classes ::: the City of the King, Place, project, main, POW, Education, noun, the Astral Temple, favorite, Place,
children ::: the School (notes), the School (old), the School (old2)
branches ::: School

bookmarks: Instances - Definitions - Quotes - Chapters - Wordnet - Webgen

object:the School
parts ::: e-school, game dev, AI, social media, discord, goodreads, wikipedia, forum
def ::: A university (Latin: universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research, which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education.
   The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means "community of teachers and scholars". The modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, which was created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages.

--- the Principal
--- the Charter (Mission Statement)
--- the Open Library
    subjects, authors, books, dictionaries, quotes, magazines, media, tools, guides, web indexes, news?, dbs) (easy to add and take out data (esp for programmers)
    dictionaries (need for each subject and language)
    free exploration of all subjects
--- the Librarian
--- the Community Centers
    I need teachers, so this maybe needs to be first?
    Social programs?, social support,
    tons of pure fun places
    chat rooms, forums, group games, chilling areas, group adventures?
--- Analysis (Assessments, Tests, Questionares)
    why analysis
    self / student analysis (questions, why not reading Savitri?)
      recording all behaviours / movements.
      measuring progress (night assessment?)
      self-knowledge, world-knowledge
    psychometric tests
    profiles (what they want to learn, how they like to learn, where they are and where they want to be, how to get there)
--- Curriculums (Programs, Guides?, Courses)
    2x cwsa + mcw + ta
    Savitri always
    exploratory element, there should be an element of discovery. who knows, maybe there is another person who is as the jump from Ken Wilber to Sri Aurobindo. (or from self-help to spirituality etc)
--- the Archives (alllll the data including the Landfill)
    what im doing, all the time. all behaviours monitored automatically for processable data.
--- Labs
    experimentation, tests, learning, beginning productions
--- Clubs
--- the Playground
--- the Trust (finances)
--- the OS
    (the offline school for anyone)
--- Staff
  Counsellors, Teachers?, Janitors,
  Junior / training / student staff members
--- Users (Students)
  ability to post, share, message, learn, get media, comment, collaborate
  make profile, control levels of information sharing.
--- Physical Location
  how to build a physical location
  physical components (like open Gymnasium)
  alt names:e-school, online school, OWRPG
  object library:

--- unsorted:
    - online support for studying sri aurobindo.
    - study the life divine runs.
    - i already have one of these, probably in multiple places, but I kinda want the most important stuff at "home"
      going to school, everyone having an AI / spirit partner. so good.

    a school that takes in students and gives them tons of tests and psychometrics to create as large of a student profile as the student is willing to do. They can always do more in the future. and if they get paid to take the tests.. then we serious have a game changer.

The universities better becareful, cause they are dumping their content online as fast as they can. They are
going to make themselves completely superfluous. And some smart person, Ive been thinking about this for 20 years,
is going to take over accreditation end. Cause you know, all you would have to do, is set up a series of well
designed examinations online. And only let a minority of people pass, you have instant accreditation credibility.
Heres an entire 3 years of Psychology courses, heres the exams, you take them, only 15% of the people pass. ... It
makes the accreditation valuable. ~ Jordan Peterson, Joe Rogan Experience 877 -
Jordan Peterson, 1:40:00

class:the City of the King
subject class:Education
word class:noun

object:the e-school
class:the Astral Temple


see also :::

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join the integral discord server (chatrooms)
if the page you visited was empty, it may be noted and I will try to fill it out. cheers

now begins generated list of local instances, definitions, quotes, instances in chapters, wordnet info if available and instances among weblinks









the School (notes)
the School (old)
the School (old2)
The Western Canon - The Books and School of the Ages



Schools of the Prophets “Schools established by Samuel for the training of the Nabiim (prophets). Their method was pursued on the same lines as that of a Chela or candidate for initiation into the occult sciences, i.e., the development of abnormal faculties or clairvoyance leading to Seership. Of such schools there were many in days of old in Palestine and Asia Minor. That the Hebrews worshipped Nebo, the Chaldean god of secret learning, is quite certain, since they adopted his name as an equivalent of Wisdom” (TG 294).

schoolbook ::: n. --> A book used in schools for learning lessons.

schoolboy ::: n. --> A boy belonging to, or attending, a school.

schooldame ::: n. --> A schoolmistress.

schooled ::: educated, trained (a person, his mind, powers, tastes, etc.); to render wise, skilful, or tractable by training or discipline.

schooled ::: imp. & p. p. --> of School

schoolery ::: n. --> Something taught; precepts; schooling.

schoolfellow ::: n. --> One bred at the same school; an associate in school.

schoolgirl ::: n. --> A girl belonging to, or attending, a school.

schoolhouse ::: n. --> A house appropriated for the use of a school or schools, or for instruction.

schooling ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of School ::: n. --> Instruction in school; tuition; education in an institution of learning; act of teaching.
Discipline; reproof; reprimand; as, he gave his son a good schooling. html{color:

schoolmaid ::: n. --> A schoolgirl.

schoolman ::: n. --> One versed in the niceties of academical disputation or of school divinity.

schoolman ::: one versed in scholastic learning or engaged in scholastic pursuits.

schoolmaster ::: n. --> The man who presides over and teaches a school; a male teacher of a school.
One who, or that which, disciplines and directs.

schoolmate ::: n. --> A pupil who attends the same school as another.

schoolmen ::: pl. --> of Schoolman

schoolmistress ::: n. --> A woman who governs and teaches a school; a female school-teacher.

school ::: n. --> A shoal; a multitude; as, a school of fish.
A place for learned intercourse and instruction; an institution for learning; an educational establishment; a place for acquiring knowledge and mental training; as, the school of the prophets.
A place of primary instruction; an establishment for the instruction of children; as, a primary school; a common school; a grammar school.

schoolroom ::: n. --> A room in which pupils are taught.

schoolship ::: n. --> A vessel employed as a nautical training school, in which naval apprentices receive their education at the expense of the state, and are trained for service as sailors. Also, a vessel used as a reform school to which boys are committed by the courts to be disciplined, and instructed as mariners.

school-teacher ::: n. --> One who teaches or instructs a school.

schoolward ::: adv. --> Toward school.


(2) From 200 to circa 450: With the catechetic school of Alexandria and in particular with Clement and Origen, the work of reconciliation between Hellenistic philosophy and the Christian religion formally begins. This period is characterized by the formulation of Christian truths in the terminology and frame work of Greek thought. It ends with the gigantic synthesis of Augustine (354-430), whose fusion of Neo-Platonic thought and Christian truth molded society and furnished the tradition, culture and mental background for Christian Europe up to the end of the 14th century.

(2) In ethics: in the narrower traditional sense, intuitionism is the view that certain actions or kinds of action may be known to be right or wrong by a direct intuition of their rightness or wrongness, without any consideration of the value of their consequences. In this sense intuitionism is opposed to utilitarian and teleological ethics, and is most recently represented by the neo-intuitionists at Oxford, H. A. Prichard, E. F. Carritt, W. D. Ross. It is sometimes said to involve the view that the organ of ethical insight is non-rational and even unique. It takes, according to Sidgwick, three forms. Perceptual intuitionism holds that only judgments relating to the rightness or wrongness of particular acts are intuitive. Dogmatic intuitionism holds that some general material propositions relating to the rightness or wrongness of kinds of acts may also be intuited, e.g. that promises ought to be kept. Philosophical intuitionism holds that it is only certain general propositions about what is right or wrong that are intuitive, and that these are few and purely formal. In the wider more recent sense, intuitionism includes all views in which ethics is made to rest on intuitions, particular or general, as to the rightness, obligatoriness, goodness, oi value of actions or objects. Taken in this sense, intuitionism is the dominant point of view in recent British ethics, and is represented in Europe by the phenomenological ethics of M. Scheler and N. Hartmann, having also proponents in America. That is, it covers not only the deontological intuitionism to be found at Oxford, but also the axiological and even teleological or utilitarian intuitionism to be found in J. Martineau, H. Sidgwick, H. Rashdall, G. E. Moore, J. Laird. Among earlier British moralists it is represented by tho Cambridge Platonists, the Moral Sense School, Clarke, Cumberland, Butler, Price, Reid, Whewell, etc.By saying that the basic propositions of ethics (i.e. of the theory of obligation, of the theory of value, or of both) are intuitive, the intuitionists mean at least that they are ultimate and underivative, primitive and uninferable, as well as synthetic, and sometimes also that they are self-evident and a priori. This implies that one or more of the basic notions of ethics (rightness, goodness, etc.) are indefinable, i.e. simple or unanalysable and unique; and that ethics is autonomous. Intuitionists also hold that rightness and goodness are objective and non-natural. Hence their view is sometimes called objectivism or non-naturalism. The views of Moore and Laird are also sometimes referred to as realistic. See Deontological ethics, Axiological ethics, Teleological ethics, Utilitarianism, Objectivism, Realism, Autonomy of ethics, Non-naturalistic ethics. -- W.K.F.

2. In psychology, the act or process of exercising the mind, the faculty of connecting judgments; the power and fact of using reason; the thought-processes of discussion, debate, argumentation or inference; the manifestation of the discursive property of the mind; the actual use of arguments with a view to convince or persuade; the art and method or proving or demonstrating; the orderly development of thought with a view to, or the attainment of a conclusion believed to be valid. -- The origin, nature and value of reasoning are debated questions, with their answers ranging from spiritualism (reasoning as the exercise of a faculty of the soul) to materialism (reasoning as an epiphenomenon depending on the brain), with all the modern schools of psychology ordering themselves between them. A few points of agreement might be mentioned here: reasoning follows judgment and apprehension, whichever of the last two thought-processes comes first in our psychological development; reasoning proceeds according to four main types, namely deductive, inductive, presumptive and deceptive; reasoning assumes a belief in its own validity undisturbed by doubt, and implies various logical habits and methods which may be organized into a logical doctrine; reasoning requires a reference to some ultimate principles to justify its progress 3. In logic, Reasoning is the process of inference, it is the process of passing from certain propositions already known or assumed to be true, to another truth distinct from them but following from them; it is a discourse or argument which infers one proposition from another, or from a group of others having some common elements between them. The inference is necessary in the case of deductive reasoning; and contingent, probable or wrong, in the case of inductive, presumptive or deceptive reasoning respectively. -- There are various types of reasoning, and proper methods for each type. The definition, discussion, development and evaluation of these types and methods form an important branch of logic and its subdivisions. The details of the application of reasoning to the various sciences, form the subject of methodology. All these types are reducible to one or the other of the two fundamental processes or reasoning, namely deduction and induction. It must be added that the logical study of reasoning is normative logic does not analyze it simply in its natural development, but with a view to guide it towards coherence, validity or truth. -- T.G.

Abailard, Peter: (1079-1142) Was born at Pallet in France; distinguished himself as a brilliant student of the trivium and quadrivium; studied logic with Roscelin and Wm. of Champeaux. He taught philosophy, with much emphasis on dialectic, at Melun, Corbeil, and the schools of St. Genevieve and Notre Dame in Paris. He was lecturing on theology in Paris c. 1113 when he was involved in the romantic and unfortunate interlude with Heloise. First condemned for heresy in 1121, he became Abbot of St. Gildas in 1125, and after returning to teach theology in Paris, his religious views were censured by the Council of Sens (1141). He died at Cluny after making his peace with God and his Church. Tactless, but very intelligent, Abailard set the course of mediaeval philosophy for two centuries with his interest in the problem of universals. He appears to have adopted a nominalistic solution, rather than the semi-realistic position attributed to him by the older historians. Chief works: Sic et Non (c. 1122), Theologia Christiana (c. 1124), Scito Teipsum (1125-1138) and several Logical Glosses (ed. B. Geyer, Abaelard's Philos. Schrift. BGPM, XXI, 1-3).

Abdera, School of: Founded by the Atomist Democritus. Important members, Metrodorus of Chios and Anaxarchus of Abdera (teacher of Pyrrho, into whose hands the school leadership fell), thus inspiring Pyrrhonism. See Democritus, Pyrrhonism. -- E.H.

academical ::: a. --> Belonging to the school or philosophy of Plato; as, the Academic sect or philosophy.
Belonging to an academy or other higher institution of learning; scholarly; literary or classical, in distinction from scientific.

Academy: (Gr. akademia) A gymnasium in the suburbs of Athens, named after the hero Academus, where Plato first taught; hence, the Platonic school of philosophy. Plato and his immediate successors are called the Old Academy; the New Academy begins with Arcesilaus (c. 315-c. 241 B.C.), and is identified with its characteristic doctrine, probabilism (q.v.). -- G.R.M.

academy ::: n. --> A garden or grove near Athens (so named from the hero Academus), where Plato and his followers held their philosophical conferences; hence, the school of philosophy of which Plato was head.
An institution for the study of higher learning; a college or a university. Popularly, a school, or seminary of learning, holding a rank between a college and a common school.
A place of training; a school.
A society of learned men united for the advancement of the

According to the common teaching of the Schoolmen, philosophy is able to demonstrate the existence of God, though any statement of his essence is at best only analogical. See Analogy. Aquinas formulated the famous five ways by which to demonstrate God's existence, as prime motor, first cause, pure act to be assumed because there has to be act for anything to come into existence at all, necessary being in which existence and essence aie one, as set over against contingent beings which may be or not be, as summit of the hierarchy of beings. A basic factor in these demonstrations is the impossibility of infinite regress. God is conceived as the first cause and as the ultimate final cause of all beings. He is pure act, ens realissimum and summum bonum. Thomism and later Scholasticism denied that any adequate statement can be made on God's essence; but earlier thinkers, especially Anselm of Canterbury indulged in a so-called "Christian Rationalism" and believed that more can be asserted of God by '"necessary reasons". Anselm's proof of God's existence has been rejected by Aquinas and Kant. See Ontologtcal argument. -- R.A.

A consistent atomistic theory of nature or even of bodily substances is hardly found in medieval texts with the exception of William of Conches' Philosophia mundi and the Mutakallemins, a Moslem school of atomists. -- R.A.

Acorn Computers Ltd. "company" A UK computer manufacturer, part of the {Acorn Computer Group} plc. Acorn was founded on 1978-12-05, on a kitchen table in a back room. Their first creation was an electronic slot machine. After the {Acorn System 1}, 2 and 3, Acorn launched the first commercial {microcomputer} - the {ATOM} in March 1980. In April 1981, Acorn won a contract from the {BBC} to provide the {PROTON}. In January 1982 Acorn launched the {BBC Microcomputer} System. At one time, 70% of microcomputers bought for UK schools were BBC Micros. The Acorn Computer Group went public on the Unlisted Securities Market in September 1983. In April 1984 Acorn won the Queen's Award for Technology for the BBC Micro and in September 1985 {Olivetti} took a controlling interest in Acorn. The {Master} 128 Series computers were launched in January 1986 and the BBC {Domesday} System in November 1986. In 1983 Acorn began to design the Acorn RISC Machine (ARM), the first low-cost, high volume {RISC} processor chip (later renamed the {Advanced RISC Machine}). In June 1987 they launched the {Archimedes} range - the first 32-bit {RISC} based {microcomputers} - which sold for under UKP 1000. In February 1989 the R140 was launched. This was the first {Unix} {workstation} under UKP 4000. In May 1989 the A3000 (the new {BBC Microcomputer}) was launched. In 1990 Acorn formed {Advanced RISC Machines} Ltd. (ARM) in partnership with {Apple Computer, Inc.} and {VLSI} to develop the ARM processor. Acorn has continued to develop {RISC} based products. With 1992 revenues of 48.2 million pounds, Acorn Computers was the premier supplier of {Information Technology} products to UK education and had been the leading provider of 32-bit RISC based {personal computers} since 1987. Acorn finally folded in the late 1990s. Their operating system, {RISC OS} was further developed by a consortium of suppliers. {Usenet} newsgroups: {news:comp.sys.acorn}, {news:comp.sys.acorn.announce}, {}, {news:comp.binaries.acorn}, {news:comp.sources.acorn}, {news:comp.sys.acorn.advocacy}, {}. {Acorn's FTP server (}. {HENSA software archive (}. {Richard Birkby's Acorn page (}. {RiscMan's Acorn page (}. {Acorn On The Net (}. {"The Jungle" by Simon Truss (}. [Recent history?] (2000-09-26)

Adler, Alfred: (1870-1937) Originally a follower of Freud (see Psychoanalysis; Freud), he founded his own school in Vienna about 1912. In contrast to Freud, he tended to minimize the role of sexuality and to place greater emphasis on the ego. He investigated the feelings of inferiority resulting from organic abnormality and deficiency and described the unconscious attempt of the ego to compensate for such defects. (Study of Organic Inferiority and its Psychical Compensations, 1907). He extended the concept of the "inferiority complex" to include psychical as well as physical deficiencies and stressed the tendency of "compensation" to lead to over-correction. (The Neurotic Constitution, 1912; Problems of Neurosis, 1930.) -- L.W.

ADVENT "games" /ad'vent/ The prototypical computer {adventure} game, first implemented by Will Crowther for a {CDC} computer (probably the {CDC 6600}?) as an attempt at computer-refereed fantasy gaming. ADVENT was ported to the {PDP-10}, and expanded to the 350-point {Classic} puzzle-oriented version, by Don Woods of the {Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory} (SAIL). The game is now better known as Adventure, but the {TOPS-10} {operating system} permitted only six-letter filenames. All the versions since are based on the SAIL port. David Long of the {University of Chicago} Graduate School of Business Computing Facility (which had two of the four {DEC20s} on campus in the late 1970s and early 1980s) was responsible for expanding the cave in a number of ways, and pushing the point count up to 500, then 501 points. Most of his work was in the data files, but he made some changes to the {parser} as well. This game defined the terse, dryly humorous style now expected in text adventure games, and popularised several tag lines that have become fixtures of hacker-speak: "A huge green fierce snake bars the way!" "I see no X here" (for some noun X). "You are in a maze of twisty little passages, all alike." "You are in a little maze of twisty passages, all different." The "magic words" {xyzzy} and {plugh} also derive from this game. Crowther, by the way, participated in the exploration of the Mammoth & Flint Ridge cave system; it actually *has* a "Colossal Cave" and a "Bedquilt" as in the game, and the "Y2" that also turns up is cavers' jargon for a map reference to a secondary entrance. See also {vadding}. [Was the original written in Fortran?] [{Jargon File}] (1996-04-01)

agnosticism ::: n. --> That doctrine which, professing ignorance, neither asserts nor denies.
The doctrine that the existence of a personal Deity, an unseen world, etc., can be neither proved nor disproved, because of the necessary limits of the human mind (as sometimes charged upon Hamilton and Mansel), or because of the insufficiency of the evidence furnished by physical and physical data, to warrant a positive conclusion (as taught by the school of Herbert Spencer); -- opposed

"Ah! Since India is the cradle of religion and since so many gods preside over her destiny, who among them will accomplish the miracle of resuscitating the city?" A. Choumel (in an article on Pondicherry in 1928) Follows response by the Mother: "Blinded by false appearances, deceived by calumnies, held back by fear and prejudice, he has passed by the side of the god whose intervention he implores and saw him not; he has walked near to the forces which will accomplish the miracle he demands and had no will to recognise them. Thus has he lost the greatest opportunity of his life—a unique opportunity of entering into contact with the mysteries and marvelswhose existence his brain has divined and to which his heart obscurely aspires. In all times the aspirant, before receiving initiation, had to pass through tests. In the schools of antiquity these tests were artificial and by that they lost the greater part of their value. But it is no longer so now. The test hides behind some very ordinary every-day circumstance and wears an innocent air of coincidence and chance which makes it still more difficult and dangerous.It is only to those who can conquer the mind’s
   references and prejudices of race and education that India reveals the mystery of her treasures. Others depart disappointed, failing to find what they seek; for they have sought it in the wrong way and would not agree to pay the price of the Divine Discovery."
   Ref: CWM Vol. 13, Page: 372-373

A kind of polemic, characterized by the use of logical subtleties and oratorical casuistry, for which the Megarian School was particularly famous. See Megarians. -- R.B.W.

Albertus, Magnus: St., O.P. (1193-1280) Count of Bollstädt, Bishop of Ratisbon, Doctor Universalis, was born at Lauingen, Bavaria, studied at Padua and Bologna, entered the Dominican Order in 1223. He taught theology at the Univ. of Paris from 1245-48, when he was sent to Cologne to organize a new course of studies for his Order; St. Thomas Aquinas was his student and assistant at this time. Later his time was given over to administrative duties and he was made Bishop of Ratisbon in 1260. In 1262 he gave up his bishopric and returned to a life of writing, teaching and controversy. Of very broad interests in science, philosophy and theology, Albert popularized a great part of the corpus of Aristotelian and Arabic philosophic writings in the 13th century. His thought incorporates elements of Augustinism, Aristotelianism, Neoplatonism, Avicennism, Boethianism into a vast synthesis which is not without internal inconsistencies. Due to the lack of critical editions of his works, a true estimate of the value of his philosophy is impossible at present. However, he must have had some influence on St. Thomas, and there was a lively Albertinian school lasting into the Renaissance. Chief works: Summa de Creaturis, Comment, in IV Lib. Sent., Philos, Commentaries on nearly all works of Aristotle, De Causis, De intellectu et intellig., Summa Theologiae (Opera Omnia, ed. Borgnet, 38 vol., Paris, 1890-99). -- V.J.B.

Alcuin: (c. 730-804) Was born in Northumbria and studied at the School of York under Egbert. In 781 he was called to head the Palatine School of Charlemagne. He died at St. Martin of Tours. It is his general influence on the revival of Christian learning that is significant in the history of philosophy. His psychology is a form of simplified Augustinianism. His treatise, De animae ratione ad Eulaliam Virginem, is extant (PL 101). -- V.J.B.

Alexandrian School: A convenient designation for the various religious philosophies that flourished at Alexandria from the first to the fourth centuries of the Christian era, such as Neo-Pythagoreanism, the Jewish Platonism of Philo, Christian Platonism, and Neo-Platonism. Common to all these schools is the attempt to state Oriental religious beliefs in terms of Greek philosophy. -- G.R.M.

Alexandrists: A term applied to a group of Aristotelians in Italy during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Besides the Scholastic followers of Aristotle there were some Greeks, whose teaching was tinged with Platonism. Another group, the Averroists, followed Aristotle as interpreted by Ibn Rushd, while a third school interpreted Aristotle in the light of the commentaries of Alexander of Aphrodisias, hence were called Alexandrists. Against the Averroists who attributed a vague sort of immortality to the active intellect, common to all men, the Alexandrists, led by Pomponazzi, asserted the mortality of the individual human soul after its separation from universal reason. -- J.J.R.

"All depends on the meaning you attach to words used; it is a matter of nomenclature. Ordinarily, one says a man has intellect if he can think well; the nature and process and field of the thought do not matter. If you take intellect in that sense, then you can say that intellect has different strata, and Ford belongs to one stratum of intellect, Einstein to another — Ford has a practical and executive business intellect, Einstein a scientific discovering and theorising intellect. But Ford too in his own field theorises, invents, discovers. Yet would you call Ford an intellectual or a man of intellect? I would prefer to use for the general faculty of mind the word intelligence. Ford has a great and forceful practical intelligence, keen, quick, successful, dynamic. He has a brain that can deal with thoughts also, but even there his drive is towards practicality. He believes in rebirth (metempsychosis), for instance, not for any philosophic reason, but because it explains life as a school of experience in which one gathers more and more experience and develops by it. Einstein has, on the other hand, a great discovering scientific intellect, not, like Marconi, a powerful practical inventive intelligence for the application of scientific discovery. All men have, of course, an ‘intellect" of a kind; all, for instance, can discuss and debate (for which you say rightly intellect is needed); but it is only when one rises to the realm of ideas and moves freely in it that you say, ‘This man has an intellect".” Letters on Yoga

“All depends on the meaning you attach to words used; it is a matter of nomenclature. Ordinarily, one says a man has intellect if he can think well; the nature and process and field of the thought do not matter. If you take intellect in that sense, then you can say that intellect has different strata, and Ford belongs to one stratum of intellect, Einstein to another—Ford has a practical and executive business intellect, Einstein a scientific discovering and theorising intellect. But Ford too in his own field theorises, invents, discovers. Yet would you call Ford an intellectual or a man of intellect? I would prefer to use for the general faculty of mind the word intelligence. Ford has a great and forceful practical intelligence, keen, quick, successful, dynamic. He has a brain that can deal with thoughts also, but even there his drive is towards practicality. He believes in rebirth (metempsychosis), for instance, not for any philosophic reason, but because it explains life as a school of experience in which one gathers more and more experience and develops by it. Einstein has, on the other hand, a great discovering scientific intellect, not, like Marconi, a powerful practical inventive intelligence for the application of scientific discovery. All men have, of course, an ‘intellect’ of a kind; all, for instance, can discuss and debate (for which you say rightly intellect is needed); but it is only when one rises to the realm of ideas and moves freely in it that you say, ‘This man has an intellect’.” Letters on Yoga

alumna ::: n. fem. --> A female pupil; especially, a graduate of a school or college.

Among its members W. Dubislav (1937), K. Grelling, O. Helmer, C. G. Hempel, A. Herzberg, K.. Korsch, H. Reichenbach (q.v.), M. Strauss. Many members of the following groups may be regarded as adherents of Scientific Empiricism: the Berlin Society for Scientific Philosophy, the W arsaw School, the Cambridge School for Analytic Philosophy (q.v.), further, in U. S. A., some of the representatives of contemporary Pragmatism (q.v.), especially C. W. Morris, of Neo-Realism (q.v.), and of Operationalism (q.v.).   Among the individual adherents not belonging to the groups mentioned: E. Kaila (Finland), J. Jörgensen (Denmark), A. Ness (Norway); A. J. Ayer, J. H. Woodger (England); M. Boll (France); K. Popper (now New Zealand); E. Brunswik, H. Gomperz, Felix Kaufmann, R. V. Mises, L. Rougier, E. Zilsel (now in U. S. A.); E. Nagel, W. V. Quine, and many others (in U.S.A.). The general attitude and the views of Scientific Empiricism are in esential agreement with those of Logical Empiricism (see above, 1). Here, the unity of science is especially emphasized, in various respects   There is a logical unity of the language of science; the concepts of different branches of science are not of fundamentally different kinds but belong to one coherent system. The unity of science in this sense is closely connected with the thesis of Physicahsm (q.v.).   There is a practical task in the present stage of development, to come to a better mutual adaptation of terminologies in different branches of science.   There is today no unity of the laws of science. It is an aim of the future development of science to come, if possible, to a simple set of connected, fundamental laws from which the special laws in the different branches of science, including the social sciences, can be deduced. Here also, the analysis of language is regarded as one of the chief methods of the science of science. While logical positivism stressed chiefly the logical side of this analysis, it is here carried out from various directions, including an analysis of the biological and sociological sides of the activities of language and knowledge, as they have been emphasized earlier by Pragmatism (q.v.), especially C. S. Peirce and G. H. Mead. Thus the development leads now to a comprehensive general theory of signs or semiotic (q.v.) as a basis for philosophy The following publications and meetings may be regarded as organs of this movement.   The periodical "Erkenntnis", since 1930, now continued as "Journal of Unified Science"   The "Encyclopedia of Unified Science", its first part ("Foundations of the Unity of Science", 2 vols.) consisting of twenty monographs (eight appeared by 1940). Here, the foundations of various fields of science are discussed, especially from the point of view of the unity of science and scientific procedure, and the relations between the fields. Thus, the work intends to serve as an introduction to the science of science (q.v.).   A series of International Congresses for the Unity of Science was started by a preliminary conference in Prague 1934 (see report, Erkenntnis 5, 1935). The congresses took place at Pans in 1935 ("Actes", Pans 1936; Erkenntnis 5, 1936); at Copenhagen in 1936 (Erkenntnis 6, 1937); at Paris in 1937; at Cambridge, England, in 1938 (Erkenntnis 7, 1938); at Cambridge, Mass., in 1939 (J. Unif. Sc. 9, 1941); at Chicago in 1941.   Concerning the development and the aims of this movement, see O. Neurath and C. W. Morris (for both, see above, I D), further H. Reichenbach, Ziele and Wege der heutigen Naturphilosophie, 1931; S. S. Stevens, "Psychology and the Science of Science", Psych. Bull. 36, 1939 (with bibliography). Bibliographies in "Erkenntnis": 1, 1931, p. 315, p. 335 (Polish authors); 2, 1931, p. 151, p. 189; 5, 1935, p. 185, p. 195 (American authors), p. 199 (Polish authors), p. 409, larger bibliography: in Encycl. Unif. Science, vol. II, No. 10 (to ippetr in 1942). -- R.C.

ampersand "character" "&" {ASCII} character 38. Common names: {ITU-T}, {INTERCAL}: ampersand; amper; and. Rare: address (from {C}); reference (from C++); bitand; background (from {sh}); pretzel; amp. A common symbol for "and", used as the "address of" operator in {C}, the "reference" operator in {C++} and a {bitwise and} or {logical and} operator in several programming languages. {Visual BASIC} uses it as the {string concatenation} {operator} and to prefix {octal} and {hexadecimal} numbers. {UNIX} {shells} use the character to indicate that a task should be run in the {background} (single "&" suffix) or (following C's {lazy and}), in a {compound command} of the form "a && b" to indicate that the command b should only be run if command a terminates successfully. The ampersand is a ligature (combination) of the cursive letters "e" and "t", invented in 63 BC by Marcus Tirus [Tiro?] as shorthand for the Latin word for "and", "et". The word ampersand is a conflation (combination) of "and, per se and". Per se means "by itself", and so the phrase translates to "&, standing by itself, means 'and'". This was at the end of the alphabet as it was recited by children in old English schools. The words ran together and were associated with "&". The "ampersand" spelling dates from 1837. {Take our word for it (}. (2012-07-18)

an assistant to a schoolmaster or head-teacher; an under-master, assistant-master.

Anaximander: (6th Cent. B.C.) With Thales and Anaximenes he formed the Milesian School of Greek Philosophy; with these and the other thinkers of the cosmological period he sought the ground of the manifold processes of nature in a single world-principle or cosmic stuff which he identified with "the Infinite". He was the first to step out of the realm of experience and ascribed to his "Infinite" the attributes of eternity, imperishability and inexhaustability. Cf. Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy; Diels, Frag. d. i Vorsokr. -- M.F.

Anaximenes: (6th Cent. B.C.) With Thales and Anaximander he belongs to the Milesian School of Greek Philosophy; as an Ionian he sought a cosmic material element which would explain the manifold processes of the natural world and declared this to be air. Air, he felt, had the attribute of Infinity which would account for the varieties of nature more readily than water, which his predecessor Thales had postulated. Cf. Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy, Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokr. -- M.F.

Anglo-Catholic Philosophy: Anglo-Catholicism is the name frequently used to describe the Church of England and her sister communions, including the Episcopal Church in America. As a religious system, it may be described as the maintenance of the traditional credal, ethical and sacramental position of Catholic Christianity, with insistence on the incorporation into that general position of the new truth of philosophy, science and other fields of study and experience. Historically, the Anglo-Catholic divines (as in Hooker and the Caroline writers) took over the general Platonic-Aristotelian philosophy of the schools; their stress, however, was more on the Platonic than the Aristotelian side: "Platonism", Dr. Inge has said, "is the loving mother-nurse of Anglicanism." Statements of this position, modified by a significant agnosticism concerning areas into which reason (it is said) cannot penetrate, may be found collected in Anglicanism (edited by More and Cross). A certain empiricism has always marked Anglo-Catholic theological and philosophical speculation; this is brought out in recent writing by Taylor (Faith of a Moralist), the writers in Lux Mundi (edited by Gore) and its modern successor Essays Catholic and Critical.

Antisthenes: Of Athens (c. 444-368 B.C.) founder of the Cynic School of Greek Philosophy. See Cynics. -- M.F.

archie "tool, networking" A system to automatically gather, index and serve information on the {Internet}. The initial implementation of archie by {McGill University} School of Computer Science provided an indexed directory of filenames from all {anonymous FTP} archives on the Internet. Later versions provide other collections of information. See also {archive site}, {Gopher}, {Prospero}, {Wide Area Information Servers}. (1995-12-28)

Aristippus of Cyrene: (c. 435-366 B.C.) Originally a Sophist, then Socrates' disciple, and finally the founder of the Cyrenaic School. He taught that pleasure, understood as the sensation of gentle character, is the true end of life. All pleasures are equal in value, but differ in degree and duration; they should be controlled and moderated by reason. -- R.B.W.

Aristippus the younger: A grandson of Aristippus of Cyrene, the founder of the Cyrenaic School; author of a physiological psychology which sought to trace the origin of human feelings. See Cyrenaics. -- M.F.

Aristotelianism: The philosophy of Aristotle, (384-322 B.C.). Aristotle was born in the Greek colony of Stagira, in Macedon, the son of Nicomachus, the physician of King Amyntas of Macedon. In his eighteenth year Aristotle became a pupil of Plato at Athens and remained for nearly twenty years a member of the Academy. After the death of Plato he resided for some time at Atarneus, in the Troad, and at Mitylene, on the island of Lesbos, with friends of the Academy; then for several years he acted as tutor to the young Alexander of Macedon. In 335 he returned to Athens, where he spent the following twelve years as head of a school which he set up in the Lyceum. The school also came to be known as the Peripatetic, and its members Peripatetics, probably because of the peripatos, or covered walk, in which Aristotle lectured. As a result of the outburst of anti-Macedonian feeling at Athens in 323 after the death of Alexander, Aristotle retired to Chalcis, m Euboea, where he died a year later.

As a school of Greek and Latin philosophers, Plotinism lasted until the fifth century. Porphyry, Apuleius, Jamblichus, Julian the Apostate, Themistius, Simplicius, Macrobius and Proclus are the most important representatives. Through St. Augustine, Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite, John Scotus Eriugena, and the Greek Fathers, Plotinian thought has been partly incorporated into Christian intellectualism. Nearly all prominent Arabian philosophers before Averroes are influenced by Plotinus, this is particularly true of Avicenna and Algazel. In the Jewish tradition Avicebron's Fons Vitae is built on the frame of the emanation theory. Master Eckhart and Nicholas of Cusa continue the movement. It is spiritually related to some modern anti-intellectualistic and mystical currents of thought. Plotin, Enneades, (Greek text and French transl.) by E. Brehier, (Bude), 6 vol., Paris, 1930-40. Mackenna, S., The Enneads of Plotinus, London, 1917-1919. Heinemann, F., Plotin, Leipzig, 1921. Brehier, E., La philosophie de Plotin, Paris, 1928. Inge, W. R., The Philosophy of Plotinus, 2 vol., 2rd ed., London and N. Y., 1929.

Asat: (Skr.) "Non-being", a school concept dating back to Vedic (q.v.) times. It offers a theory of origination according to which being (sat; q.v.) was produced from non-being in the beginning; it was rejected by those who believe in being as the logical starting point in metaphysics. -- K.F.L.

athenaeum ::: n. --> A temple of Athene, at Athens, in which scholars and poets were accustomed to read their works and instruct students.
A school founded at Rome by Hadrian.
A literary or scientific association or club.
A building or an apartment where a library, periodicals, and newspapers are kept for use.

at ::: prep. --> Primarily, this word expresses the relations of presence, nearness in place or time, or direction toward; as, at the ninth hour; at the house; to aim at a mark. It is less definite than in or on; at the house may be in or near the house. From this original import are derived all the various uses of at.
A relation of proximity to, or of presence in or on, something; as, at the door; at your shop; at home; at school; at hand; at sea and on land.

Aufklärung: In general, this German word and its English equivalent Enlightenment denote the self-emancipation of man from mere authority, prejudice, convention and tradition, with an insistence on freer thinking about problems uncritically referred to these other agencies. According to Kant's famous definition "Enlightenment is the liberation of man from his self-caused state of minority, which is the incapacity of using one's understanding without the direction of another. This state of minority is caused when its source lies not in the lack of understanding, but in the lack of determination and courage to use it without the assistance of another" (Was ist Aufklärung? 1784). In its historical perspective, the Aufklärung refers to the cultural atmosphere and contrlbutions of the 18th century, especially in Germany, France and England [which affected also American thought with B. Franklin, T. Paine and the leaders of the Revolution]. It crystallized tendencies emphasized by the Renaissance, and quickened by modern scepticism and empiricism, and by the great scientific discoveries of the 17th century. This movement, which was represented by men of varying tendencies, gave an impetus to general learning, a more popular philosophy, empirical science, scriptural criticism, social and political thought. More especially, the word Aufklärung is applied to the German contributions to 18th century culture. In philosophy, its principal representatives are G. E. Lessing (1729-81) who believed in free speech and in a methodical criticism of religion, without being a free-thinker; H. S. Reimarus (1694-1768) who expounded a naturalistic philosophy and denied the supernatural origin of Christianity; Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86) who endeavoured to mitigate prejudices and developed a popular common-sense philosophy; Chr. Wolff (1679-1754), J. A. Eberhard (1739-1809) who followed the Leibnizian rationalism and criticized unsuccessfully Kant and Fichte; and J. G. Herder (1744-1803) who was best as an interpreter of others, but whose intuitional suggestions have borne fruit in the organic correlation of the sciences, and in questions of language in relation to human nature and to national character. The works of Kant and Goethe mark the culmination of the German Enlightenment. Cf. J. G. Hibben, Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1910. --T.G. Augustinianism: The thought of St. Augustine of Hippo, and of his followers. Born in 354 at Tagaste in N. Africa, A. studied rhetoric in Carthage, taught that subject there and in Rome and Milan. Attracted successively to Manicheanism, Scepticism, and Neo-Platontsm, A. eventually found intellectual and moral peace with his conversion to Christianity in his thirty-fourth year. Returning to Africa, he established numerous monasteries, became a priest in 391, Bishop of Hippo in 395. Augustine wrote much: On Free Choice, Confessions, Literal Commentary on Genesis, On the Trinity, and City of God, are his most noted works. He died in 430.   St. Augustine's characteristic method, an inward empiricism which has little in common with later variants, starts from things without, proceeds within to the self, and moves upwards to God. These three poles of the Augustinian dialectic are polarized by his doctrine of moderate illuminism. An ontological illumination is required to explain the metaphysical structure of things. The truth of judgment demands a noetic illumination. A moral illumination is necessary in the order of willing; and so, too, an lllumination of art in the aesthetic order. Other illuminations which transcend the natural order do not come within the scope of philosophy; they provide the wisdoms of theology and mysticism. Every being is illuminated ontologically by number, form, unity and its derivatives, and order. A thing is what it is, in so far as it is more or less flooded by the light of these ontological constituents.   Sensation is necessary in order to know material substances. There is certainly an action of the external object on the body and a corresponding passion of the body, but, as the soul is superior to the body and can suffer nothing from its inferior, sensation must be an action, not a passion, of the soul. Sensation takes place only when the observing soul, dynamically on guard throughout the body, is vitally attentive to the changes suffered by the body. However, an adequate basis for the knowledge of intellectual truth is not found in sensation alone. In order to know, for example, that a body is multiple, the idea of unity must be present already, otherwise its multiplicity could not be recognized. If numbers are not drawn in by the bodily senses which perceive only the contingent and passing, is the mind the source of the unchanging and necessary truth of numbers? The mind of man is also contingent and mutable, and cannot give what it does not possess. As ideas are not innate, nor remembered from a previous existence of the soul, they can be accounted for only by an immutable source higher than the soul. In so far as man is endowed with an intellect, he is a being naturally illuminated by God, Who may be compared to an intelligible sun. The human intellect does not create the laws of thought; it finds them and submits to them. The immediate intuition of these normative rules does not carry any content, thus any trace of ontologism is avoided.   Things have forms because they have numbers, and they have being in so far as they possess form. The sufficient explanation of all formable, and hence changeable, things is an immutable and eternal form which is unrestricted in time and space. The forms or ideas of all things actually existing in the world are in the things themselves (as rationes seminales) and in the Divine Mind (as rationes aeternae). Nothing could exist without unity, for to be is no other than to be one. There is a unity proper to each level of being, a unity of the material individual and species, of the soul, and of that union of souls in the love of the same good, which union constitutes the city. Order, also, is ontologically imbibed by all beings. To tend to being is to tend to order; order secures being, disorder leads to non-being. Order is the distribution which allots things equal and unequal each to its own place and integrates an ensemble of parts in accordance with an end. Hence, peace is defined as the tranquillity of order. Just as things have their being from their forms, the order of parts, and their numerical relations, so too their beauty is not something superadded, but the shining out of all their intelligible co-ingredients.   S. Aurelii Augustini, Opera Omnia, Migne, PL 32-47; (a critical edition of some works will be found in the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna). Gilson, E., Introd. a l'etude de s. Augustin, (Paris, 1931) contains very good bibliography up to 1927, pp. 309-331. Pope, H., St. Augustine of Hippo, (London, 1937). Chapman, E., St. Augustine's Philos. of Beauty, (N. Y., 1939). Figgis, J. N., The Political Aspects of St. Augustine's "City of God", (London, 1921). --E.C. Authenticity: In a general sense, genuineness, truth according to its title. It involves sometimes a direct and personal characteristic (Whitehead speaks of "authentic feelings").   This word also refers to problems of fundamental criticism involving title, tradition, authorship and evidence. These problems are vital in theology, and basic in scholarship with regard to the interpretation of texts and doctrines. --T.G. Authoritarianism: That theory of knowledge which maintains that the truth of any proposition is determined by the fact of its having been asserted by a certain esteemed individual or group of individuals. Cf. H. Newman, Grammar of Assent; C. S. Peirce, "Fixation of Belief," in Chance, Love and Logic, ed. M. R. Cohen. --A.C.B. Autistic thinking: Absorption in fanciful or wishful thinking without proper control by objective or factual material; day dreaming; undisciplined imagination. --A.C.B. Automaton Theory: Theory that a living organism may be considered a mere machine. See Automatism. Automatism: (Gr. automatos, self-moving) (a) In metaphysics: Theory that animal and human organisms are automata, that is to say, are machines governed by the laws of physics and mechanics. Automatism, as propounded by Descartes, considered the lower animals to be pure automata (Letter to Henry More, 1649) and man a machine controlled by a rational soul (Treatise on Man). Pure automatism for man as well as animals is advocated by La Mettrie (Man, a Machine, 1748). During the Nineteenth century, automatism, combined with epiphenomenalism, was advanced by Hodgson, Huxley and Clifford. (Cf. W. James, The Principles of Psychology, Vol. I, ch. V.) Behaviorism, of the extreme sort, is the most recent version of automatism (See Behaviorism).   (b) In psychology: Psychological automatism is the performance of apparently purposeful actions, like automatic writing without the superintendence of the conscious mind. L. C. Rosenfield, From Beast Machine to Man Machine, N. Y., 1941. --L.W. Automatism, Conscious: The automatism of Hodgson, Huxley, and Clifford which considers man a machine to which mind or consciousness is superadded; the mind of man is, however, causally ineffectual. See Automatism; Epiphenomenalism. --L.W. Autonomy: (Gr. autonomia, independence) Freedom consisting in self-determination and independence of all external constraint. See Freedom. Kant defines autonomy of the will as subjection of the will to its own law, the categorical imperative, in contrast to heteronomy, its subjection to a law or end outside the rational will. (Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, § 2.) --L.W. Autonomy of ethics: A doctrine, usually propounded by intuitionists, that ethics is not a part of, and cannot be derived from, either metaphysics or any of the natural or social sciences. See Intuitionism, Metaphysical ethics, Naturalistic ethics. --W.K.F. Autonomy of the will: (in Kant's ethics) The freedom of the rational will to legislate to itself, which constitutes the basis for the autonomy of the moral law. --P.A.S. Autonymy: In the terminology introduced by Carnap, a word (phrase, symbol, expression) is autonymous if it is used as a name for itself --for the geometric shape, sound, etc. which it exemplifies, or for the word as a historical and grammatical unit. Autonymy is thus the same as the Scholastic suppositio matertalis (q. v.), although the viewpoint is different. --A.C. Autotelic: (from Gr. autos, self, and telos, end) Said of any absorbing activity engaged in for its own sake (cf. German Selbstzweck), such as higher mathematics, chess, etc. In aesthetics, applied to creative art and play which lack any conscious reference to the accomplishment of something useful. In the view of some, it may constitute something beneficent in itself of which the person following his art impulse (q.v.) or playing is unaware, thus approaching a heterotelic (q.v.) conception. --K.F.L. Avenarius, Richard: (1843-1896) German philosopher who expressed his thought in an elaborate and novel terminology in the hope of constructing a symbolic language for philosophy, like that of mathematics --the consequence of his Spinoza studies. As the most influential apostle of pure experience, the posltivistic motive reaches in him an extreme position. Insisting on the biologic and economic function of thought, he thought the true method of science is to cure speculative excesses by a return to pure experience devoid of all assumptions. Philosophy is the scientific effort to exclude from knowledge all ideas not included in the given. Its task is to expel all extraneous elements in the given. His uncritical use of the category of the given and the nominalistic view that logical relations are created rather than discovered by thought, leads him to banish not only animism but also all of the categories, substance, causality, etc., as inventions of the mind. Explaining the evolution and devolution of the problematization and deproblematization of numerous ideas, and aiming to give the natural history of problems, Avenarius sought to show physiologically, psychologically and historically under what conditions they emerge, are challenged and are solved. He hypothesized a System C, a bodily and central nervous system upon which consciousness depends. R-values are the stimuli received from the world of objects. E-values are the statements of experience. The brain changes that continually oscillate about an ideal point of balance are termed Vitalerhaltungsmaximum. The E-values are differentiated into elements, to which the sense-perceptions or the content of experience belong, and characters, to which belongs everything which psychology describes as feelings and attitudes. Avenarius describes in symbolic form a series of states from balance to balance, termed vital series, all describing a series of changes in System C. Inequalities in the vital balance give rise to vital differences. According to his theory there are two vital series. It assumes a series of brain changes because parallel series of conscious states can be observed. The independent vital series are physical, and the dependent vital series are psychological. The two together are practically covariants. In the case of a process as a dependent vital series three stages can be noted: first, the appearance of the problem, expressed as strain, restlessness, desire, fear, doubt, pain, repentance, delusion; the second, the continued effort and struggle to solve the problem; and finally, the appearance of the solution, characterized by abating anxiety, a feeling of triumph and enjoyment.   Corresponding to these three stages of the dependent series are three stages of the independent series: the appearance of the vital difference and a departure from balance in the System C, the continuance with an approximate vital difference, and lastly, the reduction of the vital difference to zero, the return to stability. By making room for dependent and independent experiences, he showed that physics regards experience as independent of the experiencing indlvidual, and psychology views experience as dependent upon the individual. He greatly influenced Mach and James (q.v.). See Avenarius, Empirio-criticism, Experience, pure. Main works: Kritik der reinen Erfahrung; Der menschliche Weltbegriff. --H.H. Averroes: (Mohammed ibn Roshd) Known to the Scholastics as The Commentator, and mentioned as the author of il gran commento by Dante (Inf. IV. 68) he was born 1126 at Cordova (Spain), studied theology, law, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, became after having been judge in Sevilla and Cordova, physician to the khalifah Jaqub Jusuf, and charged with writing a commentary on the works of Aristotle. Al-mansur, Jusuf's successor, deprived him of his place because of accusations of unorthodoxy. He died 1198 in Morocco. Averroes is not so much an original philosopher as the author of a minute commentary on the whole works of Aristotle. His procedure was imitated later by Aquinas. In his interpretation of Aristotelian metaphysics Averroes teaches the coeternity of a universe created ex nihilo. This doctrine formed together with the notion of a numerical unity of the active intellect became one of the controversial points in the discussions between the followers of Albert-Thomas and the Latin Averroists. Averroes assumed that man possesses only a disposition for receiving the intellect coming from without; he identifies this disposition with the possible intellect which thus is not truly intellectual by nature. The notion of one intellect common to all men does away with the doctrine of personal immortality. Another doctrine which probably was emphasized more by the Latin Averroists (and by the adversaries among Averroes' contemporaries) is the famous statement about "two-fold truth", viz. that a proposition may be theologically true and philosophically false and vice versa. Averroes taught that religion expresses the (higher) philosophical truth by means of religious imagery; the "two-truth notion" came apparently into the Latin text through a misinterpretation on the part of the translators. The works of Averroes were one of the main sources of medieval Aristotelianlsm, before and even after the original texts had been translated. The interpretation the Latin Averroists found in their texts of the "Commentator" spread in spite of opposition and condemnation. See Averroism, Latin. Averroes, Opera, Venetiis, 1553. M. Horten, Die Metaphysik des Averroes, 1912. P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin, 2d ed., Louvain, 1911. --R.A. Averroism, Latin: The commentaries on Aristotle written by Averroes (Ibn Roshd) in the 12th century became known to the Western scholars in translations by Michael Scottus, Hermannus Alemannus, and others at the beginning of the 13th century. Many works of Aristotle were also known first by such translations from Arabian texts, though there existed translations from the Greek originals at the same time (Grabmann). The Averroistic interpretation of Aristotle was held to be the true one by many; but already Albert the Great pointed out several notions which he felt to be incompatible with the principles of Christian philosophy, although he relied for the rest on the "Commentator" and apparently hardly used any other text. Aquinas, basing his studies mostly on a translation from the Greek texts, procured for him by William of Moerbecke, criticized the Averroistic interpretation in many points. But the teachings of the Commentator became the foundation for a whole school of philosophers, represented first by the Faculty of Arts at Paris. The most prominent of these scholars was Siger of Brabant. The philosophy of these men was condemned on March 7th, 1277 by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, after a first condemnation of Aristotelianism in 1210 had gradually come to be neglected. The 219 theses condemned in 1277, however, contain also some of Aquinas which later were generally recognized an orthodox. The Averroistic propositions which aroused the criticism of the ecclesiastic authorities and which had been opposed with great energy by Albert and Thomas refer mostly to the following points: The co-eternity of the created word; the numerical identity of the intellect in all men, the so-called two-fold-truth theory stating that a proposition may be philosophically true although theologically false. Regarding the first point Thomas argued that there is no philosophical proof, either for the co-eternity or against it; creation is an article of faith. The unity of intellect was rejected as incompatible with the true notion of person and with personal immortality. It is doubtful whether Averroes himself held the two-truths theory; it was, however, taught by the Latin Averroists who, notwithstanding the opposition of the Church and the Thomistic philosophers, gained a great influence and soon dominated many universities, especially in Italy. Thomas and his followers were convinced that they interpreted Aristotle correctly and that the Averroists were wrong; one has, however, to admit that certain passages in Aristotle allow for the Averroistic interpretation, especially in regard to the theory of intellect.   Lit.: P. Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme Latin au XIIIe Siecle, 2d. ed. Louvain, 1911; M. Grabmann, Forschungen über die lateinischen Aristotelesübersetzungen des XIII. Jahrhunderts, Münster 1916 (Beitr. z. Gesch. Phil. d. MA. Vol. 17, H. 5-6). --R.A. Avesta: See Zendavesta. Avicehron: (or Avencebrol, Salomon ibn Gabirol) The first Jewish philosopher in Spain, born in Malaga 1020, died about 1070, poet, philosopher, and moralist. His main work, Fons vitae, became influential and was much quoted by the Scholastics. It has been preserved only in the Latin translation by Gundissalinus. His doctrine of a spiritual substance individualizing also the pure spirits or separate forms was opposed by Aquinas already in his first treatise De ente, but found favor with the medieval Augustinians also later in the 13th century. He also teaches the necessity of a mediator between God and the created world; such a mediator he finds in the Divine Will proceeding from God and creating, conserving, and moving the world. His cosmogony shows a definitely Neo-Platonic shade and assumes a series of emanations. Cl. Baeumker, Avencebrolis Fons vitae. Beitr. z. Gesch. d. Philos. d. MA. 1892-1895, Vol. I. Joh. Wittman, Die Stellung des hl. Thomas von Aquino zu Avencebrol, ibid. 1900. Vol. III. --R.A. Avicenna: (Abu Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina) Born 980 in the country of Bocchara, began to write in young years, left more than 100 works, taught in Ispahan, was physician to several Persian princes, and died at Hamadan in 1037. His fame as physician survived his influence as philosopher in the Occident. His medical works were printed still in the 17th century. His philosophy is contained in 18 vols. of a comprehensive encyclopedia, following the tradition of Al Kindi and Al Farabi. Logic, Physics, Mathematics and Metaphysics form the parts of this work. His philosophy is Aristotelian with noticeable Neo-Platonic influences. His doctrine of the universal existing ante res in God, in rebus as the universal nature of the particulars, and post res in the human mind by way of abstraction became a fundamental thesis of medieval Aristotelianism. He sharply distinguished between the logical and the ontological universal, denying to the latter the true nature of form in the composite. The principle of individuation is matter, eternally existent. Latin translations attributed to Avicenna the notion that existence is an accident to essence (see e.g. Guilelmus Parisiensis, De Universo). The process adopted by Avicenna was one of paraphrasis of the Aristotelian texts with many original thoughts interspersed. His works were translated into Latin by Dominicus Gundissalinus (Gondisalvi) with the assistance of Avendeath ibn Daud. This translation started, when it became more generally known, the "revival of Aristotle" at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Albert the Great and Aquinas professed, notwithstanding their critical attitude, a great admiration for Avicenna whom the Arabs used to call the "third Aristotle". But in the Orient, Avicenna's influence declined soon, overcome by the opposition of the orthodox theologians. Avicenna, Opera, Venetiis, 1495; l508; 1546. M. Horten, Das Buch der Genesung der Seele, eine philosophische Enzyklopaedie Avicenna's; XIII. Teil: Die Metaphysik. Halle a. S. 1907-1909. R. de Vaux, Notes et textes sur l'Avicennisme Latin, Bibl. Thomiste XX, Paris, 1934. --R.A. Avidya: (Skr.) Nescience; ignorance; the state of mind unaware of true reality; an equivalent of maya (q.v.); also a condition of pure awareness prior to the universal process of evolution through gradual differentiation into the elements and factors of knowledge. --K.F.L. Avyakta: (Skr.) "Unmanifest", descriptive of or standing for brahman (q.v.) in one of its or "his" aspects, symbolizing the superabundance of the creative principle, or designating the condition of the universe not yet become phenomenal (aja, unborn). --K.F.L. Awareness: Consciousness considered in its aspect of act; an act of attentive awareness such as the sensing of a color patch or the feeling of pain is distinguished from the content attended to, the sensed color patch, the felt pain. The psychologlcal theory of intentional act was advanced by F. Brentano (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte) and received its epistemological development by Meinong, Husserl, Moore, Laird and Broad. See Intentionalism. --L.W. Axiological: (Ger. axiologisch) In Husserl: Of or pertaining to value or theory of value (the latter term understood as including disvalue and value-indifference). --D.C. Axiological ethics: Any ethics which makes the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, by making the determination of the rightness of an action wholly dependent on a consideration of the value or goodness of something, e.g. the action itself, its motive, or its consequences, actual or probable. Opposed to deontological ethics. See also teleological ethics. --W.K.F. Axiologic Realism: In metaphysics, theory that value as well as logic, qualities as well as relations, have their being and exist external to the mind and independently of it. Applicable to the philosophy of many though not all realists in the history of philosophy, from Plato to G. E. Moore, A. N. Whitehead, and N, Hartmann. --J.K.F. Axiology: (Gr. axios, of like value, worthy, and logos, account, reason, theory). Modern term for theory of value (the desired, preferred, good), investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status. Had its rise in Plato's theory of Forms or Ideas (Idea of the Good); was developed in Aristotle's Organon, Ethics, Poetics, and Metaphysics (Book Lambda). Stoics and Epicureans investigated the summum bonum. Christian philosophy (St. Thomas) built on Aristotle's identification of highest value with final cause in God as "a living being, eternal, most good."   In modern thought, apart from scholasticism and the system of Spinoza (Ethica, 1677), in which values are metaphysically grounded, the various values were investigated in separate sciences, until Kant's Critiques, in which the relations of knowledge to moral, aesthetic, and religious values were examined. In Hegel's idealism, morality, art, religion, and philosophy were made the capstone of his dialectic. R. H. Lotze "sought in that which should be the ground of that which is" (Metaphysik, 1879). Nineteenth century evolutionary theory, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and economics subjected value experience to empirical analysis, and stress was again laid on the diversity and relativity of value phenomena rather than on their unity and metaphysical nature. F. Nietzsche's Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883-1885) and Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887) aroused new interest in the nature of value. F. Brentano, Vom Ursprung sittlicher Erkenntnis (1889), identified value with love.   In the twentieth century the term axiology was apparently first applied by Paul Lapie (Logique de la volonte, 1902) and E. von Hartmann (Grundriss der Axiologie, 1908). Stimulated by Ehrenfels (System der Werttheorie, 1897), Meinong (Psychologisch-ethische Untersuchungen zur Werttheorie, 1894-1899), and Simmel (Philosophie des Geldes, 1900). W. M. Urban wrote the first systematic treatment of axiology in English (Valuation, 1909), phenomenological in method under J. M. Baldwin's influence. Meanwhile H. Münsterberg wrote a neo-Fichtean system of values (The Eternal Values, 1909).   Among important recent contributions are: B. Bosanquet, The Principle of Individuality and Value (1912), a free reinterpretation of Hegelianism; W. R. Sorley, Moral Values and the Idea of God (1918, 1921), defending a metaphysical theism; S. Alexander, Space, Time, and Deity (1920), realistic and naturalistic; N. Hartmann, Ethik (1926), detailed analysis of types and laws of value; R. B. Perry's magnum opus, General Theory of Value (1926), "its meaning and basic principles construed in terms of interest"; and J. Laird, The Idea of Value (1929), noteworthy for historical exposition. A naturalistic theory has been developed by J. Dewey (Theory of Valuation, 1939), for which "not only is science itself a value . . . but it is the supreme means of the valid determination of all valuations." A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic (1936) expounds the view of logical positivism that value is "nonsense." J. Hessen, Wertphilosophie (1937), provides an account of recent German axiology from a neo-scholastic standpoint.   The problems of axiology fall into four main groups, namely, those concerning (1) the nature of value, (2) the types of value, (3) the criterion of value, and (4) the metaphysical status of value.   (1) The nature of value experience. Is valuation fulfillment of desire (voluntarism: Spinoza, Ehrenfels), pleasure (hedonism: Epicurus, Bentham, Meinong), interest (Perry), preference (Martineau), pure rational will (formalism: Stoics, Kant, Royce), apprehension of tertiary qualities (Santayana), synoptic experience of the unity of personality (personalism: T. H. Green, Bowne), any experience that contributes to enhanced life (evolutionism: Nietzsche), or "the relation of things as means to the end or consequence actually reached" (pragmatism, instrumentalism: Dewey).   (2) The types of value. Most axiologists distinguish between intrinsic (consummatory) values (ends), prized for their own sake, and instrumental (contributory) values (means), which are causes (whether as economic goods or as natural events) of intrinsic values. Most intrinsic values are also instrumental to further value experience; some instrumental values are neutral or even disvaluable intrinsically. Commonly recognized as intrinsic values are the (morally) good, the true, the beautiful, and the holy. Values of play, of work, of association, and of bodily well-being are also acknowledged. Some (with Montague) question whether the true is properly to be regarded as a value, since some truth is disvaluable, some neutral; but love of truth, regardless of consequences, seems to establish the value of truth. There is disagreement about whether the holy (religious value) is a unique type (Schleiermacher, Otto), or an attitude toward other values (Kant, Höffding), or a combination of the two (Hocking). There is also disagreement about whether the variety of values is irreducible (pluralism) or whether all values are rationally related in a hierarchy or system (Plato, Hegel, Sorley), in which values interpenetrate or coalesce into a total experience.   (3) The criterion of value. The standard for testing values is influenced by both psychological and logical theory. Hedonists find the standard in the quantity of pleasure derived by the individual (Aristippus) or society (Bentham). Intuitionists appeal to an ultimate insight into preference (Martineau, Brentano). Some idealists recognize an objective system of rational norms or ideals as criterion (Plato, Windelband), while others lay more stress on rational wholeness and coherence (Hegel, Bosanquet, Paton) or inclusiveness (T. H. Green). Naturalists find biological survival or adjustment (Dewey) to be the standard. Despite differences, there is much in common in the results of the application of these criteria.   (4) The metaphysical status of value. What is the relation of values to the facts investigated by natural science (Koehler), of Sein to Sollen (Lotze, Rickert), of human experience of value to reality independent of man (Hegel, Pringle-Pattlson, Spaulding)? There are three main answers:   subjectivism (value is entirely dependent on and relative to human experience of it: so most hedonists, naturalists, positivists);   logical objectivism (values are logical essences or subsistences, independent of their being known, yet with no existential status or action in reality);   metaphysical objectivism (values   --or norms or ideals   --are integral, objective, and active constituents of the metaphysically real: so theists, absolutists, and certain realists and naturalists like S. Alexander and Wieman). --E.S.B. Axiom: See Mathematics. Axiomatic method: That method of constructing a deductive system consisting of deducing by specified rules all statements of the system save a given few from those given few, which are regarded as axioms or postulates of the system. See Mathematics. --C.A.B. Ayam atma brahma: (Skr.) "This self is brahman", famous quotation from Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.5.19, one of many alluding to the central theme of the Upanishads, i.e., the identity of the human and divine or cosmic. --K.F.L.

A view of the nature of mathematics which is widely different from any of the above is held by the school of mathematical intuitionism (q. v.). According to this school, mathematics is "identical with the exact part of our thought." "No science, not even philosophy or logic, can be a presupposition for mathematics. It would be circular to apply any philosophical or logical theorem as a means of proof in mathematics, since such theorems already presuppose for their formulation the construction of mathematical concepts. If mathematics is to be in this sense presupposition-free, then there remains for it no other source than an intuition which presents mathematical concepts and inferences to us as immediately clear. . . . [This intuition] is nothing else than the ability to treat separately certain concepts and inferences which regularly occur in ordinary thinking." This is quoted in translation from Heyting, who, in the same connection, characterizes the intuitionittic doctrine as asserting the existence of mathematical objects (Gegenstände), which are immediately grasped by thought, are independent of experience, and give to mathematics more than a mere formal content. But to these mathematical objects no existence is to be ascribed independent of thought. Elsewhere Heyting speaks of a relationship to Kant in the apriority ascribed to the natural numbers, or rather to the underlying ideas of one and the process of adding one and the indefinite repetition of the latter. At least in his earlier writings, Brouwer traces the doctrine of intuitionism directly to Kant. In 1912 he speaks of "abandoning Kant's apriority of space but adhering the more resolutely to the apriority of time" and in the same paper explicitly reaffirms Kant's opinion that mathematical judgments are synthetic and a priori.

A. While Nicholas of Cusa referred to God as "the absolute," the noun form of this term came into common use through the writings of Schelling and Hegel. Its adoption spread in France through Cousin and in Britain through Hamilton. According to Kant the Ideas of Reason seek both the absolute totality of conditions and their absolutely unconditioned Ground. This Ground of the Real Fichte identified with the Absolute Ego (q.v.). For Schelling the Absolute is a primordial World Ground, a spiritual unity behind all logical and ontological oppositions, the self-differentiating source of both Mind and Nature. For Hegel, however, the Absolute is the All conceived as a timeless, perfect, organic whole of self-thinking Thought. In England the Absolute has occasionally been identified with the Real considered as unrelated or "unconditioned" and hence as the "Unknowable" (Mansel, H. Spencer). Until recently, however, it was commonly appropriated by the Absolute Idealists to connote with Hegel the complete, the whole, the perfect, i.e. the Real conceived as an all-embracing unity that complements, fulfills, or transmutes into a higher synthesis the partial, fragmentary, and "self-contradictory" experiences, thoughts, purposes, values, and achievements of finite existence. The specific emphasis given to this all-inclusive perfection varies considerably, i.e. logical wholeness or concreteness (Hegel), metaphysical completeness (Hamilton), mystical feeling (Bradley), aesthetic completeness (Bosanquet), moral perfection (Royce). The Absolute is also variously conceived by this school as an all-inclusive Person, a Society of persons, and as an impersonal whole of Experience.

(b) American New Realists: More radical in that mind tended to lose its special status in the order of things. In psychology this school moved toward behaviorism. In philosophy they were extreme pan-objectivists. Distinguished representatives: F. J. E. Woodbridge, G. S. Fullerton, E. B. McGilvary and six platformists (so-called because of their collaboration in a volume The New Realism, published 1912): E. B. Holt, W. T. Marvin, W. P. Montague, R. B. Perry, W. B. Pitkin, E. G. Spaulding. The American New Realists agreed on a general platform but differed greatly among themselves as to theories of reality and particular questions. -- V.F.

barringout ::: n. --> The act of closing the doors of a schoolroom against a schoolmaster; -- a boyish mode of rebellion in schools.

(b) Deism is a term referring collectively and somewhat loosely to a group of religious thinkers of the 17th (and 18th) century in England and France who in attempting to justify religion, particularly Christianity, began by establishing the harmony of reason and revelation and developed what, in their time, was regarded as extreme views: assaults upon traditional supernaturalism, external revelation and dogmas implying mysteries, and concluding that revelation is superfluous, that reason is the touchstone to religious validity, that religion and ethics are natural phenomena, that the traditional God need hardly be appealed to since man finds in nature the necessary guides for moral and religious living. Not all deists, so called, went toward the more extreme expressions. Among the more important English deists were Toland, Collins, Tindal, Chubb and Morgan. Voltaire (1694-1778) influenced by English thought is the notable example of deism in France. On the whole the term represents a tendency rather than a school. -- V.F.

Behaviorism: The contemporary American School of psychology which abandons the concepts of mind and consciousness, and restricts both animal and human psychology to the study of behavior. The impetus to behaviorism was given by the Russian physiologist, Pavlov, who through his investigation of the salivary reflex in dogs, developed the concept of the conditioned reflex. See Conditioned Reflex. The founder of American behaviorism is J.B. Watson, who formulated a program for psychology excluding all reference to consciousness and confining itself to behavioral responses. (Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, 1914.) Thinking and emotion are interpreted as implicit behavior: the former is implicit or subvocal speech; the latter implicit visceral reactions. A distinction has been drawn between methodological and dogmatic behaviorism: the former ignores "consciousness" and advocates, in psychology, the objective study of behaviour; the latter denies consciousness entirely, and is, therefore, a form of metaphysical materialism. See Automatism. -- L.W.

Behaviorism ::: The school of psychology founded on the premise that behavior is measurable and can be changed through the application of various behavioral principles.

Being: In early Greek philosophy is opposed either to change, or Becoming, or to Non-Being. According to Parmenides and his disciples of the Eleatic School, everything real belongs to the category of Being, as the only possible object of thought. Essentially the same reasoning applies also to material reality in which there is nothing but Being, one and continuous, all-inclusive and eternal. Consequently, he concluded, the coming into being and passing away constituting change are illusory, for that which is-not cannot be, and that which is cannot cease to be. In rejecting Eleitic monism, the materialists (Leukippus, Democritus) asserted that the very existence of things, their corporeal nature, insofar as it is subject to change and motion, necessarily presupposes the other than Being, that is, Non-Being, or Void. Thus, instead of regarding space as a continuum, they saw in it the very source of discontinuity and the foundation of the atomic structure of substance. Plato accepted the first part of Parmenides' argument. namely, that referring to thought as distinct from matter, and maintained that, though Becoming is indeed an apparent characteristic of everything sensory, the true and ultimate reality, that of Ideas, is changeless and of the nature of Being. Aristotle achieved a compromise among all these notions and contended that, though Being, as the essence of things, is eternal in itself, nevertheless it manifests itself only in change, insofar as "ideas" or "forms" have no existence independent of, or transcendent to, the reality of things and minds. The medieval thinkers never revived the controversy as a whole, though at times they emphasized Being, as in Neo-Platonism, at times Becoming, as in Aristotelianism. With the rise of new interest in nature, beginning with F. Bacon, Hobbes and Locke, the problem grew once more in importance, especially to the rationalists, opponents of empiricism. Spinoza regarded change as a characteristic of modal existence and assumed in this connection a position distantly similar to that of Pinto. Hegel formed a new answer to the problem in declaring that nature, striving to exclude contradictions, has to "negate" them: Being and Non-Being are "moments" of the same cosmic process which, at its foundation, arises out of Being containing Non-Being within itself and leading, factually and logically, to their synthetic union in Becoming. -- R.B.W.

Bentham, Jeremy: (1748-1832) Founder of the English Utilitarian School of Philosophy. In law, he is remembered for his criticism of Blackstone's views of the English constitution, for his examination of the legal fiction and for his treatment of the subject of evidence. In politics, he is most famous for his analysis of the principles of legislation and, in ethics, for his greatest happiness principle. See Hedonic Calculus; Utilitarianism. J. Bentham, Principles of Morals and Legislation, 1789; Outline of a New System of Logic, 1827; Deontology. -- L.E.D.

(b) Epistemological: The view that the real object and the idea of it (perception or conception) are one in the knowledge relation. (e.g. the school known as New Realism; extreme mystics.) -- V.F.

Berdyayev, Nikolai Alexandrovitch: (1874-1948) Is a contemporary Russian teacher and writer on the philosophy of religion. He was born in Kiev, exiled to Vologda when twenty-five; threatened with expulsion from the Russian Orthodox Church in 1917, he became professor of philosophy at the University of Moscow. In 1922, he was expelled from the Soviet Union and he went to Berlin, where he established his Academy of Religious Philosophy. He moved his school to Paris and established a Russian review called Putj (The Way). His thought resembles that of the Christian Gnostics (see Gnosticism), and it owes a good deal to German idealism and mysticism (Boehme). He is a trenchant critic of systems as diverse as Communism and Thomistic Scholasticism. His most noted works are: Smyisl Istorii (The Meaning of History), Berlin, 1923; Novoye Srednevyekovye (transl. as The End of Our Time, N.Y., 1933), Berlin, 1924; Freedom and the Spirit, N. Y., 1935. V. J. Bourke, "The Gnosticism of N. Berdyaev", Thought, XI (1936), 409-22. -- VJ.B.

Bernard of Chartres: (died c. 1130) Has been called the "most perfect Platonist of his century'" by John of Salisbury (Metalogicus, IV, 35, PL 199, 938) but he is known only at second-hand now. He taught in the school of Chartres from 1114-1119 and was Chancellor of Chartres from 1119-1124. According to John of Salisbury, Bernard was an extreme realist in his theory of universals, but he taught that the forms of things (formae nativae) are distinct from the exemplary Ideas in the Divine Mind. A treatise, De expositione Porphyrii has been attributed to him. He is not to be confused with Bernard Silvestris of Chartres, nor with Bernard of Tours. E. Gilson. "Le platonisme de Bernard de C.", Revue Neoscolastique, XXV (1923) 5-19. -- V.J.B.

B. Generically "an absolute" or "the absolute" (pl. "absolutes") means the real (thing-in-itself) as opposed to appearance; substance, the substantival, reals (possessing aseity or self-existence) as opposed to relations; the perfect, non-comparative, complete of its kind; the primordial or uncaused; the independent or autonomous. Logic. Aristotelian logic involves such absolutes as the three laws of thought and changeless, objectively real classes or species, In Kantian logic the categories and principles of judgment are absolutes, i.e. a priori, while the Ideas of reason seek absolute totality and unity, In the organic or metaphysical logic of the Hegelian school, the Absolute is considered the ultimate terminus, referent, or subject of every judgment. Ethics and Axiology. Moral and axiological identified with the Real values, norms, principles, maxims, laws are considered absolutes when universally valid objects of acknowledgment, whether conditionally or unconditionally (e.g. the law of the best possible, the utilitarian greatest happiness principle, the Kantian categorical imperative).

(b) It may refer to any number of realists, such as those of the Scottish School, critical monism, etc. (See under proper headings.)

blackboard ::: n. --> A broad board painted black, or any black surface on which writing, drawing, or the working of mathematical problems can be done with chalk or crayons. It is much used in schools.

black monday ::: --> Easter Monday, so called from the severity of that day in 1360, which was so unusual that many of Edward III.&

Boehme, Jacob: (1575-1624) Of Gorlitz, was the son of poor parents, received little formal schooling, studied the Bible and the works of Pastor Valentine Weigel assiduously. He became noted as a mystic, theosophist, and in his own day was called the German Philosopher. He wrote in German but his early followers translated his works into Latin, hence it is difficult to distinguish his personal thought from that of his school. He thought that all reality, even God, contains a duality of good and evil, the universe and man's soul are nothing without God. He has had much influence on later German and Russian mysticism. Chief works: Aurora, Vierzig Fragen von der Seele, Mysterium Magnum, Von der Gnadenwahl. Deussen, J. Boehme, uber sein Leben u. seine Philos. (Kiel, 1897). -- V.J.B.

bookmate ::: n. --> A schoolfellow; an associate in study.

Bruno, Giordano: (1548-1600) A Dominican monk, eventually burned at the stake because of his opinions, he was converted from Christianity to a naturalistic and mystical pantheism by the Renaissance and particularly by the new Copernican astronomy. For him God and the universe were two names for one and the same Reality considered now as the creative essence of all things, now as the manifold of realized possibilities in which that essence manifests itself. As God, natura naturans, the Real is the whole, the one transcendent and ineffable. As the Real is the infinity of worlds and objects and events into which the whole divides itself and in which the one displays the infinite potentialities latent within it. The world-process is an ever-lasting going forth from itself and return into itself of the divine nature. The culmination of the outgoing creative activity is reached in the human mind, whose rational, philosophic search for the one in the many, simplicity in variety, and the changeless and eternal in the changing and temporal, marks also the reverse movement of the divine nature re-entering itself and regaining its primordial unity, homogeneity, and changelessness. The human soul, being as it were a kind of boomerang partaking of the ingrowing as well as the outgrowing process, may hope at death, not to be dissolved with the body, which is borne wholly upon the outgoing stream, but to return to God whence it came and to be reabsorbed in him. Cf. Rand, Modern Classical Philosophers, selection from Bruno's On Cause, The Principle and the One. G. Bruno: De l'infinito, universo e mundo, 1584; Spaccio della bestia trionfante, 1584; La cena delta ceneri, 1584; Deglieroici furori, 1585; De Monade, 1591. Cf. R. Honigswald, Giordano Bruno; G. Gentile, Bruno nella storia della cultura, 1907. -- B.A.G.F. Brunschvicg, Leon: (1869-) Professor of Philosophy at the Ecole Normale in Paris. Dismissed by the Nazis (1941). His philosophy is an idealistic synthesis of Spinoza, Kant and Schelling with special stress on the creative role of thought in cultural history as well as in sciences. Main works: Les etapes de la philosophie mathematique, 1913; L'experience humaine et la causalite physique, 1921; De la connaissance de soi, 1931. Buddhism: The multifarious forms, philosophic, religious, ethical and sociological, which the teachings of Gautama Buddha (q.v.) have produced. They centre around the main doctrine of the catvari arya-satyani(q.v.), the four noble truths, the last of which enables one in eight stages to reach nirvana (q.v.): Right views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. In the absence of contemporary records of Buddha and Buddhistic teachings, much value was formerly attached to the palm leaf manuscripts in Pali, a Sanskrit dialect; but recently a good deal of weight has been given also the Buddhist tradition in Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Chinese. Buddhism split into Mahayanism and Hinayanism (q.v.), each of which, but particularly the former, blossomed into a variety of teachings and practices. The main philosophic schools are the Madhyamaka or Sunyavada, Yogacara, Sautrantika, and Vaibhasika (q.v.). The basic assumptions in philosophy are a causal nexus in nature and man, of which the law of karma (q.v.) is but a specific application; the impermanence of things, and the illusory notion of substance and soul. Man is viewed realistically as a conglomeration of bodily forms (rupa), sensations (vedana), ideas (sanjna), latent karma (sanskaras), and consciousness (vijnana). The basic assumptions in ethics are the universality of suffering and the belief in a remedy. There is no god; each one may become a Buddha, an enlightened one. Also in art and esthetics Buddhism has contributed much throughout the Far East. -- K.F.L.

(b) The school of Yang Chu (c 440 - c 360 B.C.) and his followers, whose main doctrines are neither hedonism as Lieh Tzu seerns to represent him, nor egoism as Mencius interpreted him, but rather the Taoist doctrines of following nature, of "preserving life and keeping the essence of our being intact and not injuring our material existence with things," of "letting life run its course freely," and of "ignoring not only riches and fame but also life and death." -- W.T.C.

cadet ::: n. --> The younger of two brothers; a younger brother or son; the youngest son.
A gentleman who carries arms in a regiment, as a volunteer, with a view of acquiring military skill and obtaining a commission.
A young man in training for military or naval service; esp. a pupil in a military or naval school, as at West Point, Annapolis, or Woolwich.

Cambridge School: A term loosely applied to English philosophers who have been influenced by the teachings of Professor G. E. Moore (mainly in unpublished lectures delivered at the Cambridge University, 1911-1939). In earlier years Moore stressed the need to accept the judgments of "common sense" on such matters as the existence of other persons, of an "external world", etc. The business of the analytical philosopher was not to criticise such judgments but to display the structure of the facts to which they referred. (Cf. "A defense of common-sense in philosophy," Contemporary British Philosophy, 2 (1925) -- Moore's only discussion of the method.) Such analysis would be directional, terminating in basic or atomic facts, all of whose constituents might be known by acquaintance. The examples discussed were taken largely from the field of epistemology, turning often about the problem of the relation of material objects to sense-data, and of indirect to direct knowledge. In this earlier period problems were often suggested by Russell's discussion of descriptions and logical constructions. The inconclusiveness of such specific discussions and an increasingly critical awareness of the functions of language in philosophical analysis has in later years tended to favor more flexible interpretations of the nature of analysis. (Cf. M. Black, "Relations Between Logical Positivism and the Cambridge School of Analysis", Journal of Unified Science (Erkenntnis), 8, 24-35 for a bibliography and list of philosophers who have been most influenced by emphasis on directional analysis.) -- M.B.

campus ::: n. --> The principal grounds of a college or school, between the buildings or within the main inclosure; as, the college campus.

Carnegie Mellon University "body, education" (CMU) A university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. {School of Computer Science (}. (1997-06-23)

Carvaka (Charvak) ::: [a materialistic philosopher; his school].

(c) A special school called "Critical Realists" arose as a reactionary movement against the alleged extravagant views of another school of realists called the "New Realists" (q.v.). According to the "Critical Realists" the objective world, existing independently of the subject, is separated in the knowledge-relation by media or vehicles or essences. These intermediaries are not objects but conveyances of knowledge. The mind knows the objective world not directly (epistemological monism) but by means of a vehicle through which we perceive and think (epistemological dualism). For some, this vehicle is an immediate mental essence referring to existences, for some a datum, for some a subsistent realm mediating knowledge, and for one there is not so much a vehicle as there is a peculiar transcendental giasping of objects in cognition. In 1920 Essays in Critical Realism was published as the manifesto, the platform of this school. Its collaborators were D. Drake, A. O. Lovejoy, J. B. Pratt, A. K. Rogers, G. Santayana, R. W. Sellars, and C A. Strong. -- V.F.

Cassirer, Ernst: (1874-) Has been chiefly interested in developing the position of the neo-Kantian Philosophy of the Marburg School as it relates to scientific knowledge. Looking at the history of modern philosophy as a progressive formulation of this position, he has sought to extend it by detailed analyses of contemporary scientific developments. Of note are Cassirer's investigations in mathematics, his early consideration of chemical knowledge, and his treatment of Einstein's relativity theory. Main works: Das Erkenntntsprobleme, 3 vols. (1906); Substanz-u-Funktionsbegriff, 1910 (tr. Substance and Function); Philosophie der Symbolischen Forme (1923); Phanom. der Erkenntnis, 1929; Descartes; Leibniz. -- C.K.D.

(c) Finally the term "individual" psychologv has been appropriated by a special school of analytic psychology (see Psychoanalysts), namely that of Alfred Adler. See A. Adler, Problems of Neurosis; E. Wexberg, Individual Psychology. -- L.W.

