classes ::: author, Buddhism, Zen, Priest,
children :::
branches ::: Nichiren

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object:Nichiren
class:author
subject class:Buddhism
subject class:Zen
profession class:Priest
dob:16 February 1222 - 13 October 1282

Goodreads - Nichiren Daishonin [399388]
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Nichiren.info - The Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin



--- WIKIPEDIA
Nichiren (16 February 1222 – 13 October 1282) was a Japanese Buddhist priest of the Kamakura period (1185-1333), who developed the teachings of Nichiren Buddhism, a branch school of Mahayana Buddhism. Nichiren declared that the Lotus Sutra alone contains the highest truth of Buddhist teachings suited for the Third Age of Buddhism. He advocated the repeated recitation of its title, Nam(u)-myoho-renge-kyo and held that Shakyamuni Buddha and all other Buddhist deities were extraordinary manifestations of a particular Buddha-nature termed MyohoRenge that is equally accessible to all. He declared that believers of the Sutra must propagate it even under persecution. Nichiren was a prolific writer and his biography, temperament, and the evolution of his beliefs has been gleaned primarily from his own writings. After his death, he was bestowed the title Nichiren Dai-Bosatsu () (Great Bodhisattva Nichiren) by Emperor Go-Kgon (1358) and the title Rissh Daishi () (Great Teacher of Rectification) was conferred posthumously in year 1922 by imperial edict. Today, Nichiren Buddhism includes traditional temple schools such as Nichiren-shu and Nichiren Shsh, as well as lay movements such as Soka Gakkai, Rissh Ksei Kai, Reiykai, Kenshkai, Honmon Butsury-sh, Kempon Hokke, and Shshinkai among many others. Each group has varying views of Nichiren's teachings with claims and interpretations of Nichiren's identity ranging from the rebirth of Bodhisattva Visistacaritra to the Primordial or "True Buddha" (: Hon butsu) of the Third Age of Buddhism.





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Nichiren

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TERMS STARTING WITH

Nichiren Shoshu

Nichiren Shoshu. (日蓮正宗). In Japanese, "Orthodox School of Nichiren"; one of the principal Japanese Buddhist schools based on the teachings of NICHIREN (1222-1282). Nichiren Shoshu is descended from Nichiren through Nichiko (1246-1332), the alleged sole heir of Nichiren among his six chief disciples. Nichiko was a loyal student and archivist of Nichiren's writings, who established in 1290 what was then called the Fuji school at TAISEKIJI, a monastery on Mt. Fuji in Shizuoka prefecture. Nichiko's school later divided into eight subbranches, known collectively as the Fuji Monryu (Fuji schools) or Nichiko Monryu (Nichiko schools). The monk Nichikan (1665-1726), a noted commentator and teacher, was instrumental in resurrecting the observance of Nichiren's teachings at Taisekiji. He was also the person who systematized and established many of the innovative features of the school, particularly the school's unique view that Nichiren was the Buddha (see below). The eight associated temples that remained in the Fuji school reunited in 1876 as the Komon sect, later adopting a new name, the Honmon. However, in 1899, Taisekiji split from the other temples and established an independent sect, renaming itself Nichiren Shoshu in 1912. In 1930, MAKIGUCHI TSUNESABURO and Toda Josei established the SoKA GAKKAI (then called Soka Kyoiku Gakkai), a lay organization for the promotion of Nichiren Shoshu thought, but quickly ran afoul of the Japanese government's promotion of the cult of state Shintoism. Makiguchi refused to comply with government promulgation of Shinto worship and was imprisoned for violating the Peace Preservation Law; he died in prison in 1944. Toda was eventually released, and he devoted himself after World War II to promoting Soka Gakkai and Nichiren Shoshu, which at that time were closely connected. The two groups acrimoniously separated in 1991, Nichiren Shoshu accusing Soka Gakkai of forming a personality cult around their leader IKEDA DAISAKU (b. 1928) and of improper modifications of Nichiren practice; Soka Gakkai accusing the Nichiren Shoshu leader Abe Nikken of trying to dominate both organizations. The two groups now operate independently. Nichiren Shoshu has grown to over seven hundreds temples in Japan, as well as a few temples in foreign countries. Nichiren Shoshu distinguishes itself from the other Nichiren schools by its unique view of the person of Nichiren: it regards the founder as the true buddha in this current degenerate age of the dharma (J. mappo; C. MOFA), a buddha whom sĀKYAMUNI promised his followers would appear two thousand years in the future; therefore, they refer to Nichiren as daishonin, or great sage. Other Nichiren schools instead regard the founder as the reincarnation of Jogyo Bosatsu (the BODHISATTVA VIsIstACĀRITRA). Nichiren Shoshu's claim to orthodoxy is based on two documents, not recognized by other Nichiren schools, in which Nichiren claims to transfer his dharma to Nichiko, viz., the Minobu sojosho ("Minobu Transfer Document") and the Ikegami sojosho ("Ikegami Transfer Document"), which are believed to have been written in 1282 by Nichiren, the first at Minobu and the second on the day of his death at Ikegami. Nichiren Shoshu practice is focused on the dai-gohonzon mandala, the ultimate object of devotion in the school, which Nichiren created. The DAI-GOHONZON (great object of devotion), a MAndALA (here, a cosmological chart) inscribed by Nichiren in 1279, includes the DAIMOKU (lit., "title"), viz., the phrase "NAMU MYoHoRENGEKYo" (Homage to the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA), which is considered to be the embodiment of Nichiren's enlightenment and the ultimate reason for his advent in this world. The gohonzon is placed in a shrine or on a simple altar in the homes of devotees of the sect. This veneration of the gohonzon to the exclusion of all other deities and images of the Buddha distinguishes Nichiren Shoshu from other Nichiren schools. The school interprets the three jewels (RATNATRAYA) of the Buddha, DHARMA, and SAMGHA to refer, respectively, to Nichiren (the buddha); to namu Myohorengekyo and the gohonzon (the dharma); and to his successor Nichiko (the saMgha). By contrast, other Nichiren schools generally consider sākyamuni to be the Buddha and Nichiren the saMgha, and do not include the gohonzon in the dharma, since they question its authenticity. All schools of Nichiren thought accept Nichiren's acknowledgment of the buddhahood that is latent in all creatures and the ability of all human beings of any class to achieve buddhahood in this lifetime.

Nichirenshu

Nichirenshu. (日蓮宗). In Japanese, "schools [associated with] Nichiren." There was and is no single "Nichiren School," but the term is used to designate all of the different schools that trace their origins back to the life and teachings of NICHIREN (1222-1282). At the time of his death, Nichiren left no formal institution in place or instructions for the formation of any such institution. Thus, a number of groups emerged, led by various of his disciples. These groups, which can collectively be referred to as Nichirenshu, disagreed on a number of important points of doctrine and theories of propagation. However, they all shared the fundamental convictions that the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") was the highest of the Buddha's teachings; that during the degenerate age (J. mappo; C. MOFA) liberation could be achieved by chanting the title (DAIMOKU) of that scripture; that Nichiren was the true teacher of this practice and Japan its appropriate site; and that all other forms of Buddhist practice were ineffective in this degenerate age and thus should be repudiated. However, Nichiren's disciples and his followers disagreed on such questions as whether they should have any connections with other Buddhist groups; how aggressively they should proselytize Nichiren's teachings; and whether the two sections of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra-the "SHAKUMON" (Chapters 1-14), or trace teaching, and the "HONMON" (Chapters 15-28), or essential teaching-are of equal importance or whether the "Honmon" is superior. During the Meiji period, specific schools of Nichiren's teachings were recognized, with six different schools institutionalized in 1874. One of these, which called itself the Nichirenshu, declared the two parts of the sutra to be of equal importance; the other five declared the superiority of the "Honmon." One of these five eventually became the NICHIREN SHoSHu.

Nichiren

Nichiren. (日蓮) (1222-1282). Japanese founder of the NICHIRENSHu, one of the so-called new schools of Kamakura Buddhism. Nichiren is said to have been born into a commoner family in present-day Chiba prefecture. At the age of twelve he entered the priesthood and was ordained at the age of sixteen. In 1239, he left his rural temple and went first to Kamakura and then to the capital of Kyoto to study at the great monasteries there. Although he draws heavily on TENDAI and TAIMITSU teachings in his own writings, Nichiren seems to have been acquainted with other traditions of Buddhism as well. During this period, Nichiren began to question what he perceived as inconsistencies in the doctrines of the various schools he was studying. In particular, Nichiren disagreed with the JoDOSHu pure land tradition of HoNEN (1133-1212), and the practice of reciting the buddha's name (NENBUTSU; C. NIANFO). Nichiren eventually concluded that the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") contained the Buddha's ultimate teaching, relegating all other teachings to a provisional status. Armed with this new insight, Nichiren proclaimed in 1253 that people should place their faith in the Saddharmapundarīkasutra by reciting its "title" (J. DAIMOKU), viz., NAMU MYoHoRENGEKYo (Homage to the Saddharmapundarīkasutra), an act that he claimed was sufficient for gaining liberation in the time of the decline of the dharma, or mappo (C. MOFA). It was at this point that he adopted the name "Nichiren" ("Lotus of the Sun,": i.e., Japan) Although Nichiren was a controversial figure, he attracted a large number of followers in Kamakura. In 1260, he wrote the Rissho Ankokuron ("Treatise on Establishing the Right [Teaching] for Securing the Peace of Our Country"), a tract that encouraged the Kamakura military government (bakufu) to rely on the teachings of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra in order to avert political disaster and social upheaval and, in turn, to patronize Nichiren's school over other Buddhist sects. As a result of his lobbying, and his challenge to the pure land tradition, Nichiren was arrested and exiled to Shizuoka prefecture in 1261 but was pardoned two years later. In 1271, a failed assassination plot against Nichiren hardened his resolve. He was arrested again in 1272 and banished to the island of Sado, where he wrote many of his most important treatises, including Kaimokusho ("Opening the Eyes") and Kanjin no honzonsho ("The Object of Devotion for Observing the Mind"). In 1274, he was once again pardoned and subsequently returned to Kamakura. Failing for a third time to convince the Kamakura bakufu to turn to the Saddharmapundarīkasutra for protection and salvation, he retired to Mt. Minobu in Yamanashi prefecture. There, he devoted his time to educating his disciples and writing essays, including Senjisho "(On the Selection of the Time") and Ho'onsho ("Repaying Indebtedness"). Nichiren died at the age of sixty in the year 1282, leaving behind hundreds of works and divisive infighting for control of his legacy.


TERMS ANYWHERE

Aizen Myoo. (愛染明王) (S. RAgavidyArAja). In Japanese, lit. "Bright King of the Taint of Lust"; an esoteric deity considered to be the destroyer of vulgar passions. In stark contrast to the traditional Buddhist approach of suppressing the passions through various antidotes or counteractive techniques (PRATIPAKsA), this VIDYARAJA is believed to be able to transform attachment, desire, craving, and defilement directly into pure BODHICITTA. This deity became a principal deity of the heretical Tachikawa branch (TACHIKAWARYu) of the SHINGONSHu and was considered the deity of conception. As an emanation of the buddha MAHAVAIROCANA or the bodhisattva VAJRASATTVA, Aizen Myoo was favored by many followers of Shingon Buddhism in Japan and by various esoteric branches of the TENDAISHu. Aizen Myoo was also sometimes held to be a secret buddha (HIBUTSU) by these traditions. The NICHIRENSHu was the last to adopt him as an important deity, but he played an important role in the dissemination of its cult. Aizen Myoo is well known for his fierce appearance, which belies the love and affection he is presumed to convey. Aizen Myoo usually has three eyes (to see the three realms of existence) and holds a lotus in his hand, which is symbolic of the calming of the senses, among other things. Other attributes of this deity are the bow and arrows, VAJRAs, and weapons that he holds in his hands.

Nichiren Shoshu

Nichiren Shoshu. (日蓮正宗). In Japanese, "Orthodox School of Nichiren"; one of the principal Japanese Buddhist schools based on the teachings of NICHIREN (1222-1282). Nichiren Shoshu is descended from Nichiren through Nichiko (1246-1332), the alleged sole heir of Nichiren among his six chief disciples. Nichiko was a loyal student and archivist of Nichiren's writings, who established in 1290 what was then called the Fuji school at TAISEKIJI, a monastery on Mt. Fuji in Shizuoka prefecture. Nichiko's school later divided into eight subbranches, known collectively as the Fuji Monryu (Fuji schools) or Nichiko Monryu (Nichiko schools). The monk Nichikan (1665-1726), a noted commentator and teacher, was instrumental in resurrecting the observance of Nichiren's teachings at Taisekiji. He was also the person who systematized and established many of the innovative features of the school, particularly the school's unique view that Nichiren was the Buddha (see below). The eight associated temples that remained in the Fuji school reunited in 1876 as the Komon sect, later adopting a new name, the Honmon. However, in 1899, Taisekiji split from the other temples and established an independent sect, renaming itself Nichiren Shoshu in 1912. In 1930, MAKIGUCHI TSUNESABURO and Toda Josei established the SoKA GAKKAI (then called Soka Kyoiku Gakkai), a lay organization for the promotion of Nichiren Shoshu thought, but quickly ran afoul of the Japanese government's promotion of the cult of state Shintoism. Makiguchi refused to comply with government promulgation of Shinto worship and was imprisoned for violating the Peace Preservation Law; he died in prison in 1944. Toda was eventually released, and he devoted himself after World War II to promoting Soka Gakkai and Nichiren Shoshu, which at that time were closely connected. The two groups acrimoniously separated in 1991, Nichiren Shoshu accusing Soka Gakkai of forming a personality cult around their leader IKEDA DAISAKU (b. 1928) and of improper modifications of Nichiren practice; Soka Gakkai accusing the Nichiren Shoshu leader Abe Nikken of trying to dominate both organizations. The two groups now operate independently. Nichiren Shoshu has grown to over seven hundreds temples in Japan, as well as a few temples in foreign countries. Nichiren Shoshu distinguishes itself from the other Nichiren schools by its unique view of the person of Nichiren: it regards the founder as the true buddha in this current degenerate age of the dharma (J. mappo; C. MOFA), a buddha whom sĀKYAMUNI promised his followers would appear two thousand years in the future; therefore, they refer to Nichiren as daishonin, or great sage. Other Nichiren schools instead regard the founder as the reincarnation of Jogyo Bosatsu (the BODHISATTVA VIsIstACĀRITRA). Nichiren Shoshu's claim to orthodoxy is based on two documents, not recognized by other Nichiren schools, in which Nichiren claims to transfer his dharma to Nichiko, viz., the Minobu sojosho ("Minobu Transfer Document") and the Ikegami sojosho ("Ikegami Transfer Document"), which are believed to have been written in 1282 by Nichiren, the first at Minobu and the second on the day of his death at Ikegami. Nichiren Shoshu practice is focused on the dai-gohonzon mandala, the ultimate object of devotion in the school, which Nichiren created. The DAI-GOHONZON (great object of devotion), a MAndALA (here, a cosmological chart) inscribed by Nichiren in 1279, includes the DAIMOKU (lit., "title"), viz., the phrase "NAMU MYoHoRENGEKYo" (Homage to the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA), which is considered to be the embodiment of Nichiren's enlightenment and the ultimate reason for his advent in this world. The gohonzon is placed in a shrine or on a simple altar in the homes of devotees of the sect. This veneration of the gohonzon to the exclusion of all other deities and images of the Buddha distinguishes Nichiren Shoshu from other Nichiren schools. The school interprets the three jewels (RATNATRAYA) of the Buddha, DHARMA, and SAMGHA to refer, respectively, to Nichiren (the buddha); to namu Myohorengekyo and the gohonzon (the dharma); and to his successor Nichiko (the saMgha). By contrast, other Nichiren schools generally consider sākyamuni to be the Buddha and Nichiren the saMgha, and do not include the gohonzon in the dharma, since they question its authenticity. All schools of Nichiren thought accept Nichiren's acknowledgment of the buddhahood that is latent in all creatures and the ability of all human beings of any class to achieve buddhahood in this lifetime.

