classes ::: verb, elements in the yoga,
children :::
branches ::: Focus

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object:Focus
alt:focus
word class:verb
class:elements in the yoga

see also :::

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now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks


OBJECT INSTANCES [0] - TOPICS - AUTHORS - BOOKS - CHAPTERS - CLASSES - SEE ALSO - SIMILAR TITLES

TOPICS
SEE ALSO


AUTH

BOOKS
Big_Mind,_Big_Heart
Blazing_the_Trail_from_Infancy_to_Enlightenment
Full_Circle
Heart_of_Matter
Integral_Life_Practice_(book)
Journey_to_the_Lord_of_Power_-_A_Sufi_Manual_on_Retreat
Life_without_Death
My_Burning_Heart
Process_and_Reality
Savitri
The_Bible
The_Book_of_Secrets__Keys_to_Love_and_Meditation
The_Divine_Milieu
The_Tibetan_Yogas_of_Dream_and_Sleep
The_Yoga_Sutras
Toward_the_Future

IN CHAPTERS TITLE

IN CHAPTERS CLASSNAME

IN CHAPTERS TEXT
00.03_-_Upanishadic_Symbolism
0.00_-_The_Book_of_Lies_Text
0.01f_-_FOREWARD
01.09_-_The_Parting_of_the_Way
01.10_-_Nicholas_Berdyaev:_God_Made_Human
01.10_-_Principle_and_Personality
0_1960-03-03
0_1961-01-10
0_1962-02-27
0_1962-06-23
0_1962-06-30
0_1962-07-18
0_1962-09-26
0_1962-10-12
0_1962-11-10
0_1963-12-07_-_supramental_ship
0_1965-11-27
0_1966-06-08
0_1967-02-08
0_1967-06-21
0_1967-07-12
0_1967-07-22
0_1968-12-25
0_1970-03-25
0_1971-10-23
0_1971-12-08
0_1971-12-25
0_1972-03-29a
0_1972-10-25
02.02_-_Lines_of_the_Descent_of_Consciousness
02.14_-_Panacea_of_Isms
03.02_-_Yogic_Initiation_and_Aptitude
03.04_-_The_Body_Human
03.08_-_The_Standpoint_of_Indian_Art
04.01_-_The_Divine_Man
04.02_-_Human_Progress
04.05_-_The_Immortal_Nation
05.05_-_Of_Some_Supreme_Mysteries
06.03_-_Types_of_Meditation
06.08_-_The_Individual_and_the_Collective
07.15_-_Divine_Disgust
100.00_-_Synergy
1.00a_-_Introduction
10.14_-_Night_and_Day
1.01_-_Fundamental_Considerations
1.01_-_Introduction
1.01_-_MAPS_OF_EXPERIENCE_-_OBJECT_AND_MEANING
1.01_-_Seeing
1.01_-_The_Mental_Fortress
1.01_-_Who_is_Tara
1.025_-_Sadhana_-_Intensifying_a_Lighted_Flame
1.028_-_Bringing_About_Whole-Souled_Dedication
1.02_-_MAPS_OF_MEANING_-_THREE_LEVELS_OF_ANALYSIS
1.02_-_Meditating_on_Tara
1.02_-_The_7_Habits__An_Overview
1.02_-_To_Zen_Monks_Kin_and_Koku
1.032_-_Our_Concept_of_God
1.03_-_Bloodstream_Sermon
1.03_-_Tara,_Liberator_from_the_Eight_Dangers
1.04_-_Feedback_and_Oscillation
1.04_-_THE_APPEARANCE_OF_ANOMALY_-_CHALLENGE_TO_THE_SHARED_MAP
1.04_-_The_Gods_of_the_Veda
1.04_-_The_Silent_Mind
1.052_-_Yoga_Practice_-_A_Series_of_Positive_Steps
1.05_-_Christ,_A_Symbol_of_the_Self
1.05_-_Consciousness
1.05_-_Dharana
1.05_-_The_Activation_of_Human_Energy
1.05_-_The_Ascent_of_the_Sacrifice_-_The_Psychic_Being
1.05_-_THE_HOSTILE_BROTHERS_-_ARCHETYPES_OF_RESPONSE_TO_THE_UNKNOWN
1.06_-_Being_Human_and_the_Copernican_Principle
1.06_-_Gestalt_and_Universals
1.06_-_The_Breaking_of_the_Limits
1.075_-_Self-Control,_Study_and_Devotion_to_God
1.07_-_A_Song_of_Longing_for_Tara,_the_Infallible
1.07_-_On_Dreams
1.07_-_Savitri
1.081_-_The_Application_of_Pratyahara
1.083_-_Choosing_an_Object_for_Concentration
1.08_-_Independence_from_the_Physical
1.094_-_Understanding_the_Structure_of_Things
1.096_-_Powers_that_Accrue_in_the_Practice
1.10_-_Harmony
1.10_-_The_Revolutionary_Yogi
11.14_-_Our_Finest_Hour
11.15_-_Sri_Aurobindo
1.11_-_Oneness
1.12_-_God_Departs
1.14_-_The_Secret
1.15_-_The_Supramental_Consciousness
1.18_-_The_Perils_of_the_Soul
1.25_-_SPIRITUAL_EXERCISES
1951-04-26_-_Irrevocable_transformation_-_The_divine_Shakti_-_glad_submission_-_Rejection,_integral_-_Consecration_-_total_self-forgetfulness_-_work
1953-06-24
1957-06-05_-_Questions_and_silence_-_Methods_of_meditation
1958_09_19
1963_03_06
1f.lovecraft_-_At_the_Mountains_of_Madness
1f.lovecraft_-_Medusas_Coil
1f.lovecraft_-_Out_of_the_Aeons
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Battle_that_Ended_the_Century
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Call_of_Cthulhu
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Challenge_from_Beyond
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Crawling_Chaos
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Diary_of_Alonzo_Typer
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dream-Quest_of_Unknown_Kadath
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dreams_in_the_Witch_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Dunwich_Horror
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Festival
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Man_of_Stone
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Mound
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shadow_over_Innsmouth
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Shunned_House
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Thing_on_the_Doorstep
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Trap
1f.lovecraft_-_The_Whisperer_in_Darkness
1.lla_-_Fool,_you_wont_find_your_way_out_by_praying_from_a_book
1.lovecraft_-_Fungi_From_Yuggoth
1.rb_-_The_Flight_Of_The_Duchess
1.rmr_-_Elegy_IV
1.sk_-_Is_there_anyone_in_the_universe
1.wby_-_An_Irish_Airman_Foresees_His_Death
2.01_-_Habit_1__Be_Proactive
2.01_-_THE_ADVENT_OF_LIFE
2.01_-_The_Attributes_of_Omega_Point_-_a_Transcendent_God
2.02_-_Evolutionary_Creation_and_the_Expectation_of_a_Revelation
2.02_-_Habit_2__Begin_with_the_End_in_Mind
2.02_-_THE_EXPANSION_OF_LIFE
2.03_-_The_Christian_Phenomenon_and_Faith_in_the_Incarnation
2.04_-_The_Living_Church_and_Christ-Omega
2.05_-_Habit_3__Put_First_Things_First
2.09_-_Meditation
2.14_-_The_Unpacking_of_God
2.19_-_Out_of_the_Sevenfold_Ignorance_towards_the_Sevenfold_Knowledge
2.3.01_-_Aspiration_and_Surrender_to_the_Mother
2.3.07_-_The_Mother_in_Visions,_Dreams_and_Experiences
2.3.1_-_Ego_and_Its_Forms
30.01_-_World-Literature
30.08_-_Poetry_and_Mantra
30.18_-_Boris_Pasternak
3.01_-_THE_BIRTH_OF_THOUGHT
3.02_-_Mysticism
3.02_-_The_Psychology_of_Rebirth
3.03_-_SULPHUR
3.03_-_THE_MODERN_EARTH
3.09_-_The_Return_of_the_Soul
31.04_-_Sri_Ramakrishna
3.12_-_Of_the_Bloody_Sacrifice
32.07_-_The_God_of_the_Scientist
3-5_Full_Circle
36.07_-_An_Introduction_To_The_Vedas
3.7.1.05_-_The_Significance_of_Rebirth
4.01_-_Conclusion_-_My_intellectual_position
4.02_-_BEYOND_THE_COLLECTIVE_-_THE_HYPER-PERSONAL
4.03_-_Prayer_to_the_Ever-greater_Christ
4.03_-_THE_ULTIMATE_EARTH
4.04_-_Conclusion
4.05_-_THE_DARK_SIDE_OF_THE_KING
4.07_-_Purification-Intelligence_and_Will
4.1.01_-_The_Intellect_and_Yoga
4.23_-_The_supramental_Instruments_--_Thought-process
5.01_-_EPILOGUE
7_-_Yoga_of_Sri_Aurobindo
Appendix_4_-_Priest_Spells
Big_Mind_(non-dual)
Big_Mind_(ten_perfections)
Blazing_P1_-_Preconventional_consciousness
Blazing_P2_-_Map_the_Stages_of_Conventional_Consciousness
Blazing_P3_-_Explore_the_Stages_of_Postconventional_Consciousness
BOOK_II._--_PART_II._THE_ARCHAIC_SYMBOLISM_OF_THE_WORLD-RELIGIONS
BOOK_I._--_PART_I._COSMIC_EVOLUTION
BOOK_I._--_PART_III._SCIENCE_AND_THE_SECRET_DOCTRINE_CONTRASTED
BS_1_-_Introduction_to_the_Idea_of_God
Diamond_Sutra_1
DS2
DS3
DS4
ENNEAD_02.02_-_About_the_Movement_of_the_Heavens.
ENNEAD_02.08_-_Of_Sight,_or_of_Why_Distant_Objects_Seem_Small.
ENNEAD_04.02_-_How_the_Soul_Mediates_Between_Indivisible_and_Divisible_Essence.
ENNEAD_04.03_-_Psychological_Questions.
ENNEAD_06.05_-_The_One_and_Identical_Being_is_Everywhere_Present_In_Its_Entirety.345
Guru_Granth_Sahib_first_part
Liber_111_-_The_Book_of_Wisdom_-_LIBER_ALEPH_VEL_CXI
Liber_46_-_The_Key_of_the_Mysteries
LUX.01_-_GNOSIS
LUX.02_-_EVOCATION
LUX.07_-_ENCHANTMENT
MMM.01_-_MIND_CONTROL
MMM.02_-_MAGIC
P.11_-_MAGICAL_WEAPONS
r1912_12_08
Sayings_of_Sri_Ramakrishna_(text)
The_Act_of_Creation_text
The_Aleph
The_Anapanasati_Sutta__A_Practical_Guide_to_Mindfullness_of_Breathing_and_Tranquil_Wisdom_Meditation
The_Coming_Race_Contents
The_Dwellings_of_the_Philosophers
The_Gold_Bug
The_Logomachy_of_Zos

PRIMARY CLASS

elements_in_the_yoga
SIMILAR TITLES
Focus

DEFINITIONS


TERMS STARTING WITH

Focus: An item, act, phrase, gesture or similar artifice required to perform magic. Through the focus, the mage concentrates belief and will and causes magic to result.

focus: A point which, together with a line called the directrix, defines the set of points which form a conic section.

FOCUS "database, language" A hierarchical {database} language from {Information Builders, Inc.} (1994-12-21)

FOCUS ::: (database, language) A hierarchical database language from Information Builders, Inc. (1994-12-21)

focused ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Focus

focuses ::: pl. --> of Focus

focus group "product" An event where market researchers meet (potential) users of a product to try to plan how to improve it. (1999-02-24)

focus group ::: (product) An event where market researchers meet (potential) users of a product to try to plan how to improve it. (1999-02-24)

focusing ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Focus

focus ::: n. --> A point in which the rays of light meet, after being reflected or refrcted, and at which the image is formed; as, the focus of a lens or mirror.
A point so related to a conic section and certain straight line called the directrix that the ratio of the distace between any point of the curve and the focus to the distance of the same point from the directrix is constant.
A central point; a point of concentration.


focus: The combination of belief, practice, and instruments through which a mage focuses her magick. (See paradigm.) (Like countermagick, this is more of a game term than a setting term.)


TERMS ANYWHERE

10. Centrality (zhuban yuanming jude men): Each of the aforementioned categories explains and validates all the others. When focus is directed at any particular category, all the others become subordinate, and the one at hand becomes predominant. Each category involves the same principle of being collectively substantiated by all categories together. The same is true with all phenomena: the relation between centrality and marginality is relative and mutually substantiating.

abhibhvAyatana. (P. abhibhAyatana; T. zil gyis gnon pa'i skye mched; C. shengchu; J. shosho; K. sŭngch'o 勝處). In Sanskrit, "sphere of sovereignty" or "station of mastery"; eight stages of transcendence over the sense spheres (AYATANA), which are conducive to the development of meditative absorption (DHYANA). By recognizing from various standpoints that material forms are external, one trains oneself to let go of attachments to material objects and focus exclusively on the meditation subject. The standard list of eight is as follows. When one perceives forms internally (viz., on one's own person), one sees forms external to oneself that are (1) limited and beautiful or ugly (viz., pure and impure colors) or (2) unlimited, and beautiful or ugly, and masters them so that one is aware that one knows and sees them; when one does not perceive forms internally, one sees external forms that are (3) limited or (4) unlimited. When one does not perceive forms internally, one sees external forms that are (5) blue, (6) yellow, (7) red, or (8) white and masters them so that one is aware that one knows and sees them. In the PAli meditative literature, the earth and the color devices (KASInA) are said to be especially conducive to developing these spheres of sovereignty. Progress through these spheres weans the mind from its attraction to the sensuous realm (KAMADHATU) and thus encourages the advertence toward the four meditative absorptions (DHYANA; RuPAVACARADHYANA) associated with the realm of subtle materiality (RuPADHATU), wherein the mind becomes temporarily immune to sensory input and wholly absorbed in its chosen object of meditation.

abhidhammika. [alt. Abhidhammika]. In PAli, "specialist in the ABHIDHAMMA"; scholarly monks who specialized in study of the abhidhamma (S. ABHIDHARMA) section of the Buddhist canon. In the PAli tradition, particular importance has long been attached to the study of abhidharma. The AttHASALINĪ says that the first ABHIDHAMMIKA was the Buddha himself, and the abhidhammikas were presumed to be the most competent exponents of the teachings of the religion. Among the Buddha's immediate disciples, the premier abhidhammika was SAriputta (S. sARIPUTRA), who was renowned for his systematic grasp of the dharma. Monastic "families" of abhidhamma specialists were known as abhidhammikagana, and they passed down through the generations their own scholastic interpretations of Buddhist doctrine, interpretations that sometimes differed from those offered by specialists in the scriptures (P. sutta; S. SuTRA) or disciplinary rules (VINAYA) . In medieval Sri Lanka, the highest awards within the Buddhist order were granted to monks who specialized in this branch of study, rather than to experts in the scriptures or disciplinary rules. Special festivals were held in honor of the abhidhamma, which involved the recital of important texts and the granting of awards to participants. In contemporary Myanmar (Burma), where the study of abhidhamma continues to be highly esteemed, the seventh book of the PAli ABHIDHARMAPItAKA, the PAttHANA ("Conditions"), is regularly recited in festivals that the Burmese call pathan pwe. Pathan pwe are marathon recitations that go on for days, conducted by invited abhidhammikas who are particularly well versed in the PatthAna, the text that is the focus of the festival. The pathan pwe serves a function similar to that of PARITTA recitations, in that it is believed to ward off baleful influences, but its main designated purpose is to forestall the decline and disappearance of the Buddha's dispensation (P. sAsana; S. sASANA). The TheravAda tradition considers the PatthAna to be the Buddha's most profound exposition of ultimate truth (P. paramatthasacca; S. PARAMARTHASATYA), and according to the PAli commentaries, the PatthAna is the first constituent of the Buddha's dispensation that will disappear from the world as the religion faces its inevitable decline. The abhidhammikas' marathon recitations of the PatthAna, therefore, help to ward off the eventual demise of the Buddhist religion. This practice speaks of a THERAVADA orientation in favor of scholarship that goes back well over a thousand years. Since at least the time of BUDDHAGHOSA (c. fifth century CE), the life of scholarship (P. PARIYATTI), rather than that of meditation or contemplation (P. PAtIPATTI), has been the preferred vocational path within PAli Buddhist monasticism. Monks who devoted themselves exclusively to meditation were often portrayed as persons who lacked the capacity to master the intricacies of PAli scholarship. Even so, meditation was always recommended as the principal means by which one could bring scriptural knowledge to maturity, either through awakening or the realization (P. pativedha; S. PRATIVEDHA) of Buddhist truths. See also ABHIDHARMIKA.

*Abhidharmahṛdaya. (C. Apitan xin lun; J. Abidon shinron; K. Abidam sim non 阿毘曇心論). In Sanskrit, "Heart of ABHIDHARMA"; one of the first attempts at a systematic presentation of abhidharma according to the SARVASTIVADA school; the treatise is attributed to Dharmasresthin (Fasheng, c. 130 BCE), who hailed from the GANDHARA region of Central Asia. The text is no longer extant in Sanskrit but survives only in a Chinese translation made sometime during the fourth century (alt. 376, 391) by SaMghadeva and LUSHAN HUIYUAN. The treatise functions essentially as a handbook for meditative development, focusing on ways of overcoming the negative proclivities of mind (ANUsAYA) and developing correct knowledge (JNANA). The meditative training outlined in the treatise focuses on the four absorptions (DHYANA) and on two practical techniques for developing concentration: mindfulness of breathing (ANAPANASMṚTI) and the contemplation of impurity (AsUBHABHAVANA). The text is also one of the first to distinguish the path of vision (DARsANAMARGA), which involves the initial insight into the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, and the path of cultivation (BHAVANAMARGA), which eliminates all the remaining proclivities so that the adept may experience the stage of the worthy one (ARHAT).

AbhisamayAlaMkAra. (T. Mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan). In Sanskrit, "Ornament of Realization"; a major scholastic treatise of the MAHAYANA, attributed to MAITREYANATHA (c. 350CE). Its full title is AbhisamayAlaMkAranAmaprajNApAramitopadesasAstra (T. Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan) or "Treatise Setting Forth the Perfection of Wisdom called 'Ornament for Realization.'" In the Tibetan tradition, the AbhisamayAlaMkAra is counted among the five treatises of Maitreya (BYAMS CHOS SDE LNGA). The 273 verses of the AbhisamayAlaMkAra provide a schematic outline of the perfection of wisdom, or PRAJNAPARAMITA, approach to enlightenment, specifically as delineated in the PANCAVIMsATISAHASRIKAPRAJNAPARAMITA ("Perfection of Wisdom in Twenty-Five Thousand Lines"). This detailed delineation of the path is regarded as the "hidden teaching" of the prajNApAramitA sutras. Although hardly known in East Asian Buddhism (until the modern Chinese translation by FAZUN), the work was widely studied in Tibet, where it continues to hold a central place in the monastic curricula of all the major sects. It is especially important for the DGE LUGS sect, which takes it as the definitive description of the stages of realization achieved through the Buddhist path. The AbhisamayAlaMkAra treats the principal topics of the prajNApAramitA sutras by presenting them in terms of the stages of realizations achieved via the five paths (PANCAMARGA). The eight chapters of the text divide these realizations into eight types. The first three are types of knowledge that are essential to any type of practice and are generic to both the mainstream and MahAyAna schools. (1) The wisdom of knowing all modes (SARVAKARAJNATA), for the bodhisattva-adepts who are the putative target audience of the commentary, explains all the characteristics of the myriad dharmas, so that they will have comprehensive knowledge of what the attainment of enlightenment will bring. (2) The wisdom of knowing the paths (MARGAJNATA), viz., the paths perfected by the sRAVAKAs, is a prerequisite to achieving the wisdom of knowing all modes. (3) The wisdom of knowing all phenomena (SARVAJNATA) is, in turn, a prerequisite to achieving the wisdom of knowing the paths. With (4) the topic of the manifestly perfect realization of all aspects (sarvAkArAbhisambodha) starts the text's coverage of the path itself, here focused on gaining insight into all aspects, viz., characteristics of dharmas, paths, and types of beings. By reaching (5) the summit of realization (murdhAbhisamaya; see MuRDHAN), one arrives at the entrance to ultimate realization. All the realizations achieved up to this point are secured and commingled through (6) gradual realization (anupurvAbhisamaya). The perfection of this gradual realization and the consolidation of all previous realizations catalyze the (7) instantaneous realization (ekaksanAbhisamaya). The fruition of this instantaneous realization brings (8) realization of the dharma body, or DHARMAKAYA (dharmakAyAbhisambodha). The first three chapters thus describe the three wisdoms incumbent on the buddhas; the middle four chapters cover the four paths that take these wisdoms as their object; and the last chapter describes the resultant dharma body of the buddhas and their special attainments. The AbhisamayAlaMkAra provides a synopsis of the massive prajNApAramitA scriptures and a systematic outline of the comprehensive path of MahAyAna. The AbhisamayAlaMkAra spurred a long tradition of Indian commentaries and other exegetical works, twenty-one of which are preserved in the Tibetan canon. Notable among this literature are Arya VIMUKTISEnA's Vṛtti and the ABHISAMAYALAMKARALOKA and Vivṛti (called Don gsal in Tibetan) by HARIBHADRA. Later Tibetan commentaries include BU STON RIN CHEN GRUB's Lung gi snye ma and TSONG KHA PA's LEGS BSHAD GSER PHRENG.

absent-mindedness: may refer to 1) a low level of attention ("blanking" or “zoning out”); or 2) intense attention to a single object of focus (hyperfocus) that makes a person oblivious to events around him/her; or 3) unwarranted distraction of attention from the object of focus by irrelevant thoughts or environmental events.

Absorption Concentration ::: In concentration meditation, this refers to the various states found in the samatha jhanas whereby the locus of focus narrows solely on the object of observation. Attainment of absorption concentration is causally preceded by access concentration which is itself preceded by the monkey mind state of awareness associated with mundane consciousness.

Access Concentration ::: In concentration meditation, this refers to the state preceding access to the samatha jhanas whereby the locus of focus has narrowed considerably from the monkey mind state of awareness associated with mundane consciousness and has started to settle rather effortlessly on the object of concentration. Precedes access to absorption concentration.

Accounting ratio - Usually is the comparing of two or more sets of accounting data. Often this is done by dividing or in some other way manipulating one f item on the financial statement by another. Ratios help with the interpretation of financial statements by focusing on specific relationships.

Adaptive Server Enterprise "database" (ASE) The {relational database management system} that started life in the mid-eighties [first release?] as "Sybase SQL Server". For a number of years {Microsoft} was a Sybase distributor, reselling the Sybase product for {OS/2} and (later) {Windows NT} under the name "Microsoft SQL Server". Around 1994, Microsoft basically bought a copy of the {source code} of Sybase SQL Server and then went its own way. As competitors, Sybase and Microsoft have been developing their products independently ever since. Microsoft has mostly emphasised ease-of-use and "Window-ising" the product, while Sybase has focused on maximising performance and reliability, and running on high-end hardware. When releasing version 11.5 in 1997, Sybase renamed its product to "ASE" to better distinguish its database from Microsoft's. Both ASE and MS SQL Server call their query language "Transact-SQL" and they are very similar. Sybase SQL Server was the first true {client-server} RDBMS which was also capable of handling real-world workloads. In contrast, other DBMSs have long been monolithic programs; for example, {Oracle} only "bolted on" client-server functionality in the mid-nineties. Also, Sybase SQL Server was the first commercially successful RDBMS supporting {stored procedures} and {triggers}, and a cost-based {query optimizer}. As with many other technology-driven competitors of Microsoft, Sybase has lost market share to MS's superior marketing, though many consider it has the superior system. {(http://sypron.nl/whatis_ase.html)}. (2003-07-02)

Adaptive Server Enterprise ::: database (ASE) The relational database management system that started life in the mid-eighties [first release?] as Sybase SQL Server. For a number of years Microsoft was a Sybase distributor, reselling the Sybase product for OS/2 and (later) Windows NT under the name Microsoft SQL Server.Around 1994, Microsoft basically bought a copy of the source code of Sybase SQL Server and then went its own way. As competitors, Sybase and Microsoft have been emphasised ease-of-use and Window-ising the product, while Sybase has focused on maximising performance and reliability, and running on high-end hardware.When releasing version 11.5 in 1997, Sybase renamed its product to ASE to better distinguish its database from Microsoft's. Both ASE and MS SQL Server call their query language Transact-SQL and they are very similar.Sybase SQL Server was the first true client-server RDBMS which was also capable of handling real-world workloads. In contrast, other DBMSs have long been commercially successful RDBMS supporting stored procedures and triggers, and a cost-based query optimizer.As with many other technology-driven competitors of Microsoft, Sybase has lost market share to MS's superior marketing, though many consider it has the superior system. .(2003-07-02)

Adhishthana (Sanskrit) Adhiṣṭhāna [from adhi over, upon + the verbal root sthā to stand upon] A basis, seat, or focus of action (cf BG 3:40, 18:14). Often applied to a principle or element which inheres in another principle; i.e., the active agent working in prakriti would be adhishthana. Also, precedent, rule, as when used as a name for one of the ten paramitas (rules of conduct).

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. "company" (AMD) A US manufacturer of {integrated circuits}, founded in 1969. AMD was the fifth-largest IC manufacturer in 1995. AMD focuses on the personal and networked computation and communications market. They produce {microprocessors}, {embedded processors} and related peripherals, memories, {programmable logic devices}, circuits for telecommunications and networking applications. In 1995, AMD had 12000 employees in the USA and elsewhere and manufacturing facilities in Austin, Texas; Aizu-Wakamatsu, Japan; Bangkok, Thailand; Penang, Malaysia; and Singapore. AMD made the {AMD 2900} series of {bit-slice} {TTL} components and clones of the {Intel 80386} and {Intel 486} {microprocessors}. {AMD Home (http://amd.com/)}. Address: Sunnyvale, CA, USA. (1995-02-27)

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ::: (company) (AMD) A US manufacturer of integrated circuits, founded in 1969. AMD was the fifth-largest IC manufacturer in 1995. AMD focuses on the programmable logic devices, circuits for telecommunications and networking applications.In 1995, AMD had 12000 employees in the USA and elsewhere and manufacturing facilities in Austin, Texas; Aizu-Wakamatsu, Japan; Bangkok, Thailand; Penang, Malaysia; and Singapore.AMD made the AMD 2900 series of bit-slice TTL components and clones of the Intel 80386 and Intel 486 microprocessors. .Address: Sunnyvale, CA, USA. (1995-02-27)

A few centuries after the composition of the JNānaprasthāna, or c. first half of the second-century CE, Sarvāstivāda exegetes compiled a massive commentary to the text, entitled the ABHIDHARMAMAHĀVIBHĀsĀ, which followed the root text's chapters and section divisions but exponentially expanded the coverage of the school's teachings. Because of their adherence to the exegetical approaches outlined in that commentary, later masters of the Sarvāstivāda school in KASHMIR-GANDHĀRA termed themselves "VAIBHĀsIKA." ¶ The JNānaprasthāna is probably the last of the canonical Sarvāstivāda abhidharma texts to have been composed and contains a systematic overview of the emblematic doctrines of the mature school. Distinctive Sarvāstivāda doctrines treated in the text include the full roster of the four conditions (PRATYAYA) and six causes (HETU); the Sarvāstivāda's eponymous teaching that factors (dharma) exist in all three time periods (TRIKĀLA) of the past, present, and future; the definitive classification schema for the mental concomitants (CAITTA); and the listing of the four conditioned characteristics (SAMSKṚTALAKsAnA) of dharmas, viz., origination (JĀTI), continuance (STHITI), senescence (JARĀ), and desinence (anityatā, ANITYA; viz., death). The JNānaprasthāna's outline of Sarvāstivāda abhidharma is based on a soteriological schema, ultimately deriving from the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS. The opening chapter on miscellaneous factors begins with a discussion of the highest worldly factors (laukikāgradharma), perhaps the major conceptual innovation of the text, that is, dharmas at the moment of the transition from ordinary person (PṚTHAGJANA) to noble one (ĀRYA), when they catalyze access to the path of vision (DARsANAMĀRGA). The JNānaprasthāna thus uses its treatment of the highest worldly dharmas as an interpretative tool to integrate its discussion of the major stages in the path, from the mundane path of practice (LAUKIKA-BHĀVANĀMĀRGA), to the path of vision, the supramundane path of cultivation (LOKOTTARA-BHĀVANĀMĀRGA), and the path of the realized adept (AsAIKsAMĀRGA; see also PANCAMĀRGA). This focus also highlights the major difference between Sarvāstivāda and Pāli abhidharma materials: whereas Pāli texts include substantial coverage of such preliminary practices as morality and choosing a meditation subject, the JNānaprasthāna is principally concerned with the more advanced stages of the path. The second critical contribution of the JNānaprasthāna is its systematization of the six causes (HETU). These six are not found in the ĀGAMAs, and only four are listed in earlier Sarvāstivāda abhidharma texts, such as the VIJNĀNAKĀYA[PĀDAsĀSTRA]. Kātyāyanīputra's systematization of this list seems to have been intended to demonstrate the causal connections that pertained between the stages of the path. Overall, the JNānaprasthāna is best known not for its doctrinal innovations but instead for its grand systematization of Sarvāstivāda abhidharma.

Agni-Vishnu-Surya (Sanskrit) Agni-Viṣṇu-Sūrya [from agni fire + viṣṇu from the verbal root viś or the verbal root viṣ to pervade + sūrya sun] Fire-pervader-solar deity; this triad of gods is probably a permutation of the original Vedic triad Agni-Indra-Surya, having their influence and place respectively on earth, in the atmosphere, and in the sky. Agni-Vishnu-Surya has been called the “synthesis and head, or the focus whence emanated in physics as in metaphysics, from the Spiritual as from the physical Sun, the Seven Rays, the seven fiery tongues, the seven planets or gods” (SD 2:608).

ajikan. (阿字観). In Japanese, "contemplation of the letter ‛A'"; a meditative exercise employed primarily within the the Japanese SHINGON school of esoteric Buddhism. The ajikan practice is also known as the "contemplation of the letter 'A' in the moon-wheel" (AJI GATSURINKAN). The letter "A" is the first letter in the Sanskrit SIDDHAM alphabet and is considered to be the "seed" (BĪJA) of MAHAVAIROCANA, the central divinity of the esoteric traditions. The letter "A" is also understood to be the "unborn" buddha-nature (FOXING) of the practitioner; hence, the identification of oneself with this letter serves as a catalyst to enlightenment. In ajikan meditation, the adept draws a picture of the full moon with an eight-petaled lotus flower at its center. The Siddham letter "A" is then superimposed over the lotus flower as a focus of visualization. As the visualization continues, the moon increases in size until it becomes coextensive with the universe itself. Through this visualization, the adept realizes the letter "A" that is originally uncreated (AJI HONPUSHo), which is the essence of all phenomena in the universe and the DHARMAKAYA of MAHAVAIROCANA Buddha.

Alambana. (P. Arammana; T. dmigs pa; C. suoyuan; J. shoen; K. soyon 所縁). In Sanskrit, "objective support," "sense object," or "object of cognition"; in epistemology, the object of any one of the six sensory consciousnesses (VIJNANA), i.e., visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, and mental objects. In the mainstream traditions, these objects were considered to be the external constituent in the cognitive relationship between subject and object, whereby the contact (SPARsA) between, e.g., an olfactory sensory object (e.g., gandha) and the olfactory sense base (GHRAnENDRIYA) produces a corresponding olfactory consciousness (GHRAnAVIJNANA). Sense objects thus correspond to the six external "sense-fields" or "spheres of perception" (AYATANA) and the six external "elements" (DHATU). The term Alambana is also used in instructions on meditation to describe the object upon which the meditator is to focus the mind. See also ALAMBANAPRATYAYA.

Alcyone The brightest star in the Pleiades. Alcyone and the Pleiades are the central group of “the system of sidereal symbology. . . . the focus from which, and into which the divine breath, Motion, works incessantly during the Manvantara” (SD 2:551). The culmination of the Pleiades and Alcyone on the meridian at midnight in November has been celebrated worldwide by festivals, chiefly in honor of the dead.

alexandrianwicca ::: Alexandrian Wicca A tradition of the Neopagan religion Wicca, named after Alex Sanders who, along with his wife Maxine, established the tradition in the 1960s, having previously been an initiate of a Gardnerian coven. Generally, Alexandrian Wicca focuses strongly upon training which includes areas more generally associated with Ceremonial Magick, such as Kabbalah and Enochian Magick.

All the great religious and philosophical systems of antiquity contained a divine or spiritual triadic unity as the cosmic source and focus of all beings and things, out of which emanate the universe and all that is in it. Examples are the Osiris-Isis-Horus of Egypt or the Brahma-Vishnu-Siva of India; yet these triads of gods are emanated reflections or representatives on lower planes of the still more sublime and ineffable triadic mystery above and beyond them.

AmarAvatī. (T. 'Chi med ldan). In Sanskrit, "Immortal"; is the modern name for DhAnyakataka or Dharanikota, the site of a monastic community associated with the MAHASAMGHIKA school, located in eastern Andhra Pradesh. The site is best known for its large main STuPA, started at the time of AsOKA (third century BCE), which, by the second century CE, was the largest monument in India. It is thought to have been some 140 feet in diameter and upwards of 100 feet tall, and decorated with bas-reliefs. The stupa is mentioned in numerous accounts, including that by the Chinese pilgrim XUANZANG. AmarAvatī (as DhAnyakataka) reached its historical zenith as the southern capital of the later SAtavAhana [alt. sAtavAhana] dynasty that ended in 227 CE. The last inscription found at the site is dated to the eleventh century, and when first excavated at the end of the eighteenth century by the British, the stupa had long been reduced to a large mound of earth. Over the following centuries, it has been the focus of repeated archaeological excavations that yielded many important finds, making it one of the best researched Buddhist sites of ancient India. The site is important in Tibetan Buddhism because the Buddha is said to have taught the KALACAKRATANTRA at DhAnyakataka. See also NAGARJUNAKOndA.

amasthenic ::: a. --> Uniting the chemical rays of light into one focus, as a certain kind of lens; amacratic.

American Telephone and Telegraph, Inc. "company, telecommunications, Unix" (AT&T) One of the largest US telecommunications providers, also noted for being the birthplace of the {Unix} {operating system} and the {C} and {C++} programming languages. AT&T was incorporated in 1885, but traces its lineage to Alexander Graham Bell and his invention of the telephone in 1876. As parent company of the former {Bell System}, AT&T's primary mission was to provide telephone service to virtually everyone in the United States. In its first 50 years, AT&T established subsidiaries and allied companies in more than a dozen other countries. It sold these interests in 1925 and focused on achieving its mission in the United States. It did, however, continue to provide international long distance service. The Bell System was dissolved at the end of 1983 with AT&T's divestiture of the Bell telephone companies. AT&T split into three parts in 1996, one of which is {Lucent Tecnologies}, the former systems and equipment portion of AT&T (including Bell Laboratories). See also {3DO}, {Advanced RISC Machine}, {Berkeley Software Distribution}, {Bell Laboratories}, {Concurrent C}, {Death Star}, {dinosaurs mating}, {InterNIC}, {System V}, {Nawk}, {Open Look}, {rc}, {S}, {Standard ML of New Jersey}, {Unix International}, {Unix conspiracy}, {USG Unix}, {Unix System Laboratories}. {AT&T Home (http://att.com/)}. (2002-06-21)

Amida. Japanese pronunciation of the Sinographic transcripton of the name AMITABHA, the buddha who is the primary focus of worship in the PURE LAND traditions of Japan. See JoDOSHu; JoDO SHINSHu.

Anal Stage ::: Freud&

An alternative definition defines the locus of all points that is equidistant from a point known as the focus, and a line known as the directrix. A parabola is specified as long as the focus does not lie on the directrix.

AnApAnasatisutta. (S. AnApAnasmṛtisutra; T. Dbugs rngub pa dang 'byung ba dran pa'i mdo; C. Annabannanian; J. Annahannanen; K. Annabannanyom 安那般那念). In PAli, "The Mindfulness of Breathing Discourse," the 118th sutta (SuTRA) in the MAJJHIMANIKAYA (a separate SARVASTIVADA recension, as titled above, appears in the Chinese translation of the SAMYUKTAGAMA). In this discourse, the Buddha outlines a type of meditation where the meditator remains mindful of the process of breathing in and breathing out (P. AnApAnasati; S. ANAPANASMṚTI). The meditator begins by developing an awareness of the physical processes involved in breathing, such as whether the breath is long or short; remaining cognizant of either the entire body during breathing or the entire process of breathing (as the commentaries typically interpret it), it culminates in breathing while consciously striving to calm the body. The meditator then follows the in- and out-breaths while developing salutary affective states, such as rapture (P. pīti, S. PRĪTI) and ease (SUKHA). The penultimate step is breathing while actively seeking to focus and liberate the mind. The meditation culminates in mindfulness of the breath while focusing on the awareness of the mental qualities of impermanence, cessation, and relinquishment. Through this progressive development, mindfulness of breathing thus leads from physical and mental calm, to direct insight into the value of nonattachment. The discourse ends with a treatment of the seven aspects of awakening (P. bojjhanga; S. BODHYAnGA) with regard to the four foundations of mindfulness (P. satipaṫṫhAna; S. SMṚTYUPASTHANA) of the physical body, physical sensations, state of mind, and mental qualities. See also ANBAN SHOUYI JING.

AnApAnasmṛti. (P. AnApAnasati; T. dbugs rngub pa dang 'byung ba dran pa; C. shuxi guan/annabannanian; J. susokukan/annahannanen; K. susik kwan/annabannanyom 數息觀/安那般那念). In Sanskrit, lit. "mindfulness (SMṚTI) of inhalation (Ana = prAna) and exhalation (apAna)," or simply, "mindfulness of breathing"; referring to one of the oldest and most basic meditative techniques found in Buddhism. The practice requires focusing on the breath as it moves into and out of the body during inhalation and exhalation, some say through attention to the sensation of the movement of breath at the tip of the nose, others say through attention to the rise and fall of the diaphragm. This passive following of the breath leads to physical and mental calm, which allows the meditator to focus on the generic aspect of breath: viz., the fact that the constant ebb and flow of the breath is emblematic of impermanence (ANITYA). This awareness may then lead to nonattachment and insight. The PAli ANAPANASATISUTTA provides a detailed description of the processes involved in developing this type of meditation. Unlike many of the other forty topics of meditation (KAMMAttHANA) in PAli Buddhism, which are said to suit specific types of personalities or as antidotes to specific negative tendencies, AnApAnasmṛti is claimed to be suitable for all, which may account for its continued popularity. Elsewhere, it is said to be a suitable object of meditation for those given to excessive thought. Some form of this practice is found in nearly every Buddhist tradition. There are various renderings of the term using Chinese Sinographs; although shuxi guan is one of the most common translations, there are others (e.g., chixi guan), as well as different ways of transcribing the Sanskrit into Chinese (e.g., anabona nian).

anasa buddhi (manasabuddhi; manasa buddhi; manasbuddhi; manas-buddhi) ::: the mental reason, the reasoning intellect; the buddhi or thinking mind in its ordinary forms (distinguished from the vijñanabuddhi or intuitive mind), as a faculty of prajñana ("apprehending consciousness" or intelligence) separated from vijñana;"the mental intelligence and will" which "are only a focus of diffused and deflected rays and reflections" of "the sun of the divine Knowledge-Will burning in the heavens of the supreme conscious Being".

An investment_strategy ::: guides an investor's actions with respect to asset allocation. Strategies vary, but they are based on individual goals, risk tolerance and future needs for capital. Some investment strategies seek rapid growth where an investor focuses on capital appreciation, or they can follow a low-risk strategy where the focus is on wealth protection. Many investors buy low-cost, diversified index funds, use dollar-cost averaging and reinvest dividends. Dollar-cost averaging is an investment strategy where a fixed dollar amount of stocks or a particular investment are acquired on a regular schedule regardless of the cost or share price. The investor purchases more shares when prices are low and fewer shares when prices are high. Over time, some investments will do better than others, and the return averages out over time.

Antaryoga (Sanskrit) Antaryoga [from antar interior, within + yoga union from the verbal root yuj to join, unite] Interior union; a state of deep thought or abstraction signifying that high stage of inner spiritual and intellectual recollection in which all the superior part of a person’s constitution is gathered together and focused as it were into a single point of consciousness. It is involved in the attaining of the higher states of consciousness such as turiya-samadhi.

antenna gain "radio" The factor by which a {radio antenna} of a given shape focusses the emitted power into a smaller beamwidth compared with an omnidirectional antenna. (2008-02-26)

anxin. (J. anjin; K. ansim 安心). In Chinese, "pacification of mind" or "peace of mind." Used generally to refer to an enlightened state of mind, anxin is used specifically in the Chan school (CHAN ZONG) in the more active sense of focusing one's attention in "wall contemplation" (BIGUAN) and thereby calming or "pacifying" the mind. According to the ERRU SIXING LUN attributed to the founder of Chan, BODHIDHARMA, the result of such cultivation is said to be an immovable state of mind. In the PURE LAND traditions, the "pacification of mind" refers to the firm establishment of a sense of faith in the teachings of the buddhas and the patriarchs (ZUSHI).

ApadAna. In PAli, "Heroic Tales" or "Narratives" (cf. S. AVADANA); the thirteenth book of the KHUDDAKANIKAYA of the PAli SUTTAPItAKA, this collection includes hagiographies of 547 monks and forty nuns, all arahant (S. ARHAT) disciples who lived during the lifetime of the Buddha. The text also contains two introductory chapters in verse. The first, the "BuddhApadAna," is a series of encomiums praising the merits and perfections (P. pAramī; S. PARAMITA) of the Buddha and an account of the past lives during which he mastered these qualities. The second chapter, the "PaccekabuddhApadAna," deals with solitary buddhas who do not teach (paccekabuddha; S. PRATYEKABUDDHA). Quite distinctively, the ApadAna names thirty-five buddhas of antiquity, in contrast to the twenty-four listed in the BUDDHAVAMSA; this is one of the reasons that the ApadAna is presumed to be one of the latest books in the PAli canon. The third and fourth chapters offer accounts of the noble deeds of the senior disciples, including many of the most famous names in Buddhist history. Each story focuses on a specific meritorious action performed by one of these elders while they trained under a buddha in a previous lifetime, followed by an account of what wholesome result that action produced in subsequent lifetimes, and how this ultimately led them to achieve arahantship in the present life. The collection thus highlights the merit that results from perfecting specific types of moral actions.

Apart from the remarkable learning that these earlier works display, two things are noteworthy about them. The first is that they are principally based on a single source language or Buddhist tradition. The second is that they are all at least a half-century old. Many things have changed in the field of Buddhist Studies over the past fifty years, some for the worse, some very much for the better. One looks back in awe at figures like Louis de la Vallée Poussin and his student Msgr. Étienne Lamotte, who were able to use sources in Sanskrit, PAli, Chinese, Japanese, and Tibetan with a high level of skill. Today, few scholars have the luxury of time to develop such expertise. Yet this change is not necessarily a sign of the decline of the dharma predicted by the Buddha; from several perspectives, we are now in the golden age of Buddhist Studies. A century ago, scholarship on Buddhism focused on the classical texts of India and, to a much lesser extent, China. Tibetan and Chinese sources were valued largely for the access they provided to Indian texts lost in the original Sanskrit. The Buddhism of Korea was seen as an appendage to the Buddhism of China or as a largely unacknowledged source of the Buddhism of Japan. Beyond the works of "the PAli canon," relatively little was known of the practice of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. All of this has changed for the better over the past half century. There are now many more scholars of Buddhism, there is a much higher level of specialization, and there is a larger body of important scholarship on each of the many Buddhist cultures of Asia. In addition, the number of adherents of Buddhism in the West has grown significantly, with many developing an extensive knowledge of a particular Buddhist tradition, whether or not they hold the academic credentials of a professional Buddhologist. It has been our good fortune to be able to draw upon this expanding body of scholarship in preparing The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism.

appanAsamAdhi. In PAli, "absorptive concentration"; the more advanced of the two broad types of concentration (SAMADHI) discussed in PAli commentarial literature. Both of these two types of samAdhi are used with reference to meditators who are specializing in calmness (samatha; S. sAMATHA) techniques. The preliminary "threshold concentration" (UPACARASAMADHI) helps to calm and focus the mind but is too discursive to lead to full meditative absorption (JHANA; S. DHYANA). In order to develop jhAna, meditators must proceed to cultivate less discursive topics of meditation (KAMMAttHANA) that will lead to "absorptive concentration" and thence jhAna: e.g., mindfulness of breathing (AnApAnasati, S. ANAPANASMṚTI); the four "divine abidings" (BRAHMAVIHARA; [alt. P. appamaNNa], S. APRAMAnA), namely, loving-kindness (P. mettA; S. MAITRĪ), compassion (KARUnA), altruistic or empathetic joy (MUDITA), and equanimity or impartiality (P. upekkhA; S. UPEKsA); and the ten "visual devices" (KASInA)-devices that are constructed from the elements earth, water, fire, and air; the colors blue, yellow, red, and white; and light and space. See also KHANIKASAMADHI.

araNNavAsi. In PAli, "forest-dweller"; in the PAli Buddhist tradition, a monk who is principally dedicated to meditative training (VIPASSANADHURA); contrasted with "town-dweller" (GAMAVASI), who lives in a village or town monastery and whose monastic vocation focuses on doctrinal study and teaching, or "book work" (GANTHADHURA). In Sri Lankan Buddhism, the emphases within the Buddhist order on both meditation and study led to the evolution over time of these two major practice vocations. The araNNavAsi remained in solitude in the forest to focus principally on their meditative practice. The gAmavAsi, by contrast, were involved in studying and teaching the dhamma, especially within the lay community of the village, and thus helped to disseminate Buddhism among the people. The araNNavAsi were not necessarily hermits, but they did live a more secluded life than the gAmavAsi, devoting most of their time to meditation (either individually or in smaller groups) and keeping their contact with the laity to a minimum. According to the VINAYA, a monk cannot remain constantly alone in the forest by himself; at a minimum, he must join together with the sangha at least once a fortnight to participate in the uposatha (S. UPOsADHA) rite, when the monks gather to confess any transgressions of the precepts and to listen to a recitation of the rules of discipline (P. pAtimokkha; S. PRATIMOKsA). These two vocations have a long history and have continued within the sangha into modern times. In a sense, the Buddha himself was an araNNavAsi for six years before he attained enlightenment; subsequently, he then passed much of his time as a gAmavAsi, teaching people the dharma and encouraging them to practice to bring an end to their suffering. See also PHRA PA; THUDONG.

arrow key "hardware" One of four keys on a {keyboard} marked with arrows pointing up, down, left and right. The arrow keys are used for such things as moving the {cursor} in a text document, for moving the {input focus} between the fields of a form or sometimes for scrolling a picture. (1998-06-26)

arrow key ::: (hardware) One of four keys on a keyboard marked with arrows pointing up, down, left and right. The arrow keys are used for such things as moving the cursor in a text document, for moving the input focus between the fields of a form or sometimes for scrolling a picture. (1998-06-26)

ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) - A trading bloc of countries in SE Asia. ASEAN is focused on developing a f free trade zone among the member nations.

ASHRAM (Skt, T.B.) That group which a member of the planetary hierarchy
(at least a 46-self) forms of his disciples and with himself as the focus in the
power house. The planetary hierarchy consists of seven greater ashrams led by
44-selves and representing the seven departments, and 42 lesser ones led by 45- and
46-selves. The type energies these collective beings emit encompass the planet.


AsokAvadAna. (T. Ku nA la'i rtogs pa brjod pa; C. Ayu wang zhuan; J. Aiku o den; K. Ayuk wang chon 阿育王傳). In Sanskrit, "The Story of Asoka," a text belonging to the category of "edifying tales" (AVADANA), which narrates the major events in the life of King AsOKA of the Indian Mauryan dynasty. The work focuses primarily on Asoka's conversion to Buddhism, his subsequent support of the DHARMA and monastic community (SAMGHA), his visits to the major sites of the Buddha's life (MAHASTHANA), and his construction of STuPAs. It also records the transmission of the Buddhist teachings by five early teachers: MAHAKAsYAPA, ANANDA, MADHYANTIKA, sAnAKAVASIN, and UPAGUPTA. The AsokAvadAna relates that, in a previous life, Asoka (then a small boy named Jaya) placed a handful of dirt in the Buddha's begging bowl (PATRA). The Buddha predicted that one hundred years after his passage into nirvAna, the child would become a DHARMARAJA and CAKRAVARTIN named Asoka. As emperor, Asoka becomes a devout Buddhist and righteous king, renowned for collecting the relics (sARĪRA) of the Buddha from eight (or in one version, seven of eight) stupas and redistributing them in 84,000 stupas across his realm. Parts of the Sanskrit text have been preserved in the DIVYAVADANA, and the entire work is extant in Chinese. Only the KunAla chapter of the AsokAvadAna was rendered into Tibetan, in the eleventh century, by PadmAkaravarman and RIN CHEN BZANG PO.

  “A state produced sometimes by physiological disorders, sometimes by mediumship, and at others by drunkenness. But the cause that produces the visions has to be sought deeper than physiology. All such visions, especially when produced through mediumship, are preceded by a relaxation of the nervous system, invariably generating an abnormal magnetic condition which attracts to the sufferer waves of astral light. It is the latter that furnishes the various hallucinations. These, however, are not always what physicians would make them, empty and unreal dreams. No one can see that which does not exist — i.e., which is not impressed — in or on the astral waves. A Seer may, however, perceive objects and scenes (whether past, present, or future) which have no relation whatever to himself, and also perceive several things entirely disconnected with each other at one and the same time, thus producing the most grotesque and absurd combinations. Both drunkard and Seer, medium and Adept, see their respective visions in the Astral Light; but while the drunkard, the madman, and the untrained medium, or one suffering from brain-fever, see, because they cannot help it, and evoke the jumbled visions unconsciously to themselves, the Adept and the trained Seer have the choice and the control of such visions. They know where to fix their gaze, how to steady the scenes they want to observe, and how to see beyond the upper outward layers of the Astral Light. With the former such glimpses into the waves are hallucinations: with the latter they become the faithful reproduction of what actually has been, is, or will be, taking place. The glimpses at random caught by the medium, and his flickering visions in the deceptive light, are transformed under the guiding will of the Adept and Seer into steady pictures, the truthful representations of that which he wills to come within the focus of his perception” (TG 133-4).

Astral Projection ::: The ability to firmly focus one's awareness within a form (sheath) envisioned in the Astral Plane. Through practice this allows for exploring the realm of individual and collective imagination lucidly and persistently. See also Astral Plane.

atma bhakti. ::: worship of the Supreme; to focus so intensely on the Supreme that the worshipper becomes the worshiped

Attention: (Lat. ad + tendere, to stretch) The concentration of the mind upon selected portions of the field of consciousness thereby conferring upon the selected items, a peculiar vividness and clarity. The field of attention may be divided into two parts: the focus of attention, where the degree of concentration of attention is maximal and the fringe of attention, where the degree of attention gradually diminishes to zero at the periphery. Attention considered with respect to its genesis, is of two types: involuntary, passive or spontaneous attention, which is governed by external stimulus or internal association of ideas and voluntary, controlled or directed attention which is guided by the subject's purpose or intention.

attention: the process of selectively focusing on particular stimulus elements, typically those deemed most significant.

Attunement ::: The process of moving the mind toward a specific archetype's (or set of archetypes') symbolism and meaning. In planetary magic, for example, to attune oneself to a planetary sphere (i.e. a Sephirah of the Kabbalah) is to focus and suffuse oneself within the symbolism and meaning behind that sphere in order to integrate or undergo its lessons in one's life. Only through this process can magic be woven from within that paradigm as to work magic with that archetype you need to understand that archetype, how it works, and its relation to Mind.

Authoritarian [parents] ::: Parenting style focused on excessive rules, rigid belief systems, and the expectation of unquestioned obedience.

Authoritative [parents] ::: Parenting style focused on setting reasonable rules and expectations while encouraging communication and independence.

AvataMsakasutra. (T. Mdo phal po che; C. Huayan jing; J. Kegongyo; K. Hwaom kyong 華嚴經). In Sanskrit, "Garland Scripture"; also known as the BUDDHAVATAMSAKASuTRA ("Scripture of the Garland of Buddhas"), or *BuddhAvataMsakanAmamahAvaipulyasutra, the Sanskrit reconstruction of the title of the Chinese translation Dafangguang fo huayan jing, which is usually abbreviated in Chinese simply as the HUAYAN JING ("Flower Garland Scripture"). The sutra is one of the most influential Buddhist scriptures in East Asia and the foundational text of the indigenous East Asian HUAYAN ZONG. The first major edition of the AvataMsakasutra was said to have been brought from KHOTAN and was translated into Chinese by BUDDHABHADRA in 421; this recension consisted of sixty rolls and thirty-four chapters. A second, longer recension, in eighty rolls and thirty-nine chapters, was translated into Chinese by sIKsANANDA in 699; this is sometimes referred to within the Huayan tradition as the "New [translation of the] AvataMsakasutra" (Xin Huayan jing). A Tibetan translation similar to the eighty-roll recension also exists. The AvataMsakasutra is traditionally classified as a VAIPULYASuTRA; it is an encyclopedic work that brings together a number of heterogeneous texts, such as the GAndAVYuHA and DAsABHuMIKASuTRA, which circulated independently before being compiled together in this scripture. No Sanskrit recension of the AvataMsakasutra has been discovered; even the title is not known from Sanskrit sources, but is a reconstruction of the Chinese. (Recent research in fact suggests that the correct Sanskrit title might actually be BuddhAvataMsakasutra, or "Scripture of the Garland of Buddhas," rather than AvataMsakasutra.) There are, however, extant Sanskrit recensions of two of its major constituents, the Dasabhumikasutra and Gandavyuha. Given the dearth of evidence of a Sanskrit recension of the complete AvataMsakasutra, and since the scripture was first introduced to China from Khotan, some scholars have argued that the scripture may actually be of Central Asian provenance (or at very least was heavily revised in Central Asia). There also exists in Chinese translation a forty-roll recension of the AvataMsakasutra, translated by PRAJNA in 798, which roughly corresponds to the Gandavyuha, otherwise known in Chinese as the Ru fajie pin or "Chapter on the Entry into the DHARMADHATU." Little attempt is made to synthesize these disparate materials into an overarching narrative, but there is a tenuous organizational schema involving a series of different "assemblies" to which the different discourses are addressed. The Chinese tradition presumed that the AvataMsakasutra was the first sermon of the Buddha (see HUAYAN ZHAO), and the sutra's first assembly takes place at the BODHI TREE two weeks after he had attained enlightenment while he was still immersed in the samAdhi of oceanic reflection (SAGARAMUDRASAMADHI). The AvataMsaka is therefore believed to provide a comprehensive and definitive description of the Buddha's enlightenment experience from within this profound state of samAdhi. The older sixty-roll recension includes a total of eight assemblies held at seven different locations: three in the human realm and the rest in the heavens. The later eighty-roll recension, however, includes a total of nine assemblies at seven locations, a discrepancy that led to much ink in Huayan exegesis. In terms of its content, the sutra offers exuberant descriptions of myriads of world systems populated by buddhas and bodhisattvas, along with elaborate imagery focusing especially on radiant light and boundless space. The scripture is also the inspiration for the famous metaphor of INDRAJALA (Indra's Net), a canopy made of transparent jewels in which each jewel is reflected in all the others, suggesting the multivalent levels of interaction between all phenomena in the universe. The text focuses on the unitary and all-pervasive nature of enlightenment, which belongs to the realm of the Buddha of Pervasive Light, VAIROCANA, the central buddha in the AvataMsaka, who embodies the DHARMAKAYA. The sutra emphasizes the knowledge and enlightenment of the buddhas as being something that is present in all sentient beings (see TATHAGATAGARBHA and BUDDHADHATU), just as the entire universe, or trichiliocosm (S. TRISAHASRAMAHASAHASRALOKADHATU) is contained in a minute mote of dust. This notion of interpenetration or interfusion (YUANRONG) is stressed in the thirty-second chapter of Buddhabhadra's translation, whose title bears the influential term "nature origination" (XINGQI). The sutra, especially in FAZANG's authoritative exegesis, is presumed to set forth a distinctive presentation of dependent origination (PRATĪTYASAMUTPADA) in terms of the dependence of the whole on its parts, stressing the unity of the universe and its emptiness (suNYATA) of inherent nature; dependent origination here emerges as a profound ecological vision in which the existence of any one thing is completely dependent on the existence of all other things and all things on any one thing. Various chapters of the sutra were also interpreted as providing the locus classicus for the exhaustive fifty-two stage MahAyAna path (MARGA) to buddhahood, which included the ten faiths (only implied in the scripture), the ten abodes, ten practices, ten dedications, and ten stages (DAsABHuMI), plus the two stages of awakening itself: virtual enlightenment (dengjue) and sublime enlightenment (miaojue). This soteriological process was then illustrated through the peregrinations of the lad SUDHANA to visit his religious mentors, each of whom is identified with one of these specific stages; Sudhana's lengthy pilgrimage is described in great detail in the massive final chapter (a third of the entire scripture), the Gandavyuha, titled in the AvataMsakasutra the "Entry into the DharmadhAtu" chapter (Ru fajie pin). The evocative and widely quoted statement in the "Brahmacarya" chapter that "at the time of the initial arousal of the aspiration for enlightenment (BODHICITTOTPADA), complete, perfect enlightenment (ANUTTARASAMYAKSAMBODHI) is already achieved" was also influential in the development of the East Asian notion of sudden enlightenment (DUNWU), since it implied that awakening could be achieved in an instant of sincere aspiration, without requiring three infinite eons (ASAMKHYEYAKALPA) of religious training. Chinese exegetes who promoted this sutra reserved the highest place for it in their scriptural taxonomies (see JIAOXIANG PANSHI) and designated it the "perfect" or "consummate" teaching (YUANJIAO) of Buddhism. Many commentaries on and exegeses of the sutra are extant, among which the most influential are those written by FAZANG, ZHIYAN, CHENGGUAN, LI TONGXUAN, GUIFENG ZONGMI, WoNHYO, ŬISANG, and MYoE KoBEN.

Bailian she. (J. Byakurensha; K. Paengnyonsa 白蓮社). In Chinese, "White Lotus Society." In the late fourth and early fifth centuries, the Chinese monk LUSHAN HUIYUAN assembled a group of 123 monks and laymen on LUSHAN and contemplated the image of the buddha AMITABHA; this group came to be known as the White Lotus Society. This name was also used by putatively heterodox lay Buddhist organizations that flourished during the Tang, Song, and early Yuan dynasties, as well as by monks mainly associated with the TIANTAI school. Inspired by Huiyuan's White Lotus Society and the repentance rituals of the Tiantai school, Mao Ziyuan (c. 1086-1166) constructed halls for repentance called White Lotus repentance halls and promoted the practice of NIANFO (see BUDDHANUSMṚTI) as a means of maintaining the five moral precepts (PANCAsĪLA). Mao Ziyuan's White Lotus Society was further popularized by the monk Pudu (1255-1330), who compiled an influential treatise known as the Lushan lianzong baojian ("Precious Mirror of the Lotus Tradition at Mt. Lu"). Despite ongoing governmental suppression, he and many other lay followers established cloisters and worship halls all over the country. There seems to be little if any connection between these later organizations and that of Lushan Huiyuan. These lay organizations primarily focused on the recitation of the name of AmitAbha in hopes of ensuring rebirth in his PURE LAND. During the early Ming, the name White Lotus Society was frequently associated with rebellious millenarian movements that worshipped the future buddha MAITREYA, which prompted the Ming government to ban any use of the name. Another more common name for these millenarian movements was BAILIAN JIAO. White Lotus societies also flourished in Korea during the Koryo dynasty, where they were called Paengnyon kyolsa (White Lotus retreat societies). Especially well known was the White Lotus Society (Paengnyonsa) established at Mandoksa in 1211 by WoNMYO YOSE (1163-1240), the mid-Koryo revitalizer of the Korean CH'oNT'AE (TIANTAI) tradition and a colleague of POJO CHINUL. See also JIESHE.

Baiyi Guanyin. (S. PAndaravAsinī; T. Gos dkar mo; J. Byakue kannon; K. Paegŭi Kwanŭm 白衣觀音). In Chinese, "White-Robed GUANYIN (Perceiver of Sounds)." An esoteric form of the BODHISATTVA AVALOKITEsVARA (known as Guanyin in Chinese), who became a popular focus of cultic worship in East Asia. The cult of Baiyi Guanyin began around the tenth century in China, whence it spread to Korea and Japan. Several indigenous Chinese scriptures praise the compassion and miraculous powers of White-Robed Guanyin. According to the various Baiyi Guanyin APOCRYPHA, she was also a grantor of children, as was Songzi Guanyin. Many testimonials from literati are appended to these scriptures, which attest to Baiyi Guanyin's ability to ensure the birth of sons, although it is also said that she granted children of both genders. Like many other Guanyin-related texts, the White-Robed Guanyin texts frequently invoke esoteric Buddhist terminology such as DHARAnĪ, MUDRA, and MANTRA. Beginning in the tenth century, Baiyi Guanyin's cult was associated with the founding of temples, as well as the production of countless images commissioned by both religious and laity. Many worshippers, especially monastics and royalty, had visions of White-Robed Guanyin. These dreams range from being promised children in return for a residence (such as the Upper Tianzhu monastery outside of Hangzhou, later also associated with Princess MIAOSHAN), to enlarging existing structures or even restoring them once a vision or dream of White-Robed Guanyin occurred. In such visions and dreams, White-Robed Guanyin appeared as a female, thus differentiating this form of the bodhisattva from SHUIYUE GUANYIN (Moon-in-the-Water Avalokitesvara), who was similarly dressed in a white robe, but appeared as a male. Some miracle tales highlighting the donors' names were also produced in honor of Baiyi Guanyin, lending further credence to the accounts of the bodhisattva's miraculous powers.

Ba Khin, U. (1899-1971). Influential lay Burmese teacher of insight meditation (S. VIPAsYANA; P. VIPASSANA). Born to a working-class family in Rangoon, U Ba Khin was educated in Christian middle and high schools. Married with six children, he began his career as a government clerk during the British colonial period, later becoming accountant general of independent Burma. He began practicing vipassanA in 1937 under the guidance of Saya Thet Gyi, a lay meditation teacher and disciple of the Burmese monk LEDI SAYADAW. He explored several styles of tranquility (P. samatha, S. sAMATHA) and insight meditation and eventually developed his own technique of vipassanA by drawing on his own experiences. The method he devised focuses on physical sensations (VEDANA), beginning at the crown of the head and continuing throughout the body; his approach is considered to be especially effective in producing states of deep concentration (SAMADHI). In 1941, U Ba Khin met the famous meditation teacher Webu Sayadaw, who encouraged him to teach his meditation technique to others. He began teaching small groups informally and eventually, while accountant general, taught vipassanA to his staff. Under his influence, the government of Burma instituted a policy of encouraging civil servants to practice meditation as part of their daily routine. In 1952, U Ba Khin established the International Meditation Centre in Rangoon, where he taught meditation and began holding intensive ten-day vipassanA retreats on a regular basis. After his retirement from government service in 1953, he devoted all of his time to promoting vipassanA practice. He also played an active role in the sixth Buddhist council (see COUNCIL, SIXTH), held in Rangoon from 1954-1956. His style of vipassanA is one of the most widely disseminated techniques internationally, and his disciples include such well-known meditation teachers as S. N. Goenka.

Balanced scorecard - An approach to performance measurement that also focuses on what managers are doing today to create future shareholder value. A balanced scorecard is a set of performance measures constructed for four dimensions of performance. The dimensions are financial, customer, internal processes, and learning and growth. Having financial measures is critical even if they are backward looking. After all, they have a great effect on the evaluation of the company by shareholders and creditors. Customer measures examine the company's success in meeting customer expectations. Internal process measures examine the company's success in improving critical business processes. And learning and growth measures examine the company's success in improving its ability to adapt, innovate, and grow. The customer, internal processes, and learning and growth measures are generally thought to be predictive of future success (i.e., they are not backward looking). After reviewing these measures, note how "balance" is achieved: (I) performance is assessed across a balanced set of dimensions (financial, customer, internal processes, and innovation); (2) quantitative measures (e.g., number of defects) are balanced with qualitativemeasures (e.g., ratings of customer satisfaction); and (3) there is a balance of backward-looking measures (e.g., financial measures like growth in sales) and forward-looking measures (e.g., number of new patents as an innovation measure).

bandhas. ::: body locks; a sustained contraction of a group of muscles that assists the practitioner not only in retaining a yogic posture but also in moving in and out of it; muscle locking/contraction, which focuses energy in the body and is closely tied to the breath; there are three bandhas which are considered our internal body locks &

baojuan. (寶巻). In Chinese, "precious scrolls" or "treasure scrolls"; a genre of scripture produced mainly by popular religious sects with Buddhist orientations during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The baojuan are believed to have been divinely revealed to select beings who often became the leaders of these new religious movements (see also T. GTER MA). The earliest extant baojuan, which focuses on the worship of MAITREYA, the future buddha, is dated 1430, shortly after the fall of the Yuan dynasty. Lo Qing (1442-1527), a lay Buddhist, founded the Wuwei jiao ("Teachings of Noninterference"), for instance, for which he produced "five books and six volumes" of baojuan. Precious scrolls seem to share certain mythological elements, such as a new cosmogony of both the creation and demise of the world. Many of them also expound a new soteriology based on CHAN meditation and Daoist alchemy. The baojuan genre seems to be an evolutionary development from the earlier Buddhist vernacular narrative known as "transformation texts" (BIANWEN). Like bianwen, the baojuan were also employed for both popular entertainment and religious propagation.

Barlaam and Josaphat. A Christian saint's tale that contains substantial elements drawn from the life of the Buddha. The story tells the tale of the Christian monk Barlaam's conversion of an Indian prince, Josaphat. (Josaphat is a corrupted transcription of the Sanskrit term BODHISATTVA, referring to GAUTAMA Buddha prior to his enlightenment.) The prince then undertakes the second Christian conversion of India, which, following the initial mission of the apostle Thomas, had reverted to paganism. For their efforts, both Barlaam and Josaphat were eventually listed by the Roman Catholic Church among the roster of saints (their festival day is November 27). There are obvious borrowings from Buddhist materials in the story of Josaphat's life. After the infant Josaphat's birth, for example, astrologers predict he either will become a powerful king or will embrace the Christian religion. To keep his son on the path to royalty, his pagan father has him ensconced in a fabulous palace so that he will not be exposed to Christianity. Josaphat grows dissatisfied with his virtual imprisonment, however, and the king eventually accedes to his son's request to leave the palace, where he comes across a sick man, a blind man, and an old man. He eventually meets the monk Barlaam, who instructs him using parables. Doctrines that exhibit possible parallels between Buddhism and Christianity, such as the emphasis on impermanence and the need to avoid worldly temptations, are a particular focus of Barlaam's teachings, and the account of the way of life followed by Barlaam and his colleagues has certain affinities with that of wandering Indian mendicants (sRAMAnA). By the late nineteenth century, the story of Barlaam and Josaphat was recognized to be a Christianized version of the life of the Buddha. The Greek version of the tale is attributed to "John the Monk," whom the Christian scholastic tradition assumed to be St. John of Damascus (c. 676-749). The tale was, however, first rendered into Greek from Georgian in the eleventh century, perhaps by Euthymius (d. 1028). The Georgian version, called the Balavariani, appears to be based on an Arabic version, KitAb Bilawhar wa BudhAsaf. The source of the Arabic version has not been identified, nor has the precise Buddhist text from which the Buddhist elements were drawn. After the Greek text was translated into Latin, the story was translated into many of the vernaculars of Europe, becoming one of the most popular saint's tales of the Middle Ages.

Because nature is repetitive throughout, these Grand Masters are correspondentially related to the highest three of the four lower manifested planes of the seven planes of cosmic consciousness, in which exist the sevenfold manifested cosmos, the solar system, and the seven sacred planets. Specifically with reference to the seven globes of our earth-chain, Blavatsky gives these in the Chaldean Qabbalistic system as: 1) Archetypal World; 2) Intellectual or Creative World; and 3) Substantial or Formative World (SD 1:200). The lowest of the seven cosmic planes is the plane of our physical earth, which is the focus, result, and outermost expression of the energies and forces of the three higher planes. Thus our physical earth, as also physical man, are each the Temple, planned and built by the Three Grand Masters, according to the pattern which David has “by the spirit,” the divine plan which is hidden in the heart of everything that is. In accordance with this divine plan all evolution proceeds by the progressive manifestation of the divine life and the cosmic and human spiritual energies, powers, and faculties, evolving and unfolding from within, until at last the building of the Temple shall be completed and adorned as a fit and worthy habitation of the inner god.

Bei zong. (J. Hokushu; K. Puk chong 北宗). In Chinese, "Northern school"; a designation for an early tradition of the CHAN school that flourished in the seventh and eighth centuries, and referring specifically to the lineage of SHENXIU and his disciples. The doctrines of the "Northern school" are known to have focused on the transcendence of thoughts (linian) and the five expedient means (fangbian; S. UPAYA); these teachings appear in "Northern school" treatises discovered at Dunhuang, such as the DASHENG WUSHENG FANGBIAN MEN, YUANMING LUN, and Guanxin lun. The appellations "Northern school" and "Southern school" (NAN ZONG) began to be used widely throughout the Tang dynasty, largely due to the efforts of HEZE SHENHUI and his followers. As a result of Shenhui's polemical attacks on Shenxiu and his followers, later Chan historians such as GUIFENG ZONGMI came to speak of a "Northern school" whose teachings promoted a "gradual awakening" (JIANWU) approach to enlightenment (see SUDDEN-GRADUAL ISSUE); this school was distinguished from a superior "Southern school," which was founded on the prospect of "sudden awakening" (DUNWU). While such a characterization is now known to be misleading, subsequent genealogical histories of the Chan tradition (see CHUANDENG LU) more or less adopted Shenhui's vision of early Chan wherein the legendary sixth patriarch (LIUZU) HUINENG, rather than Shenxiu, became the bearer of the orthodox transmission from the fifth patriarch HONGREN. The LIUZU TAN JING played an important role in making this characterization of a gradualist Northern school and a subitist Southern school part of the mainstream tradition. Despite Shenhui's virulent attacks, Shenxiu and his disciples YIFU (661-736), PUJI (651-739), and XIANGMO ZANG played a much more important role in the early growth of Chan than the later tradition generally acknowledges. There is strong evidence, in fact, that Shenxiu was considered by his contemporaries to be the legitimate successor to the fifth patriarch Hongren and he and his followers were part of the metropolitan elite and wielded deep influence at the Chinese imperial court. The Northern school also seems to have been a force in Tibetan Buddhism during the eighth century and the Northern-school monk Heshang MOHEYAN was the Chinese protagonist in the famous BSAM YAS DEBATE.

belief: The force of faith and conviction that allows a mage to rework reality; even after Awakening, a mage must believe powerfully in something. (See focus, paradigm, practice.)

Benchmarking (best practices) - The process of searching for new and better procedures by comparing your own procedures to that of the very best. The objective is to measure the key outputs of a business process or function against the best and to analyze the reasons for the performance difference. Benchmarking applies to services and practices as well as to products and is an ongoing systematic process. It entails both quantitative and qualitative measurements that allow both an internal and an external assessment Process benchmarking is the process of assessing the quality of key internal processes by com­paring them with those of other firms. In results benchmarking, a firm examines the end product or service of another company, focusing on product/service specifications and performance results.

Focus: An item, act, phrase, gesture or similar artifice required to perform magic. Through the focus, the mage concentrates belief and will and causes magic to result.

BhadracarīpranidhAna. (T. Bzang po spyod pa'i smon lam; C. Puxian pusa xingyuan zan; J. Fugen bosatsu gyogansan; K. Pohyon posal haengwon ch'an 普賢菩薩行願讚). In Sanskrit, "Vows of Good Conduct," the last section of the GAndAVYuHA in the AVATAMSAKASuTRA and one of the most beloved texts in all of MahAyAna Buddhism; also known as the SamantabhadracarīpranidhAnarAja. The BhadracarīpranidhAna focuses on the ten great vows (PRAnIDHANA) taken by SAMANTABHADRA to realize and gain access to the DHARMADHATU, which thereby enable him to benefit sentient beings. The ten vows are: (1) to pay homage to all the buddhas, (2) to praise the tathAgatas, (3) to make unlimited offerings, (4) to repent from one's transgressions in order to remove karmic hindrances (cf. KARMAVARAnA), (5) to take delight in others' merit, (6) to request the buddhas to turn the wheel of dharma (DHARMACAKRAPRAVARTANA), (7) to request the buddhas to continue living in the world, (8) always to follow the teachings of the Buddha, (9) always to comply with the needs of sentient beings, and (10) to transfer all merit to sentient beings for their spiritual edification. The text ends with a stanza wishing that sentient beings still immersed in evil be reborn in the PURE LAND of AMITABHA. The text was translated into Chinese in 754 by AMOGHAVAJRA (705-774). Other Chinese recensions appear in the Wenshushili fayuan jing ("Scripture on the Vows made by MANJUsRĪ"), translated in 420 by BUDDHABHADRA (359-429), which corresponds to the verse section from Ru busiyi jietuo jingjie Puxian xingyuan pin, the last roll of the forty-roll recension of the Huayan jing translated by PRAJNA in 798. (There is no corresponding version in either the sixty- or the eighty-roll translations of the Huajan jing.) The verses are also called the "Précis of the Huayan jing" (Lüe Huayan jing), because they are believed to constitute the core teachings of the AvataMsakasutra. In the main Chinese recension by Amoghavajra, the text consists of sixty-two stanzas, each consisting of quatrains with lines seven Sinographs in length, thus giving a total number of 1,736 Sinographs. In addition to the sixty-two core stanzas, Amoghavajra's version adds ten more stanzas of the Bada pusa zan ("Eulogy to the Eight Great Bodhisattvas") from the Badapusa mantuluo jing ("Scripture of the MAndALAs of the Eight Great Bodhisattvas") (see AstAMAHABODHISATTVA; AstAMAHOPAPUTRA). Buddhabhadra's version consists of forty-four stanzas with 880 Sinographs, each stanza consisting of a quatrain with lines five Sinographs in length. PrajNa's version contains fifty-two stanzas with each quatrain consisting of lines seven sinographs in length. There are five commentaries on the text attributed to eminent Indian exegetes, including NAGARJUNA, DIGNAGA, and VASUBANDHU, which are extant only in Tibetan translation. In the Tibetan tradition, the prayer is called the "king of prayers" (smon lam gyi rgyal po). It is incorporated into many liturgies; the opening verses of the prayer are commonly incorporated into a Tibetan's daily recitation.

Bhaisajyaguru. (T. Sman bla; C. Yaoshi rulai; J. Yakushi nyorai; K. Yaksa yorae 藥師如來). In Sanskrit, "Medicine Teacher"; the "Healing Buddha" or "Medicine Buddha," who was the focus of an important salvific cult in the early MAHAYANA tradition. According to his eponymous scripture, the BHAIsAJYAGURUSuTRA, he has a body more brilliant than the sun, which was the color of lapis lazuli (vaiduryamani) and possessed the power to heal illness and physical deformities; his pure land of VaiduryanirbhAsa is located in the east. The origin of Bhaisajyaguru and his healing cult is unclear, although his worship seems to have arisen contemporaneously with the rise of the MahAyAna. BHAIsAJYARAJA and Bhaisajyasamudgata, two bodhisattvas mentioned in the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), are likely antecedents, and similarities with other "celestial" buddhas like AMITABHA and AKsOBHYA also suggest possible influence from those rival cults. The Bhaisajyagurusutra was translated into Chinese in the seventh century, during the Tang dynasty, when his worship finally achieved the wide recognition that it continues to enjoy within the Chinese tradition. The Bhaisajyagurusutra is also cited in the eighth-century tantric text, MANJUsRĪMuLAKALPA, indicating that his cult had by then achieved widespread acclaim throughout Asia. Bhaisajyaguru was one of the earliest buddhas to gain popularity in Japan, although initially he was familiar only within the imperial court, which constructed monasteries in his honor beginning in the sixth century. By the eighth century, his cult had spread throughout the country, with Bhaisajyaguru being invoked both to cure illness and to ward off dangers. The worship of Bhaisajyaguru seems to have entered Tibet during the eighth century, two versions of the Bhaisajyagurusutra having been translated into Tibetan by the prolific YE SHES SDE and others. Early in the development of his cult, Bhaisajyaguru was divided into a group of eight medicine buddhas (asta-bhaisajyaguru), made up of seven of his emanations plus the principal buddha. Their names vary according to source, and none save Bhaisajyaguru are worshipped individually. Two of these emanations-Suryaprabha and Candraprabha-are often depicted in a triad with Bhaisajyaguru. Further, Bhaisajyaguru is also said to command twelve warriors (YAKsA) related to various astrological categories and to wage war on illness in the name of their leader. Indic images of Bhaisajyaguru are rare, but his depictions are common across both the East Asian and Tibetan cultural spheres. East Asian images are almost uniform in depicting him seated, with his right hand in the gesture of fearlessness (ABHAYAMUDRA) or the gesture of generosity (VARADAMUDRA), his left in his lap, occasionally holding a medicine bowl. In Tibet, he is also shown holding the fruit of the medicinal myrobalan plant.

bhakti. ::: adoration; divine love; true devotion to absolute Reality, where the devotee focuses so much that he and the Reality become one

bhAvanA. (T. sgom pa; C. xiuxi; J. shuju; K. susŭp 修習). In Sanskrit and PAli, "cultivation" (lit. "bringing into being"); a Sanskrit term commonly translated into English as "meditation." It is derived from the root √bhu, "to be" or "to become," and has a wide range of meanings including cultivating, producing, manifesting, imagining, suffusing, and reflecting. It is in the first sense, that of cultivation, that the term is used to mean the sustained development of particular states of mind. However, bhAvanA in Buddhism can include studying doctrine, memorizing sutras, and chanting verses to ward off evil spirits. The term thus refers broadly to the full range of Buddhist spiritual culture, embracing the "bringing into being" (viz., cultivating) of such generic aspects of training as the path (MARGA), specific spiritual exercises (e.g., loving-kindness, or MAITRĪ), or even a general mental attitude, such as virtuous (KUsALA) states of mind. The term is also used in the specific sense of a "path of cultivation" (BHAVANAMARGA), which "brings into being" the insights of the preceding path of vision (DARsANAMARGA). Hence, bhAvanA entails all the various sorts of cultivation that an adept must undertake in order to enhance meditation, improve its efficacy, and "bring it into being." More specifically as "meditation," two general types of meditation are sometimes distinguished in the commentarial literature: stabilizing meditation (sAMATHA) in which the mind focuses with one-pointedness on an object in an effort to expand the powers of concentration; and analytical meditation (VIPAsYANA), in which the meditator conceptually investigates a topic in order to develop insight into it.

Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna. (1831-1891). A founding member of the Theosophical Society, Blavatsky was born in Ukraine to an aristocratic family, the daughter of a military officer and a well-known novelist. She was largely self-educated, and traveled throughout the world for more than twenty years. Arriving in New York from Paris in 1873, two years later she and HENRY STEEL OLCOTT founded the Theosophical Society, an organization that played a prominent role in the introduction of Asian religions to Europe and America. The society's purpose focused on promoting the understanding and awareness of the nature of reality through various disciplines. Madame Blavatsky claimed to have spent seven years in Tibet studying with masters whom she called "mahatmas," preservers of an ancient wisdom that provided the foundation for all mystical traditions. She also claimed to have remained in telepathic communication with these masters throughout her life and to have translated their teachings from the Senzar language into English. After attempts at alliances with various Asian teachers in India, Madame Blavatsky concluded that the modern manifestations of Hinduism and Buddhism had drifted far from their original essence, so she devoted much of her writing to expounding the true teachings, which she sometimes referred to as "Esoteric Buddhism." Two of her most important works are The Secret Doctrine (1888) and The Voice of the Silence (1889); these provide an account of, and commentary on, the theory of spiritual evolution that she is said to have discovered in the ancient Book of Dzyan, written in the secret language of Senzar. Although this text has not been found, nor the Senzar language identified, The Voice of the Silence has been considered to be a Buddhist text by some prominent figures within the modern Buddhist tradition.

Myopia - Defect of eye, commonly called nearsightedness, in which distant objects focus in front of the retina.



bodhisattvayAna. (T. byang chub sems dpa'i theg pa; C. pusa sheng; J. bosatsujo; K. posal sŭng 菩薩乘). In Sanskrit, lit. "BODHISATTVA vehicle," the path (MARGA) that begins with the initial activation of the aspiration for enlightenment (BODHICITTOTPADA) and culminates in the achievement of buddhahood; one of the early terms used for what eventually comes to be called the "Great Vehicle" (MAHAYANA). The bodhisattvayAna focuses on the development of the six perfections (PARAMITA) over a period as long as three incalculable eons of time (ASAMKHYEYAKALPA). At the culmination of this essentially interminable process, the bodhisattva becomes a buddha, with the full range of unique qualities (AVEnIKA[BUDDHA]DHARMA) that are developed only as a result of mastering the perfections. The bodhisattvayAna is distinguished from the sRAVAKAYANA, in which teachings were learned from a buddha or an enlightened disciple (sRAVAKA) of the Buddha and which culminates in becoming a "worthy one" (ARHAT); and the PRATYEKABUDDHAYANA, the vehicle of those who reach their goal in solitude. The bodhisattvayAna, by contrast, is modeled on the accounts of the current buddha sAKYAMUNI's extensive series of past lives, during which he was motivated by the altruistic aspiration to save all beings from suffering by becoming a buddha himself, not simply settling for arhatship. The srAvakayAna, pratyekabuddhayAna, and bodhisattvayAna together constitute the TRIYANA, or "three vehicles," mentioned in many MahAyAna sutras, most famously in the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA.

Bolwby (1907 -1990): a British psychologist, who focused primarily on attachmentbonds between a caregiver and a child, and how the strength or deprivation of the bond may affect the child’s cognitive, social and emotional development, epitomised in Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis.

Spherical Aberration - Inability of spherical mirror to focus all parallel rays to a single point.


  


Buy_weakness ::: is a proactive trading strategy in which a trader generates profits from buying into a security that has reached a low level. Traders will generally either go long on a stock or enter into call options that bet on a rising price. A buy weakness strategy is the opposite of a "selling into strength" strategy.   BREAKING DOWN 'Buy Weakness' Buy weakness signals are often identified from following a trading channel. Trading channels may be either trend channels or envelope channels. Buy weakness trades focus on identifying a stock’s low point in order to profit from potential gains. Buying weakness and selling strength are two strategies derived from the basic concept of buy low, sell high. Buying weakness may also be referred to as buy a bounce or buy at support.

CakrasaMvaratantra. (T. 'Khor lo bde mchog gi rgyud). In Sanskrit, the "Binding of the Wheel Tantra" an important Buddhist tantra, often known simply as the CakrasaMvara (T. 'Khor lo bde mchog). The text is extant in Sanskrit and in a Tibetan translation in seven hundred stanzas, which is subdivided into fifty-one sections; it is also known by the name srīherukAbhidhAna (a name appearing at the end of each section), and commonly known in Tibet as the CakrasaMvara Laghutantra ("short tantra" or "light tantra") or Mulatantra ("root tantra") because, according to legend, there was once a longer text of one hundred thousand stanzas. The main deity of the tantra is HERUKA (also known as CakrasaMvara) and his consort is VAJRAVARAHĪ. Historically, the tantra originated as part of a literature that focused on a class of female divinities called YOGINĪ or dAKINĪ. It and its sister tantra, the HEVAJRATANTRA, probably appeared toward the end of the eighth century, and both show the influence of the Sarvabuddhasamayoga-dAkinījAlasaMvaratantra (referred to by Amoghavajra after his return from India to China in 746 CE). All are classed as yoginītantras. The use of skulls, the presence of the KHATVAnGA staff, and the references to sites holy to saivite KApAlikas (those who use skulls) point to a very close relationship between the saiva KApAlika literature and the early yoginītantras, such that some scholars have suggested an actual appropriation of the saiva literature by Buddhists outside mainstream Buddhist practice. Other scholars suggest this class of tantric literature originates from a SIDDHA tradition, i.e., from individual charismatic yogins and yoginīs with magical powers unaffiliated with particular religions or sects. Among the four classes of tantras-KRIYATANTRA, CARYATANTRA, YOGATANTRA, and ANUTTARAYOGATANTRA-the CakrasaMvaratantra is included in the last category; between the father tantras (PITṚTANTRA) and mother tantra (MATṚTANTRA) categories of anuttarayogatantras, it is classified in the latter category. The siddhas Luipa and SARAHA are prominent in accounts of its origin and transmission, and the siddha NAROPA is of particular importance in the text's transmission in India and from there to Tibet. Like many root tantras, the text contains very little that might be termed doctrine or theology, focusing instead on ritual matters, especially the use of MANTRA for the achievement of various powers (SIDDHI), especially the mundane (LAUKIKA) powers, such as the ability to fly, become invisible, etc. The instructions are generally not presented in a systematic way, although it is unclear whether this is the result of the development of the text over time or the intention of the authors to keep practices secret from the uninitiated. Later commentators found references in the text to elements of both the stage of generation (UTPATTIKRAMA) and stage of completion (NIsPANNAKRAMA). The DAkArnavatantra is included within the larger category of tantras related to the CakrasaMvara cycle, as is the Abhidhanottara and the SaMvarodayatantra. The tantra describes, in greater and less detail, a MAndALA with goddesses in sacred places in India (see PĪtHA) and the process of ABHIsEKA. The practice of the MAYADEHA (T. sgyu lus, "illusory body") and CAndALĪ (T. gtum mo, often translated as "psychic heat") are closely associated with this tantra. It was translated twice into Tibetan and is important in all three new-translation (GSAR MA) Tibetan sects, i.e., the SA SKYA, BKA' BRGYUD, and DGE LUGS. Iconographically, the CakrasaMvara mandala, starting from the outside, has first eight cremation grounds (sMAsANA), then a ring of fire, then VAJRAs, then lotus petals. Inside that is the palace with five concentric placement rings going in toward the center. In the center is the main deity Heruka with his consort VajravArAhī trampling on BHAIRAVA and his consort KAlarAtri (deities associated with saivism). There are a number of different representations. One has Heruka (or CakrasaMvara) dark blue in color with four faces and twelve arms, and VArAhī with a single face and two hands, red and naked except for bone ornaments. In the next circles are twenty-four vīras (heroes) with their consorts (related with the twenty-four pītha), with the remaining deities in the mandala placed in different directions in the outer circles.

camera obscura ::: --> An apparatus in which the images of external objects, formed by a convex lens or a concave mirror, are thrown on a paper or other white surface placed in the focus of the lens or mirror within a darkened chamber, or box, so that the outlines may be traced.
An apparatus in which the image of an external object or objects is, by means of lenses, thrown upon a sensitized plate or surface placed at the back of an extensible darkened box or chamber variously modified; -- commonly called simply the camera.


Camp David Accords (1978) ::: Conducted in secret on the presidential retreat in Maryland, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat concluded two agreements that provided the basis for continuing peace negotiations. “The Framework for Peace in the Middle East” focused on autonomy for Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza. “The Framework for Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel” paved the way for the Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty of 1979. The Accords addressed the definition of a Palestinian, the boundaries of the West Bank, and Jerusalem.

Capabilities Maturity Model ::: (software) (CMM) The Software Engineering Institute's model of software engineering that specifies five levels of maturity of the processes of a expanded to cover other areas including Human Resources and Software Acquitition.The levels - focii - and key process areas are:Level 1 Initial - Heroes - None.Level 2 Repeatable - Project Management - Software Project Planning, Software Project Tracking and Oversight, Software Subcontract Management, Software Quality Assurance, Software Configuration Management, Requirements Management.Level 3 Defined - Engineering Process - Organisation Process Focus, Organisation Process Definition, Peer Reviews, Training Program, Inter-group Coordination, Software Product Engineering, Integrated Software Management.Level 4 Managed - Product and Process Quality - Software Quality Management, Quantitative Process Management.Level 5 Optimising - Continuous Improvement - Process Change Management, Technology Change Management, Defect Prevention.[Reference?](2001-04-28)

Capability Maturity Model "software" (CMM) The {Software Engineering Institute}'s model of {software engineering} that specifies five levels of maturity of the processes of a software organisation. CMM offers a framework for evolutionary process improvement. Originally applied to software development (SE-CMM), it has been expanded to cover other areas including Human Resources and Software Acquitition. The levels - focii - and key process areas are: Level 1 Initial - Heroes - None. Level 2 Repeatable - Project Management - Software Project Planning, Software Project Tracking and Oversight, Software Subcontract Management, Software Quality Assurance, Software Configuration Management, Requirements Management. Level 3 Defined - Engineering Process - Organisation Process Focus, Organisation Process Definition, Peer Reviews, Training Program, Inter-group Coordination, Software Product Engineering, Integrated Software Management. Level 4 Managed - Product and Process Quality - Software Quality Management, Quantitative Process Management. Level 5 Optimising - Continuous Improvement - Process Change Management, Technology Change Management, Defect Prevention. {(http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmm/cmm.html)}. (2001-04-28)

*caturApattidvAra. (T. ltung ba'i sgo bzhi / sdom pa nyams pa'i rgyu bzhi; C. si fanzui men; J. shibonzaimon; K. sa pomjoe mun 四犯罪門). In Sanskrit, "the four doors through which transgression comes." According to the BODHISATTVABHuMI, the best way to guard against transgression (Apatti) is to block these four doors. The first door is not knowing boundaries relative to which transgression does, or does not, occur; to counteract it, one should know the moral code (S. PRATIMOKsA) well. The second is knowing the code, but not respecting virtuous persons; to counteract it, one should conquer pride and have respect. The third is having respect but being heedless (PRAMADA); to counteract it, one must be guided by one's conscience (APRAMADA). The fourth door is when one has knowledge, respect, and a conscience but where KLEsA (affliction) predominates; to counteract it, one must apply an antidote (S. PRATIPAKsA) and focus on reducing the powers of the klesas.

Centering ::: The process of stabilizing the awareness within one's self-identity. This mostly refers to the ability to collect and constrain the locus of focus to one's physical body and identity and is often a precursor to more advanced energetic, meditative, and ritualistic workings. Many centering practices begin with stillness within an asana and involve a coordination of the breath with gesture, subtle movement, visualization, and vibration.

Centration ::: A young child&

CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Restoration and Compensation Liability Act)::: Cleanup Program focuses on human health and environmental concerns related to human health. The cleanup program is primarily carried out by EPA, working with States, on sites designated for cleanup on the NPL. Cleanup Program emphasizes local source control, prevention of further spread from sources. Cleanup Program is prohibited from "restoring" natural resources, although cleanup may prevent further injuries to natural resources.



