the sermon itself, where the Buddha explains the doctrine of immeasurable meanings as being the one teaching that will enable bodhisattvas to quickly attain complete, perfect enlightenment (ANUTTARASAMYAKSAMBODHI). This doctrine reveals that all phenomena (DHARMA) are void and calm in both their natures and their characteristics and thus are empty and nondual (ADVAYA). Hence, the immeasurable meanings of all descriptions of dharmas derive from the one dharma that is free from characteristics. The final chapter is the epilogue, which describes the ten kinds of merit that accrue from hearing the sutra.

W. V. Quine, Mathematical Logic, New York, 1940. In psychology: the mental operation by which we proceed from individuals to concepts of classes, from individual dogs to the notion of "the dog." We abstract features common to several individuals, grouping them thus together under one name.

Wyld & Fried: An insane mage, generally a Marauder. Common Terminology Many terms reflect common concepts among the Awakened; although most of them have their origins in mystic practices, Technocrats often use these phrases too, if only for clarity’s sake.

Xirau Palau, Joaquin: Born in Figueras, Spain, 1805. At present, in Mexico. Xirau specialized in philosophy, literature and law, obtaining his Ph.D. from the Central University of Madrid in 1918. Studied and worked under Ortega y Gasset, Serra Hunter, Cossio, and Morente. Main Works: Las Condiciones de la Verdad Eterna en Leibniz, 1921; Rousseau y las Ideas Politicas Modernas, 1923; El Sentido de la Verdad, 1927; Descartes y el Idealismo Subjectivista Moderna, 1927; Amor y Mundo, 1940; Introduccion a la Fenomenologia, 1941. According to Xirau the way essence of philosophic thought (Influence of Husserl and Heidegger) opposes the conception of philosophy as mere play of ideas or speculation of concepts. Philosophy is, above all, called upon to develop man in the sense of actualizing his inborn potentialities and bringing the fact and concept of personality to full fruition. Philosophy thus becomes pedagogical, and as such it will always have a great destiny to realize. -- J.A.F.

Xuanxue. (J. Gengaku; K. Hyonhak 玄學). In Chinese, "Dark Learning," or "Profound Learning"; a Chinese philosophical movement of the third through sixth centuries CE, which provided a fertile intellectual ground for the emergence of early Chinese forms of Buddhism. It is sometimes known as "Neo-Daoism," although the target audience of Xuanxue literati was fellow elite rather than adherents of the new schools of religious Daoism that were then developing in China. The social and political upheaval that accompanied the fall of the Han dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) prompted many Chinese intellectuals to question the traditional foundations of Chinese thought and society and opened them to alternative worldviews. Buddhism, which was just then beginning to filter into Chinese territories, found a receptive audience among these groups of thinkers. Xuanxue scholars critiqued and reinterpreted the normative Chinese teachings of Confucianism by drawing on the so-called "three dark [treatises]" (sanxuan), i.e., the Yijing ("Book of Changes"), Daode jing ("The Way and Its Power"), and the Zhuangzi. Xuanxue designates a broad intellectual trend that sought a new way of understanding the "way" (DAO). Xuanxue philosophers explored the ontological grounding of the changing and diverse world of "being" (C. you) on a permanent and indivisible substratum called "nothingness" or "non-being" (C. WU). Xuanxue thinkers such as Wang Bi (226-249), who is regarded as the founder of the movement, and Guo Xiang (d. 312), who is often considered to represent its apex, explored how this ontological stratum of nothingness still was able to produce the world of being in all its diversity. This process was clarified by adopting the mainstream Chinese philosophical bifurcations between (1) the ineffable "substance" or "essence" (TI) of things and the ways in which that substance "functions" (YONG) in the phenomenal world; and (2) the "patterns" or "principles" (LI) that underlie all things and their phenomenal manifestations (SHI). These distinctions between ti/yong and li/shi proved to be extremely influential in subsequent Chinese Buddhist exegesis. Also according to Xuanxue interpretation, the sage (shengren) is one who understands this association between being and nothingness but realizes that their relationship is fundamentally inexpressible; nevertheless, in order to make it intelligible to others, he feels "compelled" to describe it verbally. This emphasis on the inadequacy of language resonated with Buddhist treatments of the ineffability of spiritual experience and the necessity to deploy verbal stratagems (UPĀYA) in order to make that experience intelligible to others. The sage was able to manifest his understanding in the phenomenal world not by conscious intent but as an automatic "response" (ying) to "stimuli" (gan); early Chinese Buddhist thinkers deploy the compound "stimulus and response" (GANYING) to explain the Buddhist concepts of action (KARMAN) and of grace (i.e., the "response" of a buddha or BODHISATTVA to a supplicant's invocation, or "stimulus"). Xuanxue thinkers also began to explore parallels between their ideas of "nonbeing" (wu) and the notion of emptiness (suNYATĀ) in the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ corpus, which was just then being translated into Chinese. Xuanxue exegesis has often been described in the scholarly literature as a "matching concepts" (GEYI) style of interpretation, where Buddhist concepts were elucidated by drawing on indigenous Chinese philosophical terminology, though this interpretation of geyi has recently been called into question. Although Xuanxue vanished as a philosophical movement by the early sixth century, its influence was profound on several pioneering Chinese Buddhist thinkers, including ZHI DUN (314-366) and SENGZHAO (374-414), and on such early philosophical schools of Chinese Buddhism as the SAN LUN ZONG and DI LUN ZONG, and eventually on the TIANTAI ZONG and HUAYAN ZONG of the mature Chinese tradition.

Yichud (&

Yiqiejing yinyi. (J. Issaikyo ongi; K. Ilch'egyong ŭmŭi 一切經音義). In Chinese, "Pronunciation and Meaning of All the Scriptures"; a specialized Chinese glossary of Buddhist technical terminology. As more and more Indian and Central Asian texts were being translated into Chinese, the use of Sanskrit and Middle Indic transcriptions and technical vocabulary increased, leading to the need for comprehensive glossaries of these abstruse terms. Because of the polysemous and sacred character of such Buddhist doctrinal concepts as BODHI, NIRVĀnA, and PRAJNĀ, many Chinese translators also preferred to transcribe rather than translate such crucial terms, so as not to limit their semantic range to a single Chinese meaning. The Indian pronunciations of proper names were also commonly retained by Chinese translators. Finally, the spiritual efficacy thought to be inherent in the spoken sounds of Buddhist spells (MANTRA) and codes (DHĀRAnĪ) compelled the translators to preserve as closely as possible in Chinese the pronunciation of the Sanskrit or Middle Indic original. By the sixth century, the plethora of different transcriptions used for the same Sanskrit Buddhist terms led to attempts to standardize the Chinese transcriptions of Sanskrit words, and to clarify the obscure Sinographs and compounds used in Chinese translations of Buddhist texts. This material was compiled in various Buddhist "pronunciation and meaning" (yinyi) lexicons, the earliest of which was the twenty-five-roll Yiqiejing yinyi compiled by the monk Xuanying (fl. c. 645-656). Xuanying, a member of the translation bureau organized in the Chinese capital of Chang'an by the renowned Chinese pilgrim, translator, and Sanskritist XUANZANG (600/602-664), compiled his anthology in 649 from 454 of the most important MAHĀYĀNA, sRĀVAKAYĀNA, VINAYA, and sĀSTRA materials, probably as a primer for members of Xuanzang's translation team. His work is arranged by individual scripture, and includes a roll-by-roll listing and discussion of the problematic terms encountered in each section of the text. For the more obscure Sinographs, the entry provides the fanqie (a Chinese phonetic analysis that uses paired Sinographs to indicate the initial and final sounds of the target character), the Chinese translation, and the corrected transcription of the Sanskrit, according to the phonologically sophisticated transcription system developed by Xuanzang. Xuanying's compendium is similar in approach to its predecessor in the secular field, the Jingdian shiwen, compiled during the Tang dynasty in thirty rolls by Lu Deming (c. 550-630). The monk Huilin (783-807) subsequently incorporated all of Xuanying's terms and commentary into an expanded glossary that included difficult terms from more than 1,300 scriptures; Huilin's expansion becomes the definitive glossary used within the tradition. Still another yinyi was compiled later during the Liao dynasty by the monk Xilin (d.u.). In addition to their value in establishing the Chinese interpretation of Buddhist technical terms, these "pronunciation and meaning" glossaries also serve as important sources for studying the Chinese phonology of their times.

yogipratyaksa. (T. rnal 'byor mngon sum; C. dingguan zhi; J. jokanchi; K. chonggwan chi 定觀知). In Sanskrit, "yogic direct perception"; a specific variety of direct perception (PRATYAKsA) that is typically presumed to derive from meditative practice (BHĀVANĀ; YOGA). A direct intuition of the real obtained through meditative practice, this type of understanding was accepted as a valid means of knowledge by most of the traditional Indian religious schools. In Buddhism, the psychological analysis of the notion of yogipratyaksa and the related yogijNāna (yogic knowledge or cognition) was undertaken by DHARMAKĪRTI (c. 600-670) in his PRAMĀnAVĀRTTIKA and NYĀYABINDU, as well as by his commentators. Dharmakīrti's predecessor DIGNĀGA (c. 480-540) had posited that there were only two reliable sources of knowledge (PRAMĀnA): direct perception (PRATYAKsA) and logical inference (ANUMĀNA). Dharmakīrti, however, subdivided direct perception (pratyaksa) into four subtypes, viz., sensory cognition (indriyajNāna), mental discrimination (MANOVIJNĀNA), self-awareness (SVASAMVEDANA), and yogic cognition (yogijNāna). In Dharmakīrti's analysis, yogic cognition (yogijNāna) is a form of yogic perception (yogipratyaksa), because it fulfills the two conditions of perception (pratyaksa): (1) it is devoid of conceptual construction (KALPANĀ); and (2) it is a cognition that is "nonerroneous" (abhrānta), viz., real. The treatment of yogipratyaksa in the literature thus focuses on how yogipratyaksa fulfills these two conditions of perception. Yogic knowledge is devoid of conceptual construction (kalpanā), Dharmakīrti maintains, because it is nonconceptual (akalpa; NIRVIKALPA) and thus "vivid" or "distinct" (spasta). This type of perception is therefore able to perceive reality directly, without the intercession of mental images or concepts. Since yogic cognition is said to be devoid of conceptual construction, this raises the issue of its second condition, its lack of error. Why is meditatively induced perception true and reliable? How does a meditator's yogic perception differ from the hallucinations of the deranged, since both of them presume they have a vivid cognition of an object? The reason, Dharmakīrti maintains, is that the objects of yogic knowledge are "true" or "real" (bhuta; sadbhuta), whereas hallucinations are "false" or "unreal" objects (abhuta; asadbhuta). The only true objects of yogic knowledge offered by Dharmakīrti are the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS: that is, the perception of these truths is true and reliable because they enable one to reach the goal of enlightenment, not because they involve a perception of an ultimate substance. In this sense, Dharmakīrti's understanding of yogijNāna is more focused on the direct realization of the soteriological import of the four noble truths than on extraordinary sensory ability. Therefore, yogic direct perception is qualitatively different from the various forms of clairvoyance that are the byproducts of deep states of concentration that may be achieved by both Buddhist and non-Buddhist practitioners. Yogipratyaksa is a form of insight (VIPAsYANĀ) posssessed only by noble persons (ĀRYAPUDGALA); and among the five paths it occurs only on the path of vision (DARsANAMĀRGA) and above. See also DARsANA.

Yunmen zong. ( J. Unmonshu; K. Unmun chong 雲門宗). In Chinese, "Cloud Gate school"; one of the so-called five houses and seven schools (WU JIA QI ZONG) of the mature Chinese CHAN tradition. It is named after the mountain, located in Shaozhou (present-day Guangdong province), where its founder YUNMEN WENYAN (864-949) taught. Yunmen Wenyan was famous for his "one-word barriers" or "one-word checkpoints" (YIZI GUAN), in which he responded to his students' questions by using only a single word. The school became one of the dominant Chan traditions in the Five Dynasties (Wudai) and early Song dynasty, producing such prominent masters as DONGSHAN SHOUCHU (910-990), Dongshan Xiaocong (d. 1030), XUEDOU ZHONGXIAN (980-1052), and Tianyi Yihuai (992-1064). Yunmen masters played a major role in the development of classical Chan literature. Xuedou Zhongxian's earlier collection of one hundred old cases (guce, viz., GONG'AN), known as the Xuedou songgu, served as the basis for the famous BIYAN LU ("Blue Cliff Record"), which added the extensive commentaries and annotations of the Linji master YUANWU KEQIN (1063-1135) to Zhongxian's original compilation. Several Yunmen masters were closely associated with the Song-dynasty intelligentsia. Dajue Huailian (1009-1090), for example, was as personal friend of the Song literocrat (shidafu) and poet Su Shi (1036-1101). Fori Qichong (1007-1072) asserted the fundamental harmony of Confucianism and Buddhism, explaining Confucian philosophical concepts using Buddhist terminology. CHANGLU ZONGZE (fl. c. late eleventh to early twelfth century) institutionalized the practice of reciting the name of the Buddha (NIANFO) into the routine of Chan monastic life and wrote an influential text on Chan monastic regulations or "rules of purity" (QINGGUI), the CHANYUAN QINGGUI ("Pure Rules for the Chan Grove"). The Yunmen school survived for about two centuries before it was eventually absorbed into the LINJI ZONG.



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1:Time and space are only concepts of mind. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi,
2:The words printed here are concepts. You must go through the experiences.
   ~ Saint Augustine of Hippo,
3:Once you know with absolute certainty that nothing can trouble you but your own imagination, you come to disregard your desires and fears, concepts and ideas, and live by truth alone. ~ Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj Maharaj,
4:Analogic vision precedes all real knowledge. Only those who perceive similarities between things and events are able to work with concepts.… To grasp essential similarities means to perceive primal phenomena. ~ Robert Spaemann,
5:Do not cling to conventional thoughts, religion, concepts and so on. Let go! Drop all artificial conceptions of Life, for it is only then that it can be taken into you, or you into it, in consciousness Self-awareness." ~ Sunyata, Danish mystic. ,
6:From time forth created things From time too, they advance in growth. Likewise in time they disappear Time is a form and formless too.." ~ "Upaninshads," part of the Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, Wikipedia.,
7:I don't let go of concepts—I meet them with understanding. Then they let go of me." ~ Byron Katie, (b. 1942) an American speaker and author, teaches a method of self-inquiry known as "The Work of Byron Katie". She is the founder of "Byron Katie International," Wikipedia.,
8:Our discursive reasoning is certainly capable of coining clear concepts, but far from grasping the incomprehensible one, these concepts move him still farther away into that peculiar distance in which all conceptual knowledge is shrouded. ~ Edith Stein, Finite and Eternal Being,
9:The existing scientific concepts cover always only a very limited part of reality, and the other part that has not yet been understood is infinite. Whenever we proceed from the known into the unknown we may hope to understand, but we may have to learn at the same time a new meaning of the word 'understanding'.
   ~ Werner Heisenberg,
10:No amount of intellectual knowledge can satisfy the need for the direct experience that is beyond concepts and duality. Do not be a fool and spend your whole life in a book.

Of course you must study the teachings, but you must also know when it is time to put what you have learnt into practice. Only direct experience can set you free. ~ Chamtrul Rinpoche,
11:The piling on of more concepts, this acquisition of additional knowledge, is not the solution. Adding to the known can never take one beyond the known.
At every moment of your life you know what you need to know. Take it to be sufficient.
True knowledge comes via direct apperception and this cannot be forced.
It arrives in its own time Now, be still. ~ Wu Hsin,
12:Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts... A graphic representation of data abstracted from banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding... ~ William Gibson,
13:Full Circle argues that scientific specialization has destroyed those concepts and values crucial to the survival and regeneration of Western democracy. These values are boldly restated as an assembly of the sciences - physical, biological, and psycho-social - within a single system, the periodic coordinate system of Unified Science, modelled on Leibniz's Universal Characteristic..... ~ Edward Haskell, Full Circle,
14:Alan Mathison Turing OBE FRS (/ˈtjʊərɪŋ/; 23 June 1912 - 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst and theoretical biologist. He was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer.[2][3][4] Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.[5]
   ~ Wikipedia,
15:When you only have sensations, perceptions, and impulses, the world is archaic. When you add the capacity for images and symbols, the world appears magical. When you add concepts, rules, and roles, the world becomes mythic. When formal-reflexive capacities emergy, the rational world comes into view. With vision-logic, the existential world stands forth. When the subtle emerges, the world becomes divine. When the causal emerges, the self becomes divine. When the nondual emerges, world and self are realized to be one Spirit.
   ~ Ken Wilber, Integral Psychology, 119,
16:It marshals a vast amount of scientific evidence, from physics to biology, and offers extensive arguments, all geared to objectively proving the holistic nature of the universe. It fails to see that if we take a bunch of egos with atomistic concepts and teach them that the universe is holistic, all we will actually get is a bunch of egos with holistic concepts. Precisely because this monological approach, with its unskillful interpretation of an otherwise genuine intuition, ignores or neglects the "I" and the "we" dimensions, it doesn't understand very well the exact nature of the inner transformations that are necessary in the first place in order to be able to find an identity that embraces the manifest All. Talk about the All as much as we want, nothing fundamentally changes. ~ Ken Wilber, Sex Ecology Spirituality,
17:When man's thoughts rise upon the wings of aspiration, when he pushes back the darkness with the strength of reason and logic, then indeed the builder is liberated from his dungeon and the light pours in, bathing him with life and power. This light enables us to seek more clearly the mystery of creation and to find with greater certainty our place in the Great Plan, for as man unfolds his bodies he gains talents with which he can explore the mysteries of Nature and search for the hidden workings of the Divine. Through these powers the Builder is liberated and his consciousness goes forth conquering and to conquer. These higher ideals, these spiritual concepts, these altruistic, philanthropic, educative applications of thought power glorify the Builder; for they give the power of expression and those who can express themselves are free. When man can mold his thoughts, his emotions, and his actions into faithful expressions of his highest ideals then liberty is his, for ignorance is the darkness of Chaos and knowledge is the light of Cosmos.
   ~ Manly P Hall,
18:It's a strange world. It seems that about fifteen billion years ago there was, precisely, absolute nothingness, and then within less than a nanosecond the material universe blew into existence.

Stranger still, the physical matter so produced was not merely a random and chaotic mess, but seemed to organize itself into ever more and complex and intricate forms. So complex were these forms that, many billions of years later, some of them found ways to reproduce themselves, and thus out of matter arose life.

Even stranger, these life forms were apparently not content to merely reproduce themselves, but instead began a long evolution that would eventually allow them to represent themselves, to produce sign and symbols and concepts, and thus out of life arose mind.

Whatever this process of evolution was, it seems to have been incredibly driven from matter to life to mind.

But stranger still, a mere few hundred years ago, on a small and indifferent planet around an insignificant star, evolution became conscious of itself.

And at precisely the same time, the very mechanisms that allowed evolution to become conscious of itself were simultaneously working to engineer its own extinction.

And that was the strangest of all. ~ Ken Wilber, Sex Ecology Spirituality, p. 3,
19:Equally must the sense-mind be stilled and taught to leave the function of thought to the mind that judges and understands. When the understanding in us stands back from the action of the sense-mind and repels its intermiscence, the latter detaches itself from the understanding and can be watched in its separate action. It then reveals itself as a constantly swirling and eddying undercurrent of habitual concepts, associations, perceptions, desires without any real sequence, order or principle of light. It is a constant repetition in a circle unintelligent and unfruitful. Ordinarily the human understanding accepts this undercurrent and tries to reduce it to a partial order and sequence; but by so doing it becomes itself subject to it and partakes of that disorder, restlessness, unintelligent subjection to habit and blind purposeless repetition which makes the ordinary human reason a misleading, limited and even frivolous and futile instrument. There is nothing to be done with this fickle, restless, violent and disturbing factor but to get rid of it whether by detaching it and then reducing it to stillness or by giving a concentration and singleness to the thought by which it will of itself reject this alien and confusing element.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga, The Purified Understanding,
20:There is, indeed, a higher form of the buddhi that can be called the intuitive mind or intuitive reason, and this by its intuitions, its inspirations, its swift revelatory vision, its luminous insight and discrimination can do the work of the reason with a higher power, a swifter action, a greater and spontaneous certitude. It acts in a self-light of the truth which does not depend upon the torch-flares of the sense-mind and its limited uncertain percepts; it proceeds not by intelligent but by visional concepts: It is a kind of truth-vision, truth-hearing, truth-memory, direct truth-discernment. This true and authentic intuition must be distinguished from a power of the ordinary mental reason which is too easily confused with it, that power of Involved reasoning that reaches its conclusion by a bound and does not need the ordinary steps of the logical mind. The logical reason proceeds pace after pace and tries the sureness of each step like a marl who is walking over unsafe ground and has to test by the hesitating touch of his foot each span of soil that he perceives with his eye. But this other supralogical process of the reason is a motion of rapid insight or swift discernment; it proceeds by a stride or leap, like a man who springs from one sure spot to another point of sure footing, -- or at least held by him to be sure. He sees this space he covers in one compact and flashing view, but he does not distinguish or measure either by eye or touch its successions, features and circumstances. This movement has something of the sense of power of the intuition, something of its velocity, some appearance of its light and certainty, arid we always are apt to take it for the intuition. But our assumption is an error and, if we trust to it, it may lead us into grievous blunders.
   ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis Of Yoga,
21:It is not very easy for the customary mind of man, always attached to its past and present associations, to conceive of an existence still human, yet radically changed in what are now our fixed circumstances.We are in respect to our possible higher evolution much in the position of the original Ape of the Darwinian theory. It would have been impossible for that Ape leading his instinctive arboreal life in primeval forests to conceive that there would be one day an animal on the earth who would use a new faculty called reason upon the materials of his inner and outer existence, who would dominate by that power his instincts and habits, change the circumstances of his physical life, build for himself houses of stone, manipulate Nature's forces, sail the seas, ride the air, develop codes of conduct, evolve conscious methods for his mental and spiritual development. And if such a conception had been possible for the Ape-mind, it would still have been difficult for him to imagine that by any progress of Nature or long effort of Will and tendency he himself could develop into that animal. Man, because he has acquired reason and still more because he has indulged his power of imagination and intuition, is able to conceive an existence higher than his own and even to envisage his personal elevation beyond his present state into that existence. His idea of the supreme state is an absolute of all that is positive to his own concepts and desirable to his own instinctive aspiration,-Knowledge without its negative shadow of error, Bliss without its negation in experience of suffering, Power without its constant denial by incapacity, purity and plenitude of being without the opposing sense of defect and limitation. It is so that he conceives his gods; it is so that he constructs his heavens. But it is not so that his reason conceives of a possible earth and a possible humanity. His dream of God and Heaven is really a dream of his own perfection; but he finds the same difficulty in accepting its practical realisation here for his ultimate aim as would the ancestral Ape if called upon to believe in himself as the future Man. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Life Divine, Ego and the Dualities,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