Nichirenshu

Nichirenshu. (日蓮宗). In Japanese, "schools [associated with] Nichiren." There was and is no single "Nichiren School," but the term is used to designate all of the different schools that trace their origins back to the life and teachings of NICHIREN (1222-1282). At the time of his death, Nichiren left no formal institution in place or instructions for the formation of any such institution. Thus, a number of groups emerged, led by various of his disciples. These groups, which can collectively be referred to as Nichirenshu, disagreed on a number of important points of doctrine and theories of propagation. However, they all shared the fundamental convictions that the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") was the highest of the Buddha's teachings; that during the degenerate age (J. mappo; C. MOFA) liberation could be achieved by chanting the title (DAIMOKU) of that scripture; that Nichiren was the true teacher of this practice and Japan its appropriate site; and that all other forms of Buddhist practice were ineffective in this degenerate age and thus should be repudiated. However, Nichiren's disciples and his followers disagreed on such questions as whether they should have any connections with other Buddhist groups; how aggressively they should proselytize Nichiren's teachings; and whether the two sections of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra-the "SHAKUMON" (Chapters 1-14), or trace teaching, and the "HONMON" (Chapters 15-28), or essential teaching-are of equal importance or whether the "Honmon" is superior. During the Meiji period, specific schools of Nichiren's teachings were recognized, with six different schools institutionalized in 1874. One of these, which called itself the Nichirenshu, declared the two parts of the sutra to be of equal importance; the other five declared the superiority of the "Honmon." One of these five eventually became the NICHIREN SHoSHu.

Nichiren

Nichiren. (日蓮) (1222-1282). Japanese founder of the NICHIRENSHu, one of the so-called new schools of Kamakura Buddhism. Nichiren is said to have been born into a commoner family in present-day Chiba prefecture. At the age of twelve he entered the priesthood and was ordained at the age of sixteen. In 1239, he left his rural temple and went first to Kamakura and then to the capital of Kyoto to study at the great monasteries there. Although he draws heavily on TENDAI and TAIMITSU teachings in his own writings, Nichiren seems to have been acquainted with other traditions of Buddhism as well. During this period, Nichiren began to question what he perceived as inconsistencies in the doctrines of the various schools he was studying. In particular, Nichiren disagreed with the JoDOSHu pure land tradition of HoNEN (1133-1212), and the practice of reciting the buddha's name (NENBUTSU; C. NIANFO). Nichiren eventually concluded that the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") contained the Buddha's ultimate teaching, relegating all other teachings to a provisional status. Armed with this new insight, Nichiren proclaimed in 1253 that people should place their faith in the Saddharmapundarīkasutra by reciting its "title" (J. DAIMOKU), viz., NAMU MYoHoRENGEKYo (Homage to the Saddharmapundarīkasutra), an act that he claimed was sufficient for gaining liberation in the time of the decline of the dharma, or mappo (C. MOFA). It was at this point that he adopted the name "Nichiren" ("Lotus of the Sun,": i.e., Japan) Although Nichiren was a controversial figure, he attracted a large number of followers in Kamakura. In 1260, he wrote the Rissho Ankokuron ("Treatise on Establishing the Right [Teaching] for Securing the Peace of Our Country"), a tract that encouraged the Kamakura military government (bakufu) to rely on the teachings of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra in order to avert political disaster and social upheaval and, in turn, to patronize Nichiren's school over other Buddhist sects. As a result of his lobbying, and his challenge to the pure land tradition, Nichiren was arrested and exiled to Shizuoka prefecture in 1261 but was pardoned two years later. In 1271, a failed assassination plot against Nichiren hardened his resolve. He was arrested again in 1272 and banished to the island of Sado, where he wrote many of his most important treatises, including Kaimokusho ("Opening the Eyes") and Kanjin no honzonsho ("The Object of Devotion for Observing the Mind"). In 1274, he was once again pardoned and subsequently returned to Kamakura. Failing for a third time to convince the Kamakura bakufu to turn to the Saddharmapundarīkasutra for protection and salvation, he retired to Mt. Minobu in Yamanashi prefecture. There, he devoted his time to educating his disciples and writing essays, including Senjisho "(On the Selection of the Time") and Ho'onsho ("Repaying Indebtedness"). Nichiren died at the age of sixty in the year 1282, leaving behind hundreds of works and divisive infighting for control of his legacy.

dai-gohonzon. (大御本尊). In Japanese, lit. "great object of devotion"; the most important object of worship in the NICHIREN SHoSHu school of Japanese Buddhism. The dai-gohonzon is a plank of camphor wood that has at its center an inscription of homage to the title of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra")-NAMU MYoHo RENGEKYo, as well as the name of NICHIREN (1222-1282), surrounded by a cosmological chart (MAndALA) of the Buddhist universe, written in Nichiren's own hand in 1279. By placing namu Myohorengekyo and his name on the same line, the school understands that Nichiren meant that the teachings of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra and the person who proclaimed those teachings (Nichiren) are one and the same (ninpo ikka). The dai-gohonzon has been enshrined at TAISEKIJI, the administrative head temple of Nichiren Shoshu, since the temple's foundation in 1290; for this reason, the temple remains the major pilgrimage center for the school's adherents. The dai-gohonzon itself, the sanctuary (kaidan) where it is enshrined at Kaisekiji, and the teaching of namu Myohorengekyo, are together called the "three great esoteric laws" (SANDAI HIHo), because they were hidden between the lines of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra until Nichiren discovered them and revealed them to the world. Transcriptions of the mandala, called simply GOHONZON, are inscribed on wooden tablets in temples or on paper scrolls when they are enshrined in home altars. See also DAIMOKU.

daimoku. (題目). In Japanese, lit. "title" of a scripture; the term comes to be used most commonly in the NICHIRENSHu and associated schools of Japanese Buddhism to refer specifically to the title of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"). The title is presumed to summarize the gist of the entire scripture, and the recitation of its title in its Japanese pronunciation (see NAMU MYoHoRENGEKYo) is a principal religious practice of the Nichiren and SoKKA GAKKAI schools. Recitation of the title of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra is called specifically the "diamoku of the essential teaching" (honmon no daimoku) in the Nichiren school. The Japanese reformer NICHIREN (1222-1282) advocated recitation of this daimoku as one of the "three great esoteric laws" (SANDAI HIHo), and he claimed it exemplified mastery of wisdom (PRAJNA) in the three trainings (TRIsIKsA).

danna. (檀那). This Japanese term is originally a transcription of the Sanskrit term DANA, or "giving." When referring to a patron of a monk, nun, or monastery, the term danna is used with reference to a "donor" (J. dan'otsu, dan'ochi, dannotsu; S. DANAPATI) or "parish temple" (DANKA). During the Tokugawa period (1603-1868), the Japanese shogunate required every family to register at and support a local temple, called the DANNADERA, which in turned entitled that family to receive funerary services from the local priest. The dannadera, also called the BODAIJI and dankadera, thus served as a means of monitoring the populace and preventing the spread in Japan of subversive religions, such as Christianity and the banned Nichiren-Fuju-Fuse sect of the NICHIREN school. By requiring each Japanese family to be registered at a specific local temple and obligating them to provide for that temple's economic support and to participate in its religious rituals, all Japanese thus became Buddhist in affiliation for the first time in Japanese history.

Devadatta. (T. Lhas sbyin; C. Tipodaduo; J. Daibadatta; K. Chebadalta 提婆達多). Sanskrit and Pāli proper name for a cousin and rival of the Buddha; he comes to be viewed within the tradition as the embodiment of evil for trying to kill the Buddha and split the SAMGHA (SAMGHABHEDA). Devadatta is said to have been the brother of ĀNANDA, who would later become the Buddha's attendant. According to Pāli sources, when Gotama (GAUTAMA) Buddha returned to Kapalivatthu (KAPILAVASTU) after his enlightenment to preach to his native clan, the Sākiyans (sĀKYA), Devadatta along with ĀNANDA, Bhagu, Kimbila, BHADDIYA-KĀlIGODHĀPUTTA, Anuruddha (ANIRUDDHA), and UPĀLI were converted and took ordination as monks. Devadatta quickly attained mundane supranormal powers (iddhi; S. ṚDDHI) through his practice of meditation, although he never attained any degree of enlightenment. For a period of time, Devadatta was revered in the order. Sāriputta (sĀRIPUTRA) is depicted as praising him, and the Buddha lists him among eleven chief elders. Devadatta, however, always seems to have been of evil disposition and jealous of Gotama; in the final years of the Buddha's ministry, he sought to increase his influence and even usurp leadership of the saMgha. He used his supranormal powers to win over the patronage of Prince Ajātasattu (AJĀTAsATRU), who built for him a monastery at Gayāsīsa (Gayāsīrsa). Emboldened by this success, he approached the Buddha with the suggestion that the Buddha retire and pass the leadership of the saMgha to him, whereupon the Buddha severely rebuked him. It was then that Devadatta conceived a plan to kill the Buddha even while he incited Ajātasattu to murder his father BIMBISĀRA, king of MAGADHA, who was the Buddha's chief patron. At Devadatta's behest, Ajātasattu dispatched sixteen archers to shoot the Buddha along a road, but the Buddha, using his supranormal powers, instead converted the archers. Later, Devadatta hurled a boulder down the slope of Mt. Gijjhakuta (GṚDHRAKutAPARVATA) at the Buddha, which grazed his toe and caused it to bleed. Finally, Devadatta caused the bull elephant NĀLĀGIRI, crazed with toddy, to charge at the Buddha, but the Buddha tamed the elephant with the power of his loving-kindness (P. mettā; S. MAITRĪ). Unsuccessful in his attempts to kill the Buddha, Devadatta then decided to establish a separate order. He approached the Buddha and recommended that five austere practices (DHUTAnGA) be made mandatory for all members of the saMgha: forest dwelling, subsistence only on alms food collected by begging, use of rag robes only, dwelling at the foot of a tree, and vegetarianism. When the Buddha rejected his recommendation, Devadatta gathered around him five hundred newly ordained monks from Vesāli (VAIsĀLĪ) and, performing the fortnightly uposatha (UPOsADHA) ceremony separately at Gayāsīsa, formally seceded from the Buddha's saMgha. When the five hundred Vesāli monks were won back to the fold by Sāriputta (sĀRIPUTRA) and Moggallāna (MAHĀMAUDGALYĀYANA), Devadatta grew sick with rage, coughing up blood, and never recovered. It is said that toward the end of his life, Devadatta felt remorse and decided to journey to see the Buddha to ask him for his forgiveness. However, spilling the blood of a Buddha and causing schism in the saMgha are two of the five "acts that brings immediate retribution" (P. ānantariyakamma; S. ĀNANTARYAKARMAN), viz., rebirth in hell. In addition, Devadatta is said to have beaten to death the nun UTPALAVARnĀ when she rebuked him for attempting to assassinate the Buddha. She was an arhat, and killing an arhat is another of the "acts that bring immediate retribution." When Devadatta was on his way to visit the Buddha (according to some accounts, to repent; according to other accounts, to attempt to kill him one last time by scratching him with poisoned fingernails), the earth opened up and Devadatta fell into AVĪCI hell, where he will remain for one hundred thousand eons. His last utterance was that he had no other refuge than the Buddha, an act that, at the end of his torment in hell, will cause him to be reborn as the paccekabuddha (PRATYEKABUDDHA) Atthissara. In many JĀTAKA stories, the villain or chief antagonist of the BODHISATTVA is often identified as a previous rebirth of Devadatta. In the "Devadatta Chapter" of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), the Buddha remarks that in a previous life, he had studied with the sage Asita, who was in fact Devadatta, and that Devadatta would eventually become a buddha himself. This statement was used in the Japanese NICHIREN school as proof that even the most evil of persons (see ICCHANTIKA; SAMUCCHINAKUsALAMuLA) still have the capacity to achieve enlightenment. In their accounts of India, both FAXIAN and XUANZANG note the presence of followers of Devadatta who adhered to the austere practices he had recommended to the Buddha.