Chassidic ::: movement of Judaism that focuses on the study of Kabbalah*; founded by the Baal Shem Tov

Cheng weishi lun. (S. *VijNaptimAtratAsiddhi; J. Joyui-shikiron; K. Song yusik non 成唯識論). In Chinese, "Demonstration of Consciousness-Only"; a magnum opus of Sino-Indian YOGACARA Buddhism and the foundational text of the Chinese WEISHI, or FAXIANG, school. The text is often cited by its reconstructed Sanskrit title *VIJNAPTIMATRATASIDDHI, and its authorship attributed to DHARMAPALA (530-561), but the text as we have it in Chinese translation has no precise analogue in Sanskrit and was never used within the Indian or Tibetan traditions. Its Chinese translator XUANZANG (600/602-664), one of the most important figures in the history of Chinese Buddhist scholasticism, traveled to India in the seventh century, where he specialized in YogAcAra doctrine at NALANDA monastic university under one of DharmapAla's disciples, sĪLABHADRA (529-645). At NAlandA, Xuanzang studied VASUBANDHU's TRIMsIKA (TriMsikAvijNaptimAtratA[siddhi]kArikA), the famous "Thirty Verses on Consciousness-Only," along with ten prose commentaries on the verses by the prominent YogAcAra scholiasts DharmapAla, STHIRAMATI, Nanda, CitrabhAnu, Gunamati, Jinamitra, JNAnamitra, JNAnacandra, Bandhusrī, suddhacandra, and Jinaputra. After his return to China in 645, Xuanzang set to work translating this massive amount of new material into Chinese. Rather than translate in their entirety all ten commentaries, however, on the advice of his translation team Xuanzang chose to focus on DharmapAla's exegesis, which he considered orthodox, rather than muddy the waters in China with the divergent interpretations of the other teachers. As a foil for DharmapAla's interpretation, Xuanzang uses the commentaries by Sthiramati, Nanda, and occasionally CitrabhAnu, but he typically concludes any discussion with DharmapAla's definitive view. This decision to rely heavily on DharmapAla's interpretation probably comes from the fact that Xuanzang's own Indian teacher, sīlabhadra, was himself a pupil of DharmapAla. ¶ The Cheng weishi lun is principally concerned with the origination and removal of ignorance (AVIDYA), by clarifying the processes by which erroneous perception arises and enlightened understanding is produced. Unlike the writings of STHIRAMATI, which understood the bifurcation of consciousness into subject and object to be wholly imaginary, the Cheng weishi lun proposed instead that consciousness in fact always appears in both subjective and objective aspects, viz., a "seeing part" (darsanabhAga) and a "seen part" (nimittabhAga). The apparent dichotomy between inner self and external images is a supposition of mentality (MANAS), which in turn leads to the various afflictions (KLEsA), as the mind clings to those images it likes and rejects those it dislikes; thus, suffering (DUḤKHA) is created and the cycle of rebirth (SAMSARA) sustained. Both the perceiving self and the perceived images are therefore both simply projections of the mind and thus mere-representation (VIJNAPTIMATRA) or, as Xuanzang translated the term, consciousness-only (WEISHI). This clarification of the perceptual process produces an enlightened understanding that catalyzes a transmutation of the basis (AsRAYAPARAVṚTTI), so that the root consciousness (MuLAVIJNANA), or ALAYAVIJNANA, no longer serves as the storehouse of either wholesome or unwholesome seeds (BĪJA), thus bringing an end to the subject-object bifurcation. In the course of its discussion, the Cheng weishi lun offers an extensive treatment of the YogAcAra theory of the eight consciousnesses (VIJNANA) and especially the storehouse consciousness (AlayavijNAna) that stores the seeds, or potentialities, of these representational images. The text also offers an overview of the three-nature (TRISVABHAVA) theory of vijNaptimAtra as imaginary (PARIKALPITA), dependent (PARATANTRA), and perfected (PARINIsPANNA). Finally, the Cheng weishi lun provides such exhaustive detail on the hundred dharmas (BAIFA) taxonomical system of the YogAcAra that it has been used within the tradition as a primer of YogAcAra dharma theory.

Cihang. (慈航) (1895-1954). Chinese monk during the Republican Era and prominent disciple of the influential Buddhist reformer TAIXU; his mummified remains continue to be a major focus of relic worship in Taiwan. Cihang was first educated in the traditional Chinese Buddhist exegetical traditions of the CHAN, TIANTAI, and PURE LAND schools before beginning his studies in 1927 at Taixu's modern Buddhist academy in Minnan. It was there that Cihang was exposed to, and inspired by, Taixu's reformist ideals, and began his own active missionary career. Cihang's achievements as a missionary included establishing various Chinese Buddhist organizations and lecturing on Buddhism throughout Southeast Asia, including the Philippines, Singapore, Burma, and Malaysia, where he was credited with promoting a type of "socially engaged Buddhism." Cihang was also the founder and editor of the Buddhist monthly Renjian ("Human Realm"), and served as abbot of various monasteries. Most notably, Cihang founded the renowned Mile Neiyuan (MAITREYA Buddhist Academy) in Taiwan for training young clergy who had recently relocated from the Chinese mainland, so that they would be able to minister to new Taiwanese converts to Buddhism. Cihang's classes on YOGACARA and other MAHAYANA traditions in and outside of the academy were influential on the way Chinese Buddhism spread, developed, and took root in Taiwan after the retreat of the Kuomintang (Guomindang) from the Chinese mainland in 1949. Cihang's mummified remains-in the form of his largely intact body-continue to be a source of great fascination and controversy in Taiwan. In addition to the many debates within both the secular and religious communities concerning his "whole-body relic" (QUANSHEN SHELI), a new cult of relic worship began in earnest as soon as the existence of his mummified body became publicized. Cihang's pious followers undertook extra measures to ensure the lasting preservation of his body. Cihang's mummy, still sitting in a meditative posture, remains on display inside the memorial building (Cihang guan) dedicated to him.

Clean "language" A {lazy} {higher-order} {purely functional language} from the {University of Nijmegen}. Clean was originally a subset of {Lean}, designed to be an experimental {intermediate language} and used to study the {graph rewriting} model. To help focus on the essential implementation issues it deliberately lacked all {syntactic sugar}, even {infix} expressions or {complex lists}, As it was used more and more to construct all kinds of applications it was eventually turned into a general purpose functional programming language, first released in May 1995. The new language is {strongly typed} (Milner/Mycroft type system), provides {modules} and {functional I/O} (including a {WIMP} interface), and supports {parallel processing} and {distributed processing} on {loosely coupled} parallel architectures. Parallel execution was originally based on the {PABC} {abstract machine}. It is one of the fastest implementations of functional languages available, partly aided by programmer {annotations} to influence evaluation order. Although the two variants of Clean are rather different, the name Clean can be used to denote either of them. To distinguish, the old version can be referred to as Clean 0.8, and the new as Clean 1.0 or Concurrent Clean. The current release of Clean (1.0) includes a compiler, producing code for the {ABC} {abstract machine}, a {code generator}, compiling the ABC code into either {object-code} or {assembly language} (depending on the {platform}), I/O libraries, a {development environment} (not all platforms), and {documentation}. It is supported (or will soon be supported) under {Mac OS}, {Linux}, {OS/2}, {Windows 95}, {SunOS}, and {Solaris}. {(http://cs.kun.nl/~clean/)}. E-mail: "clean@cs.kun.nl". Mailing list: "clean-request@cs.kun.nl". ["Clean - A Language for Functional Graph Rewriting", T. Brus et al, IR 95, U Nijmegen, Feb 1987]. ["Concurrent Clean", M.C. van Eekelen et al, TR 89-18, U Nijmegen, Netherlands, 1989]. [{Jargon File}] (1995-11-08)

Clean ::: (language) A lazy higher-order purely functional language from the University of Nijmegen. Clean was originally a subset of Lean, designed to be an To help focus on the essential implementation issues it deliberately lacked all syntactic sugar, even infix expressions or complex lists,As it was used more and more to construct all kinds of applications it was eventually turned into a general purpose functional programming language, first parallel architectures. Parallel execution was originally based on the PABC abstract machine.It is one of the fastest implementations of functional languages available, partly aided by programmer annotations to influence evaluation order.Although the two variants of Clean are rather different, the name Clean can be used to denote either of them. To distinguish, the old version can be referred to as Clean 0.8, and the new as Clean 1.0 or Concurrent Clean.The current release of Clean (1.0) includes a compiler, producing code for the ABC abstract machine, a code generator, compiling the ABC code into either (or will soon be supported) under Mac OS, Linux, OS/2, Windows 95, SunOS, and Solaris. . E-mail: .[Clean - A Language for Functional Graph Rewriting, T. Brus et al, IR 95, U Nijmegen, Feb 1987].[Concurrent Clean, M.C. van Eekelen et al, TR 89-18, U Nijmegen, Netherlands, 1989].[Jargon File] (1995-11-08)

clinical psychology: focuses on the assessment and treatment of abnormal or maladaptive behaviour.

close reading: The careful focus upon ways that writers' choices of form, structureand language shape meaning. See critique and analysis.

cognitive processes: aspects of mental 'behaviour' that focus on the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of knowledge, for instance in memory and perception.

cognitive psychology: research field in psychology that focuses on mental processes used to acquire, store, retrieve and use knowledge.

cognitive therapy: a form of therapy which focuses on the role of faulty beliefs and thought patterns in abnormal behaviour; because it also encourages testing beliefs via behavioural strategies, it is sometimes called' cognitive behavioural therapy'. See also rational-emotive therapy.

collimator ::: n. --> A telescope arranged and used to determine errors of collimation, both vertical and horizontal.
A tube having a convex lens at one end and at the other a small opening or slit which is at the principal focus of the lens, used for producing a beam of parallel rays; also, a lens so used.


Common ISDN Application Programming Interface "networking" (CAPI, Common-ISDN-API) A programming interface standard for an application program to communicate with an {ISDN} card. Work on CAPI began in 1989, focussing on the German ISDN protocol, and was finished in 1990 by a CAPI working group consisting of application providers, ISDN equipment manufacturers, large customers, user groups and DBP Telekom, resulting in COMMON-ISDN-API Version 1.1. Following completion of the international protocol specification, almost every telecommunication provider offers {BRI} and {PRI} with {protocols} based on {Q.931} / ETS 3009 102. Common-ISDN-API Version 2.0 was developed to support all Q.931 protocols. {(http://capi.org/)}. [Why not CIAPI?] (1998-09-07)

Common ISDN Application Programming Interface ::: (networking) (CAPI, Common-ISDN-API) A programming interface standard for an application program to communicate with an ISDN card.Work on CAPI began in 1989, focussing on the German ISDN protocol, and was finished in 1990 by a CAPI working group consisting of application providers, offers BRI and PRI with protocols based on Q.931 / ETS 3009 102. Common-ISDN-API Version 2.0 was developed to support all Q.931 protocols.Latest version: 2.0, as of 1998-09-07. .[Why not CIAPI?] (1998-09-07)

Computer Conservation Society "body" (CCS) A British group that aims to promote the conservation and study of historic computers, past and future. The CCS is a co-operative venture between the {British Computer Society}, the Science Museum of London and the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. The CCS was constituted in September 1989 as a Specialist Group of the BCS. A number of active projects and working groups focus on specific computer restorations, early computer technologies and software. Membership is open to anyone interested. {Home (http://computerconservationsociety.org)}. See also {Bletchley Park}. (2012-03-22)

Computer Language for AeronauticS and Programming "language" (CLASP) A {real-time} language from NASA, focussing on {fixed-point} mathematics. CLASP is a near subset of {SPL}, with some ideas from {PL/I}. ["Flight Computer and Language Processor Study", Raymond J. Rubey, Management Information Services, Detroit, 1971]. (1994-10-13)

Computer Language for AeronauticS and Programming ::: (language) (CLASP) A real-time language from NASA focussing on fixed-point mathematics. CLASP is a near subset of SPL, with some ideas from PL/I.[Flight Computer and Language Processor Study, Raymond J. Rubey, Management Information Services, Detroit, 1971]. (1994-10-13)

Compuware Corporation "company" A US {software} and service company established in 1973. Since 1973, Compuware focused on optimising business software development, testing and operation. In 1999 the company had grown to over 15,000 employees worldwide and revenues of more than $1.6B. By 2013 it had shrunk to less than 5000. Current (2013) products and services include performance optimisation, availability and quality of web, non-web, mobile, streaming and cloud applications; project portfolio management, professional services automation; mainframe applications and developer tools; rapid application development and professional services. {(http://compuware.com/)}. (2013-03-08)

concentrate ::: v. t. --> To bring to, or direct toward, a common center; to unite more closely; to gather into one body, mass, or force; to fix; as, to concentrate rays of light into a focus; to concentrate the attention.
To increase the strength and diminish the bulk of, as of a liquid or an ore; to intensify, by getting rid of useless material; to condense; as, to concentrate acid by evaporation; to concentrate by washing; -- opposed to dilute.


Concentration: The act and state of focusing one’s entire attention and perception upon a certain object or idea, to the complete exclusion of all others, and under total inactivity of all the physical senses except the one used in this act (e.g., sight, hearing, etc.).

concentre ::: v. i. --> To come to one point; to meet in, or converge toward, a common center; to have a common center. ::: v. t. --> To draw or direct to a common center; to bring together at a focus or point, as two or more lines; to concentrate.

confocal conics: Conic sections which share the same focus (or foci).

Consciousness, Field of: The sum-total of items embraced within an individual's consciousness at any given moment. The total field consists of (a) the focus, where the concentration of attention is maximal and (b) a margin, periphery or fringe of a diminishing degree of attention which gradually fades to zero. -- L.W.

context-sensitive menu "operating system" A {menu} which appears in response to a user action (typically a {mouse} click) and whose contents are determined by which {application window} was clicked or has the {input focus}. Most {GUIs} use a secondary mouse button (right or middle) to call up a context-sensitive menu as the {primary mouse button} is normally used to interact with objects which are already visible. The context-sensitive menu often contains functions that are also available in a {menu bar} but the context-sensitive menu provides quick access to a subset of functions that are particularly relevant to the window area clicked on. The {RISC OS} {WIMP} uses only context-sensitive menus (always invoked using the middle mouse button). This saves screen space and reduces mouse movement compared to a {menu bar}. (1999-09-22)

context-sensitive menu ::: (operating system) A menu which appears in response to a user action (typically a mouse click) and whose contents are determined by which application window was clicked or has the input focus.Most GUIs use a secondary mouse button (right or middle) to call up a context-sensitive menu as the primary mouse button is normally used to interact with objects which are already visible.The context-sensitive menu often contains functions that are also available in a menu bar but the context-sensitive menu provides quick access to a subset of functions that are particularly relevant to the window area clicked on.The RISC OS WIMP uses only context-sensitive menus (always invoked using the middle mouse button). This saves screen space and reduces mouse movement compared to a menu bar. (1999-09-22)

contrary: Crazy wisdom role that reverses expected modes of dress and behavior (often, but not always, through crossdressing, androgyny, deliberate confusion, backwards speech, saying the opposite of what is meant, etc.) in order to subvert expectations about what is. Sometimes used as an instrument for mystic focus. (See shaman.)

Convergence ::: The binocular cue to distance referring to the fact that the closer an object, the more inward our eyes need to turn in order to focus

convergent ::: a. --> tending to one point of focus; tending to approach each other; converging.

corradiate ::: v. t. --> To converge to one point or focus, as light or rays.

Cult ::: A general term for formal aspects and interrelationships of religious observance, often as focused on a particular phenomenon (e.g., the “temple cult,” the “cult of saints”).

Cundī. (T. Skul byed ma; C. Zhunti; J. Juntei; K. Chunje 准提). In Sanskrit, the name Cundī (with many orthographic variations) probably connotes a prostitute or other woman of low caste but specifically denotes a prominent local ogress (YAKsInĪ), whose divinized form becomes the subject of an important Buddhist cult starting in the eighth century. Her worship began in the Bengal and Orissa regions of the Indian subcontinent, where she became the patron goddess of the PAla dynasty, and soon spread throughout India, and into Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, and Tibet, eventually making its way to East Asia. Cundī was originally an independent focus of cultic worship, who only later (as in the Japanese SHINGONSHu) was incorporated into such broader cultic practices as those focused on the "womb MAndALA" (see TAIZoKAI). Several scriptures related to her cult were translated into Chinese starting in the early eighth century, and she lends her name to both a MUDRA as well as an influential DHARAnĪ: namaḥ saptAnAM samyaksaMbuddhakotīnAM tadyathA: oM cale cule cunde svAhA. The dhAranī attributed to Cundī is said to convey infinite power because it is in continuous recitation by myriads of buddhas; hence, an adept who participates in this ongoing recitation will accrue manifold benefits and purify himself from unwholesome actions. The efficacy of the dhAranī is said to be particularly pronounced when it is recited before an image of Cundī while the accompanying Cundī mudrA is also being performed. This dhAranī also gives Cundī her common epithet of "Goddess of the Seventy Million [Buddhas]," which is sometimes mistakenly interpreted (based on a misreading of the Chinese) as the "Mother of the Seventy Million Buddhas." The texts also provide elaborate directions on how to portray her and paint her image. In Cundī's most common depiction, she has eighteen arms (each holding specific implements) and is sitting atop a lotus flower (PADMA) while being worshipped by two ophidian deities.

darsanamArga. (T. mthong lam; C. jiandao; J. kendo; K. kyondo 見道). In Sanskrit, "path of vision"; the third of the five paths (PANCAMARGA) to liberation and enlightenment, whether as an ARHAT or as a buddha. It follows the second path, the path of preparation (PRAYOGAMARGA) and precedes the fourth path, the path of meditation or cultivation (BHAVANAMARGA). This path marks the adept's first direct perception of reality, without the intercession of concepts, and brings an end to the first three of the ten fetters (SAMYOJANA) that bind one to the cycle of rebirth: (1) belief in the existence of a self in relation to the body (SATKAYADṚstI), (2) belief in the efficacy of rites and rituals (sĪLAVRATAPARAMARsA) as a means of salvation, and (3) doubt about the efficacy of the path (VICIKITSA). Because this vision renders one a noble person (ARYA), the path of vision marks the inception of the "noble path" (AryamArga). According to the SarvAstivAda soteriological system, the darsanamArga occurs over the course of fifteen moments of realization of the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, with the sixteenth moment marking the beginning of the BHAVANAMARGA. There are four moments of realization for each of the four truths. The first moment is that of doctrinal acquiescence (DHARMAKsANTI) with regard to the sensuous realm (KAMADHATU). In that moment, the afflictions (KLEsA) of the sensuous realm associated with the truth of suffering are abandoned. This is followed by a moment of doctrinal knowledge (DHARMAJNANA) of the truth of suffering with regard to the sensuous realm, which is the state of understanding that the afflictions of that level have been abandoned. Next comes a moment of realization called subsequent acquiescence (anvayaksAnti), in which the afflictions associated with the truth of suffering in the two upper realms, the realm of subtle materiality (RuPADHATU) and the immaterial realm (ARuPYADHATU) are abandoned; there is finally a moment of subsequent knowledge (anvayajNAna) of the truth of suffering with regard to the two upper realms. This sequence of four moments-doctrinal acquiescence and doctrinal knowledge (which are concerned with the sensuous realm) and subsequent acquiescence and subsequent knowledge (which are concerned with the two upper realms)-is repeated for the remaining truths of origin, cessation, and path. In each case, the moments of realization called acquiescence are the time when the afflictions are actually abandoned; they are called uninterrupted paths (ANANTARYAMARGA) because they cannot be interrupted or impeded in severing the hold of the afflictions. The eight moments of knowledge are the state of having realized that the afflictions of the particular level have been abandoned. They are called paths of liberation (VIMUKTIMARGA). An uninterrupted path, followed by a path of liberation, are likened to throwing out a thief and locking the door behind him. The sixteenth moment in the sequence-the subsequent knowledge of the truth of the path with regard to the upper realms-constitutes the first moment of the next path, the bhAvanAmArga. For a BODHISATTVA, the attainment of the path of vision coincides with the inception of the first BODHISATTVABHuMI (see also DAsABHuMI). The ABHIDHARMASAMUCCAYA explains that the bodhisattva's path of vision is also a direct perception of reality and is focused on the four noble truths; unlike the mainstream account, however, all three realms are considered simultaneously, and the sixteenth moment is not the first instant of the path of cultivation (bhAvanAmArga). The YOGACARA system is based on their doctrine of the falsehood of the subject/object bifurcation. The first eight instants describe the elimination of fetters based on false conceptualization (VIKALPA) of objects, and the last eight the elimination of fetters based on the false conceptualization of a subject; thus the actual path of vision is a direct realization of the emptiness (suNYATA) of all dharmas (sarvadharmasunyatA). This view of the darsanamArga as the first direct perception (PRATYAKsA) of emptiness is also found in the MADHYAMAKA school, according to which the bodhisattva begins to abandon the afflictive obstructions (KLEsAVARAnA) upon attaining the darsanamArga. See also DHARMAKsANTI; JIEWU; DUNWU JIANXIU.

Darumashu. (達摩宗). In Japanese, the "BODHIDHARMA sect"; one of the earliest Japanese Buddhist ZEN sects, established in the tenth century by DAINICHI NoNIN; the sect takes its name from the putative founder of the CHAN tradition, Bodhidharma. Little was known about the teachings of the Darumashu until the late-twentieth century apart from criticisms found in the writings of its contemporary rivals, who considered the school to be heretical. Criticisms focused on issues of the authenticity of Nonin's lineage and antinomian tendencies in Nonin's teachings. A recently discovered Darumashu treatise, the Joto shogakuron ("Treatise on the Attainment of Complete, Perfect Enlightenment"), discusses the prototypical Chan statement "mind is the buddha," demonstrating that a whole range of benefits, both worldly and religious, would accrue to an adept who simply awakens to that truth. As a critique of the Darumashu by Nonin's rival MYoAN EISAI states, however, since the school posits that the mind is already enlightened and the afflictions (KLEsA) do not exist in reality, its adherents claimed that there were therefore no precepts that had to be kept or practices to be followed, for religious cultivation would only serve to hinder the experience of awakening. The Darumashu also emphasized the importance of the transmission of the patriarchs' relics (J. shari; S. sARĪRA) as a mark of legitimacy. Although the Darumashu was influential enough while Nonin was alive to prompt other sects to call for its suppression, it did not survive its founder's death, and most of Nonin's leading disciples affiliated themselves with other prominent teachers, such as DoGEN KIGEN. These Darumashu adherents had a significant influence on early SoToSHu doctrine and self-identity and seem to have constituted the majority of the Sotoshu tradition into its third generation of successors. ¶ Darumashu, as the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese term Damo zong (Bodhidharma lineage), can also refer more generally to the CHAN/SoN/ZEN school, which traces its heritage back to the founder and first Chinese patriarch, Bodhidharma.

Death Star ::: [Star Wars film] 1. The AT&T corporate logo, which appears on computers sold by AT&T and bears an uncanny resemblance to the Death Star in the movie. This poster printed by Mt. Xinu showing a starscape with a space fighter labelled 4.2BSD streaking away from a broken AT&T logo wreathed in flames.2. AT&T's internal magazine, Focus, uses death star to describe an incorrectly done AT&T logo in which the inner circle in the top left is dark instead of light - a frequent result of dark-on-light logo images.

Death Star ["Star Wars" film] 1. The AT&T corporate logo, which appears on computers sold by AT&T and bears an uncanny resemblance to the Death Star in the movie. This usage is particularly common among partisans of {BSD} Unix, who tend to regard the AT&T versions as inferior and AT&T as a bad guy. Copies still circulate of a poster printed by Mt. Xinu showing a starscape with a space fighter labelled {4.2BSD} streaking away from a broken AT&T logo wreathed in flames. 2. AT&T's internal magazine, "Focus", uses "death star" to describe an incorrectly done AT&T logo in which the inner circle in the top left is dark instead of light - a frequent result of dark-on-light logo images.

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ::: (body) (DARPA, ARPA) An agency of the US Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. DARPA DARPA focusses on short (two to four-year) projects run by small, purpose-built teams.ARPA was its original name, then it was renamed DARPA (for Defense) in 1972, then back to ARPA [When?], and then, incredibly, back to DARPA again on 1996-03-11!ARPA was responsible for funding development of ARPANET (which grew into the Internet), as well as the Berkeley version of Unix and TCP/IP. . . (1999-07-17)

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency "body" (DARPA, ARPA) An agency of the US Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. DARPA was established in 1958 in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik, with the mission of keeping the US's military technology ahead of its enemies. DARPA is independent from other more conventional military R&D and reports directly to senior DoD management. DARPA has around 240 personnel (about 140 technical) directly managing a $2 billion budget. These figures are "on average" since DARPA focusses on short (two to four-year) projects run by small, purpose-built teams. ARPA was its original name, then it was renamed DARPA (for Defense) in 1972, then back to ARPA [When?], and then, incredibly, back to DARPA again on 1996-03-11! ARPA was responsible for funding development of {ARPANET} (which grew into the {Internet}), as well as the {Berkeley} version of {Unix} and {TCP/IP}. {(http://darpa.mil/)}. {History (/pub/misc/darpa)}. (1999-07-17)

Descriptive Statistics ::: The branch of statistics that focuses on describing in numerical format what is happening now within a population. Descriptive statistics require that all subjects in the population (the entire class, all males in a school, all professors) be tested.

design pattern "programming" A description of an {object-oriented design} technique which names, abstracts and identifies aspects of a design structure that are useful for creating an object-oriented design. The design pattern identifies {classes} and {instances}, their roles, collaborations and responsibilities. Each design pattern focuses on a particular object-oriented design problem or issue. It describes when it applies, whether it can be applied in the presence of other design constraints, and the consequences and trade-offs of its use. {Home (http://st-www.cs.uiuc.edu/users/patterns/patterns.html)}. ["Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software", Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides]. (1997-07-21)

Developmental Psychology ::: The area of psychology focused on how children grow psychologically to become who they are as adults.

Developmental Test and Evaluation ::: (programming) (DT&E) Activity which focuses on the technological and engineering aspects of a system or piece of equipment. (1996-05-13)

Developmental Test and Evaluation "programming" (DT&E) Activity which focuses on the technological and engineering aspects of a system or piece of equipment. (1996-05-13)

Dhammakāya. (Thai, Thammakai). A Buddhist reform movement in Thailand that originated in 1916, when a monk named Luang Phor Sodh is said to have rediscovered a technique of meditation that had been lost since the time of the Buddha. The movement began to gain impetus in 1970, when one of the abbot's disciples, a nun known as Khun Yay Upāsika, founded Wat Phra Dhammakāya. Dhammakāya meditation practice consists of visualizing a small crystal sphere entering one's body through the nasal passage; the sphere settles in the solar plexus and eventually becomes transformed into a crystal image of the Buddha. While engaging in this visualization, the meditator is supposed to focus on the MANTRA "samma arahang." The practice is supposed to culminate in the ability to see a buddha image (the dhammakāya, or "truth body" of the Buddha; see DHARMAKĀYA) inside oneself, an experience compared to tasting NIRVĀnA in the present life. Meditation is the principal Dhammakāya practice, and the organization encourages its followers to meditate twice a day as a way of improving self-confidence and as a tool for success, well being, and fostering family life. Dhammakāya also offers group training courses for adults in the private and public sectors. Devotees dress in white, and temple buildings are simple in design. Dhammakāya is also known for organizing massive ceremonies involving several thousand monks and tens of thousands of laypeople on Buddhist holy days. Rather than following the traditional lunar calendar and practicing on the days of the waning and waxing moon, Dhammakāya practice is held every Sunday, with meditation in the morning, followed by a sermon on topics relevant to the problems and concerns of everyday life. Its adherents are also encouraged to take part in such activities as retreats, youth camps, and massive ordinations for college students during the summer break. The Dhammakāya movement also differs from mainstream Thai Buddhism in that it requires monks to be ordained for life rather than the temporary ordination that is common among Thai laymen. In addition to its massive WAT outside of Bangkok, it has established branches throughout Thailand and overseas. Many Thais, especially intellectuals who support the forest meditation tradition, criticize Dhammakāya for its "direct marketing" type of organization and its quick-fix solutions to complex problems.

Dharmakīrti. (T. Chos kyi grags pa; C. Facheng; J. Hosho; K. Popch'ing 法稱) (c. 600-670 CE). Indian Buddhist logician, who was one of the most important and influential figures in the history of Buddhist philosophy. Dharmakīrti was the author of a series of seminal works building on his predecessor DIGNĀGA's PRAMĀnASAMUCCAYA ("Compendium on Valid Knowledge"), defending it against criticism by Brahmanical writers and explaining how accurate knowledge could be gleaned (see PRAMĀnA). His "seven treatises on pramāna" (T. TSHAD MA SDE 'DUN) are the PRAMĀnAVĀRTTIKA ("Commentary on Valid Knowledge") and PRAMĀnAVINIsCAYA ("Determination of Valid Knowledge"), as well as the NYĀYABINDU ("Drop of Reasoning"), the Hetubindu ("Drop of Reasons"), the Sambandhaparīksā ("Analysis of Relations"), the SaMtānāntarasiddhi ("Proof of Other Mental Continuums"), and the Vādanyāya ("Reasoning for Debate"). Dharmakīrti proposed a causal efficacy connecting the sense object and sensory perception as the basis of reliable perception (PRATYAKsA), thereby attempting to remove the potential fallacy in Dignāga's acceptance of the infallibility of sense data themselves. Dharmakīrti wrote explanations of many of his own works, and DHARMOTTARA, sākyamati, PRAJNĀKARAGUPTA, and Manorathanandin, among others, wrote detailed commentaries on his works. He had a profound influence on the exchange between subsequent Indian Buddhist writers, such as sĀNTARAKsITA, KAMALAsĪLA, and HARIBHADRA, and contemporary Brahmanical Naiyāyika and MīmāMsaka thinkers. His work subsequently became the focus of intense study in Tibet, first in GSANG PHU NE'U THOG monastery where RNGOG BLO LDAN SHES RAB and later PHYWA PA CHOS KYI SENG GE established through their commentaries on the PRAMĀnAVINIsCAYA an influential tradition of interpretation; it was questioned by SA SKYA PAndITA in his TSHAD MA RIGS GTER, giving rise to a second line of interpretation more in line with Dharmakīrti's original works. There is a question of Dharmakīrti's philosophical affiliation, with elements in his works that reflect both SAUTRĀNTIKA and YOGĀCĀRA doctrinal positions.

Dharmapāla. (T. Chos skyong; C. Hufa; J. Goho; K. Hobop 護法) (530-561). One of the ten great YOGĀCĀRA philosophers of Indian Buddhism. He was born in southern India in the middle of the sixth century CE, to the family of a high government minister. At around the age of twenty, on the evening that he was to be married, he ran away to a mountain monastery to become a monk. After mastering the teachings of both mainstream and MAHĀYĀNA Buddhism, Dharmapāla traveled extensively, becoming renowned for his debating skills. Later, he studied under the YOGĀCĀRA specialist and logician DIGNĀGA (d.u.) at NĀLANDĀ, where he became chief instructor despite his youth. His teaching focused especially on Yogācāra doctrine, and he produced many excellent disciples. XUANZANG (600/602-664), one of the most important figures in the history of Chinese Buddhist scholasticism, traveled to India in the seventh century, where he studied Dharmapāla's doctrines at Nālandā under one of his principal disciples, sĪLABHADRA (529-645), and brought Dharmapāla's scholastic lineage back to China. Xuanzang edited and translated some of the materials he had collected in India into the CHENG WEISHI LUN (*VijNaptimātratāsiddhisāstra; "Demonstration of Consciousness-Only"), a synopsis of ten separate commentaries on VASUBANDHU's TRIMsIKĀ ("Thirty Verses") but heavily focused on the insights of Dharmapāla, which Xuanzang considered orthodox. Unlike STHIRAMATI, who understood the bifurcation of consciousness into subject and object to be wholly imaginary, Dharmapāla proposed instead that consciousness always appears in both subjective and objective aspects, viz., a "seeing part" (darsanabhāga) and a seen part (nimittabhāga). His interpretations regarding the nature of consciousness became predominant in the Chinese FAXIANG (alt. Weishi) school of Yogācāra, which was developed by Xuanzang and his two main disciples, WoNCH'ŬK and KUIJI. Dharmapāla retired to AsaMbodhi monastery at the age of twenty-nine and passed away at the age of thirty-one.

Dharmaskandha[pādasāstra]. (T. Chos kyi phung po; C. Fayun zu lun; J. Hounsokuron; K. Pobon chok non 法蘊足論). In Sanskrit, "Aggregation of Factors," or "Collection of Factors"; one of the two oldest works in the SARVĀSTIVĀDA ABHIDHARMA, along with the SAMGĪTIPARYĀYA, and traditionally placed as the third of the six "feet" (pāda) of the JNĀNAPRASTHĀNA, the central treatise in the Sarvāstivāda ABHIDHARMAPItAKA. The text is attributed to sĀRIPUTRA or MAHĀMAUDGALYĀYANA. It is considered an early work, with some scholars dating it as early as c. 300 BCE. It draws principally from the ĀGAMA scriptures to provide an account of Buddhist soteriological practices, as well as the afflictions that hinder spiritual progress. In coverage, the closest analogues to the Dharmaskandha are the VIBHAnGA of the Pāli abhidhammapitaka and the first half of the sāriputrābhidharmasāstra (probably associated with the DHARMAGUPTAKA school), but it appears to be the most primitive of the three in the way it organizes DHARMA classifications, listing them as sense-fields or bases (ĀYATANA), aggregates (SKANDHA), and elements (DHĀTU), rather than the standard Sarvāstivāda listing of aggregates, bases, and elements (as is also found in the Pāli abhidhamma). The exposition of dharmas in the first half of the text follows the primitive arrangement of the thirty-seven factors pertaining to enlightenment (BODHIPĀKsIKADHARMA), probably the earliest of the MĀTṚKĀ (matrices) listings that were the origin of the abhidharma style of dharma analysis. The Dharmaskandha provides one of the earliest attempts in Sarvāstivāda literature to organize the constituents of the path (MĀRGA) and introduce the crucial innovation of distinguishing between a path of vision (DARsANAMĀRGA) and a path of cultivation (BHĀVANĀMĀRGA). This distinction would be of crucial importance in the mature systematizations of the path made by the VAIBHĀsIKAs and would profoundly influence later MAHĀYĀNA presentations of the path. The second half of the text covers various other classification schema, including the āyatanas and dhātus. The sixteenth chapter synthesizes these two divisions, and focuses especially on the afflictions (KLEsA) and their removal. Despite being one of the earliest of the Sarvāstivāda abhidharma texts, the mature tradition considers the Dharmaskandha to be one of the "feet" (pāda) of the JNĀNAPRASTHĀNA, the central treatise in the Sarvāstivāda abhidharmapitaka. The Dharmaskandha does not survive in an Indic language and is only extant in a Chinese translation made by XUANZANG's translation team in 659 CE.

digital dashboard "software" A personalised desktop {portal} that focuses on {business intelligence} and {knowledge management}. {Microsoft}'s version has a launch screen including stock quotes, voice mail and e-mail messages, a calendar, a weather forecast, traffic information, access to news feeds, customer and sales data, and Internet conferences. A digital dashboard might previously have been thought of as an executive information system. In the future, digital dashboards could be available on {personal digital assistants} and mobile phones. ["Gates pitches 'digital dashboards' to bevy of top CEOs", Bob Trott, pub. InfoWorld Electric, 1999-05-19]. (1999-09-14)

digital dashboard ::: (software) A personalised desktop portal that focuses on business intelligence and knowledge management.Microsoft's version has a launch screen including stock quotes, voice mail and e-mail messages, a calendar, a weather forecast, traffic information, access to system. In the future, digital dashboards could be available on personal digital assistants and cellular phones.[Gates pitches 'digital dashboards' to bevy of top CEOs, Bob Trott, pub. InfoWorld Electric, 1999-05-19]. (1999-09-14)

direction ::: 1. A line of thought or action or a tendency or inclination. 2. A purpose or orientation toward a goal that serves to guide or motivate; focus. directions.

directrices of an ellipse: A pair of parallel lines also parallel to the minor axis (thus perpendicular to the major axis) one of which can be used, together with the corresponding (closer) focus, to define the ellipse in question.

directrix: A line which, together with a point called the focus, defines the set of points which form a conic section.

directrix ::: n. --> A directress.
A line along which a point in another line moves, or which in any way governs the motion of the point and determines the position of the curve generated by it; the line along which the generatrix moves in generating a surface.
A straight line so situated with respect to a conic section that the distance of any point of the curve from it has a constant ratio to the distance of the same point from the focus.


directrix of a parabola: A line, not intersecting the parabola and perpendicular to the axis of symmetry, which, together with the focus, defines the parabola in question.

Disk Worship Another form of sun worship; however, the ancients, especially whose who had been initiated in the Mystery schools, did not worship the physical sun but reverenced the central source of life and vivifying power of which the sun is the focus in its own kingdom, and which it therefore represents.

Dunwu rudao yaomen lun. (J. Tongo nyudo yomonron; K. Tono ipto yomun non 頓悟入道要門論). In Chinese, "Treatise on the Essential Gate of Entering the Way through Sudden Awakening," composed by the Tang dynasty CHAN master DAZHU HUIHAI (d.u.); also known as the Dunwu yaomen. The monk Miaoxie (d.u.) discovered this text in a box and published it in 1369 together with Dazhu's recorded sayings that he selectively culled from the JINGDE CHUANDENG LU. Miaoxie's edition is comprised of two rolls. The first roll contains Dazhu's text the Dunwu rudao yaomen lun, and the second contains his sayings, which Miaoxie entitled the Zhufang menren canwen yulu. A preface to this edition was prepared by the monk Chongyu (1304-1378). The Dunwu rudao yaomen lun focuses on the notion of "sudden awakening" (DUNWU) and attempts to explicate various doctrinal concepts, such as sĪLA, DHYĀNA, PRAJNĀ, TATHATĀ, BUDDHA-NATURE (FOXING), and "no-thought" (WUNIAN), from the perspective of sudden awakening. The text explains sudden awakening as the "sudden" (dun) eradication of deluded thoughts and "awakening" (WU) to nonattainment or the fundamental absence of anything that needs to be achieved. Citing such scriptures as the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA and VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, the text also contends that the mind itself is the foundation of cultivation and practice. The primary method of cultivation discussed in the text is seated meditation (ZUOCHAN), which it describes as the nonarising of deluded thoughts and seeing one's own nature (JIANXING). The Dunwu rudao yaomen lun also contends that sudden awakening begins with the perfection of giving (DĀNAPĀRAMITĀ).

durangamā. (T. ring du song ba; C. yuanxing di; J. ongyoji; K. wonhaeng chi 遠行地). In Sanskrit, "gone afar," or "transcendent"; the seventh of the ten "stages" or "grounds" (BHuMI) of the bodhisattva path (MĀRGA). The name of this stage is interpreted to mean that the bodhisattva has here reached the culmination of moral discipline (sĪLA) and hereafter proceeds to focus more on meditation (SAMĀDHI) and wisdom (PRAJNĀ). This stage marks the bodhisattva's freedom from the four perverted views (VIPARYĀSA) and his mastery of the perfection of expedients (UPĀYAKAUsALYA), which he uses to help infinite numbers of sentient beings. Although at this stage the bodhisattva abides in signlessness (ĀNIMITTA), he does not negate the conventions that create signs, thereby upholding the conventional nature of phenomena. He remains at this stage until he is able to abide spontaneously and effortlessly in the signless state. According to CANDRAKĪRTI in his MADHYAMAKĀVĀTĀRA, at this stage the bodhisattva, in each and every moment, is able to enter into and withdraw from the equipoise of cessation (NIRODHASAMĀPATTI) in which all elaborations (PRAPANCA) cease. For Candrakīrti, at the conclusion of the seventh stage, the bodhisattva is liberated from rebirth, having destroyed all of the afflictive obstructions (KLEsĀVARAnA). The seventh stage is thus the last of the impure bhumis. The bodhisattva then proceeds to the three pure stages (the eighth, ninth, and tenth bhumis), over the course of which he abandons the obstructions to omniscience (JNEYĀVARAnA).

eccentricity: A parameter for a conic section - the constant ratio of the distance from the focus to the distance from the directrix for any points on the conic section. Usually denoted by e.

eccentricity ::: n. --> The state of being eccentric; deviation from the customary line of conduct; oddity.
The ratio of the distance between the center and the focus of an ellipse or hyperbola to its semi-transverse axis.
The ratio of the distance of the center of the orbit of a heavenly body from the center of the body round which it revolves to the semi-transverse axis of the orbit.
The distance of the center of figure of a body, as of


Economics ::: is a social science concerned with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. It studies how individuals, businesses, governments and nations make choices on allocating resources to satisfy their wants and needs, and tries to determine how these groups should organize and coordinate efforts to achieve maximum output. Economic analysis often progresses through deductive processes, much like mathematical logic, where the implications of specific human activities are considered in a "means-ends" framework. Economics can generally be broken down into macroeconomics, which concentrates on the behavior of the aggregate economy, and microeconomics, which focuses on individual consumers.

elaborative rehearsal: the active processing of items to improve memory, through a variety of methods, from focusing on sensory characteristics (visual appearance, sound) to an emphasis on the semantic content (meaning) of information.

electron tube "electronics" (Or tube, vacuum tube, UK: valve, electron valve, thermionic valve, firebottle, glassfet) An electronic component consisting of a space exhausted of gas to such an extent that {electrons} may move about freely, and two or more electrodes with external connections. Nearly all tubes are of the thermionic type where one electrode, called the cathode, is heated, and electrons are emitted from its surface with a small energy (typically a Volt or less). A second electrode, called the anode (plate) will attract the electrons when it is positive with respect to the cathode, allowing current in one direction but not the other. In types which are used for amplification of signals, additional electrodes, called grids, beam-forming electrodes, focussing electrodes and so on according to their purpose, are introduced between cathode and plate and modify the flow of electrons by electrostatic attraction or (usually) repulsion. A voltage change on a grid can control a substantially greater change in that between cathode and anode. Unlike {semiconductors}, except perhaps for {FETs}, the movement of electrons is simply a function of electrostatic field within the active region of the tube, and as a consequence of the very low mass of the electron, the currents can be changed quickly. Moreover, there is no limit to the current density in the space, and the electrodes which do dissapate power are usually metal and can be cooled with forced air, water, or other refrigerants. Today these features cause tubes to be the active device of choice when the signals to be amplified are a power levels of more than about 500 watts. The first electronic digital computers used hundreds of vacuum tubes as their active components which, given the reliability of these devices, meant the computers needed frequent repairs to keep them operating. The chief causes of unreliability are the heater used to heat the cathode and the connector into which the tube was plugged. Vacuum tube manufacturers in the US are nearly a thing of the past, with the exception of the special purpose types used in broadcast and image sensing and displays. Eimac, GE, RCA, and the like would probably refer to specific types such as "Beam Power Tetrode" and the like, and rarely use the generic terms. The {cathode ray tube} is a special purpose type based on these principles which is used for the visual display in television and computers. X-ray tubes are diodes (two element tubes) used at high voltage; a tungsten anode emits the energetic photons when the energetic electrons hit it. Magnetrons use magnetic fields to constrain the electrons; they provide very simple, high power, ultra-high frequency signals for radar, microwave ovens, and the like. Klystrons amplify signals at high power and microwave frequencies. (1996-02-05)

electron tube ::: (electronics) (Or tube, vacuum tube, UK: valve, electron valve, thermionic valve, firebottle, glassfet) An electronic component consisting of a when it is positive with respect to the cathode, allowing current in one direction but not the other.In types which are used for amplification of signals, additional electrodes, called grids, beam-forming electrodes, focussing electrodes and so on according change on a grid can control a substantially greater change in that between cathode and anode.Unlike semiconductors, except perhaps for FETs, the movement of electrons is simply a function of electrostatic field within the active region of the tube, tubes to be the active device of choice when the signals to be amplified are a power levels of more than about 500 watts.The first electronic digital computers used hundreds of vacuum tubes as their active components which, given the reliability of these devices, meant the unreliability are the heater used to heat the cathode and the connector into which the tube was plugged.Vacuum tube manufacturers in the US are nearly a thing of the past, with the exception of the special purpose types used in broadcast and image sensing and displays. Eimac, GE, RCA, and the like would probably refer to specific types such as Beam Power Tetrode and the like, and rarely use the generic terms.The cathode ray tube is a special purpose type based on these principles which is used for the visual display in television and computers. X-ray tubes are ultra-high frequency signals for radar, microwave ovens, and the like. Klystrons amplify signals at high power and microwave frequencies. (1996-02-05)

ellipse ::: n. --> An oval or oblong figure, bounded by a regular curve, which corresponds to an oblique projection of a circle, or an oblique section of a cone through its opposite sides. The greatest diameter of the ellipse is the major axis, and the least diameter is the minor axis. See Conic section, under Conic, and cf. Focus.
Omission. See Ellipsis.
The elliptical orbit of a planet.


emmetropia ::: n. --> That refractive condition of the eye in which the rays of light are all brought accurately and without undue effort to a focus upon the retina; -- opposed to hypermetropia, myopia, an astigmatism.

emotion-focused coping: aims to manage the negative effects of stress on the individual, through changing an emotional response.

epic: This is a type of classical poetry, generally recounting heroic achievements. It is a poem that is a long narrative about a serious subject, told in an elevated styleof language. Epics generally focus on the exploits of a hero or demi-god who represents the cultural values of a race, nation, or religious group. John Milton’sParadise lost is an example of a famous epic. See classic.

eurocentric: The term refers to an argument, course, text or any piece of writing that is focused exclusively upon European literature and culture.

European Computer-Industry Research Centre GmbH ::: (body) (ECRC) A joint research organisation founded in 1984 on the initiative of three major European manufacturers: Bull (France), ICL (UK) and competitive ability of the European Information Technology industry and thus complement the work of national and international bodies.The Centre is intended to be the breeding ground for those ideas, techniques and products which are essential for the future use of electronic information processing. The work of the Centre will focus on advanced information processing technology for the next generation of computers.ECRC is an independent company, owned equally by its shareholders. The formal interface between ECRC and its shareholders consists of two bodies: The supervises their execution and the Scientific Advisory Board, which advises the Shareholders' Council in determining future research directions.There are many collaborations between ECRC and its shareholders' companies on specific projects (Technology Transfer, prospective studies etc). The Centre is the member companies, and others seconded from public research agencies and universities.Seminars are held which bring together specialists from the Centre and the member companies.ECRC's mission is to pursue research in fundamental areas of computer science. The aim is to develop the theory, methodologies and tools needed to build to both fundamental research and the process of delivering the results to industry.ECRC plays an important role in Europe and is involved in several European Community initiatives. It is regularly consulted by the Commission of the research plans, international co-operation and relationships between academia and industry.Address: ECRC GmbH, Arabellastrasse 17, D-81925 Munich, Germany. .Telephone: +49 (89) 926 99 0. Fax: +49 (89) 926 99 170. (1994-12-01)

European Computer-Industry Research Centre GmbH "body" (ECRC) A joint research organisation founded in 1984 on the initiative of three major European manufacturers: {Bull} (France), {ICL} (UK) and {Siemens} (Germany). Its activities were intended to enhance the future competitive ability of the European {Information Technology} industry and thus complement the work of national and international bodies. The Centre is intended to be the breeding ground for those ideas, techniques and products which are essential for the future use of electronic information processing. The work of the Centre will focus on advanced information processing technology for the next generation of computers. ECRC is an independent company, owned equally by its shareholders. The formal interface between ECRC and its shareholders consists of two bodies: The Shareholders' Council, which approves the Centre's programmes and budgets and supervises their execution and the Scientific Advisory Board, which advises the Shareholders' Council in determining future research directions. There are many collaborations between ECRC and its shareholders' companies on specific projects (Technology Transfer, prospective studies etc). The Centre is staffed by highly qualified scientists drawn from different countries. Research staff are hired directly by ECRC, as well as some who come on assignment from the member companies, and others seconded from public research agencies and universities. Seminars are held which bring together specialists from the Centre and the member companies. ECRC's mission is to pursue research in fundamental areas of computer science. The aim is to develop the theory, methodologies and tools needed to build innovative computer applications. ECRC contributes actively to the international effort that is expanding the frontiers of knowledge in computer science. It plays an important role in bridging the gap between research and industry by striving to work at the highest academic level with a strong industrial focus. ECRC constitutes an opportunity in Europe for the best scientists and offers young researchers the possibility to mature in an environment which exposes them to both fundamental research and the process of delivering the results to industry. ECRC plays an important role in Europe and is involved in several European Community initiatives. It is regularly consulted by the Commission of the European Communities on strategic issues, such as the definition of future research plans, international co-operation and relationships between academia and industry. Address: ECRC GmbH, Arabellastrasse 17, D-81925 Munich, Germany. {(http://ecrc.de/)}. Telephone: +49 (89) 926 99 0. Fax: +49 (89) 926 99 170. (1994-12-01)

Evans-Wentz, Walter Y. (1878-1965). American Theosophist, best known as the editor of THE TIBETAN BOOK OF THE DEAD. Walter Wentz was born in Trenton, New Jersey, the son of a German immigrant and an American Quaker. As a boy he took an early interest in books on spiritualism he found in his father's library, reading as a teen both Isis Unveiled and The Secret Doctrine by Madame HELENA PETROVNA BLAVATSKY of the Theosophical Society. He moved to California at the turn of the century, where in 1901, he joined the American section of the Theosophical Society. After graduating from Stanford University, Wentz went to Jesus College at Oxford in 1907 to study Celtic folklore. He later traveled to Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and then on to India. In 1919, he arrived in the British hill station of Darjeeling, where he acquired a Tibetan manuscript. The manuscript was a portion of a cycle of treasure texts (GTER MA) discovered by RATNA GLING PA, entitled "The Profound Doctrine of Self-Liberation of the Mind [through Encountering] the Peaceful and Wrathful Deities" (Zab chos zhi khro dgongs pa rang grol), said to have been discovered in the fourteenth century. Since he could not read Tibetan, Evans-Wentz took the text to KAZI DAWA SAMDUP, the English teacher at a local school. Kazi Dawa Samdup provided Evans-Wentz with a translation of a portion of the text, which Evans-Wentz augmented with his own introduction and notes, publishing it in 1927 as The Tibetan Book of the Dead. Since its publication, various editions of the book have sold over 500,000 copies in English, making it the most famous Tibetan Buddhist text in the world. The text describes the process of death and rebirth, focusing on the intervening transition period called the BAR DO, or "intermediate state" (ANTARĀBHAVA). The text provides instructions on how to recognize reality in the intermediate state and thus gain liberation from rebirth. Through listening to the instructions in the text being read aloud, the departed consciousness is able to gain liberation; the Tibetan title of the text, BAR DO THOS GROL CHEN MO, means "Great Liberation in the Intermediate State through Hearing." Evans-Wentz's approach to the text reflects his lifelong commitment to Theosophy. Other translations that Kazi Dawa Samdup made for Evans-Wentz were included in Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines (1935). In 1924, after Kazi Dawa Samdup's death, Evans-Wentz visited his family in Kalimpong, from whom he received a manuscript translation of the MI LA RAS PA'I RNAM THAR, a biography of MI LA RAS PA, which Evans-Wentz subsequently edited and published as Tibet's Great Yogi Milarepa (1928). He returned to Darjeeling in 1935 and employed two Sikkimese monks to translate another work from the same cycle of texts as the Bar do thos grol, entitled "Self-Liberation through Naked Vision Recognizing Awareness" (Rig pa ngo sprod gcer mthong rang grol). During the same visit, he received a summary of a famous biography of PADMASAMBHAVA. These works formed the last work in his series, The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation, eventually published in 1954.

Experimental Physics Control Systems "body" (EPCS) A group of the European Physical Society, focussing on all aspects of controls, especially {informatics}, in experimental physics, including accelerators and experiments. (1994-12-12)

Experimental Physics Control Systems ::: (EPCS) A group of the European Physical Society, focussing on all aspects of controls, especially informatics, in experimental physics, including accelerators and experiments. (1994-12-12)

fajie yuanqi. (J. hokkai engi; K. popkye yon'gi 法界起). In Chinese, "conditioned origination (PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA) of the dharma-element (DHARMADHĀTU)," an East Asian theory of causality elaborated within the HUAYAN school. Unlike the Indian systematization of the twelvefold chain of pratītyasamutpāda, which views existence as an endless cycle of painful rebirths that begins with ignorance (AVIDYĀ) and ends with old age and death (jarāmarana; see JARĀ), this Huayan vision of causality instead regards the infinitely interdependent universe as the manifestation of the truth to which the Buddha awakens. The term "fajie yuanqi" does not appear in the Huayan jing (AVATAMSAKASuTRA) itself and seems to have been first coined by ZHIYAN (602-668), the "second patriarch" of the Huayan lineage. Zhiyan used fajie yuanqi to refer to the concurrency between cause (C. yin; S. HETU) and fruition (C. guo; S. PHALA), here meaning the "causal" practices (hsing) that are conducive to enlightenment and their "fruition" in the realization (zheng) of the quiescence that is NIRVĀnA. As this Huayan theory of pratītyasamutpāda is elaborated within the tradition, it is broadened to focus on the way in which every single phenomenal instantiation of existence both contains, and is contained by, all other instantiations, so that one existence is subsumed by all existences (yi ji yiqie) and all existences by one existence (yiqie ji yi); in this vision, all things in the universe are thus mutually creative and mutually defining, precisely because they all lack any independent self-identity (SVABHĀVA). Each phenomenon constitutes a part of an organic whole that is defined by the harmonious relationship between each and every member: just as the whole is defined by all of its independent constituents, each independent constituent is defined by the whole with which it is integrated. This relationship is called endless multiplication (chongchong wujin), because the process of mutual penetration and mutual determination (xiangru xiangji) is infinite. Due to this unlimited interdependence among all phenomena, this type of pratītyasamutpāda may also be termed "inexhaustible conditioned origination" (wujin yuanqi). This interdependence between one phenomenon and all other phenomena developed through fajie yuanqi is indicative also of the Huayan "dharmadhātu of the unimpeded interpenetration of phenomenon with phenomena" (SHISHI WU'AI FAJIE). The Huayan doctrines of the "ten profound mysteries" (SHI XUANMEN) and the "consummate interfusion of the six aspects" (LIUXIANG YUANRONG) also offer systematic elaborations of the doctrine of fajie yuanqi.

fangsheng. (T. srog blu/tshe thar; J. hojo; K. pangsaeng 放生). In Chinese, "releasing living creatures," referring to the practice of buying captured animals, such as fish, turtles, or birds, and then setting them free; the focus of a ritual popular in East Asian Buddhism, the "ceremony of releasing living creatures" (FANGSHENG HUI). The Buddhist tradition asserts that merit (PUnYA) is produced by both actively pursuing wholesome actions (KUsALA-KARMAPATHA) as well as refraining from unwholesome actions (AKUsALA-KARMAPATHA); fangsheng is regarded as an enhancement of both types of action, by furthering the first lay precept (sĪLA) that forbids the unsalutary action of killing, as well as the MAHĀYĀNA precept that encourages the salutary act of vegetarianism. ¶ The two representative scriptures on fangsheng are the FANWANG JING ("Book of Brahmā's Net") and the SUVARnAPRABHĀSOTTAMASuTRA (C. Jinguangming jing; "Sutra of Golden Light"), the former providing the doctrinal basis for the practice of fangsheng, the latter a protypical example of a fangsheng hui. The Fanwang jing says that because all sentient beings in the six destinies (sAdGATI; see also GATI) have at some time or other during the vastness of SAMSĀRA been one's parents, a person should always strive to rescue creatures from people who would kill them in order to save them from their torment. The Suvarnaprabhāsottamasutra tells a story about Jalavāhana (sĀKYAMUNI Buddha in an earlier life), who saved ten thousand fish who were dying in a dried up pond by bringing water to refill it. He then recited for them the ten epithets of the buddha Ratnasikhin/Ratnabhava, since he had been told that any creatures who heard that Buddha's name at the time of their deaths would be reborn in the heavens. The fish were reborn as divinities in the TRĀYASTRIMsA heaven, who then rained jewels down on the earth.¶ In China, the Buddhist custom of vegetarianism had started to pervade the culture by the Qi (479-501) and Liang (502-556) dynasties, a custom that encouraged the freeing of animals. In 619, an imperial decree prohibited fishing, hunting, and the slaughter of animals during the first, fifth, and ninth months of the year. A decree of 759 established eighty-one ponds for the release and protection of fish. Fangsheng appears to have been practiced not only by individual laypeople and monks. There is a record of the Liang dynasty monk Huiji (456-515) who practiced mendicancy so he could buy and release captured animals. TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597), the founder of the TIANTAI ZONG, is known to have performed a formal ceremony for releasing animals in 575. Zhiyi lamented the fact that local folk made their living by catching fish, so he built a "pond where creatures could be released" (fangsheng chi) and preached to the freed fish the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA and the Suvarnaprabhāsottamasutra. Zhiyi thus established the Suvarnaprabhāsottamasutra as the scriptural authority for fangsheng. Following Zhiyi, the fangsheng ceremony subsequently became one of the important rituals used within the Tiantai school. Ciyun Zunshi (964-1032) and SIMING ZHILI (960-1028), both Tiantai monks during the Song dynasty, were ardent advocates of fangsheng, who established ponds for releasing creatures and performed the ceremony of releasing creatures, especially in conjunction with celebrations of the Buddha's birthday. In the CHAN school, YONGMING YANSHOU (904-975) and YUNQI ZHUHONG (1535-1615) were among the most enthusiastic proponents of fangsheng. Zhuhong wrote works regarding the practice of vegetarianism, including the Shirou ("On Meat-Eating") and the Shasheng feirensuowei ("Killing Is Not What Humans Are Supposed To Do"), and also composed tracts on the ritual practice of fangsheng, such as the Fangsheng yi ("Rite for Releasing Living Creatures") and the Jiesha fangsheng wen ("Text on Prohibiting Killing and Releasing Living Creatures"). His Fangsheng yi is still considered today one of the standard sources for the Fangsheng ritual. Eventually, almost every large monastery in China had a pool for releasing fish and pens for the care of livestock that had been rescued from the butcher. Because these animals had been given Buddhist precepts, they were encouraged to observe them, with males and females segregated and carnivorous fish kept separately. Birds, turtles, and fish were more popular for release than domesticated animals because they required no further assistance. The pious who delivered cows and pigs to the monastery, however, were required to contribute toward their sustenance. ¶ The practice was popular in other Buddhist countries. In medieval Japan the imperial government would order the capture of three times the number of fish needed to be released at a ceremony in order that the requisite number-often from one to three thousand-would still be alive by the time the ceremony took place. In such cases, the practice of releasing animals resulted in the unfortunate death of many before they could be liberated. Among Tibetan Buddhists, the killing of animals is normatively deplored, and protecting the life of even the tiniest insect (srog skyob) is a common practice; in the LHA SA region, a small Muslim community traditionally performed the task of killing and butchering animals; farmers and nomads butcher some of their animals each year. Vegetarianism (sha med) is admired, but not widespread in Tibet, except during the first two weeks of the fourth Tibetan month SA GA ZLA BA when, it is believed, the results of wholesome actions increase one hundred thousand times. Buying an animal destined for slaughter to protect one's own life, or more commonly to protect the life of an important religious figure, is also common; that practice is known as tshe thar, lit., "liberating life" in Tibetan.

Fazun. (法尊) (T. Blo bzang chos 'phags) (1902-1980). Twentieth-century Chinese translator of Buddhist scriptures and scholar of Tibetan religious and political history. In 1920, Fazun was ordained as a novice on WUTAISHAN. He became acquainted with Dayong (1893-1929), a student of TAIXU's who introduced him to the techniques of Buddhist TANTRA, at the time a popular strand of Buddhism in China in its Japanese (MIKKYo) and Tibetan forms. Fully ordained in Beijing in 1922, Fazun trained under Taixu's patronage in the tenets of the PURE LAND and TIANTAI schools at the Wuchang Institute for Buddhist Studies. During the same years, Taixu urged Dayong to train in Japanese mikkyo on KoYASAN. Taixu's aim was to verify and rectify the opinions about Buddhist tantra that circulated in China, where this form of Indian Buddhism had flourished at the Tang court. Upon his return, Dayong conferred on Fazun several ABHIsEKAs of the lower tantric cycles that he had brought from Japan. He also instructed Fazun in the Mizong gangyao ("Essentials of Tantra"), a primer for students of Buddhist tantra by the Japanese SHINGONSHu scholar Gonda Raifu (1846-1934) that Wang Hongyuan (1876-1937), a Chinese student of Gonda's, had translated in 1918. After an introduction to the Tibetan tantric traditions by Bai Puren (1870-1927), a Mongolian lama stationed at Beijing's Yonghe Gong, Dayong became gradually dissatisfied with Japanese mikkyo. With Taixu's endorsement, he resolved to study Buddhist tantra in its Tibetan form. In 1924, Fazun joined Dayong's Group for Learning the Dharma in Tibet (Liu Zang Xuefa Tuan), a team of some thirty Chinese monks who were studying the basics of the Tibetan language in Beijing. From 1925 to 1929, Fazun carried on his language learning in eastern Tibet and began his training in the classics of the DGE LUGS monastic curriculum, which in the ensuing years would become his main focus of translation. After Dayong's passing in 1929, Fazun followed his Tibetan teacher, DGE BSHES A mdo, to central Tibet. He stayed at 'BRAS SPUNGS monastery from 1930 to 1933. In 1934, Taixu asked Fazun to take on the position of director at the newly established Sino-Tibetan Institute (Hanzang Jiaoli Yuan) near Chongqing. The thirteenth DALAI LAMA also encouraged Fazun to spread TSONG KHA PA's synthesis of the Buddhist teachings in China. Hence from 1935, under the Japanese occupation and during the Chinese civil war, Fazun served as an educator of young monks in Tibetan Buddhism and as a translator of Tibetan scriptures at the Sino-Tibetan Institute. These years of prolific translation work established Fazun as the foremost translator of Buddhism from Tibetan sources in the history of Chinese Buddhism. Among his translations are Tsong kha pa's LAM RIM CHEN MO (Putidao cidi guanglun), LEGS BSHAD SNYING PO (Bian liaoyi buliaoyi lun), SNGAGS RIM CHEN MO (Mizong daocidi lun); MAITREYA's ABHISAMAYĀLAMKĀRA (Xianguan zhuangyan lun); CANDRAKĪRTI's MADHYAMAKĀVATĀRA (Ru zhonglun); and ĀRYADEVA's CATUḤsATAKA (Sibailun song). Fazun also translated into Tibetan the ABHIDHARMAMAHĀVIBLĀsA, extant in the two hundred rolls of XUANZANG's Chinese rendering (Da piposha lun), by the title Bye brag bshad mdzod chen mo. In 1950, after the Communist authorities discontinued the activities of the Institute, Fazun moved to Beijing. The Committee for Minority Affairs appointed him as a translator of communist propaganda materials, including Chairman Mao's Xin minzhu zhuyi("New Democracy") and Lun renmin minzhu zhuanzheng ("On the People's Democratic Dictatorship"), for the education of the new generation of cadres in occupied Tibet. In 1966, as the Cultural Revolution set in, he was charged with expressing anti-Communist sentiments during the 1930s. He was confined in a labor camp until his release in 1972. During the 1970s Fazun resumed his translation activity from Tibetan with DHARMAKĪRTI's PRALĀnAVĀRTTIKA (Shiliang lun), DIGNĀGA's PRALĀnASAMUCCAYA (Jiliang lun), and ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNĀNA's BODHIPATHAPRADĪPA (Putidao deng lun). Fazun suffered a fatal heart attack in 1980. Because of his unsurpassed knowledge of Tibetan language, religion, and history, and his writing style inspired by KUMĀRAJĪVA's and Xuanzang's Buddhist Chinese, Fazun is often referred to as "the Xuanzang of modern times."

Feet ::: [Tehmi: “In India it is considered that the whole power of the being is focused in the feet. So the feet are touched not only in humility but because all the power of the divinity is concentrated there. When someone touches the feet with the right attitude and devotion a certain power is drawn by the one who touches. So it is a grace by the person who is touched to allow it. Only if one is rooted in the Divine he can allow his feet to be touched.”]

Fetish: Capitalized, an object imbued with a ritual significance and/ or spirit-based powers; in sexual terms, a practice or situation of intense fixation and potentially magickal focus.

Field of consciousness: The sum total of items embraced within an individual’s consciousness at any given moment. The total field consists of: (a) the focus, where the concentration of attention is maximal, and (b) a margin, periphery or fringe of a diminishing degree of attention which gradually fades to zero.

Financial_analysis ::: is the process of evaluating businesses, projects, budgets and other finance-related entities to determine their performance and suitability. Typically, financial analysis is used to analyze whether an entity is stable, solvent, liquid or profitable enough to warrant a monetary investment. When looking at a specific company, a financial analyst conducts analysis by focusing on the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement.

Financial_porn ::: is a slang term used to describe sensationalist reports of financial news and products causing irrational buying that can be detrimental to investors' financial health. Short-term focus by the media on a financial topic can create excitement that does little to help investors make smart, long-term financial decisions, and in many cases clouds investors' decision-making ability. Expanded media coverage, specifically the advent of 24-hour cable news networks and the internet and the tools it has provided the financial industry, has led to a large increase in financial porn.  Examples of financial porn include constant advertisements of easy-to-use trading-strategy products that purport to turn minimal investments into small fortunes, media coverage of the latest and greatest sector trends and magazines with front pages that claim to have the next 10-must-own mutual funds of next year. Many of these products and ideas expose investors to great risks posed by both the movement of the market and the risk of fraud.

focal ::: a. --> Belonging to,or concerning, a focus; as, a focal point.

focal chord: A chord that contains the focus of a conic section.

focalization ::: n. --> The act of focalizing or bringing to a focus, or the state of being focalized.

focalize ::: v. t. --> To bring to a focus; to focus; to concentrate.

focal radius: Refers to the line segment between any point on a conic section and its focus. It can also refer to the length of such a line segment.

focimeter ::: n. --> An assisting instrument for focusing an object in or before a camera.

foci ::: pl. --> of Focus

focus: A point which, together with a line called the directrix, defines the set of points which form a conic section.

FOCUS "database, language" A hierarchical {database} language from {Information Builders, Inc.} (1994-12-21)

FOCUS ::: (database, language) A hierarchical database language from Information Builders, Inc. (1994-12-21)

focused ::: imp. & p. p. --> of Focus

focuses ::: pl. --> of Focus

focus group "product" An event where market researchers meet (potential) users of a product to try to plan how to improve it. (1999-02-24)

focus group ::: (product) An event where market researchers meet (potential) users of a product to try to plan how to improve it. (1999-02-24)

focusing ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Focus

focus ::: n. --> A point in which the rays of light meet, after being reflected or refrcted, and at which the image is formed; as, the focus of a lens or mirror.
A point so related to a conic section and certain straight line called the directrix that the ratio of the distace between any point of the curve and the focus to the distance of the same point from the directrix is constant.
A central point; a point of concentration.


focus: The combination of belief, practice, and instruments through which a mage focuses her magick. (See paradigm.) (Like countermagick, this is more of a game term than a setting term.)

fourth generation language "language" (4GL, or "report generator language") An "application specific" language, one with built-in knowledge of an {application domain}, in the way that {SQL} has built-in knowledge of the {relational} database domain. The term was invented by Jim Martin to refer to {non-procedural} {high level languages} built around {database} systems. Fourth generation languages are close to {natural language} and were built with the concept that certain applications could be generalised by adding limited programming ability to them. When given a description of the data format and the report to generate, a 4GL system produces {COBOL} (or other 3GL) code, that actually reads and processes the data and formats the results. Some examples of 4GL are: {database query language} e.g.{SQL}; {Focus}, {Metafont}, {PostScript}, {S}, {IDL-PV}, {WAVE}, {Gauss}, {Mathematica}, and {data-stream languages} such as {AVS}, {APE}, {Iris Explorer}. (2004-04-01)

fourth generation language ::: (language) (4GL, or report generator language) An application specific language, one with built-in knowledge of an application domain, in the way that SQL has built-in knowledge of the relational database domain.The term was invented by Jim Martin to refer to non-procedural high level languages built around database systems.Fourth generation languages are close to natural language and were built with the concept that certain applications could be generalised by adding limited programming ability to them.When given a description of the data format and the report to generate, a 4GL system produces COBOL (or other 3GL) code, that actually reads and processes the data and formats the results.Some examples of 4GL are: database query language e.g.SQL; Focus, Metafont, PostScript, S, IDL-PV, WAVE, Gauss, Mathematica, and data-stream languages such as AVS, APE, Iris Explorer.(2004-04-01)

fovea: a small area on the retina, that contains closely packed cones, onto which light from an object is focused upon.

Freud (1856-1939): the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, emphasised the importance of the unconscious mind, childhood experiences and repressed urges. His theory of psychosexual development outlines five stages; oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital, according to the different objects fixated upon at each specific stage. Freud also focused on the structure and development of personality; comprised of three parts - the id, ego and superego. Conflicts between the id and superego are dealt with by the ego that utilizes ?a target="_parent" href="https://www.itseducation.asia/psychology/d.htm

Freudian slip: a slip-up, either in speech, writing or in memory lapses that reflects the hidden worries or focus of the unconscious mind.

fulcrum ::: A developmental milestone within the self-identity stream, or the proximate-self line of development. Fulcrums follow a general 1-2-3 process: fusion or identification with one’s current level of self-development; differentiation or disidentification from that level; and integration of the new level with the previous level. AQAL theory, and Integral Psychology in specific, focus on anywhere from nine to ten developmental fulcrums.

gāmavāsi. In Pāli, "town dweller"; in the THERAVĀDA tradition, a monk who lives in a village or town monastery and whose monastic vocation focuses on doctrinal study and teaching, or lit."book work" (P. GANTHADHURA); such a monk is often contrasted with a "forest dweller" (P. ARANNAVĀSI), who is principally dedicated to meditative training (P. VIPASSANĀDHURA). In Sri Lankan Buddhism, the emphases within the Buddhist order on study and meditation led to the evolution over time of these two major practice vocations. The gāmavāsi were involved in studying and teaching the dhamma, especially within the lay community of the village, and thus helped to disseminate Buddhism among the people and maintain the institutions and history of the order. Because of their active engagement in society, the gāmavāsi have thus historically enjoyed closer relations with the social elite. The araNNavāsi, by contrast, remained in solitude in the forest to focus principally on their meditative practice. The araNNavāsi were not necessarily hermits, but they lived a more secluded life than the gāmavāsi, devoting most of their time to meditation, either individually or in smaller groups, and keeping their contact with the laity to a minimum. These two vocations have a long history and have continued within the sangha (S. SAMGHA) into modern times. In a sense, the Buddha himself was an araNNavāsi for six years before he attained enlightenment; subsequently, he then passed much of his time as a gāmavāsi, teaching people the dharma and encouraging them to practice to bring an end to their suffering. See also PARIYATTI; PAtIPATTI.

Gaze ::: Literally how one uses their eyes or attention to focus on an area. Different types of gazes be used for distinct purposes. For example, some gazes can be used to more easily peer into the Astral Plane and others can be used to more easily suppress the will of another.

Gestalt Therapy ::: Treatment focusing on the awareness and understanding of one&

gong'an. (J. koan; K. kongan 公案). In Chinese, "public case," or "precedent"; better known in the West by its Japanese pronunciation koan, a word that has now entered common English parlance as "koan." Gong'an was originally a legal term, referring to the magistrate's (gong) table (an), which by metonymy comes to refer to a legal precedent or an authoritative judgment; the term also comes to mean simply a "story" (gong'an in vernacular Chinese refers to the genre of detective stories). The term is widely used in the CHAN school in a way that conveys both denotations of a legal precedent and a story. The study of gong'an seems to have had its beginnings in the practice, probably dating from the late-Tang dynasty, of commenting on the exchanges or "ancient precedents" (guce) culled from Chan genealogical histories (e.g., JINGDE CHUANDENG LU) and the recorded sayings or discourse records (YULU) of the Chan masters of the past. Commenting on old cases (niangu), often using verses (SONGGU), seems to have become a well-established practice by the early Song dynasty, as more recorded sayings began to include separate sections known as nianggu and songgu. Perhaps one of the most famous collections of verse commentaries on old cases is the Chan master XUEDOU CHONGXIAN's Xuedou heshang baice songgu, which now exists only as part of a larger influential collection of gong'ans known as the BIYAN LU. Other famous gong'an collections, such as the CONGRONG LU and WUMEN GUAN, were compiled during the Song dynasty and thereafter. These collections often shared a similar format. Each case (bence), with some exceptions, begins with a pointer (CHUISHI), a short introductory paragraph. The actual case, often a short anecdote, is interspersed with interlinear notes known as "annotations" or "capping phrases" (C. zhuoyu/zhuyu; see J. JAKUGO). After the case, a prose commentary (pingchang), verse commentary (songgu), and subcommentary on the verse commentary follow. Traditionally, 1,700 specific gong'an are said to have been in circulation in the Chan school. Although this number does have antecedents within the tradition, there are no fixed numbers of cases included in Chan gong'an anthologies; for example, a late Qing-dynasty collection, the 1712 Zongjian falin, includes 2,720 gong'an, which were claimed to be all the gong'an then in active use within the tradition. Whatever the number, there seems not to have been any kind of systematic curriculum within the Chinese Chan or Korean Son traditions using this full panoply of gong'an. The creation of a pedagogical system of training involving mastery of a series of many different koans is commonly attributed to HAKUIN EKAKU (1685-1768) in the Japanese RINZAISHu of ZEN. The widespread reference to 1,700 gong'an in Western-language materials may derive from accounts of Japanese government attempts in 1627 to routinize the Rinzai monastic curriculum, by promulgating a regulation requiring all Zen abbots to master 1,700 cases as part of their training. ¶ The literary endeavor of studying old cases also gave rise to new forms of meditation. The Chan master DAHUI ZONGGAO in the YANGQI PAI of the LINJI ZONG systematized a practice in which one focuses on what he termed the "meditative topic" (HUATOU), which in some contexts refers to the "keyword," or "critical phrase" of a gong'an story. For instance, the famous huatou "WU" (no) that Dahui used as a meditative topic was derived from a popular gong'an attributed to ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN: A student asked Zhaozhou, "Does a dog have buddha nature, or not?," to which Zhaozhou replied "wu" (no; lit., "it does not have it") (see WU GONG'AN; GOUZI WU FOXING). This new practice was called the "Chan of observing the meditative topic" or, more freely, "questioning meditation" (KANHUA CHAN). During the Song dynasty, students also began to seek private instruction on gong'an from Chan masters. These instructions often occurred in the abbot's quarters (FANGZHANG). ¶ The active study of gong'an in Korean SoN begins with POJO CHINUL and his disciple CHIN'GAK HYESIM, who learned of Dahui's kanhua Chan largely through the writings of their Chinese counterpart. Hyesim was also the first Korean Son monk to compile his own massive collection of cases, titled the SoNMUN YoMSONG CHIP. The use of cases was later transmitted to Japan by pilgrims and émigré monks, where koan study became emblematic of the Rinzaishu. Because rote memorization of capping phrases came to take precedence over skilled literary composition in classical Chinese, the Japanese compiled large collections of capping phrases, such as the ZENRIN KUSHu, to use in their training.

gsang ba'i rnam thar. (sang we nam tar). In Tibetan, "secret autobiography," one of the three types of RNAM THAR (sacred biography or autobiography), focusing on a subject's religious experiences, visions, and past-life experiences, with the author often writing from the perspective of an omniscient subject. They are called secret not because they are hidden away from general readership, but because of the esoteric tantric practices that form part of the subject matter. A well-known example of secret autobiography is 'JIGS MED GLING PA's Gsang ba chen po nyams snang gi rtogs brjod chu zla'i gar mkhan (translated as "Dancing Moon"), at least one purpose of which was demonstrating the authenticity of the KLONG CHEN SNYING THIG, a GTER MA (treasure text) that he revealed.

Guang hongming ji. (J. Kogumyoshu; K. Kwang hongmyong chip 廣弘明集). In Chinese, "Expanded Collection on the Propagation and Clarification [of Buddhism]," a collection of materials pertaining to the propagation and protection of Buddhism in China, compiled by DAOXUAN in 644 CE. As the title indicates, the Guang hongming ji is an updated version of the HONGMING JI compiled by SENGYOU. Daoxuan's text, however, differs from Sengyou's in several respects. Unlike the Hongming ji, which focused on treatises written by the SAMGHA, Daoxuan's text also cites non-Buddhist texts written by Daoists, monks' petitions to the court, court documents, imperial decrees, poetry, and songs. While the Hongming ji was primarily concerned with the Buddhists' attempts to protect their tradition from the attack of the Confucian elite who dominated the courts of the Five Dynasties, the Guang hongming ji had less to do with the Confucians than the Daoist priests of the Tang dynasty. Among the various sources cited in the Guang hongming ji are the Daoist renegade Zhen Luan's Xiaodao lun ("Laughing at the Dao Treatise") and DAO'AN's Erjiao lun ("Two Teachings Treatise"). The Guang hongming ji serves as an important source not only for understanding the different ways in which Chinese Buddhists sought to defend their "foreign" religion, but also for information on the relationship between Buddhism and Daoism in medieval China.

Guan Wuliangshou jing. (S. *Amitāyurdhyānasutra; J. Kan Muryojukyo; K. Kwan Muryangsu kyong 觀無量壽經). In Chinese, "Sutra on the Visualization of [the Buddha of] Immeasurable Life"; often called simply the Guan jing, or "Visualization Scripture." Along with the AMITĀBHASuTRA and SUKHĀVATĪVYuHASuTRA, the Guan Wuliangshou jing has been considered one of the three central scriptures of the PURE LAND tradition(s) (JINGTU SANBU JING). The Guan jing was extremely influential in East Asian Buddhism for advocating specific types of visualizations or contemplations (guan) on the person of the buddha AMITĀBHA (C. Wuliangshou; S. Amitāyu), and for encouraging oral recitation of Amitābha's name (chengming; see NIANFO). Early commentaries on the scripture were written by SHANDAO (613-681), an important Chinese exponent of pure land practice, as well as by TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597), and JINGYING HUIYUAN (523-592), all attesting to the text's centrality to the East Asian Buddhist tradition. Although the Guan Wuliangshou jing purports to be a translation by the monk KĀLAYAsAS (fl. c. 383-442), no Sanskrit or Tibetan recension is known to have ever existed; Uighur versions of the Guan Wuliangshou jing are extant, but they are translations of the Chinese version. The scripture also contains specific Chinese influences, such as references to earlier Chinese translations of pure land materials and other contemplation sutras (guan jing), which has suggested to some scholars that the text might be a Chinese indigenous composition (see APOCRYPHA). It is now generally accepted that the scripture outlines a visualization exercise that was practiced in Central Asia, perhaps specifically in the TURFAN region, but includes substantial Chinese admixtures. ¶ The Guan Wuliangshou jing tells the story of prince AJĀTAsATRU who, at the urging of DEVADATTA, imprisons his father, king BIMBISĀRA, and usurps the throne. After Ajātasatru learns that his mother, queen VAIDEHĪ, has been surreptitiously keeping her husband alive by sneaking food in to him, he puts her under house arrest as well. The distraught queen prays to the Buddha for release from her suffering and he immediately appears in her chambers. Vaidehī asks him to show her a land free from sorrow and he displays to her the numerous buddha fields (BUDDHAKsETRA) throughout the ten directions (DAsADIs) of the universe. Queen Vaidehī, however, chooses to be reborn in the buddha AMITĀBHA's pure land of SUKHĀVATĪ, so the Buddha instructs her in sixteen visualizations that ensure the meditator will take rebirth there, including visualizations on the setting sun, the lotus throne of Amitābha, Amitābha himself, as well as the bodhisattvas AVALOKITEsVARA and MAHĀSTHĀMAPRĀPTA. The visualizations largely focus on the details of sukhāvatī's beauty, such as its beryl ground, jeweled trees, and pure water. In the last three visualizations, the Buddha expounds the nine grades of rebirth (JIUPIN) in that land, which became a favorite topic among exegetes in China, Korea, and Japan. The Guan Wuliangshou jing has also exerted much influence in the realm of art. A number of exquisite mural representations of sukhāvatī and the sixteen contemplations adorn the walls of the DUNHUANG cave complex, for example.

Guanyin. (J. Kannon; K. Kwanŭm 觀音). In Chinese, "Perceiver of Sounds," an abbreviation of the longer name Guanshiyin (J. Kanzeon; K. Kwanseŭm; Perceiver of the World's Sounds); the most famous and influential BODHISATTVA in all of East Asia, who is commonly known in Western popular literature as "The Goddess of Mercy." Guanyin (alt. Guanshiyin) is the Chinese translation of AVALOKITEsVARA, the bodhisattva of compassion; this rendering, popularized by the renowned Kuchean translator KUMĀRAJĪVA in his 405-406 CE translation of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), derives from an earlier form of this bodhisattva's name, Avalokitasvara, which is attested in some Sanskrit manuscripts of this scripture; Kumārajīva interprets this name as "gazing" (avalokita; C. guan) on the "sounds" (svara; C. yin) [of this wailing "world" (C. shi) of suffering]. Avalokitasvara was supplanted during the seventh century CE by the standard Sanskrit form Avalokitesvara, the "gazing" (avalokita) "lord" (īsvara); this later form is followed in XUANZANG's Chinese rendering Guanzizai (J. Kanjizai; K. Kwanjajae), as found in his 649 CE translation of the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀHṚDAYASuTRA ("Heart Sutra"). The primary textual source for Guanyin worship is the twenty-fifth chapter of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra; that chapter is devoted to the bodhisattva and circulated widely as an independent text in East Asia. The chapter guarantees that if anyone in danger calls out Guanshiyin's name with completely sincerity, the bodhisattva will "perceive the sound" of his call and rescue him from harm. Unlike in India and Tibet, Avalokitesvara took on female form in East Asia around the tenth century. In traditional China, indigenous forms of Guanyin, such as BAIYI GUANYIN (White-Robed Guanyin), Yulan Guanyin (Guanyin with Fish Basket), SHUIYUE GUANYIN (Moon in Water Guanyin), Songzi Guanyin (Child-Granting Guanyin), MALANG FU, as well as Princess MIAOSHAN, became popular subjects of worship. Guanyin was worshipped in China by both monastics and laity, but her functions differed according to her manifestation. Guanyin thus served as a protectress against personal misfortune, a symbol of Buddhist ideals and restraint, or a granter of children. Various religious groups and lay communities also took one of her various forms as their patroness, and in this role, Guanyin was seen as a symbol of personal salvation. Beginning in the tenth century, these different manifestations of Guanyin proliferated throughout China through indigenous sutras (see APOCRYPHA), secular narratives, miracle tales, monastic foundation legends, and images. In later dynasties, and up through the twentieth century, Guanyin worship inspired both male and female religious groups. For example, White Lotus groups (see BAILIAN SHE; BAILIAN JIAO) during the Song dynasty included members from both genders, who were active in erecting STuPAs and founding cloisters that promoted Guanyin worship. In the twentieth century, certain women's groups were formed that took Princess Miaoshan's refusal to marry as inspiration to reject the institution of marriage themselves and, under the auspices of a Buddhist patron, pursue other secular activities as single women. ¶ In Japan, Kannon was originally introduced during the eighth century and took on additional significance as a female deity. For example, Kannon was often invoked by both pilgrims and merchants embarking on long sea voyages or overland travel. Invoking Kannon's name was thought to protect travelers from seven different calamities, such as fire, flood, storms, demons, attackers, lust and material desires, and weapons. Moreover, Kannon worship in Japan transcended sectarian loyalties, and there were numerous miracle tales concerning Kannon that circulated throughout the Japanese isles. ¶ In Korea, Kwanŭm is by far the most popular bodhisattva and is also known there as a deity who offers succor and assistance in difficult situations. The cult of Kwanŭm flourished initially under the patronage of the aristocracy in both the Paekche and Silla kingdoms, and historical records tell of supplications made to Kwanŭm for the birth of children or to protect relatives who were prisoners of war or who had been lost at sea. Hence, while the cult of AMITĀBHA was principally focused on spiritual liberation in the next life, Kwanŭm instead was worshipped for protection in this life. Still today, Kwanŭm is an object of popular worship and a focus of ritual chanting in Korean Buddhist monasteries by both monks and, especially, laywomen (and usually chanted in the form Kwanseŭm).

hack mode "jargon" Engaged in {hack}ing. A Zen-like state of total focus on The Problem that may be achieved when one is hacking (this is why every good hacker is part mystic). Ability to enter such concentration at will correlates strongly with wizardliness; it is one of the most important skills learned during {larval stage}. Sometimes amplified as "deep hack mode". Being yanked out of hack mode (see {priority interrupt}) may be experienced as a physical shock, and the sensation of being in hack mode is more than a little habituating. The intensity of this experience is probably by itself sufficient explanation for the existence of hackers, and explains why many resist being promoted out of positions where they can code. See also {cyberspace}. Some aspects of hackish etiquette will appear quite odd to an observer unaware of the high value placed on hack mode. For example, if someone appears at your door, it is perfectly okay to hold up a hand (without turning one's eyes away from the screen) to avoid being interrupted. One may read, type, and interact with the computer for quite some time before further acknowledging the other's presence (of course, he or she is reciprocally free to leave without a word). The understanding is that you might be in {hack mode} with a lot of delicate state in your head, and you dare not {swap} that context out until you have reached a good point to pause. See also {juggling eggs}. [{Jargon File}] (1996-07-31)

hack mode ::: (jargon) Engaged in hacking. A Zen-like state of total focus on The Problem that may be achieved when one is hacking (this is why every good hacker with wizardliness; it is one of the most important skills learned during larval stage. Sometimes amplified as deep hack mode.Being yanked out of hack mode (see priority interrupt) may be experienced as a physical shock, and the sensation of being in hack mode is more than a little explanation for the existence of hackers, and explains why many resist being promoted out of positions where they can code. See also cyberspace.Some aspects of hackish etiquette will appear quite odd to an observer unaware of the high value placed on hack mode. For example, if someone appears at your in your head, and you dare not swap that context out until you have reached a good point to pause. See also juggling eggs.[Jargon File] (1996-07-31)

Hakuin Ekaku. (白隱慧鶴) (1685-1768). Japanese ZEN master renowned for revitalizing the RINZAISHu. Hakuin was a native of Hara in Shizuoka Prefecture. In 1699, Hakuin was ordained and received the name Ekaku (Wise Crane) from the monk Tanrei Soden (d. 1701) at the nearby temple of Shoinji. Shortly thereafter, Hakuin was sent by Tanrei to the temple of Daishoji in Numazu to serve the abbot Sokudo Fueki (d. 1712). Hakuin is then said to have lost faith in his Buddhist training and devoted much of his time instead to art. In 1704, Hakuin visited the monk Bao Sochiku (1629-1711) at the temple Zuiunji in Mino province. While studying under Bao, Hakuin is said to have read the CHANGUAN CEJIN by YUNQI ZHUHONG, which inspired him to further meditative training. In 1708, Hakuin is said to have had his first awakening experience upon hearing the ringing of a distant bell. That same year, Hakuin met Doju Sokaku (1679-1730), who urged him to visit the Zen master Dokyo Etan (1642-1721), or Shoju Ronin, at the hermitage of Shojuan in Iiyama. During one of his begging rounds, Hakuin is said to have had another important awakening after an old woman struck him with a broom. Shortly after his departure from Shojuan, Hakuin suffered from an illness, which he cured with the help of a legendary hermit named Hakuyu. Hakuin's famous story of his encounter with Hakuyu was recounted in his YASENKANNA, Orategama, and Itsumadegusa. In 1716, Hakuin returned to Shoinji and devoted much of his time to restoring the monastery, teaching students, and lecturing. Hakuin delivered famous lectures on such texts as the VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA, VAJRACCHEDIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, BIYAN LU, BAOJING SANMEI, DAHUI PUJUE CHANSHI SHU, and YUANREN LUN, and the recorded sayings (YULU) of LINJI YIXUAN, WUZU FAYAN, and XUTANG ZHIYU. He also composed a number of important texts during this period, such as the Kanzan shi sendai kimon, Kaian kokugo, and SOKKoROKU KAIEN FUSETSU. Prior to his death, Hakuin established the monastery of Ryutakuji in Mishima (present-day Shizuoka prefecture). Hakuin was a strong advocate of "questioning meditation" (J. kanna Zen; C. KANHUA CHAN), which focused on the role of doubt in contemplating the koan (GONG'AN). Hakuin proposed that the sense of doubt was the catalyst for an initial SATORI (awakening; C. WU), which had then to be enhanced through further koan study in order to mature the experience. The contemporary Rinzai training system involving systematic study of many different koans is attributed to Hakuin, as is the famous koan, "What is the sound of one hand clapping?" (see SEKISHU KoAN). Hakuin was a prolific writer who left many other works as well, including the Dokugo shingyo, Oniazami, Yabukoji, Hebiichigo, Keiso dokuzui, Yaemugura, and Zazen wasan. Hakuin also produced many prominent disciples, including ToREI ENJI, Suio Genro (1716-1789), and GASAN JITo. The contemporary Japanese Rinzai school of Zen traces its lineage and teachings back to Hakuin and his disciples.

heads down ::: [Sun] Concentrating, usually so heavily and for so long that everything outside the focus area is missed. See also hack mode and larval stage, although this mode is hardly confined to fledgling hackers.[Jargon File]

heads down [Sun] Concentrating, usually so heavily and for so long that everything outside the focus area is missed. See also {hack mode} and {larval stage}, although this mode is hardly confined to fledgling hackers. [{Jargon File}]

Hedging – The strategy which is focused on reducing or lowering exposure to degrees of risk / loss resulting from unexpected fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, interest rates, commodity prices, etc. Hedging in relation to securities is the taking two offsetting positions so that each if prices change, the financial risk has been limited.

Heider (1896-1988): Austrian psychologist who focused on interpersonal relationships, proposing balance theory and attribution theory.

Hence in its widest sense Scholasticism embraces all the intellectual activities, artistic, philosophical and theological, carried on in the medieval schools. Any attempt to define its narrower meaning in the field of philosophy raises serious difficulties, for in this case, though the term's comprehension is lessened, it still has to cover many centuries of many-faced thought. However, it is still possible to list several characteristics sufficient to differentiate Scholastic from non-Scholastic philosophy. While ancient philosophy was the philosophy of a people and modern thought that of individuals, Scholasticism was the philosophy of a Christian society which transcended the characteristics of individuals, nations and peoples. It was the corporate product of social thought, and as such its reasoning respected authority in the forms of tradition and revealed religion. Tradition consisted primarily in the systems of Plato and Aristotle as sifted, adapted and absorbed through many centuries. It was natural that religion, which played a paramount role in the culture of the middle ages, should bring influence to bear on the medieval, rational view of life. Revelation was held to be at once a norm and an aid to reason. Since the philosophers of the period were primarily scientific theologians, their rational interests were dominated by religious preoccupations. Hence, while in general they preserved the formal distinctions between reason and faith, and maintained the relatively autonomous character of philosophy, the choice of problems and the resources of science were controlled by theology. The most constant characteristic of Scholasticism was its method. This was formed naturally by a series of historical circumstances,   The need of a medium of communication, of a consistent body of technical language tooled to convey the recently revealed meanings of religion, God, man and the material universe led the early Christian thinkers to adopt the means most viable, most widely extant, and nearest at hand, viz. Greek scientific terminology. This, at first purely utilitarian, employment of Greek thought soon developed under Justin, Clement of Alexandria, Origin, and St. Augustine into the "Egyptian-spoils" theory; Greek thought and secular learning were held to be propaedeutic to Christianity on the principle: "Whatever things were rightly said among all men are the property of us Christians." (Justin, Second Apology, ch. XIII). Thus was established the first characteristic of the Scholastic method: philosophy is directly and immediately subordinate to theology.   Because of this subordinate position of philosophy and because of the sacred, exclusive and total nature of revealed wisdom, the interest of early Christian thinkers was focused much more on the form of Greek thought than on its content and, it might be added, much less of this content was absorbed by early Christian thought than is generally supposed. As practical consequences of this specialized interest there followed two important factors in the formation of Scholastic philosophy:     Greek logic en bloc was taken over by Christians;     from the beginning of the Christian era to the end of the XII century, no provision was made in Catholic centers of learning for the formal teaching of philosophy. There was a faculty to teach logic as part of the trivium and a faculty of theology.   For these two reasons, what philosophy there was during this long period of twelve centuries, was dominated first, as has been seen, by theology and, second, by logic. In this latter point is found rooted the second characteristic of the Scholastic method: its preoccupation with logic, deduction, system, and its literary form of syllogistic argumentation.   The third characteristic of the Scholastic method follows directly from the previous elements already indicated. It adds, however, a property of its own gained from the fact that philosophy during the medieval period became an important instrument of pedogogy. It existed in and for the schools. This new element coupled with the domination of logic, the tradition-mindedness and social-consciousness of the medieval Christians, produced opposition of authorities for or against a given problem and, finally, disputation, where a given doctrine is syllogistically defended against the adversaries' objections. This third element of the Scholastic method is its most original characteristic and accounts more than any other single factor for the forms of the works left us from this period. These are to be found as commentaries on single or collected texts; summae, where the method is dialectical or disputational in character.   The main sources of Greek thought are relatively few in number: all that was known of Plato was the Timaeus in the translation and commentary of Chalcidius. Augustine, the pseudo-Areopagite, and the Liber de Causis were the principal fonts of Neoplatonic literature. Parts of Aristotle's logical works (Categoriae and de Interpre.) and the Isagoge of Porphyry were known through the translations of Boethius. Not until 1128 did the Scholastics come to know the rest of Aristotle's logical works. The golden age of Scholasticism was heralded in the late XIIth century by the translations of the rest of his works (Physics, Ethics, Metaphysics, De Anima, etc.) from the Arabic by Gerard of Cremona, John of Spain, Gundisalvi, Michael Scot, and Hermann the German, from the Greek by Robert Grosseteste, William of Moerbeke, and Henry of Brabant. At the same time the Judae-Arabian speculation of Alkindi, Alfarabi, Avencebrol, Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides together with the Neoplatonic works of Proclus were made available in translation. At this same period the Scholastic attention to logic was turned to metaphysics, even psychological and ethical problems and the long-discussed question of the universals were approached from this new angle. Philosophy at last achieved a certain degree of autonomy and slowly forced the recently founded universities to accord it a separate faculty.

hetuvidyā. (T. gtan tshigs kyi rig pa; C. yinming; J. inmyo; K. inmyong 因明). In Sanskrit, the "science of reasoning," hence "logic and dialectics"; in Indian Buddhism, the term refers generally to a scholarly tradition that begins with DIGNĀGA and DHARMAKĪRTI, a tradition known for an epistemological theory based on two means of knowledge (PRAMĀnA)-direct perception (PRATYAKsA) and inference (ANUMĀNA)-and rejecting ĀGAMA, i.e., the authority of the scriptures, specifically the Vedas. Much of hetuvidyā focuses on the correct form of the syllogism (PRAYOGA) that underpins correct inference.

holistic: used to describe an approach that focuses on the whole person, rather than their constituent parts.