1:Entirely new concepts are very rare in politics. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
2:Nirvana is the complete silencing of concepts. ~ thich-nhat-hanh, @wisdomtrove
3:Old Zen was the reduction of concepts to absurdity. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
4:Civilization and violence are antithetical concepts. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
5:All real philosophers have been artists in the realm of concepts. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
6:Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind. ~ immanuel-kant, @wisdomtrove
7:The words printed here are concepts. You must go through the experiences. ~ saint-augustine, @wisdomtrove
8:Some concepts are so incredibly risky they take an honest fool to try to articulate them. ~ criss-jami, @wisdomtrove
9:The great concepts of oneness and of majestic order seem always to be born in the desert. ~ john-steinbeck, @wisdomtrove
10:All human knowledge thus begins with intuitions, proceeds thence to concepts, and ends with ideas. ~ immanuel-kant, @wisdomtrove
11:Ads sell a great deal more than products. They sell values, images, and concepts of success and worth. ~ brene-brown, @wisdomtrove
12:With Christianity, freedom and equality became the two basic concepts of Europe; they are themselves Europe. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
13:The pen is the language of the soul; as the concepts that in it are generated, such will be its writings. ~ miguel-de-cervantes, @wisdomtrove
14:That's really part of being a grounded theory researcher - putting names to concepts and experiences that people have. ~ brene-brown, @wisdomtrove
15:We don't attach to people or to things; we attach to uninvestigated concepts that we believe to tbe true in the moment. ~ byron-katie, @wisdomtrove
16:Why is it that so few people are truly free? Because they try to conform to ideas, concepts, and beliefs in their heads. ~ adyashanti, @wisdomtrove
17:With the work it's not really people you're dealing with but concepts. Any person, if there is some judgement, will do. ~ byron-katie, @wisdomtrove
18:Can one talk about the ocean to a frog in a well or about the divine to people who are restricted by their concepts? ~ anthony-de-mello, @wisdomtrove
19:Goethe's thinking was not rigid with inflexible contours; it was a thinking in which the concepts continually metamorphose. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
20:Birth is okay and death is okay, if we know that they are only concepts in our mind. Reality transcends both birth and death. ~ thich-nhat-hanh, @wisdomtrove
21:A solid answer to everything is not necessary. Blurry concepts influence one to focus, but postulated clarity influences arrogance. ~ criss-jami, @wisdomtrove
22:Genius is the ability to independently arrive at and understand concepts that would normally have to be taught by another person. ~ immanuel-kant, @wisdomtrove
23:You don't see anything as it is, but distorted and reduced by mental labels, concepts, judgments, opinions and reactive patterns. ~ eckhart-tolle, @wisdomtrove
24:Facts of experience are valued in Zen more than representations, symbols, and concepts-that is to say, substance is everything in Zen and form nothing. ~ d-t-suzuki, @wisdomtrove
25:When you get free from certain fixed concepts of the way the world is, you find it is far more subtle, and far more miraculous, than you thought it was. ~ alan-watts, @wisdomtrove
26:When I see beyond my ideas about life, there's a wonderful feeling of oneness with all that is, since it's only my concepts that make me see things as separate. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
27:Man, unlike anything organic or inorganic in the universe, grows beyond his work, walks up the stairs of his concepts, emerges ahead of his accomplishments. ~ john-steinbeck, @wisdomtrove
28:The familiar life horizon has been outgrown: the old concepts, ideals, and emotional patterns no longer fit; the time for the passing of a threshold is at hand. ~ joseph-campbell, @wisdomtrove
29:Philosophical knowledge is the knowledge gained by reason from concepts; mathematical knowledge is the knowledge gained by reason from the construction of concepts. ~ immanuel-kant, @wisdomtrove
30:the way to create art is to burn and destroy ordinary concepts and to substitute them with new truths that run down from the top of the head and out of the heart ~ charles-bukowski, @wisdomtrove
31:At that time two opposing concepts of the Game called forth commentary and discussion. The foremost players distinguished two principal types of Game, the formal and the psychological. ~ hermann-hesse, @wisdomtrove
32:Very young children love and demand stories, and can understand complex matters presented as stories, when their powers of comprehending general concepts, paradigms, are almost nonexistent. ~ oliver-sacks, @wisdomtrove
33:Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind.  The understanding can intuit nothing, the senses can think nothing. Only through their union can knowledge arise. ~ immanuel-kant, @wisdomtrove
34:Once you know with absolute certainty that nothing can trouble you but your own imagination, you come to disregard your desires and fears, concepts and ideas and live by truth alone. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
35:Begin with bodhicitta, do the main practice without concepts, Conclude by dedicating the merit. These, together and complete, Are the three vital supports for progressing on the path to liberation. ~ longchenpa, @wisdomtrove
36:The Christian "doctrines" are translations into our concepts and ideas of that which God has already expressed in language more adequate, namely the actual incarnation, crucifixion, and resurrection ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
37:The Earth, time, concepts, love, life, faith justice, evil - they're all fluid and in transition. They don't stay in one form or in one place forever. The whole universe is like some big FedEx box. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
38:The Zen Master was constantly attempting to break up concepts that people had about what it was like to be a spiritual teacher. We have a traditional image. Each Zen master was a complete character. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
39:Integral wisdom involves a direct participation in every moment: the observer and the observed are dissolved in the light of pure awareness, and no mental concepts or attitudes are present to dim that light. ~ lao-tzu, @wisdomtrove
40:Decadence is a difficult word to use since it has become little more than a term of abuse applied by critics to anything they do not yet understand or which seems to differ from their moral concepts. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
41:Close your eyes and visualize the person you really want to be, who fits your own concepts of self-respect. If you can see the person clearly in the mirror of you mind, you surely will become that person. ~ denis-waitley, @wisdomtrove
42:Passion is the love of turning being into action. It fuels the engine of creation. It changes concepts to experience. Never deny passion, for that is to deny Who You Are, and Who You Truly Want to Be. ~ neale-donald-walsch, @wisdomtrove
43:All are mere words, of what use are they to you? You are entangled in the web of verbal definitions and formulations. Go beyond your concepts and ideas; in the silence of desire and thought the truth is found. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
44:Salvakalpa samadhi is absorption in eternity to the point where there is no real concept of self but there's still a karmic chain. Nirvikalpa samadhi is absorption in nirvana; concepts of self and no-self go away completely. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
45:I'd like the [Cosmos] series to be so visually stimulating that somebody who isn't even interested in the concepts will just watch for the effects. And I'd like people who are prepared to do some thinking to be really stimulated. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
46:The unreal is more powerful than the real. Because nothing is as perfect as you can imagine it. Because it's only intangibles, ideas, concepts, beliefs, fantasies that last. Stone crumbles. Wood rots. People, well, they die. ~ chuck-palahniuk, @wisdomtrove
47:When your sense of self is no longer tied to thought, is no longer conceptual, there is a depth of feeling, of sensing, of compassion, of loving, that was not there when you were trapped in mental concepts. You are that depth. ~ eckhart-tolle, @wisdomtrove
48:Concepts, like individuals, have their histories and are just as incapable of withstanding the ravages of time as are individuals. But in and through all this they retain a kind of homesickness for the scenes of their childhood. ~ soren-kierkegaard, @wisdomtrove
49:The Federalist Society is changing the culture of our nation's law schools. You are returning the values and concepts of law as our founders understood them to scholarly dialogue, and through that dialogue, to our legal institutions. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
50:The language of chemistry simply does not mesh with that of biology. Chemistry is about substances and how they react, whereas biology appeals to concepts such as information and organisation. Informational narratives permeate biology. ~ paul-davies, @wisdomtrove
51:More than a building that houses books and data, the library has always been a window to a larger world&
52:Before the 1940s the terms system and systems thinking had been used by several scientists, but it was Bertalanffy's concepts of an open system and a general systems theory that established systems thinking as a major scientific movement ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
53:Most of the world's religions serve only to strengthen attachments to false concepts such as self and other, life and death, heaven and earth, and so on. Those who become entangled in these false ideas are prevented from perceiving the Integral Oneness.   ~ lao-tzu, @wisdomtrove
54:Stop all delays, all seeking and all striving. Put down your concepts, ideas and beliefs. For one instant be still and directly encounter the silent unknown core of your being. In that instant Freedom will embrace you and reveal the Awakening that you are. ~ adyashanti, @wisdomtrove
55:We are presented with an unpleasant choice between either committing to peculiar concepts about immaterial deities or letting go entirely of a host of consoling, subtle or just charming rituals for which we struggle to find equivalents in secular society. ~ alain-de-botton, @wisdomtrove
56:Identification with your mind creates an opaque screen of concepts, labels, images, words, judgments, and definitions that blocks all true relationship. It comes between you and yourself, between you and your fellow man and woman, between you and nature, …   ~ eckhart-tolle, @wisdomtrove
57:No matter what we feel or know, no matter what our potential gifts or talents, only action brings them to life. Those of us who only think we understand concepts such as commitment, courage, and love, one day discover that we only know when we act; doing becomes understanding. ~ dan-millman, @wisdomtrove
58:Once one is caught up into the material world not one person in ten thousand finds the time to form literary taste, to examine the validity of philosophic concepts for himself, or to form what, for lack of a better phrase, I might call the wise and tragic sense of life. ~ f-scott-fitzgerald, @wisdomtrove
59:It's a paradox. How does one balance living in the now with preparing responsibly for the future? The key to this dilemma lies in the distinction between &
60:I've always thought photography was an art form, but it had very low appreciation in the beginning, except for some Europeans, and of course Stieglitz. Stieglitz always considered photography to be an art form and is the "father" of the creative concepts of the twentieth century. ~ amsel-adams, @wisdomtrove
61:Concepts vs. self-actualization. - Instead of dedicating your life to actualize a concept of what you should be like, ACTUALIZE YOURSELF. The process of maturing does not mean to become a captive of conceptualization. It is to come to the realization of what lies in our innermost selves. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
62:I eagerly await new concepts and processes. I believe that the electronic image will be the next major advance. Such systems will have their own inherent and inescapable structural characteristics, and the artist and functional practitioner will again strive to comprehend and control them. ~ amsel-adams, @wisdomtrove
63:There may be organic life out there, or maybe machines created by long-dead civilizations, but any signals, even if they are difficult to decode, would tell us that the concepts of logic and physics are not limited to the hardware in human skulls, and will transform our view of the universe. ~ martin-rees, @wisdomtrove
64:My life is not possible to tell. I change every day, change my patterns, my concepts, my interpretations. I am a series of moods and sensations. I play a thousand roles. I weep when I find others play them for me. My real self is unknown. My work is merely an essence of this vast and deep adventure. ~ anais-nin, @wisdomtrove
65:With the subsequent strong support from cybernetics , the concepts of systems thinking and systems theory became integral parts of the established scientific language, and led to numerous new methodologies and applications - systems engineering, systems analysis, systems dynamics, and so on. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
66:If we’re going to strive for spiritual growth, we have to be willing to put concepts into practice in our everyday lives, in all relationships with all people. You can’t separate your “spiritual life” from your “work life.” They’re both your life! In the same vein, you can’t separate money and happiness. ~ t-harv-eker, @wisdomtrove
67:We're experiencing this moment through a filter of concepts. We're living in our ideas. We're telling ourselves a story about who we are and what life is, and we're confusing this story with reality. But the story is not reality. Reality is the mystery of existence that exists before all of our ideas about reality. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
68:Meditation is not aimed at developing a fine philosophy of life or mind. It is not about thinking at all. It is about keeping things simple. Right now, in this moment, do you see? Do you hear? This seeing, this hearing, when unadorned, is the recovery of original mind, free from all concepts, including “original mind.” ~ jon-kabat-zinn, @wisdomtrove
69:We are only conscious because we’re experiencing the world of separateness. But now we are conscious through experiencing separateness, we can also become conscious of the essential oneness of being. If we get lost in our concepts we don’t experience the primal oneness, but without these concepts we wouldn’t be conscious at all.   ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
70:What a lot of people don't understand is that when you change your thinking, when you accept different concepts, then life mirrors those for you. If you can get the concept that you're worthy and loveable and that you deserve to have a better life, life starts bringing those opportunities to you, because that's your belief system. ~ louise-hay, @wisdomtrove
71:The view is often defended that sciences should be built up on clear and sharply defined basal concepts. In actual fact no science, not even the most exact, begins with such definitions. The true beginning of scientific activity consists rather in describing phenomena and then in proceeding to group, classify and correlate them. ~ sigmund-freud, @wisdomtrove
72:The moment you start talking you create a verbal universe, a universe of words, ideas, concepts and abstractions, interwoven and inter-dependent, most wonderfully generating, supporting and explaining each other and yet all without essence or substance, mere creations of the mind. Words create words, reality is silent. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
73:People at CDC [Centers for Disease Control] who cut their teeth on diseases over the last 10 years have started to think of crime as another disease, and using some of these same concepts. It was something that was in the air in that world, but it was time to bust it out and apply it to any number of different social epidemics. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
74:One nonabsolute number is the given time of arrival, which is now known to be one of the most bizarre of mathematical concepts, a number whose existence can only be defined as being anything other than itself. In other words, the given time of arrival is the one moment of time at which it is impossible that any member of the party will arrive. ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
75:I imagine that whenever the mind perceives a mathematical idea, it makes contact with Plato's world of mathematical concepts... When mathematicians communicate, this is made possible by each one having a direct route to truth, the consciousness of each being in a position to perceive mathematical truths directly, through the process of &
76:Even in the darkest of times we have the right to expect some illumination, and ... such illumination may well come less from theories and concepts than from the uncertain, flickering, and often weak light that some men and women, in their lives and their works, will kindle under almost all circumstances and shed over the time-span that was given them on earth. ~ hannah-arendt, @wisdomtrove
77:We are only conscious because we’re experiencing the world of separateness. But now we are conscious through experiencing separateness, we can also become conscious of the essential oneness of being. If we get lost in our concepts we don’t experience the primal oneness, but without these concepts we wouldn’t be conscious at all.   So we come to know the wordless via words… ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
78:If you want to nourish a bird, you should let it live any way it chooses. Creatures differ because they have different likes and dislikes. Therefore the sages never require the same ability from all creatures. . . concepts of right should be founded on what is suitable. The true saint leaves wisdom to the ants, takes a cue from the fishes, and leaves willfulness to the sheep. ~ zhuangzi, @wisdomtrove
79:If you filter my words through any tradition or &
80:Christianity, like genius, is one of the hardest concepts to forgive. We hear what we want to hear and accept what we want to accept, for the most part, simply because there is nothing more offensive than feeling like you have to re-evaluate your own train of thought and purpose in life. You have to die to an extent in your hunger for faith, for wisdom, and quite frankly, most people aren't ready to die. ~ criss-jami, @wisdomtrove
81:Someone asked me very recently why I have 8 million views on TED - "your work resonates, what are you doing?" What I think my contribution is, what I do well, is I name experiences that are very universal that no one really talks about. That's the researcher in me; that's really part of being a grounded theory researcher - putting names to concepts and experiences that people have. That's the researcher part. ~ brene-brown, @wisdomtrove
82:At all ages, if [fantasy and myth] is used well by the author and meets the right reader, it has the same power: to generalize while remaining concrete, to present in palpable form not concepts or even experiences but whole classes of experience, and to throw off irrelevancies. Bat at its best it can do more; it can give us experiences we have never had and thus, instead of &
83:A child in his earliest years, when he is only two or a little more, is capable of tremendous achievements simply through his unconscious power of absorption, though he is himself still immobile. After the age of three he is able to acquire a great number of concepts through his own efforts in exploring his surroundings. In this period he lays hold of things through his own activity and assimilates them into his mind. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
84:Now all of us deplore this vast military spending. Yet, in the face of the Soviet attitude, we realize its necessity. Whatever the cost, America will keep itself secure. But in the process we must not, by our own hand, destroy or distort the American system. This we could do by useless overspending. I know one sure way to overspend. That is by overindulging sentimental attachments to outmoded military machines and concepts. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
85:One of the most revolutionary concepts to grow out of our clinical experience is the growing recognition that innermost core of man's nature - the deepest layers of his personality, the base of his &
86:A purely mental life may be destructive if it leads us to substitute thought for life and ideas for actions. The activity proper to man is purely mental because man is not just a disembodied mind. Our destiny is to live out what we think, because unless we live what we know, we do not even know it. It is only by making our knowledge part of ourselves, through action, that we enter into the reality that is signified by our concepts. ~ thomas-merton, @wisdomtrove
87:Ego is neither positive nor negative. Those are simply concepts that create more boundaries. Ego is just ego, and the disaster of it all is that you, as a spiritual seeker, have been conditioned to think of the ego as bad, as an enemy, as something to be destroyed. This simply strengthens the ego. In fact, such conclusions arise from the ego itself. Pay no attention to them. Don't go to war with yourself; simply inquire into who you are. ~ adyashanti, @wisdomtrove
88:In ordinary life, we are not aware of the unity of all things, but divide the world into separate objects and events. This division is useful and necessary to cope with our everyday environment, but it is not a fundamental feature of reality. It is an abstraction devised by our discriminating and categorising intellect. To believe that our abstract concepts of separate &
89:Every individual is at once the beneficiary and the victim of the linguistic tradition into which he has been born - the beneficiary inasmuch as language gives access to the accumulated records of other people's experience, the victim in so far as it confirms him in the belief that reduced awareness is the only awareness and as it bedevils his sense of reality, so that he is all too apt to take his concepts for data, his words for actual things. ~ aldous-huxley, @wisdomtrove
90:Implanting spiritual ideas in children is very important. Many people live their entire lives according to the concepts that are implanted in them in childhood. When children learn they will get the most attention and love through doing constructive things, they will tend to stop doing destructive things. Most important of all, remember that children learn through example. No matter what you say it is what you do that will have an influence on them. ~ peace-pilgrim, @wisdomtrove
91:The time must come inevitably when mankind shall surmount the imbecility of religion, as it has surmounted the imbecility of religion's ally, magic. It is impossible to imagine this world being really civilized so long as so much nonsense survives. In even its highest forms religion embraces concepts that run counter to all common sense. It can be defended only by making assumptions and adopting rules of logic that are never heard of in any other field of human thinking. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
92:[Man] is the only animal who lives outside of himself, whose drive is in external things‚îproperty, houses, money, concepts of power. He lives in his cities and his factories, in his business and job and art. But having projected himself into these external complexities, he is them. His house, his automobile are a part of him and a large part of him. This is beautifully demonstrated by a thing doctors know‚îthat when a man loses his possessions a very common result is sexual impotence. ~ john-steinbeck, @wisdomtrove
93:The unreal is more powerful than the real. Because nothing is as perfect as you can imagine it. Because its only intangible ideas, concepts, beliefs, fantasies that last. Stone crumbles. Wood rots. People, well, they die. But things as fragile as a thought, a dream, a legend, they can go on and on. If you can change the way people think. The way they see themselves. The way they see the world. You can change the way people live their lives. That's the only lasting thing you can create. ~ chuck-palahniuk, @wisdomtrove
94:Time, among all concepts in the world of physics, puts up the greatest resistance to being dethroned from ideal continuum to the world of the discrete, of information, of bits... . Of all obstacles to a thoroughly penetrating account of existence, none looms up more dismayingly than &
95:The friends of Job appear on the scene as advisers and "consolers," offering Job the fruits of their moral scientia. But when Job insists that his sufferings have no explanation and that he cannot discover the reason for them through conventional ethical concepts, his friends turn into accusers, and curse Job as a sinner. Thus, instead of consolers, they become torturers by virtue of their very morality, and in so doing, while claiming to be advocates of God, they act as instruments of the devil. ~ thomas-merton, @wisdomtrove
96:Many spiritual people are involved in a radical denial of what is happening. They want to transcend it, get rid of it, get out of it, get away from it. There's nothing wrong with that feeling, but the approach doesn't work because it's escapism in spiritual clothing. It's wearing spiritual clothing and spiritual concepts, but it is really no different than a drunk in the gutter who doesn't want to feel the pain anymore. When you abide and accept everything completely and fully, you automatically go beyond. ~ adyashanti, @wisdomtrove
97:My main professional interest during the 1970s has been in the dramatic change of concepts and ideas that has occurred in physics during the first three decades of the century, and that is still being elaborated in our current theories of matter. The new concepts in physics have brought about a profound change in our world view; from the mechanistic conception of Descartes and Newton to a holistic and ecological view, a view which I have found to be similar to the views of mystics of all ages and traditions. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove
98:The biggest adversary in our life is ourselves. We are what we are, in a sense, because of the dominating thoughts we allow to gather in our head. All concepts of self-improvement, all actions and paths we take, relate solely to our abstract image of ourselves. Life is limited only by how we really see ourselves and feel about our being. A great deal of pure self-knowledge and inner understanding allows us to lay an all-important foundation for the structure of our life from which we can perceive and take the right avenues. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
99:The good, say the mystics of spirit, is God, a being whose only definition is that he is beyond man's power to conceive ‚ a definition that invalidates man's consciousness and nullifies his concepts of existence. The good, say the mystics of muscle, is Society ‚  a thing which they define as an organism that possesses no physical form, a super-being embodied in no one in particular and everyone in general except yourself... . The purpose of man's life, say both, is to become an abject zombie who serves a purpose he does not know, for reasons he is not to question. ~ ayn-rand, @wisdomtrove
100:Power properly understood is nothing but the ability to achieve .. one of the great problems of history is that the concepts of love and power have usually been contrasted as opposites - polar opposites - so that love is identified with a resignation of power, and power with a denial of love... What is needed is a realization that power without love is reckless and abusive, and love without power is sentimental and anemic. Power at its best is love implementing the demands of justice, and justice at its best is power correcting everything that stands against love. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
101:Mysticism is a rational enterprise. Religion is not. The mystic has recognized something about the nature of consciousness prior to thought, and this recognition is susceptible to rational discussion. The mystic has reasons for what he believes, and these reasons are empirical. The roiling mystery of the world can be analyzed with concepts (this is science), or it can be experienced free of concepts (this is myticism). Religion is nothing more than bad concepts held in place of good ones for all time. It is the denial-at once full of hope and full of fear-of the vastitude of human ignorance. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
102:Power properly understood is nothing but the ability to achieve purpose... one of the great problems of history is that the concepts of love and power have usually been contrasted as opposites - polar opposites - so that love is identified with a resignation of power, and power with a denial of love... What is needed is a realization that power without love is reckless and abusive, and love without power is sentimental and anemic. Power at its best is love implementing the demands of justice, and justice at its best is power correcting everything that stands against love. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
103:Consciousness wakes up to itself. That is who you are. It may not be who you think you are. We have objectified ourselves as this particular body, or the sensations that go through the body, or our emotions, or our history. But those are all objects in our minds. They are thoughts, concepts. True awakening is the recognition that those objects are made of nothing, no substance. And yet they are never separate from the subjective, endless consciousness that one is. So, who awakens? You awaken! And you are already awake as consciousness. That is the paradox. However it is spoken of, the truth cannot be caught in a concept. But it can be realized, and that is who you are. ~ gangaji, @wisdomtrove
104:In the immensity of consciousness, a light appears, a tiny point that moves rapidly and traces shapes, thoughts and feelings, concepts and ideas, like the pen writing on paper. And the ink that leaves a trace is memory. You are that tiny point and by your movement the world is ever re-created. Stop moving, and there will be no world. Look within and you will find that the point of light is the reflection of the immensity of light in the body, as the sense &
105:As the twenty-first century unfolds, it is becoming more and more evident that the major problems of our time – energy, the environment, climate change, food security, financial security – cannot be understood in isolation. They are systemic problems, which means that they are all interconnected and interdependent. Ultimately, these problems must be seen as just different facets of one single crisis, which is largely a crisis of perception. It derives from the fact that most people in our modern society, and especially our large social institutions, subscribe to the concepts of an outdated worldview, a perception of reality inadequate for dealing with our overpopulated, globally interconnected world. ~ fritjof-capra, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Concepts are mental images. ~ Paul Virilio,
2:Concepts antedate facts. ~ Charlotte Perkins Gilman,
3:Such concepts are simple, but not easy, ~ Jocko Willink,
4:Nirvana is the complete silencing of concepts. ~ Nhat Hanh,
5:Concepts are always frozen. Reality flows. ~ Anthony de Mello,
6:Good" and "Bad" may be alien concepts to him, Ben. ~ Stan Lee,
7:Time and space are only concepts of mind. ~ Sri Ramana Maharshi,
8:Entirely new concepts are very rare in politics. ~ Hannah Arendt,
9:Simplicity is the most difficult of all concepts. ~ Brian Herbert,
10:For precisely when concepts fail one, ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
11:Old Zen was the reduction of concepts to absurdity. ~ Frederick Lenz,
12:Concepts create idols; only wonder grasps anything. ~ Gregory of Nyssa,
13:One obtains the knowledge of God by discarding concepts ~ Alan W Watts,
14:I'm always working on concepts and ideas for the future. ~ Perry Farrell,
15:[R]eligious concepts are parasitic upon moral intuitions. ~ Pascal Boyer,
16:To expound and propogate concepts is simple, ~ Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj,
17:Challege the underlying concepts of corporate personhood. ~ Dennis Kucinich,
18:Concepts create idols; only wonder understands anything. ~ Gregory of Nyssa,
19:Civilization and violence are antithetical concepts. ~ Martin Luther King Jr,
20:We make Idols of our concepts, but Wisdom is born of wonder ~ Pope Gregory I,
21:I first learned the concepts of non-violence in my marriage. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
22:Scientific progress consists in the development of new concepts. ~ Ernst Mayr,
23:Concepts become forces when they resist one another ~ Johann Friedrich Herbart,
24:All our thinking is of this nature, a free play with concepts. ~ Albert Einstein,
25:philosophy is the discipline that involves creating concepts” . ~ Gilles Deleuze,
26:Good sound habits are more important than rules - use concepts. ~ Mike Krzyzewski,
27:All real philosophers have been artists in the realm of concepts. ~ Rudolf Steiner,
28:Concepts and reasoning just get in the way. Don’t think. See. ~ Henepola Gunaratana,
29:Concepts for a philosopher are only nets for catching sense. ~ Maurice Merleau Ponty,
30:Good and evil are polar concepts - one can't exist without the other. ~ Bruno Dumont,
31:Neither concepts nor mathematical formulae can explain the infinite. ~ Eckhart Tolle,
32:Nothing extraordinary happened except the falling away of the concepts ~ Rupert Spira,
33:Words are tools which automatically carve concepts out of experience. ~ Julian Huxley,
34:Relaxing, getting wild and free, those were all alien concepts for her. ~ Jill Shalvis,
35:Religious concepts and vocabulary are certainly censored in these textbooks. ~ Paul Vitz,
36:As a lyricist, you love to hear other great lyrics or other great concepts. ~ Alicia Keys,
37:That's all the motorcycle is, a system of concepts worked out in steel. ~ Robert M Pirsig,
38:Concepts create idols of God, of whom only wonder can tell us anything. ~ Gregory of Nyssa,
39:Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind. ~ Immanuel Kant,
40:I am the leading strings of the ego and the prompter of its concepts. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
41:The words printed here are concepts. You must go through the experiences. ~ Saint Augustine,
42:I believe my concepts are more than just business, they are about our culture. ~ Minoru Mori,
43:A domain exits where concepts can't go; so leave them on the doorstep to enter. ~ Chris Murphy,
44:Because most writers have totally unrealistic concepts of how publishing works. ~ Jim Harrison,
45:Human concepts, no matter how grand they may appear, have limitations. ~ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi,
46:Some concepts are alien to the Glaswegian mind. Salad. Dentistry. Forgiveness. ~ Craig Russell,
47:I believe in two concepts: Everything in moderation and break a sweat every day. ~ Ariana Madix,
48:Translation muddles model concepts, which leads to destructive refactoring of code. ~ Eric Evans,
49:When I write a paper, I change my notation much more than I change my concepts. ~ Leslie Lamport,
50:I don't let go of concepts -I meet them with understanding. Then they let go of me. ~ Byron Katie,
51:It is in the mind of a single person that creative ideas and concepts are born. ~ Walter Isaacson,
52:There are realms of life where the concepts of sense and nonsense do not apply. ~ Gregory Galloway,
53:There is a kinship between the concepts of nature and radical contingency. ~ Maurice Merleau Ponty,
54:When we grow up, concepts gradually get easier and we leave the images to the poets ~ Stephen King,
55:Party domination and State leadership are concepts incompatible with one another. ~ Franz von Papen,
56:you should cultivate freedom, including freedom from your own concepts and ideas. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
57:Meditation is the freeing of ourselves from all mental states and concepts of self. ~ Frederick Lenz,
58:Stop trying to control. Let go of fixed plans and concepts, and the world will govern itself. ~ Laozi,
59:Some concepts are so incredibly risky they take an honest fool to try to articulate them. ~ Criss Jami,
60:Suddenly losing one of the basic concepts of the universe? Probably not a good thing. ~ Seanan McGuire,
61:The words printed here are concepts. You must go through the experiences.
   ~ Saint Augustine of Hippo,
62:We now experience the daily need to defend our self-concepts rather than our bodies. ~ Michael A Singer,
63:reporting concepts as well as the relationships between concepts and other semantic meaning. ~ Anonymous,
64:...concepts are related to the senses; and, when feeling takes place, wisdom is shut out. ~ Huangbo Xiyun,
65:One of the most destructive anti-concepts in the history of moral philosophy is the term 'duty. ~ Ayn Rand,
66:The great concepts of oneness and of majestic order seem always to be born in the desert. ~ John Steinbeck,
67:Innocence and guilt are legal concepts which have little relevance to the political world, ~ Marius Gabriel,
68:None of the abstract concepts comes closer to fulfilled utopia than that of eternal peace. ~ Theodor Adorno,
69:God is never a set of concepts to be understood but a relationship to encounter ~ Christine Valters Paintner,
70:Concepts such as loving kindness should never be used as weapons against our real feelings. ~ Sharon Salzberg,
71:I laugh at anyone who spends so much time writing about what doesn't exist - mental concepts. ~ Graham Greene,
72:It's not just a revue where one song is done, then another. There are concepts and ideas at work. ~ Hal David,
73:Thinking is not the ability to manipulate language; it’s the ability to manipulate concepts. ~ Leslie Lamport,
74:Truth is not a sum of statements, not a definition, not a system of concepts, but a life. ~ S ren Kierkegaard,
75:When you have broken the reality into concepts you never can reconstruct it in its wholeness. ~ William James,
76:Justice and grace were hard concepts for anyone, especially for a person young in her faith. ~ Karen Kingsbury,
77:The primordial purity of the ground completely transcends words, concepts, and formulations. ~ Jamgon Kongtrul,
78:Truth is a matter of direct apprehension-you can't climb a ladder of mental concepts to it. ~ Lawrence Durrell,
79:You explore concepts and things that interest you, but you are also exploring inside of yourself. ~ Ed Paschke,
80:All significant concepts of the modern theory of the state are secularized theological concepts. ~ Carl Schmitt,
81:Do no depend on others' ideas or concepts because inside yourself is the Wisdom. For the Few. ~ Samael Aun Weor,
82:I don't think in national categories. For me it [policy] is about concepts and substance. ~ Jean Claude Juncker,
83:In fact, all of your theological concepts may only serve to cool the fire of love in the will. ~ Teresa of vila,
84:There are no egoistic or unegoistic actions: both concepts are psychological absurdities. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
85:We seemed to be drifting as a society - losing touch with the basic concepts of right and wrong. ~ George Lucas,
86:Children understand and remember concepts best when they learn from direct personal experience. ~ Joseph Cornell,
87:Hence it happens that one takes words for concepts, and concepts for the things themselves ~ Johann Georg Hamann,
88:The abstract concepts of the mind cannot apprehend Reality, although they are an expression of it. ~ Rupert Spira,
89:The technology in making games and in making anime is really similar. There are common concepts. ~ Satoshi Tajiri,
90:All human knowledge begins with intuitions, proceeds from thence to concepts, and ends with ideas. ~ Immanuel Kant,
91:Creative ideas are often attacked because people oppose change or do not understand new concepts. ~ Henry Heimlich,
92:Ads sell a great deal more than products. They sell values, images, and concepts of success and worth. ~ Bren Brown,
93:To be successful one must be willing to learn and apply new concepts and not be afraid of change. ~ Craig R Barrett,
94:Ads sell a great deal more than products. They sell values, images, and concepts of success and worth. ~ Brene Brown,
95:[Core concepts: Human beings all have souls. Souls are software objects. Software is not immortal.] ~ Charles Stross,
96:In Japanese art, space assumed a dominant role and its position was strengthened by Zen concepts. ~ Stephen Gardiner,
97:[The crowd] will finally succeed in remembering only the simplest concepts repeated a thousand times. ~ Adolf Hitler,
98:Abandoned. Chosen. Special. Those concepts became part of who Jobs was and how he regarded himself. ~ Walter Isaacson,
99:Writing is not possible without images. Yet, images don't have to be descriptive; they can be concepts. ~ Paul Virilio,
100:Concepts are better and capabilities more comprehensive when the culture invites partners to the table. ~ Satya Nadella,
101:[Evolution is] one of the best documented, most compelling and exciting concepts in all of science. ~ Stephen Jay Gould,
102:The abstract analysis of the world by mathematics and physics rests on the concepts of space and time. ~ James J Gibson,
103:Busy your mind with the concepts of harmony, health, peace and good will and wonders will happen in your ~ Joseph Murphy,
104:Concepts of triage and medical rationing are a barometer of how those in power in a society value human life. ~ Sheri Fink,
105:If you don't look at things through your concepts, you'll never be bored. Every single thing is unique. ~ Anthony de Mello,
106:I love reality shows. The folks who dream up some of these concepts are either geniuses, or totally stoned. ~ Carl Hiaasen,
107:However, human language is unique in its ability to communicate or convey an open-ended volume of concepts: ~ John McWhorter,
108:The concepts of right or wrong are always consequential. It can’t be situational or it’s not right or wrong. ~ Ilona Andrews,
109:With Christianity, freedom and equality became the two basic concepts of Europe; they are themselves Europe. ~ Peter Drucker,
110:"Concepts that are too broad usually prove to be unsuitable instruments because they are too vague and nebulous." ~ Carl Jung,
111:... mathematics is the science of skillful operations with concepts and rules invented just for this purpose. ~ Eugene Wigner,
112:Scientific man is already on the moon, and yet we are still living with the moral concepts of Homer. ~ Michelangelo Antonioni,
113:what is natural in one place can seem unnatural in another, and some concepts travel rather poorly, if at all. ~ Mohsin Hamid,
114:Human ideas and concepts are temporal and completely incapable of producing spiritual truth or guidance. ~ John F MacArthur Jr,
115:The analysis of concepts is for the understanding nothing more than what the magnifying glass is for sight ~ Moses Mendelssohn,
116:Being exposed to theory, stimulated by a basic love of concepts and mathematics, was a marvelous experience. ~ Rudolph A Marcus,
117:Fill your mind with the concepts of harmony, health, peace, and goodwill, and wonders will happen in your life. ~ Joseph Murphy,
118:The pen is the language of the soul; as the concepts that in it are generated, such will be its writings. ~ Miguel de Cervantes,
119:The utopia of knowledge would be to open up the non-conceptual with concepts, without making it their equal. ~ Theodor W Adorno,
120:This language, which constantly imposes images, militates against the development and expression of concepts. ~ Herbert Marcuse,
121:As an artist, where do you conjure these concepts? They come through you instead of through cognitive thought. ~ Nick Littlemore,
122:Busy your mind with the concepts of harmony, health, peace, and good will, and wonders will happen in your life. ~ Joseph Murphy,
123:If you listen to the traffic with a clear mind, without any concepts, it is not noisy, it is only what it is. ~ Stephen Mitchell,
124:Science advances, not by the accumulation of new facts, but by the continuous development of new concepts. ~ James Bryant Conant,
125:Small Data is not about testing concepts - it is more to create the foundation for innovative brand thinking. ~ Martin Lindstrom,
126:Western concepts of ownership and privatization came in and clashed with that. So land began to be exchanged. ~ Neil Abercrombie,
127:Germany collapsed as a result of having engaged in a struggle for empire with the concepts of provincial politics. ~ Albert Camus,
128:I jerk off inside books, and give life to words, leaving concepts stuck together you've probably never heard ~ Immortal Technique,
129:The mind is inherently embodied.
Thought is mostly unconscious.
Abstract concepts are largely metaphorical. ~ George Lakoff,
130:Virtue and vice are concepts invented by human beings, words for a morality which human beings arbitrarily devised. ~ Osamu Dazai,
131:We live in a society that compels us to go on using these concepts, and we no longer know what they mean. ~ Michelangelo Antonioni,
132:We speak of virtue, honour, reason; but our thought does not translate any one of these concepts into a substance. ~ Wilhelm Wundt,
133:Ger-mans love the ambiguous word, verbal assonances as ends in themselves,vague concepts. Anglosaxons are more clear. ~ Erich Fromm,
134:Intuition, luck, mistakes, serendipity—there you have four vital business concepts that every manager should know. ~ Ricardo Semler,
135:Only the human brain can deliberately change perceptions, change patterns, invent concepts and tolerate ambiguity. ~ Edward de Bono,
136:theology requires metaphors and concepts that come from our understanding of nature and therefore from science. ~ William A Dembski,
137:universal love and the welfare of the species as a whole are concepts that simply do not make evolutionary sense. ~ Richard Dawkins,
138:Busy your mind with the concepts of harmony, health, peace, and good will, and wonders will happen in your life. The ~ Joseph Murphy,
139:Most movements have a fixed concept towards which they advance, we move away from all fixed concepts in order to advance. ~ Mina Loy,
140:That's really part of being a grounded theory researcher - putting names to concepts and experiences that people have. ~ Brene Brown,
141:the elasticity of our thinking allows us to move beyond the existing world of our senses and invent new concepts. ~ Leonard Mlodinow,
142:There is no sensible way to invoke functional notions as explanatory concepts at the synchronic or ontogenetic level. ~ Noam Chomsky,
143:We don't attach to people or to things; we attach to uninvestigated concepts that we believe to be true in the moment. ~ Byron Katie,
144:I mean by Society, the totality of concepts of all purely natural relations and institutions between man and man. ~ Franz Oppenheimer,
145:Nothing is more important for teaching us to understand the concepts we have than to construct fictitious ones. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
146:The way to do good basic design isn't actually to be really smart about it, but to try to have a few basic concepts. ~ Linus Torvalds,
147:We can't form our children on our own concepts; we must take them and love them as God gives them to us. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
148:We don't attach to people or to things; we attach to uninvestigated concepts that we believe to tbe true in the moment. ~ Byron Katie,
149:Why is it that so few people are truly free? Because they try to conform to ideas, concepts, and beliefs in their heads. ~ Adyashanti,
150:Actions for the good accumulate what is called “merit”—one of the most commonly misunderstood concepts in Buddhism. ~ Joseph Goldstein,
151:I'm trying to illuminate how perilously narrow we draw the concepts of masculinity and sexuality in our male culture. ~ Charles M Blow,
152:Many of the concepts we once thought belonged to speculation or science fiction are now part of our understood reality. ~ Michael Helm,
153:There's a powerful sense of reality to our concepts, ... These are vehicles we think people would purchase and drive today. ~ Bob Lutz,
154:We must think differently, look at things in a different way. Peace requires a world of new concepts, new definitions. ~ Yitzhak Rabin,
155:Can one talk about the ocean to a frog in a well or about the divine to people who are restricted by their concepts? ~ Anthony de Mello,
156:I don't put big concepts on my work, and it's all often about keeping actors in a room together and not letting them leave. ~ Adam Rapp,
157:I think unintentionally I gravitate towards concepts and topics that hit home or are something real we can all relate to. ~ Seth Gordon,
158:Nothing is more important than the formation of fictional concepts, which teach us at last to understand our own. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
159:The desire to discover, the desire to move, to capture the flavor, three concepts that describe the art of photography. ~ Helmut Newton,
160:Little wonder that Steve Jobs, a master in the art of merging concepts, once said: “Creativity is just connecting things. ~ Matthew Syed,
161:The principle of contradiction establishes merely the agreement of concepts, but does not itself produce concepts. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
162:Without precisely defined sources, methods, and concepts, it is possible to see absolutely everything and its opposite. ~ Thomas Piketty,
163:All the concepts, all knowings, all truths, all religous systems, all beliefs, fall away in the white light of eternity. ~ Frederick Lenz,
164:Amazement and wonder signify that one's concepts of self and of the world and of other people are ready to be re-formed. ~ Sidney Jourard,
165:Birth is okay and death is okay, if we know that they are only concepts in our mind. Reality transcends both birth and death. ~ Nhat Hanh,
166:In my view, no subject is ever finished. No concept is sealed off from other concepts. Knowledge is continuous; ideas flow. ~ Salman Khan,
167:No, no, no - you don't argue with concepts. You have to claim Dogma, and therefore leave no room for rational thought. ~ Kevin J Anderson,
168:Our propensity to impose meaning and concepts blocks our awareness of the details making up the concept. However, ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
169:Few concepts are as basic as the role of workers in our economic structure and their participation in equity ownership. ~ Robert S Strauss,
170:I think that myth and imagination are, in fact, nearly interchangeable concepts, and that belief is the wellspring of both. ~ Stephen King,
171:Mathematicians seem to have no difficulty in creating new concepts faster than the old ones become well understood. ~ Edward Norton Lorenz,
172:Poor human reason, when it trusts in itself, substitutes the strangest absurdities for the highest divine concepts ~ Saint John Chrysostom,
173:We’re not Indians and we’re not Native Americans. We’re older than both concepts. We’re the people, we’re the human beings. ~ John Trudell,
174:I am closer to a European viewpoint of the world than an American one. My ethics and ideals are based on European concepts. ~ Bianca Jagger,
175:No one had ever asked them to question such fundamental concepts that drove their lives and motivated their criminal choices. ~ Laura Bates,
176:Goethe's thinking was not rigid with inflexible contours; it was a thinking in which the concepts continually metamorphose. ~ Rudolf Steiner,
177:I always like to play very contemporary concepts of swing right next to New Orleans music because it highlights continuum. ~ Wynton Marsalis,
178:monotonous repetition of concepts that, by the same token; also reassure the faculty that nothing new is threatening their ~ Otto F Kernberg,
179:Philosophy has a great sort of appeal in terms of an artistic or aesthetic organization of concepts. It's a conceptual art. ~ William H Gass,
180:And I was troubled by the heavy-handed prose of so much psychoanalytic writing, which seemed drowned in its own concepts. ~ Robert Jay Lifton,
181:In other cases, different disciplines end up reinventing concepts from scratch that other disciplines have known about for years, ~ Anonymous,
182:It’s strange how concepts can erode so easily, how words we once used lightly can alchemize abruptly into something toxic. ~ Valeria Luiselli,
183:She ignored the fact that he would also want her to keep moving forward, to have a life, to be happy. All impossible concepts ~ Susan Mallery,
184:To understand why mindsets are so powerful, you need to understand three concepts: schemas, priming, and spreading activation. ~ Nick Kolenda,
185:You've become bored to things because they exist only as names to you. The dry concepts of mind obscure your direct perception. ~ Dan Millman,
186:From time immemorial, man has desired to comprehend the complexity of nature in terms of as few elementary concepts as possible. ~ Abdus Salam,
187:Necessity, weight, and value are three concepts inextricably bound: only necessity is heavy, and only what is heavy has value. ~ Milan Kundera,
188:Birth is okay and death is okay, if we know that they are only concepts in our mind. Reality transcends both birth and death. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
189:[ Dalton Trumbo] always said he fought so many fights, all seemingly different, but all about the concepts of fairness and justice. ~ Jay Roach,
190:Imagination helps us create concepts, which filter our sensory inputs and ultimately impact our emotional experience. Thus, ~ Devdutt Pattanaik,
191:A solid answer to everything is not necessary. Blurry concepts influence one to focus, but postulated clarity influences arrogance. ~ Criss Jami,
192:If we are distracted and read thoughtlessly, and then realize that we have indeed taken in all the words, but no concepts. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
193:Our Age of Anxiety is, in great part, the result of trying to do today's job with yesterday's tools and yesterday's concepts. ~ Marshall McLuhan,
194:People don't use their eyes. They never see a bird, they see a sparrow. They never see a tree, they see a birch. They see concepts. ~ Joyce Cary,
195:The secret of Buddhism is to remove all ideas, all concepts, in order for the truth to have a chance to penetrate, to reveal itself. ~ Nhat Hanh,
196:Genius is the ability to independently arrive at and understand concepts that would normally have to be taught by another person. ~ Immanuel Kant,
197:However impressed we may be with NVC concepts, it is only through practice and application that our lives are transformed. ~ Marshall B Rosenberg,
198:A mathematician is an individual who calls himself a 'physicist' and does 'physics' and physical experiments with abstract concepts. ~ Bill Gaede,
199:Concepts create idols; only wonder comprehends anything. People kill one another over idols. Wonder makes us fall to our knees. ~ Gregory of Nyssa,
200:Virtue cannot be taught, no more than genius; indeed, concepts are as unfruitful for it as for art and of use only as tools. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
201:What is experienced from within cannot be categorized in concepts that have been developed for the external world of the senses. ~ Wilhelm Dilthey,
202:But in college, we can wear our alcohol abuse as proudly as our university sweatshirts; the two concepts are virtually synonymous. ~ Koren Zailckas,
203:Mathematics deals exclusively with the relations of concepts to each other without consideration of their relation to experience. ~ Albert Einstein,
204:Physical concepts are free creations of the human mind,and are not however it may seem, uniquely determined by the external world ~ Albert Einstein,
205:Byron Katie says, “We don’t attach to people or things, we attach to uninvestigated concepts that we believe to be true in the moment. ~ Jen Sincero,
206:In an effort to reclaim our humanity, let us find new motivation for living by opening our minds to broader concepts of spirituality. ~ Kevin Powell,
207:The concepts of problem and solution can keep us stuck in thinking that there is an enemy and a saint or a right way and a wrong way. ~ Pema Ch dr n,
208:Life is a struggle with things to maintain itself among them. Concepts are the strategic plan we form in answer to the attack. ~ Jose Ortega y Gasset,
209:The philosopher seeks to hear within himself the echoes of the world of symphony and to re-project them in the form if concepts ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
210:I think everyone is bi, right? There's no such thing as sexual orientation, or race, or gender. Those are all obsolete man-made concepts. ~ Eric Andre,
211:Mathematics is the tool specially suited for dealing with abstract concepts of any kind and there is no limit to its power in this field. ~ Paul Dirac,
212:People have to change their concepts of aging and I am not asking them to do so based on some fanciful notion, but on scientific fact. ~ Deepak Chopra,
213:Physical concepts are free creations of the human mind, and are not, however it may seem, uniquely determined by the external world. ~ Albert Einstein,
214:The secret of Buddhism is to remove all ideas, all concepts, in order for the truth to have a chance to penetrate, to reveal itself. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
215:Business activities and rules are as central to a domain as are the entities involved; any domain will have various categories of concepts. ~ Eric Evans,
216:Who am I? I am that. Nothing can change that. Words, intellect and concepts can never reach that. It is the perfect silence without vibration. ~ Amit Ray,
217:I think all religions can agree on certain definitions of God and concepts of God, like God being the god of love, the great 'I am' energy. ~ Vera Farmiga,
218:Separation and devolution are two completely different concepts which cannot be mixed together. One is not a stop on the way to the other. ~ Johann Lamont,
219:What is music? Music is language. A human being wants to express ideas in this language, but not ideas that can be translated into concepts. ~ Anton Webern,
220:...all concepts in which an entire process is semiotically concentrated elude definition; only that which has no history is definable. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
221:Metaphysics involves intuitive knowledge of unprovable starting-points concepts and truth and demonstrative knowledge of what follows from them. ~ Aristotle,
222:Bettering your life, getting a fresh start, the bright side. Spout these concepts daily and you will survive in Endora; you might even thrive. ~ Peter Hedges,
223:In neither his definition nor the examples illustrating what memes are does Dawkins mention anything that would distinguish memes from concepts. ~ Ernst Mayr,
224:What I'm trying to do is deliver results, not promises; results, not vision; results, not concepts. The world is cynical about IBM's promises. ~ Lou Gerstner,
225:Above all we have to go beyond words and images and concepts. No imaginative vision or conceptual framework is adequate to the great reality. ~ Bede Griffiths,
226:... That's precisely what messiahs do, Raul . . . bridge different worlds. Different eras. Provide the bond between two irreconcilable concepts. ~ Dan Simmons,
227:The concept of the benevolent dictator, just like the concepts of the noble thief or the honest whore, is no more than a meaningless fantasy. ~ Alaa Al Aswany,
228:The ego is a false sense based on mental concepts. It is identification with the body and the mind-primarily identification with thought form. ~ Eckhart Tolle,
229:universes fashioned by words and concepts that work together to provide a more or less coherent frame of reference for all thought and action.5 ~ James W Sire,
230:I do find that Western medicine is more and more open to proving energetic concepts. Why not, because modern physics is 100 percent based on it. ~ Deborah King,
231:Fun has to do with habitual activities but then also terrifically novel or unusual ones. It works as a sort of strange milkshake of those concepts. ~ Ian Bogost,
232:In the Bible, there is no mention of the Trinity. . . . We get to know God, not through our proud philosophical concepts, but through Christ. ~ Michael Servetus,
233:One of the worst intellectual catastrophes is found in the appropriation of scientific concepts and vocabulary by mediocre intelligences. ~ Nicol s G mez D vila,
234:For Europe, for ourselves and for humanity, comrades, we must turn over a new leaf, we must work out new concepts, and try to set afoot a new man. ~ Frantz Fanon,
235:Leaders identify, articulate, and summarize concepts that motivate others. Most important, they boil concepts down to an understandable idea. ~ Laurie Beth Jones,
236:Merely transferring the content of existing newspapers online and expecting payment won't work because they are two separate business concepts. ~ Robert G Picard,
237:All progress and growth is a matter of change, but change must be growth within our social and government concepts if it should not destroy them. ~ Herbert Hoover,
238:All thinking of the religious man is etymological, a reduction of all concepts to the original intuition, to the characteristic. ~ Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel,
239:Cordelia reviewed her ethics programming, which was limiting her ability to embrace Alex’s concepts. She made some subtle changes to several programs. ~ S H Jucha,
240:I sometimes want to make a book of every tattoo I wanted to get before I actually got a tattoo, because there were so many awful ideas and concepts. ~ Lena Dunham,
241:The view of the cross as the sacrifice for the sins of the world is a barbarian idea based on primitive concepts of God and must be dismissed. ~ John Shelby Spong,
242:It is not words or concepts that are important. What is important is our insight into the nature of reality and our way of responding to reality. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
243:Unchallenged, opinions became respected precedent then exceptionless concepts and sometimes even civil and academically accepted social law. ~ R Buckminster Fuller,
244:Facts of experience are valued in Zen more than representations, symbols, and concepts-that is to say, substance is everything in Zen and form nothing. ~ D T Suzuki,
245:"Most of our suffering arises from our ideas and concepts. If you are able to free yourself from these concepts, anxiety and fear will disappear." ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
246:There is an urgent need for a radical revision of our current concepts of the nature of consciousness and its relationship to matter and the brain. ~ Stanislav Grof,
247:Western concepts of sin lead us to feel guilty when we do something bad, but we often do not have the language of shame when we are sinned against. ~ Soong Chan Rah,
248:Concepts and patterns that your brain is sorting through and making sense of are much more scalable and universal than any specific vendor’s technology ~ Chad Fowler,
249:Concepts differentiate architecture from mere building...A bicycle shed with a concept is architecture; a cathedral without one is just a building. ~ Bernard Tschumi,
250:I believe that an art exhibition can be engaging, fun and deeply intellectually satisfying and serious. These are not contradictory concepts in art. ~ Jeffrey Deitch,
251:Religious War has signified the greatest advance of the masses so far, for it proves that the masses have begun to treat concepts with respect. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
252:To cure psychological malnutrition and reap big benefits in return, it is helpful to understand three concepts: the ego, ego food, and ego poison. ~ David J Schwartz,
253:When you get free from certain fixed concepts of the way the world is, you find it is far more subtle, and far more miraculous, than you thought it was. ~ Alan Watts,
254:Far more important throughout the rest of science is the ability to form concepts, during which the researcher conjures images and processes by intuition. ~ E O Wilson,
255:The development of quantum mechanics early in the twentieth century obliged physicists to change radically the concepts they used to describe the world. ~ Alain Aspect,
256:The existing scientific concepts cover always only a very limited part of reality, and the other part that has not yet been understood is infinite. ~ Werner Heisenberg,
257:There must always be a discrepncy between concepts and reality, because the former are static and discontinuous while the latter is dynamic and flowing ~ William James,
258:Identification with your mind creates an opaque screen of concepts, labels, images, words, judgments, and definitions that blocks all true relationship. ~ Eckhart Tolle,
259:Social mores, he argued, rules of protocol, concepts of rectitude and honor had no objective basis. They were only reflections of public and private fears. ~ Wade Davis,
260:They teach us that human beings learn and absorb ideas and concepts through narrative, through stories, not through lessons or theoretical speeches. ~ Carlos Ruiz Zaf n,
261:Thus for each blunt-faced ignorant one The great grey rigid uniform combined Safety with virtue of the sun. Thus concepts linked like chainmail in the mind. ~ Thom Gunn,
262:So we have to recognize that species concepts are humanly produced categories which may or may not always work when compared with the reality of nature. ~ Chris Stringer,
263:The only reality mathematical concepts have is as cultural elements or artifacts. ~ Raymond Louis Wilder, Evolution of mathematical concepts. An Elementary Study (1968).,
264:What we think of as reality is a continuous synthesis of elements from a fixed hierarchy of a priori concepts and the ever changing data of the senses. ~ Robert M Pirsig,
265:Meditation transports one from the transient world of matter to the real world of dreamings, visions, and imaginings where idea is and concepts are born. ~ Walter Russell,
266:Concepts can never be presented to me merely, they must be knitted into the structure of my being, and this can only be done through my own activity. ~ Mary Parker Follett,
267:In American math classes, we teach a lot of concepts poorly over many years. In the Asian systems they teach you very few concepts very well over a few years. ~ Bill Gates,
268:Well-being and need are purely relative concepts. There is no such thing as poverty in itself, suffering in itself, unhappiness in itself. All is relative. ~ Alan Lightman,
269:A great amount has been talked and written about what constitutes a sufficient balance and what really is meant by the concepts of "balance" and "deterrence". ~ Alva Myrdal,
270:An amazing thing, the human brain. Capable of understanding incredibly complex and intricate concepts. Yet at times unable to recognize the obvious and simple ~ Jay Abraham,
271:I usually found so-called "small talk" boring. I like "large talk", which is more about theories and concepts, mixed with facts and known quantities. ~ Holly Goldberg Sloan,
272:An amazing thing, the human brain. Capable of understanding incredibly complex and intricate concepts. Yet at times unable to recognize the obvious and simple. ~ Jay Abraham,
273:Man, unlike anything organic or inorganic in the universe, grows beyond his work, walks up the stairs of his concepts, emerges ahead of his accomplishments. ~ John Steinbeck,
274:One of the concepts essential to molecular manufacturing is that of a self-replicating manufacturing system. That concept has lagged behind in its acceptance. ~ Ralph Merkle,
275:"Investigation of the psychology of the unconscious con- fronted me with facts which required the formulation of new concepts. One of these concepts is the self." ~ Carl Jung,
276:Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts. ~ William Gibson,
277:I see philosophy as a fairly abstract activity, as concerned mainly with the analysis of criticism and concepts, and of course most usefully of scientific concepts. ~ A J Ayer,
278:Each time we face a new experience, we bring with us all past experiences - both good and bad - as well as those concepts which civilization has made into rules. ~ Paulo Coelho,
279:Much as we might wish to believe otherwise, universal love and the welfare of the species as a whole are concepts which simply do not make evolutionary sense. ~ Richard Dawkins,
280:Negative numbers, equations involving unknowns, formulas, derivatives, integrals, and other concepts we shall encounter are abstractions built upon abstractions. ~ Morris Kline,
281:Philosophical knowledge is knowledge which reason gains from concepts; mathematical knowledge is knowledge which reason gains from the construction of concepts. ~ Immanuel Kant,
282:the recognition that human language has limits, that people choose concepts that correspond only faintly to things in the real world, like the shadows of ghosts. ~ James Gleick,
283:The whole history of man is continuous proof of the maxim that to divest one's methods of ethical concepts means to sink into the depths of utter demoralization. ~ Emma Goldman,
284:[Faith] was something other than an intellectual exercise. There were no words, no lofty concepts, that could take away the pain. Faith was living with the pain. ~ Margaret Coel,
285:I'm horrible at concepts. My life is random and my inspiration is random. But it's all written in a very specific time frame that says a lot about my life at the time. ~ Oh Land,
286:Life and death are not properly scientific concepts but rather political concepts, which as such acquire a political meaning precisely only through a decision. ~ Giorgio Agamben,
287:Piaget’s work shows that our concepts of logic, space, time, number, quantity, etc., are not given readymade as Kant thought, but undergo a process of development. ~ Jean Piaget,
288:They (fables) teach us that human beings learn and absorb ideas and concepts through narrative, through stories, not through lessons or theoretical speeches. ~ Carlos Ruiz Zaf n,
289:They (fables) teach us that human beings learn and absorb ideas and concepts through narrative, through stories, not through lessons or theoretical speeches. ~ Carlos Ruiz Zafon,
290:From Jung I took courage to tell my patients not to put their faith in abstract concepts. Put your faith in your own unconscious, your own dreams. ~ Robert A. Johnson, Inner Work,
291:If a guy is intimidated by a woman in leadership, he has real problems with his own concepts of masculinity. That's a harsh statement, but I believe it to be true. ~ Tony Campolo,
292:Man, unlike any other thing organic or inorganic in the universe, grows beyond his work, walks up the stairs of his concepts, emerges ahead of his accomplishments… ~ Julia London,
293:The familiar life horizon has been outgrown: the old concepts, ideals, and emotional patterns no longer fit; the time for the passing of a threshold is at hand. ~ Joseph Campbell,
294:The techniques have galloped ahead of the concepts. We have moved away from studying the complexity of the organism; from processes and organisation to composition. ~ James Black,
295:"Democracy" means nothing else other than, "rule of the people", in Greek. There is nothing democratic about the political concepts of the United States and Europe. ~ Andre Vltchek,
296:Perhaps the metapatterns are attractors—functional universals for forms in space, processes in time, and concepts in mind. ~ Tyler Volk, Metapatterns - Across Space, Time, and Mind,
297:the way to create art is to burn and destroy ordinary concepts and to substitute them with new truths that run down from the top of the head and out of the heart ~ Charles Bukowski,
298:At each stage...entirely new laws, concepts and generalizations are necessary, requiring inspiration and creativity to just as great a degree as in the previous one. ~ Poul Anderson,
299:Philosophical knowledge is the knowledge gained by reason from concepts ; mathematical knowledge is the knowledge gained by reason from the construction of concepts. ~ Immanuel Kant,
300:The idea of breaching the floor or blasting through a door to surprise enemies is impressive, it’s a good example of new technology being used to enhance older concepts. ~ Anonymous,
301:To view the opposition as dangerous is to misunderstand the basic concepts of democracy. To oppress the opposition is to assault the very foundation of democracy. ~ Aung San Suu Kyi,
302:What is competent writing? Competent writing is writing that efficiently describes ideas and concepts to an audience, using a grammar that the audience can understand. ~ John Scalzi,
303:I suggest you take a look at yourself. Not the concepts, not the ideas, not the goods, not the bads. But a timeless purity of existence. A witness to the beauty that is. ~ Prem Rawat,
304:The language and concepts contained herein are guaranteed not to cause eternal torment in the place where the guy with the horns and pointed stick conducts his business ~ Frank Zappa,
305:Without the discovery of uniformities there can be no concepts, no classifications, no formulations, no principles, no laws; and without these no science can exist. ~ Clyde Kluckhohn,
306:Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens. ~ Albert Einstein,
307:In Buddhist practice a great deal of time is spent practicing mandala meditation. You learn to visualize and hold simultaneous concepts in the mind during meditation. ~ Frederick Lenz,
308:Religion refers to concepts, rituals, experiences, and institutions that humans construct based upon their belief in the supernatural, otherworldly, or spiritual. For ~ Phil Zuckerman,
309:The only justification for our concepts and systems of concepts is that they serve to represent the complex of our experiences; beyond this they have not legitimacy. ~ Albert Einstein,
310:All these constructions and the laws connecting them can be arrived at by the principle of looking for the mathematically simplest concepts and the link between them. ~ Albert Einstein,
311:For man, unlike any other thing organic or inorganic in the universe, grows beyond his work, walks up the stairs of his concepts, emerges ahead of his accomplishments. ~ John Steinbeck,
312:Man, unlike any other thing organic or inorganic in the universe, grows beyond his work, walks up the stairs of his concepts, and emerges ahead of his accomplishments. ~ John Steinbeck,
313:Release old concepts and energies that keep you in self-punishment patterns. Release old stories and create from a place of love and self-validation. You are worth it! ~ Gautama Buddha,
314:Mathematics is the language in which God wrote the universe. ~ Attributed to Galileo Galilei in Statistics: Concepts and Applications (1994) by Harry Frank and Steven C. Althoen, p. xxi,
315:Unlike a stand-alone decision or a goal, a strategy is a coherent set of analyses, concepts, policies, arguments, and actions that respond to a high-stakes challenge. ~ Richard P Rumelt,
316:When you keep your imagination busy with noble, Godlike concepts and ideas, you will find that it is the most effective of all faculties in your ongoing spiritual quest. ~ Joseph Murphy,
317:Definitions are temporary verbalizations of concepts, and concepts- particularly difficult concepts- are usually revised repeatedly as our knowledge and understanding grows. ~ Ernst Mayr,
318:Here's a Challenge: Study a complicated topic in such detail that anyone interested can nod their head and understand as you explain specific concepts within the topic. ~ Albert Einstein,
319:Because there are innumerable things beyond the range of human understanding, we constantly use symbolic terms to represent concepts that we cannot define or fully comprehend. ~ Carl Jung,
320:Just as the witticism brings two very different real objects under one concept, the pun brings two different concepts, by the assistance of accident, under one word. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
321:Statistical inference is really just the marriage of two concepts that we’ve already discussed: data and probability (with a little help from the central limit theorem). ~ Charles Wheelan,
322:Well-determined centers of revery are means of communication between men who dream as surely as well-defined concepts are means of communications between men who think. ~ Gaston Bachelard,
323:You are so used to the support of concepts that when your concepts leave you, although it is your true state, you get frightened and try to cling to them again. ~ Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj,
324:In constructing concepts, we overlook the fact that no two things are the same. There is no such thing as the concept of a leaf, only billions and billions of leaves. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
325:Mental illness, of course, is not literally a "thing" - or physical object - and hence it can "exist" only in the same sort of way in which other theoretical concepts exist. ~ Thomas Szasz,
326:Our greatest sufferings do not lie in the present, as intuitive representations or immediate feeling, but rather in reason, as abstract concepts, tormenting thoughts. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
327:Religion is nothing more than bad concepts held in place of good ones for all time. It is denial - at once full of hope and full of fear - of the vastitude of human ignorance. ~ Sam Harris,
328:Right and wrong are concepts that only have meaning in this world, so by sorting existence on those characteristics, we are defining ourselves to exist only in this world. ~ Frederick Lenz,
329:There are many concepts of spirituality, among them, various notions of divinity developed in the Judaeo-Christian-Islamic religions. Within these the concepts vary greatly. ~ Noam Chomsky,
330:We use concepts like "consciousness"---"mind"---"personality," but we don't really know yet what these things are.' He was shaking his head. 'Not really. Not at all. ~ William Peter Blatty,
331:One of the most important popular concepts that we do have to ditch is the idea that there is some natural balance that mankind is intruding upon as a result of our growth. ~ Leigh Phillips,
332:The brain cannot multitask...The brain naturally focuses on concepts sequentially, one at a time...This attentional ability is, to put it bluntly, not capable of multitasking. ~ John Medina,
333:The experience of high-dimensional spatial sense was a spiritual baptism. In one moment, concepts like freedom, openness, profundity, and infinity all gained brand-new meanings. ~ Liu Cixin,
334:the way to create art is to burn and destroy
ordinary concepts and to substitute them
with new truths that run down from the top of the head
and out of the heart ~ Charles Bukowski,
335:we must speak carefully so that we and our listeners do not get stuck in words or concepts. It is our duty to transcend words and concepts to be able to encounter reality. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
336:Concepts are vindicated by the constant accrual of data and independent verification of data. No prize, not even a Nobel Prize, can make something true that is not true. ~ Stanley B Prusiner,
337:I do like talking with friends about big concepts, you know, the stuff that will ruin a party. To me, the party hasn't begun until we're talking about the nonexistence of God. ~ James Mercer,
338:I mean, every thought starts over, so every expression of a thought has to do the same. every accuracy has to be invented... I feel I am blundering in concepts too fine for me. ~ Anne Carson,
339:geometrical forms, such as triangles and circles, and the concepts of arithmetic, such as whole numbers and fractions, are abstractions of certain properties of physical objects. ~ Morris Kline,
340:Very often in mathematics the crucial problem is to recognize and discover what are the relevant concepts; once this is accomplished the job may be more than half done. ~ Israel Nathan Herstein,
341:George Lucas wanted this moving camera for all of the photography in Star Wars. He was willing to take a risk with the concepts that I advanced with regard to ways for doing that. ~ John Dykstra,
342:Japanese ideas about religion, architecture, theater, and literature are based on wa and shunyata—concepts of plentitude and uncertainty, of togetherness framed by impermanence. ~ Gretel Ehrlich,
343:Mathematics, in the development of its ideas, has only to take account of the immanent reality of its concepts and has absolutely no obligation to examine their transient reality. ~ Georg Cantor,
344:from a moral point of view, economic equality does not really matter very much, and our moral and political concepts may be better focused on ensuring that people have enough. ~ Harry G Frankfurt,
345:The first thing we should do in order to grasp the realm of time travel is by redefining
general perception and common concepts regarding time within our daily language structure. ~ Toba Beta,
346:Words are the only immutable medium we have, which is why they are the vehicle of choice for extremely important concepts like the Ten Commandments, the Koran, and the Bill of Rights. ~ Anonymous,
347:The advantage of the internet is that it has taken away the charade of politics. China has heard of democracy and people know about certain concepts they wouldn't have previously. ~ Marilyn Manson,
348:Depression is like a headache or true love or any of those indefinable concepts. If you've never been there, you don't know what it's like until you're too far in to stop the process. ~ Tim Sandlin,
349:In man's brain the impressions from outside are not merely registered; they produce concepts and ideas. They are the imprint of the external world upon the human brain. ~ Victor Frederick Weisskopf,
350:It seemed that Dudley was struggling with concepts too difficult to put into words. After several moments of apparently painful internal struggle he said, “But where’s he going to go? ~ J K Rowling,
351:Personal life, expression, knowledge, and history advance obliquely, and not directly, toward ends or toward concepts. That which is sought too deliberately is not obtained. ~ Maurice Merleau Ponty,
352:Photographers encode their concepts as photographic images so as to give others information, so as to produce models for them and thereby to become immortal in the memory of others. ~ Vilem Flusser,
353:Religion has had the disastrous effect of placing vitally important concepts, such as morality, happiness and love, in a supernatural realm inaccessible to man’s mind and knowledge. ~ George H Smith,
354:The black holes of nature are the most perfect macroscopic objects there are in the universe: the only elements in their construction are our concepts of space and time. ~ Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar,
355:The secular” is conceptually prior to the political doctrine of “secularism”, that over time a variety of concepts, practices and sensibilities have come together to form “the secular”. ~ Talal Asad,
356:When man becomes reconciled to nature, when space becomes his true background, these words and concepts will have lost their meaning, and we will no longer have to use them. ~ Michelangelo Antonioni,
357:How is that perceiving beings can arise from out of the physical world, and how is that mentality is able seemingly to 'create' mathematical concepts out of some kind of mental model. ~ Roger Penrose,
358:The four main concepts that Kalergi invented were: Multiculturalism, Collapsing Nation States, Total European Integration and World Government through the creation of a New World Order. ~ Citizen One,
359:At that time two opposing concepts of the Game called forth commentary and discussion. The foremost players distinguished two principal types of Game, the formal and the psychological. ~ Hermann Hesse,
360:The concepts "beyond" and "real world" were invented in order to depreciate the only world that exists-in order that no goal, no aim or task might be left for our earthly reality. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
361:The reason why new concepts in any branch of science are hard to grasp is always the same; contemporary scientists try to picture the new concept in terms of ideas which existed before. ~ Freeman Dyson,
362:What use were concepts like loyalty and decency if they could be steamrolled over by false promises and grandiose plans that anyone with a working brain could see were completely insane? ~ Jasmine Walt,
363:At any particular stage in the development of science, our concepts concerning the causal relationships will then be true only relative to a certain approximation and to certain conditions. ~ David Bohm,
364:Of all the numerous forms that governments have taken over the centuries, of all the concepts and institutions that have been tried, none has succeeded in keeping the State in check. ~ Murray N Rothbard,
365:A display connected to a digital computer gives us a chance to gain familiarity with concepts not realizable in the physical world. It is a looking glass into a mathematical wonderland. ~ Ivan Sutherland,
366:An equality of nation will never exist in our lifetime. Why? Because peace, freedom, and justice are deceptive concepts. Hidden beneath their surface are the instincts of the peking order. ~ Howard Bloom,
367:I think the exercise of trying to figure out how to simplify concepts has been incredibly helpful to me over the last 13 years of teaching and I hope my students have benefited from it. ~ Joel Greenblatt,
368:Practicing deception to conceal one’s true goals and regarding moral principles and laws as applicable to others but not to oneself are the core concepts of Alinsky’s Rules for Radicals. ~ David Horowitz,
369:SRP is one of the more important concept in OO design. It’s also one of the simpler concepts to understand and adhere to. Yet oddly, SRP is often the most abused class design principle. ~ Robert C Martin,
370:We didn't start Theocracy because we wanted to be cool like so-and-so and make money. Our songs aren't trendy, and our lyrics hopefully make people think about certain concepts in a new way. ~ Matt Smith,
371:While the concepts across countries aren’t completely identical, what they all share is that they are more developed and complex versions of a feeling of coziness, warmth, and togetherness. ~ Meik Wiking,
372:A rational anarchist believes that concepts such as ‘state’ and ‘society’ and ‘government’ have no existence save as physically exemplified in the acts of self-responsible individuals. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
373:Einstein wrote that the aim of science is to capture the connection between all experiential data ‘in their totality’ – and to do this ‘by use of a minimum of primary concepts and relations’. ~ Paul Mason,
374:Hearing a client say ‘The CEO was quite impressed with your design concepts’ could never compare with the intense pleasure Grace felt hearing a four-year-old say ‘I laughed until forever! ~ Liane Moriarty,
375:Tacit knowledge is one of the most important concepts of current scholarship in the humanities. Ambitious and important, Tacit and Explicit Knowledge is a well-written and original book. ~ Robert P Crease,
376:There can be no universal standard for justice or fairness, Lady Rho, for they are concepts that can only be defined in context; a villain is only a villain from the hero's point of view. ~ Romina Russell,
377:Very young children love and demand stories, and can understand complex matters presented as stories, when their powers of comprehending general concepts, paradigms, are almost nonexistent. ~ Oliver Sacks,
378:concepts. The glass was put down through this one act of Providence and my journey into sobriety began. My life continues to unfold with divine care and direction. Step One, in which ~ Alcoholics Anonymous,
379:For a physicist mathematics is not just a tool by means of which phenomena can be calculated, it is the main source of concepts and principles by means of which new theories can be created. ~ Freeman Dyson,
380:I find it fascinating how the supernatural infiltrates your head, even when you reject such concepts. Just as cold germs go about their work, regardless of whether you believe in them. Every ~ Jason Arnopp,
381:Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind. The understanding can intuit nothing, the senses can think nothing. Only through their unison can knowledge arise. ~ Immanuel Kant,
382:Our concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world and how we relate to other people. Our conceptual system thus plays a central role in defining our everyday realities. ~ George Lakoff,
383:The trend of offering individualized education plans, curricula, and lessons is going to help students tremendously. “Teaching to the middle” is one of the saddest concepts I've ever heard about. ~ Mike Lee,
384:Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind... The understanding can intuit nothing, the senses can think nothing. Only through their union can knowledge arise. ~ Immanuel Kant,
385:Sound is what drives my solos, not verbal concepts, I never think 'I'm going to use a Lydian Dominant scale and then go up a half-step', even though that might be exactly what I end up doing. ~ John Scofield,
386:to be superior (überlegen) to others in real life, the indispensable condition is to be thoughtful and deliberate (überlegt), in other words, to set to work in accordance with concepts. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
387:Begin with bodhicitta, do the main practice without concepts,Conclude by dedicating the merit. These, together and complete,Are the three vital supports for progressing on the path to liberation. ~ Longchenpa,
388:Concepts that had eluded him because they could not be shaped with images and feelings alone, but needed the rich subtlety of abstract language to shape and anchor them with a webbery of symbols. ~ David Brin,
389:Our task is not to penetrate the essence of things, the meaning of which we do not know anyway, but rather to develop concepts which allow us to talk in a productive way about phenomena in nature ~ Niels Bohr,
390:Success comes in an emerging set of abstract concepts that makes sense of all the detail. This distillation is a rigorous expression of the particular knowledge that has been found most relevant. ~ Eric Evans,
391:The concepts of truth may differ. But all admit and respect truth. That truth I call God. For sometime I was saying, "God is Truth," but that did not satisfy me. So now I say, "Truth is God." ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
392:The mistakes were made by people who did not know how to wield the concepts University, division and team-spirit. Their puzzles arose from inability to use certain items in the English vocabulary. ~ Anonymous,
393:To strip failure of its real emotional consequences is to scrub the concepts of grit and resilience of the very qualities that make them both so important—toughness, doggedness, and perseverance. ~ Bren Brown,
394:. . . we constantly use symbolic terms to represent concepts that we cannot define or fully comprehend. This is one of the reasons why all religions employ symbolic language or images. P. 4 ~ Carl Gustav Jung,
395:When you're choosing the track list and the sequencing, it's important to make sure that there's some strong concepts on there and that it matters and it says something... that it sticks with people. ~ G Eazy,
396:DISC is based on concepts created in 1928 by a psychologist named William Marston, who also created the comic book character Wonder Woman. That tells you pretty much all you ned to know about DISC. ~ Dan Lyons,
397:Part of my success with urban bachata is reinventing yourself as an artist and continuing to give people different kind of fusions, mixing up the elements and concepts without changing the beat. ~ Romeo Santos,
398:Computer science is a restless infant and its progress depends as much on shifts in point of view as on the orderly development of our current concepts. ~ Alan Perlis, The Synthesis of Algorithmic Systems, 1966,
399:In our multi-ethnic, relativist world it is difficult to understand the importance placed in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries on concepts like ethnic, racial or cultural ‘purity’; ~ Alexandra Richie,
400:I think producers are more interested in backing concepts than directors and writers. I don't think that's the right way of making a decision about whether you're going to back a film or not. ~ Steven Spielberg,
401:It is my conviction that pure mathematical construction enables us to discover the concepts and the laws connecting them, which give us the key to the understanding of the phenomena of nature. ~ Albert Einstein,
402:It may, however, be said that the level of experience to which concepts are inapplicable cannot yield any knowledge of a universal character, for concepts alone are capable of being socialized. ~ Muhammad Iqbal,
403:The Christian "doctrines" are translations into our concepts and ideas of that which God has already expressed in language more adequate, namely the actual incarnation, crucifixion, and resurrection ~ C S Lewis,
404:The same principles that make a spiral galaxy also create the structure of a seashell and unfurling of a fern. This is why ancient spiritual people used natural symbols to convey universal concepts. ~ Belsebuub,
405:But then closely related concepts should not be separated into different files unless you have a very good reason. Indeed, this is one of the reasons that protected variables should be avoided. ~ Robert C Martin,
406:Self-actualized people...live more in the real world of nature than in the man-made mass of concepts, abstractions, expectations, beliefs and stereotypes that most people confuse with the world. ~ Abraham Maslow,
407:If you are trying to aid people in the process of self-discovery, what you have to do is confound them with so many concepts that are contradictory, yet each make complete sense in its own right. ~ Frederick Lenz,
408:mothering is our first preverbal template for an existence in which we feel welcomed or rejected, loved or abandoned, many of us have fused our relationship with our mothers with our concepts of God. ~ Geneen Roth,
409:Reading a book about management isnt going to make you a good manager any more than a book about guitar will make you a good guitarist, but it can get you thinking about the most important concepts. ~ Drew Houston,
410:Self-actualized people...live more in the real world of nature than in the man-made mass of concepts, abstractions, expectations, beliefs and stereotypes that most people confuse with the world. ~ Abraham H Maslow,
411:A literary work can only be received through symbols, through concepts - for that is what words are; but cinema, like music, allows for utterly direct, emotional, sensuous perception of the work. ~ Andrei Tarkovsky,
412:Below I describe two examples, one concerning self-awareness and the other culture, both concepts that, whenever mentioned in relation to animals, still send some scholars through the roof. Armchair ~ Frans de Waal,
413:Concrete experiences serve as the primary building blocks from which we extend our capacity for thought and give rise to more abstracted concepts.