Chalmers University of Technology "body, education" A Swedish university founded in 1829 offering master of science and doctoral degrees. Research is carried out in the main engineering sciences as well as in technology related mathematical and natural sciences. Five hundred faculty members work in more than 100 departments organised in nine schools. Chalmers collaborates with the University of Göteborg. Around 8500 people work and study on the Chalmers campus, including around 500 faculty members and some 600 teachers and doctoral students. About 4800 students follow the master degree programs. Every year 700 Masters of Science in Engineering and in Architecture graduate from Chalmers, and about 190 PhDs and licentiates are awarded. Some 40% of Sweden's engineers and architects are Chalmers graduates. About a thousand research projects are in progress and more than 1500 scientific articles and research reports are published every year. Chalmers is a partner in 80 EC research projects. {(}. Address: S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden. (1995-02-16)

chargehouse ::: n. --> A schoolhouse.

charterhouse ::: n. --> A well known public school and charitable foundation in the building once used as a Carthusian monastery (Chartreuse) in London.

Chrysippus: (280-209 B.C.) One of the leaders of the Stoic School, whose voluminous writings have been completely lost. In many respects he deviated from the Stoic speculative course; for instance, he combined the principle of natural necessity, or determinism, with the doctrine of Providence. -- R.B.W.

classmate ::: n. --> One who is in the same class with another, as at school or college.

class ::: n. --> A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes.
A number of students in a school or college, of the same standing, or pursuing the same studies.
A comprehensive division of animate or inanimate objects, grouped together on account of their common characteristics, in any classification in natural science, and subdivided into orders,

Cleanthes: (c. 310-230 B.C.) Zeno's disciple and one of the most prominent thinkers of the Stoic School. Of his writings only a hymn to Zeus is extant. -- R.B.W.

clinic ::: n. --> One confined to the bed by sickness.
One who receives baptism on a sick bed.
A school, or a session of a school or class, in which medicine or surgery is taught by the examination and treatment of patients in the presence of the pupils. ::: v. i.

Cohen, Hermann: (1842-1918) and Paul Natorp (1854-1924) were the chief leaders of the "Marburg School" which formed a definite branch of the Neo-Kantian movement. Whereas the original founders of this movement, O. Liebmann and Fr. A. Lange, had reacted to scientific empiricism by again calling attention to the a priori elements of cognition, the Marburg school contended that all cognition was exclusively a priori. They definitely rejected not only the notion of "things-in-themselves" but even that of anything immediately "given" in experience. There is no other reality than one posited by thought and this holds good equally for the object, the subject and God. Nor is thought in its effort to "determine the object = x" limited by any empirical data but solely by the laws of thought. Since in Ethics Kant himself had already endeavored to eliminate all empirical elements, the Marburg school was perhaps closer to him in this field than in epistemology. The sole goal of conduct is fulfillment of duty, i.e., the achievement of a society organized according to moral principles and satisfying the postulates of personal dignity. The Marburg school was probably the most influential philosophic trend in Germany in the last 25 years before the First World War. The most outstanding present-day champion of their tradition is Ernst Cassirer (born 1874). Cohen and Natorp tried to re-interpret Plato as well as Kant. Following up a suggestion first made by Lotze they contended that the Ideas ought to be understood as laws or methods of thought and that the current view ascribing any kind of existence to them was based on a misunderstanding of Aristotle's. -- H.G.

Common Sense Realism: A school of Scottish thinkers founded by Thomas Reid (1710-96) which attempted to set up a theory of knowledge which would support the realistic belief of the man on the street. (See Naive Realism.) The school began a movement of protest against Locke's theory which led to an eventual subjective idealism and skepticism. -- V.F.

common ::: v. --> Belonging or relating equally, or similarly, to more than one; as, you and I have a common interest in the property.
Belonging to or shared by, affecting or serving, all the members of a class, considered together; general; public; as, properties common to all plants; the common schools; the Book of Common Prayer.
Often met with; usual; frequent; customary.
Not distinguished or exceptional; inconspicuous; ordinary;

condisciple ::: n. --> A schoolfellow; a fellow-student.

Confucianism (ju chia), on the other hand, advocated true manhood (jen) as the highest good, the superior man (chun tzu) as the ideal being, and cultivation of life (hsiu shen) as the supreme duty of man. It was toward this moralism and humanism that Confucius (551-479 B.C.) taught the doctrines of "chung," or being true to the principles of one's nature, and "shu," or the application of those principles in relation to others, as well as the doctrine of the Golden Mean (chung yung), i.e., "to find the central clue of our moral being and to be harmonious with the universe." Humanism was further strengthened by Mencius (371-289 B.C.) who insisted that man must develop his nature fully because benevolence (jen) and righteousness (i) are natural to his nature which is originally good, and again reinforced by Hsun Tzu (c. 335-286 BC) who, contending that human nature is evil, advocated the control of nature. Amid this antagonism between naturalism and humanism, however, both schools conceived reality as unceasing change (i) and incessant transformation, perpetually in progress due to the interaction of the active (yang) and passive (yin) cosmic principles.

content-free "jargon" 1. (By analogy with "context-free") Used of a message that adds nothing to the recipient's knowledge. Though this adjective is sometimes applied to {flamage}, it more usually connotes derision for communication styles that exalt form over substance or are centred on concerns irrelevant to the subject ostensibly at hand. Perhaps most used with reference to speeches by company presidents and other professional manipulators. See also {four-colour glossies}. "education" 2. Within British schools the term refers to general-purpose {software} such as a {word processor}, a {spreadsheet} or a program that tests spelling of words supplied by the teacher. This is in contrast to software designed to teach a particular topic, e.g. a plant growth simulation, an interactive periodic table or a program that tests spelling of a predetermined list of words. Content-free software can be more cost-effective as it can be reused for many lessons throughout the syllabus. [{Jargon File}] (2014-10-30)

Cornell University "body, education" A US Ivy League University founded in 1868 by businessman Ezra Cornell and respected scholar Andrew Dickson White. Cornell includes thirteen colleges and schools. On the Ithaca campus are the seven undergraduate units and four graduate and professional units. The Medical College and the Graduate School of Medical Sciences are in New York City. Cornell has 13,300 undergraduates and 6,200 graduate and professional students. See also {Concurrent ML}, {Cornell Theory Center}, {Cornell University Programming Language}, {CU-SeeMe}, {ISIS}. {(}. (1996-12-01)

Cousin, Victor: (1792-1867) Was among those principally responsible for producing the shift in French philosophy away from sensationalism in the direction of "spiritualism"; in his own thinking, Cousin was first influenced by Locke and Condillac, and later turned to idealism under the influence of Maine de Biran and Schelling. His most characteristic philosophical insights are contained in Fragments Philosophiques (1826), in which he advocated as the basis of metaphysics a careful observation and analysis of the facts of the conscious life. He lectured at the Sorbonne from 1815 until 1820 when he was suspended for political reasons, but he was reinstated in 1827 and continued to lecture there until 1832. He exercised a great influence on his philosophical contemporaries and founded the spiritualistic or eclectic school in French Philosophy. The members of his school devoted themselves largely to historical studies for which Cousin had provided the example in his Introduction a l'Histoire General de la Philosophie, 7th ed. 1872. -- L.W.

Cusa. Nicholas of: (1401-1464) Born in Cusa (family name: Krebs), educated in the mystical school of Deventer, and at the Universities of Heidelberg, Padua and Cologne. He became a Cardinal in 1448, Bishop of Brixen in 1450, and died at Todi. He was interested in mathematics, astronomy, philosophy and ecclesiastical policy. His thought is Neo-Platonic and mystical, he is critical of Aristotelian Scholasticism. His theories of "learned ignorance" and the "concordance of contraries" have been historically influential. Chief works: De concordantia Catholica, De docta ignorantia, De conjecturis (Opera, Paris, 1514). E. Van Steenberghe, Le Card. N. de Cuse,l'action, la pensee (Paris, 1920). -- V.J.B.

Cynics: A school of Greek Philosophy, named after the gymnasium Cynosarges, founded by Antisthenes of Athens, friend of Socrates. Man's true happiness, the Cynics taught, lies in right and intelligent living, and this constitutes for them also the concept of the virtuous life. For the Cynics, this right and virtuous life consists in a course of conduct which is as much as possible independent of all events and factors external to man. This independence can be achieved through mastery over one's desires and wants. The Cynics attempted to free man from bondage to human custom, convention and institution by reducing man's desires and appetites to such only as are indispensable to life and by renouncing those whicn are imposed by civilization. In extreme cases, such as that of Diogenes, this philosophy expressed itself in a desire to live the natural life in the midst of the civilized Greek community. -- M.F.

Cyrenaics: A school of Greek Philosophy founded by Aristippus of Cyrene. The teachings of this school are known as the philosophy of Hedonism, or the doctrine of enjoyment for its own sake. For the Cyrenaics the virtuous or the good life is that which yields the greatest amount of contentment or pleasure derived from the satisfaction of desire. Education and intelligence are necessary so as to guide one to proper enjoyment, that is to such satisfaction of desire as yields most pleasure and is least likely to cause one pain. It also aids one in being master of pleasure and not its slave. -- M.F.

dame ::: n. --> A mistress of a family, who is a lady; a woman in authority; especially, a lady.
The mistress of a family in common life, or the mistress of a common school; as, a dame&

declamation ::: n. --> The act or art of declaiming; rhetorical delivery; haranguing; loud speaking in public; especially, the public recitation of speeches as an exercise in schools and colleges; as, the practice declamation by students.
A set or harangue; declamatory discourse.
Pretentious rhetorical display, with more sound than sense; as, mere declamation.

Descriptive Statistics ::: The branch of statistics that focuses on describing in numerical format what is happening now within a population. Descriptive statistics require that all subjects in the population (the entire class, all males in a school, all professors) be tested.

Dialectical materialism: The school of philosophy founded by Marx and Engels and developed by many subsequent thinker.

Digital Library Initiative A project to research digital libraries which aims to provide real collections to real users (high school students, University researchers and students, users in public libraries). The project is sponsored jointly by three US federal funding agencies, led by the National Science Foundation. The {University of Michigan}, one of the six sites selected in 1994 to collaborate, will provide collections on earth and space sciences. The project, known there as the University of Michigan Digital Library Project (UMDL), is a large, multi-year project headed by Daniel Atkins, Dean of the School of Information and Library Studies. {UMDL (}. (1995-02-23)

disusered "jargon" ({Usenet}) Said of a person whose account on a computer has been removed to prevent access. Setting the DISUSER account status flag on {VMS} disables the account. "He got disusered when they found out he'd been {cracking} through the school's {Internet} access." [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-08)

doctrine ::: n. --> Teaching; instruction.
That which is taught; what is held, put forth as true, and supported by a teacher, a school, or a sect; a principle or position, or the body of principles, in any branch of knowledge; any tenet or dogma; a principle of faith; as, the doctrine of atoms; the doctrine of chances.

domination ::: n. --> The act of dominating; exercise of power in ruling; dominion; supremacy; authority; often, arbitrary or insolent sway.
A ruling party; a party in power.
A high order of angels in the celestial hierarchy; -- a meaning given by the schoolmen.

dominie ::: n. --> A schoolmaster; a pedagogue.
A clergyman. See Domine, 1.

dormitory ::: n. --> A sleeping room, or a building containing a series of sleeping rooms; a sleeping apartment capable of containing many beds; esp., one connected with a college or boarding school.
A burial place.

Dühring, Eugen Karl: (1813-1901) Dühring, a German economist and philosopher, started on a legal career which lasted until 1859. He became docent at the University of Berlin and taught there until he lost his license in 1874. He was editor of Der moderne Volkergeist and of Personalist und Emancipator. Philosophically he belonged to the positivistic school. Dühring advocated not the elimination of capitalism, but of its abuses through the medium of a strong labor movement. His literary work is strongly tinged with anti-semitism, and he is probably better known for the attack which Marx and Engels made upon him than for his own work.

Eclecticism: The principle, tendency, or practice of combining, or drawing upon, various philosophical or theological doctrines. In its passive form, it is found in many thinkers of no great originality. In its more active form, as a deliberate attempt to create unity among discordant schools of philosophy, eclecticism was practised by the Alexandrien School (q.v.), where the Oriental and Occidental thought mingled, and, more recently, by V. Cousin (q.V.). -- R.B.W.

Ehrenfels, Maria Christian Julius Leopold Karl, Freiherr von: (1859-1932) As one of the leaders of the "Brentano School", he affirmed that the fundamental factor in valuation was desire. His principal interest was to trace the way in which desires and motives generate values. He described for the most part the development, the conflict, the hierarchy, and the obsolescence of values. Having a major influence upon the analytic approach to value theory, his outlook was relativistic and evolutionary. Main works: Uber Gestaltqualitäten (1890), System der Werttheorie (1897); Sexualethik (1907). -- H.H.

eleatic ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to a certain school of Greek philosophers who taught that the only certain science is that which owes nothing to the senses, and all to the reason. ::: n. --> A philosopher of the Eleatic school.

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer "computer" (ENIAC) The first electronic {digital computer} and an ancestor of most computers in use today. ENIAC was developed by Dr. {John Mauchly} and {J. Presper Eckert} during World War II at the Moore School of the {University of Pennsylvania}. In 1940 Dr. {John Vincent Atanasoff} attended a lecture by Mauchly and subsequently agreed to show him his binary calculator, the {Atanasoff-Berry Computer} (ABC), which was partially built between 1937-1942. Mauchly used ideas from the ABC in the design of ENIAC, which was started in June 1943 and released publicly in 1946. ENIAC was not the first digital computer, {Konrad Zuse}'s {Z3} was released in 1941. Though, like the ABC, the Z3 was {electromechanical} rather than electronic, it was freely programmable via paper tape whereas ENIAC was only programmable by manual rewiring or switches. Z3 used binary representation like modern computers whereas ENIAC used decimal like mechanical calculators. ENIAC was underwritten and its development overseen by Lieutenant Herman Goldstine of the U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL). While the prime motivation for constructing the machine was to automate the wartime production of firing and bombing tables, the very first program run on ENIAC was a highly classified computation for Los Alamos. Later applications included weather prediction, cosmic ray studies, wind tunnel design, petroleum exploration, and optics. ENIAC had 20 {registers} made entirely from {vacuum tubes}. It had no other no memory as we currently understand it. The machine performed an addition in 200 {microseconds}, a multiplication in about three {milliseconds}, and a division in about 30 milliseconds. {John von Neumann}, a world-renowned mathematician serving on the BRL Scientific Advisory Committee, soon joined the developers of ENIAC and made some critical contributions. While Mauchly, Eckert and the Penn team continued on the technological problems, he, Goldstine, and others took up the logical problems. In 1947, while working on the design for the successor machine, EDVAC, von Neumann realized that ENIAC's lack of a central control unit could be overcome to obtain a rudimentary stored program computer (see the Clippinger reference below). Modifications were undertaken that eventually led to an {instruction set} of 92 "orders". {Von Neumann} also proposed the {fetch-execute cycle}. [R. F. Clippinger, "A Logical Coding System Applied to the ENIAC", Ballistic Research Laboratory Report No. 673, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, September 1948. {(}]. [H. H. Goldstine, "The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann", Princeton University Press, 1972]. [K. Kempf, "Electronic Computers within the Ordnance Corps", Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 1961. {(}]. [M. H. Weik, "The ENIAC Story", J. American Ordnance Assoc., 1961. {(}]. [How "general purpose" was ENIAC, compared to Zuse's {Z3}?] (2003-10-01)

Emerson, Ralph Waldo: (1803-1882) American poet and essayist. His spirit of independence early led him to leave the pulpit for the lecture platform where he earned high rank as the leading transcendentalist and the foremost figure in the famous Concord group. His profound vision, his ringing spirit of individualism and his love of democracy place him among the New World's philosophic pantheon. His "The American Scholar," "The Over-Soul," ''Self-Reliance," "Compensation" and the Divinity School Address are perhaps the most famous of his lectures and essays. He edited The Dial, the official organ of the transcendental movement. His several trips to Europe brought him into contact with Coleridge and Wordsworth, but particularly with Carlyle.

Epictetus: (c. 60-110 A.D.) A Stoic philosopher and freed slave, who established his School in Nicopolis, Epirus; his Discourses were published by Arrian, his learned disciple, they contain sharp observations of human behavior and pithy sayings on ethical matters. -- R.B.W.

Epicurean School: Founded by Epicurus in Athens in the year 306 B.C. Epicureanism gave expression to the desire for a refined type of happiness which is the reward of the cultured man who can take pleasure in the joys of the mind over which he can have greater control than over those of a material or sensuous nature. The friendship of gifted and noble men, the peace and contentment that comes from fair conduct, good morals and aesthetic enjoyments are the ideals of the Epicurean who refuses to be perturbed by any metaphysical or religious doctrines which impose duties and thus hinder the freedom of pure enjoyment. Epicurus adopted the atomism of Democritus (q.v.) but modified its determinism by permitting chance to cause a swerve (clinamen) in the fall of the atoms. See C. W. Bailey, Epicurus. However, physics was not to be the main concern of the philosopher. See Apathia, Ataraxia, Hedonism. -- M.F.

Epicurus: (341-270 B.C.) A native of Samos, founded his School in Athens about 306 B.C., where he instructed his disciples and admirers in the art of rational living. He taught that pleasure and happiness are the natural end of life. But, contrary to later misconceptions, he did not advocate the pursuit of all or any pleasures, but only of those which are consistent with intelligence and moderation. Joys of the mind are superior to pleasures of the body. In his interpretation of nature, he accepted Democritus' atomism, but contended that the element of chance enters into atoms' motions and makes them deviate from their course. -- R.B.W.

ESP 1. Extra Simple Pascal. Subset of Pascal. 2. Econometric Software Package. Statistical analysis of time series. "Econometric Software Package, User's Manual", J.P. Cooper, Graduate School of Business, U Chicago. Sammet 1978. 3. {Extended Self-containing Prolog}. 4. An early {symbolic mathematics} system. [A. Rom, Celest Mech 3:331-345 (1971)]. (1994-12-08)

Euclid: (c. 400 B.C.) Of Megara, founder of the Megarian School. He was chiefly interested in the theory of refutation. See Megarians.

Eusebius of Caesarea: (265-340) Is one of the first great historians of the Christian Church. He was born at Caesarea, in Palestine, studied at the school of Pamphilus, became Bishop of Caesarea in 313. His works are in Greek and include a Chronicle, Ecclesiastical History, and a treatise On Theophanies (PG 19-24). His philosophical views are those of a Christian Platonist and he contributed to the development of the allegorical method of Scriptural exegesis. -- V.J. B.

Excluded middle, law of, or tertium non datur, is given by traditional logicians as "A is B or A is not B." This is usually identified with the theorem of the propositional calculus, p ∨ ∼p to which the same name is given. The general validity of the law is denied by the school of mathematical intuitiontsm (q. v.). -- A.C.

Existential Psychology: A school of introspective psychology represented in America by E. B. Titchener (1867-1927) which conceived the task of psychology to be the description, analysis and classification of the experiences of an individual mind considered as existences. Also called Existentialism. A characteristic doctrine of the school is the denial of imageless thought. -- L.M . Existential quantifier: See Quantifier. Exoteric: External; belonging to or suited for those who are not initiates or experts. The exoterikoi logoi referred to in Aristotle are popular arguments or treatises, as contrasted with strictly scientific expositions. -- G.R.M.

Fa chia: The Legalists School, the Philosophers of Law, also called hsing ming chia, who "had absolute faithfulness in reward and punishment as support for the system of correct conduct," and made no distinction between kindred and strangers and no discrimination between the honorable and the humble, but treated them as equals before the law. They emphasized the power natural to the position of a ruler (shih, especially Kuan Tzu, sixth century B.C. and Shen Tao, 350-275 B.C.?) statecraft (shu, especially Shen Pu-hai, 400-337 B.C.?), and law (fa, especially Shang Chun, 390-338 B.C.?), with Han Fei Tzu (280-233 B.C.) synthesizing all the three tendencies. -- W.T.C.

fagging ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of Fag ::: n. --> Laborious drudgery; esp., the acting as a drudge for another at an English school.

fag ::: n. --> A knot or coarse part in cloth. ::: v. i. --> To become weary; to tire.
To labor to wearness; to work hard; to drudge.
To act as a fag, or perform menial services or drudgery, for another, as in some English schools.

final ::: a. --> Pertaining to the end or conclusion; last; terminating; ultimate; as, the final day of a school term.
Conclusive; decisive; as, a final judgment; the battle of Waterloo brought the contest to a final issue.
Respecting an end or object to be gained; respecting the purpose or ultimate end in view.

foundationer ::: n. --> One who derives support from the funds or foundation of a college or school.

From this point the notion of Ich in the German idealistic tradition passes into voluntaristic channels, with emphasis on the dynamic will, as in Schopenhiuer, Eduard von Hartmann and Nietzsche; the pragmatic-psychologic interpretation, typified by Lotze and other post-idealists; and such reconstructions of the transcendental I as are to be found in the school of Husserl and related groups.

Fudgets "programming" (From "functional widgets") {Graphical user interface} {widgets} available as The Fudget library - a toolkit for concurrent programming of graphical user interfaces, {client/servers} and more written in {Haskell} by Thomas Hallgren "" and Magnus Carlsson "". Version: h9 1995-07-04 (Baastad Spring School Release). {(}. {(}. (1996-03-17)

Functionalism ::: The school of thought popular in the 19th century emphasizing conscious experiences as a precursor to behavior

Gay, John: (1669-1745) English schohr and clergyman, not to be confused with his contemporary, the poet and dramatist of the same name. He is important in the field of ethics for his Dissertation Concerning the Fundamental Principle of Virtue or Morality. This little work influenced David Hartley in his formulation of Associationism in Psychology and likewise sened to suggest the foundation for the later English Utilitarian School. -- L.E.D.

Gentile, Giovanni: Born in Castelvetrano (Sicily) 1875. Professor of Philosophy and History of Philosophy at universities in Palermo, Pisa, and Rome. Minister of Public Education 1922-1924. Senator since 1922. Reformed the school system of Italy.

Gestalt Psychology: (German, Gestalt, shape or form) A school of German psychology, founded about 1912 by M. Wertheimer, K. Koffka and W. Köhler. Gestalt psychology reacted against the psychic elements of analytic or associationist psychology (see Associationism) and substituted the concept of Gestalt or organized whole. The parts do not exist prior to the whole but derive their character from the structure of the whole. The Gestalt concept is applied at the physical and physiological as well as the psychological levels and in psychology both to the original sensory organization and to the higher intellectual and associative processes of mind. Configuration has been suggested as an English equivalent for Gestalt and the school is accordingly referred to as Configurationism. -- L.W.

gopher "networking, protocol" A {distributed} document retrieval system which started as a {Campus Wide Information System} at the {University of Minnesota}, and which was popular in the early 1990s. Gopher is defined in {RFC 1436}. The protocol is like a primitive form of {HTTP} (which came later). Gopher lacks the {MIME} features of HTTP, but expressed the equivalent of a document's {MIME type} with a one-character code for the "{Gopher object type}". At time of writing (2001), all Web browers should be able to access gopher servers, although few gopher servers exist anymore. Sir {Tim Berners-Lee}, in his book "Weaving The Web" (pp.72-73), related his opinion that it was not so much the protocol limitations of gopher that made people abandon it in favor of HTTP/{HTML}, but instead the legal missteps on the part of the university where it was developed: "It was just about this time, spring 1993, that the University of Minnesota decided that it would ask for a license fee from certain classes of users who wanted to use gopher. Since the gopher software being picked up so widely, the university was going to charge an annual fee. The browser, and the act of browsing, would be free, and the server software would remain free to nonprofit and educational institutions. But any other users, notably companies, would have to pay to use gopher server software. "This was an act of treason in the academic community and the Internet community. Even if the university never charged anyone a dime, the fact that the school had announced it was reserving the right to charge people for the use of the gopher protocols meant it had crossed the line. To use the technology was too risky. Industry dropped gopher like a hot potato." (2001-03-31)

gymnasium ::: n. --> A place or building where athletic exercises are performed; a school for gymnastics.
A school for the higher branches of literature and science; a preparatory school for the university; -- used esp. of German schools of this kind.

Han Fei Tzu: (d. 233 B.C.) Was a pupil of Hsun Tzu. The greatest Chinese philosopher of law (fa chia), he advocated government by law and statecraft. Delegated by his native state, he appealed to the king of Chin (Shih Huang-ti) not to invade his country. At first he was cordially entertained but later was ordered to commit suicide by the premier of Chin, his former schoolmate, Li Ssu, who became jealous of him. (Han-fei Tzu, Eng. tr. by W. K. Liao: Han Fei Tzu, Complete Works.) -- W.T.C.

Hartley, David: (1705-1757) Was an English physician most noted as the founder of the associationist school in psychology. His theory of the association of ideas was prompted by the work of John Gay to which he gave a physiological emphasis and which, in turn, influenced the Utilitarians, Bentham and the Mills. See Bentham, Gay, James Mill, John Stuart Mill and Utilitarianism.

Hence in its widest sense Scholasticism embraces all the intellectual activities, artistic, philosophical and theological, carried on in the medieval schools. Any attempt to define its narrower meaning in the field of philosophy raises serious difficulties, for in this case, though the term's comprehension is lessened, it still has to cover many centuries of many-faced thought. However, it is still possible to list several characteristics sufficient to differentiate Scholastic from non-Scholastic philosophy. While ancient philosophy was the philosophy of a people and modern thought that of individuals, Scholasticism was the philosophy of a Christian society which transcended the characteristics of individuals, nations and peoples. It was the corporate product of social thought, and as such its reasoning respected authority in the forms of tradition and revealed religion. Tradition consisted primarily in the systems of Plato and Aristotle as sifted, adapted and absorbed through many centuries. It was natural that religion, which played a paramount role in the culture of the middle ages, should bring influence to bear on the medieval, rational view of life. Revelation was held to be at once a norm and an aid to reason. Since the philosophers of the period were primarily scientific theologians, their rational interests were dominated by religious preoccupations. Hence, while in general they preserved the formal distinctions between reason and faith, and maintained the relatively autonomous character of philosophy, the choice of problems and the resources of science were controlled by theology. The most constant characteristic of Scholasticism was its method. This was formed naturally by a series of historical circumstances,   The need of a medium of communication, of a consistent body of technical language tooled to convey the recently revealed meanings of religion, God, man and the material universe led the early Christian thinkers to adopt the means most viable, most widely extant, and nearest at hand, viz. Greek scientific terminology. This, at first purely utilitarian, employment of Greek thought soon developed under Justin, Clement of Alexandria, Origin, and St. Augustine into the "Egyptian-spoils" theory; Greek thought and secular learning were held to be propaedeutic to Christianity on the principle: "Whatever things were rightly said among all men are the property of us Christians." (Justin, Second Apology, ch. XIII). Thus was established the first characteristic of the Scholastic method: philosophy is directly and immediately subordinate to theology.   Because of this subordinate position of philosophy and because of the sacred, exclusive and total nature of revealed wisdom, the interest of early Christian thinkers was focused much more on the form of Greek thought than on its content and, it might be added, much less of this content was absorbed by early Christian thought than is generally supposed. As practical consequences of this specialized interest there followed two important factors in the formation of Scholastic philosophy:     Greek logic en bloc was taken over by Christians;     from the beginning of the Christian era to the end of the XII century, no provision was made in Catholic centers of learning for the formal teaching of philosophy. There was a faculty to teach logic as part of the trivium and a faculty of theology.   For these two reasons, what philosophy there was during this long period of twelve centuries, was dominated first, as has been seen, by theology and, second, by logic. In this latter point is found rooted the second characteristic of the Scholastic method: its preoccupation with logic, deduction, system, and its literary form of syllogistic argumentation.   The third characteristic of the Scholastic method follows directly from the previous elements already indicated. It adds, however, a property of its own gained from the fact that philosophy during the medieval period became an important instrument of pedogogy. It existed in and for the schools. This new element coupled with the domination of logic, the tradition-mindedness and social-consciousness of the medieval Christians, produced opposition of authorities for or against a given problem and, finally, disputation, where a given doctrine is syllogistically defended against the adversaries' objections. This third element of the Scholastic method is its most original characteristic and accounts more than any other single factor for the forms of the works left us from this period. These are to be found as commentaries on single or collected texts; summae, where the method is dialectical or disputational in character.   The main sources of Greek thought are relatively few in number: all that was known of Plato was the Timaeus in the translation and commentary of Chalcidius. Augustine, the pseudo-Areopagite, and the Liber de Causis were the principal fonts of Neoplatonic literature. Parts of Aristotle's logical works (Categoriae and de Interpre.) and the Isagoge of Porphyry were known through the translations of Boethius. Not until 1128 did the Scholastics come to know the rest of Aristotle's logical works. The golden age of Scholasticism was heralded in the late XIIth century by the translations of the rest of his works (Physics, Ethics, Metaphysics, De Anima, etc.) from the Arabic by Gerard of Cremona, John of Spain, Gundisalvi, Michael Scot, and Hermann the German, from the Greek by Robert Grosseteste, William of Moerbeke, and Henry of Brabant. At the same time the Judae-Arabian speculation of Alkindi, Alfarabi, Avencebrol, Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides together with the Neoplatonic works of Proclus were made available in translation. At this same period the Scholastic attention to logic was turned to metaphysics, even psychological and ethical problems and the long-discussed question of the universals were approached from this new angle. Philosophy at last achieved a certain degree of autonomy and slowly forced the recently founded universities to accord it a separate faculty.

herring ::: n. --> One of various species of fishes of the genus Clupea, and allied genera, esp. the common round or English herring (C. harengus) of the North Atlantic. Herrings move in vast schools, coming in spring to the shores of Europe and America, where they are salted and smoked in great quantities.

Hsing ming (chia): The school which advocated government by law (which includes punishment, hsing) and insisted on the correspondence of names (ming) to reality, as represented by Shen Tzu (fourth century B.C.), Han Fei Tzu (d. 233 B.C.), etc. Another name for the Legalist School (fa chia). When hsing is interpreted in the sense of shape to which names must correspond, the term is also applied to the Sophists (ming chia). -- W.T.C.

Hsuen men: The School of Mystery, another name for the Taoist religion. -- W.T.C.

Hsun Tzu: (Hsun Ch'ing, Hsun Kuan, c. 335-286 B.C.) For thirty years travelled, offered his service to the various powerful feudal states, and succeeded in becoming a high officer of Ch'i and Ch'u. A great critic of all contemporary schools, he greatly developed Confucianism, became the greatest Confucian except Mencius. Both Han Fei, the outstanding Legalist, and Li Ssu, the premier of Ch'in who effected the first unification of China, were his pupils. (Hsun Tzu, Eng. tr. by H. H. Dubs: The Works of Hsun Tze.) -- W.T.C.

Hylotheism: (Gr. hyle matter, and theism q.v.). A synonym for either pantheism or materialism in that this doctrine identifies mattei and god, or has the one merge into the other. -- K.F.L Hylozoism: (Gr. hyle, mattei -- zoe, life) The doctrine that life is a property of matter, that matter and life are inseparable, that life is derived from matter, or that matter has spiritual properties. The conception of nature as alive or animated, of reality as alive. The original substance as bearing within itself the cause of all motion and change. The early Greek cosmologists of the Milesian school made statements which implied a belief in life for their primary substances. For Straton of Lampsacus each of the ultimate particles of matter possesses life. For the Stoics the universe as a whole is alive. For Spinoza different kinds of things possess life in different grades. -- J.K F.

iatrochemistry ::: n. --> Chemistry applied to, or used in, medicine; -- used especially with reference to the doctrines in the school of physicians in Flanders, in the 17th century, who held that health depends upon the proper chemical relations of the fluids of the body, and who endeavored to explain the conditions of health or disease by chemical principles.

iatromathematician ::: n. --> One of a school of physicians in Italy, about the middle of the 17th century, who tried to apply the laws of mechanics and mathematics to the human body, and hence were eager student of anatomy; -- opposed to the iatrochemists.

IBM 1620 "computer" A computer built by {IBM} and released in late 1959. The 1620 cost from around $85,000(?) up to hundreds of thousands of dollars(?) according to the configuration. It was billed as a "small scientific computer" to distinguish it from the business-oriented {IBM 1401}. It was regarded as inexpensive, and many schools started out with one. It was either developed for the US Navy to teach computing, or as a replacement for the very successful {IBM 650} which did quite well in the low end scientific market. Rumour has it that the Navy called this computer the CADET - Can't Add, Doesn't Even Try. The {ALU} used lookup tables to add, subtract and multiply but it could do address increments and the like without the tables. You could change the number base by adjusting the tables, which were input during the boot sequence from {Hollerith} cards. The divide instruction required additional hardware, as did {floating point} operations. The basic machine had 20,000 decimal digits of {ferrite core memory} arranged as a 100 by 100 array of 12-bit locations, each holding two digits. Each digit was stored as four numeric bits, one flag bit and one parity bit. The numeric bits stored a decimal digit (values above nine were illegal). Memory was logically divided into fields. On the high-order digit of a field the flag bit indicated the end of the field. On the low-order digit it indicated a negative number. A flag bit on the low order of the address indicated {indirect addressing} if you had that option installed. A few "illegal" bit combinations were used to store things like record marks and "numeric blanks". On a {subroutine} call it stored the {return address} in the five digits just before the entry point to the routine, so you had to build your own {stack} to do {recursion}. The enclosure was grey, and the core was about four or five inches across. The core memory was kept cool inside a temperature-controlled box. The machine took a few minutes to warm up after power on before you could use it. If it got too hot there was a thermal cut-out switch that would shut it down. Memory could be expanded up to 100,000 digits in a second cabinet. The cheapest package used {paper tape} for I/O. You could also get {punched cards} and later models could be hooked up to a 1311 {disk drive} (a two-{megabyte} {washing machine}), a 1627 {plotter}, and a 1443 {line printer}. Because the 1620 was popular with colleges, IBM ran a clearing house of software for a nominal cost such as {Snobol}, {COBOL}, chess games, etc. The model II, released about three years later, could add and subtract without tables. The {clock period} decreased from 20 to 10 microseconds, instruction fetch sped up by a few cycles and it added {index registers} of some sort. Some of the model I's options were standard on the model II, like {indirect addressing} and the {console} {teletype} changed from a model C to a {Selectric}. Later still, IBM marketed the {IBM 1710}. A favorite use was to tune a FM radio to pick up the "interference" from the lights on the console. With the right delay loops you could generate musical notes. Hackers wrote {interpreters} that played music from notation like "C44". {IBM 1620 console (img:/pub/misc/IBM1620-console.jpg)} 1620 consoles were used as props to represent {Colossus} in the film "The Forbin Project", though most of the machines had been scrapped by the time the film was made. {A fully configured 1620 (}. {IBM 1620 at Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA (/pub/misc/IBM1620-Tuck1960s.jpg)} (Thanks Victor E. McGee, pictured). ["Basic Programming Concepts and the IBM 1620 Computer", Leeson and Dimitry, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962]. (2018-09-11)

Ideological: Pertaining to the school of Condidillac and his French followers of the early 19th century. Pertaining to theories determined by cultural environment or non-rational interests. Idle, unrealistic, fanciful.

II. Early Scholastics (12 cent.) St. Anselm of Canterbury (+1109) did more than anyone else in this early period to codify the spirit of Scholasticism. His motto: credo, ut tntelligam taken from St. Augustine, expressed the organic relation that existed between the supernatural and the natural during the Middle Ages and the interpretative and the directive force which faith had upon reason. In this period a new interest was taken in the problem of the universals. For the first time a clear demarcation was noted between the realistic and the nominalistic solutions to this problem. William of Champeaux (+1121) proposed the former and Roscelin (+c. 1124) the latter. A third solution, concepiualistic in character, was proposed by Abelard (+1142) who finally crystalized the Scholastic method. He was the most subtle dialectician of his age. Two schools of great importance of this period were operating at Chartres and the Parisian Abbey of St. Victor. The first, founded by Fulbert of Chartres in the late tenth century, was characterized by its leanings toward Platonism and distinguished by its humanistic tendencies coupled with a love of the natural sciences. Many of its Greek, Arabian and Jewish sources for studies in natural sciences came from the translations of Constantine the African (+c. 1087) and Adelard of Bath. Worthy to be noted as members of or sympathizers with this school are Bernard and Thierry of Chartres (+c. 1127; c. 1150); William of Conches (+1145) and Bernard Silvestris (+1167). The two most important members of the School were Gilbert de la Poiree (+1154) and John of Salisbury (+1180). The latter was a humanistic scholar of great stylistic skill and calm, balanced judgment. It is from his works, particularly the Metalogicus, that most of our knowledge of this period still derives. Juxtaposed to the dialectic, syllogistic and rationalistic tendencies of this age was a mystical movement, headed by St. Bernard of Clairvaux (+1153). This movement did not oppose itself to dialectics in the uncompromising manner of Peter Damiani, but sought rather to experience and interiorize truth through contemplation and practice. Bernard found a close follower and friend in William of St. Thierry (+1148 or 1153). An attempt to synthesize the mystic and dialectical movements is found in two outstanding members of the Victorine School: Hugh of St. Victor (+1141) who founded its spirit in his omnia disce, videbis postea nihil esse supervuum and Richard of St. Victor (+1173), his disciple, who introduced the a posteriori proof for God's existence into the Scholastic current of thought. Finally, this century gave Scholasticism its principal form of literature which was to remain dominant for some four centuries. While the method came from Abelard and the formulas and content, in great part, from the Didascalion of Hugh of St. Victor, it was Robert of Melun (+1167) and especially Peter the Lombard (+1164) who fashioned the great Summae sententiarum.

India. Intimations of advanced theism, both in a deistic and immanentistic form, are to be found in the Rig Veda. The early Upanishads in general teach variously realistic deism, immanent theism, and, more characteristically, mystical, impersonal idealism, according to which the World Ground (brahman) is identified with the universal soul (atman) which is the inner or essential self within each individual person. The Bhagavad Gita, while mixing pantheism, immanent theism, and deism, inclines towards a personahstic idealism and a corresponding ethics of bhakti (selfless devotion). Jainism is atheistic dualism, with a personalistic recognition of the reality of souls. Many of the schools of Buddhism (see Buddhism) teach idealistic doctrines. Thus a monistic immaterialism and subjectivism (the Absolute is pure consciousness) was expounded by Maitreya, Asanga, and Vasubandhu. The Lankavatarasutra combined monistic, immaterialistic idealism with non-absolutistic nihilism. Subjectivistic, phenomenalistic idealism (the view that there is neither absolute Pure Consciousness nor substantial souls) was taught by the Buddhists Santaraksita and Kamalasila. Examples of modern Vedantic idealism are the Yogavasistha (subjective monistic idealism) and the monistic spiritualism of Gaudapada (duality and plurality are illusion). The most influential Vedantic system is the monistic spiritualism of Sankara. The Absolute is pure indeterminate Being, which can only be described as pure consciousness or bliss. For the different Vedantic doctrines see Vedanta and the references there. Vedantic idealism, whether in its monistic and impersonalistic form, or in that of a more personalistic theism, is the dominant type of metaphysics in modern India. Idealism is also pronounced in the reviving doctrines of Shivaism (which see).

Indian Philosophy: General name designating a plethora of more or less systematic thinking born and cultivated in the geographic region of India among the Hindus who represent an amalgamation of adventitious and indigenous peoples, but confined at first exclusively to the caste-conscious Indo-germanic conquerors of the lands of the Indus and Ganges. Its beginnings are lost in the dim past, while a distinct emergence in tangible form is demonstrable from about 1000 B.C. Hindu idiosyncrasies are responsible for our inability to date with any degree of accuracy many of the systems, schools, and philosophers, or in some cases even to refer to the latter by name. Inasmuch as memory, not writing, has been universally favored in India, an aphoristic form (cf. sutra), subtended by copious commentaries, give Indian Philosophy its distinctive appearance. The medium is Sanskrit and the dialects derived from it. There are translations in all major Asiatic and European languages. The West became familiar with it when philologists discovered during last century the importance of Sanskrit. As a type of thinking employing unfamiliar conceptions and a terminology fluctuating in meaning (cf., e.g., rasa), it is distinct from Western speculations. Several peaks have been reached in the past, yet Indian Philosophy does not cease to act fructifyingly upon the present mind in India as elsewhere. Various factions advance conflicting claims as to the value of Indian speculation, because interpretations have not as yet become standardized. Textual criticism is now making strides, but with varying successes. Among larger histories of Indian Philosophy may be mentioned those of Deussen, Das Gupta, Bel-valkar and Ranade, and Radhakrishnan.

In Scholasticism: Until the revival of Aristotelianism in the 13th century, universals were considered by most of the Schoolmen as real "second substances." This medieval Realism (see Realism), of those who legebant in re, found but little opposition from early Nominalists, legentes in voce, like Roscellin. The latter went to the othei extreme by declaring universal names to be nothing but the breath of the voice -- flatus vocis. Extreme realism as represented by William of Champeaux, crumbled under the attacks of Abelard who taught a modified nominalism, distinguishing, howevei, sharply between the mere word, vox, as a physical phenomenon, and the meaningful word, sermo.. His interests being much more in logic than in ontology, he did not arrive at a definite solution of the problem. Aquinas summarized and synthetisized the ideas of his predecessors by stating that the universal had real existence only as creative idea in God, ante rem, whereas it existed within experienced reality only in the individual things, in re, and as a mental fact when abstracted from the particulars in the human mind, post rem. A view much like this had been proposed previously by Avicenna to whom Aquinas seems to be indebted. Later Middle-Ages saw a rebirth of nominalistic conceptions. The new school of Terminists, as they called themselves, less crude in its ideas than Roscellin, asserted that universals are only class names. Occam is usually considered as the most prominent of the Terminists. To Aquinas, the universal was still more than a mere name; it corresponded to an ontologicil fact; the definition of the universal reproduces the essence of the things. The universals are with Occam indeed natural signs which the mind cannot help forming, whereas the terms are arbitiary, signa ad placitum. But the universal is only a sign and does not correspond to anything ontological. -- R.A.

institution ::: n. --> The act or process of instituting; as: (a) Establishment; foundation; enactment; as, the institution of a school.
Instruction; education.
The act or ceremony of investing a clergyman with the spiritual part of a benefice, by which the care of souls is committed to his charge.
That which instituted or established
Established order, method, or custom; enactment;

International Olympiad in Informatics "event" (IOI) An annual competition in computing science for senior pupils at secondary schools all over the world. {(}. (1996-12-07)

Internet Public Library (IPL) A project at the {University of Michigan} School of Information and Library Studies to provide an on-line, 24 hour public library, chaired by an assemblage of librarians and information industry professionals. The library aims to provide library services to a target audience estimated to number 1/4 of the entire American population by the end of the century. The Internet Public Library is scheduled to go on-line in March 1995. Among the first services will be on-line reference; youth services; user education; and professional services for librarians. {(}. {(telnet://}. Mailing list: (1995-07-20)

Intuitionism (mathematical): The name given to the school (of mathematics) founded by L. E. J. Brouwer (q. v.) and represented also by Hermann Weyl, Hans Freudenthal, Arend Heyting, and others. In some respects a historical forerunner of intuitionism is the mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891). Views related to intuitionism (but usually not including the rejection of the law of excluded middle) have been expressed by many recent or contemporary mathematicians, among whom are J. Richard, Th. Skolem, and the French semi-intuitionists -- as Heyting calls them -- E. Borel, H. Lebesgue, R. Baire, N. Lusin. (Lusin is Russian but has been closely associated with the French school.)

I. Vienna Circle; Logical Positivsm, Logical Empiricism. The Vienna Circle, founded by M. Schlick (q.v.) in 1924, ending with his death in 1936. Among its members: G. Bergmann, R. Carnap (q.v.), H. Feigl, Ph. Frank (q.v.), K. G&oUML;del (q.v.), H. Hahn (d. 1934), O. Neurath, F Waismann. Seen historically, the movement shows influences from three sides   the older empiricism and positivism, especially Hume, Mill, Mach;   methodology of empirical science, as developed by scientists since about the middle of the 19th century, e.g., Helmholtz, Mach, Poincare. Duhem, Boltzmann, Einstein;   symbolic logic and logical analysis of language as developed especially by Frege, Whitehead and Russell, Wittgenstein. Russell (q.v.) was the first to combine these trends and therefore had an especially strong influence. The views developed in the V. C. have been called Logical Positivism (A. E. Blumberg and H. Feigl, J. Phil. 28, 1931); many members now prefer the term "Logical Empiricism". Among the characteristic features: emphasis on scientific attitude and on co-operation, hence emphasis on intersubjective (q.v.) language and unity of science. Empiricism: every knowledge that is factual (see Meaning, Kinds of, 1), is connected with experiences in such a way that verification or direct or indirect confirmation is possible (see Verification).   The emphasis on logical analysis of language (see Semiotic) distinguishes this movement from earlier empiricism and positivism. The task of philosophy is amlysis of knowledge, especially of science; chief method: analysis of the language of science (see Semiotic; Meaning, Kinds of). Publications concerning the historical development of this movement and its chief views: Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung: Der Wiener Kreis, Wien 1929 (with bibliography). O. Neurath, Le Developpement du Cercle de Vienne, et l'Avenir de l'Empirisme Logique, 1935. C. W. Morris, Logical Positivism, Pragmatism, and Scientific Empiricism, Paris 1937. E. Nagel, "Impressions and Appraisals of Analytic Philosophy in Europe", I, II, tic Empiricism in Germany, and the Present State of its Problems. Ibid. E. Nagel, "The Fight for Clarity: Logical Empiricism", Amer. Scholar, 1938. Many papers by members of the group have been published in "Erkenntnis" since 1930, now continued as "Journal of Unified Science".   Compare M. Black, "Relations between Logical Positivism and the Cambridge School of Analysis", J. Un. Sc. 8, 1940. II. Scientific Empiricism. A wider movement, comprising besides Logical Empiricism other groups and individuals with related views in various countries. Also called Unity of Science Movement.

Jhumur: “The light that betrays, it is not the light that comes from the sun, it is the light, the attraction, the force that man follows seeming to enter in another, greater realm but in fact is being pulled down. It comes from the ego, the lust for power, for greater knowledge—very often in certain schools of yoga and certain occult fields there is a sense of light which is not light, but the light of darkness. Darkness takes the shape of light.

John of Salisbury: (c 1115-1180) From the works of this Englishman, much can be learned about the schoolmen of his day for he presents cogent criticism of their views which he characterizes as fruitless. In his Metalogicus he advocates reform in logic. He was among the earliest adherents of absolute separation of church and state, a view which he advanced in Policraticus. He adopted a practical attitude toward knowledge, seeking the rejection of what was useless and contrary to a pious life, even though proof positive could not be advanced for what was found favorable to the true good. -- L.E.D.

Ju chiao: The teachings of the Confucian school, which are based on the Confucian classics with the chief emphasis on ethics and polity. Since the establishment of Confucianism as the state cult in the second century A.D., the term has also been used to designate the traditional system of worship of Shang Ti, ancestors, etc., which the Confucians followed. -- W.T.C.

Ju: Confucianists. Scholars who were versed in the six arts, namely, the rules of propriety, music, archery, charioteering, writing, and mathematics. Priest-teachers in the Chou period (1122-249 B.C.) who clung to the dying culture of Shang (1765-1122 B.C.), observed Shang rules of conduct, became specialists on social decorum and religious rites. --W.T.C. Ju chia: The Confucian School, which "delighted in the study of the six Classics and paid attention to matters concerning benevolence and righteousness. They regarded Yao and Shun (mythological emperors) as founders whose example is to be followed, King Wen (1184-1135 B.C.?) and King Wu (1121-1116 B.C.?) as illustrious examples, and honored Confucius (551-479 B.C.) as the exalted teacher to give authority to their teaching." "As to the forms of proper conduct which they set up for prince and minister, for father and son, or the distinctions they make between husband and wife and between old and young, in these not even the opposition of all other philosophers can make any change."

kevala advaita. ::: the pure non-dualistic school of vedanta of which the great sage Adi Shankara was an adept

kindergarten ::: n. --> A school for young children, conducted on the theory that education should be begun by gratifying and cultivating the normal aptitude for exercise, play, observation, imitation, and construction; -- a name given by Friedrich Froebel, a German educator, who introduced this method of training, in rooms opening on a garden.

lacasterian ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the monitorial system of instruction followed by Joseph Lancaster, of England, in which advanced pupils in a school teach pupils below them.

Lambert, J. H.: (1728-1777) Was one of Kant's correspondents. He was of the Leibniz-Wolffisn school which attempted an eclectic reconciliation between rationalism and empiricism and thus laid a foundation for the later Kantian critical philosophy. As such, he is viewed as an important forerunner of Kant. -- L.E.D.

Law, Chinese School of: See Fa chia and Chinese philosophy. Law of Population: In economics, the tendency of population to encroach upon the means of subsistence. First announced by Malthus (1766-1834), the Law asserts that the increase of unchecked population is in geometric ratio while the increase of the means of subsistence is in arithmetic ratio, so that population must always press upon the limits of the means of subsistence. -- J.K.F.

l"ecole [French] ::: God who has left school.

Legal Philosophy: Deals with the philosophic principles of law and justice. The origin is to be found in ancient philosophy. The Greek Sophists criticized existing laws and customs by questioning their validity: All human rules are artificial, created by enactment or convention, as opposed to natural law, based on nature. The theory of a law of nature was further developed by Aristotle and the Stoics. According to the Stoics the natural law is based upon the eternal law of the universe; this itself is an outgrowth of universal reason, as man's mind is an offshoot of the latter. The idea of a law of nature as being innate in man was particularly stressed and popularized by Cicero who identified it with "right reason" and already contrasted it with written law that might be unjust or even tyrannical. Through Saint Augustine these ideas were transmitted to medieval philosophy and by Thomas Aquinas built into his philosophical system. Thomas considers the eternal law the reason existing in the divine mind and controlling the universe. Natural law, innate in man participates in that eternal law. A new impetus was given to Legal Philosophy by the Renaissance. Natural Jurisprudence, properly so-called, originated in the XVII. century. Hugo Grotius, Thomas Hobbes, Benedictus Spinoza, John Locke, Samuel Pufendorf were the most important representatives of that line of thought. Grotius, continuing the Scholastic tradition, particularly stressed the absoluteness of natural hw (it would exist even if God did not exist) and, following Jean Bodin, the sovereignty of the people. The idea of the social contract traced all political bodies back to a voluntary compact by which every individual gave up his right to self-government, or rather transferred it to the government, abandoning a state of nature which according to Hobbes must have been a state of perpetual war. The theory of the social compact more and more accepts the character of a "fiction" or of a regulative idea (Kant). In this sense the theory means that we ought to judge acts of government by their correspondence to the general will (Rousseau) and to the interests of the individuals who by transferring their rights to the commonwealth intended to establish their real liberty. Natural law by putting the emphasis on natural rights, takes on a revolutionary character. It played a part in shaping the bills of rights, the constitutions of the American colonies and of the Union, as well as of the French declaration of the rights of men and of citizens. Natural jurisprudence in the teachings of Christian Wolff and Thomasius undergoes a kind of petrification in the vain attempt to outline an elaborate system of natural law not only in the field of international or public law, but also in the detailed regulations of the law of property, of contract, etc. This sort of dogmatic approach towards the problems of law evoked the opposition of the Historic School (Gustav Hugo and Savigny) which stressed the natural growth of laws ind customs, originating from the mysterious "spirit of the people". On the other hand Immanuel Kant tried to overcome the old natural law by the idea of a "law of reason", meaning an a priori element in all existing or positive law. In his definition of law ("the ensemble of conditions according to which everyone's will may coexist with the will of every other in accordance with a general rule of liberty"), however, as in his legal philosophy in general, he still shares the attitude of the natural law doctrine, confusing positive law with the idea of just law. This is also true of Hegel whose panlogism seemed to lead in this very direction. Under the influence of epistemological positivism (Comte, Mill) in the later half of the nineteenth century, legal philosophy, especially in Germany, confined itself to a "general theory of law". Similarily John Austin in England considered philosophy of law concerned only with positive law, "as it necessarily is", not as it ought to be. Its main task was to analyze certain notions which pervade the science of law (Analytical Jurisprudence). In recent times the same tendency to reduce legal philosophy to logical or at least methodological tasks was further developed in attempting a pure science of law (Kelsen, Roguin). Owing to the influence of Darwinism and natural science in general the evolutionist and biological viewpoint was accepted in legal philosophy: comparative jurisprudence, sociology of law, the Freirecht movement in Germany, the study of the living law, "Realism" in American legal philosophy, all represent a tendency against rationalism. On the other hand there is a revival of older tendencies: Hegelianism, natural law -- especially in Catholic philosophy -- and Kantianism (beginning with Rudolf Stammler). From here other trends arose: the critical attitude leads to relativism (f.i. Gustav Radbruch); the antimetaphysical tendency towards positivism -- though different from epistemological positivism -- and to a pure theory of law. Different schools of recent philosophy have found their applications or repercussions in legal philosophy: Phenomenology, for example, tried to intuit the essences of legal institutions, thus coming back to a formalist position, not too far from the real meaning of analytical jurisprudence. Neo-positivism, though so far not yet explicitly applied to legal philosophy, seems to lead in the same direction. -- W.E.

Leucippus: (a. 450 B.C.) A contemporary of Empedocles and Anaxagoras and founder of the School of Abdera, developed the fruitful principle that all qualitative differences in nature may be reduced to quantitative ones. Thus Leucippus breaks up the homogeneous "Being" of Parmenides into an infinity of equally homogeneous parts or atoms and he distributes these, in an infinite variety of forms, through infinite space. These small particles of "Being" are separated from one another by that which is not-Being, i.e. by empty space. "Becoming", or the coming into being of things, is essentially the result of the motion of these atoms in space and their accidental coming together. -- M.F.

Light above, others as an infinite ocean i of Power above. If certain schools of Buddhists felt it in their experience as a limit- less Siinya, the Vedantists ou the contrary sec it as a positive

Li hsueh: The Rational Philosophy or the Reason School of the Sung dynasty (960-1279) which insisted on Reason or Law (li) as the basis of reality, including such philosophers as Chou Lien-hsi (1017-1073), Shao K'ang-chieh (1011-1077), Chang Heng-ch'u (1020-1077), Ch'eng I-ch'uan (1033-1107), Ch'eng Ming-tao (1032-1086), Chu Hsi (1130-1200), and Lu Hsiang-shan (1139-1193). It is also called Hsing-li Hsueh (Philosophy of the Nature and Reason) and Sung Hsueh (Philosophy of the Sung Dynasty). Often the term includes the idealistic philosophy of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), including Wang Yang-ming (1473-1529), sometimes called Hsin Hsueh (Philosophy of Mind). Often it also includes the philosophy of the Ch'ing dynasty (1644-1911), called Tao Hsueh, including such philosophers as Yen Hsi-chai (1635-1704) and Tai Tung-yuan (1723-1777). For a summary of the Rational Philosophy, see Chinese philosophy. For its philosophy of Reason (li), vital force (ch'i), the Great Ultimate (T'ai Chi), the passive and active principles (yin yang), the nature of man and things (hsing), the investigation of things to the utmost (ch'iung li), the extension of knowledge (chih chih), and its ethics of true manhood or love (jen), seriousness (ching) and sincerity (ch'eng), see articles on these topics. -- W.T.C.

literator ::: n. --> One who teaches the letters or elements of knowledge; a petty schoolmaster.
A person devoted to the study of literary trifles, esp. trifles belonging to the literature of a former age.
A learned person; a literatus.

Lu Hsiang-shan: (Lu Chiu-yiian, Lu Tzu-ching, 1139-1192) Questioned Ch'eng I-ch'uan's interpretation of Confucianism when very young, later often argued with Chu Hsi, and claimed that "the six (Confucian) classics are my footnotes." This official-scholar served as transition from the Reason School (li hsueh) of Neo-Confucianism to the Mind School (hsin hsueh) of Neo-Confucianism. His complete works, Lu Hsiang-shan Ch'uan-chi, number 36 chuans in four volumes. -- W.T.C.

Lutheranism: An ecclesiastical school of thought claiming Martin Luther (1483-1546) as its source and inspiration. See Reformation. The Protestant doctrine of salvation by faith, the free grace of God, wholly without earned merit and institutional sanctions, is emphasized. The essence of the church-community is held to revolve about the pure, revealed Word of God and the sacraments of baptism and communion. Varieties of Lutheranism range from a liberal acknowledgment of the Augsburg Confession of 1530 to a more strict adherence to the several Lutheran documents collectively known as the Book of Concord. -- V.F.

lyceum ::: n. --> A place of exercise with covered walks, in the suburbs of Athens, where Aristotle taught philosophy.
A house or apartment appropriated to instruction by lectures or disquisitions.
A higher school, in Europe, which prepares youths for the university.
An association for debate and literary improvement.

Madhyamaka: Another name for the Buddhist school of Sunyavada (s.v.), so-called because it assumes a middle path (madhyama) between theories clinging to the knowableness of the noumenal and the sufficiency of the phenomenal. -- K.F.L.

madhyamika (Buddhists) ::: [the name of a school of Buddhists].

Main works: Sense and Beauty, 1896; Interpret. of Poetry and Religion, 1900; Life of Reason, 5 vols , 1905-6 (Reason in Common Sense, Reason in Society, Reason in Religion, Reason in Art, Reason in Science); Winds of Doctrine, 1913; Egotism in German Philosophy, 1915; Character and Opinion in the U. S., 1920; Skepticism and Animal Faith, 1923; Realms of Being, 4 vols., 1927-40 (Realm of Essence, Realm of Matter, Realm of Truth, Realm of Spirit). -- B.A.G.F. Sarva-darsana-sangraha: (Skr.) A work by Madhvavacarya, professing to be a collection (sangraha) of all (sarva) philosophic views (darsana) or schools. It includes systems which acknowledge and others which reject Vedic (s.v.) authority, such as the Carvaka, Buddhist and Jaina schools (which see). -- K.F.L.

Malebranche. Nicolas: (1638-1715) Was bom in Paris and, on his maturity, embraced the doctrines of the Cartesian school. Like Geulincx, he was particularly interested in the problem of mind-body relation which he interpreted in the spirit of occasionalism. Believing that the mind and body cannot possibly interact, he concluded that God enacts bodily movements "on occasion" of corresponding mental processes. In general, he believed that God works in all things and is the only real cause of events. -- R.B.W.

manege ::: n. --> Art of horsemanship, or of training horses.
A school for teaching horsemanship, and for training horses.

Many-valued logic: See propositional calculus, many-valued. Marburg School: Founded by Herman Cohen (1842-1918) and Paul Natorp (1854-1924) and supported by Ernst Cassirer (1874-), the noteworthy historian of philosophy, and Rudolf Stammler (1856-1938), the eminent legal philosopher, the school revived a specialized tendency of critical idealism. Stress is laid on the a priori, non-empirical, non-psychological and purely logical of every certain knowledge. Cohen and Natorp register an emphatic opposition to psychologism, and sought to construct a system upon pure thought on the basis of Kant and the Kantian reconstruction of Platonism. The logical and a priori in aesthetics, ethics, psychology and law is, being also independent of experience, the essential basis of these fields. Cf. Natorp, Kant u.d. Marburger Schule, 1915. -- H.H.

Marcus Aurelius: (121-180 A.D.) The Roman Emperor who as a Stoic endowed chairs in Athens for the four great philosophical schools of the Academy, the Lyceum, The Garden and the Stoa. Aurelius' Stoicism, tempered by his friend Fronto's humanism, held to a rational world-order and providence as well as to a notion of probable truth rather than of the Stoic infallibilism. In the famous 12 books of Meditations, the view is prominent that death was as natural as birth and development was the end of the individual and should elicit the fear of no one. His harsh treatment of the Christians did not coincide with his mild nature which may have reflected the changed character of Stoicism brought on by the decadence of Rome.

Marx, Karl: Was born May 5, 1818 in Trier (Treves), Germany, and was educated at the Universities of Bonn and Berlin. He received the doctorate in philosophy at Berlin in 1841, writing on The Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Natural Philosophy, which theme he treated from the Hegelian point of view. Marx early became a Left Hegelian, then a Feuerbachian. In 1842-43 he edited the "Rheinische Zeitung," a Cologne daily of radical tendencies. In 1844, in Paris, Marx, now calling himself a communist, became a leading spirit in radical groups and a close friend of Friedrich Engels (q.v.). In 1844 he wrote articles for the "Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher," in 1845 the Theses on Feuerbach and, together with Engels, Die Heilige Familie. In 1846, another joint work with Engels and Moses Hess, Die Deutsche Ideologie was completed (not published until 1932). 1845-47, Marx wrote for various papers including "Deutsche Brüsseler Zeitung," "Westphälisches Dampfbot," "Gesellschaftsspiegel" (Elberfeld), "La Reforme" (Paris). In 1847 he wrote (in French) Misere de la Philosophie, a reply to Proudhon's Systeme des Contradictions: econotniques, ou, Philosophie de la Misere. In 1848 he wrote, jointly with Engels, the "Manifesto of the Communist Party", delivered his "Discourse on Free Trade" in Brussels and began work on the "Neue Rheinische Zeitung" which, however, was suppressed like its predecessor and also its successor, the "Neue Rheinische Revue" (1850). For the latter Marx wrote the essays later published in book form as Class Struggles in France. In 1851 Marx did articles on foreign affairs for the "New York Tribune", published The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte and the pamphlet "Enthülungen über den Kommunistenprozess in Köln." In 1859 Marx published Zur Kritik der politischen Okonomie, the foundation of "Das Kapital", in 1860, "Herr Vogt" and in 1867 the first volume of Das Kapital. In 1871 the "Manifesto of the General Council of the International Workingmen's Association on the Paris Commune," later published as The Civil War in France and as The Paris Commune was written. In 1873 there appeared a pamphlet against Bakunin and in 1875 the critical comment on the "Gotha Program." The publication of the second volume of Capital dates from 1885, two years after Marx's death, the third volume from 1894, both edited by Engels. The essay "Value Price and Profit" is also posthumous, edited by his daughter Eleanor Marx Aveling. The most extensive collection of Marx's work is to be found in the Marx-Engels Gesamtausgabe. It is said by the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute (Moscow) that the as yet unpublished work of Marx, including materials of exceptional theoretical significance, is equal in bulk to the published work. Marx devoted a great deal of time to practical political activity and the labor movement, taking a leading role in the founding and subsequent guiding of the International Workingmen's Association, The First International. He lived the life of a political refugee in Paris, Brussels and finally London, where he remained for more than thirty years until he died March 14, 1883. He had seven children and at times experienced the severest want. Engels was a partial supporter of the Marx household for the better part of twenty years. Marx, together with Engels, was the founder of the school of philosophy known as dialectical materialism (q.v.). In the writings of Marx and Engels this position appears in a relatively general form. While statements are made within all fields of philosophy, there is no systematic elaboration of doctrine in such fields as ethics, aesthetics or epistemology, although a methodology and a basis are laid down. The fields developed in most detail by Marx, besides economic theory, are social and political philosophy (see Historical materialism, and entry, Dialectical materialism) and, together with Engels, logical and ontological aspects of materialist dialectics. -- J.M.S.

masora ::: n. --> A Jewish critical work on the text of the Hebrew Scriptures, composed by several learned rabbis of the school of Tiberias, in the eighth and ninth centuries.

matron ::: n. --> A wife or a widow, especially, one who has borne children; a woman of staid or motherly manners.
A housekeeper; esp., a woman who manages the domestic economy of a public instution; a head nurse in a hospital; as, the matron of a school or hospital.

Matter, prime: (Scholastic) Though the notion of prime matter or hyle is not unknown to the Schoolmen previous to the 13th century, a consistent philosophical view has been developed only after the revival of Aristotelian philosophy. In accordance with the Stagirite, Aquinas considers prime matter as pure potentiality, lacking all positive characteristics. Matter becomes the principle of individuation; by being united to matter, the form is "contracted", that is narrowed from its universal and specific being to existence in a particular. Consequently, individuality is denied to the Angels who are free of matter, subsistent forms; every angel is a species of his own. The individuating principle is, however, not prime matter as such but materia signata quantitate; this means that a still indefinite relation to quantity is added. What is now commonly called matter is defined by Aquinas as materia secunda; the material thing owes its existence to the information of prime matter by a substantial form. -- R.A.

methodical ::: a. --> Arranged with regard to method; disposed in a suitable manner, or in a manner to illustrate a subject, or to facilitate practical observation; as, the methodical arrangement of arguments; a methodical treatise.
Proceeding with regard to method; systematic.
Of or pertaining to the ancient school of physicians called methodists.

methodist ::: n. --> One who observes method.
One of an ancient school of physicians who rejected observation and founded their practice on reasoning and theory.
One of a sect of Christians, the outgrowth of a small association called the "Holy Club," formed at Oxford University, A.D. 1729, of which the most conspicuous members were John Wesley and his brother Charles; -- originally so called from the methodical strictness of members of the club in all religious duties.

Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems "company" (MITS) The company which made the {Altair 8800} {micrcomputer} kit. They also made instrumentation kits for model rockets and RC vehicles. Ed Roberts owned MITS for a few years until he sold out, moved to Georgia, and went to med school. Address: Albuquerque NM, USA. (2002-06-17)

Microsoft Corporation "company" The biggest supplier of {operating systems} and other software for {IBM PC} compatibles. Software products include {MS-DOS}, {Microsoft Windows}, {Windows NT}, {Microsoft Access}, {LAN Manager}, {MS Client}, {SQL Server}, {Open Data Base Connectivity} (ODBC), {MS Mail}, and {SNA Server} for Windows NT. Microsoft was founded as "Micro-soft" in 1975 by {Bill Gates} (now CEO) and his high school pal Paul Allen. Their first product was a version of {BASIC} for the new {Altair} computer [which one?]. In 1980, {IBM} chose Microsoft to supply the {operating system} for the {IBM PC}. On the UK television program "The Net" in May 1994, {Bill Gates} said he was betting his company on the {information highway}". Quarterly sales $1293M, profits $362M (Aug 1994). {(}. {(}. {Interesting Info and Other Microsoft WWW Servers (}. {Microsoft Windows Developer Information (}. {Microsoft Research Group Information (}. {Win_News (}. maintained by the Personal Operating Systems Division to distribute information on {Microsoft Windows}, {MS-DOS} and {Windows 95}. (1998-11-06)

middler ::: n. --> One of a middle or intermediate class in some schools and seminaries.

Mill, James: (1773-1836) Father of John Stuart Mill and close associate of Jeremy Bentham as a member of the Utilitarian School of Philosophy. His chief original contributions were in the field of psychology where he advanced an associational view and he is likewise remembered for his History of India. See Utilitarianism.

mimamsa. ::: "investigation"; an orthodox school of hindu philosophy whose primary enquiry is into the nature of dharma based on close hermeneutics of the Vedas &

Ming chia: Sophists or Dialecticians, also called hsing-ming chia, including Teng Hsi Tzu (545-501 B.C.?), Hui Shih (390-305 B.C.?), and Kung-sun Lung (between 400 and 250 B.C.), at first insisted on the correspondence between name and reality. The school later became a school of pure sophistry which Chuang Tzu and the Neo-Mohists strongly attacked. See Chien pai. -- W.T.C Ming (dynasty) philosophy: See Li hsueh and Chinese philosophy. Ming te: (a) Illustrious virtue; perfect virtue. (Early Confucianism.) (b) Man's clear character; the virtuous nature which man derives from Heaven. (Neo-Confucianism.) -- W.T.C.

mistress ::: n. --> A woman having power, authority, or ownership; a woman who exercises authority, is chief, etc.; the female head of a family, a school, etc.
A woman well skilled in anything, or having the mastery over it.
A woman regarded with love and devotion; she who has command over one&

M. Lombard, Peter: (c. 1100-c. 1160) Was the author of the Four Books of Sentences, i.e. a compilation of the opinions of the Fathers and early teachers of the Catholic Church concerning various points in theology. He was born at Lumello in Lombardy, studied at Bologna, Rheims and the School of St. Victor in Paris. He was made Bishop of Paris in 1159. The Libri IV Sententiarum was used as a textbook in Catholic theology for more than two centuries, hence it has been commented by all the great theologians of the 13th and I4th centuries. The Franciscans of Quaracchi have published a critical edition in 2 vols. (Quaracchi, 1916). -- V. J.

Mo che: Neo-Mohists, followers of Mo Tzu in the third century B.C., probably organized as a religious or fraternal order, who continued the utilitarian humanism of Mo Tzu wrote the Mo Ching (Mohist Canons) which now form part of Mo Tzu; developed the seven methods of argumentation, namely, the methods of possibility, hypothesis, imitation, comparison, parallel, analogy, and induction; discovered the "method of agreement," which includes "identity, generic relationship, co-existence, and partial resemblance," the "method of difference," which includes "duality, absence of generic relationship, separateness, and dissimilarity," and the "joint method of differences and similarities;" refuted the Sophists (pien che) theory of distinction of quality and substance; and became the outstanding logical school in Chinese philosophy. -- W.T.C.

Mo chia: The School of Mo Tzu (Moh Tzu, Mo Ti, between 500 and 396 B.C.) and his followers. This utilitarian and scientific minded philosopher, whose doctrines are embodied in Mo Tzu, advocated: "benefit" (li), or the promotion of general welfare and removal of evil, through the increase of population and of benevolence and righteousness toward this practical objective, the elimination of war, and the suppression of wasteful musical events and elaborate funerals; "universal love" (chien ai), or treating others, their families, and their countries as one's own, to the end that the greatest amount of benefit will be realized; agreement with the superiors (shang t'ung); a method of reasoning which involves a foundation, a survey, and application (san piao); the belief in Heaven and the spirits both as a religious sanction of governmental measures and as an effective way of promotion of peace and welfare. For the development of his teachings by his followers, see Mo che. -- W.T.C.

monitorial ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to a monitor or monitors.
Done or performed by a monitor; as, monitorial work; conducted or taught by monitors; as, a monitorial school; monitorial instruction.

monitor ::: n. --> One who admonishes; one who warns of faults, informs of duty, or gives advice and instruction by way of reproof or caution.
Hence, specifically, a pupil selected to look to the school in the absence of the instructor, to notice the absence or faults of the scholars, or to instruct a division or class.
Any large Old World lizard of the genus Varanus; esp., the Egyptian species (V. Niloticus), which is useful because it devours the eggs and young of the crocodile. It is sometimes five or six feet long.

monogenetic ::: a. --> One in genesis; resulting from one process of formation; -- used of a mountain range.
Relating to, or involving, monogenesis; as, the monogenetic school of physiologists, who admit but one cell as the source of all beings.

montem ::: n. --> A custom, formerly practiced by the scholars at Eton school, England, of going every third year, on Whittuesday, to a hillock near the Bath road, and exacting money from all passers-by, to support at the university the senior scholar of the school.

Moral Sense School, The: The phrase refers primarily to a few British moralists of the late 17th and early 18th centuries, notably Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, who held the organ of ethical insight to be, not reason, but a special "moral sense," akin to feeling in nature. -- W.K.F.

Nativism: Theory that mind has elements of knowledge not derived from sensation. Similar to the common sense theory of T. Reid (1710-1796) and the Scotch School. Introduced as a term by Helmholtz (1821-1894) for the doctrine that there are inherited items in human knowledge which are, therefore, in each and every individual independently of his experience. The doctrine of innate ideas. Opposed to: radical empiricism. See Transcendentalism. -- J.K.F.

Natural Realism: In epistemology, the doctrine that sensation and perception can be relied upon to give indubitable evidence of the real existence of the external world. Theory that realism is part of the inherent common sense of mankind. First advanced by T. Reid (1710-1796) and held by his followers of the Scotch school. Also known as the comrnon-sense philosophy. See Realism. -- J.K.F.

Neo-Confucianism developed in three phases, namely the Reason school in the Sung period (960-1279), the Mind school in the Ming period (1388-1644) and the Moral-Law school in the Ch-ing period (1644-1911). The central idea of the movement is focused on the Great Ultimate (T'ai Chi) and Reason (li). The Great Ultimate moves and generates the active principle, yang, when its activity reaches its limit, and engenders the passive principle, yin, when it becomes tranquil. The eternal oscillation of yin and yang gives rise to the material universe through their Five Agents of Water, Fire, Wood, Metal and Earth. Thus, reality is a progressively evolved and a well-coordinated system.

Neo-Idealism: Primarily a name given unofficially to the Italian school of neo-Hegelianism headed by Benedetto Croce and Giovanni Gentile, founded on a basic distinction that it proposes between two kinds of "concrete universals" (s.v.). In addition to the Hegelian concrete universal, conceived as a dialectical synthesis of two abstract opposltes, is posited a second type in which the component elements are "concretes" rather than dialectical abstracts, i.e. possess relative mutual independence and lack the characteristic of logical opposition. The living forms of Mind, both theoretical and practical, are universal in this latter sense. This implies that fine art, utility, and ethics do not comprise a dialectical series with philosophy at their head, i.e. they are not inferior forms of metaphysics. Thus neo-Idealism rejects Hegel's panlogism. It also repudiates his doctrine of the relative independence of Nature, the timeless transcendence of the Absolute with respect to the historical process, and the view that at any point of history a logically final embodiment of the Absolute Idea is achieved. -- W.L.

Neo-Mohism: Sec Mo che and Chinese philosophy. Neo-Platonism: New Platonism, i.e. a school of philosophy established perhaps by Ammonius Saccus in the second century A.D., in Alexandria, ending as a formal school with Proclus in the fifth century. See Plotinism. -- V.J.B.

neoplatonism ::: n. --> A pantheistic eclectic school of philosophy, of which Plotinus was the chief (A. D. 205-270), and which sought to reconcile the Platonic and Aristotelian systems with Oriental theosophy. It tended to mysticism and theurgy, and was the last product of Greek philosophy.

neoplatonist ::: n. --> One who held to Neoplatonism; a member of the Neoplatonic school.

Neo-Pythagoreanism: A school of thought initiated in Alexandria, according to Cicero, by Nigidius Figulus, a Roman philosopher who died in 45 B.C. It was compounded of traditional Pythagorean teachings, various Platonic, Aristotelian and Stoic doctrines, including some mystical and theosophical elements. -- J.J.R.

New Academy: Name commonly given to what is also called the Third Academy, started by Carneades (214-129 B.C.) who substituted a theory of probability for the principle of doubt which had been introduced into Plato's School by Arcesilaus, the originator of the Second or Middle Academy. The Academy later veered toward eclecticism and eventually was merged with Neo-Platonism. -- J.J.R.

newbie "jargon" /n[y]oo'bee/ (Sometimes shorted to "noob") Originally from British public-school and military slang variant of "new boy", an inexperienced user. This term surfaced in the {newsgroup} {news:talk.bizarre} but is now in wide use. Criteria for being considered a newbie vary wildly; a person can be called a newbie in one group while remaining a respected regular in another. The label "newbie" is sometimes applied as a serious insult to a person who has been around for a long time but who carefully hides all evidence of having a clue. See {BIFF}. [{Jargon File}] (2007-08-02)

New Realism: A school of thought which dates from the beginning of the twentieth century. It began as a movement of reaction against the wide influence of idealistic metaphysics. Whereas the idealists reduce everything to mind, this school reduced mind to everything. For the New Realists Nature is basic and mind is part and parcel of it. How nature was conceived (whether materialistic, neutralistic, etc.) was not the important factor. New Realists differed here among themselves. Their theory of knowledge was strictly monistic, the subject and object are one since there is no fundamental dualism. Two schools of New Realists are recognized:

New York University (NYU) Established in 1831, New York University today includes thirteen schools, colleges and divisions located in New York City's borough of Manhattan, as well as research centers and programs in the surrounding suburbs and abroad. {(}.

Nicolai, Friedrich: (1733-1811) Was one of the followers of Leibniz-Wolffian school which developed an eclectic reconciliation of rationalism and empiricism in a popular form that served to lay a foundation for the Kantian critical philosophy. -- L.E.D Nicomachus: Of Gerasa in Arabia, a Neo-Py-thagorean (q.v.) philosopher of the second century. -- M.F.

nomenclature ::: n. --> A name.
A vocabulary, dictionary, or glossary.
The technical names used in any particular branch of science or art, or by any school or individual; as, the nomenclature of botany or of chemistry; the nomenclature of Lavoisier and his associates.

Nominalism: critical and skeptical, this is the largest and most influential school of the period. Important members are, first, Occam's pupils Adam Wodham (+1358), Walter Chatton, and Robert Holcot (+1349), then come Gregory of Rimini (+1358), John of Mirecourt, Nicholas of Autrecourt, a medieval Hume, John Buridan (+c. 1360) and Nicholas of Oresme (+1382), two forerunners of modern physics and astronomy, Albert of Sachsen (+1390), first Rector of University of Vienna, Peter d'Ailly (+1420), John Gerson (+1429), Marsilius of Inghen (+1396), first Rector of Heidelberg, and Gabriel Biel (+1495), who introduced Luther to Occamism.

Nor is there singing school but studying

"Nothing can be more remarkable and suggestive than the extent to which modern Science confirms in the domain of Matter the conceptions and even the very formulae of language which were arrived at, by a very different method, in the Vedanta, — the original Vedanta, not of the schools of metaphysical philosophy, but of the Upanishads. And these, on the other hand, often reveal their full significance, their richer contents only when they are viewed in the new light shed by the discoveries of modern Science, — for instance, that Vedantic expression which describes things in the Cosmos as one seed arranged by the universal Energy in multitudinous forms.(1) Significant, especially, is the drive of Science towards a Monism which is consistent with multiplicity, towards the Vedic idea of the one essence with its many becomings.” The Life Divine

“Nothing can be more remarkable and suggestive than the extent to which modern Science confirms in the domain of Matter the conceptions and even the very formulae of language which were arrived at, by a very different method, in the Vedanta,—the original Vedanta, not of the schools of metaphysical philosophy, but of the Upanishads. And these, on the other hand, often reveal their full significance, their richer contents only when they are viewed in the new light shed by the discoveries of modern Science,—for instance, that Vedantic expression which describes things in the Cosmos as one seed arranged by the universal Energy in multitudinous forms.(1) Significant, especially, is the drive of Science towards a Monism which is consistent with multiplicity, towards the Vedic idea of the one essence with its many becomings.” The Life Divine

NSA line eater "messaging, tool" The National Security Agency trawling program sometimes assumed to be reading the net for the US Government's spooks. Most hackers describe it as a mythical beast, but some believe it actually exists, more aren't sure, and many believe in acting as though it exists just in case. Some netters put loaded phrases like "KGB", "Uzi", "nuclear materials", "Palestine", "cocaine", and "assassination" in their {sig blocks} to confuse and overload the creature. The {GNU} version of {Emacs} actually has a command that randomly inserts a bunch of insidious anarcho-verbiage into your edited text. There is a mainstream variant of this myth involving a "Trunk Line Monitor", which supposedly used speech recognition to extract words from telephone trunks. This one was making the rounds in the late 1970s, spread by people who had no idea of then-current technology or the storage, {signal-processing}, or {speech recognition} needs of such a project. On the basis of mass-storage costs alone it would have been cheaper to hire 50 high-school students and just let them listen in. Speech-recognition technology can't do this job even now (1993), and almost certainly won't in this millennium, either. The peak of silliness came with a letter to an alternative paper in New Haven, Connecticut, laying out the factoids of this Big Brotherly affair. The letter writer then revealed his actual agenda by offering - at an amazing low price, just this once, we take VISA and MasterCard - a scrambler guaranteed to daunt the Trunk Trawler and presumably allowing the would-be Baader-Meinhof gangs of the world to get on with their business. [{Jargon File}] (1994-12-13)

nursery school ::: a school for children usually between the ages of three and five years.

occasionalism ::: n. --> The system of occasional causes; -- a name given to certain theories of the Cartesian school of philosophers, as to the intervention of the First Cause, by which they account for the apparent reciprocal action of the soul and the body.

Oeuvres completes, ed. C. Adam et P. Tannery, 13 vols. (Paris, 1896-1911). The Philos. Works of Descartes, transl. by Haldane and Ross, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1911-12). Fischer, K., Descartes and his School (London, 1887). Gilson, E., Le role de la pensee medievale dans la formation du systeme cartesien (Paris, 1930). Maritain, J., Le songe de Descartes (Paris, 1932). Gemelli, A. (ed.), Cartesio (symposium) (Milan, 1937). -- V.J.B.