Honeywell "company" A US company known for its {mainframes} and {operating systems}. The company's history is long and tortuous, with many mergers, acquisitions and name changes. A company formed on 1886-04-23 to make furnace regulators eventually merged in 1927 with another company formed in 1904 by a young plumbing and heating engineer named Mark Honeywell who was perfecting the heat generator. A 1955 joint venture with {Raytheon Corp.}, called {Datamatic Corporation}, marked Honeywell's entry into the computer business. Their first computer was the {D-1000}. In 1960 Honeywell bought out Raytheon's interest and the name changed to {Electronic Data Processing} (EDP) then in 1963 it was officially renamed Honeywell Inc. In 1970 Honeywell merged its computer business with {General Electric}'s to form Honeywell Information Systems. In 1986 a joint venture with the french company {Bull} and japanese {NEC Corporation} created Honeywell Bull. By 1991 Honeywell had withdrawn from the computer business, focussing more on aeropspace. {CII Honeywell} was an important department. Honeywell operating systems included {GCOS} and {Multics}. See also: {brain-damaged}. {History (http://www51.honeywell.com/honeywell/about-us/our-history.html)}. (2009-01-14)

Huangbo Xiyun. (J. obaku Kiun; K. Hwangbyok Hŭiun 黄檗希運) (d. 850). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty. Huangbo was a native of Min in present-day Fujian province. Little is known of his early life, but he eventually became a monk on Mt. Huangbo in Fuzhou (present-day Fuzhou province). Huangbo later became the disciple of the eminent Chan master BAIZHANG HUAIHAI, a first-generation successor to MAZU DAOYI. After he left Baizhang's side, Huangbo became the abbot of the monastery of Da'ansi where he trained many students. At the invitation of the powerful minister of state Pei Xiu (787-860), Huangbo left for Zhongling (present-day Jiangxi province) and began to reside on a local mountain that he renamed Mt. Huangbo, whence he acquired his toponym. During this period, Huangbo acquired many more disciples and established himself as a major Chan master. In 842, Huangbo relocated to the monastery of Longxingsi and again to Kaiyuansi in Wanling (present-day Anhui province) in 848. His most famous disciple is LINJI YIXUAN (d. 867) whose lineage became the dominant Chan school in China, the eponymous LINJI ZONG. Huangbo's teachings focus on the notion of the "one mind" (YIXIN) that vivifies all things, including enlightened buddhas and unenlightened sentient beings. Chan practice therefore involves simply bringing an end to all discriminative thought so that the one mind will be made manifest. Pei Xiu compiled his notes of Huangbo's lectures, which he titled the CHUANXIN FAYAO. Huangbo received the posthumous title Chan master Duanji (Eradicating Limits).

huatou. (J. wato; K. hwadu 話頭). In Chinese, "topic of inquiry"; in some contexts, "critical phrase" or "keyword." The Song-dynasty CHAN master DAHUI ZONGGAO, in the LINJI ZONG, popularized a meditative technique in which he urged his students (many of whom were educated literati) to use a Chan case (GONG'AN) as a "topic of meditative inquiry" (huatou) rather than interpret it from purely intellectual or literary perspectives. Perhaps the most famous and most widely used huatou is the topic "no" (WU) attributed to the Chan master ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN: A monk asked Zhaozhou, "Does a dog have buddha-nature (FOXING), or not?," to which Zhaozhou replied "WU" ("no"; lit. "it does not have it"; see GOUZI WU FOXING; WU GONG'AN). Because of the widespread popularity of this particular one-word topic in China, Korea, and Japan, this huatou is often interpreted as a "critical phrase'" or "keyword," in which the word "wu" is presumed to be the principal topic and thus the "keyword," or "critical phrase," of the longer gong'an exchange. Because Zhaozhou's answer in this exchange goes against the grain of East Asian Mahāyāna Buddhism-which presumes that all sentient beings, including dogs, are inherently enlightened-the huatou helps to foster questioning, or technically "doubt" (YIQING), the focus of a new type of Chan meditation called KANHUA CHAN, "the Chan of investigating the huatou." Huatou (which literally means "head of speech," and thus "topic") might best be taken metaphorically as the "apex of speech," or the "point at which (or beyond which) speech exhausts itself." Speech is of course initiated by thought, so "speech" in this context refers to all the discriminative tendencies of the mind, viz., conceptualization. By leading to the very limits of speech-or more accurately thought-the huatou acts as a purification device that frees the mind of its conceptualizing tendencies, leaving it clear, attentive, and calm. Even though the huatou is typically a word or phrase taken from the teachings of previous Chan masters, it is a word that is claimed to bring an end to conceptualization, leaving the mind receptive to the influence of the unconditioned. As Dahui notes, huatou produces a "cleansing knowledge and vision" (see JNĀNADARsANA) that "removes the defects of conceptual understanding so that one may find the road leading to liberation." Huatou is thus sometimes interpreted in Chinese Buddhism as a type of meditative "homeopathy," in which one uses a small dosage of the poison of concepts to cure the disease of conceptualization. Dahui's use of the huatou technique was first taught in Korea by POJO CHINUL, where it is known by its Korean pronunciation as hwadu, and popularized by Chinul's successor, CHIN'GAK HYESIM. Investigation of the hwadu remains the most widespread type of meditation taught and practiced in Korean Buddhism. In Japanese Zen, the use of the wato became widespread within the RINZAISHu, due in large part to the efforts of HAKUIN EKAKU and his disciples.

Huayan jing helun. (J. Kegongyo goron; K. Hwaom kyong hap non 華嚴經合論). In Chinese, "A Comprehensive Exposition of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA," a commentary written by LI TONGXUAN in the Tang dynasty (618-907), a reclusive lay Huayan adept and contemporary of the HUAYAN patriarch FAZANG. The commentary is also known as the "Commentary to the New [Translation] of the AvataMsakasutra" (Xin Huayan jing lun), because it comments on sIKsĀNANDA's "new" eighty-roll translation of the AvataMsakasutra, rather than Buddhabhadra's "old" sixty-roll rendering, which had been the focus of all earlier Huayan commentarial writing. Li Tongxuan's "Exposition of the AvataMsakasutra" contained ideas that were quite distinct from standard Huayan interpretations, such as the emphasis on the centrality of the preliminary soteriological stage of the "ten faiths" (shixin), rather than the "ten abodes" (shizhu) that had been stressed in previous Huayan accounts. Li's work subsequently played a key role in the revitalization of the Chinese Huayan exegetical tradition, especially in the thought of the Huayan patriarch CHENGGUAN. Li's worked dropped out of circulation soon after its composition, but after centuries in obscurity, the exposition was rediscovered by Chinese CHAN adepts during the Song dynasty, such as DAHUI ZONGGAO, and by Korean SoN adepts during the Koryo dynasty for the provocative parallels they perceived between Li Tongxuan's treatment of Huayan soteriology and the Chan approach of sudden awakening (DUNWU). The Korean Son exegete POJO CHINUL (1158-1210) was so inspired by the text that he wrote a three-roll abridgment of it entitled "Excerpts from the Exposition of the AvataMsakasutra" (Hwaom non choryo), which he used to demonstrate the parallels between the Huayan soteriological schema and his preferred meditative approach of "sudden awakening followed by gradual cultivation" (K. tono chomsu; C. TUNWU JIANXIU). In Japan, Li Tongxuan's advocacy of meditating on the light emanating from the Buddha's body was also a major influence on MYoE KoBEN.

Huayan wujiao. (J. Kegon no gokyo; K. Hwaom ogyo 華嚴五教). In Chinese, "Huayan's five classifications of the teachings." The HUAYAN ZONG recognizes two different versions of this doctrinal-classification schema, which ranks different strands of Buddhist teachings. The best-known version was outlined by DUSHUN and FAZANG: (1) The HĪNAYĀNA teachings (xiaojiao; cf. XIAOSHENG JIAO), also known as the srāvakayāna teaching (shengwenjiao), was pejoratively referred to as "teachings befitting the [spiritually] obtuse" (yufa). The ĀGAMAs and the ABHIDHARMAs were relegated to this class, which supposedly dealt primarily with theories of elements (DHĀTU) and more basic concepts such as dependent origination (PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA). (2) The "elementary teaching [of Mahāyāna]" ([Dasheng] SHIJIAO). Within this category, two additional subgroups were differentiated. The first was the "initial teaching pertaining to emptiness" (kong shijiao), which encompassed the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ literature and exegetical traditions such as MADHYAMAKA. This class of teachings was characterized by an emphasis (or, in Huayan's polemical assessment, an overemphasis) on the doctrine of emptiness (suNYATĀ). The second subgroup, the "initial teaching pertaining to phenomena" (xiang shijiao), broaches the dynamic and phenomenal aspects of reality and did not confine itself to the theme of emptiness. YOGĀCĀRA and its traditional affiliate sutras and commentaries were classified under this subgroup. Together, these two subgroups were deemed the provisional teachings (quanjiao) within the MAHĀYĀNA tradition. (3) The "advanced [Mahāyāna] teachings" ([Dasheng] ZHONGJIAO) focused on the way true suchness (ZHENRU; S. TATHATĀ) was innately immaculate but could be activated in response to myriad conditions. The DASHENG QIXIN LUN ("Awakening of Faith"), sRĪMĀLĀDEVĪSIMHANĀDASuTRA, and LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA are examples of texts belonging to this doctrinal category. The treatment in these texts of the one mind (YIXIN) and TATHĀGATAGARBHA thought was considered a more definitive rendition of the MAHĀYĀNA teachings than were the elementary teachings (shijiao). (4) The "sudden teachings" (DUNJIAO), which includes texts like the VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, was ranked as a unique category of subitist teachings befitting people of keen spiritual faculties (TĪKsnENDRIYA), and therefore bypasses traditional, systematic approaches to enlightenment. The CHAN ZONG's touted soteriological methods involving sudden enlightenment (DUNWU) and its rejection of reliance on written texts led some Huayan teachers to relegate that school to this advanced, but still inferior, category of the teachings. Chan was thus superseded by, (5) the "perfect teachings" or "consummate teachings" (YUANJIAO). This supposedly most comprehensive and definitive strand of Buddhist teaching was reserved for the Huayan school and especially its definitive scripture, the AVATAMSAKASuTRA. ¶ The second version of five classifications was made by GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841) in his YUANREN LUN: (1) The "teachings pertaining to the human and heavenly realms" (RENTIAN JIAO) encompassed "mundane" (LAUKIKA) practices, such as the observation of the five precepts (PANCAsĪLA) and the ten wholesome ways of action (KUsALA-KARMAPATHA); this classification was named because of its believed efficacy to lead practitioners to higher realms of rebirth. (2) The "HĪNAYĀNA teachings" (XIAOSHENG JIAO), which were similar to the previous "xiaojiao." (3) The "dharma-characteristics teachings of MAHĀYĀNA" (Dasheng faxiang jiao), which was analogous to the aforementioned "elementary teaching pertaining to phenomena" (xiang shijiao) in the preceding classification scheme. (4) The "characteristics-negating teachings of MAHĀYĀNA" (Dasheng poxiang jiao) was analogous to the preceding "elementary teaching pertaining to emptiness." (5) The "nature-revealing teaching of the one vehicle" (yisheng xiangxing jiao) was equivalent to the last three categories Fazang's system combined together. See also HUAYAN WUJIAO ZHANG.

Huayan zong. (J. Kegonshu; K. Hwaom chong 華嚴宗). In Chinese, "Flower Garland School," an important exegetical tradition in East Asian Buddhism. Huayan takes its name from the Chinese translation of the title of its central scripture, the AVATAMSAKASuTRA (or perhaps BUDDHĀVATAMSAKASuTRA). The Huayan tradition is also sometimes referred to the Xianshou zong, after the sobriquet, Xianshou, of one of its greatest exegetes, FAZANG. A lineage of patriarchs, largely consisting of the tradition's great scholiasts, was retrospectively created by later followers. The putative first patriarch of the Huayan school is DUSHUN, who is followed by ZHIYAN, Fazang, CHENGGUAN, and GUIFENG ZONGMI. The work of these exegetes exerted much influence in Korea largely through the writings of ŬISANG (whose exegetical tradition is sometimes known as the Pusok chong) and WoNHYO. Hwaom teachings remained the foundation of Korean doctrinal exegesis from the Silla period onward, and continued to be influential in the synthesis that POJO CHINUL in the Koryo dynasty created between SoN (CHAN) and KYO (the teachings, viz., Hwaom). The Korean monk SIMSANG (J. Shinjo; d. 742), a disciple of Fazang, who transmitted the Huayan teachings to Japan in 740 at the instigation of RYoBEN (689-773), was instrumental in establishing the Kegon school in Japan. Subsequently, such teachers as MYoE KoBEN (1173-1232) and GYoNEN (1240-1321) continued Kegon exegesis into the Kamakura period. In China, other exegetical traditions such as the DI LUN ZONG, which focused on only one part of the AvataMsakasutra, were eventually absorbed into the Huayan tradition. The Huayan tradition was severely weakened in China after the depredations of the HUICHANG FANAN, and because of shifting interests within Chinese Buddhism away from sutra exegesis and toward Chan meditative practice and literature, and invoking the name of the buddha AMITĀBHA (see NIANFO). ¶ The Huayan school's worldview is derived from the central tenets of the imported Indian Buddhist tradition, but reworked in a distinctively East Asian fashion. Huayan is a systematization of the teachings of the AvataMsakasutra, which offered a vision of an infinite number of interconnected world systems, interfused in an all-encompassing realm of reality (DHARMADHĀTU). This profound interdependent and ecological vision of the universe led Huayan exegetes to engage in a creative reconsideration of the central Buddhist doctrine of dependent origination (PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA), which in their interpretation meant that all phenomena in the universe are mutually creating, and in turn are being mutually created by, all other phenomena. Precisely because in the traditional Buddhist view any individual phenomenon was devoid of a perduring self-nature of its own (ANĀTMAN), existence in the Huayan interpretation therefore meant to be in a constant state of multivalent interaction with all other things in the universe. The boundless interconnectedness that pertains between all things was termed "dependent origination of the dharmadhātu" (FAJIE YUANQI). Huayan also carefully examines the causal relationships between individual phenomena or events (SHI) and the fundamental principle or patterns (LI) that govern reality. These various relationships are systematized in Chengguan's teaching of the four realms of reality (dharmadhātu): the realm of principle (LI FAJIE), the realm of individual phenomena (SHI FAJIE), the realm of the unimpeded interpenetration between principle and phenomena (LISHI WU'AI FAJIE), and the realm of the unimpeded interpenetration between phenomenon and phenomena (SHISHI WU'AI FAJIE). Even after Huayan's decline as an independent school, it continued to exert profound influence on both traditional East Asian philosophy and modern social movements, including engaged Buddhism and Buddhist environmentalism.

Human Interface Technology Laboratory (HITL) The Human Interface Technology Laboratory at the {University of Washington} was founded in 1990. It is a centre for research and development of advanced interface technology. Located on the university campus, HITL forms a bridge between academia and industry. It maintains its industrial focus via the Virtual Worlds Consortium and maintains contacts with academia by training students and teaching courses. The lab has access to faculty and students throughout the State of Washington. Address: Human Interface Technology Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. (1995-02-13)

Humanistic Therapy ::: Treatment focused on increasing awareness of one&

Human Monad In the human constitution, the fourth monadic focus or center on the descending scale of individualizing consciousness. It is the basis or root of the human ego from which emanates the human soul — a temporary or periodic appearance enduring for one incarnation, having for its range of consciousness the ordinary human consciousness of daily life.

Humphreys, Christmas. (1901-1983). Early British popularizer of Buddhism and founder of the Buddhist Society, the oldest lay Buddhist organization in Europe. Born in London in 1901, Humphreys was the son of Sir Travers Humphreys (1867-1956), a barrister perhaps best known as the junior counsel in the prosecution of the Irish writer Oscar Wilde (1854-1900). Following in his father's footsteps, Humphreys studied law at Cambridge University and eventually became a senior prosecutor at the Old Bailey, London, the central criminal court, and later a circuit judge; he was also involved in the Tokyo war crimes trials as a prosecutor, a post he accepted so he could also further in Japan his studies of Buddhism. (Humphreys's later attempts to inject some Buddhist compassion into his courtroom led to him being called the "gentle judge," who gained a reputation for being lenient with felons. After handing down a six-month suspended sentence to an eighteen-year-old who had raped two women at knifepoint, the public outcry that ensued eventually led to his resignation from the bench in 1976.) Humphreys was interested in Buddhism from his youth and declared himself a Buddhist at age seventeen. In 1924, at the age of twenty-three, he founded the Buddhist Society, London, and served as its president until his death; he was also the first publisher of its journal, The Middle Way. Humphreys strongly advocated a nonsectarian approach to Buddhism, which embraced the individual schools of Buddhism as specific manifestations of the religion's central tenets. His interest in an overarching vision of the whole of the Buddhist tradition led him in 1945 to publish his famous Twelve Principles of Buddhism, which has been translated into fourteen languages. These principles focus on the need to recognize the conditioned nature of reality, the truth of impermanence and suffering, and the path that Buddhism provides to save oneself through "the intuition of the individual." A close associate of DAISETZ TEITARO SUZUKI and a contemporary of EDWARD CONZE, Humphreys himself wrote over thirty semischolarly and popular books and tracts on Buddhism, including Buddhism: An Introduction and Guide, published in 1951.

hyperbola: A curve consisting of the set of points whose distance from a specified point (called the focus) is greater than the distance to a specified line (the directrix) by a fixed proportion. Thus, a hyperbola can be defined by the focus, directrix, and the proportion (called eccentricity - which in the case of hyperbolae must be greater than 1) only. It is one type of conic sections represented by the equation:

hyperbola ::: n. --> A curve formed by a section of a cone, when the cutting plane makes a greater angle with the base than the side of the cone makes. It is a plane curve such that the difference of the distances from any point of it to two fixed points, called foci, is equal to a given distance. See Focus. If the cutting plane be produced so as to cut the opposite cone, another curve will be formed, which is also an hyperbola. Both curves are regarded as branches of the same hyperbola. See Illust. of Conic section, and Focus.

hyperfocus: is an intense form of mental concentration or visualisation that focuses consciousness on a narrow subject, or beyond objective reality and onto subjective mental planes, daydreams, concepts, fiction, the imagination, and other objects of the mind.

hypermetropy ::: n. --> A condition of the eye in which, through shortness of the eyeball or fault of the refractive media, the rays of light come to a focus behind the retina; farsightedness; -- called also hyperopia. Cf. Emmetropia.

Ideation The faculty, power, or process of forming ideas. Cosmic ideation denotes an abstraction, being one aspect of cosmic egoity, and also the more concrete reality represented by mahat. Cosmic ideation, focused in a basis or upadhi, results as the abstract consciousness of space working through the monad or vehicle; and the manifestations vary according to the degree of the different upadhis. Cosmic ideation is sometimes called mahabuddhi or mahat, the universal world-soul, the cosmic or spiritual noumenon of matter. As mahat is the primordial essence or principle of cosmic consciousness and intelligence, it is the fountain of the seven prakritis — the seven planes or elements of the universe — and the guiding intelligence of manifested nature on all planes. Going deeper, we have precosmic ideation, which is an aspect of that metaphysical triad which is the root from which proceeds all manifestation.

idiographic: any approach or method in psychology that focuses on the individual rather than in the development of general laws of behavior (known as thenomothetic approach).

Independent Logical File "database" (ILF) One kind of {dynamic database management system}. Examples of ILF databases are {INQUIRE}, {ADABAS}, {NOMAD}, {FOCUS} and {DATACOM}. [More details?] (1998-10-07)

Independent Logical File ::: (database) (ILF) One kind of dynamic database management system.Examples of ILF databases are INQUIRE, ADABAS, NOMAD, FOCUS and DATACOM.[More details?] (1998-10-07)

Industrial/Organizational Psychology ::: The area or specialty in psychology focused on the application of psychological principles in the work force.

In exoteric works six chakras are named. De Purucker lists seven: 1) muladhara, the parts about the pubis, ruled by Saturn; 2) svadhisthana, the umbilical region, ruled by Mars; 3) manipura, the pit of the stomach or epigastrium, ruled by Jupiter; 4) anahata, the root of the nose, ruled by Venus; 5) visuddha, the hollow between the frontal sinuses, ruled by Mercury; 6) ajnakhya, the fontenelle or union of the coronal and sagittal sutures, ruled by the Moon; and 7) sahasrara, the pineal gland in the skull, ruled by the Sun. “The human body as a microcosm may be looked upon as containing every power or attribute or energy in the solar system. . . . all the seven (or twelve) logoic forces that originally emanate from the sun, and pass in and through the various sacred planets, are transmitted to us as human beings and directly to the physical body. Thus each one of these solar logoic forces has its corresponding focus or organ in the human body, and these are the chakras” (FSO 459).

Inferential Statistics ::: The branch of statistics that focuses on describing in numerical format what might be happening or what might happen (estimation) in the future (probability). Inferential statistics required the testing of only a sample of the population. (Example: 100 students rather than all students).

In Mahayana Buddhism, alaya-vijnana has acquired a somewhat larger and higher significance: alaya (an abode, in the sense of focus of activity), the prepositional prefix a (meaning position or limitation) with the verb li (to dissolve) signifies solution or coalescence in unity. Used much as the term human monad is in theosophy, equivalent to the higher manas or even buddhi-manas, it therefore signifies the focus or interior organ of consciousness into which is collected at the end of each incarnation the aroma of the higher experiences during that lifetime, thus forming a kind of treasury.

Inner God Used for the higher self or divine monad, the focus of divine-spiritual individuality in the human constitution, especially in connection with the degree of initiation when the candidate comes into communion with his true spiritual self, the god within.

Insight Meditation ::: One of the two general categories of meditative practice described on this site. Refers to meditation that focuses on dissecting the moment with the mind in order to reveal fundamental insights into how reality is established through the Three Characteristics. Certain "stages" of insight emerge during this practice that are referred to as the vipassana jhanas. Discussion of the jhanas is beyond the scope of this site at this time. Also "Mindfulness Meditation" and "Vipassana", although there may be some tradition-specific differences with these terms.

instrument: When referring to magick, an instrument represents the tools and activities involved in a focus: belief inspires practice, which employs instruments to provide focus. The Technocracy often calls its instruments apparatuses, and many other technomancers use that term as well.

Integral Life Practice (ILP) ::: The practice of body, mind, and spirit in self, culture, and nature. The personal expression of the AQAL framework. A modular and scalable approach to personal and professional growth. ILP focuses on tailoring a customized approach to the quadrants, levels, lines, states, or types of one’s own potential.

Intent ::: The ability to focus the will on a specific goal or outcome. Intent is important in patterning.

In theosophy every body in space, whether nebula, sun, planet, or galaxy, is a focus or organ of universal life; every sun, as an instance, being the channel — having nevertheless an individuality of its own distinct from other similar individualities — through which pour various cosmic forces, combined with the individual jiva of each sun itself. The ancients used to speak of the sun as being seven-rayed — a forecast of the seven rays of the solar spectrum — or even ten- and twelve-rayed, the reference being to the septenary, denary, or duodenary forces pouring from it. See also CALORIC

Introversion ::: The tendency to focus energy inward resulting in decreased social interaction.

Iomega Corporation ::: (company, storage) A storage device manufacturer whose major products are the Zip and Jaz removable disk drives and Ditto tape drives. They became popular with an early product called the Bernoulli Box.These products fall in line with their focus set in 1994 to help people manage their stuff. The company's stated aim is to create portable, fast, large and cheap storage solutions. Iomega's major competitor in the growing market for removable disks is SyQuest, who seem to always be a few weeks behind them.In general, Iomega target the Small Office/Home Office. They are also investigating the growing digital photography market which also needs large removable storage devices.Iomega's president and CEO is Kim Edwards. They have nearly 2000 employees in offices world-wide. Revenue for the quarter ending Dec 1996 was $371 million and net income was $20 million.Headquarters: Roy, Utah, USA. . (1997-04-15)

Iomega Corporation "company, storage" A storage device manufacturer whose major products are the {Zip} and {Jaz} removable {disk drives} and {Ditto} {tape drives}. They became popular with an early product called the {Bernoulli Box}. These products fall in line with their focus set in 1994 "to help people manage their stuff". The company's stated aim is to create portable, fast, large and cheap storage solutions. Iomega's major competitor in the growing market for removable disks is {SyQuest}, who seem to always be a few weeks behind them. In general, Iomega target the {Small Office/Home Office}. They are also investigating the growing {digital photography} market which also needs large removable storage devices. Iomega's president and CEO is Kim Edwards. They have nearly 2000 employees in offices world-wide. Revenue for the quarter ending Dec 1996 was $371 million and net income was $20 million. Headquarters: Roy, Utah, USA. {(http://iomega.com/index.html)}. (1997-04-15)

IOT ::: Illuminates of Thanateros. One of the more notable occult organizations focusing on chaos magic theory and practice.

irradiation ::: n. --> Act of irradiating, or state of being irradiated.
Illumination; irradiance; brilliancy.
Fig.: Mental light or illumination.
The apparent enlargement of a bright object seen upon a dark ground, due to the fact that the portions of the retina around the image are stimulated by the intense light; as when a dark spot on a white ground appears smaller, or a white spot on a dark ground larger, than it really is, esp. when a little out of focus.


Jagadyoni (Sanskrit) Jagadyoni [from jagat world + yoni womb] The womb of the world; applied to Brahma, Vishnu, and Krishna. It is the material cause of the universe and not the mother of the world, as often translated. It signifies a portion of the spatial deeps to be womb or source of some celestial body such as a planet, or a group of bodies such as a solar system. Jagad-yoni, therefore, is any portion of kosmic space which through karmic destiny is to be the focus out of which shall spring a celestial globe or solar system. It parallels in certain senses the Hindu hiranyagharba and Greek pleroma (BCW 11:491).

Jewish Agency ::: Organization formed in 1929 as the formal representative of the Jewish community vis-a-vis the British mandatory government. It gradually acquired the attributes of a proto-government for the Jewish community. After the establishment of the State of Israel, the Jewish Agency shifted its focus to issues common to the State and to Jewish communities abroad.

ji er changzhao. (J. jakunijosho; K. chok i sangjo 寂而常照). In Chinese, "quiescent, yet constantly illumining"; a CHAN Buddhist expression that can be interpreted both ontologically and soteriologically. Ontologically, ji er changzhao describes the nature of the mind as imperturbable in its essence but as always dynamically responsive to external objects in its functioning. Soteriologically, ji er changzhao refers to the meditative technique wherein one trains the mind to be focused and tranquil with regard to all things that arise in the mind, while nevertheless remaining simultaneously vigilant and observant of them. This expression typically appears in a parallel couplet along with "illumining, yet always quiescent" (C. zhao er changji; J. shonijojaku; K. cho i sangjok).

Jingde chuandeng lu. (J. Keitoku dentoroku; K. Kyongdok chondŭng nok 景德傳燈録). In Chinese, "Record of the Transmission of the Lamplight [Compiled during the] Jingde [Era]." A comprehensive, thirty-roll genealogical collection of short hagiographical notes and anecdotes of the ancient "patriarchs" and teachers (see ZUSHI) of the CHAN school, compiled by Daoyuan (d.u.) in 1004. Beginning with the seven buddhas of the past (SAPTATATHĀGATA) and up to the dharma heirs (see FASI) of the Tang-dynasty Chan monk FAYAN WENYI, the Jingde chuandeng lu provides a record of 1,701 Indian and Chinese successors in different main and collateral lineages of the Chan school. The first twenty-six rolls of the Jingde chuandeng lu is a series of hagiographies of Chan masters, focusing on their enlightenment experiences, and arranged genealogically; roll twenty-seven discusses eminent monks who do not belong to the Chan tradition; and the last three rolls contain YULU, viz., discourse records (roll twenty-eight), poetry and verses (roll twenty-nine), and other miscellaneous materials, such as the XINXIN MING (roll thirty). As the earliest and most influential of the many lamplight histories (denglu) compiled during the Song dynasty, the Jingde chuandeng lu is an invaluable resource for understanding the origins and development of the Chan school in China.

jingtu sanbu jing. (J. jodo sanbukyo; K. chongt'o sambu kyong 淨土三部經). In Chinese, "the three scriptures on the pure land," a designation for three main sutras that focus on AMITĀBHA Buddha and his PURE LAND of SUKHĀVATĪ; these are generally considered to be the central canonical sutras of the pure land schools, and especially of the Japanese JoDOSHu and JoDO SHINSHu. The three scriptures are (1) SUKHĀVATĪVYuHASuTRA, the "[Larger] Sutra on the Buddha of Immeasurable Life" (Wuliangshou jing); (2) "Sutra on the Contemplation of the Buddha of Immeasurable Life" (GUAN WULIANGSHOU JING); and (3) AMITĀBHASuTRA, the "[Smaller] Sutra on the Buddha Amitābha" (Amituo jing). The writings of the pure land school are to a large extent commentaries on or exegeses of these three scriptures.

Jingtu shiyi [lun]. (J. Jodo jugi[ron]; K. Chongt'o sibŭi [non] 淨土十疑[論]). In Chinese, "Ten Doubts regarding the PURE LAND"; a popular text on pure land beliefs and practices composed by TIANTAI ZHIYI. As the title suggests, the treatise is an apologia for the practice and verity of the pure land, even though it is exclusively directed at AMITĀBHA's pure land of SUKHĀVATĪ. The "doubts" that Zhiyi addresses in his treatise include: "Doesn't it show a lack of compassion to seek rebirth in the pure land (and thus leave behind those who are suffering in this world)?" "Isn't seeking rebirth in the pure land contradictory to the teaching of non-production (which nullifies the prospect of further rebirths)?" "Why focus on Amitābha and his pure land (as one's sole choice of devotion)?" "How is it that unenlightened beings who are entangled in the fetters (SAMYOJANA) are capable of being reborn in the pure land (and thereby transcend the rounds of rebirth)?" "How could it be that the pure land of sukhāvatī (being entirely male) has no women and no one with HĪNAYĀNA inclinations?"

Jodoshu. (浄土宗). In Japanese, the "PURE LAND school"; referring to the followers of HoNEN (1133-1212), who formed the first indigenous school of Japanese Buddhism outside the aegis of the imperial court. The central scriptures of the school are the so-called three pure land SuTRAs (jodo sanbukyo; see JINGTU SANBUJING): the longer SUKHĀVATĪVYuHASuTRA, the shorter Sukhāvatīvyuhasutra (also known as the AMITĀBHASuTRA), and the GUAN WULIANGSHOU JING; as well as the *Aparimitāyussutropadesa ("Exegesis of the Wuliangshou jing"), commonly known as the Jingtu lun (J. Jodoron) ("Treatise on the Pure Land") and attributed by tradition to VASUBANDHU (see WULIANGSHOU JING YOUPOTISHE YUANSHENG JI). Honen's teachings focused on the "easy path" to NIRVĀnA and the prospect of achieving enlightenment exclusively through recitation of the nenbutsu (C. NIANFO), which would lead to rebirth in the buddha AMITĀBHA's pure land. Honen's teachings quickly spread throughout Japan largely through the efforts of his disciples SHINRAN (1173-1262), Ryukan (1148-1228), Shokobo Bencho (1162-1238), Zen'ebo Shoku (1177-1247), Jokakubo Kosai (1163-1247), and Kakumyobo Chosai (1184-1366). While his disciples all agreed on the efficacy of the recitation of the nenbutsu as advocated by Honen, they developed different interpretations of this practice. These divisions eventually led to the formation of disparate factions within the school. Those who followed Bencho came to be known as the Chinzei branch; their spirit of tolerance for other practices allowed the Chinzei branch to thrive. Shoku's followers, now known as the Seizan branch, held the position that rebirth in the pure land is possible only through continuous repetition of the nenbutsu (TANENGI); indeed, Shoku himself was said to recite the nenbutsu as many as sixty thousand times a day. Kosai, and to a lesser extent Shinran, held the more radical position that a single invocation of the name of Amitābha (ICHINENGI) would suffice. In 1207, in an effort to suppress the spread of Honen's teaching of exclusive nenbutsu, Honen, Kosai, and Shinran, were exiled to different regions of the country. In 1227, the Jodo movement was further suppressed when Honen's grave was desecrated by HIEIZAN monks and Kosai was again sent into exile. In 1450, the Chinzei branch came to dominate the other branches when the Chinzei adherent Keijiku (1403-1459) assumed the position of abbot of the monastery CHION'IN (built at Honen's grave site) in Kyoto. The Chinzei branch firmly established itself as the leading branch with the support of the Tokugawa bakufu. The teachings of Bencho's disciple Ryochu (1199-1287), who advocated the active use of the nenbutsu for purifying bad KARMAN in order to attain rebirth in pure land, came to be the official position of the Chinzei branch and thus of the wider Jodoshu tradition. See also JoDO SHINSHu.

Jupiter is usually thought to have originated as a sky god. His identifying implement is the thunderbolt, and his primary sacred animal is the eagle,[1] which held precedence over other birds in the taking of auspices[2] and became one of the most common symbols of the Roman army (see Aquila). The two emblems were often combined to represent the god in the form of an eagle holding in its claws a thunderbolt, frequently seen on Greek and Roman coins.[3] As the sky-god, he was a divine witness to oaths, the sacred trust on which justice and good government depend. Many of his functions were focused on the Capitoline (“Capitol Hill”), where the citadel was located. He was the chief deity of the early Capitoline Triad with Mars and Quirinus.[4] In the later Capitoline Triad, he was the central guardian of the state with Juno and Minerva. His sacred tree was the oak.

Just as the forces of nature are in themselves neutral, and become “good” or “bad” as they are used by individuals, similarly so is a symbol usable in a good or a bad sense. In the use of nagas and sarpas, the Brothers of Light are properly called nagas, and the Brothers of Darkness are more properly called sarpas, as the root srip which means to wriggle, hence to insinuate, to creep in by stealth and deceive. Both the Brothers of Light and of Darkness are focuses of power, subtlety, wisdom, and knowledge; in the one case rightly and nobly applied, and in the other wrongly applied. The former are the nagas or serpents of light: subtle, wise, and with power to cast off the garment or vehicle when the body has grown old and to assume another at will. The latter are more strictly the sarpas or serpents of darkness, insinuating, worldly wise, selfishly shrewd, deceitful, venomous, and dangerous, and yet possessing the same powers, but in less degree, and using them wrongly, thus deceiving human hearts and succeeding in their work often by lies and misrepresentations. Nevertheless, precisely because nagas and sarpas are used almost indiscriminately, either word may apply both to the servants of light or of darkness.

Kaddish ::: A classical Jewish prayer (mostly in Aramaic) with eschatological focus extolling God's majesty and kingdom recited at the conclusion of each major section of each liturgical service; a long version (called rabbinic kaddish) follows an act of study; also a prayer by mourners during the first year of bereavement (see shiva, sheloshim) and on the anniversary of the death of next-of-kin.

kalyānamitra. (P. kalyānamitta; T. dge ba'i bshes gnyen; C. shanzhishi; J. zenchishiki; K. sonjisik 善知識). In Sanskrit, lit. "good friend"; viz., "spiritual guide," or "religious mentor"; a spiritual companion or mentor (sometimes, though rarely, referring even to the Buddha himself) who encourages one in salutary directions and helps one to remain focused on matters of real religious import. Association with a kalyānamitra is said to be one of the foundations of religious progress: it is one of the seven things conducive to the welfare and weal of monks and one of the indicators that a monk will perfect the seven constituents of awakening (BODHYAnGA). In the absence of "good friends," it was thought preferable for monks to lead the solitary life of the rhinoceros (see KHAdGAVIsĀnA; KHAdGAVIsĀnAKALPA). Three kinds of kalyānamitra are described in the literature: an instructor, a fellow practitioner, and a lay supporter (DĀNAPATI). The Tibetan title "geshe" (DGE BSHES), referring to a monk who has successfully completed the scholastic curriculum of the DGE LUGS sect, is a contraction of the Tibetan translation of kalyānamitra.

Kelley (1921-2003): was a social psychologist, focusing on interpersonal relationships and contributing to attribution theory - how individuals 'attribute' causes to events, for instance a "situational" or "dispositional" factor.

kirigami. (切紙). In Japanese, "secret initiation documents" (lit. "strips of paper"), ; secret instructions or formulas written on individual pieces of paper, which were used in the medieval Japanese traditions, including the SoTOSHu, to transmit esoteric knowledge and monastic routines. Kirigami were a central pedagogical feature in many fields involving apprenticeships in medieval Japan and were used to transmit knowledge about acting, poetic composition, martial arts, and religious practice. Soto Zen kirigami were also elaborations of the broader Chinese monastic codes (shingi; see QINGGUI) and focused on the secret rituals that a Zen abbot would perform in private, including consecration, funerals, and transmission of precepts or a dharma lineage. Many kirigami also provide short, targeted instruction on individual Zen cases (koan; C. GONG'AN), such as the correct sequence of questions and answers, or the appropriate "capping phrase" (JAKUGO), that would prove mastery of a specific koan. Because kirigami were also kept hidden away in Soto monasteries and were known only to the abbots, access to them was a potent symbol of the abbots' enhanced religious authority.

Kiyomizudera. (清水寺). In Japanese, "Pure Water Monastery"; an important monastery of the Japanese HoSSo school of YOGĀCĀRA Buddhism, located in the Higashiyama (Eastern Mountains) District of Kyoto. The monastery claims to have been founded in 778 by a monk named Enchin and the general Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, who stopped on the site for a drink from a waterfall fed by a natural spring, where he met the monk. Together, they contracted to create a magnificent image of an eleven-faced and forty-armed Kannon (AVALOKITEsVARA), which was enshrined in 798 in a temporary hall that was given the name Kiyomizudera. The monastery became a state shrine in 810 and a focus of state-protection Buddhism (see HUGUO FOJIAO) in Japan. The current buildings date from the latest reconstruction of the monastery in 1633. The monastery is perhaps best known for its long veranda that juts over the hillside in front of the main shrine hall; there is a folk tradition dating back to the Edo period that anyone who survives a plunge off the veranda is granted whatever one wishes. The monastery was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994.

Knowledge_engineering ::: is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that creates rules to apply to data in order to imitate the thought process of a human expert. It looks at the structure of a task or a decision to identify how a conclusion is reached. A library of problem-solving methods and the collateral knowledge used for each can then be created and served up as problems to be diagnosed by the system. The resulting software could then assist in diagnosis, trouble-shooting and solving issues either on its own or in a support role to a human agent.   :::BREAKING DOWN 'Knowledge Engineering'  Knowledge engineering sought to transfer the expertise of problem-solving human experts into a program that could take in the same data and come to the same conclusion. This approach is referred to as the transfer process and it dominated early knowledge engineering attempts. It fell out of favor, however, as scientists and programmers realized that the knowledge being used by humans in decision making is not always explicit. While many decisions can be traced back to previous experience on what worked, humans draw on parallel pools of knowledge that don’t always appear logically connected to the task at hand. Some of what CEOs and star investors refer to as gut feeling or intuitive leaps is better described as analogous reasoning and nonlinear thinking. These modes of thought don’t lend themselves to direct, step-by-step decision trees and may require pulling in sources of data that appear to cost more to bring in and process than it is worth.   The transfer process has been left behind in favor of a modeling process. Instead of attempting to follow the step-by-step process of a decision, knowledge engineering is focused on creating a system that will hit upon the same results as the expert without following the same path or tapping the same information sources. This eliminates some of the issues of tracking down the knowledge being used for nonlinear thinking, as the people doing it are often not aware of the information they are pulling on. As long as the conclusions are comparable, the model works. Once a model is consistently coming close to the human expert, it can then be refined. Bad conclusions can be traced back and debugged, and processes that are creating equivalent or improved conclusions can be encouraged.

Knowledge Systems Laboratory ::: (KSL) An artificial intelligence research laboratory within the Department of Computer Science at Stanford University. Current work focuses on knowledge computational environments for modelling physical devices, architectures for adaptive intelligent systems, and expert systems for science and engineering. (1994-12-06)

Knowledge Systems Laboratory (KSL) An {artificial intelligence} research laboratory within the Department of Computer Science at {Stanford University}. Current work focuses on {knowledge representation} for sharable engineering knowledge bases and systems, computational environments for modelling physical devices, architectures for adaptive intelligent systems, and {expert systems} for science and engineering. (1994-12-06)

Kotani Kimi. (小谷喜美) (1901-1971). Cofounder along with KUBO KAKUTARo (1892-1944) of the REIYuKAI school of modern Japanese Buddhism, which derives from the teachings of the NICHIRENSHu school of Buddhism. Kotani Kimi was the wife of Kotani Yasukichi, Kubo's elder brother. She and her husband became two of the earliest and most active proponents of Reiyukai. After her husband died, she became the first official president of the group in 1930, and after Kubo's death in 1944, she ran the organization successfully on her own, although many splinter groups formed in reaction to her leadership. Kotani focused on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), but because ancestor worship was her primary religious practice, she used the sutra rather idiosyncratically as a path to the spiritual realm. Kotani also focused the group's energies on social welfare programs, and especially youth education, for she felt that Japan's rapid modernization was neglecting the needs of the youth.

Koyasan. (高野山). In Japanese, "Mt. Koya"; a Japanese sacred mountain in Wakayama prefecture. Currently, the monastery Kongobuji on Mt. Koya serves as the headquarters (honzan) of the Koyasan SHINGONSHu sect of the Shingon tradition. While traveling through the lands southwest of Yoshino, the Japanese monk KuKAI is said to have stumbled upon a flat plateau named Koya (High Field) on a mountain. Kukai determined that Koya was an ideal site of self-cultivation, as it appeared to be an uninhabited area surrounded on four sides by high mountain peaks. It is said that the mountain was revealed to Kukai by a hunter who was an incarnation of the god (KAMI) of the mountain, Koya Myojin. This deity is still worshipped on Mt. Koya in his hunter form as Kariba Myojin. In 816, Kukai received permission from the emperor to establish a practice center dedicated to the study of MIKKYo ritual and doctrine at Koya. Kukai first sent his disciples Jitsue (786-847) and Enmyo (d. 851) to survey the entire area and went to the site himself in 818. Due to his activities at the official monastery, ToJI, and his business at the monasteries Jingoji and Muroji, Kukai's involvement with Mt. Koya was limited. In 835, he retired to Mt. Koya due to his deteriorating health and finally died there, purportedly while in a deep meditative state. Kukai's body is housed in the mausoleum complex Okunoin near Kongobuji. According to legend, he remains there in a state of eternal SAMĀDHI. As a result of the developing cult of Kukai, who increasingly came to be worshipped as a bodhisattva, Mt. Koya came to be viewed as a PURE LAND on earth. Later, as a result of political contestations, as well as several fires on the mountain in 994, Mt. Koya entered a period of protracted decline and neglect. Through the efforts of Fujiwara and other aristocrats as well as the patronage of reigning and retired emperors, Mt. Koya reemerged as a powerful monastic and economic center in the region, and became an influential center of pilgrimage and religious cultivation famous throughout Japan. In 1114, KAKUBAN took up residence on the mountain and assiduously practiced mikkyo for eight years. In 1132, he established the monasteries of Daidenboin and Mitsugon'in on Mt. Koya. Despite his efforts to refocus Mt. Koya scholasticism around the doctrinal and ritual teachings of Kukai, his rapid rise through the monastic ranks was met with great animosity from the conservative factions on the mountain. In 1288, the monk Raiyu (1226-1304) moved Daidenboin and Mitsugon'in to nearby Mt. Negoro and established what came to be known as Shingi Shingon, which regarded Kakuban as its founder. In 1185, Myohen, a disciple of HoNEN, moved to Mt. Koya to pursue rebirth in the pure land, a common goal for many pilgrims to Mt. Koya. It is said that, around 1192, NICHIREN and Honen made pilgrimages to the mountain. MYoAN EISAI's senior disciple Gyoyu established Kongosanmai-in and taught Chinese RINZAI (LINJI) Zen on Mt. Koya. Zen lineages developed between Mt. Koya, Kyoto, and Kamakura around this time. In 1585, during the Warring States Period, the monk Mokujiki ogo was able to convince Toyotomi Hideyoshi not to burn down the mountain as Oda Nobunaga had done at HIEIZAN. As a result, Mt. Koya preserves ancient manuscripts and images that would have otherwise been lost. Mt. Koya's monastic structures shrank to less than a third of their original size during the Meiji persecution of Buddhism (HAIBUTSU KISHAKU). At that same time, Mt. Koya lost much of its former land holdings, which greatly reduced its economic base. In the twentieth century, Mt. Koya went through several modernization steps: the ban against women was lifted in 1905, its roads were paved, and Mt. Koya University was built on the mountain. At present, Mt. Koya is a thriving tourist, pilgrimage, and monastic training center.

Kyoto school. An influential school of modern and contemporary Japanese philosophy that is closely associated with philosophers from Kyoto University; it combines East Asian and especially MAHĀYĀNA Buddhist thought, such as ZEN and JoDO SHINSHu, with modern Western and especially German philosophy and Christian thought. NISHIDA KITARo (1870-1945), Tanabe Hajime (1885-1962), and NISHITANI KEIJI (1900-1991) are usually considered to be the school's three leading figures. The name "Kyoto school" was coined in 1932 by Tosaka Jun (1900-1945), a student of Nishida and Tanabe, who used it pejoratively to denounce Nishida and Tanabe's "Japanese bourgeois philosophy." Starting in the late 1970s, Western scholars began to research the philosophical insights of the Kyoto school, and especially the cross-cultural influences with Western philosophy. During the 1990s, the political dimensions of the school have also begun to receive scholarly attention. ¶ Although the school's philosophical perspectives have developed through mutual criticism between its leading figures, the foundational philosophical stance of the Kyoto school is considered to be based on a shared notion of "absolute nothingness." "Absolute nothingness" was coined by Nishida Kitaro and derives from a putatively Zen and PURE LAND emphasis on the doctrine of emptiness (suNYATĀ), which Kyoto school philosophers advocated was indicative of a distinctive Eastern approach to philosophical inquiry. This Eastern emphasis on nothingness stood in contrast to the fundamental focus in Western philosophy on the ontological notion of "being." Nishida Kitaro posits absolute nothingness topologically as the "site" or "locale" (basho) of nonduality, which overcomes the polarities of subject and object, or noetic and noematic. Another major concept in Nishida's philosophy is "self-awareness" (jikaku), a state of mind that transcends the subject-object bifurcation, which was initially adopted from William James' (1842-1910) notion of "pure experience" (J. junsui keiken); this intuition reveals a limitless, absolute reality that has been described in the West as God or in the East as emptiness. Tanabe Hajime subsequently criticized Nishida's "site of absolute nothingness" for two reasons: first, it was a suprarational religious intuition that transgresses against philosophical reasoning; and second, despite its claims to the contrary, it ultimately fell into a metaphysics of being. Despite his criticism of what he considered to be Nishida's pseudoreligious speculations, however, Tanabe's Shin Buddhist inclinations later led him to focus not on Nishida's Zen Buddhist-oriented "intuition," but instead on the religious aspect of "faith" as the operative force behind other-power (TARIKI). Inspired by both Nishida and such Western thinkers as Meister Eckhart (c. 1260-1327), Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), and Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) (with whom he studied), Nishitani Keiji developed the existential and phenomenological aspects of Nishida's philosophy of absolute nothingness. Concerned with how to reach the place of absolute nothingness, given the dilemma of, on the one hand, the incessant reification and objectification by a subjective ego and, on the other hand, the nullification of reality, he argued for the necessity of overcoming "nihilism." The Kyoto school thinkers also played a central role in the development of a Japanese political ideology around the time of the Pacific War, which elevated the Japanese race mentally and spiritually above other races and justified Japanese colonial expansion. Their writings helped lay the foundation for what came to be called Nihonjinron, a nationalist discourse that advocated the uniqueness and superiority of the Japanese race; at the same time, however, Nishida also resisted tendencies toward fascism and totalitarianism in Japanese politics. Since the 1990s, Kyoto school writings have come under critical scrutiny in light of their ties to Japanese exceptionalism and pre-war Japanese nationalism. These political dimensions of Kyoto school thought are now considered as important for scholarly examination as are its contributions to cross-cultural, comparative philosophy.

lakshya. :::target on which attention is focussed; that which is kept in view

Lankāvatārasutra. (T. Lang kar gshegs pa'i mdo; C. Ru Lengqie jing; J. Nyu Ryogakyo; K. Ip Nŭngga kyong 入楞伽經). In Sanskrit, "Scripture on the Descent into Lanka"; a seminal MAHĀYĀNA sutra that probably dates from around the fourth century CE. In addition to the Sanskrit recension, which was discovered in Nepal, there are also three extant translations in Chinese, by GUnABHADRA (translated in 443), BODHIRUCI (made in 513), and sIKsĀNANDA (made in 700), and two in Tibetan. The text is composed as a series of exchanges between the Buddha and the BODHISATTVA Mahāmati, who asks his questions on behalf of Rāvana, the YAKsA king of Lanka. Thanks to the wide-ranging nature of Mahāmati's questions, the text covers many of the major themes that were the focus of contemporary Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism, and especially the emerging YOGĀCĀRA school, including the theory of the storehouse consciousness (ĀLAYAVIJNĀNA), the womb or embryo of the buddhas (TATHĀGATAGARBHA), and mind-only (CITTAMĀTRA); despite these apparent parallels, however, the sutra is never quoted in the writings of the most famous figures of Indian Yogācāra, ASAnGA (c. 320-390) and VASUBANDHU (c. fourth century CE). The sutra also offers one of the earliest sustained condemnations in Buddhist literature of meat eating, a practice that was not proscribed within the mainstream Buddhist tradition (see JAINA; DHUTAnGA). The Lankāvatāra purports to offer a comprehensive synthesis of the Mahāyāna, and indeed, its many commentators have sought to discover in it a methodical exposition of scholastic doctrine. In fact, however, as in most Mahāyāna sutras, there is little sustained argumentation through the scripture, and the scripture is a mélange composed with little esprit de synthèse. ¶ The emerging CHAN school of East Asia retrospectively identified the Lankāvatāra as a source of scriptural authority; indeed, some strands of the tradition even claimed that the sutra was so influential in the school's development that its first translator, Gunabhadra, superseded BODHIDHARMA in the roster of the Chan patriarchal lineage, as in the LENGQIE SHIZI JI ("Records of the Masters and Disciples of the Lankāvatāra"). Rather than viewing the Chan school as a systematic reading of the Lankāvatāra, as the tradition claims, it is perhaps more appropriate to say that the tradition was inspired by similar religious concerns. The Newari Buddhist tradition of Nepal also includes the Lankāvatāra among its nine principal books of the Mahāyāna (NAVAGRANTHA; see NAVADHARMA).

latency stage : Freud's fourth stage of psychosexual development whereby sexual preoccupations are repressed, children focus on interact with same sex peers.

Latency Stage ::: Freud&

latus rectum: The chord of a conic section containing the ficus and parallel to a directrix - a line segment with endpoints on the conic section, through the focus, parallel to the directrix.

latus rectum ::: --> The line drawn through a focus of a conic section parallel to the directrix and terminated both ways by the curve. It is the parameter of the principal axis. See Focus, and Parameter.

Lazarus (1922-2002): a hugely influential psychologist who focused on the study of cognition, in particular appraisal of emotion and stress, and coping mechanisms in response to stress.

lefthandpath ::: Left-hand Path The terms 'Left-hand Path' and 'Right-hand Path' refer to a claimed separation of two distinct types of religion, the exact meaning of these terms having varied over time. The modern usage regards religions which focus upon the worship of one or more deities and the observance of strict moral codes, as belonging to the Right-hand Path, while religions which value the advancement of the self over other goals are considered to belong to the Left-Hand Path (sometimes referred to as the Dark Path).

lens ::: Transparent structure in the eye whose thickening or flattening in response to visceral motor control allows light rays to be focused on the retina.

Light, as one of the forms of radiation, is in the view of theosophy an efflux or substance, ultimately to be traced back to a source or focus which gave it birth and from and through which it therefore pours as a radiation of vitality. Light, and most other forms of radiation, partake of both an undulatory and corpuscular character, for in one sense it is both, and in another sense it is neither, for its undulations or its discrete particles are merely the methods by which it subjects itself to human examination. In itself it is both force and substance, and as everything in the universe is in an unceasing state of vibration or constant movement, even a discrete particle — and an aggregate of discrete particles, because of their vibrational activities — is as readily conceivable as undulatory in character as corpuscular. The important thing about light is not so much its modes of motion or manifestation, but the fact that light is the vital efflux or substance flowing forth from a living being, whether microcosmic or macrocosmic. The same observations, mutatis mutandis, may be said of other forms of radiation — electricity, magnetism its alter ego, heat, and even, on far higher planes, thought and consciousness.

Linking ::: The process of focusing the awareness upon a link in order to attune to a target. Once that philotic thread is found it becomes possible to connect to the target, learn about them, influence them, etc.

Li Tongxuan. (J. Ri Tsugen; K. Yi T'onghyon 李通玄) (635-730; alt. 646-740). Tang-dynasty lay exegete of the AVATAMSAKASuTRA (Huayan jing) and renowned thaumaturge. Li's life is the stuff of legend. He is claimed to have been related to the Tang imperial house but is known only as an elusive and eccentric lay scholar of Buddhism, who hid away in hermits' cells and mountain grottoes so as to devote himself entirely to his writing. Li's hagiographer says that he was able to work late into the night just from the radiance that issued forth from his mouth; his scholarship and health were sustained by two mysterious maidens who brought him paper, brushes, and daily provisions. The magnum opus of this life of scholarship is a forty-roll commentary to sIKsĀNANDA's "new" 699 translation of the AvataMsakasutra; his commentary is entitled the Xin Huayan jing lun and was published posthumously in 774. In the mid-ninth century, Li's commentary was published together with the sutra as the HUAYAN JING HELUN, and this compilation is the recension of Li's exegesis that is most widely used. Li also wrote a shorter one-roll treatise known usually by its abbreviated title of Shiming lun ("The Ten Illuminations"; the full title is Shi Huayan jing shi'er yuansheng jiemi xianzhi chengbei shiming lun), which discusses the Huayan jing from ten different perspectives on the doctrine of conditioned origination (PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA), and two other shorter works. Because Li Tongxuan was not associated with the mainstream of the Huayan lineage (HUAYAN ZONG), he was able to develop his own distinctive vision of the insights found in the AvataMsakasutra, a vision that often offered an explicit challenge to the interpretations of FAZANG and the mainstream tradition. Li stands outside the orthodox patriarchal lineage of the Huayan school by being a layperson, not a monk, and by being someone interested not just in the profound philosophical implications of the scripture but also its concrete, practical dimensions. In his commentary, Li focuses not on the description of the dimensions of the realm of reality (dharmadhātu; see SI FAJIE) as had Fazang, but instead on SUDHANA's personal quest for enlightenment in the final, and massive, GAndAVYuHA chapter of the sutra. Li moved forward the crucial point of soteriological progress from the activation of the thought of enlightenment (BODHICITTOTPĀDA), which he places at the first stage of the ten abidings (shizhu), up to the first level of the ten faiths (shixin), what had previously been considered a preliminary stage of the Huayan path (MĀRGA). Since faith alone was sufficient to generate the understanding that one's own body and mind are identical to the dharmadhātu and are fundamentally equivalent to buddhahood, buddhahood could therefore be experienced in this very life, rather than after three infinite eons (ASAMKHYEYAKALPA) of training. ¶ Although Li's writings seem to have been forgotten soon after his death, there was an efflorescence of interest in Li Tongxuan during the Song dynasty, when specialists in the Linji school of Chinese CHAN Buddhism (LINJI ZONG), such as JUEFAN HUIHONG (1071-1128) and DAHUI ZONGGAO (1089-1163), and their acquaintance, the scholar-official ZHANG SHANGYING (1043-1121), began to draw on Li's practical orientation toward the Huayan jing in order to clarify aspects of Chan practice. In particular, Li's advocacy of "nature origination" (XINGQI) in the Huayan jing (rather than conditioned origination of the dharmadhātu [FAJIE YUANQI]) seemed to offer an intriguing sutra parallel to Chan's emphasis on "seeing the nature" in order to "achieve buddhahood" (JIANXING CHENGFO). In Korea, POJO CHINUL (1158-1210) was strongly influenced by Li Tongxuan's portrayal of Huayan thought, using it to demonstrate his claim that the words of the Buddha in the scriptural teachings of KYO and the mind of the Buddha transmitted by SoN (C. Chan) were identical. Through Li, Chinul was able to justify his claim of an intrinsic harmony between Son and Kyo. Chinul also wrote two treatises on Li's Huayan thought, including a three-roll abridgement of Li's Xin Huayan jing lun, entitled the Hwaom non choryo. In Japan, MYoE KoBEN (1173-1232) drew on Li's accounts of the radiance emanating from the Buddha himself, in conjunction with his readings of esoteric Buddhism (MIKKYo) and his own prophetic dreams and visionary experiences, to create a distinctive meditative technique called the SAMĀDHI of the Buddha's radiance (Bukko zanmai). Thus, despite being outside the mainstream of the Huayan tradition, in many ways, Li Tongxuan proved to be its longest lasting, and most influential, exponent. PENG SHAOSHENG (1740-1796), in his JUSHI ZHUAN ("Biographies of [Eminent Laymen"), lists Li Tongxuan as one of the three great lay masters (SANGONG) of Chinese Buddhism, along with PANG YUN (740-803) and LIU CHENGZHI (354-410), praising Li for his mastery of scholastic doctrine (jiao).

Liuzu tan jing. (J. Rokuso dangyo; K. Yukcho tan kyong 六祖壇經). In Chinese, "Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch," the written transcription of the sermons of the sixth patriarch (LIUZU) HUINENG (638-713); the composition is attributed to the monk FAHAI; also known as the Nan zong dunjiao zuishang dasheng mohe bore boluomi jing, Liuzu dashi fabao tan jing, Fabao tan jing, or simply Tan jing ("Platform Sutra"). The Liuzu tan jing is one of the most influential texts of the CHAN tradition. The text is ostensibly a record of the lectures delivered by the reputed sixth patriarch Huineng at the monastery of Dafansi in Shaozhou (present-day Guangdong province). The lectures contain the famous story of Huineng's verse competition with his rival SHENXIU, which wins Huineng the Chan patriarchy (see ZUSHI), in which Huineng distinguished his own "sudden teachings" (DUNJIAO) of a so-called Southern school (NAN ZONG) of Chan from the "gradual teachings" (jianjiao) of Shenxiu's Northern school (BEI ZONG). As Huineng defines the term later in this sermon, the "sudden teaching" involves an approach to Buddhist training that is free from all dualistic forms of practice (see ADVAYA) and that correspondingly rejects any and all expedient means (UPĀYA) of realizing truth. This sudden teaching comes to be considered emblematic of the so-called Southern school (Nan zong) of Chan, which retrospectively comes to be considered the mainstream of the Chan tradition. The teachings of the text also focus on the unity of concentration (SAMĀDHI) and wisdom (PRAJNĀ), in which concentration is conceived to be the essence (TI) of wisdom and wisdom the functioning (YONG) of concentration; "no-thought" (WUNIAN), which the text defines as "not to think even when involved in thought"; seeing one's own nature (JIANXING); and the conferral of the formless precepts (WUXIANG JIE). Indeed, the "platform" in the title refers to the ordination platform (jietan; cf. SĪMĀ) where Huineng conferred these formless precepts. Although the Liuzu tan jing has been traditionally heralded as the central scripture of the Nan zong, and certainly is beholden to the teachings of the Southern-school champion HEZE SHENHUI, the text seems to have been influenced as well by the teachings of both the Northern and Oxhead schools (NIUTOU ZONG). Within the Chan tradition, a Yuan-dynasty edition of the Liuzu tan jing, which included an important preface by FORI QISONG, was most widely disseminated. SIR MARC AUREL STEIN's rediscovery in the DUNHUANG manuscript cache of a previously unknown, and quite different, recension of the text, dating to the mid-ninth century, did much to launch the modern scholarly reappraisal of the received history of the Chan school. See also DUNWU.

Loading ::: Using awareness, concentration, and even breath to charge an object of focus with a particular archetype, current, idea, or intent. The object can be tangible (specific materia or a talisman for instance) or intangible (e.g. a sigil). See also Patterning.

Locus of Focus ::: Refers to the field and breadth of one's awareness. Most find in mundane consciousness that the mind is constantly jumping around and very broadly focused, but through practicing meditation (especially concentration meditation in this case) the locus of focus narrows so that some deeper mysteries of reality can be revealed and so that sense of self can be shaken off more easily.

Lycanthropy ::: The act of engaging in acts as a werewolf. This usually refers to astral shapeshifting into a werewolf and groups that focus on such activities as well as their actions surrounding those forms.

MadhyamakālaMkāra. (T. Dbu ma rgyan). In Sanskrit, "Ornament of the Middle Way"; a verse work in ninety-seven stanzas by the eighth-century Indian master sĀNTARAKsITA; it is accompanied by a prose commentary (vṛtti) by the author. Both the root text and commentary are lost in the original Sanskrit (although verses cited elsewhere remain) but preserved in Tibetan translation. Whereas sāntaraksita's other major work, the TATTVASAMGRAHA, is valued largely for its detailed discussion of competing Buddhist and non-Buddhist schools of Indian philosophy, the MadhyamakālaMkāra, which was composed later, is regarded as the foundational text of the YOGĀCĀRA-MADHYAMAKA synthesis that occurred in late Indian Buddhism, what Tibetan doxographers would dub YOGĀCĀRA-SVĀTANTRIKA-MADHYAMAKA. sāntaraksita argues that the proper method for gaining realization of reality is to first come to the Yogācāra understanding that external objects do not exist and then move to the Madhyamaka view that mind also is empty of self. The MadhyamakālaMkāra famously states (at stanzas 92-93), "Through relying on mind-only, the nonexistence of external objects should be known. Relying on this [Madhyamaka] mode, it should be known that this [mind] also is completely selfless. Those who, having mounted the chariot of the two modes, grasp the reins of reasoning thereby attain the state of a Mahāyānist exactly as it is." sāntaraksita argues that anything that has intrinsic nature (SVABHĀVA) must be intrinsically either one or many. Whatever is neither intrinsically one nor many must lack intrinsic nature. He then goes on to subject a wide range of important philosophical categories to this reasoning in an effort to demonstrate that nothing is endowed with intrinsic nature. These categories include the conditioned (such as the elements of earth, water, fire, and wind), the unconditioned (NIRVĀnA), the person (PUDGALA) asserted by the VĀTSĪPUTRĪYAs, and space (ĀKĀsA). He continues on to apply this same reasoning to the major categories of consciousness of various Buddhist and non-Buddhist schools, focusing upon VAIBHĀsIKA, SAUTRĀNTIKA, and the various subschools of VIJNĀNAVĀDA. In the course of this section, he considers such important topics in Buddhist epistemology as whether or not the object casts an image or "aspect" (ĀKĀRA), toward the perceiving consciousness, and whether reflexivity (SVASAMVEDANA) exists. He concludes that consciousness lacks intrinsic nature (NIḤSVABHĀVA). Roughly the last third of the text is devoted to an exposition of the two truths (SATYADVAYA). He concludes by stating that the follower of the Buddha has compassion for those who hold mistaken philosophical views.

Madhyamaka. (T. Dbu ma pa; C. San lun zong/Zhongguan; J. Sanronshu/Chugan; K. Sam non chong/Chunggwan 三論/中). In Sanskrit, "Middle Way (school)"; a proponent or follower of the middle way" (MADHYAMAPRATIPAD); Buddhism is renowned as the middle way between extremes, a term that appears in the Buddha's first sermon (see P. DHAMMACAKKAPPAVATTANASUTTA) in which he prescribed a middle path between the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. Thus, all proponents of Buddhism are in a sense proponents of the middle way, for each school of Buddhist philosophy identifies different versions of the two extremes and charts a middle way between them. The term Madhyamaka has however come to refer more specifically to the school of Buddhist philosophy that sets forth a middle way between the extreme of eternalism (sĀsVATADṚstI) and the extreme of annihilationism (UCCHEDADṚstI). The Madhyamaka school derives from the works of NĀGĀRJUNA, the c. second century CE philosopher who is traditionally regarded as its founder. His major philosophical works, especially his MuLAMADHYAMAKAKĀRIKĀ (a.k.a. MADHYAMAKAsĀSTRA), as well as the writings of his disciple ĀRYADEVA, provide the locus classicus for the school (which only seems to have been designated the Madhyamaka school after Āryadeva's time). Commentaries on their works (by such figures as BUDDHAPĀLITA, BHĀVAVIVEKA, and CANDRAKĪRTI) provide the primary medium for philosophical expression in the school. Madhyamaka was highly influential in Tibet, where it was traditionally considered the highest of the four schools of Indian Buddhist philosophy (Madhyamaka, YOGĀCĀRA, SAUTRĀNTIKA, and VAIBHĀsIKA). Tibetan exegetes discerned two branches in the Madhyamaka, the PRĀSAnGIKA (associated with Buddhapālita and Candrakīrti) and the SVĀTANTRIKA (associated with Bhāvaviveka and sĀNTARAKsITA). The works of Nāgārjuna and Āryadeva were also widely studied in East Asia, forming the basis of the "Three Treatises" school (C. SAN LUN ZONG; K. Sam non chong; J. Sanronshu), where the three treatises are the ZHONG LUN (the "Middle Treatise," or Madhyamakasāstra), the SHI'ERMEN LUN ("Twelve Gate Treatise," or *Dvādasamukhasāstra), and the BAI LUN ("Hundred Verses Treatise," *sATAsĀSTRA), the latter two attributed to Āryadeva. The Madhyamaka school is most renowned for its exposition of the nature of reality, especially its deployment of the doctrines of emptiness (suNYATĀ) and the two truths (SATYADVAYA). Because of its central claim that all phenomena are devoid or empty (sunya) of intrinsic existence (SVABHĀVA), its proponents are also referred to as suNYAVĀDA and Niḥsvabhāvavāda. The doctrine of emptiness has also led to the charge, going back to the time of Nāgārjuna and continuing into the contemporary era, that the Madhyamaka is a form of nihilism, a charge that Nāgārjuna himself deftly refuted. Central to Madhyamaka philosophy is the relation between emptiness and dependent origination (PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA). Dependent origination in its Madhyamaka interpretation refers not only to the twelvefold chain but more broadly to the fact that all phenomena arise in dependence on other factors. Hence, everything is dependent, and thus is empty of independent and intrinsic existence (NIḤSVABHĀVA). As Nāgārjuna states, "Because there are no phenomena that are not dependently arisen, there are no phenomena that are not empty." This analysis becomes key to the Madhyamaka articulation of the middle way: because everything is dependently arisen, the extreme of annihilation (UCCHEDĀNTA) is avoided; because everything is empty, the extreme of permanence (sĀSVATĀNTA) is avoided. Although most of the major schools of Buddhist philosophy speaks of the two truths-the ultimate truth (PARAMĀRTHASATYA) and the conventional truth (SAMVṚTISATYA)-this category is especially important for Madhyamaka, which must simultaneously proclaim the emptiness of all phenomena (the ultimate truth) while describing the operations of the world of cause and effect and the processes governing the path to enlightenment (all of which are deemed conventional truths). Although the true character of conventional truth is misperceived as a result of ignorance (AVIDYĀ), conventional truths themselves are not rejected; as Nāgārjuna states, "Without relying on the conventional, the ultimate cannot be taught; without understanding the ultimate, NIRVĀnA is not attained." The precise nature of the two truths and their relation is explored in detail in the Madhyamaka treatises, most famously in the sixth chapter of Candrakīrti's MADHYAMAKĀVATĀRA. Although most renowned for its doctrine of emptiness, Madhyamaka is a MAHĀYĀNA school and, as such, also offers detailed expositions of the path (MĀRGA) to the enlightenment. These works that focus on soteriological issues include the SUHṚLLEKHA and RATNĀVALĪ of Nāgārjuna, the CATUḤsATAKA of Āryadeva, the MADHYAMAKĀVATĀRA of Candrakīrti, the BODHICARYĀVATĀRA of sĀNTIDEVA, the BHĀVANĀKRAMA of KAMALAsĪLA, and the BODHIPATHAPRADĪPA of ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNĀNA.

major axis: The longer axis of an ellipse, passing through its focus.

Makiguchi Tsunesaburo. (牧口常三郎) (1871-1944). Founder of SoKA GAKKAI, a modern Japanese lay movement. Makiguchi was born in a small village in Niigata prefecture. Until 1928, he pursued a career as an educator and writer, serving as a teacher or a principal in several schools, and publishing articles on his educational philosophy, which focused on developing the creativity and personal experience of his students. Perhaps because of such personal misfortunes as the loss of four of his five children, Makiguchi converted in 1928 to NICHIREN SHoSHu, an offshoot of Nichiren Buddhism, after finding that its teachings resonated with his own ideas about engendering social and religious values. Together with his disciple Toda Josei (1900-1958), Makiguchi founded in 1930 the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (Creating Educational Values), a lay organization under the umbrella of the Nichiren Shoshu, which focused on publicizing his pedagogical ideas, and led its first general meeting. The society subsequently began to take on a decidedly religious character, focusing on missionary work for Nichiren Shoshu. As the Pacific War expanded, Makiguchi and his followers refused to cooperate with state-enforced SHINTo practices, leading to a rift between them and TAISEKIJI, the head monastery of Nichiren Shoshu. As a result, Makiguchi was arrested in 1943 on charges of lèse-majesté and violations of the Public Order Act, and died in prison one year later. After Makiguchi's disciple Toda Josei was released from prison in July 1945, he took charge of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai organization and renamed it Soka Gakkai in 1946, developing it into one of the largest lay Buddhist organizations in Japan.

Mantra ::: A syllable, word, phrase, or even onomatopoeia repeated as part of a spiritual practice. Can be an object of focus in its own right or designed to induce a trance. Does not need to be spoken aloud but is usually most powerful done so.

meditation ::: Meditation The practice of inner focus which renders an advanced state of awareness. It includes a variety of techniques for some individuals that may or may not incorporate spirituality which can calm and soothe as well as provide insight.

meditation: refers to techniques that focus the mind and promote a state of calmness so that the mind and body can be brought into greater harmony to facilitate health and healing.

memoir: An autobiographical sketch, which focuses less on the author's personal life or psychological development, but more on the notable people and events the author has encountered or witnessed. The aim of a memoir, unlike a diary, is to be eventually published.

Mental Projection ::: The ability to firmly focus one's awareness at the level of the Mental Plane and to slip between and amongst the forms that characterize this level. Through practice this allows for exploring the realm of symbolic archetypes and raw information to the extent that the human mind can lucidly and persistently form structures around such ideas. See also Mental Plane.

Metta ::: Also "Loving-Kindness Meditation". A type of meditative practice that focuses on the quality of love and acceptance in relation to self and others. Metta can be a combination of samatha and insight practice and is traditionally focused around the Anahata Chakra and loosening the boundaries and fetters of self-identity.

micrometer ::: n. --> An instrument, used with a telescope or microscope, for measuring minute distances, or the apparent diameters of objects which subtend minute angles. The measurement given directly is that of the image of the object formed at the focus of the object glass.

Midrash ::: (pl. midrashim). From darash, "to inquire," whence it comes to mean “exposition” (of scripture). Refers to the “commentary” literature developed in classical Judaism that attempts to interpret Jewish scriptures in a thorough manner. Literary Midrash may focus either on halaka, directing the Jew to specific patterns of religious practice, or on (h)aggada, dealing with theological ideas, ethical teachings, popular philosophy, imaginative exposition, legend, allegory, animal fables—that is, whatever is not halaka.

mikkyo. (密教). In Japanese, lit. "esoteric teachings"; often translated as "esoteric Buddhism." The term mikkyo is used collectively today to refer to a large body of texts, liturgies, implements, and rituals that were imported from China to Japan during the Heian period (794-1185) by influential Japanese monk-pilgrims in the Japanese TENDAISHu and SHINGONSHu traditions. These new teachings and objects in turn were largely, but not exclusively, based on the teachings of late medieval Indian Buddhism (see TANTRA and VAJRAYĀNA) that had reached Central Asia and China. SAICHo (762-822) and KuKAI (774-835) played the most notable roles in introducing esoteric Buddhism to the Japanese isles. Their trips to Tangdynasty China (618-907) coincided with the height of esoteric practice on the continent. While Saicho's brief voyage to China in 804 focused on TIANTAI practice, he also learned a limited number of MANTRA practices toward the end of his stay, which he introduced to Japan. In 806, KuKAI returned from a three-year stay in the Tang capital of Chang'an, bringing back with him the extensive training he had received in esoteric Buddhism from the prominent tantric master HUIGUO (746-805), as well as a large collection of esoteric texts and MAndALAs. In the following years, Saicho and Kukai's esoteric rituals quickly gained favor with the Japanese court, gradually becoming dominant among the political elite over the course of the Heian period. Alongside Kukai's Shingon school of mikkyo (known as ToMITSU), Tendai Buddhism increasingly developed its own set of tantric practices (known as TAIMITSU) under such successors of Saicho as ENNIN (794-864), ENCHIN (814-891), and ANNEN (b. 841). These practices were further adopted by the Nara Buddhist institutions and heavily influenced the growth and development of SHUGENDo. Many local cultic practices, now collectively referred to as SHINTo, also incorporated esoteric rituals. The primary deity of worship in mikkyo is the universal buddha MAHĀVAIROCANA. Concrete goals of esoteric practice included maintaining power, attaining good fortune, warding off evil, and becoming a buddha in one's very body (SOKUSHIN JoBUTSU). Common ritual implements included mandalas (see KONGoKAI and TAIZoKAI); icons, sometimes hidden, that were presented in the ritual hall (see HIBUTSU); and various ritual objects such as wands, bells, and the VAJRA.

Mi la ras pa'i rnam thar. (Milarepe Namtar). In Tibetan, "Life of Milarepa"; an account of the celebrated eleventh-century Tibetan yogin MI LA RAS PA. While numerous early Tibetan versions of the life story exist, including several that may date from his lifetime, the best-known account was composed in 1488 by GTSANG SMYON HERUKA, the so-called mad YOGIN of Tsang, based upon numerous earlier works. Its narrative focuses on Mi la ras pa's early wrongdoings, his subsequent training and meditation, and eventual death. It is a companion to the MI LA'I MGUR 'BUM ("The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa"), also arranged and printed by Gtsang smyon Heruka, which records Milarepa's later teaching career through a compilation of his religious instruction and songs of realization. Gtsang smyon Heruka's version of the Mi la ras pa'i rnam thar is known and read throughout the Tibetan Buddhist cultural world and is widely accepted as a great literary achievement by Tibetans and Western scholars alike. The account of Milarepa's life profoundly affected the development of sacred biography in Tibet, a prominent genre in Tibetan Buddhist culture, and has influenced the way in which Tibet's Buddhism and culture have been understood in the West.

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Modernist ::: A general term used in discussions of religion to indicate the perspective that focuses on modern applicability of religious principles. See also liberal, conservative.

Mohe zhiguan. (J. Makashikan; K. Maha chigwan 摩訶止觀). In Chinese, "The Great Calming and Contemplation"; a comprehensive treatise on soteriological theory and meditation according to the TIANTAI ZONG; attributed to TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597). The Mohe zhiguan is based on a series of lectures Zhiyi delivered in 594, which were transcribed and edited by his disciple GUANDING. Zhi (lit. "stopping") is the Chinese translation for sAMATHA (calmness, serenity) and guan (lit. "observation") is the Chinese for VIPAsYANĀ (insight); the work as a whole seeks to establish a proper balance between meditative practice and philosophical insight. Zhi and guan practice are treated in three different ways in this treatise. Zhi in its denotation of "stopping" means calming the mind so that it is not buffeted by distracting thoughts; fixing the mind so that it stays focused on the present; and recognizing that distraction and concentration are both manifestations of a unitary, nondual reality. Guan in its denotation of "observation" means to illuminate the illusory nature of thought so that distractions are brought to an end; to have insight into the suchness (TATHATĀ) that is the ultimate nature of all phenomena in the universe; and to recognize that in suchness both insight and noninsight ultimately are identical. The original text of the Mohe zhiguan consists of ten chapters, but only the titles of the last three chapters survive. The last extant chapter, Chapter 7 on "Proper Contemplation," comprises approximately half of the entire treatise and, as the title suggests, provides a detailed description of the ten modes of contemplation and the ten spheres of contemplation. The first of the ten spheres of contemplation is called "the realm of the inconceivable" (S. ACINTYA). In his discussion of this realm in the first part of the fifth roll, Zhiyi covers one of the most famous of Tiantai doctrines: "the TRICHILIOCOSM in a single instant of thought" (YINIAN SANQIAN), which Zhiyi frames here as the "the trichiliocosm contained in the mind during an instant of thought" (sanqian zai yinian xin), viz., that any given thought-moment perfectly encompasses all reality, both temporally and spatially. By emphatically noting the "inconceivable" ability of the mind to contain the trichiliocosm, Zhiyi sought to emphasize the importance and mystery of the mind during the practice of meditation. This chapter, however, remains incomplete. The work also offers an influential presentation of the "four SAMĀDHIs," that is, the samādhis of constant sitting, constant walking, both sitting and walking, and neither sitting nor walking. Along with Zhiyi's FAHUA XUANYI and FAHUA WENJU, the Mohe zhiguan is considered to be one of the three most important treatises in the Tiantai tradition and is regarded as Zhiyi's magnum opus. The Tiantai monk ZHANRAN's MOHE ZHIGUAN FUXING ZHUANHONG JUE is considered to be the most authoritative commentary on the Mohe zhiguan.

Monkey Mind ::: The state of awareness characterized by habitual thought loops, incessant chatter, and an inability to believe one can focus. This is, quite sadly, the default mode for most people and takes time and meditative effort to learn to control.

Mossad ::: (Heb. Hamossad Le’mode’in U’le’tafkidim Meyuchadim) The Israeli government's intelligence agency. Like the CIA, it uses agents to collect intelligence, conduct covert operations and counterterrorism. Its primary focus is on terrorist organizations and the Arab nations.

Mubarak Plan (1989) ::: In 1989, Mubarak came up with a new plan to get Israel and the PLO to negotiate peace. The new plan focused on the Palestinian elections and required Israel to accept the outcome and freeze settlement activities and entering the West Bank and Gaza Strip on election day. Arafat accepted the plan and Israel rejected it.

multimodal therapy: a cognitive behavioural therapy developed by Lazarus, which aims to consider all aspects of a disorder. To be effective, seven different dimensions, represented by BASIC IB?(behavior, affects, sensations, images, cognitions, interpersonal relationships, and biological functioning) must be focused on and treated.

Myoe Koben. (明慧高弁) (1173-1232). A Japanese SHINGONSHu monk who sought to revitalize the Kegonshu (C. HUAYAN ZONG) in Japan; commonly known as Myoe Shonin. Koben promoted traditional Buddhist values over the newer approaches of so-called Kamakura Buddhism. Against the prevailing tide of belief that the world was in terminal decline (J. mappo; C.MOFA), he took a positive stance on Buddhist practice by arguing that salvation could still be attained through traditional means. Koben was born in Kii province (present-day Wakayama Prefecture) and orphaned at the age of eight when both parents died in separate incidents. He went to live under the care of his maternal uncle Jogaku Gyoji, a Shingon monk at Jingoji on Mt. Takao, northwest of Kyoto. In 1188, at the age of sixteen, he was ordained by Jogaku at ToDAIJI. He took the ordination name Joben and later adopted the name Koben. After ordination, he studied Shingon, Kegon, and esoteric Buddhism (MIKKYo) at one of Todaiji's subtemples, Sonshoin. Koben tried twice to travel on pilgrimage to India, first in the winter of 1202-1203 and second in the spring of 1205, but was unsuccessful. On his first trip, Kasuga, a spirit (KAMI) associated with the Fujiwara family shrine in Nara, is said to have possessed the wife of Koben's uncle, Yuasa Munemitsu, and insisted that Koben not leave Japan. In the second attempt, he fell ill before he set out on his trip. In both instances, Koben believed that the Kasuga deity was warning him not to go, and he consequently abandoned his plans. These portents were supported by Fujiwara opposition to his voyage. In 1206, the retired emperor Gotoba gave Koben a plot of land in Toganoo. Gotoba designated the temple there as Kegon, renamed it Kozanji, and requested that Koben revive the study of Kegon doctrine. A year later, Gotoba appointed him headmaster of Sonshoin with the hope of further expanding Koben's promotion of the Kegon school. Despite this generous attention, Koben focused little of his efforts on this mission. He initially built a hermitage for himself at Toganoo, and it was not until 1219 that he constructed the Golden Hall at Kozanji. Koben dismissed the newer schools of Buddhism in his day, particularly HoNEN's (1122-1212) reinterpretation of pure land practice in the JoDOSHu. In 1212, he denounced Honen's nenbutsu (C. NIANFO) practice in Zaijarin ("Refuting the False Vehicle"), a response to Honen's earlier work, Senchaku hongan nenbutsu shu ("Anthology of Selections on the Nenbutsu and the Original Vow"; see SENCHAKUSHu). In contrast to the Jodoshu's exclusive advocacy of the single practice of reciting the Buddha's name, Koben defended the traditional argument that there were many valid methods for reaching salvation. Koben spent the last several decades of his life experimenting with ways to make Kegon doctrine accessible to a wider audience. In the end, however, his efforts were largely unsuccessful. He was unable to garner popular support, and his disciples never founded institutionally independent schools, as did the disciples of the other teachers of Kamakura Buddhism. Koben was fascinated by his dreams and recorded many of them in a well-known text known as the Yume no ki, or "Dream Diary." Like most Japanese of his day, Koben regarded many of these dreams to be portents coming directly from the buddhas, bodhisattvas, and gods.

myopia ::: n. --> Nearsightedness; shortsightedness; a condition of the eye in which the rays from distant object are brought to a focus before they reach the retina, and hence form an indistinct image; while the rays from very near objects are normally converged so as to produce a distinct image. It is corrected by the use of a concave lens.

Mystery Schools Adopted in theosophical literature from Classical writings, to designate centers which were consecrated to the teaching of the truths of cosmic Being to those who were found fit and ready for their reception; and this body of teaching or instruction and training is imbodied in the ancient wisdom which is the heritage of humanity. This wisdom was originally given to mankind during the infancy of the human race by celestial teachers. “The mysteries of Heaven and Earth, revealed to the Third Race by their celestial teachers in the days of their purity, became a great focus of light, the rays from which became necessarily weakened as they were diffused and shed upon an uncongenial, because too material soil. With the masses they degenerated into Sorcery, taking later on the shape of exoteric religions, of idolatry full of superstitions, and man-, or hero-worship” (SD 2:281).

n. 1. The point, axis, or pivot about which a body rotates. 2. A point, area, or part that is approximately in the middle of a larger area or volume. 3. A person or thing that is a focus of interest or attention. 4. A point of origin. centre"s, centres. v. 5. To focus or bring together. 6. To move towards, mark, put, or be concentrated at or as at a centre. 7. centred. Brought together to a centre, concentrated.

Nara Buddhism, Six Schools of. A traditional grouping of six major scholastic schools of Japanese Buddhism active during the Nara period (710-794 CE): (1) Sanronshu (see SAN LUN ZONG), an East Asian counterpart of the MADHYAMAKA school; (2) Kegonshu (see HUAYAN ZONG), an East Asian exegetical tradition focused on the AVATAMSAKASuTRA; (3) RISSHu, or VINAYA exegesis; (4) Jojitsushu (see CHENGSHI LUN) the TATTVASIDDHI exegetical tradition; (5) Hossoshu (see FAXIANG ZONG), an East Asian strand of YOGĀCĀRA; and (6) Kushashu, focused on ABHIDHARMA exegesis using the ABHIDHARMAKOsABHĀsYA. These six schools are presumed to have been founded during the initial phase of Buddhism's introduction into Japan, between c. 552 and the end of the Nara period in 794. These learned schools were eventually supplanted by the practice and meditative schools of TENDAISHu and SHINGONSHu, which were introduced during the succeeding Heian period (794-1185), and the later schools of the ZENSHu, the pure land schools of JoDOSHu and JoDO SHINSHu, and NICHIRENSHu of the Kamakura period (1185-1333).

nat. In Burmese, a generic term for a "spirit" or "god." Burmese (Myanmar) lore posits the existence of numerous species of nats, of both indigenous and Indian origin. Nats can range in temperament from benign to malevolent, including those who are potentially helpful but dangerous if offended. The most generally benevolent species of nats are the divinities (DEVA) of the Indian pantheon. This group includes such gods as Thakya Min (sAKRA) and Byama (BRAHMĀ). Nats of Indian origin are typically looked upon as servants of the Buddhist religion, which is how they are depicted in Burmese Pāli literature. Indigenous nats in the form of nature spirits are thought to occupy trees, hills, streams, and other natural sites, and may cause harm if disturbed. The guardian spirits of villages and of the home are also classified as nats. Certain nats guard medicinal herbs and certain minerals, and, when properly handled, aid alchemists in their search for elixirs and potions. One species of nat, the oktazaung, are ghosts who have been forced to act as guardians of pagoda treasures. These unhappy spirits are thought to be extremely dangerous and to bring calamity upon those who attempt to rob pagodas or encroach upon pagoda lands. The best-known group of nats is the "thirty-seven nats" of the Burmese national pantheon. For centuries, they have been the focus of a royal cult of spirit propitiation; the worship of national nats is attested as early as the eleventh century CE at PAGAN (Bagan). At the head of the pantheon is Thakya Min, but the remaining are all spirits of deceased humans who died untimely or violent deaths, mostly at the hands of Burmese monarchs. The number thirty-seven has remained fixed over the centuries, although many of the members of the pantheon have been periodically replaced. One of the nats who has maintained his position is Mahagiri Min, lord of the nat pantheon, occupying a position just beneath Thakya Min. Mahagiri dwells atop Mount Poppa and is also worshipped as the household nat in most Burmese homes. An annual nat festival of national importance is held in August at the village of Taungbyon near Mandalay. The festival is held in honor of Shwepyingyi and Shwepyinnge, two Muslim brothers who became nats as a consequence of being executed by King Kyanzittha of Pagan (r. 1084-1112) who feared their supernormal strength.

Neo-Confucianism developed in three phases, namely the Reason school in the Sung period (960-1279), the Mind school in the Ming period (1388-1644) and the Moral-Law school in the Ch-ing period (1644-1911). The central idea of the movement is focused on the Great Ultimate (T'ai Chi) and Reason (li). The Great Ultimate moves and generates the active principle, yang, when its activity reaches its limit, and engenders the passive principle, yin, when it becomes tranquil. The eternal oscillation of yin and yang gives rise to the material universe through their Five Agents of Water, Fire, Wood, Metal and Earth. Thus, reality is a progressively evolved and a well-coordinated system.

Nichiren Shoshu. (日蓮正宗). In Japanese, "Orthodox School of Nichiren"; one of the principal Japanese Buddhist schools based on the teachings of NICHIREN (1222-1282). Nichiren Shoshu is descended from Nichiren through Nichiko (1246-1332), the alleged sole heir of Nichiren among his six chief disciples. Nichiko was a loyal student and archivist of Nichiren's writings, who established in 1290 what was then called the Fuji school at TAISEKIJI, a monastery on Mt. Fuji in Shizuoka prefecture. Nichiko's school later divided into eight subbranches, known collectively as the Fuji Monryu (Fuji schools) or Nichiko Monryu (Nichiko schools). The monk Nichikan (1665-1726), a noted commentator and teacher, was instrumental in resurrecting the observance of Nichiren's teachings at Taisekiji. He was also the person who systematized and established many of the innovative features of the school, particularly the school's unique view that Nichiren was the Buddha (see below). The eight associated temples that remained in the Fuji school reunited in 1876 as the Komon sect, later adopting a new name, the Honmon. However, in 1899, Taisekiji split from the other temples and established an independent sect, renaming itself Nichiren Shoshu in 1912. In 1930, MAKIGUCHI TSUNESABURO and Toda Josei established the SoKA GAKKAI (then called Soka Kyoiku Gakkai), a lay organization for the promotion of Nichiren Shoshu thought, but quickly ran afoul of the Japanese government's promotion of the cult of state Shintoism. Makiguchi refused to comply with government promulgation of Shinto worship and was imprisoned for violating the Peace Preservation Law; he died in prison in 1944. Toda was eventually released, and he devoted himself after World War II to promoting Soka Gakkai and Nichiren Shoshu, which at that time were closely connected. The two groups acrimoniously separated in 1991, Nichiren Shoshu accusing Soka Gakkai of forming a personality cult around their leader IKEDA DAISAKU (b. 1928) and of improper modifications of Nichiren practice; Soka Gakkai accusing the Nichiren Shoshu leader Abe Nikken of trying to dominate both organizations. The two groups now operate independently. Nichiren Shoshu has grown to over seven hundreds temples in Japan, as well as a few temples in foreign countries. Nichiren Shoshu distinguishes itself from the other Nichiren schools by its unique view of the person of Nichiren: it regards the founder as the true buddha in this current degenerate age of the dharma (J. mappo; C. MOFA), a buddha whom sĀKYAMUNI promised his followers would appear two thousand years in the future; therefore, they refer to Nichiren as daishonin, or great sage. Other Nichiren schools instead regard the founder as the reincarnation of Jogyo Bosatsu (the BODHISATTVA VIsIstACĀRITRA). Nichiren Shoshu's claim to orthodoxy is based on two documents, not recognized by other Nichiren schools, in which Nichiren claims to transfer his dharma to Nichiko, viz., the Minobu sojosho ("Minobu Transfer Document") and the Ikegami sojosho ("Ikegami Transfer Document"), which are believed to have been written in 1282 by Nichiren, the first at Minobu and the second on the day of his death at Ikegami. Nichiren Shoshu practice is focused on the dai-gohonzon mandala, the ultimate object of devotion in the school, which Nichiren created. The DAI-GOHONZON (great object of devotion), a MAndALA (here, a cosmological chart) inscribed by Nichiren in 1279, includes the DAIMOKU (lit., "title"), viz., the phrase "NAMU MYoHoRENGEKYo" (Homage to the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA), which is considered to be the embodiment of Nichiren's enlightenment and the ultimate reason for his advent in this world. The gohonzon is placed in a shrine or on a simple altar in the homes of devotees of the sect. This veneration of the gohonzon to the exclusion of all other deities and images of the Buddha distinguishes Nichiren Shoshu from other Nichiren schools. The school interprets the three jewels (RATNATRAYA) of the Buddha, DHARMA, and SAMGHA to refer, respectively, to Nichiren (the buddha); to namu Myohorengekyo and the gohonzon (the dharma); and to his successor Nichiko (the saMgha). By contrast, other Nichiren schools generally consider sākyamuni to be the Buddha and Nichiren the saMgha, and do not include the gohonzon in the dharma, since they question its authenticity. All schools of Nichiren thought accept Nichiren's acknowledgment of the buddhahood that is latent in all creatures and the ability of all human beings of any class to achieve buddhahood in this lifetime.

Nirira Namastaka The ability of a high adept to produce from within his focus of consciousness or to exteriorize from it a substitute on a lower plane, which thereafter functions in all respects as would the full inner spiritual person were he present in the vehicle in which the substitute is acting. It is the same power but on a higher plane which enables the adept to transfer his mayavi-rupa to different parts of the earth, and to act in it; a power which in Tibetan is called hpho-wa.