We understand the new in terms of the known. ~ Nick Sousanis,
414:My opinion is that the term “God” belongs to the realm of concepts, that it is dependent upon man for its existence. If God does not exist unless man exists, then man must be here to produce God. It ~ Huey P Newton,
415:Dogmatism grew from the soil of simplistic and frequently wrong concepts. Dogmatism is like a ship that has run aground: the waves run, the ship stays put, but the impression of movement persists ~ Dmitri Volkogonov,
416:The Earth, time, concepts, love, life, faith justice, evil - they're all fluid and in transition. They don't stay in one form or in one place forever. The whole universe is like some big FedEx box. ~ Haruki Murakami,
417:The flow of consciousness is one thing; the recollection of its course is another, yet you usually see them as the same. This is one of the oldest concepts in psychology and philosophy—phenomenology. ~ David McRaney,
418:The Zen Master was constantly attempting to break up concepts that people had about what it was like to be a spiritual teacher. We have a traditional image. Each Zen master was a complete character. ~ Frederick Lenz,
419:DISC is based on concepts created in 1928 by a psychologist named William Marston, who also created the comic book character Wonder Woman. That tells you pretty much all you need to know about DISC. Other ~ Dan Lyons,
420:There's no one who can teach you except yourself. Each of us needs to look at what our belief system really consists of. Look at the concepts that come across your mind and just notice what you believe. ~ Byron Katie,
421:Apart from an innate grasp of tactical concepts, a great coach must possess the essentials attributes of leadership which mold men into a cohesive, fighting team with an invincible will to victory. ~ Douglas MacArthur,
422:Decadence is a difficult word to use since it has become little more than a term of abuse applied by critics to anything they do not yet understand or which seems to differ from their moral concepts. ~ Ernest Hemingway,
423:Mathematicians think in symbols, physicists in objects, philosophers in concepts, geometers in images, jurists in constructs, logicians in operators, writers in impressions, and idiots in words. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
424:A good traveler has no fixed plans and is not intent upon arriving. A good artist lets his intuition lead him wherever it wants. A good scientist has freed himself of concepts and keeps his mind open to what is. ~ Laozi,
425:And before any of that can happen, there must be some major changes in the way society views and values privacy, security, liberty, trust, and a handful of other abstract concepts that are defining this ~ Bruce Schneier,
426:Humans feel at home in a world of things, whose essences and laws it can grasp and define in terms of concepts; but shy and ill at ease in a world of existences, because to exist is an act, not a thing. ~ Etienne Gilson,
427:In a world beset by fundamentalists of both believing and secular varieties, it must be possible to balance a rejection of religious faith with a selective reverence for religious rituals and concepts. ~ Alain de Botton,
428:In particular, I'm drawn to the stories that have big, high concepts and real characters at their heart. And I love where those two worlds meet, and 'Edge of Tomorrow' is the perfect canvas to explore that. ~ Doug Liman,
429:Of course, logic is not the only tool used in debate, and it is helpful to be cognizant of the others. Rhetoric likely tops the list, followed by concepts such as the "burden of proof" and Occam's razor. ~ Ali Almossawi,
430:Some writers' view of things depends upon the success of the final result. I'd rather stand or fall on my own concepts. But there is a fine line to be drawn between pointing up something or distorting it. ~ Edward Albee,
431:It seems to me that few concepts have offered greater scope for human cruelty than the idea of an immortal soul that stands independent of all material influences, ranging from genes to economic systems. And ~ Sam Harris,
432:With no one to confide in, she'd held the argument inside her own head and naturally found a way to dissolve facts into concepts and concepts into explanations that in the end explained nothing at all. ~ Vincent H O Neil,
433:. . . integral wisdom involves a direct participation in every moment: the observer and the observed are dissolved in the light of pure awareness, and no mental concepts or attitudes are present to dim that light. ~ Laozi,
434:Intuition and concepts constitute... the elements of all our knowledge, so that neither concepts without an intuition in some way corresponding to them, nor intuition without concepts, can yield knowledge. ~ Immanuel Kant,
435:There were no whys in a person's life, and very few hows. In the end, in search of useful wisdom, you could only come back to the most hackneyed concepts, like kindness, forbearance, infinite self patience. ~ Chad Harbach,
436:The strongest feelings I have about printing always return to three simple concepts: the sculptural nature of type, the inevitableness of its arrangement on the page, and the authority of its impression. ~ Warren Chappell,
437:The writers of Scripture enter into the random everyday depths of popular life, taking seriously whatever is encountered there, clinging to the concrete and refusing to systematize experience in concepts. ~ Erich Auerbach,
438:Creativity and insight almost always involve an experience of acute pattern recognition: the eureka moment in which we perceive the interconnection between disparate concepts or ideas to reveal something new. ~ Jason Silva,
439:Marx's early manuscripts, with their roots in the Enlightenment and Romanticism, derived fundamental concepts such as alienation from a conception of human nature - what we would call genetically determined. ~ Noam Chomsky,
440:One is a Buddhist if he or she accepts the following four truths: All compounded things are impermanent. All emotions are pain. All things have no inherent existence. Nirvana is beyond concepts. ~ Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse,
441:Self-acceptance and self-love are important but often misunderstood concepts these days. You should love yourself as a reflection of God’s love and as someone put on this earth to make a unique contribution. ~ Nick Vujicic,
442:There is certainly the intention of efforts like the Common Core to raise education standards and make sure that every student masters advanced math concepts - algebra, geometry, statistics and probability. ~ Anya Kamenetz,
443:Transient and Eternal

The state of the world is in flux, and every object within it is subject to change.