Gṛdhrakutaparvata. (P. Gijjhakutapabbata; T. Bya rgod phung po'i ri; C. Lingjiushan; J. Ryojusen; K. Yongch'uksan [alt. Yongch'wisan/Yongch'usan] 靈鷲山). In Sanskrit, "Vulture Peak," one of the five hills surrounding the city of RĀJAGṚHA, a favored site of GAUTAMA Buddha and several of his most important disciples in mainstream Buddhist materials and the site where the Buddha is said to have delivered many renowned sutras in the NIKĀYAs and ĀGAMAs; in the MAHĀYĀNA, Gṛdhrakuta is also the location where sĀKYAMUNI Buddha is purported to have preached such important Mahāyāna scriptures as the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") and the perfection of wisdom sutras (PRAJNĀPĀRAMITĀ). The hill was so named either because it was shaped like a vulture's beak or a flock of vultures, or because vultures roosted there. In another legend, the peak is said to have received its name when, in an attempt to distract ĀNANDA from his meditation, the demon MĀRA turned himself into a frightening vulture; Ānanda, however, was unswayed by the provocation and eventually became enlightened. In one of the most famous episodes in the life of the Buddha, his evil cousin DEVADATTA, in attempting to kill the Buddha, instead wounded him when he hurled a boulder down on him from the hill, cutting his toe; for this and other "acts that bring immediate retribution" (ĀNANTARYAKARMAN), Devadatta fell into AVĪCI hell. Because many important Mahāyāna sermons are said to have been spoken on the peak, some schools-specifically the Japanese NICHIRENSHu-believe that the mountain itself is a PURE LAND. Other sources state that because of the sutras set forth there, the peak has become a STuPA, and like the Buddha's seat (VAJRĀSANA) in BODHGAYĀ, it will not be destroyed by fire at the end of the KALPA. Although beings in the intermediate state (ANTARĀBHAVA) are said to be able to pass through mountains, they are not able to pass through Vulture Peak. The first Buddhist council (see COUNCIL, FIRST), in which a group of five hundred ARHATS met to recite the Buddha's teaching after his death, is said to have been held in a cave on Vulture Peak.

Honcho kosoden. (本朝高僧伝). In Japanese, "Biographies of Eminent Clerics of Japan"; a late Japanese biographic collection, written by the RINZAISHu ZEN monk Mangen Shiban (1626-1710) in 1702, in a total of seventy-five rolls. The Honcho kosoden includes the biographies of 1,662 Japanese priests affiliated with a variety of Buddhist sects (except, prominently, the JoDO SHINSHu and NICHIRENSHu) from the sixth century onward. Unlike Shiban's 1678 ENPo DENToROKU, which contains over one thousand biographies of only Zen clerics and lay practitioners, the Honcho kosoden also discusses clerics from other schools of Japanese Buddhism. The biographies are divided into ten general categories: founders, exegetes, meditators, thaumaturges, VINAYA specialists, propagators, ascetics, pilgrims, scriptural reciters, and others. As the most comprehensive and voluminous Japanese collection of biographies of eminent clerics, the text is an indispensable work for research into the lineage histories of many of the most important schools of Japanese Buddhism. In 1867, the SHINGONSHu monk Hosokawa Dokai (1816-1876) compiled a supplement to this collection, titled the Zoku Nippon kosoden ("Supplement to the Eminent Clerics of Japan"), which including biographies of over two hundred clerics of the premodern period, in a total of eleven rolls.

honmon. (C. benmen; K. ponmun 本門). In Japanese, lit. "fundamental teaching" or "origin teaching"; the essential core of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), which is detailed in the latter fourteen of the scripture's twenty-four chapters; in distinction to the SHAKUMON (lit. "trace teaching"), the provisional first half of the sutra. The term is especially important in both the TIANTAI (J. TENDAI) and NICHIREN-oriented schools of East Asian Buddhism. The honmon is regarded as the teaching preached by the true Buddha, who attained buddhahood an infinite number of KALPAs ago. Traditionally, the sixteenth chapter of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra, "The Longevity of the TATHĀGATA," is believed to constitute the central chapter of the honmon. In this chapter, the Buddha reveals his true identity: he became enlightened in the remote past, yet he appears to have a limited lifespan and to pass into NIRVĀnA in order to inspire sentient beings' spiritual practice, since if they were to know about the Buddha's eternal presence, they might not exert themselves. Honmon is also called the "effect" or "fruition" section of the scripture, since it preaches the omnipresence of the Buddha, which is a consequence of the long process of training that he undertook in the course of achieving enlightenment. The Tiantai master TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597) first applied the two terms honmon and shakumon to distinguish these two parts of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra; he compared the two teachings to the moon in the sky and its reflection on the surface of a pond, respectively. Zhiyi considered the honmon to be different from the shakumon and other scriptural teachings in that it alone revealed the fundamental enlightenment of the Buddha in the distant past. He thus argued that, even though the honmon and shakumon are inconceivably one, the timeless principle of enlightenment itself is revealed in the honmon and all other teachings are merely the "traces" of this principle. The Japanese Tendai tradition offered a slightly different understanding of honmon: despite the fact that sĀKYAMUNI Buddha attained buddhahood numerous eons ago, his manifestation in this world served as a metaphor for the enlightenment inherent in all living things. Tendai thus understood honmon to mean "original enlightenment" (HONGAKU; see also C. BENJUE) and the dynamic phase of suchness (TATHATĀ) that accorded with phenomenal conditions, while "shakumon" was the "acquired enlightenment" (see C. SHIJUE) and the immutable phase of suchness as the unchanging truth. Most crucially, the Tendai tradition emphasized the superiority of honmon over shakumon. The two terms are also important in the various Nichiren-related schools of Japanese Buddhism. NICHIREN (1222-1282) maintained that myohorengekyo, the Japanese title (DAIMOKU) of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra, was in fact the true honmon of the sutra.

honmon no daimoku. (本門の題目). In Japanese, lit. "DAIMOKU of the essential teaching"; term used specifically in the NICHIREN and associated schools of Japanese Buddhism to refer to the essential teaching epitomized in the title of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"). The title of the sutra is presumed to summarize the gist of the entire scripture and it is recited in its Japanese pronunciation (see NAM MYoHoRENGEKYo) as a principal religious practice of the Nichiren and SoKA GAKKAI schools. Recitation of the title of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra was advocated as one of the "three great esoteric laws" (SANDAIHIHo) by the Japanese reformer NICHIREN (1222-1282) and was said to exemplify mastery of wisdom (PRAJNĀ) in the three trainings (TRIsIKsĀ).

huguo Fojiao. (J. gokoku Bukkyo; K. hoguk Pulgyo 護國佛敎). In Chinese, "state-protection Buddhism," referring to the sociopolitical role Buddhism played in East Asia to protect the state against war, insurrection, and natural disasters. The doctrinal justification for such a protective role for Buddhism derives from the "Guanshiyin pusa pumen pin" ("Chapter on the Unlimited Gate of the BODHISATTVA AVALOKITEsVARA") and the "Tuoluoni pin" (DHĀRAnĪ chapter) of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), the "Huguo pin" ("Chapter on Protecting the State") of the RENWANG JING ("Scripture for Humane Kings"), and the "Zhenglun pin" ("Chapter on Right View") of the SUVARnAPRABHĀSOTTAMASuTRA ("Golden Light Sutra"). For example, the Suvarnaprabhāsottamasutra states that a ruler who accepts that sutra and has faith in the dharma will be protected by the four heavenly kings (CĀTURMAHĀRĀJAKĀYIKA); but if he neglects the dharma, the divinities will abandon his state and calamity will result. The "Huguo pin" of the Renwang jing notes that "when the state is thrown into chaos, facing all sorts of disasters and being destroyed by invading enemies," kings should set up in a grand hall one hundred buddha and bodhisattva images and one hundred seats, and then invite one hundred eminent monks to come there and teach the Renwang jing. This ritual, called the "Renwang Assembly of One-Hundred Seats" (C. Renwang baigaozuo hui; J. Ninno hyakukozae; K. Inwang paekkojwa hoe) would ward off any calamity facing the state and was held in China, Japan, and Korea from the late sixth century onward. In Japan, these three scriptures were used to justify the role Buddhism could play in protecting the state; and the Japanese reformist NICHIREN (1222-1282) cites the Suvarnaprabhāsottamasutra in his attempts to demonstrate that the calamities then facing Japan were a result of the divinities abandoning the state because of the government's neglect of the true teachings of Buddhism. The notion of state protection also figured in the introduction of ZEN to Japan. In 1198, the TENDAI and ZEN monk MYoAN EISAI (1141-1215) wrote his KoZEN GOKOKURON ("Treatise on the Promulgation of Zen as a Defense of the State"), which explained why the new teachings of Zen would both protect the state and allow the "perfect teachings" (see JIAOXIANG PANSHI) of Tendai to flourish. ¶ "State-protection Buddhism" has also been posited as one of the defining characteristics of Korean Buddhism. There are typically four types of evidence presented in support of this view. (1) Such rituals as the Inwang paekkojwa hoe (Renwang jing recitation) were held at court at least ten times during the Silla dynasty and increased dramatically to as many as one hundred twenty times during the succeeding Koryǒ dynasty. (2) Monasteries and STuPAs were constructed for their apotropaic value in warding off calamity. During the Silla dynasty, e.g., HWANGNYONGSA and its nine-story pagoda, as well as Sach'onwangsa (Four Heavenly Kings Monastery), were constructed for the protection of the royal family and the state during the peninsular unification wars. During the succeeding Koryo dynasty, the KORYo TAEJANGGYoNG (Korean Buddhism canon) was carved (twice) in the hopes that state support for this massive project would prompt the various buddhas and divinities (DEVA) to ward off foreign invaders and bring peace to the kingdom. (3) Eminent monks served as political advisors to the king and the government. For example, Kwangjong (r. 949-975), the fourth monarch of the Koryǒ dynasty, established the positions of wangsa (royal preceptor) and kuksa (state preceptor, C. GUOSHI), and these offices continued into the early Choson dynasty. (4) Monks were sometimes at the vanguard in repelling foreign invaders, such as the Hangmagun (Defeating Māra Troops) in twelfth-century Koryo, who fought against the Jurchen, and the Choson monks CH'oNGHo HYUJoNG (1520-1604) and SAMYoNG YUJoNG (1544-1610), who raised monks' militias to fight against the Japanese during the Hideyoshi invasions of the late sixteenth century. In the late twentieth century, revisionist historians argued that the notion of "state-protection Buddhism" in Korea may reflect as much the political situation of the modern and contemporary periods as any historical reality, and may derive from the concept of "chingo kokka" (protecting the state) advocated by Japanese apologists during the Buddhist persecution of the Meiji period (1868-1912).

Ikeda Daisaku. (池田大作) (b. 1928). Third president of SoKA GAKKAI, Japan's largest lay Buddhism organization, which is considered one of Japan's "new religions." Ikeda also helped found Soka Gakkai International (SGI), which in 2008 claimed twelve million members in 192 countries and territories. He is a prolific author, who also founded a number of institutions, including Soka University, the Komeito political party, the Institute of Oriental Philosophy, and the Tokyo Fuji Art Museum. Ikeda was born on January 2, 1928, in the Ota Ward of Tokyo, to parents who cultivated and sold seaweed. After graduating from Fuji Junior College, he took employment under Toda Josei (1900-1958), the second president of Soka Gakkai. Ikeda received intensive mentoring from Toda and accompanied him on most of his travels. Ikeda also helped carry out Toda's propagation (shakubuku) campaigns. Ikeda served as the third president of Soka Gakkai from 1960 to 1979 until disagreements with the NICHIREN SHoSHu priesthood, notably its head priest, Nikken (b. 1922), led to his resignation from the organization. In 1991, poor relations with the priesthood culminated in his excommunication. While remaining as Soka Gakkai's spiritual leader, Ikeda has additionally served as the president of SGI since its founding in 1975. Throughout his career with Soka Gakkai and SGI, Ikeda has met with both criticism and praise. At times, the organization's aggressive proselytizing efforts have made Ikeda and Soka Gakkai objects of suspicion, and its political activities have led to several scandals: the 1956 "osaka incident" in which he was charged with election fraud after engineering the election of a Komeito party member; and a 1979 controversy over the suppression of several publications that criticized Ikeda and Soka Gakkai. At the same time, Ikeda is respected as a leader on human rights and peace issues. He has been a strong supporter of the United Nations and has engaged in discussions with political leaders around the world. The expansive growth of both Soka Gakkai and SGI can in large measure be attributed to his leadership.

Kaimokusho. (開目鈔). In Japanese, "Opening the Eyes"; one of the major writings of NICHIREN. Nichiren composed this treatise in 1273 while he was living in exile in a graveyard on Sado Island. Nichiren's motivation for writing this treatise is said to have come from the doubts that he came to harbor about the efficacy of the teachings of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA due to the government's repeated persecution of him and his followers. The Kaimokusho details the reasons behind the persecutions: bad KARMAN from the past, the abandonment of the country by the gods (KAMI), life in the impure realm of SAHĀLOKA, and the trials and tribulations of the BODHISATTVA path. In the Kaimokusho, Nichiren professes to have overcome his doubts and welcomes the bodhisattva path of martyrdom. The treatise explains the path that leads to "opening the eyes" as a journey from the teachings of the heretics to those of the HĪNAYĀNA, the MAHĀYĀNA, and finally culminating in the teachings of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra (see JIAOXIANG PANSHI). According to Nichiren tradition, because Nichiren claims at the conclusion of the text to be the "sovereign, teacher, and mother and father to all the people of Japan," he has thus revealed himself to be the Buddha of the degenerate age of the dharma (MAPPo).

kechimyaku sojo. (血脈相承). In Japanese, "transmission of the bloodline"; a term used to refer to the unbroken transmission of the dharma from master to disciple down through the generations, which is like the bloodline in a family being passed from parents to child. The term is especially used in the ZEN (CHAN) and esoteric Buddhist sects in Japan, but later is adopted by the JoDOSHu and NICHIRENSHu as well. Cf. XUEMO LUN.