Niwano Nikkyo. (庭野日敬) (1906-1999). Cofounder of RISSHo KoSEIKAI, a Japanese lay Buddhist organization that was an offshoot of REIYuKAI and was strongly influenced by NICHIRENSHu doctrine. Niwano was born into a poor family in a small town in Nigata prefecture in northern Japan. After going to work in Tokyo in 1923, Niwano led a typical working-class life, running such small businesses as rice, charcoal, and Japanese-pickle shops, while also showing an intense interest in astrology, numerology, and divination. Niwano became an ardent adherent of Reiyukai in 1934, when his nine-month-old daughter recovered from a serious illness after he followed the organization's practice of ancestor worship. Niwano soon became a leading evangelist for Reiyukai, recruiting many new followers, one of whom was NAGANUMA MYoKo (1899-1957). In 1938, Niwano and Naganuma left Reiyukai and cofounded Rissho Koseikai, together with about thirty other followers. According to Niwano, the group seceded because of Reiyukai's overemphasis on the miraculous benefit, rather than the teachings, of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), although others say that the split occurred because the leader of Reiyukai publicly criticized Niwano's interest in divination. After establishing the organization, Naganuma served as a spirit medium, while Niwano focused on teaching and administration. After Naganuma's death in 1957, Niwano became the president of the million-member organization and declared the end of the organization's first era of "skillful means" (J. hoben; S. UPĀYAKAUsALYA), which had been characterized by spirit mediumship and divine instructions, and the dawn of a new era of "manifesting the truth" (shinjitsu kengen). Niwano affirmed that henceforth the central objects of the organization's faith would be the Saddharmapundarīkasutra and sĀKYAMUNI Buddha, which were eternal and universal. Based on his understanding of the sutra, Niwano emphasized the spiritual development of individuals along the BODHISATTVA path, whose salvific efforts should be dedicated not just to one's own family and ancestors, but also to Japanese society and the world at large. Niwano also dedicated himself to promoting world peace through interreligious cooperation, one example of which was the establishment of the Niwano Peace Foundation in 1978. Niwano resigned from the presidency of Rissho Koseikai in 1991 and was succeeded by his eldest son Niwano Nichiko (b. 1938).

novel: Generally speaking a novel is any extended fictional prose narrative that focuses on a few crucial characters but often involves scores of secondary characters. The novel can cover any subject from any view point. Within English there are a few contenders for the first 'true novel': Bunyan's Pilgrims's progress,Defoe's Robinson Crusoe or Moll Flanders. After the birth of the novel in the 18th century, the 19th century saw a rise in the production of the novel, with the advent of novelists such as Austen and the Bronte sisters.

Novell, Inc. ::: (company, networking) A software development company specialising in networking and workgroup applications.Novell started life as Novell Data Systems, a computer hardware business. The company was reorganised as Novell, Inc., and began to focus almost entirely on networking in 1983, with the release of Novell Netware 1, a Network Operating System for IBM PCs.Novell Netware's success has left Novell in a dominant position in the networking market. The product has evolved and now supports many hardware and software platforms together with WAN connectivity.The company has diversified in recent years, with the acquisition of several mainstream applications, including Wordperfect and Quattro Pro. Other products include UnixWare, AppWare, Personal NetWare, Groupwise and Novell Dos 7. .(21 Sept 1995)

Novell, Inc. "company, networking" A {software} development company specialising in {network}ing and {workgroup} applications. {Novell} started life as {Novell Data Systems}, a computer hardware business. The company was reorganised as Novell, Inc., and began to focus almost entirely on networking in 1983, with the release of {Novell Netware} 1, a {Network Operating System} for {IBM PCs}. {Novell Netware}'s success has left Novell in a dominant position in the {network}ing market. The product has evolved and now supports many {hardware} and {software} {platforms} together with {WAN} connectivity. The company has diversified in recent years, with the acquisition of several mainstream applications, including {Wordperfect} and {Quattro} Pro. Other products include {UnixWare}, {AppWare}, {Personal NetWare}, {Groupwise} and {Novell Dos 7}. {(http://novell.com/)}. (21 Sept 1995)

Nyāyabindu. (T. Rigs pa'i thigs pa). In Sanskrit, "Drop of Reasoning," one of the seven treatises of the great seventh-century logician DHARMAKĪRTI. This text summarizes Dharmakīrti's positions on topics set forth at greater length in his most important work, the PRAMĀnAVĀRTTIKA, focusing upon the two forms of valid knowledge (PRAMĀnA): direct perception (PRATYAKsA) and inference (ANUMĀNA). The work is divided into three chapters, with the first chapter dealing with direct perception (pratyaksa), that is, valid knowledge gained through the sense consciousnesses (and the mental consciousness) without mediation by thought. The second chapter deals with "inference for one's own purposes" (SVĀRTHĀNUMĀNA), the process by which thought arrives at a valid judgment. The third chapter deals with "inference for the purpose of others" (PARĀRTHĀNUMĀNA), the statement of syllogisms to an opponent in a debate. Among the several commentaries to the text, the most important is that by DHARMOTTARA.

Obermiller, Eugène. (1901-1935). Noted Russian scholar of Indian and Tibetan Buddhism, born in St. Petersburg to a family devoted to music and the arts. He studied English, French, and German as a youth and was planning to become a musician. However, when he was eighteen years of age, he was stricken by syringomyelia, a disease of the spinal cord, which deprived him of the full use of his hands and fingers. After the Russian Revolution, he attended FYODOR IPPOLITOVICH STCHERBATSKY's lectures on Sanskrit at the University of Petrograd (later Leningrad and St. Petersburg) and studied Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Mongolian. He became Stcherbatsky's student, preparing Sanskrit-Tibetan and Tibetan-Sanskrit indexes to the NYĀYABINDU and assisting him in editing the Tibetan text of the ABHIDHARMAKOsABHĀsYA. Obermiller spent a great deal of time in Buryatia in the Transbaikal, studying at Mongolian monasteries of the DGE LUGS PA tradition, where he learned to speak Tibetan. In working closely with learned Buddhist monks, Obermiller anticipated what would become a common model of scholarship after the Tibetan diaspora that began in 1959. In 1928, Stcherbatsky formed the Institute of Buddhist Culture (later to become part of the Institute of Oriental Studies), and Obermiller was appointed as a research scholar. In 1929, the two colleagues published an edition of the ABHISAMAYĀLAMKĀRA. Obermiller continued to suffer from syringomyelia throughout this period. By the age of thirty, he had become incapacitated to the point that he was not able to write and died four years later. Despite his debilitating illness, during his last years, he remained committed to his scholarship and published a number of pioneering translations, including BU STON's "History of Buddhism" (BU STON CHOS 'BYUNG) and the RATNAGOTRAVIBHĀGA (Uttaratantra) in 1932. In his articles (several of which have been republished), he focused especially on the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ exegetical literature, relying largely on Dge lugs expositions.

Oberon "language" A {strongly typed} {procedural} programming language and an operating environment evolved from {Modula-2} by {Nicklaus Wirth} in 1988. Oberon adds type extension ({inheritance}), extensible record types, multidimensional open arrays, and {garbage collection}. It eliminates {variant records}, {enumeration types}, {subranges}, lower array indices and {for loops}. A successor called Oberon-2 by H. Moessenboeck features a handful of extensions to Oberon including type-bound procedures ({methods}). Seneca is a variant of Oberon focussing on numerical programming under development by R. Griesemer in April 1993 (to be renamed). See also {Ceres workstation Oberon System}. {(http://oberon.ethz.ch)}. {(http://math.tau.ac.il/~laden/Oberon.html)}. {Free ETH Oberon (ftp://ftp.inf.ethz.ch/pub/Oberon)}. {MS-DOS (ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/mirrors/msdos/pgmutl/)}. {Amiga (ftp://ftp.cso.uiuc.edu/pub/amiga/fish/ff380)}. ["The Programming Language Oberon", N. Wirth, Soft Prac & Exp 18(7):671-690 July 1988]. ["Programming in Oberon: Steps Beyond Pascal and Modula", M. Reiser & N. Wirth, A-W 1992]. ["Project Oberon: the design of an operating system and compiler", N. Wirth & J. Gutknecht, ACM Press 1992]. ["The Oberon Companion: A Guide to Using and Programming Oberon System 3", André Fischer, Hannes Marais, vdf Verlag der Fachhochschulen, Zurich, 1997, ISBN 3-7281-2493-1. Includes CD-ROM for Windows, Linux, Macintosh and PC Native]. (1998-03-14)

Oberon ::: (language) A strongly typed procedural programming language and an operating environment evolved from Modula-2 by Nicklaus Wirth in 1988. Oberon open arrays, and garbage collection. It eliminates variant records, enumeration types, subranges, lower array indices and for loops.A successor called Oberon-2 by H. Moessenboeck features a handful of extensions to Oberon including type-bound procedures (methods).Seneca is a variant of Oberon focussing on numerical programming under development by R. Griesemer in April 1993 (to be renamed).See also Ceres workstation Oberon System. . . .[The Programming Language Oberon, N. Wirth, Soft Prac & Exp 18(7):671-690 July 1988].[Programming in Oberon: Steps Beyond Pascal and Modula, M. Reiser & N. Wirth, A-W 1992].[Project Oberon: the design of an operating system and compiler, N. Wirth & J. Gutknecht, ACM Press 1992].[The Oberon Companion: A Guide to Using and Programming Oberon System 3, Andr� Fischer, Hannes Marais, vdf Verlag der Fachhochschulen, Zurich, 1997, ISBN 3-7281-2493-1. Includes CD-ROM for Windows, Linux, Macintosh and PC Native]. (1998-03-14)

object ::: n. 1. Anything that is visible or tangible and that is relatively stable in form. 2. A focus of attention, feeling, thought, or action. objects.

Occult Sciences ::: In referencing the occult, we are referring to a side of reality that is hidden from both the general populace and from the mundane mind. Etymologically, even, "occult" finds its roots in the Latin for "to conceal". Although there can be religiously-colored connotations of the occult as demonic or unsavory, this is highly paradigm-dependent and almost always false. Here we use the term "occult sciences" to refer to the science of studying those hidden aspects of reality which remain less explored than traditional subjects in the natural sciences but which are far more important in understanding consciousness and cosmology. The main long-term focus of this site is on advancing the occult sciences and in reconciling those with the conventional sciences.

occupational psychology: branch of psychology that focuses on human beings in the workplace, including job satisfaction, leadership, selection and recruitment of staff and the effect of different working conditions upon performance.

optimism What a programmer is full of after fixing the last bug and just before actually discovering the *next* last bug. Fred Brooks's book "{The Mythical Man-Month}" contains the following paragraph that describes this extremely well. All programmers are optimists. Perhaps this modern sorcery especially attracts those who believe in happy endings and fairy god-mothers. Perhaps the hundreds of nitty frustrations drive away all but those who habitually focus on the end goal. Perhaps it is merely that computers are young, programmers are younger, and the young are always optimists. But however the selection process works, the result is indisputable: "This time it will surely run," or "I just found the last bug.". See also {Lubarsky's Law of Cybernetic Entomology}. [{Jargon File}]

Oral Stage ::: Freud&

Our visible sun, though the center of its system, is not the father of the planets but their “co-uterine brother,” one of the “eight sons of Aditi.” It is not the creator of the fohatic forces, but their radiating focus. Nor is it an incandescent and cooling body; it is nature’s great laboratory of intelligently vital and electromagnetic forces for our system. “The Sun is the heart of the Solar World (System) and its brain is hidden behind the (visible) Sun. From thence, sensation is radiated into every nerve-centre of the great body, and the waves of the life-essence flow into each artery and vein. . . . The planets are its limbs and pulses” (SD 1:541). Physiologically, the sun pulsates life through the solar system, in connection with the 11 and 22 year sunspot phenomena — the solar spots being due to the contraction of the solar heart.

Ouyi Zhixu. (J. Goyaku/Guyaku Chigyoku; K. Uik Chiuk 益智旭) (1599-1655). One of the four eminent monks (si da gaoseng) of the late-Ming dynasty, along with YUNQI ZHUHONG (1535-1615), HANSHAN DEQING (1546-1623), and DAGUAN ZHENKE (1543-1604); renowned for his mastery of a wide swath of Confucian and Buddhist teachings, particularly those associated with the TIANTAI, PURE LAND, and CHAN traditions. In his youth, he studied Confucianism and despised Buddhism, even writing anti-Buddhist tracts. He had a change of heart at the age of seventeen, after reading some of Zhuhong's writings, and burned his previous screeds. According to his autobiography, Zhixu had his first "great awakening" at the age of nineteen while reading the line in the Lunyu ("Confucian Analects") that "the whole world will submit to benevolence" if one restrains oneself and returns to ritual. After his father's death that same year, he fully committed himself to Buddhism, reading sutras and performing recollection of the Buddha's name (NIANFO) until he finally was ordained under the guidance of Xueling (d.u.), a disciple of Hanshan Deqing, at the age of twenty-four. At that time, he began to read extensively in YOGĀCĀRA materials and had another great awakening through Chan meditation, in which he experienced body, mind, and the outer world suddenly disappearing. He next turned his attention to the bodhisattva precepts and the study of vinaya. Following his mother's death when he was twenty-seven, Zhixu rededicated himself to Chan meditation, but after a serious illness he turned to pure land teachings. In his early thirties, he devoted himself to the study of Tiantai materials, through which he attempted to integrate his previous research in Buddhism and began to write commentaries and treaties on Buddhist scriptures and on such Confucian classics as the Zhouyi ("Book of Changes"). In the late-sixteenth century, Jesuit missionaries such as Michele Ruggieri (1543-1607) and Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) had reintroduced Christianity to China and sought "to complement Confucianism and to replace Buddhism." This emerging religious challenge led Zhixu to publish his Bixie ji ("Collected Essays Refuting Heterodoxy") as a critique of the teachings of Christianity, raising specifically the issue of theodicy (i.e., why a benevolent and omnipotent god would allow evil to appear in the world); Zhixu advocates instead that good and evil come from human beings and are developed and overcome respectively through personal cultivation. After another illness at the age of fifty-six, his later years were focused mostly on pure land teachings and practice. In distinction to Japanese pure land teachers, such as HoNEN (1133-1212) and SHINRAN (1173-1262), who emphasized exclusively Amitābha's "other-power" (C. tali; J. TARIKI), Zhixu, like most other Chinese pure land teachers, advocated the symbiosis between the other-power of Amitābha and the "self-power" (C. jiri; J. JIRIKI) of the practitioner. This perspective is evident in his equal emphasis on the three trainings in meditation (Chan), doctrine (jiao), and precepts (lü) (cf. TRIsIKsĀ). Ouyi's oeuvre numbers some sixty-two works in 230 rolls, including treatises and commentaries on works ranging from Tiantai, to Chan, to Yogācāra, to pure land. His pure land writings have been especially influential, and his Amituojing yaojie ("Essential Explanations" on the AMITĀBHASuTRA) and Jingtu shiyao ("Ten Essentials on the Pure Land") are regarded as integral to the modern Chinese Pure Land tradition.

Overbought ::: refers to a security that analysts or traders believe is trading above its true value. Overbought generally describes recent or short-term movement in the price of the security, and reflects an expectation that the market will correct the price in the near future. This belief is often the result of technical analysis of the security’s price history.   BREAKING DOWN 'Overbought'  Overbought refers to a security which has been subject to a persistent upward pressure and that technical analysis suggests is due for a correction. The bullish trend may be due to positive news regarding the underlying company, its industry or the market in general. Upward movement can feed on itself and lead to continued bullishness beyond what many traders consider reasonable. When this is the case, traders refer to the asset as overbought and many will bet on a reversal in price.  Traditionally, the standard indicator of a stock’s value has been the price-earnings ratio (P/E). Analysts and companies have used either publicly reported results or earnings estimates to identify the appropriate price for a particular stock. If a stock’s P/E rises above that of its sector or a relevant index, investors may see it as overvalued and as a smart buying opportunity for long-term investing. This is a form of fundamental analysis, which uses macroeconomic and industry factors to determine a reasonable price for a stock.  The rise of technical analysis has allowed traders to focus on indicators of a stock to forecast price. Indicators include recent price, volume and momentum. Traders use technical tools to identify stocks that have become overvalued in recent trading and refer to these equities as overbought.   Technical Analysis Tools for Identifying Oversold Stocks Technical analysis has provided traders with increasingly sophisticated calculations to identify overbought stocks. George Lane’s stochastic oscillator, which he developed in the 1950s, examines recent price movements to identify imminent changes in a stock’s momentum and pricing trend. This oscillator laid the foundation for the technical indicator which has become the primary indicator of an overbought stock, the relative strength index (RSI). The RSI measures the power behind price movements over a recent period, typically 14 days, using the following formula:  RSI = 100 - 100/(1 + RS)  RS represents the ratio of average upward movement to downward movement over a specified period of time. A high RSI, generally above 70, signals traders that a stock may be overbought and that the market should correct with downward pressure in the near term. Many traders use pricing channels like Bollinger Bands to confirm the signal that the RSI generates. On a chart, Bollinger Bands lie one standard deviation above and below the exponential moving average of a stock’s recent price. Analysts that identify a stock with a high RSI and a price that is edging toward the high end of its upper Bollinger Band will likely consider it to be overbought.

overcompensation: a Freudian defence mechanism, whereby an individual attempts to offset weakness in an area of their lives by focusing on another aspect of it.


   A complicated technique using x-rays to "create an image" where no lense to focus the light rays is available.



Padmasambhava. (T. Padma 'byung gnas) (fl. eighth century). Indian Buddhist master and tantric adept widely revered in Tibet under the appellation Guru rin po che, "Precious Guru"; considered to be the "second buddha" by members of the RNYING MA sect of Tibetan Buddhism, who view him as a founder of their tradition. In Tibetan, he is also known as Padma 'byung gnas (Pemajungne), "the Lotus Born," which translates his Sanskrit name. It is difficult to assess the many legends surrounding his life and deeds, although the scholarly consensus is that he was a historical figure and did visit Tibet. The earliest reference to him is in the SBA BZHED (a work that purports to be from the eighth century, but is likely later), where he is mentioned as a water diviner and magician, suggesting that he may have been an expert in irrigation, which would have required the ability to subdue local spirits. Two texts in the Tibetan canon are attributed to him. The first is the Man ngag lta ba'i phreng ba, which is a commentary on the thirteenth chapter of the GUHYAGARBHATANTRA. The second is a commentary on the Upāyapāsapadmamālā, a MAHĀYOGA TANTRA. Regardless of his historical status and the duration of his stay in Tibet, the figure of Padmasambhava has played a key role in the narrative of Buddhism's arrival in Tibet, its establishment in Tibet, and its subsequent transmission to later generations. He is also venerated throughout the Himalayan regions of India, Bhutan, and Nepal and by the Newar Buddhists of the Kathmandu Valley. According to many of his traditional biographies, Padmasambhava was miraculously born in the center of a lotus blossom (PADMA) on Lake Danakosa in the land of OddIYĀNA, a region some scholars associate with the Swat Valley of modern Pakistan. Discovered and raised by King Indrabodhi, he abandoned his royal life to pursue various forms of Buddhist study and practice, culminating in his training as a tantric adept. He journeyed throughout the Himalayan regions of India and Nepal, meeting his first consort MANDĀRAVĀ at Mtsho padma in Himachal Pradesh, and later remaining in prolonged retreat in various locations around the Kathmandu Valley including MĀRATIKA, YANG LE SHOD and the ASURA CAVE. His reputation as an exorcist led to his invitation, at the behest of the Indian scholar sĀNTARAKsITA, to travel to Tibet in order to assist with the construction of BSAM YAS monastery. According to traditional accounts, Padmasambhava subdued and converted the indigenous deities inimical to the spread of Buddhism and, together with sāntaraksita and the Tibetan king KHRI SRONG LDE BTSAN, established the first Buddhist lineage and monastic center of Tibet. He remained in Tibet as a court priest, and, together with his Tibetan consort YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL, recorded and then concealed numerous teachings as hidden treasure texts (GTER MA), to be revealed by a later succession of masters spiritually linked to Padmasambhava. The Rnying ma sect preserves the corpus of instructions stemming from the master in two classes of materials: those revealed after his passing as treasure texts and those belonging to an unbroken oral tradition (BKA' MA). It is believed that Padmasambhava departed Tibet for his paradise known as the Glorious Copper-Colored Mountain (ZANGS MDOG DPAL RI), where he continues to reside. From the time of the later dissemination of the doctrine (PHYI DAR) in the eleventh century onwards, numerous biographies of the Indian master have been revealed as treasure texts, including the PADMA BKA' THANG YIG, BKA' THANG GSER 'PHRENG, and the BKA' THANG ZANGS GLING MA. Padmasambhava is the focus of many kinds of ritual activities, including the widely recited "Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava" (Tshig 'dun gsol 'debs). The tenth day of each lunar month is dedicated to Padmasambhava, a time when many monasteries, especially those in Bhutan, perform religious dances reverencing the Indian master in his eight manifestations. In iconography, Padmasambhava is depicted in eight forms, known as the guru mtshan brgyad, who represent his eight great deeds. They are Padma rgyal po, Nyi ma 'od zer, Blo ldan mchog sred, Padmasambhava, Shākya seng ge, Padmakara (also known as Sororuhavajra, T. Mtsho skyes rdo rje), Seng ge sgra sgrogs, and RDO RJE GRO LOD.

parabola ::: n. --> A kind of curve; one of the conic sections formed by the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane parallel to one of its sides. It is a curve, any point of which is equally distant from a fixed point, called the focus, and a fixed straight line, called the directrix. See Focus.
One of a group of curves defined by the equation y = axn where n is a positive whole number or a positive fraction. For the cubical parabola n = 3; for the semicubical parabola n = /. See under


paradigm: A model of reality that reflects a system of belief. (See focus, practice, instrument.)

pāramitāyāna. (T. phar phyin theg pa). In Sanskrit, "perfection vehicle." In scholastic tantric literature, the MAHĀYĀNA is sometimes divided into the pāramitāyāna and the VAJRAYĀNA, with the former referring to the path of the BODHISATTVA, set forth in Mahāyāna sutras and focused on the practice of the six perfections (PĀRAMITĀ). The vajrayāna is represented as a faster and more effective route, set forth in the tantras, to the same goal of buddhahood. In this way, the Mahāyāna is represented as having both exoteric and esoteric forms. The pāramitāyāna is also called the pāramitānaya, or "perfection mode."

Permanent Self Used by Blavatsky (Key, sec 8) for the incarnating ego, as contrasted with the earth vehicle, the personal self or ego; not to be confused with its own divine-spiritual monadic source or focus, the higher self (atman), the essential and eternally perduring divine selfhood per se.

Phallic Stage ::: Freud&

phallic stage: the third stage of development in Freud's theory, from about 3 to 5 years of age, during which the source of gratification is focused on the genitals.

Pharmakeia; Is roughly equivalent to witchcraft. Contrary to the accusations of the heresiologists, Gnostic writers seemed to be against any form of sympathetic magic or divination. The reason for this is not that it doesn't necessarily work, but that it's focus is still within the hylic and psychic spheres of thought. ESP, astrology etc are only applicable to the realm of Heimarene.

portal "web" A {website} that aims to be an entry point to the {web}, typically offering a {search engine} and/or links to useful pages, and possibly news or other services. These services are usually provided for free in the hope that users will make the site their default {home page} or at least visit it often. Popular examples are {Yahoo} and {MSN}. Most portals on the {Internet} exist to generate advertising income for their owners, others may be focused on a specific group of users and may be part of an {intranet} or {extranet}. Some may just concentrate on one particular subject, say technology or medicine, and are known as a {vertical portals}. (2001-07-07)

Power Spot ::: A location, usually in the Physical Plane, that is unusually powerful or active spiritually relative to other locations around it. Places like churches are an everyday example of this. When dozens of minds turn their focus to a singular idea and worship then there tends to be a power to that. Natural formations of sanctity (e.g. Uluru) or constructs of great intrigue (e.g. Stonehenge) are similar examples but even an unusual circle of rocks in the woods could be deemed such a spot.

practice: With regards to mages and magick, practice reflects the activities and rituals a mage uses to focus her beliefs; also known as a magickal style. (See belief, focus, instrument, paradigm.)

prana pratishtha. ::: when an image of a deity is consecrated for worship, a connection is established with the particular aspect of the Divine which it represents and its image therefore becomes a live focus for the transmission of divine power and blessing

primary prevention: strategies that aim to prevent disease in currently healthy individuals, by focusing on the development of good health habits and discouraging poor ones.

Procedure: Capitalized, a Technocratic focus for technomagickal spells.

Product-orientated - A description applied to a business whose main focus of activity is on the product itself. See also market-orientated.

Product orientation - An approach to business which places the main focus of attention upon the production process and the product itself.

Psionics ::: A general paradigm of practice for certain types of "energy" work that are pragmatically-focused and technologically-minded. This isn't your typical work on the etheric body for spiritual advancement or ego shedding, this is a modern approach to practical, everyday problems through usage of will, visualization, and the structural realities of the astral and etheric bodies all in a technologized and transhumanist-minded context.

psychosexual development: in psychoanalytic theory, a description of how a child progresses through set stages that vary according to the focus of gratification(oral, anal, genital) and by the person towards which this feeling is directed at.

qiao. (S. sarīre khāni; J. kyo; K. kyu 竅). In Chinese, the "bodily orifices," of which nine are listed: the two eyes, the two ears, the two nostrils, the mouth, the reproductive organ, and the anus. In one form of "foulness contemplation" (S. AsUBHABHĀVANĀ), in which the impure aspects of the human body are concentrated upon in order to counter lust and excessive attachment to the body, practitioners focus on the way impurities (pus, blood, secretions, etc.) and odors are constantly being secreted through these nine orifices.

Qi Gong ::: Translated as "the Way of Qi". An ancient Chinese system of holistic health focusing on coordinating breath and visualization with body posture, subtle movement, and meditation.

qixian. (J. shichiken; K. ch'irhyon 七賢). In Chinese, lit. "seven sagacities," seven stages on the path of preparation (PRAYOGAMĀRGA) derived from the Chinese translation of the ABHIDHARMAKOsABHĀsYA. The first stage involves the cultivation of meditative "antidotes" (PRATIPAKsA) such as the contemplation of foulness, the contemplation of loving-kindness, and the contemplation of the breath to counter, respectively, the excessive tendencies toward lust, ill will, and discursiveness. The second involves the practice of the so-called four foundations of mindfulness, which involves insight (VIPAsYANĀ) into real-time experiences as they unfold in the body and mind. The third focuses on the contemplation of the three marks of existence (TRILAKsAnA), noticing the characteristics of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and selflessness in those psychophysical experiences. The fourth through seventh stages correspond to the "wholesome roots associated with the knowledge that penetrates reality" (NIRVEDHABHĀGĪYA-KUsALAMuLA): heat (usMAN), summit (MuRDHAN), receptivity or acquiescence (KsĀNTI), and highest worldly dharmas (LAUKIKĀGRADHARMA). These nirvedhabhāgīya open access to the path of vision (DARsANAMĀRGA) where the first stage of sanctity, stream-entry (SROTAĀPANNA), is won.

rational-emotive therapy: a form of therapy developed by Ellis which focuses changing irrational beliefs and faulty interpretations, which result in negativeemotions and severe anxiety.

Ratnāvalī. (T. Rin chen phreng ba; C. Baoxingwang zheng lun; J. Hogyo o shoron; K. Pohaengwang chong non 寶行王正). In Sanskrit, "Garland of Jewels," a Sanskrit work by the MADHYAMAKA philosopher NĀGĀRJUNA. The work consists of five hundred verses arranged in five chapters. While the Ratnāvalī contains many of Nāgārjuna's fundamental philosophical ideas, grounded primarily in the notion of emptiness (suNYATĀ), the work is more focused on issues of ethics. The Ratnāvalī is addressed to King Gautamīputra of ĀNDHRA, a friend and patron of Nāgārjuna, and much of the text discusses the proper conduct of the laity, particularly those in administrative positions such as ministers and kings. In particular, the fourth chapter is devoted to an exploration of kingship and the proper management of a kingdom. The work also contains a defense of the Mahāyāna as the word of the Buddha (BUDDHAVACANA), an exposition of the collection of merit (PUnYASAMBHĀRA) and the collection of wisdom (JNĀNASAMBHĀRA), a description of the ten bodhisattva stages (BHuMI) based on the DAsABHuMIKASuTRA, and a correlation of the practice of specific virtues with the achievement of the thirty-two marks of a superman (MAHĀPURUsALAKsAnA). There are complete versions of the work extant in Tibetan and Chinese translations, but only parts survive in the original Sanskrit.

RCRA ::: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. RCRA gave EPA authority to control hazardous waste from " cradle-to-grave." This includes the minimization, generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. RCRA also set forth a framework for the management of non-hazardous solid wastes. RCRA focuses only on active and future facilities and does not address abandoned or historical sites.



Reconstructionist Judaism ::: Founded by Mordecai M. Kaplan (1881-1982), this represents a recent development in American Judaism, and attempts to focus on Judaism as a civilization and culture constantly adapting to insure survival in a natural social process. The central academic institution is the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College in the Philadelphia suburbs. See also Reform and Conservative Judaism.

Reincarnating Ego ::: In the method of dividing the human principles into a trichotomy of an upper duad, an intermediate duad,and a lower triad -- or distributively spirit, soul, and body -- the second or intermediate duad,manas-kama, or the intermediate nature, is the ordinary seat of human consciousness, and itself iscomposed of two qualitative parts: an upper or aspiring part, which is commonly called the reincarnatingego or the higher manas, and a lower part attracted to material things, which is the focus of whatexpresses itself in the average man as the human ego, his everyday ordinary seat of consciousness.When death occurs, the mortal and material portions sink into oblivion; while the reincarnating egocarries the best and noblest parts of the spiritual memory of the man that was into the devachan or heavenworld of postmortem rest and recuperation, where the ego remains in the bosom of the monad or of themonadic essence in a state of the most perfect and utter bliss and peace, constantly reviewing andimproving upon in its own blissful imagination all the unfulfilled spiritual yearnings and longings of thelife just closed that its naturally creative faculties automatically suggest to the entity now in thedevachan.But the monad above spoken of passes from sphere to sphere on its peregrinations from earth, carryingwith it the reincarnating ego, or what we may for simplicity of expression call the earth-child, in itsbosom, where this reincarnating ego is in its state of perfect bliss and peace, until the time comes when,having passed through all the invisible realms connected by chains of causation with our own planet, itslowly "descends" again through these higher intermediate spheres earthwards. Coincidently does thereincarnating ego slowly begin to reawaken to self-conscious activity. Gradually it feels, at firstunconsciously to itself, the attraction earthwards, arising out of the karmic seeds of thought and emotionand impulse sown in the preceding life on earth and now beginning to awaken; and as these attractionsgrow stronger, in other words as the reincarnating ego awakens more fully, it finds itself under thedomination of a strong psychomagnetic attraction drawing it to the earth-sphere.The time finally comes when it is drawn strongly to the family on earth whose karmic attractions orkarmic status or condition are the nearest to its own characteristics; and it then enters, or attaches itselfto, by reason of the psychomagnetic attraction, the human seed which will grow into the body of thehuman being to be. Thus reincarnation takes place, and the reincarnating ego reawakens to life on earthin the body of a little child.

Reiyukai. (霊友会/靈友會). In Japanese, lit. "Numinous Friends Society," or "Society of Friends of the Spirits"; a Japanese Buddhist lay organization, deriving from the teachings of the NICHIRENSHu. It was founded in 1925 by KUBO KAKUTARo (1892-1944) and KOTANI KIMI (1901-1971), the wife of Kubo's elder brother, who took over leadership of the organization and became president in 1944 upon Kubo's death. Kubo insisted that everyone keep a family death register and give posthumous names to venerated ancestors; these activities were formerly the domain of monks, who would be paid for their services. His other ideas included the classical directive to convert the world into a PURE LAND for Buddhism and the need to teach others the truth. He particularly emphasized the ability of each individual to improve him or herself. Kubo's ideas appealed to the poor and he began to attract converts quickly, including his brother Kotani Yasukichi and Kotani's wife, Kotani Kimi. In 1971 after Kotani Kimi died, Kubo's son Kubo Tsugunari took over as the leader of the group. For years he had prepared for this future, including studying Indian philosophy and Buddhism at Rissho University. Despite this preparation, Reiyukai was rocked by what some viewed as his personal failings and political maneuverings and Kubo Tsugunari eventually lost his leadership post. More recent leaders have been elected democratically. Some noted activities in recent years include opening the Lumbinī International Research Institute in Nepal and the International College for Advanced Buddhist Studies in Tokyo. The organization reached its peak during the years surrounding the Second World War, when it claimed some three million members, and was the source of numerous Nichiren-related new religious movements, of which the RISSHo KoSEIKAI, founded in 1938, became the most prominent. Reiyukai continues to be an active lay organization in both Japan and abroad. The Reiyukai organization has no clergy and no formal affiliation with any other Buddhist school, but instead relies on volunteer lay teachers who lead informal group meetings and discussions. Reiyukai focuses on the human capacity for lifelong self-cultivation in order to become ever more wise and compassionate. All its adherents must have a personal sponsor in order to join the order. The school stresses ancestor worship, believing that personal and social ills are the result of inadequate veneration of ancestor spirits who have been unable to attain buddhahood and instead became guardian spirits until the proper rites are performed so they may be liberated. Its followers believe that reciting the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") in abridged form during daily morning and evening services or a group meeting transfers merit to their ancestors.

Renwang jing. (J. Ninnogyo; K. Inwang kyong 仁王經). In Chinese, "Scripture for Humane Kings"; an influential indigenous Chinese scripture (see APOCRYPHA), known especially for its role in "state protection Buddhism" (HUGUO FOJIAO) and for its comprehensive outline of the Buddhist path of practice (MĀRGA). Its full title (infra) suggests that the scripture belongs to the "perfection of wisdom" (PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ) genre of literature, but it includes also elements drawn from both the YOGĀCĀRA and TATHĀGATAGARBHA traditions. The text's audience and interlocutors are not the typical sRĀVAKAs and BODHISATTVAs but instead kings hailing from the sixteen ancient regions of India, who beseech the Buddha to speak this sutra in order to protect both their states and their subjects from the chaos attending the extinction of the dharma (MOFA; SADDHARMAVIPRALOPA). By having kings rather than spiritual mentors serve as the interlocutors, the scripture thus focuses on those qualities thought to be essential to governing a state founded on Buddhist principles. The text's concepts of authority, the path, and the world draw analogies with the "humane kings" of this world who serve and venerate the transcendent monks and bodhisattvas. The service and worship rendered by the kings turns them into bodhisattvas, while the soteriological vocation of the monks and bodhisattvas conversely renders them kings. Thus, the relationship between the state and the religion is symbiotic. The sutra is now generally presumed to be an indigenous Chinese scripture that was composed to buttress imperial authority by exalting the benevolent ruler as a defender of the dharma. The Renwang jing is also known for including the ten levels of faith (sRADDHĀ) as a preliminary stage of the Buddhist path prior to the arousal of the thought of enlightenment (BODHICITTOTPĀDA). It is one of a number of Chinese Buddhist apocrypha that seek to provide a comprehensive elaboration of all fifty-two stages of the path, including the PUSA YINGLUO BENYE JING and the YUANJUE JING. The Renwang jing is not known in Sanskrit sources, but there are two recensions of the Chinese text. The first, Renwang bore boluomi jing, is purported to have been translated by KUMĀRAJĪVA and is dated to c. 402, and the latter, titled Renwang huguo bore boluomiduo jing, is attributed to AMOGHAVAJRA and dated to 765. The Amoghavajra recension is based substantially on the Kumārajīva text, but includes additional teachings on MAndALA, MANTRA, and DHĀRAnĪ, additions that reflect Amoghavajra's place in the Chinese esoteric Buddhist tradition. Furthermore, because Amoghavajra was an advisor to three Tang-dynasty rulers, his involvement in contemporary politics may also have helped to shape the later version. Chinese scriptural catalogues (JINGLU) were already suspicious about the authenticity of the Renwang jing as least as early as Fajing's 594 Zhongjing mulu; Fajing lists the text together with twenty-one other scriptures of doubtful authenticity (YIJING), because its content and diction do not resemble those of the ascribed translator. Modern scholars have also recognized these content issues. One of the more egregious examples is the RENWANG JING's reference to four different perfection of wisdom (prajNāpāramitā) sutras that the Buddha is said to have proclaimed; two of the sutras listed are, however, simply different Chinese translations of the same text, the PANCAVIMsATISĀHASRIKĀPRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀSuTRA, a blunder that an Indian author could obviously not have committed. Another example is the scripture's discussion of a three-truth SAMĀDHI (sandi sanmei), in which these three types of concentrations are named worldly truth (shidi), authentic truth (zhendi), and supreme-meaning truth (diyiyidi). This schema is peculiar, and betrays its Chinese origins, because "authentic truth" and "supreme-meaning truth" are actually just different Chinese renderings of the same Sanskrit term, PARAMĀTHASATYA. Based on other internal evidence, scholars have dated the composition of the sutra to sometime around the middle of the fifth century. Whatever its provenance, the text is ultimately reclassified as an authentic translation in the 602 catalogue Zongjing mulu by Yancong and continues to be so listed in all subsequent East Asian catalogues. See also APOCRYPHA; SANDI.

reticule ::: n.. --> A little bag, originally of network; a woman&

Revelation ::: A general term for self-disclosure of the divine (God reveals to humans), which is often considered to be focused in the revealed scriptures. Also the name of a specific Christian biblical book, the “Apocalypse” (Greek, “uncovered”) or “Revelation” (Latin).

Rhutaliai Derived from the huge, highly civilized island called Ruta, which perished many millennia ago and which was one of the last strongholds of Atlantean culture and civilization. This island existed in the Pacific Ocean, and from it as from a focus flowed forth civilizing colonies into what were then virgin or quasi-inhabited lands of the Far East, these colonies carrying with them their religions, philosophies, customs, habits, laws, languages, and forms of writing.

Rhys Davids, Thomas William. (1843-1922). Preeminent British scholar of Pāli Buddhism, Thomas William Rhys Davids was born in Colchester, the son of a Congregationalist minister. He attended secondary school in Brighton and then went on to the University of Breslau in Germany, where he studied Sanskrit. He received a PhD from the University of Breslau before taking a position as a judge in the Ceylon Civil Service in 1864. He resigned from this position in 1872 and became a lawyer in 1877. Instead of practicing law, Rhys Davids turned to researching and writing about Pāli literature. His first book, The Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon, was published in 1877, after which he began to publish regularly in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. In 1880, he translated the NIDĀNAKATHĀ. His 1881 Hibbert Lectures became quite famous, and at the second lecture, Rhys Davids announced the creation of the PALI TEXT SOCIETY. the first learned society in the West to focus on Pāli language and literature. In 1882, Rhys Davids became a professor of Pāli at University College, London. From 1885 to 1904, he also worked for the Royal Asiatic Society. In 1904, he became professor of comparative religion at Victoria University, Manchester. In 1894, Rhys Davids married Caroline August Foley (see RHYS DAVIDS, CAROLINE AUGUST FOLEY); the two worked and published together for the rest of their lives. Rhys Davids published many works, including a Manual of Buddhism, the first two volumes of the "Sacred Books of the Buddhists" series, and the first volume of a Pāli-English Dictionary. The Rhys Davidses together translated the DĪGHANIKĀYA between 1910 and 1921.

righthandpath ::: Right-hand Path The terms 'Right-hand Path' and 'Left-hand Path' refer to a claimed separation of two distinct types of religion, the exact meaning of these terms having varied over time. The modern usage regards religions which value the advancement of the self over other goals are considered to belong to the Left-Hand Path (sometimes referred to as the Dark Path), while those which focus upon the worship of one or more deities and the observance of strict moral codes, as belonging to the Right-hand Path.

Ritual ::: On this site, it's a practice of mind and body that is aimed at accomplishing a specific goal. While there are mundane rituals (organizing the house everytime one gets home, for example), the rituals we focus on here are magical rituals: these are rituals aimed at effecting change in the world through the application of will. This can involve one's own personal power such as with a talisman or sigil or it can involve invoking or evoking entities to work with. Typically there are several rites that might go into the making of a larger ritual. Contrast with Rite.

RLaB ::: A MATLAB-like matrix-oriented programming language/toolbox. RLaB focusses on creating a good experimental environment (or laboratory) in which to do matrix and string scalars, and matrices. RLaB also contains a list variable type, which is a heterogeneous associative array.Version 0.95 includes an interpreter, libraries and documentation. E-mail: Ian Searle . . Requires GNUPLOT, lib[IF]77.a (from f2c). Ported to many platforms including Unix, OS/2, Amiga. (1993-10-27).

RLaB A {MATLAB}-like matrix-oriented programming language/toolbox. RLaB focusses on creating a good experimental environment (or laboratory) in which to do matrix mathematics. Currently RLaB has numeric scalars and matrices (real and complex), and string scalars, and matrices. RLaB also contains a list variable type, which is a heterogeneous associative array. Version 0.95 includes an interpreter, libraries and documentation. E-mail: Ian Searle "ians@eskimo.com". {(ftp://evans.ee.adfa.oz.au)}. Requires {GNUPLOT}, lib[IF]77.a (from f2c). Ported to many {platforms} including {Unix}, {OS/2}, {Amiga}. (1993-10-27)

rtsod grwa. (tsodra). In Tibetan, lit. "debating institution," particularly a large DGE LUGS monastery where a central part of the monastic complex is the chos ra (chora), literally "fenced enclosure for dharma," hence "debate courtyard," often an enclosed open space close to the main assembly hall where monks who study scriptures assemble to debate points of doctrine. The term mtshan nyid grwa tsang (tsenyi dratsang) is often used in place of rtsod grwa. The origins of the rtsod grwa may go back to the model of study followed in BKA' GDAMS monasteries like GSANG PHU NE'U THOG, although such debate was also a part of the curriculum in the large monastic universities of northeast India, such as VIKRAMAsĪLA, NĀLANDĀ, and ODANTAPURĪ. The rtsod grwa is sometimes contrasted with teaching institutes (BSHAD GRWA) and places given over to meditation (sgrub khang), although most monasteries have parts dedicated to those activities as well. The best-known rtsod grwa are the six great Dge lugs monasteries of pre-1959 Tibet where the calendar year had strict debating periods; debate was raised to a high level there, forming a central part of the curriculum. For a month during the winter, 'Jang phu monastery to the southwest of LHA SA was the site of an intensive debate called the 'Jang dgun chos (Janggüncho) attended by students from the major Dge lugs monasteries in the greater Lha sa area, where debate focused particularly on the PRAMĀnAVĀRTTIKA of DHARMAKĪRTI.

Sajip. (四集). In Korean, "Fourfold Collection," a compilation of three Chinese CHAN and one Korean SoN texts that has been used in Korean Buddhist seminaries (kangwon) since at least the eighteenth century as the core of the monastic curriculum. The four books in the collection provide monks and nuns with, first, a systematic overview of mature Korean Buddhist thought and soteriology, focusing on the accommodation between Buddhist doctrinal study (KYO)-specifically HUAYAN (K. Hwaom) thought-and CHAN (Son) meditation practice and different schemata of awakening (C. WU; K. o) and cultivation (C. xiu; K. su); and second, extensive grounding in the theory and mode of practice of "questioning meditation" (K. kanhwa Son; C. KANHUA CHAN), the predominant form of meditative practice in Korea since the middle of the Koryo dynasty. The books of the "Fourfold Collection" are, in their traditional order: (1) The "Letters of Dahui" (C. DAHUI PUJUE CHANSHI SHU, better known in Korea by its abbreviated title Sojang, C. SHUZHUANG), a collection of the correspondence between the Chinese LINJI master DAHUI ZONGGAO (1089-1163) and various of his lay and ordained students, which describe the specifics of kanhua Chan meditation; (2) The "Chan Prolegomenon" (CHANYUAN ZHUQUANJI DUXU, known in Korea by its abbreviated title of TOSo), by GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841), which provides an overarching hermeneutical framework-drawing on a series of polarities such as sudden and gradual, emptiness and self-nature, true and provisional-through which to understand the relationships among the teachings of representative traditions of Chan and the various doctrinal traditions, leading to a vision of Buddhism that reconciles the scholastic schools and the Chan schools; (3) The "Essentials of Chan" (GAOFENG HESHANG CHANYAO, typically known in Korea as the SoNYO), by GAOFENG YUANMIAO (1238-1295), which Koreans have considered one of the clearest expositions of kanhwa Son in all of Son literature and use as a primer on the technique; (4) The "Excerpts from the 'Dharma Collection and Special Practice Record' with Personal Notes" (PoPCHIP PYoRHAENGNOK CHoRYO PYoNGIP SAGI, usually known by its abbreviated title CHoRYO) by POJO CHINUL (1158-1210), which offers an exhaustive examination of the question of whether enlightenment is achieved via a sudden or gradual process of soteriological development, advocating as the optimal stratagem the approach of sudden awakening followed by gradual cultivation (K. tono chomsu; C. DUNWU JIANXIU), and first introducing to Korea the kanhwa Son technique; through this examination, Chinul specifically correlates the path as described in the doctrinal teachings of Buddhism (Kyo) with the practice of Son, an approach that subsequently becomes emblematic of Korean Buddhism. The four books of the Sajip are thus intended to provide monks and nuns with substantial grounding in the theory and practice of kanhwa Son prior to their beginning intensive training in the meditation hall (Sonbang).

sakṛdāgāmiphalastha. (P. sakadāgāmiphala; T. phyir 'ong 'bras gnas; C. zheng yilai guo; J. shoichiraika; K. chŭng illae kwa 證一來果). In Sanskrit, "one who has reached, or is the recipient of, the fruit of once-returner"; this term is paired with the SAKṚDĀGĀMIPHALAPRATIPANNAKA, one who is a candidate for the fruit of once-returner. Both refer to the "once-returner" (SAKṚDĀGĀMIN), one of the four types of noble persons (ĀRYA); the sakṛdāgāmiphalapratipannaka has, however, only reached the ĀNANTARYAMĀRGA (unimpeded path), while the sakṛdāgāmiphalastha has reached the VIMUKTIMĀRGA (path of freedom). In general, according to the ABHIDHARMAKOsABHĀsYA, a noble person reaches the goal of ARHAT by becoming free of all the afflictions (KLEsA) of the three realms, from the sensuous realm to the BHAVĀGRA, the highest level of the immaterial realm. There are nine levels to the three realms: the level of the sensous realm is counted as one, and each of the four meditative absorptions (DHYĀNA) of the realms of both subtle materiality and and immateriality are counted as one each. The path of vision (DARsANAMĀRGA) has sixteen instants, eight ānantaryamārga and eight vimuktimārga. The first four instants (consisting of two pairs of ānantaryamārga and vimuktimārga) are focused on the truth of suffering as it pertains to the sensuous realm, and then to the remaining eight levels of the two upper realms. The second four instants are focused on the truth of origination as it pertains to the sensuous realm, and then to the remaining eight levels of the two upper realms (see DHARMAKsĀNTI). In this way, during sixteen instants that systematize the path of vision, all the afflictions to be eliminated by the path of vision are removed. The sharpest people (TĪKsnENDRIYA), with the finest store of previous actions, like the Buddha, know all three realms are equally conditioned by suffering (SAMSKĀRADUḤKHATĀ) and feel disgust for all of it equally as SAMSĀRA; they enter into the path of vision, eliminate the fetters, and awaken as arhats. Others have gradations of good fortune, ranging from those who will reach the final goal after death, to those who spend many lives taking rebirth in different heavens in the upper two realms before finally reaching the goal of arhatship. Those whose prior store of actions is such that, prior to reaching the path of vision, they have eliminated all, some, or none of the nine sets of afflictions that specifically cause rebirth in the sensuous realm reach the intermediate fruits of nonreturner, once-returner, and stream-enterer, respectively, when they reach the path of vision. The number of births they will take, and the places they take them, give rise to an āryasaMgha made up of twenty different persons (VIMsATIPRABHEDASAMGHA). In the Mahāyāna didactic reformulations of ABHIDHARMA, sakṛdāgāmin is a name for celestial bodhisattvas who are in their last life before taking birth in the TUsITA heaven prior to becoming complete and perfect buddhas (samyaksaMbuddha).

sāmantaka. (T. nyer bsdogs; C. jinfen; J. gonbun; K. kŭnbun 近分). In Sanskrit, "preparation," "neighboring state"; according to the YOGĀCĀRABHuMI and the ABHIDHARMASAMUCCAYA, each of the four concentrations (DHYĀNA) and attainments (SAMĀPATTI) has two parts: maula (fundamental state) and sāmantaka (a neighboring part that is preparatory to that fundamental state). The fundamental state is sAMATHA (serenity, calmness) and the sāmantaka (preparation) is included under the heading of VIPAsYANĀ (insight). Six or seven types of attentions (MANASKĀRA) are listed as preparations for the attainment of the first dhyāna. These include attention that contemplates marks (laksanapratisaMvedīmanaskāra), arises from belief (ādhimoksikamanaskāra), arises from separation (prāvivekyamanaskāra), contemplates joy and withdrawal (ratisaMgrāhakamanaskāra), investigates (mīmāMsakamanaskāra), is a final practice (prayoganistamanaskāra), and leads to the result of the final practice (prayoganistaphalamanaskāra). There are nine impediments (heya) between the fundamental stages of the first and second concentrations (dhyāna), for example. Attention is then paid to the marks of the lower as coarse (audārika) and the higher as delightful (sānta). The first attention identifies the impediments and focuses the mind on removing them; the second brings vigor or energy (VĪRYA); the third, fourth, and six actually counteract the three sets of three impediments; the fifth investigates to see whether the impediments have actually been eliminated. The seventh is the fundamental state. See also UPACĀRASAMĀDHI.

Samatha Meditation ::: One of the two general categories of meditative practice described on this site. Refers to concentration meditation where an object of focus is chosen and held onto with the mind. The object of focus can vary considerably, but enough attention consistently leads to the emergence and development of states called the samatha jhanas. Also Concentration Meditation.

samayamudrā. (T. dam tshig gi phyag rgya; C. sanmoye yin; J. sanmayain; K. sammaya in 三摩耶印). In Sanskrit, "seal of the vow," "seal of time," or "seal of the symbol," all three denotations related to objects of meditation in tantric Buddhism. The samayamudrā is usually listed as the third of four "seals" (MUDRĀ), "seal" here being used in the sense of a doorway through which one must pass in order to attain full realization; the other three are the KARMAMUDRĀ, the JNĀNAMUDRĀ, and the MAHĀMUDRĀ. In the context of sexual yoga, the term is also used to refer to a tantric consort who maintains the tantric pledges, as opposed to a karmamudrā (a consort who does not maintain such pledges) and a jNānamudrā (a consort who is not a physical person but is visualized in meditation). As "seal of the vow," the samayamudrā involves sustained focus on one's intention to keep a specific set of vows received as part of one's initiation (ABHIsEKA, dīksā) into tantric practice. As "seal of time," samaya carries its temporal denotation and the meditation involves an abandonment of past and future for the sake of a sustained experience of the present moment. As "seal of the symbol," the object of attention is a symbolic representation of various aspects of a buddha, BODHISATTVA, or deity.

saMnāha. (T. go cha; C. beijia; J. hiko; K. p'igap 被甲). In Sanskrit, "armor"; a term that occurs especially in the tradition of the ABHISAMAYĀLAMKĀRA, where the term "armor practice" (saMnāhapratipatti) refers both to the bodhisattva path in general as well as to specific practices begun on the path of accumulation or equipment (SAMBHĀRAMĀRGA). In the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ sutras (which are termed the jinajananī, "mother of victors"), bodhisattvas are said to be armed with a great armor (saMnaddhasaMnāha), an equipment made out of the interwoven six perfections (PĀRAMITĀ); and to set out (prasthāna) for the difficult work (duskaracaryā) necessary to become "victors" (JINA). This "difficult work" involves activities done for the sake of others. Each of the perfections is said to subsume all the other perfections, so that, for example, when bodhisattvas engage in exceptional acts of giving away their wealth or limbs (DĀNA), the act is informed by the bodhisattva's morality (sĪLA); done with forbearance (KsĀNTI) that can withstand the difficulty involved; propelled by perseverance (VĪRYA), and informed by concentration (SAMĀDHI), which enables the bodhisattva to stay focused on the aim of enlightenment while remaining tranquil and at ease; and is grounded on the wisdom (PRAJNĀ) that understands that the act of giving, the carrying out of the act, and the donor are all interdependent and without any inherent nature (SVABHĀVA). When bodhisattvas are armed with this great armor, they do not become discouraged by the long and difficult task of looking after the welfare of others (PARĀRTHA) who are "numberless like the sands of the Ganges" (GAnGĀNADĪVĀLUKĀ). Buckling on the armor (saMnāha) and setting out (prasthāna) on their quest, bodhisattvas ultimately accumulate all their necessary equipment (SAMBHĀRA) and go forth (niryāna) to the final goal of buddhahood.

samudayasatya. (P. samudayasacca; T. kun 'byung gi bden pa; C. jidi; J. jittai; K. chipche 集諦). In Sanskrit, "truth of origination"; the second of the so-called FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS (catvāry āryasatyāni) promulgated by the Buddha in his first sermon (see DHAMMACAKKAPPAVATTANASUTTA) in the Deer Park at SĀRNĀTH. In this context, SAMUDAYA refers to the origination or cause of the first truth, suffering (DUḤKHA; DUḤKHASATYA). The origination of suffering is identified as KARMAN and KLEsA. Karman or past actions, in this case unwholesome (AKUsALA) actions, are identified as the immediate cause of suffering, with negative deeds fructifying as experiences of mental and physical pain. The afflictions (klesa), often enumerated in this context as greed, hatred, and delusion, are the mediate causes of suffering, motivating the nonvirtuous deeds that result in future suffering. Among these three, delusion, understood as the mistaken conception of a perduring self (ĀTMAGRAHA), is the root cause of suffering, and produces greed and hatred. The implication of the second truth is that if one can eliminate the cause or origin of suffering, one can then put an end to suffering itself. This truth of the origin of suffering has four aspects (ĀKĀRA): it is the cause (HETU), origination (SAMUDAYA), producer (saMbhava), and condition (PRATYAYA). These four aspects counteract respectively the mistaken views that (1) suffering is arbitrary and has no cause, (2) there is only a single cause for suffering even though it is diverse and ongoing, (3) suffering is just the imaginary transformations of reality, and (4) suffering is the result of a particular mental focus, not the inexorable result of a mind governed by klesa and karman. These four aspects of the truth of origination are like a disease (in the sense that klesa and karman are the root cause of suffering), like a boil that is the origin of ongoing pain, like a thorn that produces intense suffering immediately, and like misfortune, in that the unbroken continuum (SAMTĀNA) of the aggregates (SKANDHA) is the condition for a life that is governed by suffering.

samyakpradhāna. (P. sammāpadhāna; T. yang dag par spong ba; C. zhengqin; J. shogon; K. chonggŭn 正勤). In Sanskrit, "right effort" or "correct effort"; in Tibetan (which reads the term as PRAHĀnA), "right abandonment." There are four right efforts, which are set forth within the presentation of the second set of dharmas making up the thirty-seven constituents of enlightenment (BODHIPĀKsIKADHARMA). The four pradhānas (efforts or, as prahāna, abandonments) describe effort at incipient stages of the path or religious training; by contrast, right effort (SAMYAKVYĀYĀMA), the sixth constituent of the eightfold path (ĀRYĀstĀnGAMĀRGA), denotes the effort or abandonment that occurs during the path of vision (DARsANAMĀRGA) or the path of cultivation (BHĀVANĀMĀRGA), when the path is more fully developed. Pradhāna involves the effort to abandon unwholesome (AKUsALA) mental states-and their resulting actions via body, speech, and mind-that are conducive to suffering. Simultaneously, samyakpradhāna encompasses the effort to cultivate those wholesome (KUsALA) mental states that are conducive to happiness for both oneself and others. These wholesome mental states are characterized by mindfulness (SMṚTI), energy (VĪRYA), rapture (PRĪTI), concentration (SAMĀDHI), and equanimity (UPEKsĀ). At the first stage of practice, the focus is on SMṚTI, which, as the foundations of mindfulness (SMṚTYUPASTHĀNA), involves mindfulness of the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS as applied to the body, sensations, states of mind, and wholesome and unwholesome dharmas. At the second stage of the practice, the focus is on the effort needed to develop samādhi. When fully developed in the mind of the awakened person, the practice of mindfulness is called right mindfulness; concentration, rapture, and equanimity are included under right concentration; and energy is called right effort (samyakvyāyāma).

Sandpiling ::: A technique, the name of which was put forward by the sorceror Jason Miller, for breaking through mundane states of consciousness through a piling of awareness of self upon a single point of focus. This is a technique that can be used to attune to the Mental Plane.

San lun zong. (J. Sanronshu; K. Sam non chong 三論宗). In Chinese, the "Three Treatises school," a Chinese analogue of the MADHYAMAKA school of Indian Buddhism philosophy; a largely exegetical tradition that focused on three important texts translated by KUMĀRAJĪVA, namely the Zhong lun ("Middle Treatise"), BAI LUN ("Hundred [Verse] Treatise"), and SHI'ERMEN LUN ("Twelve [Chapter] Treatise"). The Zhong lun is ostensibly a translation of NĀGĀRJUNA's MuLAMADHYAMAKAKĀRIKĀ. Kumārajīva's translation (dated 409), however, also contains his own notes as well as a commentary on Nāgārjuna's text by Pingala (fl. c. 4 CE). The Bai lun (*sATAsĀSTRA) is attributed to ĀRYADEVA and was translated into Chinese by Kumārajīva in 404. In this text, the author employs the apophatic language of the Madhyamaka school and refutes the arguments of rival traditions. The Shi'ermen lun (*Dvādasamukhasāstra) is also attributed to Nāgārjuna and is purportedly an introductory manual to the Zhong lun. In this text, the author provides an interpretation of emptiness (suNYATĀ) in twelve chapters. No Sanskrit or Tibetan recensions of the Bai lun or Shi'ermen lun are extant. The "three treatises," however, exerted much influence in East Asia, where they functioned as the central texts for students of emptiness and Madhyamaka doctrine. JIZANG (549-623) wrote influential commentaries on the three treatises and came to be regarded as the systematizer of the San lun school. He retrospectively traces the school to two important vaunt couriers: SENGZHAO (374-414), an influential early Chinese exegete and cotranslator of the perfection of wisdom (PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ) literature, whose writings helped to popularize the works of the Madhyamaka school in China; and SŬNGNANG (c. 450-c. 520), who is claimed to have taught the notion of "three truths" or "three judgments" (SANDI)-the truths of emptiness, provisional reality, and their mean-an exegetical schema that was influential in the subsequent development of both the San lun and TIANTAI schools. The writings of San lun exegetes were also influential in Korea during the Three Kingdoms period (where the tradition was known as Sam non) and during the Nara and Heian periods in Japan (where it was called Sanron).

Satisficing ::: is a decision-making strategy that aims for a satisfactory or adequate result, rather than the optimal solution. Rather than put maximum exertion towards attaining the most ideal outcome, satisficing focuses on pragmatic effort when confronted with tasks. This is because aiming for the optimal solution may necessitate needless expenditure of time, energy and resources. The strategy can include adopting a minimalist approach in regards to achieving the first attainable resolution that meets basic acceptable outcomes. Satisficing narrows the scope of options that are considered to achieve those outcomes, setting aside options that would call for more intensive, complex, or unfeasible efforts to attempt attain more optimal results. The term "satisfice" was coined by American scientist and Noble-laureate Herbert Simon in 1956.  BREAKING DOWN 'Satisficing'   The theory of satisficing finds application in a number of fields including economics, artificial intelligence and sociology. Satisficing implies that a consumer, when confronted with a plethora of choices for a specific need, will select a product or service that is "good enough," rather than expending effort and resources on finding the best possible or optimal choice.  If a consumer were to require a tool to process and resolve a problem, under a satisficing strategy they would look to the simplest, most readily accessible piece of equipment regardless of more effective options being available at greater cost and time. For instance, that may include the use of a single software title versus procuring an entire software suite that includes supplemental features.   How Satisficing Is Applied   Organizations that adopt satisficing as a strategy might seek to meet the minimal expectations for revenue and profit set by the board of directors and other shareholders. This contrasts with attempting to maximize profits through concerted efforts that put higher demands on the performance of the organization across sales, marketing, and other departments.  By aspiring to targets that are more attainable, the effort put forth may be equitable with the final results. Such a strategy might also be applied if a company’s leadership chooses to put only nominal effort towards one objective in order to prioritize resources to achieve optimal solutions for another goal. Reducing staffing at a tertiary worksite to minimal operational levels could allow for personnel to be reassigned to other divisions and projects where more substantial labor is required for maximized results. A limitation of satisficing is that the definition of what constitutes a satisfactory result has not necessarily been determined, nor is it universally clear that such a result differs from pursuit of an optimal outcome.

Sayana or Sayanacharya (Sanskrit) Sāyaṇa, Sāyaṇācārya The celebrated commentator on the Rig-Veda, who flourished under Vira-bukka I of Vijaya-nagara (1350-79). Some of his works were written in conjunction with his brother Madhava, who was the prime minister of Vira-bukka, also known as Madhavacharya, a celebrated teacher and scholar. Madhavacharya brought into clearer focus the Dvaita-Vedanta (dualistic Vedanta), according to which Brahma and the human soul, although intimately connected, are distinct. This teaching is in direct contradistinction with that of Sankaracharya, the greatest historic exponent of the Advaita-Vedanta (nondualistic Vedanta), according to the teaching of which, spirit and matter, Brahman-atman (divinity) and the human spirit, are one in essence.

Science ::: A process through which knowledge is acquired. The scientific method conventionally begins with an observation and proceeds to formulate a hypothesis. From there a sound experiment is designed with appropriate variables to study and controls set to try to narrow the focus to the variable of study (i.e. whether the independent variable is causing a change in the dependent variable). If the results of the experiment align with the hypothesis then further experiments are designed and peer-reviewed to ensure validity. If the results do not align then the hypothesis may need to be reworked. This is a simplification of the process but is the primary method of knowledge acquisition in society today. Unfortunately the mental state of the experimenters and the subjects cannot be controlled adequately and there needs to be a rethinking of this method to truly understand and decipher the mystery of consciousness. The process of meditation is used to decipher the factors that give rise to conscious experience.

selective attention: perceptual process of focusing on specific elements of a stimulus.

Self-Deification ::: The process of becoming more "god"-like in awareness, attachments, and/or abilities. Many paradigms that are LHP-oriented focus on deifying the self and differ from RHP paradigms that seek to shed or shatter the illusion of a self (see Anatta) entirely. Self-deification — or at least the attributes we ascribe to self-deification — can arise in either path and is frequently a result of becoming more aware of the nature of reality and What is doing the observing, regardless of whether one is seeking deification of the self or not. But that attachment to deification and its status as a goal along the path is what primarily distinguishes LHP from RHP philosophies.

Shanjia Shanwai. (J. Sange Sangai; K. San'ga Sanoe 山家山外). In Chinese, "On-Mountain, Off-Mountain"; two factions in a debate that engulfed the TIANTAI ZONG during the eleventh century over issues of the school's orthodoxy and orthopraxy. The Shanjia (On-Mountain) faction was led by the monk SIMING ZHILI (960-1028) and his disciples; they pejoratively referred to their opponents within the Tiantai school, such as Ciguang Wu'en (912-988), Yuanqing (d. 997), Qingzhao (963-1017), Zhiyuan (976-1022) and their disciples, as Shanwai (Off-Mountain), for drawing on non-Tiantai elements in their exegeses. The debate began over an issue of textual authenticity, but soon came to cover almost all major facets of Tiantai doctrine and practice. The On-Mountain faction criticized their rivals for attempting to interpret Tiantai doctrine using concepts borrowed from texts such as the DASHENG QIXIN LUN, which had not previously been an integral text in Tiantai exegesis, and from rival exegetical traditions, such as the HUAYAN ZONG. These Shanwai monks argued that the doctrine of the "TRICHILIOCOSM in an single instant of thought" (YINIAN SANQIAN) should be understood in the Huayan framework of the suchness that is in accord with conditions (zhenru suiyuan): in this understanding, an instant of thought is identified with the true mind that in its essence is pure, unchanging, and inherently enlightened; subsequently, by remaining in accord with conditions, that suchness in turn produces the trichiliocosm in all its diversity. From this perspective, they argued that the true mind should be the focus of contemplative practice in Tiantai. Shanjia masters feared such interpretations were a threat to the autonomy of the Tiantai tradition and sought to remove these Huayan elements so that the orthodox teachings of Tiantai would be preserved. Zhili, the major proponent of the Shanjia faction, argued that the Shanwai concept of suchness involved the principle of separation (bieli), since it excluded the afflicted and the ignorant, and only encompassed the pure and the enlightened. According to Zhili, suchness does not produce the trichiliocosm only when it is in accord with conditions, as the Huayan-influenced Shanwai exegetes asserted, because suchness is in fact identical to the trichiliocosm; therefore the instant of thought that encompasses all the trichiliocosm, including both its pure and impure aspects, should be the true focus of contemplative practice in Tiantai. Zhili's disciple Renyue (992-1064) and his fourth-generation successor Congyi (1042-1091) were subsequently branded the "Later Off-Mountain Faction," because they accepted some of the Shanwai arguments and openly rejected parts of Zhili's argument. Nevertheless, the Shanjia faction eventually prevailed, overshadowing their Shanwai rivals and institutionalizing Zhili's interpretations as the authentic teachings of the Tiantai tradition. Two Tiantai genealogical histories from the Southern Song dynasty, the Shimen zhengtong ("Orthodox Transmission of Buddhism") and the FOZU TONGJI ("Chronicle of the Buddhas and Patriarchs"), list Zhili as the last patriarch in the dharma transmission going back to the Buddha, thus legitimating the orthodoxy of the Shanjia faction from that point forward.

Shapeshifting ::: The process of changing either the Physical or Astral form into that which is other than the default. Almost always this is viewed as stabilizing the locus of focus upon a visualized Astral form but the possibility is not ruled out that this can apply physically as well.

She lun zong. (J. Shoronshu; K. Sop non chong 攝論宗). In Chinese, "School of the MAHĀYĀNASAMGRAHA"; one of the early Chinese indigenous doctrinal schools, focusing on YOGĀCĀRA philosophy. The school has its origins in exegetical traditions that began with PARAMĀRTHA's (499-569) translation of ASAnGA's MahāyānasaMgraha (C. She Dasheng lun). The school played a central role in early Chinese doctrinal controversies concerning the interpretation of consciousness in two different Indian Buddhist systems of thought: Yogācāra and TATHĀGATAGARBHA. The controversies revolved around the issue of the nature of the eighth storehouse consciousness (ĀLAYAVIJNĀNA), based on VASUBANDHU's ambiguous position in the SHIDIJING LUN (DAsABHuMIVYĀKHYĀNA), a commentary on the DAsABHuMIKASuTRA. In some passages, Vasubandhu implied that the ālayavijNāna was the tainted source from which SAMSĀRA arises; in others, he implied instead that the ālayavijNāna was coextensive with suchness (TATHATĀ) and thus fundamentally pure. The northern branch of the DI LUN ZONG argued that the storehouse consciousness was impure; it is a tainted source that produces only defiled dharmas. By contrast, the southern branch argued that the ālayavijNāna was fundamentally pure but came to be adventitiously associated with impure elements: it was the functioning of suchness and thus was pure, but it also was subject to the same laws of conditioned origination (PRATĪTYASAMUTPĀDA) as the sensory consciousnesses and thus on that level was also impure. The She lun school sought to integrate these two interpretations by drawing on Paramārtha's concept of an immaculate consciousness (AMALAVIJNĀNA). Paramārtha in his personal writings condemned the ālayavijNāna as being fundamentally impure, positing instead that only a ninth mode of consciousness, which he termed the immaculate consciousness, was pure. Following Paramārtha, She lun exegetes treated the ālayavijNāna as impure, and instead established the amalavijNāna as the pure ninth consciousness. They identified this new consciousness with suchness (tathatā) by using it as a synonym for PARINIsPANNA, the perfected nature described in Yogācāra philosophy. In the She lun zong interpretation, amalavijNāna thus came to be regarded as the absolute basis for all previous eight types of consciousness; the eighth consciousness, the ālayavijNāna, was instead seen as the provisional basis of afflictions (KLEsA). Several She lun masters advocated this admixture between ālayavijNāna and tathāgatagarbha thought, including Huikai (518-568), Daoni (fl. 590), Huikuang (534-613), and Tanqian (542-607). Tanqian was especially influential and was even invited by the Sui emperor Wendi (r. 581-604) to the imperial capital of Chang'an in 587 to preach the She lun teachings. The emperor later built the monastery of Chandingsi in the capital and appointed Tanqian as its first abbot, which became the center of the She lun zong. Sengbian (568-642), a She lun master from Daoni's lineage, was one of the teachers of the renowned Korean Yogācāra master WoNCH'ŬK (613-696). Doctrinal positions held in the She lun zong were crucial in the evolution of the HUAYAN school of the mature Chinese tradition.

Shenxiu. (J. Jinshu; K. Sinsu 神秀) (606?-706). Chinese CHAN master of the Tang dynasty and putative founder of the "Northern school" (BEI ZONG) of early Chan Buddhism. Shenxiu was a native of Kaifeng in present-day Henan province. As an extraordinarily tall man with well-defined features, Shenxiu is said to have had a commanding presence. In 625, Shenxiu was ordained at the monastery of Tiangongsi in Luoyang, but little is known of his activities in the first two decades following his ordination. In 651, Shenxiu became a disciple of HONGREN (601-674), cofounder of the East Mountain Teachings (DONGSHAN FAMEN) and the monk later recognized as the fifth patriarch of the Chan school; indeed, by many early accounts, such as the CHUAN FABAO JI and LENGQIE SHIZI JI, Shenxiu became Hongren's legitimate successor. According to the famous story in the LIUZU TANJING ("Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch"), however, Shenxiu lost a verse-writing contest to the unlettered HUINENG (638-713), whom Hongren then in secret sanctioned as the sixth patriarch. However, it is unclear how long Shenxiu studied with Hongren. One source states that it was for a period of six years, in which case he would have left Hongren's monastery long before Huineng's arrival, making the famous poetry contest impossible. Regardless of the date of his departure, Shenxiu eventually left Hongren's monastery for Mt. Dangyang in Jingzhou (present-day Hubei province), where he remained for over twenty years and attracted many disciples. Shenxiu and his disciples were the subjects of a polemical attack by HEZE SHENHUI (684-758), who disparaged Shenxiu as representing a mere collateral branch of BODHIDHARMA's lineage and for promoting what Shenhui called a "gradual" (jian) approach to enlightenment. Shenhui instead promoted a "sudden teaching" (DUNJIAO), which he claimed derived from a so-called "Southern school" (NAN ZONG) founded by Huineng, another (and relatively obscure) disciple of Hongren, whom Shenhui claimed was Hongren's authentic successor and the true sixth patriarch (LIUZU). Later Chan historians such as GUIFENG ZONGMI (780-841) began to use the designation "Northern school" (Bei zong) to describe the lineage of Shenxiu and his disciples YIFU (661-736), PUJI (651-739), and XIANGMO ZANG (d.u.). While Shenhui's characterization of Shenxiu and his supposed "gradualism" is now known to be misleading, subsequent histories of the Chan tradition (see CHUANDENG LU) more or less adopted Shenhui's vision of early Chan; thus Huineng, rather than Shenxiu, comes to be considered the bearer of the orthodox Chan transmission. As one mark of Shenxiu's high standing within the Chan tradition of his time, in 700, Shenxiu was invited to the imperial palace by Empress WU ZETIAN, where the empress prostrated herself before the nonagenarian monk. She was so impressed with the aged Chan master that she decided to build him a new monastery on Mt. Dangyang named Dumensi. She also gave him the title of state preceptor (GUOSHI). Upon his death, he was given a state funeral. He is one of only three Buddhist monks whose biography is included in the Tang shi ("Tang Annals"). This is clearly not the profile of an imposter within the Chan lineage. Shenxiu's teachings are known to have focused on the transcendence of thoughts (linian) and the five expedient means (fangbian; S. UPĀYA); these teachings appear in "Northern school" treatises discovered at Dunhuang, such as the YUANMING LUN, Guanxin lun, and DASHENG WUSHENG FANGBIAN MEN. Shenxiu was an expert on the LAnKĀVATĀRASuTRA, a text favored by Hongren and the early Chan tradition, and is also thought to have written a substantial commentary on the AVATAMSAKASuTRA. Despite the uncomplimentary portrayal of the "Northern school" in mainstream Chan materials, it is now recognized that Shenxiu and his disciples actually played a much more important role in the early growth and development of the Chan school than the mature tradition acknowledged.

Shinto. (J) (神道). In Japanese, lit. "The Way of the Spirits (KAMI)"; modern designation used to refer to a supposedly indigenous religion of Japan distinct from Buddhism. Shinto (alt. jindo) was originally a Buddhist term that designated the realm or course (to) of the local gods and spirits (shin), in distinction to tendo, the Indian divinities who populated the Buddhist celestial heavens (SVARGA). The term therefore referred to an amorphous complex of local beliefs, myths, and rituals that were focused on village and clan tutelary gods called KAMI. During the medieval period, this amorphous set of beliefs was gradually being systematized on a broader scale, but always in conjunction with, and under the strong influence of, Buddhism. It was only in 1868, with the start of the Meiji Restoration, that there was a forced separation of the kami and the buddhas (SHINBUTSU BUNRI), which artificially created two distinct and autonomous religions: the putatively autochthonous Japanese religion of Shinto and the imported traditions of Japanese Buddhism. See HAIBUTSU KISHAKU; HONJI SUIJAKU; KAMI; SHINBUTSU BUNRI; SHINBUTSU SHuGo.

Shobogenzo. (正法眼藏). In Japanese, "Treasury of the True Dharma Eye"; the magnum opus of the Japanese ZEN master DoGEN KIGEN (1200-1253); the title refers to the Zen (C. CHAN) school, which is considered to be the repository of the insights of the buddha sĀKYAMUNI himself, transmitted through the lineage of the CHAN patriarchs (ZUSHI) starting with MAHĀKĀsYAPA. A work bearing the same title (C. ZHENGFAYANZANG) by the eminent Song-dynasty Chinese monk DAHUI ZONGGAO was probably the inspiration for Dogen's own title. Dogen's oeuvre contains two works with this title. The first is a collection of 301 koan (C. GONG'AN) cases, composed in literary Chinese, known as the Shinji Shobogenzo or the Mana Shobogenzo. The second is a collection of essays written in Japanese, known as the Kana [viz., "vernacular"] Shobogenzo, which is the better known of the two and which will be the focus of this account. The Shobogenzo is a collection of individual essays and treatises that Dogen composed throughout his eventful career. Its earliest included treatise is the BENDoWA composed in 1231 and the latest is the Hachidainingaku composed in 1253, the year of Dogen's death. Although the Shobogenzo seems to have been all but forgotten after Dogen's death, later successors in the Japanese Soto Zen tradition, such as MANZAN DoHAKU (1636-1715), TENKEI DENSON (1648-1735), and MENZAN ZUIHo (1683-1769), and the layman ouchi Seiran (1845-1918) rediscovered the text and their influential commentaries on it helped to make Dogen's magnum opus the central scripture of the Soto Zen tradition. Six different editions of the Shobogenzo are known to exist: the "original" volume edited by Dogen in seventy-five rolls, the twelve-roll Yokoji edition, the sixty-roll Eiheiji edition edited by Giun (1253-1333), the eighty-four roll edition edited by Bonsei (d. 1427) in 1419, the eighty-nine roll edition edited by Manzan Dohaku (1636-1715) in 1684 at Daishoji, and the ninety-five roll edition edited by Kozen (1627-1693) in 1690 at Eiheiji. The seventy-five roll edition is today the most widely consulted and cited. Many of the essays were originally sermons delivered by Dogen, such that some are written by him and others were recorded by his disciples. Late in his life, he began to revise the essays, completing the revision of twelve of them before his death. The essays are renowned for their subtle and elliptical style, clever word play, and sometimes enigmatic meanings. Part of their difficulty arises from the fact that Dogen quotes liberally from Buddhist sutras and the works of Chinese masters, but also interprets these passages quite ingeniously. Dogen also invented a number of Buddhist neologisms that were largely unique to him, including creative "mis"-readings of original Chinese passages. For example, in his famous essay "Uji" ("Being Time"), Dogen reads the quotidian Chinese compound youshi ("at a certain time") to suggest the identity of "being" (C. you, J. u) and "time" (C. shi, J. ji): i.e., since impermanency governs all compounded things, those things are in fact time itself. The text includes extensive discussions of the foundations of Zen thought, the meaning and significance of awakening (SATORI), as well as detailed instructions on the ritual procedures for performing sitting meditation (J. ZAZEN; C. ZUOCHAN), as in the chapter FUKAN ZAZENGI. The Shobogenzo remains a source of great interest to scholars and practitioners of Zen. See also SoToSHu.

Shotoku Taishi. (聖德太子) (572-622). Japanese statesman of the Asuka period (593-710) and second son of Emperor Yomei (r. 585-587), who is traditionally assumed to have played an important role in the early dissemination of Buddhism in Japan. He is also known as Umayado no Miko (Prince Stable Door), but by the eighth century, he became known as Shotoku Taishi (lit. Prince Sagacious Virtue). Given that the earliest significant writings on the life of Shotoku Taishi come from two early histories, the Kojiki (712) and Nihon shoki (720), which are both written nearly a century after his death, little can be said definitively about his biography. According to the traditional accounts in these two texts, Suiko (554-628), the aunt of Prince Shotoku and the Japanese monarch, appointed her nephew regent in 593, giving him broad political powers. Thanks to his enlightened leadership, Prince Shotoku is credited with numerous historical achievements. These include the promotion of Buddhism within the court under an edict he issued in 594; promulgation of the Seventeen-Article Constitution in 604, which stresses the importance of the monarchy and lays out basic Buddhist and Confucian principles; sponsorship of trade missions to China; construction of the monasteries of HoRYuJI and SHITENNoJI; authorship of two chronological histories (Tennoko and Kokki); and composition of three of the earliest Buddhist commentaries in Japan, on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, and sRĪMĀLĀDEVĪSIMHANĀDASuTRA ("Lion's Roar of Queen srīmālā"), which demonstrate his deep familiarity with Mahāyāna Buddhist doctrine. The credibility of Prince Shotoku's achievements as described in the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki is undermined by fact that both texts were commissioned by the newly empowered monarchy in an attempt to strengthen its political standing. Some scholars have thus argued that because the new royal family wanted to identify itself with the powerful instrument of the new religion, they selected the person of Prince Shotoku, who shared their lineage, to serve as the first political patron of Buddhism in Japan. This historical narrative focused on Prince Shotoku thus denigrated the importance of the defeated SOGA clan's extensive patronage of Buddhism. As early as the Nara period (710-794), Prince Shotoku began taking on legendary, even mythical status, and was eventually transformed into one of Japan's greatest historical figures, representing the quintessence of Buddhist religious virtue and benevolent political leadership. Priests often dedicated temples to him or transferred the merit of religious enterprises to Shotoku. Both SHINRAN (1173-1263) and NICHIREN (1222-82) dedicated written works to his name. Throughout the Heian (794-1185) and Kamakura (1185-1333) periods, what is now referred to as the cult of Shotoku Taishi was widely popular and members of the aristocracy regularly venerated him (a practice referred to as Taishi shinko, lit. devotion to the Prince).

Shugendo. (修驗道). In Japanese, lit. the "Way of Cultivating Supernatural Power," a Japanese esoteric tradition that is focused on an intensive ascetic regiment of training in the mountains. Its practitioners claim as their founder EN NO OZUNU ([alt. En no Gyoja], En the Ascetic) (b. 634), a semilegendary ascetic from the mountains of KATSURAGISAN on the border between present-day Nara and osaka prefectures, who is venerated for his shamanic powers and for being the prototypical shugenja (lit. one who cultivates supernatural powers). Before it evolved into an independent religious entity, Shugendo was a wide-ranging set of religious practices that included elements drawn from many traditions, lineages, and institutions, including Japanese TENDAI (TIANTAI), SHINGON, Nara Buddhism, ZEN, PURE LAND movements, Daoism, and local indigenous beliefs. Its practitioners, who were known as YAMABUSHI (lit. those who lie down [or sleep] in the mountains), were largely itinerant, spending much of their time in the mountains, which Japanese regarded as numinous places that housed the spirits of the dead. Through severe austerities in the mountains, such as immersion under waterfalls, solitary confinement in caves, fasting, meditating, and the recitation of spells (MANTRA), practitioners strove to attain buddhahood in this very body (SOKUSHIN JoBUTSU) and accumulate power that would benefit others. As Shugendo evolved into a distinctive tradition during the mid- to late-Heian period (794-1185), Shugendo mountain centers either became linked with Tendai and Shingon institutions or continued to operate and expand independently. Mountains that were especially important to Shugendo included the Yoshino peaks in Nara prefecture, KUMANO in Wakayama prefecture, Haguro in Yamagata prefecture, Hiko in Kyushu, and Ishizuchi in Shikoku. During this period, the aristocratic nobility, including a long succession of monarchs and retired monarchs, patronized the Yoshino and Kumano mountains. Shugenja guided these visitors on pilgrimage and performed magical and religious rites for them. Pilgrimages became increasingly popular and became a significant source of revenue for many of these mountain centers. Under the temple regulations (J. jiin hatto) imposed by the shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) at the start of the Tokugawa period (1600-1868), Shugendo sites were forced to align with either the Tendai Shugen branch of Honzan, administered by the temple of Shogoin, or the Shingon branch of Tozan, administered by Sanboin, both located in Kyoto. Itinerant practitioners largely settled down and began performing rituals and offering prayers in villages. Due to sectarian strife between the two schools, in 1707 the Tozan branch named as its founder Shobo (a.k.a. Rigen Daishi; 832-909), who had established Daigoji at Mt. Yoshino. Shugendo was proscribed in 1872 during the Meiji persecution of Buddhism, as the government tried to purge Shinto-affiliated traditions of their "foreign" elements. However, Shogoinryu, the primary branch of the Honzan school, was returned to the religious rolls in 1892. When religious freedom was restored in postwar Japan, many Shugendo institutions resumed their former rituals and traditions, although not to the same extent as they had previously. While a multitude of indigenous gods (KAMI), buddhas, and bodhisattvas have been venerated historically at Shugendo sites around Japan, Kongo Zao Gongen, a deity in the omine mountains who was venerated by En no Ozunu, gradually became the central deity in Shugendo. Other significant objects of worship include En no Ozunu himself, who is thought to have manifested himself as Hoki Bosatsu (the bodhisattva DHARMODGATA); Shobo, an incarnation of Nyoirin Kannon (Cintāmanicakra AVALOKITEsVARA); and Fudo Myoo (ACALANĀTHA-VIDYĀRĀJA), a wrathful DHARMAPĀLA of the VAJRAYĀNA pantheon.

Shwegyin Sayadaw. (1822-1893). In Burmese, "Senior Monk from Shwegyin," honorific title of U Zagara (P. Jāgara), a prominent nineteenth-century reformist scholar-monk and founder of the SHWEGYIN GAING, which today is the second largest monastic fraternity (B. GAING; P. GAnA) in the Burmese sangha (S. SAMGHA). U Zagara was born in Shwegyin village near Shwebo in Upper Burma. As a novice (P. sāmanera; S. sRĀMAnERA) and as a young monk (P. BHIKKHU; S. BHIKsU) he studied under many of the prominent abbots of his time, and according to some sources was a colleague of the learned and ultra-orthodox Okpo Sayadaw, U Okkamwuntha (P. OkkaMvaMsa), founder of the DWAYA GAING, in British-occupied Lower Burma. Like the Okpo Sayadaw, U Zagara emphasized Pāli scholarship and scrupulous attention to monastic discipline (P. VINAYA) as the foundation of the Buddha's religion (P. sāsana; S. sĀSANA), qualities which brought him to the attention of the Burmese king, MINDON (r. 1853-1878). King Mindon, who had inaugurated a revival and reform of Buddhism throughout his kingdom, appointed U Zagara as a royal preceptor (B. SAYADAW) and built for him an elaborate monastic complex at the foot of Mandalay Hill. This attention soon brought U Zagara into conflict with the powerful THUDHAMMA Council, a royally appointed ecclesiastical body charged with governing the Burmese sangha of the kingdom. After a falling out with the Thudhamma patriarch (B. thathanabaing; P. SAnGHARĀJĀ), U Zagara petitioned the king for autonomy (P. ganavimutti) from Thudhamma control, which the king granted. He and his disciples thus formed the nucleus of the new Shwegyin gaing. Some years after the death of the Thudhamma patriarch, during the reign of Burma's last king, Thibaw (1878-1885), U Zagara was invited along with another senior monk to jointly head the Thudhamma Council. U Zagara declined the offer, focusing his energies instead on expanding the reach of the Shwegyin gaing throughout Upper and Lower Burma. The strong emphasis placed by U Zagara and his successors on Buddhist scholarship, monastic discipline, and strict institutional organization of member monasteries allowed the Shwegyin gaing to successfully weather the tumultuous years following the British conquest of the Burmese kingdom in 1885, which saw the dissolution of the Thudhamma Council and disestablishment of Buddhism as the state religion.

Sifen lü. (J. Shibunritsu; K. Sabun yul 四分律). In Chinese, "Four-Part VINAYA"; the Chinese translation of the DHARMAGUPTAKA vinaya, the most influential of the different vinaya translations in East Asia, so-named because of the four main divisions into which the text was divided: (1) bhiksuvibhanga, (2) bhiksunīvibhanga, (3) SKANDHAKA, which includes a life of the Buddha and the twenty skandhaka, and (4) two Appendices, of saMyuktavarga and vinayaikottara. The collection probably derives from some time in the first century BCE. With the support of the ruler Yao Xing (r. 394-416), the Kashmiri monk BUDDHAYAsAS (d.u.; fl. c. early fifth century) recited the text from memory and translated it into Chinese with the help of the Chinese monk ZHU FONIAN (d.u.). Their work was carried out in the Chinese capital of Chang'an between 408 and 413 and was completed in sixty rolls. The Chinese translation is especially important because the Sanskrit recension is no longer extant and the text was never translated into Tibetan. The "Four-Part Vinaya" first circulated in the Chinese metropolitan centers of Chang'an and Luoyang, eventually replacing the other vinayas then circulating in China to became the definitive monastic code in East Asia. Exegetical schools such as DAOXUAN's NANSHAN LÜ ZONG (South Mountain vinaya school) and HUAISU's DONGTA LÜ ZONG (East Pagoda vinaya school), as well as the Korean YUL CHONG and the Japanese RITSUSHu, all focused on the explication of the "Four-Part Vinaya." Among the numerous commentaries on the "Four-Part Vinaya," DAOXUAN's Sifen lü shanfan buque xingshi chao came to be regarded as most authoritative.

sigil ::: Sigil Usually denotes a magical sigil, a glyph used in Ritual Magick as a focus, or for summoning angels, demons, or spirits. There are several methods of devising sigils for this use, usually involving special arrangements of magick squares, Enochian tables, etc., of letters or numbers, and tracing the desired word over this pattern to reveal a symbol, or by reducing alphabetical characters into a single glyph (a fancy word for a shape, a component that makes up an outline font). John Dee's (see Enochian Magick) AGLA Sigil was designed for the reverse of the Sigil of Ameth under the direction of the angel Uriel. He was instructed to re-create the Sigil of Ameth by the angels he contacted during his scrying sessions with Edward Kelley.

Simulacrum ::: Also Doppelgänger. An eerie likeness of a person. There are many esoteric ideas surrounding this concept but the practical will mainly be focused on here: that is a simulacrum of one's physical form can be that which is utilized on the Astral Plane as a sheath (although it might be unwise to try to craft a simulacrum of oneself in that manner for certain reasons).

Smon lam chen mo. (Monlam Chenmo). In Tibetan, "great prayer," the great prayer festival that took place in the Tibetan capital of LHA SA as part of the celebration of the Tibetan lunar New Year (and thus occurring in February and sometimes March). The festival was established by TSONG KHA PA, the founder of the DGE LUGS sect, in 1409, to commemorate the Buddha's defeat of the heretical teachers (TĪRTHIKA) at sRĀVASTĪ. Lasting until the twenty-fifth day of the first month of the new year, the festival included prayers performed three times each day at the JO KHANG, the chief temple of Lha sa, as well as rituals for the expiation of misdeeds committed during the previous year and a rededication to the principles of Buddhism for the coming year. During the festival, the city would be filled with pilgrims from all over Tibet as well as with monks from the three Dge lugs monasteries in the vicinity of Lha sa. Elaborate butter sculptures (GTOR MA) were made and 'CHAM dances were performed. The examinations for the granting of the DGE BSHES lha ram pa degree took place at this time. For the period of the festival, the lay officials of the city of Lha sa turned over civil authority to the monks of 'BRAS SPUNGS monastery. The festival was suspended after the Tibetan uprising in 1959, but began again in 1986 with the political liberalization that followed the death of Mao Zedong, but was banned again in 1990. In times of conflict it has served as a focus for Tibetan political and cultural identity.

smṛti. (P. sati; T. dran pa; C. nian; J. nen; K. yom 念). In Sanskrit, "mindfulness" or "memory" and often seen in Western sources in the Pāli equivalency sati; a polysemous term, but commonly used in meditative contexts to refer to the ability to remain focused on a chosen object without forgetfulness or distraction. The SARVĀSTIVĀDA school of ABHIDHARMA lists smṛti as one of a group of five determinative (VINIYATA) mental concomitants (CAITTA), whose function is to aid the mind in ascertaining or determining its object. The five are: aspiration or desire-to-act (CHANDA), determination or resolve (ADHIMOKsA), mindfulness or memory (smṛti), concentration (SAMĀDHI), and wisdom or cognition (PRAJNĀ). According to ASAnGA, these five determinative factors accompany wholesome (KUsALA) states of mind, so that if one is present, all are present. Mindfulness is crucial to all types of formal meditative practice because of its role in bringing clarity to the perceptual process; it leaves the mind in a purely receptive state that inhibits the unwholesome responses to sensory stimuli, such as greed, hatred, and delusion. Mindfulness also contributes to control of the mind, by eliminating distraction and helping the meditator gain mastery of his thought processes. Smṛti is also a catalyst of the related term "circumspection" or "introspection" (SAMPRAJANYA) and ultimately of wisdom (PRAJNĀ). As the third of the five spiritual faculties (PANCENDRIYA), smṛti helps to balance faith (sRADDHĀ) and wisdom (prajNā)-which could degenerate into blind faith or skepticism, respectively-as well as vigor (VĪRYA) and concentration (SAMĀDHI)-which could degenerate respectively into restlessness and indolence. Smṛti is thus the keystone that ensures the uniform development of all five faculties; for this reason, unlike the other four factors, there can never be too much mindfulness, because it cannot degenerate into a negative state. The emphasis on mindfulness is one of the most distinctive features of Buddhist meditation theory. Consequently, the term appears in numerous lists of virtuous qualities, especially in those pertaining to meditation. For example, in perhaps its most popular usage, right mindfulness (SAMYAKSMṚTI) is the seventh of the eight aspects of the noble eightfold path (ĀRYĀstĀnGAMĀRGA). Generally in this context, the cultivation of the "foundations of mindfulness" (SMṚTYUPASTHĀNA) is understood to serve as a basis for the development of liberating wisdom (prajñā). Thus, meditation exercises involving smṛti are often discussed in connection with those related to VIPAsYANĀ, or "insight." In one of the most widely read discourses on mindfulness, the MAHĀSATIPAttHĀNASUTTANTA, the Buddha offers four specific foundations of mindfulness training, namely, on the body (KĀYA), sensations (VEDANĀ), mental states (CITTA), and specific factors (P. dhamma; S. DHARMA). In his Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayanāmatīkā, a commentary on the PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀHṚDAYASuTRA ("Heart Sutra"), KAMALAsĪLA lists mindfulness as the third of five "powers" (BALA) that are attained on the path of preparation (PRAYOGAMĀRGA). In another popular schema, smṛti is listed as the first of seven "limbs of awakening" or factors of enlightenment (BODHYAnGA); these are seven factors that contribute to enlightenment. See also ANUSMṚTI; SMṚTYUPASTHĀNA; SATIPAttHANASUTTA.