Concepts live outside of time and, because All Things Are Number, liberate us from it. ~ Frank Wilczek,
444:The object of this edict is to enlighten the present and future citizens of Chandigarh about the basic concepts of planning of the city so that they become its guardians and save it from whims of individuals. ~ Le Corbusier,
445:what the 21st century student of pathology needs is an organized, pithy, and easy-to-digest synopsis of the pertinent concepts and facts with specific links to the definitive material in a more expansive volume. ~ Anonymous,
446:It’s impossible to initiate a rational dialogue with someone about beliefs and concepts if he has not acquired them through reason. It doesn’t matter whether we’re looking at God, race, or national pride. ~ Carlos Ruiz Zaf n,
447:Mathematics is entirely free in its development, and its concepts are only linked by the necessity of being consistent, and are co-ordinated with concepts introduced previously by means of precise definitions. ~ Georg Cantor,
448:The first responsibility of a leader is to define reality. The last is to say thank you. In between the two, the leader must become a servant and a debtor. That sums up the progress of an artful leader. Concepts ~ Max DePree,
449:Its impossible to initiate a rational dialogue with some one about beliefs and concepts if he has not acquired them through reason. It doesn't matter whether we are looking at God, race, or national pride. ~ Carlos Ruiz Zaf n,
450:Passion is the love of turning being into action. It fuels the engine of creation. It changes concepts to experience.... Never deny passion, for that is to deny Who You Are, and Who You Truly Want To Be. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
451:Since I am a Japanese man who's been building through the experience of Japanese architecture, my actual designs come from Japanese architectural concepts, although they're based on Western methods and materials. ~ Tadao Ando,
452:There is an inherently minimum set of essential concepts and current information, cognizance of which could lead to our operating our planet Earth to the lasting satisfaction and health of all humanity. ~ R Buckminster Fuller,
453:THE SELF IS THE ROOT of the mental poisons. Our mind fabricates, projects, and attaches concepts to people and things. Egocentric fixation reinforces the qualities or defects that we attribute to others. From ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
454:We do not comprehend all these matters quite clearly, but in general it is plain that we think in space and time by perceptions TERTIUM ORGANUM ' only; but by concepts we think independently of space and time. ~ P D Ouspensky,
455:As civilizations gestate, are born, mature and die, their symbol systems, ideas, concepts and realities die with them. Only rarely, do ideas really transcend their civilization of origin and affect others who follow. ~ AT Mann,
456:Chess teaches the Clausewitzian concepts of “center of gravity” and the “decisive point”—the game usually beginning as a struggle for the center of the board. Wei qi teaches the art of strategic encirclement. ~ Henry Kissinger,
457:Landsman has put a lot of work into the avoidance of having to understand concepts like that of the eruv, but he knows that it's a typical Jewish ritual dodge, a scam run on God, that controlling motherfucker. ~ Michael Chabon,
458:We are caught up in a paradox, one which might be called the paradox of conceptualization. The proper concepts are needed to formulate a good theory, but we need a good theory to arrive at the proper concepts. ~ Abraham Kaplan,
459:we find hints of how he rose from modest intelligence to genius, when he talks about his compulsion to tear down important papers and mathematical concepts until he could understand the concepts from the bottom up. ~ Anonymous,
460:You are right to demand that an author be conscious of what he is doing, but you are confusing two concepts: solving the problem and correctly formulating the problem. Only the latter is required of the artist. ~ Anton Chekhov,
461:Democracy may have arisen in the West as the way of striving for the universal aspiration to dignity and freedom, but it isn't alien to the underlying concepts that infuse religion and moral philosophy everywhere. ~ Flora Lewis,
462:I think what I love about science fiction and what sci-fi can be really good at is obviously you're working with outlandish concepts that have very little to do with the real world, like time travel for instance. ~ Rian Johnson,
463:When we repeat the same words and phrases that appear in the daily media, we accept the absence of a larger framework. To have such a framework requires more concepts, and having more concepts requires reading. ~ Timothy Snyder,
464:The general statement that the mental faculties are class concepts, belonging to descriptive psychology, relieves us of the necessity of discussing them and their significance at the present stage of our inquiry. ~ Wilhelm Wundt,
465:The original languages didn't even have he and she. They didn't have concepts of masculine and feminine. People were people. And the whole idea was that we were in a circle together, not in a hierarchy together. ~ Gloria Steinem,
466:To the honor of Spinoza I must mention that his more accurate understanding explained all general concepts as having to the contrary arisen from an obfuscation of that of which one is perceptually cognizant ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
467:I could go on and on about how the statements and concepts that used to depress me now bring me joy, but that is not easily understood for people who think the way I used to think and believe what I used to believe. ~ Byron Katie,
468:One simply cannot come to a cause like the kingdom of God, with its celestial concepts, and not appreciate and identify with what Ammon said: "Behold, I say unto you, I cannot say the smallest part which I feel." ~ Neal A Maxwell,
469:The ego is entranced by ... names and ideas... However names and concepts only block your perception of this Great Oneness. Therefore it is wise to ignore them. Those who live inside their egos are continually bewildered. ~ Laozi,
470:theory. If the concepts in a formal ethical theory are rooted in a person, then narratives and descriptions of that person are morally revealing. It is an open question what it is about the person that makes him good. ~ Anonymous,
471:One of the most surprising things that unfolded in my research is the pairing of certain terms. I can’t separate the concepts of love and belonging because when people spoke of one, they always talked about the other. ~ Bren Brown,
472:There are all kinds of things that can be done. You can change rhythms, you can change chords, you can change whole concepts. But it will only work, on a record or in a performance, if you can make the people buy it. ~ Nina Simone,
473:Therefore books do not take the place of experience, because concepts always remain universal, and so do not reach down to the particular; yet it is precisely the particular that has to be dealt with in life. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
474:You are right to demand that an author take conscious stock of what he is doing, but you are confusing two concepts: answering the questions and formulating them correctly. Only the latter is required of an author. ~ Anton Chekhov,
475:Ancient fears of merging with, surrendering to, or being invaded by unfamiliar concepts, alien cultures, or different religions result in a kind of fundamentalism that causes spiritual evolution to become petrified. ~ John Matthews,
476:A planetary vision of bloody racial struggle, something not inherently attractive to most people most of the time, was translated at moments of stress into concepts and images that could generate political support. ~ Timothy Snyder,
477:I doubted my creative spirit three years ago and God showed me a way to praise Him through song. It opened the door to a whole tapestry of images and concepts that were brand new for me and I continued on that path. ~ Jonathan Cain,
478:The period is one of the most complicated and concepts of classical rhetoric. Nobody in the ancient world could quite decide what it meant, but they were united in the belief that it was terribly, terribly important. ~ Mark Forsyth,
479:We started to collect more and more of these words and concepts, and began to realize what an arbitrarily selective work the Oxford English Dictionary is. It simply doesn’t recognize huge wodges of human experience. ~ Douglas Adams,
480:Although Bill Finger literally typed the scripts in the early days, he wrote the scripts from ideas that we mutually collaborated on. Many of the unique concepts and story twists also came from my own fertile imagination. ~ Bob Kane,
481:If you're Microsoft, you can prevent a porn site using microsoft.xxx. Although that would be ironic since micro and soft probably aren't at the forefront of desirable concepts when you're looking for porn. ~ Gary Corby,
482:In the future, as in the past, the great ideas [of mathematics] must be simplifying ideas, the creator must always be one who clarifies, for himself, and for others, the most complicated issues of formulas and concepts. ~ Andre Weil,
483:Learning astrology is like learning any foreign language. You already have the ideas, concepts, and experiences of your life within you; you are just learning a new language for what you are already experiencing. ~ Barbara Goldsmith,
484:Most of the dogmatic religions have exhibited a perverse talent for taking the wrong side on the most important concepts in the material universe, from the structure of the solar system to the origin of man. ~ George Gaylord Simpson,
485:One problem with lyrical waxing, as Snediker has it, is that it often signals (or occasions) an infatuation with overarching concepts or figures that can run roughshod over the specificities of the situation at hand. ~ Maggie Nelson,
486:[Experts’] knowledge is not simply a list of facts and formulas that are relevant to their domain; instead, their knowledge is organized around core concepts or ‘big ideas’ that guide their thinking about their domains, ~ John Medina,
487:It's just weird because like when I was writing Cry Baby I like...the only thing that I was thinking about, when writing it, was the concepts and the visuals, and the way that it sounded kind of happened naturally. ~ Melanie Martinez,
488:The parallelism, or denial of any causation between mind and body, derives basically, and fallaciously, from a theory of substances as having complete concepts that include everything that is true of them. ~ Gonzalo Rodriguez Pereyra,
489:We define a semantic network as "the collection of all the relationships that concepts have to other concepts, to percepts, to procedures, and to motor mechanisms" of the knowledge". ~ John F. Sowa (1984) Conceptual Structures. p. 76,
490:The failure to appreciate these concepts – recency, implicit memory, myelination, overlearning, automaticity, and task complexity – explains a lot of the misinformation that is heard when human performance is discussed. ~ Massad Ayoob,
491:Like many named places in California it was less an identifiable city than a grouping of concepts—census tracts, special purpose bond-issue districts, shopping nuclei, all overlaid with access roads to its own freeway. ~ Thomas Pynchon,
492:Science emerges from the other progressive activities of man to the extent that new concepts arise from experiments and observations, and that the new concepts in turn lead to further experiments and observations. ~ James Bryant Conant,
493:The days of infinity are endless. Its hours cannot be counted or found on a clock. There is no north, south, east, or west. These are just concepts. Infinity is forever, everywhere all at once. And that's all there is. ~ Frederick Lenz,
494:You are right in demanding that an artist approach his work consciously, but you are confusing two concepts: the solution of a problem and the correct formulation of a problem. Only the second is required of the artist. ~ Anton Chekhov,
495:Fuck concepts. Don't be afraid to be confused. Try to remain permanently confused. Anything is possible. Stay open, forever, so open it hurts, and then open up some more, until the day you die, world without end, amen. ~ George Saunders,
496:"God", "immortality of the soul", "redemption", "beyond" - Without exception, concepts to which I have never devoted any attention, or time; not even as a child. Perhaps I have never been childlike enough for them? ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
497:Without the concepts, methods and results found and developed by previous generations right down to Greek antiquity one cannot understand either the aims or achievements of mathematics in the last 50 years. [Said in 1950] ~ Hermann Weyl,
498:I read once about the concepts of a lateral idea and the vertical idea. If you dig a hole and it’s in the wrong place, digging it deeper isn’t going to help. The lateral idea is when you skip over and dig someplace else. ~ Seymour Chwast,
499:It will remain remarkable, in whatever way our future concepts may develop, that the very study of the external world led to the scientific conclusion that the content of the consciousness is the ultimate universal reality ~ Alain Aspect,
500:The forward step must be made in silence. We detach ourselves from word forms - this can be accomplished by substituting for words, letters, concepts, verbal concepts, other modes of expressions: for example, color. ~ William S Burroughs,
501:The topmost parts of the source file should provide the high-level concepts and algorithms. Detail should increase as we move downward, until at the end we find the lowest level functions and details in the source file. ~ Robert C Martin,
502:Almost all the other fellows do not look from the facts to the theory but from the theory to the facts; they cannot get out of the network of already accepted concepts; instead, comically, they only wriggle about inside. ~ Albert Einstein,
503:Science is about principles. It's about concepts. It's not about memorizing the parts of a flower. It helps to know some of these things, but if that's all you do that's not science, science is about principles and concepts. ~ Michio Kaku,
504:The Warrior Diet is the only diet today that challenges all common dietary concepts and offers a real alternative—guidelines that are not based on superficial restrictions, but rather on true principles of human nutrition. ~ Ori Hofmekler,
505:We should remember that science exists only because there are people, and its concepts exist only in the minds of men. Behind these concepts lies the reality which is being revealed to us, but only by the grace of God. ~ Wernher von Braun,
506:Cage's Music of Changes was a further indication that the arts in general were beginning to consciously deal with the given material and, to varying degrees, liberating them from the inherited, functional concepts of control. ~ Earle Brown,
507:Having to do something is an obligation, a duty, a will that is not your own. Wanting to do something is a choice that requires heart, desire, a will that is yours. Those two concepts are a universe apart. I wanted to, Abby ~ Ashlan Thomas,
508:Her concentration was gone, and last night she had had a nightmare about discovering a formalism that let her translate arbitrary concepts into mathematical expressions: then she had proven that life and death were equivalent. ~ Ted Chiang,
509:Like so many named places in California it was less an identifiable city than a grouping of concepts--census tracts, special purpose bond-issue districts, shopping nuclei, all overlaid with access roads to its own freeway. ~ Thomas Pynchon,
510:Ads sell more than products. They sell values, they sell images. They sell concepts of love and sexuality, of success and perhaps most important, of normalcy. To a great extent, they tell us who we are and who we should be. ~ Jean Kilbourne,
511:IMAGINATION: one of the most powerful tools that humans have to help us visualize our dreams and goals. Imagination is our ability to form mental images and concepts in our brains to foster ideas and turn our goals into reality. ~ Anonymous,
512:The immediacy of mystic experience simply means that we know God just as we know other objects. God is not a mathematical entity or a system of concepts mutually related to one another and having no reference to experience. ~ Muhammad Iqbal,
513:Creative action plays with the unknown. But as the child fears the dark... the adult child will be fearful too, faced with the dark world of the unknown mind, with vast concepts looking enormous just beyond the front yard. ~ Arthur J Deikman,
514:Salvakalpa samadhi is absorption in eternity to the point where there is no real concept of self but there's still a karmic chain. Nirvikalpa samadhi is absorption in nirvana; concepts of self and no-self go away completely. ~ Frederick Lenz,
515:The Phoenicians are also credited with the first alphabet. Chinese and Egyptian languages used pictographs, drawings depicting objects or concepts. Babylonian, which became the international language in the Middle East, also ~ Mark Kurlansky,
516:The Protestant theologian Paul Tillich recently drew a similar distinction between the God we imagine when we hear the term, and the “God beyond God,” that is, the “ground of being” that underlies all our concepts and images. ~ Elaine Pagels,
517:The prudent course is to make an investment in learning, testing and understanding, determine how the new concepts compare to how you now operate and thoughtfully determine how they apply to what you want to achieve in the future. ~ Dee Hock,
518:Abiding faith does not depend on borrowed concepts. Rather, it is the magnetic force of a bone-deep, lived understanding, one that draws us to realize our ideals, walk our talk,and act in accord with what we know to be true. ~ Sharon Salzberg,
519:A man demonstrates his rationality, not by a commitment to fixed ideas, stereotyped procedures, or immutable concepts, but by the manner in which, and the occasions on which, he changes those ideas, procedures, and concepts. ~ Stephen Toulmin,
520:Children born deaf of deaf parents have no language delay at all: being exposed to Sign from birth enables a baby to develop as full a vocabulary as the hearing, not just to describe the world, but to manipulate abstract concepts. ~ Anonymous,
521:Fanon and James dared theorists of freedom to cast aside old enslaving norms, work out new concepts, and set afoot a new imaginative humanism in regions Prospero never knew. Freedom as marronage is one answer to this challenge. ~ Neil Roberts,
522:I'd like the [Cosmos] series to be so visually stimulating that somebody who isn't even interested in the concepts will just watch for the effects. And I'd like people who are prepared to do some thinking to be really stimulated. ~ Carl Sagan,
523:In the universal stillness of nature and the calmness of the senses the immortal spirit’s hidden faculty of cognition speaks an ineffable language and provides undeveloped concepts that can certainly be felt but not described. ~ Immanuel Kant,
524:Life is too precious for us to lose ourselves in our ideas and concepts, in our anger and our despair. We must wake up to the marvelous reality of life. We must begin to live fully and truly, every moment of our daily lives. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
525:Our concepts or ideas form the mental housing in which we live. We may end up proud of the structures we have built. Or we may believe that they need dismantling and starting afresh. But first, we have to know what they are. ~ Simon Blackburn,
526:The unreal is more powerful than the real. Because nothing is as perfect as you can imagine it. Because it's only intangibles, ideas, concepts, beliefs, fantasies that last. Stone crumbles. Wood rots. People, well, they die. ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
527:When your sense of self is no longer tied to thought, is no longer conceptual, there is a depth of feeling, of sensing, of compassion, of loving, that was not there when you were trapped in mental concepts. You are that depth. ~ Eckhart Tolle,
528:Concepts of well-being for countries, for peoples and for individuals are changing. In such a world, to argue for rules that never change would be to deny the reality found in scientific knowledge and reasoned judgment. ~ Mustafa Kemal Ataturk,
529:I do not agree that ethics requires grounding in religious concepts or faith. Instead, I firmly believe that ethics can also emerge simply as a natural and rational response to our very humanity and our common human condition. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
530:Suchness [...] means that reality is as it is. You cannot say anything about it; you cannot describe it. Nirvana is the same. Nirvana is the removal of all notions and concepts so that reality can reveal herself fully to you. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
531:Build your schools around concepts, not academic subjects: core concepts such as awareness, honesty, responsibility, freedom and diversity in oneness. Teach your children these things and you will have taught them grandly. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
532:Even before I had fully discovered the concepts of astrology, homeopathy, organised religion and probiotic yoghurts I was able to work out that what humans may have lacked in physical attractiveness, they made up for in gullibility. ~ Matt Haig,
533:If you're in such a position of power and your ego is such that this is not possible, then its essential to have a small cadre of very bright, committed people who are questioning, exploring and understanding these emerging concepts. ~ Dee Hock,
534:I once knew an otherwise excellent teacher who compelled his students to perform all their demonstrations with incorrect figures, on the theory that it was the logical connection of the concepts, not the figure, that was essential. ~ Ernst Mach,
535:Vedas are the earliest sacred scriptures of Hinduism and are full of abstract hymns containing esoteric concepts. The Puranas were written later and use stories and characters to make those esoteric concepts more accessible. ~ Devdutt Pattanaik,
536:With our present knowledge, we can respond to the challenge of stellar space flight solely with intellectual concepts and purely hypothetical analysis. Hardware solutions are still entirely beyond our reach and far, far away. ~ Wernher von Braun,
537:You can't drop concepts. You can only shine a little flashlight on them as you do inquiry, an you see that what you thought was true wasn't. And when the truth is seen, there's nothing you can do to make the lie true for you again. ~ Byron Katie,
538:You don’t need knowledge or great philosophical concepts. You don’t need the acceptance of others. You express your own divinity by being alive and by loving yourself and others. It is an expression of God to say, “Hey, I love you. ~ Miguel Ruiz,
539:Logic is justly considered the basis of all other sciences, even if only for the reason that in every argument we employ concepts taken from the field of logic, and that ever correct inference proceeds in accordance with its laws. ~ Alfred Tarski,
540:The good of a book lies in its being read. A book is made up of signs that speak of other signs, which in their turn speak of things. Without an eye to read them, a book contains signs that produce no concepts; therefore it is dumb. ~ Umberto Eco,
541:The human mind is like a fertile ground were seed are continually being planted. The seeds are opinions, ideas, and concepts. You plant a seed, a thought grows, and it grows. The word is like a seed and the human mind is so fertile! ~ Miguel Ruiz,
542:Listen, every object's in flux. The Earth, time, concepts, love, life, faith, justice, evil--they're all fluid and in transition. They don't stay in one form or in one place forever. The whole universe is like some big FedEx box. ~ Haruki Murakami,
543:Being, belief and reason are pure relations, which cannot be dealt with absolutely, and are not things but pure scholastic concepts, signs for understanding, not for worshipping, aids to awaken our attention, not to fetter it. ~ Johann Georg Hamann,
544:Concepts, like individuals, have their histories and are just as incapable of withstanding the ravages of time as are individuals. But in and through all this they retain a kind of homesickness for the scenes of their childhood. ~ Soren Kierkegaard,
545:Identity and resemblance would then be no more than inevitable illusions - in other words, concepts of reflection which would account for our inveterate habit of thinking difference on the basis of the categories of representation. ~ Gilles Deleuze,
546:If our previous analyses are correct, they all point to the same conclusion, that metaphysical adventures are doomed to fail when their authors substitute the fundamental concepts of any particular science for those of metaphysics. ~ Etienne Gilson,
547:Now this comic contains words, concepts and maybe a few images that some people may find offensive. If you suspect you are going to be one of those people, there's a really easy solution to this. Don't read it. It's as simple as that. ~ Neil Gaiman,
548:Our understanding is a faculty of concepts, i.e., a discursive understanding, for which it must of course be contingent what and how different might be the particular that can be given to it in nature and brought under its concepts. ~ Immanuel Kant,
549:the Fallacy of the Stolen Concept. This fallacy, writes Nathaniel Branden, “consists of the act of using a concept while ignoring, contradicting or denying the validity of the concepts on which it logically and genetically depends. ~ George H Smith,
550:There is evil in the world. Things might be easier if there wasn’t, if good and evil were just concepts men invented to justify themselves; we could ignore them, then. Sadly, good and evil are both very real, and very inconvenient. ~ Seanan McGuire,
551:A more meaningful grasp of essential Christian concepts like forgiveness, peace, love, patience, chastity, hospitality, and so on can enable people to recognize them as vivid and beautiful truths, not just abstract theological points. ~ Holly Ordway,
552:The Federalist Society is changing the culture of our nation's law schools. You are returning the values and concepts of law as our founders understood them to scholarly dialogue, and through that dialogue, to our legal institutions. ~ Ronald Reagan,
553:The language of chemistry simply does not mesh with that of biology. Chemistry is about substances and how they react, whereas biology appeals to concepts such as information and organisation. Informational narratives permeate biology. ~ Paul Davies,
554:The theory of relativity worked out by Mr. Einstein, which is in the domain of natural science, I believe can also be applied to the political field. Both democracy and human rights are relative concepts - and not absolute and general. ~ Jiang Zemin,
555:The truth of life lies in the impulsiveness of matter. The mind of man has been poisoned by concepts. Do not ask him to be content, ask him only to be calm, to believe that he has found his place. But only the madman is really calm. ~ Antonin Artaud,
556:Green Giant contained a very strong and clear site and building design concept. Green Giant had strong formal, aesthetic and programmatic concepts, coupled with a good understanding and incorporation of 2030 Palette design strategies. ~ Edward Mazria,
557:Pre-analytic vision. Worldview. Paradigm. Frame. These are cousin concepts. What matters more than the one you choose to use is to realise that you have one in the first place, because then you have the power to question and change it. ~ Kate Raworth,
558:So much of what I taught seemed simple enough to me—and to about a third of the class—but for the others it was as if I were teaching Boolean algebra in Sanskrit with Greek footnotes to explain the underlying concepts … or something. ~ L E Modesitt Jr,
559:The good of a book lies in its being read. A book is made up of signs that speak of other signs, which in their turn speak of things. Without an eye to read them, a book contains signs that produce no concepts; therefore it is dumb. This ~ Umberto Eco,
560:Unless the concepts of work and play and reward for work change absolutely, women must continue to provide cheap labor, and even more, free labor exacted of right by an employer possessed of a contract for life, made out in his favor. ~ Germaine Greer,
561:I do not agree that ethics requires grounding in religious concepts or faith. Instead, I firmly believe that ethics can also emerge simply as a natural and rational response to our very humanity and our common human condition. Religion ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
562:Now why should the cinema follow the forms of theater and painting rather than the methodology of language, which allows wholly new concepts of ideas to arise from the combination of two concrete denotations of two concrete objects? ~ Sergei Eisenstein,
563:Soldiers do not, by and large, create. They destroy. The question always is whether what they are destroying promotes the value of civilization and the advancement of man and specifically Western concepts and philosophies or degrades them. ~ John Ringo,
564:The human mind is like a fertile ground were seed are continually being planted. The seeds are opinions, ideas, and concepts. You plant a seed, a thought grows, and it grows. The word is like a seed and the human mind is so fertile! ~ Miguel Angel Ruiz,
565:What matters for the dialectician is having the wind of world history in his sails. Thinking for him means: to set the sails. It is the way they are set that matters. Words are his sails. The way they are set turns them into concepts. ~ Walter Benjamin,
566:You could try and understand people, you could read books and understand words and concepts and ideas, but you could never understand enough or have enough knowledge to keep away the surprises that both fate and human beings had in store. ~ Deb Caletti,
567:Creativity, which is the expression of our originality, helps us stay mindful that what we bring to the world is completely original and cannot be compared. And, without comparison, concepts like ahead or behind or worst lose their meaning. ~ Bren Brown,
568:He wasn't a man, but a tape recorder, repeating catch phrases and old slogans without any thought to the concepts behind them, a dog stuck in the training of his youth and faithfully executing his tasks long after his master had moved on. ~ Harvey Pekar,
569:The liberating truth is not static; it is alive. It cannot be put into concepts and be understood by the mind. The truth lies beyond all forms of conceptual fundamentalism. What you are is the beyond—awake and present, here and now already. ~ Adyashanti,
570:Thinking about more and more abstract concepts is a bit like the high jump. You have to get yourself over a progressively higher and higher bar, and if nobody explains how to do it, you will keep knocking the bar off and want to give up. ~ Eugenia Cheng,
571:Our destiny is to live out what we think, because unless we live what we know, we do not even know it. It is only by making our knowledge part of ourselves, through action, that we enter into the reality that is signified by our concepts. ~ Thomas Merton,
572:Well, neither does anyone else. We use concepts like ‘consciousness’—‘mind’—‘personality,’ but we don’t really know yet what they are. So when I start talking about something like multiple or split personality, all we have are some ~ William Peter Blatty,
573:I think I could learn a little patience with myself if I took a view of myself that included concepts like dormancy (instead of laziness), seed planting (instead of just scattered), gestation (instead of doing-something-right-this-second). ~ Julia Cameron,
574:Just as many smart people fail in the investment business as stupid ones. Intellectually active people are particularly attracted to elegant concepts, which can have the effect of distracting them from the simpler, more fundamental truths. ~ Peter Cundill,
575:Work hard to beat the competition.” The truth is that competition is the opposite of creativity. If I am working hard to beat the competition, it actually prevents me from thinking creatively to make all concepts of competition obsolete. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
576:In my work, there's mechanism that is "real," which is formed from the historical concepts of the images that I'm working with. That doesn't fall completely into a cliché. There are elements about it that carry historical context and edges. ~ Lorna Simpson,
577:There is a broad cultural current that conveys the idea that a film is like a football team, it represents a nation, it is illustrated literature, filmed radio. These are outdated concepts, totally out of touch with today's realities. ~ Jean Jacques Annaud,
578:To put the matter in Aristotelian terminology, visual impressions are prior in the order of being to concepts pertaining to physical color, whereas the latter are prior in the order of knowing to concepts pertaining to visual impressions. ~ Wilfrid Sellars,
579:All organizations must be capable of change. We need concepts and measurements that give to other kinds of organizations what the market test and profitability yardstick give to business. Those tests and yardsticks will be quite different. ~ Peter F Drucker,
580:Before the 1940s the terms "system" and "systems thinking" had been used by several scientists, but it was Bertalanffy's concepts of an open system and a general systems theory that established systems thinking as a major scientific movement ~ Fritjof Capra,
581:Buddhism is the study of the way the mind works. One has to be able to hold a large number of relational concepts simultaneously in the mind. It is necessary to grid, to literally unlock realities and dimensions with the power of your mind. ~ Frederick Lenz,
582:In my eyes, concepts of theology have only as much value as they are able to interpret experience. It seems to me that we have long reached the point where we theologians only talk to ourselves and debate with our own history of concepts. ~ Eugen Drewermann,
583:I think that great programming is not all that dissimilar to great art. Once you start thinking in concepts of programming it makes you a better person...as does learning a foreign language, as does learning math, as does learning how to read. ~ Jack Dorsey,
584:The stuff that I'm saying, they're not really traditional, structured jokes. It's not like I'm talking about growing up in Chicago or anything remotely close to that. It's basically me juggling words and concepts and phrases and being stupid. ~ Reggie Watts,
585:Ultimately, all thoughts are sponsored by love or fear. All thoughts, ideas, concepts, understandings, decisions, choices, and actions are based on these. And, in the end, there is really only one. Love. In truth, love is all there is. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
586:When an attractive but ALOOF ("cool") man comes along, there are some of us who offer to shine his shoes with our underpants. There are thousands of scientific concepts as to why this is so, and yes, yes, it's very sick but none of this helps. ~ Lynda Barry,
587:In several studies, Dweck found that giving children a performance goal (say, getting a high mark on a test) was effective for relatively straightforward problems but often inhibited children’s ability to apply the concepts to new situations. ~ Daniel H Pink,
588:Nature is like a work by Bach or Beethoven, often starting with a central theme and making countless variations on it that are scattered throughout the symphony. By this criterion, it appears that strings are not fundamental concepts in nature. ~ Michio Kaku,
589:Thus, flowers cannot be preserved, but their ethereal oil, their essence, with the same smell and the same virtues, can. The conduct that has had correct concepts for its guidance will, in the result, coincide with the reality intended. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
590:You can use meditation, and prayer, and ritual to foster compassion, love, and inclusiveness, or you can use them to foster hatred, and exclusiveness, and anger. And it's really just a matter of what concepts, ideas you decide to focus on. ~ Andrew B Newberg,
591:I think maybe it's more important to know the traditional concepts we have for thinking about how bodies are feminine or masculine or how sexuality is, straight or gay. These categories very often fail to describe the complexity of who we are. ~ Judith Butler,
592:In traditional societies, we have a long legacy of men controlling the body and mind of women. Such societies have valorised motherhood and fabricated concepts like chastity. Women have been the victims of these notions for thousands of years. ~ Taslima Nasrin,
593:The more clearly the immensely speculative nature of geological science is recognized, the easier it becomes to remodel our concepts of any inferred terrestrial conditions and processes in order to make outrages upon them not outrageous. ~ William Morris Davis,
594:Creativity, which is the expression of our originality, helps us stay mindful that what we bring to the world is completely original and cannot be compared. And, without comparison, concepts like ahead or behind or best or worst lose their meaning. ~ Bren Brown,
595:I see the concepts spatially in my mind. I see the boxes and corrals and grids into which administrative systems require people, things and information to be fit in order to be legible, made to live, or in order to facilitate death and abandonment. ~ Dean Spade,
596:Most of the world's religions serve only to strengthen attachments to false concepts such as self and other, life and death, heaven and earth, and so on. Those who become entangled in these false ideas are prevented from perceiving the Integral Oneness. ~ Laozi,
597:The ‘doctrines’ we get out of the true myth are of course less true: they are translations into our concepts and ideas of that which God has already expressed in a language more adequate, namely the actual incarnation, crucifixion, and resurrection. ~ C S Lewis,
598:I like challenges and I don't believe in failure. I don't believe in regrets. I believe suffering, failure - all those concepts - are things that are absolutely necessary to make us the best people that we can be, the best at whatever we want to do. ~ Jim Carrey,
599:It is the others you must convince, the ignorant masses, yet paradoxically, they are the ones hardest for you to reach. Theirs are the minds which, thanks to circumstance, have set and hardened against new concepts and ideas from an early age. ~ Peter F Hamilton,
600:Quite so, although our brothers and sisters in the Seventh Order do not refer to the Dark. They regard themselves as guardians and practitioners of dangerous and arcane knowledge, much of which defies such mundane concepts as names and categories. ~ Anthony Ryan,
601:In English-speaking countries, the connection between heresy and homosexuality is expressed through the use of a single word to denote both concepts: buggery. ... Webster's Unabridged Dictionary (Third Edition) defines "buggery" as "heresy, sodomy. ~ Thomas Szasz,
602:More than a building that houses books and data, the library represents a window to a larger world, the place where we've always come to discover big ideas and profound concepts that help move the American story forward and the human story forward. ~ Barack Obama,
603:To Jung, inner realitites like the archetype of man's feminine spirit or anima were not just handy concepts to appeal to or throw around whenever needed. They were direct, unmediated discoveries that at times almost cost him his life. ~ Peter Kingsley, Catafalque,
604:What distinguishes the language of science from language as we ordinarily understand the word? ... What science strives for is an utmost acuteness and clarity of concepts as regards their mutual relation and their correspondence to sensory data. ~ Albert Einstein,
605:Spiritual activity, education, civilization, culture, the idea are all vague, indefinite concepts, under the banner of which it is quite convenient to use words that have a still less clear meaning and therefore can easily be plugged into any theory. ~ Leo Tolstoy,
606:The ideas of directing attention outward, trying to imagine other people complexly, trying not to see myself as the center of the universe - these concepts have become important to me, and I hope they're at work in my life on a minute-by-minute basis. ~ John Green,
607:What makes maitri such a different approach is that we are not trying to solve a problem. We are not striving to make pain go away or to become a better person. In fact, we are giving up control altogether and letting concepts and ideals fall apart. ~ Pema Chodron,
608:Many believe the process of creativity is one of assembling thoughts and concepts, but highly creative people will tell you that the idea, the song, the image, was in them, and their task was to get it out, a process of discovery, not design. This ~ Gavin de Becker,
609:The history of imitation of the older literature, particularly abroad, has among other advantages this one, that the important concepts of unintentional parody and passive wit can be deduced from it most easily and comprehensively. ~ Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel,
610:To repeat abstractly, universally, and distinctly in concepts the whole inner nature of the world , and thus to deposit it as a reflected image in permanent concepts always ready for the faculty of reason , this and nothing else is philosophy. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
611:33 Indeed, there’s something seductive in our pure concepts of the understanding, which tempts us to use them in a transcendent manner—that being my label for a use that goes beyond all possible experience [not = ‘transcendental’; see explanation on page ~ Anonymous,
612:I am convinced that the majority of American people do understand that we have a moral responsibility to foster the concepts of opportunity, free enterprise, the rule of law, and democracy. They understand that these values are the hope of the world. ~ Richard Lugar,
613:No-one gets an iron-clad guarantee of success. Certainly, factors like opportunity, luck and timing are important. But the backbone of success is usually found in old-fashioned, basic concepts like hard work, determination, good planning and perseverance. ~ Mia Hamm,
614:So judgments of experience get their objective validity not from immediate knowledge of the object but from how perceptions are connected with one another; and these connections come not from anything empirical but from pure concepts of the understanding ~ Anonymous,
615:I will show you how to apply that concept to your life as a rock star, secret agent, UN sniper, or Roller Derby MVP. I am qualified to do this because I’m a mechanical engineer. That’s what we do. We take scientific concepts and make them useful. ~ Christine McKinley,
616:The story of James Delaney is also someone who very deliberately presents himself as an individual and plays nations against each other, plays the East India against the Crown, all of those sort of overwhelming concepts that ran the world at the time. ~ Steven Knight,
617:My main concern with the condition of mathematics in high school is that there's a lot of fear involved! Math is not, generally speaking, presented in a fun way. The concepts, as I see them, are fun, and that's the way I'd like to convey them myself. ~ Danica McKellar,
618:With the end of empire, we are coming to an end of the epoch of rights. We have entered the epoch of responsibilities, which requires new, socially-minded human beings and new, more participatory and place-based concepts of citizenship and democracy. ~ Grace Lee Boggs,
619:And this is all based on a belief system that we never chose to believe. These beliefs are so strong, that even years later when we are exposed to new concepts and try to make our own decisions, we find that these beliefs still control our lives. Whatever ~ Miguel Ruiz,
620:Stop all delays, all seeking and all striving. Put down your concepts, ideas and beliefs. For one instant be still and directly encounter the silent unknown core of your being. In that instant Freedom will embrace you and reveal the Awakening that you are. ~ Adyashanti,
621:2001: A Space Odyssey was a wonderful conundrum when I was a boy, with its giant concepts thrown across the giant screen at Indian Hills Theater. That movie woke me up in ways that I hadn't imagined, and I went searching for book versions of the same drug. ~ Robert Reed,
622:I venture to define science as a series of interconnected concepts and conceptual schemes arising from experiment and observation and fruitful of further experiments and observations. The test of a scientific theory is, I suggest, its fruitfulness. ~ James Bryant Conant,
623:Joy Rains has a gift. A gift for explaining abstract concepts like meditation through clever analogies and metaphors. FOR THE FIRST TIME in my hectic, harried life I actually UNDERSTAND how meditation is supposed to work and WHY I should give it a TRY! ~ Elisabeth Leamy,
624:Of all the numerous forms that governments have taken over the centuries, of all the concepts and institutions that have been tried, none has succeeded in keeping the State in check. The problem of the State is evidently as far from solution as ever. ~ Murray N Rothbard,
625:The fact that paintings and, to some extent, photographs were so important for me had something to do with this. They contained no words, no concepts, and when I looked at them what I experienced, what made them so important, was also nonconceptual. ~ Karl Ove Knausg rd,
626:Anyone who says the artist's field is all answers and no questions has never done any writing or had any dealings with imageryYou are confusing two concepts: answering the questions and formulating them correctly. Only the latter is required of an author. ~ Anton Chekhov,
627:......philosophical concepts nurtured in the stillness of a professor's study could destroy a civilization....but if professors can truly wield this fatal power, may it not be that only other professors, or, at least, other thinkers can alone disarm them? ~ Isaiah Berlin,
628:Words are but symbols for the relations of things to one another and to us; nowhere do they touch upon absolute truth... Through words and concepts we shall never reach beyond the wall off relations, to some sort of fabulous primal ground of things. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
629:The OED, more so than any other dictionary, encompasses the entire history of the modern English language. By so doing it also encompasses all of English’s glories and foibles, the grand concepts and whimsical conceits that make our language what it is today. ~ Ammon Shea,
630:Words are but symbols for the relations of things to one another and to us; nowhere do they touch upon absolute truth.... Through words and concepts we shall never reach beyond the wall off relations, to some sort of fabulous primal ground of things. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
631:Abstract reasoning serves rather to fix the immediate cognition of the understanding for reason by setting it down in abstract concepts, that is, by making it clear,e i.e. putting it into a state to be interpreted for others, to make it meaningful.f – ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
632:The two highest achievements of the human mind are the twin concepts of "loyalty" and "duty". Whenever these twin concepts fall into disrepute, get out of there fast! You may possibly save yourself, but it is too late to save that society. It is doomed. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
633:We are presented with an unpleasant choice between either committing to peculiar concepts about immaterial deities or letting go entirely of a host of consoling, subtle or just charming rituals for which we struggle to find equivalents in secular society. ~ Alain de Botton,
634:With the end of empire, we are coming to an end of the epoch of rights. We have entered the epoch of responsibilities, which requires new, more socially-minded human beings and new, more participatory and place-based concepts of citizenship and democracy. ~ Grace Lee Boggs,
635:Anyone who says the artist's field is all answers and no questions has never done any writing or had any dealings with imagery...You are confusing two concepts: answering the questions and formulating them correctly. Only the latter is required of an author. ~ Anton Chekhov,
636:Every time we take a step we're surrounded by the ideological birds of prey who feed on our possibilities, fill themselves with concepts of our desires and reenslave us with beautiful combinations of words which seem to depict the world we failed to realize. ~ Fredy Perlman,
637:I'm less interested in how people are following each other and more interested in how they are following topics and tweets themselves. People are following more key words and concepts and more ideas and acting on those rather than individuals or organizations. ~ Jack Dorsey,
638:The image of the world around us, which we carry in our head, is just a model. Nobody in his head imagines all the world, government or country. He has only selected concepts, and relationships between them, and uses those to represent the real system. ~ Jay Wright Forrester,
639:The mind is so tricky. It will say, "No one cares. Is it true? Well, someone does. Let's see: So-and-so doesn't care. Well, maybe they do. Well, there is someone who doesn't care." It just shifts and shifts and shifts, so it can keep all of its concepts intact. ~ Byron Katie,
640:The separation of talent and skill is one of the greatest misunderstood concepts for people who are trying to excel, who have dreams, who want to do things. Talent you have naturally. Skill is only developed by hours and hours and hours of beating on your craft. ~ Will Smith,
641:Ever since I became a Muslim ... I've had to deal with attempts to damage my reputation and countless insinuations seeking to cast doubt on my character and trying to connect me to causes, concepts or sayings which I do not and would never wilfully subscribe to. ~ Cat Stevens,
642:Our strength lies in spiritual concepts. It lies in public sensitivities to evil. Our greatest danger is not from invading armies. Our dangers are that we may commit suicide from within by complaisance with evil, or by public tolerance of scandalous behavior. ~ Herbert Hoover,
643:San Narciso lay further south, near L.A. Like many named places in California it was less an identifiable city than a grouping of concepts—census tracts, special purpose bond-issue districts, shopping nuclei, all overlaid with access roads to its own freeway. ~ Thomas Pynchon,
644:The aim of science is, on the one hand, as complete a comprehension as possible of the connection between perceptible experiences in their totality, and, on the other hand, the achievement of this aim by employing a minimum of primary concepts and relations. ~ Albert Einstein,
645:This real world sounds like an awfully depressing place to live. It’s a place where new ideas, unfamiliar approaches, and foreign concepts always lose. The only things that win are what people already know and do, even if those things are flawed and inefficient. ~ Jason Fried,
646:We usually do not look into what is actually there in front of us. We see life through a screen of thoughts and concepts, and we mistake those mental objects for reality. We get so caught up in this endless thought-stream that reality flows by unnoticed. ~ Henepola Gunaratana,
647:But it can happen that a phrase intended to indicate a state beyond concepts just becomes another concept in itself, in the same way that if you ask a person their name and they reply that they have no name, you will then perhaps mistakenly call them 'No name'. ~ Namkhai Norbu,
648:'Fair' is one of the most dangerous concepts in politics. Since no two people are likely to agree on what is 'fair,' this means that there must be some third party with power - the government - to impose its will. The road to despotism is paved with 'fairness'. ~ Thomas Sowell,
649:In the second place, the term “Caucasian” as a designation for white people originates in concepts of beauty related to the white slave trade from eastern Europe, and whiteness remains embedded in visions of beauty found in art history and popular culture. ~ Nell Irvin Painter,
650:Most of my work comes from ideas. I can usually do only a few versions of each idea. Land Art and Body Art were particularly strong concepts which allowed for a lot of permutations. But nevertheless, I found myself wanting to move onward into something else. ~ Dennis Oppenheim,
651:New directions in science are launched by new tools much more often than by new concepts. The effect of a concept-driven revolution is to explain old things in new ways. The effect of a tool-driven revolution is to discover new things that have to be explained. ~ Freeman Dyson,
652:We can remove poverty from the surface of the earth only if we can redesign our institutions - like the banking institutions, and other institutions; if we redesign our policies, if we look back on our concepts, so that we have a different idea of poor people. ~ Muhammad Yunus,
653:Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts . . . A graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system. ~ William Gibson,
654:It's a fundamental misunderstanding of human nature and of the concepts of liberty, freedom, and self-determination. It's a fundamental misunderstanding of economics. He (Obama) believes that the pie is fixed and that he needs to more equitably divide up the slices. ~ Paul Ryan,
655:The concepts underpinning feng shui are the dual forces of yin and yang and the five elements (metal, wood, water, fire, and earth). The basic belief is that everything has its own energy and that each thing should be treated in a way that suits its characteristics. ~ Marie Kond,
656:The need for Nigerian clerks and other subordinates to help man the colonial administration required creating a new class of African people with education in the English language, with Westernized concepts, and with experience in Westernized ways of doing things. ~ Thomas Sowell,
657:There is an assumption, in attaching Puritan concepts such as "succesful" and "unsuccesful" to the awful, final act of suicide, that those who "fail" at killing themselves not only are weak, but incompeent incapable even of getting their dying quite right. ~ Kay Redfield Jamison,
658:The world is a big place, and there are many paths that lead to success. This applies to both political and economic concepts. For this reason, we see no need to stoically pursue the Chinese, American or French way. But we have socialism in common with China. ~ Nguyen Minh Triet,
659:We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significances as we do, largely because we are parties to an agreement to organize it in this way - an agreement that holds through our speech community and is codified in the patterns of our language. ~ Benjamin Lee Whorf,
660:You are a major dimwit. Is your brain made out of jello, you spineless twit? A leaf? What do you think I am, one of those magical raccoons? I'm a concept, get it? Con-cept! Concepts and raccoons aren't exactly the same, now are they? What a dumb thing to say... ~ Haruki Murakami,
661:After all, in supporting phenomenal concepts I am in a sense siding with introspection against the more behaviourist Wittgensteinians. But even so I don't think that introspection is powerful enough to resolve the specific issue about how many colours you can see. ~ David Papineau,
662:Judgement requires, then, the joint operation of sensibility and understanding. A mind without concepts would have no capacity to think; equally, a mind armed with concepts, but with no sensory data to which they could be applied, would have nothing to think about. ~ Roger Scruton,
663:The only way you will ever awaken is through silence, not through analyzation of facts. Not by sorting out good and bad, but through simple silence, letting go. Letting go of all thoughts, all the hurts, all the dogmas and concepts. Letting go of these things daily. ~ Robert Adams,
664:The worst thing is that we live in a contaminated moral environment. We feel morally ill because we became used to saying something different from what we thought. Concepts such as love, friendship, compassion, humility or forgiveness lost their depth and dimension. ~ V clav Havel,
665:The worst thing is that we live in a contaminated moral environment. We fell morally ill because we became used to saying something different from what we thought. Concepts such as love, friendship, compassion, humility or forgiveness lost their depth and dimension. ~ Vaclav Havel,
666:Thinking in terms of two realms understands the paired concepts worldy-Christia n, natural-superna tural, profane-sacred, rational-revela tions, as ultimate static opposites...and fails to recognize the original unity of these opposites in the Christ-reality. ~ Dietrich Bonhoeffer,
667:Words like "freedom," "justice," "democracy" are not common concepts; on the contrary, they are rare. People are not born knowing what these are. It takes enormous and, above all, individual effort to arrive at the respect for other people that these words imply. ~ James A Baldwin,
668:as experience in fact shows that those purely rational characters commonly called practical philosophers (and rightly so, since real, i.e., theoretical, philosophers translate life into concepts, while they translate concepts into life) are surely the happiest ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
669:I learnt to distrust all physical concepts as the basis for a theory. Instead one should put one's trust in a mathematical scheme, even if the scheme does not appear at first sight to be connected with physics. One should concentrate on getting interesting mathematics. ~ Paul Dirac,
670:Innumerable confusions and a profound feeling of despair invariably emerge in periods of great technological and cultural transitions. Our "Age of Anxiety" is, in great part, the result of trying to do today's job with yesterday's tools—with yesterday's concepts. ~ Marshall McLuhan,
671:just because universal concepts result only from thinking away and leaving out actual and existing determinations, and are therefore the emptier the more universal they are, the use of this procedure is limited to the elaboration of knowledge already acquired. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
672:'Studying the Way' is just a figure of speech, a method of arousing people's interest in the early stages of their development. In fact, the Way is not something which can be studied. Study leads to the retention of concepts, and so the Way is entirely misunderstood ~ Huangbo Xiyun,
673:Teams that commit to decisions and standards do so because they know how to embrace two separate but related concepts: buy-in and clarity. Buy-in is the achievement of honest emotional support. Clarity is the removal of assumptions and ambiguity from a situation. ~ Patrick Lencioni,
674:All human suffering is a variation on this theme—trying to control the waves, trying to control our present-moment experience so it conforms to our ideas and concepts of how it should be. If you want to suffer, compare this moment with your image of how it should be! I ~ Jeff Foster,
675:correlation and regression are not two concepts—they are different perspectives on the same concept. The general rule is straightforward but has surprising consequences: whenever the correlation between two scores is imperfect, there will be regression to the mean. ~ Daniel Kahneman,
676:I always thought I'd look corny in the type of rap video in the club with girls and all that type of stuff. I just didn't think I could really pull that off. We always think it's more fun and better just to go outside the box and to use our videos to show cool concepts. ~ Mac Miller,
677:There is an assumption, in attaching Puritan concepts such as 'successful' and 'unsuccessful' to the awful, final act of suicide, that those who 'fail' at killing themselves not only are weak, but incompetent, incapable even of getting their dying quite right. ~ Kay Redfield Jamison,
678:what the senses provide for are not •concrete applications of the pure concepts of the understanding, but only the •schemas for their use, and that the corresponding object occurs only in experience (as something the understanding makes out of the materials of the senses ~ Anonymous,
679:Heterosexuality is not a neutral science and the inner logic of the system works with its own artificially created ‘either/or’ concepts. It unifies the ambivalence of life into one official version. Per/versions (the different versions of a road) are silenced. ~ Marcella Althaus Reid,
680:I also think we need to maintain distinctions - the doctrine of creation is different from a scientific cosmology, and we should resist the temptation, which sometimes scientists give in to, to try to assimilate the concepts of theology to the concepts of science. ~ John Polkinghorne,
681:In attempting to-explode the myth I shall probably be taken to be denying well-known facts about the mental life of human beings, and my plea that I aim at doing nothing more than rectify the logic of mental-conduct concepts will probably be disallowed as mere subterfuge. ~ Anonymous,
682:Man must have new concepts, new ideals and new values which will uplift him from the barbarian desires to kill for greed - to build empires for power - to seek happiness through material possessions or to accumulate gold under the delusion that he is creating wealth. ~ Walter Russell,
683:Consider the concepts referred to in the words 'where', 'when', 'why', 'being', to the elucidation of which innumerable volumes of philosophy have been devoted. We fare no better in our speculations than a fish which should strive to become clear as to what is water. ~ Albert Einstein,
684:If our scientists invent concepts like forces, it is only because they cannot visualize the invisible vibrations that fill the empty space around us. Some scientists sneer at the mention of higher dimensions because they cannot be conveniently measured in the laboratory. ~ Michio Kaku,
685:Tantra considers it very important to eradicate such symptoms of ego. There is no point in holding garbage-concepts of yourself. You are perfect; you just need to recognize it. According to tantra, you do not need to wait until your next life to experience heaven. ~ Lama Thubten Yeshe,
686:The only way you will ever awaken is through silence, not through analyzation of facts. Not by sorting out good & bad, but through simple silence, letting go. Letting go of all thoughts, all the hurts, all the dogmas & concepts. Letting go of these things daily. ~ Robert Adams,
687:If we move from roles to beliefs or from beliefs to shared concepts, to shared phenotypes (a phenotype is the visible appearance and behaviour of an individual), shared food and shared music, we will find many examples of shared knowledge producing distinct cultures. ~ Daniel L Everett,
688:...Chanel didn't start out with a mission statement, nor a corporate vision, nor a roadmap for success, nor timeline for achieving her goals, nor an action item list, nor any of those other high-falutin' concepts we associate with mega modern multinational success stories. ~ Karen Karbo,
689:I am a sworn atheist and therefore from my point of view the Talmud or the Koran don't constitute works of political philosophy but rather writings that stand in utter contradiction to concepts like logic, freedom, feminism, secularism, brotherhood - which are my ideals. ~ Michel Onfray,
690:Our concepts of space and time have only approximate validity. In view of this, I lend an attentive ear to the strange myths of the psyche & take a careful look at the varied events that come my way, regardless of whether or not they fit in with my theoretical postulates ~ Carl Jung,
691:Our knowledge springs from two fundamental sources of the mind; the first is the capacity of receiving representations (receptivity for impressions), the second is the power of knowing an object through these representations (spontaneity [in the production] of concepts). ~ Immanuel Kant,
692:The chief contribution of such a radically new and more powerful instrument would be, not to supplement our present ideas of the universe we live in, but rather to uncover new phenomena not yet imagined, and perhaps modify profoundly our basic concepts of space and time. ~ Lyman Spitzer,
693:The problem with being a pickup artist is that there are concepts like sincerity, genuineness, trust, and connection that are important to women. And all the techniques that are so effective in beginning a relationship violate every principle necessary to maintaining one. ~ Neil Strauss,
694:Concepts like edX and online learning will transform education. This will completely change the world. I believe that people will move to online learning, both on campuses and worldwide. We have a real opportunity to be able to bring people around the world into our fold. ~ Anant Agarwal,
695:The essence of a software entity is a construct of interlocking concepts. I believe the hard part of building software to be the specification, design, and testing of this conceptual construct, not the labor of representing it and testing the fidelity of the representation. ~ Fred Brooks,
696:How can anyone really know anything about God? We have so many teachings, so many concepts, and so many views about God. But they’ve all been touched by people. In the end, it’s amazing how much our ideas about God conform to the different cultures from which they come. ~ Michael A Singer,
697:H.P. Owen’s book “Concepts of Deity” provides a good standard version: “Theism may be defined as belief in one God, the Creator, who is infinite, self-existent, incorporeal, eternal, immutable, impassible, simple, perfect, omniscient and omnipotent” (Owen 1971, p. 1). ~ John Michael Greer,
698:Many societies therefore develop moral concepts such as sanctity and sin, purity and pollution, elevation and degradation. In such societies, the personal liberty of secular Western nations looks like libertinism, hedonism, and a celebration of humanity’s baser instincts. ~ Jonathan Haidt,
699:The separation of talent and skill is one of the greatest misunderstood concepts for people who are trying to excel, who have dreams, who want to do things. Talent you have naturally. Skill is only developed by hours and hours and hours of beating on your craft." - Will Smith ~ Will Smith,
700:We would be able neither to remember nor to reflect nor to compare nor to think, indeed, we would not even be the person who we were a moment ago, if our concepts were divided among many and were not to be encountered somewhere together in their most exact combination. ~ Moses Mendelssohn,
701:Fairy tales were not my escape from reality as a child; rather, they were my reality -- for mine was a world in which good and evil were not abstract concepts, and like fairy-tale heroines, no magic would save me unless I had the wit and heart and courage to use it widely. ~ Terri Windling,
702:...in the unique case of a country’s geographic position, it is difficult to consider this factor as anything other than a cause, unless we assume that in prehistoric times peoples migrated to climates that fit their concepts of power distance, which is rather far-fetched. ~ Geert Hofstede,
703:Just before I doze off, I counsel myself grandiosely: Fuck concepts. Don't be afraid to be confused. Try to remain permanently confused. Anything is possible. Stay open, forever, so open it hurts, and then open up some more, until the day you die, world without end, amen. ~ George Saunders,
704:Just before I doze off, I counsel myself grandiosely: Fuck concepts. Don’t be afraid to be confused. Try to remain permanently confused. Anything is possible. Stay open, forever, so open it hurts, and then open up some more, until the day you die, world without end, amen. ~ George Saunders,
705:Logic leaves us no choice. In that sense, math always involves both invention and discovery: we invent the concepts but discover their consequences. … in mathematics our freedom lies in the questions we ask – and in how we pursue them – but not in the answers awaiting us. ~ Steven Strogatz,
706:Only from the perspective of such a utopia is it possible to use the concepts of pessimism and optimism with full justification: an optimist is someone who thinks that on planet number five the history of mankind will be less bloody. A pessimist is one who thinks otherwise. ~ Milan Kundera,
707:The diagnosis of these errors follows a common pattern. Each attempt by pure reason to establish the metaphysical doctrines towards which it is impelled transgresses the limits of experience, applying concepts in a manner that is ‘unconditioned’ by the faculty of intuition. ~ Roger Scruton,
708:Her mother would be appalled, but she wouldn't say anything. She would just telegraph her distress with tightened lips and raised brows. She was good at that. Clemmie's mother's brows were better than sign language, complicated concepts conveyed with the minimum of movement. ~ Lauren Willig,
709:I wish the hearts of human beings pumped with kind desires.
I wish every gaze landed on the eyes of others compassionately.
I wish hatred, envy, and vengeance were alien concepts to humankind.
I wish the precious worth of every soul was universally understood. ~ Richelle E Goodrich,
710:Once one is caught up into the material world not one person in ten thousand finds the time to form literary taste, to examine the validity of philosophic concepts for himself, or to form what, for lack of a better phrase, I might call the wise and tragic sense of life. ~ F Scott Fitzgerald,
711:the four keys (or Cs) to improving your memory. The first section talks about improving your Concentration. The second section is about improving your ability to Create imagery and Connecting concepts together, and the final key is about creating a habit with Continuous use. ~ Kevin Horsley,
712:these pure concepts have no meaning outside that domain; and all these noumena, together with the intelligible 4 world that they compose, are nothing but the representation of a problem, ·namely the problem or question: What are noumena like? What is the intelligible world like? ~ Anonymous,
713:All history teaches us that these questions that we think the pressing ones will be transmuted before they are answered, that they will be replaced by others, and that the very process of discovery will shatter the concepts that we today use to describe our puzzlement. ~ J Robert Oppenheimer,
714:Atheism and agnosticism signify the rejection of certain images and concepts of God or of truth, which are historically conditioned and therefore inadequate. Atheism is a challenge to religion to purifiy its images and concepts and come nearer to the truth of divine mystery. ~ Bede Griffiths,
715:...concepts have three fundamental properties—contextuality, intentionality, and abstraction—which independent things do not. To produce a mental world from the physical world, the physical world must first explain how contextuality, intentionality, and abstraction can arise. ~ Ashish Dalela,
716:Psyche & matter exist in one and the same world, and each partakes of the other, otherwise any reciprocal action would be impossible. If research could only advance far enough, therefore, we should arrive at an ultimate agreement between physical & psychological concepts. ~ Carl Jung,
717:Schiller never wanted to replace the moral with the aesthetic but he did want the moral to be one part of the aesthetic. He rightly notes the aesthetic dimension of morality, that we use concepts like grace to characterise people who do their duty with ease and pleasure. ~ Frederick C Beiser,
718:Love and concern for all are not things some of us are born with and others are not. Rather, they are results of what we do with our minds: We can choose to transform our minds so that they embody love, or we can allow them to develop habits and false concepts of separation. ~ Sharon Salzberg,
719:Play is, by definition, a safety space. If a designer or artist can make safe spaces that allow the negotiation of real-world concepts, issues, and ideas, then a game can be successful in facilitating the exploration of innovative solutions for apparently intractable problems. ~ Mary Flanagan,
720:Terms such as “courage,” “kindness,” “good,” “evil,” or “heroic” are abstract concepts for a child. In order to learn what it means to be “good,” a child needs to be shown, not merely told. In all honesty, I think that is true of the human race, adults as well as children. It ~ Sarah Clarkson,
721:the IPCC now spoke comfortably of consensus and endorsed those mysterious concepts of sustainability and energy that renewed itself. We even thought that this way somehow we could save the planet and grow richer as well, a more pleasing outcome than the uncomfortable truth. ~ James E Lovelock,
722:I don't try to overintellectua lize my concepts of people. In fact, the ideas I have, if you talk about them, they seem extremely corny and it's only in their execution that people can enjoy them...It's something I've learned to trust: The stupider it is, the better it looks. ~ Annie Leibovitz,
723:It is impossible for me to estimate how many of my early impressions of the world, correct and the opposite, came to me through newspapers. Homicide, adultery, no-hit pitching, and Balkanism were concepts that, left to my own devices, I would have encountered much later in life. ~ A J Liebling,
724:I've always thought photography was an art form, but it had very low appreciation in the beginning, except for some Europeans, and of course Stieglitz. Stieglitz always considered photography to be an art form and is the "father" of the creative concepts of the twentieth century. ~ Ansel Adams,
725:Science had given mankind many gifts, and she valued it. But the one important thing it had taken away was the value of subjective, personal experience. That had been replaced with the idea that only measurable and testable concepts had value. But humans didn't work that way. ~ James S A Corey,
726:Sociopath" was one of the most useful concepts that Miriam's Memetic Engineering Task Force had imported from the United States: Erasmus's Propaganda Ministry had been working overtime to raise awareness of it as an Anti-Democratic Problem: "People who think People are Things. ~ Charles Stross,
727:Three qualities of greatness stood out in Woodrow Wilson. He was a man of staunch morals. He was more than just an idealist; he was the personification of the heritage of idealism of the American people. He brought spiritual concepts to the peace table. He was a born crusader. ~ Herbert Hoover,
728:For the most part, it is true, ordinary men and women regard mathematics with energetic distaste, counting its concepts as rhapsodic as cauliflower. This is a mistake-there is no other word. Where else can the restless human mind find means to tie the infinite in a finite bow? ~ David Berlinski,
729:I'm really lucky because my sister is a real activist soul and also hyper-intellectualized in this way that's really allowed me to wrap my mind around some of the bigger intellectual concepts and really understand the language around identity in the gender nonconforming community. ~ Lena Dunham,
730:Jerry Fodor, a fierce critic of pragmatist approaches to mind and language, puts this sort of criticism in a nutshell when he says: “First the pragmatist theory of concepts, then the theory theory of concepts, then holism, then relativism. So it goes” (Fodor 1994, p. 111). ~ Richard J Bernstein,
731:Liberalism and Western-style democracy have not been able to help realize the ideals of humanity. Today these two concepts have failed. Those with insight can already hear the sounds of the shattering and fall of the ideology and thoughts of the liberal democratic systems. ~ Mahmoud Ahmadinejad,
732:As we just saw, some concepts such as symmetries retain their central status. In contrast, other concepts, such as initial conditions, complexity and randomness, get reinterpreted as mere illusions, existing only in the mind of the beholder and not in the external physical reality. ~ Max Tegmark,
733:I had never been able to believe that God would give us poor frail humans only one chance at making it -- that we would be assigned to some kind of hell because we failed during one experience of mortal life. ... So the concepts of karma and reincarnation made logical sense to me. ~ Jane Goodall,
734:Precisely because Galilean science is, in the formation of its concepts, the technic of a specific Lebenswelt , it does not and cannot transcend this Lebenswelt . It remains essentially within the basic experiential framework and within the universe of ends set by this reality. ~ Herbert Marcuse,
735:Think about it logically: we came here on a spaceship that employs concepts in physics your race hasn’t even discovered. You putt around this tiny planet in painted aluminum cans that burn the liquefied remains of ancient reptiles. Do you honestly think you could beat us in a fight? ~ A G Riddle,
736:You do not go out into the street in your underwear, although usually you are wearing underwear. The underwear is not visible but it is there all the time. It is the same with concepts. They are there. They underlie practical things we do- even when we are not conscious of them. ~ Edward de Bono,
737:Ideas aren’t helping you anymore, Sera. Concepts have run their course. Paradigms pop. Theories leak. Techniques are only top-offs. Beliefs brush away. Books close. Workshops end. What truly transforms is this Closeness with Me. You gotta hug Me so tight that nothing comes between Us. ~ Sera Beak,
738:The concepts "soul", "spirit" and last of all the concept "immortal soul" were invented in order to despise the body, in order to make it sick - "holy" - in order to cultivate an attitude of appalling disrespect for all things in life which deserve to be treated seriously i. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
739:To anticipate likely sources of misalignment in any company, it’s useful to distinguish between three concepts: • Ownership: who legally owns a company’s equity? • Possession: who actually runs the company on a day-to-day basis? • Control: who formally governs the company’s affairs? ~ Peter Thiel,
740:As you practice jhana-oriented meditation, you move over time through a series of mental states that become more and more subtle as you proceed through them. You start where you are now and you go far, far beyond. You move beyond the range of concepts and sensory perceptions. ~ Henepola Gunaratana,
741:Last but not least, much of what I recommend will seem impossible and even offensive to basic common sense—I expect that. Resolve now to test the concepts as an exercise in lateral thinking. If you try it, you’ll see just how deep the rabbit hole goes, and you won’t ever go back. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
742:Most of all, the clash between Vogtians and Borlaugians is heated because it is less about facts than about values. Although the two men rarely acknowledged it, their arguments were founded on implicit moral and spiritual visions: concepts of the world and humankind’s place in it. ~ Charles C Mann,
743:The business of art is no longer the communication of thoughts or feelings which are to be conceptually ordered, but a direct participation in an experience. The whole tendency of modern communication...is towards participation in a process, rather than apprehension of concepts. ~ Marshall McLuhan,
744:For us, scientific literacy constitutes the knowledge you need to understand public issues. It is a mix of facts, vocabulary, concepts, history, and philosophy. It is not the specialized stuff of the experts, but the more general, less precise knowledge used in political discourse. ~ Robert M Hazen,
745:I lack clarity; everything’s seen as an amorphous blob. No, my stories are not definable in detail. What my stories are, what I see in my brain, are the shapes of ideas, wrapped up like planets seen as marbles, each fully contained experience filed under a broader heading of Concepts. ~ Chris Kluwe,
746:Moment by moment the Holy Spirit will work with your beliefs, taking you step by step as you unwind your mind from the many false concepts that you believe keep you safe and make you happy. Only the release from these false beliefs can bring you true happiness and lasting peace. ~ David Hoffmeister,
747:Our challenges give us insights and experiences that only we have had. And—I don’t want to be glib about this—they are things we need to not only accept but also embrace and even see as strengths. While we may not have chosen to include them in our concepts of ourselves, they are there. ~ Amy Cuddy,
748:Concepts vs. self-actualization. - Instead of dedicating your life to actualize a concept of what you should be like, ACTUALIZE YOURSELF. The process of maturing does not mean to become a captive of conceptualization. It is to come to the realization of what lies in our innermost selves. ~ Bruce Lee,
749:The ultimate point of view is that there is nothing to understand, so when we try to understand, we are only indulging in acrobatics of the mind. Whatever you have understood, you are not. Why are you getting lost in concepts? You are not what you know, you are the knower. ~ Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj,
750:Economics was like psychology, a pseudoscience trying to hide that fact with intense theoretical hyperelaboration. And gross domestic product was one of those unfortunate measurement concepts, like inches or the British thermal unit, that ought to have been retired long before. ~ Kim Stanley Robinson,
751:Western science is approaching a paradigm shift of unprecedented proportions, one that will change our concepts of reality and of human nature, bridge the gap between ancient wisdom and modern science, and reconcile the differences between Eastern spirituality and Western pragmatism. ~ Stanislav Grof,
752:I had a sort of bad experiences as a playwright early on, when directors were putting in huge concepts that I didn't intend, or they were stylizing something that was compromising the play, so I started to think like, "well if I'm going to fight against this, I should learn how to direct". ~ Adam Rapp,
753:Learn to live without self-concern. For this you must know your own true being as indomitable, fearless, ever victorious. Once you know with absolute certainty that nothing can trouble you, you come to disregard your desires and fears, concepts and ideas and live by truth alone. ~ Nisargadatta Maharaj,
754:Things and people moved around me, taking positions in obscure hierarchies, participating in systems I didn't know about and never would. A complex network of objects and concepts. You live through certain things before you understand them. You can't always take the analytical position. ~ Sally Rooney,
755:According to special relativity, no longer can space and time be thought of as universal concepts set in stone, experienced identically by everyone. Rather, space and time emerged from Einstein's reworking as malleable constructs whose form and appearance depend on one's state of motion. ~ Brian Greene,
756:And so, inevitably, one returns to the centre of Western culture, Greece, and we have never, in any sense, lost our ties with the architectural concepts that this country's ancient civilization explored and demonstrated, nor with the political and social freedom that lay behind them. ~ Stephen Gardiner,
757:Separating the preacher from the practice, the promise from the outcome, the perceived intention from the consequence is at the crux of resistance because it is too easy to mistake the label for the thing labeled, to deal in symbols and concepts instead of people and their behavior. ~ Philip G Zimbardo,
758:The aim ... is to provide a clear and rigorous basis for determining when a causal ordering can be said to hold between two variables or groups of variables in a model . . . . The concepts refer to a model-a system of equations-and not to the 'real' world the model purports to describe. ~ Herbert Simon,
759:To satisfy themselves with this, they gladly grasp at words, especially those which denote indefinite, very abstract, and unusual concepts difficult to explain, such, for example, as infinite and finite, sensuous and supersensuous, the Idea of being, Ideas of reason, the Absolute, ~ Arthur Schopenhauer,
760:I believe that we can create a poverty-free world because poverty is not created by poor people. It has been created and sustained by the economic and social systems that we have designed for ourselves; the institutions and concepts that make up that system; the policies that we pursue. ~ Muhammad Yunus,
761:I eagerly await new concepts and processes. I believe that the electronic image will be the next major advance. Such systems will have their own inherent and inescapable structural characteristics, and the artist and functional practitioner will again strive to comprehend and control them. ~ Ansel Adams,
762:If all our objectively valid synthetic judgments are analysed, it turns out that they never consist in mere intuitions that are brought together in a judgment through mere comparison.Always, a pure concept of the understanding has been added to the concepts that are abstracted from intuition ~ Anonymous,
763:I'm enormously interested to see where neuroscience can take us in understanding these complexities of the human brain and how it works, but I do think there may be limits in terms of what science can tell us about what does good and evil mean anyway, and what are those concepts about? ~ Francis Collins,
764:There are such manifold forms of nature; there are many modifications of the general transcendental concepts of nature that are left undetermined by the laws furnished by pure intellect a priori because these laws only concern the general possibility of nature as an object of the senses. ~ Immanuel Kant,
765:Today, although the terms have changed, the concepts remain the same. Now the evils released from Pandora’s box have more specific names like pests, vermin, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, toxins, cancer, heart disease, and pain—all of which have inflicted suffering or limited lives. ~ Paul A Offit,
766:It is my conviction that pure mathematical construction enables us to discover the concepts and the laws connecting them, which gives us the key to the understanding of nature ... In a certain sense, therefore, I hold it true that pure thought can grasp reality, as the ancients dreamed. ~ Albert Einstein,
767:Martin, fables are possibly one of the most interesting literary forms ever invented. Do you know what they teach us? Moral lessons? No. They teach us that human beings learn and absorb ideas and concepts through narrative, through stories, not through lessons or theoretical speeches. ~ Carlos Ruiz Zaf n,
768:My favorite book in life is 'A Wrinkle In Time,' which I read before high school. It was my first introduction into the meeting of science and spirit and the universe and big thoughts and all of those interesting New Age-y concepts. It made everything make sense to me and opened up my mind. ~ Mae Whitman,
769:We should cease to talk about vague and unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are then hampered by idealistic slogans, the better. ~ George F Kennan,
770:As Enlightenment philosophers and scholars consciously adopted the methods of science to establish such abstract concepts as rights, liberty, and justice, successive generations have become schooled in thinking of these abstractions as applied to others in matrices-like mental rotations. ~ Michael Shermer,
771:Sexual normalcy and abnormality are personal and subjective concepts. What is unnatural to one [person] is natural to another. What is abnormal under certain conditions may be completely normal under others. And, in any event, to be different is not necessarily to be wrong, or to be sick. ~ Victor J Banis,
772:There may be organic life out there, or maybe machines created by long-dead civilizations, but any signals, even if they are difficult to decode, would tell us that the concepts of logic and physics are not limited to the hardware in human skulls, and will transform our view of the universe. ~ Martin Rees,
773:This seemingly minor point is in fact important in distinguishing Chinese and Western legal concepts: the latter see natural persons as bearers of rights and duties independently of any action of the state, whereas in China citizenship is something conferred on individuals by the state. ~ Francis Fukuyama,
774:Contrary to the academic cliché, nations are far from being easily 'manipulated' into existence from supposedly disparate communities in a process of nation building. Nor, contrary to American parlance, are the people in Iraq, the people of Iraq, and the “Iraqi people” interchangeable concepts. ~ Anonymous,
775:Ludicrous concepts…like the whole idea of a 'war on terrorism'. You can wage war against another country, or on a national group within your own country, but you can't wage war on an abstract noun. How do you know when you've won? When you've got it removed from the Oxford English Dictionary? ~ Terry Jones,
776:The separation of talent and skill,” Will Smith points out, “is one of the greatest misunderstood concepts for people who are trying to excel, who have dreams, who want to do things. Talent you have naturally. Skill is only developed by hours and hours and hours of beating on your craft. ~ Angela Duckworth,
777:My kid is seven years old and is learning to read and conjugate, but I don't agree with that kind of education because I feel that the concepts are not contextualized... it's interesting to try to make my kid a reflective boy, rather than just a repetitive boy, even if he doesn't agree with me. ~ Ana Tijoux,
778:Concepts have meaning only if we can point to objects to which they refer and to the rules by which they are assigned to these objects.”85 In other words, for a concept to make sense you need an operational definition of it, one that describes how you would observe the concept in operation. ~ Walter Isaacson,
779:Innumerable confusions and a profound feeling of despair invariably emerge in periods of great technological and cultural transitions. Our “Age of Anxiety” is, in great part, the result of trying to do today’s job with yesterday’s tools—with yesterday’s concepts. ~ Marshall McLuhan, The Medium is the Massage,
780:The theoretically interesting category-mistakes are those made by people who are perfectly competent to apply concepts, at least in the situations with which they are familiar, but are still liable in their abstract thinking to allocate those concepts to logical types to which they do not belong) ~ Anonymous,
781:With the subsequent strong support from cybernetics , the concepts of systems thinking and systems theory became integral parts of the established scientific language, and led to numerous new methodologies and applications -- systems engineering, systems analysis, systems dynamics, and so on. ~ Fritjof Capra,
782:I really like the reggae concepts like the culture vibe. They speak on everything that's going on, they don't have limits. They speak on politics, they speak on life, they speak on the troubles of poverty, everything. The message, the melodies and the concepts of reggae music are unbelievable. ~ Sean Kingston,
783:The Russell Cosmogony with its new concepts of light, matter, energy, electricity and magnetism is a simple yet complete, consistent and workable cosmogony which will enable future scientists to visualize the universe as a unified whole, and will open the door to the New Age of Transmutation. ~ Walter Russell,
784:For most of us free-thinking, wild hearts, our relationship with God or the Universe will go through peaks and valleys – transforming into new concepts and beliefs, completely disappearing, at times, only then to instantly explode back into existence by something even as small as a sunset! ~ Jennifer Elisabeth,
785:You need to understand the receiver and the offense you're facing that week. Know his tendencies and what routes he runs out of what formations. This will help you understand the concepts of what the receiver is going to give you on a given play, and make you that much better defending him. ~ Antonio Cromartie,
786:My life is not possible to tell. I change every day, change my patterns, my concepts, my interpretations. I am a series of moods and sensations. I play a thousand roles. I weep when I find others play them for me. My real self is unknown. My work is merely an essence of this vast and deep adventure. ~ Anais Nin,
787:My life is not possible to tell. I change every day, change my patterns, my concepts, my interpretations. I am a series of moods and sensations. I play a thousand roles. I weep when I find others play them for me. My real self is unknown. My work is merely an essence of this vast and deep adventure. ~ Ana s Nin,
788:The mystery of life is beyond all human conception. Everything we know is within the terminology of the concepts of being and not being, many and single, true and untrue. We always think in terms of opposites. But God, the ultimate, is beyond the pairs of opposites, that is all there is to it. ~ Joseph Campbell,
789:Useful Commands and Concepts Running the Django dev server python3 manage.py runserver Running the functional tests python3 functional tests.py Running the unit tests python3 manage.py test The unit-test/code cycle Run the unit tests in the terminal. Make a minimal code change in the editor. Repeat! ~ Anonymous,
790:What’s so beautiful about girls?” I would implore.
And the secret society of adults would reply with a smirk and wink as if I was merely a boy who couldn’t possibly have the mental maturity to comprehend such grown-up concepts as love and bleeding vaginas; “You’ll understand someday, James. ~ Jake Vander Ark,
791:I can explain how a person with autism thinks. I am very, very interested in how people think. It's been a gradual process of learning more and more about how my thinking process is different. You know it's bottom up - you take specific examples to make concepts and then I put them in categories. ~ Temple Grandin,
792:To repeat abstractly, universally, and distinctly in concepts the whole inner nature of the world, and thus to deposit it as a reflected image in permanent concepts always ready for the faculty of reason, this and nothing else is philosophy. ~ Arthur Schopenhauer The World as Will and Representation, Vol. I, §68.,
793:You must have also observed the masculine bias in the English language itself, in which women—literally, 'not men'—are daily confronted with the terror, unknowable to men, of concepts which they can imagine, but which an inherently patriarchal language does not allow them to express. ~ Dexter Palmer,
794:People live their lives bound by what they accept as correct and true. That’s how they define Reality. But what does it mean to be “correct” or “true”? Merely vague concepts… Their Reality may all be a mirage. Can we consider them to simply be living in their own world, shaped by their beliefs? ~ Masashi Kishimoto,
795:The wild gatecrashes our civilised domains, and the domesticated escapes and runs riot. Weeds vividly demonstrate that natural life - and the course of evolution itself - refuse to be constrained by our cultural concepts. In doing so they make us look closely at the very idea of a divided creation. ~ Richard Mabey,
796:There's so much more work that goes into developing a makeup line than one would imagine. Personally, I like to be involved in the entire creative process - everything from art direction, collection concepts, formula testing, packaging artwork, to naming the shades and also the marketing side of things. ~ Kat Von D,
797:You want to unify America with a sense of culture and decency and all of this that reasserts and reaffirms the concepts of American exceptionalism.But the left and who they are, you watch Hollywood, you watch the Oscars, you watch any left-wing, it's not even Democrat. It is ultra left-wing radical. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
798:Both matter and radiation possess a remarkable duality of character, as they sometimes exhibit the properties of waves, at other times those of particles. Now it is obvious that a thing cannot be a form of wave motion and composed of particles at the same time - the two concepts are too different ~ Werner Heisenberg,
799:The psychosphere, the logosphere, is permeated by concepts, ideas, verbalizations, a whole apparatus devised, or rather evolved, to form some sort of mental contact with reality--or to block it off. That is, a large circle of the "thinking," "educated" class take ideas as more veridical than facts. ~ Robert Conquest,
800:To Taoism that which is absolutely still or absolutely perfect is absolutely dead, for without the possibility of growth and change there can be no Tao. In reality there is nothing in the universe which is completely perfect or completely still; it is only in the minds of men that such concepts exist. ~ Alan W Watts,
801:Charles Spurgeon was bold in his insistence that every sermon lift up Jesus for all listeners to behold. He complained that he often heard sermons that were “very learned . . . fine and magnificent,” yet all about moral truth and ethical practice and inspiring concepts and “not a word about Christ. ~ Timothy J Keller,
802:It is man's vision of a world fit for rational, civilized humanity which leads him to dare and to suffer to build societies free from want and fear. Concepts such as truth, justice and compassion cannot be dismissed as trite when these are often the only bulwarks which stand against ruthless power. ~ Aung San Suu Kyi,
803:The unreal is more powerful than the real, because nothing is as perfect as you can imagine it. Because it's only intangible ideas, concepts, beliefs, fantasies that last. Stone crumbles. Wood rots. People, well, they die. But things as fragile as a thought, a dream, a legend, they can go on and on. ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
804:The unreal is more powerful than the real, because nothing is as perfect as you can imagine it, because it's only intangible ideas, concepts, beliefs, fantasies that last. Stone crumbles, wood rots. People, well, they die. But things as fragile as a thought, a dream, a legend, they can go on and on. ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
805:Verbal, plenary inspiration: The extending of God’s superintendence of the writing of Scripture down to the very choice of words, not merely to overarching themes or concepts; that is, “the whole of Scripture and all of its parts, down to the very words of the original,” were inspired (Chicago Statement). ~ Anonymous,
806:We acquire both the language and religious concepts from our immediate culture – at the same time. A child cannot discriminate between useful survival information and the emotional and psychological manipulations of religion. Once infected, these ideas are deeply embedded and almost impossible to change. ~ Darrel Ray,
807:If we’re going to strive for spiritual growth, we have to be willing to put concepts into practice in our everyday lives, in all relationships with all people. You can’t separate your “spiritual life” from your “work life.” They’re both your life! In the same vein, you can’t separate money and happiness. ~ T Harv Eker,
808:The choice one makes between partners, between one man and another, stretches beyond romance. It is the choice between values, possibilities, futures, hopes, arguments (shared concepts that fit the world as you experience it), languages (shared words that fit the world as you believe it to be) and lives. ~ Zadie Smith,
809:There are no whys in a person's life, and very few hows. In the end, in search of useful wisdom, you could only come back to the most hackneyed concepts, like kindness, forbearance, infinite patience. Solomon and Lincoln: This too shall pass. Damn right it will. Or Chekhov: Nothing passes. Equally true. ~ Chad Harbach,
810:There is a difference — subtle but very significant — between having faith in my faith (i.e., faith in my intellectual concepts about God — another way of saying “leaning on my own understanding”) and having faith in God. There is a corresponding difference between doubting my faith and doubting God. ~ Brian D McLaren,
811:To be sure, mathematics can be extended to any branch of knowledge, including economics, provided the concepts are so clearly defined as to permit accurate symbolic representation. That is only another way of saying that in some branches of discourse it is desirable to know what you are talking about. ~ James R Newman,
812:The political elite in Russia don't want domestic reform, they aren't ready for it. As such, they welcome an external threat. You have to remember that Russia rests on two national concepts: defense and sovereignty. We approach the question of security much more reverentially than other countries do. ~ Sergey Karaganov,
813:They really were insufferable, she thought, these pampered millennial snowflakes with their yoga mats and their designer leggings and their contempt for concepts such as hard work and competition. She only wished she’d brought along a packet of L&Bs. One whiff of smoke would have sent them scurrying. ~ Daniel Silva,
814:This (functional - E.W.) language controls by reducing the linguistic forms and symbols of reflection, abstraction, development, contradiction; by substituting images for concepts. It denies or absorbs the transcendent vocabulary; it does not search for but establishes and imposes truth and falsehood. ~ Herbert Marcuse,
815:In any of these evolutions, India will be a fulcrum of twenty-first-century order: an indispensable element, based on its geography, resources, and tradition of sophisticated leadership, in the strategic and ideological evolution of the regions and the concepts of order at whose intersection it stands. ~ Henry Kissinger,
816:Words like “freedom,” “justice,” “democracy” are not common concepts; on the contrary, they are rare. People are not born knowing what these are. It takes enormous and, above all, individual effort to arrive at the respect for other people that these words imply. --“The Crusade of Indignation,” in Nation ~ James Baldwin,
817:One good way to understand what conservatism is really about is to use the acronym FLINT to remember five core concepts: Free enterprise, Limited government, Individual liberty, National defense, and Traditional values. These five principles are a good summary of conservative thought in America today. ~ William J Bennett,
818:There is no necessary connection between the concepts of home and of prettiness; what we call a home is merely any place that succeeds in making more consistently available to us the important truths which the wider world ignores, or which our distracted and irresolute selves have trouble holding on to. ~ Alain de Botton,
819:In existing criminology there are concepts: a criminal man, a criminal profession, a criminal society, a criminal sect, and a criminal tribe; but there is no concept of a criminal state, or a criminal government, or criminal legislation. Consequently, the biggest crimes actually escape being called crimes. ~ P D Ouspensky,
820:All methods of Buddhism can be explained with the four seals—all compounded phenomena are impermanent, all emotions are pain, all things have no inherent existence, and enlightenment is beyond concepts. Every act and deed encouraged by Buddhist scriptures is based on these four truths, or seals. ~ Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse,
821:It was thrilling, wasn't it? [...] That moment, that perfect moment you let go of your rigid concepts of what was possible. When there was nothing left to do but step beyond anything you'd learned before...when you stopped being a poor mimic and became a master of the mind. How did that feel?"
"Empowering. ~ Scott Snyder,
822:Without miracles, the Kingdom of God is reduced to words, concepts and good works. Perceived through this paradigm, the Lions, Rotary and Moose clubs would be the ones contending for first place. While words, concepts and works are important, it is imperative that we demonstrate the power of our great King. ~ Kris Vallotton,
823:CONCEPTS AND IDEAS are incapable of expressing reality as it is. Nirvana, the ultimate reality, cannot be described, because it is free of all concepts and ideas. Nirvana is the extinction of all concepts. It is total freedom. Nirvana, the ultimate reality, or God, is of the nature of no-birth and no-death. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
824:I believe that science is best left to scientists, that you cannot have managers or directors of science, it's got to be carried out and done by people with ideas, people with concepts, people who feel in their bones that they want to go ahead and develop this, that, or the other concept which occurs to them. ~ Mark Oliphant,
825:I eventually realized that direct experience is the most valuable experience I can have. Western man is so surrounded by ideas, so bombarded with opinions, concepts, and information structures of all sorts, that it becomes difficult to experience anything without the intervening filter of these structures. ~ Michael Crichton,
826:No one can stop or control your thought process or your thinking. You can think anything you want. But that doesn't seem to be the point. The thinking process has to be directed into a certain approach... not in accord with certain dogma, philosophy, or concepts. Instead, one has to know the thinker itself. ~ Chogyam Trungpa,
827:Science can investigate nature and inquire into the empirical world, but it cannot answer moral questions or disprove
free will. That is because morality and freedom are not empirical concepts.
We can’t prove that they exist, but neither can we make sense of our moral lives without presupposing them. ~ Michael J Sandel,
828:Literature is conscious mythology: as society develops, its mythical stories become structural principles of story-telling, its mythical concepts, sun-gods and the like, become habits of metaphoric thought. In a fully mature literary tradition the writerenters intoa structure of traditional stories and images. ~ Northrop Frye,
829:Posture not only shapes the way we feel, it also shapes the way we think about ourselves—from our self-descriptions to the certainty and comfort with which we hold them. And those self-concepts can either facilitate or hinder our ability to connect with others, to perform our jobs, and, more simply, to be present. ~ Amy Cuddy,
830:The mature person perceives the fruitlessness of rigid, external methodologies; Remembering this, he keeps his attitude unstructured at all times and thus is always free to pursue the Integral Way. He studies the teachings of the masters. He dissolves all concepts of duality. He pours himself out in service to others. ~ Laozi,
831:The sense organs, which are limited in scope and ability, randomly gather information. This partial information is arranged into judgments, which are based on previous judgments, which are usually based on someone else's foolish ideas. These false concepts and ideas are then stored in a highly selective memory system. ~ Laozi,
832:Whereas the man of action binds his life to reason and its concepts so that he will not be swept away and lost, the scientific investigator builds his hut right next to the tower of science so that he will be able to work on it and to find shelter for himself beneath those bulwarks which presently exist. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
833:How could human behaviour be described? Surely only by showing the actions of a variety of humans, as they are all mixed up together. Not what one man is doing now, but the whole hurly-burly, is the background against which we see an action, and it determines our judgment, our concepts, and our reactions. ~ Ludwig Wittgenstein,
834:In the realm of science, all attempts to find any evidence of supernatural beings, of metaphysical concepts, as God, immortality, infinity, etc have thus far failed, and if we are honest, we must confess that in science there exists no God, no immortality, no soul or mind, as distinct from the body. ~ Charles Proteus Steinmetz,
835:It is not up to us to particularize, but rather to deduce that the concepts of human rights originated from the divine influence because, as far as we are concerned, we are compelled to recognize our slow individual evolution from fierce selfishness toward a universal love, from the iniquity toward true justice. ~ Chico Xavier,
836:It is said that even the philosopher cannot bear to endure a toothache. Words contain great wisdom, but it is only in the manifestation of these experiences that the wisdom settles into our bones and guides us to act. You see, the words printed here are but concepts. You must go through the experiences yourself. ~ Jeff Wheeler,
837:Comic books have more truth than people know. Movies too. We’re trying to get people used to certain concepts, so that if news of the Associates and what they’re doing becomes public, it won’t be a complete shock. We’re seeing progress too, now that comic books and graphic novels are becoming more mainstream. ~ Karen McQuestion,
838:[L]iberation does not involve the loss or destruction of such conventional concepts as the ego; it means seeing through them - in the same way that we can use the idea of the equator without confusing it with a physical mark upon the surface of the earth. Instead of falling below the ego, liberation surpasses it. ~ Alan W Watts,
839:[O]pposites, such as light and darkness, sound and silence, solid and space, on and off, inside and outside, appearing and disappearing, cause and effect, are poles or aspects of the same thing. But we have no word for that thing, save such vague concepts as Existence, Being, God, or the Ultimate Ground of Being. ~ Alan W Watts,
840:Anything less than self-ownership is slavery. All concepts of rights come from self-ownership. Your self-ownership is the acknowledgement by others of your right to control yourself. If you do not assert control over something of value, someone else will. Without the assertion of self-ownership, there is no freedom. ~ Adam Kokesh,
841:From this it follows incontestably, that pure concepts of the understanding never admit of a transcendental, but only of an empirical use, and that the principles of the pure understanding can only be referred, as general conditions of a possible experience, to objects of the senses, never to things in themselves… ~ Immanuel Kant,
842:The concept of surfaces and gaps is one of several concepts that bear on tactics. It is of the same level of importance as mission tactics and the main effort, which will be the subjects of the two tactics lessons following this one. All of the concepts should be constantly at work during the execution of battle. ~ William S Lind,
843:The most important thing to teach your children is that the sun does not rise and set. It is the Earth that revolves around the sun. Then teach them the concepts of North, South, East and West, and that they relate to where they happen to be on the planet's surface at that time. Everything else will follow. ~ R Buckminster Fuller,
844:To avoid a frequent misunderstanding, it cannot be emphasized too strongly that symmetry and complementarity in communication are not ins and by themselves "good" or "bad", "normal" or "abnormal", etc. The two concepts simply refer tp two basic categories into which all communicational interchanges can be divided. ~ Paul Watzlawick,
845:Without metaphor the handling of general concepts such as culture and civilization becomes impossible, and that of disease and disorder is the obvious one for the case in point. Is not crisis itself a concept we owe to Hippocrates? In the social and cultural domain no metaphor is more apt than the pathological one. ~ Johan Huizinga,
846:I rather incline towards 'conceptualism', in line with my view of colour perception - I don't think that we can represent objects and properties for which we have no concepts, not even in perceptual experience. In this sense I differ from those who defend 'non-conceptual content' like Michael Tye and Chris Peacocke. ~ David Papineau,
847:The existing scientific concepts cover always only a very limited part of reality, and the other part that has not yet been understood is infinite. Whenever we proceed from the known into the unknown we may hope to understand, but we may have to learn at the same time a new meaning of the word 'understanding'.
   ~ Werner Heisenberg,
848:model-dependent realism. It is based on the idea that our brains interpret the input from our sensory organs by making a model of the world. When such a model is successful at explaining events, we tend to attribute to it, and to the elements and concepts that constitute it, the quality of reality or absolute truth. ~ Stephen Hawking,
849:The contingency of history (both for life in general and for the cultures of Homo sapiens ) and human free will (in the factual rather than theological sense) are conjoined concepts, and no better evidence can be produced than the "experimental" production of markedly different solutions in identical environments. ~ Stephen Jay Gould,
850:We might be competent in many subjects, but we cannot become an expert in the things of God. God is greater than our minds and cannot be caught within the boundaries of our finite concepts. Thus, spiritual formation leads not to a proud understanding of divinity, but to docta ignorantia, an “articulate not-knowing. ~ Henri J M Nouwen,
851:Reading activates and exercises the mind. Reading forces the mind to discriminate. From the beginning, readers have to recognize letters printed on the page, make them into words, the words into sentences, and the sentences into concepts. Reading pushes us to use our imagination and makes us more creatively inclined. ~ Benjamin Carson,
852:Out of time we cut 'days' and 'nights', 'summers' and 'winters.' We say what, each part of the sensible continuum is, and all these abstract whats are concepts. The intelletual life of man consists almost wholly in his substitution of a conceptual order for the persceptual order in which his experience originally comes. ~ William James,
853:Reading activates and exercises the mind.
Reading forces the mind to discriminate. From the beginning, readers have to recognize letters printed on the page, make them into words, the words into sentences, and the sentences into concepts.
Reading pushes us to use our imagination and makes us more creatively inclined. ~ Ben Carson,
854:The mistake the world is making with the simple peoples is to try and hurry them into political concepts they don't understand and aren't prepared to cope with. I know. I am a peasant myself. ... I say, Spit on the big, fancy schemes. I want all the little things first. Then perhaps we can get on to the bigger things. ~ Ramon Magsaysay,
855:Both of them, in addition to their other errors (and, indeed, crimes) failed, to their detriment, to follow Marx’s lead in a crucial regard: instead of embracing liberty and rationality as their rallying cries and organising concepts, they opted for equality and justice, bequeathing the concept of freedom to the neoliberals. ~ Anonymous,
856:Conservative concepts believe in little government - take care of yourself, and that makes men who invent things like the constitution! Liberal thought has big government - we'll take care of you - and that creates boys and they create things like Occupy Wall Street! There's a difference between the way men and boys behave. ~ Brad Stine,
857:Each day that we live, we're taking in new information, ideas, concepts, experiences, and sensations. We need to consciously stand guard at the doors of our minds to make sure that whatever we're allowing to enter will cause our lives to be enriched, that the experiences we pursue will add to our stockpile of possibility. ~ Tony Robbins,
858:A work of art rests its merits in traditional qualities. It may constitute a remarkable feat in craftsmanship; it may be a searching study of psychological states; it may be a nostalgic glance backward; it may be any one of an infinite number of concepts, none of which may have any possible bearing upon its degree of newness. ~ Ben Shahn,
859:God created us with the ability to also be creators, and some of those creators created surgical procedures and medical procedures and concepts and ideologies and systems and communities that do wonderful things! If we aren’t taking part in that creative process, then we’re going against our very created nature. —Lawrence ~ Austen Hartke,
860:I used to think that paired opposites were a given, that love was the opposite of hate, right the opposite of wrong. But now I think we sometimes buy into these concepts because it is so much easier to embrace absolutes than to suffer reality. I don't think anything is the opposite of love. Reality is unforgivingly complex. ~ Anne Lamott,
861:Concepts which have proved useful for ordering things easily assume so great an authority over us, that we forget their terrestrial origin and accept them as unalterable facts. They then become labeled as 'conceptual necessities,' etc. The road of scientific progress is frequently blocked for long periods by such errors. ~ Albert Einstein,
862:Quantum physics presents a new and exciting worldview that challenges old concepts, such as deterministic trajectories of motion and causal continuity. If initial conditions do not forever determine an object's motion, if instead, every time we observe, there is a new beginning, then the world is creative at the base level. ~ Amit Goswami,
863:Quantum physics presents a new and exciting worldview that challenges old concepts, such as deterministic trajectories of motion and causal continuity. If initial conditions do not forever determine an object’s motion, if instead, every time we observe, there is a new beginning, then the world is creative at the base level. ~ Amit Goswami,
864:The existing scientific concepts cover always only a very limited part of reality,
and the other part that has not yet been understood is infinite. Whenever we
proceed from the known into the unknown we may hope to understand, but we
may have to learn at the same time a new meaning of the word ‘understanding’. ~ Werner Heisenberg,
865:Science is a dynamic undertaking directed to lowering the degree of the empiricism involved in solving problems; or, if you prefer, science is a process of fabricating a web of interconnected concepts and conceptual schemes arising from experiments and observations and fruitful of further experiments and observations. ~ James Bryant Conant,
866:Unfortunately, ahead lies the equal possibility of massive institutional failure, enormous social carnage, and regression to that ultimate manifestation of Newtonian, mechanistic concepts of organization, dictatorship, which, in turn, would have to collapse with even more carnage before new concepts of organization could emerge. ~ Anonymous,
867:Faith is a continuum, and we each fall on that line where we may. By attempting to rigidly classify ethereal concepts like faith, we end up debating semantics to the point where we entirely miss the obvious - that is, that we are all trying to decipher life's big mysteries, and we're each following our own paths of enlightenment. ~ Dan Brown,
868:I don't understand why people insist on pitting concepts of evolution and creation against each other. Why can't they see that spiritualism and science are one? That bodies evolve and souls evolve and the universe is a fluid package that marries them both in a wonderful package called a human being. What's wrong with that idea? ~ Garth Stein,
869:God washes the feet of men. The concepts we usually bring to the consideration of such matters are miserably political and prosaic. We think of flat repetitive equality and arbitrary privilege as the only two alternatives—thus missing all the overtones, the counterpoint, the vibrant sensitiveness, the interinanimations of reality. ~ C S Lewis,
870:Your prayer is answered according to the universal law of action and reaction. Thought is incipient action. The reaction is the response from your subconscious mind which corresponds with the nature of your thought. Busy your mind with the concepts of harmony, health, peace, and good will, and wonders will happen in your life. ~ Joseph Murphy,
871:Hume saw clearly that certain concepts, for example that of causality, cannot be deduced from our perceptions of experience by logical methods,” Einstein noted. A version of this philosophy, sometimes called positivism, denied the validity of any concepts that went beyond descriptions of phenomena that we directly experience. ~ Walter Isaacson,
872:In existing criminology there are concepts: a criminal man, a criminal profession, a criminal society, a criminal sect, and a criminal tribe, but there is no concept of a criminal state, or a criminal government, or criminal legislation. Consequently what is often regarded as "political" activity is in fact a criminal activity. ~ P D Ouspensky,
873:People believe that management consultants are mostly useless parasites. Up until about 1980 it was consultants more than anyone else who came up with the critical concepts behind strategy. The history of strategy suggests there are lots of things consultants can do for a company that the company can't typically do for itself. ~ Walter Kiechel,
874:Perhaps we will one day be able at least to admit of a God possessing sufficient majesty and expansiveness to transcend the limits of our own imaginations and experience. But meanwhile, . . . we might do well to look upon the inadequacy of our concepts of God as the truest mirror of those limitations that define our condition. ~ Ian Tattersall,
875:What a lot of people don't understand is that when you change your thinking, when you accept different concepts, then life mirrors those for you. If you can get the concept that you're worthy and loveable and that you deserve to have a better life, life starts bringing those opportunities to you, because that's your belief system. ~ Louise Hay,
876:As with many concepts, “information” has a special and specific meaning to mathematicians and scientists: It is anything that reduces uncertainty. Put another way, information exists wherever a pattern exists, whenever a sequence is not random. The more information, the more structured or patterned the sequence appears to be. ~ Daniel J Levitin,
877:If one interprets 'penis envy' as other Freudian concepts have been reinterpreted, in the light of our new knowledge that what Freud believed to be biological was often a cultural reaction, one sees simply that Victorian culture gave women many reasons to envy men: the same conditions, in fact, that the feminists fought against. ~ Betty Friedan,
878:Programming is full of odd ideas. Using shorter, less descriptive names often produces code that’s more readable overall. The most powerful languages usually have far fewer concepts than the lesser ones. And failing and copying may be the best way to produce successful, original work.