Kotani Kimi. (小谷喜美) (1901-1971). Cofounder along with KUBO KAKUTARo (1892-1944) of the REIYuKAI school of modern Japanese Buddhism, which derives from the teachings of the NICHIRENSHu school of Buddhism. Kotani Kimi was the wife of Kotani Yasukichi, Kubo's elder brother. She and her husband became two of the earliest and most active proponents of Reiyukai. After her husband died, she became the first official president of the group in 1930, and after Kubo's death in 1944, she ran the organization successfully on her own, although many splinter groups formed in reaction to her leadership. Kotani focused on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), but because ancestor worship was her primary religious practice, she used the sutra rather idiosyncratically as a path to the spiritual realm. Kotani also focused the group's energies on social welfare programs, and especially youth education, for she felt that Japan's rapid modernization was neglecting the needs of the youth.

Koyasan. (高野山). In Japanese, "Mt. Koya"; a Japanese sacred mountain in Wakayama prefecture. Currently, the monastery Kongobuji on Mt. Koya serves as the headquarters (honzan) of the Koyasan SHINGONSHu sect of the Shingon tradition. While traveling through the lands southwest of Yoshino, the Japanese monk KuKAI is said to have stumbled upon a flat plateau named Koya (High Field) on a mountain. Kukai determined that Koya was an ideal site of self-cultivation, as it appeared to be an uninhabited area surrounded on four sides by high mountain peaks. It is said that the mountain was revealed to Kukai by a hunter who was an incarnation of the god (KAMI) of the mountain, Koya Myojin. This deity is still worshipped on Mt. Koya in his hunter form as Kariba Myojin. In 816, Kukai received permission from the emperor to establish a practice center dedicated to the study of MIKKYo ritual and doctrine at Koya. Kukai first sent his disciples Jitsue (786-847) and Enmyo (d. 851) to survey the entire area and went to the site himself in 818. Due to his activities at the official monastery, ToJI, and his business at the monasteries Jingoji and Muroji, Kukai's involvement with Mt. Koya was limited. In 835, he retired to Mt. Koya due to his deteriorating health and finally died there, purportedly while in a deep meditative state. Kukai's body is housed in the mausoleum complex Okunoin near Kongobuji. According to legend, he remains there in a state of eternal SAMĀDHI. As a result of the developing cult of Kukai, who increasingly came to be worshipped as a bodhisattva, Mt. Koya came to be viewed as a PURE LAND on earth. Later, as a result of political contestations, as well as several fires on the mountain in 994, Mt. Koya entered a period of protracted decline and neglect. Through the efforts of Fujiwara and other aristocrats as well as the patronage of reigning and retired emperors, Mt. Koya reemerged as a powerful monastic and economic center in the region, and became an influential center of pilgrimage and religious cultivation famous throughout Japan. In 1114, KAKUBAN took up residence on the mountain and assiduously practiced mikkyo for eight years. In 1132, he established the monasteries of Daidenboin and Mitsugon'in on Mt. Koya. Despite his efforts to refocus Mt. Koya scholasticism around the doctrinal and ritual teachings of Kukai, his rapid rise through the monastic ranks was met with great animosity from the conservative factions on the mountain. In 1288, the monk Raiyu (1226-1304) moved Daidenboin and Mitsugon'in to nearby Mt. Negoro and established what came to be known as Shingi Shingon, which regarded Kakuban as its founder. In 1185, Myohen, a disciple of HoNEN, moved to Mt. Koya to pursue rebirth in the pure land, a common goal for many pilgrims to Mt. Koya. It is said that, around 1192, NICHIREN and Honen made pilgrimages to the mountain. MYoAN EISAI's senior disciple Gyoyu established Kongosanmai-in and taught Chinese RINZAI (LINJI) Zen on Mt. Koya. Zen lineages developed between Mt. Koya, Kyoto, and Kamakura around this time. In 1585, during the Warring States Period, the monk Mokujiki ogo was able to convince Toyotomi Hideyoshi not to burn down the mountain as Oda Nobunaga had done at HIEIZAN. As a result, Mt. Koya preserves ancient manuscripts and images that would have otherwise been lost. Mt. Koya's monastic structures shrank to less than a third of their original size during the Meiji persecution of Buddhism (HAIBUTSU KISHAKU). At that same time, Mt. Koya lost much of its former land holdings, which greatly reduced its economic base. In the twentieth century, Mt. Koya went through several modernization steps: the ban against women was lifted in 1905, its roads were paved, and Mt. Koya University was built on the mountain. At present, Mt. Koya is a thriving tourist, pilgrimage, and monastic training center.

Kubo Kakutaro. (久保角太郎) (1892-1944). Cofounder along with KOTANI KIMI of the REIYuKAI school of modern Japanese Buddhism, which derives from the teachings of the NICHIRENSHu school of Buddhism. Kubo Kakutaro was an orphan who by age thirteen was employed as a carpenter's apprentice in Tokyo. He began to work for the Imperial Household Ministry, where he met Count Sengoku, a bureaucrat who sponsored Kubo's marriage to a woman from the aristocratic Kubo family; he then took the family's surname. His parents-in-law were followers of Nichiren. After learning of the possibility of self-ordination through the teachings of Toki Jonin, he founded Rei No Tomo Kai with Wakatsuki Chise; this group became known as Reiyukai in 1924. Kubo also grew increasingly interested in ancestor veneration, a key component in the practice of the Reiyukai school.

Makiguchi Tsunesaburo. (牧口常三郎) (1871-1944). Founder of SoKA GAKKAI, a modern Japanese lay movement. Makiguchi was born in a small village in Niigata prefecture. Until 1928, he pursued a career as an educator and writer, serving as a teacher or a principal in several schools, and publishing articles on his educational philosophy, which focused on developing the creativity and personal experience of his students. Perhaps because of such personal misfortunes as the loss of four of his five children, Makiguchi converted in 1928 to NICHIREN SHoSHu, an offshoot of Nichiren Buddhism, after finding that its teachings resonated with his own ideas about engendering social and religious values. Together with his disciple Toda Josei (1900-1958), Makiguchi founded in 1930 the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (Creating Educational Values), a lay organization under the umbrella of the Nichiren Shoshu, which focused on publicizing his pedagogical ideas, and led its first general meeting. The society subsequently began to take on a decidedly religious character, focusing on missionary work for Nichiren Shoshu. As the Pacific War expanded, Makiguchi and his followers refused to cooperate with state-enforced SHINTo practices, leading to a rift between them and TAISEKIJI, the head monastery of Nichiren Shoshu. As a result, Makiguchi was arrested in 1943 on charges of lèse-majesté and violations of the Public Order Act, and died in prison one year later. After Makiguchi's disciple Toda Josei was released from prison in July 1945, he took charge of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai organization and renamed it Soka Gakkai in 1946, developing it into one of the largest lay Buddhist organizations in Japan.

mofa. (J. mappo; K. malpop 末法). In Chinese, "final dharma" period. The dispensation of Buddhism, like all compounded things, is presumed to be impermanent and subject to decay and eventually dissolution. This process of eschatological decline was believed to occur in stages, often calculated at either five hundred or one thousand years at each stage (although there were many variations), and began with the passage of the Buddha into PARINIRVĀnA. In East Asia, the notion of decline was formalized into an influential doctrinal system, consisting of three stages or periods named "true dharma" (zhengfa; see SADDHARMA), "semblance dharma" (XIANGFA), and "final dharma" (mofa). This tripartite system was not inherited from Indian Buddhism. The term mofa is not the translation of the Sanskrit SADDHARMAVIPRALOPA ("destruction of the dharma"), but is instead a neologism derived from moshi, the Chinese translation of term PAsCIMAKĀLA ("latter time"). The notion of the period of the final dharma spawned a large and influential exegetical tradition in East Asia. The date of the onset of the final period was variously calculated (and was generally assumed to have already begun soon after Buddhism's introduction into East Asia). This assumption was widely employed as doctrinal justification for certain practices, such as the invocation of the name of the buddha AMITĀBHA (NIANFO) or the cult of the future buddha MAITREYA. In such contexts, it was claimed that during the period of the final dharma, beings lacked the capacity to successfully follow the standard path to liberation set forth by the Buddha and instead should rely on the efficacious powers of Amitābha or the prospect of an easier practice regimen after the advent of sĀKYAMUNI Buddha's successor, Maitreya. The notion of the age of the final dharma was espoused in many indigenous scriptures (see APOCRYPHA) written in East Asia. It also played an important role in the formation of such traditions as PURE LAND, JoDOSHu, JoDO SHINSHu, NICHIRENSHu, NICHIREN SHOSHu, and others. See also SADDHARMAVIPRALOPA.

Muju Ichien. (無住一圓) (1227-1312). A Japanese monk during the Kamakura period; also known as Muju Dogyo. He was born into a warrior family and became a monk at the age of eighteen. Muju studied the doctrines of various sects, including the Hossoshu, SHINGONSHu, TENDAISHu, and JoDOSHu, and received ZEN training from the RINZAISHu monk ENNI BEN'EN (1202-1280). In 1262, Muju built Choboji (Matriarchal Longevity Monastery) in Owari (present-day Nagoya, a port city in the center of the main Japanese island of Honshu), where he spent the rest of his life. Although affiliated with the Rinzaishu, Muju took an ecumenical approach to Buddhism, arguing that all the different teachings of Buddhism were skillful means of conveying the religion's ultimate goal; he even denounced NICHIREN (1222-1382) for his contemporary's exclusivist attitude toward his own eponymous sect. Muju was also famous for his collections of Japanese folklore, such as the SHASEKISHu ("Sand and Pebbles Collection"), written between 1279 and 1283; his Tsuma kagami ("Mirror for Wives") of 1300; and his 1305 Zodanshu ("Collection of Random Conversations"). In particular, in the Shasekishu, Muju introduced the idea of the "unity of spirits and buddhas" (SHINBUTSU SHuGo), describing the Japanese indigenous gods, or KAMI, as various manifestations of the Buddha.

Naganuma Myoko. (長沼妙佼) (1889-1957). Cofounder, with NIWANO NIKKYo (1906-1999), of Rissho Koseikai, a Japanese "new religion" associated with the REIYuKAI and NICHIREN schools. See RISSHo KoSEIKAI.

namu Myohorengekyo. (C. namo Miaofa lianhua jing; K. namu Myobop yonhwa kyong 南無妙法蓮華經). In Japanese, lit. "Homage to the Lotus Flower of the Sublime Dharma Scripture," the phrase chanted as the primary practice of the various subtraditions of the NICHIRENSHu, including NICHIREN SHOSHu and SOKKA GAKKAI. The first syllable of the phrase, "namu," is a transcription of the Sanskrit term "namas," meaning "homage"; "Myohorengekyo" is the Japanese pronunciation of the title of KUMĀRAJĪVA's (344-413) Chinese translation of the influential SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"). The phrase is also known in the Nichiren tradition as the DAIMOKU (lit. "title"). Chanting or meditating on the title of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra seems to have had a long history in the TENDAISHu (TIANTAI ZONG) in Japan. The practice was further developed and popularized by the Tendai monk NICHIREN, who placed this practice above all others. Relying on the FAHUA XUANYI, an important commentary on the Saddharmapundarīkasutra by the Chinese monk TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597), Nichiren claimed that the essence of the scripture is distilled in its title, or daimoku, and that chanting the title can therefore lead to the attainment of buddhahood in this very body (SOKUSHIN JoBUTSU). He also drew on the notion that the dharma was then in decline (J. mappo; see C. MOFA) to promote the chanting of namu Myohorengekyo as the optimal approach to enlightenment in this degenerate age. The ONGI DUDEN ("Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings"), the transcription of Nichiren's lectures on the sutra compiled by his disciple Nichiko (1246-1332), gives a detailed exegesis of the meaning of the phrase. In the Nichiren interpretation, namu represents the dedication of one's whole life to the essential truth of Buddhism, which is the daimoku Myohorengekyo. Myoho refers to the "sublime dharma" of the nonduality of enlightenment and ignorance. Renge is the "lotus flower" (PUndARĪKA), which, because it is able to bear seeds and yet bloom at the same time, symbolizes the simultaneity of cause and effect. Finally, kyo represents the voices and sounds of all sentient beings, which affirm the universal presence of the buddha-nature (C. FOXING). The chanting of the phrase is therefore considered to be the ultimate means to attain buddhahood, regardless of whether or not one knows its meaning. In addition to its soteriological dimension, the chanting of the phrase is believed by some to convey such practical benefits as good health and financial well-being.

Nara Buddhism, Six Schools of. A traditional grouping of six major scholastic schools of Japanese Buddhism active during the Nara period (710-794 CE): (1) Sanronshu (see SAN LUN ZONG), an East Asian counterpart of the MADHYAMAKA school; (2) Kegonshu (see HUAYAN ZONG), an East Asian exegetical tradition focused on the AVATAMSAKASuTRA; (3) RISSHu, or VINAYA exegesis; (4) Jojitsushu (see CHENGSHI LUN) the TATTVASIDDHI exegetical tradition; (5) Hossoshu (see FAXIANG ZONG), an East Asian strand of YOGĀCĀRA; and (6) Kushashu, focused on ABHIDHARMA exegesis using the ABHIDHARMAKOsABHĀsYA. These six schools are presumed to have been founded during the initial phase of Buddhism's introduction into Japan, between c. 552 and the end of the Nara period in 794. These learned schools were eventually supplanted by the practice and meditative schools of TENDAISHu and SHINGONSHu, which were introduced during the succeeding Heian period (794-1185), and the later schools of the ZENSHu, the pure land schools of JoDOSHu and JoDO SHINSHu, and NICHIRENSHu of the Kamakura period (1185-1333).