Open University "education, body" (OU) The UK distance-learning organisation, established in 1969. It teaches degree-level courses in many subjects via BBC radio and television broadcasts and summer schools. {(}. (1999-07-13)

Pai chia: The "Hundred Schools," referring to the various tendencies of thought in philosophy, logic, ethics, law, politics, diplomacy, economics, agriculture, military science, etc, in the third and fourth centuries B.C. with Chi Hsia as a center. -- W.T.C.

palestra ::: n. --> A wrestling school; hence, a gymnasium, or place for athletic exercise in general.
A wrestling; the exercise of wrestling.

Paley, William: (1743-1805) Was an English churchman well known for a number of works in theology. He is also widely remembered in the field of ethics. His Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy passed through many editions and served as a text book at Cambridge for many years. As an advocate of the doctrine of expediency, he gave impetus to the later Utilitarian School. He maintained that the beneficial tendency is what makes an action right. See Utilitarianism. Cf W. Paley, Horae Paulinae, 1790; View of the Evidences of Christianity, 1794; Natural Theology, 1802. -- L.E.D.

Paracelsus, Theophrastus Bombast: (1493-1541) Of Hohenheim, was a physician who endeavored to use philosophy as one of the "pillars" of medical science. His philosophy is a weird combination of Neo-Platonism, experimentalism, and superstitious magic. He rejected much of the traditional theory of Galen and the Arab physicians. His works (Labyrinthus, Opus paramirum, Die grosse Wundarznei, De natura rerum) were written in Swiss-German, translated into Latin by his followers, recent investigators make no attempt to distinguish his personal thought from that of his school. Thorndyke, L., Hist. of Magic and Experimental Science (N. Y., 1941), V, 615-651. -- V.J.B.

Parallel with these developments was the growth of Buddhism in China, a story too long to relate here. Many Buddhist doctrines, latent in India, were developed in China. The nihilism of Madhyamika (Sun-lan, c. 450-c. 1000) to the effect that reality is Void in the sense of being "devoid" of any specific character, was brought to fullness, while the idealism of Vijnaptimatravada (Yogacara, Fahsiang, 563-c. 1000), which claimed that reality in its imaginary, dependent and absolute aspects is "representation-only," was pushed to the extreme. But these philosophies failed because their extreme positions were not consonant with the Chinese Ideal of the golden mean. In the meantime, China developed her own Buddhist philosophy consistent with her general philosophical outlook. We need only mention the Hua-yen school (Avatamisaka, 508) which offered a totalistic philosophy of "all in one" and "one in all," the T'ien-t'ai school (c. 550) which believes in the identity of the Void, Transitoriness, and the Mean, and in the "immanence of 3,000 worlds in one moment of thought," and the Chin-t'u school (Pure Land, c. 500) which bases its doctrine of salvation by faith and salvation for all on the philosophy of the universality of Buddha-nature. These schools have persisted because they accepted both noumenon and phenomenon, both ens and non-ens, and this "both-and" spirit is predominantly characteristic of Chinese philosophy.

Parmenides: 6th-5th century B.C., head of the Eleatic School of Greek Philosophy, developed the conception of "Being" in opposition to the "Becoming" of Heraclitus. To think at all we must postulate something which is, that which is not cannot be thought, and cannot be. Thought without being or being without thought are impossible, and the two are therefore identical. At the same time the "Being" of Parmenides is that which fills space, non-being is empty space Empty space therefore cannot be, and if empty space or the "Void" cannot be then the plurality of individual things is equally not real since this results from the motion of the "full" in the "void". There is thus for Parmenides only one "Being" without inner differentiation; this alone really is, while the particularity of individual things is appearance, illusion. Homogeneous and unchangeable "Being" is the only reality. -- M.F.

pedagogue ::: n. --> A slave who led his master&

pedant ::: n. --> A schoolmaster; a pedagogue.
One who puts on an air of learning; one who makes a vain display of learning; a pretender to superior knowledge.

Pharisaism: The most characteristic type of Palestinian Judaism at the time of Christ. This group is to be thought of as the remnant of the traditional culture of the ancient Hebrews. Scorched by the memory of the long struggle between their fathers' and other cultures which resulted in the unhappy Captivity, these descendants took on a more militant nationalism and a more rigid loyalty to traditional customs, teaching their children in schools of their own (the Synagogue) the religion of the ancient sacred covenant. Since their ways separated sharply from their brethren in the dispersion and from the less nationalistic minded at home they acquired the party name (from the second century B.C.) "Pharisees." Their leaders were devout students of the written and oral traditions which they regarded as the Divine Will (Torah). To this tradition they added detailed codes of rigorous religious living. Popular among the masses they were comparatively few in number although powerful in influence. Pharisaism was a book-centered religion, strongly monotheistic, intensely legalistic, teaching a national and social gospel of redemption by an expectant supernatural visitation. The term "Pharisaic" unfortunately has acquired a sinister meaning, probably due to certain N.T. statements linking Pharisees with hypocrites. R. T. Herford in his Pharisaism (1912) and The Pharisees (1924) has shown thit this religious party was preeminently spiritually minded even though legalistic and not sufficiently understood by Christian traditionalists. -- V.F.

Philosopher, The: Generally used name for Aristotle by medieval authors after the "reception of Aristotle" from the early 13th century onwards. In earlier writers the name may refer to any head of a school, e.g. to Abelard in the writings of his pupils. -- R.A.

Philosophes: French 18th century philosophers, e.g. Condorcet, Condillac, Rousseau, Voltaire (q.v.). Philosopher King: In Plato's theory of the ideal state rulership would be entrusted to philosopher kings. These rulers would reach the top by sheer talent and merit after a long period of training in the school of everyday work and leadership and by a prescribed pattern of formal discipline and study. The final test of leadership lay in the ability to see the truth of the Platonic vision of a reality governed by universal ideas and ideals. -- V.F.

Philosophic speculations, heavily shrouded by "pre-logical" and symbolic language, started with the poetic, ritualistic Vedas (q.v.), luxuriating in polytheism and polyanthropoism, was then fostered by the Brahman caste in treatises called Aranyakas (q.v.) and Brahmanas (q.v.) and strongly promoted by members of the ruling caste who instituted philosophic congresses in which peripatetic teachers and women participated, and of which we know through the Upanishads (q.v.). Later, the main bulk of Indian Philosophy articulated itself organically into systems forming the nucleus for such famous schools as the Mimamsa and Vedanta, Sankhya and Yoga, Nyaya and Vaisesika, and those of Buddhism and Jainism (all of which see). Numerous other philosophic and quasi philosophic systems are found in the epic literature and elsewhere (cf., e.g., Shaktism, Shivaism, Trika, Vishnuism), or remain to be discovered. Much needs to be translated by competent philosophers.

piarist ::: n. --> One of a religious order who are the regular clerks of the Scuole Pie (religious schools), an institute of secondary education, founded at Rome in the last years of the 16th century.

Plato: (428-7 - 348-7 B.C.) Was one of the greatest of the Greek philosophers. He was born either in Athens or on the island of Aegina, and was originally known as Aristocles. Ariston, his father, traced his ancestry to the last kings of Athens. His mother, Perictione, was a descendant of the family of Solon. Plato was given the best elementary education possible and he spent eight years, from his own twentieth year to the death of Socrates, as a member of the Socratic circle. Various stories are told about his supposed masters in philosophy, and his travels in Greece, Italy, Sicily and Egypt, but all that we know for certain is that he somehow acquired a knowledge of Pythagoreanisrn, Heracleitanism, Eleaticism and othei Pre-Socratic philosophies. He founded his school of mathematics and philosophy in Athens in 387 B.C. It became known as the Academy. Here he taught with great success until his death at the age of eighty. His career as a teacher was interrupted on two occasions by trips to Sicily, where Plato tried without much success to educate and advise Dionysius the Younger. His works have been very well preserved; we have more than twenty-five authentic dialogues, certain letters, and some definitions which are probably spurious. For a list of works, bibliography and an outline of his thought, see Platonism. -- V.J.B.

platonical ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to Plato, or his philosophy, school, or opinions.
Pure, passionless; nonsexual; philosophical.

Platonism, medieval: Plato's works were not accessible to the medievil writers previous to the 13th century. They possessed only part of the Timaeus in the translation and commentary by Chalcidius. Nor were they acquainted with the writings of the Neo-Platonists. They had the logical texts by Porphyrius; little besides. St. Augustine, the greatest authority in these ages, was well acquainted with the teachings of the "Academy" of his time and became a source for Neo-Platonic influences. Furthermore, there were the writings of Pseudo-Dionysius of which first Alcuin had made a rather insufficient, later Scotus Eriugena a readible translation. Scotus himself was thoroughly Neo-Platonic in his philosophy, however "Christianized" his Platonism may have been. The medieval "Platoniststs" held, among some propositions of minor importance, that universals were existent substances (Realism, q.v.), that body and soul were two independent substances, united more or less accidentally; they assumed accordingly a "plurality of forms" in one substance. Some believed that Plato had been given a peculiar insight even in the mysteries of Christian faith. Thus they went so far as to identify the anima mundi, which they believed to be a Platonic notion, with the Holy Ghost (e.g. Abelard). Even after the revival of Aristotelian philosophy, against which the "Platonists" reacted violently, Platonism, or as they afterwards preferred to call it, Augustinianism persisted in many schools, especially in those depending on the Franciscans. -- R.A.

playground ::: n. --> A piece of ground used for recreation; as, the playground of a school.

plummet ::: n. --> A piece of lead attached to a line, used in sounding the depth of water.
A plumb bob or a plumb line. See under Plumb, n.
Hence, any weight.
A piece of lead formerly used by school children to rule paper for writing.

polytechnic ::: a. --> Comprehending, or relating to, many arts and sciences; -- applied particularly to schools in which many branches of art and science are taught with especial reference to their practical application; also to exhibitions of machinery and industrial products.

Posidonius of Rhodes: (c. 135-50 B.C.) An eclectic philosopher of the Stoic School, who incorporated into his thought many doctrines of Plato and Aristotle. -- R.B.W.

Praedicamenta: (Scholastic) The ten praedicaments are, according to Aristotle (Met. V.) and the Schoolmen substance, quantity, quality, relation, habitus, when, where, location, action, passion. -- R.A.

preceptor ::: n. --> One who gives commands, or makes rules; specifically, the master or principal of a school; a teacher; an instructor.
The head of a preceptory among the Knights Templars.

preceptress ::: n. --> A woman who is the principal of a school; a female teacher.

precinct ::: n. --> The limit or exterior line encompassing a place; a boundary; a confine; limit of jurisdiction or authority; -- often in the plural; as, the precincts of a state.
A district within certain boundaries; a minor territorial or jurisdictional division; as, an election precinct; a school precinct.
A parish or prescribed territory attached to a church, and taxed for its support.

preparatory ::: a. --> Preparing the way for anything by previous measures of adaptation; antecedent and adapted to what follows; introductory; preparative; as, a preparatory school; a preparatory condition.

preraphaelitism ::: n. --> The doctrine or practice of a school of modern painters who profess to be followers of the painters before Raphael. Its adherents advocate careful study from nature, delicacy and minuteness of workmanship, and an exalted and delicate conception of the subject.

primary ::: a. --> First in order of time or development or in intention; primitive; fundamental; original.
First in order, as being preparatory to something higher; as, primary assemblies; primary schools.
First in dignity or importance; chief; principal; as, primary planets; a matter of primary importance.
Earliest formed; fundamental.
Illustrating, possessing, or characterized by, some

Princeton University "body, education" Chartered in 1746 as the College of New Jersey, Princeton was British North America's fourth college. First located in Elizabeth, then in Newark, the College moved to Princeton in 1756. The College was housed in Nassau Hall, newly built on land donated by Nathaniel and Rebeckah FitzRandolph. Nassau Hall contained the entire College for nearly half a century. The College was officially renamed Princeton University in 1896; five years later in 1900 the Graduate School was established. Fully coeducational since 1969, Princeton now enrolls approximately 6,400 students (4,535 undergraduates and 1,866 graduate students). The ratio of full-time students to faculty members (in full-time equivalents) is eight to one. Today Princeton's main campus in Princeton Borough and Princeton Township consists of more than 5.5 million square feet of space in 160 buildings on 600 acres. The University's James Forrestal Campus in Plainsboro consists of one million square feet of space in four complexes on 340 acres. As Mercer County's largest private employer and one of the largest in the Mercer/Middlesex/Somerset County region, with approximately 4,830 permanent employees - including more than 1,000 faculty members - the University plays a major role in the educational, cultural, and economic life of the region. {(}. (1994-01-19)

Psychic Summation: See Psychic Fusion. Psycho-analysis: The psychological method and therapeutic technique developed by Freud (see Freud, Sigmund). This method consists in the use of such procedures as free association, automatic writing and especially dream-analysis to recover forgotten memories, suppressed desires and other subconscious items which exert a disturbing influence on the conscious life of an individual. The cure of the psychic disturbances is effected by bringing the suppressed items into the full of consciousness of the individual. Psycho-analytic theory has posited a subconscious mind as a repository for the suppressed elements. Freud exaggerated the sexual origin of the suppressed desires but other psycho-analysts, notably Jung and Adler, corrected this exaggeration. The psycho-analytical school has developed its terminology in which the following are characteristic. Free association is the method of encouraging the patient to recall in random fashion experiences, particularly of childhood. A "complex" is a more or less permanent emotional system or mechjnism responsible for the mental disturbances of the patient. Libido designates the underlying sexual drive or impulse, the suppression of which is responsible for the psychic disturbance. Suppression or repression is the rejection from consciousness of desires and urges which it finds intolerable. Sublimation is the transference of a suppressed desire to a new object. These terms are only a few samples of the elaborate and at times highly mythological terminology of psycho-analysis. -- L.W.

Pudgala: (Skr. beautiful, lovely) The sou], or personal entity, admitted by some thinkers even though belonging to the schools of Buddhism (s.v.), they hold that at least a temporary individuality must be assumed as vehicle for karma (q.v.) -- K.F.L.

Pythagoras "person" (Pythagoras of Samos, Ionia; about 569-475 BC) The Greek mathematician who founded a philosophical and religious school in Croton (now Crotone) in southern Italy. Pythagoras is most famous for {Pythagoras's Theorem} but other important postulates are attributed to him, e.g. the sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. (2004-02-12)

Pythagoreanism: The doctrines (philosophical, mathematical, moral, and religious) of Pythagoras (c. 572-497) and of his school which flourished until about the end of the 4th century B.C. The Pythagorean philosophy was a dualism which sharply distinguished thought and the senses, the soul and the body, the mathematical forms of things and their perceptible appearances. The Pythagoreans supposed that the substances of all things were numbers and that all phenomena were sensuous expressions of mathematical ratios. For them the whole universe was harmony. They made important contributions to mathematics, astronomv, and physics (acoustics) and were the first to formulate the elementary principles and methods of arithmetic and geometry as taught in the first books of Euclid. But the Pythagorean sect was not only a philosophical and mathematical school (cf. K. von Fritz, Pythagorean Politics in Southern Italy, 1941), but also a religious brotherhood and a fellowship for moral reformation. They believed in the immortality and transmigration (see Metempsychosis) of the soul which they defined as the harmony of the body. To restore harmony which was confused by the senses was the goal of their Ethics and Politics. The religious ideas were closely related to those of the Greek mysteries which sought by various rites and abstinences to purify and redeem the soul. The attempt to combine this mysticism with their mathematical philosophy, led the Pythagoreans to the development of an intricate and somewhat fantastic symbolism which collected correspondences between numbers and things and for example identified the antithesis of odd and even with that of form and matter, the number 1 with reason, 2 with the soul, etc. Through their ideas the Pythagoreans had considerable effect on the development of Plato's thought and on the theories of the later Neo-platonists.

quadrangle ::: n. --> A plane figure having four angles, and consequently four sides; any figure having four angles.
A square or quadrangular space or inclosure, such a space or court surrounded by buildings, esp. such a court in a college or public school in England.

quadrivium ::: n. --> The four "liberal arts," arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy; -- so called by the schoolmen. See Trivium.

Queen Mary and Westfield College (QMW) One of the largest of the multi-faculty schools of the {University of London}. QMW has some 6000 students and over 600 teaching and research staff organised into seven faculties. QMW was one of the first colleges in the University of London to develop fully the course-unit, or modular, approach to degree programmes. Cross faculty courses are encouraged and the physical proximity of all the College buildings is a major factor in enabling students to adopt an interdisciplinary approach to their studies. {(}. (1995-01-25)

random 1. Unpredictable (closest to mathematical definition); weird. "The system's been behaving pretty randomly." 2. Assorted; undistinguished. "Who was at the conference?" "Just a bunch of random business types." 3. (pejorative) Frivolous; unproductive; undirected. "He's just a random loser." 4. Incoherent or inelegant; poorly chosen; not well organised. "The program has a random set of misfeatures." "That's a random name for that function." "Well, all the names were chosen pretty randomly." 5. In no particular order, though {deterministic}. "The I/O channels are in a pool, and when a file is opened one is chosen randomly." 6. Arbitrary. "It generates a random name for the scratch file." 7. Gratuitously wrong, i.e. poorly done and for no good apparent reason. For example, a program that handles file name defaulting in a particularly useless way, or an assembler routine that could easily have been coded using only three registers, but redundantly uses seven for values with non-overlapping lifetimes, so that no one else can invoke it without first saving four extra registers. What {randomness}! 8. A random hacker; used particularly of high-school students who soak up computer time and generally get in the way. 9. Anyone who is not a hacker (or, sometimes, anyone not known to the hacker speaking). "I went to the talk, but the audience was full of randoms asking bogus questions". 10. (occasional MIT usage) One who lives at Random Hall. See also {J. Random}, {some random X}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-12-05)

Real Programmers Don't Use Pascal "humour" Back in the good old days - the "Golden Era" of computers, it was easy to separate the men from the boys (sometimes called "Real Men" and "Quiche Eaters" in the literature). During this period, the Real Men were the ones that understood computer programming, and the Quiche Eaters were the ones that didn't. A real computer programmer said things like "DO 10 I=1,10" and "ABEND" (they actually talked in capital letters, you understand), and the rest of the world said things like "computers are too complicated for me" and "I can't relate to computers - they're so impersonal". (A previous work [1] points out that Real Men don't "relate" to anything, and aren't afraid of being impersonal.) But, as usual, times change. We are faced today with a world in which little old ladies can get computers in their microwave ovens, 12-year-old kids can blow Real Men out of the water playing Asteroids and Pac-Man, and anyone can buy and even understand their very own Personal Computer. The Real Programmer is in danger of becoming extinct, of being replaced by high-school students with {TRASH-80s}. There is a clear need to point out the differences between the typical high-school junior Pac-Man player and a Real Programmer. If this difference is made clear, it will give these kids something to aspire to -- a role model, a Father Figure. It will also help explain to the employers of Real Programmers why it would be a mistake to replace the Real Programmers on their staff with 12-year-old Pac-Man players (at a considerable salary savings). LANGUAGES The easiest way to tell a Real Programmer from the crowd is by the programming language he (or she) uses. Real Programmers use {Fortran}. Quiche Eaters use {Pascal}. Nicklaus Wirth, the designer of Pascal, gave a talk once at which he was asked how to pronounce his name. He replied, "You can either call me by name, pronouncing it 'Veert', or call me by value, 'Worth'." One can tell immediately from this comment that Nicklaus Wirth is a Quiche Eater. The only parameter passing mechanism endorsed by Real Programmers is call-by-value-return, as implemented in the {IBM 370} {Fortran-G} and H compilers. Real programmers don't need all these abstract concepts to get their jobs done - they are perfectly happy with a {keypunch}, a {Fortran IV} {compiler}, and a beer. Real Programmers do List Processing in Fortran. Real Programmers do String Manipulation in Fortran. Real Programmers do Accounting (if they do it at all) in Fortran. Real Programmers do {Artificial Intelligence} programs in Fortran. If you can't do it in Fortran, do it in {assembly language}. If you can't do it in assembly language, it isn't worth doing. STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING The academics in computer science have gotten into the "structured programming" rut over the past several years. They claim that programs are more easily understood if the programmer uses some special language constructs and techniques. They don't all agree on exactly which constructs, of course, and the examples they use to show their particular point of view invariably fit on a single page of some obscure journal or another - clearly not enough of an example to convince anyone. When I got out of school, I thought I was the best programmer in the world. I could write an unbeatable tic-tac-toe program, use five different computer languages, and create 1000-line programs that WORKED. (Really!) Then I got out into the Real World. My first task in the Real World was to read and understand a 200,000-line Fortran program, then speed it up by a factor of two. Any Real Programmer will tell you that all the Structured Coding in the world won't help you solve a problem like that - it takes actual talent. Some quick observations on Real Programmers and Structured Programming: Real Programmers aren't afraid to use {GOTOs}. Real Programmers can write five-page-long DO loops without getting confused. Real Programmers like Arithmetic IF statements - they make the code more interesting. Real Programmers write self-modifying code, especially if they can save 20 {nanoseconds} in the middle of a tight loop. Real Programmers don't need comments - the code is obvious. Since Fortran doesn't have a structured IF, REPEAT ... UNTIL, or CASE statement, Real Programmers don't have to worry about not using them. Besides, they can be simulated when necessary using {assigned GOTOs}. Data Structures have also gotten a lot of press lately. Abstract Data Types, Structures, Pointers, Lists, and Strings have become popular in certain circles. Wirth (the above-mentioned Quiche Eater) actually wrote an entire book [2] contending that you could write a program based on data structures, instead of the other way around. As all Real Programmers know, the only useful data structure is the Array. Strings, lists, structures, sets - these are all special cases of arrays and can be treated that way just as easily without messing up your programing language with all sorts of complications. The worst thing about fancy data types is that you have to declare them, and Real Programming Languages, as we all know, have implicit typing based on the first letter of the (six character) variable name. OPERATING SYSTEMS What kind of operating system is used by a Real Programmer? CP/M? God forbid - CP/M, after all, is basically a toy operating system. Even little old ladies and grade school students can understand and use CP/M. Unix is a lot more complicated of course - the typical Unix hacker never can remember what the PRINT command is called this week - but when it gets right down to it, Unix is a glorified video game. People don't do Serious Work on Unix systems: they send jokes around the world on {UUCP}-net and write adventure games and research papers. No, your Real Programmer uses OS 370. A good programmer can find and understand the description of the IJK305I error he just got in his JCL manual. A great programmer can write JCL without referring to the manual at all. A truly outstanding programmer can find bugs buried in a 6 megabyte {core dump} without using a hex calculator. (I have actually seen this done.) OS is a truly remarkable operating system. It's possible to destroy days of work with a single misplaced space, so alertness in the programming staff is encouraged. The best way to approach the system is through a keypunch. Some people claim there is a Time Sharing system that runs on OS 370, but after careful study I have come to the conclusion that they were mistaken. PROGRAMMING TOOLS What kind of tools does a Real Programmer use? In theory, a Real Programmer could run his programs by keying them into the front panel of the computer. Back in the days when computers had front panels, this was actually done occasionally. Your typical Real Programmer knew the entire bootstrap loader by memory in hex, and toggled it in whenever it got destroyed by his program. (Back then, memory was memory - it didn't go away when the power went off. Today, memory either forgets things when you don't want it to, or remembers things long after they're better forgotten.) Legend has it that {Seymore Cray}, inventor of the Cray I supercomputer and most of Control Data's computers, actually toggled the first operating system for the CDC7600 in on the front panel from memory when it was first powered on. Seymore, needless to say, is a Real Programmer. One of my favorite Real Programmers was a systems programmer for Texas Instruments. One day he got a long distance call from a user whose system had crashed in the middle of saving some important work. Jim was able to repair the damage over the phone, getting the user to toggle in disk I/O instructions at the front panel, repairing system tables in hex, reading register contents back over the phone. The moral of this story: while a Real Programmer usually includes a keypunch and lineprinter in his toolkit, he can get along with just a front panel and a telephone in emergencies. In some companies, text editing no longer consists of ten engineers standing in line to use an 029 keypunch. In fact, the building I work in doesn't contain a single keypunch. The Real Programmer in this situation has to do his work with a "text editor" program. Most systems supply several text editors to select from, and the Real Programmer must be careful to pick one that reflects his personal style. Many people believe that the best text editors in the world were written at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center for use on their Alto and Dorado computers [3]. Unfortunately, no Real Programmer would ever use a computer whose operating system is called SmallTalk, and would certainly not talk to the computer with a mouse. Some of the concepts in these Xerox editors have been incorporated into editors running on more reasonably named operating systems - {Emacs} and {VI} being two. The problem with these editors is that Real Programmers consider "what you see is what you get" to be just as bad a concept in Text Editors as it is in women. No the Real Programmer wants a "you asked for it, you got it" text editor - complicated, cryptic, powerful, unforgiving, dangerous. TECO, to be precise. It has been observed that a TECO command sequence more closely resembles transmission line noise than readable text [4]. One of the more entertaining games to play with TECO is to type your name in as a command line and try to guess what it does. Just about any possible typing error while talking with TECO will probably destroy your program, or even worse - introduce subtle and mysterious bugs in a once working subroutine. For this reason, Real Programmers are reluctant to actually edit a program that is close to working. They find it much easier to just patch the binary {object code} directly, using a wonderful program called SUPERZAP (or its equivalent on non-IBM machines). This works so well that many working programs on IBM systems bear no relation to the original Fortran code. In many cases, the original source code is no longer available. When it comes time to fix a program like this, no manager would even think of sending anything less than a Real Programmer to do the job - no Quiche Eating structured programmer would even know where to start. This is called "job security". Some programming tools NOT used by Real Programmers: Fortran preprocessors like {MORTRAN} and {RATFOR}. The Cuisinarts of programming - great for making Quiche. See comments above on structured programming. Source language debuggers. Real Programmers can read core dumps. Compilers with array bounds checking. They stifle creativity, destroy most of the interesting uses for EQUIVALENCE, and make it impossible to modify the operating system code with negative subscripts. Worst of all, bounds checking is inefficient. Source code maintenance systems. A Real Programmer keeps his code locked up in a card file, because it implies that its owner cannot leave his important programs unguarded [5]. THE REAL PROGRAMMER AT WORK Where does the typical Real Programmer work? What kind of programs are worthy of the efforts of so talented an individual? You can be sure that no Real Programmer would be caught dead writing accounts-receivable programs in {COBOL}, or sorting {mailing lists} for People magazine. A Real Programmer wants tasks of earth-shaking importance (literally!). Real Programmers work for Los Alamos National Laboratory, writing atomic bomb simulations to run on Cray I supercomputers. Real Programmers work for the National Security Agency, decoding Russian transmissions. It was largely due to the efforts of thousands of Real Programmers working for NASA that our boys got to the moon and back before the Russkies. Real Programmers are at work for Boeing designing the operating systems for cruise missiles. Some of the most awesome Real Programmers of all work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. Many of them know the entire operating system of the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft by heart. With a combination of large ground-based Fortran programs and small spacecraft-based assembly language programs, they are able to do incredible feats of navigation and improvisation - hitting ten-kilometer wide windows at Saturn after six years in space, repairing or bypassing damaged sensor platforms, radios, and batteries. Allegedly, one Real Programmer managed to tuck a pattern-matching program into a few hundred bytes of unused memory in a Voyager spacecraft that searched for, located, and photographed a new moon of Jupiter. The current plan for the Galileo spacecraft is to use a gravity assist trajectory past Mars on the way to Jupiter. This trajectory passes within 80 +/-3 kilometers of the surface of Mars. Nobody is going to trust a Pascal program (or a Pascal programmer) for navigation to these tolerances. As you can tell, many of the world's Real Programmers work for the U.S. Government - mainly the Defense Department. This is as it should be. Recently, however, a black cloud has formed on the Real Programmer horizon. It seems that some highly placed Quiche Eaters at the Defense Department decided that all Defense programs should be written in some grand unified language called "ADA" ((C), DoD). For a while, it seemed that ADA was destined to become a language that went against all the precepts of Real Programming - a language with structure, a language with data types, {strong typing}, and semicolons. In short, a language designed to cripple the creativity of the typical Real Programmer. Fortunately, the language adopted by DoD has enough interesting features to make it approachable -- it's incredibly complex, includes methods for messing with the operating system and rearranging memory, and Edsgar Dijkstra doesn't like it [6]. (Dijkstra, as I'm sure you know, was the author of "GoTos Considered Harmful" - a landmark work in programming methodology, applauded by Pascal programmers and Quiche Eaters alike.) Besides, the determined Real Programmer can write Fortran programs in any language. The Real Programmer might compromise his principles and work on something slightly more trivial than the destruction of life as we know it, providing there's enough money in it. There are several Real Programmers building video games at Atari, for example. (But not playing them - a Real Programmer knows how to beat the machine every time: no challenge in that.) Everyone working at LucasFilm is a Real Programmer. (It would be crazy to turn down the money of fifty million Star Trek fans.) The proportion of Real Programmers in Computer Graphics is somewhat lower than the norm, mostly because nobody has found a use for computer graphics yet. On the other hand, all computer graphics is done in Fortran, so there are a fair number of people doing graphics in order to avoid having to write COBOL programs. THE REAL PROGRAMMER AT PLAY Generally, the Real Programmer plays the same way he works - with computers. He is constantly amazed that his employer actually pays him to do what he would be doing for fun anyway (although he is careful not to express this opinion out loud). Occasionally, the Real Programmer does step out of the office for a breath of fresh air and a beer or two. Some tips on recognizing Real Programmers away from the computer room: At a party, the Real Programmers are the ones in the corner talking about operating system security and how to get around it. At a football game, the Real Programmer is the one comparing the plays against his simulations printed on 11 by 14 fanfold paper. At the beach, the Real Programmer is the one drawing flowcharts in the sand. At a funeral, the Real Programmer is the one saying "Poor George, he almost had the sort routine working before the coronary." In a grocery store, the Real Programmer is the one who insists on running the cans past the laser checkout scanner himself, because he never could trust keypunch operators to get it right the first time. THE REAL PROGRAMMER'S NATURAL HABITAT What sort of environment does the Real Programmer function best in? This is an important question for the managers of Real Programmers. Considering the amount of money it costs to keep one on the staff, it's best to put him (or her) in an environment where he can get his work done. The typical Real Programmer lives in front of a computer terminal. Surrounding this terminal are: Listings of all programs the Real Programmer has ever worked on, piled in roughly chronological order on every flat surface in the office. Some half-dozen or so partly filled cups of cold coffee. Occasionally, there will be cigarette butts floating in the coffee. In some cases, the cups will contain Orange Crush. Unless he is very good, there will be copies of the OS JCL manual and the Principles of Operation open to some particularly interesting pages. Taped to the wall is a line-printer Snoopy calendar for the year 1969. Strewn about the floor are several wrappers for peanut butter filled cheese bars - the type that are made pre-stale at the bakery so they can't get any worse while waiting in the vending machine. Hiding in the top left-hand drawer of the desk is a stash of double-stuff Oreos for special occasions. Underneath the Oreos is a flowcharting template, left there by the previous occupant of the office. (Real Programmers write programs, not documentation. Leave that to the maintenance people.) The Real Programmer is capable of working 30, 40, even 50 hours at a stretch, under intense pressure. In fact, he prefers it that way. Bad response time doesn't bother the Real Programmer - it gives him a chance to catch a little sleep between compiles. If there is not enough schedule pressure on the Real Programmer, he tends to make things more challenging by working on some small but interesting part of the problem for the first nine weeks, then finishing the rest in the last week, in two or three 50-hour marathons. This not only impresses the hell out of his manager, who was despairing of ever getting the project done on time, but creates a convenient excuse for not doing the documentation. In general: No Real Programmer works 9 to 5 (unless it's the ones at night). Real Programmers don't wear neckties. Real Programmers don't wear high-heeled shoes. Real Programmers arrive at work in time for lunch [9]. A Real Programmer might or might not know his wife's name. He does, however, know the entire {ASCII} (or EBCDIC) code table. Real Programmers don't know how to cook. Grocery stores aren't open at three in the morning. Real Programmers survive on Twinkies and coffee. THE FUTURE What of the future? It is a matter of some concern to Real Programmers that the latest generation of computer programmers are not being brought up with the same outlook on life as their elders. Many of them have never seen a computer with a front panel. Hardly anyone graduating from school these days can do hex arithmetic without a calculator. College graduates these days are soft - protected from the realities of programming by source level debuggers, text editors that count parentheses, and "user friendly" operating systems. Worst of all, some of these alleged "computer scientists" manage to get degrees without ever learning Fortran! Are we destined to become an industry of Unix hackers and Pascal programmers? From my experience, I can only report that the future is bright for Real Programmers everywhere. Neither OS 370 nor Fortran show any signs of dying out, despite all the efforts of Pascal programmers the world over. Even more subtle tricks, like adding structured coding constructs to Fortran have failed. Oh sure, some computer vendors have come out with Fortran 77 compilers, but every one of them has a way of converting itself back into a Fortran 66 compiler at the drop of an option card - to compile DO loops like God meant them to be. Even Unix might not be as bad on Real Programmers as it once was. The latest release of Unix has the potential of an operating system worthy of any Real Programmer - two different and subtly incompatible user interfaces, an arcane and complicated teletype driver, virtual memory. If you ignore the fact that it's "structured", even 'C' programming can be appreciated by the Real Programmer: after all, there's no type checking, variable names are seven (ten? eight?) characters long, and the added bonus of the Pointer data type is thrown in - like having the best parts of Fortran and assembly language in one place. (Not to mention some of the more creative uses for

recess ::: n. --> A withdrawing or retiring; a moving back; retreat; as, the recess of the tides.
The state of being withdrawn; seclusion; privacy.
Remission or suspension of business or procedure; intermission, as of a legislative body, court, or school.
Part of a room formed by the receding of the wall, as an alcove, niche, etc.
A place of retirement, retreat, secrecy, or seclusion.

rector ::: n. --> A ruler or governor.
A clergyman who has the charge and cure of a parish, and has the tithes, etc.; the clergyman of a parish where the tithes are not impropriate. See the Note under Vicar.
A clergyman in charge of a parish.
The head master of a public school.
The chief elective officer of some universities, as in France and Scotland; sometimes, the head of a college; as, the Rector

regulation ::: n. --> The act of regulating, or the state of being regulated.
A rule or order prescribed for management or government; prescription; a regulating principle; a governing direction; precept; law; as, the regulations of a society or a school.

Reid, Thomas: (1710-1796) Scotch philosopher. In his An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense, he opposed the tradition of Berkeley and Hume and emphasized the common consciousness of mankind as basic. These ideas on the importance of self-evidence were further elaborated in "Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man" and "Essays on the Active Powers of Man." He was founder of the so-called Common Sense School, employing that term as here indicated and not in its present acceptation. -- L.E.D.

Renaissance: (Lat. re + nasci, to be born) Is a term used by historians to characterize various periods of intellectual revival, and especially that which took place in Italy and Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. The term was coined by Michelet and developed into a historical concept by J. Burckhardt (1860) who considered individualism, the revival of classical antiquity, the "discovery" of the world and of man as the main characters of that period as opposed to the Middle Ages. The meaning, the temporal limits, and even the usefulness of the concept have been disputed ever since. For the emphasis placed by various historians on the different fields of culture and on the contribution of different countries must lead to different interpretations of the whole period, and attempts to express a complicated historical phenomenon in a simple, abstract definition are apt to fail. Historians are now inclined to admit a very considerable continuity between the "Renaissance" and the Middle Ages. Yet a sweeping rejection of the whole concept is excluded, for it expresses the view of the writers of the period itself, who considered their century a revival of ancient civilization after a penod of decay. While Burckhardt had paid no attention to philosophy, others began to speak of a "philosophy of the renaissance," regarding thought of those centuries not as an accidental accompaniment of renaissance culture, but as its characteristic philosophical manifestation. As yet this view has served as a fruitful guiding principle rather than as a verified hypothesis. Renaissance thought can be defined in a negative way as the period of transition from the medieval, theological to the modern, scientific interpretation of reality. It also displays a few common features, such as an emphasis on man and on his place in the universe, the rejection of certain medieval standards and methods of science, the increased influence of some newly discovered ancient sources, and a new style and literary form in the presentation of philosophical ideas. More obvious are the differences between the various schools and traditions which cannot easily be brought to a common denominator Humimsm, Platonism, Aristotelianism, scepticism and natural philosophy, to which may be added the group of the founders of modern science (Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo). -- P.O.K.

reservation ::: n. --> The act of reserving, or keeping back; concealment, or withholding from disclosure; reserve.
Something withheld, either not expressed or disclosed, or not given up or brought forward.
A tract of the public land reserved for some special use, as for schools, for the use of Indians, etc.
The state of being reserved, or kept in store.
A clause in an instrument by which some new thing is

Richard Hamming "person" Professor Richard Wesley Hamming (1915-02-11 - 1998-01-07). An American mathematician known for his work in {information theory} (notably {error detection and correction}), having invented the concepts of {Hamming code}, {Hamming distance}, and {Hamming window}. Richard Hamming received his B.S. from the University of Chicago in 1937, his M.A. from the University of Nebraska in 1939, and his Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1942. In 1945 Hamming joined the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos. In 1946, after World War II, Hamming joined the {Bell Telephone Laboratories} where he worked with both {Shannon} and {John Tukey}. He worked there until 1976 when he accepted a chair of computer science at the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California. Hamming's fundamental paper on error-detecting and error-correcting codes ("{Hamming codes}") appeared in 1950. His work on the {IBM 650} leading to the development in 1956 of the {L2} programming language. This never displaced the workhorse language {L1} devised by Michael V Wolontis. By 1958 the 650 had been elbowed aside by the 704. Although best known for error-correcting codes, Hamming was primarily a numerical analyst, working on integrating {differential equations} and the {Hamming spectral window} used for smoothing data before {Fourier analysis}. He wrote textbooks, propounded aphorisms ("the purpose of computing is insight, not numbers"), and was a founder of the {ACM} and a proponent of {open-shop} computing ("better to solve the right problem the wrong way than the wrong problem the right way."). In 1968 he was made a fellow of the {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers} and awarded the {Turing Prize} from the {Association for Computing Machinery}. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers awarded Hamming the Emanuel R Piore Award in 1979 and a medal in 1988. {(}. {(}. {(}. [Richard Hamming. Coding and Information Theory. Prentice-Hall, 1980. ISBN 0-13-139139-9]. (2003-06-07)

Ritschlianism: A celebrated school of 19th century Christian thought inaugurated by Albrecht Ritschl (1822-89). This school argued for God upon the basis of what is called the religious value-judgment. Two kinds of judgments are said to characterize man's reaction to his world of experience: (1) dependent or concomitant, those dependent upon perceived facts, such as the natural sciences; (2) independent or religious those which affirm man's superior worth independent of the limitations of the finite world and man's dependence upon a superhuman order of reality, God. God is not reached by speculation, nor by the "evidences" in nature, nor by intuitions or mystic experience, nor by a rational a priori or intimate feeling. God is implied in the religious value judgment: "though he slay me will I trust him." That man needs God as a deliverer from his bonds is the assertion of the independent religious value-judgment; the consequences following this judgment of need and worth sustain him with courage and victory over every obstacl.e Ritschlianism is notable in the emphasis it placed upon the category of value, an emphasis which has grown stronger in contemporary theistic belief. -- V.F.

romanticism ::: n. --> A fondness for romantic characteristics or peculiarities; specifically, in modern literature, an aiming at romantic effects; -- applied to the productions of a school of writers who sought to revive certain medi/val forms and methods in opposition to the so-called classical style.

rule ::: a. --> That which is prescribed or laid down as a guide for conduct or action; a governing direction for a specific purpose; an authoritative enactment; a regulation; a prescription; a precept; as, the rules of various societies; the rules governing a school; a rule of etiquette or propriety; the rules of cricket.
Uniform or established course of things.
Systematic method or practice; as, my ule is to rise at six o&

samkhya (Sankhya) ::: the analysis, the enumeration and discriminative setting forth of the principles of our being; the abstract and analytical realisation of truth; [considered as one of the six darsanas]; [an adherent of the samkhya school].

sampradaya. ::: tradition; school; doctrine; handed-down instruction

Sat: (Skr.) Being, a metaphysical concept akin to Eleatic thinking, which a school of thinkers regards as fundamental, as in Chandogya Upanishad 6.2.1 "In the beginning . . . this world was just being, one only, without a second." It refutes the theory of non-being. (See asat). -- K.F.L.

Sautrantika: A Buddhist school of representationalism, same as Bahyanumeya-vada (q.v.). -- K.F.L.

Scheler, Max (1874-1928) was originally a disciple of Rudolf Eucken, but joined early -- at the University of Munich -- the Husserl circle of phenomenologists, of which school he became one of the leading exponents. Moving from Kantianism and Eucken-personalism into phenomenology, he later espoused successively positions which may be called a synthesis between phenomenology and Catholic philosophy, sociological dynamism, and ideo-realistic humanism. He was the psychologist, ethicist, and religious and social philosopher of the phenomenological movement. In common with other phenomenologists, Scheler's doctrine begins with the assertion of an inherent correlation of the essences of objects with the essences of intentional experience. His unique contributions lie in the comprehensiveness of his vision, in his interpretation of the value-qualities of being; of emotional experience, especially love, as the key for the disclosure of being; of a hierarchy of concrete ("material" as against formal) values; of an analysis of "resentment" as a thorough grudge (rancour) perverted emotional attitude towards the values of life; of his definition of "person" as the concrete unity of acts; of his acknowledgment of total personality beyond individual persons; of his definition of "ethos" as a preferential system of values determinative for the validity of any specific thought-form; of his development of the sociology of knowledge as a distinct discipline within cultural sociology; and of his working out of a philosophical anthropology showing man's position in and towards the whole of being. His most important works include: Die transzendentale und die psychologische Methode (1900); Der Formalismus in der Ethik und die materiale Wertethik (1916); Vom Ewigen in Menschen (1921); Wesen und Formen der Sympathie (1923); Schriften zur Soziologie und Weltanschauungslehre (3 vols., 1923-1924); Die Wissensformen und dte Gesellschaft (1926); Die Stellung des Menschen in Kosmos (1928); Philosophische Weltanschauung (1929); Zur Ethik und Erkenntnislehre (1933).

Schleiermacher, Friedrich Ernst Daniel (1768-1834): Religion, in which Schleiermacher substitutes for a theology (regarded impossible because of the unknowableness of God) the feeling of absolute dependence, is sharply delineated from science as the product of reason in which nature may ultimately attain its unity. Schleiermacher, a romanticist, exhibits Fichtean and Schellingean influence, and transcends Kant by proclaiming an ideal realism. Nature, the totality of existence, is an organism, just as knowledge is a system. Through the unity of the real and the ideal, wisdom, residing with the Absolute as the final unity, arises and is ever striven for by man. A determinism is evident in religion where sin and grace provide two poles and sin is regarded partly avoidable, partly unreal, and in ethics where freedom is admitted only soteriologically as spontaneous acknowledgment of identity with the divine in the person of Christ. However, the right to uniqueness and individuality in which each attains his real nature, is stressed. An elaborate ethics is based on four goods: State, Society, School, and Church, to which accrue virtues and duties. An absolute good is lacking, except insofar as it lies in the complete unity of reason and nature. -- K.F.L.

scholar ::: n. --> One who attends a school; one who learns of a teacher; one under the tuition of a preceptor; a pupil; a disciple; a learner; a student.
One engaged in the pursuits of learning; a learned person; one versed in any branch, or in many branches, of knowledge; a person of high literary or scientific attainments; a savant.
A man of books.
In English universities, an undergraduate who belongs to

scholastic ::: a. --> Pertaining to, or suiting, a scholar, a school, or schools; scholarlike; as, scholastic manners or pride; scholastic learning.
Of or pertaining to the schoolmen and divines of the Middle Ages (see Schoolman); as, scholastic divinity or theology; scholastic philosophy.
Hence, characterized by excessive subtilty, or needlessly minute subdivisions; pedantic; formal.

scholasticism ::: n. --> The method or subtilties of the schools of philosophy; scholastic formality; scholastic doctrines or philosophy.

Scholasticism: Scholasticism is both a method and system of thought. The name is derived from its proponents who were called doctores scholastici. This term, in turn, came from scholazein, which originally meant to have leisure or spare time but later, as in Xen. Cyr. 7. 5, 39, took the meaning to denote oneself to pupils or, conversely, to a master. The term Skolastikos is used for the first time by Theophrastus as recorded by Diog. L. 5. 37 (or V. 50 according to Ueberweg). From Roman antiquity the expression was handed down to the ninth century, when doctores scholastici came into general usage and was applied indifferently to those who taught the seven liberal arts or theology in the cloister and cathedral schools.

Scholz and Bachmann, Der wissenschaftliche Nachlass von Gottlob Frege, Actes du Congres International de Philosophie Scientifique (Pans, 1936), section VIII, pp. 24-30. Freud. Sigmund: (1856-1940) Founder of the Psvcho-analytic school (see Psycho-Analysis), studied medicine at the University of Vienna, and becoming interested in the treatment of neuroses, went to Paris in 1885 to study under Charcot and later examined the methods employed by the Nancy school. In his own practice, he employed hypnotic methods of treatment (see Hypnosis, Hypnotism) in combination with his own techniques of free association and dream interpretation. (The Interpretation of Dreams, German ed., 1900.) Psychopathology of Everyday Life, German ed., 1901.) Freud not only developed a therapeutic technique for the treatment of hysteria and neuroses but advanced an elaborate psychological theory of which the main tenets are the predominance of sex and the doctrine of the subconscious.

schoolbook ::: n. --> A book used in schools for learning lessons.

schoolboy ::: n. --> A boy belonging to, or attending, a school.

schooldame ::: n. --> A schoolmistress.

schooled ::: educated, trained (a person, his mind, powers, tastes, etc.); to render wise, skilful, or tractable by training or discipline.

schooled ::: imp. & p. p. --> of School

schoolery ::: n. --> Something taught; precepts; schooling.

schoolfellow ::: n. --> One bred at the same school; an associate in school.

schoolgirl ::: n. --> A girl belonging to, or attending, a school.

schoolhouse ::: n. --> A house appropriated for the use of a school or schools, or for instruction.

schooling ::: p. pr. & vb. n. --> of School ::: n. --> Instruction in school; tuition; education in an institution of learning; act of teaching.
Discipline; reproof; reprimand; as, he gave his son a good schooling. html{color:

schoolmaid ::: n. --> A schoolgirl.

schoolman ::: n. --> One versed in the niceties of academical disputation or of school divinity.

schoolman ::: one versed in scholastic learning or engaged in scholastic pursuits.

schoolmaster ::: n. --> The man who presides over and teaches a school; a male teacher of a school.
One who, or that which, disciplines and directs.

schoolmate ::: n. --> A pupil who attends the same school as another.

schoolmen ::: pl. --> of Schoolman

schoolmistress ::: n. --> A woman who governs and teaches a school; a female school-teacher.

school ::: n. --> A shoal; a multitude; as, a school of fish.
A place for learned intercourse and instruction; an institution for learning; an educational establishment; a place for acquiring knowledge and mental training; as, the school of the prophets.
A place of primary instruction; an establishment for the instruction of children; as, a primary school; a common school; a grammar school.

schoolroom ::: n. --> A room in which pupils are taught.

schoolship ::: n. --> A vessel employed as a nautical training school, in which naval apprentices receive their education at the expense of the state, and are trained for service as sailors. Also, a vessel used as a reform school to which boys are committed by the courts to be disciplined, and instructed as mariners.

school-teacher ::: n. --> One who teaches or instructs a school.

schoolward ::: adv. --> Toward school.

Science ::: When the ancient thinkers of India set themselves to study the soul of man in themselves and others, they, unlike any other nation or school of early thought, proceeded at once to a process which resembles exactly enough the process adopted by modern science in its study of physical phenomena. For their object was to study, arrange and utilise the forms, forces and working movements of consciousness, just as the modern physical Sciences study, arrange and utilize the forms, forces and working movements of objective Matter. The material with which they had to deal was more subtle, flexible and versatile than the most impalpable forces of which the physical Sciences have become aware; its motions were more elusive, its processes harder to fix; but once grasped and ascertained, the movements of consciousness were found by Vedic psychologists to be in their process and activity as regular, manageable and utilisable as the movements of physical forces. The powers of the soul can be as perfectly handled and as safely, methodically and puissantly directed to practical life-purposes of joy, power and light as the modern power of electricity can be used for human comfort, industrial and locomotive power and physical illumination; but the results to which they give room and effect are more wonderful and momentous than the results of motorpower and electric luminosity. For there is no difference of essential law in the physical and the psychical, but only a difference and undoubtedly a great difference of energy, instrumentation and exact process.
   Ref: CWSA Vol. 12, Page: 314

scole ::: n. --> School.

scoley ::: v. i. --> To go to school; to study.

Scotism: from the standpoints of number and influence, this was the next most important school of this period. Among the pupils of Duns Scotus, may be mentioned Anthony Andreas (+1320), Francis of Meyronnes (de Mayronis) (+1325) and John de Bassolis (+1347). Walter Burleigh (+1343) was a vigorous opponent of Nominalism; Thomas Bradwardine (+1349), a mathematician and philosopher whose determinism influenced John Wiclif (+1384), John Hus and the German reformers. In the XV cent., this school is represented by William of Vaurouillon (+1464), Nicholas of Orbelhs (+1455), John Anglicus, Thomas Bricot and the great Peter Tartaret (+1494).

Scotism: The philosophical and theological system named after John Duns Scotus (1266? -1308), Doctor Subtilis, a Franciscan student and later professor at Oxford and Paris and the most gifted of the opponents of the Thomist school. The name is almost synonymous with subtlety and the system generally is characterized by excessive criticism, due to Duns Scotus' predilection for mathematical studies -- the influence, perhaps, of his Franciscan predecessor, Roger Bacon, upon him. This spirit led Scotus to indiscriminate attack upon all his great predecessors in both Franciscan and Dominican Schools, especially St. Thomas, upon the ground of the inconclusiveness of their philosophical arguments. His own system is noted especially for its constant use of the so called Scotist or formal distinction which is considered to be on the one hand less than real, because it is not between thing and thing, and yet more than logical or virtual, because it actually exists between various thought objects or "formalities" in one and the sime individual prior to the action of the mind -- distinctio formalis actualis ex natuta rei. e g., the distinction between the essence and existence, between the animality and rationality in a man, between the principle of individuation in him and his matter and form, and between the divine attributes in God, are all formal distinctions. This undoubtedly leaves the system open to the charge of extreme realism and a tendency generally to consider the report of abstract thought with little regard for sense experience. Further by insisting also upon a formal unity of these formalities which exists apart from conception and is therefore apparently real, the system appears to lead logically to monism, e.g., the really distinct materiality in all material things is formally one apart from the abstracting and universalizing activity of the mind. By insisting that this formal unity is less than real unity, the Scotists claim to escape the charge.

sectarian ::: n. --> Pertaining to a sect, or to sects; peculiar to a sect; bigotedly attached to the tenets and interests of a denomination; as, sectarian principles or prejudices.
One of a sect; a member or adherent of a special school, denomination, or religious or philosophical party; one of a party in religion which has separated itself from established church, or which holds tenets different from those of the prevailing denomination in a state.

sect ::: n. --> A cutting; a scion.
Those following a particular leader or authority, or attached to a certain opinion; a company or set having a common belief or allegiance distinct from others; in religion, the believers in a particular creed, or upholders of a particular practice; especially, in modern times, a party dissenting from an established church; a denomination; in philosophy, the disciples of a particular master; a school; in society and the state, an order, rank, class, or party.

senior ::: a. --> More advanced than another in age; prior in age; elder; hence, more advanced in dignity, rank, or office; superior; as, senior member; senior counsel.
Belonging to the final year of the regular course in American colleges, or in professional schools. ::: n.

sententiary ::: n. --> One who read lectures, or commented, on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, Bishop of Paris (1159-1160), a school divine.

SHEEP "mathematics, tool" A package for {symbolic mathematics}, especially {tensor analysis} and General Relativity, developed by Inge Frick in Stockholm in the late 1970s to early 1980s. SHEEP was implemented in {DEC-10} {assembly language}, then in several {LISPs}. The current version runs on {Sun}-3 and is based on {Portable Standard LISP}. ["Sheep, a Computer Algebra System for General Relativity", J.E.F. Skea et al in Proc First Brazilian School on Comp Alg, W. Roque et al eds, Oxford U Press 1993, v2]. {(}. (2002-12-28)

Shih fei: Right and wrong, with reference to both opinion and conduct, a distinction strongly stressed by the Confucians, Neo-Confucians, Mohists, Neo-Mohists, Sophists, and Legalists alike, except the Taoists who repudiated such distinction as superficial, relative, subjective, unreal in the eyes of Tao, and inconsistent with the Taoist idea of the absolute equality of things and opinions. To most of the ancient Chinese schools, correspondence of name to actuality, both in the social sense and the logical sense, served as the standard of right and wrong. The Sophists often employed the result of argumentation as the standard. The one who won was right and the one who lost was wrong. The Neo-Mohists emphasized logical consistency, whereas the Legalists insisted on law. The early Confucians emphasized conformity with the moral order. "Whiterer conforms with propriety is right and whatever does not conform with propriety is wrong " As Hsun Tzu (c 335-c 288 B.C.) put it, "Whatever conforms with the system of the sage-kings is right and whatever does not conform with the system of the sage-kings is wrong." To the Neo-Confucians, "Whatever is in accord with Reason (li) is right." "The right is the expression of justice and impartiality based on the Universal Reason, and the wrong is the expression of selfishness and partiality based on human desire." -- W.T.C.

shoals ::: schools of fish.

Show-And-Tell A visual {dataflow} language designed for use by elementary school children. ["A Visual Language for Keyboardless Programming", T. Kimura et al, TR WUCS-86-6, CS Dept Washington U, Mar 1986]. ["Show and Tell: A Visual Language", T.D. Kimura et al in Visual Programming Environments: Paradigms and Systems, E.P. Glinert ed, IEEE Comp Sci Press, 1990, pp. 397-404]. (1995-01-31)

SimCity 2000 "games" An upgraded version of the game/simulation {SimCity} by {Maxis Software}. In the new version you can raise, lower and level terrain; build roads and railways at 45-degree angles; name things in your city by planting "signs"; build raised highways, subways, and train and bus stations, schools, colleges, hospitals, electricity, water, recreational marinas and zoos. There are three levels of zoom, and the view may be rotated to look at your city from any of the four directions. A query feature which will tell you the zoning, land value, etc. of any square. You get newspapers, advice from council members, graphs, and charts. (1995-02-08)

skull ::: n. --> A school, company, or shoal.
The skeleton of the head of a vertebrate animal, including the brain case, or cranium, and the bones and cartilages of the face and mouth. See Illusts. of Carnivora, of Facial angles under Facial, and of Skeleton, in Appendix.
The head or brain; the seat of intelligence; mind.
A covering for the head; a skullcap.
A sort of oar. See Scull.

sml2c A Standard ML to C compiler. sml2c is a batch compiler and compiles only module-level declarations, i.e. signatures, structures and functors. It provides the same pervasive environment for the compilation of these programs as SML/NJ. As a result, module-level programs that run on SML/NJ can be compiled by sml2c without any changes. Based on SML/NJ version 0.67 and shares front end and most of its run-time system, but does not support SML/NJ style debugging and profiling. School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University {(}. {Linux (}. conformance: superset + first-class continuations, + asynchronous signal handling + separate compilation + freeze and restart programs ports: IBM-RT Decstation3100 Omron-Luna-88k Sun-3 Sun-4 386(Mach) portability: easy, easier than SML/NJ E-mail: "", "" (1991-06-27)

softa ::: n. --> Any one attached to a Mohammedan mosque, esp. a student of the higher branches of theology in a mosque school.

Specifically, naturalism usually refers to the doctrines and practices of the 19th century school of realism which arose as the literary analogue of positivism, and whose great masters were Flaubert, Zola, and de Maupassant. The fundamental dogma of the movement, as expressed by Zola in "Le Roman experimental" and "Les Romanciers naturalistes", states that naturalism is "the scientific mdhod applied to literature". Zola maintains that the task of the artist is to report and explain what happens in nature, art must aim at a literal transcript of reality, and the artist attains this by making an analytic study of character, motives, and behavior. Naturalism argues that all judgments of good and bad are conventional, with no real basis in nature, so art should seek to understand, not to approve or condemn. Human behavior is regarded as largely a function of environment and circumstances, and the novelist should exhibit these in detail, with no false idealizing of character, no glossing over of the ugly, and no appeal to supposed hidden forces. -- I.J.

Stephen Kleene "person" Professor Stephen Cole Kleene (1909-01-05 - 1994-01-26) /steev'n (kohl) klay'nee/ An American mathematician whose work at the {University of Wisconsin-Madison} helped lay the foundations for modern computer science. Kleene was best known for founding the branch of {mathematical logic} known as {recursion theory} and for inventing {regular expressions}. The {Kleene star} and {Ascending Kleene Chain} are named after him. Kleene was born in Hartford, Conneticut, USA. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Amherst College in 1930. From 1930 to 1935, he was a graduate student and research assistant at {Princeton University} where he received his doctorate in mathematics in 1934. In 1935, he joined UW-Madison mathematics department as an instructor. He became an assistant professor in 1937. From 1939 to 1940, he was a visiting scholar at Princeton's {Institute for Advanced Study} where he laid the foundation for recursive function theory, an area that would be his lifelong research interest. In 1941 he returned to Amherst as an associate professor of mathematics. During World War II Kleene was a lieutenant commander in the United States Navy. He was an instructor of navigation at the U.S. Naval Reserve's Midshipmen's School in New York, and then a project director at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. In 1946, he returned to Wisconsin, eventually becoming a full professor. He was chair of mathematics, and computer sciences in 1962 and 1963 and dean of the College of Letters and Science from 1969 to 1974. In 1964 he was named the Cyrus C. MacDuffee professor of mathematics. An avid mountain climber, Kleene had a strong interest in nature and the environment and was active in many conservation causes. He led several professional organisations, serving as president of the {Association of Symbolic Logic} from 1956 to 1958. In 1961, he served as president of the International Union of the History and the Philosophy of Science. Kleene pronounced his last name /klay'nee/. /klee'nee/ and /kleen/ are extremely common mispronunciations. His first name is /steev'n/, not /stef'n/. His son, Ken Kleene "", wrote: "As far as I am aware this pronunciation is incorrect in all known languages. I believe that this novel pronunciation was invented by my father." {(gopher://}. (1999-03-03)

St. Louis School of Philosophy: Started with the first meeting between Henry Brokmeyer and Wm. Torrey Harris (q.v.) in 1858, it became one of the most important and influential movements in America to die in the early 1880's with the dispersion of the members who included among others Denton J. Snider, Adolph E. Kroeger, George H. Howison, and Thomas Davidson. It engendered the St. Louis Philosophical Society (founded in Feb., 1866) and the Journal of Speculative Philosophy. Cf. D. S. Snider, St. Louis Movement, and Charles M. Perry, St. Louts Movement in Philosophy. -- K.F.L.

stoic ::: adj. 1. Of or pertaining to the school of philosophy founded by Zeno, who taught that people should be free from passion, unmoved by joy or grief, and submit without complaint to unavoidable necessity. n. 2. A member or adherent of the Stoic school of philosophy. Stoic"s.

Stoic School: Founded by Zeno (of Citium, in Cyprus) in the year 308 B.C. in Athens. For Stoicism virtue alone is the only good and the virtuous man is the one who has attained happiness through knowledge, as Socrites had taught. The virtuous man thus finds happiness in himself and is independent of the external world which he has succeeded in overcoming by mastering himself, his passions and emotions. As for the Stoic conception of the universe as a whole, their doctrine is pantheistic. All things and all natural laws follow by a conscious determination from the basic World Reason, and it is this rational order by which, according to Stoicism, the wise man seeks to regulate his life as his highest duty. -- M.F.

Strato: of Lampsacus, head of the Peripatetic School of Greek philosophy from 287-269 B.C. -- M.F.

Structuralism ::: School of thought from the 19th century focused on the gathering of psychological information through the examination of the structure of the mind.

student ::: n. --> A person engaged in study; one who is devoted to learning; a learner; a pupil; a scholar; especially, one who attends a school, or who seeks knowledge from professional teachers or from books; as, the students of an academy, a college, or a university; a medical student; a hard student.
One who studies or examines in any manner; an attentive and systematic observer; as, a student of human nature, or of physical nature.

style ::: 1. A particular kind, sort, or type, as with reference to form, appearance, character, etc. 2. The combination of distinctive features of literary or artistic expression, execution, or performance characterizing a particular person, group, school, or era. 3. A particular, distinctive, or characteristic mode or form of construction or execution in any art or work.

Suarezianism: A school of philosophy and theology founded by Francisco Suarez, of the Society of Jesus, Spain, 1548-1617. His philosophic position is, in general, that of Christian Aristotelianism. The immediate background of his thought is to be found in Albertinism, Thomism, Scotism and Nominalism.

Sunya-vada: A Buddhist theory (vada) holding the world to be void (sunya) or unreal. Otherwise known as Madhyamaka (q.v.), this Mahayana (q.v.) school as founded by Nagarjuna and elaborated in the Madhyama-kasastra, is hardly correctly translated by nihilism. To be sure, the phenomenal world is said to have no reality, yet the world underlying it defies description, also because of our inability to grasp the thing-in-itself (svabhava). All we know is its dependence on some other condition, its co-called "dependent origination". Thus, nothing definite being able to be said about the real, it is, like the apparent, as nothing, in other words, sunya, void. -- K.F.L.

Surrealism: Spiritualistic trend of art. A recent artistic school representing dreams interpreted according to Freud's theories. -- L.V.

Sutra: (Skr. string) An aphorism, the earliest form chosen for mnemonic reasons, in which philosophic thought was couched in India, necessitating often elaborate commentaries (bhasya) which frequently differ widely in their interpretation of the original and have occasioned vanous schools. -- K.F.L.

Suzie COBOL /soo'zee koh'bol/ 1. ({IBM}, probably from Frank Zappa's "Suzy Creamcheese") A coder straight out of training school who knows everything except the value of {comments} in plain English. Also (fashionable among personkind wishing to avoid accusations of sexism) "Sammy Cobol" or (in some non-IBM circles) "Cobol Charlie". 2. (proposed) Meta-name for any {code grinder}, analogous to {J. Random Hacker}. [{Jargon File}] (1995-02-06)

Symbolic Optimum DEUCE Assembly Program "language" (SODA) The symbolic {assembler} for a {one-level storage} {virtual machine} for the {English ELectric} {DEUCE}. ["SODA Manual of Operation", R. C. Brigham and C. G. Bell, School of Elec Eng, U New S Wales, Sydney, NSW, 1958]. (1994-11-04)

tangram ::: n. --> A Chinese toy made by cutting a square of thin wood, or other suitable material, into seven pieces, as shown in the cut, these pieces being capable of combination in various ways, so as to form a great number of different figures. It is now often used in primary schools as a means of instruction.

Tao chia: The Taoist school, the followers of Lao Tzu, Chuang Tzu, Lieh Tzu, etc., who "urged men to unity of spirit, teaching that all activities should be in harmony with the unseen (Tao), with abundant liberality toward all things in nature. As to method, they accept the orderly sequence of nature from the Yin Yang school, select the good points of Confucianists and Mohists, and combine with these the important points of the Logicians and Legalists. In accordance with the changes of the seasons, they respond to the development of natural objects."

Tao Hsueh: The "Moral Law' School. See li hsueh -- W.T.C.

Taoism, however, became too mystical, and Confucianism too formalistic. "Hundred schools" grew and flourished, many in direct opposition to Taoism and Confucianism. There was Mohism (Mo, founded by Mo Tzu, between 500 and 396 B.C.) which rejected formalism in favor of "benefit" and "utility" which are to be promoted through universal love (chien ai), practical observation and application, and obedience to the will of Heaven. There was Neo-Mohism (Mo che, 300 B.C.) which, in trying to prove the thesis of Mohism, developed an intricate system of logic. There was Sophism (ming chia, 400 B.C.) which displayed much sophistry about terms and concepts, particularly about the relationship between substance and quality (chien pai). There was Legalism (fa chia, 500-200 B.C.) which advocated law, statecraft, and authority as effective instruments of government. finally, there was the Yin Yang school (400-200 B.C.) which emphasized yin and yang as the two fundamental principles, always contrasting but complementary, and underlying all conceivable objects, qualities, situations, and relationships. It was this school that provided a common ground for the fusion of ancient divergent philosophical tendencies in medieval China.

taws ::: n. --> A leather lash, or other instrument of punishment, used by a schoolmaster.

Taylor, Alfred Edward: Born in 1869, professor of philosophy at St. Andrews and Edinburgh, after teaching for many years at Oxford. Taylor's metaphysics were predominantly Hegelian and idealist (as in Elements of Metaphysics) during his early years, in later years (as in numerous essays in Mind, and his Gifford Lectures Faith of a Moralist) he has become something of a neo-scholastic, although he follows no school exclusively. In his Gifford Lectures he argues from moral experience to God; in other essays, he declares that grounds for belief are found in cosmology, in conscience and in religious experience. As an Anglo-Catholic, he has given (in volume two of his Giffords) a learned apologia for this position, on philosophical grounds. -- W.N.P.

tenured graduate student "job" One who has been in graduate school for 10 years (the usual maximum is 5 or 6): a "ten-yeared" student (get it?). Actually, this term may be used of any grad student beginning in his seventh year. Students don't really get tenure, of course, the way professors do, but a tenth-year graduate student has probably been around the university longer than any untenured professor. [{Jargon File}] (1996-09-27)

term ::: n. --> That which limits the extent of anything; limit; extremity; bound; boundary.
The time for which anything lasts; any limited time; as, a term of five years; the term of life.
In universities, schools, etc., a definite continuous period during which instruction is regularly given to students; as, the school year is divided into three terms.
A point, line, or superficies, that limits; as, a line is the

text-book ::: n. --> A book with wide spaces between the lines, to give room for notes.
A volume, as of some classical author, on which a teacher lectures or comments; hence, any manual of instruction; a schoolbook.

Thales: 6th Cent. B.C., of the Milesian School of Greek Philosophy, is said to have predicted the eclipse of 585; had probably been to Egypt and was proficient in mathematics and physics. Thales, along with the other cosmological thinkers of the Ionian school, presupposed a single elementary cosmic matter at the base of the transformations of nature and declared this to be water. -- M.F.

The Academy continued as a school of philosophy until closed by Justinian in 529 A.D. The early scholars (Speusippus, Xenocrates, Polemo, Crates) were not great philosophers, they adopted a Pythagorean interpretation of the Ideas and concentrated on practical, moral problems. Following the Older Academy (347-247 B.C.), the Middle and New Academies (Arcesilaus and Carneades were the principal teachers) became scepticil and eclectic. Aristotle (384-322 B.C. ) studied with Plato for twenty years and embodied many Platonic views in his own philosophy. Platonism was very highly regarded by the Christian Fathers (Ambrose, Augustine, John Damascene and Anselm of Canterbury, for instance) and it continued as the approved philosophy of the Christian Church until the 12th century. From the 3rd century on, Neo-Platonism (see Plotinism) developed the other-worldly mystical side of Plato's thought. The School of Chartres (Bernard, Thierry, Wm. of Conches, Gilbert of Poitiers) in the 12th century was a center of Christian Platonism, interested chiefly in the cosmological theory of the Timaeus. The Renaissance witnessed a revival of Platonism in the Florentine Academy (Marsilio Ficino and the two Pico della Mirandolas). In England, the Cambridge Platonists (H. More, Th. Gale, J. Norris) in the 17th century started an interest in Plato, which has not yet died out in the English Universities. Today, the ethical writings of A. E. Taylor, the theoiy of essences developed by G. Santayana, and the metaphysics of A. N. Whitehead, most nearly approach a contemporary Platonism. -- V.J.B.

The diversity of concepts that Husserl himself expressed by the word "phenomenology" has been a source of diverse usages among thinkeis who came under his influence and are often referred to as "the phenomenological school." Husserl himself always meant by "phenomenology" a science of the subjective and its intended objects qua intentional; this core of sense pervades the development of his own concept of phenomenology as eidetic, transcendental, constitutive. Some thinkers, appropriating only the psychological version of this central concept, have developed a descriptive intentional psychology -- sometimes empirical, sometimes eidetic -- under the title "phenomenology." On the other hand, Husserl's broader concept of eidetic science based on seeing essences and essentially necessary relations -- especially his concept of material ontology -- has been not only adopted but made central by others, who define phenomenology accordingly. Not uncommonly, these groups reject Husserl's method of transcendental-phenomenological reduction and profess a realistic metaphysics. Finally, there are those who, emphasizing Husserl's cardinal principle that evidence -- seeing something that is itself presented -- is the only ultimate source of knowledge, conceive their phenomenology more broadly and etymologically, as explication of that which shows itself, whatever may be the latter 's nature and ontologicil status. -- D.C.

The first laboratory of experimental psychology was founded at Leipzig in 1879 by Wundt, who has been called "the first professional psychologist." With such research as that of Stumpf on sound; G. E. Müller on psycho-physics, color and learning; Ebbinghaus on memory; and Kulpe and the Würzburg school on the "higher thought processes," experimental psychology made rapid strides within the next two decades. In America, the chief standard bearer of Wundtian psychology was Titchener. Among the others who were instrumental in the introduction and development of experimental psychology in America, may be mentioned James, Hall, Münsterberg, Cattell, and Watson.

The general superiority of theology in this system over the admittedly distinct discipline of philosophy, makes it impossible for unaided reason to solve certain problems which Thomism claims are quite within the province of the latter, e.g., the omnipotence of God, the immortality of the soul. Indeed the Scotist position on this latter question has been thought by some critics to come quite close to the double standard of truth of Averroes, (q.v.) namely, that which is true in theology may be false in philosophy. The univocal assertion of being in God and creatures; the doctrine of universal prime matter (q.v.) in all created substances, even angels, though characteristically there are three kinds of prime matter); the plurality of forms in substances (e.g., two in man) giving successive generic and specific determinations of the substance; all indicate the opposition of Scotistic metaphysics to that of Thomism despite the large body of ideas the two systems have in common. The denial of real distinction between the soul and its faculties; the superiority of will over intellect, the attainment of perfect happiness through a will act of love; the denial of the absolute unchangeableness of the natural law in view of its dependence on the will of God, acts being good because God commanded them; indicate the further rejection of St. Thomas who holds the opposite on each of these questions. However the opposition is not merely for itself but that of a voluntarist against an intellectualist. This has caused many students to point out the affinity of Duns Scotus with Immanuel Kant. (q.v.) But unlike the great German philosopher who relies entirely upon the supremacy of moral consciousness, Duns Scotus makes a constant appeal to revelation and its order of truth as above all philosophy. In his own age, which followed immediately upon the great constructive synthesis of Saints Albert, Bonaventure, and Thomas, this lesser light was less a philosopher because he and his School were incapable of powerful synthesis and so gave themselves to analysis and controversy. The principal Scotists were Francis of Mayron (d. 1327) and Antonio Andrea (d. 1320); and later John of Basoles, John Dumbleton, Walter Burleigh, Alexander of Alexandria, Lychetus of Brescia and Nicholas de Orbellis. The complete works with a life of Duns Scotus were published in 1639 by Luke Wadding (Lyons) and reprinted by Vives in 1891. (Paris) -- C.A.H.

The mystical school, dominated by Eckehart, and the famous Peter Pomponazzi (+1525), is represented by Tauler (+1361) and Seuse (+1366), who tried to conform the Master's teaching with the Church's dogmas, and Jan van Ruysbroeck (+1381). From this school stemmed the anonymous "Deutsche Theologie" which Luther edited (1516). Gerson belonged to this group and also Nicholas of Cusa (+1464), the first systematic philosopher of modern times.

Theophrastus: (370-287 B.C.), the most important disciple and friend of Aristotle, left voluminous writings of which only fragments are extant; they dealt with many topics of philosophy and science (notably, botany) and defended his master's philosophy against rival schools of thought, particularly against Stoics. Cf. Characters of Theophrastus. -- R.R.V.

Theosophy: (Gr., lit. "divine wisdom") is a term introduced in the third century by Ammonius Saccas, the master of Plotinus to identify a recurring tendency prompted often by renewed impulses from the Orient, but implicit in mystery schools as that of Eleusis, among the Essenes and elsewhere. Theosophy differs from speculative philosophy in allowing validity to some classes of mystical experience as regard soul and spirit, and in recognising clairvoyance and telepathy and kindred forms of perception as linking the worlds of psyche and body. Its content describes a transcendental field as the only real (approximating to Brahman, Nous, and Pleroma) from which emerge material universes in series, with properties revealing that supreme Being. Two polarities appear as the first manifesting stage, consciousness or spirit (Brahma, Chaos, Holy Ghost), and matter or energy (Siva, Logos, Father). Simultaneously, life appears clothed in matter and spirit, as form or species (Vishnu, Cosmos, Son). In a sense, life is the direct reflection of the tnnscendent supreme, hence biological thinking has a privileged place in Theosophy. Thus, cycles of life are perceived in body, psyche, soul and spirit. The lesser of these is reincarnation of impersonal soul in many personalities. A larger epoch is "the cycle of necessity", when spirit evolves over vast periods. -- F.K.

The philosophy of Aristotle was continued after his death by other members of the Peripatetic school, the most important of whom were Theophrastus, Eudemus of Rhodes, and Strato of Lampsacus. In the Alexandrian Age, particularly after the editing of Aristotle's works by Andronicus of Rhodes (about 50 B.C.), Aristotelianism was the subject of numerous expositions and commentaries, such as those of Alexander of Aphrodisias, Themistius, John Philoponus, and Simplicius. With the closing of the philosophical schools in the sixth century the knowledge of Aristotle, except for fragments of the logical doctrine, almost disappeared in the west. It was preserved, however, by Arabian and Syrian scholars; from whom, with the revival of learning in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, it passed again to western Europe and became in Thomas Aquinas the philosophical basis of Christian theology. For the next few centuries the prestige of Aristotle was immense; he was "the philosopher," "the master of those who know." With the rise of modern science his authority has greatly declined. Yet Aristotelianism is still a force in modern thought: in Neo-Scholasticism; in recent psychology, whose behavioristic tendencies are in part a revival of Aristotelian modes of thought; in the various forms of vitalism in contemporary biology; in the dynamism of such thinkers as Bergson; and in the more catholic naturalism which has succeeded the mechanistic materialism of the last century, and which, whether by appeal to a doctrine of levels or by emphasis on immanent teleology, seems to be striving along Aristotelian lines for a conception of nature broad enough to include the religious, moral and artistic consciousness. Finally, a very large part of our technical vocabulary, both in science and in philosophy, is but the translation into modern tongues of the terms used by Aristotle, and carries with it, for better or worse, the distinctions worked out in his subtle mind. -- G.R.M.

The study of society, societal relations. Originally called Social Physics, meaning that the methods of the natural sciences were to be applied to the study of society. Whereas the pattern originally was physics and the first sociologists thought that it was possible to find laws of nature in the social realm (Quetelet, Comte, Buckle), others turned to biological considerations. The "organic" conception of society (Lilienfeld, Schaeffle) treated society as a complex organism, the evolutionists, Gumplowicz, Ratzenhofer, considered the struggle between different ethnic groups the basic factor in the evolution of social structures and institutions. Other sociologists accepted a psychological conception of society; to them psychological phenomena (imitation, according to Gabriel Tarde, consciousness of kind, according to F. H. Giddings) were the basic elements in social interrelations (see also W. McDougall, Alsworth Ross, etc.). These relations themselves were made the main object of sociological studies by G. Simmel, L. Wiese, Howard Becker. A kind of sociological realism was fostered by the French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, and his school. They considered society a reality, the group-mind an actual fact, the social phenomena "choses sociales". The new "sociology of knowledge", inaugurated by these French sociologists, has been further developed by M. Scheler, K. Mannheim and W. Jerusalem. Recently other branches of social research have separated somewhat from sociology proper: Anthropogeography, dealing with the influences of the physical environment upon society, demography, social psychology, etc. Problems of the methodology of the social sciences have also become an important topic of recent studies. -- W.E.

Thomists: John Capreolus, Thomistarum princeps, (+1444), Denis the Carthusian (+1471) and Peter Nigri (+c. 1484). Two other important schools of this period are the Latin Averroists and the Mystics. In the first group we find Peter d'Abano (+1315) who made Padua the center of this movement, John of Jandun (+1328), John Baconthorp (+1348), Averroistarum princeps, Paul of Perusio, Paul of Venice (+1429), Cajetan of Tiene (+1465).