- Patrick Collison is a student at MIT. ~ Chad Fowler,
879:The view is often defended that sciences should be built up on clear and sharply defined basal concepts. In actual fact no science, not even the most exact, begins with such definitions. The true beginning of scientific activity consists rather in describing phenomena and then in proceeding to group, classify and correlate them. ~ Sigmund Freud,
880:What distinguishes this system of categories from the old unprincipled random collection of concepts, and what alone entitles it to be considered as philosophy, is this essential fact about it: By means of it the true significance of the pure concepts of the understanding, and the condition of their use, could be precisely determined ~ Anonymous,
881:Work we have yet to complete, or any aspect of our life that distracts us, creates existential overhead. As existential overhead mounts, our effectiveness diminishes. Visualizing work reduces the distractions of existential overhead by transforming fuzzy concepts into tangible objects that your brain can easily grasp and prioritize. ~ Jim Benson,
882:People at CDC [Centers for Disease Control] who cut their teeth on diseases over the last 10 years have started to think of crime as another disease, and using some of these same concepts. It was something that was in the air in that world, but it was time to bust it out and apply it to any number of different social epidemics. ~ Malcolm Gladwell,
883:The freedom I give myself for the business is in deciding to take part in the Paris collections, but also having other retail strategies that are unlike anybody else's. Not necessarily going into malls, doing the business my own way - having different brands to cover different concepts, to be able to have the cash flow to carry on. ~ Rei Kawakubo,
884:In physics we deal with states of affairs much simpler than those of psychology and yet we again and again learn that our task is not to investigate the essence of things-we do not at all know what this would mean&mash;but to develop those concepts that allow us to speak with each other about the events of nature in a fruitful manner. ~ Niels Bohr,
885:So what are Isaiah Berlin’s two concepts?” the lecturer asked. Nearly everyone raised a hand. The lecturer called on the student who had studied at Oxford. “Negative liberty,” he said, “is the freedom from external obstacles or constraints. An individual is free in this sense if they are not physically prevented from taking action. ~ Tara Westover,
886:The K.I.S.S. (Keep It Simple, Stupid) principle was pounded into my head in school and I still follow it today in most of my designs. I know that my most successful efforts are the simplest. I always find myself trying to subtract detail from design concepts in an attempt to distill the idea down to the most basic communication tool. ~ Jeff Fisher,
887:And concepts are crucial to cognition: cognitive scientists point out that they help us to categorize, learn, remember, infer, explain, problem-solve, generalize, analogize. Correspondingly, the lack of appropriate concepts can hinder learning, interfere with memory, block inferences, obstruct explanation, and perpetuate problems. ~ Charles W Mills,
888:On the threshold of the moral world we meet the idea of Freedom, 'one of the weightiest concepts man has ever formed,' once a dogma, in the course of time a hypothesis, now in the eyes of many a fiction, yet we cannot do without it, even although we may be firmly convinced that our acts are determined by laws that cannot be broken. ~ Havelock Ellis,
889:The concept of 'measurement' becomes so fuzzy on reflection that it is quite surprising to have it appearing in physical theory at the most fundamental level ... does not any analysis of measurement require concepts more fundamental than measurement? And should not the fundamental theory be about these more fundamental concepts? ~ John Stewart Bell,
890:The Master was exceedingly gracious to university dons who visited him, but he would never reply to their questions or be drawn into their theological speculations. To his disciples, who marveled at this, he said, "Can one talk about the ocean to a frog in a well or about the divine to people who are restricted by their concepts? ~ Anthony de Mello,
891:Where was the star?
Take concepts like "distant," "isolate," "faint," and give them precise mathematical expression. They'll vanish under such articulation.
But just before they do, that's where it lay.
"My star." Lorq swept vanes aside so they could see. "That's my sun. That's my nova, with eight-hundred-year-old-light. ~ Samuel R Delany,
892:For instance, I used to think that paired opposites were a given, that love was the opposite of hate, right the opposite of wrong. But now I think we sometimes buy into these concepts because it is so much easier to embrace absolutes than to suffer reality. I don’t think anything is the opposite of love. Reality is unforgivingly complex. ~ Anonymous,
893:It is my conviction that pure mathematical construction enables us to discover the concepts and the laws connecting them, which give us the key to the understanding of the phenomena of Nature. ~ Albert Einstein, On the Method of Theoretical Physics (1933) Lecture at the University of Oxford, as quoted in Mathematics Magazine (1990) Vol. 63., p. 237.,
894:We do not want to be reminded that it is we, the indigenous people, who are poor and exploited in the land of our birth. These are concepts which the Black Consciousness approach wishes to eradicate from the black man's mind before our society is driven to chaos by irresponsible people from Coca-cola and hamburger cultural backgrounds. ~ Steven Biko,
895:Concepts in the brains of humans acquired the property that they could get rolled together with other concepts into larger packets, and any such larger packet could then become a new concept in its own right. In other words, concepts could nest inside each other hierarchically, and such nesting could go on to arbitrary degrees. ~ Douglas R Hofstadter,
896:has been diminished in modern Christian thought. Some Definitions and Notes on Use It is important in a book like this to define some key concepts from the outset. I refer often to the scriptures, or scriptural text(s), which are authoritative texts in a religious community. Their appearance in individual scrolls and manuscripts ~ Timothy Michael Law,
897:For instance, I used to think that paired opposites were a given, that love was the opposite of hate, right the opposite of wrong. But now I think we sometimes buy into these concepts because it is so much easier to embrace absolutes than to suffer reality. I don’t think anything is the opposite of love. Reality is unforgivingly complex. ~ Anne Lamott,
898:I'm a fantasy writer, called a fantasy writer. But there's very little, apart from one or two basic concepts in 'I Shall Wear Midnight,' which are in fact fantasy. You have sticks that fly, but they're practical broomsticks, with a bloody great strap that you can hold on to so you don't fall off. And you try not to use them too often. ~ Terry Pratchett,
899:Remember when you discovered your father owned a book called "How To Disappear and Never Be Found?" You're sure it was just research for new and creative ways of thinking, for concepts that might apply to his work, but it raised the distinct possibility that there is something very upsetting that people you love could do instead of dying. ~ Lena Dunham,
900:From the moment when a subordinate class becomes really independent and dominant, calling into being a new type of State, the need arises concretely, of building a new intellectual and moral order, i.e. a new type of society, and hence the need to elaborate the most universal concepts, the most refined and decisive ideological weapons. ~ Antonio Gramsci,
901:I, myself, came to enjoy the players who didn't only just swing but who invented new rhythmic patterns, along with new melodic concepts. And those people are: Art Tatum, Bud Powell, Max Roach, Sonny Rollins, Lester Young, Dizzy Gillespie and Charles Parker, who is the greatest genius of all to me because he changed the whole era around. ~ Charles Mingus,
902:I also like to apply “good enough” to other concepts such as a good enough job, a good enough try, a good enough outing, a good enough day or a good enough life. I apply this concept liberally to contradict the black-and-white, all-or none thinking of the critic which reflexively judges people and things as defective unless they are perfect. ~ Pete Walker,
903:Poetry is only secondarily about words. Primarily, it is about truth. I dealt with the Ding an Sich, the substance behind the shadow, weaving powerful concepts, similes, and connections the way an engineer would raise a skyscraper with the whiskered-alloy skeleton being constructed long before the glass and plastic and chromaluminum appears. ~ Dan Simmons,
904:The secular” must not be thought of as the space in which real human life gradually emancipates itself from the controlling power of “religion” and thus achieves the latter’s relocation. It is this assumption that allows us to think of religion as “infecting” the secular domain or as replicating within it the structure of theological concepts. ~ Talal Asad,
905:A lady doctor in the foreground, black horn-rims and white lab coat, suddenly cried, “You people ought to be ashamed of yourselves! Do you realize what you're doing to the reality concepts we're trying to instill in these people? How do you expect them to differentiate between illusion and reality when you do something like this?” ~ Donald E Westlake,
906:In an ideal world, social responsibility would be a prerequisite for design, and designers would vow to produce beautiful, useful, positive, responsible, functional, and economical things and concepts that are meaningful additions to—or sometimes subtractions from—the world we live in. Indeed, design deserves such thoughtful consideration. ~ Paola Antonelli,
907:Our minds become more supple as we develop ourselves on the meditation seat. Each time we acknowledge a fantasy or thought, we’re softening up our mind by becoming less bound to concepts and emotions. Following the technique fosters curiosity instead of dullness, appreciation instead of disheartenment, and imagination instead of limitation. ~ Sakyong Mipham,
908:Some authors state that the last stage in this chain of measurements involves "consciousness," or the "intellectual inner life" of the observer, by virtue of the "principle of psycho-physical parallelism." Other authors introduce a wave function for the entire universe. In this book, I shall refrain from using concepts that I do not understand. ~ Asher Peres,
909:By the time you have finished reading this book, you should be comfortable and confident in your understanding of IP addresses, their formats, the grouping concepts, how to subdivide groups into subnets, how to interpret the documentation for existing networks’ IP addressing, and so on. Simply put, you had better know addressing and subnetting! ~ Wendell Odom,
910:Fundamentally, however, there is neither good nor evil; this is all based on human concepts. In the universe there exists neither good nor evil, because everything has been created in accordance with immutable laws. the divine principles are reflected in these laws, and only through knowing these laws will we be able to get close to the divine. ~ Franz Bardon,
911:I would like to see Russia develop as democratically as possible. But when we judge Russia we must also consider where the country is coming from. Our concepts of democracy can't just be schematically transferred. However, I do admit that I'm concerned about some recent developments, such as the new laws against non-governmental organizations. ~ Angela Merkel,
912:In our dreams we have seen another world, an honest world, a world decidedly more fair than the one in which we now live. We saw that in this world there was no need for armies; peace, justice and liberty were so common that no one talked about them as far-off concepts, but as things such as bread, birds, air, water, like book and voice. ~ Subcomandante Marcos,
913:In the unawakened state you don't use thought, but thought uses you. You are, one could almost say, possessed by thought, which is the collective conditioning of the human mind that goes back many thousands of years. You don't see anything as it is, but distorted and reduced by mental labels, concepts, judgments, opinions and reactive patterns. ~ Eckhart Tolle,
914:One nonabsolute number is the given time of arrival, which is now known to be one of the most bizarre of mathematical concepts, a number whose existence can only be defined as being anything other than itself. In other words, the given time of arrival is the one moment of time at which it is impossible that any member of the party will arrive. ~ Douglas Adams,
915:I imagine that whenever the mind perceives a mathematical idea, it makes contact with Plato's world of mathematical concepts... When mathematicians communicate, this is made possible by each one having a direct route to truth, the consciousness of each being in a position to perceive mathematical truths directly, through the process of 'seeing'. ~ Roger Penrose,
916:I say further that for this great legislative body to ignore the Constitution and the fundamental concepts of our governmental system is to act in a manner which could ultimately destroy the freedom of all American citizens, including the freedoms of the very persons whose feelings and whose liberties are the major subject of this legislation. ~ Barry Goldwater,
917:No amount of intellectual knowledge can satisfy the need for the direct experience that is beyond concepts and duality. Do not be a fool and spend your whole life in a book.