Niwano Nikkyo. (庭野日敬) (1906-1999). Cofounder of RISSHo KoSEIKAI, a Japanese lay Buddhist organization that was an offshoot of REIYuKAI and was strongly influenced by NICHIRENSHu doctrine. Niwano was born into a poor family in a small town in Nigata prefecture in northern Japan. After going to work in Tokyo in 1923, Niwano led a typical working-class life, running such small businesses as rice, charcoal, and Japanese-pickle shops, while also showing an intense interest in astrology, numerology, and divination. Niwano became an ardent adherent of Reiyukai in 1934, when his nine-month-old daughter recovered from a serious illness after he followed the organization's practice of ancestor worship. Niwano soon became a leading evangelist for Reiyukai, recruiting many new followers, one of whom was NAGANUMA MYoKo (1899-1957). In 1938, Niwano and Naganuma left Reiyukai and cofounded Rissho Koseikai, together with about thirty other followers. According to Niwano, the group seceded because of Reiyukai's overemphasis on the miraculous benefit, rather than the teachings, of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), although others say that the split occurred because the leader of Reiyukai publicly criticized Niwano's interest in divination. After establishing the organization, Naganuma served as a spirit medium, while Niwano focused on teaching and administration. After Naganuma's death in 1957, Niwano became the president of the million-member organization and declared the end of the organization's first era of "skillful means" (J. hoben; S. UPĀYAKAUsALYA), which had been characterized by spirit mediumship and divine instructions, and the dawn of a new era of "manifesting the truth" (shinjitsu kengen). Niwano affirmed that henceforth the central objects of the organization's faith would be the Saddharmapundarīkasutra and sĀKYAMUNI Buddha, which were eternal and universal. Based on his understanding of the sutra, Niwano emphasized the spiritual development of individuals along the BODHISATTVA path, whose salvific efforts should be dedicated not just to one's own family and ancestors, but also to Japanese society and the world at large. Niwano also dedicated himself to promoting world peace through interreligious cooperation, one example of which was the establishment of the Niwano Peace Foundation in 1978. Niwano resigned from the presidency of Rissho Koseikai in 1991 and was succeeded by his eldest son Niwano Nichiko (b. 1938).

Ongi kuden. (御義口傳). In Japanese, "Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings"; transcription of the lectures on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") by NICHIREN, compiled by his disciple Nichiko (1246-1333). See NAMU MYoHoRENGEKYo.

Reiyukai. (霊友会/靈友會). In Japanese, lit. "Numinous Friends Society," or "Society of Friends of the Spirits"; a Japanese Buddhist lay organization, deriving from the teachings of the NICHIRENSHu. It was founded in 1925 by KUBO KAKUTARo (1892-1944) and KOTANI KIMI (1901-1971), the wife of Kubo's elder brother, who took over leadership of the organization and became president in 1944 upon Kubo's death. Kubo insisted that everyone keep a family death register and give posthumous names to venerated ancestors; these activities were formerly the domain of monks, who would be paid for their services. His other ideas included the classical directive to convert the world into a PURE LAND for Buddhism and the need to teach others the truth. He particularly emphasized the ability of each individual to improve him or herself. Kubo's ideas appealed to the poor and he began to attract converts quickly, including his brother Kotani Yasukichi and Kotani's wife, Kotani Kimi. In 1971 after Kotani Kimi died, Kubo's son Kubo Tsugunari took over as the leader of the group. For years he had prepared for this future, including studying Indian philosophy and Buddhism at Rissho University. Despite this preparation, Reiyukai was rocked by what some viewed as his personal failings and political maneuverings and Kubo Tsugunari eventually lost his leadership post. More recent leaders have been elected democratically. Some noted activities in recent years include opening the Lumbinī International Research Institute in Nepal and the International College for Advanced Buddhist Studies in Tokyo. The organization reached its peak during the years surrounding the Second World War, when it claimed some three million members, and was the source of numerous Nichiren-related new religious movements, of which the RISSHo KoSEIKAI, founded in 1938, became the most prominent. Reiyukai continues to be an active lay organization in both Japan and abroad. The Reiyukai organization has no clergy and no formal affiliation with any other Buddhist school, but instead relies on volunteer lay teachers who lead informal group meetings and discussions. Reiyukai focuses on the human capacity for lifelong self-cultivation in order to become ever more wise and compassionate. All its adherents must have a personal sponsor in order to join the order. The school stresses ancestor worship, believing that personal and social ills are the result of inadequate veneration of ancestor spirits who have been unable to attain buddhahood and instead became guardian spirits until the proper rites are performed so they may be liberated. Its followers believe that reciting the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") in abridged form during daily morning and evening services or a group meeting transfers merit to their ancestors.

Rissho Koseikai. (立正佼成会). In Japanese, "Society for Establishing Righteousness and Peaceful Relations," one of Japan's largest lay Buddhist organizations. Rissho Koseikai was founded in 1938 by NIWANO NIKKYo (1906-1999), the son of a farming family in Niigata prefecture, and NAGANUMA MYoKo (1889-1957), a homemaker from Saitama prefecture. In 2007, it claimed 1.67 million member households, with 239 churches in Japan and fifty-six churches in eighteen countries outside of Japan. Originally formed as an offshoot of REIYuKAI, Rissho Koseikai is strongly influenced by NICHIRENSHu doctrine, although it bears no organizational ties with the latter school. In terms of its ethos and organizational structure, it embodies many of the characteristics of Japan's so-called new religions. Rissho Koseikai emphasizes worship of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") as a means for self-cultivation and salvation as well as for the greater good of humanity at large. Religious practice includes recitation of chapters from the Saddharmapundarīkasutra every morning and evening and chanting of the Japanese title of the sutra, or DAIMOKU, viz., NAMU MYoHoRENGEKYo. As is common among schools associated with worship of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra, Rissho Koseikai believes that people share karmic links with their ancestors. Through recitation of Saddharmapundarīkasutra passages and its title, along with repentance for one's past transgressions, one can transfer merit to one's ancestors. This transference aims to subdue the troubled spirits of ancestors who did not attain buddhahood, as well as to eliminate any negative karmic bonds with them. Rissho Koseikai is headquartered in Tokyo. However, its organization is largely decentralized and it has no priesthood. This structure places more value and responsibility on its laity, who are presumed to be capable of transferring merit and conducting funerals and ancestral rites on their own. Group gatherings generally address counseling issues for individuals and families alongside the study of Buddhist doctrine. In contrast to Reiyukai, which emphasizes devotional faith to the Saddharmapundarīkasutra without the need for detailed doctrinal understanding of Buddhism, adherents of Rissho Koseikai, in line with the school's founders, include the analytic study of doctrine as complementary to their faith.

Sadāparibhuta. (T. Rtag tu mi brnyas pa; C. Changbuqing pusa; J. Jofukyo bosatsu; K. Sangbulgyong posal 常不輕菩薩). In Sanskrit, "Never Disparaging," the name of a BODHISATTVA described in the eponymous nineteenth or twentieth chapter (depending on the version) of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"). The Buddha explains that long ago there was a bodhisattva named Sadāparibhuta who did not study or recite the sutras. Whenever he saw a monk (BHIKsU), nun (BHIKsUnĪ), male lay disciple (UPĀSAKA), or female lay disciple (UPĀSIKĀ), he would say, "I dare not belittle you because you will all become buddhas." Arrogant monks, nuns, and male and female lay disciples began to sarcastically refer to him as "Never Disparaging." When the bodhisattva was about to die, he heard millions of verses of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra in the sky and as a result his life span was increased by many eons, during which he taught the sutra. Those who had mocked him were reborn in AVĪCI hell, but were eventually reborn as his disciples and later became the five hundred bodhisattvas in the assembly of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra. The Buddha reveals that he had been the bodhisattva Sadāparibhuta in a previous life. The bodhisattva's famous statement, "I dare not belittle you because you will all become buddhas," came to be known as the "twenty-four character 'Lotus Sutra'" because in KUMĀRAJĪVA's translation, the line is twenty-four Sinographs long. The chapter was especially important to the Japanese reformer NICHIREN, who noted the importance of developing even a negative relationship with the true teaching, as evidenced by the fact that those who slandered Sadāparibhuta eventually became bodhisattvas themselves.

Saddharmapundarīkasutra. (T. Dam pa'i chos padma dkar po'i mdo; C. Miaofa lianhua jing/Fahua jing; J. Myohorengekyo/Hokekyo; K. Myobop yonhwa kyong/Pophwa kyong 妙法蓮華經/法華經). In Sanskrit, "Sutra of the White Lotus of the True Dharma," and known in English simply as the "Lotus Sutra"; perhaps the most influential of all MAHĀYĀNA sutras. The earliest portions of the text were probably composed as early as the first or second centuries of the Common Era; the text gained sufficient renown in India that a number of chapters were later interpolated into it. The sutra was translated into Chinese six times and three of those translations are extant. The earliest of those is that made by DHARMARAKsA, completed in 286. The most popular is that of KUMĀRAJĪVA in twenty-eight chapters, completed in 406. The sutra was translated into Tibetan in the early ninth century. Its first translation into a European language was that of EUGÈNE BURNOUF into French in 1852. The Saddharmapundarīkasutra is perhaps most famous for its parables, which present, in various versions, two of the sutra's most significant doctrines: skill-in-means (UPĀYA) and the immortality of the Buddha. In the parable of the burning house, a father lures his children from a conflagration by promising them three different carts, but when they emerge they find instead a single, magnificent cart. The three carts symbolize the sRĀVAKA vehicle, the PRATYEKABUDDHA vehicle, and the BODHISATTVA vehicle, while the one cart is the "one vehicle" (EKAYĀNA), the buddha vehicle (BUDDHAYĀNA). This parable indicates that the Buddha's previous teaching of three vehicles (TRIYĀNA) was a case of upāya, an "expedient device" or "skillful method" designed to attract persons of differing capacities to the dharma. In fact, there is only one vehicle, the vehicle whereby all beings proceed to buddhahood. In the parable of the conjured city, a group of weary travelers take rest in a magnificent city, only to be told later that it is a magical creation. This conjured city symbolizes the NIRVĀnA of the ARHAT; there is in fact no such nirvāna as a final goal in Buddhism, since all will eventually follow the bodhisattva's path to buddhahood. The apparently universalistic doctrine articulated by the sutra must be understood within the context of the sectarian polemics in which the sutra seems to have been written. The doctrine of upāya is intended in part to explain the apparent contradiction between the teachings that appear in earlier sutras and those of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra. The former are relegated to the category of mere expedients, with those who fail to accept the consummate teaching of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra as the authentic word of the Buddha (BUDDHAVACANA) repeatedly excoriated by the text itself. In a device common in Mahāyāna sutras, the sutra itself describes both the myriad benefits that accrue to those who recite, copy, and revere the sutra, as well as the misfortune that will befall those who fail to do so. The immortality of the Buddha is portrayed in the parable of the physician, in which a father feigns death in order to induce his sons to commit to memory an antidote to poison. The apparent death of the father is compared to the Buddha's entry into nirvāna, something which he only pretended to do in order to inspire his followers. Elsewhere in the sutra, the Buddha reveals that he did not achieve enlightenment as the prince Siddhārtha who left his palace, but in fact had achieved enlightenment eons before; the well-known version of his departure from the palace and successful quest for enlightenment were merely a display meant to inspire the world. The immortality of the Buddha (and other buddhas) is also demonstrated when a great STuPA emerges from the earth. When the door to the funerary reliquary is opened, ashes and bones are not found, as would be expected, but instead the living buddha PRABHuTARATNA, who appears in his stupa whenever the Saddharmapundarīkasutra is taught. sĀKYAMUNI joins him on his seat, demonstrating another central Mahāyāna doctrine, the simultaneous existence of multiple buddhas. Other famous events described in the sutra include the miraculous transformation of a NĀGA princess into a buddha after she presents a gem to sākyamuni and the tale of a bodhisattva who immolates himself in tribute to a previous buddha. The sutra contains several chapters that function as self-contained texts; the most popular of these is the chapter devoted to the bodhisattva AVALOKITEsVARA, which details his ability to rescue the faithful from various dangers. The Saddharmapundarīkasutra was highly influential in East Asia, inspiring both a range of devotional practices as well as the creation of new Buddhist schools that had no Indian analogues. The devotional practices include those extolled by the sutra itself: receiving and keeping the sutra, reading it, memorizing and reciting it, copying it, and explicating it. In East Asia, there are numerous tales of the miraculous benefits of each of these practices. The practice of copying the sutra (or having it copied) was a particularly popular form of merit-making either for oneself or for departed family members. Also important, especially in China, was the practice of burning either a finger or one's entire body as an offering to the Buddha, emulating the self-immolation of the bodhisattva BHAIsAJYARĀJA in the twenty-third chapter (see SHESHEN). In the domain of doctrinal developments, the Saddharmapundarīkasutra was highly influential across East Asia, its doctrine of upāya providing the rationale for the systems of doctrinal taxonomies (see JIAOXIANG PANSHI) that are pervasive in East Asian Buddhist schools. In China, the sutra was the central text of the TIANTAI ZONG, where it received detailed exegesis by a number of important figures. The school's founder, TIANTAI ZHIYI, divided the sutra into two equal parts. In the first fourteen chapters, which he called the "trace teaching" (C. jimen, J. SHAKUMON), sākyamuni appears as the historical buddha. In the remaining fourteen chapters, which Zhiyi called the "origin teaching" (C. benmen, J. HONMON), sākyamuni reveals his true nature as the primordial buddha who achieved enlightenment many eons ago. Zhiyi also drew on the Saddharmapundarīkasutra in elucidating two of his most famous doctrines: the three truths (SANDI, viz., emptiness, the provisional, and the mean) and the notion of YINIAN SANQIAN, or "the trichiliocosm in an instant of thought." In the TENDAISHu, the Japanese form of Tiantai, the sutra remained supremely important, providing the scriptural basis for the central doctrine of original enlightenment (HONGAKU) and the doctrine of "achieving buddhahood in this very body" (SOKUSHIN JoBUTSU); in TAIMITSU, the tantric form of Tendai, sākyamuni Buddha was identified with MAHĀVAIROCANA. For the NICHIREN schools (and their offshoots, including SoKA GAKKAI), the Saddharmapundarīkasutra is not only its central text but is also considered to be the only valid Buddhist sutra for the degenerate age (J. mappo; see C. MOFA); the recitation of the sutra's title is the central practice in Nichiren (see NAMU MYoHoRENGEKYo). See also SADĀPARIBHuTA.

sandaihiho. (三大秘法). In Japanese, "three great esoteric laws," three secret teachings that are presumed to have been hidden between the lines of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") until NICHIREN (1222-1282) discovered them and revealed them to the world. The three are: (1) the DAI-GOHONZON (J. honmon no honzon), the main object of worship in the NICHIREN SHoSHu school, which is a cosmological chart (MAndALA) of the universe surrounding an inscription of homage to the title of the "Lotus Sutra" and Nichiren's own name; (2) the sanctuary (J. honmon no kaidan) where the dai-gohonzon is enshrined at KAISEKIJI, the head temple of Nichiren Shoshu; and (3) the teaching of NAM MYoHoRENGEKYo (J. honmon no DAIMOKU), "Homage to the 'Lotus Sutra,'" the recitation that is central to Nichiren practice.

shakumon. (C. jimen; K. chongmun 迹門). In Japanese, lit. "trace teaching," or "teaching involving traces"; the provisional teaching of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), which appears in the first half of the twenty-four chapters of the scripture; in distinction to HONMON (fundamental teaching), the definitive final fourteen chapters of the scripture. The term is especially important in both the TIANTAI (J. TENDAI) and NICHIREN-oriented schools of East Asian Buddhism. The Tiantai master TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597) first applied the two terms to refer to these two distinctive parts of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra, adapting the terms traces (C. ji, J. shaku) and root (C. ben, J. hon) that had originally been used by SENGZHAO (374-414), a disciple of KUMĀRAJĪVA (344-413), to explain the inconceivable relationship between skillful means (UPĀYA) and enlightened wisdom (PRAJNĀ). Zhiyi made a distinction between the transient buddha who attained the buddhahood during his lifetime in India and the universal buddha who attained buddhahood infinite numbers of KALPAs ago. Zhiyi regarded shakumon to be the teaching of the transient buddha, and honmon the teaching of the universal buddha. The shakumon of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra is also called the practice or causal section of the sutra, since it details the stages of BODHISATTVA practices over countless lifetimes that serve as the prerequisites of future buddhahood. The shakumon thus emphasizes the various skillful means that lead to the one buddha vehicle (see YISHENG; EKAYĀNA).