Social_economics ::: is a branch of economics that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and economics. It examines how social norms, ethics and other social philosophies influence consumer behavior and shape an economy, and uses history, politics and other social sciences to predict potential results from changes to society or the economy. Social economic theories do not move in lockstep with those of orthodox schools of economics. Therefore, traditional schools of thought often assume that actors are self-interested and make rational decisions. Social economic theories often consider subject matter outside the focus of mainstream economics including the effect of the environment and ecology on consumption and wealth.

social network "communications" Any {website} designed to allow multiple users to publish content themselves. The information may be on any subject and may be for consumption by (potential) friends, mates, employers, employees, etc. The sites typically allow users to create a "profile" describing themselves and to exchange public or private messages and list other users or groups they are connected to in some way. There may be editorial content or the site may be entirely user-driven. Content may include text, images (e.g. {(http://flickr.com/)}), video (e.g. {(http://youtube.com/)}) or any other media. Social networks on the the web are a natural extension of {mailing lists} and {buletin boards}. They are related to {wikis} like {(http://wikipedia.org/)} but typically do not allow users to modify content once it has been submitted, though usually you can publish comments on others' submissions. Different sites have different emphasis. For example, {(http://friendsreunited.co.uk/)} (one of the earliest such sites) focusses on listing former acquaintances; {(http://myspace.com/)} is music-oriented; {(http://linkedin.com/)} aims to connect business partners; {(http://del.icio.us/)}, {(http://stumbleupon.com/)} and {(http://digg.com/)} are for exchanging links to favouirite websites. There are many more. Sometimes the social aspects are a side-effect of bringing together people with shared interests, e.g. {(http://slashdot.org/)} (IT), other times they become more important than the original purpose, e.g. {(http://worldofwarcraft.com/)} (fantasy gaming). (2006-12-05)

Social Psychology ::: The branch of psychology which focuses on society and it&

Soka Gakkai. (創價學會/創価学会). In Japanese, "Value-Creating Society," a Japanese Buddhist lay organization associated with the NICHIRENSHu, founded by MAKIGUCHI TSUNESABURO (1871-1944) and his disciple Toda Josei (1900-1958). Formerly a teacher, Makiguchi became a follower of Nichiren's teachings, finding that they supported his own ideas about engendering social and religious values, and converted to NICHIREN SHoSHu in 1928. In 1930, he established a lay organization under the umbrella of the Nichiren Shoshu, which initially called itself the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (Creating Educational Values Society), and led its first general meeting. After its inauguration, the society began to take on a decidedly religious character, focusing on missionary work for Nichiren Shoshu. As the Pacific War expanded, Makiguchi and his followers refused to cooperate with state-enforced SHINTo practices, leading to a rift between them and TAISEKIJI, the head monastery of Nichiren Shoshu. In 1943, the society almost disintegrated with the imprisonment of Makiguchi and Toda, along with twenty other leaders charged with lèse-majesté and violations of the Public Order Act, which required each family to enshrine a Shinto talisman in its home. Makiguchi died in 1944 in prison, but Toda survived and was released on parole in July 1945. After his release, Toda took charge of the organization, renaming it Soka Gakkai in 1946. He successfully led a massive proselytization campaign that gained Soka Gakkai and Nichiren Shoshu vast numbers of new converts and by the late 1950s, upwards of 750,000 families had become adherents. After Toda died in 1958, IKEDA DAISAKU (b. 1928) became its third president and the society grew even more rapidly in Japan during the 1960s and the 1970s. In 1975, Ikeda also founded Soka Gakkai International (SGI), which disseminated the society's values around the world. Soka Gakkai publishes numerous books and periodicals, as well as a daily newspaper in Japan. During this period, Soka Gakkai also became involved in Japanese domestic politics, establishing its own political party, the Komeito (Clean Government Party) in 1964, which became completely separate and independent from the Soka Gakkai in 1970. The society also supported Taisekiji with massive donations, including raising the funds for a new main shrine hall for the monastery. Soka Gakkai, like other groups in the Nichiren lineage, focuses on worship of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") and its adherents are expected to chant daily the title (DAIMOKU) of the sutra, NAM MYoHoRENGEKYo, as well as recite the most important sections of the sutra and study Nichiren's writings. Soka Gakkai believes that all beings possess the capacity to attain buddhahood and emphasizes the ability of each person's buddha-nature to overcome obstacles and achieve happiness. Soka Gakkai followers can accomplish these goals through a "human revolution" (the title of one of Ikeda's books) that creates a sense of oneness between the individual and the environment, thus demonstrating how each individual can positively affect the surrounding world. As tensions grew between the Nichiren Shoshu and its increasingly powerful lay subsidiary, Nikken (b. 1922), the sixty-seventh chief priest of Nichiren Shoshu, tried to bring its membership directly under his control. His efforts were ultimately unsuccessful and he excommunicated the Soka Gakkai in 1991, forbidding Soka Gakkai followers from having access to the holiest shrines associated with Nichiren. Sokka Gakkai remains at the center of controversy because of its strong emphasis on recruitment and proselytization, its demonization of enemies, and a mentorship structure within the organization that some claim creates a cult of personality centered on Ikeda. Soka Gakkai remains among the largest Buddhist organizations in the Western world.

Sometimes upadhi is interchangeable with vahana (vehicle); thus manas is spoken of as the upadhi or vahana of buddhi. But the more frequent use of upadhi is as a foundation or base. For instance, Blavatsky speaks of hydrogen as the upadhi of both air and water; and of akasa as the upadhi of divine thought. “Cosmic Ideation focussed in a principle or upadhi (basis) results as the consciousness of the individual Ego. Its manifestation varies with the degree of upadhi, e.g., through that known as Manas it wells up as Mind-Consciousness; through the more finely differentiated fabric (sixth state of matter) of the Buddhi resting on the experience of Manas as its basis — as a stream of spiritual intuition” (SD 1:329n).

Son. (禪). In Korean, "Meditation"; the Korean branch of the broader East Asian Chan school, which includes Chinese CHAN, Japanese ZEN, and Vietnamese THIỀN. Son is the Korean pronunciation of the Chinese term CHAN, which in turn is a transcription of the Sanskrit term DHYĀNA, or meditative absorption. More specifically, Son denotes the Korean Buddhist traditions that trace their origins back to the Chinese Chan school, or CHAN ZONG. Koreans such as CHoNGJUNG MUSANG were important participants in the development of the new teachings of the Chan zong on the Chinese mainland; in addition, Korean pilgrims were bringing this tradition home to the peninsula no later than the early-ninth century during the Silla dynasty. At least nine of these pilgrims are known to have established their own Son lineages, which are traditionally referred to as the Nine Mountains School of Son (KUSAN SoNMUN). Eight of these nine traditions were associated with the lineage of MAZU DAOYI and the HONGZHOU ZONG, which was known for its iconoclastic approach to Chan pedagogy. The Son tradition flourished during the Koryo dynasty largely through the efforts of POJO CHINUL and his successor CHIN'GAK HYESIM, and the late-Koryo and early-Choson figures T'AEGO POU, MUHAK CHACH'O, and NAONG HYEGŬN. During this period, the teachings of masters associated with the Chinese Imje chong (C. LINJI ZONG) lineage became especially influential in Korea, and Son practice came to focus on the meditative technique of "observing the meditative topic," or "questioning meditation" (K. kanhwa Son, C. KANHUA CHAN). The Son schools, like all of the religion, suffered under the centuries-long suppression of Buddhism during the Choson dynasty, which reduced all the different strands of Korean Buddhism to the "two traditions of Son (Meditation) and Kyo (Doctrine)" (SoN KYO YANGJONG). Even during this period of crisis, however, Korean Son produced some of its most eminent teachers, including CH'oNGHo HYUJoNG and his student SAMYoNG YUJoNG. Son was revitalized during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries thanks to the efforts of such monks as KYoNGHo SoNGU and MAN'GONG WoLMYoN. Two of the dominant schools of contemporary Korean Buddhism, the CHOGYE CHONG and T'AEGO CHONG, both consider themselves predominantly Son traditions.

Sotoshu. (曺洞宗). One of the three major branches of the Japanese Zen tradition, along with the RINZAISHu and oBAKUSHu. The Soto tradition traces its lineage back to DoGEN KIGEN (1200-1253), who is credited with transmitting to Japan the CAODONG ZONG line of the Chinese CHAN teacher TIANTONG RUJING (1162-1227). After returning from China in 1227, Dogen settled in Kyoto and sought to create a new Zen community. Because of resistance from the TENDAI and Rinzai traditions that were already firmly entrenched in the capital (see ENNI BEN'EN), Dogen and his followers eventually left for the rural area of Echizen (in the northern part of present-day Fukui prefecture), and founded EIHEIJI, which came to serve as the center of this new Zen institution. In Echizen, Dogen devoted his time and energy to securing the doctrinal and institutional bases for his community. Dogen's venture was aided by several adherents of the DARUMASHu, who joined the community. Among them were Koun Ejo (1198-1280), the editor of the seventy-five-roll version of Dogen's magnum opus, the SHoBoGENZo, and Tettsu Gikai (1219-1309), whose lineage subsequently came to dominate the Soto school; these monks later served as the second and the third abbots of Eiheiji. Modern scholars believe that a dispute between Gikai and a fellow disciple of Koun Ejo named Gien (d. 1313) concerning the abbotship of Eiheiji prompted Gikai to move to Daijoji in Ishikawa. Gikai was succeeded by his disciple KEIZAN JoKIN (1268-1325), who is honored as "the second patriarch" of Soto by the school's modern followers. Keizan revitalized the Soto community by synthesizing Zen practice with the worship of local gods (KAMI), thus appealing to the local populace. Keizan also established SoJIJI, which along with Eiheiji came to serve as the headquarters (honzan) of the Soto tradition. Gazan Shoseki (1275-1365), a successor of Keizan, produced several disciples, including Taigen Soshin (d. c. 1371) and Tsugen Jakurei (1322-1391), who are credited with the Soto school's rapid expansion throughout Japan during the medieval period. Soto monks of this period, especially those belonging to Keizan-Gazan lines, proselytized in the rural areas of Japan, which had been largely neglected by the established Buddhist traditions at court, and attracted a following among commoners and local elites by engaging in such social activities as building bridges and irrigation systems, as well as by performing rituals that met their religious needs, such as funeral services and mass ordinations (jukai e). Each lineage of the Soto tradition also developed its own secret koan manuals (monsan), only available to selected monks, which gave a received set of questions and answers regarding each koan (C. GONG'AN). During the Tokugawa period, the Soto school developed into one of the largest Buddhist sects in Japan, with a stable financial base, thanks to the mandatory parish system (DANKA SEIDO) that the government launched, in which every household was required to register as a member of a local Buddhist temple and was responsible for the financial support for the temple. By the middle of the eighteenth century, there were more than 17,500 Soto temples across Japan. Although the religious life of the majority of the Soto monks and lay followers during this period was focused on practical religious benefits, such as faith healing and funeral services, a restoration movement eventually developed that sought to return to the putative "original teachings and practices" of the founder Dogen. MANZAN DoHAKU (1636-1714) opposed the custom of IN'IN EKISHI, or "changing teachers according to temple," which was widespread in the Soto tradition during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and was required in order to inherit the dharma lineage of a temple (GARANBo). Instead, Manzan called for a direct, face-to-face transmission (menju shiho) from one master to his disciple (isshi insho), which he claimed Dogen had established for the Soto tradition. After several failed attempts, he finally succeeded in persuading the bakufu government to ban the in'in ekishi and garanbo practice in 1703. TENKEI DENSON (1648-1735) and MENZAN ZUIHo (1683-1769) also composed influential commentaries to Dogen's magnum opus, the Shobogenzo, which led to a renaissance in Dogen studies. After the Meiji reforms of 1868, the two head monasteries of Eiheiji and Sojiji, which had remained rivals through the Tokugawa period, worked together to reform the school, issuing several standardizations of the rules for temple operation, ritual procedures, etc. In 1890, Azegami Baisen (d.1901) from Sojiji and Takiya Takushu (d. 1897) from Eiheiji edited the layman ouchi Seiran's (1845-1918) introductory work on the Shobogenzo and distributed it under the title of the Soto kyokai shushogi ("Meaning of Practice and Realization in the Soto Sect"). This text played a major role in the popularization of the school's meditative practice of "just sitting" (SHIKAN TAZA), which fosters a psychological state in which "body and mind are sloughed off" (SHINJIN DATSURAKU); sitting practice itself is therefore regarded as the manifestation of the perfect enlightenment of buddhahood. The Soto school continues to thrive today, with the great majority of its more than fourteen thousand contemporary temples affiliated with Sojiji.

Soul :::
The animating life or consciousness within man (or any other creature, see Sefer HaTanya, ch. 1). The Jew possesses an additional &

space bar "hardware" (Or "space key") The extra-wide {key} at the near edge of every {keyboard} that is used to enter a {space} character. In some {Graphical User Interfaces}, pressing the space bar selects the current item where the context does not allow text entry, e.g. when the {input focus} is on a {push button} or {tick box}. (2007-01-29)

Spearman (1863-1945): focused on intelligence research; proposing the theoretical underlying general factor (g) of intelligence, and statistics; establishing Spearmans rank correlation coefficient and factor analysis.

spell ::: Spell A magical rite directed towards the achievement of an objective. Sometimes this refers to the verbal part of the ritual, and is similar in ways to a Christian prayer, but besides vocalisation, herbs, candles and other assorted natural objects are used to strengthen and focus the 'prayer' or spell.

Spiral Dynamics ::: A theoretical model focusing on the development of value memes, or “vMemes,” from First Tier (Survival Sense, Kin Spirits, Power Gods, Truth Force, Strive Drive, and Human Bond) to Second Tier (Flex Flow and Global View). Conceived by Don Beck and Christopher Cowan, and based on research by Clare Graves.

Standard Generalized Markup Language "language, text" (SGML) A generic {markup} language for representing documents. SGML is an International Standard that describes the relationship between a document's content and its structure. SGML allows document-based information to be shared and re-used across applications and computer {platforms} in an open, vendor-neutral format. SGML is sometimes compared to {SQL}, in that it enables companies to structure information in documents in an open fashion, so that it can be accessed or re-used by any SGML-aware application across multiple platforms. SGML is defined in "ISO 8879:1986 Information processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)", an {ISO} standard produced by {JTC} 1/SC 18 and amended by "Amendment 1:1988". Unlike other common document file formats that represent both content and presentation, SGML represents a document's content {data} and structure (interrelationships among the data). Removing the presentation from content establishes a neutral format. SGML documents and the information in them can easily be re-used by publishing and non-publishing {applications}. SGML identifies document elements such as titles, paragraphs, tables, and chapters as distinct objects, allowing users to define the relationships between the objects for structuring data in documents. The relationships between document elements are defined in a {Document Type Definition} (DTD). This is roughly analogous to a collection of {field} definitions in a {database}. Once a document is converted into SGML and the information has been 'tagged', it becomes a database-like document. It can be searched, printed or even programmatically manipulated by SGML-aware applications. Companies are moving their documents into SGML for several reasons: Reuse - separation of content from presentation facilitates multiple delivery formats like {CD-ROM} and {electronic publishing}. Portability - SGML is an international, platform-independent, standard based on {ASCII} text, so companies can safely store their documents in SGML without being tied to any one vendor. Interchange - SGML is a core data standard that enables SGML-aware applications to inter-operate and share data seamlessly. A central SGML document store can feed multiple processes in a company, so managing and updating information is greatly simplified. For example, when an aeroplane is delivered to a customer, it comes with thousands of pages of documentation. Distributing these on paper is expensive, so companies are investigating publishing on CD-ROM. If a maintenance person needs a guide for adjusting a plane's flight surfaces, a viewing tool automatically assembles the relevant information from the document {repository} as a complete document. SGML can be used to define attributes to information stored in documents such as security levels. There are few clear leaders in the SGML industry which, in 1993, was estimated to be worth US $520 million and is projected to grow to over US $1.46 billion by 1998. A wide variety tools can be used to create SGML systems. The SGML industry can be separated into the following categories: Mainstream Authoring consists of the key {word processing} vendors like {Lotus}, {WordPerfect} and {Microsoft}. SGML Editing and Publishing includes traditional SGML authoring tools like {ArborText}, {Interleaf}, {FrameBuilder} and {SoftQuad Author}/Editor. SGML Conversions is one of the largest sectors in the market today because many companies are converting legacy data from mainframes, or documents created with mainstream word processors, into SGML. Electronic Delivery is widely regarded as the most compelling reason companies are moving to SGML. Electronic delivery enables users to retrieve information on-line using an intelligent document viewer. Document Management may one day drive a major part of the overall SGML industry. SGML Document Repositories is one of the cornerstone technologies that will affect the progress of SGML as a data standard. Since 1998, almost all development in SGML has been focussed on {XML} - a simple (and therefore easier to understand and implement) subset of SGML. {"ISO 8879:1986//ENTITIES Added Latin 1//EN" (http://ucc.ie/info/net/isolat1.html)} defines some characters. [How are these related to {ISO 8859}-1?]. {ISO catalogue entry (http://iso.ch/cate/d16387.html)}. SGML parsers are available from {VU, NL (ftp://star.cs.vu.nl/Sgml)}, {FSU (ftp://mailer.cc.fsu.edu/pub/sgml)}, {UIO, Norway (ftp://ifi.uio.no/pub/SGML/SGMLS)}. See also {sgmls}. {Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.text.sgml}. ["The SGML Handbook", Charles F. Goldfarb, Clarendon Press, 1991, ISBN 0198537379. (Full text of the ISO standard plus extensive commentary and cross-referencing. Somewhat cheaper than the ISO document)]. ["SGML - The User's Guide to ISO 8879", J.M. Smith et al, Ellis Harwood, 1988]. [Example of some SGML?] (2000-05-31)

Standard Generalized Markup Language ::: (language, text) (SGML) A generic markup language for representing documents. SGML is an International Standard that describes the relationship that it can be accessed or re-used by any SGML-aware application across multiple platforms.SGML is defined in ISO 8879:1986 Information processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), an ISO standard produced by JTC 1/SC 18 and amended by Amendment 1:1988.Unlike other common document file formats that represent both content and presentation, SGML represents a document's content data and structure establishes a neutral format. SGML documents and the information in them can easily be re-used by publishing and non-publishing applications.SGML identifies document elements such as titles, paragraphs, tables, and chapters as distinct objects, allowing users to define the relationships between becomes a database-like document. It can be searched, printed or even programmatically manipulated by SGML-aware applications.Companies are moving their documents into SGML for several reasons:Reuse - separation of content from presentation facilitates multiple delivery formats like CD-ROM and electronic publishing.Portability - SGML is an international, platform-independent, standard based on ASCII text, so companies can safely store their documents in SGML without being tied to any one vendor.Interchange - SGML is a core data standard that enables SGML-aware applications to inter-operate and share data seamlessly.A central SGML document store can feed multiple processes in a company, so managing and updating information is greatly simplified. For example, when an can be used to define attributes to information stored in documents such as security levels.There are few clear leaders in the SGML industry which, in 1993, was estimated to be worth US $520 million and is projected to grow to over US $1.46 billion by 1998.A wide variety tools can be used to create SGML systems. The SGML industry can be separated into the following categories:Mainstream Authoring consists of the key word processing vendors like Lotus, WordPerfect and Microsoft.SGML Editing and Publishing includes traditional SGML authoring tools like ArborText, Interleaf, FrameBuilder and SoftQuad Author/Editor.SGML Conversions is one of the largest sectors in the market today because many companies are converting legacy data from mainframes, or documents created with mainstream word processors, into SGML.Electronic Delivery is widely regarded as the most compelling reason companies are moving to SGML. Electronic delivery enables users to retrieve information on-line using an intelligent document viewer.Document Management may one day drive a major part of the overall SGML industry.SGML Document Repositories is one of the cornerstone technologies that will affect the progress of SGML as a data standard.Since 1998, almost all development in SGML has been focussed on XML - a simple (and therefore easier to understand and implement) subset of SGML. defines some characters. [How are these related to ISO 8859-1?]. .SGML parsers are available from , , .See also sgmls.Usenet newsgroup: comp.text.sgml.[The SGML Handbook, Charles F. Goldfarb, Clarendon Press, 1991, ISBN 0198537379. (Full text of the ISO standard plus extensive commentary and cross-referencing. Somewhat cheaper than the ISO document)].[SGML - The User's Guide to ISO 8879, J.M. Smith et al, Ellis Harwood, 1988].[Example of some SGML?](2000-05-31)

*sthāpyabhāvanā. (T. 'jog sgom). In Sanskrit, "stabilizing meditation," the one-pointed concentration on a single object without discursive reflection. An example of such stabilizing meditation would be the concentration on the breath or the golden body of the Buddha, eventually resulting in a state of sAMATHA or DHYĀNA. The term is often paired with *VICĀRABHĀVANĀ, those forms of meditation that involve discursive reflection on points of Buddhist doctrine, such as the investigation of the constituents of mind and body. In instructions on meditation practice, advice is often given to alternate between these two forms of meditation, first arriving at a conclusion or conviction through analytical meditation and then focusing on that conclusion through stabilizing meditation, resulting in VIPAsYANĀ.

Structuralism ::: School of thought from the 19th century focused on the gathering of psychological information through the examination of the structure of the mind.

Subconscious In The Secret Doctrine, used for a degree of consciousness less evolved than that with which we are familiar. Generally today, psychic researchers and psychoanalysts define it as a kind of mental action not yet revealed to ordinary consciousness and not easily apparent to introspection. Our own consciousness is known by experience; that of others is inferred from analogy and from its results. In the same way, our conduct is found to be largely influenced by something which we must presume to be a conscious intelligence, yet of which we are not aware by actual experience. We cannot get a clear definition of this until we have analyzed the concept of consciousness more fully, as is done in Hindu systems. But, as a practical question, our mental nature includes a far larger field than that occupied at any one time by the focus of attention. Subconscious may merely mean behind conscious; but if it taken to mean below, the expression is unfortunate as implying lower and more sinister regions of our mentality; and this indeed is actually the region studied and accepted by prominent modern psychoanalysts.

subject matter: The issue or topic that is the focus of a discussion or text.

Sukhāvatīvyuhasutra. (T. Bde ba can gyi bkod pa'i mdo; C. Wuliangshou jing; J. Muryojukyo; K. Muryangsu kyong 無量壽經). Literally, the "Sutra Displaying [the Land of] Bliss," the title of the two most important Mahāyāna sutras of the "PURE LAND" tradition. The two sutras differ in length, and thus are often referred to in English as the "larger" and "smaller" (or "longer" and "shorter") Sukhāvatīvyuhasutras; the shorter one is commonly called the AMITĀBHASuTRA. Both sutras are believed to date from the third century CE. The longer and shorter sutras, together with the GUAN WULIANGSHOU JING (*Amitāyurdhyānasutra), constitute the three main texts associated with the pure land tradition of East Asia (see JINGTU SANBUJING). There are multiple Sanskrit, Chinese, and Tibetan versions of both the longer and shorter sutras, with significant differences among them. ¶ The longer Sukhāvatīvyuhasutra begins with ĀNANDA noticing that the Buddha is looking especially serene one day, and so asks him the reason. The Buddha responds that he was thinking back many millions of eons in the past to the time of the buddha LOKEsVARARĀJA. The Buddha then tells a story in the form of a flashback. In the audience of this buddha was a monk named DHARMĀKARA, who approached Lokesvararāja and proclaimed his aspiration to become a buddha. Dharmākara then requested the Buddha to describe all of the qualities of the buddha-fields (BUDDHAKsETRA). Lokesvararāja provided a discourse that lasted one million years, describing each of the qualities of the lands of trillions of buddhas. Dharmākara then retired to meditate for five eons, seeking to concentrate all of the marvelous qualities of the millions of buddha-fields that had been described to him into a single pure buddha-field. When he completed his meditation, he returned to describe this imagined land to Lokesvararāja, promising to create a place of birth for fortunate beings and vowing that he would follow the bodhisattva path and become the buddha of this new buddha-field. He described the land he would create in a series of vows, stating that if this or that marvel was not present in his pure land, may he not become a buddha: e.g., "If in my pure land there are animals, ghosts, or hell denizens, may I not become a buddha." He made forty-eight such vows. These included the vow that all the beings in his pure land will be the color of gold; that beings in his pure land will have no conception of private property; that no bodhisattva will have to wash, dry, or sew his own robes; that bodhisattvas in his pure land will be able to hear the dharma in whatever form they wish to hear it and whenever they wish to hear it; that any woman who hears his name, creates the aspiration to enlightenment (BODHICITTA), and feels disgust at the female form, will not be reborn as a woman again. Two of these vows would become the focus of particular attention. In the eighteenth vow (seventeenth in the East Asian versions), Dharmākara vows that when he has become a buddha, he will appear at the moment of death to anyone who creates the aspiration to enlightenment, hears his name, and remembers him with faith. In the nineteenth vow (eighteenth in the East Asian versions), he promises that anyone who hears his name, wishes to be reborn in his pure land, and dedicates their merit to that end, will be reborn there, even if they make such a resolution as few as ten times during the course of their life. Only those who have committed one of the five inexpiable transgressions bringing immediate retribution (ĀNANTARYAKARMAN, viz., patricide, matricide, killing an ARHAT, wounding a buddha, or causing schism in the SAMGHA) are excluded. The scene then returns to the present. Ānanda asks the Buddha whether Dharmākara was successful, whether he did in fact traverse the long path of the bodhisattva to become a buddha. The Buddha replies that he did indeed succeed and that he became the buddha Amitābha (Infinite Light). The pure land that he created is called sukhāvatī. Because Dharmākara became a buddha, all of the things that he promised to create in his pure land have come true, and the Buddha proceeds to describe sukhāvatī in great detail. It is carpeted with lotuses made of seven precious substances, some of which reach ten leagues (YOJANA) in diameter. Each lotus emits millions of rays of light and from each ray of light there emerge millions of buddhas who travel to world systems in all directions to teach the dharma. The pure land is level, like the palm of one's hand, without mountains or oceans. It has great rivers, the waters of which rise as high or sink as low as one pleases, from the shoulders to the ankles, and vary in temperature as one pleases. The sound of the river takes the form of whatever auspicious words one wishes to hear, such as "buddha," "emptiness," "cessation," and "great compassion." The words "hindrance," "misfortune," and "pain" are never heard, nor are the words "day" and "night" used, except as metaphors. The beings in the pure land do not need to consume food. When they are hungry, they simply visualize whatever food they wish and their hunger is satisfied without needing to eat. They dwell in bejeweled palaces of their own design. Some of the inhabitants sit cross-legged on lotus blossoms while others are enclosed within the calyx of a lotus. The latter do not feel imprisoned, because the calyx of the lotus is quite large, containing within it a palace similar to that inhabited by the gods. Those who dedicate their merit toward rebirth in the pure land yet who harbor doubts are reborn inside lotuses where they must remain for five hundred years, enjoying visions of the pure land but deprived of the opportunity to hear the dharma. Those who are free from doubt are reborn immediately on open lotuses, with unlimited access to the dharma. Such rebirth would become a common goal of Buddhist practice, for monks and laity alike, in India, Tibet, and throughout East Asia. ¶ The "shorter" Sukhāvatīvyuhasutra was translated into Chinese by such famous figures as KUMĀRAJĪVA and XUANZANG. It is devoted largely to describing this buddha's land and its many wonders, including the fact that even the names for the realms of animals and the realms of hell-denizens are not known; all of the beings born there will achieve enlightenment in their next lifetime. In order to be reborn there, one should dedicate one's merit to that goal and bear in mind the name of the buddha here known as AMITĀYUS (Infinite Life). Those who are successful in doing so will see Amitāyus and a host of bodhisattvas before them at the moment of death, ready to escort them to sukhāvatī, the land of bliss. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of this practice, the Buddha goes on to list the names of many other buddhas abiding in the four cardinal directions, the nadir, and the zenith, who also praise the buddha-field of Amitāyus. Furthermore, those who hear the names of the buddhas that he has just recited will be embraced by those buddhas. Perhaps to indicate how his own buddha-field (that is, our world) differs from that of Amitāyus, sākyamuni Buddha concludes by conceding that it has been difficult to teach the dharma in a world as degenerate as ours.

Summum Bonum: (Lat. the supreme good) A term applied to an ultimate end of human conduct the worth of which is intrinsically and substantively good. It is some end that is not subordinate to anything else. Happiness, pleasure, virtue, self-realization, power, obedience to the voice of duty, to conscience, to the will of God, good will, perfection have been claimed as ultimate aims of human conduct in the history of ethical theory. Those who interpret all ethical problems in terms of a conception of good they hold to be the highest ignore all complexities of conduct, focus attention wholly upon goals towards which deeds are directed, restrict their study by constructing every good in one single pattern, center all goodness in one model and thus reduce all other types of good to their model. -- H.H.

Sun The central focus of radiating energy, physical and spiritual, of any solar system. In our solar system the sun is one of several suns subordinate to the more central sun of the universal solar system. In the solar cosmos as a whole it is the Logos, the head of the septenary hierarchy of creative forces, corresponding to the Christos, Abraxas, Mithras, Dionysos, etc., in man. Its names among the many peoples of the earth are countless: Osiris, Ormazd, Apollo, Phoebus, Ammon-Ra, Helios, Surya, etc. Symbolized by the circle with a central point, it is for its own system the All-Father. Sun worship, in the occult sense, was once the universal foundation of religion, but it has mostly given place to what is really lunar worship. The sun is often found contrasted with the moon as spiritual is with material; and solar magic means white magic as contrasted with the dark lunar magic. Thus we find deities classed as solar and lunar, or particular deities have both a solar and a lunar aspect. As Father and Son he is seen in Osiris and Horus, atman and buddhi-manas, God and Christos.

syāmatārā. (T. Sgrol ljang). In Sanskrit, "Dark Tārā"; in Tibetan "Green Tārā"; according to a widely held Tibetan myth, the goddess who consorted with a monkey (an emanation of AVALOKITEsVARA) and gave birth to the Tibetan people. Later, she took the form of the princess BHṚKUTĪ, Nepalese wife of King SRONG BTSAN SGAM PO. After Avalokitesvara, syāmatārā is perhaps the most widely worshipped Buddhist deity in Tibet and the focus of the nonsectarian Tārā cult. The Namas Tāre EkaviMsatistotra ("Twenty-One Praises of Tārā") is one of the most widely known prayers in Tibet, and her MANTRA, oM tāre tuttāre ture svāha, is second in popularity only to OM MAnI PADME HuM, AVALOKITEsVARA's mantra. Each Tibetan sect has its own tantric rituals (SĀDHANA) and ritual propitiations (VIDHI) for Green Tārā, who is considered particularly helpful to those building monasteries and other religious structures, and to those starting business ventures. Green Tārā is iconographically represented as sitting in LALITĀSANA with her left leg bent and resting on her lotus seat, her right leg pendant, with the knee slightly raised, the foot resting on a second smaller lotus. ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNĀNA, an Indian Buddhist monk and scholar revered by Tibetan Buddhists as a leading teacher in the later dissemination (PHYI DAR) of Buddhism in Tibet, was a devotee of Green Tārā, and the temple commemorating his principal residence during his later years in central Tibet, in Snye thang (Nyethang), is the Sgrol ma lha khang (Drolma Lhakang) "Tārā Temple," which is widely believed by Tibetans to have a statue of syāmatārā that can speak. See also TĀRĀ.

Sybase, Inc. ::: (company) A software vendor focused on database management software.Yearly sales: $903.9 million (1997).Address: 6475 Christie Ave., Emeryville, California, USA. . (1998-05-18)

Sybase, Inc. "company" A software vendor focused on {database} management software. Yearly sales: $903.9 million (1997). Address: 6475 Christie Ave., Emeryville, California, USA. {(http://sybase.com)}. (1998-05-18)

Symbolic Resonance ::: The idea that since reality can be reduced to archetypes then awareness simply needs to shift its locus of focus to those specific archetypes in order to bring them into the reality of the magician and to be able to work with them.

T'aego Pou. (太古普愚) (1301-1382). In Korean, "Grand Ancient, Universal Stupidity"; SoN master of the late Koryo dynasty, who is presumed to have introduced the lineage of the LINJI ZONG (K. Imje chong) of the Chinese CHAN school to Korea. T'aego was a native of Hongju in present-day South Ch'ungchong province. He is said to have been born into the prominent family of a court official and ordained as a youth in 1313 by the monk Kwangji (d.u.) at the monastery of Hoeamsa (Kyonggi province). T'aego later passed the clerical examinations (SŬNGKWA) for specialists of the Hwaom (C. HUAYAN) school in 1329. While investigating the Chan case (GONG'AN) "the ten thousand dharmas return to one" (case 45 of the BIYAN LU) in 1333, T'aego is said to have attained his first awakening at the monastery of Kamnosa in Songso (South Cholla province). Four years later, he is said to have had another awakening while investigating ZHAOZHOU CONGSHEN's WU GONG'AN. In 1341, he built a hermitage near the monastery Chŭnghŭngsa on Mt. Samgak (Kyonggi province) named T'aegoam, whence he acquired his toponym. In 1346, T'aego headed for China, where he resided at the monastery of Daguangsi in the Yuan capital of Yanjing. T'aego is also said to have visited the eminent Chan master Shiwu Qinggong (1272-1352) and received his seal of transmission (C. YINKE, K. in'ga) and thus an affiliation with Shiwu's Linji lineage. After T'aego returned to Korea in 1348, he retired to Miwon on Mt. Sosol (Kyonggi province). In 1356, he was summoned to the Koryo capital of Kaesong, where he taught at the influential monastery of Pongŭnsa. That same year he was appointed the king's personal instructor, or "royal preceptor" (wangsa), and abbot of the monastery KWANGMYoNGSA, the major Son monastery in the capital. T'aego continued to serve as the personal advisor to successive kings until his death on Mt. Sosol in 1382. His teachings are recorded in the T'aego hwasang orok. ¶ In the last half of the twentieth century, attempts to trace the orthodox lineage of the contemporary Korean CHOGYE CHONG back to T'aego and his Chinese Linji lineage rather than to POJO CHINUL (1158-1210) caused a rift within the Korean Buddhist community. The focus of the critique is Chinul's putatively "gradualist" approach to Son Buddhist soteriology (viz., his advocacy of tono chomsu, C. DUNWU JIANXIU) and Chinul's lack of an authentic dharma transmission from a recognized Chan or Son master (he is known to have been an autodidact). T'aego was therefore credited with initiating true Son orthodoxy in Korea, based on T'aego's transmission from Shiwu Qinggong, an authentic successor in the Chinese Linji school with its quintessentially "sudden awakening" (DUNWU) soteriology. This issue remains a matter of unremitting controversy in contemporary Chogye order politics. T'aego's name has also been adopted by the T'AEGO CHONG, a modern order of Korean married monks, in order to give a patina of orthodoxy to its school as well.

Target ::: In magical practice this is the focus of a spell or rite. It is usually used to refer to a person but does not necessarily carry a negative connotation.

taskbar "operating system" The part of the {Microsoft Windows} {graphical user interface} (GUI) typically occupying a fixed strip along the bottom of the screen, showing a rectangular icon for each running {application}. The taskbar also contains the {Start menu} at its left-hand end and the {notification area} at the right-hand end. Other {toolbars} can be added such as the {Quick Launch toolbar}. Clicking an application's taskbar icon makes its windows visible in front of other windows and gives one of them the {input focus}, or if it is already in front, minimises it. Right-clicking an icon gives a {window manager} menu, possibly customised by the application. Right-clicking the taskbar itself performs global window manager actions such as minimising all windows and also allows you to set taskbar properties. The taskbar can be locked in position or resized or dragged to the top, left or right of the screen. (2007-06-13)

Technical_analysis ::: is a trading discipline employed to evaluate securities and identify trading opportunities by analyzing statistics gathered from trading activity, such as price movement and volume. Unlike fundamental analysts, who attempt to evaluate a security's intrinsic value, technical analysts focus on charts of price movement and various analytical tools to evaluate a security's strength or weakness.

technomagick: Reality-alteration (that is, magick) through a scientific/ technological focus.

TECO ::: (editor, text) /tee'koh/ (Originally an acronym for [paper] Tape Editor and COrrector; later, Text Editor and COrrector]) A text editor developed at may have been the most prolific editor in use before Emacs, to which it was directly ancestral. The first Emacs editor was written in TECO.It was noted for its powerful programming-language-like features and its unspeakably hairy syntax (see write-only language). TECO programs are said to probably not a useful one); one common game used to be predict what the TECO commands corresponding to human names did.As an example of TECO's obscurity, here is a TECO program that takes a list of names such as: Loser, J. RandomQuux, The Great sorts them alphabetically according to surname, and then puts the surname last, removing the comma, to produce the following: Moby DickJ. Random Loser The program is [1 J^P$L$$J .-Z; .,(S,$ -D .)FX1 @F^B $K :L I $ G1 L>$$ (where ^B means Control-B (ASCII 0000010) and $ is actually an alt or escape (ASCII 0011011) character).In fact, this very program was used to produce the second, sorted list from the first list. The first hack at it had a bug: GLS (the author) had accidentally features of TECO, but ^P means sort and J.-Z; ... L> is an idiomatic series of commands for do once for every line.By 1991, Emacs had replaced TECO in hacker's affections but descendants of an early (and somewhat lobotomised) version adopted by DEC can still be found lurking on VMS and a couple of crufty PDP-11 operating systems, and ports of the more advanced MIT versions remain the focus of some antiquarian interest.See also retrocomputing. for VAX/VMS, Unix, MS-DOS, Macintosh, Amiga.[Authro? Home page?](2001-03-26)

TECO "editor, text" /tee'koh/ (Originally an acronym for "[paper] Tape Editor and COrrector"; later, "Text Editor and COrrector"]) A {text editor} developed at {MIT} and modified by just about everybody. With all the dialects included, TECO may have been the most prolific editor in use before {Emacs}, to which it was directly ancestral. The first {Emacs} editor was written in TECO. It was noted for its powerful programming-language-like features and its unspeakably {hairy} {syntax} (see {write-only language}). TECO programs are said to resemble {line noise}. Every string of characters is a valid TECO program (though probably not a useful one); one common game used to be predict what the TECO commands corresponding to human names did. As an example of TECO's obscurity, here is a TECO program that takes a list of names such as: Loser, J. Random Quux, The Great Dick, Moby sorts them alphabetically according to surname, and then puts the surname last, removing the comma, to produce the following: Moby Dick J. Random Loser The Great Quux The program is [1 J^P$L$$ J ".-Z; .,(S,$ -D .)FX1 @F^B $K :L I $ G1 L"$$ (where ^B means "Control-B" (ASCII 0000010) and $ is actually an {alt} or escape (ASCII 0011011) character). In fact, this very program was used to produce the second, sorted list from the first list. The first hack at it had a {bug}: GLS (the author) had accidentally omitted the "@" in front of "F^B", which as anyone can see is clearly the {Wrong Thing}. It worked fine the second time. There is no space to describe all the features of TECO, but "^P" means "sort" and "J".-Z; ... L"" is an idiomatic series of commands for "do once for every line". By 1991, {Emacs} had replaced TECO in hacker's affections but descendants of an early (and somewhat lobotomised) version adopted by {DEC} can still be found lurking on {VMS} and a couple of {crufty} {PDP-11} {operating systems}, and ports of the more advanced MIT versions remain the focus of some antiquarian interest. See also {retrocomputing}. {(ftp://usc.edu/)} for {VAX}/{VMS}, {Unix}, {MS-DOS}, {Macintosh}, {Amiga}. [Authro? Home page?] (2001-03-26)

Temple [from Latin templum, tempulum a small division from Greek, Latin tem to cut off, mark out] Templum was a spot marked off for sacred purposes by the augur with his staff, and might be on the ground or in the sky, where it was a region designated for the observation of omens. This connects the idea with that of the celestial mansions or zodiacal signs. From being a mere marked-off spot, it gradually evolved into elaborate edifices, and it has also a figurative use, as when the body is called the temple of God or the earth is described as a temple. When a temple in ancient days was constructed by adepts for specific purposes, it became a center or receptacle of spiritual energies attracted and focused there; and from this arose the merely exoteric ideas, true in their origin but absurdly untrue today, that a consecrated portion of a temple or church was the Holy of Holies or the Seat of God, etc.

The ethnology of the ancient peoples inhabiting Mesopotamia is extremely obscure. The records of occult history show that in a previous geological period, all that portion of western and central-western Asia, which includes Persia, Babylonia, Turkestan, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, etc., was once a highly fertile and well-populated portion of the earth’s surface, not only bearing once famous and brilliant civilizations, but likewise the seat of different peoples living side by side. When immense climatic and geological changes took place, this vast stretch of territory became the seeding-place or focus whence spread to the east, south, and west various emigrant offshoots which populated what were then less fertile territories, which in time became on the one hand northern India, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Turkestan, and on the southwest Iran, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and the Caucasus district. It was far later that a reverse current of emigration left what is now northern India and proceeded westward settling to a certain extent in the lands of their ancient forefathers, and this accounts not only for the similarities between the west and east of this district, but the Indian influence perceptible in Mesopotamia and the close linguistic and other links that existed between the ancient Zoroastrians and the Brahmanical streams of thought.

The fundamental idea in these various manners of adoring fire was that, because of the warming and life-giving functions of this universal element, it symbolized the vital and all-penetrating activity of cosmic life. Furthermore, because the sun was the focus or heart through which pours the life of any solar system, therefore the ideas connected with ancient fire worship are likewise intimately connected with the teachings concerning the solar orb and its indwelling divinity.

Thelema ::: A philosophical and spiritual paradigm developed in the early 1900s by Aleister Crowley that emphasizes a central tenet to guide one's actions in the form of the Law of Thelema: "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law. Love is the Law, Love under Will." Traditionally incorporating Egyptian symbolism and its pantheon, modern Thelema as practiced by groups such as the A∴A∴ and O.T.O. tends to focus on initiations based on the Kabbalah and its Visions (e.g. K&C with the HGA, crossing the Abyss, etc.). The word "magick" with a "k" at the end comes from the Thelemic writings of Aleister Crowley.

Theory of constraints – Refers to a management approach or theory that main focuses is on the identification and subsequent and relaxation of the constraints that may limit a firm's ability to achieve a higher level of their goal attainment.

There exist alternative definitions of conics involving a focus and a directrix together with a ratio of distance from the two called eccentricity.

There seems little doubt that the Chaldean Anu and the Sanskrit anu (atom) are identic in origin. Anu is a title of the formative Brahma who philosophically is often envisaged as the cosmic atom or infinite universe. The mystical significance is the ever-invisible, unreachable divine center — whether of a being or universe — which is the divine-spiritual focus of essential consciousness, from which flow forth all the streams of consciousness in its multiform varieties.

The term monad was adopted from Greek philosophy by Bruno, Leibniz, and others. According to Leibniz there can be but one ultimate cosmic reality or monad, the universe; but he recognizes an innumerable multiplicity of monads which pervade the universe, copies or reflections of the universal monad regarded as real except in their relation to the universal monad. He divides his derivative monads into three classes: rational souls; sentient but irrational monads; and material monads, or organic and inorganic bodies. As regards the material monads, while recognizing that corporeal matter is compound, and the attributes by which we perceive it unreal, unlike Berkeley, he does not deny its existence but regards it essentially as monadic. Thus his universe is an aggregate of individuals. The relations of these individuals to each other and to the universal is a supreme harmony, implying both individuality and coordination, thus reconciling the antinomy of bonds of law and freedom. The interrelations of various groups of monads is as a series of hierarchies. Theosophical usage is largely the same as that of Leibniz, as the focus or heart in any individual being, of all its divine, spiritual, and intellectual powers and attributes — the immortal part of its being. In The Secret Doctrine we find a triadic union of gods-monads-atoms, related to each other as spirit-soul-body (or more accurately spirit, spirit-soul, and spirit-soul-body). Monads and atoms are related to each other as the energic and the material side of manifestation, the atoms being the reflections, veils, or projections of and from the monads themselves.

The_trend ::: is the general direction of a market or of the price of a security. In technical analysis, trends are identified by trendlines that connect a series of highs or lows. Most traders trade in the same direction as a trend, while contrarians seek to identify reversals. Trends can also apply to interest rates, bond yields, and other markets where they're characterized by a long-term movement in price or volume.   BREAKING DOWN 'Trend'  Technical analysis was founded on the premise that security prices trend over time, which makes identifying the trend one of the most important elements of the practice. Traders can identify the trend using various forms of technical analysis, including both trendlines and technical indicators. For example, trendlines might show the direction of a trend while the relative strength index (RSI) is designed to show the strength of a trend at any given point in time. Many traders live by the mantra, "the trend is your friend," with the exception of contrarians that seek to identify reversals.  Trends may also be used by investors focused on fundamental analysis, which looks at changes in the revenue, earnings, or other business metrics. For example, fundamental analysts may look for trends in earnings per share and revenue growth. If earnings have grown for the past four quarters, this represents a positive trend. However, if earnings have declined for the past four quarters, it represents a negative trend. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/trend.asp

“This is the Logos (the first), or Vajradhara, the Supreme Buddha (also called Dorjechang). As the Lord of all Mysteries he cannot manifest, but sends into the world of manifestation his heart — the ‘diamond heart,’ Vajrasattva (Dorjesempa)” (SD 1:571). Adi-buddha is the individualized monadic focus of adi-buddhi, primordial cosmic wisdom or intelligence, synonymous with mahabuddhi or mahat (universal mind). Otherwise expressed, adi-buddha is the supreme being heading the hierarchy of compassion and our solar universe; the fountain of light running through all subordinate hierarchies and thus the supreme lord and initiator of the wisdom side of our universe.

Thomas, Edward Joseph. (1869-1958). British scholar of Pāli and Sanskrit Buddhism. He was the son of a Yorkshire gardener and worked as a gardener himself in his early life before studying at St. Andrews and then Cambridge, where he received his BA in 1905. He spent the remainder of his life at Cambridge, holding various positions at the university library, where he was renowned for his knowledge of languages (along with his work in Indian languages, he also published a book on Danish conversational grammar). He wrote both general works on Buddhist thought and translated Buddhist texts, including a collection of JĀTAKA stories from the Pāli. His most influential work was The Life of the Buddha as Legend and History (1927), in which he focused upon the structure of various biographical fragments and texts, and their role within the wider tradition. Thomas stressed the importance of studying all available language sources and the need to understand the mythic and fabulous elements of the religion as important traditions in their own right.

Thoughtform ::: See Artificial Spirit. There is a slight difference though in that a thougtform has the connotation that it is more likely to be unintentionally created through the collective will and focus of a group.

T'ongdosa. (通度寺). In Korean, "Breakthrough Monastery" (lit. "Penetrating Crossing-Over Monastery"); the fifteenth district monastery (PONSA) in the contemporary CHOGYE CHONG of Korean Buddhism, located at the base of Yongch'uksan (S. GṚDHRAKutAPARVATA, or Vulture Peak) in Yangsan, South Kyongsang province. Along with HAEINSA and SONGGWANGSA, T'ongdosa is one of the "three-jewel monasteries" (SAMBO SACH'AL) that represent one of the three jewels (RATNATRAYA) of Buddhism; T'ONGDOSA is the buddha-jewel monastery (pulbo sach'al), because of its ordination platform and the relics (K. sari; S. sARĪRA) of the Buddha enshrined in back of its main shrine hall (TAEUNG CHoN). The oldest of the three-jewel monasteries, T'ongdosa has long been regarded as the center of Buddhist disciplinary studies (VINAYA) in Korea, and has been one of the major sites of ordination ceremonies since the Unified Silla period (668-935). Relics, reputed to be those of the Buddha himself, are enshrined at the monastery, and its taeung chon is famous for being one of four in Korea that does not enshrine an image of the Buddha; instead, a window at the back of the main hall, where the image ordinarily would be placed, looks out on the Diamond Ordination Platform (Kŭmgang kyedan), which includes a reliquary (STuPA) that enshrines the Buddha's relics. This focus on vinaya and the presence of these relics, both of which are reminders of the Buddha, have led the monastery to be designated the buddha-jewel monastery of Korea. T'ongdosa is said to have been established by the vinaya master CHAJANG (608-686) in 646 to enshrine a portion of the relics that he brought back with him from his sojourn into China. While on pilgrimage at WUTAISHAN, Chajang had an encounter with the bodhisattva MANJUsRĪ, who entrusted Chajang with a gold studded monk's robe (K. kasa; S. KAsĀYA) wrapped in purple silk gauze, one hundred pieces of relics of the Buddha's skull bone and his finger joint, beads, and sutras. One portion of the relics was enshrined together with the Buddha's robe in a bell-shaped stone stupa at the center of the Diamond Ordination Platform; another portion was enshrined in the nine-story pagoda at HWANGNYONGSA in the Silla capital of Kyongju. Under Chajang's leadership, the monastery grew into a major center of Silla Buddhism and the monastery continued to thrive throughout the Silla and Koryo dynasties, until the whole monastery except the taeung chon was destroyed by invading Japanese troops in the late sixteenth century. In 1641, the monk Uun (d.u.) rebuilt the monastery in its current configuration. The Diamond Ordination Platform was periodically damaged during the sporadic Japanese invasions that occurred during the Choson dynasty. In the fourth month of 1377, Japanese pirates invaded, seeking to plunder the sarīra; to keep them from falling into Japanese hands, the abbot went into hiding with the relics. Two years later, on the fifteenth day of the fifth month of 1379, the pirates came again, and the monks quickly whisked away the relics and hid them deep in the forest behind the monastery. The Japanese went in pursuit of the relics, but the abbot Wolsong (d.u.) took them to Seoul to keep them safe, returning with them once the danger had passed. During the Hideyoshi Invasions in the late sixteenth century, the relics were also removed in order to keep them safe. SAMYoNG YUJoNG, who was leading a monk's militia fighting the Japanese invaders, sent the relics to the Diamond Mountains (KŬMGANGSAN) in the north, where his teacher and the supreme commander, CH'oNGHo HYUJoNG, was staying. Hyujong decided that the relics were no safer there than back at their home monastery, so he returned them to T'ongdosa. Yujong covered the hiding place of the relics with weeds and thorn bushes and, once the Japanese threat was rebuffed, he restored the site to its former glory and the relics were reenshrined in 1603. The platform was repaired again in 1653 and on a grand scale in 1705. The Diamond Ordination Platform remains the site where BHIKsU and BHIKsUnĪ ordinations are held in Korea. In 1972, T'ongdosa was elevated to the status of an ecumenical monastery (CH'ONGNIM), and is one of the five such centers in the contemporary Chogye order, which are all expected to provide training in the full range of practices that exemplify the major strands of the Korean Buddhist tradition; the monastery is thus also known as the Yongch'uk Ch'ongnim.

Toson. (道詵) (827-898). Korean SoN master during the Later Silla and the early Koryo kingdoms, who is said to have been the first Korean to combine geomancy (K. p'ungsu; C. fengshui) and Buddhism in order to assess and correct adverse energy flows in the indigenous Korean landscape. Toson was probably a relatively little-known figure during his own lifetime, but he became the stuff of legend for supposedly predicting the rise to prominence of the founder of the Koryo dynasty, Wang Kon (r. 918-943), and using his geomatic prowess to locate the most auspicious site for the founding of its new capital, Kaesong. Toson developed a theory of deploying Buddhist architectural sites as a palliative to geographic anomalies. This theory, called "reinforcing [the land] through monasteries and STuPAs" (K. PIBO SAT'AP SoL), proposed that building monasteries and pagodas at geomantically fragile locations could alleviate or correct weaknesses in the native topology, in much the same way that acupuncture could correct feeble energy flows within the physical body. His geomantic theory is unusual, because Chinese geomancy of the time focused more on the discovery of hidden propitious sites within the landscape, not correcting geomantic weaknesses. This term pibo (lit. "assisting and supplementing," and thus "reinforcing," or "remediation") is also unattested as a technical term in Chinese geomancy. The term may derive from similar terms used in the geomantic theories of the Chinese CHAN school and thence the Korean Nine Mountains Son school (KUSAN SoNMUN), with which Toson was affiliated. The geomancy of Yang Yunsong (834-900) was popular in the Jiangxi region of China; this type of geomancy sought to interpret the lay of the land as a way of locating the most auspicious sites for constructing buildings. This tradition seems to have entered into the Chan lineages in that region, whence it might have been introduced in turn into Korea by the several Son masters in the Nine Mountains school who studied in Jiangxi. The frequency with which late Silla and early Koryo period Son monks located their monasteries following geomantic principles may well derive from the fact that seven of these nine early lineages of Korean Son were associated with the Hongzhou school and the Jiangxi region. Some scholars instead propose that the source of Toson's geomancy is to be found in esoteric Buddhism: Toson viewed the country as a MAndALA and, in order to protect the nation, proposed to situate monasteries at locations chosen through the ritual of demarcating a sacred site (sīmābandha). Finally, Korean indigenous religion and Togyo (Daoism) are also sometimes presented as sources of Toson's geomantic teachings. Toson's theory of geomancy also played a role in resituating the religious center of Korean Buddhism, which had previously been focused on the Silla capital of KYoNGJU or such indigenous sacred mountains as the five marchmounts (o'ak). The Silla royal and aristocratic families founded monasteries around the capital of Kyongju based on the belief that this region had previously been a Buddha land (Pulgukt'o). Toson's theory resulted in an expansion of the concept of "Buddha land" to take in the entire Korean peninsula, instead. After the establishment of the new Koryo dynasty in 918, Toson's theory was appropriated as a means of integrating into the dynastic political structure local power groups and monasteries. In the posthumous "Ten Injunctions" (hunyo sipcho) attributed to Wang Kon, the Koryo founder is reputed to have instructed that monasteries should only be constructed at sites that had been specifically designated as auspicious by Toson. For this reason, the term pibo later comes to be used as an official ecclesiastical category in Korea to designate important monasteries that had figured in the founding of the Koryo dynasty. Toson's thought also subsequently became associated with the theory of geomancy and divination (TOCH'AM) taught by the diviner-monk MYOCH'oNG (d. 1135), who eventually led an unsuccessful rebellion against the Koryo dynasty.

Total quality management (TQM) - A managerial approach which focuses on quality and aims to improve the effectiveness, flexibility, and competitiveness of the business.

trench poetry: Poetry and songs written by both practiced poets and ordinary soldiers, which focuses on the disenchantment, torment, bitterness, and moral dismay these individuals felt as a result of their participation in World War I (the trench war). Eminent trench poets include Sassoon and Owen. In particular Owen's Dulce Et Decorum Est is an example of well-known trench poetry.

Tshad ma rigs gter. (Tsema Rikter). In Tibetan, "Treasure of Valid Knowledge and Reasoning"; an influential Tibetan work on logic and epistemology (PRAMĀnA) by the renowned scholar SA SKYA PAndITA KUN DGA' RGYAL MTSHAN, composed circa 1219. The Tshad ma rigs gter inaugurated a new period of pramāna studies in Tibet by focusing particularly on DHARMAKĪRTI's most famous work, the PRAMĀnAVĀRTTIKA; prior to this time in Tibet, pramāna had been approached through summaries (bsdus pa) of the seven works of Dharmakīrti (see TSHAD MA SDE BDUN). Written in verse, the Tshad ma rigs gter seeks accurately to represent the positions of the late Indian traditions of logic and epistemology and to identify the errors of earlier Tibetan scholars, notably the summaries associated with GSANG PHU NE'U THOG monastery, especially the works of RNGOG BLO LDAN SHES RAB, PHYWA PA CHOS KYI SENG GE, and their disciples. The Tshad ma rigs gter is said to have been so highly regarded that it was translated from Tibetan into Sanskrit and circulated in northern India.

twm ::: Tab Window Manager.A window manager for the X Window System. Twm provides titlebars, shaped windows, several forms of icon management, user-defined macro functions, click-to-type and pointer-driven keyboard focus, and user-specified key and pointer button bindings. It can be extensively configured by a startup file.Twm was written by Tom LaStrange, Solbourne Computer; Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium; Steve Pitschke, Stardent Computer; Keith Packard, MIT X Consortium; Dave Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave Payne, Apple Computer.An extended version, vtwm, provides a virtual desktop.[Why Tab?] (1995-02-14)

twm Tab Window Manager. A {window manager} for the {X Window System}. Twm provides {titlebars}, shaped windows, several forms of icon management, user-defined macro functions, {click-to-type} and pointer-driven {keyboard focus}, and user-specified key and pointer button bindings. It can be extensively configured by a startup file. Twm was written by Tom LaStrange, {Solbourne Computer}; Jim Fulton, MIT {X Consortium}; Steve Pitschke, {Stardent Computer}; Keith Packard, MIT X Consortium; Dave Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave Payne, {Apple Computer}. An extended version, {vtwm}, provides a {virtual desktop}. [Why "Tab"?] (1995-02-14)

Type A Personality ::: A theory used to describe a person with a significant number of traits focused on urgency, impatience, success, and excessive competition.

Type B Personality ::: A theory used to describe person with a significant number of traits focused on relaxation, lack of urgency, and normal or reduced competition.

ubhayatobhāgavimukta. (P. ubhatobhāgavimutta; T. gnyis ka'i cha las rnam par grol ba; C. ju jietuo; J. kugedatsu; K. ku haet'al 解). In Sanskrit, "liberated both ways." This is the type of liberation achieved by those noble persons (ĀRYA) who are liberated, first, by way of meditative absorption (DHYĀNA; P. JHĀNA), which is called "liberation of mind" (CETOVIMUKTI; P. cetovimutti), and second, "liberation through wisdom" (PRAJNĀVIMUKTI; P. paNNāvimutti), which involves insight by way of any of the four noble paths (ĀRYAMĀRGA), viz., the path of the stream-enterer (SROTAĀPANNA) to the path of the ARHAT. Liberation may be achieved via wisdom alone, but arhats enlightened in this manner, without any attainment of dhyāna, are in some materials pejoratively termed "dry insight workers" (P. SUKKHAVIPASSAKA); strands of contemporary Burmese VIPASSANĀ meditation theory, however, emphasize this focus on wisdom alone as a more subitist approach to enlightenment that does not require lengthy perfection of the dhyānas. Twofold liberation is thought to be a more complete experience, and all buddhas and their chief disciples are liberated in both these two ways. The ubhayatobhāgavimukta is also one of the VIMsATIPRABHEDASAMGHA ("twenty varieties of the ĀRYASAMGHA") based on the list given in the MAHĀVYUTPATTI.

University of Durham "body, education" A busy research and teaching community in the historic cathedral city of Durham, UK (population 61000). Its work covers key branches of science and technology and traditional areas of scholarship. Durham graduates are in great demand among employers and the University helps to attract investment into the region. It provides training, short courses, and expertise for industry. Through its cultural events, conferences, tourist business and as a major employer, the University contributes in a wide social and economic sense to the community. Founded in 1832, the University developed in Durham and Newcastle until 1963 when the independent University of Newcastle upon Tyne came into being. Durham is a collegiate body, with 14 Colleges or Societies which are a social and domestic focus for students. In 1992, the Universities of Durham and Teesside launched University College, Stockton-on-Tees, which has 190 students in the first year. {(http://dur.ac.uk/)}. (1995-03-17)

upadesasaMpramosa. (T. gdams ngag brjed pa; C. wang shengyan; J. boshogon; K. mang songon 忘聖言). In Sanskrit, lit. "loss of the instruction," a term that appears in instructions for developing SAMĀDHI, to describe the point in the early stages of developing concentration where the meditator loses focus upon the chosen object of concentration, thus allowing the mind to wander.

v. **1. Focused attention, thought, etc., on (something). adj. 2. Directed or drawn toward a common center; focussed. concentrating.**

*vicārabhāvanā. (T. dpyad sgom). In Sanskrit, "analytical meditation"; a general term for those forms of meditation that involve discursive reflection on points of Buddhist doctrine, as opposed to the focus of the mind upon a single object. An example of such analytical meditation would be the investigation of the constituents of mind and body in search of the self or systematic reflection on the certainty of death and the uncertainty of the time of death. The term is often paired with *STHĀPYABHĀVANĀ, "stabilizing meditation" (T. 'jog sgom), the one-pointed concentration on a single object without discursive reflection. In instructions on meditation practice, there is often advice to alternate these two forms of meditation, first arriving at a conclusion or conviction through analytical meditation and then focusing on that conclusion through stabilizing meditation, resulting eventually in VIPAsYANĀ.

vicāra. (T. dpyod pa; C. si; J. shi; K. sa 伺). In Sanskrit and Pāli, "sustained thought," "sustained attention," "imagination," or "analysis"; one of the forty-six mental factors (CAITTA) according to the VAIBHĀsIKA school of SARVĀSTIVĀDA ABHIDHARMA, one of the fifty-one according to the YOGĀCĀRA school, and one of the fifty-two in the Pāli ABHIDHAMMA. Although etymologically the term contains the connotation of "analysis," vicāra is polysemous in the Buddhist lexicon and refers to a mental activity that can be present both in ordinary states of consciousness and in meditative absorption (DHYĀNA). In ordinary consciousness, vicāra is "sustained thought," viz., the continued pondering of things. It is listed as an indeterminate mental factor (ANIYATA-CAITTA) because it can be employed toward either virtuous or nonvirtuous ends, depending on one's intention and the object of one's attention. Vicāra as a mental activity typically follows VITARKA, wherein vitarka is the "initial application of thought" and vicāra the "sustained thought" that ensues after one's attention has already adverted toward an object. In the context of meditative absorption, vicāra may be rendered as "sustained attention" or "sustained application of attention." With vitarka the practitioner directs his focus toward a chosen meditative object. When the attention is properly directed, the practitioner follows by applying and continuously fixing his attention on the same thing, deeply experiencing (or examining) the object. In meditative absorption, vicāra is one of the five factors that make up the first dhyāna (see DHYĀNĀnGA). According to the VISUDDHIMAGGA, "applied thought" (P. vitakka; S. vitarka) is like a bee flying toward a flower, having oriented itself toward its chosen target, whereas "sustained attention" (vicāra) is like a bee hovering over that flower, fixating on the flower.

Vikramasīla. (T. Rnam gnon ngang tshul). A monastery and monastic university in the northern region of ancient MAGADHA, in the modern Bihar state of India, located along the Ganges River in the Bhagalpur District of Bihar, about 150 miles east of NĀLANDĀ. King Dharmapāla of the Pāla dynasty founded Vikramasīla between the late eighth and early ninth centuries and appointed his teacher, BuddhajNānapāda, to be abbot of the monastic university. Throughout its existence, leaders of the Pāla dynasty supported the teachers, students, and maintenance of the institution. There were six areas of religious study, supplemented by such secular subjects as grammar, metaphysics, and logic. The two monastic universities of Vikramasīla and Nālandā had a great deal of scholarly interaction, and, like Nālandā, Vikramasīla served as a model for Tibetan monasteries. There were more foreign students at Vikramasīla than at Nālandā, and the monastery is said to have been large enough to accommodate around ten thousand resident students, including specific dormitories for visiting Tibetan students. Vikramasīla also housed a substantial library, where texts were both stored and recopied by students and teachers. By the tenth century CE, Vikramasīla had outgrown even Nālandā, reaching its peak in the eleventh century, and offered a famous PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ curriculum. The monastery became the focus of tantric scholarship during this period, and pilgrims came to study from many regions of Asia. During the reign of King Nayapāla, in the eleventh century, ATIsA DĪPAMKARAsRĪJNĀNA was considered the greatest scholar at the monastery. Other famous scholars also taught there, including JITĀRI, JNĀNAsRĪMITRA, NĀROPA (briefly), and RATNĀKARAsĀNTI. Vikramasīla was attacked by Muslim armies between 1199 and 1203 CE. During the same period, ODANTAPURĪ was also attacked, and the surviving scholars and students were forced to flee. Many scholars escaped to Nepal and Tibet, saving many texts from their libraries. sĀKYAsRĪBHADRA was the last abbot of Vikramasīla, and also the last to flee to Tibet from the monastery, arriving in 1204.

Visualization ::: The ability of the mind to form an internal world in which the only limit is the imagination of the visualizer. This is a capability largely provided by the Astral Plane and into which the locus of focus can be narrowed and strengthened so as to allow for practices like lucid dreaming and astral projection to take place.

wannabee /won'*-bee/ (Or, more plausibly, spelled "wannabe") [Madonna fans who dress, talk, and act like their idol; probably originally from biker slang] A would-be {hacker}. The connotations of this term differ sharply depending on the age and exposure of the subject. Used of a person who is in or might be entering {larval stage}, it is semi-approving; such wannabees can be annoying but most hackers remember that they, too, were once such creatures. When used of any professional programmer, CS academic, writer, or {suit}, it is derogatory, implying that said person is trying to cuddle up to the hacker mystique but doesn't, fundamentally, have a prayer of understanding what it is all about. Overuse of hacker terms is often an indication of the {wannabee} nature. Compare {newbie}. Historical note: The wannabee phenomenon has a slightly different flavour now (1993) than it did ten or fifteen years ago. When the people who are now hackerdom's tribal elders were in {larval stage}, the process of becoming a hacker was largely unconscious and unaffected by models known in popular culture - communities formed spontaneously around people who, *as individuals*, felt irresistibly drawn to do hackerly things, and what wannabees experienced was a fairly pure, skill-focussed desire to become similarly wizardly. Those days of innocence are gone forever; society's adaptation to the advent of the microcomputer after 1980 included the elevation of the hacker as a new kind of folk hero, and the result is that some people semi-consciously set out to *be hackers* and borrow hackish prestige by fitting the popular image of hackers. Fortunately, to do this really well, one has to actually become a wizard. Nevertheless, old-time hackers tend to share a poorly articulated disquiet about the change; among other things, it gives them mixed feelings about the effects of public compendia of lore like this one. [{Jargon File}]

Watcom International ::: (company) A provider of application development tools and IBM PC-based SQL database servers.Founded in 1974, Watcom initially focused on scientific and engineering markets establishing itself as a supplier of programming and information tools worldwide, serving customers in 60 countries with highly regarded products such as WATFOR-77 for mainframes, minicomputers and PCs.Since the introduction of Watcom C in 1988, the company has emerged as an industry leader in optimising compilers for 16 and 32-bit Intel-based IBM PCs.Moving into the client/server market in 1992, Watcom introduced Watcom SQL, including SQL database servers for multi-user networks and single-user Series. In June, 1993, Watcom launched VX*REXX, an integrated visual development environment for OS/2.In February 1994, Watcom became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Powersoft Corporation which merged with Sybase Inc. on 13 February 1995. Today the company addresses a broad range of application developers, including corporate MIS professionals, system integrators, VARs and independent software vendors.Watcom has strategic relationships with IBM, Lotus, Microsoft, Intel and Novell. Based on its academic roots, Watcom maintains a research relationship with the nearby University of Waterloo.Watcom's products include the Watcom SQL databases, Watcom C/C++, and Watcom VX*REXX 2.1.Ian McPhee is President and Chief Executive Officer, David Boswell is Vice President of Sales and Marketing, Craig Dynes is Vice President of Finance and David Yach is Vice President of Development.Headquarters: Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. (1995-04-18)

Watcom International "company" A provider of application development tools and {IBM PC}-based {SQL} {database} {servers}. Founded in 1974, Watcom initially focused on scientific and engineering markets establishing itself as a supplier of programming and information tools worldwide, serving customers in 60 countries with highly regarded products such as {WATFOR}-77 for {mainframes}, {minicomputers} and {PCs}. Since the introduction of {Watcom C} in 1988, the company has emerged as an industry leader in optimising compilers for 16 and 32-bit {Intel-based} {IBM PCs}. Moving into the {client/server} market in 1992, Watcom introduced {Watcom SQL}, including {SQL} {database} {servers} for multi-user networks and single-user {stand-alone} applications. The product has since been incorporated into {Powersoft}'s {PowerBuilder} development environment and the {Powersoft Enterprise Series}. In June, 1993, Watcom launched {VX*REXX}, an integrated visual development environment for {OS/2}. In February 1994, Watcom became a wholly-owned subsidiary of {Powersoft Corporation} which merged with {Sybase Inc.} on 13 February 1995. Today the company addresses a broad range of application developers, including corporate {MIS} professionals, system integrators, {VARs} and independent software vendors. Watcom has strategic relationships with {IBM}, {Lotus}, {Microsoft}, {Intel} and {Novell}. Based on its academic roots, Watcom maintains a research relationship with the nearby {University of Waterloo}. Watcom's products include the {Watcom SQL} {databases}, {Watcom C/C++}, and {Watcom VX*REXX} 2.1. Ian McPhee is President and Chief Executive Officer, David Boswell is Vice President of Sales and Marketing, Craig Dynes is Vice President of Finance and David Yach is Vice President of Development. Headquarters: Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. (1995-04-18)

weapon focus effect: the tendency for witnesses to a crime involving a weapon (e.g. gun) to recall details of the weapon, but to be less accurate on other details such as the perpetrator's face.

While not abandoning its interest in beauty, artistic value, and other normative concepts, recent aesthetics has tended to lay increasing emphasis on a descriptive, factual approach to the phenomena of art and aesthetic experience. It differs from art history, archeology, and cultural history in stressing a theoretical organization of materials in terms of recurrent types and tendencies, rather than a chronological or genetic one. It differs from general psychology in focusing upon certain selected phases in psycho-physical activity, and on their application to certain types of objects and situations, especially those of art. It investigates the forms and characteristics of art, which psychology does not do. It differs from art criticism in seeking a more general, theoretical understanding of the arts than is usual in that subject, and in attempting a more consistently objective, impersonal attitude. It maintains a philosophic breadth, in comparing examples of all the arts, and in assembling data and hypotheses from many sources, including philosophy, psychology, cultural history, and the social sciences. But it is departing from traditional conceptions of philosophy in that writing labelled "aesthetics" now often includes much detailed, empirical study of particular phenomena, instead of restricting itself as formerly to abstract discussion of the meaning of beauty, the sublime, and other categories, their objective or subjective nature, their relation to pleasure and moral goodness, the purpose of art, the nature of aesthetic value, etc. There has been controversy over whether such empirical studies deserve to be called "aesthetics", or whether that name should be reserved for the traditional, dialectic or speculative approach; but usage favors the extension in cases where the inquiry aims at fairly broad generalizations.

XFree86 Project, Inc. "operating system, graphics" A non-profit organisation that produces XFree86, a freely redistributable implementation of the {X Window System} that runs on {Unix} and Unix-like operating systems and {OS/2}. The XFree86 Project has traditionally focused on {Intel x86} based {platforms} (hence the "86"), but the current release supports other platforms. {(http://xfree86.org/)}. (1999-04-02)

XFree86 Project, Inc. ::: (operating system, graphics) A non-profit organisation that produces XFree86, a freely redistributable implementation of the X Window System that traditionally focused on Intel x86 based platforms (hence the 86), but the current release supports other platforms. . (1999-04-02)

Yichud (&

yoga. ::: "union"; union with the Reality; fusion of individual self with the universal Self; spiritual practice designed to purify one's mind and bring one closer to Self-realisation; the practice of stilling the mind, whereby thoughts, memories, emotions, associations and perceptions are refocused onto the Reality and where a natural disgarding takes place; there are four main paths of yoga &

Zion, Zionism ::: (Mount) Zion is an ancient Hebrew designation for Jerusalem, but already in biblical times it began to symbolize the national homeland (see e.g., Psalm 137.1-6). In this latter sense it served as a focus for Jewish national-religious hopes of renewal over the centuries. Ancient hopes and attachments to Zion gave rise to Zionist longings and movements since antiquity, culminating in the modern national liberation movement of that name. The Zionist cause helped the Jews return to Palestine in this century and found the state of Israel in 1948. The goal of Zionism is the political and spiritual renewal of the Jewish people in its ancestral homeland. See also Herzl.



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1:Focus your eyes on the truth. ~ Dante,
2:Focus on the smallest thing you can do right now." ~ Ryan Holiday,
3:The successful warrior is the average man, with laser-like focus. ~ Bruce Lee,
4:The successful warrior is the average man, with laser-like focus." ~ Bruce Lee,
5:It is during our darkest moments that we must focus to see the light." ~ Aristotle,
6:The secret of change is to focus all of your energy, not on fighting the old, but on building the new. ~ Socrates,
7:Keep it simple, and focus on what matters. Don't let yourself be overwhelmed." ~ Confucius,
8:The secret of change is to focus all of your energy, not on fighting the old, but on building the new.
   ~ Socrates?,
9:Concentrate all your thoughts upon the work at hand. The sun's rays do not burn until brought to a focus. ~ Alexander Graham Bell,
10:The easiest means of concentrating the mind is to focus on the flame of a candle. ~ Sri Ramakrishna,
11:You will not be good teachers if you focus only on what you do and not upon who you are. ~ Rudolf Steiner,
12:'I love you' and 'I thank you.' Focus on your heart and send out light and love to the essence of everything you see." ~ Imam Jamal Rahman,
13:Do not focus so much on the path; keep your eyes fixed on the one who guides you and on the heavenly home to which He is guiding you. ~ Saint Padre Pio,
14:One should just focus solely on performing one's obligatory and highly stressed prayers and not go overboard on supererogatory acts.. ~ Mawlay al-Arabi ad-Darqawi, @Sufi_Path
15:Do not look at your weaknesses but focus on The Search. Every seeker is worthy of This Search. Strive to redouble your efforts, so that your soul may escape from this material prison. ~ Jalaluddin Rumi,
16:A focus on inconsequential things is presumably what's most contrary to a soul that intent on constantly reaching out toward the whole that comprises all of what is divine and human together. ~ Plato, Republic 486a,
17:Self-absorption in all its forms kills empathy, let alone compassion. When we focus on ourselves, our world contracts as our problems and preoccupations loom large. But when we focus on others, our world expands. Our own problems drift to the periphery of the mind and so seem smaller, and we increase our capacity for connection - or compassionate action. ~ Daniel Goleman,
18:Meditation here is not reflection or any other kind of discursive thinking. It is pure concentration: training the mind to dwell on an interior focus without wandering, until it becomes absorbed in the object of its contemplation. But absorption does not mean unconsciousness. The outside world may be forgotten, but meditation is a state of intense inner wakefulness. ~ Anonymous, The Upanishads,
19:4. Study Every Day ::: Establish a daily routine where you study in one place a minimum of 4 -5 hours each day. There are different kinds and 'levels' of study discussed below. What is important is that study becomes the centerpiece of your day and the continuous element in your work week. Do not wait for exam-time to study. Exams offer the opportunity to refine what you know and to sharpen your communication skills. The best way to focus your view of things is to present it clearly in writing. Writing is a ritual for thinking. ~ Dr Robert A Hatch, How to Study,
20:Drugs have a long history of use in magic in various cultures, and usually in the context of either ecstatic communal rituals or in personal vision quests. However compared to people in simple pastoral tribal situations most people in developed countries now live in a perpetual state of mental hyperactivity with overactive imaginations anyway, so throwing drugs in on top of this usually just leads to confusion and a further loss of focus. Plus as the real Shamans say, if you really do succeed in opening a door with a drug it will thereafter open at will and most such substances give all they will ever give on the first attempt.
   ~ Peter J Carroll, The Octavo,
21:Einstein was remarkable for his powers of concentration; he could work uninterruptedly for hours and even days on the same problem. Some of the topics that interested him remained on his mind for decades. For relaxation he turned to music and to sailing, but often his work would continue during these moments as well; he usually had a notebook in his pocket so that he could jot down any idea that came to him. Once, after the theory of relativity had been put forth, he confessed to his colleague Wolfgang Pauli, "For the rest of my life I want to reflect on what light is." It is perhaps not entirely an accident that a focus on light is also the first visual act of the newborn child. ~ Howard Gardner,
22:Magic is the science and art of causing change to occur in conformity with will. The will can only become magically effective when the mind is focused and not interfering with the will The mind must first discipline itself to focus its entire attention on some meaningless phenomenon. If an attempt is made to focus on some form of desire, the effect is short circuited by lust of result. Egotistical identification, fear of failure, and the reciprocal desire not to achieve desire, arising from our dual nature, destroy the result.
   Therefore, when selecting topics for concentration, choose subjects of no spiritual, egotistical, intellectual, emotional, or useful significance - meaningless things.
   ~ Peter J Carroll, Liber Null, Liber MMM, The Magical Trances [15],
23:The condition of today's world cannot be transformed by technocratic rationality, since both technocracy and rationality are apparently nearing their apex.

Nor can it be transcended by preaching or admonishing a return to ethics and morality, or in fact, by any form of return to the past.

We have only one option: in examining the manifestations of our age, we must penetrate them with sufficient breadth and depth that we do not come under the demonic and destructive spell.

We must not focus our view merely on these phenomena, but rather on the humus of the decaying world beneath, where the seedlings of the future are growing, immeasurable in their potential and vigor.

Since our insight into the energies pressing toward development aids their unfolding, the seedlings and inceptive beginnings must be made visible and comprehensible." ~ Jean Gebser,
24:People have to start educating themselves more in the faith. It is not enough just to go to mass anymore. You can't do that... We don't live at a time in which one can spiritually survive and be intellectually not very good. Maybe a few older ladies who have the extraordinary graces can get away with it. But modernism is such a toxic heresy that [you need] a lot of educational background--which you should work on anyway, because everybody has an obligation to continue educating themselves according to their state in life... They need to be reading more. They can listen to interviews and podcasts, that's fine. But at some point you've got to encounter the books. You've got to start reading them and educating yourself and getting a deeper understanding of the faith so that when you hear the nonsense from the secular media, [and even] from members of the magisterium now, you can keep your focus. ~ Reverend Chad Ripperger, transcribed from interview with Taylor Marshall,
25:Meditation is a deliberate attempt to pierce into the higher states of consciousness and finally go beyond it. The art of meditation is the art of shifting the focus of attention to ever subtler levels, without losing one's grip on the levels left behind. In a way it is like having death under control. One begins with the lowest levels: social circumstances, customs and habits; physical surroundings, the posture and the breathing of the body, the senses, their sensation s and perceptions; the mind, its thoughts and feelings; until the entire mechanism of personality is grasped and firmly held. The final stage of meditation is reached when the sense of identity goes beyond the 'I-am-so-and-so', beyond 'so-l-am', beyond 'I-am-the-witness-only', beyond 'there-is', beyond all ideas into the impersonally personal pure being. But you must be energetic when you take to meditation. It is definitely not a part-time occupation. Limit your interests and activities to what is needed for you and your dependents' barest needs.
Save all your energies and time for breaking the wall your mind had built around you. Believe me, you will not regret. ~ Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj,
26:God reveals himself everywhere, beneath our groping efforts, as a universal milieu, only because he is the ultimate point upon which all realities converge. Each element of the world, whatever it may be, only subsists, hic et nunc, in the manner of a cone whose generatrices meet in God who draws them together-(meeting at .the term of their individual perfection and at the term of the general perfection of the world which contains them). It follows that all created things, every one of them, cannot be looked at, in their nature and action, without the same reality being found in their innermost being-like sunlight in the fragments of a broken mirror-one beneath its multiplicity, unattainable beneath its proximity, and spiritual beneath its materiality. No object can influence us by its essence without our being touched by the radiance of the focus of the universe. Our minds are incapable of grasping a reality, our hearts and hands of seizing the essentially desirable in it, without our being compelled by the very structure of things to go back to the first source of its perfections. This focus, this source, is thus everywhere. ~ Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, The Divine Milieu,
27:meta-systemic operations ::: As the 1950's and 60s begin to roll around the last stage of first tier emerged as a cultural force. With the Green Altitude we see the emergence of Pluralistic, Multicultural, Post-Modern world-views.

Cognition is starting to move beyond formal-operations into the realm of co-ordinating systems of abstractions, in what is called Meta-systemic Cognition. While formal-operations acted upon the classes and relations between members of classes. Meta-systemic operations start at the level of relating systems to systems. The focus of these investigations is placed upon comparing, contrasting, transforming and synthesizing entire systems, rather than components of one system. This emergent faculty allows self-sense to focus around a heightened sense of individuality and an increased ability for emotional resonance. The recognition of individual differences, the ability to tolerate paradox and contradiction, and greater conceptual complexity all provide for an understanding of conflict as being both internally and externally caused. Context plays a major role in the creation of truth and individual perspective. With each being context dependent and open to subjective interpretation, meaning each perspective and truth are rendered relative and are not able to be judged as better or more true than any other. This fuels a value set that centers on softness over cold rationality. Sensitivity and preference over objectivity.

Along with a focus on community harmony and equality which drives the valuing of sensitivity to others, reconcilation, consensus, dialogue, relationship, human development, bonding, and a seeking of a peace with the inner-self. Moral decisions are based on rights, values, or principles that are agreeable to all individuals composing a society based on fair and beneficial practices. All of this leads to the Equality movements and multiculturalism. And to the extreme form of relativitism which we saw earlier as context dependant nature of all truth including objective facts.

Faith at the green altitude is called Conjunctive, and allows the self to integrate what was unrecognized by the previous stages self-certainty and cognitive and affective adaptation to reality. New features at this level of faith include the unification of symbolic power with conceptual meaning, an awareness of ones social unconscious, a reworking of ones past, and an opening to ones deeper self. ~ Essential Integral, 4.1-52, Meta-systemic Operations,
28:Countless books on divination, astrology, medicine and other subjects
Describe ways to read signs. They do add to your learning,
But they generate new thoughts and your stable attention breaks up.
Cut down on this kind of knowledge - that's my sincere advice.

You stop arranging your usual living space,
But make everything just right for your retreat.
This makes little sense and just wastes time.
Forget all this - that's my sincere advice.

You make an effort at practice and become a good and knowledgeable person.
You may even master some particular capabilities.
But whatever you attach to will tie you up.
Be unbiased and know how to let things be - that's my sincere advice.

You may think awakened activity means to subdue skeptics
By using sorcery, directing or warding off hail or lightning, for example.
But to burn the minds of others will lead you to lower states.
Keep a low profile - that's my sincere advice.

Maybe you collect a lot of important writings,
Major texts, personal instructions, private notes, whatever.
If you haven't practiced, books won't help you when you die.
Look at the mind - that's my sincere advice.

When you focus on practice, to compare understandings and experience,
Write books or poetry, to compose songs about your experience
Are all expressions of your creativity. But they just give rise to thinking.
Keep yourself free from intellectualization - that's my sincere advice.

In these difficult times you may feel that it is helpful
To be sharp and critical with aggressive people around you.
This approach will just be a source of distress and confusion for you.
Speak calmly - that's my sincere advice.

Intending to be helpful and without personal investment,
You tell your friends what is really wrong with them.
You may have been honest but your words gnaw at their heart.
Speak pleasantly - that's my sincere advice.

You engage in discussions, defending your views and refuting others'
Thinking that you are clarifying the teachings.
But this just gives rise to emotional posturing.
Keep quiet - that's my sincere advice.

You feel that you are being loyal
By being partial to your teacher, lineage or philosophical tradition.
Boosting yourself and putting down others just causes hard feelings.
Have nothing to do with all this - that's my sincere advice.
~ Longchenpa, excerpts from 30 Pieces of Sincere Advice
,
29:PROTECTION
   Going to sleep is a little like dying, a journey taken alone into the unknown. Ordinarily we are not troubled about sleep because we are familiar with it, but think about what it entails. We completely lose ourselves in a void for some period of time, until we arise again in a dream. When we do so, we may have a different identity and a different body. We may be in a strange place, with people we do not know, involved in baffling activities that may seem quite risky.
   Just trying to sleep in an unfamiliar place may occasion anxiety. The place may be perfectly secure and comfortable, but we do not sleep as well as we do at home in familiar surroundings. Maybe the energy of the place feels wrong. Or maybe it is only our own insecurity that disturbs us,and even in familiar places we may feel anxious while waiting for sleep to come, or be frightenedby what we dream. When we fall asleep with anxiety, our dreams are mingled with fear and tension, sleep is less restful, and the practice harder to do. So it is a good idea to create a sense of protection before we sleep and to turn our sleeping area into a sacred space.
   This is done by imagining protective dakinis all around the sleeping area. Visualize the dakinis as beautiful goddesses, enlightened female beings who are loving, green in color, and powerfully protective. They remain near as you fall asleep and throughout the night, like mothers watching over their child, or guardians surrounding a king or queen. Imagine them everywhere, guarding the doors and the windows, sitting next to you on the bed, walking in the garden or the yard, and so on, until you feel completely protected.
   Again, this practice is more than just trying to visualize something: see the dakinis with your mind but also use your imagination to feel their presence. Creating a protective, sacred environment in this way is calming and relaxing and promotes restful sleep. This is how the mystic lives: seeing the magic, changing the environment with the mind, and allowing actions, even actions of the imagination, to have significance.
   You can enhance the sense of peace in your sleeping environment by keeping objects of a sacred nature in the bedroom: peaceful, loving images, sacred and religious symbols, and other objects that direct your mind toward the path.
   The Mother Tantra tells us that as we prepare for sleep we should maintain awareness of the causes of dream, the object to focus upon, the protectors, and of ourselves. Hold these together inawareness, not as many things, but as a single environment, and this will have a great effect in dream and sleep.
   ~ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche, The Tibetan Yogas Of Dream And Sleep,
30:HOW CAN I READ SAVITRI?
An open reply by Dr Alok Pandey to a fellow devotee

A GIFT OF LOVE TO THE WORLD
Most of all enjoy Savitri. It is Sri Aurobindo's gift of Love to the world. Read it from the heart with love and gratitude as companions and drown in its fiery bliss. That is the true understanding rather than one that comes by a constant churning of words in the head.

WHEN
Best would be to fix a time that works for you. One can always take out some time for the reading, even if it be late at night when one is done with all the daily works. Of course, a certain receptivity is needed. If one is too tired or the reading becomes too mechanical as a ritual routine to be somehow finished it tends to be less effective, as with anything else. Hence the advice is to read in a quiet receptive state.

THE PACE
As to the pace of reading it is best to slowly build up and keep it steady. To read a page or a passage daily is better than reading many pages one day and then few lines or none for days. This brings a certain discipline in the consciousness which makes one receptive. What it means is that one should fix up that one would read a few passages or a page or two daily, and then if an odd day one is enjoying and spontaneously wants to read more then one can go by the flow.

COMPLETE OR SELECTIONS?
It is best to read at least once from cover to cover. But if one is not feeling inclined for that do read some of the beautiful cantos and passages whose reference one can find in various places. This helps us familiarise with the epic and the style of poetry. Later one can go for the cover to cover reading.

READING ALOUD, SILENTLY, OR WRITING DOWN?
One can read it silently. Loud reading is needed only if one is unable to focus with silent reading. A mantra is more potent when read subtly. I am aware that some people recommend reading it aloud which is fine if that helps one better. A certain flexibility in these things is always good and rigid rules either ways are not helpful.

One can also write some of the beautiful passages with which one feels suddenly connected. It is a help in the yoga since such a writing involves the pouring in of the consciousness of Savitri through the brain and nerves and the hand.

Reflecting upon some of these magnificent lines and passages while one is engaged in one\s daily activities helps to create a background state for our inner being to get absorbed in Savitri more and more.

HOW DO I UNDERSTAND THE MEANING? DO I NEED A DICTIONARY?
It is helpful if a brief background about the Canto is known. This helps the mind top focus and also to keep in sync with the overall scene and sense of what is being read.

But it is best not to keep referring to the dictionary while reading. Let the overall sense emerge. Specifics can be done during a detailed reading later and it may not be necessary at all. Besides the sense that Sri Aurobindo has given to many words may not be accurately conveyed by the standard dictionaries. A flexibility is required to understand the subtle suggestions hinted at by the Master-poet.

In this sense Savitri is in the line of Vedic poetry using images that are at once profound as well as commonplace. That is the beauty of mystic poetry. These are things actually experienced and seen by Sri Aurobindo, and ultimately it is Their Grace that alone can reveal the intrinsic sense of this supreme revelation of the Supreme. ~ Dr Alok Pandey,
31:DHARANA

NOW that we have learnt to observe the mind, so that we know how it works to some extent, and have begun to understand the elements of control, we may try the result of gathering together all the powers of the mind, and attempting to focus them on a single point.

   We know that it is fairly easy for the ordinary educated mind to think without much distraction on a subject in which it is much interested. We have the popular phrase, "revolving a thing in the mind"; and as long as the subject is sufficiently complex, as long as thoughts pass freely, there is no great difficulty. So long as a gyroscope is in motion, it remains motionless relatively to its support, and even resists attempts to distract it; when it stops it falls from that position. If the earth ceased to spin round the sun, it would at once fall into the sun. The moment then that the student takes a simple subject - or rather a simple object - and imagines it or visualizes it, he will find that it is not so much his creature as he supposed. Other thoughts will invade the mind, so that the object is altogether forgotten, perhaps for whole minutes at a time; and at other times the object itself will begin to play all sorts of tricks.

   Suppose you have chosen a white cross. It will move its bar up and down, elongate the bar, turn the bar oblique, get its arms unequal, turn upside down, grow branches, get a crack around it or a figure upon it, change its shape altogether like an Amoeba, change its size and distance as a whole, change the degree of its illumination, and at the same time change its colour. It will get splotchy and blotchy, grow patterns, rise, fall, twist and turn; clouds will pass over its face. There is no conceivable change of which it is incapable. Not to mention its total disappearance, and replacement by something altogether different!

   Any one to whom this experience does not occur need not imagine that he is meditating. It shows merely that he is incapable of concentrating his mind in the very smallest degree. Perhaps a student may go for several days before discovering that he is not meditating. When he does, the obstinacy of the object will infuriate him; and it is only now that his real troubles will begin, only now that Will comes really into play, only now that his manhood is tested. If it were not for the Will-development which he got in the conquest of Asana, he would probably give up. As it is, the mere physical agony which he underwent is the veriest trifle compared with the horrible tedium of Dharana.

   For the first week it may seem rather amusing, and you may even imagine you are progressing; but as the practice teaches you what you are doing, you will apparently get worse and worse. Please understand that in doing this practice you are supposed to be seated in Asana, and to have note-book and pencil by your side, and a watch in front of you. You are not to practise at first for more than ten minutes at a time, so as to avoid risk of overtiring the brain. In fact you will probably find that the whole of your willpower is not equal to keeping to a subject at all for so long as three minutes, or even apparently concentrating on it for so long as three seconds, or three-fifths of one second. By "keeping to it at all" is meant the mere attempt to keep to it. The mind becomes so fatigued, and the object so incredibly loathsome, that it is useless to continue for the time being. In Frater P.'s record we find that after daily practice for six months, meditations of four minutes and less are still being recorded.

   ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA,
32:Wake-Initiated Lucid Dreams (WILDS)
In the last chapter we talked about strategies for inducing lucid dreams by carrying an idea from the waking world into the dream, such as an intention to comprehend the dream state, a habit of critical state testing, or the recognition of a dreamsign. These strategies are intended to stimulate a dreamer to become lucid within a dream.
This chapter presents a completely different set of approaches to the world of lucid dreaming based on the idea of falling asleep consciously. This involves retaining consciousness while wakefulness is lost and allows direct entry into the lucid dream state without any loss of reflective consciousness. The basic idea has many variations.
While falling asleep, you can focus on hypnagogic (sleep onset) imagery, deliberate visualizations, your breath or heartbeat, the sensations in your body, your sense of self, and so on. If you keep the mind sufficiently active while the tendency to enter REM sleep is strong, you feel your body fall asleep, but you, that is to say, your consciousness, remains awake. The next thing you know, you will find yourself in the dream world, fully lucid.
These two different strategies for inducing lucidity result in two distinct types of lucid dreams. Experiences in which people consciously enter dreaming sleep are referred to as wake-initiated lucid dreams (WILDs), in contrast to dream-initiated lucid dreams (DILDs), in which people become lucid after having fallen asleep unconsciously. 1 The two kinds of lucid dreams differ in a number of ways. WILDs always happen in association with brief awakenings (sometimes only one or two seconds long) from and immediate return to REM sleep. The sleeper has a subjective impression of having been awake. This is not true of DILDs. Although both kinds of lucid dream are more likely to occur later in the night, the proportion of WILDs also increases with time of night. In other words, WILDs are most likely to occur the late morning hours or in afternoon naps. This is strikingly evident in my own record of lucid dreams. Of thirty-three lucid dreams from the first REM period of the night, only one (3 percent) was a WILD, compared with thirteen out of thirty-two (41 percent) lucid dreams from afternoon naps. 2 Generally speaking, WILDs are less frequent than DILDs; in a laboratory study of seventy-six lucid dreams, 72 percent were DILDs compared with 28 percent WILDs. 3 The proportion of WILDs observed in the laboratory seems, by my experience, to be considerably higher than the proportion of WILDs reported at home.
To take a specific example, WILDs account for only 5 percent of my home record of lucid dreams, but for 40 percent of my first fifteen lucid dreams in the laboratory. 4 Ibelieve there are two reasons for this highly significant difference: whenever I spentthe night in the sleep laboratory, I was highly conscious of every time I awakened andI made extraordinary efforts not to move more than necessary in order to minimizeinterference with the physiological recordings.
Thus, my awakenings from REM in the lab were more likely to lead toconscious returns to REM than awakenings at home when I was sleeping with neitherheightened consciousness of my environment and self nor any particular intent not tomove. This suggests that WILD induction techniques might be highly effective underthe proper conditions.
Paul Tholey notes that, while techniques for direct entry to the dream staterequire considerable practice in the beginning, they offer correspondingly greatrewards. 5 When mastered, these techniques (like MILD) can confer the capacity toinduce lucid dreams virtually at will. ~ Stephen LaBerge, Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming, 4 - Falling Asleep Consciously,
33:Attention on Hypnagogic Imagery The most common strategy for inducing WILDs is to fall asleep while focusing on the hypnagogic imagery that accompanies sleep onset. Initially, you are likely to see relatively simple images, flashes of light, geometric patterns, and the like.