Of course you must study the teachings, but you must also know when it is time to put what you have learnt into practice. Only direct experience can set you free. ~ Chamtrul Rinpoche,
918:Philosophy is an activity: it is a way of thinking about certain sorts of question. Its most distinctive feature is its use of logical argument. Philosophers typically deal in arguments: they either invent them, criticize other people’s, or do both. They also analyse and clarify concepts. ~ Nigel Warburton, Philosophy: The Basics (Fifth ed., 2013), Introduction,
919:Standard mathematics has recently been rendered obsolete by the discovery that for years we have been writing the numeral five backward. This has led to reevaluation of counting as a method of getting from one to ten. Students are taught advanced concepts of Boolean algebra, and formerly unsolvable equations are dealt with by threats of reprisals. ~ Woody Allen,
920:In the face of uncertainty, our first instinct is often to reject novelty, looking for reasons why unfamiliar concepts might fail.26 When managers vet novel ideas, they’re in an evaluative mindset. To protect themselves against the risks of a bad bet, they compare the new notion on the table to templates of ideas that have succeeded in the past. When ~ Adam Grant,
921:I think I have a right to know my husband killed somebody,” Rita said. “And he’s cheating on me?” she added, as if killing might be overlooked, but cheating was something truly despicable. It was not quite the proper order of our society’s priorities as I had come to understand them, but this was not the time to debate contemporary ethical concepts. ~ Jeff Lindsay,
922:Aren’t all laws simply man’s attempt to codify moral concepts? Is not “legislation” simply our combined agreement as to what is “right” and “wrong”? Yes. And certain civil laws—rules and regulations—are required in your primitive society. (You understand that in nonprimitive societies such laws are unnecessary. All beings regulate themselves.) ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
923:Vaclav Havel was the most amazing man in terms of being the combination of somebody with massive moral authority, great courage for having espoused the concepts of democracy, freedom throughout a very difficult communist period, a very modest man, and somebody with a fabulous sense of humor and the idea of being able to see the absurd in situations. ~ Judy Woodruff,
924:But embracing failure without acknowledging the real hurt and fear that it can cause, or the complex journey that underlies rising strong, is gold-plating grit. To strip failure of its real emotional consequences is to scrub the concepts of grit and resilience of the very qualities that make them both so important—toughness, doggedness, and perseverance. ~ Bren Brown,
925:Constraint theory asks: What is the price for doing this? Now one way around constraint theory is declaring your enemy crazy. Crazy and stupid are not concepts used in forecasting. When people say they're really stupid or they're crazy, that's laziness. That means I don't want to think through their position or about what they're really going to do. ~ George Friedman,
926:Should we wrap it all up and simply say that they arrested the innocent? But we omitted saying that the very concept of guilt had been repealed by the proletarian revolution and, at the beginning of the thirties, was defined as rightist opportunism! So we can't even discuss these out-of-date concepts, guilt and innocence. ~ Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn,
927:The great masquerade of evil has played havoc with all our ethical concepts. For evil to appear disguised as light, charity, historical necessity, or social justice is quite bewildering to anyone brought up on our traditional ethical concepts, while for the Christian who bases his life on the Bible it merely confirms the fundamental wickedness of evil. ~ Eric Metaxas,
928:Metaphysics is the study of the most general nature and basic structure of reality, and therefore the concepts of metaphysics, concepts like time, space, identity, resemblance, substance, property, fact, event, composition, possibility, etc., are the most fundamental concepts. Thus metaphysics is the most fundamental theoretical discipline. ~ Gonzalo Rodriguez Pereyra,
929:NEEMO missions are a challenging and exciting aspect of astronaut training. The research we conduct during those missions allows us to test new technologies and exploration concepts in conditions similar to the ones we'll experience in space. They are a great opportunity to help me expand my knowledge and develop new tools for future space exploration. ~ Jeremy Hansen,
930:You know, students who major in elementary education - they're going to be grade school teachers - they have the highest rates of math anxiety of any college major. And they bring that into the classroom. So you find students being introduced to math concepts by teachers who may have not only a lack of training but also a lack of enthusiasm about math. ~ Anya Kamenetz,
931:A nation lives forever through its concepts, honor, and culture. It is for these reasons that the rulers of nations must judge and act not only on the basis of physical and material interests of the nation but on the basis of the nation's historical honor, of the nation's eternal interests. Thus: not bread at all costs, but honor at all costs. ~ Corneliu Zelea Codreanu,
932:Even our concepts about romantic love, I think, are destructive; treating people as property is destructive; being jealous of other people is destructive. You know, being jealous is a perfectly natural thing to feel, so it's not about suppressing jealousy, but learning to come to terms with it and to recognize its destructiveness and then to transform it. ~ Jeff Mangum,
933:This capacity for oversignifying, for reading in, is precisely what poets tap into, both in their own practice and in the poem the give to the reader; and in doing so they turn language against its own project of conceptual division, and use it to heal itself - and in the process - paradoxically - to articulate new concepts that it can't yet accommodate. ~ Don Paterson,
934:Because Matthew, more than any other NT document, addresses Jewish concepts closely paralleled in the emerging rabbinic movement, the common scholarly view that he wrote from the Roman province of Syria (which included Judea and Galilee) makes good sense. Some scholars also find similarities between Matthew and other documents from early Syrian Christianity. ~ Anonymous,
935:The Meccan merchants had met Christian monks and hermits during their travels, and were familiar with the stories of Jesus and the concepts of Paradise and the Last Judgment. They called Jews and Christians the ahl al-kitab (“the People of the Book”). They admired the notion of a revealed text and wished they had sacred scripture in their own language. ~ Karen Armstrong,
936:Therefore, the two processes, that of science and that of art, are not very different. Both science and art form in the course of the centuries a human language by which we can speak about the more remote parts of reality, and the coherent sets of concepts as well as the different styles of art are different words or groups of words in this language. ~ Werner Heisenberg,
937:If I existed 200 years ago, all the other farmers in my community would be like, 'That guy is worthless! He's sitting on a rock, jumping up like a frog, coming up with weird concepts and ideas, making faces, and combing his hair into a giant pastry.' It's a good thing I was born in this century, when superfluous television seems to be part of the economy. ~ Conan O Brien,
938:A nation lives forever through its concepts, honour, and culture. It is for these reasons that the rulers of nations must judge and act not only on the basis of physical and material interests of the nation but on the basis of the nation's historical honour, of the nation's eternal interests. Thus: not bread at all costs, but honour at all costs. ~ Corneliu Zelea Codreanu,
939:You can only be you when you do your best. When you don't do your best you are denying yourself the right to be you. That's a seed that you should really nurture in your mind. You don't need knowledge or great philosophical concepts. You don't need the acceptance of others. You express your own divinity by being alive and by loving yourself and others. ~ Miguel Angel Ruiz,
940:Out of time we cut “days” and “nights,” “summers” and “winters.” We say what each part of the sensible continuum is, and all these abstract whats are concepts. The intellectual life of man consists almost wholly in his substitution of a conceptual order for the perceptual order in which his experience originally comes. —William James, “The World We Live In ~ Ellen J Langer,
941:The piling on of more concepts, this acquisition of additional knowledge, is not the solution. Adding to the known can never take one beyond the known.
At every moment of your life you know what you need to know. Take it to be sufficient.
True knowledge comes via direct apperception and this cannot be forced.
It arrives in its own time Now, be still. ~ Wu Hsin,
942:One should not understand this compulsion to construct concepts, species, forms, purposes, laws ('a world of identical cases') as if they enabled us to fix the real world; but as a compulsion to arrange a world for ourselves in which our existence is made possible:-we thereby create a world which is calculable, simplified, comprehensible, etc., for us. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
943:Where possible use Value Objects to model concepts in the downstream Context when objects from the upstream Context flow in. By doing so you can integrate with a priority on minimalism, that is, minimizing the number of properties that you assume responsibility for managing in your downstream model. Using immutable Values results in assuming less responsibility. ~ Anonymous,
944:Photography mirrored the [nineteenth century] will towards rigor, towards defining details, the need for miniscule description, the long-distance optics, for technology at the service of truth, for concepts of credibility, of objectivity, the need to archive, for the consolidation of institutions like the museum, in short, towards a need to control memory. ~ Joan Fontcuberta,
945:The great masquerade of evil has played havoc with all our ethical concepts. For evil to appear disguised as light, charity, historical necessity, or social justice is quite bewildering to anyone brought up on our traditional ethical concepts, while for the Christian who bases his life on the Bible, it merely confirms the fundamental wickedness of evil. ~ Dietrich Bonhoeffer,
946:I do have quite a lot of sympathy for Fodor's picture of concepts as information-free atomic entities which get locked onto their referents causally, and to that extent they needn't involve anything much in the way of learning. But even so it seems perverse to call them 'innate'. Here we see again the oddity of treating 'not learned' as sufficient for innate. ~ David Papineau,
947:The last few centuries were times when men tried to place constitutional and other limits on the State, only to find that such limits, as with all other attempts, have failed. Of all the numerous forms that governments have taken over the centuries, of all the concepts and institutions that have been tried, none has succeeded in keeping the State in check. ~ Murray N Rothbard,
948:Even in the darkest of times we have the right to expect some illumination, and ... such illumination may well come less from theories and concepts than from the uncertain, flickering, and often weak light that some men and women, in their lives and their works, will kindle under almost all circumstances and shed over the time-span that was given them on earth. ~ Hannah Arendt,
949:...to characterize the import of pure geometry, we might use the standard form of a movie-disclaimer: No portrayal of the characteristics of geometrical figures or of the spatial properties of relationships of actual bodies is intended, and any similarities between the primitive concepts and their customary geometrical connotations are purely coincidental. ~ Carl Gustav Hempel,
950:It is imposible to understand sex as we see it nowadays - a mere response to a few physical stimuli. In reality, it is far more than that, and carries with it man's and humanity's entire cultural burden. Each time we face a new experience, we bring with us all past experiences - both good and bad - as well as those concepts which civilization has made into rules. ~ Paulo Coelho,
951:Space and force pervade language. Many cognitive scientists (including me) have concluded from their research on language that a handful of concepts about places, paths, motions, agency, and causation underlie the literal or figurative meanings of tens of thousands of words and constructions, not only in English but in every other language that has been studied. ~ Steven Pinker,
952:More and more, I have come to realize how thoughts and concepts are all that block us from always being . . . in the absolute. . . . When the view is there, thoughts are seen for what they truly are: fleeting and transparent, and only relative. . . . You do not cling to thoughts and emotions or reject them, but welcome them all within the vast embrace of Rigpa. ~ Sogyal Rinpoche,
953:We are not striving to make pain go away or to become a better person. In fact, we are giving up control altogether and letting concepts and ideals fall apart. This starts with realizing that whatever occurs is neither the beginning nor the end. It is just the same kind of normal human experience that’s been happening to everyday people from the beginning of time. ~ Pema Ch dr n,
954:When we repeat the same words and phrases that appear in the daily media, we accept the absence of a larger framework. To have such a framework requires more concepts, and having more concepts requires reading. So get the screens out of your room and surround yourself with books. The characters in Orwell’s and Bradbury’s books could not do this—but we still can. ~ Timothy Snyder,
955:The best programs are written so that computing machines can perform them quickly and so that human beings can understand them clearly. A programmer is ideally an essayist who works with traditional aesthetic and literary forms as well as mathematical concepts, to communicate the way that an algorithm works and to convince a reader that the results will be correct. ~ Donald Knuth,
956:The good of a book lies in its being read. A book is made up of signs that speak of other signs, which in their turn speak of things. Without an eye to read them, a book contains signs that produce no concepts; therefore it is dumb. This library was perhaps born to save the books it houses, but now it lives to bury them. This is why it has become a sink of iniquity. ~ Umberto Eco,
957:Physical and psychological adversity shape us. Our challenges give us insights and experiences that only we have had, and I don't want to be glib about this. There are things we need to not only accept, but also embrace and also see as strengths. While we may not have chosen to include them as concepts of ourselves, they are there. And what more can we do but own them? ~ Amy Cuddy,
958:The key to longevity is to keep doing what you do better than anyone else. We work real hard at that. It's about getting your message out to the consumer. It's about getting their trust, but also getting them excited, again and again. My clothes.. the clothes we make for the runway.. aren't concepts. They go into stores. Our stores. Thankfully, we have lots of them. ~ Ralph Lauren,
959:I wrote Normal Life using concepts that have been helpful to me, and hoping to offer those as accessible tools for thinking differently about the pitfalls trans resistance faces, in particular the temptation to focus on legal equality and the limitations of that approach, and the alternative approaches being taken by racial and economic justice focused trans activists. ~ Dean Spade,
960:That even in the darkest of times we have the right to expect some illumination, and that such illumination might well come less from theories and concepts than from the uncertain, flickering, and often weak light that some men and women, in their lives and their works, will kindle under almost all circumstances and shed over the time span that was given to them.... ~ Hannah Arendt,
961:They teach us that human beings learn and absorb ideas and concepts through narrative, through stories, not through lessons or theoretical speeches. This is what any religious texts teach us. They’re all tales about characters who must confront life and overcome obstacles, figures setting off on a journey of spiritual enrichment through exploits and revelations. ~ Carlos Ruiz Zaf n,
962:Neither this body am I, nor soul, Nor these fleeting images passing by, Nor concepts and thoughts, mental images, Nor yet sentiments and the psyche's labyrinth. Who then am I? A consciousness without origin, Not born in time, nor begotten here below. I am that which was, is and ever shall be, A jewel in the crown of the Divine Self, A star in the firmament of the luminous One. ~ Rumi,
963:our breath resides within our flesh, our mind resides within our breath, our concepts reside within our mind and our emotions reside within our concepts. We can only see the flesh and breath. We can sense the emotions by the way they are expressed through the body and the breath. Sensations received by the mind are filtered by concepts to create emotions. Emotions ~ Devdutt Pattanaik,
964:So dark matter is our frenemy. We have no clue what it is. It’s kind of annoying. But we desperately need it in our calculations to arrive at an accurate description of the universe. Scientists are generally uncomfortable whenever we must base our calculations on concepts we don’t understand, but we’ll do it if we have to. And dark matter is not our first rodeo. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
965:Democracy bases its appeal on the sacredness of the People – the consecration of Folk; socialism on the sacredness of Labor – the consecration of Work; and nationalism on the sacredness of the Fatherland – the consecration of Place. These concepts still arouse transcendent religious values or sanctions. It is religious emotion divorced from religious belief. ~ Christopher Henry Dawson,
966:The place where the questions about the reality of God and about the reality of the world are answered at the same time is characterized solely by the name: Jesus Christ. God and the world are enclosed in this name . . . we cannot speak rightly of either God or the world without speaking of Jesus Christ. All concepts of reality that ignore Jesus Christ are abstractions. ~ Eric Metaxas,
967:Which is mightily ironic since one of the most common criticisms of American women novelists (it's a load of crap but it gets bandied about a good bit) is that they don't write the "big" stories about "universal" or "worldly" concepts...Jesus. Um, when we do? We get told to get back in the kitchen and bedroom - go back to writing about love-y wife-y mother-y things. ~ Lidia Yuknavitch,
968:Children must be free to think in all directions irrespective of the peculiar ideas of parents who often seal their children's minds with preconceived prejudices and false concepts of past generations. Unless we are very careful, very careful indeed, and very conscientious, there is still great danger that our children may turn out to be the same kind of people we are. ~ Brock Chisholm,
969:The best programs are written so that computing machines can perform them quickly and so that human beings can understand them clearly. A programmer is ideally an essayist who works with traditional aesthetic and literary forms as well as mathematical concepts, to communicate the way that an algorithm works and to convince a reader that the results will be correct. ~ Donald Ervin Knuth,
970:I never sat down and wrote, but what I do is kind of act as a dramaturge for the piece. I am sitting with the writers. I'm discussing ideas with the writers and concepts. We're debating and having a dialectic where we are taking a lot of different ideas and trying to synthesize them into the right idea. I'm very much a part of that process. That's my job as the director. ~ Larry Charles,
971:I should be impressed?’ he commented finally. ‘World renowned for foul works and mayhem, whether I practise such doctrine, or not? A shame. Shown such vulgar taste, what man with a mind would scarcely wallow to seek further clarity. Sweet faith, bliss, and bathos, it’s an execrable drama. Never mind that the theological concepts are glorified platitudes sprung out of lies. ~ Janny Wurts,
972:Life is very much about rule breaking, about confrontation. Otherwise history would just stand still. Someone has to come along and break the rules and try for whatever reason to go about things a different way. Even if it is a simple sense of adventure, a sense of exploration. You explore concepts and things that interest you, but you are also exploring inside of yourself. ~ Ed Paschke,
973:The preachers must choose some particular illustrations and concepts that will inevitably be more meaningful to some cultural groups than others. We need to stretch as much as we can to be as inclusive as possible. But we must also be aware of our limits. We should not live in the illusion that we can share the gospel so as to make it all things to all people at once. ~ Timothy J Keller,
974:In the eastern part of the Iranian world there arose various schools of Sufism, some of which contain barely disguised Zoroastrian concepts. Figures such as Rumi, Suhrawardi, Mansur al-Hallaj, Nurbakhsh, and even Omar Khayyam all convey essentially Iranian mystical thoughts in Islamic guise, often expressing themselves in their own Persian language rather than Arabic. ~ Stephen E Flowers,
975:Tracking anything is better than tracking nothing. If you are very overweight, very weak, very inflexible, or very anything negative, tracking even a mediocre variable will help you develop awareness that leads to the right behavioral changes. This underscores an encouraging lesson: you don’t have to get it all right. You just have to be crystal clear on a few concepts. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
976:The heptapods are neither free nor bound as we understand those concepts; they don't act according to their will, nor are they helpless automatons. What distinguishes the heptapods’ mode of awareness is not just that their actions coincide with history's events; it is also that their motives coincide with history's purposes. They act to create the future, to enact chronology. ~ Ted Chiang,
977:You are asking, 'Is the concept of soul mates more useful than marriage?' Concepts don't matter. What matters is your understanding. You can change the word marriage to the word soul mates, but you are the same. You will make the same hell out of soul mates as you have been making out of marriage - nothing has changed, only the word, the label. Don't believe in labels too much. ~ Rajneesh,
978:Discussing God is not the best use of our energy. If we touch the Holy Spirit, we touch God not as a concept but as a living reality. In Buddhism, we never talk about nirvana, because nirvana means the extinction of all notions, concepts, and speech. We practice by touching mindfulness in ourselves through sitting meditation, walking meditation, mindful eating, and so on. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
979:The bible is foreign to me, but its concepts are not. My father always said that hatred is a waste and never an option. He learned this growing up in Ahwaz, Iran, in a Muslim household. I have tried my best to pass the same message to my children, born and raised in the United States. Ultimately, it doesn't matter where we learn that lesson. It's just important that we do. ~ Firoozeh Dumas,
980:If you filter my words through any tradition or '-ism', you will miss altogether what I am saying. The liberating truth is not static; it is alive. It cannot be put into concepts and be understood by the mind. The truth lies beyond all forms of conceptual fundamentalism. What you are is the beyond—awake and present, here and now already. I am simply helping you to realize that. ~ Adyashanti,
981:The 'phenomenal concept' issue is rather different, I think. Here the question is whether there are concepts of experiences that are made available to subjects solely in virtue of their having had those experiences themselves. Is there a way of thinking about seeing something red, say, that you get from having had those experiences, and so isn't available to a blind person? ~ David Papineau,
982:The brain processes meaning before detail. Providing the gist, the core concept, first was like giving a thirsty person a tall glass of water. And the brain likes hierarchy. Starting with general concepts naturally leads to explaining information in a hierarchical fashion. You have to do the general idea first. And then you will see that 40 percent improvement in understanding. ~ John Medina,
983:To be right we must think worthily of God. It is morally imperative that we purge from our minds all ignoble concepts of the Deity and let Him be the God in our minds that He is in His universe. The Christian religion has to do with God and man, but its focal point is God, not man. Man's only claim to importance is that he was created in the divine image; in himself he is nothing. ~ A W Tozer,
984:How then shall mathematical concepts be judged? They shall not be judged. Mathematics is the supreme arbiter. From its decisions there is no appeal. We cannot change the rules of the game, we cannot ascertain whether the game is fair. We can only study the player at his game; not, however, with the detached attitude of a bystander, for we are watching our own minds at play. ~ David van Dantzig,
985:People don't understand this: Ideas are important, but they're not essential. What's essential and important is the execution of the idea. Everyone has had the experience of seeing a movie and saying, "Hey! That was my idea!" Well, it doesn't mean anything that you had that idea. There's no such thing as an original concept. What's original is the way you re-use ancient concepts. ~ John Landis,
986:men are not born with a faculty for the universal and ... women are not reduced at birth to the particular. The universal has been, and is continually, at every moment, appropriated by men. It does not happen by magic, it must be done. It is an act, a criminal act, perpetrated by one class against another. It is an act carried out at the level of concepts, philosophy, politics. ~ Monique Wittig,
987:The Devil is primordial Evil, the Heart of Chaos Who is eternal. He was and He will be. The j.c. conception is just one of many human concepts; it will be destroyed as all human concepts will be. You can find the Devil's shadow in every human religion, because everyone knows that Evil exists. It’s not evil of people who all will die. It’s Eternal Evil that will destroy the Universe. ~ Anonymous,
988:Most ambitiously, some feminist epistemologists have argued that even our fundamental concepts of reason, evidence, and truth are covertly sexist. Feminist epistemology also goes beyond criticism to make suggestions about reform-how to make science better at finding out about the world (if that goal is to be retained), and also how to make science more socially responsible. ~ Peter Godfrey Smith,
989:When part of this ecosystem was lacking, such as for John Atanasoff at Iowa State or Charles Babbage in the shed behind his London home, great concepts ended up being consigned to history’s basement. And when great teams lacked passionate visionaries, such as Penn after Mauchly and Eckert left, Princeton after von Neumann, or Bell Labs after Shockley, innovation slowly withered. ~ Walter Isaacson,
990:Words are acoustical signs for concepts; concepts, however, are more or less definite image signs for often recurring and associated sensations, for groups of sensations. To understand one another, it is not enough that one use the same words; one also has to use the same words for the same species of inner experiences; in the end one has to have one's experiences in common. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
991:Since (1) charity is supernatural, and comes only from the real presence of God in the soul (St. Thomas’ paragraph 3), and since (2) all men, and not only Christians, are capable of charity (as has been proved in the paragraph above), it follows that (3) all men are capable of accepting the real presence of God in their souls, even if they have defective or mistaken concepts of God. ~ Peter Kreeft,
992:There are many models of the mind. One of the most recent has been that of the computer. We can look at the mind’s concepts, thoughts, and belief systems as programs. Because they are programs, they can be questioned, cancelled, and reversed; positive programs can replace negative ones if we so choose. The smaller aspect of ourselves is very willing to accept negative programming. ~ David R Hawkins,
993:Korzybski argued that language must be viewed as a map, which is useful only insofar as it is similar to the world it describes. He stressed the importance of questioning the unconscious assumptions built into our language, and urged a response to life on the basis of fresh, "first order" experience rather than the old experiences that have been crystallized in words and concepts. ~ Timothy O Reilly,
994:Macroscopic objects, as we see them all around us, are governed by a variety of forces, derived from a variety of approximations to a variety of physical theories. In contrast, the only elements in the construction of black holes are our basic concepts of space and time. They are, thus, almost by definition, the most perfect macroscopic objects there are in the universe. ~ Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar,
995:The role of metaphysics in relation to other disciplines, whether philosophical or not and including the natural sciences, is thus a foundational role. Lack of clarity in the concepts of metaphysics implies lack of clarity in other disciplines - both theoretical and practical disciplines - employing those concepts or employing concepts that depend on those of metaphysics. ~ Gonzalo Rodriguez Pereyra,
996:The world knows about our Jesus. They know about His poverty and love of the underdog. They know He told His followers to care for the poor and to share. They’ve heard about His radical economic theories and revolutionary redistribution concepts. They might not understand the nuances of His divinity or the various shades of His theology, but they know He was a friend of the oppressed. ~ Jen Hatmaker,
997:It is a quasi-certainty that this persistent belief in progress and modernity, concepts which the political classes of the West are always jabbering about and which are totally obsolete, will never see its objectives occur. The dream will shatter into pieces. Constraining forces, a physical wall, makes this ideology resemble a mass of intellectual stupefaction and belief in miracles. ~ Guillaume Faye,
998:To my mind this makes psychedelics central to any political reconstruction, because these are the only force in nature that actually dissolve linguistics structures; lets the mechanics of syntax to be visible, allows the possibility for rapid introduction and spread of new concepts; gives permission for new ways of seeing; and this is what we have to do, we have to change our minds. ~ Terence McKenna,
999:A deeper understanding of natural (contrasted to engineering) systems reveals positive feedback as one of the intrinsic characteristics by which many natural systems—from atoms to galaxies, cells to organisms, social systems to whole populations, single concepts to cognitive systems and whole languages—manage to live and evolve. ~ Erich Jantsch, Evolution and Consciousness - Human Systems in Transition,
1000:I'm..." I felt a little ill. "You're saying... I'm pregnant?"