Three senses of "Ockhamism" may be distinguished: Logical, indicating usage of the terminology and technique of logical analysis developed by Ockham in his Summa totius logicae; in particular, use of the concept of supposition (suppositio) in the significative analysis of terms. Epistemological, indicating the thesis that universality is attributable only to terms and propositions, and not to things as existing apart from discourse. Theological, indicating the thesis that no tneological doctrines, such as those of God's existence or of the immortality of the soul, are evident or demonstrable philosophically, so that religious doctrine rests solely on faith, without metaphysical or scientific support. It is in this sense that Luther is often called an Ockhamist.   Bibliography:   B. Geyer,   Ueberwegs Grundriss d. Gesch. d. Phil., Bd. II (11th ed., Berlin 1928), pp. 571-612 and 781-786; N. Abbagnano,   Guglielmo di Ockham (Lanciano, Italy, 1931); E. A. Moody,   The Logic of William of Ockham (N. Y. & London, 1935); F. Ehrle,   Peter von Candia (Muenster, 1925); G. Ritter,   Studien zur Spaetscholastik, I-II (Heidelberg, 1921-1922).     --E.A.M. Om, aum: (Skr.) Mystic, holy syllable as a symbol for the indefinable Absolute. See Aksara, Vac, Sabda. --K.F.L. Omniscience: In philosophy and theology it means the complete and perfect knowledge of God, of Himself and of all other beings, past, present, and future, or merely possible, as well as all their activities, real or possible, including the future free actions of human beings. --J.J.R. One: Philosophically, not a number but equivalent to unit, unity, individuality, in contradistinction from multiplicity and the mani-foldness of sensory experience. In metaphysics, the Supreme Idea (Plato), the absolute first principle (Neo-platonism), the universe (Parmenides), Being as such and divine in nature (Plotinus), God (Nicolaus Cusanus), the soul (Lotze). Religious philosophy and mysticism, beginning with Indian philosophy (s.v.), has favored the designation of the One for the metaphysical world-ground, the ultimate icility, the world-soul, the principle of the world conceived as reason, nous, or more personally. The One may be conceived as an independent whole or as a sum, as analytic or synthetic, as principle or ontologically. Except by mysticism, it is rarely declared a fact of sensory experience, while its transcendent or transcendental, abstract nature is stressed, e.g., in epistemology where the "I" or self is considered the unitary background of personal experience, the identity of self-consciousness, or the unity of consciousness in the synthesis of the manifoldness of ideas (Kant). --K.F.L. One-one: A relation R is one-many if for every y in the converse domain there is a unique x such that xRy. A relation R is many-one if for every x in the domain there is a unique y such that xRy. (See the article relation.) A relation is one-one, or one-to-one, if it is at the same time one-many and many-one. A one-one relation is said to be, or to determine, a one-to-one correspondence between its domain and its converse domain. --A.C. On-handedness: (Ger. Vorhandenheit) Things exist in the mode of thereness, lying- passively in a neutral space. A "deficient" form of a more basic relationship, termed at-handedness (Zuhandenheit). (Heidegger.) --H.H. Ontological argument: Name by which later authors, especially Kant, designate the alleged proof for God's existence devised by Anselm of Canterbury. Under the name of God, so the argument runs, everyone understands that greater than which nothing can be thought. Since anything being the greatest and lacking existence is less then the greatest having also existence, the former is not really the greater. The greatest, therefore, has to exist. Anselm has been reproached, already by his contemporary Gaunilo, for unduly passing from the field of logical to the field of ontological or existential reasoning. This criticism has been repeated by many authors, among them Aquinas. The argument has, however, been used, if in a somewhat modified form, by Duns Scotus, Descartes, and Leibniz. --R.A. Ontological Object: (Gr. onta, existing things + logos, science) The real or existing object of an act of knowledge as distinguished from the epistemological object. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ontologism: (Gr. on, being) In contrast to psychologism, is called any speculative system which starts philosophizing by positing absolute being, or deriving the existence of entities independently of experience merely on the basis of their being thought, or assuming that we have immediate and certain knowledge of the ground of being or God. Generally speaking any rationalistic, a priori metaphysical doctrine, specifically the philosophies of Rosmini-Serbati and Vincenzo Gioberti. As a philosophic method censored by skeptics and criticists alike, as a scholastic doctrine formerly strongly supported, revived in Italy and Belgium in the 19th century, but no longer countenanced. --K.F.L. Ontology: (Gr. on, being + logos, logic) The theory of being qua being. For Aristotle, the First Philosophy, the science of the essence of things. Introduced as a term into philosophy by Wolff. The science of fundamental principles, the doctrine of the categories. Ultimate philosophy; rational cosmology. Syn. with metaphysics. See Cosmology, First Principles, Metaphysics, Theology. --J.K.F. Operation: "(Lit. operari, to work) Any act, mental or physical, constituting a phase of the reflective process, and performed with a view to acquiring1 knowledge or information about a certain subject-nntter. --A.C.B.   In logic, see Operationism.   In philosophy of science, see Pragmatism, Scientific Empiricism. Operationism: The doctrine that the meaning of a concept is given by a set of operations.   1. The operational meaning of a term (word or symbol) is given by a semantical rule relating the term to some concrete process, object or event, or to a class of such processes, objectj or events.   2. Sentences formed by combining operationally defined terms into propositions are operationally meaningful when the assertions are testable by means of performable operations. Thus, under operational rules, terms have semantical significance, propositions have empirical significance.   Operationism makes explicit the distinction between formal (q.v.) and empirical sentences. Formal propositions are signs arranged according to syntactical rules but lacking operational reference. Such propositions, common in mathematics, logic and syntax, derive their sanction from convention, whereas an empirical proposition is acceptable (1) when its structure obeys syntactical rules and (2) when there exists a concrete procedure (a set of operations) for determining its truth or falsity (cf. Verification). Propositions purporting to be empirical are sometimes amenable to no operational test because they contain terms obeying no definite semantical rules. These sentences are sometimes called pseudo-propositions and are said to be operationally meaningless. They may, however, be 'meaningful" in other ways, e.g. emotionally or aesthetically (cf. Meaning).   Unlike a formal statement, the "truth" of an empirical sentence is never absolute and its operational confirmation serves only to increase the degree of its validity. Similarly, the semantical rule comprising the operational definition of a term has never absolute precision. Ordinarily a term denotes a class of operations and the precision of its definition depends upon how definite are the rules governing inclusion in the class.   The difference between Operationism and Logical Positivism (q.v.) is one of emphasis. Operationism's stress of empirical matters derives from the fact that it was first employed to purge physics of such concepts as absolute space and absolute time, when the theory of relativity had forced upon physicists the view that space and time are most profitably defined in terms of the operations by which they are measured. Although different methods of measuring length at first give rise to different concepts of length, wherever the equivalence of certain of these measures can be established by other operations, the concepts may legitimately be combined.   In psychology the operational criterion of meaningfulness is commonly associated with a behavioristic point of view. See Behaviorism. Since only those propositions which are testable by public and repeatable operations are admissible in science, the definition of such concepti as mind and sensation must rest upon observable aspects of the organism or its behavior. Operational psychology deals with experience only as it is indicated by the operation of differential behavior, including verbal report. Discriminations, or the concrete differential reactions of organisms to internal or external environmental states, are by some authors regarded as the most basic of all operations.   For a discussion of the role of operational definition in phvsics. see P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics, (New York, 1928) and The Nature of Physical Theory (Princeton, 1936). "The extension of operationism to psychology is discussed by C. C. Pratt in The Logic of Modem Psychology (New York. 1939.)   For a discussion and annotated bibliography relating to Operationism and Logical Positivism, see S. S. Stevens, Psychology and the Science of Science, Psychol. Bull., 36, 1939, 221-263. --S.S.S. Ophelimity: Noun derived from the Greek, ophelimos useful, employed by Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) in economics as the equivalent of utility, or the capacity to provide satisfaction. --J.J.R. Opinion: (Lat. opinio, from opinor, to think) An hypothesis or proposition entertained on rational grounds but concerning which doubt can reasonably exist. A belief. See Hypothesis, Certainty, Knowledge. --J.K.F- Opposition: (Lat. oppositus, pp. of oppono, to oppose) Positive actual contradiction. One of Aristotle's Post-predicaments. In logic any contrariety or contradiction, illustrated by the "Square of Opposition". Syn. with: conflict. See Logic, formal, § 4. --J.K.F. Optimism: (Lat. optimus, the best) The view inspired by wishful thinking, success, faith, or philosophic reflection, that the world as it exists is not so bad or even the best possible, life is good, and man's destiny is bright. Philosophically most persuasively propounded by Leibniz in his Theodicee, according to which God in his wisdom would have created a better world had he known or willed such a one to exist. Not even he could remove moral wrong and evil unless he destroyed the power of self-determination and hence the basis of morality. All systems of ethics that recognize a supreme good (Plato and many idealists), subscribe to the doctrines of progressivism (Turgot, Herder, Comte, and others), regard evil as a fragmentary view (Josiah Royce et al.) or illusory, or believe in indemnification (Henry David Thoreau) or melioration (Emerson), are inclined optimistically. Practically all theologies advocating a plan of creation and salvation, are optimistic though they make the good or the better dependent on moral effort, right thinking, or belief, promising it in a future existence. Metaphysical speculation is optimistic if it provides for perfection, evolution to something higher, more valuable, or makes room for harmonies or a teleology. See Pessimism. --K.F.L. Order: A class is said to be partially ordered by a dyadic relation R if it coincides with the field of R, and R is transitive and reflexive, and xRy and yRx never both hold when x and y are different. If in addition R is connected, the class is said to be ordered (or simply ordered) by R, and R is called an ordering relation.   Whitehcid and Russell apply the term serial relation to relations which are transitive, irreflexive, and connected (and, in consequence, also asymmetric). However, the use of serial relations in this sense, instead ordering relations as just defined, is awkward in connection with the notion of order for unit classes.   Examples: The relation not greater than among leal numbers is an ordering relation. The relation less than among real numbers is a serial relation. The real numbers are simply ordered by the former relation. In the algebra of classes (logic formal, § 7), the classes are partially ordered by the relation of class inclusion.   For explanation of the terminology used in making the above definitions, see the articles connexity, reflexivity, relation, symmetry, transitivity. --A.C. Order type: See relation-number. Ordinal number: A class b is well-ordered by a dyadic relation R if it is ordered by R (see order) and, for every class a such that a ⊂ b, there is a member x of a, such that xRy holds for every member y of a; and R is then called a well-ordering relation. The ordinal number of a class b well-ordered by a relation R, or of a well-ordering relation R, is defined to be the relation-number (q. v.) of R.   The ordinal numbers of finite classes (well-ordered by appropriate relations) are called finite ordinal numbers. These are 0, 1, 2, ... (to be distinguished, of course, from the finite cardinal numbers 0, 1, 2, . . .).   The first non-finite (transfinite or infinite) ordinal number is the ordinal number of the class of finite ordinal numbers, well-ordered in their natural order, 0, 1, 2, . . .; it is usually denoted by the small Greek letter omega. --A.C.   G. Cantor, Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Numbers, translated and with an introduction by P. E. B. Jourdain, Chicago and London, 1915. (new ed. 1941); Whitehead and Russell, Princtpia Mathematica. vol. 3. Orexis: (Gr. orexis) Striving; desire; the conative aspect of mind, as distinguished from the cognitive and emotional (Aristotle). --G.R.M.. Organicism: A theory of biology that life consists in the organization or dynamic system of the organism. Opposed to mechanism and vitalism. --J.K.F. Organism: An individual animal or plant, biologically interpreted. A. N. Whitehead uses the term to include also physical bodies and to signify anything material spreading through space and enduring in time. --R.B.W. Organismic Psychology: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, an instrument) A system of theoretical psychology which construes the structure of the mind in organic rather than atomistic terms. See Gestalt Psychology; Psychological Atomism. --L.W. Organization: (Lat. organum, from Gr. organon, work) A structured whole. The systematic unity of parts in a purposive whole. A dynamic system. Order in something actual. --J.K.F. Organon: (Gr. organon) The title traditionally given to the body of Aristotle's logical treatises. The designation appears to have originated among the Peripatetics after Aristotle's time, and expresses their view that logic is not a part of philosophy (as the Stoics maintained) but rather the instrument (organon) of philosophical inquiry. See Aristotelianism. --G.R.M.   In Kant. A system of principles by which pure knowledge may be acquired and established.   Cf. Fr. Bacon's Novum Organum. --O.F.K. Oriental Philosophy: A general designation used loosely to cover philosophic tradition exclusive of that grown on Greek soil and including the beginnings of philosophical speculation in Egypt, Arabia, Iran, India, and China, the elaborate systems of India, Greater India, China, and Japan, and sometimes also the religion-bound thought of all these countries with that of the complex cultures of Asia Minor, extending far into antiquity. Oriental philosophy, though by no means presenting a homogeneous picture, nevertheless shares one characteristic, i.e., the practical outlook on life (ethics linked with metaphysics) and the absence of clear-cut distinctions between pure speculation and religious motivation, and on lower levels between folklore, folk-etymology, practical wisdom, pre-scientiiic speculation, even magic, and flashes of philosophic insight. Bonds with Western, particularly Greek philosophy have no doubt existed even in ancient times. Mutual influences have often been conjectured on the basis of striking similarities, but their scientific establishment is often difficult or even impossible. Comparative philosophy (see especially the work of Masson-Oursel) provides a useful method. Yet a thorough treatment of Oriental Philosophy is possible only when the many languages in which it is deposited have been more thoroughly studied, the psychological and historical elements involved in the various cultures better investigated, and translations of the relevant documents prepared not merely from a philological point of view or out of missionary zeal, but by competent philosophers who also have some linguistic training. Much has been accomplished in this direction in Indian and Chinese Philosophy (q.v.). A great deal remains to be done however before a definitive history of Oriental Philosophy may be written. See also Arabian, and Persian Philosophy. --K.F.L. Origen: (185-254) The principal founder of Christian theology who tried to enrich the ecclesiastic thought of his day by reconciling it with the treasures of Greek philosophy. Cf. Migne PL. --R.B.W. Ormazd: (New Persian) Same as Ahura Mazdah (q.v.), the good principle in Zoroastrianism, and opposed to Ahriman (q.v.). --K.F.L. Orphic Literature: The mystic writings, extant only in fragments, of a Greek religious-philosophical movement of the 6th century B.C., allegedly started by the mythical Orpheus. In their mysteries, in which mythology and rational thinking mingled, the Orphics concerned themselves with cosmogony, theogony, man's original creation and his destiny after death which they sought to influence to the better by pure living and austerity. They taught a symbolism in which, e.g., the relationship of the One to the many was clearly enunciated, and believed in the soul as involved in reincarnation. Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Plato were influenced by them. --K.F.L. Ortega y Gasset, Jose: Born in Madrid, May 9, 1883. At present in Buenos Aires, Argentine. Son of Ortega y Munillo, the famous Spanish journalist. Studied at the College of Jesuits in Miraflores and at the Central University of Madrid. In the latter he presented his Doctor's dissertation, El Milenario, in 1904, thereby obtaining his Ph.D. degree. After studies in Leipzig, Berlin, Marburg, under the special influence of Hermann Cohen, the great exponent of Kant, who taught him the love for the scientific method and awoke in him the interest in educational philosophy, Ortega came to Spain where, after the death of Nicolas Salmeron, he occupied the professorship of metaphysics at the Central University of Madrid. The following may be considered the most important works of Ortega y Gasset:     Meditaciones del Quijote, 1914;   El Espectador, I-VIII, 1916-1935;   El Tema de Nuestro Tiempo, 1921;   España Invertebrada, 1922;   Kant, 1924;   La Deshumanizacion del Arte, 1925;   Espiritu de la Letra, 1927;   La Rebelion de las Masas, 1929;   Goethe desde Adentio, 1934;   Estudios sobre el Amor, 1939;   Ensimismamiento y Alteracion, 1939;   El Libro de las Misiones, 1940;   Ideas y Creencias, 1940;     and others.   Although brought up in the Marburg school of thought, Ortega is not exactly a neo-Kantian. At the basis of his Weltanschauung one finds a denial of the fundamental presuppositions which characterized European Rationalism. It is life and not thought which is primary. Things have a sense and a value which must be affirmed independently. Things, however, are to be conceived as the totality of situations which constitute the circumstances of a man's life. Hence, Ortega's first philosophical principle: "I am myself plus my circumstances". Life as a problem, however, is but one of the poles of his formula. Reason is the other. The two together function, not by dialectical opposition, but by necessary coexistence. Life, according to Ortega, does not consist in being, but rather, in coming to be, and as such it is of the nature of direction, program building, purpose to be achieved, value to be realized. In this sense the future as a time dimension acquires new dignity, and even the present and the past become articulate and meaning-full only in relation to the future. Even History demands a new point of departure and becomes militant with new visions. --J.A.F. Orthodoxy: Beliefs which are declared by a group to be true and normative. Heresy is a departure from and relative to a given orthodoxy. --V.S. Orthos Logos: See Right Reason. Ostensible Object: (Lat. ostendere, to show) The object envisaged by cognitive act irrespective of its actual existence. See Epistemological Object. --L.W. Ostensive: (Lat. ostendere, to show) Property of a concept or predicate by virtue of which it refers to and is clarified by reference to its instances. --A.C.B. Ostwald, Wilhelm: (1853-1932) German chemist. Winner of the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1909. In Die Uberwindung des wissenschaftlichen Materialistmus and in Naturphilosophie, his two best known works in the field of philosophy, he advocates a dynamic theory in opposition to materialism and mechanism. All properties of matter, and the psychic as well, are special forms of energy. --L.E.D. Oupnekhat: Anquetil Duperron's Latin translation of the Persian translation of 50 Upanishads (q.v.), a work praised by Schopenhauer as giving him complete consolation. --K.F.L. Outness: A term employed by Berkeley to express the experience of externality, that is the ideas of space and things placed at a distance. Hume used it in the sense of distance Hamilton understood it as the state of being outside of consciousness in a really existing world of material things. --J.J.R. Overindividual: Term used by H. Münsterberg to translate the German überindividuell. The term is applied to any cognitive or value object which transcends the individual subject. --L.W. P

throne ::: n. --> A chair of state, commonly a royal seat, but sometimes the seat of a prince, bishop, or other high dignitary.
Hence, sovereign power and dignity; also, the one who occupies a throne, or is invested with sovereign authority; an exalted or dignified personage.
A high order of angels in the celestial hierarchy; -- a meaning given by the schoolmen.

time-table ::: n. --> A tabular statement of the time at which, or within which, several things are to take place, as the recitations in a school, the departure and arrival of railroad trains or other public conveyances, the rise and fall of the tides, etc.
A plane surface divided in one direction with lines representing hours and minutes, and in the other with lines representing miles, and having diagonals (usually movable strings) representing the speed and position of various trains.

T. L. Heath, The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements, translated from the text of Heiberg, with introduction and commentary, 3 vols., Cambridge, England, 1908. Gerbert of Aurillac: (Pope Sylvester II, died 1003) Was one of the greatest scholars of the 10th century. He studied at Aurillac with Odo of Cluny, learned something of Arabian science during three years spent in Spain. He taught at the school of Rheims, became Abbot of Bobbio (982), Archbishop of Rheims (991), Archbishop of Ravenna (998), Pope in 999. A master of the seven liberal aits, he excelled in his knowledge of the quadrivium, i.e. logic, math., astron. and music. His works, the most important of which are on mathematics, are printed in PL 139, 57-338. -- V.J.B.

tol [Beng.] ::: [a Sanskrit school].

troubadour ::: n. --> One of a school of poets who flourished from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, principally in Provence, in the south of France, and also in the north of Italy. They invented, and especially cultivated, a kind of lyrical poetry characterized by intricacy of meter and rhyme, and usually of a romantic, amatory strain.

trouveur ::: n. --> One of a school of poets who flourished in Northern France from the eleventh to the fourteenth century.

truant ::: n. --> One who stays away from business or any duty; especially, one who stays out of school without leave; an idler; a loiterer; a shirk. ::: a. --> Wandering from business or duty; loitering; idle, and shirking duty; as, a truant boy.

Tsa chia: The "Miscellaneous" or "Mixed" School, which "drew from the Confucians and the Mohists and harmonized the Logicians and the Legalists," including Shih Tzu (fourth century B.C.), Lu Pu-wei (290?-235 B.C.), and Huai-nan Tzu (d. 122 B.C.) -- W.T.C.

Tsao Yen: Nothing is known of this founder of the Yin Yang School except that he was a scholar in the state of Ch'i in the thiid century B.C., who "inspected closely the rise and fall of the passive and active principles and wrote essays totalling more than one hundred thousand words. " His works are now lost. -- W.T.C.

tuition ::: n. --> Superintending care over a young person; the particular watch and care of a tutor or guardian over his pupil or ward; guardianship.
Especially, the act, art, or business of teaching; instruction; as, children are sent to school for tuition; his tuition was thorough.
The money paid for instruction; the price or payment for instruction.

Tung: (a) Activity; motion; "the constant feature of the active or male cosmic principle (yang)" of the universe, just as passivity is the constant feature of the passive or female cosmic principle (yin). According to Chou Lien-hsi 1017-1173), "the Great Ultimate (T'ai Chi) moves, becomes active, and generates the active principle (yang). When its activity reaches its limit, it becomes tranquil, engendering the passive principle (yin). When the Great Ultimate becomes completely tranquil, it begins to move again. Thus, movement and tranquillity alternate and become the occasion of each other, giving rise to the distinction of yin and yang, and the Two Primary Modes are thus established." To the entire Neo Confucian school, activity is potential tranquillity (ching).

T'ung: Mere identity, or sameness, especially in social institutions and standards, which is inferior to harmony (ho) in which social distinctions and differences are in complete concord. (Confucianism). Agreement, as in "agreement with the superiors" (shang t'ung). The method of agreement, which includes identity, generic relationship, co-existence, and partial resemblance. "Identity means two substances having one name. Generic relationship means inclusion in the same whole. Both being in the same room is a case of co-existence. Partial resemblance means having some points of resemblance." See Mo chi. (Neo-Mohism). --W.T.C. T'ung i: The joint method of similarities and differences, by which what is present and what is absent can be distinguished. See Mo chi. --W.T.C. Tung Chung-shu: (177-104 B.C.) was the leading Confucian of his time, premier to two feudal princes, and consultant to the Han emperor in framing national policies. Firmly believing in retribution, he strongly advocated the "science of catastrophic and anomalies," and became the founder and leader of medieval Confucianism which was extensively confused with the Yin Yang philosophy. Extremely antagonistic towards rival schools, he established Confucianism as basis of state religion and education. His best known work, Ch-un-ch'iu Fan-lu, awaits English translation. --W.T.C. Turro y Darder, Ramon: Spanish Biologist and Philosopher. Born in Malgrat, Dec. 8 1854. Died in Barcelona, June 5, 1926. As a Biologist, his conclusions about the circulation of the blood, more than half a century ago, were accepted and verified by later researchers and theorists. Among other things, he showed the insufficiency and unsatisfactoriness of the mechanistic and neomechanistic explanations of the circulatory process. He was also the first to busy himself with endocrinology and bacteriological immunity. As a philosopher Turro combated the subjectivistic and metaphysical type of psychology, and circumscribed scientific investigation to the determination of the conditions that precede the occurrence of phenomena, considering useless all attempt to reach final essences. Turro does not admit, however, that the psychical series or conscious states may be causally linked to the organic series. His formula was: Physiology and Consciousness are phenomena that occur, not in connection, but in conjunction. His most important work is Filosofia Critica, in which he has put side by side two antagonistic conceptions of the universe, the objective and the subjectne conceptions. In it he holds that, at the present crisis of science and philosophy, the business of intelligence is to realize that science works on philosophical presuppositions, but that philosophy is no better off with its chaos of endless contradictions and countless systems of thought. The task to be realized is one of coming together, to undo what has been done and get as far as the original primordial concepts with which philosophical inquiry began. --J.A.F. Tychism: A term derived from the Greek, tyche, fortune, chance, and employed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) to express any theory which regards chance as an objective reality, operative in the cosmos. Also the hypothesis that evolution occurs owing to fortuitous variations. --J.J.R. Types, theory of: See Logic, formal, § 6; Paradoxes, logical; Ramified theory of types. Type-token ambiguity: The words token and type are used to distinguish between two senses of the word word.   Individual marks, more or less resembling each other (as "cat" resembles "cat" and "CAT") may (1) be said to be "the same word" or (2) so many "different words". The apparent contradiction therby involved is removed by speaking of the individual marks as tokens, in contrast with the one type of which they are instances. And word may then be said to be subject to type-token ambiguity. The terminology can easily be extended to apply to any kind of symbol, e.g. as in speaking of token- and type-sentences.   Reference: C. S. Peirce, Collected Papers, 4.517. --M.B. Tz'u: (a) Parental love, kindness, or affection, the ideal Confucian virtue of parents.   (b) Love, kindness in general. --W.T.C. Tzu hua: Self-transformation or spontaneous transformation without depending on any divine guidance or eternal agency, but following the thing's own principle of being, which is Tao. (Taoism). --W.T.C. Tzu jan: The natural, the natural state, the state of Tao, spontaneity as against artificiality. (Lao Tzu; Huai-nan Tzu, d. 122 B.C.). --W.T.C. U

Turing 1. {Alan Turing}. 2. R.C. Holt "" & J.R. Cordy "", U Toronto, 1982. Descendant of Concurrent Euclid, an airtight super-Pascal. Used mainly for teaching programming at both high school and university level. Available from Holt Software Assocs, Toronto. Versions for Sun, {MS-DOS}, Mac, etc. E-mail: "". ["Turing Language Report", R.C. Holt & J.R. Cordy, Report CSRI-153, CSRI, U Toronto, Dec 1983]. ["The Turing Programming Language", R.C. Holt & J.R. Cordy, CACM 31(12) (Dec 1988)].

turnhalle ::: n. --> A building used as a school of gymnastics.

tyranny ::: n. --> The government or authority of a tyrant; a country governed by an absolute ruler; hence, arbitrary or despotic exercise of power; exercise of power over subjects and others with a rigor not authorized by law or justice, or not requisite for the purposes of government.
Cruel government or discipline; as, the tyranny of a schoolmaster.
Severity; rigor; inclemency.

ubiquitarian ::: n. --> One of a school of Lutheran divines which held that the body of Christ is present everywhere, and especially in the eucharist, in virtue of his omnipresence. Called also ubiquitist, and ubiquitary.

undergraduate ::: n. --> A member of a university or a college who has not taken his first degree; a student in any school who has not completed his course. ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to an undergraduate, or the body of undergraduates.

Unitarianism: The mme for the theological view which emphasises the oneness of God in opposition to the Triitarian formula (q.v.). Although the term is modern, the idea underlying Unitarianism is old. In Christian theology any expression of the status of Jesus as being less than a metaphysical part of Deity is of the spirit of Unitarianism (e.g., Dynamistic Monarchianists, Adoptionists, Socinians, and many others). Unitarians hold only the highest regard for Jesus but refuse to bind that regard to a Trinitarian metaphysics. In general, their views of the religious life have been prophetic of liberal thought. Today there are numbers of liberal Christian ministers who are Unitarian in thought but not in name. The British and Foreign Unitarian Association dates formally to 1825. Manchester College, Oxford, was claimed Unitarian. Leading theologians were Joseph Priestly (1733-1804), James Martineau (1805-1900), James Drummond and J. E. Carpenter. American Unitarianism wis given expression in King's Chapel, Boston (1785), in a number of associations, in Meaddville Theological School (1844) and Harvard Divinity School (the chief seat of the movement prior to 1878). Channing (1780-1842) and Theodore Parker (1810-1860) directed the movement into wider liberal channels. -- V.F.

University of East London "body, education" (UEL) A UK University with six academic Faculties: Design and The Built Environment, East London Business School, Institute Of Health and Rehabilitation, Faculty Of Science, Social Sciences and Technology. {(}. (1994-11-29)

University of Michigan "body, education" A large cosmopolitan university in the Midwest USA. Over 50000 students are enrolled at the University of Michigan's three campuses. The students come from 50 states and over 100 foreign countries. 70% of the University's students graduated in the top 10% of their high school class. 90% rank in the top 20% of their high school class. 60% of the students receive financial aid. The main Ann Arbor Campus lies in the Huron River valley, 40 miles west of Detroit. The campus boasts 2700 acres with 200 buildings, six million volumes in 23 libraries, nine museums, seven hospitals, hundreds of laboratories and institutes, and over 18000 {microcomputers}. {(}. (1995-02-23)

Upanishads :::which leads to the end of knowledge; there are three main schools of vedanta

Usenet "messaging" /yoos'net/ or /yooz'net/ (Or "Usenet news", from "Users' Network") A distributed {bulletin board} system and the people who post and read articles thereon. Originally implemented in 1979 - 1980 by Steve Bellovin, Jim Ellis, Tom Truscott and Steve Daniel at Duke University, and supported mainly by {Unix} machines, it swiftly grew to become international in scope and, before the advent of the {web}, probably the largest decentralised information utility in existence. Usenet encompassed government agencies, universities, high schools, businesses of all sizes and home computers of all descriptions. As of early 1993, it hosted over 1200 {newsgroups} ("groups" for short) and an average of 40 megabytes (the equivalent of several thousand paper pages) of new technical articles, news, discussion, chatter, and {flamage} every day. By November 1999, the number of groups had grown to over 37,000. To join in, you need a {Usenet provider (}. Originally you needed a {news reader} program but there are now several web gateways, cheifly {Google Groups (} (originally {Deja News}). Some {web browsers} used to include news readers and {URLs} beginning "news:" referred to Usenet newsgroups. {Network News Transfer Protocol} is a {protocol} used to transfer news articles between a news {server} and a {news reader}. In the beginning, not all Usenet hosts were on the Internet. The {uucp} {protocol} was sometimes used to transfer articles between servers, though this became increasingly rare with the spread of the {Internet}. [Gene Spafford "", "What is Usenet?", regular posting to {news:news.announce.newusers}]. (2017-09-26)

usher ::: n. --> An officer or servant who has the care of the door of a court, hall, chamber, or the like; hence, an officer whose business it is to introduce strangers, or to walk before a person of rank. Also, one who escorts persons to seats in a church, theater, etc.
An under teacher, or assistant master, in a school. ::: v. t.

us "networking" The {country code} for the United States. Usually used only by schools, libraries, and some state and local governments. Other US sites, and many international ones, use the non-national {top-level domains} .com, .edu etc. (1999-01-27)

Vaibhasika: (Skr.) A Buddist school of realism so named after a commentary (vibhasa) on one of their standard texts, same as Bahyapratyaksavada (q.v.) -- K.F.L.

valentinian ::: n. --> One of a school of Judaizing Gnostics in the second century; -- so called from Valentinus, the founder.

veterinary ::: a. --> Of or pertaining to the art of healing or treating the diseases of domestic animals, as oxen, horses, sheep, etc.; as, a veterinary writer or school.

VII. Probability as a Physical Magnitude determined by Axioms.. This theory, which is favoured mainly by the Intuitionist school of mathematics, considers probability as a physical constant of which frequencies are measures. Thus, any frequency is an approximate measure of one physical constant attached to an event and to a set of trials: this constant is the probability of that event over the set of trials. As the observed frequencies differ little for large numbers of trials from their corresponding probabilities, some obvious properties of frequencies may be extended to probabilities. This is done without proceeding to the limit, but through general approximation as in the case of physical magnitudes. These properties are not constructed (as in the axiomatization of Mises), but simply described as such, they form a set of axioms defining probability. The classical postulates involved in the treatises of Laplace, Bertrand or Poincare have been modified in this case, under the joint influence of the discovery of measure by Borei, and of the use of abstract sets. Their new form has been fully stated by Kolmogoroff and interpreted by Frechet who proposes to call this latest theory the 'modernized axiomatic definition' of probability. Its interpretation requires that it should be preceded by an inductive synthesis, and followed by numerical verifications.

vijnanavada. ::: "Doctrine of Consciousness"; one of two major schools of Mahayana buddhism which holds that Reality is consciousness only and all that exists are minds and their experiences

Vijnana-vada: (Skr.) Theory (vada) of consciousness, specifically that consciousness is of the essence of reality; also the Buddhist school of subjective idealism otherwise known as Yogacara (q.v.). -- K.F.L.

VisiCalc "application, tool, business, history" /vi'zi-calk/ The first {spreadsheet} program, conceived in 1978 by {Dan Bricklin}, while he was an MBA student at Harvard Business School. Inspired by a demonstration given by {Douglas Engelbart} of a {point-and-click} {user interface}, Bricklin set out to design an {application} that would combine the intuitiveness of pencil and paper calculations with the power of a {programmable pocket calculator}. Bricklin's design was based on the (paper) financial spreadsheet, a kind of document already used in business planning. (Some of Bricklin's notes for VisiCalc were scribbled on the back of a spreadsheet pad.) VisiCalc was probably not the first application to use a spreadsheet model, but it did have a number of original features, all of which continue to be fundamental to spreadsheet software. These include {point-and-type} editing, {range} {replication} and formulas that update automatically with changes to other {cells}. VisiCalc is widely credited with creating the sudden demand for desktop computers that helped fuel the {microcomputer} boom of the early 1980s. Thousands of business people with little or no technical expertise found that they could use VisiCalc to create sophisticated financial programs. This makes VisiCalc one of the first {killer apps}. {Dan Bricklin's Site (}. (2003-07-05)

V. Spanish Renaissance (16-17 cent.). This renaissance took place in the Thomistic school and was remotely prepared for by such figures as Thomas del Vio (Cajetan) (+1534), Peter Crockaert (+1514), Francis de Sylvestris (+1528), Conrad Koellin (1536) and Chrysostom Javellus (+1550). It began as a concerted movement under Francis Victoria (+1566) at Salamanca and Ignatius Loyola (+1556), founder of the Society of Jesus. Dominicans of note were: Dominic Soto (1560), Melchior Cano (+1560), de Medina (+1581), and Banez (+1604). Jesuits: Francis Toledo (+1596), Fonseca (+1599), Molina (+1600), Vasquez (+1604), Lessius (+1623), de Valentia (+1603), B»llarmine (+1625), Francis Suarez (+1617), the greatest philosopher and jurist of this period, whose Disputationes Metaphysicae constitutes perhaps the greatest philosophical work produced by Scholasticism. Others worthy of mention: Cosmas de Lerma (+1642), John a S. Thoma (+1644), Goudin (+1695), Philip a SS. Trinitate (+1671), Ruiz de Montoya (+1632), Cosmas Alamannus (+1634), Hurtado de Mendoza (+1651), De Lugo (+1660), Arriaga (+1667), Sylvester Maurus (+1687).

waggery ::: n. --> The manner or action of a wag; mischievous merriment; sportive trick or gayety; good-humored sarcasm; pleasantry; jocularity; as, the waggery of a schoolboy.

WarGames "recreation" (Not "War Games") A 1983 film about a schoolboy {cracker} using a {wardialer} to try to break into a games company's computer and accidentally connecting to a {backdoor} into "Whopper", a ficticious {C3} computer at Norad (USAF). He then procedes to unwittingly initiate global thermonuclear warfare. Playing naughts and crosses finally teaches Whopper that the only way to win the game is never to play. {IMDb (}. (1999-03-08)

Wesen: (Ger. being, essence, nature) Designates essential being without which a thing has no reality. It has been conceived variously in the history of philosophy, as Ousia or constant being by Aristotle; as essenitia, real or nominal, or species, by the Schoolmen; as principle of all that which belongs to the possibility of a thing, by Kant; generally as that which is unconditionally necessary in the concept of a thing or is not dependent on external, causal, temporal or special circumstances. Its contrast is that which is unwesentlich (defined by Schuppe as that which has relation to or for something else), accidental, contingent. -- K.F.L.

Windelband, Wilhelm: Wmdelband (1848-1915) was preeminently an outstanding historian of philosophy. He has nowhere given a systematic presentation of his own views, but has expressed them only in unconnected essays and discourses. But in these he made some suggestions of great import on account of which he has been termed the founder and head of the "South-Western German School." He felt that he belonged to the tradition of German Idealism without definitely styling himself a Neo-Kantian, Neo-Fichtean or Neo-Hegelian. His fundamental position is that whereas it is for science to determine facts, it is for philosophy to determine values. Facts may be gathered from experience, but values, i.e., what "ought" to be thought, felt and done, cannot and hence must in some sense be a priori. Of particular significance was his effort -- later worked out by H. Rickert -- to point out a fundamental distinction between natural and historical science: the former aims at establishing general laws and considers particular facts only insofar as they are like others. In contrast to this "nomothetic" type of science, history is "idiographic", i.e., it is interested in the particular as such, but, of course, not equally in all particulars, but in such only as have some significance from the point of view of value. -- H.G.

Woodbridge, Frederick James Eugene: (1867-1940) Was Professor of Philosophy of Columbia University and one of the Editors of the Journal of Philosophy. He was an important member of the realist school. For him consciousness was a relation of meaning, a connection of objects and structure was a notion of greater philosophic value than substance. His best known works are Philosophy of Hobbes, The Realm of Mind and Nature and Mind. -- L.E.D.

Wu chiao: The Five Teachings. See wu ch'ang. Wu hsing: The Five Agents, Elements or Powers of Water, Fire, Wood, Metal and Earth, the interaction of which gives rise to the multiplicity of things, and which have their correspondence in the five senses, tastes, colors, tones, the five virtues, the five atmospheric conditions, the five ancient emperors, etc. Also called wu te. (The Yin Yang School in the third and fourth centuries B. C. and the Han dynasty, especially Pan Ku, 32-92 A.D., and Tung Chung-shu, 177-104 B.C.) The Five Agents which are the five vital forces (ch'i) engendered by the transformation of yang, the active cosmic principle, and its union with yin, the passive cosmic principle, each with its specific nature. When the being of the Great Ultimate (T'ai Chi) and the essence of yin and yang come into mysterious union, determinate being ensues, with the heavenly principle, yang, constituting the male element and the earthly principle, yin, constituting the female element, giving rise to the myriad things. (Chou Lien-hsi, 1017-1073). The Five Constant Virtues. See wu ch'ang.

Wu te: (a) The Five Powers, or the characteristics of the Five Agents or Elements (wu hsing) of the Yin Yang school.

Xenophanes of Colophon (c. 570- c 480 B.C.) A contemporary of Pythagoras who may have been a student of Anaximander. Usually associated with the Milesian school, his studies carried him into an examination of the phenomena of nature. He held that all living creatures had an origin, that plants and animals had natural origins. -- E.H.

Yi: Change. See: i. Yin yang: Passive and active principles, respectively, of the universe, or the female, negative force and the male, positive force, always contrasting but complimentary. Yang and yin are expressed in heaven and earth, man and woman, father and son, shine and rain, hardness and softness, good and evil, white and black, upper and lower, great and small, odd number and even number, joy and sorrow, reward and punishment, agreement and opposition, life and death, advance and retreat, love and hate, and all conceivable objects, qualities, situations, and relationships. The Two Modes (i -- --and --in trigram, or kua, symbols) of the Great Ultimate (T'ai Chi), from the interplay of which all things are engendered. A system constituted by the Five Agents or Elements (wu hsing) of Water, Fire, Wood, Metal, and Earth, which in turn constitute the Great Ultimate. (Chou Lien-hsi, 1017-1073). The two forces of ch'i, or the vital force which is the material principle of the universe. (Neo-Confucianism). Name of a school (400-200 B.C.) headed by Tsou Yen, which advocated that all events are manifestations of the passive or female force and the active or male force of the universe, and which was closely associated with popular geomancy, astrology, etc. --W.T.C. Yo: Music, or the social and cosmic principle of harmony. See: li (propriety). -- W.T.C.

Yogacara: A Mahayana (q.v.) Buddhist school which puts emphasis on Yoga (q.v.) as well is acara, ethical conduct. Believing in subjective idealism, it is also designated as Vijnana-vada (q.v.). Since we know the world never apart from the form it has in consciousness, the latter is an essential to it. All things exist in consciousness, they cannot be proven to exist otherwise. -- K.F.L.

Zeno the Stoic: (c. 340-265 B.C.) A native of Cyprus and the founder of the Stoic School in Athens. His philosophy was built on the principle that reality is a rational order in which nature is controlled by laws of Reason, interpreted in the vein of pantheism. Men's lives are guided by Providence against which it is futile to resist and to which wise men willingly submit. -- R.B.W.

QUOTES [38 / 38 - 1500 / 18742]

KEYS (10k)

   4 Sri Aurobindo
   3 R Buckminster Fuller
   2 John Lennon
   2 Albert Einstein
   1 Yahya Suhaward
   1 Stanley Kubrick
   1 Sri Bhagavan
   1 Sri Aurobindo
   1 Seymour Papert
   1 Saving of the School of Zen
   1 Saint John Bosco
   1 Ralph Waldo Emerson
   1 Peter J Carroll
   1 Noam Chomsky
   1 Neil deGrasse Tyson
   1 Muhammad Ali
   1 Miriam
   1 Mao Zedong
   1 Manly P Hall
   1 Jean Piaget
   1 Hugh of Saint Victor
   1 Howard Gardner
   1 Haemin Sunim
   1 George Bernanos
   1 Frank Zappa
   1 Dalai Lama
   1 Daily Evolver
   1 Clement of Alexandria
   1 Basil the Great
   1 Aberjhani
   1 ?


   20 Mark Twain
   11 Anonymous
   10 J K Rowling
   5 Schoolboy Q
   5 Rush Limbaugh
   5 Robert T Kiyosaki
   5 Rick Riordan
   5 Albert Einstein
   4 Thomas Carlyle
   4 Stephen D Krashen
   4 Seth Godin
   4 Robert Frost
   4 Robert A Heinlein
   4 Ray Bradbury
   4 Nikki Giovanni
   4 Mahatma Gandhi
   4 Leo Tolstoy
   4 John Taylor Gatto
   4 Henry Ward Beecher
   4 David Brooks

1:I have realized why corrupt politicians do nothing to improve the quality of public school education. They are terrified of educated voters. ~ Miriam,
2:The severest school of anarchism rejects all compromise with communism. ~ Sri Aurobindo, The Human Cycle, The End of the Curve of Reason,
3:Did something disappoint you?
Did something sadden you?
The school of life wanted to teach you
an important lesson through that experience. ~ Haemin Sunim,
4:When the school of God's law admits this power of reason, it cultivates it diligently, skillfully nurtures it, and with God's help brings it to perfection. ~ Basil the Great,
5:Discover John Amos Comenius famous and rare quotes. Share John Amos Comenius quotations about school, humanity and teaching. "The proper education of the young does not..." ~ ?,
6:A school without music is a school without a soul, for music aids education. It is a most effective means to obtain discipline, morality, and help good feeling. ~ Saint John Bosco,
7:Your pain is a school unto itself-- and your joy a lovely temple." ~ Aberjhani, (b.1957) historian, columnist, novelist, poet, artist, and editor," Wrote "The River of Winged Dreams," "Wikipedia.,
8:Friendship is the hardest thing in the world to explain. It's not something you learn in school. But if you haven't learned the meaning of friendship, you really haven't learned anything. ~ Muhammad Ali,
9:When I went to school, they asked me what I wanted to be when I grew up. I wrote down 'happy.' They told me I didn't understand the assignment, and I told them they didn't understand life." ~ John Lennon,
10:We as economic society are going to have to pay our whole population to go to school and pay it to stay at school. ~ R Buckminster Fuller, Education Automation: Freeing the Scholar to Return to His Studie,
11:The mind is a clear and polished mirror and our continual duty is to keep it pure and never allow dust to gather upon its face. ~ Saving of the School of Zen, the Eternal Wisdom
12:If you want others to be happy practice compassion. If you want to be happy, practice compassion." ~ Dalai Lama, (14th , b. 1935). Dalai Lamas are important monks of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism, Wikipedia.,
13:In the language of duality Alone are questions and answers. In non-duality they are not." ~ Sri Bhagavan, (b. 1949) a spiritual teacher from India, and founder of Oneness University, a spiritual school located in South India, Wikipedia.,
14:When lies have been accepted for some time, the truth always astounds with an air of novelty." ~ Clement of Alexandria, (c. 150 - c. 215), Christian theologian and philosopher who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria, Wikipedia.,
15:What honor I have, and my bit of courage, I inherit from the little creature [the child I used to be], so mysterious to me now, scuttling through the September rain across streaming meadows, his heart heavy at the thought of going back to school. ~ George Bernanos,
16:You are the traveler; you are the path; you are the destination. Be careful never to lose the way to yourself." ~ Yahya Suhaward, (1154-1191) Persian philosopher and founder of the Iranian school of Illuminationism, an important school in Islamic philosophy, Wikipedia.,
17:Drop out of school before your mind rots from exposure to our mediocre educational system. Forget about the Senior Prom and go to the library and educate yourself if you've got any guts. Some of you like Pep rallies and plastic robots who tell you what to read. ~ Frank Zappa,
18:Every maker of video games knows something that the makers of curriculum don't seem to understand. You'll never see a video game being advertised as being easy. Kids who do not like school will tell you it's not because it's too hard. It's because it's--boring ~ Seymour Papert,
19:I am convinced that the act of thinking logically cannot possibly be natural to the human mind. If it were, then mathematics would be everybody's easiest course at school and our species would not have taken several millennia to figure out the scientific method. ~ Neil deGrasse Tyson,
20:When I was 5 years old, my mother always told me that happiness was the key to life. When I went to school, they asked me what I wanted to be when I grew up. I wrote down 'happy'. They told me I didn't understand the assignment, and I told them they didn't understand life. ~ John Lennon,
21:Everything you've learned in school as 'obvious' becomes less and less obvious as you begin to study the universe. For example, there are no solids in the universe. There's not even a suggestion of a solid. There are no absolute continuums. There are no surfaces. There are no straight lines
   ~ R Buckminster Fuller,
22:Integral theory is a school of philosophy that seeks to integrate all of human wisdom into a new, emergent worldview that is able to accommodate the gifts of all previous worldviews, including those which have been historically at odds: science and religion, Eastern and Western schools of thought, and pre-modern, modern and post-modern worldviews. ~ Daily Evolver,
23:The book, the college, the school of art, the institution of any kind, stop with some past utterance of genius. . . . They look backward and not forward. But genius looks forward: the eyes of man are set in his forehead, not in his hindhead: man hopes: genius creates. Whatever talents may be, if the man create not, the pure efflux of the Deity is not his; - cinders and smoke there may be, but not yet flame. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
24:The glory he had glimpsed must be his home. ||19.2||

A brighter heavenlier sun must soon illume
This dusk room with its dark internal stair,
The infant soul in its small nursery school
Mid objects meant for a lesson hardly learned
Outgrow its early grammar of intellect
And its imitation of Earth-Nature’s art,
Its earthly dialect to God-language change,
In living symbols study Reality
And learn the logic of the Infinite. ||19.3||

The Ideal must be Nature’s common truth,
The body illumined with the indwelling God,
The heart and mind feel one with all that is,
A conscious soul live in a conscious world. ||19.4|| ~ Sri Aurobindo, Savitri, 1:5, || 19.2 - 19.4 ||,
25:We should do away with the absolutely specious notion that everybody has to earn a living. It is a fact today that one in ten thousand of us can make a technological breakthrough capable of supporting all the rest. The youth of today are absolutely right in recognizing this nonsense of earning a living. We keep inventing jobs because of this false idea that everybody has to be employed at some kind of drudgery because, according to Malthusian Darwinian theory he must justify his right to exist. So we have inspectors of inspectors and people making instruments for inspectors to inspect inspectors. The true business of people should be to go back to school and think about whatever it was they were thinking about before somebody came along and told them they had to earn a living.
   ~ R Buckminster Fuller,
26:This is what you shall do; Love the earth and sun and the animals, despise riches, give alms to everyone that asks, stand up for the stupid and crazy, devote your income and labor to others, hate tyrants, argue not concerning God, have patience and indulgence toward the people, take off your hat to nothing known or unknown or to any man or number of men, go freely with powerful uneducated persons and with the young and with the mothers of families, read these leaves in the open air every season of every year of your life, re-examine all you have been told at school or church or in any book, dismiss whatever insults your own soul, and your very flesh shall be a great poem and have the richest fluency not only in its words but in the silent lines of its lips and face and between the lashes of your eyes and in every motion and joint of your body. ~ Walt Whitman,
27:And the first of the adepts covered His shame with a cloth, walking backwards, and was white. And the second of the adepts covered his shame with a cloth, walking sideways, and was yellow. And the third of the adepts made a mock of His nakedness, walking forwards, and was black. And these are the three great schools of the Magi, who are also the three Magi that journeyed unto Bethlehem; and because thou hast not wisdom, thou shalt not know which school prevaileth, or if the three schools be not one.*
   * This doctrine of the Three Schools is of extreme interest. Roughly, it may be said that the White is the Pure Mystic, whose attitude to God is one of reverence. The Yellow School conceals the Mysteries indeed, but examines them as it goes along. The Black School is that of pure Scepticism. We are now ready to study the philosophical bases of these three Schools.
   ~ Aleister Crowley, Magick Without Tears?, 43?,
28:She sets the hard inventions of her brain
In a pattern of eternal fixity:
Indifferent to the cosmic dumb demand,
Unconscious of too close realities,
Of the unspoken thought, the voiceless heart,
She leans to forge her credos and iron codes
And metal structures to imprison life
And mechanic models of all things that are.
For the world seen she weaves a world conceived:
She spins in stiff but unsubstantial lines
Her gossamer word-webs of abstract thought,
Her segment systems of the Infinite,
Her theodicies and cosmogonic charts
And myths by which she explains the inexplicable.
At will she spaces in thin air of mind
Like maps in the school-house of intellect hung,
Forcing wide Truth into a narrow scheme,
Her numberless warring strict philosophies;
Out of Nature's body of phenomenon
She carves with Thought's keen edge in rigid lines,
Like rails for the World-Magician's power to run, ~ Sri Aurobindo, Savitri,
29:Recommended Reading
David Foster Wallace - Infinite Jest
DH Lawrence - The Rainbow
Gabriel Garcia Marquez - Love in the Time of Cholera
Karl Ove Knausgaard - My Struggle
Virginia Woolf - To The Lighthouse
Ben Lerner - The Topeka School
Sally Rooney - Conversations With Friends
Nell Zink - The Wallcreeper
Elena Ferrante - The Days of Abandonment
Jack Kerouac - Dharma Bums
Walt Whitman - Leaves of Grass
Michael Murphy - Golf in the Kingdom
Barbara Kingsolver - Prodigal Summer
Albertine Sarrazin - Astragal
Rebecca Solnit - The Faraway Nearby
Michael Paterniti - Love and Other Ways of Dying
Rainer Maria Rilke - Book of Hours
James Baldwin - Another Country
Roberto Calasso - Ka
Translation by S. Radhakrishan - Principle Upanisads
Chogyam Trungpa - Cutting Through Spiritual Materialism
Translation by Georg Feuerstein - Yoga Sutra
Richard Freeman - The Mirror of Yoga
Translation by S. Radhakrishan - The Bhagavad Gita
Shrunyu Suzuki - Zen Mind Beginner's Mind
Heinrich Zimmer - Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization
Sogyal Rinpoche - The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying
Joseph Campbell - Myths of Light
Joseph Campbell - The Hero With A Thousand Faces
Sri Aurobindo - Savitri
Thomas Meyers - Anatomy Trains
Wendy Doniger - The Hindus ~ Jason Bowman,,
30:People think of education as something that they can finish. And what's more, when they finish, it's a rite of passage. You're finished with school. You're no more a child, and therefore anything that reminds you of school - reading books, having ideas, asking questions - that's kid's stuff. Now you're an adult, you don't do that sort of thing any more.

You have everybody looking forward to no longer learning, and you make them ashamed afterward of going back to learning. If you have a system of education using computers, then anyone, any age, can learn by himself, can continue to be interested. If you enjoy learning, there's no reason why you should stop at a given age. People don't stop things they enjoy doing just because they reach a certain age.

What's exciting is the actual process of broadening yourself, of knowing there's now a little extra facet of the universe you know about and can think about and can understand. It seems to me that when it's time to die, there would be a certain pleasure in thinking that you had utilized your life well, learned as much as you could, gathered in as much as possible of the universe, and enjoyed it. There's only this one universe and only this one lifetime to try to grasp it. And while it is inconceivable that anyone can grasp more than a tiny portion of it, at least you can do that much. What a tragedy just to pass through and get nothing out of it. ~ Isaac Asimov, Carl Freedman - Conversations with Isaac Asimov-University Press of Mississippi (2005).pdf,
31:John Ruskin did not go to school. Nor did Queen Victoria, nor John Stuart Mill, George Eliot or Harriet Martineau. It would be absurd to suggest that Disraeli, Dickens, Newman or Darwin, to name four very different figures, who attended various schools for short spells in their boyhood, owed very much to their schooling. Had they been born in a later generation, school would have loomed much larger in their psychological stories, if only because they would have spent so much longer there, and found themselves preparing for public examinations. It is hard not to feel that a strong 'syllabus', or a school ethos, might have cramped the style of all four and that in their different ways - Disraeli, comparatively rich, anarchically foppish, indiscriminately bookish; Darwin, considered a dunce, but clearly - as he excitedly learned to shoot, to fish and to bird-watch - beginning his revolutionary relationship with the natural world; Newman, imagining himself an angel; Dickens, escaping the ignominy of his circumstances through theatrical and comedic internalized role-play - they were lucky to have been born before the Age of Control. For the well-meaning educational reforms of the 1860s were the ultimate extension of those Benthamite exercises in control which had begun in the 1820s and 1830s. Having exercised their sway over the poor, the criminals, the agricultural and industrial classes, the civil service and - this was next - the military, the controllers had turned to the last free spirits left, the last potential anarchists: the children. ~ A N Wilson,
32:science of consciousness, the soul and objective matter :::
   When the ancient thinkers of India set themselves to study the soul of man in themselves and others, they, unlike any other nation or school of early thought, proceeded at once to a process which resembles exactly enough the process adopted by modern science in its study of physical phenomena. For their object was to study, arrange and utilise the forms, forces and working movements of consciousness, just as the modern physical Sciences study, arrange and utilize the forms, forces and working movements of objective Matter. The material with which they had to deal was more subtle, flexible and versatile than the most impalpable forces of which the physical Sciences have become aware; its motions were more elusive, its processes harder to fix; but once grasped and ascertained, the movements of consciousness were found by Vedic psychologists to be in their process and activity as regular, manageable and utilisable as the movements of physical forces. The powers of the soul can be as perfectly handled and as safely, methodically and puissantly directed to practical life-purposes of joy, power and light as the modern power of electricity can be used for human comfort, industrial and locomotive power and physical illumination; but the results to which they give room and effect are more wonderful and momentous than the results of motorpower and electric luminosity. For there is no difference of essential law in the physical and the psychical, but only a difference and undoubtedly a great difference of energy, instrumentation and exact process. ~ Sri Aurobindo, Essays Divine And Human, Towards a True Scientific Psychology, 106,
33:Ekajaṭī or Ekajaṭā, (Sanskrit: "One Plait Woman"; Wylie: ral gcig ma: one who has one knot of hair),[1] also known as Māhacīnatārā,[2] is one of the 21 Taras. Ekajati is, along with Palden Lhamo deity, one of the most powerful and fierce goddesses of Vajrayana Buddhist mythology.[1][3] According to Tibetan legends, her right eye was pierced by the tantric master Padmasambhava so that she could much more effectively help him subjugate Tibetan demons.

Ekajati is also known as "Blue Tara", Vajra Tara or "Ugra Tara".[1][3] She is generally considered one of the three principal protectors of the Nyingma school along with Rāhula and Vajrasādhu (Wylie: rdo rje legs pa).

Often Ekajati appears as liberator in the mandala of the Green Tara. Along with that, her ascribed powers are removing the fear of enemies, spreading joy, and removing personal hindrances on the path to enlightenment.

Ekajati is the protector of secret mantras and "as the mother of the mothers of all the Buddhas" represents the ultimate unity. As such, her own mantra is also secret. She is the most important protector of the Vajrayana teachings, especially the Inner Tantras and termas. As the protector of mantra, she supports the practitioner in deciphering symbolic dakini codes and properly determines appropriate times and circumstances for revealing tantric teachings. Because she completely realizes the texts and mantras under her care, she reminds the practitioner of their preciousness and secrecy.[4] Düsum Khyenpa, 1st Karmapa Lama meditated upon her in early childhood.

According to Namkhai Norbu, Ekajati is the principal guardian of the Dzogchen teachings and is "a personification of the essentially non-dual nature of primordial energy."[5]

Dzogchen is the most closely guarded teaching in Tibetan Buddhism, of which Ekajati is a main guardian as mentioned above. It is said that Sri Singha (Sanskrit: Śrī Siṃha) himself entrusted the "Heart Essence" (Wylie: snying thig) teachings to her care. To the great master Longchenpa, who initiated the dissemination of certain Dzogchen teachings, Ekajati offered uncharacteristically personal guidance. In his thirty-second year, Ekajati appeared to Longchenpa, supervising every ritual detail of the Heart Essence of the Dakinis empowerment, insisting on the use of a peacock feather and removing unnecessary basin. When Longchenpa performed the ritual, she nodded her head in approval but corrected his pronunciation. When he recited the mantra, Ekajati admonished him, saying, "Imitate me," and sang it in a strange, harmonious melody in the dakini's language. Later she appeared at the gathering and joyously danced, proclaiming the approval of Padmasambhava and the dakinis.[6] ~ Wikipedia,
34:At it's narrowest (although this is a common and perhaps the official position; need to find ref in What is Enlightenment) "integral", "turquois" (Spiral Dynamics), and "second tier" (ditto) are all synonms, and in turn are equivalent to Wilber IV / AQAL/Wilber V "Post-metaphysical" AQAL. This is the position that "Integral = Ken Wilber". It constitutes a new philosophical school or meme-set, in the tradition of charismatic spiritual teachers of all ages, in which an articulate, brilliant, and popular figure would arise, and gather a following around him- or her-self. After the teacher passes on, their teaching remains through books and organisations dedicated to perpetuating that teaching; although without the brilliant light of the Founder, things generally become pretty stultifying, and there is often little or no original development. Even so, the books themselves continue to inspire, and many people benefit greatly from these tecahings, and can contact the original Light of the founders to be inspired by them on the subtle planes. Some late 19th, 20th, and early 21st century examples of such teachers, known and less well-known, are Blavatsky, Theon, Steiner, Aurobindo, Gurdjieff, Crowley, Alice Bailey, Carl Jung, Ann Ree Colton, and now Ken Wilber. Also, many popular gurus belong in this category. It could plausibly be suggested that the founders of the great world religions started out no different, but their teaching really caught on n a big way.


At its broadest then, the Integral Community includes not only Wilber but those he cites as his influences and hold universal and evolutionary views or teachings, as well as those who, while influenced by him also differ somewhat, and even those like Arthur M Young that Wilber has apparently never heard of. Nevertheless, all share a common, evolutionary, "theory of everything" position, and, whilst they may differ on many details and even on many major points, taken together they could be considered a wave front for a new paradigm, a memetic revolution. I use the term Daimon of the Integral Movement to refer to the spiritual being or personality of light that is behind and working through this broader movement.

Now, this doesn't mean that this daimon is necessarily a negative entity. I see a lot of promise, a lot of potential, in the Integral Approach. From what I feel at the moment, the Integral Deva is a force and power of good.

But, as with any new spiritual or evolutionary development, there is duality, in that there are forces that hinder and oppose and distort, as well as forces that help and aid in the evolution and ultimate divinisation of the Earth and the cosmos. Thus even where a guru does give in the dark side (as very often happens with many gurus today) there still remains an element of Mixed Light that remains (one finds this ambiguity with Sai Baba, with Da Free John, and with Rajneesh); and we find this same ambiguity with the Integral Community regarding what seems to me a certain offputting devotional attitude towards Wilber himself. The light will find its way, regardless. However, an Intregral Movement that is caught up in worship of and obedience to an authority figure, will not be able to achieve what a movement unfettered by such shackles could. ~ M Alan Kazlev, Kheper, Wilber, Integral,

PRATYAHARA is the first process in the mental part of our task. The previous practices, Asana, Pranayama, Yama, and Niyama, are all acts of the body, while mantra is connected with speech: Pratyahara is purely mental.

   And what is Pratyahara? This word is used by different authors in different senses. The same word is employed to designate both the practice and the result. It means for our present purpose a process rather strategical than practical; it is introspection, a sort of general examination of the contents of the mind which we wish to control: Asana having been mastered, all immediate exciting causes have been removed, and we are free to think what we are thinking about.

   A very similar experience to that of Asana is in store for us. At first we shall very likely flatter ourselves that our minds are pretty calm; this is a defect of observation. Just as the European standing for the first time on the edge of the desert will see nothing there, while his Arab can tell him the family history of each of the fifty persons in view, because he has learnt how to look, so with practice the thoughts will become more numerous and more insistent.

   As soon as the body was accurately observed it was found to be terribly restless and painful; now that we observe the mind it is seen to be more restless and painful still. (See diagram opposite.)

   A similar curve might be plotted for the real and apparent painfulness of Asana. Conscious of this fact, we begin to try to control it: "Not quite so many thoughts, please!" "Don't think quite so fast, please!" "No more of that kind of thought, please!" It is only then that we discover that what we thought was a school of playful porpoises is really the convolutions of the sea-serpent. The attempt to repress has the effect of exciting.

   When the unsuspecting pupil first approaches his holy but wily Guru, and demands magical powers, that Wise One replies that he will confer them, points out with much caution and secrecy some particular spot on the pupil's body which has never previously attracted his attention, and says: "In order to obtain this magical power which you seek, all that is necessary is to wash seven times in the Ganges during seven days, being particularly careful to avoid thinking of that one spot." Of course the unhappy youth spends a disgusted week in thinking of little else.

   It is positively amazing with what persistence a thought, even a whole train of thoughts, returns again and again to the charge. It becomes a positive nightmare. It is intensely annoying, too, to find that one does not become conscious that one has got on to the forbidden subject until one has gone right through with it. However, one continues day after day investigating thoughts and trying to check them; and sooner or later one proceeds to the next stage, Dharana, the attempt to restrain the mind to a single object.

   Before we go on to this, however, we must consider what is meant by success in Pratyahara. This is a very extensive subject, and different authors take widely divergent views. One writer means an analysis so acute that every thought is resolved into a number of elements (see "The Psychology of Hashish," Section V, in Equinox II).

   Others take the view that success in the practice is something like the experience which Sir Humphrey Davy had as a result of taking nitrous oxide, in which he exclaimed: "The universe is composed exclusively of ideas."

   Others say that it gives Hamlet's feeling: "There's nothing good or bad but thinking makes it so," interpreted as literally as was done by Mrs. Eddy.

   However, the main point is to acquire some sort of inhibitory power over the thoughts. Fortunately there is an unfailing method of acquiring this power. It is given in Liber III. If Sections 1 and 2 are practised (if necessary with the assistance of another person to aid your vigilance) you will soon be able to master the final section. ~ Aleister Crowley, Liber ABA,

THE EDUCATION of a human being should begin at birth and continue throughout his life.

   Indeed, if we want this education to have its maximum result, it should begin even before birth; in this case it is the mother herself who proceeds with this education by means of a twofold action: first, upon herself for her own improvement, and secondly, upon the child whom she is forming physically. For it is certain that the nature of the child to be born depends very much upon the mother who forms it, upon her aspiration and will as well as upon the material surroundings in which she lives. To see that her thoughts are always beautiful and pure, her feelings always noble and fine, her material surroundings as harmonious as possible and full of a great simplicity - this is the part of education which should apply to the mother herself. And if she has in addition a conscious and definite will to form the child according to the highest ideal she can conceive, then the very best conditions will be realised so that the child can come into the world with his utmost potentialities. How many difficult efforts and useless complications would be avoided in this way!

   Education to be complete must have five principal aspects corresponding to the five principal activities of the human being: the physical, the vital, the mental, the psychic and the spiritual. Usually, these phases of education follow chronologically the growth of the individual; this, however, does not mean that one of them should replace another, but that all must continue, completing one another until the end of his life.

   We propose to study these five aspects of education one by one and also their interrelationships. But before we enter into the details of the subject, I wish to make a recommendation to parents. Most parents, for various reasons, give very little thought to the true education which should be imparted to children. When they have brought a child into the world, provided him with food, satisfied his various material needs and looked after his health more or less carefully, they think they have fully discharged their duty. Later on, they will send him to school and hand over to the teachers the responsibility for his education.

   There are other parents who know that their children must be educated and who try to do what they can. But very few, even among those who are most serious and sincere, know that the first thing to do, in order to be able to educate a child, is to educate oneself, to become conscious and master of oneself so that one never sets a bad example to one's child. For it is above all through example that education becomes effective. To speak good words and to give wise advice to a child has very little effect if one does not oneself give him an example of what one teaches. Sincerity, honesty, straightforwardness, courage, disinterestedness, unselfishness, patience, endurance, perseverance, peace, calm, self-control are all things that are taught infinitely better by example than by beautiful speeches. Parents, have a high ideal and always act in accordance with it and you will see that little by little your child will reflect this ideal in himself and spontaneously manifest the qualities you would like to see expressed in his nature. Quite naturally a child has respect and admiration for his parents; unless they are quite unworthy, they will always appear to their child as demigods whom he will try to imitate as best he can.

   With very few exceptions, parents are not aware of the disastrous influence that their own defects, impulses, weaknesses and lack of self-control have on their children. If you wish to be respected by a child, have respect for yourself and be worthy of respect at every moment. Never be authoritarian, despotic, impatient or ill-tempered. When your child asks you a question, do not give him a stupid or silly answer under the pretext that he cannot understand you. You can always make yourself understood if you take enough trouble; and in spite of the popular saying that it is not always good to tell the truth, I affirm that it is always good to tell the truth, but that the art consists in telling it in such a way as to make it accessible to the mind of the hearer. In early life, until he is twelve or fourteen, the child's mind is hardly open to abstract notions and general ideas. And yet you can train it to understand these things by using concrete images, symbols or parables. Up to quite an advanced age and for some who mentally always remain children, a narrative, a story, a tale well told teach much more than any number of theoretical explanations.

   Another pitfall to avoid: do not scold your child without good reason and only when it is quite indispensable. A child who is too often scolded gets hardened to rebuke and no longer attaches much importance to words or severity of tone. And above all, take good care never to scold him for a fault which you yourself commit. Children are very keen and clear-sighted observers; they soon find out your weaknesses and note them without pity.

   When a child has done something wrong, see that he confesses it to you spontaneously and frankly; and when he has confessed, with kindness and affection make him understand what was wrong in his movement so that he will not repeat it, but never scold him; a fault confessed must always be forgiven. You should not allow any fear to come between you and your child; fear is a pernicious means of education: it invariably gives birth to deceit and lying. Only a discerning affection that is firm yet gentle and an adequate practical knowledge will create the bonds of trust that are indispensable for you to be able to educate your child effectively. And do not forget that you have to control yourself constantly in order to be equal to your task and truly fulfil the duty which you owe your child by the mere fact of having brought him into the world.

   Bulletin, February 1951

   ~ The Mother, On Education,
37:Mental Education

OF ALL lines of education, mental education is the most widely known and practised, yet except in a few rare cases there are gaps which make it something very incomplete and in the end quite insufficient.

   Generally speaking, schooling is considered to be all the mental education that is necessary. And when a child has been made to undergo, for a number of years, a methodical training which is more like cramming than true schooling, it is considered that whatever is necessary for his mental development has been done. Nothing of the kind. Even conceding that the training is given with due measure and discrimination and does not permanently damage the brain, it cannot impart to the human mind the faculties it needs to become a good and useful instrument. The schooling that is usually given can, at the most, serve as a system of gymnastics to increase the suppleness of the brain. From this standpoint, each branch of human learning represents a special kind of mental gymnastics, and the verbal formulations given to these various branches each constitute a special and well-defined language.

   A true mental education, which will prepare man for a higher life, has five principal phases. Normally these phases follow one after another, but in exceptional individuals they may alternate or even proceed simultaneously. These five phases, in brief, are:

   (1) Development of the power of concentration, the capacity of attention.
   (2) Development of the capacities of expansion, widening, complexity and richness.
   (3) Organisation of one's ideas around a central idea, a higher ideal or a supremely luminous idea that will serve as a guide in life.
   (4) Thought-control, rejection of undesirable thoughts, to become able to think only what one wants and when one wants.
   (5) Development of mental silence, perfect calm and a more and more total receptivity to inspirations coming from the higher regions of the being.

   It is not possible to give here all the details concerning the methods to be employed in the application of these five phases of education to different individuals. Still, a few explanations on points of detail can be given.

   Undeniably, what most impedes mental progress in children is the constant dispersion of their thoughts. Their thoughts flutter hither and thither like butterflies and they have to make a great effort to fix them. Yet this capacity is latent in them, for when you succeed in arousing their interest, they are capable of a good deal of attention. By his ingenuity, therefore, the educator will gradually help the child to become capable of a sustained effort of attention and a faculty of more and more complete absorption in the work in hand. All methods that can develop this faculty of attention from games to rewards are good and can all be utilised according to the need and the circumstances. But it is the psychological action that is most important and the sovereign method is to arouse in the child an interest in what you want to teach him, a liking for work, a will to progress. To love to learn is the most precious gift that one can give to a child: to love to learn always and everywhere, so that all circumstances, all happenings in life may be constantly renewed opportunities for learning more and always more.

   For that, to attention and concentration should be added observation, precise recording and faithfulness of memory. This faculty of observation can be developed by varied and spontaneous exercises, making use of every opportunity that presents itself to keep the child's thought wakeful, alert and prompt. The growth of the understanding should be stressed much more than that of memory. One knows well only what one has understood. Things learnt by heart, mechanically, fade away little by little and finally disappear; what is understood is never forgotten. Moreover, you must never refuse to explain to a child the how and the why of things. If you cannot do it yourself, you must direct the child to those who are qualified to answer or point out to him some books that deal with the question. In this way you will progressively awaken in the child the taste for true study and the habit of making a persistent effort to know.

   This will bring us quite naturally to the second phase of development in which the mind should be widened and enriched.

   You will gradually show the child that everything can become an interesting subject for study if it is approached in the right way. The life of every day, of every moment, is the best school of all, varied, complex, full of unexpected experiences, problems to be solved, clear and striking examples and obvious consequences. It is so easy to arouse healthy curiosity in children, if you answer with intelligence and clarity the numerous questions they ask. An interesting reply to one readily brings others in its train and so the attentive child learns without effort much more than he usually does in the classroom. By a choice made with care and insight, you should also teach him to enjoy good reading-matter which is both instructive and attractive. Do not be afraid of anything that awakens and pleases his imagination; imagination develops the creative mental faculty and through it study becomes living and the mind develops in joy.

   In order to increase the suppleness and comprehensiveness of his mind, one should see not only that he studies many varied topics, but above all that a single subject is approached in various ways, so that the child understands in a practical manner that there are many ways of facing the same intellectual problem, of considering it and solving it. This will remove all rigidity from his brain and at the same time it will make his thinking richer and more supple and prepare it for a more complex and comprehensive synthesis. In this way also the child will be imbued with the sense of the extreme relativity of mental learning and, little by little, an aspiration for a truer source of knowledge will awaken in him.

   Indeed, as the child grows older and progresses in his studies, his mind too ripens and becomes more and more capable of forming general ideas, and with them almost always comes a need for certitude, for a knowledge that is stable enough to form the basis of a mental construction which will permit all the diverse and scattered and often contradictory ideas accumulated in his brain to be organised and put in order. This ordering is indeed very necessary if one is to avoid chaos in one's thoughts. All contradictions can be transformed into complements, but for that one must discover the higher idea that will have the power to bring them harmoniously together. It is always good to consider every problem from all possible standpoints so as to avoid partiality and exclusiveness; but if the thought is to be active and creative, it must, in every case, be the natural and logical synthesis of all the points of view adopted. And if you want to make the totality of your thoughts into a dynamic and constructive force, you must also take great care as to the choice of the central idea of your mental synthesis; for upon that will depend the value of this synthesis. The higher and larger the central idea and the more universal it is, rising above time and space, the more numerous and the more complex will be the ideas, notions and thoughts which it will be able to organise and harmonise.

   It goes without saying that this work of organisation cannot be done once and for all. The mind, if it is to keep its vigour and youth, must progress constantly, revise its notions in the light of new knowledge, enlarge its frame-work to include fresh notions and constantly reclassify and reorganise its thoughts, so that each of them may find its true place in relation to the others and the whole remain harmonious and orderly.

   All that has just been said concerns the speculative mind, the mind that learns. But learning is only one aspect of mental activity; the other, which is at least equally important, is the constructive faculty, the capacity to form and thus prepare action. This very important part of mental activity has rarely been the subject of any special study or discipline. Only those who want, for some reason, to exercise a strict control over their mental activities think of observing and disciplining this faculty of formation; and as soon as they try it, they have to face difficulties so great that they appear almost insurmountable.

   And yet control over this formative activity of the mind is one of the most important aspects of self-education; one can say that without it no mental mastery is possible. As far as study is concerned, all ideas are acceptable and should be included in the synthesis, whose very function is to become more and more rich and complex; but where action is concerned, it is just the opposite. The ideas that are accepted for translation into action should be strictly controlled and only those that agree with the general trend of the central idea forming the basis of the mental synthesis should be permitted to express themselves in action. This means that every thought entering the mental consciousness should be set before the central idea; if it finds a logical place among the thoughts already grouped, it will be admitted into the synthesis; if not, it will be rejected so that it can have no influence on the action. This work of mental purification should be done very regularly in order to secure a complete control over one's actions.

   For this purpose, it is good to set apart some time every day when one can quietly go over one's thoughts and put one's synthesis in order. Once the habit is acquired, you can maintain control over your thoughts even during work and action, allowing only those which are useful for what you are doing to come to the surface. Particularly, if you have continued to cultivate the power of concentration and attention, only the thoughts that are needed will be allowed to enter the active external consciousness and they then become all the more dynamic and effective. And if, in the intensity of concentration, it becomes necessary not to think at all, all mental vibration can be stilled and an almost total silence secured. In this silence one can gradually open to the higher regions of the mind and learn to record the inspirations that come from there.

   But even before reaching this point, silence in itself is supremely useful, because in most people who have a somewhat developed and active mind, the mind is never at rest. During the day, its activity is kept under a certain control, but at night, during the sleep of the body, the control of the waking state is almost completely removed and the mind indulges in activities which are sometimes excessive and often incoherent. This creates a great stress which leads to fatigue and the diminution of the intellectual faculties.

   The fact is that like all the other parts of the human being, the mind too needs rest and it will not have this rest unless we know how to provide it. The art of resting one's mind is something to be acquired. Changing one's mental activity is certainly one way of resting; but the greatest possible rest is silence. And as far as the mental faculties are concerned a few minutes passed in the calm of silence are a more effective rest than hours of sleep.

   When one has learned to silence the mind at will and to concentrate it in receptive silence, then there will be no problem that cannot be solved, no mental difficulty whose solution cannot be found. When it is agitated, thought becomes confused and impotent; in an attentive tranquillity, the light can manifest itself and open up new horizons to man's capacity. Bulletin, November 1951

   ~ The Mother, On Education,
38:One little picture in this book, the Magic Locket, was drawn by 'Miss Alice Havers.' I did not state this on the title-page, since it seemed only due, to the artist of all these (to my mind) wonderful pictures, that his name should stand there alone.
The descriptions, of Sunday as spent by children of the last generation, are quoted verbatim from a speech made to me by a child-friend and a letter written to me by a lady-friend.
The Chapters, headed 'Fairy Sylvie' and 'Bruno's Revenge,' are a reprint, with a few alterations, of a little fairy-tale which I wrote in the year 1867, at the request of the late Mrs. Gatty, for 'Aunt Judy's Magazine,' which she was then editing.
It was in 1874, I believe, that the idea first occurred to me of making it the nucleus of a longer story.
As the years went on, I jotted down, at odd moments, all sorts of odd ideas, and fragments of dialogue, that occurred to me--who knows how?--with a transitory suddenness that left me no choice but either to record them then and there, or to abandon them to oblivion. Sometimes one could trace to their source these random flashes of thought--as being suggested by the book one was reading, or struck out from the 'flint' of one's own mind by the 'steel' of a friend's chance remark but they had also a way of their own, of occurring, a propos of nothing --specimens of that hopelessly illogical phenomenon, 'an effect without a cause.' Such, for example, was the last line of 'The Hunting of the Snark,' which came into my head (as I have already related in 'The Theatre' for April, 1887) quite suddenly, during a solitary walk: and such, again, have been passages which occurred in dreams, and which I cannot trace to any antecedent cause whatever. There are at least two instances of such dream-suggestions in this book--one, my Lady's remark, 'it often runs in families, just as a love for pastry does', the other, Eric Lindon's badinage about having been in domestic service.

And thus it came to pass that I found myself at last in possession of a huge unwieldy mass of litterature--if the reader will kindly excuse the spelling --which only needed stringing together, upon the thread of a consecutive story, to constitute the book I hoped to write. Only! The task, at first, seemed absolutely hopeless, and gave me a far clearer idea, than I ever had before, of the meaning of the word 'chaos': and I think it must have been ten years, or more, before I had succeeded in classifying these odds-and-ends sufficiently to see what sort of a story they indicated: for the story had to grow out of the incidents, not the incidents out of the story I am telling all this, in no spirit of egoism, but because I really believe that some of my readers will be interested in these details of the 'genesis' of a book, which looks so simple and straight-forward a matter, when completed, that they might suppose it to have been written straight off, page by page, as one would write a letter, beginning at the beginning; and ending at the end.

It is, no doubt, possible to write a story in that way: and, if it be not vanity to say so, I believe that I could, myself,--if I were in the unfortunate position (for I do hold it to be a real misfortune) of being obliged to produce a given amount of fiction in a given time,--that I could 'fulfil my task,' and produce my 'tale of bricks,' as other slaves have done. One thing, at any rate, I could guarantee as to the story so produced--that it should be utterly commonplace, should contain no new ideas whatever, and should be very very weary reading!
This species of literature has received the very appropriate name of 'padding' which might fitly be defined as 'that which all can write and none can read.' That the present volume contains no such writing I dare not avow: sometimes, in order to bring a picture into its proper place, it has been necessary to eke out a page with two or three extra lines : but I can honestly say I have put in no more than I was absolutely compelled to do.
My readers may perhaps like to amuse themselves by trying to detect, in a given passage, the one piece of 'padding' it contains. While arranging the 'slips' into pages, I found that the passage was 3 lines too short. I supplied the deficiency, not by interpolating a word here and a word there, but by writing in 3 consecutive lines. Now can my readers guess which they are?

A harder puzzle if a harder be desired would be to determine, as to the Gardener's Song, in which cases (if any) the stanza was adapted to the surrounding text, and in which (if any) the text was adapted to the stanza.
Perhaps the hardest thing in all literature--at least I have found it so: by no voluntary effort can I accomplish it: I have to take it as it come's is to write anything original. And perhaps the easiest is, when once an original line has been struck out, to follow it up, and to write any amount more to the same tune. I do not know if 'Alice in Wonderland' was an original story--I was, at least, no conscious imitator in writing it--but I do know that, since it came out, something like a dozen storybooks have appeared, on identically the same pattern. The path I timidly explored believing myself to be 'the first that ever burst into that silent sea'--is now a beaten high-road: all the way-side flowers have long ago been trampled into the dust: and it would be courting disaster for me to attempt that style again.

Hence it is that, in 'Sylvie and Bruno,' I have striven with I know not what success to strike out yet another new path: be it bad or good, it is the best I can do. It is written, not for money, and not for fame, but in the hope of supplying, for the children whom I love, some thoughts that may suit those hours of innocent merriment which are the very life of Childhood; and also in the hope of suggesting, to them and to others, some thoughts that may prove, I would fain hope, not wholly out of harmony with the graver cadences of Life.
If I have not already exhausted the patience of my readers, I would like to seize this opportunity perhaps the last I shall have of addressing so many friends at once of putting on record some ideas that have occurred to me, as to books desirable to be written--which I should much like to attempt, but may not ever have the time or power to carry through--in the hope that, if I should fail (and the years are gliding away very fast) to finish the task I have set myself, other hands may take it up.
First, a Child's Bible. The only real essentials of this would be, carefully selected passages, suitable for a child's reading, and pictures. One principle of selection, which I would adopt, would be that Religion should be put before a child as a revelation of love--no need to pain and puzzle the young mind with the history of crime and punishment. (On such a principle I should, for example, omit the history of the Flood.) The supplying of the pictures would involve no great difficulty: no new ones would be needed : hundreds of excellent pictures already exist, the copyright of which has long ago expired, and which simply need photo-zincography, or some similar process, for their successful reproduction. The book should be handy in size with a pretty attractive looking cover--in a clear legible type--and, above all, with abundance of pictures, pictures, pictures!
Secondly, a book of pieces selected from the Bible--not single texts, but passages of from 10 to 20 verses each--to be committed to memory. Such passages would be found useful, to repeat to one's self and to ponder over, on many occasions when reading is difficult, if not impossible: for instance, when lying awake at night--on a railway-journey --when taking a solitary walk-in old age, when eyesight is failing or wholly lost--and, best of all, when illness, while incapacitating us for reading or any other occupation, condemns us to lie awake through many weary silent hours: at such a time how keenly one may realise the truth of David's rapturous cry "O how sweet are thy words unto my throat: yea, sweeter than honey unto my mouth!"
I have said 'passages,' rather than single texts, because we have no means of recalling single texts: memory needs links, and here are none: one may have a hundred texts stored in the memory, and not be able to recall, at will, more than half-a-dozen--and those by mere chance: whereas, once get hold of any portion of a chapter that has been committed to memory, and the whole can be recovered: all hangs together.
Thirdly, a collection of passages, both prose and verse, from books other than the Bible. There is not perhaps much, in what is called 'un-inspired' literature (a misnomer, I hold: if Shakespeare was not inspired, one may well doubt if any man ever was), that will bear the process of being pondered over, a hundred times: still there are such passages--enough, I think, to make a goodly store for the memory.
These two books of sacred, and secular, passages for memory--will serve other good purposes besides merely occupying vacant hours: they will help to keep at bay many anxious thoughts, worrying thoughts, uncharitable thoughts, unholy thoughts. Let me say this, in better words than my own, by copying a passage from that most interesting book, Robertson's Lectures on the Epistles to the Corinthians, Lecture XLIX. "If a man finds himself haunted by evil desires and unholy images, which will generally be at periodical hours, let him commit to memory passages of Scripture, or passages from the best writers in verse or prose. Let him store his mind with these, as safeguards to repeat when he lies awake in some restless night, or when despairing imaginations, or gloomy, suicidal thoughts, beset him. Let these be to him the sword, turning everywhere to keep the way of the Garden of Life from the intrusion of profaner footsteps."
Fourthly, a "Shakespeare" for girls: that is, an edition in which everything, not suitable for the perusal of girls of (say) from 10 to 17, should be omitted. Few children under 10 would be likely to understand or enjoy the greatest of poets: and those, who have passed out of girlhood, may safely be left to read Shakespeare, in any edition, 'expurgated' or not, that they may prefer: but it seems a pity that so many children, in the intermediate stage, should be debarred from a great pleasure for want of an edition suitable to them. Neither Bowdler's, Chambers's, Brandram's, nor Cundell's 'Boudoir' Shakespeare, seems to me to meet the want: they are not sufficiently 'expurgated.' Bowdler's is the most extraordinary of all: looking through it, I am filled with a deep sense of wonder, considering what he has left in, that he should have cut anything out! Besides relentlessly erasing all that is unsuitable on the score of reverence or decency, I should be inclined to omit also all that seems too difficult, or not likely to interest young readers. The resulting book might be slightly fragmentary: but it would be a real treasure to all British maidens who have any taste for poetry.
If it be needful to apologize to any one for the new departure I have taken in this story--by introducing, along with what will, I hope, prove to be acceptable nonsense for children, some of the graver thoughts of human life--it must be to one who has learned the Art of keeping such thoughts wholly at a distance in hours of mirth and careless ease. To him such a mixture will seem, no doubt, ill-judged and repulsive. And that such an Art exists I do not dispute: with youth, good health, and sufficient money, it seems quite possible to lead, for years together, a life of unmixed gaiety--with the exception of one solemn fact, with which we are liable to be confronted at any moment, even in the midst of the most brilliant company or the most sparkling entertainment. A man may fix his own times for admitting serious thought, for attending public worship, for prayer, for reading the Bible: all such matters he can defer to that 'convenient season', which is so apt never to occur at all: but he cannot defer, for one single moment, the necessity of attending to a message, which may come before he has finished reading this page,' this night shalt thy soul be required of thee.'
The ever-present sense of this grim possibility has been, in all ages, 1 an incubus that men have striven to shake off. Few more interesting subjects of enquiry could be found, by a student of history, than the various weapons that have been used against this shadowy foe. Saddest of all must have been the thoughts of those who saw indeed an existence beyond the grave, but an existence far more terrible than annihilation--an existence as filmy, impalpable, all but invisible spectres, drifting about, through endless ages, in a world of shadows, with nothing to do, nothing to hope for, nothing to love! In the midst of the gay verses of that genial 'bon vivant' Horace, there stands one dreary word whose utter sadness goes to one's heart. It is the word 'exilium' in the well-known passage

Omnes eodem cogimur, omnium
Versatur urna serius ocius
Sors exitura et nos in aeternum
Exilium impositura cymbae.