Gradually more complicated forms appear: faces, people, and finally entire scenes. 6

The following account of what the Russian philosopher P. D. Ouspensky called "half-dream states" provides a vivid example of what hypnagogic imagery can be like:

I am falling asleep. Golden dots, sparks and tiny stars appear and disappear before my eyes. These sparks and stars gradually merge into a golden net with diagonal meshes which moves slowly and regularly in rhythm with the beating of my heart, which I feel quite distinctly. The next moment the golden net is transformed into rows of brass helmets belonging to Roman soldiers marching along the street below. I hear their measured tread and watch them from the window of a high house in Galata, in Constantinople, in a narrow lane, one end of which leads to the old wharf and the Golden Horn with its ships and steamers and the minarets of Stamboul behind them. I hear their heavy measured tread, and see the sun shining on their helmets. Then suddenly I detach myself from the window sill on which I am lying, and in the same reclining position fly slowly over the lane, over the houses, and then over the Golden Horn in the direction of Stamboul. I smell the sea, feel the wind, the warm sun. This flying gives me a wonderfully pleasant sensation, and I cannot help opening my eyes. 7

Ouspensky's half-dream states developed out of a habit of observing the contents of his mind while falling asleep or in half-sleep after awakening from a dream. He notes that they were much easier to observe in the morning after awakening than before sleep at the beginning of the night and did not occur at all "without definite efforts." 8

Dr. Nathan Rapport, an American psychiatrist, cultivated an approach to lucid dreaming very similar to Ouspensky's: "While in bed awaiting sleep, the experimenter interrupts his thoughts every few minutes with an effort to recall the mental item vanishing before each intrusion that inquisitive attention." 9 This habit is continued sleep itself, with results like the following:

Brilliant lights flashed, and a myriad of sparkles twinkled from a magnificent cut glass chandelier. Interesting as any stage extravaganza were the many quaintly detailed figurines upon a mantel against the distant, paneled wall adorned in rococo.

At the right a merry group of beauties and gallants in the most elegant attire of Victorian England idled away a pleasant occasion. This scene continued for [a] period of I was not aware, before I discovered that it was not reality, but a mental picture and that I was viewing it. Instantly it became an incommunicably beautiful vision. It was with the greatest stealth that my vaguely awakened mind began to peep: for I knew that these glorious shows end abruptly because of such intrusions.

I thought, "Have I here one of those mind pictures that are without motion?" As if in reply, one of the young ladies gracefully waltzed about the room. She returned to the group and immobility, with a smile lighting her pretty face, which was turned over her shoulder toward me. The entire color scheme was unobtrusive despite the kaleidoscopic sparkles of the chandelier, the exquisite blues and creamy pinks of the rich settings and costumes. I felt that only my interest in dreams brought my notice to the tints - delicate, yet all alive as if with inner illumination. 10

Hypnagogic Imagery Technique

1. Relax completely

While lying in bed, gently close your eyes and relax your head, neck, back, arms, and legs. Completely let go of all muscular and mental tension, and breathe slowly and restfully. Enjoy the feeling of relaxation and let go of your thoughts, worries, and concerns. If you have just awakened from sleep, you are probably sufficiently relaxed.

Otherwise, you may use either the progressive relaxation exercise (page 33) or the 61-point relaxation exercise (page 34) to relax more deeply. Let everything wind down,

slower and slower, more and more relaxed, until your mind becomes as serene as the calmest sea.

2. Observe the visual images

Gently focus your attention on the visual images that will gradually appear before your mind's eye. Watch how the images begin and end. Try to observe the images as delicately as possible, allowing them to be passively reflected in your mind as they unfold. Do not attempt to hold onto the images, but instead just watch without attachment or desire for action. While doing this, try to take the perspective of a detached observer as much as possible. At first you will see a sequence of disconnected, fleeting patterns and images. The images will gradually develop into scenes that become more and more complex, finally joining into extended sequences.

3. Enter the dream

When the imagery becomes a moving, vivid scenario, you should allow yourself to be passively drawn into the dream world. Do not try to actively enter the dream scene,

but instead continue to take a detached interest in the imagery. Let your involvement with what is happening draw you into the dream. But be careful of too much involvement and too little attention. Don't forget that you are dreaming now!

Commentary

Probably the most difficult part of this technique to master is entering the dream at Step 3. The challenge is to develop a delicate vigilance, an unobtrusive observer perspective, from which you let yourself be drawn into the dream. As Paul Tholey has emphasized, "It is not desirable to want actively to enter into the scenery,

since such an intention as a rule causes the scenery to disappear." 11 A passive volition similar to that described in the section on autosuggestion in the previous chapter is required: in Tholey's words, "Instead of actively wanting to enter into the scenery, the subject should attempt to let himself be carried into it passively." 12 A Tibetan teacher advises a similar frame of mind: "While delicately observing the mind, lead it gently into the dream state, as though you were leading a child by the hand." 13

Another risk is that, once you have entered into the dream, the world can seem so realistic that it is easy to lose lucidity, as happened in the beginning of Rapport's WILD described above. As insurance in case this happens, Tholey recommends that you resolve to carry out a particular action in the dream, so that if you momentarily lose lucidity, you may remember your intention to carry out the action and thereby regain lucidity.
~ Stephen LaBerge, Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

1:Focus on your strengths. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
2:Focus is more valuable than IQ. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
3:Words are a lens to focus one's mind. ~ ayn-rand, @wisdomtrove
4:What you focus on always gets better. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
5:Focus on fewer but higher impact tasks. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
6:Focus on opportunities, not problems. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
7:Focus on the solution, not on the problem. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
8:Focus on being productive instead of busy. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
9:To attract money, you must focus on wealth. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
10:Find reasons to be happy and focus on those! ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
11:Focus does not mean saying yes, it means saying no. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
12:Keep the focus of your life in the here and now. ~ caroline-myss, @wisdomtrove
13:Focus on the present, to reduce anxiety and stress. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
14:Focus on what you want, not on what you don't want. ~ t-harv-eker, @wisdomtrove
15:Focus on return on equity, not earnings per share. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
16:These distraction-oholics. These focus-ophobics. ~ chuck-palahniuk, @wisdomtrove
17:Always focus on accomplishments rather than activities. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
18:Focus on the impact you make versus the title you have. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
19:Keep the focus of your life in the here and now. ~ norman-vincent-peale, @wisdomtrove
20:Play the picture in your mind - focus on the end result. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
21:Focus on giants - you stumble. Focus on God - Giants tumble. ~ max-lucado, @wisdomtrove
22:Stop focusing on what you cant do, focus on what God can do. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
23:Focus is about finding simplicity in this Age of Distraction. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
24:The ego is nothing other than the focus of conscious attention. ~ alan-watts, @wisdomtrove
25:The successful warrior is the average man, with laser-like focus. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
26:The successful warrior is the average man, with laser-like focus.  ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
27:Today, I will focus on having a good relationship with myself. ~ melody-beattie, @wisdomtrove
28:Focus and simplicity... once you get there, you can move mountains. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
29:They [The Soviet Union] are the focus of evil in the modern world. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
30:When I focus upon things of a physical nature, I am less spiritual. ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
31:The first requisite for success is to develop the ability to focus. ~ thomas-edison, @wisdomtrove
32:Don't focus on the good old days, look forward towards the good new days. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
33:Keep it simple and focus on what matters. Don't let yourself be overwhelmed. ~ confucius, @wisdomtrove
34:Focus on the possibilities for success, not on the potential for failure. ~ napoleon-hill, @wisdomtrove
35:The focus we hold in our minds affects what we perceive and how we perform. ~ david-allen, @wisdomtrove
36:Every day is a gift from God. Learn to focus on the Giver and enjoy the gift! ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
37:Knowing what to leave out is just as important as knowing what to focus on. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
38:Learning the art of expressing gratitude will force you to focus on the positive. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
39:Your destiny is not determined by your critics. Focus on running your own race. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
40:When we have God in clear focus, His powerful presence eclipses our fear. ~ charles-r-swindoll, @wisdomtrove
41:As we start looking for the good, our focus automatically is taken off the bad. ~ susan-jeffers, @wisdomtrove
42:By starting small, you keep your focus narrowed, and therefore increase your power. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
43:Focus your attention on the Now and tell me what problem you have at this moment. ~ eckhart-tolle, @wisdomtrove
44:What you focus on grows. What you concentrate on is what you see more of in your life. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
45:I feel a sudden clear focus and perspective. There is no time for anything inessential. ~ oliver-sacks, @wisdomtrove
46:Mastery comes via a monomaniacal focus on simplicity versus an addiction to complexity. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
47:Do not take yearly results too seriously. Instead, focus on four or five-year averages. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
48:The key to success is to focus our conscious mind on things we desire not things we fear. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
49:The way of the mind is to study many things; the way of the Beingness is to focus on one thing. ~ mooji, @wisdomtrove
50:Don't worry about what you can't do; focus instead on what you can do... and then do it. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
51:What you focus on with your thought and feeling is what you attract into your experience. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
52:Focus on keeping your spine straight. It is the job of the spine to keep the brain alert. ~ b-k-s-iyengar, @wisdomtrove
53:Focus! True direction is being woken up at 3 am and knowing exactly what your one goal is. ~ tony-robbins, @wisdomtrove
54:Ingnore your thoughts. As you focus more intensely, you may feel as if you are floating. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
55:I steeled myself to focus only on the present yet remain alert to what might come next. ~ nicholas-sparks, @wisdomtrove
56:You will not be good teachers if you focus only on what you do and not upon who you are. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
57:Focus on your customers and lead your people as though their lives depend on your success. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
58:When you focus on being a blessing, God makes sure that you are always blessed in abundance. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
59:Focus alone is not enough; putting in the time to commit is also crucial to achieve success. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
60:Focus on the highest, clearest, and most meaningful teaching you can find, and let all else go. ~ alan-cohen, @wisdomtrove
61:I find hope in the darkest of days, and focus in the brightest. I do not judge the universe.    ~ dalai-lama, @wisdomtrove
62:If you focus completely on the things you love, then you are on your way to a beautiful life. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
63:May our prayers today, and every day, be from our hearts and with the focus of our whole being. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
64:The ordinary focus on what they're getting. The extraordinary think about who they're becoming. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
65:Focus is what happens when you stop letting yourself get distracted by the unimportant things. ~ celestine-chua, @wisdomtrove
66:Focus on your business strengths and keep its weaknesses away from the competition or public. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
67:Take prayer with you wherever you go. Say it anytime, and then focus your mind and heart on God. ~ henri-nouwen, @wisdomtrove
68:When we focus on or disappointments , we stop God from ringing fresh new blessing into our lives. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
69:Proper business planning demands that you focus on the self-interest of the customer at all times. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
70:The secret of change is to focus all your energy not on fighting the old, but on building the new. ~ dan-millman, @wisdomtrove
71:You are all over the map, figure out the top 5 things you want to focus on and get rid of the rest. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
72:I try to look on all the great things God's done, and not focus on the negative. It's a perspective. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
73:Avoid results-by volume approach, instead focus on few critically important but uncomfortable actions. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
74:Break complex projects into smaller, well-defined tasks. Focus on completing just one of those tasks. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
75:Choose a checked or striped wall paper. People will be halfway home before they are able to focus. ~ phyllis-diller, @wisdomtrove
76:Do whatever it takes to create a quiet, distraction free environment where you can focus. ~ marc-and-angel-chernoff, @wisdomtrove
77:Being selective-doing less-is the path of the productive. Focus on the important few and ignore the rest. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
78:Break complex projects into smaller, well-defined tasks. Focus on completing just one of those tasks.  ~ steve-pavlina, @wisdomtrove
79:I don't focus on criticism. I prefer to praise people and the world, rather than criticize them and it. ~ alice-walker, @wisdomtrove
80:The computer actually may have aggravated management's degenerative tendency to focus inward on costs. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
81:What you focus on grows, what you think about expands, and what you dwell upon determines your destiny. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
82:Charlie [Munger] and I are not big fans of resumes. Instead, we focus on brains, passion and integrity. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
83:My focus is incredibly narrow. I can't talk with any authority other than design and development of product. ~ jony-ive, @wisdomtrove
84:Keep it simple, and focus on what you have to do right now, not on playing with your system or your tools. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
85:Build your life around 5 key priorities: The Big 5. Any more and you'll suffer from Broken Focus Syndrome. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
86:Focus all your attention and energy on the achievement of the objectives you are involved with right now. ~ denis-waitley, @wisdomtrove
87:To make a relationship work, focus on what you appreciate about the other person, and not your complaints. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
88:As soon as you become aware that something is not working, immediately shift your focus to the desired result. ~ alan-cohen, @wisdomtrove
89:Focus on giving smiles away and you will always discover that your own smiles will always be in great supply! ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
90:Brilliant results don't just show up by chance. The finest things in life take patience, focus and sacrifice. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
91:Realize deeply that the present moment is all you ever have. Make the Now the primary focus of your life.    ~ eckhart-tolle, @wisdomtrove
92:The Lord blesses people who bless others, and He gives grace to those who focus on the things that please Him. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
93:To rid yourself of old patterns, focus all your energy not on struggling with the old, but on building the new. ~ dan-millman, @wisdomtrove
94:When you focus on problems, you get more problems. When you focus on possibilities, you have more opportunities. ~ zig-ziglar, @wisdomtrove
95:Instead of focusing on how much you can accomplish, focus on how much you can absolutely love what you’re doing. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
96:Miserable people focus on what they hate about their life. Happy people focus on what they love about their life. ~ zig-ziglar, @wisdomtrove
97:There are always limits, and opportunities. The ones we rehearse and focus on are the ones that shape our future. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
98:Clearing distractions so you can focus on one single activity is incredibly effective, and breathtakingly joyful. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
99:Although I am a committed Catholic priest, and nowhere hide that fact, my focus is very much a spiritual journey. ~ henri-nouwen, @wisdomtrove
100:As a Christian, instead of concentrating on how you feel, focus on what you know to be truth from the Word of God. ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
101:Today I set my mind and heart on a new path. I focus my energy on love, appreciation, and my highest possibilities. ~ alan-cohen, @wisdomtrove
102:Today, I will focus on what's right about me. I will give myself some of the caring I've extended to the world. ~ melody-beattie, @wisdomtrove
103:When you focus on the eternal, victorious Son of God, you break the devil's heart and render him powerless. ~ aiden-wilson-tozer, @wisdomtrove
104:Even if you only stop and focus on your breathing for a few breaths, or for a minute or two, its very valuable. ~ thich-nhat-hanh, @wisdomtrove
105:We shouldn't deny the pain of what happens in our lives. We should just refuse to focus only on the valleys. ~ charles-r-swindoll, @wisdomtrove
106:Faith is a re-directing of our sight, a getting out of the focus of our own vision and getting God into focus. ~ aiden-wilson-tozer, @wisdomtrove
107:Focus. Focus... on your burning priorities. Say no to everything else. Life's short. You only get one shot at great. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
108:Focus only on things you love, feel love, and you will experience that love and joy coming back to you - multiplied! ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
109:When Christ becomes our central focus, contentment replaces our anxiety as well as our fears and insecurities. ~ charles-r-swindoll, @wisdomtrove
110:Games are won by players who focus on the playing field - not by those whose eyes are glued to the scoreboard. ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
111:If you focus your awareness only upon your own rightness, then you invite the forces of opposition to overwhelm you. ~ frank-herbert, @wisdomtrove
112:Through discipline, effort, and continual practice, you can also accomplish almost anything you focus your thoughts on. ~ wayne-dyer, @wisdomtrove
113:As long as we focus on the outside, there will always be that empty, hungry, lost place inside that needs to be filled. ~ shakti-gawain, @wisdomtrove
114:Focus on what you want, not on what you fear or don't want. Focus on what you fear and that's exactly where you'll end up. ~ tony-robbins, @wisdomtrove
115:If you focus on the person (You’re a lousy writer') instead of their actions, you will make them angry or defensive or hurt. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
116:Make each product the best it can be. Focus on form and materials. What we don't include is as important as what we do include. ~ jony-ive, @wisdomtrove
117:What are the things you are grateful for?? Feel the gratitude.. focus on what you have right now that you are grateful for. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
118:Focus on one habit at a time, one month at a time, so that you’ll be able to focus all your energy on creating that one habit. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
119:Focus on the center of the chest, relax. Imagine a rose there. Feel it unfolding. Let yourself go and ignore your thoughts. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
120:I want to focus on God's grace and give thanks for all the good things in my life. I don't want to focus on what I don't have. ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
121:Focus on being grateful for what you have already .. enjoy it!! Then release into the universe. The universe will manifest it. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
122:It’s really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people don’t know what they want until you show it to them. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
123:To become wise, meditate on the third eye, between the eyebrows and a little bit above. Focus on that spot, the Agni chakra. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
124:Organize as much as possible around teams, to achieve enhanced focus, task orientation, innovativeness, and individual commitment. ~ tom-peters, @wisdomtrove
125:Your current thoughts are creating your future life. What you think about the most or focus on the most will appear as your life ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
126:A solid answer to everything is not necessary. Blurry concepts influence one to focus, but postulated clarity influences arrogance. ~ criss-jami, @wisdomtrove
127:The Law of Attraction requires that we focus our attention on what we do want, rather than what we don't want, Focus on loving you. ~ louise-hay, @wisdomtrove
128:Vision is the ability to see God's presence, to perceive God’s power, to focus on God’s plan in spite of the obstacles. ~ charles-r-swindoll, @wisdomtrove
129:I think sometimes you just lose your focus, and I think that's easy to do when you start getting more fame, more money, more power. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
130:When you focus on the third chakra it has to pull the kundalini from the root center, through the second, up to the third chakra. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
131:Climb the mountain so you can see the world, not so the world can see you. Focus all your effort on what is in your power to control. ~ john-wooden, @wisdomtrove
132:Don't dwell on what went wrong. Instead, focus on what to do next. Spend your energies on moving forward toward finding the answer. ~ denis-waitley, @wisdomtrove
133:I'm trying to teach people how to live their everyday lives, and so I do focus on it, probably not as much as some people would like. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
134:Taking the inventory of your current work at all levels will automatically produce greater focus, alignment, and sense of priorities. ~ david-allen, @wisdomtrove
135:Over the years, I've learned that a confident person doesn't concentrate or focus on their weaknesses - they maximize their strengths. ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
136:We can always choose to perceive things differently. We can focus on what's wrong in our life, or we can focus on what's right. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
137:Do not have an attitude, open yourself and focus yourself and express yourself. Reject external form that fails to express internal reality. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
138:I outsource because it makes me more effective. It helps me focus on the high value, 20% tasks that make the biggest impact in my life. ~ celestine-chua, @wisdomtrove
139:Without a clear focus, it’s too easy to succumb to distractions. Set targets for each day in advance. Decide what you’ll do; then do it. ~ steve-pavlina, @wisdomtrove
140:You must have tremendous power of focus to direct your life and not allow all these variant forces, different vibrations, to enter you. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
141:In my adolescence, love, as I think for most of us, was a tremendous focus. I wanted to find the perfect partner. I did and married her. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
142:The simple act of walking can be a tremendous boost to your focus, productivity, clarity of mind, not to mention your health and waistline. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
143:What you focus on you become. So always focus on that which is highest, brightest, happiest and most noble of all things, enlightenment. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
144:Hope looks good on paper. But what creates greatness is focus, dedication and hard work. Daily. Go do it. We deserve to see you fly in 2014. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
145:If you use insulting or degrading language, or put down the person in any way, they will focus on that, and not on the rest of the criticism. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
146:Learning of all kinds goes on best, lasts best, and tends to lead itself on more when it grows out of a real focus of interest in the learner. ~ carl-rogers, @wisdomtrove
147:Suffice it to say that something automatic and extraordinary happens in your mind when you create and focus on a clear picture of what you want. ~ david-allen, @wisdomtrove
148:Breathing is central to every aspect of meditation training. It's a wonderful place to focus in training the mind to be calm and concentrated. ~ jon-kabat-zinn, @wisdomtrove
149:If you will focus on meeting other people’s needs, God will always make sure your needs are supplied. God will take care of your problems for you. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
150:No matter what's happening, choose to be happy. Don't focus on what's wrong. Find something positive in your life. Thank God for the small things. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
151:The greatest force of personal liberation is the decision to widen our circle of compassion, moving from focus on self to focus on service. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
152:Self-discovery is a process of dissolution and creation. Dissolution means envelopment in eternity. Creation is bringing into focus new awareness ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
153:Most people have no idea of the giant capacity we can immediately command when we focus all of our resources on mastering a single area of our lives. ~ tony-robbins, @wisdomtrove
154:The chakra is a doorway. These are doorways that lead you into other dimensions. But you have to focus on them to the exclusion of everything else. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
155:Focus in on the genre you want to write, and read books in that genre. A LOT of books by a variety of authors. And read with questions in your mind. ~ nicholas-sparks, @wisdomtrove
156:I feel vulnerable because my mind - because of the stroke, my mind doesn't focus. And then I feel vulnerable because I don't understand the world around me. ~ ram-das, @wisdomtrove
157:If you keep your eye on the profit, you’re going to skimp on the product. But if you focus on making really great products, then the profits will follow. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
158:What is there to fear in this very moment of now? Is your fear about something in the future? Then focus on being present now, and let go of the fear. ~ eckhart-tolle, @wisdomtrove
159:When the Lord makes it clear you're to follow Him in this new direction, focus fully on Him and refuse to be distracted by comparisons with others. ~ charles-r-swindoll, @wisdomtrove
160:Focus is about saying, No. And the result of that focus is going to be some really great products where the total is much greater than the sum of the parts. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
161:That’s been one of my mantras — focus and simplicity. Simple can be harder than complex; you have to work hard to get your thinking clean to make it simple. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
162:Your prayer causes you to focus, and the Law of Attraction causes everything in the Universe that's in vibrational harmony with your focus to come to you. ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
163:My life is better when I assume that people are doing their best. It keeps me out of judgment and lets me focus on what is, and not what should or could be. ~ brene-brown, @wisdomtrove
164:When you meditate, you focus to clear the mind and to bring the willpower together. But then, toward the end of the session let go, just become eternity. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
165:Don't focus on what's wrong. Things may not be perfect, but be grateful for the opportunity to experience each day. Live each day like it could be your last. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
166:Provide clear written agendas to meeting participants in advance. This greatly improves meeting focus and efficiency.  You can use it for phone calls too.  ~ steve-pavlina, @wisdomtrove
167:If you are feeling a shortage of time or money, your best effort would be to focus upon better- feeling thoughts, and do more things that make you feel good. ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
168:In my experience, getting rich takes focus, courage, knowledge, expertise, 100 percent of your effort, a never-give-up attitude and of course a rich mind-set. ~ t-harv-eker, @wisdomtrove
169:We should focus on what people get done, not on how many hours or days worked. Just as we don't have a nine-to-five policy, we don't need a vacation policy. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
170:Do one task at a time, without distractions. Don't multitask, and don't let yourself get interrupted. Single tasking and and focus are are the keys to execution. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
171:My particular focus at the moment is on the development of genetic algorithms and neural networks that work together to create computer architectural systems. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
172:Truly creative people care a little about what they have done, and a lot about what they are doing. Their driving focus is the life force that surges in them now. ~ alan-cohen, @wisdomtrove
173:Practice being present. You can practice being in the moment at any time during the day. Simply focus on what you’re doing right now, not on the past or the future. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
174:The more you worry about being applauded by others and making money, the less you'll focus on doing the great work that will generate applause. And make you money. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
175:You must look for the good in people to have more of it appear. As you look only for the good things in a person, you will be amazed at what your new focus reveals. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
176:Your most important tasks and priorities are those that can have the most serious consequences, positive or negative, on your life or work. Focus on these above all. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
177:Energy is the essence of life. Every day you decide how you’re going to use it by knowing what you want and what it takes to reach that goal, and by maintaining focus. ~ oprah-winfrey, @wisdomtrove
178:Don't focus on the adversity; focus on God. No matter what you go through, stay in faith, be your best each day and trust that God will use it to position you for greatness. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
179:Many ... have tremendous God-given gifts, but they don't focus on the development of those gifts. Who are these individuals? You've never heard of them- and you never will . ~ john-wooden, @wisdomtrove
180:The thing itself is one; the images are many. What leads to a perceptive understanding of the thing is not the focus on one image, but the viewing of many images together. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
181:Focus your awareness on the heart chakra. As you do, you will feel your consciousness shifting. You may feel different perceptions of energy in different parts of your body. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
182:Rich people see opportunities. Poor people see obstacles. Rich people see potential growth. Poor people see potential loss. Rich people focus on rewards. Poor focus on the risks. ~ t-harv-eker, @wisdomtrove
183:Satan wants us to constantly focus on everything that is wrong with us and look at how far we still have to go. But God desires for us to rejoice in how far we have already come. ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
184:When life is hard it's easy to focus only on the bad things and forget all about the good things God has given us. But God has blessed every one of us in ways we often overlook. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
185:You get hit the hardest when trying to run or hide from a problem. Like the defense on a football field, putting all focus on evading only one defender is asking to be blindsided. ~ criss-jami, @wisdomtrove
186:I can focus on writing, or I can get lost in wonderfully fun but endless conversations and produce nothing new at all. I count on those people who enjoy my work to understand this. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
187:Thanksgiving is a time of quiet reflection; an annual reminder that God has, again, been ever so faithful. The solid and simple things of life are brought into clear focus. ~ charles-r-swindoll, @wisdomtrove
188:Continuing to tell stories of shortage only continues to contradict your desire for abundance, and you cannot have it both ways: You cannot focus upon unwanted and receive wanted. ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
189:There is no need to compare because everyone is different. Your goal is not to be like others but to be yourself. Stop comparing with others and focus on being yourself instead. ~ celestine-chua, @wisdomtrove
190:As you focus your attention on the heart center, you will begin to feel your thoughts slowing down. You'll begin to feel your mind becoming calm and quiet. They won't bother you. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
191:Immerse yourself in the task. Just start on the task, and focus completely on it. Forget about everything else, and let the world melt away. Get excited about the task and have fun. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
192:So the bad news is that there’s always something bad about life we can choose to focus on. And the good news is that there’s always something good about life we can choose to focus on. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
193:The top three projects on your Projects List will be your entire focus until you finish all three, and then the next three projects you move onto this active list will be your focus. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
194:It is the invariable lesson to humanity that distance in time, and in space as well, lends focus. It is not recorded, incidentally, that the lesson has ever been permanently learned. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
195:You may have made a lot of wrong choices, but you’ve also made a lot of choices that were right. Focus on your good qualities. Focus on your victories. Get off the treadmill of guilt. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
196:The past was gone and the future had yet to unfold, and he knew he should focus his life on the present. Yet his day-to-day existence suddenly struck him as endless and unbearable. ~ nicholas-sparks, @wisdomtrove
197:As a mortal being you are limited, but as a child of God you are unlimited... Focus your attention on God, and you shall have all the power you want, to use in any direction. ~ paramahansa-yogananda, @wisdomtrove
198:Enlightenment is to be outside the circle, the circle of death and rebirth. There is a circle inside you. If you meditate and focus on your third eye, you will see a circle of light. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
199:Goal-setting is powerful because it provides focus. It shapes our dreams. It gives us the ability to hone in on the exact actions we need to perform to achieve everything we desire in life. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
200:I don't focus on the critics. Everyone who is making any difference in any field has critics. As long as I feel like I'm doing what I'm supposed to be doing, then I don't worry about it. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
201:Instead of tryig to stop thought when you meditate, focus your attention on love. Suddenly you'll find your thoughts are slacking. Light is everywhere and suddenly there is no thought. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
202:Focus on impact, not approval. If you believe you can change the world, which I hope you do, do what you believe is right and expect resistance and expect attackers. Keep calm and carry on! ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
203:Breathe in and take one step, and focus all your attention on the sole of your foot. If you have not arrived fully, one hundred percent in the here and the now, don't take the next step. ~ thich-nhat-hanh, @wisdomtrove
204:Power comes from the navel center. If you meditate for an hour or so a day and you focus on that sphere, you will release a tremendous power that will enter your body. We call it the chi. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
205:I generally concentrate on work for three or four hours every morning. I sit at my desk and focus totally on what I’m writing. I don’t see anything else, I don’t think about anything else. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
206:When you reach out to hurting people, that’s when God is going to make sure your needs are supplied. When you focus on being a blessing, God makes sure that you are always blessed in abundance. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
207:You cannot help the world by focusing on the negative things. As you focus on the world's negative events, you not only add to them, but you also bring more negative things into your own life. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
208:Focus your attention around the naval area, feel that spot. Visualize it. Do whatever it takes. When thoughts come in and out of your mind, pay no attention. You just stay right on that spot! ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
209:One of the fundamental principles of productivity is that in order to get things done, you've got to focus. And that necessary focus requires that you eliminate as many distractions as possible. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
210:Focus your attention on the top of your neck. Take that energy and transmit it in two lines to your hands. Then from the hands, bounce that energy right back to the heart center and ground it. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
211:Goals provide the energy source that powers our lives. One of the best ways we can get the most from the energy we have is to focus it. That is what goals can do for us; concentrate our energy. ~ denis-waitley, @wisdomtrove
212:A life without limits is taking a cup of red dye and pouring it into the ocean, and watching the color dilute into nothingness. Limited focus is putting that same cup of dye into a gallon of water. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
213:M: How can an unsteady mind make itself steady? Of course, it cannot. It is the nature of the mind to roam about. All you can do is to shift the focus of consciousness beyond the mind. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
214:By going into third world countries and serving, by actually feeding and helping people, I've been led to focus a little more on how people here try to be happy by ignoring other people who are unhappy. ~ ram-das, @wisdomtrove
215:I got my driver's license photo taken out of focus on purpose. Now when I get pulled over, the cop looks at it [moving it nearer and farther, trying to see it clearly], and says, "Here, you can go" ~ steven-wright, @wisdomtrove
216:Slow down. Talk less. When you can, do just one thing at a time. Reduce multitasking. Focus on your breath while doing daily activities. Simplify your life; give up lesser pleasures for greater ones. ~ rick-hanson, @wisdomtrove
217:Avoid fragmentation: Find your focus and seek simplicity. Purposeful living calls for elegant efficiency and economy of effort-expanding the minimum time and energy necessary to achieve desired goals. ~ dan-millman, @wisdomtrove
218:Focus on one point and hold your attention there. The mind will waiver, you'll think a million thoughts, but each time you do, bring your mind back to the point of concentration, seeing it visually. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
219:I don't care how much power, brilliance or energy you have, if you don't harness it and focus it on a specific target, and hold it there you're never going to accomplish as much as your ability warrants ~ zig-ziglar, @wisdomtrove
220:People over-focus on teachers as an excuse to avoid their own life, and that way they fail to take responsibility for themselves. They have this feeling that the teacher will just take care of them. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
221:So many people seem to have a clear idea of how other people should lead their lives, but have no clue how to lead their own. So focus on your inner callings and keep paving your own path.  ~ marc-and-angel-chernoff, @wisdomtrove
222:We want a crowd to make us feel important and liked. But why is getting a crowd our focus? Jesus never suggested that crowds were the goal. He never addresses getting your church to grow. Never. ~ charles-r-swindoll, @wisdomtrove
223:A happy man or woman is a better thing to find than a five-pound note. He or she is a radiating focus of goodwill; and their entrance into a room is as though another candle had been lighted. ~ robert-louis-stevenson, @wisdomtrove
224:The Pareto principle is the 80-20 rule, which states that 80% of the value of a task comes from 20% of the effort. Focus your energy on that critical 20%, and don’t overengineer the non-critical 80%.  ~ steve-pavlina, @wisdomtrove
225:Sometimes we focus on the mess or the broken dream, but in all the mess God sees greatness. He knows how to take your troubles and turn them into trophies, how to take the test and make it your testimony. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
226:Focus on what you're grateful for in your life. If you don't appreciate what you have, you won't get any more... because the universe thinks it's not important to you, and therefore you don't need any more. ~ t-harv-eker, @wisdomtrove
227:One way to focus and express kind intentions is through these traditional wishes, which you can think, write down, or even sing: May you be safe. May you be healthy. May you be happy. May you live with ease. ~ rick-hanson, @wisdomtrove
228:[The Soviets] preach the supremacy of the state, declare its omnipotence over individual man, and predict its eventual domination of all peoples on the earth; they are the focus of evil in the modern world. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
229:One reason so few of us achieve what we truly want is that we never direct our focus; we never concentrate our power. Most people dabble their way through life, never deciding to master anything in particular. ~ tony-robbins, @wisdomtrove
230:I have noticed in every campaign that I have fought-that there is a key segment of time, somewhere between 13 and 15 minutes in which the battle is won or lost. I focus on that segment of time, and I win. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
231:Instead of focusing on how big your problems are, focus on how big your God is! He is everything you need. He is the Great I AM, and He is the one leading and guiding you into victory in every area of your life! ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
232:Most companies, 97 percent or more, put all their focus on clever advertising and clever taglines to get people to buy average or mediocre products. You need to back off and offer a really good product or service. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
233:As far as income goes, there are three currencies in the world; most people ignore two. The three currencies are time, income and mobility, in descending order of importance. Most people focus exclusively on income. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
234:The Value of Thinking About Why: Here are just some of the benefits of asking why: It defines success. It creates decision-making criteria. It aligns resources. It motivates. It clarifies focus. It expands options. ~ david-allen, @wisdomtrove
235:You don't have to search so hard for meaning and destiny. If you focus on keeping yourself clear and in balance and you live from your heart, destiny and your highest-good path will unfold naturally at your feet. ~ melody-beattie, @wisdomtrove
236:To attract money, you must focus on wealth. It is impossible to bring more money into your life when you are noticing you do not have enough, because that means you are thinking thoughts that you do not have enough. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
237:Keep my eyes fixed on You, Lord. Help me to stop tinkering and realize my total inability to change. I look to You to change me and give me victory as I focus on Your friendly eyes looking lovingly at me. Amen. ~ aiden-wilson-tozer, @wisdomtrove
238:Focus your attention on the center of your forehead. Visualize that there is a slow but steady swirl of white light there. Visualize that the white light above your forehead is slowly moving in a clockwise direction. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
239:There just isn't enough time for everything on our &
240:When you are able to shift your inner awareness to how you can serve others, and when you make this the central focus of your life, you will then be in a position to know true miracles in your progress toward prosperity. ~ wayne-dyer, @wisdomtrove
241:If you have a clear goal and a plan to achieve it, your focus is fixed on a set course of action. Instead of becoming sidetracked by distractions and diversions, your time is focused on a straight line from start to finish. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
242:Instead of concentrating on your problems and getting discouraged, focus on God and meditate on His promises for you. You may have fallen down, but you don't have to stay down. God is ready, willing and able to pick you up. ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
243:the more we are focused on controlling and changing others, the more unmanageable our life becomes. The more we focus on living our own life, the more we have a life to live, and the more manageable our life will become. ~ melody-beattie, @wisdomtrove
244:The thing with focus is that it's not this thing you aspire to, like, &
245:Have you noticed that those who speak most about illness have it, those that speak most about money have it, those that speak about poverty have it ... that must be their experiences. Whatever you focus on will come to you. ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
246:In the real world, those of us who are most productive, successful, and satisfied focus not on fixing feelings or manipulating thoughts, but on what needs to be done-and then doing it-no matter what thoughts or feelings arise. ~ dan-millman, @wisdomtrove
247:We have never worried about numbers. In the market place, Apple is trying to focus the spotlight on products, because products really make a difference.  You can't con people in this business. The products speak for themselves. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
248:Today I will focus on a peaceful pace, rather than a harried one. I will keep moving forward gently, not frantically. I will let go of my need to be anxious and upset and will replace these feelings with calmness and harmony. ~ melody-beattie, @wisdomtrove
249:Dreams can come true, but there is a secret. They're realized through the magic of persistence, determination, commitment, passion, practice, focus and hard work. They happen a step at a time, manifested over years, not weeks. ~ elbert-hubbard, @wisdomtrove
250:Focus on the heart center and feel love. There is a flower there, but it's like a rose folded up. As you meditate, feel that the flower is opening. Each time you open a set of petals you're going deeper into eternal awareness. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
251:I don't want people's approval. I want people to  think the way they think. That's love. Manipulating and trying to change someone is like trying to  rape his mind. "You there! Stop your internal life  and focus over here, on me! ~ byron-katie, @wisdomtrove
252:I think Bigfoot is blurry, that's the problem. It's not the photographer's fault. Bigfoot is blurry, and that's extra scary to me. There's a large, out-of-focus monster roaming the countryside. Run, he's fuzzy, get out of here. ~ mitch-hedberg, @wisdomtrove
253:With a wonderful business, you can figure out what will happen; you can't figure out when it will happen. You don't want to focus on when, you want to focus on what. If you're right about what, you don't have to worry about when ~ warren-buffet, @wisdomtrove
254:Bring the mind into sharp focus and make it alert so that it can immediately intuit truth, which is everywhere. The mind must be emancipated from old habits, prejudices, restrictive thought processes and even ordinary thought itself. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
255:When you focus on how wonderful God is and all the great things He's done... is doing... and even will do in your life, your natural response will be praise, adoration and awe. Don't let yourself ever get used to it... stay amazed! ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
256:Once I can focus in on something, I just play it in my mind until an idea comes from out of nowhere, and it's usually the key to the whole song. It's the idea that matters. It's like electricity was around long before Edison harnessed it. ~ bob-dylan, @wisdomtrove
257:Success comes from doing the hard part. When the hard part is all you've got, you're more likely to do it. And this is precisely why it's difficult to focus. Because focusing means acknowledging that you just signed up for the hard part. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
258:The reason for desires, goals, for finding those decisions or points of focus, is because they are the life- giving things of the Universe. Without objects of attention, or objects of desire, Life- Force does not come through any of us. ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
259:As a cure for worrying, work is far better than whiskey. I always found that, if I began to worry, the best thing I could do was focus upon doing something useful and then work very hard at it. Soon, I would forget what was troubling me. ~ thomas-edison, @wisdomtrove
260:Saying no isn't easy, but it's a required skill if you wish to have any degree of focus in your life. If you say yes too often, you'll likely fall into the common trap of saying yes to the good while simultaneously saying no to the best. ~ steve-pavlina, @wisdomtrove
261:Dominant energy patterns that are contributing to the stress in a human being, are able to be picked up, if a person is open enough. And for me, as a medical intuitive, that's where I focus my attention. That's what the skill is all about. ~ caroline-myss, @wisdomtrove
262:If you have a past with which you feel dissatisfied, then forget it, now. Imagine a new story for your life and believe in it. Focus only on the moments when you achieved what you desired, and that strength will help you to get what you want. ~ paulo-coelho, @wisdomtrove
263:If you focus the rays of the sun through a lens, they can burn cotton or a piece of paper; but, the scattered rays cannot do this act. If you collect the dissipated rays of the mind and focus them at a point, you will have wonderful concentration. ~ sivananda, @wisdomtrove
264:Have the courage to be exactly who you are without apology. Admit your mistakes without beating yourself up. Release all shame! Release all guilt! You cannot live if you are hiding behind what was. Focus on what is, right now, and that is you! ~ lyania-vanzant, @wisdomtrove
265:A great deal of what people say, think, or do is actually motivated by fear, which of course is always linked with having your focus on the future and being out of touch with the Now. As there are no problems in the Now, there is no fear either. ~ eckhart-tolle, @wisdomtrove
266:Dominant energy patterns that are contributing to the stress in a human being, are able to be picked up, if a person is open enough. And for me, as a medical intuitive, that's where I focus my attention. That's what the skill is all about. ~ norman-vincent-peale, @wisdomtrove
267:If we want to make relatively minor changes in our lives, we can focus on our attitudes and behaviors. But if we want to make significant quantum changes, we need to work on our basic paradigms—the way we view ourselves and the world around us. ~ stephen-r-covey, @wisdomtrove
268:Lacking an external focus, the mind turns inward on itself and creates problems to solve, even if the problems are undefined or unimportant. If you find a focus, an ambitious goal that seems impossible and forces you to grow, these doubts disappear. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
269:To the extent we are perceiving anyone's guilt -choosing to focus on the errors of their personality rather than the eternal innocence of their spirit - we're closing our hearts, deflecting a miracle and causing our own inevitable suffering. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
270:I pray for faith that my future will be good if I live today well, and in peace. I will remember that staying in the present is the best thing I can do for my future. I will focus on what’s happening now instead of what’s going to happen tomorrow. ~ melody-beattie, @wisdomtrove
271:We were born with a natural tendency to focus on love. Our imaginations were creative and flourishing, and we knew how to use them. We were connected to a richer world, a world full of enchantment and a sense of the miraculous. What happened? ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
272:Keep steadily in the focus of consciousness the only clue you have: your certainty of being. Be with it, play with it, ponder over it, delve deeply into it, till the shell of ignorance breaks open and you emerge into the realm of reality. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
273:Rumi once advised his students to write down the three things they most wanted in life. If any item on the list clashes with any other item, Rumi warned, you are destined for unhappiness. Better to live a life of single-pointed focus, he taught. ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
274:Write your script. When you see things you don't want, don't think about them, write about them, talk about them, push against them, or join groups that focus on the don't wants... remove your attention from don't wants.. and place them on do wants. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
275:Rumi once advised his students to write down the three things they most wanted in life. If any item on the list clashes with any other item, Rumi warned, you are destined for unhappiness. Better to live a life of single- pointed focus, he taught. ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
276:When you have a pile of bills that you have no idea how you are going to pay, you cannot focus on the bills, because you will continue to attract more bills. You have to find a way that works for you to focus on prosperity, despite the bills around you. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
277:It's just easier to talk about product attributes that you can measure with a number. Focus on price, screen size, that's easy. But there's a more difficult path, and that's to make better products, ones where maybe you can't measure their value empirically. ~ jony-ive, @wisdomtrove
278:When we're interested in something, everything around us appears to refer to it (the mystics call these phenomena "signs," the skeptics "coincidence," and psychologists "concentrated focus," although I've yet to find out what term historians should use). ~ paulo-coelho, @wisdomtrove
279:Mind Like Water: A mental and emotional state in which your head is clear, able to create and respond freely, unencumbered with distractions and split focus. David Allen ~ david-allen, @wisdomtrove
280:You are one who knows your worthiness. And when you feel inferior, resentful or disrespected, it's not that someone else has the power to do that to you, it's your focus. You've focused in a screwy way, you see. You've focused out of sync with who you are. ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
281:Creation is not and has never been about action. It has always been about alignment of Energy. So when you focus upon alignment of Energy time becomes irrelevant. And when time is irrelevant, it will be so expansive that you will wonder where it always was. ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
282:Getting organized in the normal routines of life and finishing little projects you've started is an important first step toward realizing larger goals. If you can't get a handle on the small things, how will you ever get it together to focus on the big things? ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
283:Focus your mind on &
284:When you allow yourself to begin to dream big dreams, creatively abandon the activities that are taking up too much of your time, and focus your inward energies on alleviating your main constraints, you start to feel an incredible sense of power and confidence. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
285:Financial scarcity is what you attract when you focus on me, me, me — my needs, my problems, my wants. Financial abundance is what you attract when you focus on we, we, we — our needs, our challenges, our potential. The ego is too small a container for wealth. ~ steve-pavlina, @wisdomtrove
286:If I focus my attention on my subjective nature as the &
287:I started to meditate formally at about 18. I would sit on a mountaintop in Southern California around twilight and focus on my third eye. Everything would become still and rings of light would appear, and I'd go through them. I would be beyond time and space. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
288:To develop the creative attitude, analyze and focus on the wanted SOLUTION; seek out and fill your mind with the FACTS; write down ideas, both sensible and seemingly wild; let the facts and ideas simmer in your mind; evaluate, recheck, settle on the creative ideas. ~ bruce-lee, @wisdomtrove
289:When we try to focus our thought upon One who is pure uncreated being we may see nothing at all, for He dwelleth in light that no man can approach unto. Only by faith and love are we able to glimpse Him as He passes by our shelter in the cleft of the rock. ~ aiden-wilson-tozer, @wisdomtrove
290:I focus for periods of time on creative work and I'm very insular during those times - not a lot of socializing. I play when I want. That means I can take off on a retreat, catch a matinee, make friends. My core desired feelings are my time management system. ~ danielle-laporte, @wisdomtrove
291:Lions don't have to roar. There is power in silence, confidence, and persistence. Those who work don't talk, and those who talk don't work. Handle your business. Measure your efforts by results. Focus your time, energy, and activity on mastering and executing a plan. ~ les-brown, @wisdomtrove
292:Whatever happens to me during the course of my life - physically, socially, or financially - I can always choose to focus on giving. When I'm in that state, nothing else matters. I cease to exist as a separate being and merge into an expression of divine oneness. ~ steve-pavlina, @wisdomtrove
293:Every time you feel anxiety, use that as a trigger to take some deep breaths, and then think to yourself: "This fear or anxiety is happening in my life to tell me what I don't want. What do I want instead?" Start visualizing what you do want. Gently focus on that. ~ anita-moorjani, @wisdomtrove
294:Commit to investing from twenty to thirty minutes a week in weekly planning. Follow these steps as you plan: Write down your key roles. Select one or two of your highest priorities to focus on this week. Look at the week and schedule your tasks and appointments.   ~ stephen-r-covey, @wisdomtrove
295:Rich people believe "You can have your cake and eat it too." Middle-class people believe "Cake is too rich, so I'll only have a little piece." Poor people don't believe they deserve cake, so they order a doughnut, focus on the hole, and wonder why they have "nothing." ~ t-harv-eker, @wisdomtrove
296:We have to realize that our lives could be gone in a moment. There are no guarantees that we will be here at this time next year. Learn to live each day to the fullest. Don't complain. Don't focus on what's wrong. Be grateful for the opportunity to experience each day. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
297:If you spend a lot of time thinking about your problems, they'll grow bigger and stronger. Is that what you want? Of course not!Instead, focus on your goals. Start your day with them at the front of your mind, and use notes to recall them strategically throughout your day. ~ les-brown, @wisdomtrove
298:I am struck by how, except when you're young, you really need to prioritize in life, figuring out in what order you should divide up your time and energy. If you don't get that sort of system set by a certain age, you'll lack focus and your life will be out of balance. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
299:Writers need to learn their trade, and how to negotiate the increasingly difficult marketplace. The trade can be taught and learned just as the craft can. But a workshop where the trade is the principal focus of interest is not a writing workshop. It is a business class. ~ ursula-k-le-guin, @wisdomtrove
300:I'm meditating and I'm enjoying the bliss of being deep awake. I'm conscious of being a spacious presence within which the world is arising like a dream. Thoughts and sensations are coming and going in my peripheral attention, but my focus is on the stillness of my essential nature. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
301:Steve said, I don’t know. I really don’t. All I know is that my life is better when I assume that people are doing their best. It keeps me out of judgment and lets me focus on what is, and not what should or could be. His answer felt like truth to me. Not an easy truth, but truth. ~ brene-brown, @wisdomtrove
302:Focus very clearly on a few small things. The purpose of a business is to give someone something that they want. Have a product or service that's really excellent. [... ] What can you offer that no one else can offer and will satisfy them at a higher level than what anyone else can? ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
303:The information age has been driven and dominated by technopreneurs. We now have to apply these technologies in saving lives, improving livelihoods and lifting millions of people out of squalor, misery and suffering. In other words, our focus must now move from the geeks to the meek. ~ arthur-c-carke, @wisdomtrove
304:For me the information has to remain incredibly neutral. It's what I would call &
305:Indeed, our everyday world presents intellectual challenges just as daunting as those of the cosmos and the quantum, and that is where 99 per cent of scientists focus their efforts. Even the smallest insect, with its intricate structure, is far more complex than either an atom or a star. ~ martin-rees, @wisdomtrove
306:To concentrate implies bringing all your energy to focus on a certain point; but thought wanders away... Whereas attention has no control, no concentration. It is complete attention, which means giving all your energy, the energy of the brain, your heart, everything, to attending. ~ jiddu-krishnamurti, @wisdomtrove
307:If you focus on what others expect of you, you'll continue to act on and attract more of what they desire for you. But when you can shift your inner thoughts to what you intend to create and attract into your life, you will no longer have to give mental energy to what others want for you.   ~ wayne-dyer, @wisdomtrove
308:The key to a great life lies in shifting your focus from accumulation to contribution. The old saying "He who gathers the most toys wins" needs to be replaced with "He who serves the most prospers". Remember, happiness is the by-product of a life spent adding value to other people's lives. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
309:Expect the best; convert problems into opportunities; be dissatisfied with the status quo; focus on where you want to go, instead of where you're coming from; and most importantly, decide to be happy, knowing it's an attitude, a habit gained from daily practice, and not a result or payoff. ~ denis-waitley, @wisdomtrove
310:It's a matter of ABC: When we encounter ADVERSITY, we react by thinking about it. Our thoughts rapidly congeal into BELIEFS. These beliefs may become so habitual we don't even realize we have them unless we stop to focus on them. And they don't just sit there idly; they have CONSEQUENCES. ~ martin-seligman, @wisdomtrove
311:Every day, or at least twice a week, take a few minutes and focus on seeing yourself in joy. Feel yourself in joy. Imagine only joy ahead in your life and see yourself basking in it. As you do this the Universe will move all people, circumstances, and events to bring you joy, joy and more joy. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
312:For me the information has to remain incredibly neutral. It's what I would call &
313:Focus on the positives. Go for the positive topics. Which means rather than talk about past grievances, opt for a discussion of future goals. Rather than talk about the coffee that spilled on your table this morning, talk about that movie you are looking forward to watch later in the evening. ~ celestine-chua, @wisdomtrove
314:In the founding era of our country, it was not organized religion but personal faith that brought focus and unified the early leadership-maybe an unspoken faith in God, and certain values that came with that faith. So in that sense, we cannot discount, in my judgment, religious faith in politics. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
315:We should reserve the notion of &
316:You see, I'm a believer in the rhapsodic. I like things that are happy. For no particular reason, I just like them. Most people don't seem to be like that in this particular place, in this world. You can tell by what they focus on. Read a newspaper, watch a TV show, go to a movie, look at a life. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
317:Rather than beating yourself up for what you are not doing, appreciate and celebrate the things you are doing. When you shift your focus away from what you do not want, you can create a vision for what you do. Don't fight with yourself - focus on what you do, can do, choose to do, are ready to do. ~ lyania-vanzant, @wisdomtrove
318:Please stop waiting for a better and more appropriate time to become happy and focus on the moment you live in. Happiness is not an arrival, it is the journey itself. Many people seek for happiness above the height of human beings, some below. Yet, happiness is exactly at the exact height of human beings. ~ confucius, @wisdomtrove
319:Staying focused on a project or plan is one of the most difficult challenges we face. There is always the house to clean, calls to make, laundry to fold, deadlines to meet. Actually, there is only one thing that keeps us from our goals - lack of focus. And very often, lack of focus is caused by fear. ~ lyania-vanzant, @wisdomtrove
320:When I live lucidly, my focus moves fluidly between the active and passive poles of my identity. And in my experience, this fluidity of focus is the way to enjoy a creative life as an active participant in the life-dream, while also bathing in the bliss of my deeper being. It is the secret of enlivenment. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
321:If you trust me, believe when I tell you that you are the pure awareness that illuminates consciousness and its infinite content. Realise this and live accordingly. If you do not believe me, then go within, enquiring ‘What am I’? or, focus your mind on ‘I am’, which is pure and simple being. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
322:Anything that you are wanting: don't stand in the lack of it and lament that it isn't there and expect it to come to you. It cannot. Find a little piece of it, a little trail of it, a little clue of it - look for something about it, and focus upon that little piece, and by Law of Attraction, watch it grow! ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
323:Focus on guilt will always breed fear, and focus on innocence will always breed love. Any time we project guilt onto someone else, we are fortifying the experience of guilt within ourselves. Like blood on Lady MacBeth's hands, we cannot remove our own guilty feelings as long as we are judging others. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
324:It has been asserted that there is a separate species on the earth to correspond with each one of the stars. Now if the earth provides in each species a focus for the action of each star, why may not a similar provision be made among other heavenly bodies that are subject to the action of their fellows? ~ nicholas-of-cusa, @wisdomtrove
325:Whatever we focus on is bound to expand. Where we see the negative, we call forth more negative. And where we see the positive, we call forth more positive. Having loved and lost, I now love more passionately. Having won and lost, I now win more soberly. Having tasted the bitter, I now savor the sweet. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
326:Whenever you focus on the blessings in your life, you're instantaneously on the blessing frequency, and blessings increase in your life IN THAT MOMENT! &
327:The first requisite for success is to develop the ability to focus and apply your mental and physical energies to the problem at hand - without growing weary. Because such thinking is often difficult, there seems to be no limit to which some people will go to avoid the effort and labor that is associated with it. ~ thomas-edison, @wisdomtrove
328:I am conscious right now of an ever-changing stream of experiences. Normally I focus my attention on what I am experiencing, but I’m choosing to be conscious of myself as the experiencer. I am the experiencer of all that I’m experiencing. I am the presence of awareness witnessing colours … sounds … feelings … thoughts. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
329:Your fear is just as boring as mine is. Everyone's got the same one. It is not precious. It is not special. It is not singular to you. It's just the one we all got wired with when we came in. Focus on your unique qualities that deserve to be celebrated and put fear back in its place. Don't listen to it. Onward. ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
330:Another way to be awakened by the beauty and complexity of the word is to get a dog. Small Things like a plant that I had passed a thousand time and never given a second thought to. But the dog is curious. And the dog stops and wants to smell this and smell that. And the dog makes you look and focus and take the time. ~ dean-koontz, @wisdomtrove
331:Keep the ‘I am’ in the focus of awareness, remember that you are, watch yourself ceaselessly and the unconscious will flow into the conscious without any special effort on your part. Wrong desires and fears, false ideas, social inhibitions are blocking and preventing its free interplay with the conscious. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
332:Maybe you’ve invested a lot of time, effort, money, emotion, and energy in a relationship; you did your best to make it work out. But for some reason, things got off course. And now you feel as though you have been robbed. When we focus on or disappointments, we stop God from ringing fresh new blessing into our lives. ~ joel-osteen, @wisdomtrove
333:Religious ideas about good and evil tend to focus on how to achieve well-being in the next life, and this makes them terrible guides to securing it in this one. Of course, there are a few gems to be found in every religious tradition, but insofar as these precepts are wise and useful they are not, in principle, religious. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
334:The world is waiting for you to wake up to the person you are called to be. Stop listening to the negative inner conversation that's causing you to play small. Focus your mind on positive thoughts, possibilities and solutions that can move you forward. Tap into your creativity and determination and stay busy. Stay focused. ~ les-brown, @wisdomtrove
335:People think focus means saying yes to the thing you've got to focus on. But that's not what it means at all. It means saying no to the hundred other good ideas that there are. You have to pick carefully. I'm actually as proud of the things we haven't done as the things I have done. Innovation is saying no to 1,000 things. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
336:Being an elite performer on the playing field of life is not about being perfect. Rather, it is about cultivating a mental focus towards mastery in every area of your life. It is about commiting yourself, from the core of your heart, to manifest and polish your highest talents and become the person you are destined to be. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
337:To suppose that the eye, with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest possible degree. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
338:This goes two ways: a relationship that’s bigger than its real foundation is a set-up for disappointment and hurt, while a relationship that’s smaller than its foundation is a lost opportunity. In both cases, focus on your own initiative, especially after you’ve made reasonable efforts to encourage changes in the other person. ~ rick-hanson, @wisdomtrove
339:Existence is predicated on paradoxity, so our experience flows between good and bad, joy and suffering, yum and yuk. We hope for yum without yuk. We fear there will be yuk without yum. But there is always both. We can focus on the good, but we can’t exile the bad. We can make our lives better, but we can’t make our lives perfect. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
340:It is far more lucrative and fun to leverage your strengths instead of attempting to fix all the chinks in your armor. The choice is between multiplication of results using strenths or incremental improvement fixing weaknesses that will, at best, become mediocre.  Focus on better use of your best weapons instead of constant repair. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
341:Somebody once told me, ‘Manage the top line, and the bottom line will follow.’ What's the top line? It's things like, why are we doing this in the first place? What's our strategy? What are customers saying? How responsive are we? Do we have the best products and the best people? Those are the kind of questions you have to focus on. ~ steve-jobs, @wisdomtrove
342:The Power of Less is perfect for achieving goals: Limit yourself to fewer goals, and you’ll achieve more. At the same time, you’ll look at ways to narrow your focus on your projects, so that you can complete them more effectively and move forward on your goals. You’ll apply limitations to your projects to increase your effectiveness.' ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
343:Your very nature has the infinite capacity to enjoy. It is full of zest and affection. It sheds its radiance on all that comes within its focus of awareness and nothing is excluded. It does not know evil nor ugliness, it hopes, it trusts, it loves. You people do not know how much you miss by not knowing your own true self. ~ sri-nisargadatta-maharaj, @wisdomtrove
344:Don't criticize, condemn or complain. Constantly criticizing, condemning and complaining is what breaks most relationships. Instead of criticizing and condemning, figure out how you can solve the problem together. Instead of focusing on blaming the other person for what they did wrong, focus on how you can avoid the problem next time. ~ dale-carnegie, @wisdomtrove
345:Existence is predicated on paradoxity, so our experience must flow between good and bad, joy and suffering, yum and yuk. We hope for yum without yuk. We fear there will be yuk without yum. But there will always be both. We can focus on the good, but we can’t exile the bad. We can make our lives better, but we can’t make our lives perfect. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
346:Although we tend to think about saints as holy and pious, and picture them with halos above their heads and ecstatic gazes, true saints are much more accessible. They are men and women like us, who live ordinary lives and struggle with ordinary problems. What makes them saints is their clear and unwavering focus on God and God's people. ~ henri-nouwen, @wisdomtrove
347:My secret for writing is going back to clarity. I'm very clear about what I want to accomplish-the goal-and then the next two are focus and concentration. And I've probably spent my whole life both practicing those two and teaching them. Focus. Focus on a single point and concentration. And concentrating on a single thing till it's done. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
348:Let's practice appreciative witnessing right now . . . You are conscious that you're experiencing something . . . so pay attention to the experiencer. Focus on your essential being that you call &
349:It's all about finding and hiring people smarter than you. Getting them to join your business. And giving them good work. Then getting out of their way. And trusting them. You have to get out of the way so YOU can focus on the bigger vision. That's important. And here's the main thing... .you must make them see their work as a MISSION. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
350:Clearing distractions is simple: turn everything off and get it out of sight so you have the space to focus on what’s important. That means closing your browser and email program and all programs other than what you need to work on the important task before you. It means turning off notifications and clearing your desk of all non- essential items. ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
351:That's always disappointed me, to see a guy in the crowd who doesn't look like he's having fun but in general if you just listen to the crowd it sounds like they're having fun. So I don't want to focus on the one guy who's not having fun. And by closing my eyes and just listening, I can't hear that he's not laughing but I can see that he's not laughing. ~ mitch-hedberg, @wisdomtrove
352:They have the greeting cards with the couples on the front. They photograph them. These hazy focus people. They’re always having picnics. There’s always a tree, a pond… who are these people? I don’t know them. I don’t want them on my card either. What am I going to write inside there anyway? “Here’s another couple having a better relationship than us.” ~ jerry-seinfeld, @wisdomtrove
353:He told me that one of the reasons people are so unhappy is they don't talk to themselves. He said you have to keep a conversation going with yourself throughout your life to see how you're doing, to keep your focus, to remain your own friend. He told me that he talked to himself all the time, and that it helped him to grow stronger and better everyday. ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
354:It helps to have a focus for your attention, an anchor line to tether you to the present moment and to guide you back when the mind wanders. The breath serves this purpose exceedingly well. It can be a true ally. Bringing awareness to our breathing, we remind ourselves that we are here now, so we might as well be fully awake for whatever is already happening. ~ jon-kabat-zinn, @wisdomtrove
355:You end up exhausted and spent, but later, in retrospect, you realize what it all was for. The parts fall into place, and you can see the whole picture and finally understand the role each individual part plays. The dawn comes, the sky grows light, and the colors and shapes of the roofs of houses, which you could only glimpse vaguely before, come into focus. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
356:See, see Who God is, see the glory of God, going up to Him out of this incomprehensible and infinite Sacrifice in which all history begins and ends, all individual lives begin and end, in which every story is told, and finished, and settled for joy or for sorrow: the one point of reference for all the truths that are outside of God, their center, their focus: Love. ~ thomas-merton, @wisdomtrove
357:Keep a grateful journal. Every night, list five things that happened this day that you are grateful for. What it will begin to do is change your perspective of your day and your life. If you can learn to focus on what you have, you will always see that the universe is abundant; you will have more. If you concentrate on what you don't have, you will never have enough. ~ oprah-winfrey, @wisdomtrove
358:Renovating temples does not mean building great gate towers or receptacles for offerings. What we should focus on is the regular conduct of worship according to tradition, regular satsang, devotional singing, and so forth. Our devotion and faith give life to temples, not rituals and ceremonies. Children, we should remember this when we are involved in temple matters. ~ mata-amritanandamayi, @wisdomtrove
359:Every second you spend thinking about what you don't want in your life is a second denying focus and energy from getting what you do want. Every minute you worry about what's not working is a minute drawn away from creating what will work. And every hour spent reflecting on the disappointments of the past is an hour stolen from seeing the possibilities that your future holds. ~ robin-sharma, @wisdomtrove
360:Letting go means we stop trying to force outcomes and make people behave. It means we give up resistance to the way things are, for the moment. It means we stop trying to do the impossible-controlling that which we cannot-and instead, focus on what is possible-which usually means taking care of ourselves. And we do this in gentleness, kindness, and love, as much as possible. ~ melody-beattie, @wisdomtrove
361:You can’t look too far ahead. Do that and you’ll lose sight of what you’re doing and stumble. I’m not saying you should focus solely on the details right in front of you, mind you. You’ve got to look ahead a bit or else you’ll bump into something. You’ve got to conform to the proper order and at the same time keep an eye out for what’s ahead. That’s critical, no matter what you’re doing. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
362:Self-actualizing people never use their minds to think about what they don’t wish to attract. Their minds focus on the conditions they wish to produce—then the lucky break, the right people or circumstances, or the synchronistic opportunity somehow presents itself as a result of their contemplation. We all become what we think about, so it’s pretty important to pay attention to those thoughts. ~ wayne-dyer, @wisdomtrove
363:Forgiveness is a selective remembering. It is a conscious choice to focus on someone's innocence instead of his or her mistakes... This serves *you*... Your body was not created to bear the burden of your overattachment to it, but was created as a container for the light of your spirit. It will more easily remember how to function perfectly when you remember the perfection in everyone. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
364:The old saying of work hard, play hard really works for me. For me it's all about focus. To get the Fire Starter Sessions digital book out it was about three months of intense focus. I let my friends know that I probably wouldn't be hanging out of returning their phone calls. It wasn't about doing the dishes, I ordered a lot of pizza, and I just completely put myself in the creative bubble. ~ danielle-laporte, @wisdomtrove
365:My most persistent memory of stand - up is of my mouth being in the present and my mind being in the future: the mouth speaking the line, the body delivering the gesture, while the mind looks back, observing, analyzing, judging, worrying, and then deciding when and what to say next. Enjoyment while performing was rare - enjoyment would have been an indulgent loss of focus that comedy cannot afford. ~ steve-martin, @wisdomtrove
366:It is important to communicate to children about what we are going through. We often speak in half truths. We don't frame the truth or explain our experience in terms they can understand. We need to take time to do this. What has to happen is that more people have to get involved with more children. Focus energy on the child. Children are raising themselves these days in all sorts of strange ways. ~ james-redfield, @wisdomtrove
367:Take a good look at your life right now. If you don't like something about it, close your eyes and imagine the life you want. Now allow yourself to focus your inner eye on the person you would be if you were living this preferred life. Notice the differences in how you behave and present yourself; allow yourself to spend several seconds breathing in the new image, expanding your energy into this. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
368:Every time we focus on someone else's darkness, we are blocking our own view of the light. We think the person we are involved with has attacked us or has withheld love from us, when they really haven't. We focus on their guilt instead of their innocence. Frequently people are just being themselves and we start projecting our own childhood dramas onto them, pushing away the very love we want so much. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
369:Often, self-imposed constraints, or boundaries, force you to think differently about challenges, leading to more practical ideas and innovations. Instead of thinking ‘outside the box’ and looking in every possible direction, get inside one box – a specific problem that needs a resolution, a smaller space where big changes can be made, etc. – and focus your creative attention on making a difference.  ~ marc-and-angel-chernoff, @wisdomtrove
370:Champions get up! When you’re down to nothing, God is up to something! Champions get up! Focus your mind, pull yourself together. If you are at the end of your rope, tie a knot and hold on! You are a champion. You are more than a conqueror. Keep the faith. Cry if you must. You are still here. God is not through with you yet. You were born to win. Champions get up! You are a champion. You have GREATNESS within you! ~ les-brown, @wisdomtrove
371:I'm always amused by the idea that certain people have about technique, which translate into an immoderate taste for the sharpness of the image. It is a passion for detail, for perfection, or do they hope to get closer to reality with this trompe I'oeil? They are, by the way, as far away from the real issues as other generations of photographers were when they obscured their subject in soft-focus effects. ~ henri-cartier-bresson, @wisdomtrove
372:Focus on your marriage. Because that's the nucleus of the home, whatever you do to restore its health and strength will naturally restore what's broken among the other relationships. If you have no children yet, this will make a comfortable nest for them to begin life well. If you have children, the changes you make in your marriage will affect the rest of the household more quickly and dramatically than you think. ~ charles-r-swindoll, @wisdomtrove
373:Instead of &
374:I live in the space of thankfulness – and I have been rewarded a million times over for it. I started out giving thanks for small things, and the more thankful I became, the more my bounty increased. That’s because what you focus on expands, and when you focus on the goodness in your life, you create more of it. Opportunities, relationships, even money flowed my way when I learned to be grateful no matter what happened in my life. ~ oprah-winfrey, @wisdomtrove
375:All that was required of them (i.e. the brain-washed masses) was a primitive patriotism which could be appealed to whenever it was necessary to make them accept longer working hours or shorter rations. And even when they became discontented, as they sometimes did, their discontent led nowhere, because, being without general ideas, they could only focus it on petty specific grievances. The larger evils invariably escaped their notice. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
376:Too many writers think that all you need to do is write well-but that's only part of what a good book is. Above all, a good book tells a good story. Focus on the story first. Ask yourself, &
377:When we dislike someone, or feel threatened by someone, the natural tendency is to focus on something we dislike about the person, something that irritates us. Unfortunately, when we do this&
378:People always focus on people like me who use synthesizers, right, which are explicitly electronic and therefore obvious. "Ah, yes, that's electronic music." But they don't realize that so is the concept of actually taking a piece of extant music and literally re-collaging it, taking chunks out and changing the dynamics radically and creating new rhythmic structures with echo and all that. That's real electronic music, as far as I'm concerned. ~ brian-eno, @wisdomtrove
379:With all humility, I think, "Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might." Infinitely more important than the vain attempt to love one's neighbor as one's self. If you want to hit a bird on the wing you must have all your will in focus, you must not be thinking about yourself, and equally, you must not be thinking about your neighbor; you must be living with your eye on that bird. Every achievement is a bird on the wing. ~ oliver-wendell-holmes-jr, @wisdomtrove
380:The scientific story points to this deep purpose of life. It tells how the evolutionary process has filled the world with ever more conscious forms of life, until it has created human beings. What makes us so special is that we’re not just conscious, we’re conscious that we’re conscious. We know that we exist. We are conscious of being. And if we focus our attention on our deepest being we become deep awake. And then we can live as a lover of life. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
381:What I want to argue for is not that we should give up on our ideas of success, but that we should make sure that they are our own. We should focus in on our ideas and make sure that we own them, that we're truly the authors of our own ambitions. Because it's bad enough not getting what you want, but it's even worse to have an idea of what it is you want and find out at the end of the journey that it isn't, in fact, what you wanted all along. ~ alain-de-botton, @wisdomtrove
382:At least three time per day at scheduled times, he had to ask himself the following question: Am I being productive or just active? Charney captured the essence of this with less-abstract wording: Am I inventing things to do to avoid the important? He eliminated all of the activities he used as crutches and began to focus on demonstrating results instead of showing dedication. Dedication is often just meaningless work in disguise. Be ruthless and cut the fat. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
383:She'd always believed that people come in two varieties: those who look out the windshield and those who stare in the rearview mirror. She'd always been the windshield type: gotta focus on the future, not the past, because that's the only part that's still up for grabs. Mom throws me out? Gotta get some food and find a place to live. Husband dies? Gotta keep working, or I'll end up going crazy. Got some guy stalking me? Gotta figure out a way to stop it. ~ nicholas-sparks, @wisdomtrove
384:Your real work is to decide what you want and then to focus upon it, for it is through focusing upon what you want that you will attract it. That is the process of creating: giving thought to what you want, so much thought, and such clear thought, that your Inner Being offers forth emotion. And as you are giving thought, with emotion, you become the most powerful of all magnets. That is the process by which you will attract (what you want) into your experience. ~ esther-hicks, @wisdomtrove
385:If I focus my attention on the deep awake state, the waking world goes out of focus. But the waking world is still in my peripheral consciousness, so I can bring my attention to it if I wish. And if I focus my attention on the waking world, I can keep the deep awake state in my peripheral consciousness, so I can return my focus to it when I want to. I am able to move the focus of my attention between the poles of my identity, while retaining the other pole in my peripheral attention. ~ tim-freke, @wisdomtrove
386:... the idea of a spiritual part of our nature that survives death, the notion of an afterlife, ought to be easy for religions and nations to sell. This is not an issue of which we might anticipate widespread skepticism. People will want to believe it, even if the evidence is meager to nil... compelling testimony ... provides that our personality, character, memory ... resides in the matter of the brain, it is easy not to focus on it, to find ways to evade the weight of the evidence. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
387:Whether your focus is on preserving and strengthening family ties in a world of increasingly unstable relationships, gaining access to a decent job, growing and evolving as a person, or guiding a company through the stormy seas of a fiercely competitive global marketplace-whether your goals are material, emotional, or spiritual-the price of success is the same: thinking, learning. To be asleep at the wheel-to rely only on the known, familiar, and automatized-is to invite disaster. ~ nathaniel-branden, @wisdomtrove
388:The effective executive knows that it is easier to raise the performance of one leader than it is to raise the performance of a whole mass. She therefore makes sure she puts into the leadership position, into the standard-setting, the performance-making position the person who has the strength to do the outstanding pacesetting job. This always requires focus on the one strength of a person and dismissal of weaknesses as irrelevant unless they hamper the full deployment of the available strength. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
389:Focus attention on the feeling inside you. Know that it is the pain-body. Accept that it is there. Don't think about it - don't let the feeling turn into thinking. Don't judge or analyse. Don't make an identity for yourself out of it. Stay present, and continue to be the observer of what is happening inside you. Become aware not only of the emotional pain but also of "the one who observes," the silent watcher. This is the power of the Now, the power of your own conscious presence. Then see what happens. ~ eckhart-tolle, @wisdomtrove
390:The great Sufi poet and philosopher Rumi once advised his students to write down the three things they most wanted in life. If any item on the list clashes with any other item, Rumi warned, you are destined for unhappiness. Better to live a life of single-pointed focus, he taught. But what about the benefits of living harmoniously among extremes? What if you could somehow create an expansive enough life that you could synchronize seemingly incongruous opposites into a worldview that excludes nothing? ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
391:What good is it to continue to focus on the exterior technological wonders before us - from indefinite life extension to computer/mind interlinks to unlimited zero-point energy to worm-hole intergalactic space travel - if all we carry with us is an egocentric red-mem Nazis and KKK? Do we really want Jack the Ripper living 400 years, zipping around the country in his hypercar, unleashing misogynistic nanorobots? Exterior developments are clearly a concern; how much more so are interior developments - or lack there of. ~ ken-wilber, @wisdomtrove
392:Changing the world is like trying to straighten a dog's tail. However much you may try, you won't succeed. But although the tail won't straighten, if you keep trying every day, at least you will put on some muscle. Similarly, even though it is difficult to make a change, our effort to do so in itself brings positive results. It will help us change. Without waiting for others to change,if we change ourselves first, that will make a difference. Instead of worrying about results, focus on doing our best in what we are engaged in. ~ mata-amritanandamayi, @wisdomtrove
393:Anger is like a storm rising up from the bottom of your consciousness. When you feel it coming, turn your focus to your breath. Breathe in deeply to bring your mind home to your body. Then look at, or think of, the person triggering this emotion: with mindfulness, you can see that they are unhappy and suffering. You can see their wrong perceptions. You'll feel motivated by a desire to say or do something to help the other person suffer less. This means compassionate energy has been born in your heart. And when compassion appears, anger is deleted. ~ thich-nhat-hanh, @wisdomtrove
394:One of my patients told me that when she tried to tell her story people often interrupted her to tell her that they once had something just like that happen to them. Subtly her pain became a story about themselves. Eventually she stopped talking to most people. It was just too lonely. We connect through listening. When we interrupt what someone is saying to let them know that we understand, we move the focus of attention to ourselves. When we listen, they know we care. Many people with cancer talk about the relief of having someone just listen. ~ rachel-naomi-remen, @wisdomtrove
395:It's your time for a breakthrough! Make up your mind to leave the past and the old you behind. Focus on giving birth to a new you... .the real you. It is your time to create a turning point for the better in your life. It is your destiny to be healthy, happy and successful.Your future is open, full of possibility and promise! Buckle down and do whatever is required to create a life that you are proud of and a life that you deserve! Don't look back!! Look ahead, move forward and make this your best year ever! You have the something special. You have GREATNESS within you! ~ les-brown, @wisdomtrove
396:So when such challenges come, as they always do, make it a habit to go within at once and focus as much as you can on the inner energy field of your body. This need not take long, just a few seconds. But you need to do it the moment that the challenge presents itself. Any delay will allow a conditioned mental- emotional reaction to arise and take you over.  When you focus within and feel the inner body, you immediately become still and present as you are withdrawing consciousness from the mind. If a response is required in that situation, it will come up from this deeper level.    ~ eckhart-tolle, @wisdomtrove
397:How can we be directly in God, neither striving nor seeking for anything other than him, and how can we be so poor and give up everything? It is hard counsel that we should not desire any reward. Now be certain of this: God never ceases to give us everything. Even if he had sworn not to, he still could not help giving us things. It is far more important to him to give than it is for us to receive, but we should not focus upon this, for the less we strive for it, the more God will give us. God intends thereby only that we should become yet more rich and be all the more capable of receiving things from him. ~ meister-eckhart, @wisdomtrove
398:A slower-paced life means making time to enjoy your mornings, instead of rushing off to work in a frenzy. It means taking time to enjoy whatever you’re doing, to appreciate the outdoors, to actually focus on whoever you’re talking to or spending time with — instead of always being connected to a Blackberry or iPhone or laptop, instead of always thinking about work tasks and emails. It means single- tasking rather than switching between a multitude of tasks and focusing on none of them. Slowing down is a conscious choice, and not always an easy one, but it leads to a greater appreciation for life and a greater level of happiness.  ~ leo-babauta, @wisdomtrove
399:If we think in term of months, we had probably focus on immediate problems such as the turmoil in the Middle East, the refugee crisis in Europe and the slowing of the Chinese economy. If we think in terms of decades, then global warming, growing inequality and the disruption of the job market loom large. Yet if we take the really grand view of life, all other problems anddevelopments are overshadowed by three interlinked processes: 1. Science is converging on an all-encompassing dogma, which says that organisms are algorithms and life is data processing. 2. Intelligence is decoupling from consciousness. 3. Non-conscious but highly intelligent algorithms may soon know us better than we know ourselves. These three processes raise three key questions, which I hope will stick in your mind long after you have finished this book: 1. Are organisms really just algorithms, and is life really just data processing? 2. What’s more valuable – intelligence or consciousness? 3. What will happen to society, politics and daily life when non-conscious but highly intelligent algorithms know us better than we know ourselves? ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:A broad mind lacks focus. ~ Unknown,
2:Turn fear into focus. ~ Bill Rancic,
3:When you focus on place ~ Fred Kent,
4:Focus equals feeling. ~ Tony Robbins,
5:my focus began to shift. ~ Anonymous,
6:Focus on writing first. ~ Lyra Parish,
7:Jealousy blurs the focus. ~ Toba Beta,
8:Clarity affords focus. ~ Thomas Leonard,
9:Focus equals feeling. ~ Anthony Robbins,
10:What you focus on grows. ~ Esther Hicks,
11:Channel your energy. Focus. ~ Carl Lewis,
12:Focus on the now and kick ass! ~ A R Von,
13:We expand what we focus on. ~ Wayne Dyer,
14:What you focus on expands. ~ T Harv Eker,
15:He deserves to be a focus. ~ Courtney Cole,
16:Whatever you focus on expands, ~ Pam Grout,
17:4. Focus on product, not sales ~ Peter Thiel,
18:What you focus on is what you get. ~ Bob Burg,
19:winners focus, losers spray. ~ Steve Chandler,
20:Focus is more valuable than IQ. ~ Robin Sharma,
21:Where focus goes, energy flows. ~ Tony Robbins,
22:I'm Mozart with a focus on the tide ~ Aesop Rock,
23:My focus is on my constituents. ~ Randy Hultgren,
24:Words are a lens to focus one's mind. ~ Ayn Rand,
25:It helps me chill out and focus. ~ Susan Sarandon,
26:You get what you focus on in life. ~ Tony Robbins,
27:Document, evaluate, focus, test. ~ Scott D Anthony,
28:I would, for once, focus on me ~ Elizabeth Eulberg,
29:My greatest asset now is my focus. ~ Josh McDowell,
30:need is to focus on what people around you ~ Kriti,
31:Whatever you focus upon, increases. ~ Andy Andrews,
32:whatever you focus upon, increases. ~ Andy Andrews,
33:You get what you focus on in life,. ~ Tony Robbins,
34:Alaska has had to focus upon the ~ James A Michener,
35:I lost focus on everything else. ~ Octavia E Butler,
36:Starve your distractions, feed you focus. ~ Unknown,
37:What you focus on you create more of, ~ Jen Sincero,
38:What you focus on you create more of. ~ Jen Sincero,
39:A thousand ways. Focus on the one way. ~ Rick Yancey,
40:What you focus on always gets better. ~ Robin Sharma,
41:Focus like a laser, not a flashlight ~ Michael Jordan,
42:Focus on opportunities, not problems. ~ Peter Drucker,
43:Focus on the solution, not on the problem. ~ Jim Rohn,
44:Focus on your music and not technology. ~ Bryan Adams,
45:Whatever you focus on is what you get. ~ Tony Robbins,
46:focus and have faith in my own story. ~ Michelle Obama,
47:Focus on other people, not on yourself. ~ Randy Pausch,
48:Google[x]'s Focus on the Physical World ~ Astro Teller,
49:summer camps focus on robotics Times staff ~ Anonymous,
50:correct this focus and instill ~ William N Thorndike Jr,
51:Focus on the big picture, not the numbers. ~ W Chan Kim,
52:focus on the user and all else will follow. ~ Anonymous,
53:I focus on a lot of women's issues. ~ Lauren Greenfield,
54:Commitment is the foundation of focus. ~ Shannon L Alder,
55:Focus on being productive instead of busy. ~ Tim Ferriss,
56:Focus on the positives and be grateful. ~ Katrina Bowden,
57:Focus on what's next, not what came before. ~ Sarah Fine,
58:Good things happen when you narrow your focus. ~ Al Ries,
59:I think I'm a focus for international attention. ~ Sting,
60:Feeding the Beast becomes the central focus. ~ Ed Catmull,
61:Focus on winning the contest with yourself. ~ John Kessel,
62:Intense, sustained focus fuels manifestation. ~ T F Hodge,
63:Simplicity is ultimately a matter of focus. ~ Ann Voskamp,
64:Think BIG and always focus on the positive ~ Donald Trump,
65:Discipline #1: Focus on the Wildly Important ~ Cal Newport,
66:Focus on the journey, not the destination. ~ Greg Anderson,
67:Focus on the solution, not on the problem. ~ David A Wells,
68:Focus on what's ahead. Use what is behind. ~ Donita K Paul,
69:FORGET ABOUT GOALS, FOCUS ON SYSTEMS INSTEAD ~ James Clear,
70:Glance at negatives, but focus on positives. ~ Tim Sanders,
71:To attract money, you must focus on wealth. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
72:Whatever you focus on you're going to feel. ~ Tony Robbins,
73:Don’t focus on the what ifs. Focus on what is. ~ Vi Keeland,
74:Remember: what you focus on becomes bigger. ~ Kathryn Alice,
75:Singing was the big focus and outlet for me. ~ Debra Wilson,
76:Efficiency and focus are the keys to success. ~ Robert Crais,
77:Every period has its own optical focus. ~ Laszlo Moholy Nagy,
78:FOCUS - Follow One Course Until Successful ~ Robert Kiyosaki,
79:Focus on being productive instead of busy. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
80:Focus on execution rather than just the idea. ~ Tony Robbins,
81:Parties bring my misantrophy into focus. ~ Jeffrey Eugenides,
82:The secret of success is focus of purpose. ~ Thomas A Edison,
83:When we focus on others, our world expands. ~ Daniel Goleman,
84:Don't focus on her hiss. Remember her purr. ~ Donna Lynn Hope,
85:Focus on stillness, rather than on movement ~ Morihei Ueshiba,
86:Goals may give focus, but dreams give power. ~ John C Maxwell,
87:I really try to focus on my books and readers. ~ Emily Giffin,
88:I try to not focus on what people expect from me. ~ Lady Gaga,
89:My principal focus is finding great dramas. ~ Colin Callender,
90:Our focus is on outputs rather than inputs. ~ Stephen Cambone,
91:Skilled leaders focus on "we," not "me." ~ Stewart D Friedman,
92:FOCUS - Follow One Course Until Successful ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
93:FOCUS: Follow One Course Until Successful. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
94:Focus On How To Be Social, Not On How To Do Social. ~ Jay Baer,
95:Focus on the present moment. Stay in the moment. ~ Tony Horton,
96:Focus on your accomplishments , not your failures. ~ T D Jakes,
97:I just want people to focus on the performance. ~ Janet McTeer,
98:I think everybody should focus on inner beauty. ~ Paloma Faith,
99:It's the will that gives us the ability to focus ~ Bob Proctor,
100:My focus was always toward imagery of some sort. ~ David Salle,
101:Renounce love and you can achieve demonic focus. ~ Glen Duncan,
102:we tend to focus on the annoying expectation ~ Richard Carlson,
103:When you shift your focus, you change your life. ~ Steve Rizzo,
104:WikiLeaks is a important focus of our attention. ~ James Comey,
105:Don't focus on the victory, focus on the task. ~ Erik Spoelstra,
106:Everything in the street today seems soft focus. ~ Irvine Welsh,
107:Focus on people and the needs they have. ~ Norman Vincent Peale,
108:focus on the doing rather than the getting it done. ~ S J Scott,
109:Focus on your strengths, not your weaknesses. ~ Gary Vaynerchuk,
110:I don't really have a focus, I just make music. ~ Vince Staples,
111:To make the most of Christmas, focus on Christ. ~ J B Priestley,
112:We can learn to focus on what things really are. ~ Ryan Holiday,
113:What you choose to focus on becomes your reality. ~ Jen Sincero,
114:When life attains a crisis, man’s focus narrows. ~ Jim Thompson,
115:Complexity creates confusion, simplicity focus. ~ Edward de Bono,
116:Don't let negative people drain your energy. Focus ~ Jon Gordon,
117:Focus does not mean saying yes, it means saying no. ~ Steve Jobs,
118:Keep the focus of your life in the here and now. ~ Caroline Myss,
119:SHUCHU RYOKU - Focus all your energy to one point. ~ Gozo Shioda,
120:Strategic Principle #3: Focus primarily on morale. Two ~ Vox Day,
121:Today, let’s focus just on what’s in front of us. ~ Ryan Holiday,
122:Don’t focus on the what ifs. Focus on what is.   *** ~ Vi Keeland,
123:Either you focus, or you hit something really hard. ~ Jeff Gordon,
124:Focus on the problem, you might miss the easy solution. ~ Unknown,
125:Focus on what you want, not on what you don't want. ~ T Harv Eker,
126:I can't help it. I always focus in on the negative. ~ Wayne White,
127:Loyalty is what you focus on and won't give up. ~ Shannon L Alder,
128:My focus is to not focus too much on one genre. ~ Amanda Seyfried,
129:Remove the fear, and the answer comes into focus. ~ Oprah Winfrey,
130:The past is dead, let's focus on tomorrow instead. ~ Greg Graffin,
131:Whatever we focus on determines what we become. ~ E Stanley Jones,
132:Focus on what you can do, then do it with all your heart. ~ Lois W,
133:I use discipline and focus as my greatest weapons. ~ Lyoto Machida,
134:much more productive to focus on “eat and train. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
135:Stop managing your time. Start managing your focus. ~ Robin Sharma,
136:These distraction-oholics. These focus-ophobics. ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
137:When you focus on serving, there is no fear in you. ~ Tony Robbins,
138:With Instagram, the focus is on the present tense. ~ Kevin Systrom,
139:Always remember, your focus determines your reality. ~ George Lucas,
140:Don't worry about your platform; focus on your impact. ~ Tony Dungy,
141:Find the one thing you’re good at and FOCUS on it. ~ Joyce Tenneson,
142:Focus on prevention; would save $14B with diabetes. ~ Newt Gingrich,
143:Focus on return on equity, not earnings per share. ~ Warren Buffett,
144:Focus on where you want to go, not on what you fear. ~ Tony Robbins,
145:Has anyone ever told you that you lack focus? ~ MaryJanice Davidson,
146:Live life to the fullest, and focus on the positive. ~ Matt Cameron,
147:Successful people focus their thinking on progress ~ John C Maxwell,
148:What you choose to focus on becomes your reality. And ~ Jen Sincero,
149:Your field of focus determines what you find in life. ~ T Harv Eker,
150:You've just got to focus on what you have to do. ~ Cheyenne Jackson,
151:Always remember your focus determines your reality. ~ Peter Kingsley,
152:Eliminate the unnecessary and focus on the substance. ~ Tommy Ramone,
153:Fervent prayer keeps your true identity in focus. ~ Priscilla Shirer,
154:Focus on the process of what it takes to be successful. ~ Nick Saban,
155:Focus on the why rather than the how of a task or job. ~ Emma Sepp l,
156:I focus my energies more so on staying original. ~ Waka Flocka Flame,
157:Step on the gas and focus on the road in front of me. ~ Jacob Chance,
158:Stop Managing Your Time. Start Managing Your Focus. ~ Robin S Sharma,
159:The focus needs to be in improving customer retention ~ Ryan Holiday,
160:Yoga calms me down. It gives me energy and focus. ~ Jennifer Aniston,
161:Another key role the CEO plays is to focus efforts. ~ Scott D Anthony,
162:If you focus on people’s weaknesses, they lose confidence. ~ Tom Rath,
163:Losing focus is another way that founders get off track. ~ Sam Altman,
164:Ooh, do we need a team name? How about “Focus the Noob”? ~ Cosimo Yap,
165:Planets move in ellipses with the Sun at one focus. ~ Johannes Kepler,
166:This type of testing ignores the internal parts and focus ~ Anonymous,
167:We must focus on Jesus, the source and goal of our faith. ~ Anonymous,
168:What we don’t keep in focus before us eventually fades. ~ John Bevere,
169:Always remember, your focus determines your reality. ~ Joshua P Warren,
170:Focus on the impact you make versus the title you have. ~ Robin Sharma,
171:Focus on where you want to go, not on what you fear. ~ Anthony Robbins,
172:Forget about yourncompetitors, just focus on your customers. ~ Jack Ma,
173:If one were blind, one can simply focus on a feeling. ~ Frederick Lenz,
174:Me, I’m a stickler. I prefer my photographs in focus. ~ Lionel Shriver,
175:The focus of subjectivity is a distorting mirror. ~ Hans Georg Gadamer,
176:Don’t focus on what you can’t do. Focus on what you can. ~ Ronda Rousey,
177:Focus on being the best you can at what you want to do. ~ David Maister,
178:Focus upon what you want, not upon what you don’t want. ~ Doreen Virtue,
179:I find it hard to focus looking forward. So I look backward. ~ Iggy Pop,
180:I mean, whose songs don't focus on tragedy and loss? ~ Lucinda Williams,
181:In order to succeed, you must have a long-term focus. ~ Anthony Robbins,
182:Los Angelenos dress like they've been focus-grouped. ~ Douglas Coupland,
183:Motivation, passion, and focus have to come from the top. ~ Kevin Plank,
184:Our brain can really only focus on one thing at a time. ~ Kevin Horsley,
185:Play the picture in your mind - focus on the end result. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
186:Take a Deep Breath & Focus on What's Really Important. ~ Wayne Dyer,
187:The most powerful people on earth are focus groups. ~ William J Clinton,
188:this ability to focus one’s attention was fundamental. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
189:What you believe and focus on becomes your reality. ~ Michael McMillian,
190:When you focus on the consumer, the consumer responds. ~ Alexander Wang,
191:Where we focus our energy is where we will get the results. ~ Tori Amos,
192:It just felt like the right time to focus on solo material. ~ Robin Gibb,
193:It's important to focus on the solution, not the problem. ~ Donald Trump,
194:Jane: Focus is important.
V: Only if you're a microscope. ~ J R Ward,
195:My two kids take a lot of my focus, which I'm grateful for. ~ Aden Young,
196:As an actor you're used to being the focus of attention. ~ Yasmine Bleeth,
197:Delusion detests focus and romance provides the veil. ~ Suzanne Finnamore,
198:Focus on giants - you stumble. Focus on God - Giants tumble. ~ Max Lucado,
199:Focus on the squadron, Naasir. I will take care of Lijuan. ~ Nalini Singh,
200:Focus on understanding yourself instead of blaming others. ~ Wayne W Dyer,
201:I can't let safety and security become the focus of my life. ~ Judy Blume,
202:I focus on myself, that's how I beat Wladimir Klitschko. ~ Anthony Joshua,
203:If you don't care about losing, you will focus on technique. ~ Caio Terra,
204:I only want to do better work. That's the focus of my life. ~ Ajay Devgan,
205:It takes time, focus, and dedication to achieve great things. ~ Chris Fox,
206:Screw the competition - focus on good customer service. ~ Richard Branson,
207:The more you focus, the more that focus becomes a habit. ~ Charles Duhigg,
208:We should not focus on ideas that divide us and pull us apart. ~ Ted Cruz,
209:Your life must focus on the maximization of objectivity. ~ Charlie Munger,
210:but everything was a fog. When she tried to focus on a single ~ Simon Wood,
211:Focus not on who you are, but on what you can do for others. ~ Ron Kaufman,
212:Focus on loving the life you have now in the body you’ve got! ~ Wayne Dyer,
213:it’s been to focus on culture and imagine what’s possible. ~ Satya Nadella,
214:Know your core competencies and focus on being great at them. ~ Mark Cuban,
215:We don't do focus groups - that is the job of the designer. ~ Jonathan Ive,
216:While editing "Done in One":
FOCUS or F*** US! 08-15-2014 ~ Jan Thomas,
217:Don't worry about what you should do, focus on what you can do. ~ Anonymous,
218:Focus on the play like it has a history and a life of its own. ~ Nick Saban,
219:Hopefully and devoutly focus on your greater possibilities. ~ Bryant McGill,
220:If I'm working, then I'm working, and my focus is on that. ~ Carmen Electra,
221:Once upon a time we did not focus on a president's private life. ~ Tom Ford,
222:Our focus has to be on changing reality, not changing laws. ~ Sheryl WuDunn,
223:The future is finally something that we can now put into focus. ~ Lou Gramm,
224:When we are shame-based, we can only focus on our own ache. ~ John Bradshaw,
225:Workers' rights should be a central focus of development. ~ Joseph Stiglitz,
226:Don’t focus on the mishaps; consider the pleasures instead. ~ Victor LaValle,
227:...extraordinarily beautiful, and slightly out of focus. ~ Rosemary Sutcliff,
228:Focus on giants - you stumble.
Focus on God - Giants tumble. ~ Max Lucado,
229:If there’s any secret to success for a startup, it’s focus. ~ Alistair Croll,
230:I never really wanted to write and wanted to focus on acting. ~ Abby Elliott,
231:It seems the older you get, the more life comes into focus. ~ John C Maxwell,
232:It's important to focus on the good in life and appreciate it. ~ Geneen Roth,
233:My ego is controlled enough that I don't have to be the focus. ~ Herbie Mann,
234:Nothing done with the focus on God is ever a waste of time. ~ Lysa TerKeurst,
235:The ego is nothing other than the focus of conscious attention. ~ Alan Watts,
236:To have a mission is to have a unifying focus for your career. ~ Cal Newport,
237:Where you hang your feelings is where you hang your focus. ~ Shannon L Alder,
238:Work. Study. Focus. Dedicate yourself to it and don't give up. ~ Mateus Ward,
239:Better to live a life of single-pointed focus, he taught. ~ Elizabeth Gilbert,
240:But I'm going to focus on salvation as well as physical healing. ~ Benny Hinn,
241:Hard work, sacrifice and focus will never show up in tests. ~ Lance Armstrong,
242:If you want to live a long life, focus on making contributions . ~ Hans Selye,
243:I think we have to focus,on exactly what the priorities are. ~ Chris Christie,
244:It is in our darkest moments that we must focus to see the light. ~ Aristotle,
245:Let’s focus on where you could end up, not where you were or are. ~ Gary Cole,
246:Maira Kalman says, “Avoiding work is the way to focus my mind. ~ Austin Kleon,
247:Marketing should focus on market creation, not market sharing ~ Regis McKenna,
248:The more choices we have, the greater the need for focus. ~ Tom Butler Bowdon,
249:The successful warrior is the average man, with laser-like focus. ~ Bruce Lee,
250:When God is in sharp focus, then life is also undistorted. ~ Elizabeth George,
251:When you focus on want, you become an endless cycle of wants. ~ Bryant McGill,
252:You cannot trust your eyes, if your imagination is out of focus. ~ Mark Twain,
253:Anger will make you weak and clumsy. It will divert your focus. ~ Tahereh Mafi,
254:Don't obsess over risks. Keep your focus on positive outcomes. ~ Deepak Chopra,
255:Focus on innovating at value, not positioning against competitors ~ W Chan Kim,
256:Focus on reaping the great benefits and mitigating the drawbacks ~ Jason Fried,
257:Focus on where you want to go, not where you don't want to go. ~ Justin Langer,
258:Focus your mind on what your Highest Self chooses to be. ~ Neale Donald Walsch,
259:High interest rates focus on the revenue of a parasitic class. ~ Linda McQuaig,
260:High-Quality Work Produced = (Time Spent) x (Intensity of Focus) ~ Cal Newport,
261:I'm happiest when I have something to focus my energy on. ~ Scarlett Johansson,
262:I really want to focus on economic growth and growing the economy. ~ Paul Ryan,
263:Remember, what you focus on expands; results follow focus. ~ Marcus Buckingham,
264:The successful warrior is the average man, with laser-like focus. ~ Bruce Lee,
265:‎The successful warrior is the average man, with laser-like focus. ~ Bruce Lee,
266:We need to sharpen our focus & live to the point just like a pencil. ~ Robin S,
267:You always have to focus in life on what you want to achieve. ~ Michael Jordan,
268:Your purpose is your identity; focus your energy on great purposes. ~ Amit Ray,
269:A mind troubled by doubt cannot focus on the course of victory. ~ Arthur Golden,
270:Focus and simplicity...once you get there, you can move mountains. ~ Steve Jobs,
271:Focus less on what people say and more on what you can accomplish. ~ Kiera Cass,
272:Focus should be on the art of film, not on the business of film. ~ Winona Ryder,
273:For me, the focus are songs, which really get the audience moving. ~ Joe Cocker,
274:I'm all for NATO. But I said they have to focus on terror, also. ~ Donald Trump,
275:I often focus more on language than on the conveying of information. ~ Pat Mora,
276:I think Fast Company has a tremendously smart focus and execution. ~ James Daly,
277:Keep it simple and focus on 4-5 simple retail/consumer small cap stocks! ~ Mika,
278:People are looking for fame or a focus, and I can't provide that. ~ Will Oldham,
279:The focus must always be on how to best accomplish the mission. ~ Jocko Willink,
280:Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy: Theatrical Trailer (Courtesy of Focus ~ John le Carr,
281:Today, I will focus on having a good relationship with myself. ~ Melody Beattie,
282:Focus: Establish a new business model in an old industry ~ Alexander Osterwalder,
283:Focus is a matter of deciding what things you're not going to do. ~ John Carmack,
284:Focus on the journey, not on arriving at a certain destination. ~ Chris Hadfield,
285:focus on the journey, not on arriving at a certain destination. ~ Chris Hadfield,
286:focus on the possible and let the impossible fade from your mind. ~ Marc Cameron,
287:It’s simple. Your field of focus determines what you find in life. ~ T Harv Eker,
288:Lets not focus on saving a nickel... lets focus on making a buck. ~ Adam Carolla,
289:Most people when you get up close are not more in focus, but less. ~ Susan Minot,
290:My main focus in sobriety has been to replace fear with faith or love. ~ Steve O,
291:The ink in the pen that writes success stories is "FOCUS"... ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
292:When you fully focus your mind,
you make others attracted to you. ~ Toba Beta,
293:Be aware of the darkness but your focus should always be the light. ~ Tyler Perry,
294:Don’t Take Breaks from Distraction. Instead Take Breaks from Focus. ~ Cal Newport,
295:Everything is similar if you're willing to look far out of focus. ~ Marvin Minsky,
296:I’d chosen to focus on what was wrong instead of what was right. ~ Jill Santopolo,
297:I focus on things that are the highest value and do them perfectly. ~ Sean Parker,
298:I once heard someone say that success is not hocus pocus but focus focus. ~ David,
299:It is during our darkest moments that we must focus to see the light. ~ Aristotle,
300:My central focus is creating employment for the ordinary citizen. ~ Narendra Modi,
301:the focus of spiritual formation is the formation of our spirit. ~ Dallas Willard,
302:this was not a problem to address, this was a person to focus on: ~ Michael Wolff,
303:To revert to the present moment To focus on what can be controlled ~ Ryan Holiday,
304:You can't depend on your eyes when your imagination is out of focus. ~ Mark Twain,
305:Focus only on your successes and you will never know failure... ~ Stephen Richards,
306:Focus on where you are going rather than on what you hope to avoid. ~ Ben Horowitz,
307:If you are running a city you must focus on day-to-day problems. ~ Ken Livingstone,
308:Its focus wasn't on the written word but how the word was written. ~ Neville Brody,
309:Key 7: The focus of our awareness becomes the reality of our world. ~ Gregg Braden,
310:Let’s agree to disagree, Martin. And let’s focus on the task at hand. ~ A G Riddle,
311:Simplicity is not a matter of circumstance; it is a matter of focus. ~ Ann Voskamp,
312:Successful organizations have one common central focus: Customers. ~ Ken Blanchard,
313:There are more important things to focus on in life than how you look. ~ Arden Cho,
314:They [The Soviet Union] are the focus of evil in the modern world. ~ Ronald Reagan,
315:Think less about who you were. Focus more on who you are becoming. ~ Joshua Becker,
316:We decided to focus on women because no one was singling them out. ~ Judy Woodruff,
317:What matters is where you want to go. Focus in the right direction! ~ Donald Trump,
318:You have to focus on the process. You cannot be glued to the results. ~ Ivan Lendl,
319:You should focus on being more interested than interesting. ~ Jacqueline Novogratz,
320:At any moment in time, our reality is based on whatever we focus on. ~ Tony Robbins,
321:Everything you need comes into focus when you abandon the unneeded. ~ Bryant McGill,
322:He ignored the disturbing ripple and tried to focus on the gateway. ~ Christa Faust,
323:I will focus on being substantive and I will focus on Barack Obama. ~ Newt Gingrich,
324:Stop comparing yourself to others and focus on your own improvement. ~ Lolly Daskal,
325:The quality of our lives is determined by the focus of our attention. ~ Cheri Huber,
326:Today I will focus on priorities and ignore the unimportant crap ~ Jayne Ann Krentz,
327:Well, I don't think there's any need for people to focus on my career. ~ Bill Gates,
328:When exercising, be sure to focus your attention on what you are doing. ~ Lee Haney,
329:all problems can be solved if enough intensity and focus are applied. ~ Scott Berkun,
330:Do we focus on pruning out all evil, or do we focus on growing love? ~ Sierra Simone,
331:Focus on things that are small enough to change, but big enough to matter ~ Kat Cole,
332:Hatred can't erase love memories.
You need to focus on anything else. ~ Toba Beta,
333:I'm just thankful to have a tour and work something I can focus on. ~ Jerry Cantrell,
334:I'm uncomfortable with the focus on the poet and not on the poem. ~ Yusef Komunyakaa,
335:The quality of your life is determined by the focus of your attention. ~ Cheri Huber,
336:Today's Declaration: I focus on what I want, not on what i don't want. ~ T Harv Eker,
337:Turn off your mind, and focus on what you've got to do - task at hand. ~ Tony Horton,
338:Whatever you consistently think about and focus upon you move toward. ~ Tony Robbins,
339:You don’t have the same type of focus when you are undefeated. ~ LaDainian Tomlinson,
340:Your mind simply cant focus forward and downward all at the same time. ~ Daryn Kagan,
341:Dream the dream, find that extraordinary vision, and keep it in focus. ~ Dewitt Jones,
342:Focus on lack and you will always struggle to create enough money. ~ Stephen Richards,
343:Focus on the moment, not the monsters that may or may not be up ahead. ~ Ryan Holiday,
344:I'm tired of high policy talks. I want to focus on nuts and bolts. ~ Dave Freudenthal,
345:I'm very career-driven, so my focus and my energy has been into that. ~ Stacy Keibler,
346:In America, people focus on the end result; they focus on the star. ~ Joshua Waitzkin,
347:My focus, my life, my world is now. You just can't plan the future. ~ Juliette Lewis,
348:Myrnin:I could murder a cheeseburger right now
Oliver:focus ya fool ~ Rachel Caine,
349:Shoot a few scenes out of focus. I want to win the foreign film award. ~ Billy Wilder,
350:Someone who was so single-minded of focus and so fragile of emotion. ~ Lizbeth Selvig,
351:Sometimes the only solution is figuring out a bigger problem to focus on. ~ Dane Cook,
352:The first requisite for success is to develop the ability to focus. ~ Thomas A Edison,
353:At the instant A warrior Confronts a foe, All things Come into focus ~ Morihei Ueshiba,
354:Don't focus on what others want. See what it is that you want. ~ Sri Sri Ravi Shankar,
355:Educated people recognise their limitations but focus on their strengths. ~ Shiv Khera,
356:fervently—because fervent prayer keeps your true identity in focus. ~ Priscilla Shirer,
357:Focus not on reducing your fear, but on building your courage—because, ~ Eric Greitens,
358:Focus on what makes you happy, and do what gives meaning to your life ~ Barry Schwartz,
359:If you can’t fix what’s wrong, you focus on what you can make right. ~ Brigid Kemmerer,
360:I wanted it to be kind of dreamy and 1920s, when everything is soft-focus. ~ Kate Moss,
361:Jealousy is a waste of energy...focus on what I have, not what I don't. ~ Nikki Grimes,
362:My idea of a good picture is one that's in focus and of a famous person. ~ Andy Warhol,
363:Sometimes when we get too close, we can lose focus, just like a camera. ~ Vish Dhamija,
364:The duty of a film director is to focus more on the soul of the spectator. ~ Ken Loach,
365:You need the negative focus to survive, but a positive one to thrive, ~ Daniel Goleman,
366:All of history has pointed its refining focus to your life this moment. ~ Bryant McGill,
367:Don't focus on what I'm wearing. Focus on what's coming out of my face. ~ Rachel Maddow,
368:focus, I imagined. Only two of the chairs were occupied. Justin and Serene ~ Robin Hobb,
369:Forget about finding your passion. Instead, focus on finding big problems. ~ Mark Cuban,
370:In her focus on personal comfort, she had forgotten about eternal values. ~ Amanda Tero,
371:In the midst of battle, you need something versatile to keep your focus ~ Isaiah Hankel,
372:I see in Communism the focus of the concentrated evil of our time. ~ Whittaker Chambers,
373:It is necessary to have a strong focus. Work will give you that focus. ~ Frederick Lenz,
374:It's painful to not be able to fully focus, but it keeps you fresh. ~ Brian Chippendale,
375:My focus is on a ring, and giving the best individual performance I can. ~ Frank Thomas,
376:Stop thinking in terms of a year; instead focus on shorter time frames. ~ Brian P Moran,
377:Success isn't magic or hocus-pocus - it's simply learning how to focus. ~ Jack Canfield,
378:There is no continuum for success. Focus on the progress, not the results. ~ Nick Saban,
379:When you focus on your greatness you elevate everyone around you. ~ Gabrielle Bernstein,
380:Why don’t you focus on where you’re going and less on where you came from? ~ Amy Harmon,
381:Chrissy, there’s a baby currently coming out of your womb. Please focus. ~ Julie Johnson,
382:Focus on the possibilities for success, not on the potential for failure ~ Napoleon Hill,
383:Focus on the victory instead of on everything that could go wrong. ~ Sanya Richards Ross,
384:Keep it simple and focus on what matters. Don't let yourself be overwhelmed. ~ Confucius,
385:My hope is Donald Trump will focus on building bridges instead of walls. ~ Julian Castro,
386:So I think instead of focusing on the competition, focus on the customer. ~ Scott D Cook,
387:There's only one thing on my mind. There's only one goal. One aim. One focus. ~ Triple H,
388:You just need to be positive, believe in yourself, and focus on others. ~ John C Maxwell,
389:But right now, I'm going to focus on the beauty of life, not the darkness ~ Claudia Gabel,
390:Do not focus only on what your eyes feed you; it limits one's vision... ~ Pedro L Alvarez,
391:Focus your energy on the fragrance and beauty of the petals not on the thorns. ~ Amit Ray,
392:I like to think of the word FOCUS as Follow One Course Until Successful. ~ Donald J Trump,
393:I mean all this focus on how we look on the outside. It's just all wrong ~ Melody Carlson,
394:Instead of focusing on my looks I focus on the character that I am playing. ~ Anil Kapoor,
395:In terms of technological progress,
the public is slower than focus group. ~ Toba Beta,
396:It is during our darkest moments that we must focus to see the light. ~ Aristotle Onassis,
397:Only focus on your three-foot world,” he said. “Focus on what you can affect. ~ Mark Owen,
398:the focus we hold in our minds affects what we perceive and how we perform. ~ David Allen,
399:The key to realizing a dream is to focus not on success but significance. ~ Oprah Winfrey,
400:THE LAW OF THE CONTRACTION: A brand becomes stronger when you narrow its focus. ~ Al Ries,
401:There's absolutely no point in beating yourself up. Focus on going forward. ~ Mary Harron,
402:To kiss and to kill are similar words to eyes that focus with difficulty. ~ Patrick White,
403:To learn hard things quickly, you must focus intensely without distraction. ~ Cal Newport,
404:We need to sharpen our focus & live to the point just like a pencil. ~ Robin S Sharma,
405:We tend to focus our attention at Christmas on the infancy of Christ. ~ John F MacArthur,
406:Writing is losing focus and winning it back, only to lose it once more. ~ Durga Chew Bose,
407:A leader does not lose focus because he wants to please his followers. ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
408:Focus on fruitful relationships that bring you closer to Jesus Christ. ~ M Russell Ballard,
409:Focus on one thing, make it your priority, and stick with it no matter what! ~ Tyler Perry,
410:It's hard to focus on your love life when giant spiders are chasing you. ~ Cassandra Clare,
411:Leaders focus on what they can control, what they have, and what they want. ~ Tony Robbins,
412:Startups have to focus on the big experiments that lead to validated learning. ~ Eric Ries,
413:The most powerful way to control your focus is through the use of QUESTIONS ~ Tony Robbins,
414:The time that leads to mastery is dependent on the intensity of our focus. ~ Robert Greene,
415:To create reality, focus beyond the outcome, as if it has already happened. ~ Gregg Braden,
416:A mission keeps you on the rails. The OKRs provide focus and milestones. ~ Christina Wodtke,
417:Calm down, stop trying to figure out the answers, and turn your focus to God. ~ Joyce Meyer,
418:For the most effective pitch, focus 80% on the problem, 20% on the solution. ~ Dave McClure,
419:I can now focus on a huge audience through TV, books, cookware and foods. ~ Rocco DiSpirito,
420:I focus on the words and then I have fun putting together the music after. ~ Matt Berninger,
421:If you can focus the energy into something valuable, put that into work ethic. ~ Kanye West,
422:I kept my attention fixed on Quinn, blinked twice so he would come into focus, ~ Penny Reid,
423:It wants to focus on being a good person, not just a barely not horrible one. ~ Allie Brosh,
424:The biggest secret of focused people is that they don't think about focus. ~ Penelope Trunk,
425:The only never you should focus on is that God will never let you down. ~ Charles F Stanley,
426:Don’t focus on age,” she says with a touch of impatience. “It doesn’t exist. ~ Deepak Chopra,
427:focus all your energy not on struggling with the old, but on building the new. ~ Dan Millman,
428:For any alliance to work, the focus must remain on solving specific problems. ~ Mal Fletcher,
429:I do what I do, and I do it well, and focus and take it one moment at a time. ~ Jim Caviezel,
430:If you want to focus on what’s wrong, you also have to acknowledge what’s right. ~ Elin Peer,
431:Instead of obsessing about the outcome, focus on how you want to feel. ~ Gabrielle Bernstein,
432:Knowing what to leave out is just as important as knowing what to focus on. ~ Warren Buffett,
433:Learning the art of expressing gratitude will force you to focus on the positive. ~ Jim Rohn,
434:shift your focus to achieve your purpose. Life is all about change! ~ Ernest Agyemang Yeboah,
435:The notion of my future suddenly snapped into focus: it didn't exist yet. ~ Ottessa Moshfegh,
436:To learn hard things quickly, you must focus intensely without distraction. To ~ Cal Newport,
437:You can focus your mind. You can respect your body. All of that is important. ~ Laura Huxley,
438:against my gut feelings and instead focus on becoming the perfect girlfriend. ~ Kathryn Croft,
439:All great achievements are the result of sustained focus over time—all of them. ~ Gary Keller,
440:Attention and focus are essential skills for writers in a noise-filled world. ~ Anne H Janzer,
441:Because education is such a broad area, I chose to focus on language learning. ~ Luis von Ahn,
442:Great entrepreneurs focus intensely on an opportunity where others see nothing. ~ Naveen Jain,
443:If you only focus on the things you leave behind, you'll never go anywhere. ~ Katie Kacvinsky,
444:Ignore the naysayers. Really the only option is, head down and focus on the job. ~ Chris Pine,
445:It's easy to focus on the differences, harder to find the similarities in people. ~ Chali 2na,
446:My job is to focus on bringing characters to life in an honest and personal way. ~ Danny Pudi,
447:Only through focus can you do world-class things, no matter how capable you are. ~ Bill Gates,
448:Power Thought: I am able to keep my mind on track and focus on what I am doing. ~ Joyce Meyer,
449:There is no accountability today... no willingness to focus on big ideas. ~ Michael Bloomberg,
450:Do you tend to focus more on what you can control or what you can’t control? ~ Anthony Robbins,
451:Focus is a matter of deciding what things you’re not going to do.” —John Carmack ~ Gary Keller,
452:Focus on making you the best you can be as an actor, and follow your own path. ~ Craig Sheffer,
453:Focus on the future for 50%, on the present for 40%, and on the past for 10% ~ Masaaki Hatsumi,
454:Focus on the positives is what I teach my kids. The rest takes care of itself. ~ Dan Henderson,
455:I don't have a routine, but I have used meditation to just decompress and focus. ~ Mike Colter,
456:I focus, I invent, I transform, I challenge, I attempt, I observe, I perform. ~ Philippe Petit,
457:If you focus on another person you take their energy in your body completely. ~ Frederick Lenz,
458:I prefer to focus on the future. There are a lot of new stories to be heard. ~ Gugu Mbatha Raw,
459:Multitasking divides your attention and leads to confusion and weakened focus. ~ Deepak Chopra,
460:So many fearful people focus on the What if when they should be saying Why not? ~ Nick Vujicic,
461:Sometimes success needs interruption to regain focus and shake off complacency. ~ Lennox Lewis,
462:The successful warrior is the average person with laser-like focus. Bruce Lee ~ Steve Chandler,
463:When I look at the arc of my career, my focus is on lyricism, right? I own that. ~ Talib Kweli,
464:All great achievements are the result of sustained focus over time-all of them. ~ Gary W Keller,
465:apostle Paul, however, said to focus only on what is right and honorable, ~ John F MacArthur Jr,
466:As we start looking for the good, our focus automatically is taken off the bad. ~ Susan Jeffers,
467:Contemplative simplicity isn’t a matter of circumstances; it’s a matter of focus. ~ Ann Voskamp,
468:If there are nine rabbits on the ground and you want to catch one, just focus on one. ~ Jack Ma,
469:If you focus too much on the future, you’ll forget to have fun in the present. ~ Deborah Bladon,
470:I just love making music. I always stay in the studio. Making music is my main focus. ~ Juicy J,
471:I just try to focus on the basketball game and not get caught up in all the media. ~ Lamar Odom,
472:Rather than having small smart tricks to get by, focus on holding on and persevering. ~ Jack Ma,
473:Stay focus on what God has assigned me to do. Keep my mind on what I am doing/ ~ John C Maxwell,
474:the foundational root of all success in sales is a fanatical focus on prospecting, ~ Jeb Blount,
475:When you focus on being a happy and motivated person, that is who you will be. ~ Steve Chandler,
476:You have no control over other people's taste, so focus on staying true to your own. ~ Tim Gunn,
477:You have no control over other people’s taste, so focus on staying true to your own. ~ Tim Gunn,
478:and transition our focus from building the right thing to building the thing right. ~ Jez Humble,
479:But the truth is always a lot fuzzier, hiding in soft focus on the periphery. ~ Jonathan Tropper,
480:Focus on eating healthy natural foods; forget about trying to get enough protein. ~ Joel Fuhrman,
481:Focus on money and we will make money. Focus on impact and we will make an impact. ~ Simon Sinek,
482:If you want to improve your world, then focus your attention on helping others. ~ John C Maxwell,
483:I have an acquired taste for language, yet it is seldom an actual focus of mine. ~ Saul Williams,
484:It is during our darkest moments.That we must focus to see the light. ~ Buddha.#Buddha #Buddhism,
485:I've always felt if my nose were more crooked, critics would focus more on my acting. ~ Tim Daly,
486:Mangaldeep Agarbatti’ and made up his mind to focus on it for one simple reason. ~ Rashmi Bansal,
487:When we fear punishment, we focus on consequences, not on our own values. ~ Marshall B Rosenberg,
488:A gentle focus of attention is all it takes to free the body of minor imbalances. ~ Deepak Chopra,
489:Focus on the positive things in your life and you’ll be shocked at how many more ~ Sophia Amoruso,
490:Focus your attention on the Now and tell me what problem you have at this moment. ~ Eckhart Tolle,
491:Gentrifiers focus on aesthetics, not people. Because people, to them, are aesthetics. ~ Anonymous,
492:If you focus too early on competitors, you can be blinded by what they’re doing, ~ Alistair Croll,
493:If you just focus on the smallest details, you will never get the big picture right. ~ Leroy Hood,
494:It's a nice way to put the focus back on this simple act... if someone creates you. ~ Danny Boyle,
495:It's easy to forget to look up when all you do is focus on the road straight ahead. ~ Jessi Kirby,
496:No, I have to really focus, especially when I'm writing because I wanna be good at it ~ Tom Araya,
497:No theology is genuinely Christian which does not arise from and focus on the cross. ~ John Stott,
498:Optimism is the ability to focus on where we're going, not where we're coming from. ~ Simon Sinek,
499:People who focus exclusively on efforts that matter, succeed. It's that simple. ~ Michael Lazerow,
500:To ignite your life you must focus on ONE Thing long enough for it to catch fire. ~ Gary W Keller,
501:When you focus with soul eyes, / You will see home in many, many places. ~ Clarissa Pinkola Estes,
502:When you start a company, it's a singular focus. You have the wind at your back. ~ Howard Schultz,
503:You need to focus your decision-making energy. You need to routinize yourself. ~ Sylvie Di Giusto,
504:Do not let people interrupt you. Find your focus and you’ll find your lifestyle. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
505:extraordinary results are directly determined by how narrow you can make your focus. ~ Gary Keller,
506:Focus more on your desire than on your doubt, and the dream will take care of itself. ~ Mark Twain,
507:I focus on the individual and not seeing this great big monster, "the press." ~ Marianne Faithfull,
508:if you focus on the large fossils, you miss most of the life that is present ~ Peter Godfrey Smith,
509:If you focus on what you left behind, you'll never be able to see what lies ahead. ~ Remi Gaillard,
510:If you focus on your competition, you will never deliver anything truly innovative. ~ Eric Schmidt,
511:I should focus on other important issues like people's livelihoods and the economy. ~ Donald Tsang,
512:I think right now, the focus has got to be on how we hold [Donald] Trump accountable. ~ John Lewis,
513:It’s been freeing to focus on what works for me rather than what’s wrong with me. ~ Gretchen Rubin,
514:make your sole and all-encompassing focus the other person and what they have to say. ~ Chris Voss,
515:My major focus is national security because that's really what the president runs. ~ Rudy Giuliani,
516:When I find my focus and keep my balance- I find that all is right with my world. ~ Thomas Kinkade,
517:When you focus so much on the word, you tend to neglect the realm of silence. ~ David Steindl Rast,
518:And every camera in the room turned to focus on my horror-stricken, blood-drained face. ~ Meg Cabot,
519:anti-“lightbulb moment,” the idea that comes into focus over decades, not seconds. ~ Steven Johnson,
520:As long as I can focus on enjoying what I'm doing, having fun, I know I'll play well. ~ Steffi Graf,
521:Fear and focus are the only two things standing between you and staying positive. ~ Shannon L Alder,
522:Focus on long term success but be willing to make short term adjustments to get there ~ Simon Sinek,
523:I focus all my energy into become a faster, stronger, and better version of myself. ~ Georgia Clark,
524:Rather than focus on your critics, focus on the people who are impacted by your work. ~ Tyler Perry,
525:Rich people focus on what they want, while poor people focus on what they don't want. ~ T Harv Eker,
526:The challenge is to focus on the work, not on the fear that comes from doing the work. ~ Seth Godin,
527:To get momentum, you must first focus on a specific goal with passion and intensity. ~ Donald Trump,
528:We can take responsibility for our attitudes and focus on our strengths and our joys. ~ Mary Pipher,
529:You can do two things at once, but you can't focus effectively on two things at once. ~ Gary Keller,
530:Extraordinary results are directly determined by how narrow you can make your focus. ~ Gary W Keller,
531:Getting distracted by trifles is the easiest thing in the world… Focus on your main duty ~ Epictetus,
532:God is peace, bliss, beauty and truth. Focus your energy on that, life will be like that. ~ Amit Ray,
533:I don't focus on the results. Put my head down, put my hoodie up, and do the work. ~ Michael Skolnik,
534:Intersectionality allow us to focus on what is most important at a given point in time. ~ Bell Hooks,
535:I think the lack of precision and deep focus is why it took me years to build up my work. ~ Gil Kane,
536:Its important not to focus so much on the statistics, but [on people's] perceptions. ~ Federico Pena,
537:Music became my focus. At 13, I was jamming with my mates. At 15, I was playing clubs. ~ Bryan Adams,
538:Stop focusing on these little details,” it told me. “Focus instead on becoming better. ~ Cal Newport,
539:Take your mind off yourself. Focus on what you are doing and how you can do it better. ~ Bob Proctor,
540:The fit is my main focus, I want the fit to be great and that's the focal point for me. ~ Beth Ditto,
541:The power of people, when they focus on something positive, never fails to amaze me. ~ Ozzy Osbourne,
542:The successful warrior
is the average person
with laser-like focus. Bruce Lee ~ Steve Chandler,
543:To hate is to show you still care, who needs that, focus on what's really important. ~ Henry Rollins,
544:Travel is a set of corrective lenses that helps focus the planet's blurred reality. ~ Andrew Solomon,
545:Try to focus on the things that you do have instead of obsessing over things you don't ~ Hannah Hart,
546:Warrior energy is a combination of focus, dedication, purpose, and determination. ~ HeatherAsh Amara,
547:Watch who you have around you, and focus, work hard, and be humble, and try to be good. ~ Inbar Lavi,
548:We could focus our efforts on discovering solutions that work uniquely for us. ~ Margaret J Wheatley,
549:We’ve chosen a craft requiring solitude and focus, and this “people-stuff” can be hard. ~ Jeff Goins,
550:Whenever I do something I tend to focus on it and spend all of my time and energy on it. ~ Tom Green,
551:Whenever I've directed something, there's this feeling of demand and focus that I like. ~ J J Abrams,
552:Which do you tend to focus on more—what you have or what’s missing from your life? ~ Anthony Robbins,
553:Boundaries create a focus on “us” and “our work together,” liberated from external noise, ~ Anonymous,
554:Focusing on avoiding mistakes takes our focus away from becoming truly exceptional. ~ L David Marquet,
555:I want to be judged harshly because that forces me to really sit down and focus. ~ Seth Grahame Smith,
556:Losers Focus On What They Are Going Through; Champions Focus On What They Are Going To ~ Mike Murdock,
557:Numerical quantities focus on expected values, graphical summaries on unexpected values. ~ John Tukey,
558:Our focus should not be on emerging technologies, but on emerging cultural practices. ~ Henry Jenkins,
559:That's been one of my mantras - focus and simplicity. Simple can be harder than complex. ~ Steve Jobs,
560:The lowest-hanging fruit in preventative medicine is just to really focus on nutrition. ~ Peter Thiel,
561:The most powerful purpose statements are crystal clear and single-minded in their focus. ~ Roy Spence,
562:What you focus on grows. What you concentrate on is what you see more of in your life. ~ Robin Sharma,
563:Will I, succeed, paranoid from the weed and hocus pocus, try to focus but I can't see. ~ Tupac Shakur,
564:You can do anything as long as you have the passion, the drive, the focus, and the support. ~ Sabrina,
565:you can do anything if you put your focus on how to do it rather than on why you can't. ~ Bob Proctor,
566:You can do two things at once, but you can't focus effectively on two things at once. ~ Gary W Keller,
567:You need to worry less about what everyone else thinks and focus on what makes you happy ~ Maya Banks,
568:A lie that could help someone focus on his life was better than a hundred simple truths. ~ Faraaz Kazi,
569:Focus first on where you want to be, and why, and then on the right path to get there. ~ Mark Halperin,
570:Gentrifiers focus on aesthetics, not people. Because people, to them, are aesthetics. ~ Sarah Kendzior,
571:I feel a sudden clear focus and perspective. There is no time for anything inessential. ~ Oliver Sacks,
572:It's as if when I open myself up to every perception, things create their own focus. ~ Kristin Cashore,
573:It was nice to focus on things outside of my body. Music has always done that for me. ~ Nanci Griffith,
574:law of productivity:
High-Quality Work Produced = (Time Spent) x (Intensity of Focus) ~ Cal Newport,
575:Losers focus on what they are going through; winners focus on what they are going to. ~ John C Maxwell,
576:Mastery comes via a monomaniacal focus on simplicity versus an addiction to complexity. ~ Robin Sharma,
577:My sole focus as far back as I can remember was all about my dream to become a singer. ~ Sheena Easton,
578:Shift the focus from what you want to do, to how you want to be... how you want to feel. ~ Denise Linn,
579:There is a lot of focus on that first rate move, and I'm not sure how important that is. ~ Jamie Dimon,
580:To focus on how I'm doing more than what Christ has done is Christian narcissism ~ Tullian Tchividjian,
581:What you focus on expands. Focus on what you are best at and you will be unstoppable. ~ Bill McDermott,
582:A place bikers hang out, Dad. Focus.” “I hope you mean bicyclist, and not an MC. ~ Aurora Rose Reynolds,
583:Damn that dimple. I just want to lick it, or push my nipple into it. Oh, crap. Focus. “What ~ Ker Dukey,
584:Don't worry about what you can't do; focus instead on what you can do... and then do it. ~ Billy Graham,
585:Dwelling on past mistakes did no good. Better to focus on the ones that
could be fixed. ~ Megan Derr,
586:Focus on our ignorance.” She didn’t quite grasp the concept. She’d never been ignorant. ~ John Sandford,
587:Focus on that sensation and see how it changes when you take a deep breath out, ~ Bessel A van der Kolk,
588:Happiness is found in the absence of expectation and a continuous focus on appreciation. ~ Tony Robbins,
589:I don't judge people.
It blurs out the center of my attention,
my focus,
myself. ~ Toba Beta,
590:I focus on everything from Brussels sprouts to global warming to keep my dick down. “You ~ Kennedy Ryan,
591:I will be leaving my great business in total in order to fully focus on running America. ~ Donald Trump,
592:My biggest concern for this generation is your inability to focus, especially in prayer. ~ Francis Chan,
593:Seems to me you always have a mind to focus on finding fault, not celebration. ~ Barbara Claypole White,
594:Successful people do ordinary things with extraordinary consistency, commitment and focus. ~ Jon Gordon,
595:The key to success is to focus our conscious mind on things we desire not things we fear. ~ Brian Tracy,
596:The more we focus on using renewable fuels, the less we are dependent upon foreign oil. ~ John M McHugh,
597:There are often references to childhood, but they're rarely the focus of the [my] novels. ~ Paul Auster,
598:The way of the mind is to study many things; the way of the Beingness is to focus on one thing. ~ Mooji,
599:To keep from falling, you must change your focus: from your circumstances to My Presence. ~ Sarah Young,
600:To me the cynics are the ones in the boardrooms with the reports from the focus groups. ~ George Carlin,
601:To quote Mark Twain, “You can’t depend on your eyes when your imagination is out of focus. ~ Gary Klein,
602:We focus on what we want to do and can do, neglecting the plans and skills of others. ~ Daniel Kahneman,
603:What is focus and who has the right to say what focus is the legitimate focus? ~ Julia Margaret Cameron,
604:Who you are, what you think, feel, and do, what you love—is the sum of what you focus on. ~ Cal Newport,
605:As a rule, my focus is on classical music, but I love jazz. I love everything, actually. ~ Julie Andrews,
606:Do not take yearly results too seriously. Instead, focus on four or five-year averages. ~ Warren Buffett,
607:Don't be envious of the runner in the lane next to you; just focus on finishing your race. ~ Rick Warren,
608:Enjoy what you have, live in the moment, focus on things you can change and ignore the rest. ~ Joe Sacco,
609:If you want better results, then forget about setting goals. Focus on your system instead. ~ James Clear,
610:I'm going to focus on speed, doing little things like my turns and my starts - just speed. ~ Ryan Lochte,
611:I think L.A. is impossible. There's just too much media focus. You can't live a normal live. ~ Brad Pitt,
612:I try to just focus on the love and my family. That's what I'm focussed on every single day. ~ DJ Khaled,
613:My focus is first of all, to remove every thought of violence from my own consciousness. ~ Deepak Chopra,
614:Now, if these people are not the focus and object of ministry, then what is ministry? ~ Paul David Tripp,
615:Oh, his words! Sometimes they’re like tiny splinters, catching at the fabric of my focus. ~ Ayisha Malik,
616:Simplify and focus on the good. The beauty of the journey ahead will flourish on its own. ~ Erik Tomblin,
617:Success at anything will always come down to this: focus & effort. And we control both. ~ Dwayne Johnson,
618:THE ADMIRALTY’S focus was elsewhere, on a different ship that it deemed far more valuable. ~ Erik Larson,
619:The greatest gift is the ability to forget - to forget the bad things and focus on the good. ~ Joe Biden,
620:Then focus on thruth, not logic. Stop trying to figure out why and look for what is. ~ Kristi Ann Hunter,
621:The path to such success seemed clear: strategize, focus, and don’t take no for an answer. ~ Meg Donohue,
622:The real focus needs to be on political action to stop this runaway train, real soon. ~ William H Calvin,
623:We don't want to focus on the trees (or their leaves) at the expense of the forest. ~ Douglas Hofstadter,
624:We have to focus on how do we ensure the economy works for everybody, and not just a few. ~ Barack Obama,
625:What you focus on with your thought and feeling is what you attract into your experience. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
626:When you focus on the problems, you get more of the same. What you focus on you create. ~ Baron Baptiste,
627:Women often focus more on staying friends, which is as important as climbing the mountain. ~ Arlene Blum,
628:A good strategy coordinates policies across activities to focus the competitive punch. ~ Richard P Rumelt,
629:any business that’s in business to sell you a cure is motivated not to focus on prevention ~ Derek Sivers,
630:Don't focus on the negative things that can happen, just think about the positive things. ~ Michelle Kwan,
631:Fear is the venom impact of predator sting,
causing prey not to be focus on the survival. ~ Toba Beta,
632:Focus on keeping your spine straight. It is the job of the spine to keep the brain alert. ~ B K S Iyengar,
633:His focus had been so narrow that the world became a mirrored reflection of his attitude—as ~ Dan Skinner,
634:I could never rule out my own inability to focus on things that didn’t interest me. ~ Meghan Ciana Doidge,
635:I don't like having too many projects in the pipeline. I like to focus on what's at hand. ~ Jean Dujardin,
636:If I had my life to live over again, I would focus on the getting and eating of ice cream. ~ Bob Odenkirk,
637:I find hope in the darkest of days, and focus in the brightest. I do not judge the universe. ~ Dalai Lama,
638:If you can focus on doing things that make you happy, you'll have less of a need for stuff. ~ Leo Babauta,
639:I'm really trying to focus myself on playing tennis, and I think that's really important. ~ Stefan Edberg,
640:Ingnore your thoughts. As you focus more intensely, you may feel as if you are floating. ~ Frederick Lenz,
641:I steeled myself to focus only on the present yet remain alert to what might come next. ~ Nicholas Sparks,
642:I think it's important to focus on our economy, on jobs, on getting America back to work. ~ John Barrasso,
643:Let our advance worrying become our advance thinking and planning. —Winston Churchill Focus ~ David Allen,
644:People who can focus, get things done. People who can prioritize, get the right things done. ~ John Maeda,
645:Sexuality is the primary focus of our culture, and almost no one has come to resolve it. ~ Frederick Lenz,
646:The focus is what is right before you - to give it your best. It sows the seeds of tomorrow. ~ Kiran Bedi,
647:The noise around me blurs, and all I can focus on is his lips and breath and presence. ~ Christina Farley,
648:The other important focus is to realize that pain in and of itself becomes traumatizing. ~ Peter A Levine,
649:The SIS was an agency that didn't exist. The primary focus of the group was counter-terrorism. ~ L T Ryan,
650:This is one of the keys to successful investing: focus on the companies, not on the stocks. ~ Peter Lynch,
651:What cancer does is, it forces you to focus, to prioritize, and you learn what’s important. ~ Joel Siegel,
652:When you try to persistently abolish hatred,
at that very moment...you lose focus on love. ~ Toba Beta,
653:You have got to have discipline and focus - on the customer and how you run the business. ~ Jim Cantalupo,
654:You will not be good teachers if you focus only on what you do and not upon who you are. ~ Rudolf Steiner,
655:As long as you focus on your strengths and remain natural, then you come off natural [in your work]. ~ T I,
656:Discontentment shows up when we focus on what we can't have rather than what we do have. ~ Emily P Freeman,
657:focus on getting a little bit better each and every day (in every dimension of our life). ~ Robin S Sharma,
658:Focus on your problem zones, your strength, your energy, your flexibility and all the rest. ~ Jack LaLanne,
659:If you focus on results, you will never change. If you focus on change, you will get results. ~ Jack Dixon,
660:I kept telling myself this word, process. Focus on my process, don't care about the result. ~ Rory McIlroy,
661:I no longer focus on meeting their expectations because I am too focused on outdoing hers. ~ Sarah MacLean,
662:My focus is to forget the pain of life. Forget the pain, mock the pain, reduce it. And laugh. ~ Jim Carrey,
663:People need to focus on bigger issues instead of whether George Bush is an idiot or not. ~ Colin Greenwood,
664:Put a lot of your eggs in a few baskets and focus. Follow One Course Until Successful. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
665:science of economics should focus on the best use of scarce means to satisfy social ends. ~ Daron Acemo lu,
666:Set yourself up for success from the very beginning and then focus on maintaining that success. ~ Cat Cora,
667:She Just Wants You to Listen” = She Wants You to Focus on Her Feelings, Not the Problem ~ Shaunti Feldhahn,
668:The biggest lesson I learned in the bar business is to focus on revenues. Dollars, not dimes. ~ Jon Taffer,
669:The responsibilities of marriage induce young men to settle down, focus, and get to work. ~ Charles Murray,
670:They may have been victims at one time, but what you have to focus on is what they are now. ~ Kevin Hearne,
671:Turnaround begins with you. Outward focus begins with you. Revitalization begins with you. ~ Thom S Rainer,
672:We don't want to focus on the trees (or their leaves) at the expense of the forest. ~ Douglas R Hofstadter,
673:We recognize that there are no trivial occurrences in life if we get the right focus on them. ~ Mark Twain,
674:You will not be good teachers if you focus only on what you do and not upon who you are. ~ Rudolf Steiner,
675:Despite good intentions, the result is troubling: Feeding the Beast becomes the central focus. ~ Ed Catmull,
676:Don't worry about trying to impress people. Just focus on how you can add value to their lives. ~ Hal Elrod,
677:ethology’s focus was on behavior that develops naturally in all members of a given species. ~ Frans de Waal,
678:Focus on Options, not issues, and you’ll be able to handle any situation life throws at you. ~ Josh Kaufman,
679:Focus on your customers and lead your people as though their lives depend on your success. ~ Warren Buffett,
680:I'm going to focus on people and what they need, not on name calling between politicians. ~ Charles Schumer,
681:Infinite possibilities exist by keeping focus on what you really want to create your bliss. ~ Steve Redhead,
682:Mindfulness can encourage creativity when the focus is on the process and not the product. ~ Ellen J Langer,
683:Obstacles are only in your view when you don't have a clear enough focus on your goal. ~ Mark Victor Hansen,
684:Our thoughts create our reality - where we put our focus is the direction we tend to go. ~ Peter McWilliams,
685:People see only my actions. Instead, if I focus on Christ with thanksgiving, people see Him. ~ Francis Chan,
686:people with a positive attitude focus their time and attention on solutions, not problems. ~ John C Maxwell,
687:Rather then focusing on the obstacle in your path, focus on the bridge over the obstacle. ~ Mary Lou Retton,
688:So starting in 1999 Apple began to produce application software for the Mac, with a focus ~ Walter Isaacson,
689:Successful people maintain a positive focus in life no matter what is going on around them. ~ Jack Canfield,
690:The best way to reclaim your focus from this is to try your best to understand what’s going on. ~ Anonymous,
691:When we focus on the breath, we become mindful of the universal nature of all beings. ~ Henepola Gunaratana,
692:When you excuse yourself from learning something new, you block your focus and your energy. ~ Kevin Horsley,
693:Who you are, what you think, feel, and do, what you love—is the sum of what you focus on.” In ~ Cal Newport,
694:With practice and focus, you can extend yourself far more than you ever believed possible. ~ Edmund Hillary,
695:As a Yoga Therapist, focus on increasing people's quality of life not on curing diseases. ~ T K V Desikachar,
696:Back to work. And this time, focus. You’re not an ape. Don’t just throw your shit everywhere. ~ Tahereh Mafi,
697:Focus on the highest, clearest, and most meaningful teaching you can find, and let all else go. ~ Alan Cohen,
698:if we don’t focus on our relationship with God foremost, then we’re prone to becoming proud. ~ Brian Houston,
699:If you focus completely on the things you love, then you are on your way to a beautiful life. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
700:If you want to focus more on Allah in your prayers, focus more on Him outside your prayers. ~ Yasmin Mogahed,
701:In America, what makes us so successful is the innovation, the competition, the focus on merit. ~ Joel Klein,
702:It isn't magic, just a focus for the will. A powerful will might not even need it" -Brimstone ~ Laini Taylor,
703:Learning to focus attention and concentration is very useful; meditation can help you do that. ~ Andrew Weil,
704:Managers focus on short-term goals versus opportunities or challenges coming down the road. ~ Adrian Gostick,
705:Only when I focus on the holiness and glory of God am I able to see myself with accuracy. ~ Paul David Tripp,
706:Our reality is not the infinitely stretching cosmos but the small part we choose to focus on. ~ Haemin Sunim,
707:Our thoughts create our reality -- where we put our focus is the direction we tend to go. ~ Peter McWilliams,
708:Put your consumers in focus, and listen to what they're actually saying, not what they tell you. ~ Daniel Ek,
709:The orgasm has replaced the Cross as the focus of longing and the image of fulfillment. ~ Malcolm Muggeridge,
710:The things we should focus on in any life shouldn’t be what we’ve lost, but what we’ve gained ~ Shelly Crane,
711:When I leave the body someday, I can help people just as effectively if they focus upon me. ~ Frederick Lenz,
712:You have to focus on what you are doing, not just as a photographer, but as a human being. ~ Anders Petersen,
713:cash-poor executive, by contrast, will focus on increasing the value of the company as a whole. ~ Peter Thiel,
714:Figure out what is important and focus on that. Do not be tempted by things you might regret. ~ Chris Dietzel,
715:Focus alone is not enough; putting in the time to commit is also crucial to achieve success. ~ Warren Buffett,
716:Focus your intention on your dreams, you can wave magic when you set your heart and mind to it ~ Miranda Kerr,
717:I don't spend time wondering what might be next; I just focus on trying to savor every day. ~ Trisha Yearwood,
718:I find hope in the darkest of days, and focus in the brightest. I do not judge the universe. ~ Dalai Lama XIV,
719:I like to think of making cancer a chronic disease rather than focus just on curing cancer. ~ Laurie Glimcher,
720:I'm usually one of these guys analyzing what does happen and putting it in focus and context. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
721:I never had the dream to be a great designer. My focus was just to do beautiful things. ~ Christian Louboutin,
722:It takes a huge amount of culture to normalize "crazy", and of course that's its main focus ~ Stefan Molyneux,
723:I want to write a film. I need to think of the right idea and focus on that; I love writing. ~ Jack Whitehall,
724:Life is a test we take every day. You must focus. You must be there for them when they need you. ~ A G Riddle,
725:My focus is always on the conditions that create social problems, not just a particular person. ~ Killer Mike,
726:Stick with the Dips that are likely to pan out, and quit the Cul-de-Sacs to focus your resources ~ Seth Godin,
727:The smallest viable market is the focus that, ironically and delightfully, leads to your growth. ~ Seth Godin,
728:The thing about relationships is, when you are in the middle of one, they consume your focus. ~ Joshua Harris,
729:But then it hasn't really been a focus of our government to make us an educated people. ~ Maynard James Keenan,
730:Cockblocked by the phone. Wanna bet it’s Focus On The Family or some Satanic organization like? ~ Andrea Speed,
731:Don't clutter your life with things that bring you down. Focus on the things that life you up. ~ Robin Bielman,
732:Enjoy what you have, every little detail of wherever you are. Don´t focus on where you aren´t. ~ Richelle Mead,
733:Focus on how far you have come in life
rather than looking at the accomplishments of others. ~ Lolly Daskal,
734:Focus on performance. Outcome is going to happen. No stress about that. Focus on performance. ~ Dustin Poirier,
735:Focus on “pulling the plug” on failed ideas more quickly, not on reducing your failure rate. ~ Robert I Sutton,
736:For some reason if we hear 100 praises and one criticism, we focus on that one hurtful thing. ~ Carmen Electra,
737:I believe if we focus on the things that make us happy, then happiness will find us in return. ~ Maria Murnane,
738:I learned that focus is key. Not just in your running a company, but in your personal life as well. ~ Tim Cook,
739:I'm a big believer in that if you focus on good skin care, you really won't need a lot of makeup. ~ Demi Moore,
740:May our prayers today, and every day, be from our hearts and with the focus of our whole being. ~ Billy Graham,
741:The fuel of ambition is not the problem; it is the focus of ambition that frees or betrays us. ~ Erwin McManus,
742:The ordinary focus on what they're getting. The extraordinary think about who they're becoming. ~ Robin Sharma,
743:When you define your goals, you give your brain something new to look for and focus on. It’s as ~ Darren Hardy,
744:With no object no image and no focus, what are you looking at? You are looking at you looking. ~ James Turrell,
745:You need to focus on reaching your goals rather than on the obstacles that stand in your way. ~ Tommy Newberry,
746:A touch of the jitters sharpens the mind, gets the adrenaline flowing and helps you to focus. ~ Richard Branson,
747:Earth is but a sliver of the eternal Pie. Our focus should be on the whole pie, not the sliver. ~ Danny L Deaub,
748:Focus on nurturing your healthy relationships so that they are even more loving and fulfilling. ~ Deepak Chopra,
749:Focus on your business strengths and keep its weaknesses away from the competition or public. ~ Richard Branson,
750:Focus your energy on peace, bliss, and beauty. Life will be blissful and the world will be peaceful. ~ Amit Ray,
751:Growth and momentum are what a startup lives on and you always have to focus on maintaining these. ~ Sam Altman,
752:He wasn’t about to let himself be distracted by irrelevant mental trickery. He needed to focus. ~ Christa Faust,
753:If you focus on the sweeter things of life, that's exactly what you're going to get out of life ~ Saint Germain,
754:I have trouble with any kind of focus or concentrating, or getting anything done at all, really. ~ Nellie McKay,
755:Information overload is a symptom of our desire to not focus on what's important. It is a choice. ~ Brian Solis,
756:Instead of focusing on the work, you focus on the entropy and the chaos and you get a byproduct. ~ Ben Chestnut,
757:I tend to focus on what I'm doing at the moment, and that takes up the entire span of my focus. ~ Maura Tierney,
758:It is about looking straight ahead and not shifting that focus. Keep your eyes on the prize! ~ Stephen Richards,
759:Joy is found when you focus your energy on improving human dignity, human capacity and human values. ~ Amit Ray,
760:NVC is a reminder; to focus our attention where we are most likely to get our needs met. ~ Marshall B Rosenberg,
761:Take prayer with you wherever you go. Say it anytime, and then focus your mind and heart on God. ~ Henri Nouwen,
762:The fact that I can't hear the world around me leaves me to focus more on the world inside me. ~ Colleen Hoover,
763:the further we go in Christ, the simpler we become, and the clearer our focus that Jesus is all. ~ James W Goll,
764:the more you focus on your own neediness, the more your desires will be christened as needs. ~ Paul David Tripp,
765:Women teachers, let's shift the focus from 'you are a daughter of the King' to 'behold your King'. ~ Jen Wilkin,
766:A guy who was taught the front-sight mantra might focus so hard he could lose his peripheral vision. ~ Lee Child,
767:Coffitivity CODING.FM Soundrown Focus@Will 如果喜愛大自然的聲音,可以試試看這些: Jazz and Rain Rainy Mood Thunderspace ~ Anonymous,
768:I can't spend a lot of time worrying about the numbers at home. I've got to focus on the mission. ~ John R Allen,
769:If your business is to grow and prosper, as a leader, you need to focus on people development. ~ Robert Kiyosaki,
770:I just focus on my work with inner-city kids, and in my community, and on my philanthropic work. ~ Mark Wahlberg,
771:Instead of envying what others have, decide what YOU want out of life and focus on achieving it. ~ Beverly Engel,
772:it is better to focus on how a team is performing, not on the talents of the individuals within it. ~ Ed Catmull,
773:It is the invariable lesson to humanity that distance in time, and in space as well, lends focus. ~ Isaac Asimov,
774:It is very difficult to get people to focus on the most important things when you're in boom times. ~ Jeff Bezos,
775:“Victory requires knowledge,
fortitude, and focus.”