Shingonshu. (眞言宗). In Japanese, lit. "True Word School." Shingon is the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese term ZHENYAN (true word), which in turn is a translation of the Sanskrit term MANTRA. In Japan, Shingon has also come to serve as the name for the various esoteric (MIKKYo) traditions that traced their teachings back to the eminent Japanese monk KuKAI. In his voluminous oeuvre, such as the HIMITSU MANDARA JuJuSHINRON, HIZo HoYAKU, Sokushin jobutsugi, and Shoji jissogi, Kukai laid the foundations of a new esoteric discourse that allowed the Buddhist institutions of the Heian period to replace Confucian principles as the ruling ideology of Japan. Kukai was able to effect this change by presenting the court and the Buddhist establishment with an alternative conception of Buddhist power, ritual efficacy, and the power of speech acts. Through Kukai's newly imported ritual systems, monks and other initiated individuals were said to be able to gain access to the power of the cosmic buddha Mahāvairocana, understood to be the DHARMAKĀYA, leading to all manner of feats, from bringing rain and warding off disease and famine, to achieving buddhahood in this very body (SOKUSHIN JoBUTSU). Kukai taught the choreographed ritual engagement with MAndALA, the recitation of MANTRAs and DHĀRAnĪ, and the performance of MUDRĀ and other ritual postures that were said to transform the body, speech, and mind of the practitioner into the body, speech, and mind of a particular buddha. Kukai's ritual teachings grew in importance to the point that he was appointed to the highest administrative post in the Buddhist establishment (sogo). From this position, Kukai was able to establish ordination platforms at the major monasteries in Nara and the capital in Kyoto. Later, the emperor gave Kukai both ToJI in Kyoto and KoYASAN, which subsequently came to serve as important centers of esoteric Buddhism. Kukai's Shingon mikkyo lineages also flourished at the monasteries of Ninnaji and DAIGOJI under imperial support. Later, Toji rose as an important institutional center for the study of Kukai's esoteric Buddhist lineages under the leadership of the monk Kangen (853-925), who was appointed head (zasu) of Toji, Kongobuji, and Daigoji. The Mt. Koya institution also grew with the rise of KAKUBAN, who established the monasteries of Daidenboin and Mitsugonin on the mountain. Conflict brewed between the monks of Kongobuji and Daidenboin when Kakuban was appointed the head of both institutions, a conflict that eventually resulted in the relocation of Daidenboin to nearby Mt. Negoro in Wakayama. The Daidenboin lineage came to be known as the Shingi branch of Shingon esoteric Buddhism. Attempts to unify the esoteric Buddhist traditions that claimed descent from Kukai were later made by Yukai (1345-1416), who eradicated the teachings of the "heretical" TACHIKAWARYu from Mt. Koya, and worked to establish a Kukai-centered Shingonshu orthodoxy. By the late medieval period, the major monastic landholding institutions in Kyoto, Nara, and Mt. Koya, many of which were profoundly influenced by the teachings of Kukai, suffered economic hardship with the initiation of the Warring States period (1467-1573) and the growing popularity of the so-called "Kamakura Schools" (e.g., JoDOSHu, JoDO SHINSHu, ZENSHu, and NICHIRENSHu). In particular, Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582) had crushed the major Buddhist centers on HIEIZAN. However, Mt. Koya, which was still a thriving center for the study of Kukai's Shingon esoteric Buddhism, was spared the same fate because the monks resident at the mountain successfully convinced Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) not to burn down their center. Thanks to the political stability of the Tokugawa regime, studies of esoteric Buddhism thrived until the harsh persecution of Buddhism by the Meiji government (see HAIBUTSU KISHAKU). As an effort to recover from the Meiji persecution, the disparate traditions of esoteric Buddhism came together under the banner of the Shingonshu, but after World War II, the various sub-lineages reasserted their independence.

Shotoku Taishi. (聖德太子) (572-622). Japanese statesman of the Asuka period (593-710) and second son of Emperor Yomei (r. 585-587), who is traditionally assumed to have played an important role in the early dissemination of Buddhism in Japan. He is also known as Umayado no Miko (Prince Stable Door), but by the eighth century, he became known as Shotoku Taishi (lit. Prince Sagacious Virtue). Given that the earliest significant writings on the life of Shotoku Taishi come from two early histories, the Kojiki (712) and Nihon shoki (720), which are both written nearly a century after his death, little can be said definitively about his biography. According to the traditional accounts in these two texts, Suiko (554-628), the aunt of Prince Shotoku and the Japanese monarch, appointed her nephew regent in 593, giving him broad political powers. Thanks to his enlightened leadership, Prince Shotoku is credited with numerous historical achievements. These include the promotion of Buddhism within the court under an edict he issued in 594; promulgation of the Seventeen-Article Constitution in 604, which stresses the importance of the monarchy and lays out basic Buddhist and Confucian principles; sponsorship of trade missions to China; construction of the monasteries of HoRYuJI and SHITENNoJI; authorship of two chronological histories (Tennoko and Kokki); and composition of three of the earliest Buddhist commentaries in Japan, on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"), VIMALAKĪRTINIRDEsA, and sRĪMĀLĀDEVĪSIMHANĀDASuTRA ("Lion's Roar of Queen srīmālā"), which demonstrate his deep familiarity with Mahāyāna Buddhist doctrine. The credibility of Prince Shotoku's achievements as described in the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki is undermined by fact that both texts were commissioned by the newly empowered monarchy in an attempt to strengthen its political standing. Some scholars have thus argued that because the new royal family wanted to identify itself with the powerful instrument of the new religion, they selected the person of Prince Shotoku, who shared their lineage, to serve as the first political patron of Buddhism in Japan. This historical narrative focused on Prince Shotoku thus denigrated the importance of the defeated SOGA clan's extensive patronage of Buddhism. As early as the Nara period (710-794), Prince Shotoku began taking on legendary, even mythical status, and was eventually transformed into one of Japan's greatest historical figures, representing the quintessence of Buddhist religious virtue and benevolent political leadership. Priests often dedicated temples to him or transferred the merit of religious enterprises to Shotoku. Both SHINRAN (1173-1263) and NICHIREN (1222-82) dedicated written works to his name. Throughout the Heian (794-1185) and Kamakura (1185-1333) periods, what is now referred to as the cult of Shotoku Taishi was widely popular and members of the aristocracy regularly venerated him (a practice referred to as Taishi shinko, lit. devotion to the Prince).

sohei. (僧兵). In Japanese, "monks' militia." During the mid-Heian period, the major Buddhist monasteries near Nara and Kyoto, such as KoFUKUJI, ENRYAKUJI, and Onjoji (later called MIIDERA), became large landholders and were deeply immersed in political activities. The monasteries maintained small armies of private warriors to protect their assets and promote their interests. Although these warriors wore Buddhist robes and lived inside the temple complexes, they were not formally ordained; on the battlefield, they also wore full armor, making them virtually indistinguishable from ordinary warriors. During this period, these warriors were called simply "members of the congregation" (shuto; daishu) or pejoratively referred to as "evil monks" (akuso); the term sohei seems not to have been used until 1715, when it first appeared in the Dainihon shi ("The History of Great Japan"). These monks' militias were mustered against both rival temples and secular authorities. From the tenth to the twelfth centuries, monks' militias engaged in pitched battles with their rivals, as in the intrasectarian rivalry between the Tendai monasteries of Enryakuji and Onjoji, and the intersectarian rivalries between Kofukuji and its two Tendai counterparts. During this same period, monks' militias also participated in the Genpei War of 1180-1185, which led to the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate. There were more than two hundred major violent incidents involving monks' militias between the late-tenth and early-sixteenth centuries. The monks' militia of Enryakuji also battled the temples established by the new schools of JoDO SHINSHu and NICHIRENSHu, which gained popularity among commoners and local warlords during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries: for example, Enryakuji sohei attacked and destroyed the original HONGANJI in otani (east of Kyoto) in 1465 and twenty-one Nichiren temples in Kyoto in 1536. However, the power of monks' militias diminished significantly after 1571, when the warlord Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582) massacred the Buddhist clerics and sohei on HIEIZAN and burned down Enryakuji, which had threatened him with its military power. Monks' militias are not an exclusively Japanese phenomenon but are found across much of the Buddhist tradition. See also HUGUO FOJIAO.

sojo. (僧正). In Japanese, "SAMGHA primate"; one of the two earliest ecclesiastical positions created within the Japanese Buddhist church. According to the Nihon shoki ("Chronicles of Japan"), the first person to hold this position was the early-seventh-century Korean monk KWALLŬK (d.u.). Kwallŭk came to Japan in 602 from the southwestern Korean kingdom of Paekche and was appointed as sojo in 624, when the government, alarmed by a widespread lack of discipline among the monks, established the sogo (office of monastic affairs) to supervise national ecclesiastical affairs. The sojo was later divided into three sub-positions, each of which was appointed by the government on the recommendation of the Buddhist order. In the early-Heian period, monks from the Nara Buddhist establishment (see NARA BUDDHISM, SIX SCHOOLS OF) dominated the sojo positions. By the middle of the ninth century, however, monks from the TENDAISHu and SHINGONSHu schools held most of the appointments, and during the Kamakura period, Zen and pure land monks also were appointed sojo. By the time of the Tokugawa regime, almost all Buddhist sects, including Tendai, Shingon, PURE LAND, and NICHIRENSHu, had adherents who were appointed to the sojo positions. Once the Meiji government in 1872 split Buddhist ecclesiastical positions off from official government posts, each sect then established its own sojo positions, each with slightly different administrative systems.

Soka Gakkai. (創價學會/創価学会). In Japanese, "Value-Creating Society," a Japanese Buddhist lay organization associated with the NICHIRENSHu, founded by MAKIGUCHI TSUNESABURO (1871-1944) and his disciple Toda Josei (1900-1958). Formerly a teacher, Makiguchi became a follower of Nichiren's teachings, finding that they supported his own ideas about engendering social and religious values, and converted to NICHIREN SHoSHu in 1928. In 1930, he established a lay organization under the umbrella of the Nichiren Shoshu, which initially called itself the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (Creating Educational Values Society), and led its first general meeting. After its inauguration, the society began to take on a decidedly religious character, focusing on missionary work for Nichiren Shoshu. As the Pacific War expanded, Makiguchi and his followers refused to cooperate with state-enforced SHINTo practices, leading to a rift between them and TAISEKIJI, the head monastery of Nichiren Shoshu. In 1943, the society almost disintegrated with the imprisonment of Makiguchi and Toda, along with twenty other leaders charged with lèse-majesté and violations of the Public Order Act, which required each family to enshrine a Shinto talisman in its home. Makiguchi died in 1944 in prison, but Toda survived and was released on parole in July 1945. After his release, Toda took charge of the organization, renaming it Soka Gakkai in 1946. He successfully led a massive proselytization campaign that gained Soka Gakkai and Nichiren Shoshu vast numbers of new converts and by the late 1950s, upwards of 750,000 families had become adherents. After Toda died in 1958, IKEDA DAISAKU (b. 1928) became its third president and the society grew even more rapidly in Japan during the 1960s and the 1970s. In 1975, Ikeda also founded Soka Gakkai International (SGI), which disseminated the society's values around the world. Soka Gakkai publishes numerous books and periodicals, as well as a daily newspaper in Japan. During this period, Soka Gakkai also became involved in Japanese domestic politics, establishing its own political party, the Komeito (Clean Government Party) in 1964, which became completely separate and independent from the Soka Gakkai in 1970. The society also supported Taisekiji with massive donations, including raising the funds for a new main shrine hall for the monastery. Soka Gakkai, like other groups in the Nichiren lineage, focuses on worship of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") and its adherents are expected to chant daily the title (DAIMOKU) of the sutra, NAM MYoHoRENGEKYo, as well as recite the most important sections of the sutra and study Nichiren's writings. Soka Gakkai believes that all beings possess the capacity to attain buddhahood and emphasizes the ability of each person's buddha-nature to overcome obstacles and achieve happiness. Soka Gakkai followers can accomplish these goals through a "human revolution" (the title of one of Ikeda's books) that creates a sense of oneness between the individual and the environment, thus demonstrating how each individual can positively affect the surrounding world. As tensions grew between the Nichiren Shoshu and its increasingly powerful lay subsidiary, Nikken (b. 1922), the sixty-seventh chief priest of Nichiren Shoshu, tried to bring its membership directly under his control. His efforts were ultimately unsuccessful and he excommunicated the Soka Gakkai in 1991, forbidding Soka Gakkai followers from having access to the holiest shrines associated with Nichiren. Sokka Gakkai remains at the center of controversy because of its strong emphasis on recruitment and proselytization, its demonization of enemies, and a mentorship structure within the organization that some claim creates a cult of personality centered on Ikeda. Soka Gakkai remains among the largest Buddhist organizations in the Western world.