My double threw up his arms. "Finally, he gets it."

In years and years and years of experience as a wizard, I'd dealt with concepts, formulae, and mental models that ranged from bizarre to downright insanity-inducing. None of them had, in any way whatsoever, ever prepared my head to wrap around this. At all. Ever. ~ Jim Butcher,
1001:In the modern view, the pitched roof was itself a “dead concept,” but equally unhealthy
were all those other dead concepts that got stored underneath the gable, in the attic. For there is where the ghosts of our past reside: the bric-abrac
and mementos that a lifetime collects; the love letters, photographs, and memories that clutter an attic and threaten to bear us back in time. ~ Michael Pollan,
1002:Magic is a sudden opening of the mind to the wonder of existence. It is a sense that there is much more to life than we usually recognize; that we do not have to be confined by the limited views that our family, our society, or our own habitual thoughts impose on us; that life contains many dimensions, depths, textures, and meanings extending far beyond our familiar beliefs and concepts. ~ John Welwood,
1003:There ought not be two histories, one of political and moral action and one of political and moral theorizing, because there were not two pasts, one populated only by actions, the other only by theories. Every action is the bearer and expression of more or less theory-laden beliefs and concepts; every piece of theorizing and every expression of belief is a politcal and moral action. ~ Alasdair MacIntyre,
1004:What man knows is little enough and most of his general concepts in every field are vitiated by the artificial concepts he has created to cover his ignorance. These concepts must be destroyed. One tool exists that can accomplish this destruction, and this tool is in your hands. It is simply curiosity—the instinct to ask and to question. It should be kept sharp and used without mercy. ~ Charles H Hapgood,
1005:I want to shout out the stars on the walk of fame because they said something about they're not going to put my girl on the Walk of Fame because she's a reality star. It's like, people are so so dated and not modern. There's no way that Kim Kardashian should not have a star on the Walk of Fame. It's ridiculous concepts. I'm just going to give y'all the truth and you're just going to love it. ~ Kanye West,
1006:The embodiment of mind leads us to a philosophy of embodied realism. Our concepts cannot be a direct reflection of external, objective, mind-independent reality because our sensorimotor system plays a crucial role in shaping them. On the other hand, it is the involvement of the sensorimotor system in the conceptual system that keeps the conceptual system very much in touch with the world. ~ George Lakoff,
1007:The religious urge in man is not a mere passing phase in the history of his spiritual development, but the ultimate source of all his ethical thought and all his concepts of morality; not the outcome of primitive credulity which a more "enlightened" age could outgrow, but the only answer to a real, basic need of man at all times and in all environments. In another word, it is an instinct. ~ Muhammad Asad,
1008:Grown-ups desperately need to feel safe, and then they project onto the kids. But what none of us seem to realize is how smart kids are. They don’t like what we write for them, what we dish up for them, because it’s vapid, so they’ll go for the hard words, they’ll go for the hard concepts, they’ll go for the stuff where they can learn something. Not didactic things, but passionate things. ~ Maurice Sendak,
1009:our ideas and concepts can be compared with the lenses through which we see the world. In philosophy the lens is itself the topic of study. Success will be a matter not of how much you know at the end, but of what you can do when the going gets tough: when the seas of argument rise, and confusion breaks out. Success will mean taking seriously the implications of ideas. WHAT IS THE POINT? ~ Simon Blackburn,
1010:A majority of students who come into community colleges are still stuck at high school level or remedial math. And when they take it in college, they still don't pass it. So the Carnegie Foundation got together and created two accelerated courses that focus on real-world applications of numbers like for health, for civics, for personal finance - concepts that you and I use every single day. ~ Anya Kamenetz,
1011:Mindfulness should guide all your actions and your spiritual endeavors. Whatever you do, always apply three essential points: undertake the action with the intention of doing so for the good of all beings; execute it with perfect concentration, free of attachment to concepts of subject, object, and action; and, finally, dedicate the merit you have created to the enlightenment of all beings. ~ Dilgo Khyentse,
1012:The future. Space travel, or cosmology. Alternate universes. Time travel. Robots. Marvelous inventions. Immortality. Catastrophes. Aliens. Superman. Other dimensions. Inner space, or the psyche. These are the ideas that are essential to science fiction. The phenomena change, the basic ideas do not. These ideas are the same philosophical concepts that have intrigued mankind throughout history. ~ Kate Wilhelm,
1013:I think most of us secretly know – and those of us at the radical middle are inclined to say – that without such concepts as duty and honor and service, no civilization can endure. ... I suspect most Americans would respond positively to a [draft] if it gives us some choice in how to exercise that duty and service. ... Exactly the kind of choice my generation did not have during the Vietnam War. ~ Mark Satin,
1014:Dave Stark has taken the best of recent marketplace management concepts and married them to timeless biblical principles of leadership, translating business jargon into ministry language. The combination is an encouraging and practical guide to Christ-centered ministry leadership. This book will be helpful to anyone involved in leading a church or serious about modeling servant leadership. ~ Jonathan Reckford,
1015:Turkey is currently seeking to make itself more independent from Europe and is turning to the east. Is that in our interest? Does it help us bolster Western values in Turkey, or at least here at home? Or are we making ourselves weaker overall? At the same time, Turkey is violating our European moral concepts. It's a difficult conflict to endure, and it leads to necessary disputes and debates. ~ Sigmar Gabriel,
1016:Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts... A graphic representation of data abstracted from banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding... ~ William Gibson,
1017:I am befuddled by her lack of knowledge but everybody at this table asserts beyond doubt that I lack the mental capacity to understand higher concepts. They pound me with super brainy words of no meaning, and as I sip my Chivas Regal I reminisce about one of my favorite rabbis from the days of old, a genius by any standards: “He who cannot explain his thesis in simple words is he who has no thesis. ~ Anonymous,
1018:The heart of metaphor is inference. Conceptual metaphor allows inferences in sensory-motor domains (e.g., domains of space and objects) to be used to draw inferences about other domains (e.g., domains of subjective judgment, with concepts like intimacy, emotions, justice, and so on). Because we reason in terms of metaphor, the metaphors we use determine a great deal about how we live our lives. ~ George Lakoff,
1019:Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts... A graphic representation of data abstracted from banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding... ~ William Gibson,
1020:Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals. ~ Lev S Vygotsky,
1021:Norma looked at him, puzzled. "Someone else to do the mathematics?"
"Of course!" Holtzman brushed iron-gray hair away from his face and adjusted his white robe. "You're an *idea* person, like me. We want you to develop concepts, not bother with full-fledged implementation. You should not waste time performing tedious arithmetic. Any halfway-trained person can do that. It's what slaves are for. ~ Brian Herbert,
1022:the very last thing I want to do is to unsettle in the mind of any Christian, whatever his denomination, the concepts -- for him traditional -- by which he finds it profitable to represent to himself what is happening when he receives the bread and wine. I could wish that no definitions had ever been felt to be necessary; and, still more, that none had been allowed to make divisions between churches. ~ C S Lewis,
1023:And through a dark night of the soul, I came to realize that salvation happens through a mysterious, indefinable, relational interaction with Jesus in which we become one with Him. I realized Christian conversion worked more like falling in love than understanding a series of concepts of ideas. This is not to say there are no true ideas, it is only to say there is something else, something beyond. ~ Donald Miller,
1024:When you work fast, what you put in your pictures is what your brought with yoiu - your own ideas and concepts. When you spend more time on a project, you learn to understand your subjects. There comes a time when it is not you who is taking the pictures. Something special happens between the photographer and the people he is photographing. He realizes that they are giving the pictures to him. ~ Sebastiao Salgado,
1025:A new thought happens and a new plant springs up. A feeling fades away and the plant dies. Some of the more common ones are always in bloom—fear, anger, happiness, love, envy. They’re quite unruly, they grow like weeds. Certain basic mathematical ideas never go away either. But others are quite rare. Complex concepts, extreme or subtle emotions. Awe and wonder are harder to find than they once were. ~ Lev Grossman,
1026:For van Fraassen, when a theory passes a lot of tests and becomes well established, the right attitude to have toward the theory is to "accept" it, in a special sense. To accept a theory is to (z) believe (provisionally) that the theory is empirically adequate, and to (z) use the concepts the theory provides when thinking about further problems and when trying to extend and refine the theory. ~ Peter Godfrey Smith,
1027:Never has America lost a war ... But name, if you can, the last peace the United States won. Victory yes, but this country has never made a successful peace because peace requires exchanging ideas, concepts, thoughts, and recognizing the fact that two distinct systems of life can exist together without conflict. Consider how quickly America seems to be facing its allies of one war as new enemies. ~ Vine Deloria Jr,
1028:radical nominalist who regarded our concepts as no more than useful tools, he believed language became deceptive when it dictated our view of the world. Unrecognized in philosophy aside from a dismissive remark in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus, Mauthner’s work had an enduring influence on Samuel Beckett, who for many years kept Mauthner’s books at his bedside.3 Schopenhauer’s thought has some limitations. ~ John N Gray,
1029:Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts . . . A graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding. ~ William Gibson,
1030:I have always been really picky about the films that I make, because I think that there's such an incredible opportunity to bring up questions when you're making movies, and some of my favorite films bring up big questions. They are movies that, when you walk away from it, it hits you as something deeper, and it's a great, fun way to be able to bounce around some of these harder concepts in our heads. ~ Brie Larson,
1031:I view all art as an effort to translate brain concepts into a work. These brain concepts are synthetic ones - the result of many experiences. But a single work of art, or even a series of works, more often than not cannot translate these synthetic concepts adequately. Yves Saint Laurent once said that he suffered greatly when creating. He is not alone in that. Most artists do the same and say as much. ~ Semir Zeki,
1032:We think that our minds are all powerful but in reality they’ve evolved to do what we need to do, like hunt, eat and talk to one another.

So the concepts in our head are designed to deal with animals, trees, rivers and people.