Yes, to him this present life--spite of all its weariness and all its sorrow--was the only life worth having: all else was 'exile'! Does it not seem almost incredible that one, holding such a creed, should ever have smiled?
And many in this day, I fear, even though believing in an existence beyond the grave far more real than Horace ever dreamed of, yet regard it as a sort of 'exile' from all the joys of life, and so adopt Horace's theory, and say 'let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die.'
We go to entertainments, such as the theatre--I say 'we', for I also go to the play, whenever I get a chance of seeing a really good one and keep at arm's length, if possible, the thought that we may not return alive. Yet how do you know--dear friend, whose patience has carried you through this garrulous preface that it may not be your lot, when mirth is fastest and most furious, to feel the sharp pang, or the deadly faintness, which heralds the final crisis--to see, with vague wonder, anxious friends bending over you to hear their troubled whispers perhaps yourself to shape the question, with trembling lips, "Is it serious?", and to be told "Yes: the end is near" (and oh, how different all Life will look when those words are said!)--how do you know, I say, that all this may not happen to you, this night?
And dare you, knowing this, say to yourself "Well, perhaps it is an immoral play: perhaps the situations are a little too 'risky', the dialogue a little too strong, the 'business' a little too suggestive.
I don't say that conscience is quite easy: but the piece is so clever, I must see it this once! I'll begin a stricter life to-morrow." To-morrow, and to-morrow, and tomorrow!

"Who sins in hope, who, sinning, says,
'Sorrow for sin God's judgement stays!'
Against God's Spirit he lies; quite stops Mercy with insult; dares, and drops,
Like a scorch'd fly, that spins in vain
Upon the axis of its pain,
Then takes its doom, to limp and crawl,
Blind and forgot, from fall to fall."

Let me pause for a moment to say that I believe this thought, of the possibility of death--if calmly realised, and steadily faced would be one of the best possible tests as to our going to any scene of amusement being right or wrong. If the thought of sudden death acquires, for you, a special horror when imagined as happening in a theatre, then be very sure the theatre is harmful for you, however harmless it may be for others; and that you are incurring a deadly peril in going. Be sure the safest rule is that we should not dare to live in any scene in which we dare not die.
But, once realise what the true object is in life--that it is not pleasure, not knowledge, not even fame itself, 'that last infirmity of noble minds'--but that it is the development of character, the rising to a higher, nobler, purer standard, the building-up of the perfect Man--and then, so long as we feel that this is going on, and will (we trust) go on for evermore, death has for us no terror; it is not a shadow, but a light; not an end, but a beginning!
One other matter may perhaps seem to call for apology--that I should have treated with such entire want of sympathy the British passion for 'Sport', which no doubt has been in by-gone days, and is still, in some forms of it, an excellent school for hardihood and for coolness in moments of danger.
But I am not entirely without sympathy for genuine 'Sport': I can heartily admire the courage of the man who, with severe bodily toil, and at the risk of his life, hunts down some 'man-eating' tiger: and I can heartily sympathize with him when he exults in the glorious excitement of the chase and the hand-to-hand struggle with the monster brought to bay. But I can but look with deep wonder and sorrow on the hunter who, at his ease and in safety, can find pleasure in what involves, for some defenceless creature, wild terror and a death of agony: deeper, if the hunter be one who has pledged himself to preach to men the Religion of universal Love: deepest of all, if it be one of those 'tender and delicate' beings, whose very name serves as a symbol of Love--'thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women'--whose mission here is surely to help and comfort all that are in pain or sorrow!

'Farewell, farewell! but this I tell
To thee, thou Wedding-Guest!
He prayeth well, who loveth well
Both man and bird and beast.
He prayeth best, who loveth best
All things both great and small;
For the dear God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all.' ~ Lewis Carroll, Sylvie and Bruno,


1:Treat the past as a school. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
2:He who opens a school door, closes a prison. ~ victor-hugo, @wisdomtrove
3:I go to school the youth to learn the future. ~ robert-frost, @wisdomtrove
4:Don't Let them fool you or even try to school you ~ bob-marley, @wisdomtrove
5:I go to school - to youth - to learn the future ~ robert-frost, @wisdomtrove
6:Who, for false quantities, was whipped at school. ~ john-dryden, @wisdomtrove
7:I know so much about men because I went to night school. ~ mae-west, @wisdomtrove
8:School is a place were you go to eat your lunch ~ rodney-dangerfield, @wisdomtrove
9:We should throw the Epistle of James out of this school. ~ martin-luther, @wisdomtrove
10:A child educated only at school is an uneducated child. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
11:Defeat is a school in which truth always grows strong. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
12:I believe in teaching, but I don’t believe in going to school. ~ robert-frost, @wisdomtrove
13:The school as a means of education to me was simply a blank. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
14:You can't learn in school what the world is going to do next year. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
15:God made the Idiot for practice, and then He made the School Board. ~ mark-twain, @wisdomtrove
16:Let's face it. No kid in high school feels as though they fit in. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
17:Example is the school of mankind, and they will learn at no other. ~ edmund-burke, @wisdomtrove
18:Whose school-hours are all the days and nights of our existence. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
19:One school is finished, and the time has come for another to begin. ~ richard-bach, @wisdomtrove
20:You send a boy to school in order to make friends - the right sort. ~ virginia-woolf, @wisdomtrove
21:Any kiddie in school can love like a fool, But Hating, my boy, is an Art. ~ ogden-nash, @wisdomtrove
22:Experience is a school where a man learns what a big fool he has been. ~ josh-billings, @wisdomtrove
23:I don't know how to be happy - They didn't teach it in my school. ~ ashleigh-brilliant, @wisdomtrove
24:She was old too, when she went to school they didn't have history. ~ rodney-dangerfield, @wisdomtrove
25:Any kiddies in school can love like a fool,/ But hating, my boy, is an art. ~ ogden-nash, @wisdomtrove
26:A school should not be a preparation for life. A school should be life. ~ elbert-hubbard, @wisdomtrove
27:School was a strange place where they tried to make you into something. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
28:Experience is the best of school masters, only the school fees are heavy. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
29:What is school for? If you're not asking that, you're wasting time and money. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
30:I did well in school. I had lots of honors, so I thought I was quite smart. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
31:Teaching school is but another word for sure and not very slow destruction. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
32:Experience takes dreadfully high school-wages, but he teaches like no other. ~ thomas-carlyle, @wisdomtrove
33:In business school classrooms they construct wonderful models of a non- world. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
34:School days, I believe, are the unhappiest in the whole span of human existence. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
35:I know I'm not sexy. In high school I was voted Most Likely to Masturbate. ~ rodney-dangerfield, @wisdomtrove
36:As far as I have seen, at school... they aimed at blotting out one's individuality. ~ franz-kafka, @wisdomtrove
37:Roses are red, And ready for plucking, You're sixteen, And ready for high school. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
38:I leaned from my friends in school. I had lots of friends; yet I was very indrawn. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
39:Life gets really simple once you cut out all the bulls**t they teach you in school. ~ george-carlin, @wisdomtrove
40:My school colors were clear. We used to say, &
41:A school without football is in danger of deteriorating into a medieval study hall. ~ vince-lombardi, @wisdomtrove
42:Education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learned in school. ~ albert-einstein, @wisdomtrove
43:Life gets really simple once you cut out all the bull shit they teach you in school. ~ george-carlin, @wisdomtrove
44:Death is the Christian's vacation morning. School is out. It is time to go home. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
45:Here is an Unity Quote that we have all known since school: United we stand; divided we fall. ~ aesop, @wisdomtrove
46:This world is your body. This world is a great school, This world is your silent teacher. ~ sivananda, @wisdomtrove
47:True fops help nature's work, and go to school - to file and finish God Almighty's fool ~ john-dryden, @wisdomtrove
48:Once you leave out all the bullshit they teach you in school, life gets really simple. ~ george-carlin, @wisdomtrove
49:There is no school equal to a decent home and no teacher equal to a virtuous parent.  ~ mahatma-gandhi, @wisdomtrove
50:Success is the study of the obvious. Everyone should take Obvious 1 and Obvious 2 in school. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
51:School takes 13 years, because that is how long it takes to break a child's spirit. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
52:Term, holidays, term, holidays, till we leave school, and then work, work, work till we die. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
53:In high school, when I played football I got no respect. I shared a locker with a mop. ~ rodney-dangerfield, @wisdomtrove
54:This earth is higher than all the heavens; this is the greatest school in the universe. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
55:It's the Marilyn Monroe school of medicine where enough of any drug will cure any disease. ~ chuck-palahniuk, @wisdomtrove
56:The job of the school is to teach so well that family background is no longer an issue. ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
57:My cousin is gay, in school while other kids were dissecting frog, he was opening flies. ~ rodney-dangerfield, @wisdomtrove
58:High school is closer to the core of the American experience than anything else I can think of. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
59:The sensory world is the school, without which the human being would never come to the spirit. ~ rudolf-steiner, @wisdomtrove
60:We of Macedon for generations past have been trained in the hard school of danger and war ~ alexander-the-great, @wisdomtrove
61:A Sunday school is a prison in which children do penance for the evil conscience of their parents. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
62:Being dead is one way to experience nothing, another is to attend some classes at my school. ~ ashleigh-brilliant, @wisdomtrove
63:I can remember being home from school with tonsillitis and writing stories in bed to pass the time. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
64:The only useful thing I ever learned in school was that if you spit on your eraser it erased ink. ~ dorothy-parker, @wisdomtrove
65:Would you be a poet Before you've been to school? Ah, well! I hardly thought you So absolute a fool. ~ lewis-carroll, @wisdomtrove
66:I am of the order whose purpose is not to teach the world a lesson but to explain that school is over. ~ henry-miller, @wisdomtrove
67:If you're out of school sick and you're sitting outside on the porch getting some air, that's one thing. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
68:After a fellow gets famous it doesn't take long for someone to bob up that used to sit by him in school. ~ kin-hubbard, @wisdomtrove
69:True terror is to wake up one morning and discover that your high school class is running the country. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
70:You can finish school, and even make it easy - but you never finish your education, and it's seldom easy. ~ zig-ziglar, @wisdomtrove
71:Do you not see how necessary a world of pains and troubles is to school an intelligence and make it a soul? ~ john-keats, @wisdomtrove
72:Gossip is one thing, hurtful gossip is completely another, and even in high school we weren't THAT mean. ~ nicholas-sparks, @wisdomtrove
73:I shall begin my story with an experience I had when I was ten and attended our small town's Latin school. ~ hermann-hesse, @wisdomtrove
74:The education of even a small child, therefore, does not aim at preparing him for school, but for life. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
75:She didn't need to go to acting school to learn that the essence of acting is to act like you're not acting. ~ george-burns, @wisdomtrove
76:What they don't teach you in art school is how your whole life is about discovering who you already were. ~ chuck-palahniuk, @wisdomtrove
77:Extreme busyness, whether at school or college, kirk or market, is a symptom of deficient vitality. ~ robert-louis-stevenson, @wisdomtrove
78:Gradual school is where you go to school and you gradually find out you don't want to go to school anymore. ~ robin-williams, @wisdomtrove
79:I think the success of any school can be measured by the contribution the alumni make to our national life. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
80:A man's real education begins after he has left school. True education is gained through the discipline of life. ~ henry-ford, @wisdomtrove
81:Harvard students have completed more English courses and less forward passes than any school in this generation. ~ will-rogers, @wisdomtrove
82:In school, every period ends with a bell. Every sentence ends with a period. Every crime ends with a sentence. ~ steven-wright, @wisdomtrove
83:Love is a modest and immodest teacher who will bring you through the school of existence, which is the heart. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
84:Through high school, college, graduate school and beyond, I had a number of relationships that were wonderful. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
85:When buying a new house ... Buy the house far enough away from school so your kids can't come home for lunch. ~ phyllis-diller, @wisdomtrove
86:It's easy to carry the past as a burden instead of a school. It's easy to let it overwhelm you instead of educate you. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
87:Re-examine all that you have been told in school, or in church or in any book. Dismiss whatever insults your soul. ~ walt-whitman, @wisdomtrove
88:Until you're grown-up they send you to reform school. After you're grown-up they send you to the penitentiary. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
89:You choose, you live the consequences. Every yes, no, maybe, creates the school you call your personal experience. ~ richard-bach, @wisdomtrove
90:This planet is a divine school, and daily life a classroom. Our choice of teachers depends on what we need to learn. ~ dan-millman, @wisdomtrove
91:The most important thing we learn at school is the fact that the most important things can't be learned at school. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
92:He that travelleth into a country before he hath some entrance into the language, goeth to school, and not to travel. ~ francis-bacon, @wisdomtrove
93:The chief reason for going to school is to get the impression fixed for life that there is a book side for everything. ~ robert-frost, @wisdomtrove
94:How Riots May Help Us Understand School Shooters. Morning Edition with David Greene, October 13, 2015. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
95:In the school I went to, they asked a kid to prove the law of gravity and he threw the teacher out of the window. ~ rodney-dangerfield, @wisdomtrove
96:The members of the Mystery school, during the time of Atlantis, had psychically seen the subsequent ages of darkness. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
97:I was very immersed in the world. I'm very worldly. I love world. I was immersed in my career, in school, in teaching. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
98:I read a great deal, avoided the comapny of the children in school who seemed superfical, and fell in love with nature. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
99:I was kicked out of school because of my attitude. I was not assimilating. So I went to work, taking any jobs I could get. ~ richard-pryor, @wisdomtrove
100:During most of my freelancing, I made what I would have made in charge of the cafeteria at a pretty good junior-high school. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
101:Many of the most successful men and women in the world never graduated from college. They attended the school of life instead. ~ brian-tracy, @wisdomtrove
102:The Church is not a gallery for the exhibition of eminent Christians, but a school for the education of imperfect ones. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
103:When I was in school the teachers told me practice makes perfect; then they told me nobody’s perfect so I stopped practicing. ~ steven-wright, @wisdomtrove
104:Only nut cases want to be president. This was true even in high school. Only clearly disturbed people ran for class president. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
105:The world has so many lessons to teach you. I consider the world, this Earth, to be like a school and our life the classrooms. ~ oprah-winfrey, @wisdomtrove
106:As a child, my number one best friend was the librarian in my grade school. I actually believed all those books belonged to her. ~ erma-bombeck, @wisdomtrove
107:A Christian is nothing but a sinful man who has put himself to school for Christ for the honest purpose of becoming better. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
108:In high school I was drawn to the study of literature, poetry Shakespeare, contemporary fiction, drama, you name it - I read it. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
109:I had wanted a tape recorder since I was tiny. I thought it was a magic thing. I never got one until just before I went to art school. ~ brian-eno, @wisdomtrove
110:A writer without a sense of justice or injustice would be better off editing the yearbook for a school for exceptional children. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
111:But there are advantages to being elected President. The day after I was elected, I had my high school grades classified Top Secret. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
112:I had been pretty well made a prisoner by school, by society. I had been given this description of the world that I couldn't accept. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
113:School teachers, taking them by and large, are probably the most ignorant and stupid class of men in the whole group of mental workers. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
114:Your mothers get mighty shocked at you girls nowadays, but in her day, her mother was just on the verge of sending her to reform school. ~ will-rogers, @wisdomtrove
115:Don't let them fool ya, or even try to school ya! Oh, no! We've got a mind of our own, so go to hell if what you're thinking is not right! ~ bob-marley, @wisdomtrove
116:If you're looking to become an entrepreneur then don't waste your time going to university or business school - just get on and do it. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
117:The problem for the King is just how strict The lack of liberty, the squeeze of the law And discipline should be in school and state... . ~ robert-frost, @wisdomtrove
118:Grandfather always said school’s a place where they take sixteen years to wear down your brain. Grandfather hardly went to school either. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
119:A man who has never gone to school may steal from a freight car; but if he has a university education, he may steal the whole railroad. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
120:I am often amazed at how much more capability and enthusiasm for science there is among elementary school youngsters than among college students. ~ carl-sagan, @wisdomtrove
121:Law and the Court. Speech at a dinner of the Harvard Law School Association of New York, February 15, 1913. ~ oliver-wendell-holmes-jr, @wisdomtrove
122:No one can teach your child like you can. No nanny, Bible school teacher, aunt, or uncle has your authority. What a phenomenal privilege is yours. ~ max-lucado, @wisdomtrove
123:But to go to school in a summer morn, Oh, it drives all joy away! Under a cruel eye outworn, The little ones spend the day in sighing and dismay ~ william-blake, @wisdomtrove
124:But to go to school in a summer morn, O! It drives all joy away; Under a cruel eye outworn, The little ones spend the day In sighing and dismay. ~ william-blake, @wisdomtrove
125:Describing her first day back in grade school after a long absence a teacher said it was like trying to hold 35 corks under water at the same time. ~ mark-twain, @wisdomtrove
126:It's very funny. People do not want to achieve liberation or be happy. This is the basic guideline they teach you in Spiritual Training School. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
127:I've never studied anything formally. I was excluded from school at the age of 17, so I am an autodidact, which is a word that I have taught myself. ~ alan-moore, @wisdomtrove
128:The book of Genesis, a farrago of nonsense so wholly absurd that even Sunday-school scholars have to be threatened with Hell to make them accept it. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
129:Since belief determines behavior, doesn't it make sense that we should be teaching ethical, moral values in every home and in every school in America? ~ zig-ziglar, @wisdomtrove
130:One of the early signs of sophistication is not giving way to all inclinations but rather sending your emotions to school so they will learn how to behave. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
131:Growing up in the Boroughs, I thought I must be the cleverest boy in the world, an illusion that I was able to maintain until I got to the grammar school. ~ alan-moore, @wisdomtrove
132:We seek a constitutional amendment to permit voluntary school prayer. God should never have been expelled from America's classrooms in the first place. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
133:An exceedingly confident student would in theory make a terrible student. Why would he take school seriously when he feels that he can outwit his teachers? ~ criss-jami, @wisdomtrove
134:For the army is a school in which the miser becomes generous, and the generous prodigal; miserly soldiers are like monsters, but very rarely seen. ~ miguel-de-cervantes, @wisdomtrove
135:The only thing I ever learned was that some people are lucky and other people aren't and not even a graduate of the Harvard Business School can say why. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
136:In any case, the most lively young people become the best old people, not those who pretend to be as wise as grandfathers while they are still at school. ~ hermann-hesse, @wisdomtrove
137:If she did experience sex-or something close to it-in high school, I'm sure it would have been less out of sexual desire or love than literary curiosity. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
138:The school of awareness is the school of mysticism. Mysticism is the experience of eternity, of that which lies beyond the physical phenomenal experience. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
139:In leadership we teach we teach;Don't send your ducks to eagle school because it wont help.Ducks finishes eagle school,sees his first rabbit, makes him a friend. ~ jim-rohn, @wisdomtrove
140:One thing I hate about school committees today is that they cut arts programs out of the curriculum because they say the arts aren't a way to make a living. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
141:The State did not own men so entirely, even when it could send them to the stake, as it sometimes does now where it can send them to the elementary school. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
142:You go to school, you study about the Germans and the French, but not about your own race. I hope the time will come when you study black history too. ~ booker-t-washington, @wisdomtrove
143:If you have conflicts, everything breaks down in society. Kids can't go to school. Basic health can't be looked after. Every aspect of society falls apart. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
144:I didn't have any friends at school, didn't want any. I felt better being alone. I sat on a bench and watched the others play and they looked foolish to me. ~ charles-bukowski, @wisdomtrove
145:Rae Chorze Fwaz was a mystery school. A mystery school is an occult order comprised of people who study meditation, enlightenment and psychic and occult arts. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
146:When you become completely loving and kind without fear and without thought of harming others, you graudate from the Earth school. That is when reincarnation ends. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
147:I was always the youngest boy in my class at high school. I have retained this feeling of being the youngest, even though now I am almost the oldest person I know. ~ oliver-sacks, @wisdomtrove
148:But in high school the business of irrevocable choices began. Doors slipped shut with a faint locking click that was only heared clearly in the dreams of later years. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
149:Friendship (as the ancients saw) can be a school of virtue, but also (as they did not see) a school of vice. It is ambivalent. It makes good men better and bad men worse. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
150:I used to play cello. My mother kept me out of school a whole year to study music and counterpoint. She thought I had ability, but I was absolutely without talent. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
151:Real, sane, mature love; the kind that pays the mortgage year after year and picks up the kids after school‚ not based on infatuation but on affection and respect. ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
152:Self-education is, I firmly believe, the only kind of education there is. The only function of a school is to make self-education easier; failing that, it does nothing. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
153:Real, sane, mature love—the kind that pays the mortgage year after year and picks up the kids after school—is not based on infatuation but on affection and respect. ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
154:Boy is my wife stupid. It takes her and hour and a half to watch 60 minutes. My daughters no bargain either. In public school she was voted most likely to conceive. ~ rodney-dangerfield, @wisdomtrove
155:Our world is fast succumbing to the activities of men and women who would stake the future of our species on beliefs that should not survive an elementary school education. ~ sam-harris, @wisdomtrove
156:As you know from school, it's when you have not prepared for the test that you have the fear of failing. And if you have prepared, even if you fail, you've done your best. ~ alice-walker, @wisdomtrove
157:I hated school. I don't trust anybody who looks back on the years from 14 to 18 with any enjoyment. If you liked being a teenager, there's something really wrong with you. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
158:These are not bad people. All they are concerned about is to see that their sweet little girls are not required to sit in school alongside some big overgrown Negroes. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
159:In many ways, September feels like the busiest time of the year: The kids go back to school, work piles up after the summer's dog days, and Thanksgiving is suddenly upon us. ~ brene-brown, @wisdomtrove
160:We must school and train ourselves to deal personally with the unconverted. We must not excuse ourselves, but force ourselves to the irksome task until it becomes easy. ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
161:Most people are operating out of repetition. If you come to work or school each day with the same mind-state, you probably can't get more out of it than you did yesterday. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
162:Work is that which you dislike doing but perform for the sake of external rewards. At school, this takes the form of grades. In society, it means money, status, privilege. ~ abraham-maslow, @wisdomtrove
163:The first quality of a soldier is constancy in enduring fatigue and hardship. Courage is only the second. Poverty privation and want are the school of the good soldier. ~ napoleon-bonaparte, @wisdomtrove
164:Throughout life, from childhood, from school until we die, we are taught to compare ourselves with another; yet when I compare myself with another I am destroying myself. ~ jiddu-krishnamurti, @wisdomtrove
165:I had no plans to be an entrepreneur. I just wanted to be a journalist and write for a magazine. At 15, I just decided to leave school and launch a national student magazine. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
166:I worked privately, and sometimes I feel that might be better for poets than the kind of social workshop gathering. My school was the great poets: I read, and I read, and I read. ~ mary-oliver, @wisdomtrove
167:I had one or two steady girlfriends in high school, but then in college, it was three, four... I went crazy. At one point I had three separate girlfriends, running around mad. ~ robin-williams, @wisdomtrove
168:[T]hroughout the ages to be educated meant to be unproductive... . our word "school" - and its equivalent in all European languages - derives from a Greek word meaning "leisure. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
169:Science ... in other words, knowledge-is not the enemy of religion; for, if so, then religion would mean ignorance. But it is often the antagonist of school-divinity. ~ oliver-wendell-holmes-jr, @wisdomtrove
170:Fortunately, like most children, I had learned what is most valuable, most indispensable for life before school years began, taught by apple trees, by rain and sun, river and woods. ~ hermann-hesse, @wisdomtrove
171:If you're studying Geology, which is all facts, as soon as you get out of school you forget it all, but Philosophy you remember just enough to screw you up for the rest of your life. ~ steve-martin, @wisdomtrove
172:The notion that a story has a message assumes that it can be reduced to a few abstract words, neatly summarized in a school or college examination paper or a brisk critical review. ~ ursula-k-le-guin, @wisdomtrove
173:I have scary eyes. I look like the guy in &
174:Learn to be difficult when it counts. In school as in life, having a reputation for being assertive will help you receive preferential treatment without having to beg or fight for it every time. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
175:A boy will learn more true wisdom in a public school in a year than by a private education in five. It is not from masters, but from their equals, that youth learn a knowledge of the world. ~ oliver-goldsmith, @wisdomtrove
176:Once you become very powerful and advanced, you must be willing to go back to school and start over, and go to a wise person who will show you the way. Very few people are willing to do that. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
177:Another school declares that all time has already transpired and that our life is only the crepuscular and no doubt falsified and mutilated memory or reflection of an irrecoverable process. ~ jorge-luis-borges, @wisdomtrove
178:There is nothing, I think, more unfortunate than to have soft, chubby, fat-looking children who go to watch their school play basketball every Saturday and regard that as their weeks exercise. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
179:In the advanced practice, the relationship between the Zen master and the student becomes very terse. The Zen master will expect things of the student because the student is in graduate school. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
180:I am I because my little dog knows me but, creatively speaking the little dog knowing that you are you and your recognising that he knows, that is what destroys creation. That is what makes school. ~ gertrude-stein, @wisdomtrove
181:I myself grew up when radio was very important. I'd come home from school and turn on the radio. There were funny comedians and wonderful music, and there were plays. I used to pass time with radio. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
182:Children are not deceived by fairy-tales; they are often and gravely deceived by school-stories. Adults are not deceived by science-fiction ; they can be deceived by the stories in the women's magazines. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
183:I found that the breakthroughs for me, as I went through school, came through sexuality, explorations of consciousness, reading, loving, friends, time in nature, and through psychedelic experiences. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
184:The learning we received only tended to obscure our vision. From the day we went to school we learned nothing; on the contrary, we were made obtuse, we were wrapped in a fog of words and abstractions. ~ henry-miller, @wisdomtrove
185:I got the idea [for Anthem's theme] in my school days, in Soviet Russia, when I heard all the vicious attacks on individualism, and asked myself what the world would be like if men lost the word &
186:Every city should make the common school so rich, so large, so ample, so beautiful in its endowments, and so fruitful in its results, that a private school will not be able to live under the drip of it. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
187:In poetry, and in my study in graduate school, I was drawn to a particular poet, Theodore Roethke. I did a dissertation on "The Evolution of Matter and Spirit in the Poetry of Theodore Roethke" for my Ph.D. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
188:I did go to school - my kind of school. When I was a kid I went out ... and you meet people. You talk to them. Anybody says something that makes sense, it stays with you, rubs off on you. That kind of school. ~ george-burns, @wisdomtrove
189:It is largely because the free-thinkers, as a school, have hardly made up their minds whether they want to be more optimist or more pessimist than Christianity that their small but sincere movement has failed. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
190:I cannot but say a word and look my disapproval when I hear that my country is spending millions for war and war engines-more, I have heard, than twice as much as the entire public school system costs the nation. ~ hellen-keller, @wisdomtrove
191:In Atlantis, children who were spiritually evolved from meditative practices in their previous lives were brought to the Mystery School for training by older members of the Order who psychically recognized them. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
192:The person who stops studying merely because he has finished school is forever hopelessly doomed to mediocrity, no matter what may be his calling. The way of success is the way of continuous pursuit of knowledge. ~ napoleon-hill, @wisdomtrove
193:For me, that emotional payoff is what it’s all about. I want you to laugh or cry when you read a story... or do both at the same time. I want your heart, in other words. If you want to learn something, go to school. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
194:I'll go to a city, a school, and give a lecture because I can feel someone there. I inwardly see first their is someone there who is waiting. Where they'll show up or not, I don't know. That depneds upon many factors. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
195:To consider the school as a place where instruction is given is one point of view. But, to consider the school as a preparation for life is another. In the latter case, the school must satisfy all the needs of life. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
196:It was still quiet in the house, and not a sound was heard from outside, either. Were it not for this silence, my reverie would probably have been disrupted by reminders of daily duties, of getting up and going to school. ~ hermann-hesse, @wisdomtrove
197:I found one day in school a boy of medium size ill-treating a smaller boy. I expostulated, but he replied: ‘The bigs hit me, so I hit the babies; that’s fair.’ In these words he epitomized the history of the human race. ~ bertrand-russell, @wisdomtrove
198:My vision of the future is no longer of people taking exams and proceeding from secondary school to University but of passing from one stage of independence to a higher, by means of their own activity and effort of will. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
199:I have written 240 books on a wide variety of topics. . . . Some of it I based on education I received in my school, but most of it was backed by other ways of learning - chiefly in the books I obtained in the public library. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
200:You know, I don't think a lot about why one book connects with its readers and another doesn't. Probably because I don't want to start thinking, "Am I popular?" I spent way too much time thinking about that in high school. ~ ursula-k-le-guin, @wisdomtrove
201:I don't like that sort of school... where the bright childish imagination is utterly discouraged... where I have never seen among the pupils, whether boys or girls, anything but little parrots and small calculating machines. ~ charles-dickens, @wisdomtrove
202:If Harvard is $60,000 and University of Toronto, where I went to school, is maybe six. So you're really telling me that education is 10 times better at Harvard than it is at University of Toronto? That seems ridiculous to me. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
203:I am embarrassed to admit what drew me to psychology. I didn't want to go to medical school. I was getting good grades in psychology and I was charismatic and people in the psychology department liked me. It was as low a level as that. ~ ram-das, @wisdomtrove
204:I was an All-American in wrestling in high school, was National Champion in Chinese kickboxing in 1999 and have spent a lot of time around professional athletes, which includes my eight-plus years as CEO of a sports nutrition company. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
205:I was in enough to get along with people. I was never socially inarticulate. Not a loner. And that saved my life, saved my sanity. That and the writing. But to this day I distrust anybody who thought school was a good time. Anybody. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
206:I never went to school more than six months in my life, but I can say this: that among my earliest recollections, I remember how, when a mere child, I used to get irritated when anybody talked to me in a way I could not understand. ~ abraham-lincoln, @wisdomtrove
207:A surfer is poised on a wave on his board, cutting quickly to the left. He'll always be there, in that moment. He's never left it. He had no birth, he didn't go to school, he didn't purchase the board; none of those things ever were. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
208:I'm so excited about school. I'm such a shameless student. I laid my clothes out last night, just like I did before my first day of first grade, with my patent leather shoes and my new lunch box. I hope the teacher will like me :) ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
209:One thing I learned, with permission of the school committee of Indianapolis, was that when a tyrant or a government gets in trouble it wonders what to do. Declare war! Then nothing else matters. It's like chess; when in doubt, castle. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
210:I went to high school in Indianapolis I learned how to walk around looking tough because everybody had to do that. I go out there occasionally and they're still doing it, walking around looking very tough because something might happen. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
211:What's going to happen is, very soon, we're going to run out of petroleum, and everything depends on petroleum. And there go the school buses. There go the fire engines. The food trucks will come to a halt. This is the end of the world. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
212:The only industries that function well are the industries that take responsibility for training. The Japanese, you know, assume that when you first come to work you know absolutely nothing. School isn't preparation for work and never was. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
213:We developed at the local school district level probably the best public school system in the world. Or it was until the Federal government added Federal interference to Federal financial aid and eroded educational quality in the process. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
214:I was dyslexic, I had no understanding of schoolwork whatsoever. I certainly would have failed IQ tests. And it was one of the reasons I left school when I was 15 years old. And if I - if I'm not interested in something, I don't grasp it. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
215:Progress was a labyrinth ... people plunging blindly in and then rushing wildly back, shouting that they had found it ... the invisible king-the élan vital-the principle of evolution ... writing a book, starting a war, founding a school. ~ f-scott-fitzgerald, @wisdomtrove
216:They had become a fixed star in the shifting firmament of the high school's relationships, the acknowledged Romeo and Juliet. And she knew with sudden hatefulness that there was one couple like them in every white suburban high school in America. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
217:I believe that all the survivors are mad. One time or another their madness will explode. You cannot absorb that much madness and not be influenced by it. That is why the children of survivors are so tragic. I see them in school. They don't know how ~ elie-wiesel, @wisdomtrove
218:With my childhood, it's a wonder I'm not psychotic. I was the little Jewish boy in the non-Jewish neighbourhood. It was a little like being the first Negro enrolled in the all-white school. I grew up in libraries and among books, without friends. ~ abraham-maslow, @wisdomtrove
219:Christmas can be celebrated in the school room with pine trees, tinsel and reindeers, but there must be no mention of the man whose birthday is being celebrated. One wonders how a teacher would answer if a student asked why it was called Christmas. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
220:The tragedy is that society (your school, your boss, your government, your family) keeps drumming the genius part out. The problem is that our culture has engaged in a Faustian bargain, in which we trade our genius and artistry for apparent stability. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
221:The new school of art and thought does indeed wear an air of audacity, and breaks out everywhere into blasphemies, as if it required any courage to say a blasphemy. There is only one thing that it requires real courage to say, and that is a truism. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
222:I have always been absurdly, ridiculously tall. To give you an idea- when we went on school trips to Interesting and Improving Places, the form-master wouldn't say "Meet under the clock tower," or "Meet under the War Memorial," but "Meet under Adams. ~ douglas-adams, @wisdomtrove
223:The world in books seemed so much more alive to me than anything outside. I could see things I'd never seen before. Books and music were my best friends. I had a couple of good friends at school, but never met anyone I could really speak my heart to. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
224:Religion is not a fractional thing that can be doled out in fixed weekly or daily measures as one among various subjects in the school syllabus. It is the truth of our complete being, the consciousness of our personal relationship with the infinite. ~ rabindranath-tagore, @wisdomtrove
225:At the time we’re stuck in it, like hostages locked in a Turkish bath, high school seems the most serious business in the world to just about all of us. It’s not until the second or third class reunion that we start realizing how absurd the whole thing was. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
226:School was the unhappiest time of my life and the worst trick it ever played on me was to pretend that it was the world in miniature. For it hindered me from discovering how lovely and delightful and kind the world can be, and how much of it is intelligible. ~ e-m-forster, @wisdomtrove
227:The cost of one modern heavy bomber is this: a modern brick school in more than 30 cities ... We pay for a single fighter with a half million bushels of wheat. We pay for a single destroyer with new homes that could have housed more than 8,000 people. ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
228:Both the Winter and the Summer Solstices are expressions of love. They show us the opposition of light and dark, expansion and contraction, that characterize our experiences in the Earth school so that we can recognize our options as we move through our lives. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
229:When we accept any discipline for ourselves, we try to avoid everything except that which is necessary for our purpose; it is this purposefulness, which belongs to the adult mind, that we force upon school children. We say, "Never keep your mind aler. ~ rabindranath-tagore, @wisdomtrove
230:All this pitting of sex against sex, of quality against quality; all this claiming of superiority and imputing of inferiority belong to the private-school stage of human existence where there are sides, and it is necessary for one side to beat another side. ~ virginia-woolf, @wisdomtrove
231:It's hard for me to talk to her. All I can do when I look at her is think about the day when I won't be able to. So I spend all my time at school thinking about her, wishing I could see her right then, but when I get to her house, I don't know what to say. ~ nicholas-sparks, @wisdomtrove
232:We were taught to be dependable, responsible, the top of our classes at school, the most organized and efficient babysitters in town, the very miniature models of our hardworking farmer/nurse mother, a pair of junior Swiss Army knives, born to multitask. ~ elizabeth-gilbert, @wisdomtrove
233:George Carlin's album, &
234:It is not that the Englishman can't feel-it is that he is afraid to feel. He has been taught at his public school that feeling is bad form. He must not express great joy or sorrow, or even open his mouth too wide when he talks-his pipe might fall out if he did. ~ e-m-forster, @wisdomtrove
235:You and your friends could plan the trip of a lifetime in 6-18 months to visit the completed school, teeming with dozens or hundreds of students who greet you with smiles and thank you letters. You'll know it's your school because your names will be on the door. ~ tim-ferris, @wisdomtrove
236:That was always my experience-a poor boy in a rich town; a poor boy in a rich boy's school; a poor boy in a rich man's club at Princeton ... . However, I have never been able to forgive the rich for being rich, and it has colored my entire life and works. ~ f-scott-fitzgerald, @wisdomtrove
237:Tis pleasing to be school'd in a strange tongue By female lips and eyes&
238:We lived in a neighborhood that was too rich for us. When I was young, I had to deliver groceries to the homes of the kids I went to school with. I had to go to the back doors to make the deliveries. It was embarrassing. That was one thing out of a hundred. ~ rodney-dangerfield, @wisdomtrove
239:Let no Christian parents fall into the delusion that Sunday School is intended to ease them of their personal duties. The first and most natural condition of things is for Christian parents to train up their own children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. ~ charles-spurgeon, @wisdomtrove
240:The family should be a closely knit group. The home should be a self-contained shelter of security; a kind of school where life's basic lessons are taught; and a kind of church where God is honored; a place where wholesome recreation and simple pleasures are enjoyed. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
241:We've got to fight against bigness. If a school gets too large, you lose an intimacy with the students; they begin to feel they're just part of a big complex. I don't think you can create too well in a big plant. That's why I always tried to avoid bigness in the studio. ~ walt-disney, @wisdomtrove
242:I never studied science or physics at school, and yet when I read complex books on quantum physics I understood them perfectly because I wanted to understand them. The study of quantum physics helped me to have a deeper understanding of the Secret, on an energetic level. ~ rhonda-byrne, @wisdomtrove
243:It cannot reasonably be doubted, but a little miss, dressed in a new gown for a dancing-school ball, receives as complete enjoyment as the greatest orator, who triumphs in the splendour of his eloquence, while he governs the passions and resolutions of a numerous assembly. ~ david-hume, @wisdomtrove
244:School is at its best when it gives students the expectation that they will not only dream big, but dream dreams that they can work on every day until they accomplish  them-not because they were chosen by a black-box process, but because  they worked hard enough to reach them. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
245:The members of the Atlantean Mystery School were the earliest human explorers of the frontiers of inner space. Through their meditative journeys and explorations, they discovered many secret astral passageways that led to an infinite variety of other worlds and dimensions. ~ frederick-lenz, @wisdomtrove
246:Early in my school career, I turned out to be an incorrigible disciplinary problem. I could understand what the teacher was saying as fast as she could say it, I found time hanging heavy, so I would occasionally talk to my neighbor. That was my great crime, I talked in school. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
247:When we leave our child in nursery school for the first time, it won't be just our child's feelings about separation that we will have to cope with, but our own feelings as well-from our present and from our past, parents are extra vulnerable to new tremors from old earthquakes. ~ fred-rogers, @wisdomtrove
248:[On school uniforms] Don't these schools do enough damage making all these kids think alike, now they have to make them look alike too? It's not a new idea, either. I first saw it in old newsreels from the 1930s, but it was hard to understand because the narration was in German. ~ george-carlin, @wisdomtrove
249:A lot of us have all sorts of ideas, and we select some rather than others and give expression to those... and some works of art are more successful than others. Some languish in obscurity and are never heard of again, while others form the foundation of a whole school of art. ~ rupert-sheldrake, @wisdomtrove
250:I see men assassinated around me every day. I walk through rooms of the dead, streets of the dead, cities of the dead; men without eyes, men without voices; men with manufactured feelings and standard reactions; men with newspaper brains, television souls and high school ideas. ~ charles-bukowski, @wisdomtrove
251:One of the disadwantages of school and learning, he thought dreamily, was that the mind seemed to have the tendency too see and represent all things as though they were flat and had only two dimensions. This, somehow, seemed to render all matters of intellect shallow and worthless. ~ hermann-hesse, @wisdomtrove
252:There is nothing harder to learn than painting and nothing which most people take less trouble about learning. An art school is a place where about three people work with feverish energy and everybody else idles to a degree that I should have conceived unattainable by human nature. ~ g-k-chesterton, @wisdomtrove
253:The basis of your religion is injustice. The Son of God the pure, the immaculate, the innocent, is sacrificed for the guilty. This proves his heroism, but no more does away with man's sin than a school boy's volunteering to be flogged for another would exculpate a dunce from negligence. ~ lord-byron, @wisdomtrove
254:I loved to make people laugh in high school, and then I found I loved being on stage in front of people. I'm sure that's some kind of ego trip or a way to overcome shyness. I was very kind of shy and reserved, so there's a way to be on stage and be performing and balance your life out. ~ steve-martin, @wisdomtrove
256:Love is a word that is constantly heard, Hate is a word that is not. Love, I am told, is more precious than gold. Love, I have read, is hot. But hate is the verb that to me is superb, And Love but a drug on the mart. Any kiddie in school can love like a fool, But Hating, my boy, is an Art. ~ ogden-nash, @wisdomtrove
257:Forbid the day when vivisection shall be practised in every college and school, and when the man of science, looking forth over a world which will then own no other sway than his, shall exult in the thought that he has made of this fair earth, if not a heaven, at least a hell for animals. ~ lewis-carroll, @wisdomtrove
258:I knew I wanted to be in show business so I took the path of least resistance. I loved comedy. But you never know you are funny until people laugh. It's just what I was interested in. I could make people laugh, I guess, but doing it at school and doing it onstage are very different things. ~ steve-martin, @wisdomtrove
259:That's wrong," she declared. "Everyone must have one thing that they can excel at. It's just a matter of drawing it out, isn't it? But school doesn't know how to draw it out. It crushes the gift. It's no wonder most people never get to be what they want to be. They just get ground down. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
260:Today the West is awakening to its wants; and the "true self of man and spirit" is the watchword of the advanced school of Western theologians. The student of Sanskrit philosophy knows where the wind is blowing from, but it matters not whence the power comes so longs as it brings new life. ~ swami-vivekananda, @wisdomtrove
261:Your soul is that part of you that existed before you were born and will continue to exist after you die. [It] is immortal. You are a powerful and creative compassionate and loving spirit that has entered the Earth school to learn lessons and to give gifts. Your personality is a tool of your soul. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
262:I'd be satisfied just coaching in high school. I turned down a number of colleges when I was teaching in South Bend, Indiana, before I went into the service. I honestly believe that if I hadn't enlisted in the service, I would never have left high school teaching. I'm sure I would have never left. ~ john-wooden, @wisdomtrove
263:I hope that my ideas attract a lively dialogue, even if my sentences are simple. Simple sentences have always served me well. And I don't use semicolons. It's hard to read anyway, especially for high school kids. Also, I avoid irony, too. I don't like people saying one thing and meaning the other. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
264:I've been thinking of humorous things since I was... I can't remember when. All the way through elementary school, all the way through junior high, all the way through high school, through college and after college, I was thinking of the same kinds of things that I say in front of an audience now. ~ steven-wright, @wisdomtrove
265:Do you think it's funny to be so serious when I'm not even out of high school?' she asked. &
266:Once a musician has enough ability to get into a top music school, the thing that distinguishes one performer from another is how hard he or she works. That's it. And what's more, the people at the very top don't work just harder or even much harder than everyone else. They work much, much harder. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
267:A whetstone is no carving instrument, And yet it maketh sharp the carving tool; And if you see my efforts wrongly spent, Eschew that course and learn out of my school; For thus the wise may profit by the fool, And edge his wit, and grow more keen and wary, For wisdom shines opposed to its contrary. ~ geoffrey-chaucer, @wisdomtrove
268:By the age of three, the child has already laid down the foundations of his personality as a human being, and only then does he need the help of special scholastic influences. So great are the conquests he has made that one may well say: the child who goes to school at three is already a little man. ~ maria-montessori, @wisdomtrove
269:Emotions are classes in the Earth school. Some classes are about fear, and some are about love. The Universe is your tutor, and your classroom is your life. The main course in the Earth school, Authentic Power, is the same for everyone, but different students need different courses in order to complete it. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
270:I remember when I was in high school I didn't have a new dress for each special occasion. The girls would bring the fact to my attention, not always too delicately. The boys, however, never bothered with the subject. They were my friends, not because of the size of my wardrobe but because they liked me. ~ marilyn-monroe, @wisdomtrove
271:School is established, not in order that it should be convenient for the children to study, but that teachers should be able to teach in comfort. The children's conversations, motion, merriment are not convenient for the teacher, and so in the schools, which are built on the plan of prisons, are prohibited. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
272:After I graduated from high school, one of the former workers on our farm asked if I would be willing to join him in selling Fuller brushes through the summer. It seemed like a perfect way to make some money for college. And being away from my parents and learning to make my own way gave me self confidence. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
273:The jovial party broke up next morning. Breakings-up are capital things in our school-days, but in after life they are painful enough. Death, self-interest, and fortune's changes, are every day breaking up many a happy group, and scattering them far and wide; and the boys and girls never come back again. ~ charles-dickens, @wisdomtrove
274:I was foreign and Jewish, with a funny name, and was very small and hated sport, a real problem at an English prep school. So the way to get round it was to become the school joker, which I did quite effectively - I was always fooling around to make the people who would otherwise dump me in the loo laugh. ~ alain-de-botton, @wisdomtrove
275:I liked school, but I used to dread those moments when the teacher would call me up to give an oral report. I forced myself to deal with it and not dwell on the class in front of me - to keep a straight face, give the report and concentrate on getting it right. That's normally how I perform. That's how I am. ~ steven-wright, @wisdomtrove
276:And what is called history at school, and all we learn by heart there about heroes and geniuses and great deeds and fine emotions, is all nothing but a swindle invented by the schoolmasters for educational reasons to keep children occupied for a given number of years. It has always been so and always will be. ~ hermann-hesse, @wisdomtrove
277:No man can do both effective and decent work in public life unless he is a practical politician on the one hand, and a sturdy believer in Sunday-school politics on the other. He must always strive manfully for the best, and yet, like Abraham Lincoln, must often resign himself to accept the best possible. ~ theodore-roosevelt, @wisdomtrove
278:There is nothing that teaches you more than regrouping after failure and moving on. Yet most people are stricken with fear. They fear failure so much that they fail. They are too conditioned, too used to being told what to do. It begins with the family, runs through school and goes into the business world. ~ charles-bukowski, @wisdomtrove
279:In my family we got up in the mornings around three o'clock and went out to the barns to bring the cows in and milk. In high school I milked about twenty cows every morning and about twenty in the afternoon when I got home. I have wonderful memories from those early days when my parent's influence was so strong. ~ billy-graham, @wisdomtrove
280:I didn't like anybody in that school. I think they knew that. I think that's why they disliked me. I didn't like the way they walked or looked or talked, but I didn't like my mother or father either. I still had the feeling of being surrounded by white empty space. There was always a slight nausea in my stomach. ~ charles-bukowski, @wisdomtrove
281:I don’t think people realise how vital libraries are or what a colossal danger it would be if we were to lose any more. Having had a truncated school life myself, all of my education from the age of 17 has been self-taught. I wouldn’t be the person I am today if it wasn’t for the opportunities the library gave me. ~ alan-moore, @wisdomtrove
282:I think the greatest gift we can give our children is the experience of deep quiet. If we don’t help our children cultivate contemplation, reflection, prayer, meditation, or whatever other practice of mindfulness, then they’re likely to be completely spun out of their center by the time they’re in grade school. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
283:The trick at every turn was to endure the test of living for as long as possible. The odds of survival were punishingly slim, for the world was naught by a school of calamity and an endless burning furnace of tribulation. But those who survived the world shaped it&
284:While one is young is the time to investigate, to experiment with everything. The school should help its young people to discover their vocations and responsibilities, and not merely cram their minds with facts and technical knowledge; it should be the soil in which they can grow without fear, happily and integrally. ~ jiddu-krishnamurti, @wisdomtrove
285:Through your love for each other, through learning the art of making one person happy, you learn to express your love for the whole of humanity and all beings. Please help us develop the curriculum for the Institute for the Happiness of One Person. Don't wait until we open the school. You can begin practicing right away. ~ thich-nhat-hanh, @wisdomtrove
286:The people with very hard problems are understood by God. He knows what wretched machines they are trying to drive. Some day he will fling them away and give those people new ones; then they may astonish everyone, for they learned their driving in a hard school. Some of the last will be first and some of the first will be last. ~ c-s-lewis, @wisdomtrove
287:I set up this magazine called Student when I was 16, and I didn't do it to make money - I did it because I wanted to edit a magazine. There wasn't a national magazine run by students, for students. I didn't like the way I was being taught at school. I didn't like what was going on in the world, and I wanted to put it right. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
288:At school I pretended I had a normal life, but I felt lonely all the time and different from everyone else. I never felt like I fit in, and I wasn't allowed to participate in after-school activities, go to sports events or parties or date boys. Many times I had to make up stories about why I couldn't do anything with my classmates. ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
289:I come from somewhere and from specific black people in the South, including my parents, who built our first school, and rebuilt it after it was burned to the ground. And they used to bake pies and cakes to raise money to keep it going. So, I learned to struggle from a very early way in a way that was truly indigenous to the South. ~ alice-walker, @wisdomtrove
290:The president is that invisible force that makes a school of fish suddenly change direction, so that everyone &
291:The time has come for an all-out war against poverty. The rich nations must use their vast resources of wealth to develop the underdeveloped, school the unschooled, and feed the unfed. Ultimately a great nation is a compassionate nation. No individual or nation can be great if it does not have a concern for "the least of these". ~ martin-luther-king, @wisdomtrove
292:If we take in our hand any volume; of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance; let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number? No. Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence? No. Commit it then to the flames: for it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion. ~ david-hume, @wisdomtrove
293:The single most important thing to remember about any enterprise is that results exist only on the outside.The result of a business is a satisfied customer. The result of a hospital is a satisfied patient. The result of a school is a student who has learned something and puts it to work ten years later. Inside an enterprise there are only costs. ~ peter-drucker, @wisdomtrove
294:To be so bent on Marriage - to pursue a man merely for the sake of situation - is a sort of thing that shocks me; I cannot understand it. Poverty is a great Evil, but to a woman of Education and feeling it ought not, it cannot be the greatest. I would rather be a teacher at a school (and I can think of nothing worse) than marry a man I did not like. ~ jane-austen, @wisdomtrove
295:And those handmade presents that children often bring home from school: They have so much value! The value is that the child put whatever he or she could into making them. The way we parents respond to the giving of such gifts is very important. To the child the gift is really self, and they want so much for their selves to be acceptable, to be loved. ~ fred-rogers, @wisdomtrove
296:You know, if I look at an auditorium full of high school students and the big man on campus and his girlfriend are busy talking while the lecture's going on, the rest of the room is going to do it because they're powerful sneezers. They have influence. They reach out to a whole bunch of people in a way that makes the idea of being disrespectful spread. ~ seth-godin, @wisdomtrove
297:I don't know what to do!" cried Scrooge, laughing and crying in the same breath; and making a perfect Laocoön of himself with his stockings. "I am as light as a feather, I am as happy as an angel, I am as merry as a school-boy. I am as giddy as a drunken man. A merry Christmas to every-body! A happy New Year to all the world! Hallo here! Whoop! Hallo! ~ charles-dickens, @wisdomtrove
298:I would like to dissolve the $10 billion national Department of Education created by President Carter and turn schools back to the local school districts, where we built the greatest public school system the world has ever seen. I think I can make a case that the decline in the quality of public education began when federal aid became federal interference. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
299:If there is a central theme to what I called "a peaceful warrior's approach to living," and to The Four Purposes of Life, it is that there may be innumerable techniques or methods one can learn (from the Eastern spiritual cultures and from the Western psychological tradition), but that above and beyond all these technologies waits the school of everyday life. ~ dan-millman, @wisdomtrove
300:The First Amendment of the Constitution was not written to protect the people from religion; that amendment was written to protect religion from government tyranny. . . But now we're told our children have no right to pray in school. Nonsense. The pendulum has swung too far toward intolerance against genuine religious freedom. It is time to redress the balance. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
301:Life is a creative process, not a journey of discovery or a school of learning. You're not discovering yourself, but recreating yourself. So don't try and figure out who you are, but establish who you want to be. You create your reality every minute, probably without realizing it. You can be, do, and have whatever you can imagine. Didn't I say you were gods? ~ neale-donald-walsch, @wisdomtrove
302:What I got in Sunday school ... was simply a firm conviction that the Christian faith was full of palpable absurdities, and the Christian God preposterous... . The act of worship, as carried on by Christians, seems to me to be debasing rather than ennobling. It involves groveling before a being who, if he really exists, deserves to be denounced instead of respected. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
303:It is extremely important that adequate provision be made for reasonable levels of income to them, for the care of the children which they must leave at home or in school, and for protection of the family unit. One of the prime objectives of the Commission on the Status of Women, which I appointed 18 months ago, is to develop a program to accomplish these purposes. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
304:By habits of thrift and economy, by way of the industrial school and college, we are coming up. We are crawling up, working up, yea, bursting up-often through oppression, unjust discrimination and prejudice-but through them all we are coming up, and with proper habits, intelligence, and property, there is no power on earth than can permanently stay our progress. ~ booker-t-washington, @wisdomtrove
305:I think great businessmen are more likely made than born. I don't know if it's from your upbringing, your parental background, the struggles you go through. In my own particular situation, I left school at 15 and I was struggling to survive in the jungle and that was a great education. So I think just getting out there, hands on, learning to survive teaches you a lot. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
306:The poet, as everyone knows, must strike his individual note sometime between the ages of fifteen and twenty-five. He may hold it a long time, or a short time, but it is then that he must strike it or never. School and college have been conducted with the almost express purpose of keeping him busy with something else till the danger of his ever creating anything is past. ~ robert-frost, @wisdomtrove
307:When I was a teenager, I didn't get to do a lot of the things that other kids my age were doing because my dad was very controlling and he wouldn't allow me to go to school activities, like games and dances. So I didn't have positive expectations for my future or really dream about what I could do with my life. I was just trying to survive until I could get out on my own. ~ joyce-meyer, @wisdomtrove
308:I ask particularly that those of you who are now in school will prepare yourselves to bear the burden of leadership over the next 40 years here in the United States, and make sure that the United States - which I believe almost alone has maintained watch and ward for freedom - that the United States meet its responsibility. That is a wonderful challenge for us as a people. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
309:It is very important that children learn from their fathers and mothers how to love one another- not in the school, not from the teacher, but from you. It is very important that you share with your children the joy of that smile.  There will be misunderstandings; every family has its cross, its suffering.  Always be the first to forgive with a smile.  Be cheerful, be happy. ~ mother-teresa, @wisdomtrove
310:So I believe in singing to such an extent that if I were asked to redesign the British educational system, I would start by insisting that group singing become a central part of the daily routine. I believe it builds character and, more than anything else, encourages a taste for co-operation with others. This seems to be about the most important thing a school could do for you. ~ brian-eno, @wisdomtrove
311:School days, I believe, are the unhappiest in the whole span of human existence. They are full of dull, unintelligible tasks, new and unpleasant ordinances, brutal violations of common sense and common decency. It doesn't take a reasonably bright boy long to discover that most of what is rammed into him is nonsense, and that no one really cares very much whether he learns it or not. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
312:At school he had done things which had formerly seemed to him very horrid and made him feel disgusted with himself when he did them; but when later on he saw that such actions were done by people of good position and that they did not regard them as wrong, he was able not exactly to regard them as right, but to forget about them entirely or not be at all troubled at remembering them. ~ leo-tolstoy, @wisdomtrove
313:I may not be much, but I'm all I've got. Maybe you need a magnifying glass to find my face in my high school graduation photo. Maybe I haven't got any family or friends. Yes, yes, I know all that. But, strange as it might seem, I'm not entirely dissatisfied with life... I feel pretty much at home with what I am. I don't want to go anywhere. I don't want any unicorns behind fences. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
314:Whatever their temperament, if children are part of your life, encourage them to pause for a moment at the end of the day (or at any other natural interval, such as the last minute before the school bell) to remember what went well and think about things that make them happy (e.g., a pet, their parents’ love, a goal scored in soccer). Then have those positive feelings and thoughts sink in. ~ rick-hanson, @wisdomtrove
315:And what is a good citizen? Simply one who never says, does or thinks anything that is unusual.  Schools are maintained in order to bring this uniformity up to the highest possible point.  A school is a hopper into which children are heaved while they are still young and tender; therein they are pressed into certain standard shapes and covered from head to heels with official rubber-stamps. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
316:Approximately one-third of all homes in 1940 did not have running water, indoor toilets, or bathtub/showers, and more than half had no central heating. If you were twenty-five years or older in 1940, you would have stood only a 40 percent chance of having completed the eighth grade, a 25 percent chance of having graduated from high school, and only a 5 percent chance of having finished college. ~ sonja-lyubomirsky, @wisdomtrove
317:But the others, those who tried to bring Jesus to life at the call of love, found it a cruel task to be honest. The critical study of the life of Jesus has been for theology a school of honesty. The world had never seen before, and will never see again, a struggle for truth so full of pain and renunciation as that of which the Lives of Jesus of the last hundred years contain the cryptic record. ~ albert-schweitzer, @wisdomtrove
318:The religious school she went to, growing up, Ms. Wright said how all the girls had to wear a scarf tied to cover their ears at all times. Based on the biblical idea that the Virgin Mary became pregnant when the Holy Spirit whispered in her ear. The idea that ears were vaginas. That, hearing just one wrong idea, you lost your innocence. One detail too many and you'd be ruined. Overdosed on information. ~ chuck-palahniuk, @wisdomtrove
319:I had come to realize the importance of the Nation, and of shared, communal, social responsibility, to be held as equally important as individual concerns. The elderly, the widowed, newly married couples, the poor, the unemployed, disbanded soldiers and children, who would be required to attend school, must be provided for from state funds. And all this support is not the nature of charity, but of a right. ~ thomas-paine, @wisdomtrove
320:Any day you had gym class was a weird school day. It started off normal. You had English, Social Studies, Geometry, then suddenly your in Lord of the Flies for 40 minutes. Your hanging from a rope, you have hardly any clothes on, teachers are yelling at you, kids are throwing dodge balls at you and snapping towels - you're trying to survive. And then it's Science,Language, and History. Now that is a weird day. ~ jerry-seinfeld, @wisdomtrove
321:You know, small children take it as a matter of course that things will change every day and grown-ups understand that things change sooner or later and their job is to keep them from changing as long as possible. It’s only kids in high school who are convinced they’re never going to change. There’s always going to be a pep rally and there’s always going to be a spectator bus, somewhere out there in their future. ~ stephen-king, @wisdomtrove
322:The Earth school is not a concept. It is an an ongoing 3-dimesional, full colour, hi-fidelity, interactive multi-media experience that does not end until your soul goes home (until you die). Every moment in the earth school offers you important opportunities to learn about yourself. Those things have to do with your soul. The Earth school operates with exquisite perfection and efficiency whether you are aware of it or not. ~ gary-zukav, @wisdomtrove
323:I wonder how it turns out that we all lead such different lives. Take you and your sister, for example. You're born to the same parents, you grow up in the same household, you're both girls. How do you end up with such wildly different personalities?... One puts on a bikini like little semaphore flags and lies by the pool looking sexy, and the other puts on her school bathing suit and swims her heart out like a dolphin. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
324:I received the fundamentals of my education in school, but that was not enough. My real education, the superstructure, the details, the true architecture, I got out of the public library. For an impoverished child whose family could not afford to buy books, the library was the open door to wonder and achievement, and I can never be sufficiently grateful that I had the wit to charge through that door and make the most of it. ~ isaac-asimov, @wisdomtrove
325:I know a good many men of great learning-that is, men born with an extraordinary eagerness and capacity to acquire knowledge. One and all, they tell me that they can't recall learning anything of any value in school. All that schoolmasters managed to accomplish with them was to test and determine the amount of knowledge that they had already acquired independently-and not infrequently the determination was made clumsily and inaccurately. ~ h-l-mencken, @wisdomtrove
326:Odd: I wish I could believe in reincarnation. Chief Porter: Not me. Once down the track is enough of a test. Pass me or fail me, Dear Lord, but don't make me go through high school again. Odd: If there's something we want so bad in this life but we can't have it, maybe we could get it the next time around. Chief Porter: Or maybe not getting it, accepting less without bitterness and being grateful for what we have is a part of what we're here to learn. ~ dean-koontz, @wisdomtrove
327:Reading was like an addiction; I read while I ate, on the train, in bed until late at night, in school, where I'd keep the book hidden so I could read during class. Before long I bought a small stereo and spent all my time in my room, listening to jazz records. But I had almost no desire to talk to anyone about the experience I gained through books and music. I felt happy just being me and no one else. In that sense I could be called a stack-up loner. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
328:If an American, because his skin is dark, cannot eat lunch in a restaurant open to the public, if he cannot send his children to the best public school available, if he cannot vote for the public officials who represent him, if, in short, he cannot enjoy the full and free life which all of us want, then who among us would be content to have the color of his skin changed and stand in his place? Who among us would then be content with the counsels of patience and delay? ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
329:I believe in an America where the separation of church and state is absolute - where no Catholic prelate would tell the president (should he be Catholic) how to act, and no Protestant minister would tell his parishoners for whom to vote - where no church or church school is granted any public funds or political preference - and where no man is denied public office merely because his religion differs from the president who might appoint him or the people who might elect him. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
330:Accordingly, France Had Voltaire, and his school of negative thinkers, and England (or rather Scotland) had the profoundest negative thinker on record, David Hume: a man, the peculiarities of whose mind qualified him to detect failure of proof, and want of logical consistency, at a depth which French skeptics, with their comparatively feeble powers of analysis and abstractions stop far short of, and which German subtlety alone could thoroughly appreciate, or hope to rival. ~ john-stuart-mill, @wisdomtrove
331:George Berkeley was a bishop of the Church of England, who lived a.d. 1685– 1753. He was the founder of the modern school of Idealism, which system he developed largely upon the basis of Locke, Descartes, Spinoza and Leibnitz. He held that matter cannot be conceived to actually exist, the only real substance being mind; and that the material world is nothing but a complex of mental impressions which appear and disappear in accordance with established laws of nature. ~ william-walker-atkinson, @wisdomtrove
332:I could have spoken from Rhode Island where I have been staying ... But I felt that, in speaking from the house of Lincoln, of Jackson, and of Wilson, my words would better convey both the sadness I feel in the action I was compelled today to make and the firmness with which I intend to pursue this course until the orders of the federal court at Little Rock can be executed without unlawful interference." (On sending troops to enforce integration in Little Rock AR High School) ~ dwight-eisenhower, @wisdomtrove
333:When I was 15, I left school to start a magazine, and it became a success because I wouldn't take no for an answer. I remember banging on James Baldwin's door to ask for an interview when he came to England. Then I got Jean-Paul Sartre's home phone number and asked him to contribute. If I'd been 30, he might have said no, but I was a 15-year-old with passion and he was charmed. Making money was always just a side product of having a good time and creating things nobody'd seen before. ~ richard-branson, @wisdomtrove
334:I am opposed to writing about the private lives of living authors and psychoanalyzing them while they are alive. Criticism is getting all mixed up with a combination of the Junior FBI-men, discards from Freud and Jung and a sort of Columnist peep-hole and missing laundry list school. ... Every young English professor sees gold in them dirty sheets now. Imagine what they can do with the soiled sheets of four legal beds by the same writer and you can see why their tongues are slavering. ~ ernest-hemingway, @wisdomtrove
335:All that a university or final highest school. can do for us is still but what the first school began doing&
336:I imagine a school system that recognizes learning is natural, that a love of learning is normal, and that real learning is passionate learning. A school curriculum that values questions above answers... creativity above fact regurgitation... individuality above conformity.. and excellence above standardized performance... .. And we must reject all notions of &
337:I was twenty-one at the time, about to turn twenty-two. No prospect of graduating soon, and yet no reason to quit school. Caught in the most curiously depressing circumstances. For months I'd been stuck, unable to take one step in any new direction. The world kept moving on; I alone was at a standstill. In the autumn, everything took on a desolate cast, the colors swiftly fading before my eyes. The sunlight, the smell of the grass, the faintest patter of rain, everything got on my nerves. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
338:With any kind of physical test, I don't know what it is, I always seem to get competitive. Remember when you were in school and they'd do those hearing tests? And you'd really be listening hard, you know? I wanted to do unbelievable on the hearing test. I wanted them to come over to me after and go, &
339:Judaism, Christianity, and I'm sure other religions also, are having to deal with the fact that they may or may not have lived up at all times to the injunctions of their own mystical center. For instance, when I went to Sunday school, I remember learning more about Jewish history than about God. So, once again, that doesn't mean there's anything wrong with the Jewish religion, it just means that sometimes people are not fed the mystical food - the spiritual food - of their own religious background. ~ marianne-williamson, @wisdomtrove
340:When the students were asked to identify their race on a pretest questionnaire, that simple act was sufficient to prime them with all the negative stereotypes associated with African Americans and academic achievement. If a white student from a prestigious private high school gets a higher SAT score than a black student from an inner-city school, is it because she’s truly a better student, or is it because to be white and to attend a prestigious high school is to be constantly primed with the idea of smart? ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
341:I think when we talk about corporal punishment, and we have to think about our own children, and we are rather reluctant, it seems to me, to have other people administering punishment to our own children, because we are reluctant, it puts a special obligation on us to maintain order and to send children out from our homes who accept the idea of discipline. So I would not be for corporal punishment in the school, but I would be for very strong discipline at home so we don't place an unfair burden on our teachers. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
342:Is it not evident, in these last hundred years (when the Study of Philosophy has been the business of all the Virtuosi in Christendome) that almost a new Nature has been revealed to us? that more errours of the School have been detected, more useful Experiments in Philosophy have been made, more Noble Secrets in Opticks, Medicine, Anatomy, Astronomy, discover'd, than in all those credulous and doting Ages from Aristotle to us? So true it is that nothing spreads more fast than Science, when rightly and generally cultivated. ~ john-dryden, @wisdomtrove
343:Dear rulers ... I maintain that the civil authorities are under obligation to compel the people to send their children to school. ... If the government can compel such citizens as are fit for military service to bear spear and rifle, to mount ramparts, and perform other martial duties in time of war, how much more has it a right to compel the people to send their children to school, because in this case we are warring with the devil, whose object it is secretly to exhaust our cities and principalities of their strong men. ~ martin-luther, @wisdomtrove
344:Incapacity to appreciate certain types of beauty may be the condition sine qua non for the appreciation of another kind; the greatest capacity both for enjoyment and creation is highly specialized and exclusive, and hence the greatest ages of art have often been strangely intolerant. The invectives of one school against another, perverse as they are philosophically, are artistically often signs of health, because they indicate a vital appreciation of certain kinds of beauty, a love of them that has grown into a jealous passion. ~ george-santayana, @wisdomtrove
345:I suppose there is no place in the world where snobbery is quite so ever-present or where it is cultivated in such refined and subtle forms as in an English public school. Here at least one cannot say that English education’ fails to do its job. You forget your Latin and Greek within a few months of leaving school I studied Greek for eight or ten years, and now, at thirty-three, I cannot even repeat the Greek alphabet but your snobbishness, unless you persistently root it out like the bindweed it is, sticks by you till your grave. ~ george-orwell, @wisdomtrove
346:If you were an eighteen-year-old youth in a small village 5,000 years ago you’d probably think you were good-looking because there were only fifty other men in your village and most of them were either old, scarred and wrinkled, or still little kids. But if you are a teenager today you are a lot more likely to feel inadequate. Even if the other guys at school are an ugly lot, you don’t measure yourself against them but against the movie stars, athletes and supermodels you see all day on television, Facebook and giant billboards. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
347:He was resentful against all those in authority over him, and this, combined with a lazy indifference toward his work, exasperated every master in school. He grew discouraged and imagined himself a pariah; took to sulking in corners and reading after lights. With a dread of being alone he attached a few friends, but since they were not among the elite of the school, he used them simply as mirrors of himself, audiences before which he might do that posing absolutely essential to him. He was unbearably lonely, desperately unhappy. ~ f-scott-fitzgerald, @wisdomtrove
348:The conventional explanation for Jewish success, of course, is that Jews come from a literate, intellectual culture. They are famously the people of the book. There is surely something to that. But it wasn't just the children of rabbis who went to law school. It was the children of garment workers. And their critical advantage in climbing the professional ladder wasn't the intellectual rigor you get from studying the Talmud. It was the practical intelligence and savvy you get from watching your father sell aprons on Hester Street. ~ malcolm-gladwell, @wisdomtrove
349:Fathers are always so proud the first time they see their sons in uniform," she said. "I know Big John Karpinski was," I said. He is my neighbor to the north, of course. Big John's son Little John did badly in high school, and the police caught him selling dope. So he joined the Army while the Vietnam War was going on. And the first time he came home in uniform, I never saw Big John so happy, because it looked to him as though Little John was all straightened out and would amount to something. But then Little John came home in a body bag. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
350:It is doubtful whether God can bless a man greatly until he has hurt him deeply." God actually rises up storms of conflict in relationships at times in order to accomplish that deeper work in our character. We cannot love our enemies in our own strength. This is graduate-level grace. Are you willing to enter this school? Are you willing to take the test? If you pass, you can expect to be elevated to a new level in the Kingdom. For He brings us through these tests as preparation for greater use in the Kingdom. You must pass the test first. ~ aiden-wilson-tozer, @wisdomtrove
351:The slave labors, but with no cheer - it is not the road to respectability, it will honor him with no citizens' trust, it brings no bread to his family, no grain to his garner, no leisure in after-days, no books or papers to his children. It opens no school-house door, builds no church, rears for him no factory, lays no keel, fills no bank, earns no acres. With sweat and toil and ignorance he consumes his life, to pour the earnings into channels from which he does no drink, into hands that never honor him. But perpetually rob and often torment. ~ henry-ward-beecher, @wisdomtrove
352:Billy covered his head with his blanket. He always covered his head when his mother came to see him in the mental ward - always got much sicker until she went away. It wasn’t that she was ugly, or had bad breath or a bad personality. She was a perfectly nice, standard-issue, brown-haired, white woman with a high school education. She upset Billy simply by being his mother. She made him feel embarrassed and ungrateful and weak because she had gone through so much trouble to give him life, and to keep that life going, and Billy didn’t really like life at all. ~ kurt-vonnegut, @wisdomtrove
353:Nothing could have been worse for the development of my mind than Dr. Butler's school, as it was strictly classical, nothing else being taught, except a little ancient geography and history. The school as a means of education to me was simply a blank. During my whole life I have been singularly incapable of mastering any language. Especial attention was paid to versemaking, and this I could never do well. I had many friends, and got together a good collection of old verses, which by patching together, sometimes aided by other boys, I could work into any subject. ~ charles-darwin, @wisdomtrove
354:When we are fully mindful of the transience of things - an impending return home from an overseas adventure, a graduation, our child boarding the school bus for the first day of kindergarten, a close colleague changing jobs, a move to a new city - we are more likely to appreciate [be grateful for] and savor the remaining time that we do have. Although bittersweet experiences also make us sad, it is this sadness that prompts us, instead of taking it for granted, to come to appreciate the positive aspects of our vacation, colleague, or hometown; it's &
355:The world in books seemed so much more alive to me than anything outside. I could see things I'd never seen before. Books and music were my best friends. I had a couple of good friends at school, but never met anyone I could really speak my heart to. We'd just make small talk, play soccer together. When something bothered me, I didn't talk with anyone about it. I thought it over all by myself, came to a conclusion, and took action alone. Not that I really felt lonely. I thought that's just the way things are. Human beings, in the final analysis, have to survive on their own. ~ haruki-murakami, @wisdomtrove
356:The lower the family income, the higher the probability that the mother must work. Today, 1 out of 5 of these working mothers has children under 3. Two out of 5 have children of school age. Among the remainder, about 50 percent have husbands who earn less than $5,000 a year-many of them much less. I believe they bear the heaviest burden of any group in our Nation. Where the mother is the sole support of the family, she often must face the hard choice of either accepting public assistance or taking a position at a pay rate which averages less than two-thirds of the pay rate for men. ~ john-f-kennedy, @wisdomtrove
357:I'm sure everyone feels sorry for the individual who has fallen by the wayside or who can't keep up in our competitive society, but my own compassion goes beyond that to those millions of unsung men and women, who get up every morning, send the kids to school, go to work, try to keep up the payments on their house, pay exorbitant taxes to make possible compassion for the less fortunate, and as a result have to sacrifice many of their own desires and dreams and hopes. Government owes them something better than always finding a new way to make them share the fruit of their toils with others. ~ ronald-reagan, @wisdomtrove
358:The most unfair thing about life is the way it ends. I mean, life is tough. It takes up a lot of your time. What do you get at the end of it? A Death! What’s that, a bonus? I think the life cycle is all backwards. You should die first, get it out of the way. Then you live in an old age home. You get kicked out when you’re too young, you get a gold watch, you go to work. You work forty years until you’re young enough to enjoy your retirement. You do drugs, alcohol, you party, you get ready for high school. You go to grade school, you become a kid, you play, you have no responsibilities, you become a little baby, you go back into the womb, you spend your last nine months floating …and you finish off as an orgasm. ~ george-carlin, @wisdomtrove
359:If happiness is determined by expectations, then two pillars of our society – mass media and the advertising industry – may unwittingly be depleting the globe’s reservoirs of contentment. If you were an eighteen-year-old youth in a small village 5,000 years ago you’d probably think you were good-looking because there were only fifty other men in your village and most of them were either old, scarred and wrinkled, or still little kids. But if you are a teenager today you are a lot more likely to feel inadequate. Even if the other guys at school are an ugly lot, you don’t measure yourself against them but against the movie stars, athletes and supermodels you see all day on television, Facebook and giant billboards. ~ yuval-noah-harari, @wisdomtrove
360:This is what you shall do; Love the earth and sun and the animals, despise riches, give alms to everyone that asks, stand up for the stupid and crazy, devote your income and labour to others, hate tyrants, argue not concerning God, have patience and indulgence toward the people, take off your hat to nothing known or unknown or to any man or number of men, go freely with powerful uneducated persons and with the young and with the mothers of families, read these leaves in the open air every season of every year of your life, re-examine all you have been told at school or church or in any book, dismiss whatever insults your own soul, and your very flesh shall be a great poem and have the richest fluency not only in its words but in the silent lines of its lips and face and between the lashes of your eyes and in every motion and joint of your body. ~ walt-whitman, @wisdomtrove