sokushin jobutsu. (C. jishen chengfo; K. chŭksin songbul 即身成佛). In Japanese, "attainment of buddhahood in this very body." This doctrine is generally first attributed to KuKAI (774-835), the founder of the SHINGONSHu, who argued in a work entitled Sokushin jobutsugi ("The Meaning of Attaining Buddhahood in This Very Body") that the ultimate goal of practice was to attain awakening in this lifetime. By strictly adhering to Kukai's ritualization of the body (through gestures, or MUDRĀ), speech (through spells, or MANTRA) and mind (as a MAndALA), one could therefore align oneself with the cosmic buddha, MAHĀVAIROCANA, and become a buddha in one's own right. Kukai's contemporary, SAICHo (767-822) of the TENDAISHu, located the notion of sokushin jobutsu in the exoteric teachings of the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"). By following its teachings, he believed that anyone could achieve universal salvation and become a buddha. In contrast to Kukai's esoteric interpretation of sokushin jobutsu, however, Saicho presumed this process of achieving buddhahood would require several lifetimes to complete. Given the two models, it is easy to understand the appeal of Kukai's esoteric version, which promised immediate transformation into buddhahood, over the traditional Tendai doctrine cited by Saicho. As the interest in esotericism increased among the aristocracy during the Heian period (794-1185), Tendai Buddhism became more associated with esoteric ritual and less with practice derived from the Saddharmapundarīkasutra. This shift toward esoteric Buddhism was completed under the Tendai master ANNEN (841-889?), who asserted not only that sokushin jobutsu was attainable in a single lifetime, but that it was central to the Tendai ordination procedure. Given that the two dominant institutions of Heian Buddhism relied heavily on the doctrine of sokushin jobutsu, it is not surprising that SHUGENDo, a movement heavily influenced by both of these schools, would also develop its own interpretation of this doctrine. The means Shugendo advocated for attaining buddhahood, however, were quite varied, as most Shugen mountains operated independently up until the Tokugawa period. One common ritual performed in both the Yoshino/KUMANO region and on Mt. Haguro, for instance, was passage through the ten realms of being (J. jikkai, S. DAsADHĀTU). Physical structures placed along a pilgrimage route, such as torii gates and steps, served as symbolic gateways through the realms. By progressing from the lowest realm of the hells (see S. NĀRAKA) to the highest realm of the buddhas, the pilgrim could ritually enact his journey toward his own attainment of buddhahood. Furthermore, the concept of mountain geography as a mandala in Shugendo created a space through which one entered the sacred realm of buddhahood. By crossing the border separating the mundane from the sacred, the practitioner would undergo a spiritual transformation by directly encountering the Buddha and immediately awakening. In a more severe example, ascetics at Mt. Yudono known as isse gyonin (lifetime ascetics) practiced sokushin jobutsu during the Tokugawa period by undergoing strict austerities in the mountains for from one to three thousand days. Once this period ended, a handful of these gyonin ascetics, following the alleged precedent of Kukai, entered a nearly air-tight, underground chamber to die. Soon afterward, they were mummified as buddhas "in this very body" and venerated by their followers. During the Kamakura period, NICHIREN (1222-1282), who, like Saicho, emphasized the superiority of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra, further claimed that chanting the title (DAIMOKU) of the sutra could lead to the attainment of buddhahood in this very body. Relying on the FAHUA XUANYI, an important commentary on the Saddharmapundarīkasutra by the Chinese monk TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597), Nichiren claimed that the essence of the sutra was distilled in its title and that chanting the title (see NAMU MYoHoRENGEKYo) could therefore lead to the attainment of sokushin jobutsu.

Taisekiji. (大石寺). In Japanese, lit., "Great Stone Temple"; located on the lower slopes of Mount Fuji in Shizuoka Prefecture. The temple was originally named Daibo (Great Lodging) but takes its current name after oishigahara (Great Stone Field), the tract of land where it was first established. Taisekiji is the administrative head temple (sohonzan) of the NICHIREN SHoSHu school of Japanese Buddhism, and its abbot serves as the sect's leader. Taisekiji was founded in 1290 by NICHIREN's (1222-1282) principal successor Nichiko (1246-1333), who enshrined at the temple the DAI-GOHONZON (lit. great object of adoration), Nichiren's unique cosmological chart (MAndALA) of the spiritual universe, along with his teacher's ashes and extant writings. The temple's Sanmon gate, built in 1717, is well known, as is the Mutsubo, most recently rebuilt in 1988. The Grand Reception Hall, Daikyakuden, was built in 1465 and rebuilt in 1995. Taisekiji's five-storied wooden pagoda, dating from 1749, faces toward the west rather than the usual south, signifying that Nichiren Buddhism would eventually spread back to the homeland of Buddhism. The Founders Hall, Mieido, built in 1522, houses an image of Nichiren made in 1388, and Nichiren's autograph of the Dai-gohonzon is enshrined in the sanctuary (kaidan), known also as the Hoanden. Because the temple is the home of the sanctuary where the Dai-gohonzon is enshrined, Taisekiji has long been a major pilgrimage center for both Nichiren Shoshu and later SoKA GAKKAI adherents; since the 1991 excommunication of the Soka Gakkai lay organization from the Nichiren Shoshu, however, Soka Gakkai members are barred from viewing the Dai-gohonzon.

Tendaishu. (天台宗). In Japanese, "Platform of Heaven School," the Japanese counterpart of the Chinese TIANTAI ZONG, the name of the Chinese tradition from which Tendai derives. The pilgrim-monk SAICHo (767-822) is presumed to have laid the doctrinal and institutional foundations on which the Tendai tradition in Japan was eventually constructed. Like its Chinese counterpart, the Japanese Tendai tradition took the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra") and the commentaries on this sutra by TIANTAI ZHIYI as its central scriptures. The Tendai tradition also came to espouse the doctrine of original or inherent enlightenment (HONGAKU). An important step in the development of an autonomous Japanese Tendai tradition was the establishment of a MAHĀYĀNA precepts platform (daijo kaidan). Saicho made numerous petitions to the court to have an independent Mahāyāna precepts platform established on HIEIZAN (see ENRYAKUJI), which would provide him with institutional autonomy from the powerful monasteries of the well-established Buddhist sects in Nara. Saicho's petition was finally granted after his death in 823. The following year, his disciple GISHIN (781-833) was appointed head (zasu) of the Tendai tradition, and several years later, a precepts platform was constructed at the monastery of Enryakuji on Mt. Hiei. The Tendai tradition prospered under the leadership of ENNIN (794-864) and ENCHIN (814-891). A controversy in 993 between the lineages of Enchin and Ennin over the issue of succession led to a schism between Ennin's Sanmon branch at Mt. Hiei and Enchin's Jimon branch at Onjoji (see MIIDERA). The Tendai tradition also produced important figures in the history of the PURE LAND movement in Japan, such as GENSHIN, RYoNIN, HoNEN, and SHINRAN. DoGEN KIGEN, founder of the SoToSHu of ZEN, began his career in the Tendai tradition, practicing as a monk at Mt. Hiei, as did NICHIREN. From the medieval period up through the Tokugawa era (1600-1868), Tendai was a dominant force in Japanese Buddhism. By extension, it had considerable political influence at the court in Kyoto and later with the Tokugawa Bakufu. In order to weaken the powerful Mt. Hiei institution, at the start of the Tokugawa era, the shogunate constructed To Eizan in the capital of Edo ("to" means eastern, thus setting up a juxtaposition with the western Mt. Hiei), which received more funding and prestige than its western counterpart. A major factor in the success of the Tendai institution in Japan was its incorporation of esoteric Buddhism, or MIKKYo, beginning with a limited number of tantric practices that Saicho brought back with him from China. The extensive training that KuKAI (774-835), the founder of the SHINGONSHu, received in esoteric Buddhism in China ultimately rivaled that of Saicho, a challenge that would eventually threaten Tendai's political sway at court. However, after Saicho's disciples Ennin, Enchin, and ANNEN (841-889?) returned from China with the latest esoteric practices, Tendai's preeminence was secured. This Tendai form of mikkyo, which Ennin called TAIMITSU, was considered equal to the teachings of the Saddharmapundarīkasutra. Tendai also heavily influenced the esoteric practices of SHUGENDo centers around the country. During the Tokugawa era, many of these mountain practice sites became formally institutionalized under Tendai Shugendo (referred to as Honzan), and were administered by the monastery of Shogoin in Kyoto. In addition, Tendai monks were among those who made major efforts to incorporate local native spirits (KAMI) into Tendai practice, by acknowledging them as manifestations of the Buddha (see HONJI SUIJAKU).

Tiantai zong. (J. Tendaishu; K. Ch'ont'ae chong 天台宗). In Chinese, "Terrace of Heaven School"; one of the main schools of East Asian Buddhism; also sometimes called the "Lotus school" (C. Lianhua zong), because of its emphasis on the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"). "Terrace of Heaven" is a toponym for the school's headquarters on Mt. Tiantai in present-day Zhejiang province on China's eastern seaboard. Although the school retrospectively traces its origins back to Huiwen (fl. 550-577) and NANYUE HUISI (515-577), whom the school honors as its first and second patriarchs, respectively, the de facto founder was TIANTAI ZHIYI (538-597), who created the comprehensive system of Buddhist teachings and practices that we now call Tiantai. Zhiyi advocated the three truths or judgments (SANDI): (1) the truth of emptiness (kongdi), viz., all things are devoid of inherent existence and are empty in their essential nature; (2) the truth of being provisionally real (jiadi), viz., all things are products of a causal process that gives them a derived reality; and (3) the truth of the mean (zhongdi), viz., all things, in their absolute reality, are neither real nor unreal, but simply thus. Zhiyi described reality in terms of YINIAN SANQIAN (a single thought contains the TRICHILIOCOSM [TRISĀHASRAMAHĀSĀHASRALOKADHĀTU]), which posits that any given thought-moment perfectly encompasses the entirety of reality; at the same time, every phenomenon includes all other phenomena (XINGJU SHUO), viz., both the good and evil aspects of the ten constituents (DHĀTU) or the five sense organs (INDRIYA) and their respective objects and the three realms of existence (TRAIDHĀTUKA) are all contained in the original nature of all sentient beings. Based on this perspective on reality, Zhiyi made unique claims about the buddha-nature (FOXING) and contemplation (GUAN): he argued that not only buddhas but even sentient beings in such baleful existences as animals, hungry ghosts, and hell denizens, possess the capacity to achieve buddhahood; by the same token, buddhas also inherently possess all aspects of the unenlightened three realms of existence. The objects of contemplation, therefore, should be the myriad of phenomena, which are the source of defilement, not an underlying pure mind. Zhiyi's grand synthesis of Buddhist thought and practice is built around a graduated system of calmness and insight (jianzi ZHIGUAN; cf. sAMATHA and VIPAsYANĀ), which organized the plethora of Buddhist meditative techniques into a broad, overarching soteriological system. To Zhiyi is also attributed the Tiantai system of doctrinal classification (panjiao; see JIAOXIANG PANSHI) called WUSHI BAJIAO (five periods and eight teachings), which the Koryo Korean monk CH'EGWAN (d. 970) later elaborated in its definitive form in his CH'oNT'AE SAGYO ŬI (C. Tiantai sijiao yi). This system classifies all Buddhist teachings according to the five chronological periods, four types of content, and four modes of conversion. Zhiyi was succeeded by Guanding (561-632), who compiled his teacher's works, especially his three masterpieces, the FAHUA XUANYI, the FAHUA WENJU, and the MOHE ZHIGUAN. The Tiantai school declined during the Tang dynasty, overshadowed by the newer HUAYAN and CHAN schools. The ninth patriarch JINGXI ZHANRAN (711-782) was instrumental in rejuvenating the school; he asserted the superiority of the Tiantai school over the rival Huayan school by adapting Huayan concepts and terminologies into the tradition. Koryo monks such as Ch'egwan and Ŭit'ong (927-988) played major roles in the restoration of the school by helping to repatriate lost Tiantai texts back to China. During the Northern Song period, Wu'en (912-988), Yuanqing (d. 997), Zhiyuan (976-1022), and their disciples, who were later pejoratively called the SHANWAI (Off-Mountain) faction by their opponents, led the resurgence of the tradition by incorporating Huayan concepts in the school's thought and practice: they argued that since the true mind, which is pure in its essence, produces all phenomena in accord with conditions, practitioners should contemplate the true mind, rather than all phenomena. Believing this idea to be a threat to the tradition, SIMING ZHILI (960-1028) and his disciples, who called themselves SHANJIA (On-Mountain), criticized such a concept of pure mind as involving a principle of separateness, since it includes only the pure and excludes the impure, and led a campaign to expunge the Huayan elements that they felt were displacing authentic Tiantai doctrine. Although Renyue (992-1064) and Congyi (1042-1091), who were later branded as the "Later Off-Mountain Faction," criticized Zhili and accepted some of the Shanwai arguments, the Shanjia faction eventually prevailed and legitimized Zhili's positions. The orthodoxy of Zhili's position is demonstrated in the FOZU TONGJI ("Comprehensive History of the Buddhas and Patriarchs"), where the compiler Zhipan (1220-1275), himself a Tiantai monk, lists Zhili as the last patriarch in the dharma transmission going back to the Buddha. Tiantai theories and practices were extremely influential in the development of the thought and practice of the Chan and PURE LAND schools; this influence is especially noticeable in the white-lotus retreat societies (JIESHE; see also BAILIAN SHE) organized during the Song dynasty by such Tiantai monks as Zhili and Zunshi (964-1032) and in Koryo Korea (see infra). After the Song dynasty, the school declined again, and never recovered its previous popularity. ¶ Tiantai teachings and practices were transmitted to Korea during the Three Kingdoms period through such Korean monks as Hyon'gwang (fl. sixth century) and Yon'gwang (fl. sixth century), both of whom traveled to China and studied under Chinese Tiantai teachers. It was not until several centuries later, however, that a Korean analogue of the Chinese Tiantai school was established as an independent Buddhist school. The foundation of the Korean CH'oNT'AE CHONG is traditionally assumed to have occurred in 1097 through the efforts of the Koryo monk ŬICH'oN (1055-1101). Ŭich'on was originally a Hwaom monk, but he sought to use the Ch'ont'ae tradition in order to reconcile the age-old tension in Korean Buddhism between KYO (Doctrine) and SoN (Meditation). In the early thirteenth century, the Ch'ont'ae monk WoNMYO YOSE (1163-1245) organized the white lotus society (PAENGNYoN KYoLSA), which gained great popularity especially among the common people; following Yose, the school was led by Ch'on'in (1205-1248) and CH'oNCH'AEK (b. 1206). Although the Ch'ont'ae monk Chogu (d. 1395) was appointed as a state preceptor (K. kuksa; C. GUOSHI) in the early Choson period, the Ch'ont'ae school declined and eventually died out later in the Choson dynasty. The contemporary Ch'ont'ae chong is a modern Korean order established in 1966 that has no direct relationship to the school founded by Ŭich'on. ¶ In Japan, SAICHo (767-822) is credited with founding the Japanese TENDAISHu, which blends Tiantai and tantric Buddhist elements. After Saicho, such Tendai monks as ENNIN (793-864), ENCHIN (814-891), and ANNEN (b. 841) systematized Tendai doctrines and developed its unique forms, which are often called TAIMITSU (Tendai esoteric teachings). Since the early ninth century, when the court granted the Tendai school official recognition as an independent sect, Tendai became one of the major Buddhist schools in Japan and enjoyed royal and aristocratic patronage for several centuries. The Tendai school's headquarters on HIEIZAN became an important Japanese center of Buddhist learning: the founders of the so-called new Buddhist schools of the Kamakura era, such as HoNEN (1133-1212), SHINRAN (1173-1263), NICHIREN (1222-1282), and DoGEN KIGEN (1200-1253), all first studied on Mt. Hiei as Tendai monks. Although the Tendai school has lost popularity and patrons to the ZENSHu, PURE LAND, and NICHIRENSHu schools, it remains still today an active force on the Japanese Buddhist landscape.