-THE BOOK OF THE ETERNAL ROSE ~ Fiona Paul,
776:I was able to concentrate and focus better on the day I was born than Max is able to even today. ~ Matthew Dicks,
777:Keep your eyes focused on the problems and you’ll have mayhem. Focus on Jesus and you’ll have peace. ~ Anonymous,
778:My plate is full with just acting. I want to focus on that, and then maybe direct in the future. ~ Penelope Cruz,
779:Nietzsche: if you keep your focus, eventually your focus will keep you. Sometimes without parole. ~ Stephen King,
780:Obviously, the goal is to maximize my own potential, whatever that may be. That's all I focus on. ~ Torrey Smith,
781:Other people can think ahead all they want. I just focus on the task at hand and try to move on. ~ Jeremy Renner,
782:Our plate is full. We have a lot to do building our company organically and that is our key focus. ~ Jamie Dimon,
783:take the trouble you’re dealing with and use it as an opportunity to focus on the present moment. ~ Ryan Holiday,
784:There are so many things we can do if we focus on antiknowledge, or what we do not know. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
785:There were a lot of signs telling me to lighten up, slow down, and focus on what really mattered. ~ Regina Brett,
786:The secret of change is to focus all your energy not on fighting the old, but on building the new. ~ Dan Millman,
787:We don’t look at the whole beach; we focus on one grain of sand. We only see one grain at a time, ~ Ben Bergeron,
788:what we choose to focus on and what we choose to ignore—plays in defining the quality of our life. ~ Cal Newport,
789:When you focus on gratitude, positive things flow in more readily, making you even more grateful. ~ Lissa Rankin,
790:You are all over the map, figure out the top 5 things you want to focus on and get rid of the rest. ~ Steve Jobs,
791:Don't focus on the wins and losses... focus your efforts on performing to your full potential. ~ Michael Chandler,
792:Focus, Fen. You've been using pain for it all your bloody life. How badly do you want him dead? ~ Carole Cummings,
793:Focus on your own goals and how to achieve them. No one took your spot, there’s room for all of us. ~ Amy Schumer,
794:I have a great staff at the church; they protect me and allow me to focus on more of what I do best. ~ Max Lucado,
795:I think Democrats often hold the unconstrained vision, and Republicans focus more on the Rule of Law. ~ John Fund,
796:It's like low-budget filmmaking - a focus on dialogue and relationships over plot. Quirky. Improv. ~ James Franco,
797:It's not an area where designers want to focus or pay attention - women who are larger than a size 12. ~ Tim Gunn,
798:I wanted the focus to be on my ability as a singer and as an entertainer - not on my private life. ~ Adam Lambert,
799:My mother never wanted me to focus on my physical self. She always said that beauty is what you do. ~ Halle Berry,
800:One should not focus on the differences between people but look for commonality and similarity. ~ Theodore Levitt,
801:Only one thing has to change for us to know happiness in our lives. Where we focus our attention. ~ Greg Anderson,
802:Only one thing has to change for us to know happiness in our lives: where we focus our attention. ~ Greg Anderson,
803:School, I never truly got the knack of. I could never focus on things I didn't want to learn. ~ Leonardo DiCaprio,
804:Short stories demand a certain awareness of one's own intentions, a certain narrowing of the focus. ~ Joan Didion,
805:Teams should be able to act with the same unity of purpose and focus as a well motivated individual. ~ Bill Gates,
806:The basic idea is to focus on the matchless worth of the Lord God and then get connected to him. ~ Edward T Welch,
807:The rich focus on their asset columns while everyone else focuses on their income statements. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
808:Time spent in nature decreases stress and anxiety and improves focus for adults as well as children. ~ Laura Bush,
809:To focus our mind on the task at hand-with fierce concentration-m akes for a productive use of time. ~ R C Sproul,
810:To get the right things done, choosing what to ignore is as important as choosing where to focus. ~ Peter Bregman,
811:When you're in there fighting, there's an energy and there's a focus that is nearly unbreakable. ~ Frank Shamrock,
812:Where you place your focus, there will be your Heart and that will be the Spiritual Heart. ~ Roger Delano Hinkins,
813:A relentless focus on the outward markers of success can lead to complacency. It can make you lazy. ~ Barack Obama,
814:Diets prove difficult precisely because they focus us on that which we are trying to avoid. ~ Sendhil Mullainathan,
815:Focus on increasing service. Becoming great where you are. Pile in the wood. The heat will follow. ~ William James,
816:I have a tendency to over-focus on the task in hand, with an exclusivity that is borderline autistic. ~ Neal Asher,
817:I just am grateful for every opportunity to go to work. I don't really focus on celebrity status. ~ George Dzundza,
818:I started my career as a singer in Japan, but left it all behind to focus on my dancing career. ~ Carrie Ann Inaba,
819:Rewards and praise are most effective when they focus on an achievement that took time and energy. ~ John Townsend,
820:Some people focus more on sonics. Some people focus more on story. I focus on both sonics and story. ~ Frank Ocean,
821:sometimes the only solution when the data is very noisy—is to focus more on process than on results. ~ Nate Silver,
822:The focus of a politics of compassion is the alleviation of suffering caused by social structures. ~ Marcus J Borg,
823:The more spiritually aware you become the more you will focus on your own self and less on others. ~ Bryant McGill,
824:This was not just money wasted but the construction of a false confidence based on an erroneous focus. ~ Anonymous,
825:We need to shift our focus from putting on attractional events to creating attractional communities. ~ Tim Chester,
826:What you focus on expands, and when you focus on the goodness in your life, you create more of it. ~ Oprah Winfrey,
827:As I get close to my election, I want to spend more time in my district and focus on my reelection. ~ Henry Cuellar,
828:A startup can focus on only one metric. So you have to decide what that is and ignore everything else. ~ Noah Kagan,
829:Attention is the ability we have to discriminate and to focus only on that which we want to perceive. ~ Miguel Ruiz,
830:Choose a checked or striped wall paper. People will be halfway home before they are able to focus. ~ Phyllis Diller,
831:focus on the person or people you are with rather than the tantalizing device in your pocket. ~ Daniel Post Senning,
832:Girls are the future mothers of our society, and it is important that we focus on their well-being. ~ Miriam Makeba,
833:If you're proactive, you focus on preparing. If you're reactive, you end up focusing on repairing. ~ John C Maxwell,
834:I had to focus and create a character in Bagger Vance, not just do my 'Will Smith' thing and get paid. ~ Will Smith,
835:In their vanity men focus on what they wish to hear and miss the hidden meaning, the lurking threat. ~ David Hewson,
836:I think being a competitive diver for years helps you focus and dedicate yourself to what's needed. ~ Jason Statham,
837:Narrow the focus, take the ascent one step at a time, and it's amazing what odds a man can beat. ~ Courtney Schafer,
838:Nine times out of ten it's a minor shift in your focus and your attitude that makes the difference. ~ Brenda Strong,
839:So many people focus on who they will be that they never get around to figuring out who they are. ~ Shannon L Alder,
840:The Christian mission has only one focus: to change individual's lives so they can change the world. ~ Pope Francis,
841:The industry should take comfort in knowing that WinStar is my main focus after my faith and family. ~ Kenny Troutt,
842:There's so much that you can get mad about. Out of self-preservation, I focus on being grateful. ~ Mariska Hargitay,
843:We make my opponent out as a monster. We focus on his strengths because that's what we need to negate. ~ Joe Lauzon,
844:Wisdom is the focus of the perceptive, but a fool’s eyes roam to the ends of the earth. Proverbs 17:24 ~ Beth Moore,
845:As an outside; don't worry about failure, because failure will take care of itself. Focus on success. ~ Henry Cavill,
846:Avoid results-by volume approach, instead focus on few critically important but uncomfortable actions. ~ Tim Ferriss,
847:close your eyes (shutting out distractions), focus on your feelings inside, and smile for one minute. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
848:Focus on the journey not the destination. Joy is found not in finishing an activity but in doing it. ~ Greg Anderson,
849:I don't focus on what I'm up against. I focus on my goals and I try to ignore the rest. —Venus Williams ~ Jeb Blount,
850:If you focus on the flaws of others it takes away from the improvements that you may need to make. ~ Christofer Drew,
851:My main focus is on becoming a new mom and giving the best of myself to my husband and growing baby. ~ Stacy Keibler,
852:Narrow the Focus. By that I mean you shouldn’t try to do everything; you should do a few things well. ~ Andy Stanley,
853:One aspect we might focus on during this moratorium is an alternative to overly cerebral approaches. ~ Frans de Waal,
854:Realize deeply that the present moment is all you have. Make the NOW the primary focus of your life. ~ Eckhart Tolle,
855:their focus must not be on tangible food, but on spiritual food that only He can provide. Appalled, ~ David Limbaugh,
856:The other piece besides focus for execution is intensity. Startups only work at a fairly intense level. ~ Sam Altman,
857:The person who has a highly evolved will they think, they build an image and they focus on that image. ~ Bob Proctor,
858:There's been a lot of focus on my body, but it's taught me to appreciate myself no matter where I am. ~ Crystal Renn,
859:Why focus on what somebody might think? Nobody talks [on TV] like people really talk most of the time. ~ Kurt Fuller,
860:You can focus on things that are barriers or you can focus on scaling the wall or redefining the problem. ~ Tim Cook,
861:A.G. Riddle spent ten years starting and running internet companies before retiring to focus on his true ~ A G Riddle,
862:Change your focus from making money to serving more people. Serving people makes the money come in. ~ Robert Kiyosaki,
863:Concentrate all your thoughts on the task at hand. The sun’s rays do not burn until brought to a focus. ~ Brian Tracy,
864:Courage has to do with controlling fear and it seems to me that focus has a way of overcoming anxiety. ~ Tommy Franks,
865:Focus and having energy is the most important goal when choosing my activities and how I treat myself. ~ Crystal Renn,
866:focus on the boring stuff: how to measure progress, how to set up milestones, and how to prioritize work. ~ Eric Ries,
867:her seat with a curse. She hadn’t been speeding. She was sure of it. Christy forced herself to focus ~ C J Darlington,
868:If you have to end up in the hospital, try to focus all your pain in your heart rather than your head. ~ Miriam Toews,
869:If you want to minimize the risk of catastrophe, you focus on the process much more than the outcome. ~ Megan McArdle,
870:I love our Lord with all my soul, but the Church did well to give up on sex and focus on the burning. ~ Max Gladstone,
871:I pursue this dream and carry on. I don't dwell too much on the outside, I just focus on the inside. ~ Conor McGregor,
872:I've had my share of dark days of the soul. I try not to focus on it too much so it doesn't get to me. ~ Annie Lennox,
873:Look deep inside, and when you locate the sadness, give it a vacation, and focus on the simple things. ~ Larry Norman,
874:Question for God every morning: What is the main event today? What do you want me to focus on today? ~ John C Maxwell,
875:The focus of the Christian faith is not our morality; it is Jesus, who died for our immorality. ~ Tullian Tchividjian,
876:The focus on talent distracts us from something that is at least as important, and that is effort. ~ Angela Duckworth,
877:The focus should be on Indian atrocities in Kashmir, not on our support for the Kashmiri resistance. ~ Husain Haqqani,
878:The person who have a highly evolved will they think, they build an image and they focus on that image. ~ Bob Proctor,
879:There are some guys out here that can really play golf, but it has not been their focus for that long. ~ Trent Dilfer,
880:The secret of change is to focus all of your energy, not on fighting the old, but on building the new.
   ~ Socrates?,
881:Whatever we fix our thoughts upon or steadily focus our imagination upon, that is what we attract. ~ Claude M Bristol,
882:What is clear is that the focus in interpretation has shifted from the author to the text to the reader. ~ D A Carson,
883:What you condemn you continue. Focus on where you want to go rather than what you want to get away from. ~ Alan Cohen,
884:Bootstrapping goes awry when entrepreneurs focus on saving pennies to the detriment of the Big Picture. ~ Guy Kawasaki,
885:focus less on the impression you’re making on others and more on the impression you’re making on yourself. ~ Amy Cuddy,
886:He nodded. "I no longer focus on meeting their expectations because I am too focused on outdoing hers. ~ Sarah MacLean,
887:I attract to my life whatever I give my attention, energy and focus to, whether positive or negative. ~ Michael Losier,
888:I don't focus on criticism. I prefer to praise people and the world, rather than criticize them and it. ~ Alice Walker,
889:I finally learned to live in the present and focus only on what I want rather than what I don't want. ~ Darren Johnson,
890:If you focus on success, you’ll have stress. But if you pursue excellence, success will be guaranteed. ~ Deepak Chopra,
891:It’s realizing that extraordinary results are directly determined by how narrow you can make your focus. ~ Gary Keller,
892:Leaders know how to set priorities. They focus on the task that requires the most rapid attention. ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
893:Like an ant, I will find my way round any obstacle. Like a child, I will persevere with pinpoint focus. ~ Chris Murray,
894:Maybe our single-minded focus on the light makes us unable to see the dark that’s all around, always. ~ Alicia Elliott,
895:Our focus on the investigation is really wide-ranging. And we can't limit it to just one point in time. ~ Barack Obama,
896:Part of Washington keeping its promises is a focus on directing more dollars into our local classrooms. ~ Mark Kennedy,
897:Playing for England was a massive honour and when I was in the team, that was all I wanted to focus on. ~ Mike Tindall,
898:Positive thinkers focus their minds on the future; they are never complacent about where they are. ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
899:The computer actually may have aggravated management's degenerative tendency to focus inward on costs. ~ Peter Drucker,
900:The fuel of ambition is not the problem; it is the focus of ambition that frees or betrays us. ~ Erwin Raphael McManus,
901:They lost track of time not because they didn’t have enough focus, but because they had too much focus. ~ Matthew Syed,
902:We focus upon pairs of words very often which are the same in some areas and different in other areas. ~ William Labov,
903:What you focus on grows, what you think about expands, and what you dwell upon determines your destiny. ~ Robin Sharma,
904:When you focus on a chakra, it's very easy to bring subtle physical energies into your consciousness. ~ Frederick Lenz,
905:Being selective-doing less-is the path of the productive. Focus on the important few and ignore the rest. ~ Tim Ferriss,
906:Concentrate all your thoughts on the task at hand. The sun’s rays do not burn until brought to a focus. ~ Kevin Horsley,
907:Discussing the thought processes behind solutions aims the focus on the solutions, not on second-guessing. ~ Ed Catmull,
908:Focus, Amy. Just because he looked great in the saddle did not mean he wasn't an axe murderer. ~ Rosemary Clement Moore,
909:I don't hide my emotions from people. I am not a focus-group tested, blow-dried candidate or governor. ~ Chris Christie,
910:I have learned not to focus too much on what's yet to come...
and instead,
I concentrate on today. ~ Jos N Harris,
911:In life, when presented with any situation, breathe, take your time, focus and then decide what to do. ~ Rickson Gracie,
912:Irrelevant questions focus on the person rather than on the person’s qualifications for the open job. ~ Johanna Rothman,
913:It’s very seductive to focus on what you don’t like as opposed to celebrating all that it is that you do. ~ Talib Kweli,
914:The focus of education should not be on suppressive information but on kindling the thirst for knowing. ~ Jaggi Vasudev,
915:The only source of competitive advantage now is a focus on knowledge of and engagement with customers. ~ James McQuivey,
916:The steady physical effort, the lack of anything to focus on put me into a waking dream about nothing. The ~ Robin Hobb,
917:We hyper-focus on the lines of Scripture containing the miracles, and we miss the details of the mess. ~ Lysa TerKeurst,
918:We need to focus on building a military that is second-to-none ... so that we can destroy Islamic terrorism. ~ Jeb Bush,
919:What I've learned over the years is that focus and singular purpose is the best approach for businesses. ~ Barry Diller,
920:With any character, I try to focus more on who the character is and how they got to be who they are. ~ Rachelle Lefevre,
921:Art is about eliminating almost everything in order to focus on the thing that you need to talk about. ~ Jonathan Lethem,
922:Charlie [Munger] and I are not big fans of resumes. Instead, we focus on brains, passion and integrity. ~ Warren Buffett,
923:Could you maybe not admire the evil enemy quite as much, and focus on how we're going to get out of this? ~ Rachel Caine,
924:Forgiveness is 'selective remembering'--a conscious decision to focus on love and let the rest go. ~ Marianne Williamson,
925:If we want to make a change in our lives, we should first focus on our personal attitudes and behaviors. ~ Stephen Covey,
926:If you just focus on the trees swaying outside the window without distraction, you will see your true face. ~ Sam Harris,
927:If you want the secondary greatness of recognized talent, focus first on primary greatness of character. ~ Stephen Covey,
928:I learned long ago to focus on things you can control and don't even pay attention to things you don't. ~ Bryan Cranston,
929:important achievements require a clear focus, all-out effort, and a bottomless trunk full of strategies. ~ Carol S Dweck,
930:is: Focus on that which makes you feel good and ye shall find (attract) that which makes you feel good. We ~ Jen Sincero,
931:Keep it simple, and focus on what you have to do right now, not on playing with your system or your tools. ~ Leo Babauta,
932:Realize deeply that the present moment is all you ever have. Make the Now the primary focus of your life ~ Eckhart Tolle,
933:The first step in healing is to put the focus on what's alive now, not what happened in the past. ~ Marshall B Rosenberg,
934:The one thing with stress is, you've got to keep your focus on what you can do, not what happened to you. ~ Ben Horowitz,
935:We focus on the best, fun, and happy things, and people want that. Being happy never goes out of style. ~ Lilly Pulitzer,
936:We need to focus on radical Islamic terrorists and we need to stop them before they carry out acts of terror. ~ Ted Cruz,
937:We're very simple people at Apple. We focus on making the world's best products and enriching people's lives. ~ Tim Cook,
938:Attention is the ability we have to discriminate and to focus only on that which we want to perceive. ~ Miguel Angel Ruiz,
939:Build your life around 5 key priorities: The Big 5. Any more and you'll suffer from Broken Focus Syndrome. ~ Robin Sharma,
940:Concentration is the act of building focus and meditation is the art of retaining it without losing awareness. ~ Om Swami,
941:even had little snatches of dream—bare wisps of image that skittered away before I could focus on them. I ~ Lauren Oliver,
942:Focus on the process (the way you spend your time) instead of the product (what you want to accomplish). ~ Barbara Oakley,
943:Grace, I will focus on nothing else in life until you come. I will start it and I will fucking finish it. ~ Alice Clayton,
944:I find hope in the darkest of days, and focus in the brightest. I do not judge the universe.” —Dalai Lama ~ Angela Roquet,
945:I focus on details, either of the body, or of objects that represent gender, sexuality, and other themes. ~ Lorna Simpson,
946:If you want the secondary greatness of recognized talent, focus first on primary greatness of character ~ Stephen R Covey,
947:I have always done what I love myself. My philosophy was that I never had focus groups. I did what I wear. ~ Ralph Lauren,
948:I'm not a pop song lyric writer. I can't just focus on one simple meaning or even a double entendre. ~ Julian Casablancas,
949:I used to focus more on scoring. Now I take a lot of pride and pleasure in helping someone else do well. ~ Landon Donovan,
950:[James] Baldwin is needed even more today because he helps you focus to the essential, to what is important. ~ Raoul Peck,
951:Magic doesn’t work like that. You have to have intent and focus, but not think about it. - Aunt Polly ~ Michelle M Pillow,
952:My focus is that firearms are handled safely and that we can continue to enjoy them here in North America. ~ Steve Kanaly,
953:Realize deeply that the present moment is all you ever have. Make the Now the primary focus of your life. ~ Eckhart Tolle,
954:Stick with the Dips that are likely to pan out, and quit the Cul-de-Sacs to focus your resources. That’s it. ~ Seth Godin,
955:Successful people become great leaders when they learn to shift the focus from themselves to others. ~ Marshall Goldsmith,
956:Terrific minds focus on tips; average minds go over activities; little minds talk about people today. ~ Eleanor Roosevelt,
957:The ability to focus is the key separation point between those who move ahead and those who fall behind. ~ Orrin Woodward,
958:The important questions focus on what matters most-Heavenly Father's plan and the Savior's Atonement. ~ M Russell Ballard,
959:The pleasure of being alive is brought into sharper focus when you need to pay attention to staying alive. ~ Richard Louv,
960:To make a relationship work, focus on what you appreciate about the other person, and not your complaints. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
961:to perform without a net is ecstasy." Papa Phom had often reminded her, "To perform without focus is fatal. ~ Tom Robbins,
962:Violence may be a good focus to organize around, but we have to look at women's lives in our entirety. ~ Patricia Ireland,
963:Vision remains vision until you focus, do the work, and bring it down to earth where it will do some good. ~ Donald Trump,
964:When you focus on the greatness of God, your own problems and burdens will become smaller and lighter. ~ Warren W Wiersbe,
965:When you focus on what you don’t have or on situations that displease you, your mind also becomes darkened. ~ Sarah Young,
966:Your job is to focus on my personal happiness, she said, & I've got big plans, so break time is over. ~ Brian Andreas,
967:Your need to feel significant will never be met, until you can conquer your fear and manage your focus. ~ Shannon L Alder,
968:Always focus on what you can add or take away to improve someone’s life … and then prepare to get paid. ~ Chris Guillebeau,
969:Asperger’s syndrome is associated with organization, focus, innovative thinking, and rational detachment. ~ Graeme Simsion,
970:Focus groups are a waste of time, filled with people telling you what you want to hear so they can go home. ~ Sergio Zyman,
971:focus on clarifying what is being observed, felt, and needed rather than on diagnosing and judging, ~ Marshall B Rosenberg,
972:Focus on yourself -- do what you want, when you want, without having to consider anyone else's agenda. ~ Lauren Weisberger,
973:I focus a lot on my voice because I want it to be an instrument as well. I want my voice to add color. ~ Theophilus London,
974:If we focus too much of our attention on what people want, we will only increase the amount of complaining. ~ Francis Chan,
975:If you focus too much on development of the visual angle, it could be a detriment to what you're doing musically. ~ Grimes,
976:If you want the secondary greatness of recognized talent, focus first on primary greatness of character. ~ Stephen R Covey,
977:I'm sure at some point I will get back into coaching, but right now I need to focus completely on my kids. ~ Patrick Ewing,
978:I see myself being 5 times hotter than I am now every year. I just focus on being hotter than the year before. ~ Slim Thug,
979:It's very tough for me to focus. I'm like: 'Look, something shiny! No, focus. Oh, there goes a butterfly!' ~ Gabby Douglas,
980:Materialism creates a world of narcissism in which the focus of life is solely on acquisition and consumption ~ bell hooks,
981:My voice was pretty good almost all through Othello. Alexander Technique really helped my posture and focus. ~ Lenny Henry,
982:One of the major failures of the church is not a focus on building disciples but a focus on building members. ~ Tony Evans,
983:Revenge—no, nothing as petty as that; justice for the deaths of hundreds of thousands—was the focus now. ~ Christie Golden,
984:The best solution for falling just short of the goal is to focus on the fundamentals but perform them better. ~ Tony Dungy,
985:The moment we begin to celebrate ourselves and focus on our successes is the moment we begin living. ~ Gabrielle Bernstein,
986:The single most important problem is our misguided focus on identifying the single most important problem! ~ Jared Diamond,
987:We need to focus on destroying ISIL, but we shouldn't be the ones declaring that [Bashir] Assad must go. ~ Martin O Malley,
988:What will happen from now on? It doesn't matter. I can only focus on what's happening to me in this moment. ~ Ricky Martin,
989:. . . wishes are like magnifying glasses they enlarge and focus an intention that is already inside us. ~ Stephen Mitchell,
990:Acting is my first focus, but at the core, I'm a storyteller, and however that comes out is fine with me. ~ Santino Fontana,
991:a good wine allows clarity and focus, while still allowing a bit of comforting coloration of the memory. ~ Patrick Rothfuss,
992:Bring the mind to a sharp focus and make it alert so that it can immediately intuit truth, which is everywhere. ~ Bruce Lee,
993:But when you're beginning, you should try to focus on something you love and your own way of doing things. ~ Jerry Harrison,
994:Chasing the sensation. Whether it was drugs or sex or whatever. Those things had become my main focus in life. ~ Rick Allen,
995:Each one of us has both; good and evil virtues. Those who decide to focus on the good ones succeed in life. ~ Narendra Modi,
996:Even if you only stop and focus on your breathing for a few breaths, or for a minute or two, its very valuable. ~ Nhat Hanh,
997:Focus on giving smiles away and you will always discover that your own smiles will always be in great supply! ~ Joyce Meyer,
998:gratitude, humility, dedication, positivity, poise, focus, resilience, and an eagerness to continuously grow ~ Ben Bergeron,
999:Having reached the halfway mark in the alphabet, my prime focus is on writing each new book as well as I can. ~ Sue Grafton,
1000:I came from the Bronx and a certain background. I worked really hard. I kept my focus on the right things. ~ Jennifer Lopez,
1001:I don't think focus is in itself ever a bad thing. But focus of the wrong kind, or managed poorly, can be. ~ Daniel Goleman,
1002:If the focus of our testimony is our changed life, we as well as our hearers are bound to be disappointed. ~ Michael Horton,
1003:I mean, that was a throwaway thought, because my focus was - my intent and my focus was to never go public. ~ Bill O Reilly,
1004:Instead of focusing on imagined rewards, focus on serving God’s other children, for they are your customers. ~ Daniel Lapin,
1005:I try not to think about my public life. I focus on my private life, and that's just the best way to live. ~ Angelina Jolie,
1006:I've always had the mentality of: work hard, get to bed early, focus - and let your work speak for itself. ~ Olivia Palermo,
1007:Life will get in the way. Count on it. Be prepared for it. Maintain focus and press on towards your goal. ~ Robert Kiyosaki,
1008:My investment strategy, which is to focus on sectors that are a national priority for India, hasn't changed. ~ Gautam Adani,
1009:Okay, Fitzwilliam. You'd rather I focus on your behavior before you presented me with this miraculous letter? ~ Alyssa Cole,
1010:One way to boost our will power and focus is to manage our distractions instead of letting them manage us. ~ Daniel Goleman,
1011:Our focus should be on developmental dimensions of atomic science with a special outreach to India's youth. ~ Narendra Modi,
1012:"Realize deeply that the present moment is all you ever have. Make the Now the primary focus of your life." ~ Eckhart Tolle,
1013:The big thing in life is to focus on providing more value to people than they expect. The rest comes then. ~ James Altucher,
1014:There is a difference between a shaky or out-of-focus photograph and a snapshot of clouds and fog banks ~ Erwin Schr dinger,
1015:The status quo approach, however, is to focus not on making the government more competent but on downsizing it. ~ Anonymous,
1016:We feel unhappy and confused with our life when we don't do the focus or calling that God has on our life. ~ John C Maxwell,
1017:We focus on what we know and neglect what we do not know, which makes us overly confident in our beliefs. ~ Daniel Kahneman,
1018:you’ll feel comfortable about your decision. Whatever you choose to do, you can focus on it and enjoy it. ~ Stephen R Covey,
1019:You try not to talk about the past too much as an artist. Instead, you focus on the continuity of your work. ~ Rebecca Horn,
1020:As I grow older, I try not to focus on my regrets and failures, but rather to focus on what I’ve accomplished. ~ Mary Pipher,
1021:Be dramatically willing to focus on the customer at all costs, even at the cost of obsoleting your own stuff. ~ Scott D Cook,
1022:Brilliant results don't just show up by chance. The finest things in life take patience, focus and sacrifice. ~ Robin Sharma,
1023:“Governments accountable to the voters focus on building roads and schools—not weapons of mass destruction.” ~ George W Bush,
1024:He reminded me to focus on the “trendlines,” not just the headlines, and to relish the experiences. ~ Hillary Rodham Clinton,
1025:I believe that as much as you take, you have to give back. It's important not to focus on yourself too much. ~ Nicole Kidman,
1026:I don't like to think on obstacles. I guess that if you focus your mind on obstacles, they will grow bigger. ~ Omar Chaparro,
1027:I find the less you focus on your flaws, the better off you are. Be yourself and be glad of who you are. ~ Michelle Pfeiffer,
1028:Just be careful of forming close relationships, Craig. Focus on Yourself." "Only then does healing take place. ~ Ned Vizzini,
1029:Keep your eye off the ball. Ninety percent of what’s important happens away from the focus of attention. ~ Gregg Easterbrook,
1030:Michael tried to focus, but he found himself consumed by his past, by the memories he had tried to silence. ~ Brittney Sahin,
1031:Question for God every morning:

What is the main event today? What do you want me to focus on today? ~ John C Maxwell,
1032:Really, most of us just focus on what's in front of us. We're too busy putting out the fires of everyday life. ~ Aidan Quinn,
1033:Start-up should focus on innovation not on building on infrastructure. Thanks to Google cloud service they can. ~ Urs Holzle,
1034:You must get comfortable with eliminating things in your life that are getting in the way of clarity and focus. ~ Todd Henry,
1035:You must put aside the passing moments of terror and temptation, and focus on what’s most important in the ~ Anthony Robbins,
1036:...because a life without meaning, without drive or focus, without dreams or goals, isn't a life worth living. ~ Chris Colfer,
1037:During moments of strife and 'dis-ease', check your flow and redirect your focus to that which is naturally good. ~ T F Hodge,
1038:If we focus on our actions without addressing our hearts, we may end up merely as better behaved lovers of self. ~ Jen Wilkin,
1039:Im a transactional lawyer; I negotiate all types of things, but with a particular focus in software licenses. ~ Keith Rothfus,
1040:Its a really wonderful thing to focus your life on something other than your own personal career and ambition. ~ Kevin Spacey,
1041:It took greater energy to be able to focus when heard
the voice of wisdom in a hustle bustle than in serenity. ~ Toba Beta,
1042:I wish Obama would focus on governing the United States and would forget his country's imperialist pretensions. ~ Hugo Chavez,
1043:look back, Mace. What’s passed is past, and you can’t change it. Focus on making the best of what lies ahead. ~ Deborah Sharp,
1044:Medicine’s focus is narrow. Medical professionals concentrate on repair of health, not sustenance of the soul. ~ Atul Gawande,
1045:One clear focus for everyone. Your business needs laser focus on what the next objective is. Execution is key. ~ Ben Keighran,
1046:Our focus is and should be on the leakers, not those that are obtaining it as part of legitimate newsgathering. ~ James Comey,
1047:Records must not be the focus and that's the most important thing. It mustn't come at the cost of the team. ~ Garfield Sobers,
1048:That’s because there’s too many opportunities roaming around in the world. It’s hard to focus on just one. ~ Jessica Sorensen,
1049:The Lord blesses people who bless others, and He gives grace to those who focus on the things that please Him. ~ Billy Graham,
1050:We would all benefit by shifting our focus from seeing pain as bad to seeing pain as motivation to change. ~ Cortney S Warren,
1051:When having a goal takes your focus off God and His daily intentions for you, it can cause trouble. Proverbs ~ Lysa TerKeurst,
1052:When you delight yourself in the Lord, His Word and His ways become the focus and foundation of your life. ~ Elizabeth George,
1053:When you focus on want, you become an endless cycle of wants. To get, simply release, and then gently invite. ~ Bryant McGill,
1054:You need to focus so much on what's in front of you rather than thinking about what might happen in the future. ~ Elena Anaya,
1055:Armed with positive thoughts, it becomes easier to focus on your goals, while the opposite also holds true. ~ Stephen Richards,
1056:...because a life without meaning, without drive, or focus, without dreams or goals, isn't a life worth living. ~ Chris Colfer,
1057:Do not shift your focus from serving others to focusing exclusively on school, work, or social activities. ~ M Russell Ballard,
1058:Film is a time capsule. If I have a lack of dedication or focus, it's permanently there as a negative reminder. ~ Adrien Brody,
1059:Focus on building the best possible business. If you are great, people will notice and opportunities will appear. ~ Mark Cuban,
1060:I didn't focus on death, or spend much time thinking about it. It was more like an idea, lurking in the distance. ~ Chris Kyle,
1061:Instead of focusing on how much you can accomplish, focus on how much you can absolutely love what you’re doing. ~ Leo Babauta,
1062:It's time to change the conversation about nature to focus on what we all have in common: our shared humanity. ~ Harrison Ford,
1063:I want to help with bullying because there are girls who can't just up and homeschool and focus on their career. ~ Demi Lovato,
1064:Make rules and follow rules as needed, but don't focus on riles. Focus on faith. Focus on grace. Focus on Jesus. ~ Judah Smith,
1065:Our focus on discrimination against women during the past 30 years has blinded us to opportunities for women. ~ Warren Farrell,
1066:Participatory culture shifts the focus of literacy from one of individual expression to community involvement. ~ Henry Jenkins,
1067:People can certainly be creative when they're under the gun, but only when they're able to focus on the work. ~ Teresa Amabile,
1068:There are always limits, and opportunities. The ones we rehearse and focus on are the ones that shape our future. ~ Seth Godin,
1069:The result of information overload is usually distraction, and it dilutes your focus and takes you off your game. ~ Zig Ziglar,
1070:What's important now? - To evaluate the past, focus on the future, and tell you what you have to do in the present ~ Lou Holtz,
1071:When purchasing gifts becomes the focal point of the season, we lose focus on what's truly important. ~ Joshua Fields Millburn,
1072:Whether you're 9 or 90, stop trying to fix the things you're bad at, and focus on the things you're good at. ~ Gary Vaynerchuk,
1073:Work ethic, confidence, a laser focus and commitment to accomplish a goal that most people can never imagine. ~ Daniel Cormier,
1074:Doing less meaningless work, so that you can focus on things of greater personal importance, is NOT laziness. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
1075:Focus more on who your child is than what your child does. Remember, you're growing a person, not fixing a problem. ~ L R Knost,
1076:Happiness doesn't just happen. I'm convinced that for the most part, those who focus their minds on it, obtain it. ~ Lisa Bloom,
1077:He does have that weird mixture of born again Christian and stupid that some people mistake for courage and focus. ~ Marc Maron,
1078:How to get through the day if every indignity capsized you in a ditch? One learned to focus one's attention. ~ Colson Whitehead,
1079:I did feel bad—I did—but I didn’t dwell on it. I knew it was done. I knew I had to focus on what to do next. ~ Angela Duckworth,
1080:I don't have a belief problem, I have a focusing weakness. I focus on what's loudest instead of what feels best. ~ Esther Hicks,
1081:In the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism, it’s believed that reality can exist only where our mind creates a focus. ~ Gregg Braden,
1082:My big focus is China and OPEC and all of these countries that are just absolutely destroying the United States. ~ Donald Trump,
1083:no matter which path you choose, you have to do it with strong beliefs, absolute focus, and loads of effort. ~ Mike Michalowicz,
1084:One-Coin” Loophole: Whether we choose to focus on the single coin or the growing heap will shape our behavior. ~ Gretchen Rubin,
1085:Or: When bad things cannot be subtracted, protect the good things and focus on them when you need a break from the bad. ~ Stoya,
1086:Persevere. Plan. Strategize. Focus. Breathe. Write. Let go: relax. Forgive. All this failing: take a nap. ~ Mary Anne Radmacher,
1087:Since we cling to our hope in the future, we do not focus our energies and capabilities on the present moment ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
1088:There's a tendency to look at investments in isolation. Investors focus on the risk of individual securities. ~ Daniel Kahneman,
1089:The right decisions come from the right focus. You’ll succeed if your focus is on the mission, not the money. ~ Robert Kiyosaki,
1090:The thrill of doing television versus features is in television you get to focus more on the characters. ~ Lauren Shuler Donner,
1091:the tighter you try to hang on to something, the more you focus on it, the easier it can slip from your grasp. ~ Angela Marsons,
1092:The wolves knew when it was time to stop looking for what they'd lost, to focus instead on what was yet to come. ~ Jodi Picoult,
1093:Things go wrong occasionally, but when you focus on that, you miss the enormity of what goes right. ~ Loretta Graziano Breuning,
1094:We need to focus on the kind of human beings we want to have and the kind of society in which we want to live. ~ Howard Gardner,
1095:When you focus on want, you become an endless cycle of wants. To get, simply release, and then gently invite. ~ Bryant H McGill,
1096:Whether you call someone a hero or a monster is all relative to where the focus of your consciousness may be. ~ Joseph Campbell,
1097:about anything in the past. If you focus on past difficulties, you are bringing more difficult circumstances now. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
1098:Although I am a committed Catholic priest, and nowhere hide that fact, my focus is very much a spiritual journey. ~ Henri Nouwen,
1099:Companies that solely focus on competition will ultimately die. Those that focus on value creation will thrive. ~ Edward de Bono,
1100:Focus attention and energy on making a difference in the lives of others, and success might follow as a by-product. ~ Adam Grant,
1101:Games are won by players who focus on the playing field -- not by those whose eyes are glued to the scoreboard. ~ Warren Buffett,
1102:Games are won by players who focus on the playing field –- not by those whose eyes are glued to the scoreboard. ~ Warren Buffett,
1103:However, attention can be moved away from an unwanted focus, primarily by focusing intently on another target. ~ Daniel Kahneman,
1104:If you want joy and happiness in life, focus your energy on improving human dignity, human capacity and human values. ~ Amit Ray,
1105:I learned the value of focus. I learned it is better to do one product well than two products in a mediocre way. ~ Reed Hastings,
1106:I think there's too much mult-tasking going on. I think people need to quiet down and focus and be still more. ~ Ellen DeGeneres,
1107:I would prefer the teacher to focus on teaching and have a security officer worry about keeping the kids safe. ~ Andrea Tantaros,
1108:Knowing your purpose gives your life meaning, simplicity, focus and motivation. It also prepares you for eternity. ~ Rick Warren,
1109:Out my left, I saw baboon bum, out my right, my long-lost uncle Amos. Naturally, I decided to focus on the right. ~ Rick Riordan,
1110:Sustaining the energy and focus involved in doing a good job I think starts to gets tougher the longer you do it. ~ Barack Obama,
1111:That unblinkingly vivid Japanese sun seems the blazing focus of the glassy ocean's immeasurable burning-glass. ~ Herman Melville,
1112:The more Christians focus on tangential issues, the less we will be heard on matters of true moral significance. ~ Philip Yancey,
1113:The overarching best practice is to focus, get early wins to build trust, and build momentum based on these wins. ~ Mark Jeffery,
1114:There are so many great artists that are doing interesting things, that I don't want to focus on boring people. ~ Kathleen Hanna,
1115:The reason I've been able to be so financially successful is my focus has never, ever for one minute been money. ~ Oprah Winfrey,
1116:They instructed negotiators to focus their attention and search their memory for arguments against the anchor. ~ Daniel Kahneman,
1117:Today, I will focus on what's right about me. I will give myself some of the caring I've extended to the world. ~ Melody Beattie,
1118:Whether we choose to focus on the guilt in their personality, or the innocence in their soul, is up to us. ~ Marianne Williamson,
1119:You don’t think about everything you have to do. You focus on one thing and get it done, then move on to the next. ~ Jim Butcher,
1120:You focus your attention on a single truth from the Bible and then continue to think about it throughout your day. ~ Rick Warren,
1121:As far as keeping my sanity, it's something I've only recently tried to focus on as a means of self-preservation. ~ Anthony Green,
1122:Christianity does not direct us to focus on finding the right person; it calls us to become the right person. Our ~ Gary L Thomas,
1123:Concentrate all your thoughts upon the work at hand. The sun's rays do not burn until brought to a focus. ~ Alexander Graham Bell,
1124:Define yourself by your best moments, not your worst. Find one thing you did do right today, and focus on that. ~ Trisha Ashworth,
1125:Focus on the positive things in your life and you'll be shocked at how many more positive things start happening ~ Sophia Amoruso,
1126:Focus on what you can control... Kow what you can bend to your will, and don't waste energy on what you can't. ~ Lisa Renee Jones,
1127:Getting to the top should be a priority, but being aware of the reason for getting there should be the focus! ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
1128:He didn’t immediately answer. His focus, however, remained glued to her cleavage. Ground control, we have contact. ~ Jodi Redford,
1129:I love films where the world seems to be going a bit faster and everything's a bit brighter and more in focus. ~ Robbie Coltraine,
1130:Intersectionality decentralizes people who are used to being the primary focus of the movements they are a part of. ~ Ijeoma Oluo,
1131:I try not to focus on the gender issue too much but I think you have to acknowledge it in order for it to go away. ~ Emily Haines,
1132:It seemed like everything became centered and peaceful when there was no choice but to make nature the focus. ~ Carine McCandless,
1133:Jason decided not to add that the best way to get him to focus on something was to tell him not to think about it. ~ Brandon Mull,
1134:Owners focus on what they want. Victims focus on what they fear. And both positions are pure internal invention. ~ Steve Chandler,
1135:Realize deeply that the present moment is all you ever have. Make the Now the primary focus of your life. Whereas ~ Eckhart Tolle,
1136:[Theater] has always been a big focus. I have been away from it for the past few years. I want to get back to it! ~ Andre Holland,
1137:The natural reaction of the artist will be strongly towards bringing man back into focus as the center of importance. ~ Ben Shahn,
1138:The only way to shape that culture is to focus on hiring people with the attributes you want your culture to have. ~ Darren Hardy,
1139:There is nothing quite like the cold taste of gun oil on a stainless steel barrel to bring your life into focus. ~ Josh Stallings,
1140:The sucker's trap is when you focus on what you know and what others don't know, rather than the reverse. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
1141:Too many people focus on the thing, instead of the heavenly glory of it. I don't want to give away what to expect. ~ Tracy Morgan,
1142:We need to focus on killing the bad guys, not getting stuck in Middle Eastern civil wars that don't keep America safe. ~ Ted Cruz,
1143:You have to understand what it is that you are better at than anybody else and mercilessly focus your efforts on it. ~ Andy Grove,
1144:All of the most fulfilled people I know focus more on the quality of their connections than the quantity of them. ~ Jocelyn K Glei,
1145:August brings into sharp focus and a furious boil everything I've been listening to in the late spring and summer. ~ Henry Rollins,
1146:Concentrate all your thoughts upon the work at hand. The sun's rays do not burn until brought to a focus. ~ Alexander Graham Bell,
1147:Focus on essentials and try not to get distracted and bogged down by things that don't add value to the bottom line. ~ Carlos Slim,
1148:Focus on the positive things in your life and you’ll be shocked at how many more positive things start happening. ~ Sophia Amoruso,
1149:I like to focus on what I'm doing now, which is giving back. I've done interventions with people I've been close to. ~ Demi Lovato,
1150:In the beginning, it’s advisable to focus on the flow of your work and the idea that your work actually has a “shape. ~ Jim Benson,
1151:It is impossible to need excuses when the focus of your life shifts from 'What's in it for me?' to 'How can I serve?' ~ Wayne Dyer,
1152:My focus is on always trying to treat the inevitable highs and lows of life with the same blissful, calm energy. ~ Kordell Stewart,
1153:My focus is trying to make great music and putting on great shows, and whatever happens beyond that is a bonus to me. ~ Luke Bryan,
1154:One way is to close your eyes (shutting out distractions), focus on your feelings inside, and smile for one minute. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
1155:The best way to get Americans to focus on what's happening in Afghanistan is by using the example of their own. ~ Tim Hetherington,
1156:the deeper meaning of focus—a concentration and coordination of action and resources that creates an advantage. ~ Richard P Rumelt,
1157:The more we focus on who we are in Christ, the less it matters who we were in the past, or even what happened to us. ~ Joyce Meyer,
1158:There is nothing quite like the cold taste of gun oil on a stainless steel barrel to bring your life into focus. ~ Josh Stallings,
1159:The tale of their teamwork is important because we don’t often focus on how central that skill is to innovation. ~ Walter Isaacson,
1160:the world is ever so slightly but uncorrectably out of focus, that there are no absolutely precise answers. Whatever ~ Barry Lopez,
1161:Time seems to slow down for me when I focus on staying in the moment and that helps me maintain a sense of balance. ~ Miranda Kerr,
1162:We all carry the seeds of greatness within us, but we need an image as a point of focus in order that they may sprout. ~ Epictetus,
1163:What you focus on in your life grows, what you think about expands and what you dwell on determines your destiny. ~ Robin S Sharma,
1164:A person with passion will not look somewhere to see who is not doing it; they will focus and do what they can. ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
1165:Are we gonna just make movies about trying to get laid over and over again or focus on something that's more relevant? ~ Seth Rogen,
1166:Balance lives in the present. The surest way to lose your footing is to focus on what dreadful things might happen. ~ Oprah Winfrey,
1167:Despite my struggle to focus, I did hear him say this: “The only thing I’m afraid of is a life without you, Pigeon. ~ Jamie McGuire,
1168:Fight against something and you focus on the thing you hate. Fight for something and you focus on the thing you love. ~ Simon Sinek,
1169:Focus isn't about hammering one nail all our lives.
It’s about hammering lots of nails, one way, all our lives. ~ Scott Ginsberg,
1170:Focus only on things you love, feel love, and you will experience that love and joy coming back to you - multiplied! ~ Rhonda Byrne,
1171:focus on the journey, not on arriving at a certain destination. Keep looking to the future, not mourning the past. ~ Chris Hadfield,
1172:For me, I've learned that the best thing is to focus on the team you play for and yourself and what you need to do. ~ Sidney Crosby,
1173:he gazed at the amethyst sky, trying to focus on the miracle of God’s wonders rather than the mystery of God’s plan. ~ Mesu Andrews,
1174:He leaned forward slightly in a teasing manner, as if trying to focus on Carla. He took a step forward and smiled. ~ Olivia Stanton,
1175:His gaze travelled down me, then zipped back to my face. "Sorry." "Focus, Rafe." "I am. Just on the wrong thing. ~ Kelley Armstrong,
1176:I'm very lucky. I am one of those people who is able to go home, shut the front door and completely focus on the kids. ~ Nick Clegg,
1177:Laying my heart out was easier than I’d imagined. Maybe the grim reaper breathing down my neck put things into focus. ~ Celia Aaron,
1178:One of the big things that I focus on is not having regrets, just taking every opportunity I have and going for it. ~ Chris Weidman,
1179:Only perspective brings truth into focus. Where you stand when you look at the facts will determine how they appear. ~ Steven James,
1180:Startups should risk boldness, have a plan, avoid competitive markets, and focus as much on sales as product. ~ Instaread Summaries,
1181:The focus is on singer/songwriters now rather than huge shows. I mean, of course there's always a place for that too. ~ Emeli Sande,
1182:The focus on process rather than purpose creates an insidious opportunity for sly employees to manipulate the system. ~ Laszlo Bock,
1183:There are a lot of limitations so you have to ultimately focus on what you think the most important storyline is. ~ Joseph Kosinski,
1184:The weight is just a tool. Do you focus on the hammer or the nail? You better focus on the thing you're trying to hit. ~ Kai Greene,
1185:they make it clear that their focus is on understanding, honoring, and supporting the business of the client. As ~ Patrick Lencioni,
1186:We must run the race that lies ahead of us and never give up. We must focus on Jesus, the source and goal of our faith. ~ Anonymous,
1187:You really have to focus on what you're doing and just plow ahead no matter what hurdles are thrown in front of you. ~ George Lucas,
1188:A positive attitude goes a long way. Focus your energy on the here and now, and see how a happier you shines through. ~ Jamie Eason,
1189:As she wiped her eyes with one of her lacy cuffs, her despair became rage. Rage became strength. Strength became focus. ~ Fiona Paul,
1190:creativity comes not in exchange for money or rewards but when we focus our attention on something because we want to. ~ David Niven,
1191:Grown-ups everywhere are learning the instrument to relieve stress, focus their minds – and for the sheer joy it brings. ~ Anonymous,
1192:I come to work on time. I focus on my job. I bust my scenes out and everything else kind of happens from there. ~ Michael K Williams,
1193:If I paid too much attention to naysayers or let encouragers bloat my ego, I’d lose focus on what mattered: the company. ~ Anonymous,
1194:If you focus your awareness only upon your own rightness, then you invite the forces of opposition to overwhelm you. ~ Frank Herbert,
1195:In the beginning, I wanted his heart. Then I shifted focus to his body. I was never interested in only friendship. ~ Daria Snadowsky,
1196:I was shy and a hard worker, so acting was a way to focus whatever nervous energy I was experiencing onto a goal. ~ Deborah Ann Woll,
1197:I would love to be able to do a film. I would love to be able to focus on what excites me in watching actors. ~ Charlotte Gainsbourg,
1198:Now is the one time in my life I can be 100% selfish. I'm not married; I don't have kids; I can focus on my career. ~ Kim Kardashian,
1199:One of the nice things about being busy is it makes you focus on what's important to you and how you use your time. ~ Lorne Michaels,
1200:Teenagers only have to focus on themselves - its not until we get older that we realize that other people exist. ~ Jennifer Lawrence,
1201:The months and years of struggle were suddenly canceled by three weeks of exercise and some visualization and focus. ~ Karan Mahajan,
1202:the whisperings from the heart are always authentic and singular in their focus. The heart knows what it wants. The ~ Baron Baptiste,
1203:You don’t know me, but you do need to know that if you’re in bed with me, you focus on me and only fucking me.” She ~ Pepper Winters,
1204:A business environment with an unbalanced focus on short-term results and money before people affects society at large. ~ Simon Sinek,
1205:Concentration, focus, long-term thinking—those are the qualities that separate a warrior from a mere flailing fighter. ~ Timothy Zahn,
1206:Confucius, who had said it was better not to know about ghosts and gods, but rather to focus on the world we lived in. ~ Yangsze Choo,
1207:Efforts to deepen your focus will struggle if you don’t simultaneously wean your mind from a dependence on distraction. ~ Cal Newport,
1208:Even when we change our routines, neural pathways remain etched in our brains, ready to be reactivated when we lose focus. ~ Nir Eyal,
1209:If I lost focus for even a moment, she’s smack me with her stick and say, “Dreaming of dancing with your dark prince? ~ Leigh Bardugo,
1210:If managers focus only on short-term results, they are often justified in continuing to intervene to sustain results. ~ Peter M Senge,
1211:I'm really trying to focus on the storytelling, more so than ever before I think, partly because it makes for easier pages. ~ Jim Lee,
1212:In the United States, workouts tend to focus on body image and how you look. For me, it's really all about the brain. ~ Chris Cornell,
1213:It is the focus on the highest ideal day after day that saves life from being wrapped up in small whirlwinds. ~ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi,
1214:Prayers only help the person doing the praying, and then, only if they strengthen and focus that person's resolve. ~ Octavia E Butler,
1215:The end product of the shorter
deadline is almost inevitably of equal or higher quality due to greater
focus. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
1216:the PlayPump problem: there is a strong incentive in development to focus on projects that look good and sound good. As ~ Tim Harford,
1217:There are a lot of new things going on in the microprocessor world, including increased focus on power and efficiency. ~ Michael Dell,
1218:There is no such thing as failure. Mistakes happen in your life to bring into focus more clearly who you really are. ~ Oprah Winfrey,
1219:the things that aren’t working. Rather, I wrote this book as a guide to focus on and amplify the things that do work. I ~ Simon Sinek,
1220:The truth is that most startups don’t fail because they run out of money. They fail because the entrepreneurs lose focus. ~ Anonymous,
1221:When all hopes are lost, only then does reality acquire that sharp focus that defines who we are and what we have become. ~ Greg Bear,
1222:When we focus on what we can do, it’s amazing how little time we have left to become consumed by our disappointments. ~ Gary L Thomas,
1223:When you focus on the practice instead of the performance, you can enjoy the present moment and improve at the same time. ~ Anonymous,
1224:White House operatives went to great lengths to show Obama shifting focus from wars abroad to domestic issues at home. ~ Ron Fournier,
1225:You psychologists focus on what is wrong with people; I want to focus on what is right and what could be right. ~ Isabel Briggs Myers,
1226:You use your cuts to get people to swing attention to the parts of your message you really want them to focus on. ~ Robert B Cialdini,
1227:Any self-prompt that reminds you to focus on flow not ebb, contributes to your greater sense of abundance. (53) ~ Sarah Ban Breathnach,
1228:Designers need to focus their attention on the cases where things go wrong, not just on when things work as planned. ~ Donald A Norman,
1229:Flint and its lead contaminated water are now the focus of sustained national attention including political attention. ~ Rachel Maddow,
1230:If we are looking for one single action which will enable the poor to overcome their poverty, I would focus on credit ~ Muhammad Yunus,
1231:I like to be alone so I can write. But focus can hurt you. I don't want to be some stress casualty in early middle age. ~ James Ellroy,
1232:I rarely see one of the 'summer blockbuster' movies. I'd like to see a stronger focus on smaller, smarter movies. ~ Christopher Meloni,
1233:It encourages you to focus on your work and the generosity that comes from interacting with (and helping) your community. ~ Seth Godin,
1234:It was strange how badly he longed for her full focus on him, only him, whether or not that attention came with pain. ~ Pepper Winters,
1235:people “who don’t have a chance to take revenge are forced, in a sense, to move on and focus on something different. ~ Robert I Sutton,
1236:Prayer as focus is not a way of limiting what can be seen; it is a habit of attention brought to bear on all that is. ~ Patricia Hampl,
1237:Remember, the Devil loves to make us focus on the little that's wrong so we miss the big picture of all that's right. ~ Lysa TerKeurst,
1238:The beliefs of Native people are no less powerful or important just because they focus on a different "form of magic." ~ Joseph Boyden,
1239:The more you respect and focus on the singular and the strange, the more you become aware of the universal and infinite. ~ Gail Godwin,
1240:They focus on the past, to get vengeance. They never develop, instead relying on the forward-thinking of other nations. ~ Perrin Briar,
1241:This stage involves clear choices and sacrifices that to anyone with a patriarchal focus may look like dropping out. ~ Maureen Murdock,
1242:Tonight, everyone’s focus is on my art, but my focus is on her. She’s the most interesting piece in this entire room. ~ Colleen Hoover,
1243:We just always focus on quality, which can be frustrating during the wait, but which pays off when we're done (we hope). ~ Gabe Newell,
1244:When you get yourself off, do you just focus on your clit or do you fuck your pussy like this?” Hottest. Question. Ever. I ~ J Daniels,
1245:Where I’d had huge success, I had narrowed my concentration to one thing, and where my success varied, my focus had too. ~ Gary Keller,
1246:You can't do everything. You can't do health and forestry and agriculture. You've got to focus and do one or the other. ~ Jane Goodall,
1247:You can’t focus on what everyone else is doing — it has to be about what’s really broken and what you can do to fix it. ~ Drew Houston,
1248:As long as we focus on the outside, there will always be that empty, hungry, lost place inside that needs to be filled. ~ Shakti Gawain,
1249:If you want to be happy, do not dwell in the past, do not worry about the future, focus on living fully in the present. ~ Roy T Bennett,
1250:I’m sorry that I long ago coined the term “objects” for this topic because it gets many people to focus on the lesser idea. ~ Anonymous,
1251:It is important for me to discover the ideal title, for without this title the story or novel isn't quite in focus. ~ Joyce Carol Oates,
1252:It's a skill that people are born with. Either you're a focuser or you're a multitasky person. I am a full-focus person. ~ Jodie Foster,
1253:It was the time of night when the odd feeling of not being quite in focus comes and goes, and all things are mysterious. ~ Tracy Kidder,
1254:I was never that much a focus of interest in my career. I'm aware of that now, which doesn't give me a lot of pleasure. ~ Harrison Ford,
1255:many entrepreneurs focus only on short-term growth. They have an excuse: growth is easy to measure, but durability isn’t. ~ Peter Thiel,
1256:Most organizations I’ve worked with have too many top priorities to achieve the level of focus they need to succeed. ~ Patrick Lencioni,
1257:Proactive people focus their efforts in the Circle of Influence. They work on the things they can do something about. ~ Stephen R Covey,
1258:The more we focus on tangential issues, the less effective we will be in addressing matters of true moral significance. ~ Philip Yancey,
1259:When you focus on the peace behind the problem, you begin to clean up the perceptions creating and attracting the problem. ~ Joe Vitale,
1260:Worship puts God in focus. When the Almighty is in view, our giant’s power over our thinking begins to flicker and fade. ~ Louie Giglio,
1261:you can change the world through careful planning, not by listening to focus group feedback or copying others’ successes. ~ Peter Thiel,
1262:You women-loving men are too focused on being men. Focus on being human, for fravashi sake. Focus on being a friend. ~ Delilah Marvelle,
1263:Absolute focus is the key to all great human achievement. Its opposite, preoccupation, is the enemy of all achievement. ~ Steve Chandler,
1264:Along with a strong belief in your own inner voice, you also need laser-like focus combined with unwavering determination. ~ Larry Flynt,
1265:Also, there was a Princeton study that found that visual clutter reduces your ability to focus and process information. ~ Gretchen Rubin,
1266:Beyond the hand holding this book that I'm reading, I see another hand lying idle and slightly out of focus—my extra hand. ~ Lydia Davis,
1267:Bottom line is when we focus on our strengths and lean in to the strengths of others, we can make the impossible possible. ~ Simon Sinek,
1268:Close the eyes, and focus on the third eye, the heart chakra, or the navel center. It is a good idea to alternate them. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1269:confronted with sudden disaster we all focus on how unremarkable the circumstances were in which the unthinkable occurred, ~ Joan Didion,
1270:Don’t think about those who are not doing it. Focus on your dreams, goals and actions and make sure it is done well. ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
1271:Enough or more?” She tore her focus off Boon to stare into his eyes. “Hit him a few more times. He’s really a dickhead. ~ Laurann Dohner,
1272:Even when something is not your fault, toxic blame has no place in your life. Focus on your own empowerment and healing. ~ Bryant McGill,
1273:Exploration means we disengage from a current focus to search for new possibilities, and allows flexibility, discovery, ~ Daniel Goleman,
1274:Grant me the strength to focus this week, to be mindful and present, to serve with excellence, to be a force of love. ~ Brendon Burchard,
1275:I became very successful at a young age... I had lots of opportunities and lots of power and had no idea how to focus it. ~ Claire Danes,
1276:My focus is to stay up the middle. If I'm a little early I'll hit it to left, if I'm a little late, I'll hit it to right. ~ Andruw Jones,
1277:Remember: what you focus on expands. As I often say in our training, “Where attention goes, energy flows and results show. ~ T Harv Eker,
1278:Somewhat paradoxically, parenting programs should focus on the behavior of the parents not the behavior of the children. ~ Timothy Carey,
1279:The evidence should guide you to a theory; you should not be allowing the theory to guide the evidence upon which you focus. ~ Pat Brown,
1280:The operations of the human mind are also controlled by words of power, formulas that become a focus of mental activity. ~ Northrop Frye,
1281:There are two things that I put my focus on. One is the fight against AIDS and finding a cure. The other is human rights. ~ Judith Light,
1282:To focus means to bring your attention to the center, to concentrate on one thing intently in order to gain clarity. ~ Cheryl Richardson,
1283:We focus so much on how immigrants can change America that we forget that America has always changed immigrants even more. ~ Marco Rubio,
1284:When all else fails, write what your heart tells you. You can't depend on your eyes, when your imagination is out of focus. ~ Mark Twain,
1285:When our focus is toward a principle of relatedness and oneness, and away from fragmentation and isolation, health ensues ~ Larry Dossey,
1286:When the world shifts its focus on heart over mind, we will finally experience a beautiful global garden for our children. ~ Suzy Kassem,
1287:When words become unclear, I shall focus with photographs. When images become inadequate, I shall be content with silence. ~ Ansel Adams,
1288:You can’t focus on death, or failure. Otherwise you’re surrendering greatness to all the people too dumb to contemplate it. ~ David Wong,
1289:You can't grow and learn if your focus is on finding someone else to blame instead of looking at your own shortcomings. ~ John C Maxwell,
1290:17. Focus your attention: Stop the interruptions and distractions that interfere with completing your most important tasks. ~ Brian Tracy,
1291:An important re-engineering principle is that companies should focus on their core competence and outsource everything else. ~ Bill Gates,
1292:A small communication breakdown is enough for everyone to be working on slightly different things. And then you loose focus. ~ Sam Altman,
1293:As players, you just play for the club. I love Man United, I'm going to play for Man United, and that's what my focus is on. ~ Ryan Giggs,
1294:Don’t focus on the minutia in life. When
you come to a wall in the road, life is telling you to make a turn. Go for it. ~ Howard Murad,
1295:Focus. Focus. Focus...on your burning priorities. Say no to everything else. Life's short. You only get one shot at great. ~ Robin Sharma,
1296:Happiness Habits for Empowerment 1. Focus on the Solution 2. Look for the Lesson and the Gift 3. Make Peace with Yourself ~ Marci Shimoff,
1297:His gaze travelled down me, then zipped back to my face. "Sorry."
"Focus, Rafe."
"I am. Just on the wrong thing. ~ Kelley Armstrong,
1298:How, without detaching ourselves from the spell of the past, can we focus fully on the moment that faces us? ~ Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni,
1299:If you fear to know the cost, the value will definitely be lost. Focus your attentions on the product, not the price. ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
1300:I love any kind of acting, so if I could focus on becoming the best actor I can strictly on my voice, I would love that. ~ Jennifer Stone,
1301:I'm someone who loves to enjoy life and tries to focus on real things and real friendships. That's why I live very simply. ~ Cameron Diaz,
1302:In acceptance, there is a decreased preoccupation with “doingness,” a growing focus on the quality of beingness itself, ~ David R Hawkins,
1303:In the end, the focus on safety should be credited to the entire firearms-owning community, the “gun culture” if you will. ~ Massad Ayoob,
1304:My focus has kind of been on teenagers, you know, and I think we've got a huge crisis right now in America, among our teens. ~ Sean Covey,
1305:People who fail focus on what they will have to go through; people who succeed focus on what it will feel like at the end. ~ Tony Robbins,
1306:Since he saved me from the attack, I have associated his smell with safety, so as long as I focus on it, I feel safe now. ~ Veronica Roth,
1307:The sun’s rays, focused, are much more powerful than they are without focus. The same is true for people seeking power. ~ Jeffrey Pfeffer,
1308:Treat reluctance like seasickness," Errol said, picking something off his sleeve. "If you feel it, focus on the horizon. ~ Daniel Handler,
1309:Trump, one guest noted, always more salesman than politician, seemed to have the capacity to focus only on the good news. ~ Michael Wolff,
1310:We should focus on the things that are bad that we can immediately control, because people are always going to be people. ~ Vince Staples,
1311:Whatever you focus on, you become. That is the key line, you know. Meditation is the bow and concentration is the arrow. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1312:When all else fails, write what your heart tells you. You can't depend on your eyes, when your imagination are out of focus. ~ Mark Twain,
1313:When the world shifts its focus on heart over mind, we will finally experience a beautiful global village for our children. ~ Suzy Kassem,
1314:When we work heartily for the Lord, the mundane becomes meaningful, and the bigger tasks are given greater energy and focus. ~ Lara Casey,
1315:will largely be determined by how faithfully we focus on living the gospel in the home. ~ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints,
1316:Work diligently. Work hard. Focus. Perform as if you are at the Olympics. One day, unexpectedly, it will start paying off. ~ Joan Marques,
1317:A simply luxurious life is not easy to create initially because it requires that we focus on quality and let go of excess. ~ Shannon Ables,
1318:Flawless results only meant you needed to maintain your skills in this area, and focus on becoming better somewhere else. ~ Robert J Crane,
1319:Instead of letting the feelings from this situation label me, I’m going to focus on God and His promises for good things. ~ Lysa TerKeurst,
1320:I tend to be not my own best company. I can get a little lost when - if I don't have my work to occasionally focus me. ~ Bruce Springsteen,
1321:Lets take the best of our ideas from Global Drucker Forum, and the best of our language, and then focus and clarify. ~ Clayton Christensen,
1322:My focus is not merely a beautiful city, but a city that's made beautiful on the parameters of good health and cleanliness ~ Narendra Modi,
1323:Simply stated, your church will not likely be ready for change until it experiences some action steps of an outward focus. ~ Thom S Rainer,
1324:Tennis is my life, obviously; I need to focus, I need to win. But it's not the only thing. I'm not going to play forever. ~ Novak Djokovic,
1325:To protect themselves, the weak focus on the "bad" in people. Conversely, the strong, who fear little, focus on the "good". ~ Iimani David,
1326:We need to invest at the local party unit and focus our energy on turn out. That's how we come back, and we can come back. ~ Keith Ellison,
1327:What are the things you are grateful for?? Feel the gratitude.. focus on what you have right now that you are grateful for. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
1328:When you focus on what you have, your ABUNDANCE increases. I started with my breath. Noticing being alive is a good start! ~ Oprah Winfrey,
1329:When you live out of your memory, you focus on the past. When you live out of your imagination, you focus on the future. ~ Stephen R Covey,
1330:When you lose people that are close to you it brings everything into focus, and the rest kind of gets put on the back burner. ~ Vince Gill,
1331:You can tell a story clearly in the storyboards, but if you don't keep the correct focus in the animation, it can be ruined. ~ Lee Unkrich,
1332:And I think in theater, people don't really focus on the media unless there's a huge superstar doing a play or something. ~ Elizabeth Olsen,
1333:Anger is like a storm rising up from the bottom of your consciousness. When you feel it coming, turn your focus to your breath. ~ Nhat Hanh,
1334:As if the years he had spent interpreting signs that no one else could even see had stretched him, pulled him out of focus. ~ Cameron Dokey,
1335:Bad days my memory functions no better than an out-of-focus kaleidoscope, but other days me recall is painfully perfect. ~ Mordecai Richler,
1336:I dont have a huge breakfast, and I sometimes forget to have lunch, so I focus on dinner. I love Thai and Japanese food. ~ Saffron Aldridge,
1337:If you want to create a great product, just focus on one person. Make that one person have the most amazing experience ever. ~ Brian Chesky,
1338:I got my bearings, I began to focus. My mother was very supportive. When I came back to New York I landed a job at Hot 97. ~ Angie Martinez,
1339:I like to be in a different place when I make a movie so that I can't really focus on anything else, and that is your world. ~ Jodie Foster,
1340:I shift my focus from trying to fix the other person and the situation to allowing God to reveal some tender truths to me. ~ Lysa TerKeurst,
1341:I think universal harmony is a pipedream and it may be more productive to focus on more modest goals, like a ban on yodeling. ~ Woody Allen,
1342:It is wonderful when you don't have the fear, and a lot of the time I don't ... I focus on what needs to be done instead. ~ Wangari Maathai,
1343:I want to design my own clothing line. I'm very into fashion. It's something I really want to focus on when swimming is over. ~ Ryan Lochte,
1344:Man is not a circle with a single centre; he is an ellipse with a double focus. Facts form one of these, and ideas the other. ~ Victor Hugo,
1345:My approach has never been to conduct business as usual. Instead it’s been to focus on culture and imagine what’s possible. ~ Satya Nadella,
1346:My main focus is to try to give myself time to heal...Forgiveness takes time. It is the last step of the grieving process. ~ Elin Nordegren,
1347:One of the most effective ways to overcome anxiety is to try to shift the focus of attention away from self and toward others. ~ Dalai Lama,
1348:Someone said your name, or something that sounded like your name. That was enough to signal to your brain to perk up and focus. ~ Anonymous,
1349:Sometimes we worry about the things that you know that matter the least and don't focus on the things that matter the most. ~ Kevin Costner,
1350:Technology is notorious for engrossing people so much that they don't always focus on balance and enjoy life at the same time. ~ Paul Allen,
1351:The first mistake brands make is they fail to focus on the aspects of their offer that will help people survive and thrive. ~ Donald Miller,
1352:The moment you concentrate the focus of your mind on a singular purpose, extraordinary gifts will appear within your life. ~ Robin S Sharma,
1353:There's people that focus on the game and forget about the art. There's that specific special individual that can do both. ~ Conor McGregor,
1354:The unique ability to take decisive action while maintainign focus on the ultimate mission is what defines a true leader. ~ Robert Kiyosaki,
1355:Think of how much more time and energy we would have to focus on other things that matter if we weren’t so busy surviving. ~ Rebecca Solnit,
1356:To dream" means to focus and zoom the photos of destiny called visions for clearer view, manipulation and exploitation. ~ Israelmore Ayivor,
1357:To learn hard things quickly, you must focus intensely without distraction. To learn, in other words, is an act of deep work. ~ Cal Newport,
1358:When life attains a crisis, man’s focus narrows. […] The world becomes a stage of immediate concern, swept free of illusion. ~ Jim Thompson,
1359:A clear purpose will unite you as you move forward, values will guide your behavior, and goals will focus your energy. ~ Kenneth H Blanchard,
1360:As I read, I could feel my mother’s presence so acutely, her absence so profoundly, that it was hard to focus on the words. ~ Cheryl Strayed,
1361:College admissions have become the focus not only of secondary schooling but of contemporary American childhood writ large. ~ Malcolm Harris,
1362:Focus comes not from working without distractions, but with a devotion so intense that distractions fall from our awareness. ~ Eric Greitens,
1363:Focus on the center of the chest, relax. Imagine a rose there. Feel it unfolding. Let yourself go and ignore your thoughts. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1364:For next several years PSU can focus on rebuilding its athletic culture, not worrying about whether it's going to a bowl game. ~ Mark Emmert,
1365:I think it's almost an indulgence to focus on the dark side of things. And as you get older, you want to focus on the positive. ~ Rob Brydon,
1366:I've approached so many things in my life with such intensity that I want to approach motherhood with dedication and focus. ~ Drew Barrymore,
1367:Meditation is hard. You are constantly trying to focus on one thing, usually your breath, and your mind is going to go berserk. ~ Dan Harris,
1368:Mindfulness helps us to focus on one goal at a time. It helps us to be more relaxed, patience and compassionate towards the goal. ~ Amit Ray,
1369:One foot in front of the other, counting tiles on the floor so I don't have to focus the blur of painted smiles, fake faces. ~ Ellen Hopkins,
1370:One of the greatest advantages of singleness is the potential for greater focus on Christ and accomplishing work for Him. ~ Elizabeth George,
1371:People who fail focus on what they will have to go through; people who succeed focus on what it will feel like at the end. ~ Anthony Robbins,
1372:pulling focus away from a particular problem (and, instead, looking at the environment around it) can lead to better solutions. ~ Ed Catmull,
1373:She was like a camera that had been chronically out of focus until someone came by and twisted the lenses into alignment. ~ Deborah Harkness,
1374:Simplified living is about more than doing less. It’s being who God called us to be, with a wholehearted, single-minded focus. ~ Bill Hybels,
1375:Sustaining the energy and focus involved in doing a good job I think starts to - starts to gets tougher the longer you do it. ~ Barack Obama,
1376:The ability to focus attnetion on important things is a defining characteristic of intelligence."---Irrational Exuberance ~ Robert J Shiller,
1377:The need of the hour is to think big. The more we focus on skill, scale & speed, it will increase India's growth trajectory. ~ Narendra Modi,
1378:The New World Order that is in the making must focus on the creation of a world of democracy, peace and prosperity for all. ~ Nelson Mandela,
1379:The only way I know how to deliver is to focus; some people can turn it on or off - I'd rather stay in character. ~ Adewale Akinnuoye Agbaje,
1380:There is so much greatness to be known and felt by looking at God and his world, they believed, why would we focus on ourselves? ~ Anonymous,
1381:The smaller your ToDos, the faster you move work across the board. The more you retain your focus. The less multitasking you do. ~ Anonymous,
1382:Unconditional response-ability is self-empowering. It lets you focus on those aspects of the situation that you can influence. ~ Fred Kofman,
1383:Vision is the ability to see God’s presence, to perceive God’s power, to focus on God’s plan in spite of the obstacles. ~ Charles R Swindoll,
1384:When u move ur focus from competition to contribution life becomes a celebration. Never try 2defeat people, just win their hearts. ~ Buddha,
1385:‎YA heroines can choose to have sex & they can choose not to without either decision becoming the focus of their story. ~ Celine Kiernan,
1386:Concentration comes not from trying hard to focus on something, but from keeping your mind open and directing it at nothing. ~ Shunryu Suzuki,
1387:Corporations today, by their razor sharp focus on the 'bottom line' and quarterly earnings, have lost their ability to innovate. ~ John Maeda,
1388:Experience isn’t a place; it’s a focus of attention. You can live there, at the still point around which everything revolves. ~ Deepak Chopra,
1389:Focus on being grateful for what you have already .. enjoy it!! Then release into the universe. The universe will manifest it. ~ Rhonda Byrne,
1390:I focus on my work. If I let myself get distracted by the insults and slanders I wouldn't get anything substantive done. ~ Norman Finkelstein,
1391:If you innovate broadly, focus on the customer experience, and deliver everyday a great product, you will gain share. ~ Michael J Silverstein,
1392:If you lack the mental focus to stay with one activity for any length of time, you will never be able to achieve your goals, ~ Robin S Sharma,
1393:I love team sports - they give me something to focus on rather than the fact that I can't breathe or my muscles are aching. ~ Sanjeev Bhaskar,
1394:I realized I ought to be paying attention, but all of my focus was driven toward keeping a calm and happy expression on my face. ~ Kiera Cass,
1395:I really just try to focus every day on delivering the most honest portrayal I can and let everything else take care of itself. ~ Sherri Saum,
1396:It's great when you can just focus your whole attention on the music and hear all of the decisions and choices that were made. ~ Michael Cera,
1397:It's really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people don't know what they want until you show it to them. ~ Steve Jobs,
1398:Just focus on being the best possible version of yourself and quit worrying about your thighs, there's nothing wrong with them. ~ Jennie Runk,
1399:My first obligation is my job. It's very hard to really get into campaign mode when you've got to focus on doing the work. ~ Claire McCaskill,
1400:Play is also part of developing trust. Play opens the heart and gives delight and focus, like an abacus did when we were young. ~ Anne Lamott,
1401:The album requires a certain focus of mine that I can't really explain - let's just say it's all I can really do while I'm doing it. ~ Eminem,
1402:This is torment for me, Eva. I can’t focus. I can’t sleep. I lose my temper at the slightest irritants. I’m in hell without you. ~ Sylvia Day,
1403:To become wise, meditate on the third eye, between the eyebrows and a little bit above. Focus on that spot, the Agni chakra. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1404:We each matter and we’re each worthy.” He took a deep breath. “So I focus on that, and when I do, everything seems brighter. ~ Megan Erickson,
1405:When you fall in love you recognise you're not the most important person in the world, and your focus becomes another person. ~ Russell Brand,
1406:With training and self discipline; clear focus and confidence; problems can be overcome and even lead to unexpected gains ~ Georges St Pierre,
1407:Yet in one sense they can miss it: that is, by failing to focus on it, even when in general terms they are aware of its reality. ~ J I Packer,
1408:You know, it's recently come into focus for me why I want to be an actor: It's because of the connection I feel to people. ~ Jessica Chastain,
1409:Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries on earth. Security issue or no security issue, there would need to be a focus on it. ~ Helen Clark,
1410:After the children grew up, I began to focus on my writing. My first books were part of a trilogy... The 'Wind Dance' trilogy. ~ Iris Johansen,
1411:As you advance in life, different passions can take the front seat, so for me, business is where my primary focus is right now. ~ Marie Forleo,
1412:Breathe out unwanted thoughts with your exhale and re-focus your attention directly on what is important right now, at this moment. ~ Amit Ray,
1413:Focus on the core problem your business solves & put out lots of content & enthusiasm, & ideas about how to solve that problem. ~ Laura Fitton,
1414:I am not blinded by the past or motivated by the future. I focus on the present, because that is where I am destined to live. ~ David Levithan,
1415:If a business has to be told that it needs more focus, accountability and decisiveness, there is a bigger problem at hand. ~ Brad Garlinghouse,
1416:if we focus on what's ugly, we attract more ugliness into our thoughts, and then into our emotions, and ultimately into our lives ~ Wayne Dyer,
1417:If you get called on to help somebody pull focus to some good cause, that's good use of your fame. I don't try to avoid that. ~ Morgan Freeman,
1418:I hope (the United States) will change and they will now focus entirely on helping and building a stronger, better Afghanistan. ~ Hamid Karzai,
1419:Im not a part of the glamour industry. I would like to focus on my game, and there are minimal chances of me getting into films. ~ Sania Mirza,
1420:In America, there seems to be more focus on the idea that it's important to do things differently. In Britain, it's not an issue. ~ Thom Yorke,
1421:It always pays off to focus on things that will make you feel proud. Remember this during every difficult decision you face. ~ Richard Branson,
1422:It's never too late. Don't focus on what was taken away. Find something to replace it, and acknowledge the blessing you have. ~ Drew Barrymore,
1423:It's scary but as an actress it is my job to be vulnerable, so I try to just embrace it and focus on the things I can control. ~ Sadie Calvano,
1424:Mindfulness is like having the freedom to point our camera at all sorts of interesting objects once we know how to focus it. ~ Ronald D Siegel,
1425:Organizations don’t execute unless the right people, individually and collectively, focus on the right details at the right time. ~ Ram Charan,
1426:That sounds really interesting. I’m working on A, B, and C right now. Which should I set aside in order to focus on this project? ~ Kate White,
1427:The earlier you learn that you should focus on what you have, and not obsess about what you don't have, the happier you will be. ~ Amy Poehler,
1428:The most important single thing is to focus obsessively on the customer. Our goal is to be earth's most customer-centric company. ~ Jeff Bezos,
1429:The person who has a highly evolved will they think, they build an image and they focus on that image.”


― Bob Proctor ~ Bob Proctor,
1430:We should all strive to be extraordinary, and that starts with a focus on our own capabilities instead of those of our opponents. ~ Don Yaeger,
1431:Above all, don’t dwell on yesterday’s victory. If your focus is on what’s behind you rather than what’s ahead, you will crash. ~ John C Maxwell,
1432:A brain in a negative emotional state provides focus: precisely what is needed to maintain attention on a task and finish it. ~ Donald A Norman,
1433:Changing the focus of the conversation from religion to Jesus actually invites people to face him and the grace he provides. ~ Jefferson Bethke,
1434:Cultivation theorists focus the majority of their research on heavy viewers, or those who watch more than four hours of TV per day. ~ Anonymous,
1435:For whatever reason, we like to focus on the 2 percent that's different, an most of the conflict in the world comes from that. ~ David Levithan,
1436:If we consider my latest book, Strategie de la deception, what we need to focus on are the other aspects of the same phenomenon. ~ Paul Virilio,
1437:I had been a religion major, with a focus on scriptural languages, and upon receiving my degree, felt qualified to do--nothing. ~ Peter Manseau,
1438:In meditation have a complete focus on light, brightness, spiritual oneness, God, infinity, eternity. You know - silly things. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1439:I suggest that if you were able to focus your attention at will, you could actually choose the universe you appear to inhabit. ~ B Alan Wallace,
1440:I think my biggest focus for myself is learning how to continue to get through the trauma that my father has caused in my life. ~ Lindsay Lohan,
1441:It’s all about our power to focus consciousness, which is the great secret of some of our most ancient and cherished traditions. ~ Gregg Braden,
1442:I wake up sometimes with an idea and then I write it down. It's not necessarily easy, but when you focus on something it comes. ~ Vince Staples,
1443:Just see how it glints and sparkles. Of course it is a nucleus and focus of crime. Every good stone is. They are the devil ~ Arthur Conan Doyle,
1444:Let's focus on the funny. ... That's what I'm focused on... This is the gift God gave me. That's what I want to touch in people. ~ Tracy Morgan,
1445:One of my biggest assets is my ability to focus on something and go out and get it, but it's one of my biggest weaknesses too. ~ Daniel Cormier,
1446:Organize as much as possible around teams, to achieve enhanced focus, task orientation, innovativeness, and individual commitment. ~ Tom Peters,
1447:People getting their mercury fillings removed report immediate and dramatic changes in focus, attention, memory, concentration. ~ David Goodman,
1448:The proper focus of holiness is not on being set apart from something (i.e., the world), but on being set apart for something. ~ Michael Horton,
1449:told him that instead of focusing on eradicating terrorism through war, he should focus on eradicating it through education. ~ Malala Yousafzai,
1450:We can be more or less conscious when you create grades of focus on a subject that is flowing in our stream of consciousness. ~ Antonio Damasio,
1451:What if, in raising children, we focus on ability instead of gender? What if we focus on interest instead of gender? ~ Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie,
1452:"When we focus our attention in the here and now and live simply, we have more time to do the things we think are important." ~ Thich Nhat Hanh,
1453:World all twisted up and wrong, like distorted glass, only came back into focus if you looked at it through bottom of bottle. ~ Terry Pratchett,
1454:Yes, you bit me, yes, I kind of liked it, yes, let's not talk about it again, said Jace. You're not a vampire anymore. Focus. ~ Cassandra Clare,
1455:Your current thoughts are creating your future life. What you think about the most or focus on the most will appear as your life ~ Rhonda Byrne,
1456:A focus on being good distracts us from coming to terms with our sin; and it is because of our sin that Christ needed to die. ~ Timothy J Keller,
1457:A solid answer to everything is not necessary. Blurry concepts influence one to focus, but postulated clarity influences arrogance. ~ Criss Jami,
1458:Beware of putting all your focus into results. While results are important, your people should be your number one area of focus. ~ Ken Blanchard,
1459:Effective philanthropy requires a lot of time and creativity - the same kind of focus and skills that building a business requires. ~ Bill Gates,
1460:Fearlessness requires attention and receptivity-it takes focus to stand in the still eye of a tornado and not be swept away by it. ~ Susan Piver,
1461:Focus too much on the near-term and you won't get tomorrow's customers, focus too much on the long-term and you won't get today's. ~ Aaron Levie,
1462:For whatever reason, we like to focus on the 2 percent that's different, and most of the conflict in the world comes from that. ~ David Levithan,
1463:if we focus on what's ugly, we attract more ugliness into our thoughts, and then into our emotions, and ultimately into our lives ~ Wayne W Dyer,
1464:I'm an incurable optimist and a go-getter - it's in my nature to focus much more on what makes me happy than what makes me nervous. ~ Demi Moore,
1465:Instead, we must focus on our hopes. If we cannot anchor ourselves in a belief that we will succeed, we have already been defeated. ~ Robin Hobb,
1466:In the end, a lack of focus is usually just fear: fear that whatever project I’m attempting will go nowhere or fail miserably. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
1467:I try mainly to just focus on character and what my character's point of view is, with each person, and try to figure out story. ~ Katie Cassidy,
1468:people with a positive attitude focus their time and attention on solutions, not problems. Just about anybody can see problems. ~ John C Maxwell,
1469:The Law of Attraction requires that we focus our attention on what we do want, rather than what we don't want, Focus on loving you. ~ Louise Hay,
1470:The simple act of visualizing, which requires mindfulness, focus, and creativity, frees the mind from mental chatter and negativity. ~ S J Scott,
1471:The thing is, you can cut off a couple passions and only focus on one, but after a while, you’ll start to feel phantom limb pain. ~ Austin Kleon,
1472:To manage a system effectively, you might focus on the interactions of the parts rather than their behavior taken separately. ~ Russell L Ackoff,
1473:When I'm in focus mode, I do training six times a week. Carbs only in the morning. And I try not to eat at least two hours before bed. ~ Ciara,
1474:When it came to producing a state of focus, quiet contentment, and inner peace, Zen meditation ran a very distant second to caffeine. ~ Joe Hill,
1475:When we focus our thoughts on something, we resonate with it. When that resonance is constant and directed, we draw it to us. ~ Stephen Richards,
1476:Although there is much talk about small firms creating jobs, and increasingly a focus of policymakers, this is mainly a myth. ~ Mariana Mazzucato,
1477:Do all brilliant ideas seem brilliant from the very beginning, or do they seem far-fetched until they come into clearer focus? ~ Elin Hilderbrand,
1478:God's Word is especially suited to directing those who want to focus primarily on the nature and direction of their own hearts. ~ James MacDonald,
1479:I like having some things very clear while other things are obscured... so that it kind of keeps coming into and out of focus. ~ Jonathan Meiburg,
1480:Important achievements require a clear focus, all-out effort, and a bottomless trunk full of strategies. Plus allies in learning. ~ Carol S Dweck,
1481:I placed the highest priority on the sort of life that lets me focus on writing, not associating with all the people around me. ~ Haruki Murakami,
1482:I think it'd be a whole lot better if you focus on what we do well than what we're unable to do. Isn't that what you call fair? ~ Haruki Murakami,
1483:I try to focus on practice. This is work time. This is where we work, this is our office. I try not to let it distract me too much. ~ Reggie Bush,
1484:It’s not that these thoughts are bad. It’s just that when we focus our attention on ourselves, we turn our attention away from God. ~ Renee Swope,
1485:it's perfectly okay to paraphrase Nietzche: if you keep your focus, eventually your focus will keep you. Sometimes without parole. ~ Stephen King,
1486:I've never been good at being nostalgic, and I've never been able to focus on sound without having a voice that's very here-and-now. ~ Jenny Hval,
1487:Just be careful of forming close relationships, Craig. Focus on yourself.” “Okay.” “Only then does healing take place.” “All right. ~ Ned Vizzini,
1488:Now I know a lot about NATO - NATO is obsolete, and the reason it's obsolete is because of the fact they don't focus on terrorism. ~ Donald Trump,
1489:People focus on role models; it is more effective to find antimodels - people you don't want to resemble when you grow up ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
1490:People want you to play the songs they know. I try not to reflect too much, and I don't really like to focus too much on myself. ~ John Darnielle,
1491:She was so close to what she wanted - the focus of her whole existence for more then a year now was just so close.
My death. ~ Stephenie Meyer,
1492:Stop worrying about tomorrow. Stop thinking about yesterday. Mindfulness is to be here now, in the moment. Focus on this moment. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1493:The majority of photographers focus on the obvious. They believe and accept what their eyes tell them, and yet eyes know nothing. ~ Duane Michals,
1494:The path is focus. The power of focus is absolutely essential. To stop all thoughts, you have to have tremendous power of focus. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1495:There's been a sea change in our focus on corporate ethics. We've made more progress in the last three years than the previous 30. ~ Steve Odland,
1496:To create your best work, you’ll have to make room for it. You’ll have to cut out the excess noise and focus on what really matters: ~ Jeff Goins,
1497:We believe in saying no to thousands of projects so that we can really focus on the few that are truly important and meaningful to us. ~ Tim Cook,
1498:What if, in raising children, we focus on ability instead of gender? What if we focus on interest instead of gender? I ~ Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie,
1499:What we focus on determines how we feel. And how we feel - our state of mind - powerfully influences our actions and interactions. ~ Tony Robbins,
1500:When people focus on themselves rather than on their impact, lots of activity and effort get wasted on the wrong things. ~ The Arbinger Institute,

IN CHAPTERS [150/196]



   72 Integral Yoga
   21 Christianity
   19 Fiction
   12 Occultism
   10 Integral Theory
   9 Yoga
   8 Science
   8 Psychology
   7 Philosophy
   5 Poetry
   2 Cybernetics
   1 Thelema
   1 Mysticism
   1 Alchemy


   33 Satprem
   29 The Mother
   27 Nolini Kanta Gupta
   20 H P Lovecraft
   17 Sri Aurobindo
   16 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
   9 Swami Krishnananda
   5 Plotinus
   5 Peter J Carroll
   5 Carl Jung
   4 Thubten Chodron
   4 Jordan Peterson
   4 Aleister Crowley
   2 Sri Ramakrishna
   2 Norbert Wiener
   2 Nirodbaran
   2 Genpo Roshi


   20 Lovecraft - Poems
   9 The Study and Practice of Yoga
   8 The Phenomenon of Man
   8 Let Me Explain
   8 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03
   7 Sri Aurobindo or the Adventure of Consciousness
   7 Agenda Vol 03
   6 The Synthesis Of Yoga
   5 Liber Null
   5 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 07
   5 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01
   4 The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
   4 Maps of Meaning
   4 How to Free Your Mind - Tara the Liberator
   4 Agenda Vol 08
   3 The Secret Doctrine
   3 On the Way to Supermanhood
   3 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 04
   3 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02
   3 Agenda Vol 12
   2 Twelve Years With Sri Aurobindo
   2 The Mother With Letters On The Mother
   2 Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 01
   2 On Thoughts And Aphorisms
   2 Mysterium Coniunctionis
   2 Liber ABA
   2 Cybernetics
   2 Agenda Vol 13


00.03 - Upanishadic Symbolism, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   But Yama did answer and unveil the mystery and impart the supreme secret knowledge the knowledge of the Transcendent Brahman: it is out of the transcendent reality that the immanent deity takes his birth. Hence the Divine Fire, the Lord of creation and the Inner Mastersarvabhtntartm, antarymis called brahmajam, born of the Brahman. Yama teaches the process of transcendence. Apart from the knowledge and experience first of the individual and then of the cosmic Brahman, there is a definite line along which the human consciousness (or unconsciousness, as it is at present) is to ascend and evolve. The first step is to learn to distinguish between the Good and the Pleasurable (reya and preya). The line of pleasure leads to the external, the superficial, the false: while the other path leads towards the inner and the higher truth. So the second step is the gradual withdrawal of the consciousness from the physical and the sensual and even the mental preoccupation and Focussing it upon what is certain and permanent. In the midst of the death-ridden consciousness in the heart of all that is unstable and fleetingone has to look for Agni, the eternal godhead, the Immortal in mortality, the Timeless in time through whom lies the passage to Immortality beyond Time.
   Man has two souls corresponding to his double status. In the inferior, the soul looks downward and is involved in the current of Impermanence and Ignorance, it tastes of grief and sorrow and suffers death and dissolution: in the higher it looks upward and communes and joins with the Eternal (the cosmic) and then with the Absolute (the transcendent). The lower is a reflection of the higher, the higher comes down in a diminished and hence tarnished light. The message is that of deliverance, the deliverance and reintegration of the lower soul out of its bondage of worldly ignorant life into the freedom and immortality first of its higher and then of its highest status. It is true, however, that the Upanishad does not make a trenchant distinction between the cosmic and the transcendent and often it speaks of both in the same breath, as it were. For in fact they are realities involved in each other and interwoven. Indeed the triple status, including the Individual, forms one single totality and the three do not exclude or cancel each other; on the contrary, they combine and may be said to enhance each other's reality. The Transcendence expresses or deploys itself in the cosmoshe goes abroad,sa paryagt: and the cosmic individualises, concretises itself in the particular and the personal. The one single spiritual reality holds itself, aspects itself in a threefold manner.

0.00 - The Book of Lies Text, #The Book of Lies, #Aleister Crowley, #Philosophy
   The Ego is but "the ghost of a non-Ego", the imaginary Focus at which the
  non-Ego becomes sensible.

0.01f - FOREWARD, #The Phenomenon of Man, #Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, #Christianity
  But to do this we must Focus our eyes correctly.
  From the dawn of his existence, man has been held up as a

01.09 - The Parting of the Way, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   This passage from the self-conscient to the super-conscient does not imply merely a shifting of the Focus of consciousness. The transmutation of consciousness involves a purer illumination, a surer power and a wider compass; it involves also a fundamental change in the very mode of being and living. It gives quite a different life-intuition and a different life-power. The change in the motif brings about a new form altogether, a re-casting and re-shaping and re-energising of the external materials as well. As the lift from mere consciousness to self-consciousness meant all the difference between an animal and a man, so the lift again from self-consciousness to super-consciousness will mean the difference of a whole world between man and the divine creature that is to be.
   Indeed it is a divine creature that should be envisaged on the next level of evolution. The mental and the moral, the psychical and the physical transfigurations which must follow the change in the basic substratum do imply such a mutation, the birth of a new species, as it were, fashioned in the nature of the gods. The vision of angels and Siddhas, which man is having ceaselessly since his birth, may be but a prophecy of the future actuality.

01.10 - Nicholas Berdyaev: God Made Human, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Nicholas Berdyaev is an ardent worker, as a Russian is naturally expected to be, in the cause of the spiritual rehabilitation of mankind. He is a Christian, a neo-Christian: some of his conclusions are old-world truths and bear repetition and insistence; others are of a more limited, conditional and even doubtful nature. His conception of the value of human person, the dignity and the high reality he gives to it, can never be too welcome in a world where the individual seems to have gone the way of vanished empires and kings and princes. But even more important and interesting is the view he underlines that the true person is a spiritual being, that is to say, it is quite other than the empirical ego that man normally is"not this that one worships" as the Upanishads too declare. Further, in his spiritual being man, the individual, is not simply a portion or a fraction; he is, on the contrary, an integer, a complete whole, a creative Focus; the true individual is a microcosm yet holding in it and imaging the macrocosm. Only perhaps greater stress is laid upon the aspect of creativity or activism. An Eastern sage, a Vedantin, would look for the true spiritual reality behind the flux of forces: Prakriti or Energy is only the executive will of the Purusha, the Conscious Being. The personality in Nature is a formulation and emanation of the transcendent impersonality.
   There is another aspect of personality as viewed by Berdyaev which involves a bias of the more orthodox Christian faith: the Christ is inseparable from the Cross. So he says: "There is no such thing as personality if there is no capacity for suffering. Suffering is inherent in God too, if he is a personality, and not merely an abstract idea. God shares in the sufferings of men. He yearns for responsive love. There are divine as well as human passions and therefore divine or creative personality must always suffer to the end of time. A condition of anguish and distress is inherent in it." The view is logically enforced upon the Christian, it is said, if he is to accept incarnation, God becoming flesh. Flesh cannot but be weak. This very weakness, so human, is and must be specially characteristic of God also, if he is one with man and his lover and saviour.

01.10 - Principle and Personality, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The thing, however, is that what you call principles do not drop from heaven in their virgin purity and all at once lay hold of mankind en masse. It is always through a particular individual that a great principle manifests itself. Principles do not live in the general mind of man and even if they live, they live secreted and unconscious; it is only a puissant personality, who has lived the principle, that can bring it forward into life and action, can awaken, like the Vedic Dawn, what was dead in allmritam kanchana bodhayanti. Men in general are by themselves 'inert and indifferent; they have little leisure or inclination to seek, from any inner urge of their own, for principles and primal truths; they become conscious of these only when expressed and embodied in some great and rare soul. An Avatar, a Messiah or a Prophet is the centre, the Focus through which a Truth and Law first dawns and then radiates and spreads abroad. The little lamps are all lighted by the sparks that the great torch scatters.
   And yet we yield to none in our demand for holding forth the principles always and ever before the wide open gaze of all. The principle is there to make people self-knowing and self-guiding; and the man is also there to illustrate that principle, to serve as the hope and prophecy of achievement. The living soul is there to touch your soul, if you require the touch; and the principle is there by which to test and testify. For, we do not ask anybody to be a mere automaton, a blind devotee, a soul without individual choice and initiative. On the contrary, we insist on each and every individual to find his own soul and stand on his own Truththis is the fundamental principle we declare, the only creedif creed it be that we ask people to note and freely follow. We ask all people to be fully self-dependent and self-illumined, for only thus can a real and solid reconstruction of human nature and society be possible; we do not wish that they should bow down ungrudgingly to anything, be it a principle or a personality. In this respect we claim the very first rank of iconoclasts and anarchists. And along with that, if we still choose to remain an idol-lover and a hero-worshipper, it is because we recognise that our mind, human as it is, being not a simple equation but a complex paradox, the idol or the hero symbolises for us and for those who so will, the very iconoclasm and anarchism and perhaps other more positive things as wellwhich we behold within and seek to manifest.

0 1960-03-03, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   And there are many, many experiences like this. It is only a small, a very small beginning. This one in particular came to mark the new stage: four years have elapsed, and now four years to come. Because everything has Focused on this body to prepare it, everything has concentrated on itNature, the Master of the Yoga, the Supreme, everything So only when its over, not before, will it really be interesting to speak of all this. But maybe it will never be over, after all. Its a small beginning, very small.
   The Darshan on February 29, 1960, the first anniversary of the Supramental Manifestation.

0 1961-01-10, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Later, Satprem asked Mother, 'Is it a single vibration that CAN REPEAT itself endlessly or that REPEATS itself endlessly?' Mother replied: 'I meant several things at once. This single vibration is in static latency everywhere but when you realize it consciously you have the power to make it active wherever you direct it; that is, one doesn't "move" something, but makes it active by the insistence of the consciousness wherever you Focus it.'
   Twice a week, during the period of the Playground Talks, Mother would publicly reply to questions put to her by the disciples assembled at the Ashram Playground.

0 1962-02-27, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Its easier with the mind because we are more used to concentrating there. When you want to reflect and find a solution to something, instead of using mental deduction, you stop everything, Focus on the idea or problem, and then concentrate, concentrate, intensifying the crux of the problem. You stop everything and wait until, through sheer intensity of concentration, a response comes. Learning that also demands a little time; but if you were ever a good student you have something of the aptitudeits not so very difficult.
   Theres a kind of extension of the physical senses. In American Indians, for instance, the senses of hearing and smell are far more extended than ours (in dogs too!). When I was eight or ten years old, I had an Indian friend who came with Buffalo Bill in the days of the Hippodrome that was a long time ago, I was around eight. He was so sharp that he could put his ear to the ground and tell, from the intensity of the vibrations, how far the sound of footsteps was coming from. All the children immediately said, Id really like to know how to do that! And so you try.

0 1962-06-23, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   I cant say I find it terribly interesting (!) but I am clearly meant to know about it. Not that I am seeking to see or know (my Focus is rather on preparing the body and making it receptive; thats what I am actively doing), but what probably happens is that, in my contemplation, I suddenly exteriorize (or something of the sort) and then I see all kinds of things. But I DONT sleep, you see (I dont know how to explain it). I go from a state of conscious concentration to a more passive state in which I am made to take part in all kinds of scenes and visions, involving many people and many things, as if to complete my knowledge. Some of these visions are amusing, new and interesting, and I dont know, but I suspect Sri Aurobindo has something to do with it, because theres such a sense of humor running through it all! (Mother laughs) Things that make me laugh, comical things due mainly to the tremendous earnestness with which people take the most unimportant things; yes, the disproportionate importance people give to absolutely unimportant events!
   (silence)

0 1962-06-30, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   I didnt write that to give you. Sometimes I write things and then keep them for years on end so that. They are a material Focus for the action. Had I not written it, I would not have been able to work so effectively these are occult documents.1
   ***

0 1962-07-18, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Its like an image. You see, the body is stretched out here on the chaise longue. You know how it is when experiments are done on animals? Its something like that the body is there as the subject of an experiment. Then theres my consciousness, the part Focused on the earthly experience and the present transformation (its what I mean when I say I). And then the Lord. I say the Lord Ive adopted that because its the best way of putting it and the easiest for me, but I never, NEVER think of a being. For me, its a simultaneous contact with the Eternal, the Infinite, the Vast, the Totality of everything the totality of everything: all that is, all that has been, all that will be, everything. Words spoil it, but its like thatautomaticallywith consciousness, sweetness and SOLICITUDE. With all the qualities a perfect Personality can offer (I dont know if you follow me, but thats the way it is). And That (I use all these words to say it, and three-fourths is left out) is a spontaneous, constant, immediate experience. So the I I spoke of asks that the body may have the experience, or at least an initial taste, even a shadow of the experience of this Love. And each time its asked for, it comes INSTANTLY. Then I see the three together1in my consciousness and perception the three are together and I see that this Love is dosed out and maintained in exact proportion to what the body can bear.
   The body is aware of this and is a little sad about it. But immediately comes something soothing, calming, making it vast. The body instantly senses the immensity and regains its calm.

0 1962-09-26, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   This region just overlooks the earth and the mind (including the very highest mind). But evolution I mean TERRESTRIAL evolution, with its particular rhythm which is more condensed, more concentrated and, you could say, more Focused than universal evolution as a wholethis terrestrial evolution has, with the human species, created a kind of higher intellectuality capable of passing through the overmental region, the region of the gods, and reaching a higher Principle directly.
   But this overmental region, this region of the gods with the power to govern the universe and, PARTIALLY, the earth, does have its own reality. You can come into contact with it and use it; the Vedic forefa thers used it, occultists use it, even Tantrics use it. But theres another path which, distrusting the gods, bypasses them through a kind of intellectual asceticism, as it were, wary of forms, of images, and differing expressions, which rises straight as an arrow, proud and pure, towards the supramental Light. That is a living experience.

0 1962-10-12, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Ive been Focusing on this lately. Ive been looking at the difference between similar events in the lives of human beings and the lives of animals. If you identify with animals, you clearly see that they dont take things tragically at allexcept for those which have come into contact with man. (But then theyre not in their natural state; its a transitional state, they are beings in transition between animal and man.) And naturally the first things they pick up from man are his defects thats always whats easiest to pick up! And then they make themselves unhappy for nothing.
   So many things, so many things. Human beings have made an appalling tragedy out of death. And I saw, with all these recent experiences, I saw how many, many poor human beings have been destroyed by the very people they loved the most! Under the pretext that they were dead.

0 1962-11-10, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Thats what I was beginning to see towards the end. It took form gradually, gradually, and it was all there by the time you finished reading. At the beginning my attention was divided between what you were reading and what was going on; afterwards it was entirely Focused on what was happening: your sheets of paper falling and landing weightlessly, like birds, and spreading over a floor that wasnt solid (it was there just to give the impression of a room, but you could see through it). And while you were reading, he was gathering them all up, with a long robe trailing behind him. This being was made of practically the same substance as the sheets coming out of the piano (it was a kind of piano, it was playing music, but it was the principle of what you have written). So he gathered up everything, and when he had a stack this big, he said, I am going to take it and show it to them.
   It was really lovely.

0 1963-12-07 - supramental ship, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   It was a very total vision. And such an acute experience that it seemed to be the only true thing. It didnt take up any space, yet there was that sensation of nearness and farness. And there was a kind of Focus, or a Center, I cant say (but it was everywhere), which was the climax of Theepurely Thee. And it had a quality of its own. Then it began to move farther and farther away, which produced a kind of mixture with something that was nothing that didnt exist but that altered the vibration, the intensity, which made it move farther and farther away to Darknessunconscious Darkness.
   And something kept coming again and again to me: there is no other sin (because this followed a few lines I read in Savitri on the glorification of sin in the vital world, the words came to me because of that) there is no other sin, no other vice than to be far from Thee.

0 1965-11-27, #Agenda Vol 06, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   But I clearly see that when the work is done as I am made to do it, it becomes that way very spontaneously. For instance, one of the very concrete things, which shows the problem clearly: humanity has the sex impulse quite naturally, spontaneously and, I may say, legitimately. This impulse will naturally and spontaneously disappear along with animality (a lot of other things will disappear, such as for instance the need to eat, perhaps also the need to sleep the way we do), but the most conscious impulse in a higher humanity, and which has remained as a source of bliss is a big word, but of joy, of delight, is certainly the sexual activity, which will have absolutely no more reason to exist in the functions of nature when the need to create in that way no longer exists. Therefore the capacity to come into contact with the joy in life will go up one rung or will orient itself differently. But what the spiritual aspirants of old had attempted on principlesexual negationis an absurd thing, because it must exist only in those who have gone beyond that stage and no longer have any animality in them. And it must fall off naturally, effortlessly, without struggle, just like that. Making it a Focus of conflict, struggle and effort is ridiculous. To be sure, my experience with the Ashram has absolutely proved that to me, because I have seen all the stages and that all the ideas and prohibitions are absolutely useless, that its only when the consciousness stops being human that it falls off quite naturally. There is a transition there that may be somewhat difficult because transitional beings are always in a precarious balance, but inside oneself there is a sort of flame or need thanks to which the transition isnt painfulits not a painful effort, its something that can be done with a smile. But to want to impose that on those who arent ready for that transition is absurd. I have been much reproached for encouraging certain people to marry; there are lots of these children to whom I say, Get married, get married! I am told, What! You encourage them?its common sense.
   Its common sense. They are human, but let them not pretend they arent.

0 1966-06-08, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   This Talk of April 19, 1951 interests me immensely. Its exactly the same Focus as the present effort.
   This constant correlation between the inner and the outer work is very interesting, like the preparation of this Bulletin,1 for instance. I can clearly see that the initial cause always comes from outside (outside with regard to this body), in the sense that the Focus of the effort depends on the state of health of the people around me, on a certain set of circumstances, and also on an intellectual work (like this Bulletin); those are the causes. Because here (gesture to the forehead), theres really a tranquil and silent stillness. So theres only what comes from outside.
   And the body is increasingly conscious: it has a very acute perception of the vibrations coming from the old habits, from the old ways of being and from the opposition, and of the presence of the True Vibration. So its a question of dose and proportion, and when the amount, the sum total of the old vibrations, the old habits, the old responses, is too great, that creates a disorder which takes stillness and concentration in order to be overcome, and which gives such a clear and intense perception of how precarious the equilibrium and existence are. And then, behind: a Glory. The Glory of the divine Light, the divine Will, the divine Consciousness, the eternal Motive.

0 1967-02-08, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Oh, how interesting it is, if you knew how interesting. Take coughing, for instance (not in the chest, in the throat). So, the first vibration: an irritation that draws your attention in order to make you cough. It has a certain kind of vibration which we may call pointed, but its not violent: its light, annoying. Its the first little vibration. So with that vibration: awakening of the attention in the surrounding consciousness (of the throat cells); then a refusal to accept the cough, a rejection here (in the throat), which at first almost causes nausea (all this is seen through a microscope, you understand, they are very tiny things). The attention is Focused. Then, at that point, there are several possible factors, which are sometimes simultaneous and sometimes one drives away the other; one is anxiety: something goes wrong and there is apprehension at whats going to happen; the other is a will that nothing should be disturbed by the irritation; and then all of a sudden, the faith that the Force is capable of restoring order everywhere immediately (none of this is intellectual: its vibrations).
   Then, sometime yesterday morning, something very interesting occurred: a clear perception that the vast majority of the cells (in THIS CASE: Im not talking about the whole body, I am talking about this particular spotthroat, nose, etc.), the vast majority of the cells still have a sort of feelingwhich seems to be the result of innumerable experiences or of habits (its both; not clearly one or the other, but both)that Natures force, that is to say, the nature governing the body, knows what needs to be done better than the divine Power: its used to it, it knows better. Thats how it is. And then, when this new consciousness which is being worked out in the physical being (the mind of the cells) has caught hold of that, oh, it was as if it had caught hold of an extraordinary revelation; it said, Ah, Ive got you, you culprit! You are the one who is preventing the transformation.

0 1967-06-21, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   If, as Sri Aurobindo announced, the supramental Power is to enter a realizing phase in 1967 and if, as Mother said, the fate of the present civilization is to be settled in 1967, it is clear that the earths many latent diseases must come out in the open and find a Focus somewhere, as an abscess is the focal point for the disease of the body, our earth body.
   There are no catastrophes. The Supramental is a force of order and harmony. Thus what may seem to us at first glance to be a catastrophe is bound to actually put things in order, work in every way and every detail towards putting the earth in order.
  --
   There is only one place in the world where the issue is being played out really and symbolically that is India. That is where, therefore, the disease of the earth must be Focused. It is in the order of things that the last Asura should come and die at the feet of the Mother.
   But India, supposed to embody the forces of truth, is herself prey to the same Falsehood as is the rest of the earth. The Asura is also in India, perhaps more dangerous there as it is masked behind a veil of false truth.

0 1967-07-12, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   I remember, when I came back after having BEEN those burststhose pulsations, those bursts of creative Love,1 when I returned to the ordinary consciousness (while retaining the very real memory of That, of that state), well, that state, which I felt as pulsations of creative Love, is what must, is That which must replace here this consciousness of concrete realitywhich is, which becomes unreal: its like something lifelesshard, dry, inert, lifeless. And to our ordinary consciousness (I remember how it was in the past), thats what gives you the impression, This is concrete, this is real. Well, this, this sensation, is what must be replaced by the phenomenon of consciousness of that Pulsation. And That (Mother makes an intense gesture encompassing her entire face) is at the same time all-light, all-power, all-intensity of love, and such FULLNESS! Its so full that nothing else can exist but That, there too (in Matter). And when That is there, in the body, in the cells, it suffices to Focus That on someone or something, and order is instantly restored.
   So, expressed in ordinary words, it cures. It cures the illness. But it doesnt cure it: it annuls it. Yes, it annuls it.

0 1967-07-22, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Here is the person's description: "External awareness had slipped away I heard, saw nothing. I sagged forward as my wife held my head to keep me from pitching from the chair. To the Doctor I had reached clinical death. But for me there was a surge of inner awarenessmagnified, finely Focused, brilliant. It is a progressive thing, this death. You feel the toes going first, then the feet, cell by cell, death churning them like waves washing the sands. Now the legs, the cells winking out. Closer now, and the visibility is better. Hands, arms, abdomen and chest, each cell flaring into a supernova, then gone. There is order and system in death, as in all that is life. I must try to control the progression, to save the brain for last so that it may know. Now the neck. The lower jaw. The teeth. How strange to feel one's teeth die, one by one, cell igniting cell, galaxies of cells dying in brilliance. Now, in retrospect, I grope for this other thing. There was something else, something that I felt or experienced or beheld at the very last instant. What was it? I knew it so well when it was there, opening before me, something more beautiful, more gentle, more loving than the mind or imagination of living creature could ever conceive. But it is gone." David Snell, Life Senior Editor (extract from Life, May 29, 1967).
   According to Sri Aurobindo, the green light is a dynamic force of the vital which has the power to purify, harmonize or heal.

0 1968-12-25, #Agenda Vol 09, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   And then You know that from every side Ive been trying to get Sri Aurobindo published [in France], in particular The Human Cycle. At last I got a letter from a certain J. B., who writes: For a long time now, a publisher (F.) has been asking me to create a collection in his publishing house. I thought of a few books, mostly foreign ones, grouped around a title such as Towards the spiritual mutation and Focused on the present researches, individual and clumsy, often dangerous, but sincere and undertaken in a spirit quite different from that of the former generation, the spirit of a certain youth I am in contact with. The idea is to show these young people that their attempts and aspirations are legitimate, even if they have discovered them through drugs, since in many cases drugs alone have been able to unmoor them from the Cartesian rationalist bedrock, to put before them experiences that, at least, are positive, and to offer them directions and models. In other words, the aspect of amateurism and exoticism found in Z [another publisher] would be replaced here by a practical and technical side, wide open to all spiritual researches, whatever they may be, to all duly controlled metapsychical experiments, serious psychedelic experiments (I have T. Leary in mind, for instance), new theologies Naturally, there would be room, a major place, for the Oriental endeavor. In sum, it would involve all researches and attempts to crack open that sort of corset within which the Western mind has been going in circles for such a long time. That does not in the least rule out, on the contrary, certain scientific worksof pure sciencein which, out of intrinsic necessity, this Cartesianism has already been singularly shaken. Of course, all that would make for quite an ill-assorted backdrop for Sri Aurobindos thought, a backdrop you will regard as unworthy of it. The planned Collection might be called Spiritual Adventures.
   We can try.

0 1970-03-25, #Agenda Vol 11, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Theres something very interesting on a psychological level: its that material needs decrease in proportion to the spiritual growth. Not (as Sri Aurobindo said), not through asceticism, but because the Focus of attention and concentration of the being moves to a different domain. The purely material being, quite conceivably, finds only material things pleasing; with all those who live in the emotive being and the outer mind, the interest of the being is turned to for instance, things of beauty, as with those who want to live surrounded by beautiful things, who want to use nice things. Now that appears to be the human summit, but its quite what we might call a central region (gesture hardly above ground level), its not at all a higher region. But the way the world is organized, people without aesthetic needs go back to a very primitive lifewhich is wrong. We need a place where life where the very setting of life would be, not an individual thing, but a beauty that would be like the surroundings natural to a certain degree of development.
   Now, as things are organized, to be surrounded by beautiful things you need to be rich, and thats a source of imbalance, because wealth usually goes with quite an average degree of consciousness, even mediocre at times. So theres everywhere an imbalance and a disorder. We would need a place of beautya place of beauty in which people can live only if they have reached a certain degree of consciousness. And let it not be decided by other people, but quite spontaneously and naturally. So how to do that?

0 1971-10-23, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   It depends on the case. Theres a slight difference. There are cases when nothing comesnothing, everything is stopped. So there you have to wait until it runs its course. There are cases where you are NATURALLY led to do one thing or another, which seems totally indifferent but is part of the Action (I dont know how to say it). I have experienced both. It depends on the case. There are cases where nothing is needed. There are cases where its simply as though you put the Divine ON the thing (Mother makes a gesture of aiming a beam). You know, youre like not an intermediary, I dont know its like a power of concentration on something; then the Divine Force flows through and is Focused (same gesture of aiming a beam), but you yourself do nothingyet the thing is done. Sometimes, if there is a word to be said, then the word comes to you; or if there is something to be done (it may seem like a very small, indifferent thing), you just have to do it quietlyyou are LED to do it.
   Youre led, yes, I understand.
  --
   Then, in that case, it becomes very clear. There are times when youre sort of COMPELLED to do something. There are times when nothingyou feel the Force passing and having an effect, but you yourself (I mean, the body), the body doesnt move. It becomes very perceptible. And Ive had proof that thats right, because Ive had examples: at times, when Ive remained still like that, without saying anything, simply letting the Force be Focused on someone or something through the body (same gesture of aiming a beam), it does it, it acts miraculously like that. And the body has done nothing, hasnt moved, just let it pass through and be Focused on a particular spot (same gesture). Its automatically Focused. Because its in our consciousness that the world is divided like this (gesture of little pieces), and theres one person, another person, one thing, another thingits our consciousness which is like that; so one uses that [the individuality] as a channel for the Force to go exactly where it is supposed to go. The action is not a personal action: its an Action of the Force using the personal consciousness as a pipeyou understand?
   Its very difficult to say that one no longer has any preferences and desires.

0 1971-12-08, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   My nights. I dont have the impression of sleeping, but time goes by without my noticing it, like that, simply feeling the Forces going through. But I dont know what they do I know theyre going through [Mother] and are Focused here or there. But I have no curiosity; just the impressions of being very quiet so the process can go on unhinderedso that nothing creates an obstacle to the passing of the forces at work.
   And hour after hour, hour after hour, day after day its like that. With the impression that the time goes by unnoticed. Not long, not.

0 1971-12-25, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   More and more I am convinced that we have a way of receiving things and reacting to them that CREATES difficulties I am more and more convinced of it. Because, for example, I have rather unpleasant physical and material experiences about food. You know that for a very long time now I have completely stopped being hungry (I eat only to be reasonable, because one must eat, otherwise), and I have some small difficulty in swallowing, or breathing (ridiculous things), but everything changes depending on whether you pay attention to them or not, depending on an attitude like this (gesture of being Focused on oneself) in which you watch yourself living, or an attitude in which youre (vast gesture) in things, in movement, in life; and a third attitude in which you pay attention only to the Divine. If you succeed in being like that all the time, there are no difficultiesand yet things are the same. Thats the experience: the thing in itself is as it is, but it is our reaction to it that differs. The experience is more and more conclusive. You see, there are three categories: our attitude with respect to things, the things in themselves (those two always give you trouble), and there is a third category in which everything, but everything is in regard to the Divine, in the Consciousness of the Divineall is marvelous, all is easy! And I am speaking of material things, of the material, physical life (for psychological things, weve known it for long), I mean material things like little discomforts of the body, or reactions, feeling pain or not, circumstances going wrong, not being able to swallow your dinner the most banal things you dont pay attention to when youre young and strong and in good health (you dont pay any attention to them, and its like that for everyone), but when you live in the consciousness of your body and what happens to it and its ways of receiving things that come and so onoh, its misery! When you live in the consciousness of others, of what they want, what they need, their relationship with youits misery! But if you live in the Divine Presence and its the Divine who does everything, sees everything, is everything its Peaceits Peace, time has no duration, everything is easy and. Not that you feel joy or feel its not so its the Divine who is there. And its the ONLY solution. Thats where the world is going: the Consciousness of the Divine the Divine who does, the Divine who is, the Divine. So then, the same IDENTICAL circumstance (I am not speaking of different circumstances), the same IDENTICAL circumstance (its my experience these last few days, so concrete, you know, so concrete); day before yesterday I was sick as a dog, and yesterday circumstances were the same, my body was in the same state, all was the same and yet all was peaceful.
   I am thoroughly convinced of that.

0 1972-03-29a, #Agenda Vol 13, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   It may seem strange to speak of you in an Indian Ashram that one would consider far removed from the world and the agonizing problems and struggles of the Human Condition, but as a matter of fact Sri Aurobindos Ashram is concerned with this earthly life; it wants to transform it instead of fleeing it as all traditional Indian and Western religions do, forever proclaiming that His kingdom is not of this world. Knowing that there exists a fundamental reality beyond man, religions have Focussed on that other realm to find the key to man just as your heroes Focus on their death to discover the fundamental reality that will be able to stand in the face of death. But religion has not justified this life, except as a transition toward a Beyond which is supposedly the supreme goal; and your heroesthough so close to lifes throbbing heart that at times it seems to explode and reveal its poignant secretfinally plunge into death, as if to free themselves from an Absolute they cannot live in the flesh.
   The young Indian students with whom I discuss your books understand perhaps better than Westerners the reason for all those bloody and apparently useless sacrifices the torments conflicts and revolts of your heroes condemned to death, the great Hunger that drives them beyond themselves for they know that these are like the contractions of childbirth, and that the thick shell of egoism, routine, conformism, intellectual and sentimental habits must be broken for the inner Divine to transpierce the surface of this life for the Divine is indeed WITHIN man, and life harbors its own hidden justification. Echoing the Upanishad, Sri Aurobindo tells us that The earth is His foothold. He also wrote, God is not only in the still small voice, but in the fire and the whirlwind.

0 1972-10-25, #Agenda Vol 13, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Yes. You know, my impression is that the individuality is like an image to Focus the attention (humans need something they have always needed something on their scale to Focus their attention), so the body tries its best not to obstruct the divine Force from passing through, it tries to suppress all its own interferences, but at the same time it sees itself as an image humans need to Focus their attention.
   (At this point, Governor J. enters the room, sits silently before Mother, remains a few minutes in meditation, then does his pranam and leaves the room.)

02.02 - Lines of the Descent of Consciousness, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The formulation or revelation of the Psyche marks another line of what we have been describing as the Descent of Consciousness. The phenomenon of individualisation has at its back the phenomenon of the growth of the Psyche. It is originally a spark or nucleus of consciousness thrown into Matter that starts growing and organising itself behind the veil, in and through the movements and activities of the apparent vehicle consisting of the triple nexus of Body (Matter) and Life and Mind. The extreme root of the psychic growth extends perhaps right into the body, consciousness of Matter, but its real physical basis and tenement is found only with the growth and formation of the physical heart. And yet the psychic individuality behind the animal organisation is very rudimentary. All that can be said is that it is there, in potentia, it exists, it is simple being: it has not started becoming. This is man's speciality: in him the psychic begins to be dynamic; to be organised and to organise, it is a psychic personality that he possesses. Now this flowering of the psychic personality is due to an especial Descent, the descent of a Person from another level of consciousness. That Person (or Superperson) is the jvatman, the Individual Self, the central being of each individual formation. The Jivas are centres of multiplicity thrown up in the bosom of the infinite Consciousness: it is the supreme Consciousness eddying in unit formations to serve as the basis for the play of manifestation. They are not within the frame of manifestation (as the typal formations in the Supermind are), they are above or beyond or beside it and stand there eternally and invariably in and as part and parcel of the one supreme RealitySachchidananda. But the Jivatman from its own status casts its projection, representation, delegated formulationemanation, in the phraseology of the neo-Platonistsinto the manifestation of the triple complex of mind, life and body, that is to say, into the human vehicle, and thus stands behind as the psychic personality or the soul. This soul, we have seen, is a developing, organising Focus of consciousness growing from below and comes to its own in the human being: or we can put it the other way, that is to say, when it comes to its own, then the human being appears. And it has come to its own precisely by a descent of its own self from above, in the same manner as with the other descents already described. Now, this coming to its own means that it begins henceforth to exercise its royal power, its natural and inherent divine right, viz, of consciously and directly controlling and organising its terrestrial kingdom which is the body and life and mind. The exercise of conscious directive will, supported and illumined by a self-consciousness, I that occurs with the advent of the Mind is a function of the I Purusha, the self-conscious being, in the Mind; but this self-conscious being has been able to come up, manifest itself and be active, because of pressure of the underlying psychic personality that has formed here.
   Thus we have three characteristics of the human personality accruing from the psychic consciousness that supports and inspires it:(1) self-consciousness: an animal acts, feels and even knows, but man knows that he acts, knows that he feels, knows even that he knows. This phenomenon of consciousness turning round upon itself is the hallmark of the human being; (2) a conscious will holding together and harmonising, fashioning and integrating the whole external nature evolved till now; (3) a purposive drive, a deliberate and voluntary orientation towards a higher and ever higher status of individualisation and personalisation,not only a horizontal movement seeking to embrace and organise the normal, the already attained level of consciousness, but also a vertical movement seeking to raise the level, attain altogether a new poise of higher organisation.

02.14 - Panacea of Isms, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   And yet this is not the grand finale, the nec plus ultra. For, man does not stop with man; in the tremendous phrase carved by Nietzsche, "Man is a thing that shall be surpassed." Until and unless man surpasses himself, finds a Focus and fulcrum outside and beyond his normal humantoo humanself, he cannot entirely and radically change his nature and rebuild his society on an altogether different pattern. Man has to reach his divine status, become the Divine, within and outside, body and soul; then only can the ills to which he is exposed totally vanish and then alone can he enjoy individually and collectively a perfect life on earth. Naturally man is not expected to accomplish this mighty work alone and unaided, he can rest assured and comforted, for Nature herself is moving inexorably towards that consummation.
   ***

03.02 - Yogic Initiation and Aptitude, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Now what exactly is this wonderful thing? This power that brings into being the non-being, realises the impossible? Whose is this Call, from where does it come? It is none other than the call of your own inmost being, of your secret self. It is the categorical imperative of the Divine seated within your heart. Indeed, the first dawning of the spiritual life means the coming forward, the unveiling of this inner being. The ignorant and animal life of man persists so long as the inner being remains in the background, away from the dynamic life, so long as man is subject to the needs and impulses of his mind and life and body. True, through the demands and urges of this lower complex, it is always the inner being that gains and has its dictates carried out and is always the secret lord and enjoyer; but that is an indirect effect and it is a phenomenon that takes place behind the veil. The evolution, in other words, of the inner or psychic being proceeds through many and diverse experiencesmental, vital and physical. Its consciousness, on the one hand, grows, that is, enlarges itself, becomes wider and wider, from what was infinitesimal it moves towards infinity, and on the other, streng thens, intensifies itself, comes up from behind and takes its stand in front visibly and dynamically. Man's true individual being starts on its career of evolution as a tiny Focus of consciousness totally submerged under the huge surface surge of mind and life and body consciousness. It stores up in itself and assimilates the essence of the various experiences that the mind and life and body bring to it in its unending series of incarnations; as it enriches itself thus, it increases in substance and potency, even like fire that feeds upon fuels. A time comes when the pressure of the developed inner being upon the mind and life and body becomes so great that they begin to lose their aboriginal and unregenerate freedom the freedom of doing as they like; they have now to pause in their unreflecting career, turn round, as it were, and imbibe and acquire the habit of listening to the deeper, the inner voice, and obey the direction, the comm and of the Call. This is the Word inviolate (anhata-vn) of which the sages speak; this is also referred to as the still small voice, for indeed it is scarcely audible at present amidst the din and clamour of the wild surges of the body and life and mind consciousness.
   Now, when this call comes clear and distinct, there is no other way for the man than to cut off the old moorings and jump into the shore less unknown. It is the categorical demand of such an overwhelming experience that made the Indian spirant declare:

03.04 - The Body Human, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   This is man's great privilege that, unlike the animal, he can surpass himself (the capacity, we may note, upon which the whole Nietzschean conception of humanity was based). Man is not bound to his human nature, to his anthropomorphism, he can rise above and beyond it, become what is (apparently) non-human. Therefore the Gita teaches: By thy self upraise thy self, lower not thy self by thy self. Indeed, as we have said, man means the whole gamut of existence. All the worlds and all the beings in all the worlds are also within his frame; he has only to switch or Focus his consciousness on to a particular point or direction and he becomes a particular type in life. Man can be the very supreme godhead or at the other extreme a mere brute or any other intermediary creature in the hierarchy extending between the two.
   The Divine means the All: whatever there is (manifest or beyond) is within Him and is Himself. Man too who is within that Divine is the Divine in a special way; for he is a replica or epitome of the Divine containing or embodying the threefold status and movement of the Divine the Transcendent, the Cosmic and the Individual. He is co-extensive with the Divine. Only, the Divine is conscious, supremely conscious, while Man is unconscious or at best half-conscious. God has made himself the world and its creatures, the transcendental has become the material cosmos, true; but God has made himself Man in a special sense and for a special purpose. Man is not a fabrication of the Lower Maya, a formation thrown up in the evolutionary course by a temporary idea in the Cosmic Mind and developed through the play of forces; on the other hand, it is a typal reality, a Real-Ideaa formation of the original truth-consciousness, the Divine's own transcendental existence. Man is the figure of the Divine Person. The Impersonal become or viewed as the Personal takes up the human aspect, the human, that is to say, as its original prototype in the superconscience.

03.08 - The Standpoint of Indian Art, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Indian art, too, possesses a perspective and an anatomy; it, too, has a Focus of observation which governs and guides the composition, in the ensemble and in detail. Only, it is not the physical eye, but an inner vision, not the angle given by the retina, but the angle of a deeper perception or consciousness. To understand the difference, let us ask ourselves a simple question: when we call back to memory a landscape, how does the picture form itself in the mind? Certainly, it is not an exact photograph of the scenery observed. We cannot, even if we try, re-form in memory the objects in the shape, colour and relative positions they had when they appeared to the physical eye. In the picture represented to the mind's eye, some objects loom large, others are thrown into the background and others again do not figure at all; the whole scenery is reshuffled and rearranged in deference to the stress of the mind's interest. Even the structure and build of each object undergoes a change; it does not faithfully re-copy Nature, but gives the mind's version of it, aggrandizing certain parts, suppressing others, reshaping and recolouring the whole aspect, metamorphosing the very contour into something that may not be "natural" or anatomical figure at all. Only we are not introspective enough to observe this phenomenon of the mind's alchemy; we think we are representing with perfect exactitude in the imagination whatever is presented to the senses, whereas in fact we do nothing of the kind; our idea that we do it is a pure illusion.
   All art is based upon this peculiar virtue of the mind that naturally and spontaneously transforms or distorts the objective world presented to its purview. The question, then, is only of the degree to which the metamorphosis has been carried. At the one end, there is the art of photography, in which the degree of metamorphosis is at its minimum; at the other, there seems to be no limit, for the mind's capacity to dissolve and recreate the world of sense-perception is infinite and many modern schools of European art have gone even beyond the limit that the "unnatural" Indian art did not consider it necessary to transgress. Now, the classical artist selects a position as close as he can to the photographer, tries to give the mind's view of Nature and creation, as far as possible, in the style and norm of the sense-perceptions. He takes his stand upon these and from there reaches out towards whatever imaginative reconstructions are justified within the bounds laid out by them. The general ground-plan is, almost rigorously, the form given by the physical eye. The art of the East, and even, to a large extent, the art of mediaeval Europe, followed a different line. Here the scheme of the sense-perceptions was rejected, the artist sought to build on other foundations. His procedure was, first, to get a Focus within the mind, to discover a psychological standpoint, and from there and in accordance with the subtler laws and conventions of an inner vision create a world that is unique and stands by itself. The aim was always to build from within, at the most, from within outwards, but not from without, not even from without inwards. This inner world has its own laws and they differ from the laws of optics which govern the physical sight; but there is no reason why it should be called unnatural. It is unnatural only in the sense that it does not copy physical Nature; it is quite natural in the 1 sense that it is a faithful reproduction of another, a psychological Nature.
   Indian art is pre-eminently and par excellence the art of this inner re-formation and revaluation. It has thrown down completely and clearly the rigid scaffolding of the physical vision. We take here a sudden leap, as it were, into another world, and sometimes the feeling is that everything is reversed; it is not exactly that we feel ourselves standing on our heads, but it is, as if, in the Vedic phrase, the foundations were above and all the rest branched out from them downwards. The artist sees with an eye, and constructs upon a plan that conveys the merest excuse of an actual visible world. There are other schools in the East which have also moved very far away from the naturalistic view; yet they have kept, if not the form, at least, the feeling of actuality in their composition. Thus a Chinese, a Japanese, or a Persian masterpiece cannot be said to be "natural" in the sense in which a Tintoretto, or even a Raphael is natural; yet a sense of naturalness persists, though the appearance is not naturalistic. What Indian art gives is not the feeling of actuality or this sense of naturalness, but a feeling of truth, a sense of realityof the deepest reality.

04.01 - The Divine Man, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   But there is a still closer mystery, the mystery of mysteries. There has not been merely a general descent, the descent of a world-force on a higher plane into another world-force on a lower plane; but that there is the descent of the individual, the personal Godhead into and as an earthly human being. The Divine born as a man and leading the life of a man among us and as one of us, the secret of Divine Incarnation is the supreme secret. That is the mechanism adopted by the Divine to cure and transmute human illshimself becoming a man, taking upon himself the burden of the evil that vitiates and withers life and working it out in and through himself. Something of this truth has been caught in the Christian view of Incarnation. God sent upon earth his only begotten son to take upon himself the sins of man, suffer vicariously for him, pay the ransom and thus liberate him, so that he may reach salvation, procure his seat by the side of the Father in Heaven. Man corrupted as he is by an original sin cannot hope by his own merit to achieve salvation. He can only admit his sin and repent and wait for the Grace to save him. The Indian view of Incarnation laid more stress upon the positive aspect of the matter, viz, the role of the Incarnation as the inaugurator and establisher of a new order in lifedharmasasthpanrthya. The Avatar brings down and embodies a higher principle of human organisation, a greater consciousness which he infuses into the existing pattern, individual or collective, which has -served its purpose, has become otiose and time-barred and needs to be remodelled, has been at the most preparatory to something else. The Avatar means a new revelation and the uplift of the human consciousness into a higher mode of being. The physical form he takes signifies the physical pressure that is exerted for the corroboration and fixation of the inner illumination that he brings upon earth and in the human frame. The Indian tradition has Focussed its attention upon the Goodreyasand did not consider it essential to dwell upon the Evil. For one who finds and sees the Good always and everywhere, the Evil does not exist. Sri Aurobindo lays equal emphasis on both the aspects. Naturally, however, he does not believe in an original evil, incurable upon earth and in earthly life. In conformity with the ancient Indian teaching he declares the original divinity of man: it is because man is potentially and essentially divine that he can become actually and wholly divine. The Bible speaks indeed of man becoming perfect even as the Father in Heaven is perfect: but that is due exclusively to the Grace showered upon man, not because of any inherent perfection in him. But in according full divinity to man, Sri Aurobindo does not minimise the part of the undivine in him. This does not mean any kind of Manicheism: for Evil, according to Sri Aurobindo, is not coeval or coterminous with the Divine, it is a later or derivative formation under given conditions, although within the range and sphere of the infinite Divine. Evil exists as a stern reality; even though it may be temporary and does not touch the essential reality, it is not an illusion nor can it be ignored, brushed aside or bypassed as something superficial or momentary and of no importance. It has its value, its function and implication. It is real, but it is not irremediable. It is contrary to the Divine but not contradictory. For even the Evil in its inmost substance carries or is the reality which it opposes or denies outwardly. Did not the very first of the apostles of Christ deny his master at the crucial moment? As we have said, evil is a formation necessitated by certain circumstances, the circumstances changed, the whole disposition as at present constituted changes automatically and fundamentally.
   The Divine then descends into the earth-frame, not merely as an immanent and hidden essencesarvabhtntratm but as an individual person embodying that essencemnu tanumritam. Man too, however earthly and impure he maybe, is essentially the Divine himself, carries in him the spark of the supreme consciousness that he is in his true and highest reality. That is how in him is bridged the gulf that apparently exists between the mortal and the immortal, the Infinite and the Finite, the Eternal and the Momentary, and the Divine too can come into him and become, so to say, his lower self.
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   The Divine descends as an individual person fundamentally to hasten the evolutionary process and to complete it; he takes the human form to raise humanity to divinity. The fact and the nature of the process have been well exemplified in Sri Ramakrishna who, it is said, took up successively different lines of spiritual discipline and by a supreme and sovereign force of concentration achieved realisation in each line in the course of a few days what might take in normal circumstances years or even lives to do. The Divine gathers and concentrates in himself the world-force, the Nature-Energyeven like adynamo and Focuses and canalises it to give it its full, integral and absolute effectivity. And mortal pain he accepts, and swallows the poison of ignorant lifeeven like Nilakantha Shivato transmute it into ecstasy and immortality. The Divine Mother sank into the earth-nature of a human body:
   Of her pangs she made a mystic poignant sword. . .

04.02 - Human Progress, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Now, these two positionsof Jung and of Heardoffer us a good basis upon which we can try to estimate the nature of man's progress in historical times. Both refer to a crucial change in human consciousness, a far-reaching change having no parallel since it invented the metal tool. The change means the appearance of pure intelligence in man, a change, as we may say, in modern terms, in the system of reference, from biological co-ordinates to those of pure reason. Only Jung thinks that the reorganisation of the human consciousness is to happen precisely round the Focus of pure reason, while Gerald Heard is doubtful about the efficacy of this facultyof directive thinking, as Jung puts it-if it is to lead to overspecialisation, which means the swelling of one member and atrophy of the rest; a greater and supreme direction he seeks elsewhere in a transcendence of intelligence and reason which, besides, is bound to happen in the course of evolution.
   We characterise the change as a special degree or order of self-consciousness. Self-consciousness, we have seen, is the sine qua non of humanity. It is the faculty or power by and with which man appears on earth and maintains himself as such, as a distinct species. Thanks to this faculty man has become the tool-making animal, the artisanhomo faber. But on emerging from the original mythopoeic to the scientific status man has become doubly self-conscious. Self-consciousness means to be aware of oneself as standing separate from and against the environment and the world and acting upon it as a free agent, exercising one's deliberate will. Now the first degree of self-consciousness displayed itself in a creative activity by which consciousness remained no longer a suffering organon, but became a growing and directing, a reacting and new-creating agent. Man gained the power to shape the order of Nature according to the order of his inner will and consciousness. This creative activity, the activity of the artisan, developed along two lines: first, artisanship with regard to one's own self, one's inner nature and character, and secondly, with regard to the external nature, the not-self. The former gave rise to mysticism and Yoga and was especia