*** NEWFULLDB 2.4M ***

1:I did drop out of school. ~ Don Was,
2:I was a dummy in school. ~ Alan Ladd,
3:Johnson Middle School, ~ Jake Maddox,
4:lower, until school ~ Betty G Birney,
5:I didn't love school. ~ Kim Kardashian,
6:Treat the past as a school. ~ Jim Rohn,
7:Foggy Bottom Law School. ~ John Grisham,
8:I swam in high school. ~ Jimmie Johnson,
9:I go to school by bus ~ Franklin W Dixon,
10:I was in choir [at school]. ~ Jon Gordon,
11:School's-out-for-summer!! ~ Alice Cooper,
12:Schwartz High School ~ A P J Abdul Kalam,
13:Tell tales out of school. ~ John Heywood,
14:Don't peak in high school. ~ Lizzy Caplan,
15:High school is the worst. ~ Jessica Brody,
16:High school sweethearts, ~ Jake Remington,
17:I hated school. Hated it. ~ Ozzy Osbourne,
18:I was going to like school. ~ R J Palacio,
19:The human heart is my school. ~ Anne Rice,
20:back to school on Monday. ~ Teresa Burrell,
21:Don't go to business school. ~ Paul Hawken,
22:I did plays in grade school. ~ Colin Hanks,
23:I was a high school throw-out. ~ Alan King,
24:Old-school as in Dark Ages. ~ Laird Barron,
25:I got PTSD from high school. ~ Tom Perrotta,
26:I'm a believer in film school. ~ Sean Durkin,
27:I'm an old-school guy. ~ LaDainian Tomlinson,
28:School is the cheapest police. ~ Horace Mann,
29:His public school scholarship had ~ Anonymous,
30:I didn't go to school a lot. ~ Victoria Abril,
31:I'd love to design a school. ~ Nolan Bushnell,
32:I'm an old-school type of guy. ~ Kevin Durant,
33:I never went to drama school. ~ Matthew Lewis,
34:well-you-did-break-school-rules ~ J K Rowling,
35:Adversity is a good school. ~ Charlotte Bronte,
36:I prefer the school of life. ~ Cassandra Clare,
37:Marriage is not a reform school. ~ Ann Landers,
38:I almost failed out of high school. ~ J D Vance,
39:I was a smart kid, but I hated school. ~ Eminem,
40:I was never very happy at school. ~ Dan Stevens,
41:I was quite naughty at school. ~ Gemma Arterton,
42:Private school girls are scary. ~ Reki Kawahara,
43:School was not a place I enjoyed. ~ Sean Harris,
44:There’s a bomb under the school. ~ Stuart Gibbs,
45:Art-school girls are very nice. ~ Anthony Mackie,
46:Comin' from the school of hard knocks, ~ Chuck D,
47:Heresie is the school of pride. ~ George Herbert,
48:I hated school with a passion. ~ Natasha Preston,
49:I loved doing problems in school. ~ Andrew Wiles,
50:I started drama in high school. ~ Daniel Cudmore,
51:I was a good student in school. ~ Kenan Thompson,
52:I was such a geek in school. ~ Katherine Jenkins,
53:I was terrible at school. ~ Kristin Scott Thomas,
54:I was very popular in high school. ~ NeNe Leakes,
55:Life is nothing but high school. ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
56:I always remember liking school. ~ Damon Lindelof,
57:I just didn't like going to school. ~ Justin Long,
58:I left school on my 15th birthday. ~ David Bailey,
59:I love school. I was a great student. ~ Joan Jett,
60:I'm too old-school to tweet. ~ Julianna Margulies,
61:In Kansas I have a chess school. ~ Anatoly Karpov,
62:Life is a school of probability. ~ Walter Bagehot,
63:School is cool. Thats why it rhymes ~ Terry Crews,
64:Solitude is the school for genius ~ Edward Gibbon,
65:We learn not in the school, but in life. ~ Seneca,
66:When it comes to problems at school, ~ Robyn Carr,
67:his school lessons had been unusually ~ Lois Lowry,
68:I like reading. I just hate school. ~ Armie Hammer,
69:I'm quite dyslexic in school. ~ Georgia May Jagger,
70:I never liked group work in school. ~ Brendan Fehr,
71:I used to like doing school plays. ~ Jamie Waylett,
72:I was a loser in high school. ~ Sean William Scott,
73:I went to school on Senior Skip Day. ~ Derek Jeter,
74:school before me, and we’d see her ~ Carolyn Brown,
75:The problem with education is school. ~ Mark Twain,
76:Time is the school in which we learn ~ Joan Didion,
77:what happened at school,” she said. ~ Barbara Park,
78:High school popularity is so fickle. ~ Kathy Reichs,
79:I treat Hollywood as my high school. ~ Charlie Puth,
80:I was a complete outsider in high school. ~ Karen O,
81:Life is a school of the spirit. ~ Stephen R Lawhead,
82:No brain, no gain. Stay in school. ~ Michael Jordan,
83:Play it cool, that's the old school rule man. ~ Nas,
84:School gets in the way of my learning. ~ Mark Twain,
85:School is pure psycology warfare. ~ Benjamin Lebert,
86:Suffering is wisdom's school teacher. ~ Lauren Kate,
87:Time is the school in which we learn. ~ Joan Didion,
88:You’re sending me to whore school, ~ Jason Matthews,
89:his old school that if there’d been ~ Jeffrey Archer,
90:I never worked on the school newspaper. ~ Jeff Bezos,
91:I was the hallway clown in high school. ~ J B Smoove,
92:I was voted most artistic in school. ~ Ryan McGinley,
93:Pranks vs school= pranks win all day ~ Justin Bieber,
94:School is the path, not the point. ~ Will Richardson,
95:School is very demanding these days. ~ Ross W Greene,
96:You’re such a school teacher. ~ Benjamin Alire S enz,
97:At school I was an anti-magnet for women. ~ Nick Cave,
98:Commerce is the school of cheating. ~ Luc de Clapiers,
99:High school was great when it ended. ~ Jennifer Stone,
100:New Dorp High School on Staten Island. ~ Andrew Gross,
101:School didn't work for me. I hated it. ~ Gary Paulsen,
102:School should be the best party in town ~ Peter Kline,
103:So far magic school was rubbish. ~ Sarah Rees Brennan,
104:Time is the school in which we learn.   ~ Joan Didion,
105:We were cruel, reptilian high school kids. ~ Otsuichi,
106:What did you ASK at school today? ~ Richard P Feynman,
107:Call school, tell them I'm lovesick. ~ Ellen Schreiber,
108:Don't do drugs, kids. Stay in school. ~ Jamie Zawinski,
109:I founded this school for the masses. ~ Atiku Abubakar,
110:I'm Jewish. Went to a Jewish school. ~ Jonathan Glazer,
111:I teach Sunday school, motherf*****. ~ Stephen Colbert,
112:London an’ buy all yer stuff fer school. ~ J K Rowling,
113:School should be the best party in town. ~ Peter Kline,
114:Skip business school. Educate yourself. ~ Josh Kaufman,
115:The first day of school is bullshit ~ Lauren Barnholdt,
116:There's no better school than real life. ~ Lisa Genova,
117:What are you? An after school special? ~ Richelle Mead,
118:Girls in my school were always prettier. ~ Bridget Hall,
119:I have always loved going to school. ~ Rudolph A Marcus,
120:I've never been to veterinary school. ~ Stephenie Meyer,
121:I was not the popular kid in school. ~ Gabriel Iglesias,
122:Love was life's hardest school of all. ~ Ivan Goncharov,
123:Lucifer is God in the public school system ~ Vinnie Paz,
124:School was finally out and I was standing ~ Jack Gantos,
125:than any other school. I spent the next few ~ J D Vance,
127:With the “SWAB JOB” school prank sign ~ Walter Isaacson,
128:You can pay for school, but you can't buy class ~ Jay Z,
129:If we are wise, we never leave school. ~ Horace Fletcher,
130:I hated school, didn't like the discipline. ~ Gary Gygax,
131:In every high school, there is a clique. ~ Janel Parrish,
132:I stay dipped like the first day of school. ~ Cappadonna,
133:My boarding school roommate was a mafia princess ~ Tijan,
134:Sunday school don't make you cool forever... ~ Sly Stone,
135:You never grow out of high school sadly. ~ Kate Bosworth,
136:Boarding school is a wicked thing. ~ Kristin Scott Thomas,
137:Expansion Leads To Fewer High School Dropouts ~ Anonymous,
138:High school was enough of a bitch as it was. ~ Jay McLean,
139:Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. ~ J K Rowling,
140:I didn’t have much school. Three years. ~ Pinetop Perkins,
141:I excelled in English while I was at school. ~ Jamie Bell,
142:I was not the hot, popular girl in school. ~ Alexis Knapp,
143:I went to art school when I was little. ~ Amanda Seyfried,
144:Part 3 BACK TO SCHOOL (THE NORMAL KIND) ~ James Patterson,
145:reviewed all the school’s security tapes. ~ Melinda Leigh,
146:To every class we have a school assign'd, ~ George Crabbe,
147:To the extent a school is like a factory, ~ Warren Berger,
148:A modern school where football is taught. ~ Ambrose Bierce,
149:He who opens a school door, closes a prison. ~ Victor Hugo,
150:I learned nothing while I was in school. ~ Lorraine Bracco,
151:I taught high school students Spanish. ~ Daniela Bobadilla,
152:I think you can go to school at any age. ~ AnnaSophia Robb,
153:It was called Nine Gates Mystery School. ~ Timothy Ferriss,
154:I used to play tenor sax in high school, man. ~ Sean Price,
155:I was never really unpopular in high school. ~ Tyler Posey,
156:Life is the most effective school ever created ~ Anonymous,
157:School doesn’t help with real life. ~ Jewell Parker Rhodes,
158:School was a drag. Honestly, when is it not? ~ N M Lambert,
159:the Massachusetts School for Idiotic Children ~ John Lloyd,
160:The Stealthy School of Criticism. ~ Dante Gabriel Rossetti,
161:to school that morning. On cue - that is, late ~ Dee Ernst,
162:When I was in high school I was 250 pounds. ~ Adam Lambert,
163:I educated myself. To me, school was boring. ~ Van Morrison,
164:I never dated much in high school or college. ~ David Spade,
165:I wasn't the most popular kid in school. ~ Daniel Radcliffe,
166:Most people had high school. I had Breaking Bad. ~ RJ Mitte,
167:Self-reflection is the school of wisdom. ~ Baltasar Gracian,
168:So far magic school was total rubbish. ~ Sarah Rees Brennan,
169:War is the only proper school of the surgeon. ~ Hippocrates,
170:Well, I believe in God. I taught Sunday school. ~ Kay Hagan,
171:Don't let school interfere with your education. ~ Mark Twain,
172:He who graduates the harshest school, succeeds. ~ Thucydides,
173:I dated the same girl all through high school. ~ Mark Hoppus,
174:I don't really know why I went to law school. ~ Emily Giffin,
175:I go to school the youth to learn the future. ~ Robert Frost,
176:In school [I wanted] to be an English teacher. ~ Nancy Grace,
177:I played sports growing up in high school. ~ Erin Heatherton,
178:I was a scam artist in high school for a while. ~ Scott Caan,
179:I wish I wasn't famous. I wish I was still in school ~ Drake,
180:School's a weird thing. I'm not sure it works. ~ Johnny Depp,
181:School should be eleven months of the year. ~ Nikki Giovanni,
182:School was pretty hard for me at the beginning. ~ Steve Jobs,
183:There is only one school: that of talent. ~ Vladimir Nabokov,
184:The stage was our school, our home, our life. ~ Lillian Gish,
185:Whether I went to school or not, I would always study. ~ RZA,
186:Being too cool for school was Jace's thing. ~ Cassandra Clare,
187:High school to went I, school High to went Y'all ~ Snoop Dogg,
188:I come from the school of That Horse is Not Dead. ~ Tom Hanks,
189:If he'd been looked like that in high school, ~ Stylo Fantome,
190:I knew school was stupid since the fifth grade. ~ Schoolboy Q,
191:In high school, I played in a Rush cover band. ~ Sam Trammell,
192:I played sports in high school and in college. ~ Jon Bernthal,
193:I read a lot of 'Spark Notes' in high school. ~ Lauren Conrad,
194:I threw all my clothes away from high school. ~ Iman Shumpert,
195:Life is nothing but high school.” —Kurt Vonnegut ~ Alice Pung,
196:Necessity is a violent school-mistress. ~ Michel de Montaigne,
197:Shoot up everything except a school or a playground ~ Birdman,
198:teacher’s class in his all-boys’ high school ~ John Lescroart,
199:This school is enough to make anyone a communist. ~ Jo Walton,
200:We believe in a whole-school approach to ICT. ~ Adrian Wilson,
201:We learn not in the school, but in life. ~ Seneca the Younger,
202:Don't Let them fool you or even try to school you ~ Bob Marley,
203:Film school was a privilege I could not afford. ~ Ava DuVernay,
204:had almost twice as far to school as Joanna. ~ Jostein Gaarder,
205:I didnt go to film school, i went to films ~ Quentin Tarantino,
206:I didn't leave business school to go bankrupt. ~ Steve Ballmer,
207:I had died and woken up in High School Musical ~ Jamie McGuire,
208:I miss school.
What’s wrong with me? ~ Wendelin Van Draanen,
209:In high school and college, I was an athlete. ~ David Duchovny,
210:I played a lot of character parts in school. ~ Matthew Ashford,
211:I still think of Heaven as a liberal-arts school. ~ Mike White,
212:It's easy to lose your soul in high school. ~ Faith Erin Hicks,
213:I went through a lot of battles in high school. ~ LeBron James,
214:I went to drama school at New York University. ~ Molly Shannon,
215:I would only date a 15 year old high school girl. ~ Seth Rogen,
216:Lovely. Imprisoned in a nursery school dungeon. ~ Rick Riordan,
217:My family and school life are important to me. ~ Anna Chlumsky,
218:The world is nothing but a school of love; ~ Swami Muktananda,
219:They didn’t have guns in school. It was ludicrous. ~ C L Stone,
220:When I was at school, I wanted to be a lawyer. ~ Frank Lampard,
221:Don't let school get in the way of your education. ~ Mark Twain,
222:Going to car racing school was phenomenal. ~ Michelle Rodriguez,
223:I don't remember one thing I learned in school. ~ Bobby Fischer,
224:If there's a Hell on Earth, it's high school. ~ Lisa Desrochers,
225:I got kicked out of every school I ever went to. ~ Shia LaBeouf,
226:I never let school get in the way of my education! ~ Mark Twain,
227:I was a good student, but I didn't like school. ~ Ashley Benson,
228:I went to public school up until junior high. ~ Kristen Stewart,
229:Public school system status quo is indefensible. ~ Barack Obama,
230:Rap is still an art, and no-one's from the Old School ~ KRS One,
231:School always makes me want to hibernate. - Emma ~ Sara Shepard,
232:School plays are fine. Theater in school is fine. ~ Ben Affleck,
233:That day at school I prayed for the world to end. ~ Dave Pelzer,
234:The school is the manufactory of humanity. ~ John Amos Comenius,
235:The world is our school for spiritual discovery. ~ Paul Brunton,
236:A happy boy at Drury's. ~ W. M. Praed, School and Schoolfellows.,
237:At school I was very shy. I wasn't funny really. ~ Michel Gondry,
238:Humor is anger that was sent to finishing school. ~ Richard Peck,
239:In high school I went on about three dates. ~ Sean William Scott,
240:I used to walk to school with my nose buried in a book. ~ Coolio,
241:I wasn't bad at school, but I was never a bookworm. ~ Idris Elba,
242:Kids flourish if we get them to school every day. ~ Connie Smith,
243:Now Elisabeth would be home from nursing school ~ Pam Mu oz Ryan,
244:Please, we're in high school. Hook up and move on. ~ Rachel Vail,
245:Poetry is so vital to us until school spoils it. ~ Russell Baker,
246:that school over the years,’ he said, pointing ~ Patricia Gibney,
247:The proper school to learn art is not life but art ~ Oscar Wilde,
248:The Psalter is the great school of prayer. ~ Dietrich Bonhoeffer,
249:They should kick it old school with the Bard.> ~ Kevin Hearne,
250:By the time I left school, I had a lot of tenacity. ~ Halle Berry,
251:I always enjoyed myself a lot in pre-school. ~ Valentino Garavani,
252:I havent really eaten breakfast since high school. ~ Domo Genesis,
253:In 1970, you went to school to find your husband. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
254:I sang in art school, just to get money to smoke. ~ Joni Mitchell,
255:I was planning on going to Yale to theater school. ~ Shia LaBeouf,
256:I went to the Goodman School of Drama in Chicago. ~ Harvey Korman,
257:I won! I won! I don't have to go to school anymore. ~ Eddy Merckx,
258:Loving long novels plays havoc with going to school ~ John Irving,
259:School taught him how much he loved being home. ~ Brian K Vaughan,
260:School - You can get all A's and still flunk life. ~ Walker Percy,
261:Somehow it always comes back to coal at school. ~ Suzanne Collins,
262:you go to school every morning and sit there for ~ David Grossman,
263:You think school ends when it ends, but it doesn't. ~ Kevin James,
264:At school my nickname is the National Anthem girl. ~ Diana DeGarmo,
265:High School is the place where poetry goes to die. ~ Billy Collins,
266:I do after-school ballet and also hip-hop and jazz. ~ Elle Fanning,
267:If you liked school, you're gonnnnna lovvvvve work! ~ Jello Biafra,
268:I love an art-school girl. I mean dont we all? ~ Theophilus London,
269:I've never let my school interfere with my education. ~ Mark Twain,
270:I was the only one at stage school who wasn't white. ~ Leona Lewis,
271:My school is very lucky. We have an Olympic-size pool. ~ R L Stine,
272:School will bring you more success than marriage. ~ Nnedi Okorafor,
273:The school of hard knocks is an accelerated curriculum. ~ Menander,
274:Back to school, to prove to Dad that I'm not a fool. ~ Adam Sandler,
275:CALUMNUS, n. A graduate of the School for Scandal. ~ Ambrose Bierce,
276:Do Kids Create Because of School—or in Spite of It? ~ George Couros,
277:Experience is a good school. But the fees are high ~ Heinrich Heine,
278:Folk can’t learn their lessons if they skip school. ~ Peter V Brett,
279:gone from the school when none here are loyal to him, ~ J K Rowling,
280:High school is a dark place; I hung out with ‘freaks.’ ~ Jared Leto,
281:Id been bumming around in bands since my school days. ~ Rick Astley,
282:I'll tell you right now. I'm for prayer in school. ~ Kinky Friedman,
283:In a lot of ways, work was my graduate school. ~ Christopher Bollen,
284:It’s like they can smell the public school on me. ~ Caroline Kepnes,
285:I was the bad kid in school. I was usually in trouble. ~ Scott Caan,
286:Music is the school and the hospital of the emotions. ~ Neel Burton,
287:My awkward stage extended well into high school. ~ Rachelle Lefevre,
288:School's out forever, school's been blown to pieces. ~ Alice Cooper,
289:Talking to him is rather like talking to a school play. ~ Zo Heller,
290:The council is old school. Really, really old school. ~ Jim Butcher,
291:The family is the school of duties - founded on love. ~ Felix Adler,
292:The first lesson in Christ's school is self-denial. ~ Matthew Henry,
293:What did school matter compared to a sister? ~ Benjamin Alire S enz,
294:Being an actress doesn't make you popular in school. ~ Kirsten Dunst,
295:Experience is a good school. But the fees are high. ~ Heinrich Heine,
296:Failure in school does not mean failure in Iife. ~ Stephen J Cannell,
297:Girls were always my biggest distraction in school. ~ Channing Tatum,
298:I haven't done improv since I was in middle school. ~ Gillian Jacobs,
299:I'm mostly self-taught. I didn't learn much in school. ~ Agnes Denes,
300:I went to a Catholic school but did not really fit in. ~ Amber Heard,
301:Love – Gunner Nash left town the day after high school ~ Erin Wright,
302:More depended on the student than on the school. ~ Robert A Heinlein,
303:School is a place were you go to eat your lunch ~ Rodney Dangerfield,
304:This ain't going to be no goddamn Sunday school picnic. ~ Kent Haruf,
305:This was middle school, the age of miracles, ~ Karen Thompson Walker,
306:What we look for in the school is unrealized potential. ~ Donna Reed,
307:When I was in middle school, I liked to make cartoons. ~ Pete Docter,
308:You can finish school as soon as you finish the GCSE's. ~ Tom Felton,
309:Elementary school children are very impressionable ~ David J Anderson,
310:Every since high school I've been drawn to magazines. ~ Robert Benton,
311:found it empty of any school materials. “It is good to ~ Sejal Badani,
312:In high school, the hardest years, she salted her bath water. ~ Dessa,
313:I was confirmed at my prep school at the age of 13. ~ Richard Dawkins,
314:Please, don’t drive a school bus blindfolded. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
315:Rocknroll and high school are kind of the same thing, ~ Imogen Binnie,
316:Sheep. I'm stuck in a boarding school filled with sheep. ~ Libba Bray,
317:These are the secrets you learn only in clown school. ~ James Hamblin,
318:Transparency in the traditional school might destroy it. ~ Seth Godin,
319:Age 10. I joined the school marching band as a drummer. ~ Adrian Belew,
320:As a teenager at high school, I felt like an outsider. ~ Shawn Ashmore,
321:Baby, high school's over. High school's never over. ~ Karen Joy Fowler,
322:Every German child learns to speak English in school. ~ Cornelia Funke,
323:I didn't get lessons of any kind I slept through school. ~ Joel Madden,
324:I didn't study Greek mythology in school and I wish I had. ~ Eric Bana,
325:I don't want to go to school and learn solemn things. ~ James M Barrie,
326:I loved school. I studied like crazy. I was a Class A nerd. ~ Maya Lin,
327:I've won. Hurray! I don't have to go to school any more. ~ Eddy Merckx,
328:I was sometimes called 'coconut' when I was at school. ~ David Oyelowo,
329:I was still in school after I dropped my first solo album. ~ Lil Wayne,
330:Life is not a fairground, but a school. -- Franz Bardon ~ Franz Bardon,
331:Mom, thanks for letting me drop out of high school. Haha! ~ Dave Grohl,
332:School might have been shit, but at least it was simple. ~ Mark Haddon,
333:Some people do piano lessons after school; I do movies. ~ Elle Fanning,
334:The New York School poets are my godfathers creatively. ~ Jim Jarmusch,
335:This isn't some after-school feel-good movie special. ~ Meagan Spooner,
336:To dance is to live. What I want is a school of life. ~ Isadora Duncan,
337:We spend our whole lives recovering from high school. ~ Paula Danziger,
338:You gotta school these young macks comin' up today... ~ Big Daddy Kane,
339:1) "school isn't where the real learning happens." (3). ~ Gloria Naylor,
340:Access to a school library results in more reading. ~ Stephen D Krashen,
341:Education is what you learn after you leave school. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
342:I came in on the tail end of the old school of Hollywood ~ Tom Berenger,
343:I can't even remember not wanting to go to film school. ~ Danny McBride,
344:I didn't go to film school, I went to acting school. ~ Charles S Dutton,
345:If you're going to school, you should do what you enjoy. ~ April Bowlby,
346:I go to school, but I never learn what I want to know. ~ Bill Watterson,
347:In fourth grade, I missed 82 days of school. Out of 160. ~ LeBron James,
348:I struggled academically throughout elementary school ~ Benjamin Carson,
349:I was not popular. I was the kid in school that was bullied. ~ Tom Ford,
350:I wasn't the most popular girl in school by any means. ~ Cindy Crawford,
351:John Denver I listened to when I was in elementary school. ~ Eric Close,
352:Kids who go to normal school are so teenagery, so angsty. ~ Jaden Smith,
353:Legislators could certainly do with a school of morals. ~ Simon Bolivar,
354:My kids are now the most popular kids in their school. ~ Chris Daughtry,
355:My mum is a school teacher and my dad is an electrician. ~ Jai Courtney,
356:No star fades faster than that of a high school athlete. ~ John Grisham,
357:Old School has humongous laughs all the way through it. ~ Thomas Lennon,
358:There is a lot of hype about drama school, I think. ~ Eleanor Tomlinson,
359:The school felt more mine than in all my four years there. ~ John Green,
360:years, it showed real results: the high school ~ Hillary Rodham Clinton,
361:A school without music is like a body without a soul ~ Saint John Bosco,
362:Freedom is a school of responsibility for human beings. ~ Dinesh D Souza,
363:High school is depressing enough."
I tend to agree. ~ Alecia Whitaker,
364:I dropped out of school and I never took acting classes. ~ Alice Englert,
365:If there is hell, it was modeled after junior high school. ~ Lewis Black,
366:I got eight O-levels at in every subject. ~ Paul Gascoigne,
367:I got expelled from every school I went to in Sydney. ~ Poppy Montgomery,
368:In an art school it's very hard to tell who is the best. ~ Daniel Clowes,
369:In middle school, I had an '87 Regal. That was unheard of. ~ Young Jeezy,
370:In the school of the woods, there is no graduation day. ~ Horace Kephart,
371:It's [Jail's] like being at school. Except you can't leave. ~ Boy George,
372:It was a terrible school, no matter how you looked at it. ~ J D Salinger,
373:I used to sit in school and dream about getting into films. ~ Cary Elwes,
374:I went to a private arts school. We had to wear cloaks. ~ Claire Forlani,
375:I went to boarding school at seven and cried and cried. ~ Rupert Everett,
376:I went to school on the Internet. I was not a cheerleader. ~ Emmy Rossum,
377:I went to the Conservatory of Music in school in Rome. ~ Cecilia Bartoli,
378:My mom did what school didn't. She taught me how to think. ~ Trevor Noah,
379:My school is attended by near three hundred scholars. ~ Joseph Lancaster,
380:School prepares you for the real world... which also bites. ~ Jim Benton,
381:Stay in school. Lie to your teachers, but stay in school. ~ Billy Corgan,
382:The home is the chief school of human virtues. ~ William Ellery Channing,
383:The last thing I wanted to do was blow up another school. ~ Rick Riordan,
384:The only thing they can't teach you at art school is art. ~ David Bailey,
385:We should throw the Epistle of James out of this school. ~ Martin Luther,
386:Before leaving school I consorted with The Oracle: Google. ~ Jandy Nelson,
387:book variables, student variables, and school variables. ~ Teri S Lesesne,
388:Every time you stop a school, you will have to build a jail. ~ Mark Twain,
389:he was coming while in the elementary school classroom, ~ Haruki Murakami,
390:I failed angst in high school. They let me graduate anyway. ~ John Scalzi,
391:If you're in high-school and you're not having fun, quit. ~ Doug Stanhope,
392:I like a lot of old-school R&B, soul, and classic rock. ~ Wiz Khalifa,
393:I most likely be in school, so don't tell my teacher."
-KD ~ Unknown,
394:I still had a normal childhood with my friends from school. ~ Demi Lovato,
395:I used to spend every morning in detention at my old school. ~ Jake Lloyd,
396:I visualized high school as being like ‘Saved By the Bell.’ ~ Vanessa Ray,
397:I was dyslexic, so I was put in the silly class at school. ~ David Bailey,
398:I was very unsure about what I wanted to do in high school. ~ Aaron Tveit,
399:I went to an all white school where I dealt with racism. ~ Chaske Spencer,
400:Mean girls go far in high school. Kind women go far in LIFE. ~ Mandy Hale,
401:School’s important at the moment.
Unsexiest statement ever. ~ A S King,
402:The government gave me enough money to go to acting school. ~ Tony Curtis,
403:The secret school is our silent protest,” she told us. ~ Malala Yousafzai,
404:This is the Wilderness School. 'Where the Kids are animals ~ Rick Riordan,
405:A child educated only at school is an uneducated child. ~ George Santayana,
406:Graduate school is a place to hide for a couple of years. ~ Michael Eisner,
407:I bake my daughter cupcakes for her school. I'm very hands-on. ~ Greg Bryk,
408:I hated school, but I was a good student. I made straight A's. ~ Lucy Hale,
409:I'm 18, I'm going to graduate high school in a few months. ~ Camilla Belle,
410:I'm still the fat kid from high school who never had a date. ~ Nathan Lane,
411:I never went to college - I barely got out of high school. ~ Dave Matthews,
412:In high school, I always dressed to impress the girls. ~ Theophilus London,
413:I played basketball and soccer my freshman year in high school. ~ Mia Hamm,
414:I play guitar and sing when I'm not busy with school and acting. ~ Kaitlyn,
415:I think you should fall in love at least twice in high school. ~ Jenny Han,
416:I wanted to be an elementary school teacher my whole life. ~ Steve Wozniak,
417:I was a musical theatre geek in high school and college. ~ Toks Olagundoye,
418:I was fortunate to attend a school with an excellent library ~ Syrie James,
419:I was going to go to school to become a neurological surgeon. ~ Angel Haze,
420:I was just average, I’m afraid. Too dreamy. After school, ~ Liane Moriarty,
421:Like everything else in life, it was kind of like high school. ~ Anonymous,
422:On the morning of the exorcism, I stayed home from school. ~ Paul Tremblay,
423:She had no idea how good they had it back at the school. ~ Chris Philbrook,
424:What do we mean when we say our school 'values' reading? ~ Kelly Gallagher,
425:What I know is my music gets blamed for school shootings. ~ Marilyn Manson,
426:All my high school papers were written in the rare book room. ~ Jim Sanborn,
427:All the world is my school and all humanity is my teacher. ~ George Whitman,
428:A lot of my colleagues at school became great friends of mine. ~ Jenna Bush,
429:Apparently when I went to school, I had a Glasgow accent. ~ Annalena McAfee,
430:Are the kids at school?"
"No, they're in the lake. My God. ~ Dave Eggers,
431:At drama school, I was always playing the 11-year-old boys. ~ Kit Harington,
432:Baby, high school's over.
High school's never over.. ~ Karen Joy Fowler,
433:choice school, Penn State. It wasn’t the party atmosphere ~ Jonathan Sturak,
434:Defeat is a school in which truth always grows strong. ~ Henry Ward Beecher,
435:Don't let your life outside of school dictate your future. ~ Simone Elkeles,
436:I bring truth to tha youth tear tha roof off tha ol' school. ~ Tupac Shakur,
437:I'm old school. I'm not the fastest guy or the quickest guy. ~ James Harden,
438:I started bowling when I was 14, my freshman year in high school. ~ Joe Tex,
439:I think school is a place where thinking should be taught. ~ Edward de Bono,
440:It's a completely irrational decision to drop out of school. ~ David Brooks,
441:It was high school. Evil is kind of the name of the game. ~ Jennifer Weiner,
442:I was always trying to do things to make school fun. ~ Downtown Julie Brown,
443:I went to art school actually when I was sixteen years old. ~ David Hockney,
444:school sounds a bunch more two-fisted than I’d thought. ~ Jonathan L Howard,
445:The home environment can undo a lot you try to do at school. ~ Ray Bradbury,
446:The only thing that kept me out of college was high school. ~ Uncle Kracker,
447:There is only one school of literature - that of talent. ~ Vladimir Nabokov,
448:Well, Fredde has all the best there at that school, all the ~ Anthony Doerr,
449:When I was in school, working as a team was called cheating. ~ Peter Norvig,
450:Whether I went to school or not, I would always study.” —RZA ~ Austin Kleon,
451:You mean he came to your school? The scandalous rodent-loaf! ~ Laini Taylor,
452:A community of people, that's the really what art school is. ~ Ross Bleckner,
453:And blackberry vines are running. ~ John Greenleaf Whittier, In School Days.,
454:A vacation from school should not mean hunger for our children. ~ Dina Titus,
455:Back-to-School Chats, Advice from Mothers to Their Daughters. ~ George Bradt,
456:Balancing school, acting, and a social life can be difficult. ~ Emily Osment,
457:Children enter school as question marks and leave as periods. ~ Neil Postman,
458:I did some school plays in elementary school, but that was it. ~ Jason Mewes,
459:I played football growing up in junior high and high school. ~ Ryan Merriman,
460:I pray you school yourself. [MacBeth, Act 1V, Scene 2] ~ William Shakespeare,
461:I taught myself more in the library than school taught me. ~ Terry Pratchett,
462:It's a good day when a goddess gets on the school-bus with you. ~ Barry Lyga,
463:I would really like to go back to school. I would love it now. ~ Fiona Apple,
464:Jasper's mother had died while he was a junior in high school -- ~ Nina Post,
465:Knowledge is dead; the school, however, serves the living. ~ Albert Einstein,
466:Let's go into the sanctuary or the adult Sunday school room, ~ Carolyn Brown,
467:pressure in school-age children. The NIH has funded subsequent ~ Gary Taubes,
468:Spike Lee’s School Daze and Sidney Poitier’s To Sir with Love ~ Tayari Jones,
469:When I take my kid to school, all the parents stop and stare. ~ Adam Sandler,
470:You can drag my body to school but my spirit refuses to go. ~ Bill Watterson,
471:And then, when I started to school, I found out I couldn't talk. ~ Mel Tillis,
472:A school isn’t a school until Sophie tries to destroy it. ~ Shannon Messenger,
473:Banning prayer in school in effect made God unconstitutional. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
474:Be careful or you might go to school tomorrow flushed with sex. ~ Lisa McMann,
475:By my senior year in high school, I was friends with every group ~ Shane West,
476:have been watching you at school. not in a creepy way. though ~ Julie Buxbaum,
477:I believe in teaching, but I don’t believe in going to school. ~ Robert Frost,
478:Identity politics isn't old school! It's still alive and well. ~ Grace Dunham,
479:I felt alienated at school, and I never did well with girls. ~ Burt Bacharach,
480:I never wore full-on eyeliner in high school, but I wanted to. ~ Adam Lambert,
481:I've lectured at the Harvard Business School several times. ~ Christie Hefner,
482:I was hopeless at high school - I failed everything but Latin. ~ Keanu Reeves,
483:I will never be as busy as I was in high school and college. ~ Tyler Hoechlin,
484:My father's a protector. My father's old-school. He's a cowboy. ~ Paul Walker,
485:My favourite subject at school was avoiding unnecessary work. ~ Prince Philip,
486:One year ago I left my home for school and never returned. ~ Malala Yousafzai,
487:On some level, I think everyone felt like a dork in high school. ~ Grant Show,
488:School, as you might imagine, was a terrific failure. Although ~ Markus Zusak,
489:Teaching at university isn't like teaching in an art school. ~ Barbara Kruger,
490:The school as a means of education to me was simply a blank. ~ Charles Darwin,
491:The school had a big problem with drugs... especially Class A. ~ Milton Jones,
492:Your pain is a school unto itself–– and your joy a lovely temple. ~ Aberjhani,
493:Agribusinesses should never dictate the quality of school meals. ~ Jared Polis,
494:[-] Dust tailed them so Violet could ready for school at home. ~ Katie McGarry,
495:He will only be gone from the school when none are loyal to him. ~ J K Rowling,
496:I had no plans to be ever a lawyer, a crime fighter [in school]. ~ Nancy Grace,
497:I loathed every day and regret every moment I spent in a school. ~ Woody Allen,
498:In high school, everybody rapped. You just pounded on the table. ~ Boots Riley,
499:In high school, I was the biggest procrastinator in the world. ~ Kristin Kreuk,
500:I started performing at school and drama classes when I was 7. ~ Delta Goodrem,
501:I think we've tied acquiring knowledge too much to school ~ Arno Allan Penzias,
502:I thought this kind of thing only happened at the medical school, ~ Ay e Kulin,
503:I usually feel pretty screamy when someone attacks my school. ~ Rachel Hawkins,
504:I was not the midwife of the Law School, but its fraternal twin. ~ Norman Lamm,
505:I went to great schools. Wharton School, a lot of great places. ~ Donald Trump,
506:Let us teach the young in the school of the fear of the Lord. ~ Pope Clement I,
507:Life isn't a race to win, it's a school for our higher education. ~ Guy Finley,
508:Making a record is like painting a school bus with a toothbrush ~ Quincy Jones,
509:Maybe I'm old-school, but I always thought you honor a contract. ~ Brett Favre,
510:No one who had any sense has ever liked school. ~ Robert Boothby Baron Boothby,
511:There were no spells at my school, just a smack in the mouth. ~ Michael Gambon,
512:The two of them shook hands the regular way. The old-school way. ~ Mike Lupica,
513:They never tell you how heavy a corpse is in training school. ~ Charles Stross,
514:When I came to Detroit I was just a mild-mannered Sunday-school boy. ~ Ty Cobb,
515:When I was in high school, I listened to a lot of death metal bands. ~ Amy Lee,
516:An adult friend of Lincoln's: "Life was to him a school. ~ Doris Kearns Goodwin,
517:A sense of curiosity is nature's original school of education. ~ Smiley Blanton,
518:education that stops with school stops where it is beginning. ~ Stephen Leacock,
519:Growing up poor, I didn't even have a lunch to take to school. ~ George Foreman,
520:I did math in school, obviously. And I loved all my math teachers. ~ Jayma Mays,
521:I didn't have many friends; I was kind of bullied at school. ~ Bojana Novakovic,
522:I found school pretty tough. I got the mickey taken out of me at school. ~ Mika,
523:I had never passed a single school exam, and clearly never would. ~ Mary Leakey,
524:I just motor through school in the morning and then go skating. ~ Ryan Sheckler,
525:I love being a student, if I could, I'd stay in school forever. ~ Andrea Barber,
526:In school, I could hear the leaves rustle and go on a journey. ~ Clint Eastwood,
527:it smells like grade school—boredom, paste, Lysoled vomit. I ~ Kathryn Stockett,
528:I wore a woman's antique fur jacket to my high school junior prom. ~ Lance Loud,
529:My freshman year of high school was just awkwardness all around. ~ Molly Tarlov,
530:School is not the end but only the beginning of an education. ~ Calvin Coolidge,
531:Serving in Congress is like having a second shot at high school. ~ Barney Frank,
532:They don't tell you this in school, Everybody plays the fool. ~ Smokey Robinson,
533:the years. Mike reminded Aidan of a school kid on the playground, ~ Kate Angell,
534:When I got out of Yale Drama School, I was completely broke. ~ Courtney B Vance,
535:You can't learn in school what the world is going to do next year. ~ Henry Ford,
536:You can’t teach art, so ART SCHOOL is a contradiction in terms. ~ Duane Michals,
537:You look like you spent a lot more time in prep school than prison. ~ Anonymous,
538:You’re like a little wild thing
that was never sent to school. ~ Mary Oliver,
539:and nails done, right after she visited the school nurse, ~ Rachel Ren e Russell,
540:As for acting, I took drama lessons when I was in high school. ~ Megan Gallagher,
541:French name, English accent, American school. Anna confused. ~ Stephanie Perkins,
542:God made the Idiot for practice, and then He made the School Board. ~ Mark Twain,
543:I felt like a misfit at school, and I think that's quite common. ~ Clare Balding,
544:I got expelled from my school when I was 12; I was quite bad! ~ Robert Pattinson,
545:I'll fail."
"At schoool.""Failing at school is failing at life. ~ Ned Vizzini,
546:I never completed high school and I am very rich and very successful. ~ Tre Cool,
547:I never went to a photography school, which was my saving grace. ~ Duane Michals,
548:I played tournament chess from fifth grade up into high school. ~ Chris Hardwick,
549:I was a competitive swimmer in middle school and high school. ~ Katharine McPhee,
550:Let's face it. No kid in high school feels as though they fit in. ~ Stephen King,
551:Middle School is about as bad as it gets, and then it gets better. ~ R J Palacio,
552:My chops are still up, even though I`m not still in high school. ~ Travis Barker,
553:My feeling about school was that it interfered with my reading. ~ Linda Ronstadt,
554:Newton was a judaic monotheist of the school of Maimonides ~ John Maynard Keynes,
555:Roarke called up a blueprint of Hillary Clinton High School. “Certain ~ J D Robb,
556:That got thrown out of court are what got me thrown out of school. ~ Justin Long,
557:That’s exactly what the scythedom is: high school with murder. ~ Neal Shusterman,
558:The kindest word to describe my performance in school was Sloth. ~ Harrison Ford,
559:The lessons I learned in Sunday School have kept me on track ~ Denzel Washington,
560:The most important thing I learned in school was how to touch type. ~ Joichi Ito,
561:The pathway to educational excellence lies within each school. ~ Terrence E Deal,
562:The Rosary is a school for learning true Christian perfection. ~ Pope John XXIII,
563:The stress of grad school can drive anyone temporarily mad. ~ Jonathan Kellerman,
564:To belong to a school is necessarily to espouse its prejudices. ~ Gustave Le Bon,
565:What about your school? It's defective, it's a pack of useless lies. ~ Meat Loaf,
566:When I was in high school, I was voted most likely to succeed. ~ Sheryl Sandberg,
567:When I was in school, there was no such thing as girls athletics. ~ Karen DeCrow,
568:60 percent of girls finish primary school in low-income countries. ~ Hans Rosling,
569:And it was worse because Edward Cullen wasn’t in school at all. ~ Stephenie Meyer,
570:Example is the school of mankind, and they will learn at no other. ~ Edmund Burke,
572:I always try to act like I'm some old school artist from the 1960s. ~ Danny Brown,
573:I'd like to go to NYU business school and then go on to film school. ~ Alexa Vega,
574:I hate people who act too cool for school. Just own up to it, dude. ~ Wayne White,
575:I'm definitely not a science nerd. That was not my forte at school. ~ Emily Blunt,
576:I think in high school there's so many cliques. You're never safe. ~ Blake Lively,
577:It was during my time at secondary school that I abandoned religion. ~ Paul Nurse,
578:Ive never gone to culinary school, but I do love cooking. ~ Keshia Knight Pulliam,
579:I went to a school run by Catholic nuns. They were really strict. ~ Sofia Vergara,
580:I went to eight different schools my first nine years of school. ~ Vanessa Lachey,
581:I went to Samuel Ayer High School, which is now Milpitas High Schoo. ~ Grant Show,
582:My nickname in grade school was salamander because I have a lazy eye ~ Thom Yorke,
583:She's terse. I can be terse. Once, in flight school, I was laconic. ~ Joss Whedon,
584:Since he had nothing better to do well in, he did well in school. ~ Joseph Heller,
585:The list, for better or worse, did elevate her status at school. ~ Siobhan Vivian,
586:The punches came fast and hard, lying on my back in the school yard. ~ Neil Young,
587:there while waiting to take Mighty to school after he returned from ~ Imbolo Mbue,
588:The Rosary is a school of Prayer. The Rosary is a school of Faith. ~ Pope Francis,
589:Welcome to adulthood," she said. "It sucks as much as high school. ~ Sarah Dessen,
590:Whose school-hours are all the days and nights of our existence. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
591:Who wants to go to school and be asked for, like, 20 autographs? ~ Edward Furlong,
592:A mother is a school. Empower her; and you empower a great nation. ~ Hafez Ibrahim,
593:An old man at school is a contemptible and ridiculous object. ~ Seneca the Younger,
594:As a young boy, I was taught in high school that hacking was cool. ~ Kevin Mitnick,
595:At times during high school and college I wished to be a sportswriter. ~ Luke Ford,
596:Bring a sword to school. Trust me-those girls will leave you alone. ~ Chris Colfer,
597:Despite what people think, I was such a rule follower at school. ~ Kristen Stewart,
598:Education is key. I graduated from high school; everyone needs to. ~ Tracy McGrady,
599:Going to school- picking an apple Getting an education- eating it ~ E L Konigsburg,
600:High School is the penalty for transgressions yet to be specified. ~ Frank Portman,
601:High school studfents are the largest oppressed minority in America. ~ Jerry Rubin,
602:I actually built a tiny computer as a junior high school project. ~ Mitchell Kapor,
603:I'd say I've gone to grad school for comedy being on "Community." ~ Gillian Jacobs,
604:If knowledge was power I had under my possession the entire school ~ Joanne Harris,
605:I guess when you go to business school you never turn business off. ~ Mindy Kaling,
606:I hate school with all my might, but then it’s a safer place than home ~ V F Mason,
607:I majored in Shakespearean studies at a very tiny school in Georgia. ~ Nancy Grace,
608:I'm not a very good advertisement for the American school system. ~ David Brinkley,
609:I never understood why the metal heads in my school hated the punks. ~ Trevor Dunn,
610:I never went to film school, so I just sort of learned on my own. ~ Steven Sebring,
611:It is difficult because the school I go to, my friends do not attend. ~ Mila Kunis,
612:It was a tough school. The kids on the debating team took steroids! ~ Milton Berle,
613:I was a great student at a great school, Wharton School of Finance. ~ Donald Trump,
614:I was crazy for music as a high school kid and a college kid. ~ Alexandra Patsavas,
615:I was discouraged at drama school, along with most of my peers. ~ Sigourney Weaver,
616:My mother was the president of the PTA at every school I attended. ~ Vernon Jordan,
617:My school of thought is, anything goes, but I can't do that anymore. ~ David Spade,
618:Of course I acted in school plays but mostly as angels or mushrooms. ~ Maj Sj wall,
619:One school is finished, and the time has come for another to begin. ~ Richard Bach,
620:Partnership is the way. Dictatorial win-lose is so old-school. ~ Alanis Morissette,
621:School seemed unimportant, since I learned so much more on my own. ~ Shannon Tweed,
622:She went back to middle school, and tried not to touch anything dead. ~ V E Schwab,
623:The open road is the school of doubt in which man learns faith in man. ~ Pico Iyer,
624:What goes on inside the school is an interruption of education. ~ Marshall McLuhan,
625:You can acquire a lot of knowledge without ever going to school. ~ William Glasser,
626:America employs more private security guards than high school teachers. ~ Anonymous,
627:And I played in jazz band as well during all three years in school. ~ Travis Barker,
628:As a rule I had a distaste for any reading beyond my school books. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
629:a school-vacation skier is never the equal to a north-country native. ~ John Irving,
630:Back when I was in elementary school, I didnt have many friends. ~ Israel Broussard,
631:Employers babysit parents while their children are at school. ~ Mokokoma Mokhonoana,
632:He will only be gone from the school when none here are loyal to him, ~ J K Rowling,
633:I grew up Irish Catholic with a bunch of kids at Catholic school. ~ Brigid Brannagh,
634:I'm not satisfied with the explanations I get from tv or from school. ~ Erykah Badu,
635:In an ideal world for me, school lunch would be free for everybody. ~ Tom Colicchio,
636:In high school I wanted to be a rock star and was in a lot of bands. ~ Adam Sandler,
637:Instead of being on teams at school, I was preparing for auditions. ~ Shawn Ashmore,
638:Invent nothing, deny nothing, speak up, stand up, stay out of school. ~ David Mamet,
639:I played music all through school and I kind of performed that way. ~ Ewan McGregor,
640:I said school starts tomorrow. I didn’t say I was going to be there. ~ Kim Harrison,
641:It’s like finding a magical unicorn in a high school full of cattle. ~ Sara Farizan,
642:It wasn't until school that we realised that we were abnormal. ~ Gilberto Hernandez,
643:I used to love school until everybody got old enough to point and laugh. ~ A S King,
644:I was going to engineering school but fell in love with physics. ~ Leonard Susskind,
645:I was home educated but would skip my lessons to go hang out at school. ~ Dane Cook,
646:I went to a regular school, not one of those fame academy things. ~ Alyson Hannigan,
647:Lesson #456 of high school life: Never, EVER trust an alarm clock. ~ Heather Brewer,
648:People only rooted for the underdog in movies, not in middle school. ~ David Wright,
649:Sarah Palin should not be on vacation. She should be in summer school. ~ Bill Maher,
650:The higher my GPA gets the more I realize high school is useless ~ Megan McCafferty,
651:The less literate are the first to fail and drop out of school. ~ Stephen D Krashen,
652:When I came out of school I didn't even think that modeling was a job. ~ Heidi Klum,
653:Yes, I took up the guitar when I was about 14 or 15, in high school. ~ Beau Bridges,
654:You go from high school, to the NBA, and you're thrown in the fire. ~ Dwight Howard,
655:You write for the people in high school who ignored you. We all do. ~ Carolyn Kizer,
656:Behind the parents stands the school, and behind the teacher the home. ~ Abdul Kalam,
657:I'd go to school and walk up to people. “A new leaf,” I said. ~ Patricia Reilly Giff,
658:I did spend a year in high school being obsessed with Fleetwood Mac. ~ Joanna Newsom,
659:In some states, not even 50 percent of black boys finish high school. ~ Tavis Smiley,
660:It wasn't until my senior year in high school that I started acting. ~ Steve Buscemi,
661:I was frequently told at drama school that I was thinking too much. ~ Natalie Dormer,
662:I was home-schooled. My mom wasn't a fan of public school systems. ~ Britt Robertson,
663:Middle school's amazing. It is extraordinary. An extraordinary time. ~ Michael Scott,
664:School buildings should be opened and used twenty four hours a day. ~ Nikki Giovanni,
665:School disruption comes from those children who have given up hope. ~ Albert Shanker,
666:The girls in high school who watched 90210? I was watching Seinfeld. ~ Josh Schwartz,
667:Through theater and acting school, I found a way to articulate myself. ~ Adam Driver,
668:When I was in high school, I don't know that I really had big dreams. ~ Alan Jackson,
669:When I was in high school, I had binders with pictures of tour buses. ~ Hunter Hayes,
670:Working at Pixar has been like my graduate school for screenwriting. ~ Michael Arndt,
671:Yeah school girl, cool girl. Your dress is sexy and your momma is a cougar. ~ J Cole,
672:You ever think that school dances are a form of legalized prostitution? ~ Alex Flinn,
673:You send a boy to school in order to make friends - the right sort. ~ Virginia Woolf,
674:You’ve worked hard at school and at gymnastics. That’s no easy feat! ~ Mary Casanova,
675:An animal has to suffer for us old-school Latinos to get what we want. ~ George Lopez,
676:Clint looked as shocked as a Sunday School teacher in a brothel. Good. ~ Joanna Blake,
677:Correction. You’ll let the whole school know what you find out,” I say. ~ David Estes,
678:Everything is uncomfortable for the first time: School, Smoking or Sex. ~ Aakash Deep,
679:Experience keeps a dear school, but fools will learn in no other. ~ Benjamin Franklin,
680:Going to school- picking an apple
Getting an education- eating it ~ E L Konigsburg,
681:Group projects are the exception in school, but they should be the norm. ~ Seth Godin,
682:Having a school really is the fulfillment of a longtime dream of mine. ~ Richard Rohr,
683:High school is such a shared experience in North American culture. ~ Douglas Coupland,
684:I began reading in French. I didn't read in English until high school. ~ Laila Lalami,
685:I didn't pay as much attention in school as I would have liked to. ~ Gillian Anderson,
686:If I wanted to be a doctor today I'd go to math school not med school. ~ Vinod Khosla,
687:I never learned hate at home or shame. I had to go to school for that. ~ Dick Gregory,
688:I really love school, but I'd love to continue acting jobs if I can. ~ Georgie Henley,
689:I should open a school. Danny’s Academy for Blowing Shit Up and Stuff. ~ Sam Sisavath,
690:I started out as a Cold Warrior, even my last years in grade school. ~ Alexander Haig,
691:I started out singing in high school in the choir and in a garage band. ~ Stark Sands,
692:It often strikes me that the actors in high school movies look too old. ~ Roger Ebert,
693:I toned down my accent at school; otherwise, people would pick on me. ~ Michelle Ryan,
694:I was just restless with being in school; so I went out to Los Angeles. ~ Beth Henley,
695:I wasn't hugely popular at school. In fact, I was bullied at school. ~ Sally Phillips,
696:I went to an all-boys school and hated feeling like one of the crowd. ~ Jeremy Irvine,
697:I will only truly have left this school when none here are loyal to me. ~ J K Rowling,
698:Most of my school friends and even a few of my teachers called me Duck. ~ Donald Dunn,
699:Oh my God. Oh my God, J.P. is in love with me. And we blew up the school. ~ Meg Cabot,
700:Outstanding high school writers reported extensive summer reading ~ Stephen D Krashen,
701:Public school teachers are in much the same position as prison wardens. ~ Paul Graham,
702:School prepares you for the real world but I want the fake world. TEEHEE ~ Jim Benton,
703:School shootings were invented by blacks... and stolen by the white man. ~ Chris Rock,
704:School was very easy, it turned out, if you just disconnected your heart. ~ Anne Ursu,
705:the church of those who are redeemed by high-school reading lists. She ~ David Brooks,
706:The public school has become the established church of secular society. ~ Ivan Illich,
707:There's a whole catalogue of actors that never went to acting school. ~ Dennis Farina,
708:The things that have been most valuable to me I did not learn in school. ~ Will Smith,
709:The tie's a multi purpose accessory, y'know, belt, school boy, Rambo. ~ Noel Fielding,
710:Wake up, go to school, go home. Repeat until the world ends. ~ Shaun David Hutchinson,
711:We go to school to learn what books to read for the rest of our lives. ~ Robert Frost,
712:When I was in film school I was learning more theory than practice. ~ Louis Leterrier,
713:Any kiddie in school can love like a fool, But Hating, my boy, is an Art. ~ Ogden Nash,
714:As Melissa got closer, the taste of school began to foul her mouth. ~ Scott Westerfeld,
715:Before I was ever in high school, I had dark circles under my eyes. ~ Benicio Del Toro,
716:But life is a great school. It thrashes and bangs and teaches you. ~ Nikita Khrushchev,
717:Even though I only have a high-school degree, I'm a professional student. ~ Bill Gates,
718:First day of school, make sure that you know your locker combination. ~ Jordan Francis,
719:I had my first and last so-called serious relationship back in high school ~ V F Mason,
720:I never learned hate at home, or shame. I had to go to school for that. ~ Dick Gregory,
721:In every school I've gone to, all the athletic bastards stick together. ~ J D Salinger,
722:In school all I wanted to do was build technology. That's what I loved. ~ Marc Benioff,
723:I used to go to school in Manhattan with a bunch of the City Kids. ~ Melissa Joan Hart,
724:I wasn't aiming at the school bus, but of course I got expelled anyway. ~ Rick Riordan,
725:life is just high school all over again, only with bigger bills to pay. ~ Linda Palmer,
726:Metaphor is a form of magical practice. ~ Dr. Martin Shaw (Westcountry School of Myth),
727:My nickname in high school was jack-o-lantern because I'm missing 9 teeth ~ Thom Yorke,
728:Providence School of Art students used to sneak into P Funk concerts. ~ Bernie Worrell,
729:School forces unique individuals to think, act, and, look alike. ~ Mokokoma Mokhonoana,
730:School made us 'literate' but did not teach us to read for pleasure. ~ Ambeth R Ocampo,
731:the resulting disarray was particularly pronounced in the medical school. ~ Ay e Kulin,
732:We have no school records because we’ve never set foot in a classroom. ~ Tara Westover,
733:We put so much pressure on kids to excel in school at such a young age. ~ Bruce Jenner,
734:When I left school, I wanted to be an artist, specifically a painter. ~ Jonathan Pryce,
735:When I was growing up, I went to an Irish-Christian missionary school. ~ Deepak Chopra,
736:Your school may have done away with winners and losers, but life has not. ~ Bill Gates,
737:America employs more private security guards than high school teachers. ~ Russell Brand,
738:As long as algebra is taught in school, there will be prayer in school. ~ Cokie Roberts,
739:everyone in our school has afterschool activities. mine is going home. ~ David Levithan,
740:High school games would just as big a deal to me as any major league game. ~ Jim Bouton,
741:I had always loved to write and my mom was my editor for my school papers. ~ Jenna Bush,
742:I hated school and never read a textbook. I only read entertaining books. ~ Osamu Dazai,
743:I'm a bit of a fraud, really, as I didn't study acting at a drama school. ~ Celia Imrie,
744:I'm fairly certain lonely's most natural habitat is a school cafeteria. ~ Natalie Lloyd,
745:I studied acting in school and then of course couldn't get an acting job. ~ Denis Leary,
746:I think everyone feels lost at times during their high school years. ~ Linda Cardellini,
747:I think there are school teachers who are on the exact same mission as me. ~ Kanye West,
748:It’s like I missed the day in school when they told us how to be an adult. ~ Lucy Score,
749:I was the class clown at school, but at home, my family wasn't very funny. ~ Carrot Top,
750:Last week at school Pam Struger wondered why the brilliant girls all die. ~ Chris Kraus,
751:Lesson #456 of high school life:
Never, EVER trust an alarm clock. ~ Heather Brewer,
752:Music was a way of rebelling against the whole rah-rah high school thing. ~ Adam Levine,
753:My belief is that sports in school is not an extracurricular activity. ~ Brian Kilmeade,
754:My freshman year of high school I joined the chess and math clubs. ~ Eric Allin Cornell,
755:On parochial school I was told I had an overabundance of original sin. ~ Susan Sarandon,
756:School curricula that ignore the arts produce highly educated Barbarians ~ Edward Albee,
757:She was old too, when she went to school they didn't have history. ~ Rodney Dangerfield,
758:So in my uncertainty, I went to graduate school and there it all happened. ~ Ted Nelson,
759:The role of the federal government, if any, is to create more school choice. ~ Jeb Bush,
760:The school curriculum today, particularly American history, is a shame. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
761:Until we get it right, we shall return to the earth-school time after time. ~ T F Hodge,
762:Well, I was going to school in Germany. And in my free time I was dancing. ~ Heidi Klum,
763:When I go to school, I'm always happy because it's a normal kid thing. ~ Jackie Evancho,
764:…and you’re at school, busy fighting janitors and vegetables with padlocks… ~ Adam Levin,
765:A school should not be a preparation for life. A school should be life. ~ Elbert Hubbard,
766:Being bullied is something I experienced in school, and it is not fun. ~ Bridgit Mendler,
767:Dad kept us out of school, but school comes and goes. Family is forever. ~ Charlie Sheen,
768:Everyone I’ve ever met who was worth knowing was a bit different at school. ~ Jojo Moyes,
769:Flea and Anthony are into funk, like old school Meters and stuff like that. ~ Chad Smith,
770:He didn't say school, pinhead." Pigpen interrupts. "He said her parents. ~ Katie McGarry,
771:Home is the school where we learn that love shows itself in the details. ~ Andi Ashworth,
772:How can it know if the school’s in danger if it’s a hat?” “I have no idea, ~ J K Rowling,
773:I didn't go to school much, so I taught myself what I knew from reading. ~ Doris Lessing,
774:I dropped out of high school four times between the ages of 12 to 17. ~ Philip Emeagwali,
775:I felt like the big geek in high school. And I still feel like a big geek. ~ Leslie Bibb,
776:If you want to work on the core problem, it's early school literacy. ~ James L Barksdale,
777:I graduated in 1930 and I went up to the Yale Drama School for two years. ~ Albert Maltz,
778:I had an Edinburgh, middle-class childhood and a public school education. ~ Rory Bremner,
779:I really hated school. I had the feeling I was losing a lot of time. ~ Olivier Theyskens,
780:I really want to go back to school and finish up my sociology degree. ~ Alicia Sacramone,
781:I used to make fun of the kids in school who acted or went to dance class. ~ Matt Dillon,
782:I used to skip school and paint my face with Ace Frehley Kiss make-up. ~ Dimebag Darrell,
783:I want to go to school. College. Get a degree. I want to make a difference. ~ Maya Banks,
784:I was a keen sportsman, and became school captain in soccer and cricket. ~ John E Walker,
785:I was bullied every second of every day in elementary and middle school. ~ Selena Gomez,
786:I went out with the same girl throughout all four years of high school. ~ Jesse Metcalfe,
787:I went to an all boys' school in South London and the only god was sport. ~ Lennie James,
788:I went to a segregated school; I was born a Negro, not a black man. ~ Michael Eric Dyson,
789:I went to law school. I found it interesting for the first three weeks. ~ Demetri Martin,
790:I went to school at a place that also shaped my life, Boston Latin School. ~ Nat Hentoff,
791:London audiences have this reputation for being a bit too cool for school. ~ Laura Mvula,
792:My first debate in high school--"Resolved: Girls are no good"--and I won! ~ Donald Freed,
793:Mythology is studied in the school system because most of us come from it. ~ Bel Kaufman,
794:NO PDA,school rules. And besides she's my partner dickhead." said Alex. ~ Simone Elkeles,
795:Of the six people who started PayPal, four had built bombs in high school. ~ Peter Thiel,
796:Oh, Homer! You don't have to play dumb anymore! You're not at school now. ~ John Marsden,
797:School was a strange place where they tried to make you into something. ~ Frederick Lenz,
798:Terry Gross. I would rush home from high school to listen to Terry Gross. ~ John Hodgman,
799:The more expensive a school is, the more crooks it has — I'm not kidding. ~ J D Salinger,
800:the only place more germ laden than a hospital is an elementary school. ~ Laurie Frankel,
801:To a very great degree, school is a place where children learn to be stupid. ~ John Holt,
802:Unfortunately, for many people school is the end, not the beginning. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
803:We all learn by experience, but some of us have to go to summer school. ~ Peter De Vries,
804:Whatever, I copied all through school, and look how well I’m doing today. ~ Adrian Young,
805:Wow. I thought I was the only person at this school faking every moment. ~ Katie McGarry,
806:You know what the problem with high school is? There is way too much of it. ~ Jay McLean,
807:As an actor, the first thing you learn in drama school is you never judge. ~ Jason Clarke,
808:Because A) you clearly didn’t go to my high school, and B) maybe I’m wrong, ~ Scott Meyer,
809:College is a place to keep warm between high school and an early marriage. ~ George Gobel,
810:Every child in American should have access to a well-stocked school library. ~ Laura Bush,
811:Extroverts never understand introverts, and it was like that in school days. ~ Neil Peart,
812:Honestly, I wasn't that girl in high school who people spread rumors about. ~ Josie Loren,
813:I attended public school with the same group of kids from K through 12. ~ Thomas Friedman,
814:I certainly didn't learn anything in school. My education was the world. ~ Diana Vreeland,
815:I loved school so much that most of my classmates considered me a dork. ~ Natalie Portman,
816:I'm at the National Theatre School, which is like the Juilliard of Canada. ~ Jake Epstein,
817:In a time hollowed out by decorum, one must school oneself in spontaneity. ~ Susan Sontag,
818:In a way I thought school would last forever. It’s come round so quickly. ~ Louise Jensen,
819:In elementary and high school, I never considered acting as a profession. ~ Rashida Jones,
820:In high school, I was kind of a loner because I had moved to a new school. ~ Jennie Garth,
821:In my first year at drama school, I did this kids' show called 'Let's See. ~ Alan Cumming,
822:I was always acting. I was doing after-school plays and stuff like that. ~ Justin Theroux,
823:I went to public school all my life and all through college and I liked it. ~ Dave Eggers,
824:Keeping our kids engaged and in school must become a national priority. ~ Cedric Richmond,
825:My school spirit is at an all time low, I'm losing my status at the school. ~ Frank Zappa,
826:Prison for the crime of puberty -- that was how secondary school had seemed. ~ David Brin,
827:School teaches you what to do with the rest of your life. I already knew. ~ Avril Lavigne,
828:The first rule we were taught in medical school was “A cadaver is not a toy. ~ Mira Grant,
829:The internet is like a gossipy girls' locker room after school, isn't it? ~ Alex Kapranos,
830:To be in the weakest camp is to be in the strongest school. ~ G. K. Chesterton, Heretics.,
831:To put me through school my morn had to work, so I was a latchkey kid. ~ Lara Flynn Boyle,
832:We live in a society where we wake up our kids for school but not Fajr. ~ Nouman Ali Khan,
833:When I was five I thought auditions were a great way to get out of school! ~ Logan Lerman,
834:WHY? Mostly because I’m the biggest DORK in the entire school. And ~ Rachel Ren e Russell,
835:Back in high school I told my dad, "I'm going to have a computer someday." ~ Steve Wozniak,
836:Behind the parents stands the school, and behind the teacher the home. ~ A P J Abdul Kalam,
837:But then, even with sex, I'm more in the school of less is more in movies. ~ Aaron Eckhart,
838:Competition is the school in which companies learn to perfect their skills ~ Gurcharan Das,
839:Eddie waited 'til he finished high school, he went to Hollywood, got a tattoo. ~ Tom Petty,
840:Experience is the best of school masters, only the school fees are heavy. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
841:Feeding a child at school is such a simple thing - but it works miracles. ~ Drew Barrymore,
842:given the proper kind of training. In the next year or two, every school ~ Milton Friedman,
843:God has a university. It's a small school. Few enroll; even fewer graduate. ~ Gene Edwards,
844:Homosexuality is like a boarding school in which there are no vacations. ~ Andrew Holleran,
845:I can not imagine my life if I didn't have a music program in my school. ~ Beyonce Knowles,
846:I didn't have any qualifications when I left school - I had three O-levels. ~ Simon Cowell,
847:I found it hard to make friends in school, because I was a cerebral person. ~ Lana Del Rey,
848:If you go by a school and the kids don't whistle, back to the drawing board. ~ Harley Earl,
849:I got in trouble in Catholic school for rolling the waist of my skirt down. ~ Nicky Hilton,
850:I got kicked out of high school, so I couldn't get into very many colleges. ~ David Talbot,
851:In high school, every last one of the passing schemes was designed for me. ~ Antonio Gates,
852:In high school, I was a total jock/extracurricular nerd/just plain nerd. ~ Mark Feuerstein,
853:I've had women come up to me and say I was the reason they went to law school. ~ Susan Dey,
854:I wanna make uniforms for my high school basketball team through brand Yeezy. ~ Kanye West,
855:I was at a public school until I was in sixth grade when I moved to New York. ~ Sami Gayle,
856:I was a weird animal in high school, doing no work and getting straight A's. ~ Ezra Miller,
857:I wasn't cocky, just confident; I went to an all black school, a white kid. ~ Shia LaBeouf,
858:I was really good in high school, so in college I was going to be really bad. ~ Rob Huebel,
859:I was using the word awesomeness while you were still in high school, popping zits. ~ Edge,
860:My parents owned a soul food diner. It inspired me to go to culinary school. ~ Flavor Flav,
861:The boy knew that escaping school was the surest sign of his election. ~ Flannery O Connor,
862:The only thing about school he seemed to like was the audience it provided. ~ Jonathan Eig,
863:The only time my education was interrupted was when I was in school. ~ George Bernard Shaw,
864:To get matured, you must have an education in the School of Solitude! ~ Mehmet Murat ildan,
865:What is school for? If you're not asking that, you're wasting time and money. ~ Seth Godin,
866:When we graduated from college and law school, we had a mountain of debt. ~ Jennifer Lopez,
867:You are not my high school crush, idiot.”
“Great. I can die happy, then. ~ Rachel Caine,
868:Bellingham Academy: everything you always wanted in a prep school and less. ~ Amber Dermont,
869:By the time I got kicked out of school, I had nothing else to do but rap. ~ Cyhi the Prynce,
870:Children are supposed to go to school, play on swing sets, skin their knees. ~ Jodi Picoult,
871:College is extra school for people too dumb to learn the first time around, ~ Tara Westover,
872:Conversation enriches the understanding, but solitude is the school of genius ~ Cal Newport,
873:Having your adolescence at an all-male boarding school is just crap. ~ Benedict Cumberbatch,
874:I first studied at the "School of Hard Knocks." I was a very good student... ~ Jos N Harris,
875:I had a number of teachers who hated me. I didn't do well in school. ~ Francis Ford Coppola,
876:I trained for three years at drama school to be an actor - not a celebrity. ~ Orlando Bloom,
877:It scares me to think that one day I'm not going to be in school anymore. ~ Natalie Portman,
878:I work with the Carl Lewis Foundation focusing on youth from high school down. ~ Carl Lewis,
879:My mom said the term heavy petting existed a lot when she was in high school. ~ Lena Dunham,
880:School is a good place - it ain't for everybody, but I think it's for most people. ~ J Cole,
881:School libraries are the foundations of our culture – not luxuries. ~ Laurie Halse Anderson,
882:There is no school or teacher more valuable than your own experiences. ~ Mehmet Murat ildan,
883:There's no use going to school unless your final destination is the library. ~ Ray Bradbury,
884:Time is the school in which we learn, time is the fire in which we burn. ~ Delmore Schwartz,
885:We’ll get her outta our school, one way or another.” And her little dog, too. ~ Kami Garcia,
886:We should all without shame enrol in the school of contemplative prayer. ~ Richard J Foster,
887:America's a hard school, I know, but hard schools make excellent graduates. ~ Oriana Fallaci,
888:Attending boarding school is how upper-middle-class girls run away, to be sure. ~ Roxane Gay,
889:At the age of nine, playing the violin at school, and then onto the mandolin. ~ Noel Redding,
890:Friends aren't any more important than breath or blood to a high school senior. ~ Betty Ford,
891:From your first day at school you are cut off from life to make theories. ~ Taisen Deshimaru,
892:Getting through high school and college was one of my greatest achievements. ~ Anne Bancroft,
893:I did well in school. I had lots of honors, so I thought I was quite smart. ~ Frederick Lenz,
894:I grew up incredibly poor and went to school and had a very average upbringing. ~ Mila Kunis,
895:I had this fascination with four-track recorders when I was in high school. ~ Patrick Carney,
896:In high school, my prom date fooled around with another guy - on prom night! ~ Matthew Perry,
897:Is this what school was like in the United States? It was like theater. ~ Cristina Henriquez,
898:I've been waiting for this for so long--something new, life after high school. ~ Nina LaCour,
899:I was the dork in high school who sang musical numbers up and down the hallways. ~ Amy Adams,
900:I worked as a secretary, a waitress and a dance teacher - all in high school. ~ Jennie Garth,
901:Larger school library collections and longer hours increase circulation. ~ Stephen D Krashen,
902:Let's just say, the American school of suburban angst is not my cup of tea. ~ Katherine Dunn,
903:My grandmother wanted me to have an education, so she kept me out of school. ~ Margaret Mead,
904:Serengeti Trek Vacation Bible School 05, where kids are wild about God!. ~ Christopher Cross,
905:Students in the school of prayer never graduate from the school of the Gospel. ~ C J Mahaney,
906:Teaching school is but another word for sure and not very slow destruction. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
907:They hit you at school, they hate you if your clever, and they despise a fool. ~ John Lennon,
908:We’re going back to high school where our survival instincts are at their finest. ~ Susan Ee,
909:What did I do in high school? I grew from 5 feet 4 inches to 6 feet 2 inches. ~ Gregory Peck,
910:You know, my children go to a local, local catholic school just down the road. ~ John Deacon,
911:A Good School deserves to be call'd, the very Salt of the Town, that hath it. ~ Cotton Mather,
912:Call school," I called to her at the door. "Tell them I'm lovesick." -Raven ~ Ellen Schreiber,
913:Every scene is a lesson. Every shot is a school. Let the learning continue. ~ Martin Scorsese,
914:Experience takes dreadfully high school-wages, but he teaches like no other. ~ Thomas Carlyle,
915:Get a crush on the best looking, most popular, rich boy in school. How original. ~ Linda Kage,
916:God. How would I cope if I went to jail? I'd never even been to boarding school. ~ J L Merrow,
917:Guy Ritchie, he thinks going to drama school is the worst thing in the world. ~ Jason Statham,
918:Having been unpopular in high school is not just cause for book publications. ~ Fran Lebowitz,
919:I consider this world to be like a school and our lives to be the classrooms. ~ Oprah Winfrey,
920:I failed public speaking in grade school, 'cause I was so nervous and scared. ~ Gary Clark Jr,
921:If I had a child of school age, I would send him to one of the Waldorf Schools. ~ Saul Bellow,
922:I had a hit single on the radio for 30 days before I graduated from high school. ~ Will Smith,
923:I just hated school. I dont like to learn. Dont teach me anything! ~ Christopher Mintz Plasse,
924:Im not supposed to be within two hundred feet of a school or a Chuck E. Cheese. ~ Alan Garner,
925:I see you've confused what you're learning in school with actual education. ~ Khaled Hosseini,
926:I think charter schools, choice, and frankly school standards need a champion. ~ David Brooks,
927:It is not who you attend school with but who controls the school you attend. ~ Nikki Giovanni,
928:It's like going back to school. You know, autumn! Time for 'Harry Potter'. ~ Robbie Coltraine,
929:I've never progressed very far from my days as a smart aleck in middle school. ~ Carl Hiaasen,
930:I would work as hard as possible at school so I could keep acting alongside. ~ Felicity Jones,
931:love is a skill to be learnt, rather than just an emotion to be felt. It ~ The School of Life,
932:Make no mistake about it: Law school is not a bastion of intellectual discourse. ~ Tucker Max,
933:Maths is totally done differently to what I was teached when I was at school. ~ David Beckham,
934:My dad said, 'In school, be a Catholic. At home, be a Hindu.' So we did both. ~ Deepak Chopra,
935:My family were all musicians. I really wasn't interested in school or anything. ~ Tommy Bolin,
936:My school colors were clear. We used to say, 'I'm not naked, I'm in the band. ~ Steven Wright,
937:Rules and school are tools for fools! I don't give two mules for rules. ~ Trenton Lee Stewart,
938:School has ruined cinema.It's official. There's nothing worth living for. ~ Stephanie Perkins,
939:Skipping school isn't a crime. It's an infraction. They're totally different. ~ Cory Doctorow,
940:So, after school, I needed to learn a trade and started to work as a tailor. ~ Desmond Dekker,
941:That was my first job after graduating (or being graduated from) high school. ~ Joseph Heller,
942:There are pretenses which are very sincere, and marriage is their school. ~ Miguel de Unamuno,
943:And in high school, people are always watching so there's always a reason to pose. ~ Jay Asher,
944:Conversation enriches the understanding, but solitude is the school of genius. ~ Edward Gibbon,
945:Everybody just wants to be loved, and nobody feels loved enough in high school. ~ Kristen Bell,
946:Everyone in my high school was a bit nerdy. We didn't even have a football team. ~ Norah Jones,
947:Flying from the United States to Tokyo takes approximately as long as law school. ~ Dave Barry,
948:Good cops make their bosses look good, and Hector was a one-man beauty school. ~ Edward Conlon,
949:I don't belong to any school. I work in my corner. I admire Degas. ~ Henri de Toulouse Lautrec,
950:I like to cook. I would probably go to culinary school in France if I had time. ~ Jessica Alba,
951:I'm not coming from film school, I learned cinema in the cinema watching films. ~ Wong Kar wai,
952:I'm not going to buy my kids an encyclopedia. Let them walk to school like I did. ~ Yogi Berra,
953:In business school classrooms they construct wonderful models of a non- world. ~ Peter Drucker,
954:It's a brave new world. I'm 42 years old. I certainly wasn't out in high school. ~ Rick Mercer,
955:I want to get away from the high school thing and do other types of roles. ~ Shannon Elizabeth,
956:I was a very repressed young person. I wasn't good at school. I didn't fit in. ~ Henry Rollins,
957:I was bullied a lot in middle school, and my bullies have since all apologized. ~ Rachel Bloom,
958:I was the daughter of teachers, so school was always very important. I liked it. ~ Amy Poehler,
959:I went to film school to make films just because you're in control of the story. ~ Julie Delpy,
960:Medical school education and post graduate education emphasize thoroughness. ~ Ezekiel Emanuel,
961:My dad was old school Jewish. Not do your taxes Jewish - steal your car Jewish. ~ Dov Davidoff,
962:My only fashion school was what I saw in the newspapers and on television ~ Jean Paul Gaultier,
963:On Career Day in high school, you don't walk around looking for the cartoon guy. ~ Gary Larson,
964:Preparing to go to school was like getting ready for extended deep sea diving. ~ Jean Shepherd,
965:Professionally, I did a couple of operas when I was in school, when I was 18. ~ Lucy Griffiths,
966:Sandy Koufax went to the same school as me. I graduated two years ahead of Sandy. ~ Larry King,
967:School days, I believe, are the unhappiest in the whole span of human existence. ~ H L Mencken,
968:That girl is a suburban dad's midlife crisis in a high school senior's body ~ Becky Albertalli,
969:That's correct, I flunked out of high school twice because I couldn't write. ~ Robert Kiyosaki,
970:THE MONASTERY IS A SCHOOL—A SCHOOL IN WHICH WE learn from God how to be happy. ~ Thomas Merton,
971:The mountains around the school became icy gray and the lake like chilled steel. ~ J K Rowling,
972:We were just a bunch of high school kids who got into the Ramones together. ~ Santiago Durango,
973:When I was 16, I started publishing all kinds of things in school magazines. ~ Margaret Atwood,
974:When I was in high school I thought I was going to university into psychology. ~ Tricia Helfer,
975:You might be a redneck if you dated your daddy's current wife in high school. ~ Jeff Foxworthy,
976:You might be a redneck if... your high school basketball game got rained out. ~ Jeff Foxworthy,
977:At boarding school there wasn't much time for much of anything except education. ~ Henry Cavill,
978:At Juilliard, I couldn't afford to have fun. I went to school and stayed home. ~ Anthony Mackie,
979:Beard,” said Patrick, which was their school slang for “I don’t believe you. ~ Lynne Reid Banks,
980:Civic education and civic responsibility should be taught in elementary school. ~ Donna Brazile,
981:Every other girl in school thinks you're the hottest thing since
the microwave. ~ Linda Kage,
982:I completed medical school at Loma Linda University School of Medicine in 1984. ~ Samuel Wilson,
983:I didn't go to a normal high school. It was for people in the performing arts. ~ Marla Sokoloff,
984:I fear the vermin that shall undermineSenate and citadel and school and shrine. ~ Edwin Markham,
985:If I was still at school, I'd be looking at Britney Spears and dying to be her. ~ Sheena Easton,
986:I floated to school on a magic carpet woven from angel feathers and unicorn manes. ~ B B Easton,
987:I know I'm not sexy. In high school I was voted Most Likely to Masturbate. ~ Rodney Dangerfield,
988:I'm considering going back to school to become a registered dance therapist. ~ Carrie Ann Inaba,
989:I never went to school. I never went to acting school because I was so scared. ~ Ursula Andress,
990:I used to buy records in high school. Mainly dancehall: Super Cat, Buju Banton. ~ Damian Marley,
991:I wanted to be a marine biologist my whole life until I graduated high school. ~ Cobie Smulders,
992:I was kind of a jock in school. Beauty wasn't something I spent a lot of time on. ~ Nina Dobrev,
993:I would rather see a school produce a happy street cleaner than a neurotic scholar. ~ A S Neill,
994:later start time high school graduation rates increased by more than 11 percent ~ Daniel H Pink,
995:My major goal is to take my bathrobe off before the kids get home from school. ~ Matthew Weiner,
996:On school culture: It's hard to eat something you've had a relationship with. ~ Andy Hargreaves,
997:Out of life's school of war: What does not destroy me, makes me stronger. ~ Friedrich Nietzsche,
998:Savannah White, the most popular girl in school, mouthing the words “you’re dead. ~ Chanda Hahn,
999:School is a joke. But go along with it, because you are very near to the punchline. ~ Matt Haig,
1000:Sometimes getting away from school is the best thing can happen to a great mind. ~ Ken Robinson,
1001:The day someone quits school he is condemning himself to a future of poverty. ~ Jaime Escalante,
1002:The lawn of Placerville High School is a very good one. It does not fuck around. ~ Stephen King,
1003:There is only one road to human greatness: through the school of hard knocks. ~ Albert Einstein,
1004:We are not a club or a Sunday school class, but a school of the woods. ~ Baden Powell de Aquino,
1005:You don't hate history, you hate the way it was taught to you in high school. ~ Stephen Ambrose,
1006:A school for the writing of nonsense and the pursuit of extraordinary activities. ~ David Almond,
1007:As far as I have seen, at school...they aimed at blotting out one's individuality. ~ Franz Kafka,
1008:At school, I basically wear one pair of jeans and sneakers for months on end. ~ Jordana Brewster,
1009:At the school of wisdom, mistake is not just a lesson but, a laboratory ~ Ernest Agyemang Yeboah,
1010:blue skies of Barcelona. I took a taxi to the school, where I expected to be ~ Carlos Ruiz Zaf n,
1011:But you never feel things so deeply—so strongly—as you do in high school. You ~ Amanda Eyre Ward,
1012:From a very early age, I've had to interrupt my education to go to school. ~ George Bernard Shaw,
1013:High school dropout rates nationally - Not enough is being done on this issue. ~ Cedric Richmond,
1014:I’d clawed my way through college to discover that the world was a high school. ~ Mishka Shubaly,
1015:I don’t want to go to school and learn solemn things. I don’t want to be a man. ~ James M Barrie,
1016:I finished high school there and then I went to Rhode Island School of Design. ~ Stephen Sprouse,
1017:If you think of a school drawing while you work, your drawing will look like one. ~ Robert Henri,
1018:I hated speaking in public. I would miss school just so I wouldn't have to do it. ~ Kristen Wiig,
1019:In school, my favorite subject was math. That's where I learned to count money. ~ French Montana,
1020:I only had a high school education and believe me, I had to cheat to get that. ~ Sparky Anderson,
1021:I think that like most girls in high school, I just mirrored what was around me. ~ Lauren Conrad,
1022:It is not easy being trapped in a school that is caught between cornfields and cows. ~ Tom Upton,
1023:I went to a public school through sixth grade, and being good at tests wasn't cool. ~ Bill Gates,
1024:Like so many creative men of his school he was hounded by an incessant restlessness. ~ Leon Uris,
1025:My mother was a high school arts teacher, so I was always surrounded by the arts ~ John Lasseter,
1026:School is tough sometimes, but it’s all about knowing who your real friends are. ~ Ariana Grande,
1027:The public school system doesn't get everybody. Every generation has its rebels. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
1028:Ultimately life is disease, death and oblivion. It's still better than high school. ~ Dan Savage,
1029:Well, there's no guarantee of failure in life like happiness in high school. ~ David Henry Hwang,
1030:What makes you imagine ... that anything of importance can be taught in a school? ~ Iris Murdoch,
1031:When I was a kid, I attended a small Catholic school in a south suburb of Chicago. ~ Diablo Cody,
1032:While I was in high school, I started working professionally and got an agent. ~ Charlene Tilton,
1033:You need to take care of your socks!" she said before sending me off to school. That ~ A J Cosmo,
1034:An art school is generated only by the intensity and heat of a common pressure. ~ William Lethaby,
1035:And I found out quickly that a fancier school did not mean fewer bullies" -Tillie ~ Tillie Walden,
1036:A school is not a factory. Its raison d'être is to provide opportunity for experience. ~ J L Carr,
1037:By using impossibly complicated language, school reformers create the impression that ~ Anonymous,
1038:elementary school. I’d worked hard to find the apartment, hoping that a nice unit, ~ Lisa Gardner,
1039:Growing up, I was always in normal public school which is very important in my eyes. ~ Tahj Mowry,
1040:Hermione behind them, wearing a well-you-did-break-school-rules sort of expression. ~ J K Rowling,
1041:I BET I CAN guess your favorite math subject in high school. It was geometry. ~ Steven H Strogatz,
1042:I don't go to school, I don't have parents, I came from the sea to be your husband. ~ Kevin Canty,
1043:I don't like modern country music. It's not what I'm into, is all. I'm old-school. ~ Shelby Lynne,
1044:I got into plays in high school then I ended up going to college for it. ~ Philip Seymour Hoffman,
1045:I had a terrible education. I attended a school for emotionally disturbed teachers. ~ Woody Allen,
1046:I just went to Hebrew school, had a bar mitzvah. No crazy weird Jewish cult. ~ Hayden Schlossberg,
1047:I'm a producer in the old-school way - not just some slacker working on Pro Tools. ~ Michael Gira,
1048:I’m fourteen now, and sometimes I feel I’ve done nothing except go to school. ~ Rosamunde Pilcher,
1049:I'm old-school. I want to be there to drop off my daughter at school and pick her up. ~ Lisa Loeb,
1050:In high school, my goal was to be a writer for SNL, then I got into the acting. ~ Illeana Douglas,
1051:I paid my dues at drama school and worked backstage in every theatre in London. ~ Richard O Brien,
1052:I've always loved punk music, since I was in my early teens, since middle school. ~ Anton Yelchin,
1053:I was lucky enough to have one of the first high school classes in the country. ~ Walter Cronkite,
1054:I went by myself to Hollywood, I spoke no English, every day I had to go to school. ~ Jackie Chan,
1055:I won vice president of my student body in high school. That doesn't mean anything. ~ Al Sharpton,
1056:Most of it was nuts, but I was determined to be a drummer as soon as I left school. ~ John Bonham,
1057:My parents regarded school teachers as higher beings, as did many immigrants. ~ Martin Lewis Perl,
1058:No, I'd rather be in school, learning nothings in a classroom full of children ~ Victoria Aveyard,
1059:One went to school, one wanted to act, one started to act, and one's still acting. ~ Maggie Smith,
1060:Poor school performance and productivity are temporary; motivation is permanent. ~ Richard Lavoie,
1061:School and home seem to recede from us and their influences upon us seemed to wane. ~ James Joyce,
1062:The best of the best were graduates of the two-year Zen-Nippon Chick Sexing School, ~ Joshua Foer,
1063:The two most joyous times of the year are Christmas morning and the end of school. ~ Alice Cooper,
1064:Gray and I talked about library school the way draft dodgers talked about Canada. ~ Rebecca Schiff,
1065:I actually went to film school, but I didnt like it. Im basically self-taught. ~ Judah Friedlander,
1066:I always quit at three when my kids come home from school so I feel pretty spoiled ~ Alice Hoffman,
1067:I didn't mind being unpopular at school, because everyone else was a heathen. ~ Jeanette Winterson,
1068:I feel the same way I did when I was in school. I'm having the same insecurities. ~ Shirley Manson,
1069:If I had a dollar for every time someone made fun of me in high school-oh wait, I do! ~ Bill Gates,
1070:if students leave school less curious than when they started, we have failed them. ~ George Couros,
1071:If you think I'm annoying and preachy now, you should have known me in grade school. ~ Dave Eggers,
1072:I'm not someone who went to acting school - I was just out of the gate, doing it. ~ Natasha Lyonne,
1073:In school nativity plays I was always the bloody little donkey, I was never Mary. ~ Geri Halliwell,
1074:In school we learn that mistakes are bad, and we are punished for making them. ~ Robert T Kiyosaki,
1075:I started in high school and then I went onto professional training after that. ~ Bruce Boxleitner,
1076:It is inappropriate (to allow parents) to design the curriculum and to run the school. ~ Rod Paige,
1077:it's back to school time. or as home-schoolers call it, stay-where-you-are time. ~ Stephen Colbert,
1078:I've got a lot of homework to do, and none of it has anything to do with school. ~ Travis Thrasher,
1079:I was home schooled in high school but was definitely the nerd in middle school. ~ Nicole Anderson,
1080:I wasn't very happy in high school: it was a confusing and sort of sad time for me. ~ Sarah Dessen,
1081:Like we're some kind of hip high school murder club without a care in the world. ~ Karen M McManus,
1082:School is at its best when it gives students the expectation that they will not only ~ Seth Godin,
1083:Since our school went MiNet blind, it’s for seriously more like 1836 than 2036. ~ Megan McCafferty,
1084:Square school pizza disproves socialism more than any political argument ever did. ~ Richard Raley,
1085:The formula for creative writing in high school or college is write what you know. ~ Toni Morrison,
1086:There's more philosophy in jiu-jitsu mats than in any Ivy League school in America. ~ Renzo Gracie,
1087:The theater is a school we shall never have done with studying and learning. ~ Robert Edmond Jones,
1088:The thing about me is I have a great little acting school. I teach about 125 students. ~ Luke Ford,
1089:The town council met at the school. That meant we knew exactly how to sneak in. ~ Kelley Armstrong,
1090:[To organize a school] looks much more difficult in theory than it does in practice. ~ Amartya Sen,
1091:We're in high school. If it didn't come from the school cafeteria, we like it. ~ S K N Hammerstone,
1092:What a curious kind of fool a girl is. Never been licked in school. What's a licking? ~ Mark Twain,
1093:When I was in high school I was a super serious athlete. I wasn't fun at all. ~ Sean William Scott,
1094:You think school is boring? A minimum-wage job makes school look like Burning Man. ~ Tommy Wallach,
1095:Any kid that never fantasized about blowing up his school never really went there. ~ Bill Watterson,
1096:Because I didn't go to film school, you learn so much from a lot of creative artists. ~ F Gary Gray,
1097:Catherine Bybee was raised in Washington State, but after graduating high school, ~ Catherine Bybee,
1098:Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school. ~ Albert Einstein,
1099:Every child has a right to go to high school and end up with a third grade education. ~ Pat Paulsen,
1100:For me, Molly Hatchet is high school. It makes me feel like I have hair and a future. ~ Dave Attell,
1101:high school, Lisa never failed to bring back ‘the old glory days’ as she called them. ~ Marie Astor,
1102:I began to treat my belongings as if they were alive when I was a high school student. ~ Marie Kond,
1103:If his happiness were my goal, Mike, I would have gone to clown school, you know? ~ Linda Fairstein,
1104:I hate my smile. I always have, even in my school pictures when I was a little kid. ~ Kenny Chesney,
1105:I leaned from my friends in school. I had lots of friends; yet I was very indrawn. ~ Frederick Lenz,
1106:I learned about a lot of things in medical school, but mortality wasn't one of them. ~ Atul Gawande,
1107:I love seeing teachers outside of school. It's like seeing a dog walk on its hind legs. ~ Janis Ian,
1108:I'm 53. I don't care about high school students. I find them irritating and uninformed. ~ Alan Ball,
1109:I make it through the first two weeks of school without a nuclear meltdown. ~ Laurie Halse Anderson,
1110:I'm never nervous. Not in high school, not in college. That's just the way I am. ~ Chauncey Billups,
1111:I'm not going to be happy until every child in every school is physically active. ~ Richard Simmons,
1112:In high school, I dressed up as every James Bond girl. I was a teenage Pussy Galore. ~ Winona Ryder,
1113:In the first place God made idiots. This was for practice. Then he made school boards. ~ Mark Twain,
1114:I started running in high school. I found out if you run fast then you can get girls. ~ Kim Collins,
1115:I was made fun of a lot in high school because of the way I sound and the way I was. ~ Chris Colfer,
1116:I wasn't a great student. Just give me a school with no grades, and I'll be happy. ~ Alison Elliott,
1117:Life gets really simple once you cut out all the bullshit they teach you in school. ~ George Carlin,
1118:middle school and he obviously clearly remembered the tongue-lashings she’d ~ Elizabeth Spann Craig,
1119:My son's got the I.Q. Of a robot but I don't have the dough to send him to school. ~ Jonathan Dunne,
1120:Obama reminds me of the black kid at a white school that don't nobody want to play with. ~ Ice Cube,
1121:Oh, I took some night school courses in psychology,” said Bill Compton, vampire. ~ Charlaine Harris,
1122:Princeton is a sublime undergraduate university. It has a good architecture school. ~ Emilio Ambasz,
1123:She's called the secretary, but as far as I can tell she basically runs the school. ~ Rebecca Stead,
1124:She was a ship of the old school, rather small if anything; with an old-fashioned ~ Herman Melville,
1125:There's definitely an old school element to my music, but I also think it's modern. ~ Lenny Kravitz,
1126:There will always be someone being picked on at school, and it's not going to go away. ~ Alexa Vega,
1127:They were not my friends, after all. They were just the people I went to school with. ~ Neil Gaiman,
1128:We are all made of broken glass. The school grinds along on grief and anger. ~ Justine Larbalestier,
1129:When I graduated from high school, it was during the Depression and we had no money. ~ Ray Bradbury,
1130:When I was in high school, if my favorite band got too popular, I'd watch carefully. ~ Mike Shinoda,
1131:When people ask me if I went to film school I tell them, 'no, I went to films.' ~ Quentin Tarantino,
1132:a guy I was friends with in grade school, back before I had good taste in people. ~ Karen McQuestion,
1133:All kids, I think, are creative, but they get it pounded out of them in school. ~ Buffy Sainte Marie,
1134:A school without football is in danger of deteriorating into a medieval study hall. ~ Vince Lombardi,
1135:Boys do not leave their boyhood behind when they leave off their school uniform. ~ Diane Setterfield,
1136:For one thing,I have school tomorrow. Two,my right leg is still in Sasquatch mode. ~ Alecia Whitaker,
1137:Henry Wu was a young Asian guy, straight out of tooth school, or wherever they went. ~ Tarryn Fisher,
1138:I am an old school sort of syndicated cartoon watcher. I'm a big fan of Voltron, too. ~ Seamus Dever,
1139:I attended private Catholic schools in Paris and Los Angeles through high school. ~ Natalie Massenet,
1140:I can get motivated seeing a kid at my sons school overcome a learning disability. ~ Jason Alexander,
1141:I definitely used to write a lot at school. Comic poetry and drawings about people. ~ Sally Phillips,
1142:If an opportunity arises, then I won't use school as an excuse not to work. ~ Patrick Schwarzenegger,
1143:In all primary school work the principle of multiple impressions is well recognized. ~ William James,
1144:In my school, he thought, they learn bitterness and frustration and how to grow old. ~ Graham Greene,
1145:In school I was pretty quiet. Kinda shy until my junior year. But at home I was a freak. ~ Dane Cook,
1146:In the first place, God made idiots. That was for practice. Then he made school boards. ~ Mark Twain,
1147:I quit high school the first day of 10th grade because I felt like I was wasting time. ~ Bam Margera,
1148:I think, in common with a lot of novelists, I wasn't the most athletic guy at school. ~ Chris Cleave,
1149:It was hard to leave my school. I've been going to the same school since kindergarden. ~ Miley Cyrus,
1150:I've always been a draw-er, all throughout elementary school I was the "kid who draws". ~ Liz Prince,
1151:I went to high school in Lexington, Massachusetts, which in hindsight was very nice. ~ Eugene Mirman,
1152:Life gets really simple once you cut out all the bull shit they teach you in school. ~ George Carlin,
1153:She'll thank you when she's thirty and can still fit into her high school jeans. ~ Pamela Druckerman,
1154:Sometimes getting away from school is the best thing that can happen to a great mind. ~ Ken Robinson,
1155:The bruises he'd come to school with. Who has he ever had to love him?
Ever? ~ Maggie Stiefvater,
1156:The last time I threw a punch was in primary school, and that was probably a slap. ~ Martin Compston,
1157:The reason why I hated school so intensely [was that] it interfered with my freedom. ~ Sigrid Undset,
1158:We ain't have video recorders back in high school, or at least we couldn't afford them. ~ Sean Price,
1159:We don't need school to be better, we need schools to be really, really different. ~ Will Richardson,
1160:What did that mean? Where could it go? He was a death diety. I was a high school senior. ~ Meg Cabot,
1161:What prevents my life from being a sad after-school special is I don't give a shiiit. ~ Chris Colfer,
1162:What's the use of a high school education if you can't recall it when needed later on? ~ Hal Clement,
1163:When I went to school, sex education was mainly muttered warnings about the janitor. ~ Frankie Boyle,
1164:all the teachers at this school attack their students? Or are you just a raving bitch? ~ Chris Cannon,
1165:American megalomania is largely responsible for the growth of the Skyscraper School. ~ Philip Johnson,
1166:As far as R&B, I listen to a lot of old school like the Temptations and Chris Brown. ~ Jacob Latimore,
1167:Death is the Christian's vacation morning. School is out. It is time to go home. ~ Henry Ward Beecher,
1168:Everywhere seems bigger before you learn your way around. Take high school for instance. ~ Ted Naifeh,
1169:Here is an Unity Quote that we have all known since school: United we stand; divided we fall. ~ Aesop,
1170:I always thought the good thing about the guitar was that they didn't teach it in school ~ Jimmy Page,
1171:I am a former economist. I never went to photography school to learn photography. ~ Sebastiao Salgado,
1173:I could have gone to medical school, I said. Except for all the math and stuff. ~ MaryJanice Davidson,
1174:I'd have to just say that working with other people, it's a different world from school. ~ Tom Felton,
1175:I don’t tweet or blog or order pizza with arugula on top. So, yeah, call me old school. ~ Paul Levine,
1176:If your mother still drives you to school, you are not a gangster, pull your pants up! ~ Bill Engvall,
1177:I invite even the school of violence to give this peaceful non-co-operation a trial. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
1178:It looks like the kind of thing my daughter would bring back from school art lessons. ~ Prince Philip,
1179:I volunteer with School on Wheels in Los Angeles, and I also tutor with Koreh L.A. ~ Rachelle Lefevre,
1180:I was 11 when I was first introduced to live drawing classes and going to art school. ~ Kehinde Wiley,
1181:I was a huge nerd in high school. Sure, I socialized - but I was definitely a nerd. ~ Bella Heathcote,
1182:I was home-schooled for my entire high school experience, so I never went to prom. ~ Cameron Monaghan,
1183:I went to an all-girls private school, where we played field hockey and lacrosse. ~ Nicole Ari Parker,
1184:I went to stage school with a neighbor to build confidence because I was quite shy. ~ Alexandra Roach,
1185:My mother had been a grade-school teacher, and my father had an eighth-grade education. ~ Gordon Bell,
1186:No statues, please. School or statue? Hospital or statue? No need to explain further. ~ Chetan Bhagat,
1187:Old school feminism, coveting social power, is blind to woman's cosmic sexual power. ~ Camille Paglia,
1188:Old-school marketing is based on persuasion; new marketing is based on invitation. ~ Chris Guillebeau,
1189:People want to get back to the source. The old school. They want things they can touch. ~ Hari Kunzru,
1190:School district policies and practices have not kept pace with student and teacher needs. ~ Eli Broad,
1191:-The Lord says to forgive is devine.
-The Lord didn't go to high school with you. ~ Dakota Cassidy,
1192:There is no school equal to a decent home and no teacher equal to a virtuous parent. ~ Mahatma Gandhi,
1193:There is nothing on earth intended for innocent people so horrible as a school. ~ George Bernard Shaw,
1194:This age thinks better of a gilded fool than of a threadbare saint in wisdom’s school. ~ Ray Bradbury,
1195:This world is your body. This world is a great school, This world is your silent teacher. ~ Sivananda,
1196:To work a fell revenge a man's a fool, if not instructed in a woman's school. ~ John William Fletcher,
1197:When I see friends from school I think they've all grown old and I've stayed the same. ~ Steve Coogan,
1198:Which is more musical: a truck passing by a factory or a truck passing by a music school? ~ John Cage,
1199:You'll learn more from your accidents than anything that you could ever learn at school. ~ Billy Joel,
1200:Beauty, grace, and charm my foot. It's a school for sadists with good tea-serving skills. ~ Libba Bray,
1201:Christ, we had public sex at a school event. I’m a teacher. I’ve lost my fucking mind. ~ Mercy Celeste,
1202:Film school is a complete con, because the information is there if you want it. ~ Paul Thomas Anderson,
1203:History is the only true teacher, the revolution the best school for the proletariat. ~ Rosa Luxemburg,
1204:I always thought the good thing about the guitar was that they didn't teach it in school. ~ Jimmy Page,
1205:I cried when my school councilor told me being an ass-hole wasn’t a paying profession. ~ Morgan Blayde,
1206:I don't have a lot of friends; most of the friends I have, I've had since high school. ~ Lauren London,
1207:I find science really sexy and, at the time that I was a school kid, it certainly wasn't. ~ John Noble,
1208:If life were one long grade school, women would be the undisputed rulers of the world. ~ Carol S Dweck,
1209:I grew up and left home for college in the Twin Cities at a school called St. Thomas, ~ Cheryl Strayed,
1210:I never really studied business in school. I kind of wish I had, but how boring is that? ~ Mick Jagger,
1211:In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses. It was horrible. ~ Steven Spielberg,
1212:In high school, whites are sometimes asked to think about race, but rarely about whiteness. ~ Tim Wise,
1213:In school, we're rewarded for having the answer, not for asking a good question. ~ Richard Saul Wurman,
1214:I remember being intrigued by the idea of school-in-a-box, just-add-water-and-Sam. ~ Maggie Stiefvater,
1215:I've loved you ever since that day you broke your slate over my head in school. ~ Lucy Maud Montgomery,
1216:Most comedians weren't great athletes; that was the way they got noticed in high school. ~ Judd Apatow,
1217:My parents instilled in me the value of learning and encouraged me to succeed in school. ~ Bruce Brown,
1218:Of course, the downside of attending a fictional school is that our lacrosse team sucks. ~ Ally Carter,
1219:Once you leave out all the bullshit they teach you in school, life gets really simple. ~ George Carlin,
1220:Our romantic impulses are continually renewed. We blame everything but our hopes. ~ The School of Life,
1221:Over 20 million children of conflict are out of school. Education is often forgotten. ~ Angelina Jolie,
1222:(We) fell out of love with life for having learnt too much of death. ("At School") ~ Georges Rodenbach,
1223:We obtain our education at home, at school, and, most important, from life itself. ~ Eleanor Roosevelt,
1224:When I was in high school, I earned the pimple award and every other gross-out award. ~ Jack Nicholson,
1225:Yeah. I failed R&R in school. I was too busy studying for my anal retention classes. ~ Rosanna Leo,
1226:You starving street waif! No, you're too old to be a waif! You starving high-school-aged waif! ~ CLAMP,
1227:And to fulfill the fish wish of the womb, A school of Freudians headed for the tomb. ~ Vladimir Nabokov,
1228:A success is the school teacher who is teaching because that's what she wants to do. ~ Earl Nightingale,
1229:Can I request another peer guide, One who isn't so happy to be at school at 7:30 a.m.? ~ Simone Elkeles,
1230:Every swallow tastes sour, and the closer I get to school, the closer I come to collapsing. ~ Jay Asher,
1231:From that day, I had your name and the name of your high school stamped in my brain. ~ Kazuki Kaneshiro,
1232:Hairstyles change, and skirt lengths, and slang, but high school administrations? Never. ~ Stephen King,
1233:I actually had a cockney accent before I went to drama school. It's softened up a bit. ~ Gemma Arterton,
1234:I decided to become an actor because I was failing in school and I needed the credits. ~ Dustin Hoffman,
1235:I don't do 'black music,' I don't do 'white music'...I make fight music, for high school kids. ~ Eminem,
1236:I don't know why I go to school unless for kicks, oh well might as well do dissect a frog. ~ S E Hinton,
1237:I had a teacher at school who told me once that I was a mistress of self-reinvention. I ~ Paula Hawkins,
1238:I have a practice of really not talking about the competition. I'm from the old school. ~ Rush Limbaugh,
1239:I have had a few turning points, the first day I entered a gymnastics school at age 6. ~ Nadia Comaneci,
1240:I knew what type of player I was: a free agent, a small kid who came from a small school. ~ Victor Cruz,
1241:I like science fiction. I took all the accelerated classes in school. I'm kind of a dork. ~ Anson Mount,
1242:I love everything from old-school cars to whatever the latest muscle or luxury vehicles are. ~ Ludacris,
1243:I'm a very competitive person, whether it's school, baseball or even playing video games. ~ David Price,
1244:I'm proposing a plan to provide school choice to every disadvantaged student in America. ~ Donald Trump,
1245:I spent a lot of time staring at the clock in school, so I have that kind of personality. ~ Diablo Cody,
1246:It is often easier for our children to obtain a gun than it is to find a good school. ~ Joycelyn Elders,
1247:It was like one of those dreams at high school when everyone else has clothes on except you. ~ Tom Ford,
1248:I was born in Everett; I went through grade school in Everett, high school in Seattle. ~ Dorothy Malone,
1249:I was head of the Sixth Form Centre when I left the school. ~ Estelle Morris Baroness Morris of Yardley,
1250:I went to the Rudolf Steiner School in New York, and you're not allowed to watch TV. ~ Jennifer Aniston,
1251:Jews were asked when life begins. For them it's when they finally graduate medical school. ~ Evan Sayet,
1252:Most adults have dropped out of the school of life before they reached adulthood. ~ Mokokoma Mokhonoana,
1253:Musicians tell me, if what I'm doing is right, they should never have gone to school. ~ Ornette Coleman,
1254:My mom taught me German before I knew English. And I went to French immersion school. ~ Tatiana Maslany,
1255:My narrators tend to be women with low self-esteem, so I can send them to charm school. ~ Elinor Lipman,
1256:Salvador’s brother, however, is the Indiana Jones of the Mexican school system; ~ Christopher McDougall,
1257:Success is the study of the obvious. Everyone should take Obvious 1 and Obvious 2 in school. ~ Jim Rohn,
1258:The children will go back to school. Sam and Annie can move into this house. ~ Gertrude Chandler Warner,
1259:The first half of my life I went to school, the second half of my life I got an education. ~ Mark Twain,
1260:The last time I saw African kids this excited, Madonna was at their school with a net. ~ Russell Howard,
1261:The other mothers eyed her with suspicion. Adult suburbia can be a lot like high school. ~ Harlan Coben,
1262:Turning into a vampire is bad enough – I don’t need to flunk out of school on top of it. ~ Mari Mancusi,
1263:When I was a kid, my favorite after-school snack was hominy and pickled pigs feet. ~ Cassandra Peterson,
1264:When I was little, I went to a Jewish community day school for most of elementary school. ~ Clara Mamet,
1265:When I was sent to public school, I was relieved that I could wear what I wanted to wear. ~ Davey Havok,
1266:... at thirty-two she had less dating experience than the average high school student. ~ Lacey Alexander,
1267:back.” But the path he started on led him to graduate school, where he eventually ~ Suzanne Woods Fisher,
1268:But it was still a community school. They didn’t have a lacrosse team or colorful mascot. ~ Joe Clifford,
1269:Every single kid in my group of friends at school was from a single-parent family. ~ Christina Applegate,
1270:Experience is the only teacher, and we get his lesson indifferently in any school. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson,
1271:For a songwriter, you dont really go to songwriting school; you learn by listening to tunes. ~ Tom Waits,
1272:I almost failed drama at school. I hated it. It was all about the history of theatre. ~ Brenton Thwaites,
1273:I did not have a chance to write novels until my youngest child started school fulltime ~ Anne McCaffrey,
1274:I dropped out of high school. I really had no interest in doing any school work whatsoever. ~ Bobby Flay,
1275:I fell in love with many women at school who had no idea I existed. I'm a bit of a romantic. ~ Eric Bana,
1276:If you don't want an American flag flying at your school, why do you live in the USA? ~ Ainsley Earhardt,
1277:I had started doing theater in high school, and while I was doing that, I got my manager. ~ Michael Rady,
1278:I like acting, but I like filmmaking better. I went to film school. I want to make films. ~ Art Alexakis,
1279:I'll show you Obama's birth certificate when you show me Sarah Palin's high school diploma. ~ Bill Maher,
1280:I'm not embarrassed to be seen with younger women, except when I drop them off at school. ~ Jerry Lawler,
1281:I remembered being intrigued by the idea of school-in-a-box, just-add-water-and-Sam. ~ Maggie Stiefvater,
1282:I still have some very dear friends from school, and we get together whenever possible. ~ Dionne Warwick,
1283:I still regret that I never played soccer in high school. I chose basketball over soccer. ~ Will Ferrell,
1284:I teach musical theater three days a week at the school that my wife and I graduated from. ~ Drew Lachey,
1285:It started 25 years ago, when I was teaching elementary school in a small town in Missouri ~ Dan Simmons,
1286:It's well known that many girls have a tendency to dumb down when they're in middle school. ~ Sally Ride,
1287:It was in high school that I first became interested in acting. We put on lots of plays. ~ Blythe Danner,
1288:I was a real loner in high school, even though people assume I was the head cheerleader. ~ Kate Bosworth,
1289:I wasn't even a theater kid in high school. I studied classical piano, and I ran track. ~ Condola Rashad,
1290:I was sports editor for my high school newspaper, but I think I shied away from journalism. ~ Jenna Bush,
1291:I would ban sweets from school - but this pressure to bring in healthy food is too much. ~ Boris Johnson,
1292:Oh nookie in the stacks.Figures you're the type to have that fantasy, grad school and all. ~ Chloe Neill,
1293:People react to fear, not love; they don't teach that in Sunday School, but it's true. ~ Richard M Nixon,
1294:School did prepare a young person for life, but never in the ways parents expected. ~ Emma Jane Holloway,
1295:Searching for a boy in high school is as useless as searching for meaning in a Pauly Shore movie. ~ Cher,
1296:Shigure Sohma: singing High school girls high school girls all for me High school girls ~ Natsuki Takaya,
1297:Term, holidays, term, holidays, till we leave school, and then work, work, work till we die. ~ C S Lewis,
1298:That’s more of a note than a letter.’ ‘Got any friends at school?’ ‘No.’ ‘Can’t think why. ~ Lissa Evans,
1299:The after-school routine is just another way to divide the popular from the less than. ~ Alecia Whitaker,
1300:The more consistently Austrian School an economist is, the better a writer he will be. ~ Murray Rothbard,
1301:There wasn't a lot of discipline in my life, and I hated it being imposed on me at school. ~ Alfie Allen,
1302:They will not stop me, I will get my education, if it is in home, school or any place ~ Malala Yousafzai,
1303:This isn't high school," I said, eyeing him playfully. "You're way out of your depth. ~ Penelope Douglas,
1304:Those years between drama school and getting onto the stand-up circuit were pretty lean. ~ Graham Norton,
1305:When I was five I was touring, singing and dancing. Always gone, always out of school. ~ Michael Jackson,
1306:Why did Thor send you back to middle school?” I asked. “That seems especially cruel.” She ~ Rick Riordan,
1307:You will find that I will only truly have left this school when none here are loyal to me. ~ J K Rowling,
1308:Being on the road and doing events is like getting kids ready for school for most families. ~ David Wolfe,
1309:Buffy's high school was built on top of a vortex of evil, the Hellmouth. And whose wasn't? ~ Sarah Vowell,
1310:Experience keeps a dear school, but fools will learn in no other, and scarce in that. ~ Benjamin Franklin,
1311:Have you ever done something you regretted?'
'Does last year's school picture counts? ~ Jennifer Niven,
1312:He’d be fine. Every child went to school. They survived. They learned the rules of life. ~ Liane Moriarty,
1313:High school dropouts are forfeiting their opportunity to pursue the American Dream. ~ Kareem Abdul Jabbar,
1314:I always did workshops. I would be at theater camp, doing shows, or after-school programs. ~ Ansel Elgort,
1315:I didn't want to go to college. I wanted to move to Los Angeles right out of high school. ~ Jenna Fischer,
1316:Id never heard of a hall pass until I came to America. It sounds like something at school. ~ Nicky Whelan,
1317:If every school would hire two more music teachers, we would need two fewer police officers. ~ Kurt Masur,
1318:I just want to be able to keep my house and pay for my son's school tuition in Los Angeles. ~ Diablo Cody,
1319:I love this cornbread so much, I wanna take it behind a middle school and get it pregnant. ~ Tracy Morgan,
1320:I'm definitely not a science nerd, I'll say that. That was not my forte at school. ~ Joseph Gordon Levitt,
1321:I never studied film formally at school, but as a kid, I spent most of my time in cinemas. ~ Wong Kar wai,
1322:In school the kids thought I was freaky because I made straight A's and daydreamed a lot ~ Shelley Duvall,
1323:I was a lady gunda in school. Everyone was scared of me, and I was really short and round. ~ Bipasha Basu,
1324:I was really bored and unhappy in school, and I used to act out and do horrible things. ~ Christina Ricci,
1325:I went to art school, I think it helped me a great deal because it taught me who I am. ~ Jackie DeShannon,
1326:I went to my last three years of high school in New Jersey. I just wanted to act, you know? ~ Stacey Dash,
1327:Let's make sure that we are working for age-appropriate sex education in our school system. ~ Wendy Davis,
1328:Monday morning always found him so—because it began another week’s slow suffering in school. ~ Mark Twain,
1329:Never trust the captain who has never taken any education from the School of Storms! ~ Mehmet Murat ildan,
1330:Our school education ignores, in a thousand ways, the rules of healthy development. ~ Elizabeth Blackwell,
1331:The art school babe quotes William Blake as she rolls a joint, then I think that I'll score. ~ Ray Davies,
1332:The most important thing you learn at school is that learning only happens by being taught. ~ Ivan Illich,
1333:This is a school, not a democracy; the students have whatever rights we choose to allow them. ~ Joan Hess,
1334:We had the whole 'when you assume you make an ass out of you and me' speech in school. ~ Jonathan Maberry,
1335:When I think back on all the crap I learned in high school, it's a wonder I can think at all ~ Paul Simon,
1336:You don't want to peak in high school. If you do, the rest of your life is a disaster. ~ Candace Bushnell,
1337:All they teach you in drama school is how to do stage fights and be a pain in rehearsals. ~ Craig Ferguson,
1338:At school there was no acting to be had other than school plays which I did now and again. ~ Ewan McGregor,
1339:Basketball was not my main sport in grade school, or even the first year of high school. ~ Mike Krzyzewski,
1340:By the time I was 15 and I stepped in the high school gym, I was just stronger than everybody. ~ John Cena,
1341:Every high school has its Romeo and Juliet, one tragic couple. So does every generation. ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
1342:Evidently it took Catholic school to turn young kids into fearless, hardened apostates. ~ William Finnegan,
1343:Famous at high school is like being employee of the month at the sanitation department. ~ Orson Scott Card,
1344:Find your school satyr and get his help. You need to make it to Camp Half-Blood right away. ~ Rick Riordan,
1345:Hello, this school now comes complete with a walking buffet, and nobody gets to take abite? ~ Claudia Gray,
1346:I decided to find out how people at school might react if one of the students never came back. ~ Jay Asher,
1347:I don't want them hanging a double murder on me. It wouldn't look good on my school record. ~ John Marsden,
1348:I haven’t seen this much blood since those driver’s ed films they showed in high school. ~ Scott Nicholson,
1349:I knew when I was in high school that I wanted a job where they'd applaud if I showed up. ~ Cheryl Wheeler,
1350:I mean, I did plays in high school, but I was convinced you couldn't make a living doing it. ~ Adam Driver,
1351:I mean, I never liked being told what to do. It's one of the reasons I dropped out of school. ~ Dave Grohl,
1352:I never had a real job either. I sort of fell out of school and ended up playing guitar. ~ Vivian Campbell,
1353:I remember that I was never able to get along at school. I was at the foot of the class. ~ Thomas A Edison,
1354:I think a high school girl hitchhiking is stupid. It was dangerous then and it's dangerous now. ~ Bo Derek,
1355:I think there was always something that everybody wishes they could relive in high school. ~ Neal H Moritz,
1356:I think we have to be more proactive in the people we invite to come and speak in school. ~ Mark Schlissel,
1357:I've got a friend who is a lion tamer. He used to be a school teacher till he lost his nerve. ~ Les Dawson,
1358:I've never had formal drama-school training; I've just picked things up as I've gone along. ~ Agyness Deyn,
1359:I was born in St. Andrew's and raised in Kingston then I attended the Alpha Boy's school. ~ Desmond Dekker,
1360:I was editor of my high school literary magazine and a reporter for the school newspaper. ~ Jeffery Deaver,
1361:I was in an a cappella group in school, so it particularly helped me keep my piano chops up. ~ John Legend,
1362:I went straight out of high school, and when I was 17, all I wanted to do was play guitar. ~ John Petrucci,
1363:Just out of high school, you didn't realize you were creating drama for the sake of drama. ~ Donald Miller,
1364:Kagyu school lies in the tradition of passing instructions orally from master to ~ Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche,
1365:Law school teaches you one thing above all: how to speak while saying absolutely nothing. ~ Krysten Ritter,
1366:Mama gives you money for Sunday school, you trade yours for candy after church is through. ~ Stevie Wonder,
1367:My acting teacher in high school was really influential, and we still keep in touch. ~ Brandon Jay McLaren,
1368:My mother did all she could to control me, but at age 14 she sent me to a military school. ~ Sam Donaldson,
1369:One city, Ashland, Oregon, has an elementary school in which not a single child is vaccinated. ~ Anonymous,
1370:Presently it occurred to him that he wished he was sick; then he could stay home from school. ~ Mark Twain,
1371:Roses are red,
And ready for plucking,
You're sixteen,
And ready for high school. ~ Kurt Vonnegut,
1372:School is the advertising agency which makes you believe that you need the society as it is. ~ Ivan Illich,
1373:School is where you go between when your parents can't take you and industry can't take you. ~ John Updike,
1374:She was straight out of the Tracy Flick and Hermione Granger School for Smarty Pantsing. ~ Kate Canterbary,
1375:The lessons one learns at school are not always the ones the school thinks it's teaching. ~ Salman Rushdie,
1376:The lessons one learns at school are not always the ones the school thinks it’s teaching. ~ Salman Rushdie,
1377:Too many Christians are fighting graduate school sins with a grammar school knowledge of God. ~ John Piper,
1378:What They Should Teach in School Only two things: 1. Solve interesting problems 2. Lead SOLVE ~ Seth Godin,
1379:When I think back on all the crap I learned in high school; It's a wonder I can think at all. ~ Paul Simon,
1380:When I went to school, they asked me what I wanted to be when I grew up. I wrote down happy. ~ John Lennon,
1381:Wrestling school was probably one of the hardest things I've ever done. It just killed me. ~ Stacy Keibler,
1382:A girl fresh from a boarding school may perhaps be a virgin but no! she is never chaste. ~ Honore de Balzac,
1383:Akron, Ohio, is my home. I will always be here. I'm still working out at my old high school. ~ LeBron James,
1384:All three had been TAUGHT French at school. How deeply they now wished that they had LEARNED it! ~ E Nesbit,
1385:Children are sent to school to be civilized, to learn to be part of the social enterprise. ~ Robert Fulghum,
1386:Due to financial reasons, I dropped out of school after eight years of formal schooling. ~ Philip Emeagwali,
1387:Enjoy the little fun things - like taking your kids to school - before they're all grown up. ~ Will Ferrell,
1388:Ever since grammar school, I knew I wanted to be famous - I always wanted to be a singer. ~ Jennifer Hudson,
1389:Funny way to get to a wizards’ school, the train. Magic carpets all got punctures, have they? ~ J K Rowling,
1390:Going from college to being on national TV almost fresh outta school, it happened really fast. ~ Terrence J,
1391:Going to dancing school, or being in a play, is a very familial feeling. You're around friends. ~ Teri Garr,
1392:He will only be gone from the school when none here are loyal to him,” said Harry, smiling in ~ J K Rowling,
1393:I can pick a lock. How do you think I got into my parents' liquor cabinet in middle school? ~ Richelle Mead,
1394:I don't care how much you eat, Ender, self-cannibalism won't get you out of this school. ~ Orson Scott Card,
1395:I don't think I would have become President if it were not for my school music program. ~ William J Clinton,
1396:I gave up on everything in my life, including escaping my misery through my school-work. Upon ~ Dave Pelzer,
1397:I got problems at home, I got problems at school, I got problems walkin down the street. ~ George Pelecanos,
1398:I guess their mission in life was to keep school teachers reminded that earth isn't their home. ~ Anonymous,
1399:I have a lot of memories of Falls Church. I went to grade school in Madison Elementary School. ~ Jim Fowler,
1400:I loved my boarding school, but I didn't know what I wanted to do. I didn't have a career. ~ Lilly Pulitzer,
1401:I moved in fourth grade in the middle of the school year, and I was the new kid in school. ~ Michael Steger,
1402:I moved out to L.A. when I was 17, dropped out of high school, and pursued a career in music. ~ Skylar Grey,
1403:I'm rather kind of old school, thinking that when an artist does his work it's no longer his. ~ David Bowie,
1404:In high school, when I played football I got no respect. I shared a locker with a mop. ~ Rodney Dangerfield,
1405:I quit school and it's not because I'm lazy. I'm just not the social type and campus life is crazy. ~ Drake,
1406:I really focused on three things in high school - my company, basketball and my school work. ~ Ben Casnocha,
1407:I started acting when I was in high school, started writing when I got to New York in 1975. ~ Eric Bogosian,
1408:I still love old-school hip-hop, but there hasn't been a lot that I've taken from the new stuff. ~ Kid Rock,
1409:It's a mistake to think that once you're done with school you need never learn anything new. ~ Sophia Loren,
1410:It's easier to floss with barbed wire than admit you like someone in middle school. ~ Laurie Halse Anderson,
1411:It's frightening, the way life speeds up. When you're at school, time can't go fast enough. ~ Bruce Forsyth,
1412:I've been in dance schools since I was four. I went to the Brit school. I did adverts and plays. ~ Jessie J,
1413:I watch old school film so that I can learn so much that I just sort of miss all the new stuff. ~ Mike Epps,
1414:Making friends with other writers you respect is reason enough to go to graduate school. You ~ Ann Patchett,
1415:May we now all rise and sing the eternal school hymn: "Attack. Attack. Attack Attack Attack!" ~ Danny Baker,
1416:sarcastic. It was a crack at him being old school and set in his ways. The Metro was new ~ Michael Connelly,
1417:School takes 13 years, because that is how long it takes to break a child's spirit. ~ Martin Luther King Jr,
1418:Sudbury Valley School. Take a look at this independent school in Framingham, Massachusetts, ~ Daniel H Pink,
1419:That's why school was invented - to give your parents some peace and quiet during the day. ~ Michael Chabon,
1420:The lines marking a penalty area are a disgrace to the playing fields of a public school. ~ Christopher Fry,
1421:The most important day of a person's education is the first day of school, not Graduation Day. ~ Harry Wong,
1422:The University of Miami is not a campus with visible school spirit, just visible tan lines. ~ Lisa Birnbach,
1423:This earth is higher than all the heavens; this is the greatest school in the universe. ~ Swami Vivekananda,
1424:When I left school I was full of angst, like any teenager, and I channeled it all into comedy. ~ Matt Lucas,
1425:Yale Law School was like nerd Hollywood, and I never stopped feeling like an awestruck tourist. ~ J D Vance,
1426:You won't find another Chaplin, you won't find another Keaton, because the school is closed. ~ Jacques Tati,
1427:All my early school reports from the age of 5 were 'Daniel must learn not to distract others.' ~ Dan Stevens,
1428:By the time I had finished my studies at St. Paul's School, I knew I wanted to be an actor. ~ Alexis Denisof,
1429:He’s the hottest guy in school. I’ve fancied him for ages. I can’t wait to go out with him. ~ Tabitha Suzuma,
1430:High school football in Detroit was not easy at all. There were talented players everywhere. ~ Antonio Gates,
1431:I always felt like an outcast at school. I had good friends, but none that I truly related to. ~ Amber Heard,
1432:I didn't have a very starry school career, I was medium to above average, nothing special. ~ Richard Dawkins,
1433:I do not belong to any school, I simply want to do something that is personal to my self. ~ Edouard Vuillard,
1434:If Everybody In The World Dropped Out Of School We Would Have A Much More Intelligent Society. ~ Jaden Smith,
1435:I had grown up and gone to high school in New York, so I wanted to get out of the east coast. ~ Tod Machover,
1436:I just finished reading the Koran, and there's nothing in there I didn't hear in Sunday school. ~ Tom Clancy,
1437:In high school, American history had been a happy story; now Chihani told them the sad one. ~ Stephen Dobyns,
1438:It is easier to floss with barbed wire than admit you like someone in middle school. ~ Laurie Halse Anderson,
1439:It's the Marilyn Monroe school of medicine where enough of any drug will cure any disease. ~ Chuck Palahniuk,
1440:I've always been interested in archaeology, I guess ever since junior high or high school. ~ Michelle Stuart,
1441:I was brought up a Catholic and I was quite fervent, because I was sent to a convent school. ~ Marina Warner,
1442:I was the fastest typist in my school, and I had an obsession with spelling and memorizing. ~ Shelley Hennig,
1443:I was very involved with school by the time I was 15 and wasn't working much as a model ~ Rachael Leigh Cook,
1444:I went to four different proms in high school. I was addicted to the whole ballroom thing. ~ Amanda Seyfried,
1445:I would always be the kid that got in trouble in school, that's for sure, for joking around. ~ Matthew Perry,
1446:I wrote things for the school's newspaper, and - like all teenagers - I dabbled in poetry. ~ Stephen Colbert,
1447:Just because school’s boring so much of the time, that doesn’t mean kids don’t want to learn. ~ John Marsden,
1448:Kids drop out of school mostly because school is boring and not particularly relevant. ~ Nicholas Negroponte,
1449:Know that there are no other forms apart from these five in the School of the Two Swords. ~ Miyamoto Musashi,
1450:Middle school is for being like everyone else; middle age is for being like yourself. (430) ~ Victoria Moran,
1451:Mike's emotion took him back to the phraseology of school days.
'You are an ass! ~ P G Wodehouse,
1452:My hobby more and more is likely to be common school education, or universal education. ~ Rutherford B Hayes,
1453:School is so overwhelming - you can get lost in the idea that yes, you are going to be alone. ~ Tobias Segal,
1454:Second-grader brings gun to school. Jesus, what ever happened to just sticking out your tongue? ~ Tim Dorsey,
1455:She got on with her education. In her opinion, school kept on trying to interfere with it. ~ Terry Pratchett,
1456:She lights up the way I’ve seen girls at school do, sighting their crushes across crowded rooms. ~ Anonymous,
1457:Simply stated, earth is a school-a divine educational process custom-fit to each of us. ~ Richard Paul Evans,
1458:Sunday school: A prison in which children do penance for the evil conscience of their parents. ~ H L Mencken,
1459:That's the public-school system all over. They may kick you out, but they never let you down. ~ Evelyn Waugh,
1460:The school is the last expenditure upon which America should be willing to economize. ~ Franklin D Roosevelt,
1461:They smoked and drank as if they were already defeated, hardened, and long out of art school. ~ Naima Coster,
1462:We class schools into four grades: leading school, first-rate school, good school and school. ~ Evelyn Waugh,
1463:We emigrated to South Africa and later to Canada so I went to school in several places. ~ J Philippe Rushton,
1464:Well, I figure if you're gonna screw things up by skipping school, the day better be worth it. ~ Katie Klein,
1465:When I was at school you got an overall general education, on many things, even just basic facts. ~ Jo Brand,
1466:With all the classes they offer at school, how come they don't have one for common sense? ~ Gabriel Iglesias,
1467:Yeah,” he said. “And I don’t know how, but kids at school know about it, too. Someone’s horny ~ Blake Pierce,
1468:You're the most open girl in our whole school."
"I don't think she meant that in a good way. ~ Gwen Hayes,
1469:You should have seen me in my Catholic school girl skirt with my knees knocking together. ~ Jodi Lyn O Keefe,
1470:And so for a couple of years my life was divided between my music and my school books. ~ James Weldon Johnson,
1471:Anger is, in the Stoic analysis, caused by the violent collision of hope and reality. We ~ The School of Life,
1472:Arleen saw school as a higher-order need, something to worry about after she found a house. ~ Matthew Desmond,
1473:A school without grades must have been concocted by someone who was drunk on non-alcoholic wine. ~ Karl Kraus,
1474:Don’t skip school,” Sharp cautioned. “The monsters love the girls that color outside the lines. ~ Mary Burton,
1475:Going to school is an everyday process; it isn't something we accomplish and are all done with. ~ Bruce Vento,
1476:Have you noticed that the cleverest people at school are often not the ones who succeed in life? ~ Paul Arden,
1477:He laughed. “You’re actually kind of cute. You should totally wear that your first day of school. ~ C L Stone,
1478:He’s a guy who really hated school,” said Bannon. “And he’s not going to start liking it now. ~ Michael Wolff,
1479:Hollywood, it's just like high school. Whoever is pretty and popular, everyone wants to be with. ~ Tucker Max,
1480:I got to the point where I was sick of fashion again, like I was at the end of high school. ~ Stephen Sprouse,
1481:I hated school because I liked to daydream and the system tried to stop me from that. ~ Nassim Nicholas Taleb,
1482:I never really acted at school. It was doing small parts on TV that really got me started. ~ Freddie Highmore,
1483:In school, I was the quietest girl ever! I had a lot of trouble in school. Kids were mean to me. ~ Cher Lloyd,
1484:In the autumn of 1970 I had a job singing in the school system, playing my guitar in classrooms. ~ Don McLean,
1485:I spent a lot of time not in school, so I didn't have deep relationships with kids my own age. ~ Jodie Foster,
1486:I think the fact that we allow guns in our country is the main problem with school shootings. ~ Josh Hartnett,
1487:I was a kid who got picked on in school and got beat up by popular, athletic soccer-type people. ~ Fred Durst,
1488:I was always the guy getting kicked out of my classes at school for having an attitude problem. ~ Chevy Chase,
1489:I was in high school, trying to get out of high school. The only thing slowing me up was grades. ~ Levon Helm,
1490:I was so shy at school that I hardly ever talked, so everybody thought I was kind of a hermit. ~ Kim Basinger,
1491:I went to high school in the 1970s and was a real daydreamer and not the best student. ~ John Benjamin Hickey,
1492:Making movies is just as much of a game. They say Hollywood is like high school with money. ~ Kristen Stewart,
1493:My cousin is gay, in school while other kids were dissecting frog, he was opening flies. ~ Rodney Dangerfield,
1494:Oh teacher, I need you like a little child, you got something in you to drive a school boy wild. ~ Elton John,
1495:So the ethic I was taught in school resulted in the path I chose in my life following school. ~ Kevin Mitnick,
1496:Thank goodness I was never sent to school; it would have rubbed off some of the originality. ~ Beatrix Potter,
1497:The majority of U.S. high school students don't know within 50 years when the Civil War occurred. ~ Jim Leach,
1498:When Anna went to school, English sounded to her like pebbles dropping into shallow water. ~ Patricia Polacco,
1499:As a middle school student in Moscow, Russia, Eugene Koonin read the work of pioneering scientists ~ Anonymous,
1500:A segregated school system produces children who, when they graduate, they do with crippled minds. ~ Malcolm X,