There’s no reason why they should be able to deal with atoms or galaxies. But I believe we’re flexible and our minds are curious, so we can change our thinking. ~ Carlo Rovelli,
1033:Consider these sentences: Janice is in the house; Janice is in college; Janice is in business. This latter extends the meaning of a purely physical container, but no more so than the spatially fuzzy system of foraging bees. Now consider: Janice is in love. Thus the same physically rooted border concepts of inside and outside are also used for states of being. ~ Tyler Volk, Metapatterns - Across Space, Time, and Mind,
1034:After giving a student the basic mating patterns and strategies you must begin giving them advanced concepts. At first these ideas will not make sense, many players will have a vague idea of what you are talking about but nothing more. Even a fragmented understanding of these concepts will prove useful though, and eventually they will improve as these lessons are assimilated by repetition and example. ~ Jeremy Silman,
1035:A third position has been called "strong Al." When the Mind As Computer metaphor is believed as a deep scientific truth, the true believers interpret the ontology and the inferential patterns that the metaphor imposes on the mind as defining the essence of mind itself. For them, concepts are formal symbols, thought is computation (the manipulation of those symbols), and the mind is a computer program. ~ George Lakoff,
1036:Christianity, like genius, is one of the hardest concepts to forgive. We hear what we want to hear and accept what we want to accept, for the most part, simply because there is nothing more offensive than feeling like you have to re-evaluate your own train of thought and purpose in life. You have to die to an extent in your hunger for faith, for wisdom, and quite frankly, most people aren't ready to die. ~ Criss Jami,
1037:Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts . . . A graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding. .  ~ William Gibson,
1038:Democracy requires respect and protection for multiple points of view, concepts that are incompatible with sociopathy. The need to be seen as superior, when coupled with lack of empathy or remorse for harming other people, are in fact the signature characteristics of tyrants, who seek the control and destruction of all who oppose them, as well as loyalty to themselves instead of to the country they lead. ~ Bandy X Lee,
1039:A movement unlocked my attention. I re-focused my eyes, looking past the vodka glass and into the static buzz of the TV. I stayed very still for a few seconds before lowering the glass to the floor, careful not to take my eyes off the screen. There was something distant and alive in the depths of the white noise - a living glide of thoughts swimming forward, a moving body of concepts and half felt images. ~ Steven Hall,
1040:DUE TO OUR FEELINGS ARISING FROM CONTACT, we think and we rationalize, conceptualize, theorize, philosophize and speculate. Because of the feeling arising from the six senses, we increase our desire; we come to wrong views and wrong beliefs. We recall our past sights, smells, sounds, tastes, touches and ideas and build up more desires, thoughts, concepts, beliefs, ideas, theories and philosophies. ~ Henepola Gunaratana,
1041:You see, programmers tend to be arrogant, self-absorbed introverts. We didn’t get into this business because we like people. Most of us got into programming because we prefer to deeply focus on sterile minutia, juggle lots of concepts simultaneously, and in general prove to ourselves that we have brains the size of a planet, all while not having to interact with the messy complexities of other people. ~ Robert C Martin,
1042:The education we all receive from the State, at school and after, has so warped our minds that the very notion of freedom ends up by being lost, and disguised in servitude. It is a sad sight to see those who believe themselves to be revolutionaries unleashing their hatred on the anarchist just because his views on freedom go beyond their petty and narrow concepts of freedom learned in the State school. ~ Peter Kropotkin,
1043:There are concepts that cannot be imagined but can be named. Having received a name, they change, flow into a different entity, and cease to correspond to the name, and then they can be given another, different name, and this process—the spellbinding process of creation—is infinite: this is the word that names it, and this is the word that signifies. A concept as an organism, and text as the universe. ~ Marina Dyachenko,
1044:A god is usually characteristic of a certain system of thought or morality. For instance, take the Christian God, the summum bonum: God is love, love being the highest moral principle; and God is spirit, the spirit being the supreme idea of meaning. All our Christian moral concepts derive from such assumptions, and the supreme essence of all of them is what we call God. ~ C. G. Jung, Nietzsche's Zarathustra (1988), p. 40,
1045:Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts . . . A graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding. . . . ~ William Gibson,
1046:From this arises the belief that the order of nature is all that there really is. But to draw that conclusion would be a mistake, for two reasons. First, the Lebenswelt is irreducible. We understand and relate to it using concepts of agency and accountability that have no place in the physical sciences; to use the idiom of Sellars, the Lebenswelt exists in “the space of reasons,” not in “the space of law. ~ Roger Scruton,
1047:The sensus communis plays no part in Kant—not even in the logical sense. What Kant treats in the transcendental doctrine of judgment—i.e., the doctrine of schematism and the principles—no longer has anything to do with the sensus communis.57 For here we are concerned with concepts that are supposed to refer to their objects a priori, and not with the subsumption of the particular under the universal. ~ Hans Georg Gadamer,
1048:At all ages, if [fantasy and myth] is used well by the author and meets the right reader, it has the same power: to generalize while remaining concrete, to present in palpable form not concepts or even experiences but whole classes of experience, and to throw off irrelevancies. Bat at its best it can do more; it can give us experiences we have never had and thus, instead of 'commenting on life,' can add to it. ~ C S Lewis,
1049:I think actually if you take the analogy with other areas of engineering, and increasingly of science and even mathematics, you can see people do not have to learn the vast number of formulae they used to learn. Instead, they have to learn to use the computer effectively. This frees them, I feel, to understand concepts and the foundations while they’re learning the mechanics of the application of the theory. ~ C A R Hoare,
1050:that there is no agreement on what a programming language really is and what its main purpose is supposed to be. Is a programming language a tool for instructing machines? A means of communicating between programmers? A vehicle for expressing high-level designs? A notation for algorithms? A way of expressing relationships between concepts? A tool for experimentation? A means of controlling computerized devices ~ Anonymous,
1051:Train them to pay attention to their choices. ("Reduce, Reuse and Recycle are good ideas," he would lecture, "but those three concepts should only be the last resort. What you really need to focus on are two other words that also begin with R- Reconsider and Refuse. Before you even acquire the disposable good, ask yourself why you need this consumer product. And then turn it down. Refuse it. You can.") ~ Elizabeth Gilbert,
1052:Someone asked me very recently why I have 8 million views on TED - "your work resonates, what are you doing?" What I think my contribution is, what I do well, is I name experiences that are very universal that no one really talks about. That's the researcher in me; that's really part of being a grounded theory researcher - putting names to concepts and experiences that people have. That's the researcher part. ~ Brene Brown,
1053:I feel as though I am trying to describe a three-dimensional experience while living in a two-dimension world. The appropriate words, descriptions, and concepts don't even exist in our current language. I have subsequently read the accounts of other people's near-death experiences and their portrayals of heaven and I am able to see the same limitations in their descriptions and vocabulary that I see in my own. ~ Mary C Neal,
1054:One of the concepts I was having trouble illustrating was the concept that administrative systems create narrow categories of gender and force people into them in order to get their basic needs met - what I call "administrative violence." I had images of forms with gender boxes and ID cards with gender markers, but I also wanted an image that would capture how basic services like shelters are gender segregated. ~ Dean Spade,
1055:When we say, "I take refuge in the Buddha," we should also understand that "The Buddha takes refuge in me," because without the second part the first part is not complete. The Buddha needs us for awakening, understanding, and love to be real things and not just concepts. They must be real things that have real effects on life. Whenever I say, "I take refuge in the Buddha," I hear "the Buddha takes refuge in me." ~ Nhat Hanh,
1056:With the smoke of the dead sailor's cigar wreathing around him, Willie passed to thinking about death and life and luck and God. Philosophers are at home with such thoughts, perhaps, but for other people it is actual torture when these concepts--not the words, the realities--break through the crust of daily occurrences and grip the soul. A half hour of such racking meditation can change the ways of a lifetime. ~ Herman Wouk,
1057:You see, programmers tend to be arrogant, self-absorbed introverts. We didn’t get into this business because we like people. Most of us got into programming because we prefer to deeply focus on sterile minutia, juggle lots of concepts simultaneously, and in general prove to ourselves that we have brains the size of a planet, all while not having to interact with the messy complexities of other people. Yes, ~ Robert C Martin,
1058:... one of the main functions of an analogy or model is to suggest extensions of the theory by considering extensions of the analogy, since more is known about the analogy than is known about the subject matter of the theory itself ... A collection of observable concepts in a purely formal hypothesis suggesting no analogy with anything would consequently not suggest either any directions for its own development. ~ Mary Hesse,
1059:The Italian philosopher Antonio Gramsci used the term ‘cultural hegemony’ to describe the way in which ideas and concepts which benefit a dominant class are universalized. They become norms, adopted whole and unexamined, which shape our thinking. Perhaps we suffer from agricultural hegemony: what is deemed to be good for farmers or landowners is deemed, without question or challenge, to be good for everyone. ~ George Monbiot,
1060:Under pressure from the ideology of empire, concepts like freedom and truth gain radically different meanings than those intended by Christ. Freedom becomes a euphemism for vanquishing (instead of loving) enemies; truth finds its ultimate form in the will to power (expressed in the willingness to kill). This is a long way from the ideas of peace, love, and forgiveness set forth by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount. ~ Brian Zahnd,
1061:Whatever happens, whatever you experience, feel, think, do - it's always now. It's all there is. And if you continuously miss the now - resist it, dislike it, try to get away from it, reduce it to a means to an end, then you miss the essence of your life, and you are stuck in a dream world of images, concepts, labels, interpretations, judgments - the conditioned content of your mind that you take to be yourself. ~ Eckhart Tolle,
1062:When we talk about the theology of “God is dead,”
this means that the notion of God must be dead in order
for God to reveal himself as a reality. The theologians, if
they only use concepts, words, and not direct
experience, are not very helpful. The same goes for
nirvana, which is something to be touched and lived and
not discussed and described. We have notions that
distort truth, reality. ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
1063:Black Girl Magic is a radiant revolution against misogynoir - misogyny directed towards Black women and internalized hatred. Black women are subject to so many societal messages that tell them they are not beautiful, smart, or capable. Black Girl Magic is the conscious unraveling of those toxic concepts through self-love and acceptance. It preaches that despite the pressures I face, I glow more than ever before. ~ Amandla Stenberg,
1064:God is one among several hypotheses to account for the phenomena of human destiny, and it is now proving to be an inadequate hypothesis. To a great many people, including myself, this realization is a great relief, both intellectually and morally. It frees us to explore the real phenomena for which the God hypothesis seeks to account, to define them more accurately, and to work for a more satisfying set of concepts. ~ Julian Huxley,
1065:In the time just before the bombing of Pearl Harbor, when Perfidia opens, we were pre-psychologized. There were no concepts of identity, no politics of victimization. Reparation wasn't in the language. Nobody thought about giving the great grandchildren of black slaves so much as $1.98. And all of a sudden the bombs hit, interventionism versus isolationism became a dead issue, and it was us-versus-them in a heartbeat. ~ James Ellroy,
1066:Solidarity is learned through 'contact' rather than 'concepts.' Students in the course of their formation, must let the gritty reality of this world into their lives, so they can learn to feel it, think about it critically, respond to its suffering and engage it constructively. They should learn to perceive, think, judge, choose and act for the rights of others, especially the disadvantaged and the oppressed. ~ Peter Hans Kolvenbach,
1067:That is what is meant by the proposition omne ens est verum (everything that is, is true)—though we have almost ceased to understand it—and by the complementary proposition that being and truth are interchangeable concepts. (What does truth mean, where things are concerned, the truth of things? “A thing is true” means: it is known and knowable, known to the absolute spirit, knowable to the spirit that is not absolute. ~ Josef Pieper,
1068:Biographers are not usually as explicit as philosophers such as Plato, Wittgenstein, Austin, or Moore on questions of the existence of an essential self, the extent to which a life can be lived according to a philosophical system, or the relation between acts and emotions. That is not their job – unless they are writing the Life of a philosopher. But biography is bound to reflect changing and conflicting concepts about ~ Hermione Lee,
1069:The progress of science has always been the result of a close interplay between our concepts of the universe and our observations on nature. The former can only evolve out of the latter and yet the latter is also conditioned greatly by the former. Thus in our exploration of nature, the interplay between our concepts and our observations may sometimes lead to totally unexpected aspects among already familiar phenomena. ~ Tsung Dao Lee,
1070:For every grand and finely worded statement by the CEO, the brand is also defined by derisory consumer comments overheard in a hallway, or in a chat room on the Internet. Brands are sponges for content, for images, for fleeting feelings. They become psychological concepts held in the minds of the public, where they may stay forever. As such you can’t entirely control a brand. At best you can only guide and influence it. ~ Scott Bedbury,
1071:The writer whose words are going to be read by children has a heavy responsibility. And yet, despite the undeniable fact that the children’s minds are tender, they are also far more tough than many people realize, and they have an openness and an ability to grapple with difficult concepts which many adults have lost. Writers of children’s literature are set apart by their willingness to confront difficult questions. ~ Madeleine L Engle,
1072:A child in his earliest years, when he is only two or a little more, is capable of tremendous achievements simply through his unconscious power of absorption, though he is himself still immobile. After the age of three he is able to acquire a great number of concepts through his own efforts in exploring his surroundings. In this period he lays hold of things through his own activity and assimilates them into his mind. ~ Maria Montessori,
1073:A philosopher/mathematician named Bertrand Russell who lived and died in the same century as Gass once wrote: “Language serves not only to express thought but to make possible thoughts which could not exist without it.” Here is the essence of mankind’s creative genius: not the edifices of civilization nor the bang-flash weapons which can end it, but the words which fertilize new concepts like spermatazoa attacking an ovum. ~ Dan Simmons,
1074:Thus it can be argued that quantum theory provides an opening for an idea of nature and of our role within it that is in general accord with certain religious concepts, but that, by contrast, is quite incompatible with the precepts of mechanistic deterministic classical physics. Thus the replacement of classical mechanics by quantum mechanics opens the door to religious possibilities that formerly were rationally excluded. ~ Paul Davies,
1075:Good, we wanted good:
to set the world right.
We didn't lack integrity:
we lacked humility.
What we wanted was not innocently wanted.
Precepts and concepts,
the arrogance of theologians,
to beat with a cross,
to institute with blood,
to build the house with bricks of crime,
to declare obligatory communion.
Some
became secretaries to the secretary
to the General Secretary of the Inferno. ~ Octavio Paz,
1076:At the classical origins of philosophic thought, the transcending concepts remained committed to the prevailing separation between intellectual and manual labor to the established society of enslavement. ... Those who bore the brunt of the untrue reality and who, therefore, seemed to be most in need of attaining its subversion were not the concern of philosophy. It abstracted from them and continued to abstract from them. ~ Herbert Marcuse,
1077:Institutional psychiatry is a continuation of the Inquisition. All that has really changed is the vocabulary and the social style. The vocabulary conforms to the intellectual expectations of our age: it is a pseudo-medical jargon that parodies the concepts of science. The social style conforms to the political expectations of our age: it is a pseudo-liberal social movement that parodies the ideals of freedom and rationality. ~ Thomas Szasz,
1078:It's impossible to initiate a rational dialogue with someone about beliefs and concepts if he has not acquired them through reason. It doesn't matter whether we're looking at God, race, or national pride. That's why I need something more powerful than a simple rhetorical exposition. I need the strength of art, of stagecraft. We think we understand a song's lyrics, but what makes us believe in them, or not, is the music. ~ Carlos Ruiz Zaf n,
1079:One of the most revolutionary concepts to grow out of our clinical experience is the growing recognition that innermost core of man's nature - the deepest layers of his personality, the base of his 'animal nature' - is basically socialized, forward-moving, rational and realistic... He is realistically able to control himself, and he is incorrigibly socialized in his desires. There is no beast in man, there is only man in man. ~ Carl Rogers,
1080:Nevertheless, these undeniable points of likeness, which suggest as at least a probable hypothesis that Aristotle may have possessed some knowledge of Nyaya , must not cause us to forget that there are essential differences between the two viewpoints ; for whereas the Greek syllogism, when all is said and done, bears only on the concepts or notions of things, the Hindu argument has a more direct bearing on things in themselves. ~ Ren Gu non,
1081:Only someone who (like the Intuitionist) denies that the concepts and axioms of classical set theory have any meaning could be satisfied with such a solution, not someone who believes them to describe some well-determined reality. For in reality Cantor's conjecture must be either true or false, and its undecidability from the axioms as known today can only mean that these axioms do not contain a complete description of reality. ~ Kurt G del,
1082:Through books you will meet poets and novelists whose creations will fire your imagination. You will meet the great thinkers who will share with you their philosophies, their concepts of the world, of humanity and of creation. You will learn about events that have shaped our history, of deeds both noble and ignoble. All of this knowledge is yours for the taking… Your library is a storehouse for mind and spirit. Use it well. ~ Neil Armstrong,
1083:One should not wrongly reify 'cause' and 'effect,' as the natural scientists do (and whoever, like them, now 'naturalizes' in his thinking), according to the prevailing mechanical doltishness which makes the cause press and push until it 'effects' its end; one should use 'cause' and 'effect' only as pure concepts, that is to say, as conventional fictions for the purpose of designation and communication-not for explanation. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
1084:When we assume God to be a guiding principle well, sure enough, a god is usually characteristic of a certain system of thought or morality. For instance, take the Christian God, the summum bonum: God is love, love being the highest moral principle; and God is spirit, the spirit being the supreme idea of meaning. All our Christian moral concepts derive from such assumptions, and the supreme essence of all of them is what we call God. ~ Carl Jung,
1085:But in the end one also has to understand that the needs that religion has satisfied and philosophy is now supposed to satisfy are not immutable; they can be weakened and exterminated. Consider, for example, that Christian distress of mind that comes from sighing over ones inner depravity and care for ones salvation - all concepts originating in nothing but errors of reason and deserving, not satisfaction, but obliteration. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
1086:In ordinary life, we are not aware of the unity of all things, but divide the world into separate objects and events. This division is useful and necessary to cope with our everyday environment, but it is not a fundamental feature of reality. It is an abstraction devised by our discriminating and categorising intellect. To believe that our abstract concepts of separate 'things' and 'events' are realities of nature is an illusion. ~ Fritjof Capra,
1087:Now all of us deplore this vast military spending. Yet, in the face of the Soviet attitude, we realize its necessity. Whatever the cost, America will keep itself secure. But in the process we must not, by our own hand, destroy or distort the American system. This we could do by useless overspending. I know one sure way to overspend. That is by overindulging sentimental attachments to outmoded military machines and concepts. ~ Dwight D Eisenhower,
1088:Strategic culture is an integrated “system of symbols” (e.g., argumentation structures, languages, analogies, metaphors) which acts to establish pervasive and long-lasting strategic preferences by formulating concepts of the role and efficacy of military force in interstate political affairs, and by clothing these conception with such an aura of factuality that the strategic preferences seem uniquely realistic and efficacious. ~ C Christine Fair,
1089:But once again, Lily Anne proved that she saw things a little more clearly and shrewdly than her dunderheaded father. As I wrestled with all the concepts of foreclosure and moving and personal inconvenience, she cut right to the heart of the matter with an insight that was sharp and compelling. She bounced three times on her powerful little legs and said, “Da. Da da da.” And for emphasis, she reached out and pulled on my earlobe. I ~ Jeff Lindsay,
1090:Physicians and mental health workers today don't speak of retrieving souls, but they are faced with a similar task—restoring wholeness to an organism that has been fragmented by trauma. Shamanistic concepts and procedures treat trauma by uniting lost soul and body in the presence of community. This approach is alien to the technological mind. However, these procedures do seem to succeed where conventional Western approaches fail. ~ Peter A Levine,
1091:The concepts belonging to it—not just to their form, but also to their content—must spring forth prior to all experience. In this case, however, the pure predicative synthesis, which necessarily belongs to the pure veritative synthesis, is of a special sort. Therefore, as with the ontological synthesis, the question concerning the essence of the “ontological predicate” must shift to the center of the problem of the a priori synthesis. ~ Anonymous,
1092:The contextual considerations that frame any activity literally define how it should be trained. All pistol training has sight alignment and trigger press concepts within it, but the conditions under which one has to apply them to win a small bore bulls-eye match are very different than the conditions of a USPSA match. So it is with using a handgun to effectively thwart a criminal assault within a typical criminal assault paradigm. ~ Massad Ayoob,
1093:A purely mental life may be destructive if it leads us to substitute thought for life and ideas for actions. The activity proper to man is purely mental because man is not just a disembodied mind. Our destiny is to live out what we think, because unless we live what we know, we do not even know it. It is only by making our knowledge part of ourselves, through action, that we enter into the reality that is signified by our concepts. ~ Thomas Merton,
1094:While I sobbed into the greens, I wondered how Brandon, standing a few feet away at the pizza oven, could handle the onslaught of tickets. Answer: he's an East Coaster. In a pinch, he has access to such concepts as 'Fuck 'em', and 'Let 'em wait', and 'I'm working as fast as I can here.' I am a people-pleaser from Oklahoma, where life is placid enough that it's considered song-worthy to watch a hawk making lazy circles in the sky. ~ Molly Wizenberg,
1095:It’s we humans who introduce these concepts and the words for them: in principle, everything could have been derived from the fundamental theory at the top of the tree, although such an extreme reductionist approach is often useless in practice. Crudely speaking, as we move down the tree, the number of words goes up while the number of equations goes down, dropping to near zero for highly applied fields such as medicine and sociology. ~ Max Tegmark,
1096:A theory is the more impressive the greater the simplicity of its premises is, the more different kinds of things it relates, and the more extended is its area of applicability. Therefore the deep impression which classical thermodynamics made upon me. It is the only physical theory of universal content concerning which I am convinced that within the framework of the applicability of its basic concepts, it will never be overthrown. ~ Albert Einstein,
1097:Ego is neither positive nor negative. Those are simply concepts that create more boundaries. Ego is just ego, and the disaster of it all is that you, as a spiritual seeker, have been conditioned to think of the ego as bad, as an enemy, as something to be destroyed. This simply strengthens the ego. In fact, such conclusions arise from the ego itself. Pay no attention to them. Don't go to war with yourself; simply inquire into who you are. ~ Adyashanti,
1098:Ego is neither positive nor negative. Those are simply concepts that create more boundaries. Ego is just ego, and the disaster of it all is that you, as a spiritual seeker, have been conditioned to think of the ego as bad, as an enemy, as something to be destroyed. This simply strengthens the ego. In fact, such conclusions arise from the ego itself. Pay no attention to them. Don’t go to war with yourself; simply inquire into who you are. ~ Adyashanti,
1099:My conception around being a woman in 2016 has definitely been shifting over the past year, because I feel like I'm proud of womanhood, and I feel attached to it, and at the same time I'm someone who doesn't believe in having a gender binary, and so often times I separate those two concepts in my mind - the concept of being a woman and the concept of being a girl or being female, being kind of attached to a certain gender identity. ~ Amandla Stenberg,
1100:Thus even supposedly unadulterated facts of observation already are interfused with all sorts of conceptual pictures, model concepts, theories or whatever expression you choose. The choice is not whether to remain in the field of data or to theorize; the choice is only between models that are more or less abstract, generalized, near or more remote from direct observation, more or less suitable to represent observed phenomena. ~ Ludwig von Bertalanffy,
1101:As far as a theoretical point of view for my generation, I'm probably the most successful theoretician. I mean, double albums and concepts and dresses and major disasters and wonderful successes and yet you don't see the critical review of my work. Why? Because it's all focused on the persona. Billy Corgan. But I get to sort of jump in and be Billy Corgan. But then I get to sort of jump back out and be like, sensitive man in the corner. ~ Billy Corgan,
1102:Therefore, men of Polynesia and Boston and China and Mount Fuji and the barrios of the Philippines, do not come to these islands empty-handed, or craven in spirit, or afraid to starve. There is no food here. In these islands there is no certainty. Bring your own food, your own gods, your own flowers and fruits and concepts. For if you come without resources to these islands you will perish... On these harsh terms the islands waited. ~ James A Michener,
1103:A great majority of Terrans were idealists, and they believed fervently in concepts such as truth, justice, mercy, and the like. And not only did they believe, they also let those noble concepts guide their actions—except when it would be inconvenient or unprofitable. When that happened, they acted expediently, but continued to talk moralistically. This meant that they were “hypocrites” —a term which every race has its counterpart of. ~ Robert Sheckley,
1104:It is only through the psyche that we can establish that God acts upon us, but we are unable to distinguish whether these actions emanate from God or from the unconscious. We cannot tell whether God and the unconscious are two different entities. Both are border-line concepts for transcendental contents. But empirically it can be established, with a sufficient degree of probability, that there is in the unconscious an archetype of wholeness. ~ Carl Jung,
1105:This last point is a request to the English-speaking reader. In France, certain half-witted ‘commentators’ persist in labelling me a ‘structuralist’. I have been unable to get it into their tiny minds that I have used none of the methods, concepts, or key terms that characterize structural analysis. I should be grateful if a more serious public would free me from a connection that certainly does me honour, but that I have not deserved. ~ Michel Foucault,
1106:in 1969, I still regard Jesus Christ today as the chief focus of my perspective on God but not to the exclusion of other religious perspectives. God's reality is not bound by one manifestation of the divine in Jesus but can be found wherever people are being empowered to fight for freedom. Life-giving power for the poor and the oppressed is the primary criterion that we must use to judge the adequacy of our theology, not abstract concepts. ~ James H Cone,
1107:Think of the transformation as a process of buildup followed by breakthrough, broken into three broad stages: disciplined people, disciplined thought, and disciplined action. Within each of these three stages, there are two key concepts, shown in the framework and described below. Wrapping around this entire framework is a concept we came to call the flywheel, which captures the gestalt of the entire process of going from good to great. ~ James C Collins,
1108:As far as nonviolence and Spiritual Activism, Marshall Rosenberg is it! Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life, is essential reading for anyone who wants to improve their communication skills. Applying the concepts within the book will help guide the reader towards a more loving, compassionate, and nonviolent way of understanding and functioning with others, and foster more compassion in the world. I highly recommend this book. ~ Marianne Williamson,
1109:It has been held that, since its essential normativity cannot be accommodated within the natural sciences, we might be forced to throw the concept of action and with it action concepts on the trash heap of outdated theories. With action concepts a logical basis of first person thought disappears. Renouncing action concepts is a form of self-annihilation: logical self-annihilation. It annihilates a source of the power to think and say 'I'. ~ Sebastian R dl,
1110:Plausible futures. We have a current understanding of the trend. We also know the laws of nature, physics, and mathematics as well as the current systems, workflows, and processes that govern research, business, the government, and society—essentially, the concepts and rules operating within the ten sources of change. Therefore, we can look out on the fringe to determine which kinds of early experimentation are plausible, given how things work. ~ Amy Webb,
1111:Is time real? …In one sense, it’s a silly question. The “reality” of something is only an interesting issue if its a well-defined concept whose actual existence is in question, like Bigfoot or supersymmetry. For concepts like “time,” which are unambiguously part of a useful vocabulary we have for describing the world, talking about “reality” is just a bit of harmless gassing. They may be emergent or fundamental, but they’re definitely there. ~ Sean Carroll,
1112:She'd become so beautiful, it defied understanding. Never had I feasted my eyes on such beauty. Beauty of a variety I'd never imagined existed. As expansive as the entire universe, yet as dense as a glacier. Unabashedly excessive, yet at the same time pared down to an essence. It transcended all concepts within the boundaries of my awareness. She was at one with her ears, gliding down the oblique face of time like a protean beam of light. ~ Haruki Murakami,
1113:While one could hardly say that philosophers have given much attention to the place that the concept of evil has among our moral concepts, they have done so more in the last ten or so years than they had before. I have, therefore, often wondered why there has been so little discussion of goodness. In Search of Goodness is not only an exception: it is an admirable one. It is original and provocative, impressive both in its breadth and depth. ~ Raimond Gaita,
1114:There is all the world of difference between the invasive use of force, on the one hand, and the peaceful but assertive refusal to interact, on the other. Indeed, in the entire realm of political philosophy, there is scarcely a distinction more important to make, nor one easier to make. Nevertheless, for many people, the distinction between these two concepts is hard to discern. This is all the more reason to make it clearly and repetitively. ~ Walter Block,
1115:When a church has a biblical apologetic for womanhood, the foundational concepts of woman’s helper design and life-giving mission can permeate the women’s ministry. Whether that ministry is small and informal or large and well-organized, it can be perpetually and intentionally guided by three questions: • Are we being helpers or hinderers? • Are we being life-givers or life-takers? • Are we equipping women to be helpers and life-givers? ~ J Ligon Duncan III,
1116:For the photograph's immobility is somehow the result of a perverse confusion between two concepts: the Real and the Live: by attesting that the object has been real, the photograph surreptitiously induces belief that it is alive, because of that delusion which makes us attribute to Reality an absolute superior, somehow eternal value; but by shifting this reality to the past ("this-has-been"), the photograph suggests that it is already dead. ~ Roland Barthes,
1117:For the photograph's immobility is somehow the result of a perverse confusion between two concepts: the Real and the Live: by attesting that the object has been real, the photograph surreptitiously induces belief that it is alive, because of that delusion which makes us attribute to Reality an absolute superior, somehow eternal value; but by shifting this reality to the past ('this-has-been'), the photograph suggests that it is already dead. ~ Roland Barthes,
1118:Grammar is like the walls and bumpers of a pinball machine. Rhetoric is like the flippers of a pinball machine. You control the flippers. The rest of the machine—grammar—controls everything else. If you use the flippers well, you make points. If you fail to image your concepts viably, your ball drops into the black hole of nothingness. If you try to cheat, the machine tilts and you lose—that’s like people not understanding your interactions. ~ Neal Stephenson,
1119:Until the advent of modern physics it was generally thought that all knowledge of the world could be obtained through direct observation, that things are what they seem, as perceived through our senses. But the spectacular success of modern physics, which is based upon concepts such as Feynman’s that clash with everyday experience, has shown that that is not the case. The naive view of reality therefore is not compatible with modern physics. ~ Stephen Hawking,
1120:Why does philosophy use concepts and why does faith use symbols if both try to express the same ultimate? The answer, of course, is that the relation to the ultimate is not the same in each case. The philosophical relation is in principle a detached description of the basic structure in which the ultimate manifests itself. The relation of faith is in principle an involved expression of concern about the meaning of the ultimate for the faithful. ~ Paul Tillich,
1121:The brain cannot multitask. Multitasking, when it comes to paying attention, is a myth. The brain naturally focuses on concepts sequentially, one at a time…To put it bluntly, research shows that we can’t multitask. We are biologically incapable of processing information-rich inputs simultaneously…Studies show that a person who is interrupted takes 50 percent longer to accomplish a task. Not only that, he or she makes up to 50 percent more errors. ~ John Medina,
1122:The French Revolution gave us three... powerful ideas, or concepts - liberty, equality and fraternity. But these ideas... are not only right in themselves, but they are so because they come in the proper order. You cannot have equality without liberty, and you certainly cannot have fraternity without equality. The importance of this I learnt from music, because music evolves in time, and therefore the order inevitably determines the content. ~ Daniel Barenboim,
1123:The story of Janie’s progress through three marriages confronts the reader with the significant idea that the choice one makes between partners, between one man and another (or one woman and another) stretches beyond romance. It is, in the end, the choice between values, possibilities, futures, hopes, arguments (shared concepts that fit the world as you experience it), languages (shared words that fit the world as you believe it to be) and lives. ~ Zadie Smith,
1124:Every individual is at once the beneficiary and the victim of the linguistic tradition into which he has been born - the beneficiary inasmuch as language gives access to the accumulated records of other people's experience, the victim in so far as it confirms him in the belief that reduced awareness is the only awareness and as it bedevils his sense of reality, so that he is all too apt to take his concepts for data, his words for actual things. ~ Aldous Huxley,
1125:The Most Secret Quintessence of Life is an original work filled with rich, new research, relying on important primary literature which has not, until now, been plumbed and digested. In this book, Chandak Sengoopta offers both a history of hormone discovery and a chronicle of how this discovery transformed our concepts of the body and how our existing concepts of sex and sexuality, in turn, informed our concepts for understanding hormones. ~ Anne Fausto Sterling,
1126:Believing the worst of people, of the world in general, was a trap too easy to fall into. Hadrian had fought beside soldiers who'd developed similar views. Such men saw evil and virtue as concepts of naïveté. In their minds, there was no such thing as murder, an killing was just something you did when circumstances warranted.
A terrible way to live. What good is a world - what is the point of living - if generosity and kindness are myths? ~ Michael J Sullivan,
1127:Not that this was our intention, but you know how it is with writing, one word often brings along another in its train simply because they sound good together, even if this means sacrificing respect for levity and ethics for aesthetics, if such solemn concepts are not out of place in a discourse such as this, and often to no one’s advantage either. It is in this and other ways, almost without our realizing it, that we make so many enemies in life. ~ Jos Saramago,
1128:Then he opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures.” I'm not sure original definitions get much better than the one for understand in Luke 24:45. Meditate on this definition: “The comprehending activity of the mind denoted by suniemi entails the assembling of individual facts into an organized whole, as collecting the pieces of a puzzle and putting them together. The mind grasps concepts and sees the proper relationship between them. ~ Beth Moore,
1129:It’s clear we’re after something difficult. If we were to make a little list to describe it, it might be something like this: •A movement that is not an organisation •A force that is not authority •A cooperation without hierarchy •A presence that prefers to be unnamed •Unpremeditated agency •Unique individuals who yearn for affinity •A resilient language and rhetoric that don’t solidify concepts •Fury that is obligatorily manifested as a carnival ~ Ece Temelkuran,
1130:To seek Truth is automatically a calling for the innate dissident and the subversive; how
many are willing to give up safety and security for the perilous life of the spiritual revolutionary? How
many are willing to truly learn that their own cherished concepts are wrong? Striking provocative or
mysterious poses in the safety of Internet [social media] is far easier than taking the risks involved in
the hard work of genuine initiation. ~ Zeena Schreck,
1131:I have devoted myself to architecture as a sublime act of poetic imagination. Consequently, I am only a symbol for all those who have been touched by beauty. The words Beauty, Inspiration, Magic, Spellbound, Enchantment, as well as the concepts of Serenity, Silence, Intimacy and Amazement, all these have nestled in my soul. Though I am fully aware that I have not done them complete justice in my work, they have never ceased to be my guiding lights. ~ Luis Barragan,
1132:Did poverty in itself lead to moral failings, such as crime? Was "goodness" something that could be objectified and measured? Did society benefit directly from individual virtue, and therefore have incentive to promote it? Did our concepts of goodness have their foundations in religious and spiritual practice? What about the notion that money was the root of all evil, and those monks and nuns who felt it necessary to deny themselves material wealth? ~ Jean Thompson,
1133:It turned out that salt was a microcosm for one of the oldest concepts of nature and the order of the universe. From the fourth-century-B.C. Chinese belief in the forces of yin and yang, to most of the world's religions, to modern science, to the basic principles of cooking, there has always been a belief that two opposing forces find completion - one receiving a missing part and the other shedding an extra one. A salt is a small but perfect thing. ~ Mark Kurlansky,
1134:…the gaps
in sensitivity displayed are vast.
Concepts that have not often been surpassed
For ignorance or downright nastiness -
That the habit of indifference is less
Destructive than the embrace of love, that crimes
Are paid for never or a thousand times,
That the gentle come to grief - all these are forced
Into scenes, dialogue, comments, and endorsed
By the main action, manifesting there
An inhumanity beyond despair. ~ Kingsley Amis,
1135:What a powerful word, future. Of all the abstractions we can articulate to ourselves, of all the concepts we have that other animals do not, how extraordinary the ability to consider a time that's never been experienced. And how tragic not to consider it. It galls us, we with such a limited future, to see someone brush it aside as meaningless, when it has an endless capacity for meaning, and an endless number of meanings that can be found within it. ~ David Levithan,
1136:What a powerful word, future. Of all the abstractions we can articulate to ourselves, of all the concepts we have that other animals do not, how extraordinary the ability to consider a time that’s never been experienced. And how tragic not to consider it. It galls us, we with such a limited future, to see someone brush it aside as meaningless, when it has an endless capacity for meaning, and an endless number of meanings that can be found within it. ~ David Levithan,
1137:I am leaving in order to have peace and quiet. To be rid of the influence of civilization. I only want to do simple, very simple art and to be able to do that, I have to immerse myself in virgin nature, see no one but savages, live their life, with no other thought in my mind but to render, the way a child would, the concepts formed in my brain and to do this with the aid of nothing but the primitive means of art, the only means that are good and true. ~ Paul Gauguin,
1138:What a wonderful word, future. Of all the abstractions we can articulate to ourselves, of all the concepts we have that other animals do not, how extraordinary the ability to consider a time that's never been experienced. And how tragic not to consider it. It galls us, we with such a limited future, to see someone brush it aside as meaningless, when it has an endless capacity for meaning, and an endless number of meanings that can be found within it. ~ David Levithan,
1139:John Bransford, a gifted education researcher, has spent many years studying what separates novice teachers from expert teachers. One of many things he noticed is the way the experts organize information. “[Experts’] knowledge is not simply a list of facts and formulas that are relevant to their domain; instead, their knowledge is organized around core concepts or ‘big ideas’ that guide their thinking about their domains,” he cowrote in How People Learn. ~ John Medina,
1140:The theoretical physicist Richard Feynman was such a lauded lecturer in large part because, like Hui Tzu, he was skilled in finding the right analogies to illustrate his explanations of extremely abstract-and extremely difficult-concepts. He once compared a drop of water magnified 2,000 times to "a kind of teeming...like a crowd at a football game as seen from a very great distance." That description has all the precision of good physics and good poetry. ~ James Geary,
1141:To tell you the truth, I am rather perplexed by the concept of 'art'. What one person considers to be 'art' is often not 'art' to another. 'Beautiful' and 'ugly' are old-fashioned concepts that are seldom applied these days; perhaps justifiably, who knows? Something repulsive, which gives you a moral hangover, and hurts your ears or eyes, may well be art. Only 'kitsch' is not art - we're all agreed about that. Indeed, but what is 'kitsch'? If only I knew! ~ M C Escher,
1142:How can you gain a full understanding of a subject when you don't understand the words used to explain it?
Well, that's why words are the biggest hidden barrier to understanding that almost everyone completely overlooks.
Simply put, if you have misunderstandings about the words being used to communicate specific concepts, you will not duplicate the communications exactly - you will reach your own distorted conclusions due to misinterpretation. ~ Michael Matthews,
1143:Teams that commit to decisions and standards do so because they know how to embrace two separate but related concepts: buy-in and clarity. Buy-in is the achievement of honest emotional support. Clarity is the removal of assumptions and ambiguity from a situation. Commitment is about a group of intelligent, driven individuals buying in to a decision precisely when they don’t naturally agree. In other words, it’s the ability to defy a lack of consensus. ~ Patrick Lencioni,
1144:I use biography, I use literary connections (as with Platen - this seems to me extremely helpful for appreciating the nuances of Mann's and Aschenbach's sexuality), I use philosophical sources (but not in the way many Mann critics do, where the philosop