Visistacāritra. (C. Shangxing; J. Jogyo; K. Sanghaeng 上行). In Sanskrit, "Exemplary Practices"; the leader of the four BODHISATTVAs of the earth to whom sĀKYAMUNI Buddha transfers the quintessence of the SuTRA in the SADDHARMAPUndARĪKASuTRA ("Lotus Sutra"). Visistacāritra is said to represent the "true self" aspect of the buddha-nature (FOXING). Visistacāritra has special significance for the Japanese NICHIRENSHu schools, because NICHIREN himself believed that his proselytization work had fulfilled the charge that sākyamuni had given the bodhisattva. Thus, some Nichiren schools assume that their founder is the reincarnation of Visistacāritra.



QUOTES [21 / 21 - 52 / 52]


KEYS (10k)

   20 Nichiren
   1 Nichiren

NEW FULL DB (2.4M)

   51 Nichiren

1:Winter always turns into spring. ~ Nichiren,
2:Faith Alone is what really matters. ~ Nichiren,
3:A coward cannot have any prayer answered. ~ Nichiren,
4:The treasures of the heart are most valuable of all. ~ Nichiren,
5:Could there ever be a more wonderful story than your own? ~ Nichiren,
6:If you light a lantern for another, it will also brighten your own way ~ Nichiren,
7:Whether one has wealth or not, no treasure exceeds the one called life. ~ Nichiren,
8:One should become the master of one's mind rather than let one's mind master him. ~ Nichiren,
9:Never let life's hardships disturb you. No one can avoid problems, not even saints or sages. ~ Nichiren,
10:We ordinary people can see neither our own eyelashes, which are so close, nor the heavens in the distance. ~ Nichiren,
11:could there ever be
a more wonderful story
than your own?
~ Nichiren, @BashoSociety
12:Life is the most precious of all treasures. Even one extra day of life is worth more than ten million ryo of gold. ~ Nichiren,
13:That which you give to another will become your own sustenance; if you light a lamp for another, your own way will be lit. ~ Nichiren,
14:A person of wisdom is not one who practices Buddhism apart from worldly affairs but, rather, one who thoroughly understands the principles by which the world is governed. ~ Nichiren,
15:When a tree has been transplanted, though fierce winds may blow, it will not topple if it has a firm stake to hold it up. But even a tree that has grown up in place may fall over if its roots are weak. ~ Nichiren,
16:Summoning up the courage to take action is always the same regardless of how seemingly big or small the challenge. What may look like a small act of courage is courage nonetheless. The important thing is to be willing to take a step forward. ~ Nichiren,
17:Flint has the potential to produce fire, and gems have intrinsic value.
We ordinary people can see neither our own eyelashes, which are so close, nor the heavens in the distance.
Likewise, we do not see that the Buddha exists in our own hearts. ~ Nichiren,
18:By an increase in anger, warfare arises. By an increase of greed, famine arises. By an increase of stupidity, pestilence arises. Because these three calamities occur, the people's earthly desires grow all the more intense, and their false views thrive and multiply. ~ Nichiren,
19:Worthy persons deserve to be called so because they are not carried away by the eight winds: prosperity, decline, disgrace, honor, praise, censure,suffering, and pleasure. They are neither elated by prosperity nor grieved by decline. The heavenly gods will surely protect one who is unbending before the eight winds. ~ Nichiren,
20:Suffer what there is to suffer, enjoy what there is to enjoy. Regard both suffering and joy as facts of life, and continue chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo(1), no matter what happens. How could this be anything other than the boundless joy of the Law?
(1) Devotion to the Mystic Law of the Lotus Sutra or Glory to the Sutra of the Lotus of the Supreme Law ~ Nichiren,
21:A mind now clouded by the illusions of the innate darkness of life is like a tarnished mirror, but when polished, it is sure to become like a clear mirror, reflecting the essential nature of phenomena and the true aspect of reality. Arouse deep faith, and diligently polish your mirror day and night. How should you polish it? Only by chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo ~ Nichiren,

*** WISDOM TROVE ***

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:Winter always turns into spring. ~ Nichiren,
2:It is the heart that is important. ~ Nichiren,
3:Faith Alone is what really matters. ~ Nichiren,
4:Faith Alone is what really matters. ~ Nichiren,
5:A coward cannot have any prayer answered. ~ Nichiren,
6:A coward cannot have any prayer answered. ~ Nichiren,
7:Buddhism is reason. Reason will win over your lord. ~ Nichiren,
8:The treasures of the heart are most valuable of all. ~ Nichiren,
9:The treasures of the heart are most valuable of all. ~ Nichiren,
10:Could there ever be a more wonderful story than your own? ~ Nichiren,
11:Could there ever be a more wonderful story than your own? ~ Nichiren,
12:Nam-myoho-renge-kyo is the greatest joy for all humankind. ~ Nichiren,
13:Life in this world is limited. Never be in the least bit afraid! ~ Nichiren,
14:If one lights a fire for others, one will brighten one's own way. ~ Nichiren,
15:"If one lights a fire for others, one will brighten one's own way." ~ Nichiren,
16:If you light a lantern for another, it will also brighten your own way ~ Nichiren,
17:If you light a lantern for another, it will also brighten your own way ~ Nichiren,
18:Whether one has wealth or not, no treasure exceeds the one called life. ~ Nichiren,
19:Whether one has wealth or not, no treasure exceeds the one called life. ~ Nichiren,
20:One should become the master of one's mind rather than let one's mind master him. ~ Nichiren,
21:One should become the master of one's mind rather than let one's mind master him. ~ Nichiren,
22:Never let life's hardships disturb you. No one can avoid problems, not even saints or sages. ~ Nichiren,
23:Never let life's hardships disturb you. No one can avoid problems, not even saints or sages. ~ Nichiren,
24:We ordinary people can see neither our own eyelashes, which are so close, nor the heavens in the distance. ~ Nichiren,
25:We ordinary people can see neither our own eyelashes, which are so close, nor the heavens in the distance. ~ Nichiren,
26:Suffer what there is to suffer. Enjoy what there is to enjoy. Regard both suffering and joy as facts of life. ~ Nichiren,
27:Life is the most precious of all treasures. Even one extra day of life is worth more than ten million ryo of gold. ~ Nichiren,
28:Do not go about complaining how hard it is to live in this world. such behavior is entirely unworthy of a real man. ~ Nichiren,
29:Life is the most precious of all treasures. Even one extra day of life is worth more than ten million ryo of gold. ~ Nichiren,
30:Winter always turns into Spring. Never, from ancient times on, has anyone heard or seen of winter turning back to autumn. ~ Nichiren,
31:That which you give to another will become your own sustenance; if you light a lamp for another, your own way will be lit. ~ Nichiren,
32:That which you give to another will become your own sustenance; if you light a lamp for another, your own way will be lit. ~ Nichiren,
33:More valuable than treasures in a storehouse are the treasures of the body. The most valuable of all are the treasures of the heart. ~ Nichiren,
34:If you care anything about your personal security, you should first of all pray for order and tranquility throughout the four quarters of the land. ~ Nichiren,
35:A person of wisdom is not one who practices Buddhism apart from worldly affairs but, rather, one who thoroughly understands the principles by which the world is governed. ~ Nichiren,
36:A person of wisdom is not one who practices Buddhism apart from worldly affairs but, rather, one who thoroughly understands the principles by which the world is governed. ~ Nichiren,
37:When a tree has been transplanted, though fierce winds may blow, it will not topple if it has a firm stake to hold it up. But even a tree that has grown up in place may fall over if its roots are weak. ~ Nichiren,
38:When a tree has been transplanted, though fierce winds may blow, it will not topple if it has a firm stake to hold it up. But even a tree that has grown up in place may fall over if its roots are weak. ~ Nichiren,
39:Summoning up the courage to take action is always the same regardless of how seemingly big or small the challenge. What may look like a small act of courage is courage nonetheless. The important thing is to be willing to take a step forward. ~ Nichiren,
40:Summoning up the courage to take action is always the same regardless of how seemingly big or small the challenge. What may look like a small act of courage is courage nonetheless. The important thing is to be willing to take a step forward. ~ Nichiren,
41:Suffer what there is to suffer, enjoy what there is to enjoy. Regard both suffering and joy as facts of life, and continue chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, no matter what happens. How could this be anything other than the boundless joy of the Law? ~ Nichiren,
42:Flint has the potential to produce fire, and gems have intrinsic value. We ordinary people can see neither our own eyelashes, which are so close, nor the heavens in the distance. Likewise, we do not see that the Buddha exists in our own hearts. ~ Nichiren,
43:Flint has the potential to produce fire, and gems have intrinsic value.
We ordinary people can see neither our own eyelashes, which are so close, nor the heavens in the distance.
Likewise, we do not see that the Buddha exists in our own hearts. ~ Nichiren,
44:By an increase in anger, warfare arises. By an increase of greed, famine arises. By an increase of stupidity, pestilence arises. Because these three calamities occur, the people's earthly desires grow all the more intense, and their false views thrive and multiply. ~ Nichiren,
45:By an increase in anger, warfare arises. By an increase of greed, famine arises. By an increase of stupidity, pestilence arises. Because these three calamities occur, the people's earthly desires grow all the more intense, and their false views thrive and multiply. ~ Nichiren,
46:Worthy persons deserve to be called so because they are not carried away by the eight winds: prosperity,decline,disgrace,honor,praise,censure,suffering, and pleasure.They are neither elated by prosperity nor grieved by decline. The heavenly gods will surely protect one who is unbending before the eight winds. ~ Nichiren,
47:Worthy persons deserve to be called so because they are not carried away by the eight winds: prosperity, decline, disgrace, honor, praise, censure,suffering, and pleasure. They are neither elated by prosperity nor grieved by decline. The heavenly gods will surely protect one who is unbending before the eight winds. ~ Nichiren,
48:Suffer what there is to suffer, enjoy what there is to enjoy. Regard both suffering and joy as facts of life, and continue chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo(1), no matter what happens. How could this be anything other than the boundless joy of the Law?
(1) Devotion to the Mystic Law of the Lotus Sutra or Glory to the Sutra of the Lotus of the Supreme Law ~ Nichiren,
49:A mind now clouded by the illusions of the innate darkness of life is like a tarnished mirror, but when polished, it is sure to become like a clear mirror, reflecting the essential nature of phenomena and the true aspect of reality. Arouse deep faith, and diligently polish your mirror day and night. How should you polish it? Only by chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo ~ Nichiren,
50:A mind now clouded by the illusions of the innate darkness of life is like a tarnished mirror, but when polished, it is sure to become like a clear mirror, reflecting the essential nature of phenomena and the true aspect of reality. Arouse deep faith, and diligently polish your mirror day and night. How should you polish it? Only by chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo ~ Nichiren,
51:The Vimalakirti Sutra states that, when one seeks the Buddhas' emancipation in the minds of ordinary beings, one finds that ordinary beings are the entities of enlightenment, and that the sufferings of birth and death are nirvana. It also states that, if the minds of living beings are impure, their land is also impure, but if their minds are pure, so is their land. There are not two lands, pure or impure in themselves. The difference lies solely in the good or evil of our minds. ~ Nichiren,
52:I sat down on the bench in front of the print and made some notes. “Katsushika Hokusai. 1760–1849. Japanese printmaker. Leading Japanese expert on Chinese painting. Master of the Ukiyo-e form. Nichiren Buddhist.” Later, at home, I Googled Hokusai. He died at eighty-nine, and sure enough, on his deathbed—still looking to penetrate deeper into his art—he had exclaimed, “If only heaven will give me just another ten years!… Just another five more years, then I could become a real painter.” Hokusai was a man who saw his work as a means to “penetrate to the essential nature” of things. And he appears to have succeeded. His work, a hundred and fifty years after his death, could reach right off a gallery wall and grab me in the gut. More than anything, I was intrigued by the quality of Hokusai’s passion for his work. He helped me see that a life devoted to dharma can be a deeply ardent life. ~ Stephen Cope,

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