IN CHAPTERS [300/728]

  253 Integral Yoga
  130 Poetry
   54 Yoga
   48 Occultism
   30 Christianity
   29 Philosophy
   27 Mysticism
   25 Fiction
   21 Psychology
   13 Education
   6 Philsophy
   6 Hinduism
   5 Cybernetics
   4 Science
   4 Integral Theory
   3 Sufism
   3 Buddhism
   3 Baha i Faith
   2 Theosophy
   2 Mythology
   1 Alchemy

  141 The Mother
   98 Sri Aurobindo
   87 Satprem
   62 Nolini Kanta Gupta
   43 Sri Ramakrishna
   41 William Wordsworth
   32 Aleister Crowley
   23 H P Lovecraft
   22 William Butler Yeats
   19 Walt Whitman
   17 Carl Jung
   16 Saint Augustine of Hippo
   12 A B Purani
   10 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
   9 Robert Browning
   8 Plato
   6 Swami Krishnananda
   6 Rudolf Steiner
   6 Ralph Waldo Emerson
   6 Nirodbaran
   6 Friedrich Nietzsche
   6 Aldous Huxley
   5 Swami Vivekananda
   5 Rabindranath Tagore
   5 Norbert Wiener
   5 Henry David Thoreau
   5 George Van Vrekhem
   4 Thubten Chodron
   4 Plotinus
   4 Percy Bysshe Shelley
   4 Jorge Luis Borges
   4 Jordan Peterson
   4 John Keats
   4 James George Frazer
   3 Vyasa
   3 Sri Ramana Maharshi
   3 Li Bai
   3 Bokar Rinpoche
   3 Baha u llah
   3 Al-Ghazali
   2 Saint John of Climacus
   2 Ovid
   2 Mahendranath Gupta
   2 Jalaluddin Rumi
   2 Friedrich Schiller
   2 Franz Bardon
   2 Edgar Allan Poe

   42 The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna
   41 Wordsworth - Poems
   24 Magick Without Tears
   23 Lovecraft - Poems
   22 Yeats - Poems
   18 Whitman - Poems
   16 The Synthesis Of Yoga
   13 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 07
   12 On Education
   12 Evening Talks With Sri Aurobindo
   12 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03
   11 Questions And Answers 1957-1958
   11 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 04
   11 City of God
   11 Agenda Vol 08
   10 Questions And Answers 1953
   9 Liber ABA
   9 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01
   9 Browning - Poems
   9 Agenda Vol 13
   8 The Practice of Psycho therapy
   8 Talks
   8 Questions And Answers 1950-1951
   8 Letters On Yoga II
   8 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02
   7 The Life Divine
   7 Savitri
   7 Questions And Answers 1954
   7 Agenda Vol 12
   7 Agenda Vol 02
   7 Agenda Vol 01
   6 Twelve Years With Sri Aurobindo
   6 The Study and Practice of Yoga
   6 The Secret Doctrine
   6 The Perennial Philosophy
   6 The Confessions of Saint Augustine
   6 The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious
   6 Questions And Answers 1956
   6 Essays In Philosophy And Yoga
   6 Emerson - Poems
   6 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 05
   6 Agenda Vol 10
   6 Agenda Vol 09
   6 Agenda Vol 07
   6 Agenda Vol 04
   5 Words Of Long Ago
   5 Walden
   5 Twilight of the Idols
   5 The Human Cycle
   5 Tagore - Poems
   5 Preparing for the Miraculous
   5 On the Way to Supermanhood
   5 Essays On The Gita
   5 Cybernetics
   5 Agenda Vol 05
   4 Vedic and Philological Studies
   4 The Phenomenon of Man
   4 The Golden Bough
   4 The Future of Man
   4 The Blue Cliff Records
   4 The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
   4 Sri Aurobindo or the Adventure of Consciousness
   4 Shelley - Poems
   4 On Thoughts And Aphorisms
   4 Maps of Meaning
   4 Letters On Yoga I
   4 Keats - Poems
   4 How to Free Your Mind - Tara the Liberator
   4 Essays Divine And Human
   4 Agenda Vol 11
   4 A Garden of Pomegranates - An Outline of the Qabalah
   3 Vishnu Purana
   3 The Integral Yoga
   3 The Alchemy of Happiness
   3 Tara - The Feminine Divine
   3 Record of Yoga
   3 Raja-Yoga
   3 Questions And Answers 1955
   3 Plotinus - Complete Works Vol 03
   3 Mysterium Coniunctionis
   3 Li Bai - Poems
   3 Letters On Yoga IV
   3 Isha Upanishad
   3 Collected Poems
   3 Agenda Vol 03
   2 The Secret Of The Veda
   2 Theosophy
   2 The Ladder of Divine Ascent
   2 The Essentials of Education
   2 The Book of Certitude
   2 Schiller - Poems
   2 Rumi - Poems
   2 Poe - Poems
   2 Metamorphoses
   2 Letters On Poetry And Art
   2 Labyrinths
   2 Knowledge of the Higher Worlds
   2 Initiation Into Hermetics
   2 Hymn of the Universe
   2 Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 06
   2 Beating the Cloth Drum Letters of Zen Master Hakuin
   2 Advanced Dungeons and Dragons 2E

0.00 - INTRODUCTION, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
   Gadadhar grew up into a healthy and restless boy, full of fun and sweet mischief. He was intelligent and precocious and endowed with a prodigious memory. On his father's lap he learnt by heart the names of his ancestors and the hymns to the gods and goddesses, and at the village School he was taught to read and write. But his greatest delight was to listen to recitations of stories from Hindu mythology and the epics. These he would afterwards recount from memory, to the great joy of the villagers. Painting he enjoyed; the art of moulding images of the gods and goddesses he learnt from the potters. But arithmetic was his great aversion.
   At the age of six or seven Gadadhar had his first experience of spiritual ecstasy. One day in June or July, when he was walking along a narrow path between paddy-fields, eating the puffed rice that he carried in a basket, he looked up at the sky and saw a beautiful, dark thunder-cloud. As it spread, rapidly enveloping the whole sky, a flight of snow-white cranes passed in front of it. The beauty of the contrast overwhelmed the boy. He fell to the ground, unconscious, and the puffed rice went in all directions. Some villagers found him and carried him home in their arms. Gadadhar said later that in that state he had experienced an indescribable joy.
   Gadadhar himself now organized a dramatic company with his young friends. The stage was set in the mango orchard. The themes were selected from the stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Gadadhar knew by heart almost all the roles, having heard them from professional actors. His favourite theme was the Vrindavan episode of Krishna's life, depicting those exquisite love-stories of Krishna and the milkmaids and the cowherd boys. Gadadhar would play the parts of Radha or Krishna and would often lose himself in the character he was portraying. His natural feminine grace heightened the dramatic effect. The mango orchard would ring with the loud kirtan of the boys. Lost in song and merry-making, Gadadhar became indifferent to the routine of School.
   In 1849 Ramkumar, the eldest son, went to Calcutta to improve the financial condition of the family.
   The first effect of the draught on the educated Hindus was a complete effacement from their minds of the time-honoured beliefs and traditions of Hindu society. They came to believe that there was no transcendental Truth; The world perceived by the senses was all that existed. God and religion were illusions of the untutored mind. True knowledge could be derived only from the analysis of nature. So atheism and agnosticism became the fashion of the day. The youth of India, taught in English Schools, took malicious delight in openly breaking the customs and traditions of their society. They would do away with the caste-system and remove the discriminatory laws about food. Social reform, the spread of secular education, widow remarriage, abolition of early marriage — they considered these the panacea for the degenerate condition of Hindu society.
   The Christian missionaries gave the finishing touch to the process of transformation. They ridiculed as relics of a barbarous age the images and rituals of the Hindu religion. They tried to persuade India that the teachings of her saints and seers were the cause of her downfall, that her Vedas, Puranas, and other scriptures were filled with superstition. Christianity, they maintained, had given the white races position and power in this world and assurance of happiness in the next; therefore Christianity was the best of all religions. Many intelligent young Hindus became converted. The man in the street was confused. The majority of the educated grew materialistic in their mental outlook. Everyone living near Calcutta or the other strong-holds of Western culture, even those who attempted to cling to the orthodox traditions of Hindu society, became infected by the new uncertainties and the new beliefs.
   By far the ablest leader of the Brahmo movement was Keshab Chandra Sen (1838-1884). Unlike Raja Rammohan Roy and Devendranath Tagore, Keshab was born of a middle-class Bengali family and had been brought up in an English School. He did not know Sanskrit and very soon broke away from the popular Hindu religion. Even at an early age he came under the spell of Christ and professed to have experienced the special favour of John the Baptist, Christ, and St. Paul. When he strove to introduce Christ to the Brahmo Samaj, a rupture became inevitable with Devendranath. In 1868 Keshab broke with the older leader and founded the Brahmo Samaj of India, Devendra retaining leadership of the first Brahmo Samaj, now called the Adi Samaj.
   Keshab possessed a complex nature. When passing through a great moral crisis, he spent much of his time in solitude and felt that he heard the voice of God, When a devotional form of worship was introduced into the Brahmo Samaj, he spent hours in singing kirtan with his followers. He visited England land in 1870 and impressed the English people with his musical voice, his simple English, and his spiritual fervour. He was entertained by Queen Victoria. Returning to India, he founded centres of the Brahmo Samaj in various parts of the country. Not unlike a professor of comparative religion in a European university, he began to discover, about the time of his first contact with Sri Ramakrishna, the harmony of religions. He became sympathetic toward the Hindu gods and goddesses, explaining them in a liberal fashion. Further, he believed that he was called by God to dictate to the world God's newly revealed law, the New Dispensation, the Navavidhan.
   Mahendranath Gupta, better known as "M.", arrived at Dakshineswar in March 1882. He belonged to the Brahmo Samaj and was headmaster of the Vidyasagar High School at Syambazar, Calcutta. At the very first sight the Master recognized him as one of his "marked" disciples. Mahendra recorded in his diary Sri Ramakrishna's conversations with his devotees. These are the first directly recorded words, in the spiritual history of the world, of a man recognized as belonging in the class of Buddha and Christ. The present volume is a translation of this diary. Mahendra was instrumental, through his personal contacts, in spreading the Master's message among many young and aspiring souls.
   Two more young men, Sarada Prasanna and Tulasi, complete the small band of the Master's disciples later to embrace the life of the wandering monk. With the exception of the elder Gopal, all of them were in their teens or slightly over. They came from middle-class Bengali families, and most of them were students in School or college. Their parents and relatives had envisaged for them bright worldly careers. They came to Sri Ramakrishna with pure bodies, vigorous minds, and uncontaminated souls. All were born with unusual spiritual attributes. Sri Ramakrishna accepted them, even at first sight, as his children, relatives, friends, and companions. His magic touch unfolded them. And later each according to his measure reflected the life of the Master, becoming a torch-bearer of his message across land and sea.

0.00 - THE GOSPEL PREFACE, #The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, #Sri Ramakrishna, #Hinduism
  Sri Mahendra Nath Gupta, familiary known to the readers of the Gospel by his pen name M., and to the devotees as Master Mahashay, was born on the 14th of July, 1854 as the son of Madhusudan Gupta, an officer of the Calcutta High Court, and his wife, Swarnamayi Devi. He had a brilliant scholastic career at Hare School and the Presidency College at Calcutta. The range of his studies included the best that both occidental and oriental learning had to offer. English literature, history, economics, western philosophy and law on the one hand, and Sanskrit literature and grammar, Darsanas, Puranas, Smritis, Jainism, Buddhism, astrology and Ayurveda on the other were the subjects in which he attained considerable proficiency.
  He was an educationist all his life both in a spiritual and in a secular sense. After he passed out of College, he took up work as headmaster in a number of Schools in succession Narail High School, City School, Ripon College School, Metropolitan School, Aryan School, Oriental School, Oriental Seminary and Model School. The causes of his migration from School to School were that he could not get on with some of the managements on grounds of principles and that often his spiritual mood drew him away to places of pilgrimage for long periods. He worked with some of the most noted public men of the time like Iswar Chandra Vidysgar and Surendranath Banerjee. The latter appointed him as a professor in the City and Ripon Colleges where he taught subjects like English, philosophy, history and economics. In his later days he took over the Morton School, and he spent his time in the staircase room of the third floor of it, administering the School and preaching the message of the Master. He was much respected in educational circles where he was usually referred to as Rector Mahashay. A teacher who had worked under him writes thus in warm appreciation of his teaching methods: "Only when I worked with him in School could I appreciate what a great educationist he was. He would come down to the level of his students when teaching, though he himself was so learned, so talented. Ordinarily teachers confine their instruction to what is given in books without much thought as to whether the student can accept it or not. But M., would first of all gauge how much the student could take in and by what means. He would employ aids to teaching like maps, pictures and diagrams, so that his students could learn by seeing. Thirty years ago (from 1953) when the question of imparting education through the medium of the mother tongue was being discussed, M. had already employed Bengali as the medium of instruction in the Morton School." (M The Apostle and the Evangelist by Swami Nityatmananda Part I. P. 15.)
  Imparting secular education was, however, only his profession ; his main concern was with the spiritual regeneration of man a calling for which Destiny seems to have chosen him. From his childhood he was deeply pious, and he used to be moved very much by Sdhus, temples and Durga Puja celebrations. The piety and eloquence of the great Brahmo leader of the times, Keshab Chander Sen, elicited a powerful response from the impressionable mind of Mahendra Nath, as it did in the case of many an idealistic young man of Calcutta, and prepared him to receive the great Light that was to dawn on him with the coming of Sri Ramakrishna into his life.
  Sri Ramakrishna was a teacher for both the Orders of mankind, Sannysins and householders. His own life offered an ideal example for both, and he left behind disciples who followed the highest traditions he had set in respect of both these ways of life. M., along with Nag Mahashay, exemplified how a householder can rise to the highest level of sagehood. M. was married to Nikunja Devi, a distant relative of Keshab Chander Sen, even when he was reading at College, and he had four children, two sons and two daughters. The responsibility of the family, no doubt, made him dependent on his professional income, but the great devotee that he was, he never compromised with ideals and principles for this reason. Once when he was working as the headmaster in a School managed by the great Vidysgar, the results of the School at the public examination happened to be rather poor, and Vidysgar attri buted it to M's preoccupation with the Master and his consequent failure to attend adequately to the School work. M. at once resigned his post without any thought of the morrow. Within a fortnight the family was in poverty, and M. was one day pacing up and down the verandah of his house, musing how he would feed his children the next day. Just then a man came with a letter addressed to 'Mahendra Babu', and on opening it, M. found that it was a letter from his friend Sri Surendra Nath Banerjee, asking whether he would like to take up a professorship in the Ripon College. In this way three or four times he gave up the job that gave him the wherewithal to support the family, either for upholding principles or for practising spiritual Sadhanas in holy places, without any consideration of the possible dire worldly consequences; but he was always able to get over these difficulties somehow, and the interests of his family never suffered. In spite of his disregard for worldly goods, he was, towards the latter part of his life, in a fairly flourishing condition as the proprietor of the Morton School which he developed into a noted educational institution in the city. The Lord has said in the Bhagavad Git that in the case of those who think of nothing except Him, He Himself would take up all their material and spiritual responsibilities. M. was an example of the truth of the Lord's promise.
  Though his children received proper attention from him, his real family, both during the Master's lifetime and after, consisted of saints, devotees, Sannysins and spiritual aspirants. His life exemplifies the Master's teaching that an ideal householder must be like a good maidservant of a family, loving and caring properly for the children of the house, but knowing always that her real home and children are elsewhere. During the Master's lifetime he spent all his Sundays and other holidays with him and his devotees, and besides listening to the holy talks and devotional music, practised meditation both on the Personal and the Impersonal aspects of God under the direct guidance of the Master. In the pages of the Gospel the reader gets a picture of M.'s spiritual relationship with the Master how from a hazy belief in the Impersonal God of the Brahmos, he was step by step brought to accept both Personality and Impersonality as the two aspects of the same Non-dual Being, how he was convinced of the manifestation of that Being as Gods, Goddesses and as Incarnations, and how he was established in a life that was both of a Jnni and of a Bhakta. This Jnni-Bhakta outlook and way of living became so dominant a feature of his life that Swami Raghavananda, who was very closely associated with him during his last six years, remarks: "Among those who lived with M. in latter days, some felt that he always lived in this constant and conscious union with God even with open eyes (i.e., even in waking consciousness)." (Swami Raghavananda's article on M. in Prabuddha Bharata vol. XXXVII. P. 442.)
  After the Master's demise, M. went on pilgrimage several times. He visited Banras, Vrindvan, Ayodhy and other places. At Banras he visited the famous Trailinga Swmi and fed him with sweets, and he had long conversations with Swami Bhaskarananda, one of the noted saintly and scholarly Sannysins of the time. In 1912 he went with the Holy Mother to Banras, and spent about a year in the company of Sannysins at Banras, Vrindvan, Hardwar, Hrishikesh and Swargashram. But he returned to Calcutta, as that city offered him the unique opportunity of associating himself with the places hallowed by the Master in his lifetime. Afterwards he does not seem to have gone to any far-off place, but stayed on in his room in the Morton School carrying on his spiritual ministry, speaking on the Master and his teachings to the large number of people who flocked to him after having read his famous Kathmrita known to English readers as The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna.
  This brings us to the circumstances that led to the writing and publication of this monumental work, which has made M. one of the immortals in hagiographic literature.
  Even as a boy of about thirteen, while he was a student in the 3rd class of the Hare School, he was in the habit of keeping a diary. "Today on rising," he wrote in his diary, "I greeted my father and mother, prostrating on the ground before them" (Swami Nityatmananda's 'M The Apostle and the Evangelist' Part I. P 29.) At another place he wrote, "Today, while on my way to School, I visited, as usual, the temples of Kli, the Mother at Tharitharia, and of Mother Sitala, and paid my obeisance to them." About twenty-five years after, when he met the Great Master in the spring of 1882, it was the same instinct of a born diary-writer that made him begin his book, 'unique in the literature of hagiography', with the memorable words: "When hearing the name of Hari or Rma once, you shed tears and your hair stands on end, then you may know for certain that you do not have to perform devotions such as Sandhya any more."
  In addition to this instinct for diary-keeping, M. had great endowments contri buting to success in this line. Writes Swami Nityatmananda who lived in close association with M., in his book entitled M - The Apostle and Evangelist: "M.'s prodigious memory combined with his extraordinary power of imagination completely annihilated the distance of time and place for him. Even after the lapse of half a century he could always visualise vividly, scenes from the life of Sri Ramakrishna. Superb too was his power to portray pictures by words."
  Besides the prompting of his inherent instinct, the main inducement for M. to keep this diary of his experiences at Dakshineswar was his desire to provide himself with a means for living in holy company at all times. Being a School teacher, he could be with the Master only on Sundays and other holidays, and it was on his diary that he depended for 'holy company' on other days. The devotional scriptures like the Bhagavata say that holy company is the first and most important means for the generation and growth of devotion. For, in such company man could hear talks on spiritual matters and listen to the glorification of Divine attri butes, charged with the fervour and conviction emanating from the hearts of great lovers of God. Such company is therefore the one certain means through which Sraddha (Faith), Rati (attachment to God) and Bhakti (loving devotion) are generated. The diary of his visits to Dakshineswar provided M. with material for re-living, through reading and contemplation, the holy company he had had earlier, even on days when he was not able to visit Dakshineswar. The wealth of details and the vivid description of men and things in the midst of which the sublime conversations are set, provide excellent material to re-live those experiences for any one with imaginative powers. It was observed by M.'s disciples and admirers that in later life also whenever he was free or alone, he would be pouring over his diary, transporting himself on the wings of imagination to the glorious days he spent at the feet of the Master.
  During the Master's lifetime M. does not seem to have revealed the contents of his diary to any one. There is an unconfirmed tradition that when the Master saw him taking notes, he expressed apprehension at the possibility of his utilising these to publicise him like Keshab Sen; for the Great Master was so full of the spirit of renunciation and humility that he disliked being lionised. It must be for this reason that no one knew about this precious diary of M. for a decade until he brought out selections from it as a pamphlet in English in 1897 with the Holy Mother's blessings and permission. The Holy Mother, being very much pleased to hear parts of the diary read to her in Bengali, wrote to M.: "When I heard the Kathmrita, (Bengali name of the book) I felt as if it was he, the Master, who was saying all that." ( Ibid Part I. P 37.)
  M. was, in every respect, a true missionary of Sri Ramakrishna right from his first acquaintance with him in 1882. As a School teacher, it was a practice with him to direct to the Master such of his students as had a true spiritual disposition. Though himself prohibited by the Master to take to monastic life, he encouraged all spiritually inclined young men he came across in his later life to join the monastic Order. Swami Vijnanananda, a direct Sannysin disciple of the Master and a President of the Ramakrishna Order, once remarked to M.: "By enquiry, I have come to the conclusion that eighty percent and more of the Sannysins have embraced the monastic life after reading the Kathmrita (Bengali name of the book) and coming in contact with you." ( M
  The Apostle and the Evangelist by Swami Nityatmananda Part I, P 37.)
  In 1905 he retired from the active life of a Professor and devoted his remaining twenty-seven years exclusively to the preaching of the life and message of the Great Master. He bought the Morton Institution from its original proprietors and shifted it to a commodious four-storeyed house at 50 Amherst Street, where it flourished under his management as one of the most efficient educational institutions in Calcutta. He generally occupied a staircase room at the top of it, cooking his own meal which consisted only of milk and rice without variation, and attended to all his personal needs himself. His dress also was the simplest possible. It was his conviction that limitation of personal wants to the minimum is an important aid to holy living. About one hour in the morning he would spend in inspecting the classes of the School, and then retire to his staircase room to pour over his diary and live in the divine atmosphere of the earthly days of the Great Master, unless devotees and admirers had already gathered in his room seeking his holy company.
  In appearance, M. looked a Vedic Rishi. Tall and stately in bearing, he had a strong and well-built body, an unusually broad chest, high forehead and arms extending to the knees. His complexion was fair and his prominent eyes were always tinged with the expression of the divine love that filled his heart. Adorned with a silvery beard that flowed luxuriantly down his chest, and a shining face radiating the serenity and gravity of holiness, M. was as imposing and majestic as he was handsome and engaging in appearance. Humorous, sweet-tongued and eloquent when situations required, this great Maharishi of our age lived only to sing the glory of Sri Ramakrishna day and night.

0.01 - Life and Yoga, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  HERE are two necessities of Nature's workings which seem always to intervene in the greater forms of human activity, whether these belong to our ordinary fields of movement or seek those exceptional spheres and fulfilments which appear to us high and divine. Every such form tends towards a harmonised complexity and totality which again breaks apart into various channels of special effort and tendency, only to unite once more in a larger and more puissant synthesis. Secondly, development into forms is an imperative rule of effective manifestation; yet all truth and practice too strictly formulated becomes old and loses much, if not all, of its virtue; it must be constantly renovated by fresh streams of the spirit revivifying the dead or dying vehicle and changing it, if it is to acquire a new life. To be perpetually reborn is the condition of a material immortality. We are in an age, full of the throes of travail, when all forms of thought and activity that have in themselves any strong power of utility or any secret virtue of persistence are being subjected to a supreme test and given their opportunity of rebirth. The world today presents the aspect of a huge cauldron of Medea in which all things are being cast, shredded into pieces, experimented on, combined and recombined either to perish and provide the scattered material of new forms or to emerge rejuvenated and changed for a fresh term of existence. Indian Yoga, in its essence a special action or formulation of certain great powers of Nature, itself specialised, divided and variously formulated, is potentially one of these dynamic elements of the future life of humanity. The child of immemorial ages, preserved by its vitality and truth into our modern times, it is now emerging from the secret Schools and ascetic retreats in which it had taken refuge and is seeking its place in the future sum of living human powers and utilities. But it has first to rediscover itself, bring to the surface
  The Conditions of the Synthesis

0.02 - The Three Steps of Nature, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  But in order that we may be wisely guided in our effort, we must know, first, the general principle and purpose underlying this separative impulse and, next, the particular utilities upon which the method of each School of Yoga is founded. For the general principle we must interrogate the universal workings of Nature herself, recognising in her no merely specious and illusive activity of a distorting Maya, but the cosmic energy and working of God Himself in His universal being formulating and inspired by a vast, an infinite and yet a minutely selective
  Wisdom, prajna prasr.ta puran. of the Upanishad, Wisdom that went forth from the Eternal since the beginning. For the particular utilities we must cast a penetrative eye on the different methods of Yoga and distinguish among the mass of their details the governing idea which they serve and the radical force which gives birth and energy to their processes of effectuation.

0.03 - The Threefold Life, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Mind finds fully its force and action only when it casts itself upon life and accepts equally its possibilities and its resistances as the means of a greater self-perfection. In the struggle with the difficulties of the material world the ethical development of the individual is firmly shaped and the great Schools of conduct are formed; by contact with the facts of life Art attains to vitality, Thought assures its abstractions, the generalisations of the philosopher base themselves on a stable foundation of science and experience.
  This mixing with life may, however, be pursued for the sake of the individual mind and with an entire indifference to the forms of the material existence or the uplifting of the race. This indifference is seen at its highest in the Epicurean discipline and is not entirely absent from the Stoic; and even altruism does the works of compassion more often for its own sake than for the sake of the world it helps. But this too is a limited fulfilment. The progressive mind is seen at its noblest when it strives to elevate the whole race to its own level whether by sowing broadcast the image of its own thought and fulfilment or by changing the material life of the race into fresh forms, religious, intellectual, social or political, intended to represent more nearly that ideal of truth, beauty, justice, righteousness with which the man's own soul is illumined. Failure in such a field matters little; for the mere attempt is dynamic and creative. The struggle of Mind to elevate life is the promise and condition of the conquest of life by that which is higher even than Mind.
  The Schools of Indian Yoga lent themselves to the compromise. Individual perfection or liberation was made the aim, seclusion of some kind from the ordinary activities the condition, the renunciation of life the culmination. The teacher gave his knowledge only to a small circle of disciples. Or if a wider movement was attempted, it was still the release of the individual soul that remained the aim. The pact with an immobile society was, for the most part, observed.
  The utility of the compromise in the then actual state of the world cannot be doubted. It secured in India a society which lent itself to the preservation and the worship of spirituality, a country apart in which as in a fortress the highest spiritual ideal could maintain itself in its most absolute purity unoverpowered by the siege of the forces around it. But it was a compromise, not an absolute victory. The material life lost the divine impulse to growth, the spiritual preserved by isolation its height and purity, but sacrificed its full power and serviceableness to the world. Therefore, in the divine Providence the country of the Yogins and the Sannyasins has been forced into a strict and imperative contact with the very element it had rejected, the element of the progressive Mind, so that it might recover what was now wanting to it.

0.04 - The Systems of Yoga, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  HESE relations between the different psychological divisions of the human being and these various utilities and objects of effort founded on them, such as we have seen them in our brief survey of the natural evolution, we shall find repeated in the fundamental principles and methods of the different Schools of Yoga. And if we seek to combine and harmonise their central practices and their predominant aims, we shall find that the basis provided by Nature is still our natural basis and the condition of their synthesis.
  In one respect Yoga exceeds the normal operation of cosmic
  For if, leaving aside the complexities of their particular processes, we fix our regard on the central principle of the chief Schools of Yoga still prevalent in India, we find that they arrange themselves in an ascending order which starts from the lowest rung of the ladder, the body, and ascends to the direct contact between the individual soul and the transcendent and universal
  Self. Hathayoga selects the body and the vital functionings as its instruments of perfection and realisation; its concern is with the gross body. Rajayoga selects the mental being in its different parts as its lever-power; it concentrates on the subtle body. The triple Path of Works, of Love and of Knowledge uses some part of the mental being, will, heart or intellect as a starting-point and seeks by its conversion to arrive at the liberating Truth,

0.05 - The Synthesis of the Systems, #The Synthesis Of Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Y THE very nature of the principal Yogic Schools, each covering in its operations a part of the complex human integer and attempting to bring out its highest possibilities, it will appear that a synthesis of all of them largely conceived and applied might well result in an integral Yoga. But they are so disparate in their tendencies, so highly specialised and elaborated in their forms, so long confirmed in the mutual opposition of their ideas and methods that we do not easily find how we can arrive at their right union.
  An undiscriminating combination in block would not be a synthesis, but a confusion. Nor would a successive practice of each of them in turn be easy in the short span of our human life and with our limited energies, to say nothing of the waste of labour implied in so cumbrous a process. Sometimes, indeed,
  Hathayoga and Rajayoga are thus successively practised. And in a recent unique example, in the life of Ramakrishna Paramhansa, we see a colossal spiritual capacity first driving straight to the divine realisation, taking, as it were, the kingdom of heaven by violence, and then seizing upon one Yogic method after another and extracting the substance out of it with an incredible rapidity, always to return to the heart of the whole matter, the realisation and possession of God by the power of love, by the extension of inborn spirituality into various experience and by the spontaneous play of an intuitive knowledge. Such an example cannot be generalised. Its object also was special and temporal, to exemplify in the great and decisive experience of a master-soul the truth, now most necessary to humanity, towards which a world long divided into jarring sects and Schools is with difficulty labouring, that all sects are forms and fragments of a single integral truth and all disciplines labour in their different ways towards one supreme experience. To know, be and possess
  The Conditions of the Synthesis
  Nature; but it is a Yoga apart, not a synthesis of other Schools.
  This system is the way of the Tantra. Owing to certain of its developments Tantra has fallen into discredit with those who are not Tantrics; and especially owing to the developments of its left-hand path, the Vama Marga, which not content with exceeding the duality of virtue and sin and instead of replacing them by spontaneous rightness of action seemed, sometimes, to make a method of self-indulgence, a method of unrestrained social immorality. Nevertheless, in its origin, Tantra was a great and puissant system founded upon ideas which were at least partially true. Even its twofold division into the right-hand and left-hand paths, Dakshina Marga and Vama Marga, started from a certain profound perception. In the ancient symbolic sense of the words Dakshina and Vama, it was the distinction between the way of Knowledge and the way of Ananda, - Nature in man liberating itself by right discrimination in power and practice of its own energies, elements and potentialities and Nature in man
  If, however, we leave aside, here also, the actual methods and practices and seek for the central principle, we find, first, that Tantra expressly differentiates itself from the Vedic methods of Yoga. In a sense, all the Schools we have hitherto examined are Vedantic in their principle; their force is in knowledge, their method is knowledge, though it is not always discernment by the intellect, but may be, instead, the knowledge of the heart expressed in love and faith or a knowledge in the will working out through action. In all of them the lord of the Yoga is the Purusha, the Conscious Soul that knows, observes, attracts, governs. But in Tantra it is rather Prakriti, the Nature-Soul, the Energy, the
  Will-in-Power executive in the universe. It was by learning and applying the intimate secrets of this Will-in-Power, its method, its Tantra, that the Tantric Yogin pursued the aims of his discipline, - mastery, perfection, liberation, beatitude. Instead of drawing back from manifested Nature and its difficulties, he confronted them, seized and conquered. But in the end, as is the general tendency of Prakriti, Tantric Yoga largely lost its principle in its machinery and became a thing of formulae and occult mechanism still powerful when rightly used but fallen from the clarity of their original intention.
  But in either case it is always through something in the lower that we must rise into the higher existence, and the Schools of
  Yoga each select their own point of departure or their own gate of escape. They specialise certain activities of the lower

01.02 - Natures Own Yoga, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   A Yoga of the Art of Life Sri Aurobindo and his School
   Other Authors Nolini Kanta Gupta Part OneNatures Own Yoga
   A Yoga of the Art of Life Sri Aurobindo and his School

01.03 - Sri Aurobindo and his School, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
  object:01.03 - Sri Aurobindo and his School
  author class:Nolini Kanta Gupta
   Other Authors Nolini Kanta Gupta Part OneSri Aurobindo and his School
   Sri Aurobindo and his School
   A considerable amount of vague misunderstanding and misapprehension seems to exist in the minds of a certain section of our people as to what Sri Aurobindo is doing in his retirement at Pondicherry. On the other hand, a very precise exposition, an exact formula of what he is not doing has been curiously furnished by a well-known patriot in his indictment of what he chooses to call the Pondicherry School of contemplation. But he has arrived at this formula by openly and fearlessly affirming what does not exist; for the things that Sri Aurobindo is accused of doing are just the things that he is not doing. In the first place, Sri Aurobindo is not doing peaceful contemplation; in the second place, he is not doing active propaganda either; in the third place, he is not doing prnyma or even dhyna in the ordinary sense of the word; and, lastly, he is not proclaiming or following the maxim that although action may be tolerated as good, his particular brand of Yoga is something higher and better.
   Evidently the eminent politician and his School of activism are labouring under a Himalayan confusion: when they speak of Sri Aurobindo, they really have in their mind some of the old Schools of spiritual discipline. But one of the marked aspects of Sri Aurobindo's teaching and practice has been precisely his insistence on putting aside the inert and life-shunning quietism, illusionism, asceticism and monasticism of a latter-day and decadent India. These ideals are perhaps as much obstacles in his way as in the way of the activistic School. Only Sri Aurobindo has not had the temerity to say that it is a weakness to seek refuge in contemplation or to suggest that a Buddha was a weakling or a Shankara a poltroon.
   This much as regards what Sri Aurobindo is not doing; let us now turn and try to understand what he is doing. The distinguished man of action speaks of conquering Nature and fighting her. Adopting this war-like imagery, we can affirm that Sri Aurobindo's work is just such a battle and conquest. But the question is, what is nature and what is the kind of conquest that is sought, how are we to fight and what are the required arms and implements? A good general should foresee all this, frame his plan of campaign accordingly and then only take the field. The above-mentioned leader proposes ceaseless and unselfish action as the way to fight and conquer Nature. He who speaks thus does not know and cannot mean what he says.
   And, properly speaking, it is not at all a School, least of all a mere School of thought, that is growing round Sri Aurobindo. It is rather the nucleus of a new life that is to come. Quite naturally it has almost insignificant proportions at present to the outward eye, for the work is still of the nature of experiment and trial in very restricted limits, something in the nature of what is done in a laboratory when a new power has been discovered, but has still to be perfectly formulated in its process. And it is quite a mistake to suppose that there is a vigorous propaganda carried on in its behalf or that there is a large demand for recruits. Only the few, who possess the call within and are impelled by the spirit of the future, have a chance of serving this high attempt and great realisation and standing among its first instruments and pioneer workers.

01.04 - Motives for Seeking the Divine, #The Integral Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Let us look on it as a sort of infants' School for the unready.
  But of course that is not the spiritual life, it is only a sort of elementary religious approach. For the spiritual life to give and not to demand is the rule. The sadhak however can ask for the

01.04 - Sri Aurobindos Gita, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Sri Aurobindo and his School Our Ideal
   Other Authors Nolini Kanta Gupta Part OneSri Aurobindos Gita
   The supreme secret of the Gita, rahasyam uttamam, has presented itself to diverse minds in diverse forms. All these however fall, roughly speaking, into two broad groups of which one may be termed the orthodox School and the other the modem School. The orthodox School as represented, for example, by Shankara or Sridhara, viewed the Gita in the light of the spiritual discipline more or less current in those ages, when the purpose of life was held out to be emancipation from life, whether through desireless work or knowledge or devotion or even a combination of the three. The Modern School, on the other hand, represented by Bankim in Bengal and more thoroughly developed and systematised in recent times by Tilak, is inspired by its own Time-Spirit and finds in the Gita a gospel of life-fulfilment. The older interpretation laid stress upon a spiritual and religious, which meant therefore in the end an other-worldly discipline; the newer interpretation seeks to dynamise the more or less quietistic spirituality which held the ground in India of later ages, to set a premium upon action, upon duty that is to be done in our workaday life, though with a spiritual intent and motive.
   This neo-spirituality which might claim its sanction and authority from the real old-world Indian disciplinesay, of Janaka and Yajnavalkyalabours, however, in reality, under the influence of European activism and ethicism. It was this which served as the immediate incentive to our spiritual revival and revaluation and its impress has not been thoroughly obliterated even in the best of our modern exponents. The bias of the vital urge and of the moral imperative is apparent enough in the modernist conception of a dynamic spirituality. Fundamentally the dynamism is made to reside in the lan of the ethical man,the spiritual element, as a consciousness of supreme unity in the Absolute (Brahman) or of love and delight in God, serving only as an atmosphere for the mortal activity.
   Sri Aurobindo and his School Our Ideal

01.05 - The Yoga of the King - The Yoga of the Spirits Freedom and Greatness, #Savitri, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  The infant soul in its small nursery School
  Mid objects meant for a lesson hardly learned

01.08 - Walter Hilton: The Scale of Perfection, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Indeed, it would be interesting to compare and contrast the Eastern and Western approach to Divine Love, the Christian and the Vaishnava, for example. Indian spirituality, whatever its outer form or credal formulation, has always a background of utter unity. This unity, again, is threefold or triune and is expressed in those great Upanishadic phrases,mahvkyas,(1) the transcendental unity: the One alone exists, there is nothing else than theOneekamevdvityam; (2) the cosmic unity: all existence is one, whatever exists is that One, thereare no separate existences:sarvam khalvidam brahma neha nnsti kincaa; (3) That One is I, you too are that One:so' ham, tattvamasi; this may be called the individual unity. As I have said, all spiritual experiences in India, of whatever School or line, take for granted or are fundamentally based upon this sense of absolute unity or identity. Schools of dualism or pluralism, who do not apparently admit in their tenets this extreme monism, are still permeated in many ways with that sense and in some form or other take cognizance of the truth of it. The Christian doctrine too says indeed, 'I and my Father in Heaven are one', but this is not identity, but union; besides, the human soul is not admitted into this identity, nor the world soul. The world, we have seen, according to the Christian discipline has to be altogether abandoned, negatived, as we go inward and upward towards our spiritual status reflecting the divine image in the divine company. It is a complete rejection, a cutting off and casting away of world and life. One extreme Vedantic path seems to follow a similar line, but there it is not really rejection, but a resolution, not the rejection of what is totally foreign and extraneous, but a resolution of the external into its inner and inmost substance, of the effect into its original cause. Brahman is in the world, Brahman is the world: the world has unrolled itself out of the Brahmansi, pravttiit has to be rolled back into its, cause and substance if it is to regain its pure nature (that is the process of nivitti). Likewise, the individual being in the world, "I", is the transcendent being itself and when it withdraws, it withdraws itself and the whole world with it and merges into the Absolute. Even the Maya of the Mayavadin, although it is viewed as something not inherent in Brahman but superimposed upon Brahman, still, has been accepted as a peculiar power of Brahman itself. The Christian doctrine keeps the individual being separate practically, as an associate or at the most as an image of God. The love for one's neighbour, charity, which the Christian discipline enjoins is one's love for one's kind, because of affinity of nature and quality: it does not dissolve the two into an integral unity and absolute identity, where we love because we are one, because we are the One. The highest culmination of love, the very basis of love, according to the Indian conception, is a transcendence of love, love trans-muted into Bliss. The Upanishad says, where one has become the utter unity, who loves whom? To explain further our point, we take two examples referred to in the book we are considering. The true Christian, it is said, loves the sinner too, he is permitted to dislike sin, for he has to reject it, but he must separate from sin the sinner and love him. Why? Because the sinner too can change and become his brother in spirit, one loves the sinner because there is the possibility of his changing and becoming a true Christian. It is why the orthodox Christian, even such an enlightened and holy person as this mediaeval Canon, considers the non-Christian, the non-baptised as impure and potentially and fundamentally sinners. That is also why the Church, the physical organisation, is worshipped as Christ's very body and outside the Church lies the pagan world which has neither religion nor true spirituality nor salvation. Of course, all this may be symbolic and it is symbolic in a sense. If Christianity is taken to mean true spirituality, and the Church is equated with the collective embodiment of that spirituality, all that is claimed on their behalf stands justified. But that is an ideal, a hypothetical standpoint and can hardly be borne out by facts. However, to come back to our subject, let us ow take the second example. Of Christ himself, it is said, he not only did not dislike or had any aversion for Judas, but that he positively loved the traitor with a true and sincere love. He knew that the man would betray him and even when he was betraying and had betrayed, the Son of Man continued to love him. It was no make-believe or sham or pretence. It was genuine, as genuine as anything can be. Now, why did he love his enemy? Because, it is said, the enemy is suffered by God to do the misdeed: he has been allowed to test the faith of the faithful, he too has his utility, he too is God's servant. And who knows even a Judas would not change in the end? Many who come to scoff do remain to pray. But it can be asked, 'Does God love Satan too in the same way?' The Indian conception which is basically Vedantic is different. There is only one reality, one truth which is viewed differently. Whether a thing is considered good or evil or neutral, essentially and truly, it is that One and nothing else. God's own self is everywhere and the sage makes no difference between the Brahmin and the cow and the elephant. It is his own self he finds in every person and every objectsarvabhtsthitam yo mm bhajati ekatvamsthitah"he has taken his stand upon oneness and loves Me in all beings."2
   This will elucidate another point of difference between the Christian's and the Vaishnava's love of God, for both are characterised by an extreme intensity and sweetness and exquisiteness of that divine feeling. This Christian's, however, is the union of the soul in its absolute purity and simplicity and "privacy" with her lord and master; the soul is shred here of all earthly vesture and goes innocent and naked into the embrace of her Beloved. The Vaishnava feeling is richer and seems to possess more amplitude; it is more concrete and less ethereal. The Vaishnava in his passionate yearning seeks to carry as it were the whole world with him to his Lord: for he sees and feels Him not only in the inmost chamber of his soul, but meets Him also in and I through his senses and in and through the world and its objects around. In psychological terms one can say that the Christian realisation, at its very source, is that of the inmost soul, what we call the "psychic being" pure and simple, referred to in the book we are considering; as: "His sweet privy voice... stirreth thine heart full stilly." Whereas the Vaishnava reaches out to his Lord with his outer heart too aflame with passion; not only his inmost being but his vital being also seeks the Divine. This bears upon the occult story of man's spiritual evolution upon earth. The Divine Grace descends from the highest into the deepest and from the deepest to the outer ranges of human nature, so that the whole of it may be illumined and transformed and one day man can embody in his earthly life the integral manifestation of God, the perfect Epiphany. Each religion, each line of spiritual discipline takes up one limb of manone level or mode of his being and consciousness purifies it and suffuses it with the spiritual and divine consciousness, so that in the end the whole of man, in his integral living, is recast and remoulded: each discipline is in charge of one thread as it were, all together weave the warp and woof in the evolution of the perfect pattern of a spiritualised and divinised humanity.

0 1958-11-04 - Myths are True and Gods exist - mental formation and occult faculties - exteriorization - work in dreams, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   All these zones, these planes of reality, received different names and were classified in different ways according to the occult Schools, according to the different traditions, but there is an essential similarity, and if we go back far enough into the various traditions, hardly anything but words differ, depending upon the country and the language. The descriptions are quite similar. Moreover, those who climb back up the ladderor in other words, a human being who, through his occult knowledge, goes out of one of his bodies (they are called sheaths in English) and enters into a more subtle bodyin order to ACT in a more subtle body and so forth, twelve times (you make each body come out from a more material body, leaving the more material body in its corresponding zone, and then go off through successive exteriorizations), what they have seen, what they have discovered and seen through their ascensionwhe ther they are occultists from the Occident or occultists from the Orientis for the most part analogous in description. They have put different words on it, but the experience is very analogous.
   There is the whole Chaldean tradition, and there is also the Vedic tradition, and there was very certainly a tradition anterior to both that split into two branches. Well, all these occult experiences have been the same. Only the description differs depending upon the country and the language. The story of creation is not told from a metaphysical or psychological point of view, but from an objective point of view, and this story is as real as our stories of historical periods. Of course, its not the only way of seeing, but it is just as legitimate a way as the others, and in any event, it recognizes the concrete reality of all these divine beings. Even now, the experiences of Western occultists and those of Eastern occultists exhibit great similarities. The only difference is in the way they are expressed, but the manipulation of the forces is the same.

0 1958-11-08, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   And so, physically, the body followed. My body has been taught to express the inner experience to a certain extent. In the body there is the body-force or the body-form or the body-spirit (according to the different Schools, it bears a different name), and this is what leaves the body last when one dies, usually taking a period of seven days to leave.2 With special training, it can acquire a conscious lifeindependent and consciousto such a degree that not only in a state of trance (in trance, it frequently happens that one can speak and move if one is slightly trained or educated), but even in a cataleptic state it can produce sounds and even make the body move. Thus, through training, the body begins to have somnambulistic capacitiesnot an ordinary somnambulism, but it can live an autonomous life.3 This is what took place, yesterday evening it was like that I had gone out of my body, but my body was participating. And then I was pulled downwards: my hand, which had been on the arm of the chair, slipped down, then the other hand, then my head was almost touching my knees! (The consciousness was elsewhere, I saw it from outsideit was not that I didnt know what I was doing, I saw it from outside.) So I said, In any case, this has to stop somewhere because if it continues, my head (laughing) is going to be on the ground! And I thought, But what is there at the bottom of this hole?
   Scarcely had these words been formulated when there I was, at the bottom of the hole! And it was absolutely as if a tremendous, almighty spring were there, and then (Mother hits the table) vrrrm! I was cast out of the abyss into a vastness. My body immediately sat straight up, head on high, following the movement. If someone had been watching, this is what he would have seen: in a single bound, vrrrm! Straight up, to the maximum, my head on high.

0 1959-06-13a, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   Another thing: we happened to talk of Sri Aurobindo and Lele.1 Concerning Lele, X told me, He was a devotee of the Bhaskaraya School; this is why there is close connection I do not know if this is so, but X seemed to know.
   For me, the inner things seem to have taken a better turn since X revealed certain things to me, but I prefer to say nothing. I dare not say anything since I know from experience that all this is as unstable as dynamite.

0 1960-04-14, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   The following passage, taken from the Revue des Deux Mondes of March 1960, was part of a course taught by Dimitri Manowilski in 1931 at the Lenin School of Political Warfare in Moscow:
   Our turn will come in twenty to thirty years. To win, we need an element of surprise. The bourgeoisie should be lulled to sleep. Therefore, we must first launch the most spectacular peace movement that has ever existed, replete with inspiring proposals and extraordinary concessions. The stupid and decadent capitalist countries will cooperate joyfully in their own destruction. They will jump at this new opportunity for friendship. As soon as their guard is down, we shall crush them beneath our closed fist.

0 1960-08-20, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   No, no. You see, it wasnt a studioit was a School, a School of photography, television and film. Its not at all buried.
   But L has enlarged the program. (Mother indicates the plan) This is only a small part of his extensive total program. He is planning to have a School of agriculture, a modern dairy with grazing landtheres a lot of agriculture, really a lotfruit orchards, large rice fields, many things. And then a ceramics factory. My ceramics factory will be at the far end of the lake, so as to utilize the clay the government has agreed; as they have to dig out the lake one day, we shall use the top soil for the fields. First well remove all the pebbles (you know, there are hills over there), which can be used for constructionits a mine of pebbles. After removing the pebbles, there will be holes which then well fill with earth from the lake. And below this earth is a thick and compact layer of clay which is so hard it cant be used for farmingits impossible but its wonderful for making ceramics. So right at the very end, in Indian territory,4 well have a large ceramics industry. On the other side, well have a little factory for firing clay.
   All this is huge. A tremendous program.5

0 1960-10-22, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   There was this Themanlys, my brothers Schoolmate; he wrote books, but he was lazy-minded and didnt want to work! So he had passed that job on to me. But it was impossible, you couldnt do a thing with it. And what words! Theon would invent words for the subtle organs, the inner senses; he had found a word for each thinga frightful barbarism! And I took care of everything: I found the printer, corrected the proofsall the work for a long time.
   They were stories, narratives, an entire initiation in the form of stories. There was a lot in it, really a lot. She knew many things. But it was presented in such a way that it was unreadable.
   All the teachers are wanting to quit the Schoolweary! Which means theyll begin the year with half the teachers gone. They live in constant tension, they dont know how to relax thats really what it is. They dont know how to act without agitation.
   I think thats what this head came to tell me, and its precisely whats wrong in the Ashrameverything here is done in agitation, absolutely everything. So its constantly a comedy of errors; someone speaks, the other doesnt listen and responds all wrong, and nothing gets done. Someone asks one thing, another answers to something elsebah! Its a dreadful con-fu-sion.

0 1960-10-25, #Agenda Vol 01, #unset, #Zen
   (No sooner had Mother finished telling this story than, by a curious coincidence, someone brought her a portrait drawn by P.K., one of the Ashram artists. Several days earlier, at about two in the morning during an uncommonly violent lightning storm, P.K. had suddenly SEEN amidst the flashes of lightning in the sky a rather terrible, demoniacal head in front of his very eyes. Having nothing else available, he hastily drew his vision in chalk on a Schoolchilds slate, which is the portrait Mother speaks of here:)
   Well, well! So P.K. is clairvoyant! Its him, for surethis is the being behind those people. Thats why they had so much power. And he came here because of tha the was furious. Quite a demon!

0 1961-01-10, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   I have replied endlessly, I have given all sorts of explanations about the organization of the School, about World Union,4 about the true way to organize industry (its true functioning)so many things! If all that were compiled we could publish brochures! Sometimes Ive spoken three-quarters of an hour non-stop to people who listened with delight and were receptive but quite incapable of making a written report of it. At times like that we could have used one of your machines! But when things are organized in advance, it may well be that nothing comes out at allmentalizing stops the flow. If I is in front of me, I cant say anything to her because she doesnt understand. I already have trouble writing to herwhat I have to say is always brought down a bit; but if she were here in the room and I had to speak to her, nothing at all would come out!
   No, when we feel like it and when she doesnt raise any question about an aphorismat least not an impossible questionwell do this: I will speak here, its much easier for me. This way things come that I havent seen before; while when I write like that, they are usually things Ive seen on other occasions (not that I try to recall them, they are there and simply come back). But when theres a new contact, something new always comes.

0 1961-01-24, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   There are places where it happens like that: suddenly everything stopsno more School, no more mail, no more trains. I remember a poor little village in Japan where they had a flu epidemic, the first of its kind. They didnt know what it was and the whole village fell ill. It was winter, the village was snowed in and there was no more communication with the outside (the mail came only once every fifteen days). The postman arrived and everyone was dead, buried beneath the snow.
   I was there in Japan when it happened.

0 1961-03-17, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   The experience occurred in a place corresponding to ours [the main Ashram building], but immense: the rooms were ten times bigger, but absolutely one cant say emptythey were barren. Not that there was nothing in them, but nothing was in order, everything was just where it shouldnt be. There wasnt any furniture so things were strewn here and therea dreadful disarray! Things were being put to uses they werent made for, yet nothing needed for a particular purpose could be found. The whole section having to do with education [the Ashram School] was in almost total darkness: the lights were out with no way to switch them on, and people were wandering about and coming to me with incoherent, stupid proposals. I tried to find a comer where I could rest (not because I was tired; I simply wanted to concentrate a little and get a clear vision in the midst of it all), but it was impossible, no one would leave me alone. Finally I put a tottering armchair and a footstool end-to-end and tried to rest; but someone immediately came up (I know who, Im purposely not giving names) and said, Oh! This wont do at all! It CANT be arranged like that! Then he began making noise, commotion, disorderwell, it was awful.
   To wind it all up, I went to Sri Aurobindos rooman enormous, enormous room, but in the same state. And he appeared to be in an eternal consciousness, entirely detached from everything yet very clearly aware of our total incapacity.
   Its a terrible slavery to the lower mind, and so widespread! Oh, all these goings-on at the School, my child, all the teaching, all the teachers.2 Terrible, terrible, terrible! I was trying to turn on the switches to give some light and not one of them worked!
   Of course, these scenes are slightly exaggerated because they are seen in isolation from the rest; within the whole many things crisscross and complete each other, diminishing each others importance. But in an experience like last nights, things are taken singly and shown in isolation, as through a magnifying glass. And after all its a good lesson.

0 1961-03-27, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   It reinforces what the old Schools have always taught but Sri Aurobindo rejected it! Sri Aurobindo told us precisely that the Truth could be lived IN material life. Of course, there must be a change of consciousness, but I thought.

0 1961-04-25, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   The following is the exact text referred to, an extract from one of Sri Aurobindo's letters: 'I don't believe in advertisement except for books etc., and in propaganda except for politics and patent medicines. But for serious work it is a poison. It means either a stunt or a boom and stunts and booms exhaust the thing they carry on their crest and leave it lifeless and broken high and dry on the shores of nowhereor it means a movement. A movement in the case of a work like mine means the founding of a School or a sect or some other damned nonsense. It means that hundreds or thousands of useless people join in and corrupt the work or reduce it to a pompous farce from which the Truth that was coming down recedes into secrecy and silence. It is what has happened to the "religions" and is the reason of their failure....'

0 1961-09-16, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Listen, here is a letter I have written to one of the teachers at the School (Mother reads):
   We are not here to do only a little better what the others do, we are here to do what the others CANNOT do, because they do not have even the idea that it can be done. We are here to open the way of the Future to children who belong to the Future. Anything else is not worth the trouble and not worthy of Sri Aurobindos help.

0 1961-10-02, #Agenda Vol 02, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (As she is leaving, Mother asks for some papers left by Pavitra for her to examine: some proposals for School reforms.)
   Give me that stuff.

0 1962-04-13, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (After a perilous month, Mother has suddenly had the formidable, decisive experience, and she gives her first message. She is lying on her bed in the room upstairs, and has become quite thin. It is around ten in the morning. Her voice has greatly changed. Schoolchildren can be heard playing in the distance:)
   Night of April 12-13.1

0 1962-05-29, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Theres a little American boy here (I dont know if his mother is completely helpless or just idolizes him, but anyway she lets him run wildshes always defending him, she wont allow anyone to scold or punish him), and this child wont take any classes or accept any teacher, but just runs around the School from one classroom to anothermaking noise, hitting people, calling the teacher nameslike a whirlwind; and then off he goes! And one day he went into the Playground; hes such a maniac that hes not allowed there, but he sneaked in, and there were some girls and women doing exercises on the groundhe started running around on their stomachs! (Laughter) It was a scandal.
   Oh, what a circus! But thats the atmosphere.

0 1962-07-25, #Agenda Vol 03, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Next came the period of learning and developing, but on an ordinary mental level School years.1 Curiosity made me want to learn to read. Did I tell you how it happened? When I was around seven, just under seven, my brother, who was eighteen months older, used to bring big pictures home from School with him (you know, pictures for children with captions at the bottom; theyre still used nowadays) and he gave me one of them. Whats written there? I asked. Read it! he said. Dont know how, I replied. Then learn! All right, I told him, show me the letters. He brought me an A-B-C book. I knew it within two days and on the third day I started reading. Thats how I learned. Oh-oh, they used to say, this child is backward! Seven years old and she still cant readdisgraceful! The whole family fretted about it. And then lo and behold, in about a week I knew what should have taken me years to learnit made them think twice!
   Then, School years. I was a very bright student, always for the same reason: I wanted to understand. I wasnt interested in learning things by heart like the others did I wanted to understand them. And what a memory I had, a fantastic memory for sounds and images! I had only to read a poem aloud at night, and the next morning I knew it. And after I had studied or read a book and someone mentioned a passage to me, I would say, Ah, yes thats on page so and so. I would find the page. Nothing had faded, it was all still fresh. But this is the ordinary period of development.
   Then at a very young age (about eight or ten), along with my studies I began to paint. At twelve I was already doing portraits. All aspects of art and beauty, but particularly music and painting, fascinated me. I went through a very intense vital development during that period, with, just like in my early years, the presence of a kind of inner Guide; and all centered on studies: the study of sensations, observations, the study of technique, comparative studies, even a whole spectrum of observations dealing with taste, smell and hearinga kind of classification of experiences. And this extended to all facets of life, all the experiences life can bring, all of themmiseries, joys, difficulties, sufferings, everythingoh, a whole field of studies! And always this presence within, judging, deciding, classifying, organizing and systematizing everything.

0 1963-02-23, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   The little girl struggled as if she were drowning, you know. She went everywheretook refuge at the School, took refuge in Pavitras room, begged G. in tears to intervene. M. was absolutely desperate. Everybody is trying to dissuade them, everybody is scandalizedits their right! Brandishing their right, they grab the girl and squeeze her: Youll love us, or else!
   And they think they will succeed!

0 1963-05-18, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   93Pain is the touch of our Mother teaching us to bear and grow in rapture. She has three stages of her Schooling, endurance first, next equality of soul, last ecstasy.
   I am still in a period of conflict.

0 1963-08-10, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   93Pain is the touch of our Mother teaching us how to bear and grow in rapture. She has three stages of her Schooling, endurance first, next equality of soul, last ecstasy.
   As long as we are dealing with moral things, this is absolutely obvious and indisputable: all moral pain, when you know how to take it, shapes your character and leads you straight to ecstasy. But when it comes to the body

0 1963-09-25, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Last night was less pleasant. There were again those things collapsing. I was below, you see, trying to go back up to my room, and every time I tried to go back up, all the means to do so disappeared or were done away with. Now Ive chased it all away because it was tiring. But one thing I do remember: I was climbing up a sort of not stairs or a ladder, it was a very queer thing, like blocks of dark red stone, and they were all crumbling and coming apart. It ended up annoying me, and I had a movement not of anger, but of self-assertive will and everything vanished. You feel its adverse formations trying to harass you, until I cant say I lose patience, but something gets angry (is it angry? Asserts itself, rather: Ah, no! Enough!) and instantly, pfft! it all goes away. But then I found myself on a road I knew very well, but there was such a crowd! A crowd, a crowd: all the Schools of the world were coming there for their holidays. There were troops of kids led by matrons and teachers, myriads and myriads of them! And also children who stopped and played on the ground; but all those children knew me very well, and when I arrived, they would take their things out of the way to let me throughweeny little kids this high. Then I met a symbolic person (not a human person) whom I know very well, she was pale blue (that is to say, a being of the higher mind, a force of Nature in the higher mind), I know her very well, she is very often with me. She explained to me her difficulties and I explained to her what she should do; I told her, Ive already told you several times, its like this and like that. She stayed beside me a very long time, and she asked me, Why do I always have to leave you? I answered her, Dont worry; everything is fine now. It went on for a long time. But it was interesting, a very pleasant, very refined contact: a beautiful girl that is, a beautiful thought or a beautiful idea. A beautiful girl. And she had in her charge an innumerable amount of kids (Mother laughs), so she was somewhat worried at times, and I explained to her what she should do.
   I feel a sort of tenderness towards that person.

0 1963-10-19, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Another time, a fellow (there are some demented characters of that kind) had come from Australia: he was a teacher and had been given classes in the School. He started to preach unbelievable thingshe was God incarnate, you see! Until the day it began to be a pain in the neck. And he had declared he would stay here forever. People were annoyed, everyone was annoyed, they didnt know what to do. I was in my room here (it was three years ago, maybe four). I remember: I was sitting on my bed (at the time I used to work on my bed, over there), and I received a letter in which I was told in short, that it had become impossible, intolerable, that he could not be kept here. So I concentrated for a minute and Kali arrivedKali in her battling mood, a black, dancing Kali. I told her, Why dont you go on his head? (Laughing) She went and did her dance on his head the next day, he wrote he was leaving the Ashram. In this case, it was very clear: the day before, he had declared that he wouldnt budge, that he intended to stay here and continue his lessons, and that we would have to send him away forcibly for him to go (they had told me all this quite tearfully). Kalis dance convinced him he had better go!
   But all that, you see, its the play of the world. What is going on now is something else, altogether something else.

0 1963-12-31, #Agenda Vol 04, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Oh, its not so good any more. And while I was writing it, some strange things happened: one day, suddenly, I feel Ive lost all control over my hand. How do you write? And all at once, I start writing, and then I see: its Sri Aurobindos handwriting! And as it is illegible, I thought, Thats no great progress! (laughter) So I really exerted myself, concentrated, wrote slowly, slowly, like a pupil in School, and it came back!
   So you may come across some passages that arent all that legible.

0 1964-03-25, #Agenda Vol 05, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   But one must hold out, because it has consequences: it brings a sensation of Power, a Power which very few people can feel or experience without their balance being more or less upset, because they dont have an adequate basis of peacea vast and very, very, VERY quiet peace. Everywhere, even here at the School, children are in a state of effervescence (I was informed that the best-behaved and generally most regular children had become like that). I said, There is only ONE answer, one single answer: you must be still, still, and even more still, and increasingly still. And do not try to find a solution with your head because it cannot find any. You must only be stillstill, still, immutably still. Calm and peace, calm and peace. It is the ONLY answer.
   I am not saying its the cure, but its the only answer: to endure in calm and peace, endure in calm and peace.

0 1964-06-04, #Agenda Vol 05, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   A charming Buddhist and a disciple of Mother, a specialist in Pali and member of the French School of the Far East: Suzanne Karpels.

0 1964-10-14, #Agenda Vol 05, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   They have again made a mess at the School, they are seized with such terrible whims of independence! Do you know the story? They put together a big display board on sleep for the childrens education (thats their affair), but then they put at the bottom, without asking for my permission, a quotation of mine, which I am supposed to have written in 1952 and in which I am supposed to have said that children should be in bed by 9. Now, they show films till 9:30 or 10. So I received a shower of letters, from kids asking me, What should we do? As for me, I dont understand a thing, and I ask what that quotation is. Then I learn that not only did they stick it at the bottom of their display board, but they also circulated a note of mine in which I say, Children should go to bed at 9. I said, What! I never had that circulated! Maybe I said it years ago, but I said it just like that, like a remark that it would be better. It caused quite a to-do, Ive been assailed with protests. So when Z came, I asked him to explain this affair. He told me what they had done; it seems that the teachers, seeing that poster with my quotation (probably the teachers who dont like films or who are against this one or that one and found this was a good opportunity to kick up a row), said and VOTED among themselves that it should be made into a circular! They simply forgot to ask my permission.
   I told Z, Well, really, thats going a bit too far! And he was probably upset, because suddenly something came through him: it was like black little darts (they didnt come from him directlymaybe they came from the teachers!), little black darts that rushed at my throat. I felt it: it went ztt! I said, Oh, whats that? And I struggled; but I struggled against a sore throat, and indeed it didnt happenit turned into a cold!
   In this School, they have a terrible tendency to turn everything into a system.
   Yes, systems, rules.
   Thats the real evil at the School, and there is one: a tendency to turn everything into a system.
   Yes. Dogmatism.
   Exactly the same story with the School.
   It is building an iron cage for yourself and getting into it.

0 1964-10-30, #Agenda Vol 05, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   But all the great Schools, the great Ideas, the great Realizations, the great and then the religions thats still lower down; all of it, oh, what childishness!
   And that wisdom! Its an almost cellular wisdom (its odd). For instance, I was looking at the relationship I had with all those great beings of the Overmind and higher, the perfectly objective and very familiar relationship I had with all those beings and the inner perception of being the eternal Motherall that is very well, but for me its almost ancient history! The me that exists now is HERE, its at ground level, in the body; its the body, its Matter; its at ground level; and to tell the truth, it doesnt care much about the intervention of all those beings who ultimately know nothing at all! They dont know the true problem: they live in a place where there are no problems. They dont know the true problem the true problem is here.

0 1964-11-28, #Agenda Vol 05, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Its like those messages people ask me every other minute: Send me a message. Thats it: you drop two coins into the box, and out it must come! I have nothing for the first page of my magazine, send me a message, or else, My daughter is getting married, send me a message, or else, Its the anniversary of the opening of my School, send me a message. Its at the rate of three or four a day. This made me suddenly write a note the other day; I saw the image of those music boxes, you know, you dropped two coins into them and then the music would come out. So I said, For ordinary men, the sage is like a music box of Wisdom: you only have to insert two coins worth of question and automatically the answer comes out. Because, really, it has become ridiculous: Were moving into a new house, send us a message.
   But why do you let yourself get snowed under? You shouldnt send any messages!

0 1965-06-23, #Agenda Vol 06, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Then in the north (thats where there is the most space, naturally), in the direction of Madras: the cultural zone. There, an auditorium (the auditorium I have dreamed of doing for a long time: plans had already been made), an auditorium with a concert hall and grand organ, the best you find now (it seems they make wonderful things). I want a grand organ. There will also be a theater stage with wings (a revolving stage and so on, the very best you can find). So, here, a magnificent auditorium. There will be a library, there will be a museum, exhibition rooms (not in the auditorium: in addition to it), there will be a cinema studio, a cinema School; there will be a gliding club: already we almost have the governments authorization and promiseanyway its already at a very advanced stage. Then, towards Madras, where there is plenty of space, a stadium. And a stadium that we want to be the most modern and the most perfect possible, with the idea (an idea Ive had for a long time) that twelve years (the Olympic games take place every four years), twelve years after 1968 (in 1968, the Olympiad will be held in Mexico), twelve years after, we would have the Olympic games in India, here. So we need space.
   In between these sections, there are intermediary zones, four intermediary zones: one for public services (the post, etc.), a zone for transportation (railway station and, if possible, an airfield), a zone for food supplies (that one would be towards the Lake and would include dairies, poultry farms, orchards, cultivation, would spread to incorporate the Lake estate3: what they wanted to do separately will be done as a part of Auroville); then a fourth zone (Ive said public services, transportation, food supplies), and the fourth zone: shops. We dont need many shops, but a few are necessary to get what we dont produce. These zones are like quarters, you see.

0 1966-03-19, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   But then, even on that (I dont know who is responsible for it), they have launched a campaign abroad, a campaign for the poor devil starving and crying famine, in such a mean, oh, such a mean way! We get letters from everywhere, from every country (lots of letters from France), and especially from Schools, centers of education, people who write, We hear that you are starving, we are so appalled, what can we do to help? We are obliged to answer them, No, were not starving at all!
   Its pitiable.

0 1966-06-29, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   You understand, its going to go all around the School from one class to another! (Laughing) I know whats going to happen!
   Consciousness is the breath that makes everything live.

0 1966-08-13, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Then I also wrote something for J. He had asked me for a message for his School (Mother hands another note):
   He who lives to serve the Truth is unaffected by any external circumstance.

0 1966-11-03, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Its generally fragmentsfragments of life that were individualized, and when in the present life you follow a normal development with the [various beings] gathering around the central consciousness, all those elements come back to gather together. They come back, each with its own memories. For instance, I had a memory like that (I tell you, Ive had hundreds of them) when I was very young (I must have been twenty or so). It wasnt at night, but I was lying down, resting: suddenly I felt myself riding a horse, with tremendous warlike power and the sense a will for victory and the POWER of victory. And I felt as if I was riding a horse: I saw a white horse, I saw my legs, with riding breeches, you understand, and a red velvet costume. And there I was, at a gallop. I couldnt tell what the head was like or anything, naturally! And also, the crowd, the armies, and the rising sun. It was so strong, the sense that it was the sense of the will for victory and the POWER of victory. It came just like that. Then, sometime later, I read somewhere the story of Murat (I forget I think his victory was Magenta3 I no longer remember all that), and I immediately understood that my vision was at the moment of launching the battle: he had an inner call to a Power, so there was an identification [with Mothers power], and thats what I remembered and what came back. If I said (as the Theosophists tell you), I was Murat, it would be stupid. But it was a consciousness coming back. It was so strong! The impression lasted long enough, with the sense of the battle but above all the sense of that POWER making you invincible. It was interesting, because at the time (it was just in the beginning, I was beginning to take interest in these things and I had just come across the Cosmic teaching), I was convinced that a womans psychic being was always reincarnated in a woman and a mans psychic being was always reincarnated in a man (many Schools teach that; Thon too believed so, he insisted on it). So it came as a surprise, because it wasnt in conformity with what I thought (!). Afterwards (long afterwards), I realized that naturally all those dogmas were nonsense, but
   It fits with what I told you last time: the STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS are what reincarnate, evolving, developing, growing more perfect. Thats rather how it was, thats how that memory came. Its like that with many memories. And I know that to say states of consciousness are what reincarnate, to adopt that as the sole explanation would be incorrectits absolutely incorrect but its one way of looking at the question beyond the sense of the little personality. It broadens the consciousness: one has in oneself things far more universal and far less limited than personal experiences. Just as in life some people have an exceptional life, in the same way they also have exceptional moments in their life, when they no longer are one single little person: they are a force in action. Thats how it is.

0 1966-12-17, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   A child from the School asked me, How can mathematics, history or sciences help me to find you?
   I found that quite amusing!
   (Soon afterwards, about a child from the School who drowned during a picnic organized by the School group of his age.)
   Ive got V.s notebook.1 He writes to me (rather bluntly, as they say in English), When I learned that B. had drowned, it neither troubled nor affected me; I simply thought it wasnt true. And why? Because you knew (thats what he writes me), you knew we had all gone out for a picnic, and therefore nothing could happen. (Mother laughs) I found this delightfuldelightfully impertinent!2

0 1966-12-24, #Agenda Vol 07, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (Regarding the School's pupils:)
   From every side they ask the question (they are all like that), What IS the Truth? What do you mean when you speak of the Truth?

0 1967-02-15, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Its a subject I found very interesting, in the beginning I even wanted to give a class1 on it, when the School had only thirty children or so: a class on religions showing the whole course, from the gods with the heads of birds or jackals to cathedrals. Oh, when I was just five, I was revolted by that God who really was a wicked character and caused bloodshed.
   So we could have a city of religions. But we would have to re-create the atmosphere.
   (As late as 1960, Mother intended to give a class on the history of religions, as the following letter in answer to a question from a teacher at the School bears witness.)
   And finally, what was the occult influence of this Judaism on human evolution? The more I think about it, the more the threads of it all appear to me so tied up and entangled together that only a knowledge in overview seems capable of helping to bring out the essential. Well, Mother, I leave it all to you. I hope you will be able to tell me the way in which we here should approach the question and to give me the few major elements on which I will be able to build my exposition.

0 1967-02-18, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   These new thoughts and new experiences, this new logic and new mathematics, are now taught in higher studies, but all the primary and secondary studies have remained in the old formula, so I have been very seriously thinking of opening primary and secondary Schools in Auroville, based on the new systemas a trial.
   But how is it done? Its a problem that interests me very much: how do you catch this new expression?

0 1967-03-22, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Its very common at the School.

0 1967-04-05, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Its the answer to a question. Have you heard what I said to the School teachers?1 Theyve asked me another question. This is the beginning of my answer:
   It is the division between ordinary life and spiritual life which is antiquated and obsolete.
   (Mothers answer in English to the School teachers when she was told that the new special afternoon classes at the library had chosen as a first research theme Indias Spiritual History.)
   No! It wont do. It is not to be done that way. You should begin with a big BANG!
   Message from Mother to the School:
   Sri Aurobindo does not belong to the past nor to history.

0 1967-04-19, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   The universe is his mother and the future his School.
   A child to whom you must never say, Come. Thats not easy in the language if you cant tell him, Come!

0 1967-06-03, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Oh, I have something much more interesting. K. is giving a class (of sociology, I think), but based on what Sri Aurobindo has written. And then, you know that at the School I have AT LAST got them to agree that examinations should not be indispensable; that if a student shows interest and attention during the classes, he can move up to the higher class without needing a certificate or having to take exams.1 I have obtained that at last, after so many years! So the students have been told, Its as you like; if you want to take exams, there are exams and you can take them; but if you dont feel the need for exams, you need not take them and can just as well move up to the next class. But K., who has a simple heart, thought all those boys and girls had understood Sri Aurobindos teaching and had a total contempt for exams and the old ways. And he expected his students to tell him, Oh, then we wont take exams. And each and every one of them, with a single exception, said they preferred to take the exams so as to get a certificate.
   He was very disappointed. He said to me, How is it that after all this Well, I thought they had understood. And after having studied Sri Aurobindo, here they are following the old ideas! Then he said, I have found in a letter of Sri Aurobindo a passage that perhaps provides an explanation, and I would like to ask you if I should take notice. I told him he should.
   But Z has done experiments like that. He told me the story of a girl at the School who had no imagination: when she was asked a question she could only answer what she had learned, and when she was given a problem she could never solve it. She was like that, blocked above. And he taught her to try and make contact precisely with that intuitive zone, by keeping quiet, falling silent and listening. And it seems that after some time, she had extraordinary results in that way, by falling silent and listeninganswers which were really remarkable and certainly came from the region of intuition. And thats a practical fact, he did it at the School.
   Well, thats what should be done, its much more important.
   Mother sent the following note to the School on April 14, 1967: "Henceforth the existing rules concerning the Higher Course will stand modified as follows: (I) Students who wish to obtain a certificate of having successfully completed the Higher Course as 'full students' will naturally have to take all the prescribed tests and satisfy the regulations governing the full-studentship. (2) Other students will have the option either to take the tests or not to take them. There will be no compulsion with regard to tests for these students in order to pass from one year to the next. (3) All the students will, however, be treated equally in so far as the pursuit of knowledge is concerned."

0 1967-07-22, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Because at the School they play music every Saturday, and theyve begun quarrelling about the kind of music that should be played; then one boy said, As for me, I LOVE light music VERY MUCH, I find it VERY amusing. (Mother laughs) So they looked down on him scornfully! And they wrote to ask me. So thats what I replied!
   Light music! Of course, jazz music but even there, there are very nice passages, one cant say.
   They had to hold a teachers meeting to face up to my answer! (Mother laughs) I upset the whole School!
   One of the teachers has already answered me, Its impossible to know the students progress unless exams are taken. To this I didnt exactly reply what I thought, but I thought: of course, if the teacher is an idiot, he cant judge the students progress unless he makes them take exams, but if he is an intelligent man with a psychic sense, there are a thousand ways to find out if a student has understood.
   Our School professes to follow a new method, the very least it could do would be to follow it!
   (Mother gives Satprem the text of the three letters she sent to the teacher on the subject of examinations at the School:)
   The teachers question:
   Thats precisely the big quarrel with the Government! The Government says, We cant recognize you as a research School because the progress of yoga cant be measured. Exactly what Sri Aurobindo says! If we published this letter, it would give the Government weapons!
   You remember, in America a society or university or whatever held a kind of contest to prove life after death,1 and they gave two or three questions to be resolved. And I was asked, Why dont you answer? I said, the questions are not properly formulated, theyre put by ignorant people, so how can one answer? (I told you that long ago, I think.) Well, its the same thing here. What they ask is ignorant, it isnt properly formulated; its formulated by people who dont understand anything, so how can one answer them!

0 1967-07-26, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   And then, what goings-on The goings-on at the School, oh, those are priceless stories! But yesterday evening, I suddenly became indignant about a boy, the boy who had been accused of copying. He asserted he hadnt copied, and I saw he hadnt (but what I saw was almost worse!), and I said, No more examsa dreadful row everywhere! Then K., who is really a good boy, wrote to me, Should I not rather tell the boy that you decided he hadnt copied, because he must be worrying? I thought, Poor K.! But anyway, it was a nice gesture, so I said yes. Then he called the boy, told him what he had to, also that exams were abolished and the whole matter was over and done with. As soon as the boy left him, he went and told his friends a world of lies: that I had asked K. to apologize, to express regret and reinstate the boy, and a lot of fibs a series of terrible lies (and lies about me). You understand, I had had a movement of sympathy for K. for what he had done; it shows a sort of nobleness of soul in him: he was so convinced, but he accepted what I said and made that gesture because he thought the boy must have been worrying. Then the boys thoroughly disgusting reaction I had to restrain myself (inwardly): I was displeased. I had hoped, on the contrary, that that goodwill would give rise to a somewhat noble response, but all that is a sort of degradation. Yesterday, I was on the point of giving the child an inner slap I stopped myself from doing so, but he has clearly put himself in a bad spot.
   Now they write to ask me, How can we know whether the children follow if we dont have exams? I had to explain the difference between a type of individual control based on observation, on a remark, on an unexpected question, etc., which allows the teacher to situate the child, and the other method in which you are forewarned, You will have an exam in eight days and the subject will be on what you have learnedso everyone starts revising what he has learned and preparing himself, and thats that: the one with a good memory is the one who passes. I have explained all that.1
   At home, my brother was studying advanced mathematics (it was to enter Polytechnique2), and he found it difficult, so my mother had engaged a tutor to coach him. I was two years younger than my brother. I used to look on, and everything would become clear: the why, the how, it all was clear. So the teacher was working hard, my brother was working hard, when suddenly I said, But its like this! Then I saw the teachers face! It seems he went and told my mother, Its your daughter who should be learning! (Mother laughs) And it was all like a picture, you understand, so funny, so funny! So I know, I remember, I know the reactions, the habits. Thats why I didnt want to look after the School here because I thought it would be a headache and everyone would fall on me! Then I was forced to because of that copying affair. But now I find it funny! (Laughing) And I tell them outrageous things!
   Its so amusing, so amusing!
   For a time I attended a private School: I didnt go to a state School because my mother considered it unfitting for a girl to be in a state School! But I was in a private School, a School of high repute at the time: their teachers were really capable people. The geography teacher, a man of renown, had written books, his books on geography were well-known. He was a fine man. So then, we were doing geography (I enjoyed maps more fully because it all had to be drawn) and one day, the teacher looked at me (he was an intelligent man), he looked at me and asked, Why are towns, the big cities, settled on rivers? I saw the students bewildered look, they were saying to themselves, Lucky the question wasnt put to me! I replied, But its very simple! Its because rivers are a natural means of communication. (Mother laughs) He too was taken aback! Thats how it was, all my studies were like that, I enjoyed myself all the timeenjoyed myself thoroughly, it was great fun!
   The teacher of literature He was an old fellow full of all the most conventional ideas imaginable. What a bore he was, oh! So all the students sat there, their noses to the grindstone. He would give subjects for essaysdo you know The Path of Later On and the Road of Tomorrow? I wrote it when I was twelve, it was my homework on his question! He had given a proverb (now I forget the words) and expected to be told all the sensible things! I told my story, that little story, it was written at the age of twelve. Afterwards he would eye me with misgivings! (Laughing) He expected me to make a scene. Oh, but I was a good girl!

0 1967-11-22, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Every year on December 2, all the children of the School and all the disciples taking part in sports carry out a general demonstration of physical culture.
   The turning point of March 16, 1962, culminating on April 13, 1962: the great pulsations.

0 1967-11-25, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   On the subject of what you told me last time: that your body left to itself doesnt have any experiences. He told you why. And he told you how to do it. But that I can repeat to you; I can repeat the how to do it: he told you that your body is still in a condition in which it has to go to School, and its your inner being, your consciousness, your true self that must teach it. He said, It is still at a stage when it must be taught its lesson, and so it must learn its lesson.

0 1967-12-16, #Agenda Vol 08, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Yesterday evening, Pavitra asked me for a message for the opening of the School today. I wasnt in too good a mood(!) and sent him away. This morning, at five, a message came to me, and I wrote it down. I had barely finished writing it down when three others came! So I wrote the four of them, and at seven oclock sent them to K., saying that each teacher or class should choose (they are all on the same subject and with the same idea, but shown from different angles).
   And at eight, everyone already knew! Things spread very fast. N. told me, But the messages are for different classes and they havent been selected! I said, No! Its not for me to select, but for the teacher in every class. And I added, Thats much more fun for me! And with that I sent him away!
   Thats what I put to them all at the School: aspire, aspire to the Truth. I dont at all remember what I wrote (Mother tries to remember). One is, May the Truth be our master and our guide, then there were two others, and then, O Truth I dont remember.
   Thats quite a remarkable phenomenon: a second before, its absolutely blank, empty, there isnt one word, one thought, one idea, nothing, just like that: not a thought. I am asked for a message, and I reply, I have nothing to say. It comes like that, imperatively; if I can (that is, if Mother is free), I write it down and its over; if I cant (that is, if Mother is busy with people), it comes back obstinately until its written. Once its written, gone! Nothing remains. Another way to present it comes, another form: that also, gone!
   Now I dont even remember what I wrote for the School. I know that one message was in the form of a wish (two or three were like that), and one was in the form of a prayer, that is, directly addressed to the Truth: O Truth
   But its very pleasant to have this empty, oh, very restful.

0 1968-05-22, #Agenda Vol 09, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   [Satprem reads:] It is feast day in the Vatican. St. Peters Square is jammed with people. The Popes procession begins; I have witnessed it many times, very near the Pope, next to the cardinals. But instead of the sedia gestatoria [the chair in which the Pope is carried], there is a huge elephant carrying someone. Who is this someone? Sweet Mother? No, its Pavitra. Not at all, its Satprem! No, its the Schools director. The more I try to fix my attention on him, the more his face changes, as in a kaleidoscope. In reality, I have difficulty fixing my attention, because I strain under the weight of the elephant, which is now entering St. Peters Basilica. In fact, I am in a very uncomfortable posture, for I am not the elephant: I am in his legs, in his nails, and his weight is very, very great, which is why I cant see who is sitting on him. Meanwhile, the elephant has reached Berninis Baldaquin, inside St. Peters Basilica, and finally comes up to the Popes throne, in which he sits down.
   (Mother laughs)

0 1968-06-15, #Agenda Vol 09, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   When Satprem tried to "tell them," they attempted to censor this Agenda and expelled Satprem through a registered letter. Today in 1995, Mother's Agenda is read in the Ashram only on the sly and is banned at the School.

0 1968-11-06, #Agenda Vol 09, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Bharatidi was a specialist of Pali (used by the southern Schools of Buddhism) and Sanskrit.
   The painter who did a portrait of Sri Aurobindo in profile, standing.

0 1968-11-20, #Agenda Vol 09, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   And weve heard that a whole Catholic School with chaplains is coming on a visit to the Ashram. From where? I dont know. From France, I believe.
   But give these people all you can and they give you all the poison they can.

0 1968-11-27, #Agenda Vol 09, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   "...Pain that travails towards the touch of an unimaginable ecstasy." See also Thoughts and Aphorisms: 93"Pain is the touch of our Mother teaching us how to bear and grow in rapture. She has three stages of her Schooling, endurance first, next equality of soul, last ecstasy."

0 1968-12-14, #Agenda Vol 09, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (Mother reads three different versions of a message she wants to give for the opening of the School. Then she selects the first one.)
   They came in succession. Its the experience I had at that moment:

0 1969-02-01, #Agenda Vol 10, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (Then Mother listens to a series of questions about death, asked by pupils of the School.)
   The first question: What should we do in our daily life to halt the process of death?

0 1969-05-21, #Agenda Vol 10, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   But Pavitras case, I really believe its exceptional. Its the first time it has happened to mewith nobody, nobody else before. I told you, when Sri Aurobindo left, for hours he passed on to me the whole supramental force and consciousness he had concentrated in his body. It was immediately after he left. I felt he had called me; I stood there, near his bed, looking at him, and I saw it, you understand: he passed on to me the force, the whole supramental force he had concentrated in his body, and I felt him everywhere enter like that, with a friction. It lasted for hours. But thats quite an exceptional case, as I told you. But what took place with Pavitra is really its really Its not the same thing: he simply came out of his body deliberately (and not his psychic being: it was as material as he could), and I felt him, felt it enter and enter everywhere, all over my body And now, if I look within, I cant say I see a form, but its not completely fused. And for certain thingscertain things that have to do with people, or the School2theres a very clear personal reaction. And then, those photos I think thats quite exceptional.
   I felt something in the brain. You know that since Sri Aurobindo gave me mental silence, it has been absolutely still; it never started up again as before, and the consciousness has been there (gesture above Mother), working from there. But then after Pavitra came here, something (gesture to the forehead) impelled me to ask (I asked whats here, within), Could I get the mathematical knowledge you had? I asked him that. And his answer was, Of course, it would be easy if you set this in motion again! But that I dont want to do. Anyway
   Pavitra was the School's director and the Ashram's general secretary.
   Pavitra had a very high fever before leaving his body. Might that be what Mother felt in her body?

0 1969-06-28, #Agenda Vol 10, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   We look to the right or to the left, we build theories, reform our Churches, invent super-machines and go out in the streets to break the Machine that stifles uswe struggle in the small sense. When the terrestrial ship is sinking, does it matter whether the passengers drown to the right or to the left, under a flag black or red, or celestial blue? Our Churches have already sunk: they are reforming their own dust. Our patriotisms are crushing us, our machines are crushing us, our Schools are crushing us, and we build more machines to break out of the Machine. We go to the moon, but we do not know our own heart nor our terrestrial destiny. And we want to improve what is but the time for improvements is past: can one improve rot?
   (Mother holds back a laugh)
   It tells us that we were born so many million years agoa molecule, a gene, a quivering bit of plasma and we have produced a dinosaur, a crab, an ape. Had our eyes stopped halfway along the road, we could have said with good reason (!) that the Baboon was the summit of the creation and nothing better could be done, except perhaps to improve our simian capacities and create a United Kingdom of Apes. And we may be committing the same error today in our jungle of concrete. We have invented enormous means at the service of microscopic consciousnesses, splendid devices at the service of mediocrity, and still more devices to be cured of the Device. But is man truly the goal of all these millions of years of striving?The secondary School for all and the washing machine?
   The Great Sense, the True Sense, tells us that man is not the end. It is not the triumph of man that we want, not an improved version of the intelligent dwarfit is another man on the earth, another race in our midst.

0 1969-07-23, #Agenda Vol 10, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   But the children at the School here were in an extraordinary state of excitement. So I was asked to say something to them. I said, Id better not say anything, because I would say its big children having fun! (Mother laughs) It would have thrown cold water on them!

0 1969-12-10, #Agenda Vol 10, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (Mother first writes at one go a message for the start of the new School year.)
   One must have lived

0 1969-12-20, #Agenda Vol 10, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Ive asked them to start a School at Auromodle.
   Who will look after the School?
   Theres a French woman who was a primary School teacher (I was told shes nice, I havent seen her), and then an Indian woman (whom I saw) who wants to teach in Auroville, and shes fine, I mean her mental attitude is good. So the two of them will start (laughing): there are five children!
   Some interesting people have come to Auroville, people who are really seeking something . So I leave them to stew there and well see what comes out of it!

0 1970-01-17, #Agenda Vol 11, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   But you understand, they speak of physical work, and for physical work there are only the young ones at the Schoolall the ashramites have become old, mon petit! They are all old. There are only the young ones at the School, and those are not here to become ashramites, theyre here to be educatedits for them to choose. Many of them, many want to go to Auroville. So that would mean the Ashrams education going to Auroville there are many of them. But give me names: who can go and work with his hands?
   But, Mother, the only possibility is for you to SAY; and then, tomorrow Ill go and spend two hours in Auroville picking up baskets [of rubble]!

0 1970-02-07, #Agenda Vol 11, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   One of the most irritating practices in that Ashram was the compulsive habit almost everyone (at least among those who had access to Mother) had to "report" to Mother, as in a boarding School. As if they had nothing better to do. And Mother would "absorb."
   The two days of the week when Mother sees Satprem.

0 1970-07-29, #Agenda Vol 11, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   All is Love immense and its the same thing everywhere. So I asked her, But does Sri Aurobindo, for instance, represent something for you? She told me, Oh, no more forms, no more forms! Its the same Thing everywhere, there are no forms, I see Mothers face everywhereall is the same Thing. It is an illusion to say that in Pondicherry there is more than elsewhere. In fact, she wants to send her children [studying at the Ashram School] to Switzerland.
   Yes, I know.
   As for me, as soon as she told me she wanted to send the children to a Swiss School which teaches exactly what I say
   Yes. its the same thing.
   Yes, a child who wrote to me. Yesterday or the day before, I got a note in which she tells me (its a girl), Z wants me to go to the Swiss School with her children, and suddenly, she says, I am no longer happy here. It was the exact opposite before.
   Mother, I have a certain influence over Z because it was through my book that she came, and every time she comes to see me as if to get an approval or confirmationshe feels theres something above. When she came to see me, I didnt budge, said nothing, despite all the danger and falsity I felt. But do you think I should intervene? Because if I do, she will listen to me.

0 1970-08-05, #Agenda Vol 11, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Its an excellent mentor for the body: its perpetually giving it lessons. I dont know if all bodies are like this, but this one feels like a very small child, and it WANTS to be in School, it wants to be shown where it goes wrong and to learn things. And its constantly learning. But what comes from outside This is very interesting: the Consciousness (the Consciousness there [gesture above]) is influenced by nothing; its a witness, it sees, but it doesnt receive. The body still receives vibrations: with some people, when they sit in front of me, suddenly there are pains, things going wrong; but now it knows (naturally it knows its in pain!), but it doesnt put the blame on others: it puts it on itself, it takes it as an indication of the points that arent yet exclusively under the divine Influence. From that point of view, its very interesting. It knows the gap between the consciousness of the being using it and itself; but it doesnt suffer from it and has perfect humility and modesty. And its not surprised or worried, because its May Your Will be done. That has become an absolute law: May Your Will be done; it doesnt concern me, I am incapable of judging, nor do I try: may Your Will be done. So then, its like this (passive, offered gesture). And when it disappears, when its wholly, completely surrendered and no longer exists by itself, then the Force going through becomes sometimes its awesome. Sometimes one can see, the witness-consciousness can see that there would be really no limits to the possibilities. But its not that yet, far from it. It comes as an example of what can be done. But before it can be spontaneous and natural
   (long silence)
   The person who was to leave the Ashram and put her children in a Swiss School.
   By that absence of personal limits.

0 1971-01-30, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   I dont believe in advertisement except for books etc., and in propaganda except for politics and patent medicines. But for serious work it is a poison. It means either a stunt or a boom and stunts and booms exhaust the thing they carry on their chest and leave it lifeless and broken high and dry on the shores of nowhereor it means a movement. A movement in the case of a work like mine means the founding of a School or a sect or some other damned nonsense. It means that hundreds or thousands of useless people join in and corrupt the work or reduce it to a pompous farce from which the Truth that was coming down recedes into secrecy or silence. It is what has happened to the religions and is the reason of their failure.
   October 2, 1934

0 1971-03-10, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Nothing. Someones playing a flute in the School. Someone who must have a lot of heart!
   (Mother caresses Satprems head and goes within)

0 1971-04-17, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Well, there seems to be one whole group of open and enthusiastic young people, who see the new Possibility, and then theres another School, which has done a lot of tapasya [austerities] and very much believes in the virtue of all sorts of disciplines, which says, That cant be it! It cant be that way!

0 1971-05-01, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Its been like that since this morning, strikes and. The School in Delhi is closed.3 And then the impression that order has to be restored BY USING THE VERY ONES WHO HAVE CREATED THE DISORDER. It came to me very strongly. Thats what I am trying to do in Delhi, by using the man who triggered the teachers strike. He came to see me, and I said to him (his dismissal from the School started the whole thing): I am putting you back in the School so you can restore order! And he accepted. I think it can be tried out. He left today.
   (Text of Mothers message to the teacher:)
   The Sri Aurobindo School in Delhi, known as The Mother's School, was closed by Mother following a strike by teachers protesting the dismissal of one of them.

0 1971-05-05, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (Sujata suggests a young teacher in the School. silence)
   Yes, it has to be someone young.

0 1971-05-26, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (Mother had asked a young Indian disciple, M., a mathematics teacher in the School, to read the English translation of "Supermanhood" and to give his opinion.)
   Well then?

0 1971-10-27, #Agenda Vol 12, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   A students' strike, public manifestations, parades (the government has had to close all the Pondicherry Schools), protesting "Sri Aurobindo University," which was to be inaugurated for the Centenary. There were even graffiti on the walls of the Ashram tennis ground: "Sri Aurobindo, the head of thieves and scoundrels." It was in fact an expression of anger against the businessmen and shopkeepers of the Ashram. Instead of Sri Aurobindo's name ("the foreigner"), the students wanted the name of Gandhi, or a Tamil saint, or even the minister of the State of Madras (!).
   Mother's groans of pain could be heard downstairs, in the Ashram courtyard.

0 1972-04-13, #Agenda Vol 13, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (Conversation with Sujata. From now on, none of the recordings made in Mother's room by her attendant will be communicated to Satprem. What follows was noted down from memory by Sujata. She first reads to Mother a letter from one of the Schoolchildren; Sujata was trying to build a bridge between Mother and the mass of anonymous people who truly loved her but had no access to her.)
   Sweet Mother,

0 1972-07-15, #Agenda Vol 13, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   Its for a lady who came from I dont know where and wanted to teach in a parochial School. So I replied with that.
   Theres also the message you gave All India Radio for August 15:

0 1972-07-26, #Agenda Vol 13, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (In an attempt to bring the book distribution in line, Mother, on Satprem's suggestion, asked a young teacher from the School to be in charge of the copyright department. Mother first speaks of this young teacher.)
   Hes discovering skeletons!

0 1972-12-26, #Agenda Vol 13, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (Mother sees some teachers from the School. Towards the end of the meeting, Pranab enters Mother's room in his customary manner, heads straight for Mother, and launches into a violent diatribe against some French television reporterswhom Mother had received the day beforebecause they filmed Sri Aurobindo's tomb "in spite of his orders." Mother tries to calm him down.)
   When they [the reporters] cannot get something from one person, they go to somebody else and it works. In any event, I wont see them anymore.

0 1973-01-20, #Agenda Vol 13, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   He seems to have been pleased with his visit. He was very happy to see the School and the children.
   But on the plane where I live he doesnt seem to be very conscious THERE. I dont know. I dont know, but in any case he has a very light presence, very ligh the doesnt impose himself at all.

0 1973-02-08, #Agenda Vol 13, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (This is an extract from a meeting with a few teachers from the School. We owe these recordings to the kind cooperation of one of them.)
   What is the best way of preparing ourselves? For one clearly feels that all this is going to require a rather extensive preparation.

0 1973-02-18, #Agenda Vol 13, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (Extracts from a meeting with the School teachers. One of them complains that the first signs of violence are showing up in the children.)
   Violence is necessary as long as men are ruled by their ego and its desires. But violence must be used only as a means of defense when you are attacked. The ideal towards which humanity is moving and which we want to realize is a state of luminous understanding in which each persons needs as well as the harmony of the whole are taken into account.

0 1973-03-14, #Agenda Vol 13, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (Extracts from a meeting with the Schoolteachers. The subject is the School squabbles and rivalry among groups of teachers.)
   I cant make head or tail of these things. I can no longer be of any help, you see, because all these mental combinations dont make any sense to me anymore.
   A spirit of confusion has entered the School, I find.
   They all mean the same thing, but they use different words, and the words clash. Personally, I know they have very similar aspirations, but each one speaks in his own language, and the languages are at cross-purposes, so they quarrel over nothing. Thats the situation!

0 1973-03-30, #Agenda Vol 13, #The Mother, #Integral Yoga
   (At the end of a long and distressing conversation that exposes the grudges of a particular individual against her neighbor, then angry remarks, then finally a request for blessings for a new trucking company, with a photo of the truck on the back of which Mother is asked to write something, one of the teachers announces that an epidemic of chickenpox and mumps has broken out at the School among the students and teachers, and that one of them has typhoid fever. Mother listens to all that. This will be the last meeting with the teachers.)
   I hope youre not bringing any of that here?

02.01 - Metaphysical Thought and the Supreme Truth, #The Integral Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  In the East, especially in India, the metaphysical thinkers have tried, as in the West, to determine the nature of the highest Truth by the intellect. But, in the first place, they have not given mental thinking the supreme rank as an instrument in the discovery of Truth, but only a secondary status. The first rank has always been given to spiritual intuition and illumination and spiritual experience; an intellectual conclusion that contradicts this supreme authority is held invalid. Secondly, each philosophy has armed itself with a practical way of reaching to the supreme state of consciousness, so that even when one begins with Thought, the aim is to arrive at a consciousness beyond mental thinking. Each philosophical founder (as also those who continued his work or School) has been a metaphysical thinker doubled with a Yogi. Those who were only philosophic intellectuals were respected for their learning but never took rank as truth discoverers. And the philosophies that lacked a sufficiently powerful means of spiritual experience died out and became things of the past because they were not dynamic for spiritual discovery and realisation.
  In the West it was just the opposite that came to pass.

02.03 - The Glory and the Fall of Life, #Savitri, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Obedience is his princely training's School,
  His nobility's coronet and privilege,

02.06 - Boris Pasternak, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The first article of his faith thenit is not merely a faith but a deep and concrete perceptionis that the world is one. Creation forms a global unity and there is one pulsation, one throb running through all life. In this regard he is a unanimist of the School of Jules Romains. Life's single pulsation, however, he feels most in the plant world; the global unity there moves in a wonderfully perfect rhythm and harmony. Mankind in its natural, unsophisticated state shares in that rhythm and harmony and forms part of it. That is perhaps the stage of happy innocence of which many of the first great Romantics dreamed, e.g., Rousseau and Wordsworth. Viewed as such, placed as a natural phenomenon in the midst of Nature, in its totality, mankind still appears as a harmonious entity fitting into a harmonious whole. But that is a global bird's-eye view. There is a near view that isolates the human phenomenon, and then a different picture emerges. That is the second article of Pasternak's faith. Life is a rhythmic whole, but it is not static, it is a dynamic movement, it is a movement forwardtoward growth and progress. It is not merely the movement of recurrence; life does not consist in pulsation only a perpetual repetition. As I say, it means growing, advancing, progressing, as well. That is, in other words, the inevitable urge of evolution. Ay, and there's the rub. For it is that which brings in conflict and strife: together with creation comes destruction.
   Nature in her sovereign scheme of harmony accepts destruction, it is true, and has woven that element too in her rhythmic pattern and it seems quite well and good. She is creating, destroying and re-creating eternally. She denudes herself in winter, puts on a garb of bare, dismal aridity and is again all lush, verdant beauty in spring. Pain and suffering, cruelty and battle are all there. And all indeed is one harmonious whole, a symphony of celestial music.

02.06 - The Integral Yoga and Other Yogas, #The Integral Yoga, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Tantric sadhanas, the effort after a complete physical siddhi by certain Schools of Yoga, etc. etc. I have alluded to these things myself and have put forth the view that the spiritual past of the race has been a preparation of Nature not merely for attaining to the Divine beyond this world, but also for this very step forward which the evolution of the earth-consciousness has still to make.
  I do not therefore care in the least, - even though these ideals were, up to some extent parallel, yet not identical with mine,

02.10 - The Kingdoms and Godheads of the Little Mind, #Savitri, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Like maps in the School-house of intellect hung,
  Forcing wide Truth into a narrow scheme,

02.11 - Hymn to Darkness, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Invocation to Darkness has, it appears, become quite fashionable among a certain group of modern poets. It is a favourite theme on which many a poet, many a good poet has played each in his way, a characteristic variation. Curiously enough, I came across about the same time the work of another poet, a French poet, also modern and almost modernist and, curio user still, in the same manner, a worshipper of Darkness. He is Yves Bonnefoy, originally belonging to the School of Jouve, an earlier modern. He speaks of two kinds of Night, one darker than the other the less dark one is our common day with its grey light. The other is on the other shore:
   Vers l' autre rive encore plus nocturne1

02.11 - The Kingdoms and Godheads of the Greater Mind, #Savitri, #Sri Aurobindo, #Integral Yoga
  Taught in her School world-making's mystic play.
  Archmasons of the eternal Thaumaturge,

02.12 - The Ideals of Human Unity, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Anarchisma certain School of philosophical or spiritual anarchismpresages, however, an agglutinative type of humanity. That is to say, there will be no hierarchy of groupings, in fact there will be no aggregates at all, the individual will be the sole, the first and the last unit. The individual, it is said, will have so developed and perfected its self-nature that by following the law of that nature, it will automatically and spontaneously live and move harmoniously with all the rest; each will be a self-contained unit and there will be a kind of pre-established harmony among all. Even if it be so, however, a hierarchical form of groupings in human organisation need not necessarily be barred out.

02.14 - Appendix, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   I did not come to appreciate the poetry of Wordsworth in my School days, it happened in college, and to a large extent thanks to Professor Manmohan Ghose. In our School days, the mind and heart of Bengali students were saturated with the poetry of Tagore: .
   In the bower of my youth the love-bird sings,

03.05 - Some Conceptions and Misconceptions, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   A question is asked, where, at what stage or level of Involution does the principle of exclusive concentration (the principle of Ignorance) come in? If, as Sri Aurobindo says, it comes subsequently at a later stage, where was it then before? Was it not in the Absolute Reality itself? There can be nothing that is not inherent in the Absolute Reality. We all know, nothing comes out of nothing. Then, if it is in the original Reality already, why should it come out at a later stage and not be active from the very beginning? This standpoint seems to have been anticipated by some Schools (Visishtadwaita Vedanta, for example) who describe in consequence the Reality (Brahman) as consisting, when viewed as a totality, of both Knowledge and Ignorancecit-acit; the Ignorance is a sort of peripheral reality not touching or affecting the Knowledge, but connected with or depending upon the nuclear reality, something like the physical body coexisting with and depending on the soul or self. One can also remember in this connection the Purusha-Prakriti relation in Sankhya. Such a standpoint, I suppose, is the precursor or philosophical background of what is well known as the Manichean principle.
   Sri Aurobindo's view is different. It is something like this I am putting the thing as simply as possible, without entering into details or mysteries that merely confuse the brain. The Absolute Reality contains all, nothing can be outside it, pain and sin and all; true. But these do not exist as such in the supreme status, they are resolved each into its ultimate and fundamental force of consciousness. When we say I all things, whatever they are, exist in the Divine Consciousness, the Absolute, we have an idea that they exist there as they do here as objects or entities; it goes without saying, they do not. Naturally we have to make a distinction between things of Knowledge and things of Ignorance. Although there is a gradation between the twoKnowledge rolls or wraps itself gradually into Ignorance and Ignorance unrolls or unfolds itself slowly into Knowledgestill in the Divine Consciousness things of Knowledge alone exist, things of Ignorance cannot be said to exist there on the same title, because, as I have said, the original truths of things alone are therenot their derivations and deformations. One can say, indeed, that in the supreme Light darkness exists as a possibility; but this is only a figure of speech. Possibility does not mean that it is there like a seedor even a chromosome rodto sprout and grow. Possibility really means just a chance of the consciousness acting in a certain way, developing in a particular direction under certain conditions.

03.06 - Here or Otherwhere, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 03, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   "A question is often asked of us whether it is possible to do Yoga while remaining in the world. Some declare outright that it is not possible: world and Yoga are, like oil and water, absolutely different things, they do not go together. World means, to put it plainly, earning money and raising family. Well, these two are the very opposite of Yoga, for they involve, at their best, desire and attachment and, at their worst, dishonesty and deceit, lust and libertinage. There is the other School, on the contrary, that pronounces that a Yogic life must be lived in the world if it is not your intention to leave that world altogether and seek and merge in the Beyond, the otherwhere, the immutable transcendent Brahman. It is quite possible for one to be in the very midst of the worldly forces and yet remain unshaken by them. Therefore it has been said: When the causes of disturbance are there and still the mind is not disturbedhat indeed is the sign of a wise steadiness.
   It can, however, be asked, what then is meant by being in the world? If it means merely sitting quiet, suffering and observing nonchalantly the impacts of the world something in the manner described by Matthew Arnold in his famous lines on the East, well, that stoic way, the way of indifference is a way of being in the world which is not very much unlike not being in the world; for it means simply erecting a wall of separation or isolation within one's consciousness without moving away physically. It is a psychological escapism. But if by living in the world we should mean participating in the movements of the worldnot only being but becoming, not merely standing as a witness but moving out as a doer then the problem becomes different. For the question we have to ask in that case is what happens to our dutieslife in the world being a series of duties, duty to oneself (self-preservation), duty to the family (race-preservation), duty to the country, to humanity and, finally, duty to God (which last belongs properly to the life in Yoga). Now, can all these duties dwell and flourish together? The Christ is categorical on the point. He says, in effect: Leave aside all else and follow Me and look not back. Christ's God seems to be a jealous God who does not tolerate any other god to share in his sovereign exclusiveness. You have to give up, if you wish to gain. They who lose life shall find it and they who stick to life shall as surely lose it.

03.06 - The Pact and its Sanction, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The government in modern times represents indeed the executive power of the nation, itself is composed of the three social elements we speak of. First of all, the high or top-ranking officials, as they are called, who can think out and initiate a policy; next, the intermediate services who form the dynamic limb of the organism; lastly, there is the rung of the subordinate services. Here too the difficulty is with the intermediate grade. It is there that the "disaffected" are born and breddisaffected not because of grievances or injustices done, but because of the urge of ideals and purposes, ideas and designs. The subordinate manpostman, railwayman, clerk, School master, daily labourerhas no ambitions, is not tortured by nostalgic notions: left to themselves, these people accommodate themselves to circumstances and take things as they come without worrying too much. But the point is that they are never left to themselves. It is told to themnot without reason, though that they do not live, they vegetate: they are dead, otherwise they would be living and kicking. The rousing of the masses has always been the sacred mission of all reformers and saviours of humanity. For they form the bulk of humanity and its future is bound up with their destiny.
   The whole difficulty centres upon the question: who rouses whom, and what is the principle that is meant to rouse. There is a slogan that incited the Red Terror of the French Revolution; there is the other one which inspired the Nazis; there is still another one rampant that had the seal and sanction of Stalin and his politburo. These have spread their dark wings and covered the saviour light. On the other hand, the voice of the Vedic Rishi that hymned the community of faith and speech and act, the kindly light that Buddha carried to suffering humanity, the love and sacrifice of Christ showing and embleming the way of redemption, the saints and sages in our own epoch who have visioned the ideal of human unity in a divine humanity, even secular leaders who labour for "one world", "a brave new world"all point to the other line of growth and development that man can follow and must and shall follow. The choice has to be made and the right direction given. In India today, there are these two voices put against each other and clear in their call: one asks for unity and harmony, wideness and truth, the other its contrary working for separativeness, disintegration, narrowness, and make-believe and falsehood. One must have the courage and the sagacity to fix one's loyalty and adhesion.

03.07 - Brahmacharya, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   This new approach has rectified much of the wrong handling of the problem of education to which we have been accustomed. Even this new orientation, however, is not sufficient: along with freedom and autonomy, the element of discipline and order has also to be brought in, if not quite in the old way at least in a new manner. It will not do to say simply that it must be self-discipline and self-order, but the question is how it is to be practically carried out. In ancient times it was done by living the life of an aspirant, not merely by studying and going to School, being only a student but living in the hours of the teacher, in the atmosphere of his direct presence and influence: the teacher too was not a machine issuing mechanical instruction, but a Person who loved and whom one loved, a warm embodiment of the ideal.
   In our days there has been this unhappy division between the student and the aspirant. In the student life, life and study are things apart. One may be a good student, study very seriously and attain considerable eminence in intellectual achievement, and yet in life one may remain quite the ordinary man with very normal reactions. Along with the brain we do not endeavour to educate the life instincts and body impulses. This portion of our nature we leave all alone and do not dare or care to handle it consciously. Sometimes we call that freedom; but it is more slavery than freedom, slavery to our commonplace animal nature. Because one follows one's impulses and instincts freely, without let or hindrance one feels as if he were free. Far from it.

03.08 - The Standpoint of Indian Art, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   All art is based upon this peculiar virtue of the mind that naturally and spontaneously transforms or distorts the objective world presented to its purview. The question, then, is only of the degree to which the metamorphosis has been carried. At the one end, there is the art of photography, in which the degree of metamorphosis is at its minimum; at the other, there seems to be no limit, for the mind's capacity to dissolve and recreate the world of sense-perception is infinite and many modern Schools of European art have gone even beyond the limit that the "unnatural" Indian art did not consider it necessary to transgress. Now, the classical artist selects a position as close as he can to the photographer, tries to give the mind's view of Nature and creation, as far as possible, in the style and norm of the sense-perceptions. He takes his stand upon these and from there reaches out towards whatever imaginative reconstructions are justified within the bounds laid out by them. The general ground-plan is, almost rigorously, the form given by the physical eye. The art of the East, and even, to a large extent, the art of mediaeval Europe, followed a different line. Here the scheme of the sense-perceptions was rejected, the artist sought to build on other foundations. His procedure was, first, to get a focus within the mind, to discover a psychological standpoint, and from there and in accordance with the subtler laws and conventions of an inner vision create a world that is unique and stands by itself. The aim was always to build from within, at the most, from within outwards, but not from without, not even from without inwards. This inner world has its own laws and they differ from the laws of optics which govern the physical sight; but there is no reason why it should be called unnatural. It is unnatural only in the sense that it does not copy physical Nature; it is quite natural in the 1 sense that it is a faithful reproduction of another, a psychological Nature.
   Indian art is pre-eminently and par excellence the art of this inner re-formation and revaluation. It has thrown down completely and clearly the rigid scaffolding of the physical vision. We take here a sudden leap, as it were, into another world, and sometimes the feeling is that everything is reversed; it is not exactly that we feel ourselves standing on our heads, but it is, as if, in the Vedic phrase, the foundations were above and all the rest branched out from them downwards. The artist sees with an eye, and constructs upon a plan that conveys the merest excuse of an actual visible world. There are other Schools in the East which have also moved very far away from the naturalistic view; yet they have kept, if not the form, at least, the feeling of actuality in their composition. Thus a Chinese, a Japanese, or a Persian masterpiece cannot be said to be "natural" in the sense in which a Tintoretto, or even a Raphael is natural; yet a sense of naturalness persists, though the appearance is not naturalistic. What Indian art gives is not the feeling of actuality or this sense of naturalness, but a feeling of truth, a sense of realityof the deepest reality.
   Other art shows the world of creative imagination, the world reconstructed by the mind's own formative delight; the Indian artist reveals something more than that the faculty through which he seeks to create is more properly termed vision, not imagination; it is the movement of an inner consciousness, a spiritual perception, and not that of a more or less outer sensibility. For the Indian artist is a seer or rishi; what he envisages is the mystery, the truth and beauty of another worlda real, not merely a mental or imaginative world, as real as this material creation that we see and touch; it is indeed more real, for it is the basic world, the world of fundamental truths and realities behind this universe of apparent phenomena. It is this that he contemplates, this I upon which his entire consciousness is concentrated; and all his art consists in giving a glimpse of it, bodying it forth or expressing it in significant forms and symbols.

03.09 - Art and Katharsis, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   The voice of Art is sweetly persuasivekntsmmita, as the Sanskrit rhetoricians say-it is the voice of the beloved, not that of the School-master. The education of Poetry is like the education of Nature: the poet said of the child that grew in sun and shower
   And beauty born of murmuring sound

03.12 - Communism: What does it Mean?, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   Communism, in India at least, has come to mean things which it was not the original or the main purpose of the word to imply. Communism meant "holding in common", that is to say, there is no private property, one can claim nothing as exclusively one's ownthings are distributed, work as well as necessities, and one receives them, each in his turn, according to his need and desert, as determined by general planning. Let alone property, there are types of communism that speak of holding in common women and children even. In any case whatever one is given one possesses and enjoys only for the moment, there is nothing like permanent possession. All have equal right to all things. This is an ideal which I do not think many would care to adopt and follow. In India it appears the word "communism" has been taken in the sense of the rgime of the common man. Not that there is any harm in this deviation of the meaning. If it is a convenient label or a battle-cry for the common man's right to exist, to have his just lebensraum, well, none can object and all should sympathise and help towards that end. But the mischief is that the common man adopted by communism has a restrictive denotation, it takes in only a section of the common man: it is used mostly, if not exclusively in connection with wage-earners and that too only of the category of peasants and workmen. A large section of the common mass, even of wage earners in a sense, is left out in the communistic scheme, at least not given the same importance as the other. School teachers, especially primary School teachers, small office-clerks, for example, are not less "common" or less unfortunate or worthy of succour. These form a genuine proletariat: only they have not yet been called upon to take part in the Dictatorship.
   Apart from this restrictive denotation, communism, in practice, has been given a restrictive connotation too which is more ominous and unhelpful. The communistic movement has become dynamic in so far as it is a movement for redressing grievances (although the methods employed at times it is alleged, are not as they should be, worthy of the civilised human being) in other words, it has been more or less negative in its work and outlook. The whole stress has been laid upon two items: (1) less hours of work, and (2) more wages I do not mention better housing, medical aid, pension etc., which are auxiliary items. When workers were considered as no more than slaves under the yoke of the blind and brutal exploiter, these demands had a meaning: but they have lost much of their point in the changed circumstances of today.

03.14 - From the Known to the Unknown?, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 02, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   It is not a blunder and it need not lead inevitably to a catastrophe if, for example, a child were given its first education not through his mother tongue, but through what is termed a foreign language. Would it, for that matter, harm a child invariably and necessarily, if he did not confine himself within the walls of his School in the midst of the known and the familiar, if he were to stir out and venture into wildshow otherwise would Alice discover her Wonderland? A foreign tongue, a foreign atmosphere would often interest a child more than things known and familiar. The very distance and imprecision and even the peculiar difficulties exert a charm and evoke greater attention in the child. This is not to say that familiarity breeds contempt, but that unfamiliarity does not repel but attracts also.
   There is some point in a system of education which seeks to pull out the child from its familiar old-world milieu and place him in the midst of conditions where he can grow freely unencumbered by ties of the past and the immediate. The Russians have been blamed for many of their revolutionary, if not scandalous changes in social life and pattern: the child not knowing its father and mother, but being brought up in a common, almost anonymous nursery where he loses his family brand but develops a consciousness that is cosmopolitan and widely human. It seems it is only when one is thrown into strange and unfamiliar and unknown surroundings that one gets the best out of oneself. If you wish to increase the stature of your being, that is the wayif not the way, at least one effective way.

04.02 - A Chapter of Human Evolution, #Collected Works of Nolini Kanta Gupta - Vol 01, #Nolini Kanta Gupta, #Integral Yoga
   In India we meet a characteristic movement. As I said the Vedas represented the Mythic Age, the age when knowledge was gained or life moulded and developed through Vision and Revelation (Sruti, direct Hearing). The Upanishadic Age followed next. Here we may say the descending light touched the higher reaches of the Mind, the mind of pure, fundamental, typical ideas. The consciousness divested itself of much of the mythic and parabolic apparel and, although supremely immediate and intuitive, yet was bathed with the light of the day, the clear sunshine of the normal wakeful state. The first burgeoning of the Rational Mind proper, the stress of intellect and intellectuality started towards the end of the Upanishadic Age with the Mahabharata, for example and the Brahmanas. It flowered in full vigour, however, in the earlier philosophical Schools, the Sankhyas perhaps, and in the great Buddhist illuminationBuddha being, we note with interest, almost a contemporary of Socrates and also of the Chinese philosopher or moralist Confuciusa triumvirate almost of mighty mental intelligence ruling over the whole globe and moulding for an entire cycle human culture and destiny. The very name Buddha is significant. It means, no doubt, the Awakened, but awakened in and through the intelligence, the mental Reason, buddhi. The Buddhist tradition is that the Buddhist cycle, the cycle over which Buddha reigns is for two thousand and five hundred years since his withdrawal which takes us, it seems, to about 1956 A.D.
   The Veda speaks of Indra who became later on the king of the gods. And Zeus too occupies the same place in Greek Pantheon. Indra is, as has been pointed out by Sri Aurobindo, the Divine Mind, the leader of thought-gods (Maruts), the creator of perfect forms, in which to clo the our truth-realisations in life. The later traditional Indra in India and the Greek Zeus seem to be formulations on a lower level of the original archetypal Indra, where the consciousness was